WorldWideScience

Sample records for two-dimensional 2-d optical

  1. Optical properties of two-dimensional (2D) CdSe nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherevkov, S. A.; Baranov, A. V.; Fedorov, A. V.; Litvin, A. P.; Artemyev, M. V.; Prudnikau, A. V.

    2013-09-01

    The resonant and off-resonant Raman spectra of optical phonons in two-dimensional CdSe nanocrystals of 5, 6, and 7 monolayers are analysed. The spectra are dominated by SO and LO phonon bands of CdSe, whose frequencies are thickness-independent in the off-resonant Raman scattering but demonstrate an evident thickness dependence in the case of the resonant Raman scattering.

  2. Optical theorem for two-dimensional (2D) scalar monochromatic acoustical beams in cylindrical coordinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitri, F G

    2015-09-01

    The optical theorem for plane waves is recognized as one of the fundamental theorems in optical, acoustical and quantum wave scattering theory as it relates the extinction cross-section to the forward scattering complex amplitude function. Here, the optical theorem is extended and generalized in a cylindrical coordinates system for the case of 2D beams of arbitrary character as opposed to plane waves of infinite extent. The case of scalar monochromatic acoustical wavefronts is considered, and generalized analytical expressions for the extinction, absorption and scattering cross-sections are derived and extended in the framework of the scalar resonance scattering theory. The analysis reveals the presence of an interference scattering cross-section term describing the interaction between the diffracted Franz waves with the resonance elastic waves. The extended optical theorem in cylindrical coordinates is applicable to any object of arbitrary geometry in 2D located arbitrarily in the beam's path. Related investigations in optics, acoustics and quantum mechanics will benefit from this analysis in the context of wave scattering theory and other phenomena closely connected to it, such as the multiple scattering by a cloud of particles, as well as the resulting radiation force and torque.

  3. An algorithm for circular test and improved optical configuration by two-dimensional (2D) laser heterodyne interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shanzhi; Yu, Shengrui; Han, Qingfu; Li, Ming; Wang, Zhao

    2016-09-01

    Circular test is an important tactic to assess motion accuracy in many fields especially machine tool and coordinate measuring machine. There are setup errors due to using directly centring of the measuring instrument for both of contact double ball bar and existed non-contact methods. To solve this problem, an algorithm for circular test using function construction based on matrix operation is proposed, which is not only used for the solution of radial deviation (F) but also should be applied to obtain two other evaluation parameters especially circular hysteresis (H). Furthermore, an improved optical configuration with a single laser is presented based on a 2D laser heterodyne interferometer. Compared with the existed non-contact method, it has a more pure homogeneity of the laser sources of 2D displacement sensing for advanced metrology. The algorithm and modeling are both illustrated. And error budget is also achieved. At last, to validate them, test experiments for motion paths are implemented based on a gantry machining center. Contrast test results support the proposal.

  4. Two-dimensional optical spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Cho, Minhaeng

    2009-01-01

    Discusses the principles and applications of two-dimensional vibrational and optical spectroscopy techniques. This book provides an account of basic theory required for an understanding of two-dimensional vibrational and electronic spectroscopy.

  5. Two-Dimensional (2D) Polygonal Electromagnetic Cloaks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chao; YAO Kan; LI Fang

    2009-01-01

    Transformation optics offers remarkable control over electromagnetic fields and opens an exciting gateway to design 'invisible cloak devices' recently.We present an important class of two-dimensional (2D) cloaks with polygon geometries.Explicit expressions of transformed medium parameters are derived with their unique properties investigated.It is found that the elements of diagonalized permittivity tensors are always positive within an irregular polygon cloak besides one element diverges to plus infinity and the other two become zero at the inner boundary.At most positions,the principle axes of permittivity tensors do not align with position vectors.An irregular polygon cloak is designed and its invisibility to external electromagnetic waves is numerically verified.Since polygon cloaks can be tailored to resemble any objects,the transformation is finally generalized to the realization of 2D cloaks with arbitrary geometries.

  6. Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis and 2D-DIGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meleady, Paula

    2018-01-01

    Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) continues to be one of the most versatile and widely used techniques to study the proteome of a biological system. In particular, a modified version of 2D-PAGE, two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), which uses differential labeling of protein samples with up to three fluorescent tags, offers greater sensitivity and reproducibility over conventional 2D-PAGE gels for differential quantitative analysis of protein expression between experimental groups. Both these methods have distinct advantages in the separation and identification of thousands of individual proteins species including protein isoforms and post-translational modifications. This review will discuss the principles of 2D-PAGE and 2D-DIGE including limitations to the methods. 2D-PAGE and 2D-DIGE continue to be popular methods in bioprocessing-related research (particularly on recombinant Chinese hamster ovary cells), which will also be discussed in the review chapter.

  7. Two Dimensional Organometal Halide Perovskite Nanorods with Tunable Optical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharon, Sigalit; Etgar, Lioz

    2016-05-11

    Organo-metal halide perovskite is an efficient light harvester in photovoltaic solar cells. Organometal halide perovskite is used mainly in its "bulk" form in the solar cell. Confined perovskite nanostructures could be a promising candidate for efficient optoelectronic devices, taking advantage of the superior bulk properties of organo-metal halide perovskite, as well as the nanoscale properties. In this paper, we present facile low-temperature synthesis of two-dimensional (2D) lead halide perovskite nanorods (NRs). These NRs show a shift to higher energies in the absorbance and in the photoluminescence compared to the bulk material, which supports their 2D structure. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the NRs demonstrates their 2D nature combined with the tetragonal 3D perovskite structure. In addition, by alternating the halide composition, we were able to tune the optical properties of the NRs. Fast Fourier transform, and electron diffraction show the tetragonal structure of these NRs. By varying the ligands ratio (e.g., octylammonium to oleic acid) in the synthesis, we were able to provide the formation mechanism of these novel 2D perovskite NRs. The 2D perovskite NRs are promising candidates for a variety of optoelectronic applications, such as light-emitting diodes, lasing, solar cells, and sensors.

  8. Optical Spectroscopy of Two Dimensional Graphene and Boron Nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Long

    This dissertation describes the use of optical spectroscopy in studying the physical properties of two dimensional nano materials like graphene and hexagonal boron nitride. Compared to bulk materials, atomically thin two dimensional materials have a unique character that is the strong dependence of physical properties on external control. Both electronic band structure and chemical potential can be tuned in situ by electric field-which is a powerful knob in experiment. Therefore the optical study at atomic thickness scale can greatly benefit from modern micro-fabrication technique and electric control of the material properties. As will be shown in this dissertation, such control of both gemometric and physical properties enables new possibilities of optical spectroscopic measurement as well as opto-electronic studies. Other experimental techniques like electric transport and scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy are also combined with optical spectroscopy to reveal the physics that is beyond the reach of each individual technique. There are three major themes in the dissertation. The first one is focused on the study of plasmon excitation of Dirac electrons in monolayer graphene. Unlike plasmons in ordinary two dimensional electron gas, plasmons of 2D electrons as in graphene obey unusual scaling laws. We fabricate graphene micro-ribbon arrays with photolithography technique and use optical absorption spectroscopy to study its absorption spectrum. The experimental result demonstrates the extraordinarily strong light-plasmon coupling and its novel dependence on both charge doping and geometric dimensions. This work provides a first glance at the fundamental properties of graphene plasmons and forms the basis of an emerging subfield of graphene research and applications such as graphene terahertz metamaterials. The second part describes the opto-electronic response of heterostructures composed of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride. We found that there is

  9. Status for the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver EllipSys2D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertagnolio, F.; Sørensen, Niels N.; Johansen, J.

    2001-01-01

    This report sets up an evaluation of the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver EllipSys2D in its present state. This code is used for blade aerodynamics simulations in the Aeroelastic Design group at Risø. Two airfoils are investigated by computing theflow at several angles of attack ranging from...... the linear to the stalled region. The computational data are compared to experimental data and numerical results from other computational codes. Several numerical aspects are studied, as mesh dependency,convective scheme, steady state versus unsteady computations, transition modelling. Some general...... conclusions intended to help in using this code for numerical simulations are given....

  10. Bill2d -- a software package for classical two-dimensional Hamiltonian systems

    CERN Document Server

    Solanpää, Janne; Räsänen, Esa

    2016-01-01

    We present Bill2d, a modern and efficient C++ package for classical simulations of two-dimensional Hamiltonian systems. Bill2d can be used for various billiard and diffusion problems with one or more charged particles with interactions, different external potentials, an external magnetic field, periodic and open boundaries, etc. The software package can also calculate many key quantities in complex systems such as Poincar\\'e sections, survival probabilities, and diffusion coefficients. While aiming at a large class of applicable systems, the code also strives for ease-of-use, efficiency, and modularity for the implementation of additional features. The package comes along with a user guide, a developer's manual, and a documentation of the application program interface (API).

  11. BILL2D - A software package for classical two-dimensional Hamiltonian systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanpää, J.; Luukko, P. J. J.; Räsänen, E.

    2016-02-01

    We present BILL2D, a modern and efficient C++ package for classical simulations of two-dimensional Hamiltonian systems. BILL2D can be used for various billiard and diffusion problems with one or more charged particles with interactions, different external potentials, an external magnetic field, periodic and open boundaries, etc. The software package can also calculate many key quantities in complex systems such as Poincaré sections, survival probabilities, and diffusion coefficients. While aiming at a large class of applicable systems, the code also strives for ease-of-use, efficiency, and modularity for the implementation of additional features. The package comes along with a user guide, a developer's manual, and a documentation of the application program interface (API).

  12. Hysteretic Spin Crossover in Two-Dimensional (2D) Hofmann-Type Coordination Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Wang, Lu; Su, Yu-Jun; Chen, Yan-Cong; Tucek, Jiri; Zboril, Radek; Ni, Zhao-Ping; Tong, Ming-Liang

    2015-09-08

    Three new two-dimensional (2D) Hofmann-type coordination polymers with general formula [Fe(3-NH2py)2M(CN)4] (3-NH2py = 3-aminopyridine, M = Ni (1), Pd (2), Pt (3)) have been synthesized. Magnetic susceptibility measurements show that they exhibited cooperative spin crossover (SCO) with remarkable hysteretic behaviors. Their hysteresis widths are 25, 37, and 30 K for 1-3, respectively. The single-crystal structure of 1 suggest that the pseudo-octahedral Fe sites are equatorially bridged by [M(CN)4](2-) to form 2D grids and axially coordinated by 3-NH2py ligands. The intermolecular interactions between layers (the offset face-to-face π···π interactions, hydrogen bonds, and weak N(amino)···Ni(II) contacts) together with the covalent bonds bridged by [M(CN)4](2-) units are responsible to the significant cooperativity.

  13. MULTI2D - a computer code for two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramis, R.; Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.; Ramírez, J.

    2009-06-01

    Simulation of radiation hydrodynamics in two spatial dimensions is developed, having in mind, in particular, target design for indirectly driven inertial confinement energy (IFE) and the interpretation of related experiments. Intense radiation pulses by laser or particle beams heat high-Z target configurations of different geometries and lead to a regime which is optically thick in some regions and optically thin in others. A diffusion description is inadequate in this situation. A new numerical code has been developed which describes hydrodynamics in two spatial dimensions (cylindrical R-Z geometry) and radiation transport along rays in three dimensions with the 4 π solid angle discretized in direction. Matter moves on a non-structured mesh composed of trilateral and quadrilateral elements. Radiation flux of a given direction enters on two (one) sides of a triangle and leaves on the opposite side(s) in proportion to the viewing angles depending on the geometry. This scheme allows to propagate sharply edged beams without ray tracing, though at the price of some lateral diffusion. The algorithm treats correctly both the optically thin and optically thick regimes. A symmetric semi-implicit (SSI) method is used to guarantee numerical stability. Program summaryProgram title: MULTI2D Catalogue identifier: AECV_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AECV_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 151 098 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 889 622 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C Computer: PC (32 bits architecture) Operating system: Linux/Unix RAM: 2 Mbytes Word size: 32 bits Classification: 19.7 External routines: X-window standard library (libX11.so) and corresponding heading files (X11/*.h) are

  14. Two-dimensional novel optical lattices with multi-well traps for cold atoms or molecules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junfa Lu; Xianming Ji; Jianping Yin

    2006-01-01

    We propose some new schemes to constitute two-dimensional (2D) array of multi-well optical dipole traps for cold atoms (or molecules) by using an optical system consisting of a binary π-phase grating and a 2D array of rectangle microlens. We calculate the intensity distribution of each optical well in 2D array of multi-well traps and its geometric parameters and so on. The proposed 2D array of multi-well traps can be used to form novel 2D optical lattices with cold atoms (or molecules), and form various novel optical crystals with cold atoms (or molecules), or to perform quantum computing and quantum information processing on an atom chip, even to realize an array of all-optical multi-well atomic (or molecular) BoseEinstein condensates (BECs) on an all-optical integrated atom (or molecule) chip.

  15. Removal of interfering substances in samples prepared for two-dimensional (2-D) electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkelman, Tom

    2008-01-01

    Biological samples may contain contaminants that interfere with analysis by two-dimensional (2-D) electrophoresis. Lysates or biological fluids are complex mixtures that contain a wide variety of nonprotein substances in addition to the proteins to be analyzed. These substances often interfere with the resolution of the electrophoretic separation or the visualization of the result. Macromolecules (e.g., polysaccharides and DNA) can interfere with electrophoretic separation by clogging gel pores. Small ionic molecules can impair isoelectric focusing (IEF) separation by rendering the sample too conductive. Other substances (e.g., phenolics and lipids) can bind to proteins, influencing their electrophoretic properties or solubility. In many cases, measures to remove interfering substances can result in significantly clearer 2-D patterns with more visible spots and better resolution. It should be borne in mind, however, that analysis of samples by 2-D electrophoresis is usually most successful and informative when performed with minimally processed samples, so it is important that any steps taken to remove interfering substance be appropriate to the sample and only performed when necessary. Procedures for the removal of interfering substances therefore represent a compromise between removing nonprotein contaminants, and minimizing interference with the integrity and relative abundances of the sample proteins. This chapter presents a number of illustrative examples of optimized sample preparation methods in which specific interfering substances are removed by a variety of different strategies.

  16. Optical modulators with two-dimensional layered materials

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Zhipei; Wang, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Light modulation is an essential operation in photonics and optoelectronics. With existing and emerging technologies increasingly demanding compact, efficient, fast and broadband optical modulators, high-performance light modulation solutions are becoming indispensable. The recent realization that two-dimensional layered materials could modulate light with superior performance has prompted intense research and significant advances, paving the way for realistic applications. In this review, we cover the state-of-the-art of optical modulators based on two-dimensional layered materials including graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus. We discuss recent advances employing hybrid structures, such as two-dimensional heterostructures, plasmonic structures, and silicon/fibre integrated structures. We also take a look at future perspectives and discuss the potential of yet relatively unexplored mechanisms such as magneto-optic and acousto-optic modulation.

  17. High-flux two-dimensional magneto-optical-trap source for cold lithium atoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiecke, T.G.; Gensemer, S.D.; Ludewig, A.; Walraven, J.T.M.

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate a two-dimensional magneto-optical trap (2D MOT) as a beam source for cold Li-6 atoms. The source is side loaded from an oven operated at temperatures in the range 600 less than or similar to T less than or similar to 700 K. The performance is analyzed by loading the atoms into a

  18. Easy interpretation of optical two-dimensional correlation spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazonder, K.; Pshenichnikov, M.S.; Wiersma, D.A.

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrate that the value of the underlying frequency-frequency correlation function can be retrieved from a two-dimensional optical correlation spectrum through a simple relationship. The proposed method yields both intuitive clues and a quantitative measure of the dynamics of the system. The t

  19. PRONTO 2D: A two-dimensional transient solid dynamics program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, L.M.; Flanagan, D.P.

    1987-03-01

    PRONTO 2D is a two-dimensional transient solid dynamics code for analyzing large deformations of highly nonlinear materials subjected to extremely high strain rates. This Lagrangian finite element program uses an explicit time integration operator to integrate the equations of motion. Four node uniform strain quadrilateral elements are used in the finite element formulation. A number of new numerical algorithms which have been developed for the code are described in this report. An adaptive time step control algorithm is described which greatly improves stability as well as performance in plasticity problems. A robust hourglass control scheme which eliminates hourglass distortions without disturbing the finite element solution is included. All constitutive models in PRONTO are cast in an unrotated configuration defined using the rotation determined from the polar decomposition of the deformation gradient. An accurate incremental algorithm was developed to determine this rotation and is described in detail. A robust contact algorithm was developed which allows for the impact and interaction of deforming contact surfaces of quite general geometry. A number of numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the utility of these algorithms. 41 refs., 51 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Imaging hemodynamic changes in preterm infant brains with two-dimensional diffuse optical tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng; Ma, Yiwen; Yang, Fang; Zhao, Huijuan; Jiang, Jingying; Kusaka, Takashi; Ueno, Masanori; Yamada, Yukio

    2008-02-01

    We present our preliminary results on two-dimensional (2-D) optical tomographic imaging of hemodynamic changes of two preterm infant brains in different ventilation settings conditions. The investigations use the established two-wavelength, 16-channel time-correlated single photon counting system for the detection, and the generalized pulse spectrum technique based algorithm for the image reconstruction. The experiments demonstrate that two-dimensional diffuse optical tomography may be a potent and relatively simple way of investigating the functions and neural development of infant brains in the perinatal period.

  1. Nonlinear optical response of a two-dimensional atomic crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merano, Michele

    2016-01-01

    The theory of Bloembergen and Pershan for the light waves at the boundary of nonlinear media is extended to a nonlinear two-dimensional (2D) atomic crystal, i.e., a single planar atomic lattice, placed between linear bulk media. The crystal is treated as a zero-thickness interface, a real 2D system. Harmonic waves emanate from it. Generalization of the laws of reflection and refraction give the direction and the intensity of the harmonic waves. As a particular case that contains all the essential physical features, second-order harmonic generation is considered. The theory, due to its simplicity that stems from the special character of a single planar atomic lattice, is able to elucidate and explain the rich experimental details of harmonic generation from a 2D atomic crystal.

  2. Two-dimensional optical tomography of hemodynamic changes in a preterm infant brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng; Xue, Yuan; Zhao, Huijuan; Kusaka, Takashi; Ueno, Masanori; Yamada, Yukio

    2007-08-01

    Our preliminary results on two-dimensional (2D) optical tomographic imaging of hemodynamic changes in a preterm infant brain are reported. We use the established 16-channel time-correlated single photon counting system for the detection and generalized pulse spectrum technique based algorithm for the image reconstruction. The experiments demonstrate that diffuse optical tomography may be a potent means for investigating brain functions and neural development of infant brains in the perinatal period.

  3. Optical Two-Dimensional Spectroscopy of Disordered Semiconductor Quantum Wells and Quantum Dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cundiff, Steven T. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2016-05-03

    This final report describes the activities undertaken under grant "Optical Two-Dimensional Spectroscopy of Disordered Semiconductor Quantum Wells and Quantum Dots". The goal of this program was to implement optical 2-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy and apply it to electronic excitations, including excitons, in semiconductors. Specifically of interest are quantum wells that exhibit disorder due to well width fluctuations and quantum dots. In both cases, 2-D spectroscopy will provide information regarding coupling among excitonic localization sites.

  4. Two-dimensional optical tomography of hemodynamic changes in a preterm infant brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Gao; Yuan Xue; Huijuan Zhao; Takashi Kusaka; Masanori Ueno; Yukio Yamada

    2007-01-01

    Our preliminary results on two-dimensional (2D) optical tomographic imaging of hemodynamic changes in a preterm infant brain are reported. We use the established 16-channel time-correlated single photon counting system for the detection and generalized pulse spectrum technique based algorithm for the image reconstruction. The experiments demonstrate that diffuse optical tomography may be a potent means for investigating brain functions and neural development of infant brains in the perinatal period.

  5. Two-dimensional Fourier transform ESR in the slow-motional and rigid limits: 2D-ELDOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patyal, Baldev R.; Crepeau, Richard H.; Gamliel, Dan; Freed, Jack H.

    1990-12-01

    The two-dimensional Fourier transform ESP techniques of stimulated SECSY and 2D-ELDOR are shown to be powerful methods for the study of slow motions for nitroxides. Stimulated SECSY provides magnetization transfer rates, whereas 2D-ELDOR displays how the rotational motions spread the spins out from their initial spectral positions to new spectral positions, as a function of mixing time. The role of nuclear modulation in studies of structure and dynamics is also considered.

  6. Topological Quantum Optics in Two-Dimensional Atomic Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perczel, J.; Borregaard, J.; Chang, D. E.; Pichler, H.; Yelin, S. F.; Zoller, P.; Lukin, M. D.

    2017-07-01

    We demonstrate that two-dimensional atomic emitter arrays with subwavelength spacing constitute topologically protected quantum optical systems where the photon propagation is robust against large imperfections while losses associated with free space emission are strongly suppressed. Breaking time-reversal symmetry with a magnetic field results in gapped photonic bands with nontrivial Chern numbers and topologically protected, long-lived edge states. Due to the inherent nonlinearity of constituent emitters, such systems provide a platform for exploring quantum optical analogs of interacting topological systems.

  7. A new model for two-dimensional numerical simulation of pseudo-2D gas-solids fluidized beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Tingwen; Zhang, Yongmin

    2013-10-11

    Pseudo-two dimensional (pseudo-2D) fluidized beds, for which the thickness of the system is much smaller than the other two dimensions, is widely used to perform fundamental studies on bubble behavior, solids mixing, or clustering phenomenon in different gas-solids fluidization systems. The abundant data from such experimental systems are very useful for numerical model development and validation. However, it has been reported that two-dimensional (2D) computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations of pseudo-2D gas-solids fluidized beds usually predict poor quantitative agreement with the experimental data, especially for the solids velocity field. In this paper, a new model is proposed to improve the 2D numerical simulations of pseudo-2D gas-solids fluidized beds by properly accounting for the frictional effect of the front and back walls. Two previously reported pseudo-2D experimental systems were simulated with this model. Compared to the traditional 2D simulations, significant improvements in the numerical predictions have been observed and the predicted results are in better agreement with the available experimental data.

  8. Two-dimensional optical feedback control of Euglena confined in closed-type microfluidic channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozasa, Kazunari; Lee, Jeesoo; Song, Simon; Hara, Masahiko; Maeda, Mizuo

    2011-06-07

    We examined two-dimensional (2D) optical feedback control of phototaxis flagellate Euglena cells confined in closed-type microfluidic channels (microaquariums), and demonstrated that the 2D optical feedback enables the control of the density and position of Euglena cells in microaquariums externally, flexibly, and dynamically. Using three types of feedback algorithms, the density of Euglena cells in a specified area can be controlled arbitrarily and dynamically, and more than 70% of the cells can be concentrated into a specified area. Separation of photo-sensitive/insensitive Euglena cells was also demonstrated. Moreover, Euglena-based neuro-computing has been achieved, where 16 imaginary neurons were defined as Euglena-activity levels in 16 individual areas in microaquariums. The study proves that 2D optical feedback control of photoreactive flagellate microbes is promising for microbial biology studies as well as applications such as microbe-based particle transportation in microfluidic channels or separation of photo-sensitive/insensitive microbes.

  9. Optical limiter based on two-dimensional nonlinear photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belabbas, Amirouche; Lazoul, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    The aim behind this work is to investigate the capabilities of nonlinear photonic crystals to achieve ultra-fast optical limiters based on third order nonlinear effects. The purpose is to combine the actions of nonlinear effects with the properties of photonic crystals in order to activate the photonic band according to the magnitude of the nonlinear effects, themselves a function of incident laser power. We are interested in designing an optical limiter based nonlinear photonic crystal operating around 1064 nm and its second harmonic at 532 nm. Indeed, a very powerful solid-state laser that can blind or destroy optical sensors and is widely available and easy to handle. In this work, we perform design and optimization by numerical simulations to determine the better structure for the nonlinear photonic crystal to achieve compact and efficient integrated optical limiter. The approach consists to analyze the band structures in Kerr-nonlinear two-dimensional photonic crystals as a function of the optical intensity. We confirm that these bands are dynamically red-shifted with regard to the bands observed in linear photonic crystals or in the case of weak nonlinear effects. The implemented approach will help to understand such phenomena as intensitydriven optical limiting with Kerr-nonlinear photonic crystals.

  10. Isolated structures in two-dimensional optical superlattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xin-Hao; Yang, Bao-Guo; Xu, Xia; Tang, Peng-Ju; Zhou, Xiao-Ji

    2017-10-01

    Overlaying commensurate optical lattices with various configurations called superlattices can lead to exotic lattice topologies and, in turn, a discovery of novel physics. In this study, by overlapping the maxima of lattices, a new isolated structure is created, while the interference of minima can generate various "sublattice" patterns. Three different kinds of primitive lattices are used to demonstrate isolated square, triangular, and hexagonal "sublattice" structures in a two-dimensional optical superlattice, the patterns of which can be manipulated dynamically by tuning the polarization, frequency, and intensity of laser beams. In addition, we propose the method of altering the relative phase to adjust the tunneling amplitudes in "sublattices". Our configurations provide unique opportunities to study particle entanglement in "lattices" formed by intersecting wells and to implement special quantum logic gates in exotic lattice geometries.

  11. Isolated Structures in Two-Dimensional Optical Superlattice

    CERN Document Server

    Zou, Xinhao; Xu, Xia; Tang, Pengju; Zhou, Xiaoji

    2016-01-01

    Overlaying commensurate optical lattices with various configurations called superlattices can lead to exotic lattice topologies and, in turn, a discovery of novel physics. In this study, by overlapping the maxima of lattices, a new isolated structure is created, while the interference of minima can generate various "sublattice" patterns. Three different kinds of primitive lattices are used to demonstrate isolated square, triangular, and hexagonal "sublattice" structures in a two-dimensional optical superlattice, the patterns of which can be manipulated dynamically by tuning the polarization, frequency, and intensity of laser beams. In addition, we propose the method of altering the relative phase to adjust the tunneling amplitudes in "sublattices." Our configurations provide unique opportunities to study particle entanglement in "lattices" formed by intersecting wells and to implement special quantum logic gates in exotic lattice geometries.

  12. MARG2D code. 1. Eigenvalue problem for two dimensional Newcomb equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokuda, Shinji [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Watanabe, Tomoko

    1997-10-01

    A new method and a code MARG2D have been developed to solve the 2-dimensional Newcomb equation which plays an important role in the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability analysis in an axisymmetric toroidal plasma such as a tokamak. In the present formulation, an eigenvalue problem is posed for the 2-D Newcomb equation, where the weight function (the kinetic energy integral) and the boundary conditions at rational surfaces are chosen so that an eigenfunction correctly behaves as the linear combination of the small solution and the analytical solutions around each of the rational surfaces. Thus, the difficulty on solving the 2-D Newcomb equation has been resolved. By using the MARG2D code, the ideal MHD marginally stable state can be identified for a 2-D toroidal plasma. The code is indispensable on computing the outer-region matching data necessary for the resistive MHD stability analysis. Benchmark with ERATOJ, an ideal MHD stability code, has been carried out and the MARG2D code demonstrates that it indeed identifies both stable and marginally stable states against ideal MHD motion. (author)

  13. Drude Weight,Optical Conductivity of Two-Dimensional Hubbard Model at Half Filling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Lei; ZHANG Jun

    2008-01-01

    We study the Drude weight D and optical conductivity of the two-dimensional (2D) Hubbard model at half filling with staggered magnetic flux (SMF).When SMF being introduced,the hopping integrals are modulated by the magnetic flux.The optical sum rule,which is related to the mean kinetic energy of band electrons,is evaluated for this 2D Hubbard Hamiltonian.Our present result gives the dependence of the kinetic energy,D and the optical conductivity on SMF and U.At half filling D vanishes exponentially with system size.We also find in the frequency dependence of the optical conductivity,there is &function peak at ω≈2|m|U and the incoherent excitations begin to present themselves extended to a higher energy region.

  14. Symmetric two dimensional photonic crystal coupled waveguide with point defect for optical switch application

    CERN Document Server

    Hardhienata, Hendradi

    2012-01-01

    Two dimensional (2D) photonic crystals are well known for its ability to manipulate the propagation of electromagnetic wave inside the crystal. 1D and 2D photonic crystals are relatively easier to fabricate than 3D because the former work in the microwave and far infrared regions whereas the later work in the visible region and requires smaller lattice constants. In this paper, simulation for a modified 2D PC with two symmetric waveguide channels where a defect is located inside one of the channel is performed. The simulation results show that optical switching is possible by modifying the refractive index of the defect. If more than one structure is applied this feature can potentially be applied to produce a cascade optical switch.

  15. Optical devices combining an organic semiconductor crystal with a two-dimensional inorganic diffraction grating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitazawa, Takenori; Yamao, Takeshi, E-mail: yamao@kit.ac.jp; Hotta, Shu [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan)

    2016-02-01

    We have fabricated optical devices using an organic semiconductor crystal as an emission layer in combination with a two-dimensional (2D) inorganic diffraction grating used as an optical cavity. We formed the inorganic diffraction grating by wet etching of aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) under a 2D cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) diffraction grating used as a mask. The COC diffraction grating was fabricated by nanoimprint lithography. The AZO diffraction grating was composed of convex prominences arranged in a triangular lattice. The organic crystal placed on the AZO diffraction grating indicated narrowed peaks in its emission spectrum under ultraviolet light excitation. These are detected parallel to the crystal plane. The peaks were shifted by rotating the optical devices around the normal to the crystal plane, which reflected the rotational symmetries of the triangular lattice through 60°.

  16. Optical vortices: the concept of topological potential and analogies with two-dimensional electrostatics

    CERN Document Server

    Amaral, Anderson M; de Araújo, Cid B

    2015-01-01

    We show how the phase profile of a distribution of topological charges (TC) of an optical vortex (OV) can be described by a potential analogous to the Coulomb's potential for a distribution of electric charges in two-dimensional electrostatics. From what we call the Topological Potential (TP), the properties of TC multipoles and a 2D radial distribution were analyzed. The TC multipoles have a transverse profile that is topologically stable under propagation and may be exploited in optical communications; on the other hand, the 2D distributions can be used to tune the transverse forces in optical tweezers. Considering the analogies with the electrostatics formalism, it is also expected that the TP allows the tailoring of OV for specific applications.

  17. Synchronous two-dimensional MIR correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) as a novel method for screening smoke tainted wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fudge, Anthea L; Wilkinson, Kerry L; Ristic, Renata; Cozzolino, Daniel

    2013-08-15

    In this study, two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) combined with mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy was evaluated as a novel technique for the identification of spectral regions associated with smoke-affected wine, for the purpose of screening taint arising from grapevine exposure to smoke. Smoke-affected wines obtained from experimental and industry sources were analysed using MIR spectroscopy and chemometrics, and calibration models developed. 2D-COS analysis was used to generate synchronous data maps for red and white cask wines spiked with guaiacol, a marker of smoke taint. Correlations were observed at wavelengths that could be attributable to aromatic C-C stretching, i.e., between 1400 and 1500 cm(-1), indicative of volatile phenols. These results demonstrate the potential of 2D-COS as a rapid, high-throughput technique for the preliminary screening of smoke tainted wine.

  18. Study on electro-optic properties of two-dimensional PLZT photonic crystal band structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONG Kai; WU Xiao-gang; WANG Mei-ting

    2011-01-01

    The band characteristics of two-dimensional (2D) lead lanthanum zirconate titanate (PLZT) photonic cystals are analyzed by finite element method. The electro-optic effect of PLZT can cause the refractive index change when it is imposed by the applied electric field, and the band structure of 2D photonic crystals based on PLZT varies accordingly. The effect of the applied electric field on the structural characteristics of the first and second band gaps in 2D PLZT photonic crystals is analyzed in detail. And the results show that for each band gap, the variations of start wavelength, cut-off wavelength and bandwidth are proportional to quadratic of the electric field.

  19. Physical secure enhancement in optical OFDMA-PON based on two-dimensional scrambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lijia; Xin, Xiangjun; Liu, Bo; Yin, Xiaoli

    2012-12-10

    This paper proposes a novel physical-enhanced chaotic secure strategy for optical OFDMA-PON based on two-dimensional (2-D) scrambling. In order to enhance the physical security, a multi-layer chaotic mapping is proposed to generate the scrambling vectors. It can enhance the chaotic characteristic of Logistic mapping and increase the key space. Furthermore, the 2-D scrambling jointly utilizing frequency subcarriers and time-slots can improve the system resistance to eavesdropper. The feasibility of 15.6 Gb/s 2-D encrypted 64QAM-OFDM downstream signal has been successfully demonstrated in the experiment. The robustness of the proposed method shows its prospect in future OFDM access network.

  20. Two-dimensional phase unwrapping in Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yimin; Huang, David; Su, Ya; Yao, X Steve

    2016-11-14

    For phase-related imaging modalities using interferometric techniques, it is important to develop effective method to recover phase information that is mathematically wrapped. In this paper, we propose and demonstrate a two-dimensional (2D) method to achieve effective phase unwrapping in Doppler Fourier-domain (FD) optical coherence tomography (OCT), and recover the discontinuous phase distribution in retinal blood flow successfully for the first time in Doppler OCT studies. The proposed method is based on phase gradient approach in the axial dimension, with phase denoising performed through 2D window moving average in the sampled phase image using complex Doppler OCT data. The 2D unwrapping is carried out to correct phase discontinuities in the wrapped Doppler phase map, and the abrupt phase changes can be identified and corrected accurately. The proposed algorithm is computationally efficient and easy to be implemented.

  1. Nonlinear localized modes in dipolar Bose–Einstein condensates in two-dimensional optical lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas-Rojas, Santiago, E-mail: srojas@cefop.cl [Center for Optics and Photonics and MSI-Nucleus on Advanced Optics, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Naether, Uta [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón and Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Delgado, Aldo [Center for Optics and Photonics and MSI-Nucleus on Advanced Optics, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Vicencio, Rodrigo A. [Center for Optics and Photonics and MSI-Nucleus on Advanced Optics, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile)

    2016-09-16

    Highlights: • We study discrete two-dimensional breathers in dipolar Bose–Einstein Condensates. • Important differences in the properties of three fundamental modes are found. • Norm threshold for existence of 2D breathers varies with dipolar interaction. • The Effective Potential Method is implemented for stability analysis. • Uncommon mobility of 2D discrete solitons is observed. - Abstract: We analyze the existence and properties of discrete localized excitations in a Bose–Einstein condensate loaded into a periodic two-dimensional optical lattice, when a dipolar interaction between atoms is present. The dependence of the Number of Atoms (Norm) on the energy of solutions is studied, along with their stability. Two important features of the system are shown, namely, the absence of the Norm threshold required for localized solutions to exist in finite 2D systems, and the existence of regions in the parameter space where two fundamental solutions are simultaneously unstable. This feature enables mobility of localized solutions, which is an uncommon feature in 2D discrete nonlinear systems. With attractive dipolar interaction, a non-trivial behavior of the Norm dependence is obtained, which is well described by an analytical model.

  2. Terahertz magneto-optical spectroscopy of a two-dimensional hole gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamaraju, N., E-mail: nkamaraju@lanl.gov; Taylor, A. J.; Prasankumar, R. P., E-mail: rpprasan@lanl.gov [Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Pan, W.; Reno, J. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87123 (United States); Ekenberg, U. [Semiconsultants, Brunnsgrnd 12, SE-18773 Täby (Sweden); Gvozdić, D. M. [School of Electrical Engineering, University of Belgrade, Belgrade 11120 (Serbia); Boubanga-Tombet, S. [Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-Ku, Sendai (Japan); Upadhya, P. C. [Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Laboratory for Electro-Optics Systems, Indian Space Research Organization, Bangalore 560058 (India)

    2015-01-19

    Two-dimensional hole gases (2DHGs) have attracted recent attention for their unique quantum physics and potential applications in areas including spintronics and quantum computing. However, their properties remain relatively unexplored, motivating the use of different techniques to study them. We used terahertz magneto-optical spectroscopy to investigate the cyclotron resonance frequency in a high mobility 2DHG, revealing a nonlinear dependence on the applied magnetic field. This is shown to be due to the complex non-parabolic valence band structure of the 2DHG, as verified by multiband Landau level calculations. We also find that impurity scattering dominates cyclotron resonance decay in the 2DHG, in contrast with the dominance of superradiant damping in two-dimensional electron gases. Our results shed light on the properties of 2DHGs, motivating further studies of these unique 2D nanosystems.

  3. Two-dimensional crystal melting and D4-D2-D0 on toric Calabi-Yau singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Nishinaka, Takahiro; Yoshida, Yutaka

    2013-01-01

    We construct a two-dimensional crystal melting model which reproduces the BPS index of D2-D0 states bound to a non-compact D4-brane on an arbitrary toric Calabi-Yau singularity. The crystalline structure depends on the toric divisor wrapped by the D4-brane. The molten crystals are in one-to-one correspondence with the torus fixed points of the moduli space of the quiver gauge theory on D-branes. The F- and D-term constraints of the gauge theory are regarded as a generalization of the ADHM constraints on instantons. We also show in several examples that our model is consistent with the wall-crossing formula for the BPS index.

  4. Tunable electronic and optical behaviors of two-dimensional germanium carbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zhuo; Li, Yangping, E-mail: liyp@nwpu.edu.cn; Li, Chenxi; Liu, Zhengtang

    2016-03-30

    Graphical abstract: In-plane and biaxial strain effects can provide a wide band gap engineering and new options of interband transitions for 2d-GeC in application of optoelectronic devices. - Highlights: • Tunable band structures when in-plane strain is applied on monolayer GeC. • Tunable electronic and optical properties of bilayer under strain along the c axis. • Tunable band structures are observed in multilayer GeC. - Abstract: The electronic and optical properties of two-dimensional graphene-like germanium carbide (2D-GeC) are calculated using first-principle calculation based on density functional theory. Monolayer GeC has a direct band gap of 2.19 eV. The imaginary part of the dielectric function shows a wide energy range of absorption spectrum for monolayer GeC. Tunable band structures are found for monolayer GeC through in-plane strain. In addition, the band structures and optical properties of bilayer GeC under strain along the c axis are analyzed. Multilayer GeC exhibits a direct band gap like monolayer GeC, and new options of interband transitions are found between layers. The results suggest that 2D-GeC could be a good candidate for optoelectronic such as light-emitting diodes, photodiodes, and solar cells.

  5. 2D Magneto-optical trapping of diatomic molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummon, Matthew T; Yeo, Mark; Stuhl, Benjamin K; Collopy, Alejandra L; Xia, Yong; Ye, Jun

    2013-04-05

    We demonstrate one- and two-dimensional transverse laser cooling and magneto-optical trapping of the polar molecule yttrium (II) oxide (YO). In a 1D magneto-optical trap (MOT), we characterize the magneto-optical trapping force and decrease the transverse temperature by an order of magnitude, from 25 to 2 mK, limited by interaction time. In a 2D MOT, we enhance the intensity of the YO beam and reduce the transverse temperature in both transverse directions. The approach demonstrated here can be applied to many molecular species and can also be extended to 3D.

  6. FireStem2D--a two-dimensional heat transfer model for simulating tree stem injury in fires.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efthalia K Chatziefstratiou

    Full Text Available FireStem2D, a software tool for predicting tree stem heating and injury in forest fires, is a physically-based, two-dimensional model of stem thermodynamics that results from heating at the bark surface. It builds on an earlier one-dimensional model (FireStem and provides improved capabilities for predicting fire-induced mortality and injury before a fire occurs by resolving stem moisture loss, temperatures through the stem, degree of bark charring, and necrotic depth around the stem. We present the results of numerical parameterization and model evaluation experiments for FireStem2D that simulate laboratory stem-heating experiments of 52 tree sections from 25 trees. We also conducted a set of virtual sensitivity analysis experiments to test the effects of unevenness of heating around the stem and with aboveground height using data from two studies: a low-intensity surface fire and a more intense crown fire. The model allows for improved understanding and prediction of the effects of wildland fire on injury and mortality of trees of different species and sizes.

  7. Curvature effects in two-dimensional optical devices inspired by transformation optics

    KAUST Repository

    Yuan, Shuhao

    2016-11-14

    Light transport in curved quasi two-dimensional waveguides is considered theoretically. Within transformation optics and tensor theory, a concise description of curvature effects on transverse electric and magnetic waves is derived. We show that the curvature can induce light focusing and photonic crystal properties, which are confirmed by finite element simulations. Our results indicate that the curvature is an effective parameter for designing quasi two-dimensional optical devices in the fields of micro and nano photonics. © 2016 Author(s).

  8. Two-dimensional dispersive shock waves in dissipative optical media

    CERN Document Server

    Kartashov, Yaroslav V

    2013-01-01

    We study generation of two-dimensional dispersive shock waves and oblique dark solitons upon interaction of tilted plane waves with negative refractive index defects embedded into defocusing material with linear gain and two-photon absorption. Different evolution regimes are encountered including the formation of well-localized disturbances for input tilts below critical one, and generation of extended shock waves containing multiple intensity oscillations in the "upstream" region and gradually vanishing oblique dark solitons in "downstream" region for input tilts exceeding critical one. The generation of stable dispersive shock waves is possible only below certain critical defect strength.

  9. Field analysis of two-dimensional integrated optical gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsboom, P.-P.; Frankena, H. J.

    1995-05-01

    A rigorous technique to determine the field scattered by a two-dimensional rectangular grating made up of many corrugations was developed. In this method, the grating was deemed as a sequence of two types of waveguide sections, alternatingly connected by step discontinuities. A matrix was derived that described the entire rectangular grating by integrating the separate steps and waveguide sections. With the proposed technique, several configuration were analyzed. The obtained results showed good consistency with the consequences of previous studies. Furthermore, to examine the numerical stability of the proposed method, the length of the grating was increased and obtained results for a grating with 100 periods.

  10. WSJointInv2D-MT-DCR: An efficient joint two-dimensional magnetotelluric and direct current resistivity inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amatyakul, Puwis; Vachiratienchai, Chatchai; Siripunvaraporn, Weerachai

    2017-05-01

    An efficient joint two-dimensional direct current resistivity (DCR) and magnetotelluric (MT) inversion, referred to as WSJointInv2D-MT-DCR, was developed with FORTRAN 95 based on the data space Occam's inversion algorithm. Our joint inversion software can be used to invert just the MT data or the DCR data, or invert both data sets simultaneously to get the electrical resistivity structures. Since both MT and DCR surveys yield the same resistivity structures, the two data types enhance each other leading to a better interpretation. Two synthetic and a real field survey are used here to demonstrate that the joint DCR and MT surveys can help constrain each other to reduce the ambiguities occurring when inverting the DCR or MT alone. The DCR data increases the lateral resolution of the near surface structures while the MT data reveals the deeper structures. When the MT apparent resistivity suffers from the static shift, the DCR apparent resistivity can serve as a replacement for the estimation of the static shift factor using the joint inversion. In addition, we also used these examples to show the efficiency of our joint inversion code. With the availability of our new joint inversion software, we expect the number of joint DCR and MT surveys to increase in the future.

  11. Two-dimensional optical thermal ratchets based on Fibonacci spirals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ke; Roichman, Yael; Grier, David G

    2011-07-01

    An ensemble of symmetric potential energy wells arranged at the vertices of a Fibonacci spiral can serve as the basis for an irreducibly two-dimensional thermal ratchet. Periodic rotation of the potential energy landscape through a three-step cycle drives trapped Brownian particles along spiral trajectories through the pattern. Which spiral is selected depends on the angular displacement at each step, with transitions between selected spirals arising at rational proportions of the golden angle. Fibonacci spiral ratchets therefore display an exceptionally rich range of transport properties, including inhomogeneous states in which different parts of the pattern induce motion in different directions. Both the radial and angular components of these trajectories can undergo flux reversal as a function of the scale of the pattern or the rate of rotation.

  12. Development of fast two-dimensional standing wave microscopy using acousto-optic deflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gliko, Olga; Reddy, Duemani G.; Brownell, William E.; Saggau, Peter

    2008-02-01

    A novel scheme for two-dimensional (2D) standing wave fluorescence microscopy (SWFM) using acousto-optic deflectors (AODs) is proposed. Two laser beams were coupled into an inverted microscope and focused at the back focal plane of the objective lens. The position of each of two beams at the back focal plane was controlled by a pair of AODs. This resulted in two collimated beams that interfered in the focal plane, creating a lateral periodic excitation pattern with variable spacing and orientation. The phase of the standing wave pattern was controlled by phase delay between two RF sinusoidal signals driving the AODs. Nine SW patterns of three different orientations about the optical axis and three different phases were generated. The excitation of the specimen using these patterns will result in a SWFM image with enhanced 2D lateral resolution with a nearly isotropic effective point-spread function. Rotation of the SW pattern relative to specimen and varying the SW phase do not involve any mechanical movements and are only limited by the time required for the acoustic wave to fill the aperture of AOD. The resulting total acquisition time can be as short as 100 µs and is only further limited by speed and sensitivity of the employed CCD camera. Therefore, this 2D SWFM can provide a real time imaging of subresolution processes such as docking and fusion of synaptic vesicles. In addition, the combination of 2D SWFM with variable angle total internal reflection (TIR) can extend this scheme to fast microscopy with enhanced three-dimensional (3D) resolution.

  13. Investigation of Two-Dimensional Transition Metal Dichalcogenides by Optical and Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigosi, Albert F.

    The goal of this dissertation is not only to present works completed and projects initiated and accomplished, but to also attempt to teach some of the material to readers who have limited exposure to condensed matter. I will offer an introduction to two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide materials (2D TMDCs) and the mathematics required to understand the research conducted. Some effort will be given on explaining the experimental setups and preparations. Projects that required elaborate sample fabrication and the yielded results will be summarized. These results have heavy implications for the science behind bound electron-hole pairs, the effects of magnetic fields on such pairs, and extracting the useful optical properties from the material systems in which these pairs reside. Specialized fabrication techniques of samples for longer term projects that I led will also be presented, namely those of constructing heterostructures by stacking various 2D TMDCs for exploring the modulated properties of these novel arrangements. The latter portion of this dissertation will cover the nanoscopic dynamics of TMDC heterostructures. The Kramers-Kronig relations will be derived and discussed in detail. Data and results regarding the electronic structure of these materials, their heterostructures, and their custom alloys measured via scanning tunneling microscopy will be presented. Coupled with the measured optical properties, significant numerical quantities that characterize these materials are extracted. There will be several appendices that offer some supplementary information and basic summaries about all the projects that were initiated.

  14. User's Guide for ECAP2D: an Euler Unsteady Aerodynamic and Aeroelastic Analysis Program for Two Dimensional Oscillating Cascades, Version 1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, T. S. R.

    1995-01-01

    This guide describes the input data required for using ECAP2D (Euler Cascade Aeroelastic Program-Two Dimensional). ECAP2D can be used for steady or unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelastic analysis of two dimensional cascades. Euler equations are used to obtain aerodynamic forces. The structural dynamic equations are written for a rigid typical section undergoing pitching (torsion) and plunging (bending) motion. The solution methods include harmonic oscillation method, influence coefficient method, pulse response method, and time integration method. For harmonic oscillation method, example inputs and outputs are provided for pitching motion and plunging motion. For the rest of the methods, input and output for pitching motion only are given.

  15. Optics and Optoelectronics of Two-dimensional Semiconducting Monolayers and Heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jason Solomon

    Until recently, the physics of truly two-dimensional (2D) excitons could only be explored theoretically. Following the discovery of graphene, many 2D materials were quickly identified and isolated, one system being the semiconducting Group VI-B transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs). These semiconductors are the first air-stable materials that are atomically thin (three atomics thick), and yet can be produced in arbitrarily large lateral sheets. They have a direct band gap in which confinement leads to large spatial overlap of electrons and holes resulting in strongly coupled excitonic transitions that dominate light-matter interactions. The direct band-gap of monolayer TMDs occurs at the corners of the hexagonal Brillouin zone, referred to as the K valleys. Entirely unique to these materials, excitons in adjacent K valleys selectively couple to light of opposite circular polarization, i.e. the K (K') valley is selective to right (left) circularly polarized photons. This property offers the possible realization of novel devices that will manipulate the valley index, known as valleytronics. Further, creating a stacked heterostructure (HS) of two TMD monolayers of different molecular species can exhibit type-II band alignment leading to the first atomically sharp built-in p-n junction and a bright interlayer exciton with long lifetimes. Being flat 2D sheets, it is easy to couple these materials to nearby systems such as microfabricated electrodes and photonic crystal cavities allowing for unique modulation and device schemes. Here, I employ both optical and electronic techniques to study the unique physics of 2D excitons in TMDs as well as demonstrate some of their first optoelectronic and valleytronic devices. The most notable achievement is perhaps the first demonstrations of both atomically thin and 2D heterostructure light emitting diodes and photovoltaic devices. Other breakthroughs include the first demonstration of exciton charging tunability in a 2D system

  16. Optical modulators with 2D layered materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhipei; Martinez, Amos; Wang, Feng

    2016-04-01

    Light modulation is an essential operation in photonics and optoelectronics. With existing and emerging technologies increasingly demanding compact, efficient, fast and broadband optical modulators, high-performance light modulation solutions are becoming indispensable. The recent realization that 2D layered materials could modulate light with superior performance has prompted intense research and significant advances, paving the way for realistic applications. In this Review, we cover the state of the art of optical modulators based on 2D materials, including graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus. We discuss recent advances employing hybrid structures, such as 2D heterostructures, plasmonic structures, and silicon and fibre integrated structures. We also take a look at the future perspectives and discuss the potential of yet relatively unexplored mechanisms, such as magneto-optic and acousto-optic modulation.

  17. Near-infrared (NIR) monitoring of Nylon 6 during quenching studied by projection two-dimensional (2D) correlation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinzawa, Hideyuki; Mizukado, Junji

    2016-11-01

    Evolutionary change in supermolecular structure of Nylon 6 during its melt-quenched process was studied by Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Time-resolved NIR spectra was measured by taking the advantage of high-speed NIR monitoring based on an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF). Fine spectral features associated with the variation of crystalline and amorphous structure occurring in relatively short time scale were readily captured. For example, synchronous and asynchronous 2D correlation spectra reveal the initial decrease in the contribution of the NIR band at 1485 nm due to the amorphous structure, predominantly existing in the melt Nylon 6. This is then followed by the emerging contribution of the band intensity at 1535 nm associated with the crystalline structure. Consequently, the results clearly demonstrate a definite advantage of the high-speed NIR monitoring for analyzing fleeting phenomena.

  18. A dark-line two-dimensional magneto-optical trap of 85Rb atoms with high optical depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shanchao; Chen, J F; Liu, Chang; Zhou, Shuyu; Loy, M M T; Wong, G K L; Du, Shengwang

    2012-07-01

    We describe the apparatus of a dark-line two-dimensional (2D) magneto-optical trap (MOT) of (85)Rb cold atoms with high optical depth (OD). Different from the conventional configuration, two (of three) pairs of trapping laser beams in our 2D MOT setup do not follow the symmetry axes of the quadrupole magnetic field: they are aligned with 45° angles to the longitudinal axis. Two orthogonal repumping laser beams have a dark-line volume in the longitudinal axis at their cross over. With a total trapping laser power of 40 mW and repumping laser power of 18 mW, we obtain an atomic OD up to 160 in an electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) scheme, which corresponds to an atomic-density-length product NL = 2.05 × 10(15) m(-2). In a closed two-state system, the OD can become as large as more than 600. Our 2D MOT configuration allows full optical access of the atoms in its longitudinal direction without interfering with the trapping and repumping laser beams spatially. Moreover, the zero magnetic field along the longitudinal axis allows the cold atoms maintain a long ground-state coherence time without switching off the MOT magnetic field, which makes it possible to operate the MOT at a high repetition rate and a high duty cycle. Our 2D MOT is ideal for atomic-ensemble-based quantum optics applications, such as EIT, entangled photon pair generation, optical quantum memory, and quantum information processing.

  19. Surface plasmon hurdles leading to a strongly localized giant field enhancement on two-dimensional (2D) metallic diffraction gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brûlé, Yoann; Demésy, Guillaume; Gralak, Boris; Popov, Evgeny

    2015-04-01

    An extensive numerical study of diffraction of a plane monochromatic wave by a single gold cone on a plane gold substrate and by a periodical array of such cones shows formation of curls in the map of the Poynting vector. They result from the interference between the incident wave, the wave reflected by the substrate, and the field scattered by the cone(s). In case of a single cone, when going away from its base along the surface, the main contribution in the scattered field is given by the plasmon surface wave (PSW) excited on the surface. As expected, it has a predominant direction of propagation, determined by the incident wave polarization. Two particular cones with height approximately 1/6 and 1/3 of the wavelength are studied in detail, as they present the strongest absorption and field enhancement when arranged in a periodic array. While the PSW excited by the smaller single cone shows an energy flux globally directed along the substrate surface, we show that curls of the Poynting vector generated with the larger cone touch the diopter surface. At this point, their direction is opposite to the energy flow of the PSW, which is then forced to jump over the vortex regions. Arranging the cones in a two-dimensional subwavelength periodic array (diffraction grating), supporting a specular reflected order only, resonantly strengthens the field intensity at the tip of cones and leads to a field intensity enhancement of the order of 10 000 with respect to the incident wave intensity. The enhanced field is strongly localized on the rounded top of the cones. It is accompanied by a total absorption of the incident light exhibiting large angular tolerances. This strongly localized giant field enhancement can be of much interest in many applications, including fluorescence spectroscopy, label-free biosensing, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), nonlinear optical effects and photovoltaics.

  20. Fabrication of two-dimensional micro patterns for adaptive optics by using laser interference lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinghui; Cai, Yindi; Aihara, Ryo; Shimizu, Yuki; Ito, So; Gao, Wei

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a fabrication method of two-dimensional micro patterns for adaptive optics with a micrometric or sub-micrometric period to be used for fabrication of micro lens array or two-dimensional diffraction gratings. A multibeam two-axis Lloyd's mirror interferometer is employed to carry out laser interference lithography for the fabrication of two-dimensional grating structures. In the proposed instrument, the optical setup consists of a light source providing a laser beam, a multi-beam generator, two plane mirrors to generate a two-dimensional XY interference pattern and a substrate on which the XY interference pattern is to be exposed. In this paper, pattern exposure tests are carried out by the developed optical configuration optimized by computer simulations. Some experimental results of the XY pattern fabrication will be reported.

  1. Noise reduction methods applied to two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) reveal complementary benefits of pre- and post-treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foist, Rod B; Schulze, H Georg; Ivanov, Andre; Turner, Robin F B

    2011-05-01

    Two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) is a powerful spectral analysis technique widely used in many fields of spectroscopy because it can reveal spectral information in complex systems that is not readily evident in the original spectral data alone. However, noise may severely distort the information and thus limit the technique's usefulness. Consequently, noise reduction is often performed before implementing 2D-COS. In general, this is implemented using one-dimensional (1D) methods applied to the individual input spectra, but, because 2D-COS is based on sets of successive spectra and produces 2D outputs, there is also scope for the utilization of 2D noise-reduction methods. Furthermore, 2D noise reduction can be applied either to the original set of spectra before performing 2D-COS ("pretreatment") or on the 2D-COS output ("post-treatment"). Very little work has been done on post-treatment; hence, the relative advantages of these two approaches are unclear. In this work we compare the noise-reduction performance on 2D-COS of pretreatment and post-treatment using 1D (wavelets) and 2D algorithms (wavelets, matrix maximum entropy). The 2D methods generally outperformed the 1D method in pretreatment noise reduction. 2D post-treatment in some cases was superior to pretreatment and, unexpectedly, also provided correlation coefficient maps that were similar to 2D correlation spectroscopy maps but with apparent better contrast.

  2. Two dimensional thermo-optic beam steering using a silicon photonic optical phased array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Rita; Preussner, Marcel W.; Rabinovich, William S.; Goetz, Peter G.; Kozak, Dmitry A.; Ferraro, Mike S.; Murphy, James L.

    2016-03-01

    Components for free space optical communication terminals such as lasers, amplifiers, and receivers have all seen substantial reduction in both size and power consumption over the past several decades. However, pointing systems, such as fast steering mirrors and gimbals, have remained large, slow and power-hungry. Optical phased arrays provide a possible solution for non-mechanical beam steering devices that can be compact and lower in power. Silicon photonics is a promising technology for phased arrays because it has the potential to scale to many elements and may be compatible with CMOS technology thereby enabling batch fabrication. For most free space optical communication applications, two-dimensional beam steering is needed. To date, silicon photonic phased arrays have achieved two-dimensional steering by combining thermo-optic steering, in-plane, with wavelength tuning by means of an output grating to give angular tuning, out-of-plane. While this architecture might work for certain static communication links, it would be difficult to implement for moving platforms. Other approaches have required N2 controls for an NxN element phased array, which leads to complexity. Hence, in this work we demonstrate steering using the thermo-optic effect for both dimensions with a simplified steering mechanism requiring only two control signals, one for each steering dimension.

  3. One- and Two-Dimensional Arrays of Double-Well Optical Traps for Cold Atoms or Molecules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Xian-Ming; YIN Jian-Ping

    2004-01-01

    @@ We propose a novel scheme to form one- and two-dimensional arrays of double-well optical dipole traps for cold atoms (or molecules) by using an optical system composed of a binary π-phase grating and a lens illuminated by a plane light wave, and study the relationship between the maximum intensity Imax of each optical well (or the maximum trapping potential Umax for 85Rb atoms) and the relative apertureβ (= a/f) of the lens. We also calculate the intensity gradients of each optical well and their curvatures, and estimate the spontaneous photon-scattering rate of trapped atom in each well, including Rayleigh and Raman scattering rates. Our study shows that the proposed 1D and 2D arrays of double-well traps can be used to prepare 1D and 2D novel optical lattices with cold atoms (or molecules), or form an all-optically integrated atom optical chip, or even to realize an array of all-optical double-well atomic (or molecular) Bose-Einstein condensates by optical-potential evaporative cooling, and so on.

  4. The two-dimensional optical pattern of a five inch diagonal white organic light emitting diode by rapid rotating measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Henglong; Cheng, Yu-Hen; Chen, Ming-Hong; Lin, Yu-Hsuan

    2016-09-01

    The feasibility of applying a five-inch diagonal white organic light-emitting diode (WOLED) as a desk lamp was experimentally investigated by quantitatively comparing its two-dimensional (2D) optical intensity profile to that of a traditional 3M desk lamp equipped with optical diffuser. The 2D optical distribution patterns as the function of vertical distances to a surface of a five-inch diagonal WOLED were obtained by using rapid rotating measurement technique consisted of a sample holder on a rotational stage and a fixed photo detector with optical power meter. The 2D optical intensity profile on a surface can be rapidly established in a relatively small space by recording the reading from the fixed photo detector as rotating the sample holder. This rapid measurement technique is suitable for practical application in quality engineering without larger space. A WOLED is a compact and thin lighting source with planar device structure without additional optical components. Its optical intensity profile on a plane is expected to be different from traditional lighting sources. The optical distribution pattern of a desk lamp requires a relatively large area on a surface with relatively uniformed intensity distribution. The quantitative analysis of the similarity between WOLED and 3M desk lamp was conducted by comparing the optimal zones defined as the area within 75% of the maximum intensity in 2D optical distribution pattern. Our preliminary result showed that the optimal zone of a five-inch diagonal WOLED at 45cm vertical distance is highly similar to that of the 3M desk lamp with optical diffuser.

  5. Introducing 2D Materials—a new multidisciplinary journal devoted to all aspects of graphene and related two-dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fal'ko, Vladimir I.

    2014-06-01

    On behalf of the Editorial Board and IOP Publishing, I am pleased to announce the opening of 2D Materials. Research on two-dimensional materials, such as graphene, now involves thousands of researchers worldwide cutting across physics, chemistry, engineering and biology, and extending from fundamental science to novel applications. It is this situation which defines the scope and mission of 2D Materials, a new journal that will serve all sides of this multidisciplinary field by publishing urgent research of the highest quality and impact.

  6. Two-dimensional imaging of optical emission in a multicusp-ECR microwave resonant cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, C.B.; Brake, M.L. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    1996-02-01

    Optical emission of the electron-cyclotron resonant (ECR) region of a multicusp microwave resonant cavity plasma source has been imaged onto a two-dimensional charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. The technique provides a real-time diagnostic of the plasma emission around the ECR region within a wavelength region defined by low-bandpass filters.

  7. Recent Advancement on the Optical Properties of Two-Dimensional Molybdenum Disulfide (MoS2 Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxiao Ye

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of two-dimensional (2D materials has led to tremendous interest in the study of graphene and a series of mono- and few-layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs. Among these TMDCs, the study of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2 has gained increasing attention due to its promising optical, electronic, and optoelectronic properties. Of particular interest is the indirect to direct band-gap transition from bulk and few-layered structures to mono-layered MoS2, respectively. In this review, the study of these properties is summarized. The use of Raman and Photoluminescence (PL spectroscopy of MoS2 has become a reliable technique for differentiating the number of molecular layers in 2D MoS2.

  8. Localization of a two-component Bose–Einstein condensate in a two-dimensional bichromatic optical lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi, Kui-Tian, E-mail: kuitianxi@gmail.com; Li, Jinbin, E-mail: jinbin@nuaa.edu.cn; Shi, Da-Ning, E-mail: shi@nuaa.edu.cn

    2014-03-01

    We consider a weakly interacting two-component Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) in a two-dimensional (2D) quasi-periodic bichromatic optical lattice (BOL). The problem is studied by means of split-step Crank–Nicolson method. The effects of weak intra- and inter-component interactions on localization of a two-component BEC are investigated. It is shown that in the quasi-2D regime, due to the enhanced disorder, there is no symmetry breaking like that in the one-dimensional (1D) case under a sine-typed potential, while configurations of density profiles are also quite different from that in the 1D case. By modulating interactions, the interplay of disorder and weak repulsive or attractive interactions is studied in detail. The cases with sine- and cosine-typed potentials acting on components 1 and 2 respectively are also discussed.

  9. Suppression of photothermal convection of microparticles in two dimensional nanoplasmonic optical lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Chung; Yossifon, Gilad; Yang, Ya-Tang

    2016-11-01

    Photothermal convection has been a major obstacle for stable particle trapping in plasmonic optical tweezer at high optical power. Here, we demonstrate a strategy to suppress the plasmonic photothermal convection by using vanishingly small thermal expansion coefficient of water at low temperature. A simple square nanoplasmonic array is illuminated with a loosely Gaussian beam to produce a two dimensional optical lattice for trapping of micro particles. We observe stable particle trapping due to near-field optical gradient forces at elevated optical power at low temperature. In contrast, for the same optical power at room temperature, the particles are convected away from the center of the optical lattice without their accumulation. This technique will greatly increase usable optical power and enhance the trapping capability of plasmonic optical tweezer.

  10. Influence of out-of-plane response on optical properties of two-dimensional materials: First principles approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthes, Lars; Pulci, Olivia; Bechstedt, Friedhelm

    2016-11-01

    The ab initio calculation of optical spectra of sheet crystals usually arranges them in a three-dimensional superlattice with a sufficiently large interlayer distance. We show how the resulting frequency-dependent dielectric tensor is related to the anisotropic optical conductivity of an individual sheet or to the dielectric tensor of a corresponding film with thickness d . Their out-of-plane component is taken into account, in contrast to usual treatments. We demonstrate that the generalized transfer-matrix method to model the optical properties of a layer system containing a sheet crystal accounts for all tensor components. As long as d ≪λ (λ -wavelength of light) this generalized formulation of the optical properties for anisotropic two-dimensional (2D) systems of arbitrary thickness reproduces the limits found in literature that are based either on electromagnetic boundary conditions for a conducting surface or on an isotropic dielectric tensor. For s -polarized light, the results are independent of the sheet description. For oblique incidence of p -polarized light, the tensor nature of the optical conductivity (or the dielectric function) of the sheet crystal strongly impacts on reflectance, transmittance, and absorbance due to the out-of-plane optical conductivity. The limit d →0 should be taken in the final expressions. Example spectra are given for the group-IV honeycomb 2D crystals graphene and silicene.

  11. Optical imaging process based on two-dimensional Fourier transform for synthetic aperture imaging ladar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhiwei; Zhi, Ya'nan; Liu, Liren; Sun, Jianfeng; Zhou, Yu; Hou, Peipei

    2013-09-01

    The synthetic aperture imaging ladar (SAIL) systems typically generate large amounts of data difficult to compress with digital method. This paper presents an optical SAIL processor based on compensation of quadratic phase of echo in azimuth direction and two dimensional Fourier transform. The optical processor mainly consists of one phase-only liquid crystal spatial modulator(LCSLM) to load the phase data of target echo and one cylindrical lens to compensate the quadratic phase and one spherical lens to fulfill the task of two dimensional Fourier transform. We show the imaging processing result of practical target echo obtained by a synthetic aperture imaging ladar demonstrator. The optical processor is compact and lightweight and could provide inherent parallel and the speed-of-light computing capability, it has a promising application future especially in onboard and satellite borne SAIL systems.

  12. Compressive sensing based high-speed time-stretch optical microscopy for two-dimensional image acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qiang; Chen, Hongwei; Weng, Zhiliang; Chen, Minghua; Yang, Sigang; Xie, Shizhong

    2015-11-16

    In this paper, compressive sensing based high-speed time-stretch optical microscopy for two-dimensional (2D) image acquisition is proposed and experimentally demonstrated for the first time. A section of dispersion compensating fiber (DCF) is used to perform wavelength-to-time conversion and then ultrafast spectral shaping of broadband optical pulses can be achieved via high-speed intensity modulation. A 2D spatial disperser comprising a pair of orthogonally oriented dispersers is employed to produce spatially structured illumination for 2D image acquisition and a section of single mode fiber (SMF) is utilized for pulse compression in the optical domain. In our scheme, a 1.2-GHz photodetector and a 50-MHz analog-to-digital converter (ADC) are used to acquire the energy of the compressed pulses. Image reconstructions are demonstrated at a frame rate of 500 kHz and a sixteen-fold image compression is achieved in our proof-of-concept demonstration.

  13. Use of real Dirac matrices in two-dimensional coupled linear optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgarten, C.

    2011-11-01

    The Courant-Snyder theory for two-dimensional coupled linear optics is presented, based on the systematic use of the real representation of the Dirac matrices. Since any real 4×4 matrix can be expressed as a linear combination of these matrices, the presented ansatz allows for a comprehensive and complete treatment of two-dimensional linear coupling. A survey of symplectic transformations in two dimensions is presented. A subset of these transformations is shown to be identical to rotations and Lorentz boosts in Minkowski space-time. The transformation properties of the classical state vector are formulated and found to be analog to those of a Dirac spinor. The equations of motion for a relativistic charged particle—the Lorentz force equations—are shown to be isomorph to envelope equations of two-dimensional linear coupled optics. A universal and straightforward method to decouple two-dimensional harmonic oscillators with constant coefficients by symplectic transformations is presented, which is based on this isomorphism. The method yields the eigenvalues (i.e., tunes) and eigenvectors and can be applied to a one-turn transfer matrix or directly to the coefficient matrix of the linear differential equation.

  14. New Two-dimensional Modified Quadratic Congruence Code/Optical Orthogonal Code for OCDMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dong; QIU Luo-lin; ZHANG Jin-rong; TANG Xian-lun; CAO Chang-xiu

    2007-01-01

    A new family of two-dimensional optical orthogonal code(2-DOOC), namely, modified quadratic congruence code(MQCC )/optical orthogonal code(OOC) is proposed who employs MQCC and OOC as wavelength hopping and time-spreading patterns, respectively. Through analyzing the performance of MQCC/OOC, we can see that the correlation properties of the MQCC/OOC are still ideal. Simultaneously, our analysis shows that the proposed new code families can get more cardinalities than other codes and can improve the bit error rate(BER) of optical code division multiple access(OCDMA) effectively.

  15. Optical matrix for clock distribution and synchronous operation in two-dimensional array devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K. S.; Shu, C.

    1996-06-01

    A scheme to generate an optical matrix from a mode-locked Nd:YAG laser has been theoretically explored and experimentally demonstrated. The matrix consists of highly synchronized and sequentially delayed optical pulses suitable for use with two-dimensional array optoelectronic devices and clock distribution system. The output pulses have the same state of polarization and no timing jitter is produced among the elements. Encoded outputs have been generated from the matrix using a set of photomasks. This technique can be applied to high-speed optical parallel processing.

  16. Two Dimensional Electrostrictive Field Effect Transistor (2D-EFET): A sub-60mV/decade Steep Slope Device with High ON current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Saptarshi

    2016-01-01

    This article proposes a disruptive device concept which meets both low power and high performance criterion for post-CMOS computing and at the same time enables aggressive channel length scaling. This device, hereafter refer to as two-dimensional electrostrictive field effect transistor or 2D-EFET, allows sub-60 mV/decade subthreshold swing and considerably higher ON current compared to any state of the art FETs. Additionally, by the virtue of its ultra-thin body nature and electrostatic integrity, the 2D-EFET enjoys scaling beyond 10 nm technology node. The 2D-EFET works on the principle of voltage induced strain transduction. It uses an electrostrictive material as gate oxide which expands in response to an applied gate bias and thereby transduces an out-of-plane stress on the 2D channel material. This stress reduces the inter-layer distance between the consecutive layers of the semiconducting 2D material and dynamically reduces its bandgap to zero i.e. converts it into a semi-metal. Thus the device operates with a large bandgap in the OFF state and a small or zero bandgap in the ON state. As a consequence of this transduction mechanism, internal voltage amplification takes place which results in sub-60 mV/decade subthreshold swing (SS). PMID:27721489

  17. Two Dimensional Electrostrictive Field Effect Transistor (2D-EFET): A sub-60mV/decade Steep Slope Device with High ON current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Saptarshi

    2016-10-01

    This article proposes a disruptive device concept which meets both low power and high performance criterion for post-CMOS computing and at the same time enables aggressive channel length scaling. This device, hereafter refer to as two-dimensional electrostrictive field effect transistor or 2D-EFET, allows sub-60 mV/decade subthreshold swing and considerably higher ON current compared to any state of the art FETs. Additionally, by the virtue of its ultra-thin body nature and electrostatic integrity, the 2D-EFET enjoys scaling beyond 10 nm technology node. The 2D-EFET works on the principle of voltage induced strain transduction. It uses an electrostrictive material as gate oxide which expands in response to an applied gate bias and thereby transduces an out-of-plane stress on the 2D channel material. This stress reduces the inter-layer distance between the consecutive layers of the semiconducting 2D material and dynamically reduces its bandgap to zero i.e. converts it into a semi-metal. Thus the device operates with a large bandgap in the OFF state and a small or zero bandgap in the ON state. As a consequence of this transduction mechanism, internal voltage amplification takes place which results in sub-60 mV/decade subthreshold swing (SS).

  18. Two-dimensional (2D) infrared correlation study of the structural characterization of a surface immobilized polypeptide film stimulated by pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Boknam; Son, Seok Ho; Kwak, Young Jun; Jung, Young Mee; Lee, Seung Woo

    2016-11-01

    The pH-induced structural changes to surface immobilized poly (L-glutamic acid) (PLGA) films were examined by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and two-dimensional (2D) correlation analysis. Significant spectral changes were observed in the FTIR spectra of the surface immobilized PLGA film between pH 6 and 7. The 2D correlation spectra constructed from the pH-dependent FTIR spectra of the surface immobilized PLGA films revealed the spectral changes induced by the alternations of the protonation state of the carboxylic acid group in the PLGA side chain. When the pH was increased from 6 to 8, weak spectral changes in the secondary structure of the PLGA main chain were induced by deprotonation of the carboxylic acid side group.

  19. Computation and validation of two-dimensional PSF simulation based on physical optics

    CERN Document Server

    Tayabaly, K; Sironi, G; Canestrari, R; Lavagna, M; Pareschi, G

    2016-01-01

    The Point Spread Function (PSF) is a key figure of merit for specifying the angular resolution of optical systems and, as the demand for higher and higher angular resolution increases, the problem of surface finishing must be taken seriously even in optical telescopes. From the optical design of the instrument, reliable ray-tracing routines allow computing and display of the PSF based on geometrical optics. However, such an approach does not directly account for the scattering caused by surface microroughness, which is interferential in nature. Although the scattering effect can be separately modeled, its inclusion in the ray-tracing routine requires assumptions that are difficult to verify. In that context, a purely physical optics approach is more appropriate as it remains valid regardless of the shape and size of the defects appearing on the optical surface. Such a computation, when performed in two-dimensional consideration, is memory and time consuming because it requires one to process a surface map wit...

  20. Multi-channel laser Doppler velocimetry using a two-dimensional optical fiber array for obtaining instantaneous velocity distribution characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyoden, Tomoaki; Yasue, Youichi; Ishida, Hiroki; Akiguchi, Shunsuke; Andoh, Tsugunobu; Takada, Yogo; Teranishi, Tsunenobu; Hachiga, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    A laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) has been developed that is capable of performing two-dimensional (2D) cross-sectional measurements. It employs two horizontal laser light sheets that intersect at an angle of 13.3°. Since the intersection region is thin, it can be used to approximately determine the 2D flow field. An 8 × 8 array of optical fibers is used to simultaneously measure Doppler frequencies at 64 points. Experiments were conducted to assess the performance of the LDV, and it was found to be capable of obtaining spatial and temporal velocity information at multiple points in a flow field. The technique is fast, noninvasive, and accurate over long sampling periods. Furthermore, its applicability to an actual flow field was confirmed by measuring the temporal velocity distribution of a pulsatile flow in a rectangular flow channel with an obstruction. The proposed device is thus a useful, compact optical instrument for conducting simultaneous 2D cross-sectional multipoint measurements.

  1. Generalized two-dimensional (2D) linear system analysis metrics (GMTF, GDQE) for digital radiography systems including the effect of focal spot, magnification, scatter, and detector characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhls-Gilcrist, Andrew T.; Gupta, Sandesh K.; Bednarek, Daniel R.; Rudin, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The MTF, NNPS, and DQE are standard linear system metrics used to characterize intrinsic detector performance. To evaluate total system performance for actual clinical conditions, generalized linear system metrics (GMTF, GNNPS and GDQE) that include the effect of the focal spot distribution, scattered radiation, and geometric unsharpness are more meaningful and appropriate. In this study, a two-dimensional (2D) generalized linear system analysis was carried out for a standard flat panel detector (FPD) (194-micron pixel pitch and 600-micron thick CsI) and a newly-developed, high-resolution, micro-angiographic fluoroscope (MAF) (35-micron pixel pitch and 300-micron thick CsI). Realistic clinical parameters and x-ray spectra were used. The 2D detector MTFs were calculated using the new Noise Response method and slanted edge method and 2D focal spot distribution measurements were done using a pin-hole assembly. The scatter fraction, generated for a uniform head equivalent phantom, was measured and the scatter MTF was simulated with a theoretical model. Different magnifications and scatter fractions were used to estimate the 2D GMTF, GNNPS and GDQE for both detectors. Results show spatial non-isotropy for the 2D generalized metrics which provide a quantitative description of the performance of the complete imaging system for both detectors. This generalized analysis demonstrated that the MAF and FPD have similar capabilities at lower spatial frequencies, but that the MAF has superior performance over the FPD at higher frequencies even when considering focal spot blurring and scatter. This 2D generalized performance analysis is a valuable tool to evaluate total system capabilities and to enable optimized design for specific imaging tasks. PMID:21243038

  2. A two-dimensionally focusing, quasi-optical antenna for millimeter-wave scattering in plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idehara, T.; Tatsukawa, T. (Faculty of Engineering, Fukui University, Fukui 910, Japan (JP)); Brand, G.F.; Fekete, P.W.; Moore, K.J. (School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia))

    1990-06-01

    A two-dimensionally focusing, quasi-optical antenna having one elliptical reflector and one parabolic reflector has been built for use with a tunable gyrotron in order to carry out millimeter-wave scattering measurements on the TORTUS tokamak plasma at the University of Sydney. The advantages of this antenna are the following: (1) The elliptical reflector focuses the radiation beam in the toroidal direction, while the parabolic reflector focuses in the direction of major radius. This gives excellent two-dimensional focusing in the plasma region, and consequently excellent spatial resolution. (2) The focal point can be easily swept along the direction of major radius in the whole plasma region, simply by changing the angle of the parabolic reflector by a small amount. These features have been demonstrated experimentally using the tunable gyrotron source, GYROTRON III, and in computations of the radiated fields.

  3. Two-dimensional dissipative rogue waves due to time-delayed feedback in cavity nonlinear optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlidi, Mustapha; Panajotov, Krassimir

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate a way to generate two-dimensional rogue waves in two types of broad area nonlinear optical systems subject to time-delayed feedback: in the generic Lugiato-Lefever model and in the model of a broad-area surface-emitting laser with saturable absorber. The delayed feedback is found to induce a spontaneous formation of rogue waves. In the absence of delayed feedback, spatial pulses are stationary. The rogue waves are exited and controlled by the delay feedback. We characterize their formation by computing the probability distribution of the pulse height. The long-tailed statistical contribution, which is often considered as a signature of the presence of rogue waves, appears for sufficiently strong feedback. The generality of our analysis suggests that the feedback induced instability leading to the spontaneous formation of two-dimensional rogue waves is a universal phenomenon.

  4. New two-dimensional boron nitride allotropes with attractive electronic and optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrokhi, Masoud; Mortazavi, Bohayra; Berdiyorov, Golibjon R.

    2017-03-01

    Using first principles calculations, structural, electronic and optical properties of five new 2D boron nitride (BN) allotropes have been studied. The results exhibit that the cohesive energy for all these five new allotrope is positive such as all these systems are stable; therefore, it is possible to synthesize these structures in experiments. It is found that the band gap of all new 2D BN allotropes is smaller than the h-BN sheet. In our calculations the dielectric tensor is derived within the random phase approximation (RPA). Specifically, the dielectric function, refraction index and the loss function, of the 2D BN allotropes are calculated for both parallel and perpendicular electric field polarizations. The results show that the optical spectra are anisotropic along these two polarizations. The results obtained from our calculations are beneficial to practical applications of these 2D BN allotropes in optoelectronics and electronics.

  5. The longitudinal optical conductivity in bilayer graphene and other two-dimensional systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, C.H., E-mail: chyang@nuist.edu.cn [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Ao, Z.M., E-mail: zhimin.ao@uts.edu.au [Centre for Clean Energy Technology, School of Chemistry and Forensic Science, University of Technology, Sydney ,PO Box 123, Broadway, Sydney, NSW 2007 (Australia); Wei, X.F. [West Anhui University, Luan 237012 (China); Jiang, J.J. [Department of Physics, Sanjing College, Nanjing 210012 (China)

    2015-01-15

    The longitudinal optical conductivity in bilayer graphene is calculated using the dielectric function by defining the density operator theoretically, while the effect of the broadening width determined by the scattering sources on the optical conductivity is also investigated. Some features, such as chirality, energy dispersion and density of state (DOS) in bilayer graphene, are similar to those in monolayer graphene and a traditional two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG). Therefore, in this paper, the bilayer graphene optical conductivity is compared with the results in these two systems. The analytical and numerical results show that the optical conductivity per graphene layer is almost a constant and close to e{sup 2}/(4ℏ), which agrees with the experimental results.

  6. Digital optical phase conjugation for delivering two-dimensional images through turbid media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Timothy R; Yamauchi, Toyohiko; Choi, Wonshik; Dasari, Ramachandra R; Feld, Michael S; Park, YongKeun; Yaqoob, Zahid

    2013-01-01

    Optical transmission through complex media such as biological tissue is fundamentally limited by multiple light scattering. Precise control of the optical wavefield potentially holds the key to advancing a broad range of light-based techniques and applications for imaging or optical delivery. We present a simple and robust digital optical phase conjugation (DOPC) implementation for suppressing multiple light scattering. Utilizing wavefront shaping via a spatial light modulator (SLM), we demonstrate its turbidity-suppression capability by reconstructing the image of a complex two-dimensional wide-field target through a highly scattering medium. Employing an interferometer with a Sagnac-like ring design, we successfully overcome the challenging alignment and wavefront-matching constraints in DOPC, reflecting the requirement that the forward- and reverse-propagation paths through the turbid medium be identical. By measuring the output response to digital distortion of the SLM write pattern, we validate the sub-wavelength sensitivity of the system.

  7. A two dimensional optical input to one dimensional serial pulse transformation using confocal reflectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulse, George

    2014-01-01

    An optical approach using confocal parabolic reflectors is used to transform 2D input data based on spatial position to a 1D sequenced serial string. The optical input data are set up as a 2D array. Individual channels are established between the input array and the final output detector, which reads the data as a time based serial data. The transformation is achieved by changing the optical path length associated with each pixel and its channel to the output detector. The 2D data can be images or individual sources but the light must be parallel. This paper defines how to establish the channels and the calculations required to achieve the desired transformation.

  8. Two-dimensional refractive index modulation by phased array transducers in acousto-optic deflectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tiansi; Zhang, Chong; Aleksov, Aleksandar; Salama, Islam; Kar, Aravinda

    2017-01-20

    Acousto-optic deflectors are photonic devices that are used for scanning high-power laser beams in advanced microprocessing applications such as marking and direct writing. The operation of conventional deflectors mostly relies on one-dimensional sinusoidal variation of the refractive index in an acousto-optic medium. Sometimes static phased array transducers, such as step configuration or planar configuration transducer architecture, are used to tilt the index modulation planes for achieving higher performance and higher resolution than a single transducer AO device. However, the index can be modulated in two dimensions, and the modulation plane can be tilted arbitrarily by creating dynamic phase gratings in the medium using phased array transducers. This type of dynamic two-dimensional acousto-optic deflector can provide better performance using, for example, a large deflection angle and high diffraction efficiency. This paper utilizes an ultrasonic beam steering approach to study the two-dimensional strain-induced index modulation due to the photoelastic effect. The modulation is numerically simulated, and the effects of various parameters, such as the operating radiofrequency of the transducers, the ultrasonic beam steering angle, and different combinations of pressure on each element of the transducer array, are demonstrated.

  9. Test of a two-dimensionally focusing quasi-optical antenna using a gyrotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idehara, T.; Tatsukawa, T.; Brand, G.F.; Fekete, P.W.; Moore, K.J.

    1989-05-01

    A quasi-optical antenna having one elliptical reflector and one parabolic reflector has been built for millimeter wave scattering measurements on the TORTUS tokamak plasma at the University of Sydney. This letter reports the first demonstration of the properties of such an antenna using a gyrotron millimeter wave source. Its advantages are (1) good two-dimensional focusing (along the major radius and the toroidal directions) and (2) easy movement of the focus across the diameter of the plasma by changing the orientation of the parabolic reflector.

  10. Fundamental and vortex solitons in a two-dimensional optical lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, J; Yang, Jianke; Musslimani, Ziad

    2003-01-01

    Fundamental and vortex solitons in a two-dimensional optically induced waveguide array are reported. In the strong localization regime, the fundamental soliton is largely confined to one lattice site, while the vortex state comprises of four fundamental modes superimposed in a square configuration with a phase structure that is topologically equivalent to the conventional vortex. However, in the weak localization regime, both the fundamental and vortex solitons spread over many lattice sites. We further show that fundamental and vortex solitons are stable against small perturbations in the strong localization regime.

  11. Optical gaps, mode patterns and dipole radiation in two-dimensional aperiodic photonic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boriskina, Svetlana V.; Gopinath, Ashwin; Negro, Luca Dal

    2009-05-01

    Based on the rigorous generalized Mie theory solution of Maxwell's equations for dielectric cylinders we theoretically investigate the optical properties of two-dimensional deterministic structures based on the Fibonacci, Thue-Morse and Rudin-Shapiro aperiodic sequences. In particular, we investigate bandgap formation and mode localization properties in aperiodic photonic structures based on the accurate calculation of their local density of states (LDOS). In addition, we explore the potential of photonic structures based on aperiodic order for the engineering of radiative rates and emission patterns in erbium-doped silicon-rich nitride photonic structures.

  12. Phase Transition and Superfluid of Photons and Photon Pairs in a Two-Dimensional Optical Microcavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian-Jun; YUAN Jian-Hui; ZHANG Jun-Pei; CHENG Ze

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the ground-state properties and the excitation spectrum of Bose Einstein condensates of photons and PPs in a two-dimensional optical microcavity. First, using the variational method, we discuss the ground- state phase transition of the two-component system. We also investigate the energy gap between the ground state and the first excited state. Moreover, by investigating the excitation spectrum, we also illustrate how the superfluid behavior of photons and PPs can be associated with the phase transition of the system.

  13. An Optical Power Divider Based on Two-dimensional Photonic Crystal Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesri, Nazanin; Alipour-Banaei, Hamed

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, an optical power divider with one input and four outputs has been proposed in a two-dimensional photonic crystal with triangular lattice and simulated using dielectric holes in an air substrate. The dividing properties of the power divider have been numerically simulated and analyzed using the plane wave expansion and finite difference time domain methods. The results show that the transmittance of this divider can be as high as 94.22 % for λ=1.55 µm; thus, the proposed structure is suitable for wavelength division multiplexing communication systems. Also, due to the small footprint of the proposed structure, this optical power divider is applicable for optical-integrated circuit design.

  14. Two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) variable selection for near-infrared microscopy discrimination of meat and bone meal in compound feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Chengxu; Chen, Longjian; Yang, Zengling; Liu, Xian; Han, Lujia

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a novel method for combining auto-peak and cross-peak information for sensitive variable selection in synchronous two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS). This variable selection method is then applied to the case of near-infrared (NIR) microscopy discrimination of meat and bone meal (MBM). This is of important practical value because MBM is currently banned in ruminate animal compound feed. For the 2D-COS analysis, a set of NIR spectroscopy data of compound feed samples (adulterated with varying concentrations of MBM) was pretreated using standard normal variate and detrending (SNVD) and then mapped to the 2D-COS synchronous matrix. For the auto-peak analysis, 12 main sensitive variables were identified at 6852, 6388, 6320, 5788, 5600, 5244, 4900, 4768, 4572, 4336, 4256, and 4192 cm(-1). All these variables were assigned their specific spectral structure and chemical component. For the cross-peak analysis, these variables were divided into two groups, each group containing the six sensitive variables. This grouping resulted in a correlation between the spectral variables that was in accordance with the chemical-component content of the MBM and compound feed. These sensitive variables were then used to build a NIR microscopy discrimination model, which yielded a 97% correct classification. Moreover, this method detected the presence of MBM when its concentration was less than 1% in an adulterated compound feed sample. The concentration-dependent 2D-COS-based variable selection method developed in this study has the unique advantages of (1) introducing an interpretive aspect into variable selection, (2) substantially reducing the complexity of the computations, (3) enabling the transferability of the results to discriminant analysis, and (4) enabling the efficient compression of spectral data.

  15. Mapping the optical properties of slab-type two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Dulkeith, E; Vlasov, Y A; Dulkeith, Eric; Nab, Sharee J. Mc; Vlasov, Yurii A.

    2005-01-01

    We report on systematic experimental mapping of the transmission properties of two-dimensional silicon-on-insulator photonic crystal waveguides for a broad range of hole radii, slab thicknesses and waveguide lengths for both TE and TM polarizations. Detailed analysis of numerous spectral features allows a direct comparison of experimental data with 3D plane wave and finite-difference time-domain calculations. We find, counter-intuitively, that the bandwidth for low-loss propagation completely vanishes for structural parameters where the photonic band gap is maximized. Our results demonstrate that, in order to maximize the bandwidth of low-loss waveguiding, the hole radius must be significantly reduced. While the photonic band gap considerably narrows, the bandwidth of low-loss propagation in PhC waveguides is increased up to 125nm with losses as low as 8$\\pm$2dB/cm.

  16. Two-dimensional optical correlation spectroscopy applied to liquid/glass dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazonder, Kees; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.; Wiersma, Douwe A.; Corkum, Paul; Jonas, David M.; Miller, R.J. Dwayne.; Weiner, Andrew M.

    2007-01-01

    Correlation spectroscopy was used to study the effects of temperature and phase changes on liquid and glass solvent dynamics. By assessing the eccentricity of the elliptic shape of a 2D optical correlation spectrum the value of the underlying frequency-frequency correlation function can be retrieved

  17. Chemical profiling and adulteration screening of Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Lei; Chen, Jian-Bo; Zhang, Gui-Jun; Sun, Su-Qin; Zheng, Jing

    2017-03-05

    As a kind of expensive perfume and valuable herb, Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum (ALR) is often adulterated for economic motivations. In this research, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy is employed to establish a simple and quick method for the adulteration screening of ALR. First, the principal chemical constituents of ALR are characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy at room temperature and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy with thermal perturbation. Besides the common cellulose and lignin compounds, a certain amount of resin is the characteristic constituent of ALR. Synchronous and asynchronous 2D-IR spectra indicate that the resin (an unstable secondary metabolite) is more sensitive than cellulose and lignin (stable structural constituents) to the thermal perturbation. Using a certified ALR sample as the reference, the infrared spectral correlation threshold is determined by 30 authentic samples and 6 adulterated samples. The spectral correlation coefficient of an authentic ALR sample to the standard reference should be not less than 0.9886 (p=0.01). Three commercial adulterated ALR samples are identified by the correlation threshold. Further interpretation of the infrared spectra of the adulterated samples indicates the common adulterating methods - counterfeiting with other kind of wood, adding ingredient such as sand to increase the weight, and adding the cheap resin such as rosin to increase the content of resin compounds. Results of this research prove that FT-IR spectroscopy can be used as a simple and accurate quality control method of ALR.

  18. Near-infrared (NIR) imaging analysis of polylactic acid (PLA) nanocomposite by multiple-perturbation two-dimensional (2D) correlation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinzawa, Hideyuki; Murakami, Takurou N.; Nishida, Masakazu; Kanematsu, Wataru; Noda, Isao

    2014-07-01

    Multiple-perturbation two-dimensional (2D) correlation spectroscopy was applied to sets of near-infrared (NIR) imaging data of polylactic acid (PLA) nanocomposite samples undergoing UV degradation. Incorporation of clay nanoparticles substantially lowers the surface free energy barrier for the nucleation of PLA and eventually increases the frequency of the spontaneous nucleation of PLA crystals. Thus, when exposed to external stimuli such as UV light, PLA nanocomposite may show different structure alternation depending on the clay dispersion. Multiple-perturbation 2D correlation analysis of the PLA nanocomposite samples revealed different spatial variation between crystalline and amorphous structure of PLA, and the phenomenon especially becomes acute in the region where the clay particles are coagulated. The incorporation of the clay leads to the cleavage-induced crystallization of PLA when the sample is subjected to the UV light. The additional development of the ordered crystalline structure then works favorably to restrict the initial degradation of the polymer, providing the delay in the weight loss of the PLA.

  19. Chemical profiling and adulteration screening of Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Lei; Chen, Jian-bo; Zhang, Gui-Jun; Sun, Su-qin; Zheng, Jing

    2017-03-01

    As a kind of expensive perfume and valuable herb, Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum (ALR) is often adulterated for economic motivations. In this research, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy is employed to establish a simple and quick method for the adulteration screening of ALR. First, the principal chemical constituents of ALR are characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy at room temperature and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy with thermal perturbation. Besides the common cellulose and lignin compounds, a certain amount of resin is the characteristic constituent of ALR. Synchronous and asynchronous 2D-IR spectra indicate that the resin (an unstable secondary metabolite) is more sensitive than cellulose and lignin (stable structural constituents) to the thermal perturbation. Using a certified ALR sample as the reference, the infrared spectral correlation threshold is determined by 30 authentic samples and 6 adulterated samples. The spectral correlation coefficient of an authentic ALR sample to the standard reference should be not less than 0.9886 (p = 0.01). Three commercial adulterated ALR samples are identified by the correlation threshold. Further interpretation of the infrared spectra of the adulterated samples indicates the common adulterating methods - counterfeiting with other kind of wood, adding ingredient such as sand to increase the weight, and adding the cheap resin such as rosin to increase the content of resin compounds. Results of this research prove that FT-IR spectroscopy can be used as a simple and accurate quality control method of ALR.

  20. Effects on the Thermo-Mechanical and Crystallinity Properties of Nylon 6,6 Electrospun Fibres Reinforced with One Dimensional (1D and Two Dimensional (2D Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Medellín-Rodríguez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Electrospun one dimensional (1D and two dimensional (2D carbon based polymer nanocomposites are studied in order to determine the effect provided by the two differently structured nanofillers on crystallinity and thermo-mechanical properties of the nanofibres. The nanomaterials studied are pristine carbon nanotubes, oxidised carbon nanotubes, reduced graphene oxide and graphene oxide. Functional groups associated with the order structure of the polymers are analysed by infrared and Raman spectroscopies; the morphology is studied by scanning electron microscopy and the crystallinity properties are investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. Differences in crystallisation behaviour between 1D and 2D carbon based nanofibres are shown by their crystallinity degree and their crystal sizes. The nanocomposite crystal sizes perpendicular to the plane (100 decrease with nanofiller content in all cases. The crystallinity trend and crystal sizes are in accordance with storage modulus response. The results also suggest that functionalisation favours interfacial bonding and dispersion of the nanomaterials within the polymer matrix. As a consequence the number of nucleating sites increases which in turn decreases the crystal size in the nanocomposites. These features explain the improved thermo-mechanical properties in the nanocomposites.

  1. Bound states in optical absorption of semiconductor quantum wells containing a two-dimensional electron Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huard; Cox; Saminadayar; Arnoult; Tatarenko

    2000-01-01

    The dependence of the optical absorption spectrum of a semiconductor quantum well on two-dimensional electron concentration n(e) is studied using CdTe samples. The trion peak (X-) seen at low n(e) evolves smoothly into the Fermi edge singularity at high n(e). The exciton peak (X) moves off to high energy, weakens, and disappears. The X,X- splitting is linear in n(e) and closely equal to the Fermi energy plus the trion binding energy. For Cd0.998Mn0.002Te quantum wells in a magnetic field, the X,X- splitting reflects unequal Fermi energies for M = +/-1/2 electrons. The data are explained by Hawrylak's theory of the many-body optical response including spin effects.

  2. Frequency-domain nonlinear optics in two-dimensionally patterned quasi-phase-matching media

    CERN Document Server

    Phillips, C R; Gallmann, L; Keller, U

    2015-01-01

    Advances in the amplification and manipulation of ultrashort laser pulses has led to revolutions in several areas. Examples include chirped pulse amplification for generating high peak-power lasers, power-scalable amplification techniques, pulse shaping via modulation of spatially-dispersed laser pulses, and efficient frequency-mixing in quasi-phase-matched nonlinear crystals to access new spectral regions. In this work, we introduce and demonstrate a new platform for nonlinear optics which has the potential to combine all of these separate functionalities (pulse amplification, frequency transfer, and pulse shaping) into a single monolithic device. Moreover, our approach simultaneously offers solutions to the performance-limiting issues in the conventionally-used techniques, and supports scaling in power and bandwidth of the laser source. The approach is based on two-dimensional patterning of quasi-phase-matching gratings combined with optical parametric interactions involving spatially dispersed laser pulses...

  3. Theory of edge-state optical absorption in two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide flakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trushin, Maxim; Kelleher, Edmund J. R.; Hasan, Tawfique

    2016-10-01

    We develop an analytical model to describe sub-band-gap optical absorption in two-dimensional semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenide (s-TMD) nanoflakes. The material system represents an array of few-layer molybdenum disulfide crystals, randomly orientated in a polymer matrix. We propose that optical absorption involves direct transitions between electronic edge states and bulk bands, depends strongly on the carrier population, and is saturable with sufficient fluence. For excitation energies above half the band gap, the excess energy is absorbed by the edge-state electrons, elevating their effective temperature. Our analytical expressions for the linear and nonlinear absorption could prove useful tools in the design of practical photonic devices based on s-TMDs.

  4. Digital chaos-masked optical encryption scheme enhanced by two-dimensional key space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ling; Xiao, Shilin; Zhang, Lu; Bi, Meihua; Zhang, Yunhao; Fang, Jiafei; Hu, Weisheng

    2017-09-01

    A digital chaos-masked optical encryption scheme is proposed and demonstrated. The transmitted signal is completely masked by interference chaotic noise in both bandwidth and amplitude with analog method via dual-drive Mach-Zehnder modulator (DDMZM), making the encrypted signal analog, noise-like and unrecoverable by post-processing techniques. The decryption process requires precise matches of both the amplitude and phase between the cancellation and interference chaotic noises, which provide a large two-dimensional key space with the help of optical interference cancellation technology. For 10-Gb/s 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signal over the maximum transmission distance of 80 km without dispersion compensation or inline amplifier, the tolerable mismatch ranges of amplitude and phase/delay at the forward error correction (FEC) threshold of 3.8×10-3 are 0.44 dB and 0.08 ns respectively.

  5. Tunable two dimensional optical beam steering with reconfigurable indium tin oxide plasmonic reflectarray metasurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forouzmand, A.; Mosallaei, H.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, an electrically tunable reflectarray metasurface for two dimensional (2D) beam steering is designed by integration of a thin layer of indium tin oxide (ITO) material into a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) plasmonic unit-cell. The reflectarray is composed of square-shaped patch nanoantennas placed on a stack of insulator-ITO-metallic ground plane. The resonant characteristic of unit-cell and the accumulation of carrier density at the interface of ITO-insulator play key roles in obtaining over 250° of phase agility at around 218 terahertz (THz), by electrically varying the bias voltage. An array of unit-cells with integrated ITO and 2D voltage biasing distribution (from the side) offer the possibility of designing a reconfigurable antenna in which the main beam can be steered to relatively large angles in both θ- and φ- planes at carefully selected operating frequency. The significant advantage of this design is the dynamically adjustable radiation pattern in both azimuth and elevation planes even after fabrication.

  6. Theory of tailorable optical response of two-dimensional arrays of plasmonic nanoparticles at dielectric interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikdar, Debabrata; Kornyshev, Alexei A.

    2016-01-01

    Two-dimensional arrays of plasmonic nanoparticles at interfaces are promising candidates for novel optical metamaterials. Such systems materialise from ‘top–down’ patterning or ‘bottom–up’ self-assembly of nanoparticles at liquid/liquid or liquid/solid interfaces. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of an extended effective quasi-static four-layer-stack model for the description of plasmon-resonance-enhanced optical responses of such systems. We investigate in detail the effects of the size of nanoparticles, average interparticle separation, dielectric constants of the media constituting the interface, and the nanoparticle position relative to the interface. Interesting interplays of these different factors are explored first for normally incident light. For off-normal incidence, the strong effects of the polarisation of light are found at large incident angles, which allows to dynamically tune the reflectance spectra. All the predictions of the theory are tested against full-wave simulations, proving this simplistic model to be adequate within the quasi-static limit. The model takes seconds to calculate the system’s optical response and makes it easy to unravel the effect of each system parameter. This helps rapid rationalization of experimental data and understanding of the optical signals from these novel ‘metamaterials’, optimised for light reflection or harvesting. PMID:27652788

  7. High-Resolution Two-Dimensional Optical Spectroscopy of Electron Spins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salewski, M.; Poltavtsev, S. V.; Yugova, I. A.; Karczewski, G.; Wiater, M.; Wojtowicz, T.; Yakovlev, D. R.; Akimov, I. A.; Meier, T.; Bayer, M.

    2017-07-01

    Multidimensional coherent optical spectroscopy is one of the most powerful tools for investigating complex quantum mechanical systems. While it was conceived decades ago in magnetic resonance spectroscopy using microwaves and radio waves, it has recently been extended into the visible and UV spectral range. However, resolving MHz energy splittings with ultrashort laser pulses still remains a challenge. Here, we analyze two-dimensional Fourier spectra for resonant optical excitation of resident electrons to localized trions or donor-bound excitons in semiconductor nanostructures subject to a transverse magnetic field. Particular attention is devoted to Raman coherence spectra, which allow one to accurately evaluate tiny splittings of the electron ground state and to determine the relaxation times in the electron spin ensemble. A stimulated steplike Raman process induced by a sequence of two laser pulses creates a coherent superposition of the ground-state doublet which can be retrieved only optically because of selective excitation of the same subensemble with a third pulse. This provides the unique opportunity to distinguish between different complexes that are closely spaced in energy in an ensemble. The related experimental demonstration is based on photon-echo measurements in an n -type CdTe /(Cd ,Mg )Te quantum-well structure detected by a heterodyne technique. The difference in the sub-μ eV range between the Zeeman splittings of donor-bound electrons and electrons localized at potential fluctuations can be resolved even though the homogeneous linewidth of the optical transitions is larger by 2 orders of magnitude.

  8. Two-dimensional refractive index and birefringence profiles of a graded index bent optical fibre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, W. A.; Wahba, H. H.; Shams El-Din, M. A.

    2017-07-01

    A theory to recover refractive index profile of the bent graded index (GRIN) optical fibre, in core region, is proposed. This theory is applied to the bent GRIN optical fibre when it is located orthogonal in the light path of the object arm in digital holographic phase shifting interferometer; like Mach-Zehnder interferometer. In the experiment, the fibre is bent with two different bending radii and fixed on a microscope slide keeping it immersed in matching liquid. The produced phase shifted holograms, with the presence of the fibre, are recorded using an attached CCD camera. Two different processes controlling the index profile shape of the bent GRIN optical fibre are assumed. In the first process, a linear index variation is evolved from stresses in the direction of the bent radius. In the second one, there is a release of these stresses near the fibre surface, which depends on the fibre's radius. This will affect the outer free surface of the cladding. Based on these assumptions, we are able to construct the index profile in two dimensions normal to the optical axis. We propose two functions to describe the refractive index profiles in cladding and the core regions of the bent GRIN optical fibre. The recorded phase shifted holograms are combined, reconstructed and analyzed to get the phase map of the bent GRIN optical fibre. Comparing the extracted optical phase differences with the calculated ones, a good agreement between them is found. This means that the used two dimensional proposed functions, which are describing cladding and the core indices profiles, are the most proper in this situation. Thus, we are able to determine a realistic induced birefringence profile inside the fibre which is generated by a bending operation, not only in the cladding but also in graded index core region as well.

  9. Fiber-optic interferometric two-dimensional scattering-measurement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yizheng; Giacomelli, Michael G; Wax, Adam

    2010-05-15

    We present a fiber-optic interferometric system for measuring depth-resolved scattering in two angular dimensions using Fourier-domain low-coherence interferometry. The system is a unique hybrid of the Michelson and Sagnac interferometer topologies. The collection arm of the interferometer is scanned in two dimensions to detect angular scattering from the sample, which can then be analyzed to determine the structure of the scatterers. A key feature of the system is the full control of polarization of both the illumination and the collection fields, allowing for polarization-sensitive detection, which is essential for two-dimensional angular measurements. System performance is demonstrated using a double-layer microsphere phantom. Experimental data from samples with different sizes and acquired with different polarizations show excellent agreement with Mie theory, producing structural measurements with subwavelength accuracy.

  10. Development of a novel two dimensional surface plasmon resonance sensor using multiplied beam splitting optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmi, Akihide; Mizumura, Ryosuke; Kawanishi, Ryuta; Nakajima, Hizuru; Zeng, Hulie; Uchiyama, Katsumi; Kaneki, Noriaki; Imato, Toshihiko

    2013-01-08

    A novel two dimensional surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor system with a multi-point sensing region is described. The use of multiplied beam splitting optics, as a core technology, permitted multi-point sensing to be achieved. This system was capable of simultaneously measuring nine sensing points. Calibration curves for sucrose obtained on nine sensing points were linear in the range of 0-10% with a correlation factor of 0.996-0.998 with a relative standard deviation of 0.090-4.0%. The detection limits defined as S/N = 3 were 1.98 × 10(-6) - 3.91 × 10(-5) RIU. This sensitivity is comparable to that of conventional SPR sensors.

  11. Development of a Novel Two Dimensional Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensor Using Multiplied Beam Splitting Optics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihide Hemmi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel two dimensional surface plasmon resonance (SPR sensor system with a multi-point sensing region is described. The use of multiplied beam splitting optics, as a core technology, permitted multi-point sensing to be achieved. This system was capable of simultaneously measuring nine sensing points. Calibration curves for sucrose obtained on nine sensing points were linear in the range of 0–10% with a correlation factor of 0.996–0.998 with a relative standard deviation of 0.090–4.0%. The detection limits defined as S/N = 3 were 1.98 × 10−6–3.91 × 10−5 RIU. This sensitivity is comparable to that of conventional SPR sensors.

  12. Two-dimensional discrete wavelets transform for optical phase extraction: application on speckle correlation fringes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghlaifan, Abdulatef; Tounsi, Yassine; Zada, Sara; Muhire, Desire; Nassim, Abdelkrim

    2016-12-01

    A method for optical phase extraction based on two-dimensional discrete wavelets transform (2-DWT) decomposition is shown. From modulated fringe pattern, phase distribution is extracted by the ratio between detail and approximation. Modulation process is realized digitally by introducing high-frequency spatial carrier, and this process needs two π/2-shifted fringe patterns. We propose to use only single fringe and generate its quadrature by spiral phase transform (SPT). After validation by computer simulation, we apply the 2-DWT algorithm on experimental speckle fringe correlation taken for hard disk surface. The extracted phase using SPT quadrature was compared with that given using this time experimental quadrature, and we show a good performance by multiscale structural similarity metric.

  13. Pair formation in Fermi systems with population imbalance in one- and two-dimensional optical lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batrouni, George

    2011-03-01

    I will discuss pairing in fermionic systems in one- and two-dimensional optical lattices with population imbalance. This will be done in the context of the attractive fermionic Hubbard model using the Stochastic Green Function algorithm in d=1 while for d=2 we use Determinant Quantum Monte Carlo. This is the first exact QMC study examining the effects of finite temperature which is very important in experiments on ultra-cold atoms. Our results show that, in the ground state, the dominant pairing mechanism is at nonzero center of mass momentum, i.e. FFLO. I will then discuss the effect of finite temperature in the uniform and confined systems and present finite temperature phase diagrams. The numerical results will be compared with experiments. With M. J. Wolak (CQT, National University of Singapore) and V. G. Rousseau (Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University).

  14. Resonant state expansion applied to two-dimensional open optical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Doost, M B; Muljarov, E A

    2013-01-01

    The resonant state expansion (RSE), a rigorous perturbative method in electrodynamics, is applied to two-dimensional open optical systems. The analytically solvable homogeneous dielectric cylinder is used as unperturbed system, and its Green's function is shown to contain a cut in the complex frequency plane, which is included in the RSE basis. The complex eigenfrequencies of modes are calculated using the RSE for a selection of perturbations which mix unperturbed modes of different orbital momentum, such as half-cylinder, thin-film and thin-wire perturbation, demonstrating the accuracy and convergency of the method. The resonant states for the thin-wire perturbation are shown to reproduce an approximative analytical solution.

  15. Haptic-2D: A new haptic test battery assessing the tactual abilities of sighted and visually impaired children and adolescents with two-dimensional raised materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazella, Anaïs; Albaret, Jean-Michel; Picard, Delphine

    2016-01-01

    To fill an important gap in the psychometric assessment of children and adolescents with impaired vision, we designed a new battery of haptic tests, called Haptic-2D, for visually impaired and sighted individuals aged five to 18 years. Unlike existing batteries, ours uses only two-dimensional raised materials that participants explore using active touch. It is composed of 11 haptic tests, measuring scanning skills, tactile discrimination skills, spatial comprehension skills, short-term tactile memory, and comprehension of tactile pictures. We administered this battery to 138 participants, half of whom were sighted (n=69), and half visually impaired (blind, n=16; low vision, n=53). Results indicated a significant main effect of age on haptic scores, but no main effect of vision or Age × Vision interaction effect. Reliability of test items was satisfactory (Cronbach's alpha, α=0.51-0.84). Convergent validity was good, as shown by a significant correlation (age partialled out) between total haptic scores and scores on the B101 test (rp=0.51, n=47). Discriminant validity was also satisfactory, as attested by a lower but still significant partial correlation between total haptic scores and the raw score on the verbal WISC (rp=0.43, n=62). Finally, test-retest reliability was good (rs=0.93, n=12; interval of one to two months). This new psychometric tool should prove useful to practitioners working with young people with impaired vision.

  16. Fluorescence-detected two-dimensional electronic coherence spectroscopy by acousto-optic phase modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekavec, Patrick F; Lott, Geoffrey A; Marcus, Andrew H

    2007-12-07

    Two-dimensional electronic coherence spectroscopy (ECS) is an important method to study the coupling between distinct optical modes of a material system. Such studies often involve excitation using a sequence of phased ultrashort laser pulses. In conventional approaches, the delays between pulse temporal envelopes must be precisely monitored or maintained. Here, we introduce a new experimental scheme for phase-selective nonlinear ECS, which combines acousto-optic phase modulation with ultrashort laser excitation to produce intensity modulated nonlinear fluorescence signals. We isolate specific nonlinear signal contributions by synchronous detection, with respect to appropriately constructed references. Our method effectively decouples the relative temporal phases from the pulse envelopes of a collinear train of four sequential pulses. We thus achieve a robust and high signal-to-noise scheme for phase-selective ECS to investigate the resonant nonlinear optical response of photoluminescent systems. We demonstrate the validity of our method using a model quantum three-level system-atomic Rb vapor. Moreover, we show how our measurements determine the resonant complex-valued third-order susceptibility.

  17. Edge Transport in 2D Cold Atom Optical Lattices

    OpenAIRE

    V. W. Scarola; Sarma, S. Das

    2006-01-01

    We theoretically study the observable response of edge currents in two dimensional cold atom optical lattices. As an example we use Gutzwiller mean-field theory to relate persistent edge currents surrounding a Mott insulator in a slowly rotating trapped Bose-Hubbard system to time of flight measurements. We briefly discuss an application, the detection of Chern number using edge currents of a topologically ordered optical lattice insulator.

  18. High-Resolution Two-Dimensional Optical Spectroscopy of Electron Spins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Salewski

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Multidimensional coherent optical spectroscopy is one of the most powerful tools for investigating complex quantum mechanical systems. While it was conceived decades ago in magnetic resonance spectroscopy using microwaves and radio waves, it has recently been extended into the visible and UV spectral range. However, resolving MHz energy splittings with ultrashort laser pulses still remains a challenge. Here, we analyze two-dimensional Fourier spectra for resonant optical excitation of resident electrons to localized trions or donor-bound excitons in semiconductor nanostructures subject to a transverse magnetic field. Particular attention is devoted to Raman coherence spectra, which allow one to accurately evaluate tiny splittings of the electron ground state and to determine the relaxation times in the electron spin ensemble. A stimulated steplike Raman process induced by a sequence of two laser pulses creates a coherent superposition of the ground-state doublet which can be retrieved only optically because of selective excitation of the same subensemble with a third pulse. This provides the unique opportunity to distinguish between different complexes that are closely spaced in energy in an ensemble. The related experimental demonstration is based on photon-echo measurements in an n-type CdTe/(Cd,MgTe quantum-well structure detected by a heterodyne technique. The difference in the sub-μeV range between the Zeeman splittings of donor-bound electrons and electrons localized at potential fluctuations can be resolved even though the homogeneous linewidth of the optical transitions is larger by 2 orders of magnitude.

  19. Nano-scale optical actuation based on two-dimensional heterostructure photonic crystal cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tong; Zhou, Guangya; Chau, Fook Siong; Tian, Feng; Deng, Jie

    2015-03-01

    Nowadays, nano-electro-mechanical systems (NEMS) actuators using electrostatic forces are facing the bottleneck of the electromagnetic interference which greatly degrades their performances. On the contrary, the hybrid circuits driven by optical gradient forces which are immune to the electromagnetic interference show prominent advantages in communication, quantum computation, and other application systems. In this paper we propose an optical actuator utilizing the optical gradient force generated by a hetero-structure photonic crystal cavity. This type of cavity has a longitudinal air-slot and characteristics of ultrahigh quality factor (Q) and ultra-small mode volume (V) which is capable of producing a much larger force compared with the waveguide-based structures. Due to the symmetry property, attractive optical gradient force is generated. Additionally, the optomechanical coefficient (gom) of this cavity is two orders of magnitude larger than that of the coupled nanobeam photonic crystal cavities. The 2D hetero-structure cavity, comb drives, folded beam suspensions and the displacement sensor compose the whole device. The cavity serves as the optical actuator whilst the butt-coupled waveguide acts as the displacement sensor which is theoretically proved to be insensitive to the temperature variations. As known, the thermo-optic effect prevails especially in the cavity-based structures. The butt-coupled waveguide can be used to decouple the thermal effect and the optoemchanical effect (OM) with the aid of comb drives. The results demonstrate that the proposed optical gradient force actuator show great potential in the future of all-optical reconfigurable circuits.

  20. Exciton delocalization and transport in photosystem I of cyanobacteria Synechococcus elongates: simulation study of coherent two-dimensional optical signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramavicius, Darius; Mukamel, Shaul

    2009-04-30

    Electronic excitations and the optical properties of the photosynthetic complex PSI are analyzed using an effective exciton model developed by Vaitekonis et al. [Photosynth. Res. 2005, 86, 185]. States of the reaction center, the linker states, the highly delocalized antenna states and the red states are identified and assigned in absorption and circular dichroism spectra by taking into account the spectral distribution of density of exciton states, exciton delocalization length, and participation ratio in the reaction center. Signatures of exciton cooperative dynamics in nonchiral and chirality-induced two-dimensional (2D) photon-echo signals are identified. Nonchiral signals show resonances associated with the red, the reaction center, and the bulk antenna states as well as transport between them. Spectrally overlapping contributions of the linker and the delocalized antenna states are clearly resolved in the chirality-induced signals. Strong correlations are observed between the delocalized antenna states, the linker states, and the RC states. The active space of the complex covering the RC, the linker, and the delocalized antenna states is common to PSI complexes in bacteria and plants.

  1. Two-dimensional electron gas in the regime of strong light-matter coupling: Dynamical conductivity and all-optical measurements of Rashba and Dresselhaus coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudin, Dmitry; Shelykh, Ivan A.

    2016-10-01

    A nonperturbative interaction of an electronic system with a laser field can substantially modify its physical properties. In particular, in two-dimensional (2D) materials with a lack of inversion symmetry, the achievement of a regime of strong light-matter coupling allows direct optical tuning of the strength of the Rashba spin-orbit interaction (SOI). Capitalizing on these results, we build a theory of the dynamical conductivity of a 2D electron gas with both Rashba and Dresselhaus SOIs coupled to an off-resonant high-frequency electromagnetic wave. We argue that strong light-matter coupling modifies qualitatively the dispersion of the electrons and can be used as a powerful tool to probe and manipulate the coupling strengths and adjust the frequency range where optical conductivity is essentially nonzero.

  2. Optical Properties and Wave Propagation in Semiconductor-Based Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agio, Mario [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2002-12-31

    This work is a theoretical investigation on the physical properties of semiconductor-based two-dimensional photonic crystals, in particular for what concerns systems embedded in planar dielectric waveguides (GaAs/AlGaAs, GaInAsP/InP heterostructures, and self-standing membranes) or based on macro-porous silicon. The photonic-band structure of photonic crystals and photonic-crystal slabs is numerically computed and the associated light-line problem is discussed, which points to the issue of intrinsic out-of-lane diffraction losses for the photonic bands lying above the light line. The photonic states are then classified by the group theory formalism: each mode is related to an irreducible representation of the corresponding small point group. The optical properties are investigated by means of the scattering matrix method, which numerically implements a variable-angle-reflectance experiment; comparison with experiments is also provided. The analysis of surface reflectance proves the existence of selection rules for coupling an external wave to a certain photonic mode. Such rules can be directly derived from symmetry considerations. Lastly, the control of wave propagation in weak-index contrast photonic-crystal slabs is tackled in view of designing building blocks for photonic integrated circuits. The proposed designs are found to comply with the major requirements of low-loss propagation, high and single-mode transmission. These notions are then collected to model a photonic-crystal combiner for an integrated multi-wavelength-source laser.

  3. Numerical investigation of optical Tamm states in two-dimensional hybrid plasmonic-photonic crystal nanobeams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Zi-Ming; Hu, Yi-Hua; Ju, Gui-Fang; Zhong, Xiao-Lan; Ding, Wei; Li, Zhi-Yuan

    2014-07-01

    Optical Tamm states (OTSs) in analogy with its electronic counterpart confined at the surface of crystals are optical surface modes at the interfaces between uniform metallic films and distributed Bragg reflectors. In this paper, OTSs are numerically investigated in two-dimensional hybrid plasmonic-photonic crystal nanobeams (HPPCN), which are constructed by inserting a metallic nanoparticle into a photonic crystal nanobeam formed by periodically etching square air holes into dielectric waveguides. The evidences of OTSs can be verified by transmission spectra and the field distribution at resonant frequency. Similar to OTSs in one-dimensional multilayer structures OTSs in HPPCN can be excited by both TE and TM polarization. The physical origin of OTSs in HPPCN is due to the combined contribution of strong reflection imposed by the photonic band gap (PBG) of the photonic crystal (PC) nanobeam and strong backward scattering exerted by the nanoparticle. For TE, incidence OTSs can be obtained at the frequency near the center of the photonic band gap. The transmissivity and the resonant frequency can be finely tuned by the dimension of nanoparticles. While for TM incidence OTSs are observed for relatively larger metallic nanoparticles compared with TE polarization. The differences between TE and TM polarization can be explained by two reasons. For one reason stronger backward scattering of nanoparticles for TE polarization can be achieved by the excitation of localized surface plasmon polariton of nanoparticles. This assumption has been proved by examining the scattering, absorption, and extinction cross section of the metallic nanoparticle. The other can be attributed to the deep and wide PBG available for TE polarization with less number of air holes compared with TM polarization. Our results show great promise in extending the application scope of OTSs from one-dimensional structures to practical integrated photonic devices and circuits.

  4. Numerical investigation of optical Tamm states in two-dimensional hybrid plasmonic-photonic crystal nanobeams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Zi-Ming, E-mail: mengzm@gdut.edu.cn, E-mail: lizy@aphy.iphy.ac.cn; Hu, Yi-Hua; Ju, Gui-Fang [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Zhong, Xiao-Lan; Ding, Wei; Li, Zhi-Yuan, E-mail: mengzm@gdut.edu.cn, E-mail: lizy@aphy.iphy.ac.cn [Laboratory of Optical Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 603, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-07-28

    Optical Tamm states (OTSs) in analogy with its electronic counterpart confined at the surface of crystals are optical surface modes at the interfaces between uniform metallic films and distributed Bragg reflectors. In this paper, OTSs are numerically investigated in two-dimensional hybrid plasmonic-photonic crystal nanobeams (HPPCN), which are constructed by inserting a metallic nanoparticle into a photonic crystal nanobeam formed by periodically etching square air holes into dielectric waveguides. The evidences of OTSs can be verified by transmission spectra and the field distribution at resonant frequency. Similar to OTSs in one-dimensional multilayer structures OTSs in HPPCN can be excited by both TE and TM polarization. The physical origin of OTSs in HPPCN is due to the combined contribution of strong reflection imposed by the photonic band gap (PBG) of the photonic crystal (PC) nanobeam and strong backward scattering exerted by the nanoparticle. For TE, incidence OTSs can be obtained at the frequency near the center of the photonic band gap. The transmissivity and the resonant frequency can be finely tuned by the dimension of nanoparticles. While for TM incidence OTSs are observed for relatively larger metallic nanoparticles compared with TE polarization. The differences between TE and TM polarization can be explained by two reasons. For one reason stronger backward scattering of nanoparticles for TE polarization can be achieved by the excitation of localized surface plasmon polariton of nanoparticles. This assumption has been proved by examining the scattering, absorption, and extinction cross section of the metallic nanoparticle. The other can be attributed to the deep and wide PBG available for TE polarization with less number of air holes compared with TM polarization. Our results show great promise in extending the application scope of OTSs from one-dimensional structures to practical integrated photonic devices and circuits.

  5. Electronic structure and optical properties of the single crystal and two-dimensional structure of CdWO{sub 4} from first principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babamoradi, Mohsen, E-mail: babamoradi@iust.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, 16846-13114 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Liyai, Mohammad Reza [Department of Physics, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, 16846-13114 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Azimirad, Rouhollah, E-mail: azimirad@yahoo.com [Malek-Ashtar University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Salehi, Hamdollah, E-mail: salehi_h@scu.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    In this paper, we have investigated the electronic structure and optical properties of the single crystal and two-dimensional (2D) structure of cadmium tungstate (CdWO{sub 4}). This investigation includes calculation of the density of states (DOS), dielectric tensor elements and reflectivity. All the calculations have been done by full potential augmented plane waves plus local orbitals (FP-APW+lo) with Wien2k code. The calculated band gaps for the single crystal and 2D structure along [010] direction are 4.2 and 5.02 eV, respectively. The results show that in the 2D structure of CdWO{sub 4}, the electron density of the surface oxygen atoms is much more than the electron density of the inside oxygen atoms. This difference in the density has the main role in the optical properties. The results of the dielectric tensor elements and reflectivity for the single crystal are in good agreement with the experimental values. The results of the dielectric tensor elements and reflectivity for the 2D structure in comparison with the single crystal have shown that the intensity and place of the calculated peaks reduced and shifted, respectively. These results can be related to the surface oxygen atoms and thickness of the 2D structure.

  6. Optical microcavities based on surface modes in two-dimensional photonic crystals and silicon-on-insulator photonic crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Sanshui; Qiu, M.

    2007-01-01

    Surface-mode optical microcavities based on two-dimensional photonic crystals and silicon-on-insulator photonic crystals are studied. We demonstrate that a high-quality-factor microcavity can be easily realized in these structures. With an increasing of the cavity length, the quality factor is gr...

  7. Two-dimensional Kagome photonic bandgap waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bo; Søndergaard, Thomas; Libori, Stig E. Barkou;

    2000-01-01

    The transverse-magnetic photonic-bandgap-guidance properties are investigated for a planar two-dimensional (2-D) Kagome waveguide configuration using a full-vectorial plane-wave-expansion method. Single-moded well-localized low-index guided modes are found. The localization of the optical modes...... is investigated with respect to the width of the 2-D Kagome waveguide, and the number of modes existing for specific frequencies and waveguide widths is mapped out....

  8. The nonlinear optical response of a two-dimensional atomic crystal

    CERN Document Server

    Merano, Michele

    2015-01-01

    The theory of Bloembergen and Persham for the light waves at the boundary of nonlinear media is applied to a nonlinear two-dimensional atomic crystal placed in between linear bulk media. The crystal is treated as a zero-thickness interface, a real two-dimensional system. Harmonic waves emanate from it. Generalization of the laws of reflection and refraction give the direction and the intensity of the harmonic waves. The nonlinear polarization of these special materials is very sensitive to the substrate on which they are deposited. Experiments on second harmonic generation of a $\\rm MoS_{2}$ monolayer are discussed to elucidate this point.

  9. Digital communication of two-dimensional messages in a chaotic optical system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Yun; Wu Liang; Zhu Shi-Qun

    2005-01-01

    The digital communication of two-dimensional messages is investigated when two solid state multi-mode chaotic lasers are employed in a master-slave configuration. By introducing the time derivative of intensity difference between the receiver (carrier) and the transmittal (carrier plus signal), several signals can be encoded into a single pulse. If one signal contains several binary bits, two-dimensional messages in the form of a matrix can be encoded and transmitted on a single pulse. With these improvements in secure communications using chaotic multi-mode lasers, not only the transmission rate can be increased but also the privacy can be enhanced greatly.

  10. Optical generation of a spatially variant two-dimensional lattice structure by using a phase only spatial light modulator

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Manish

    2016-01-01

    We propose a simple and straightforward method to generate a spatially variant lattice structures by optical interference lithography method. Using this method, it is possible to independently vary the orientation and period of the two-dimensional lattice. The method consists of two steps which are: numerical synthesis of corresponding phase mask by employing a two-dimensional integrated gradient calculations and experimental implementation of synthesized phase mask by making use of a phase only spatial light modulator in an optical 4f Fourier filtering setup. As a working example, we provide the experimental fabrication of a spatially variant square lattice structure which has the possibility to guide a Gaussian beam through a 90{\\deg} bend by photonic crystal self-collimation phenomena. The method is digitally reconfigurable, is completely scalable and could be extended to other kind of lattices as well.

  11. Optical generation of a spatially variant two-dimensional lattice structure by using a phase only spatial light modulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Manish, E-mail: manishk@physics.iitd.ac.in; Joseph, Joby, E-mail: joby@physics.iitd.ac.in [Photonics Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2014-08-04

    We propose a simple and straightforward method to generate spatially variant lattice structures by optical interference lithography method. Using this method, it is possible to independently vary the orientation and period of the two-dimensional lattice. The method consists of two steps which are: numerical synthesis of corresponding phase mask by employing a two-dimensional integrated gradient calculations and experimental implementation of synthesized phase mask by making use of a phase only spatial light modulator in an optical 4f Fourier filtering setup. As a working example, we provide the experimental fabrication of a spatially variant square lattice structure which has the possibility to guide a Gaussian beam through a 90° bend by photonic crystal self-collimation phenomena. The method is digitally reconfigurable, is completely scalable, and could be extended to other kind of lattices as well.

  12. An efficient tool to calculate two-dimensional optical spectra for photoactive molecular complexes

    CERN Document Server

    Duan, Hong-Guang; Nalbach, Peter; Thorwart, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We combine the coherent modified Redfield theory (CMRT) with the equation of motion-phase matching approach (PMA) to calculate two-dimensional photon echo spectra for photoactive molecular complexes with an intermediate strength of the coupling to their environment. Both techniques are highly efficient, yet they involve approximations at different levels. By explicitly comparing with the numerically exact quasi-adiabatic path integral approach, we show for the Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex that the CMRT describes the decay rates in the population dynamics well, but final stationary populations and the oscillation frequencies differ slightly. In addition, we use the combined CMRT+PMA to calculate two-dimensional photon-echo spectra for a simple dimer model. We find excellent agreement with the exact path integral calculations at short waiting times where the dynamics is still coherent. For long waiting times, differences occur due to different final stationary states, specifically for strong system-bath couplin...

  13. Time-Domain Measurement of Optical True-Time Delay in Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Geng-Yan; ZHOU Qiang; CUI Kai-Yu; ZHANG Wei; HUANG Yi-Dong

    2010-01-01

    @@ We report on the realization of optical true-time delay(TTD)by a two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguide(PCWG).Design and fabrication of the PCWG are investigated.The spectral dependence of the group delay is measured by detecting the phase shifts of a 10 GHz modulating signal,and a maximum delay of 25 ± 2.5 ps is obtained.

  14. Optical microcavities based on surface modes in two-dimensional photonic crystals and silicon-on-insulator photonic crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Sanshui; Qiu, M.

    2007-01-01

    Surface-mode optical microcavities based on two-dimensional photonic crystals and silicon-on-insulator photonic crystals are studied. We demonstrate that a high-quality-factor microcavity can be easily realized in these structures. With an increasing of the cavity length, the quality factor...... is gradually enhanced and the resonant frequency converges to that of the corresponding surface mode in the photonic crystals. These structures have potential applications such as sensing....

  15. Modeling of the optical properties of a two-dimensional system of small conductive particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondikov, A. A.; Tonkaev, P. A.; Chaldyshev, V. V.; Vartanyan, T. A.

    2016-08-01

    Software was developed for quick numerical calculations and graphic display of the absorption, reflection and transmittance spectra of two-dimensional systems of small conductive particles. It allowed us to make instant comparison of calculation results and experimental data. A lattice model was used to simulate nearly distributed particles, and the coherent-potential approximation was applied to obtain a solution to the problem of interacting particles. The Delphi programming environment was used.

  16. Two-dimensional HRCT for monitoring postoperative results of the anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Zweidimensionale (2-D) CT-Arthrotomographie zur postoperativen Kontrolle einer neuen vorderen Kreuzbandplastik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tosch, U.; Witt, H. (Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany, F.R.). Roentgendiagnostisches Zentralinstitut); Hertel, P.; Lais, E. (Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany, F.R.). Unfallchirurgische Klinik)

    1989-11-01

    Fifty-eight patients underwent intraarticular reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament. This was performed by using an autogenous transplant from the mid portion of the patellar ligament with a proximal and distal bone block, as described by Hertel. For comparison with the conventional X-ray examination, HRCT was performed to study the early postoperative results. In four patients (7%) dislocation of the bone block in the femoral condyle was seen. Two-dimensional reconstruction proved to be a satisfactory method for demonstration of the exact position of the autogenous transplant in both coronary and sagittal planes. (orig.).

  17. Cavity-enhanced optical Hall effect in two-dimensional free charge carrier gases detected at terahertz frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, S; Schöche, S; Darakchieva, V; Kühne, P; Carlin, J-F; Grandjean, N; Herzinger, C M; Schubert, M; Hofmann, T

    2015-06-15

    The effect of a tunable, externally coupled Fabry-Perot cavity to resonantly enhance the optical Hall effect signatures at terahertz frequencies produced by a traditional Drude-like two-dimensional electron gas is shown and discussed in this Letter. As a result, the detection of optical Hall effect signatures at conveniently obtainable magnetic fields, for example, by neodymium permanent magnets, is demonstrated. An AlInN/GaN-based high-electron mobility transistor structure grown on a sapphire substrate is used for the experiment. The optical Hall effect signatures and their dispersions, which are governed by the frequency and the reflectance minima and maxima of the externally coupled Fabry-Perot cavity, are presented and discussed. Tuning the externally coupled Fabry-Perot cavity strongly modifies the optical Hall effect signatures, which provides a new degree of freedom for optical Hall effect experiments in addition to frequency, angle of incidence, and magnetic field direction and strength.

  18. Role of the radiation-reaction force in the optical response of two-dimensional crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Merano, Michele

    2016-01-01

    A classical theory of a radiating two-dimensional crystal is proposed and an expression for the radiative-reaction force is derived. It is shown how this force, acting on the dipoles forming the material, induces a flow of energy away from the dipole vibrations into radiative electromagnetic energy. As conservation of energy requires, the time-average work per unit time and unit area done by the radiation-reaction force is negative and equal in absolute value to the time-average intensity radiated by the crystal.

  19. Transverse magneto-optical Kerr effect in 2D gold–garnet nanogratings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chetvertukhin, A.V., E-mail: chetvertukhin@gmail.com [Faculty of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Musorin, A.I.; Dolgova, T.V. [Faculty of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Uchida, H. [Tohoku Institute of Technology, Sendai, Miyagi 982-8577 (Japan); Inoue, M. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Fedyanin, A.A., E-mail: fedyanin@nanolab.phys.msu.ru [Faculty of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2015-06-01

    Planar magnetoplasmonic nanogratings composed of a two-dimensional square array of gold nanoparticles embedded into thin magnetic garnet films are proposed for enhancement of the transverse magneto-optical Kerr effect due to excitation of a quasi-waveguiding mode with light concentrated mostly inside the magnetic film. A proper optimisation of the size and periodicity of plasmonic nanoparticles as well as the thickness of magnetic dielectrics allows spectral tuning of the waveguiding mode leading to the sharp asymmetric resonance in the magneto-optical response in the desired spectral region. - Highlights: • TMOKE in hybrid 2D magnetoplasmonic nanogratings is studied experimentally. • The enhancement of TMOKE is attributed to excitation of a quasi-waveguiding mode. • Quasi-waveguiding mode provides sharp asymmetric resonance of the TMOKE.

  20. Analysis of branched DNA replication and recombination intermediates from prokaryotic cells by two-dimensional (2D) native-native agarose gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Nicholas P

    2013-01-01

    Branched DNA molecules are generated by the essential processes of replication and recombination. Owing to their distinctive extended shapes, these intermediates migrate differently from linear double-stranded DNA under certain electrophoretic conditions. However, these branched species exist in the cell at much low abundance than the bulk linear DNA. Consequently, branched molecules cannot be visualized by conventional electrophoresis and ethidium bromide staining. Two-dimensional native-native agarose electrophoresis has therefore been developed as a method to facilitate the separation and visualization of branched replication and recombination intermediates. A wide variety of studies have employed this technique to examine branched molecules in eukaryotic, archaeal, and bacterial cells, providing valuable insights into how DNA is duplicated and repaired in all three domains of life.

  1. Zeeman-insensitive cooling of a single atom to its two-dimensional motional ground state in tightly focused optical tweezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sompet, P.; Fung, Y. H.; Schwartz, E.; Hunter, M. D. J.; Phrompao, J.; Andersen, M. F.

    2017-03-01

    We combine near-deterministic preparation of a single atom with Raman sideband cooling, to create a push-button mechanism to prepare a single atom in the motional ground state of tightly focused optical tweezers. In the two-dimensional (2D) radial plane, we achieve a large ground-state fidelity for the entire procedure (loading and cooling) of ˜0.73 , while the ground-state occupancy is ˜0.88 for realizations with a single atom present. For 1D axial cooling, we attain a ground-state fraction of ˜0.52 . The combined 3D cooling provides a ground-state population of ˜0.11 . Our Raman sideband cooling variation is indifferent to magnetic field fluctuations, allowing widespread unshielded experimental implementations. Our work provides a pathway towards a range of coherent few-body experiments.

  2. Application of highly sensitive fluorescent dyes (CyDye DIGE Fluor saturation dyes) to laser microdissection and two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) for cancer proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Tadashi; Hirohashi, Setsuo

    2006-01-01

    Proteome data combined with histopathological information provides important, novel clues for understanding cancer biology and reveals candidates for tumor markers and therapeutic targets. We have established an application of a highly sensitive fluorescent dye (CyDye DIGE Fluor saturation dye), developed for two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), to the labeling of proteins extracted from laser microdissected tissues. The use of the dye dramatically decreases the protein amount and, in turn, the number of cells required for 2D-DIGE; the cells obtained from a 1 mm2 area of an 8-12 microm thick tissue section generate up to 5,000 protein spots in a large-format 2D gel. This protocol allows the execution of large-scale proteomics in a more efficient, accurate and reproducible way. The protocol can be used to examine a single sample in 5 d or to examine hundreds of samples in large-scale proteomics.

  3. Two-dimensional x-ray diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    He, Bob B

    2009-01-01

    Written by one of the pioneers of 2D X-Ray Diffraction, this useful guide covers the fundamentals, experimental methods and applications of two-dimensional x-ray diffraction, including geometry convention, x-ray source and optics, two-dimensional detectors, diffraction data interpretation, and configurations for various applications, such as phase identification, texture, stress, microstructure analysis, crystallinity, thin film analysis and combinatorial screening. Experimental examples in materials research, pharmaceuticals, and forensics are also given. This presents a key resource to resea

  4. JAC2D: A two-dimensional finite element computer program for the nonlinear quasi-static response of solids with the conjugate gradient method; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biffle, J.H.; Blanford, M.L.

    1994-05-01

    JAC2D is a two-dimensional finite element program designed to solve quasi-static nonlinear mechanics problems. A set of continuum equations describes the nonlinear mechanics involving large rotation and strain. A nonlinear conjugate gradient method is used to solve the equations. The method is implemented in a two-dimensional setting with various methods for accelerating convergence. Sliding interface logic is also implemented. A four-node Lagrangian uniform strain element is used with hourglass stiffness to control the zero-energy modes. This report documents the elastic and isothermal elastic/plastic material model. Other material models, documented elsewhere, are also available. The program is vectorized for efficient performance on Cray computers. Sample problems described are the bending of a thin beam, the rotation of a unit cube, and the pressurization and thermal loading of a hollow sphere.

  5. Simultaneous two-color, two-dimensional angular optical scattering patterns from airborne particulates: Scattering results and exploratory analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holler, Stephen; Fuerstenau, Stephen D.; Skelsey, Charles R.

    2016-07-01

    Light scattering from non-spherical particles and aggregates exhibits complex structure that is revealed only when observed in two angular dimensions (θ, ϕ). However, due to variations in shape, packing, and orientation of such aerosols, the structure of two-dimensional angular optical scattering (TAOS) patterns varies among particles. The spectral dependence of scattering contributes further to the observed complexity, but offers another facet to consider. By leveraging multispectral TAOS data from flowing aerosols, we have identified novel morphological descriptors that may be employed in multivariate statistical algorithms for "unknown" particle classification.

  6. A new family of two-dimensional triple-codeweight asymmetric optical orthogonal code for OCDMA networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongxi Yin; Wei Liang; Le Ma; Liqiao Qin

    2009-01-01

    A new generation algorithm of two-dimensional triple-codeweight asymmetric optical orthogonal codes for optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) networks is proposed. The code cardinality is obtained and the error-probability performance for corresponding OCDMA system is analyzed. The codes with two constraints (i.e., auto- and cross-correlation properties) being unequal are taken into account. On the premise of fixed system resources, the code cardinality can be significantly improved. By analysis of the error-probability performance, it is shown that the codes with different parameters have different performances. Therefore, this type of codes can be applied to support diverse quality of service (QoS) and satisfy the quality requirement of different multimedia or distinct users, and simultaneously make the better use of bandwidth resources in optical networks.

  7. New Frontiers in Optical Science: Terahertz Spectroscopy ot Two Dimensional Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun-Shik

    2011-10-01

    Terahertz (THz) radiation is electromagnetic radiation whose frequency lies between the microwave and infrared regions of the spectrum. Naturally occurring THz radiation fills up the space of everyday life providing warmth, yet this part of the spectrum remains the least explored region mainly due to the technical difficulties. The technological gap, however, has been rapidly diminishing for the last two decades. The new and exciting frontier of the THz science and technology has encroached on many different disciplines producing a broad range of applications such as medical imaging, sensing of biochemical agents, and ultra-high speed communication. Furthermore, the unique and advanced techniques of the THz spectroscopy have been proved to be a powerful tool to investigate the material properties inaccessible until recently. For example, THz waves strongly interact with electrons and holes in two dimensional systems, in which their dynamics are governed mainly by many-body Coulomb interactions. I will present our experimental studies demonstrating remarkable quantum effects in semiconductor nanostructures and exotic charge carrier dynamics in graphene.

  8. Vibrational relaxation beyond the linear damping limit in two-dimensional optical spectra of molecular aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlík, Václav; Šanda, František

    2017-08-01

    We present a computational model for the spectra of molecular aggregates with signatures of vibronic progression. Vibronic dynamics is implemented by coupling the dynamics of Frenkel excitons with underdamped vibrations. Vibrational dynamics includes linear damping resulting in the exponential decay and quadratic damping inducing subexponential or power law relaxation and increasing vibrational decoherence as demonstrated on lineshapes of the absorption spectrum. Simulations of the third-order coherent response account for bath reorganization during excitonic transport, which allows us to study the line-shape evolution of cross peaks of 2D spectra.

  9. Optical diffraction by ordered 2D arrays of silica microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakov, A. A.; Shavdina, O.; Tishchenko, A. V.; Veillas, C.; Verrier, I.; Dellea, O.; Jourlin, Y.

    2017-03-01

    The article presents experimental and theoretical studies of angular dependent diffraction properties of 2D monolayer arrays of silica microspheres. High-quality large area defect-free monolayers of 1 μm diameter silica microspheres were deposited by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique under an accurate optical control. Measured angular dependencies of zeroth and one of the first order diffraction efficiencies produced by deposited samples were simulated by the rigorous Generalized Source Method taking into account particle size dispersion and lattice nonideality.

  10. Two-dimensional refractive index and stresses profiles of a homogenous bent optical fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, W A; Wahba, H H; Shams El-Din, M A

    2014-11-01

    We present a significant contribution to the theory of determining the refractive index profile of a bent homogenous optical fiber. In this theory we consider two different processes controlling the index profile variations. The first is the linear index variation due to stress along the bent radius, and the second is the release of this stress on the fiber surface. This release process is considered to have radial dependence on the fiber radius. These considerations enable us to construct the index profile in two dimensions normal to the optical axis, considering the refraction of light rays traversing the fiber. This theory is applied to optical homogenous bent fiber with two bending radii when they are located orthogonal to the light path of the object arm in the holographic setup (like the Mach-Zehnder interferometer). Digital holographic phase shifting interferometry is employed in this study. The recorded phase shifted holograms have been combined, reconstructed, and processed to extract the phase map of the bent optical fiber. A comparison between the extracted optical phase differences and the calculated one indicates that the refractive index profile variation should include the above mentioned two processes, which are considered as a response for stress distribution across the fiber's cross section. The experimentally obtained refractive index profiles provide the stress induced birefringence profile. Thus we are able to present a realistic induced stress profile due to bending.

  11. Transition from two-dimensional photonic crystals to dielectric metasurfaces in the optical diffraction with a fine structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybin, Mikhail V; Samusev, Kirill B; Lukashenko, Stanislav Yu; Kivshar, Yuri S; Limonov, Mikhail F

    2016-08-05

    We study experimentally a fine structure of the optical Laue diffraction from two-dimensional periodic photonic lattices. The periodic photonic lattices with the C4v square symmetry, orthogonal C2v symmetry, and hexagonal C6v symmetry are composed of submicron dielectric elements fabricated by the direct laser writing technique. We observe surprisingly strong optical diffraction from a finite number of elements that provides an excellent tool to determine not only the symmetry but also exact number of particles in the finite-length structure and the sample shape. Using different samples with orthogonal C2v symmetry and varying the lattice spacing, we observe experimentally a transition between the regime of multi-order diffraction, being typical for photonic crystals to the regime where only the zero-order diffraction can be observed, being is a clear fingerprint of dielectric metasurfaces characterized by effective parameters.

  12. Transition from two-dimensional photonic crystals to dielectric metasurfaces in the optical diffraction with a fine structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybin, Mikhail V.; Samusev, Kirill B.; Lukashenko, Stanislav Yu.; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Limonov, Mikhail F.

    2016-08-01

    We study experimentally a fine structure of the optical Laue diffraction from two-dimensional periodic photonic lattices. The periodic photonic lattices with the C4v square symmetry, orthogonal C2v symmetry, and hexagonal C6v symmetry are composed of submicron dielectric elements fabricated by the direct laser writing technique. We observe surprisingly strong optical diffraction from a finite number of elements that provides an excellent tool to determine not only the symmetry but also exact number of particles in the finite-length structure and the sample shape. Using different samples with orthogonal C2v symmetry and varying the lattice spacing, we observe experimentally a transition between the regime of multi-order diffraction, being typical for photonic crystals to the regime where only the zero-order diffraction can be observed, being is a clear fingerprint of dielectric metasurfaces characterized by effective parameters.

  13. Two-dimensional optical coherence vibration tomography for low-frequency vibration measurement and response-only modal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jianfeng; Zhong, Shuncong; Zhang, Qiukun

    2016-10-01

    A high-speed camera-based two-dimensional optical coherence vibration tomography (2DOCVT) system with a subnanometre displacement resolution was developed and employed for low-frequency vibration measurement and modal analysis. Experimental results demonstrated the ability of low-frequency absolute displacement measurement of structural line vibrations without scanning. Three-dimensional (3D) surface displacement of a vibrating structure could also be obtained using the developed 2DOCVT by scanning the structure. The scanning 2DOCVT system acted like a 3D optical coherence vibration tomography system. The developed 2DOCVT system could capture structural modal parameters without vibration excitation input information, and therefore, it is a response-only method. The 2DOCVT could be recommended in the application of low-frequency vibration measurement and modal analysis of beam and plate structures, especially when the vibration amplitude is at nanometre or micrometre scale.

  14. Fast transport, atom sample splitting, and single-atom qubit supply in two-dimensional arrays of optical microtraps

    CERN Document Server

    Schlosser, Malte; Gierl, Christian; Teichmann, Stephan; Tichelmann, Sascha; Birkl, Gerhard; 10.1088/1367-2630/14/12/123034

    2013-01-01

    Two-dimensional arrays of optical micro-traps created by microoptical elements present a versatile and scalable architecture for neutral atom quantum information processing, quantum simulation, and the manipulation of ultra-cold quantum gases. In this article, we demonstrate advanced capabilities of this approach by introducing novel techniques and functionalities as well as the combined operation of previously separately implemented functions. We introduce piezo-actuator based transport of atom ensembles over distances of more than one trap separation, examine the capabilities of rapid atom transport provided by acousto-optical beam steering, and analyze the adiabaticity limit for atom transport in these configurations. We implement a spatial light modulator with 8-bit transmission control for the per-site adjustment of the trap depth and the number of atoms loaded. We combine single-site addressing, trap depth control, and atom transport in one configuration for demonstrating the splitting of atom ensembles...

  15. One-and two-dimensional topological charge distributions in stochastic optical fields

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, FS

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available [Rayleigh range] -0.0002 0 0.0002 0.0004 0.0006 0.0008 0.001 0.0012 0.0014 0.0016 D e ns i t y [ A r b . U n its ] ?zT ? z?0?2T = 0 ?0 = ?2 pid2 d = coherence length aF.S. Roux, Opt. Commun. 283, 4855-4858 (2010). ? p. 8/15 1D... stream_source_info Roux7_2011.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 6852 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Roux7_2011.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Title One- and two...

  16. Complete Two-dimensional Muellermetric Imaging of Biological Tissue Using Heterodyned Optical Coherence Tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xue; Shahriar, M S

    2010-01-01

    A polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system based on heterodyning and filtering techniques is built to perform Stokesmetric imaging of different layers of depths in a porcine tendon sample. The complete 4\\times4 backscattering Muellermetric images of one layer are acquired using such a system. The images reveal information indiscernible from a conventional OCT system.

  17. Two-dimensional Few-circle Optical Pulses in the Inhomogeneous Environment of Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.B. Belonenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We consider the task about few-circle optical pulses dynamics (light bullets in the inhomogeneous environment of carbon nanotubes. Electromagnetic field of pulse describes classically, on basis of Maxwell equation, and carbon nanotubes give dispersion law for electrons, which interacting with pulse. We show that light bullets propagate stably.

  18. Two-dimensional optical correlation spectroscopy applied to liquid/glass dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazonder, Kees; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.; Wiersma, Douwe A.

    2006-01-01

    Correlation spectroscopy was used to study the effects of temperature and phase changes on liquid and glass solvent dynamics. This method yielded both intuitive clues and a quantitative measure of the dynamics of the system. © 2006 Optical Society of America.

  19. Two-Dimensional Stochastic Projections for Tight Integration of Optical and Inertial Sensors for Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    first-order Gauss - Markov process [11], based on the specification for the in- ertial measurement unit (IMU). The landmarks are mod- eled as stationary...Kalman Filtering. John Wi- ley and Sons, Inc., New York, NY, 1992. [3] J. W. Goodman. Introduction to Fourier Optics. Mc- Graw Hill, Boston, Massachusetts

  20. Quantum limit for two-dimensional resolution of two incoherent optical point sources

    CERN Document Server

    Ang, Shan Zheng; Tsang, Mankei

    2016-01-01

    We obtain the multiple-parameter quantum Cram\\'er-Rao bound for estimating the Cartesian components of the centroid and separation of two incoherent optical point sources using an imaging system with finite spatial bandwidth. Under quite general and realistic assumptions on the point-spread function of the imaging system, and for weak source strengths, we show that the Cram\\'er-Rao bounds for the x and y components of the separation are independent of the values of those components, which may be well-below the conventional Rayleigh resolution limit. We also propose two linear optics-based measurement methods that approach the quantum bound for the estimation of the Cartesian components of the separation once the centroid has been located. One of the methods is an interferometric scheme that approaches the quantum bound for sub-Rayleigh separations. The other method uses fiber coupling to attain the bound regardless of the distance between the two sources.

  1. Ultrabroadband Two-Dimensional Coherent Optical Spectrometer for Directed Energy Trapping in Quantum Dynamical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-04

    technique combining super-continuum generation with multi-dimensional coherent optical spectroscopy, which can realize simultaneous high spectral and...onto a single-element detector. Each mask yields one intensity value on the detector, and by measuring the intensities for a sequence of different...in the 2DFT spectrum. 9 Figure 8. Comparison of 2DFT spectra. Absolute- value 2DFT spectra of (a) IR-144 cyanine dye ( ) and (b) LH2

  2. Two-dimensional cell tracking by FPGA-optical correlation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solís, Iraís; Torres-Cisneros, M.; Aviña-Cervantes, J. G.; Ibarra-Manzano, O. G.; Debeir, O.; Ledesma-Orozco, S.; Pérez-Careta, E.; Sanchez-Mondragón, J. J.

    2009-06-01

    Our work uses 1080 images sequence obtained from "in vitro" samples taken every 4 min from a microscope under phase contrast technique. These images are in JPEG format and are 500×700 pixels size with a compression rate of 3:1. We developed an algorithm and characterize it over several image operations against the tracking effectiveness and its robustness respect mitosis and cell shape change. Image equalization, dilation and erosion were the image processing procedures founded to provide best tracking results. Equalization procedure, for example, required a time delay of 5 sec for a size target of 60×90 pixels and 9 sec for size target of 89×100 pixels. This algorithm was implemented into a FPGA which controlled our optical correlator in order to performance all Fourier operations by optical method. Our results showed that the use of the optical correlator can reduce the time consuming in the image process until for 90% which able us to track cells in vascular structure.

  3. Generation of eye field/optic vesicle-like structures from human embryonic stem cells under two-dimensional and chemically defined conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvini, Maryam; Parivar, Kazem; Safari, Fatemeh; Tondar, Mahdi

    2015-03-01

    Despite the enormous progress in studying retinal cell differentiation from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), none of the reported protocols have produced a cost-effective eye field cells with the capability to further differentiate into retinal derivatives. In this study, by drawing chemicals on our four-step differentiation strategy, we demonstrated the ability of hESCs in assembling such qualifications to follow human retinogenesis in a serum- and feeder-free adherent condition. Two-dimensional (2D) populations of eye field cells arose within early forebrain progeny upon hESCs differentiation. Gene expression analysis showed that the treatment of hESCs with a combination of selected small molecules (SMs) gave rise to the higher expressions of eye field-specific genes, PAX6, RX, and SIX3. Thereafter, a subset of cells gained the transient features of advancing retinal differentiation, including optic vesicle (OV)-like structures, which expressed MITF and CHX10 in a manner imitated in vivo human retinal development. The competency of derived cells in differentiation to retinal derivatives was further investigated. The gene analysis of the cells showed more propensity for generating retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) than neural retina (NR). The generation of OV-like structures in 2D cultures can shed light on molecular events governing retinal specification. It can also facilitate the study of human retinal development.

  4. Optical characterization of two-dimensional array of 2,048 tilting micromirrors for astronomical spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canonica, Michael D; Zamkotsian, Frédéric; Lanzoni, Patrick; Noell, Wilfried; De Rooij, Nico

    2013-09-23

    A micromirror array composed of 2048 silicon micromirrors measuring 200 × 100 μm² and tilting by 25° was developed as a reconfigurable slit mask for multi-object spectroscopy (MOS) in astronomy. The fill factor, contrast, and mirror deformation at both room and cryogenic temperatures were investigated. Contrast was measured using an optical setup that mimics a MOS instrument, and mirror deformation was characterized using a Twyman-Green interferometer. The results indicate that the array exhibited a fill factor of 82%, a contrast ratio of 1000:1, and surface mirror deformations of 8 nm and 27 nm for mirrors tilted at 298 K and 162 K, respectively.

  5. Graphene and graphene-like 2D materials for optical biosensing and bioimaging: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chengzhou; Du, Dan; Lin, Yuehe

    2015-09-01

    The increasing demands of bioassay and biomedical applications have significantly promoted the rational design and fabrication of a wide range of functional nanomaterials. Coupling these advanced nanomaterials with biomolecule recognition events leads to novel sensing and diagnostic platforms. Because of their unique structures and multifunctionalities, two-dimensional nanomaterials, such as graphene and graphene-like materials (e.g., graphitic carbon nitride, transition metal dichalcogenides, boron nitride, and transition metal oxides), have stimulated great interest in the field of optical biosensors and imaging because of their innovative mechanical, physicochemical and optical properties. Depending on the different applications, the graphene and graphene-like nanomaterials can be tailored to form either fluorescent emitters or efficient fluorescence quenchers, making them powerful platforms for fabricating a series of optical biosensors to sensitively detect various targets including ions, small biomolecules, DNA/RNA and proteins. This review highlights the recent progress in optical biosensors based on graphene and graphene-like 2D materials and their imaging applications. Finally, the opportunities and some critical challenges in this field are also addressed.

  6. Transparent EuTiO3 films: a possible two-dimensional magneto-optical device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussmann-Holder, Annette; Roleder, Krystian; Stuhlhofer, Benjamin; Logvenov, Gennady; Lazar, Iwona; Soszyński, Andrzej; Koperski, Janusz; Simon, Arndt; Köhler, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    The magneto-optical activity of high quality transparent thin films of insulating EuTiO3 (ETO) deposited on a thin SrTiO3 (STO) substrate, both being non-magnetic materials, are demonstrated to be a versatile tool for light modulation. The operating temperature is close to room temperature and allows for multiple device engineering. By using small magnetic fields birefringence of the samples can be switched off and on. Similarly, rotation of the sample in the field can modify its birefringence Δn. In addition, Δn can be increased by a factor of 4 in very modest fields with simultaneously enhancing the operating temperature by almost 100 K.

  7. Influence of disorder and deformation on the optical properties of a two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Wen-Qian; Liu Yu-Min; Wang Dong-Lin; Han Li-Hong; Guo Xuan; Yu Zhong-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the effect of disorder and mechanical deformation on a two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguide.The dispersion characteristics and transmittance of the waveguide are studied using the finite element method.Results show that the geometric change of the dielectric material perpendicular to the light propagation direction has a larger influence on the waveguide characteristics than that parallel to the light propagation direction.Mechanical deformation has an obvious influence on the performance of the waveguide.In particular,longitudinal deformed structure exhibits distinct optical characteristics from the ideal one.Studies on this work will provide useful guideline to the fabrication and practical applications based on photonic crystal waveguides.

  8. Laser driven intraband optical transitions in two-dimensional quantum dots and quantum rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barseghyan, M. G.; Kirakosyan, A. A.; Laroze, D.

    2017-01-01

    The intraband optical absorption have been investigated in the presence of hydrogenic donor impurity in GaAs/GaAlAs quantum dot and quantum ring in the intense laser field. The single electron energy spectrum and wave functions have been found using the effective mass approximation and exact diagonalization technique. Different selection rules are obtained for intraband transitions depending on the direction of incident light polarization. Due to the accidental degeneracy of the laser dressed impurity states the crossings of the curves of the threshold energies and the dipole matrix elements on laser field parameter have been observed. The intraband absorption coefficient is calculated for different locations of hydrogenic donor impurity and different values of intense laser field parameter. The obtained results show that the absorption spectrum can exhibit either a blue- or redshift depending on the impurity location, values of the laser field parameter and direction of incident light polarization. The obtained theoretical results indicate a novel opportunity to tune the performance of new devices, based on the quantum dots and quantum rings and to control their specific properties by means of intense laser and hydrogenic donor impurity.

  9. Enhanced trapping of colding lithium by using the multiple-sideband cooling in a two-dimensional magneto-optical trap

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Kai; Gao, Tianyou; Peng, Shi-Guo; Jiang, Kaijun

    2015-01-01

    Trapping lithium with a big number in a simplified experimental setup has difficulties and challenges today. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate the enhancement of \\textsuperscript{6}Li trapping efficiency in a three-dimensional magneto-optical trap (3D MOT) by using the multiple-sideband cooling in a two-dimensional magneto-optical trap (2D MOT). To improve the number of trapped atoms, we broaden the cooling light spectrum to 102 MHz composed of seven frequency components and then trap atoms with a number of $6.0\\times10^8$ which is about 4 times compared to that in the single-frequency cooling. The capture velocity and dependence of atomic number on the laser detuning have been analyzed, where the experimental result has a good agreement with the theoretical prediction based on a simple two-level model. We also analyze the loss rate of alkali metals due to fine-structure exchanging collisions and find that the multiple-sideband cooling is special valid for lithium.

  10. Integral field optical spectroscopy of a representative sample of ULIRGs: II. Two-dimensional kpc-scale extinction structure

    CERN Document Server

    García-Marín, M; Arribas, S

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the two-dimensional kpc-scale structure of the extinction in a representative sample of local ULIRGs using the Halpha/Hbeta line ratio.We use optical integral field spectroscopy obtained with the INTEGRAL instrument at the William Herschel Telescope. Complementary optical and near-IR high angular resolution HST images have also been used. The extinction exhibits a very complex and patchy structure in ULIRGs on kpc scales, from basically transparent regions to others deeply embedded in dust (Av~0.0 to Av~8.0 mag). Nuclear extinction covers a broad range in Av from 0.6 to 6 mag, 69% of the nuclei having Av>2.0 mag. Extinction in the external regions is substantially lower than in the nuclei with 64% of the ULIRGs in the sample having median Av of less than 2 mag for the entire galaxy. While post-coalescence nuclei tend to cluster around Av values of 2 to 3 mag, pre-coalescence nuclei appear more homogeneously distributed over the entire 0.4 mag

  11. Synthesis, crystal structure, vibrational spectra, optical properties and theoretical investigation of a two-dimensional self-assembled organic-inorganic hybrid material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammak, Hajer; Elleuch, Slim; Feki, Habib; Abid, Younes

    2016-11-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid material of formula (C4H3SC2H4NH3)2[PbI4] was synthesized and studied by X-ray diffraction, Infrared absorption, Raman scattering, UV-Visible absorption and photoluminescence measurements. The molecule crystallizes as an organic-inorganic two-dimensional (2D) structure built up from infinite PbI6 octahedra surrounded by organic cations. Such a structure may be regarded as quantum wells system in which the inorganic layers act as semiconductor wells and the organic cations act as insulator barriers. Room temperature IR and Raman spectra were recorded in the 520-3500 and 10-3500 cm-1 frequency range, respectively. Optical absorption measurements performed on thin films of (C4H3SC2H4NH3)2[PbI4] revealed three distinct bands at 2.4, 2.66 and 3.25 eV. We also report DFT calculations of the electric dipole moments (μ), polarizability (α), the static first hyperpolarizability (β) and HOMO-LUMO analysis of the title compound investigated by GAUSSIAN 09 package. The calculated static first Hyperpolarizability is equal to 11.46 × 10-31 esu.

  12. Development of 2-D-MAX-DOAS and retrievals of trace gases and aerosols optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Ivan

    Air pollution is a major problem worldwide that adversely a_ects human health, impacts ecosystems and climate. In the atmosphere, there are hundreds of important compounds participating in complex atmospheric reactions linked to air quality and climate. Aerosols are relevant because they modify the radiation balance, a_ect clouds, and thus Earth albedo. The amount of aerosol is often characterized by the vertical integral through the entire height of the atmosphere of the logarithm fraction of incident light that is extinguished called Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD). The AOD at 550 nm (AOD550) over land is 0.19 (multi annual global mean), and that over oceans is 0.13. About 43 % of the Earth surface shows AOD550 smaller than 0.1. There is a need for measurement techniques that are optimized to measure aerosol optical properties under low AOD conditions, sample spatial scales that resemble satellite ground-pixels and atmospheric models, and help integrate remote sensing and in-situ observations to obtain optical closure on the effects of aerosols and trace gases in our changing environment. In this work, I present the recent development of the University of Colorado two dimensional (2-D) Multi-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (2-D-MAX-DOAS) instrument to measure the azimuth and altitude distribution of trace gases and aerosol optical properties simultaneously with a single instrument. The instrument measures solar scattered light from any direction in the sky, including direct sun light in the hyperspectral domain. In Chapter 2, I describe the capabilities of 2-D measurements in the context of retrievals of azimuth distributions of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), formaldehyde (HCHO), and glyoxal (CHOCHO), which are precursors for tropospheric O3 and aerosols. The measurements were carried out during the Multi-Axis DOAS Comparison campaign for Aerosols and Trace gases (MAD-CAT) campaign in Mainz, Germany and show the ability to bridge spatial scales to

  13. Crystallization studies on phase-change optical recording media by use of a two-dimensional periodic mark array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xun, X; Erwin, J K; Bletscher, W; Choi, J; Kallenbach, S; Mansuripur, M

    2001-12-10

    We present the results of crystallization studies in thin-film samples of amorphous and crystalline Ge(x)Sb(y)Te(z). The experiments, conducted at moderately elevated temperatures, are based on measurements of the first-order diffraction efficiency from a two-dimensional periodic array of recorded marks. When the samples are slowly heated above room temperature, changes in the efficiencies of various diffracted orders give information about the on-going crystallization process within the sample. Two different compositions of the GeSbTe alloy are used in these experiments. Measurements on Ge(2)Sb(2.3)Te(5) films show crystallization dominated by nucleation. For the Sb-rich eutectic composition Ge-(SbTe), crystallization is found to be dominated by growth from crystalline boundaries. We also show that crystalline marks written by relatively high-power laser pulses are different in their optical properties from the regions crystallized by slow heating of the sample to moderate temperatures.

  14. Acousto-optical interaction of surface acoustic and optical waves in a two-dimensional phoxonic crystal hetero-structure cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tian-Xue; Zou, Kui; Wang, Yue-Sheng; Zhang, Chuanzeng; Su, Xiao-Xing

    2014-11-17

    Phoxonic crystal is a promising material for manipulating sound and light simultaneously. In this paper, we theoretically demonstrate the propagation of acoustic and optical waves along the truncated surface of a two-dimensional square-latticed phoxonic crystal. Further, a phoxonic crystal hetero-structure cavity is proposed, which can simultaneously confine surface acoustic and optical waves. The interface motion and photoelastic effects are taken into account in the acousto-optical coupling. The results show obvious shifts in eigenfrequencies of the photonic cavity modes induced by different phononic cavity modes. The symmetry of the phononic cavity modes plays a more important role in the single-phonon exchange process than in the case of the multi-phonon exchange. Under the same deformation, the frequency shift of the photonic transverse electric mode is larger than that of the transverse magnetic mode.

  15. Topological defects in two-dimensional crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yong; Qi, Wei-Kai

    2008-01-01

    By using topological current theory, we study the inner topological structure of the topological defects in two-dimensional (2D) crystal. We find that there are two elementary point defects topological current in two-dimensional crystal, one for dislocations and the other for disclinations. The topological quantization and evolution of topological defects in two-dimensional crystals are discussed. Finally, We compare our theory with Brownian-dynamics simulations in 2D Yukawa systems.

  16. Optical selection rules for excitonic Rydberg series in the massive Dirac cones of hexagonal two-dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Pu; Yu, Hongyi; Wang, Yong; Yao, Wang

    2017-03-01

    We investigate the optical transition selection rules for excitonic Rydberg series formed in massive Dirac cones. The entanglement of the exciton envelop function with the pseudospin texture leads to anomalous selection rules for one-photon generation of excitons, where d orbitals can be excited with the opposite helicity selection rule from the s orbitals in a given valley. The trigonal warping effects in realistic hexagonal lattices further renders more excited states bright, where p orbitals can also be accessed by one-photon excitation with the opposite valley selection rules to the s orbitals. The one-photon generation of exciton in the various states and the intraexcitonic transition between these states are both dictated by the discrete in-plane rotational symmetry of the lattices, and our results show that in hexagonal 2D materials the symmetry allowed transitions are enabled when trigonal warping effects are included in the massive Dirac fermion model. In monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides where excitons can be generated by visible light and intraexcitonic transitions can be induced by infrared light, we give the strength of these optical transitions, estimated using modified hydrogenlike envelope functions combined with the optical transition matrix elements between the Bloch states calculated at various k points.

  17. Maximizing the Optical Band Gap in 2D Photonic Crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Kristian G.; Sigmund, Ole

    Topology optimization is used to find the 2D photonic crystal designs with the largest relative photonic band gaps. Starting points for the topology optimization are found with an exhaustive binary search on a low resolution grid.......Topology optimization is used to find the 2D photonic crystal designs with the largest relative photonic band gaps. Starting points for the topology optimization are found with an exhaustive binary search on a low resolution grid....

  18. Quantum and thermal phase transitions in a bosonic atom-molecule mixture in a two-dimensional optical lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Forges de Parny, L.; Rousseau, V. G.

    2017-01-01

    We study the ground state and the thermal phase diagram of a two-species Bose-Hubbard model, with U(1 ) ×Z2 symmetry, describing atoms and molecules on a two-dimensional optical lattice interacting via a Feshbach resonance. Using quantum Monte Carlo simulations and mean-field theory, we show that the conversion between the two species, coherently coupling the atomic and molecular states, has a crucial impact on the Mott-superfluid transition and stabilizes an insulating phase with a gap controlled by the conversion term—the Feshbach insulator—instead of a standard Mott-insulating phase. Depending on the detuning between atoms and molecules, this model exhibits three phases: the Feshbach insulator, a molecular condensate coexisting with noncondensed atoms, and a mixed atomic-molecular condensate. Employing finite-size scaling analysis, we observe three-dimensional (3D) X Y (3D Ising) transition when U(1 ) (Z2) symmetry is broken, whereas the transition is first order when both U(1 ) and Z2 symmetries are spontaneously broken. The finite-temperature phase diagram is also discussed. The thermal disappearance of the molecular superfluid leads to a Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition with unusual universal jump in the superfluid density. The loss of the quasi-long-range coherence of the mixed atomic and molecular superfluid is more subtle since only atoms exhibit conventional Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless criticality. We also observe a signal compatible with a classical first-order transition between the mixed superfluid and the normal Bose liquid at low temperature.

  19. Facile synthesis of CuSe nanoparticles and high-quality single-crystal two-dimensional hexagonal nanoplatelets with tunable near-infrared optical absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yimin; Korolkov, Ilia; Qiao, Xvsheng; Zhang, Xianghua; Wan, Jun; Fan, Xianping

    2016-06-01

    A rapid injection approach is used to synthesize the copper selenide nanoparticles and two-dimensional single crystal nanoplates. This technique excludes the use of toxic or expensive materials, increasing the availability of two-dimensional binary chalcogenide semiconductors. The structure of the nanocrystals has been studied and the possible formation mechanism of the nanoplates has been proposed. The optical absorption showed that the nanoplates demonstrated wide and tuneable absorption band in the visible and near infrared region. These nanoplates could be interesting for converting solar energy and for nanophotonic devices operating in the near infrared.

  20. Band-gap tuning and optical response of two-dimensional SixC1 -x : A first-principles real-space study of disordered two-dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhukhan, Banasree; Singh, Prashant; Nayak, Arabinda; Datta, Sujoy; Johnson, Duane D.; Mookerjee, Abhijit

    2017-08-01

    We present a real-space formulation for calculating the electronic structure and optical conductivity of random alloys based on Kubo-Greenwood formalism interfaced with augmented space recursion technique [Mookerjee, J. Phys. C 6, 1340 (1973), 10.1088/0022-3719/6/8/003] formulated with the tight-binding linear muffin-tin orbital basis with the van Leeuwen-Baerends corrected exchange potential [Singh, Harbola, Hemanadhan, Mookerjee, and Johnson, Phys. Rev. B 93, 085204 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevB.93.085204]. This approach has been used to quantitatively analyze the effect of chemical disorder on the configuration averaged electronic properties and optical response of two-dimensional honeycomb siliphene SixC1 -x beyond the usual Dirac-cone approximation. We predicted the quantitative effect of disorder on both the electronic structure and optical response over a wide energy range, and the results are discussed in the light of the available experimental and other theoretical data. Our proposed formalism may open up a facile way for planned band-gap engineering in optoelectronic applications.

  1. Assessing the influence of biofilm surface roughness on mass transfer by combining optical coherence tomography and two-dimensional modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunyan; Wagner, Michael; Lackner, Susanne; Horn, Harald

    2016-05-01

    Imaging and modeling are two major approaches in biofilm research to understand the physical and biochemical processes involved in biofilm development. However, they are often used separately. In this study we combined these two approaches to investigate substrate mass transfer and mass flux. Cross-sectional biofilm images were acquired by means of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for biofilms grown on carriers. A 2D biofilm model was developed incorporating OCT images as well as a simplified biofilm geometry serving as structural templates. The model incorporated fluid flow, substrate transfer and biochemical conversion of substrates and simulated the hydrodynamics surrounding the biofilm structure as well as the substrate distribution. The method allowed detailed analysis of the hydrodynamics and mass transfer characteristics at the micro-scale. Biofilm activity with respect to substrate fluxes was compared among different combinations of flow, substrate availability and biomass density. The combined approach revealed that higher substrate fluxes at heterogeneous biofilm surface under two conditions: pure diffusion and when high flow velocity along the biofilms surface renders the whole liquid-biofilm interface to be highly active. In-between the two conditions the substrate fluxes across the surface of smooth biofilm geometry were higher than that of the heterogeneous biofilms.

  2. Enhancement of acousto-optical coupling in two-dimensional air-slot phoxonic crystal cavities by utilizing surface acoustic waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Tian-Xue [Institute of Engineering Mechanics, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Wang, Yue-Sheng, E-mail: yswang@bjtu.edu.cn [Institute of Engineering Mechanics, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Zhang, Chuanzeng [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Siegen, D-57068 Siegen (Germany)

    2017-01-30

    A phoxonic crystal is a periodically patterned material that can simultaneously localize optical and acoustic modes. The acousto-optical coupling in two-dimensional air-slot phoxonic crystal cavities is investigated numerically. The photons can be well confined in the slot owing to the large electric field discontinuity at the air/dielectric interfaces. Besides, the surface acoustic modes lead to the localization of the phonons near the air-slot. The high overlap of the photonic and phononic cavity modes near the slot results in a significant enhancement of the moving interface effect, and thus strengthens the total acousto-optical interaction. The results of two cavities with different slot widths show that the coupling strength is dependent on the slot width. It is expected to achieve a strong acousto-optical/optomechanical coupling in air-slot phoxonic crystal structures by utilizing surface acoustic modes. - Highlights: • Two-dimensional air-slot phoxonic crystal cavities which can confine simultaneously optical and acoustic waves are proposed. • The acoustic and optical waves are highly confined near/in the air-slot. • The high overlap of the photonic and phononic cavity modes significantly enhances the moving interface effect. • Different factors which affect the acousto-optical coupling are discussed.

  3. Optical analogue of 2D heteronuclear double-quantum NMR

    CERN Document Server

    Tollerud, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Heteronuclear multi-quantum spectroscopy is a powerful part of the NMR toolbox, commonly used to identify specific sequences of atoms in complex pulse sequences designed to determine the structure of complex molecules, including proteins. Optical coherent multidimensional spectroscopy (CMDS) is analogous to multidimensional NMR and many of the techniques of NMR have been adapted for application in the optical regime. This has been highly successful, with CMDS being used to understand energy transfer in photosynthesis and many body effects in semiconductor nanostructures amongst many other scientific breakthroughs. Experimental challenges have, however, prevented the translation of heteronuclear multi-quantum NMR to the optical regime, where capabilities to isolate signals in otherwise congested spectra, reduce acquisition times and enable more incisive probes of multi-particle correlations and complex electronic systems would have great benefit. Here we utilise a diffraction based pulseshaper to impose the tw...

  4. Enhanced optical cross section via collective coupling of atomic dipoles in a 2D array

    CERN Document Server

    Bettles, Robert J; Adams, Charles S

    2015-01-01

    Enhancing the optical cross section is an enticing goal in light-matter interactions, due to its fundamental role in quantum and non-linear optics. Here, we show how dipolar interactions can suppress off-axis scattering in a two-dimensional atomic array, leading to a subradiant collective mode where the optical cross section is enhanced by an order of magnitude. As a consequence, it is possible to attain an optical depth which implies high fidelity extinction, from a monolayer. Using realistic experimental parameters, we also model how lattice vacancies and the atomic trapping depth affect the transmission, concluding that such high extinction should be possible, using current experimental techniques.

  5. Auto- and hetero-associative memory using a 2-D optical logic gate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin

    1989-01-01

    An optical associative memory system suitable for both auto- and hetero-associative recall is demonstrated. This system utilizes Hamming distance as the similarity measure between a binary input and a memory image with the aid of a two-dimensional optical EXCLUSIVE OR (XOR) gate and a parallel electronics comparator module. Based on the Hamming distance measurement, this optical associative memory performs a nearest neighbor search and the result is displayed in the output plane in real-time. This optical associative memory is fast and noniterative and produces no output spurious states as compared with that of the Hopfield neural network model.

  6. Investigational study of optical function materials for two-dimensional data processing; Nijigen joho shoriyo hikari kino zairyo ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper investigated/studied `space light modulation materials,` `dynamic hologram/memory materials,` `optical waveguide path materials,` etc. which become key materials in the high speed two dimensional processing. As to electrooptical materials proposed in this investigational study, the external electric field and the electric charges generated make quality of molecules themselves directly change to memory strong/weak signals of light. Therefore, the response velocity becomes less than a millionth of that of the liquid crystal display, and high speed which is needed for realtime moving image processing is anticipated. Hologram includes the phase information in addition to information on light strength. Therefore, it is a large capacity record medium and at the same time a record medium which can read/write two dimensional information as it is. With optical fiber, images cannot be transmitted as they are. Light waveguide path materials are those that accumulate roles of mirror and lens in a sheet of the material and construct a system which is strong in vibration, as optical parts connecting among materials for two dimensional data processing. 273 refs., 107 figs., 17 tabs.

  7. In situ orientation studies of a poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)/poly(epsilon-caprolactone) blend by rheo-optical fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation spectroscopic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Miriam; Siesler, Heinz W

    2009-12-01

    In the present study, the orientation of a poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB)/poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) blend was monitored during uniaxial elongation by rheo-optical Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and analyzed by generalized two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS). The dichroism of the delta(CH(2)) absorption bands of PHB and PCL was employed to determine the polymer chain orientation in the PHB/PCL blend during the elongation up to 267% strain. From the PHB and PCL specific orientation functions it was derived that the PCL chains orient into the drawing direction while the PHB chains orient predominantly perpendicular to the applied strain. To extract more detailed information about the polymer orientation during uniaxial elongation, 2D-COS analysis was employed for the dichroic difference of the polarization spectra recorded during the drawing process. In the corresponding synchronous and asynchronous 2D correlation plots, absorption bands characteristic of the crystalline and amorphous regions of PHB and PCL were separated. Furthermore, the 2D-COS analysis revealed that during the mechanical treatment the PCL domains orient before the PHB domains.

  8. Resonator chains of 2-D square dielectric optical microcavities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lohmeyer, Manfred

    2008-01-01

    Chains of coupled square dielectric cavities are investigated. Resonant transfer of optical power can be achieved along quite arbitrary, moderately long rectangular paths, even with individual standing-wave resonators of limited quality. We introduce an ab-initio coupled mode model that helps to int

  9. Silicon-on-insulator multimode-interference waveguide-based arrayed optical tweezers (SMART) for two-dimensional microparticle trapping and manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ting; Poon, Andrew W

    2013-01-28

    We demonstrate two-dimensional optical trapping and manipulation of 1 μm and 2.2 μm polystyrene particles in an 18 μm-thick fluidic cell at a wavelength of 1565 nm using the recently proposed Silicon-on-insulator Multimode-interference (MMI) waveguide-based ARrayed optical Tweezers (SMART) technique. The key component is a 100 μm square-core silicon waveguide with mm length. By tuning the fiber-coupling position at the MMI waveguide input facet, we demonstrate various patterns of arrayed optical tweezers that enable optical trapping and manipulation of particles. We numerically simulate the physical mechanisms involved in the arrayed trap, including the optical force, the heat transfer and the thermal-induced microfluidic flow.

  10. Optical probing of the metal-to-insulator transition in a two-dimensional high-mobility electron gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dionigi, F; Rossella, F; Bellani, V [Dipartimento di Fisica ' A Volta' and CNISM, Universita degli Studi di Pavia, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Amado, M [GISC and Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Diez, E [Laboratorio de Bajas Temperaturas, Universidad de Salamanca, 37008 Salamanca (Spain); Kowalik, K [Laboratoire National des Champs Magnetiques Intenses, CNRS, 38042 Grenoble (France); Biasiol, G [Istituto Officina dei Materiali CNR, Laboratorio TASC, 34149 Trieste (Italy); Sorba, L, E-mail: vittorio.bellani@unipv.it [NEST, Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR and Scuola Normale Superiore, 56126 Pisa (Italy)

    2011-06-15

    We study the quantum Hall liquid and the metal-insulator transition in a high-mobility two-dimensional electron gas, by means of photoluminescence and magnetotransport measurements. In the integer and fractional regime at {nu}>1/3, by analyzing the emission energy dispersion we probe the magneto-Coulomb screening and the hidden symmetry of the electron liquid. In the fractional regime above {nu}=1/3, the system undergoes metal-to-insulator transition, and in the insulating phase the dispersion becomes linear with evidence of an increased renormalized mass.

  11. Two-Dimensional Planetary Surface Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmati, H.; Sengupta, A.; Castillo, J.; McElrath, T.; Roberts, T.; Willis, P.

    2014-06-01

    A systems engineering study was conducted to leverage a new two-dimensional (2D) lander concept with a low per unit cost to enable scientific study at multiple locations with a single entry system as the delivery vehicle.

  12. Ultra-low power threshold for laser induced changes in optical properties of 2D Molybdenum dichalcogenides

    CERN Document Server

    Cadiz, Fabian; Wang, Gang; Kong, Wilson; Fan, Xi; Blei, Mark; Lagarde, Delphine; Gay, Maxime; Manca, Marco; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Amand, Thierry; Marie, Xavier; Renucci, Pierre; Tongay, Sefaattin; Urbaszek, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    The optical response of traditional semiconductors depends on the laser excitation power used in experiments. For two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors, laser excitation effects are anticipated to be vastly different due to complexity added by their ultimate thinness, high surface to volume ratio, and laser-membrane interaction effects. We show in this article that under laser excitation the optical properties of 2D materials undergo irreversible changes. Most surprisingly these effects take place even at low steady state excitation, which is commonly thought to be non-intrusive. In low temperature photoluminescence (PL) we show for monolayer (ML) MoSe2 samples grown by different techniques that laser treatment increases significantly the trion (i.e. charged exciton) contribution to the emission compared to the neutral exciton emission. Comparison between samples exfoliated onto different substrates shows that laser induced doping is more efficient for ML MoSe2 on SiO2/Si compared to h-BN and gold. For ML MoS2 ...

  13. Terahertz optical-Hall effect characterization of two-dimensional electron gas properties in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöche, S.; Shi, Junxia; Boosalis, A.; Kühne, P.; Herzinger, C. M.; Woollam, J. A.; Schaff, W. J.; Eastman, L. F.; Schubert, M.; Hofmann, T.

    2011-02-01

    The free-charge carrier mobility, sheet density, and effective mass of a two-dimensional electron gas are exemplarily determined in the spectral range from 640 GHz to 1 THz in a AlGaN/GaN heterostructure using the optical-Hall effect at room temperature. Complementary midinfrared spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements are performed for analysis of heterostructure constituents layer thickness, phonon mode, and free-charge carrier parameters. The electron effective mass is determined to be (0.22±0.04)m0. The high-frequency sheet density and carrier mobility parameters are in good agreement with results from dc electrical Hall effect measurements, indicative for frequency-independent carrier scattering mechanisms of the two-dimensional carrier distribution.

  14. Electronic equivalence of optical negative refraction and retroreflection in the two-dimensional systems with inhomogeneous spin-orbit couplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Bo; Ma, Zhongshui

    2013-01-01

    The negative refracted transmission and retroreflection of electrons in low-electron-density semiconductors, in the presence of spin-orbit coupling, are theoretically predicted. It is shown that negative electronic transport may occur owing to the occurrence of additional states whose wave vectors are antiparallel to their group velocities. We conclude that the transport emerges as negative in nature in the scattering process if the sign of its ray equation is reversed with respect to that of the incidence's. We demonstrate this finding in the hybrid of two-dimensional electron gases with different Rashba spin-orbit couplings. We also show that the fundamental of negative electric transport is promising to focus a divergent electronic beam in a spintronic sandwich structure with flat surfaces.

  15. Optical properties of the two-port resonant tunneling filters in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Cheng; Cheng Li-Feng; Kang Feng; Gan Lin; Zhang Dao-Zhong; Li Zhi-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    We have designed and fabricated two types of two-port resonant tunneling filters with a triangular air-hole lattice in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs.In order to improve the filtering efficiency,a feedback method is introduced by closing the waveguide.It is found that the relative position between the closed waveguide boundary and the resonator has an important impact on the dropping efficiency.Based on our analyses,two different types of filters are designed.The transmission spectra and scattering-light far-field patterns are measured,which agree well with theoretical prediction.In addition,the resonant filters are highly sensitive to the size of the resonant cavities,which are useful for practical applications.

  16. Photodetectors based on two dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lou; Zhongzhu, Liang; Guozhen, Shen

    2016-09-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials with unique properties have received a great deal of attention in recent years. This family of materials has rapidly established themselves as intriguing building blocks for versatile nanoelectronic devices that offer promising potential for use in next generation optoelectronics, such as photodetectors. Furthermore, their optoelectronic performance can be adjusted by varying the number of layers. They have demonstrated excellent light absorption, enabling ultrafast and ultrasensitive detection of light in photodetectors, especially in their single-layer structure. Moreover, due to their atomic thickness, outstanding mechanical flexibility, and large breaking strength, these materials have been of great interest for use in flexible devices and strain engineering. Toward that end, several kinds of photodetectors based on 2D materials have been reported. Here, we present a review of the state-of-the-art in photodetectors based on graphene and other 2D materials, such as the graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides, and so on. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61377033, 61574132, 61504136) and the State Key Laboratory of Applied Optics, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  17. Si-B-C陶瓷涂敷2D C/SiC复合材料的抗氧化性能%Oxidation resistance of two dimensional C/SiC composite coated with Si-B-C ceramic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左新章; 张立同; 刘永胜; 成来飞; 龚慧灵

    2013-01-01

    Two dimensional C/SiC composite coated with Si-B-C ceramic was prepared via chemical vapor deposition (CVD).Properties and structure evolution and self-healing mechanisms of the C/SiC composite were studied after oxidation for 10 h during 700-1200 ℃.At the same time,the evolution of morphologies,composition and phase for Si-B-C ceramic were also investigated.The experimental results show that the oxidation of Si-B-C ceramic accelerates with the temperature increasing,however,the oxidation scale is shallow and no more than 7 μm.With the temperature increasing,viscosity of borosilicate glass oxidized from Si-B-C ceramic reduces but volatilization accelerates.When the temperature increases to 1200 ℃,SiO2 crystallizes from borosilicate glass.C/SiC composite coated with Si-B-C ceramic shows an excellent oxidation resistance.Mass loss increases with temperature increasing,which is only 0.47% after oxidation for 10 h at 1200 ℃.Furthermore,the strength retention ratio is 91.6% at 1000 ℃,higher than that at other temperatures.The main mechanisms for excellent oxidation resistance of C/SiC composite is that borosilicatc glass oxidized from Si-B-C ceramic can seal cracks in composite effectively.%利用化学气相沉积(CVD)法制备了Si-B-C陶瓷涂敷改性的2D C/SiC复合材料,研究了其在700~1200℃氧化10 h性能和结构的演变规律以及自愈合机制,同时获得了Si-B-C涂层在不同温度氧化后的形貌、组分和物相转变规律.结果表明:涂敷在复合材料表面的Si-B-C陶瓷随温度的升高氧化加快,但氧化程度较低,不深于7μm;随温度的升高,氧化形成的硅硼玻璃黏度降低,挥发增强;当温度达到1200℃时,硅硼玻璃析出SiO2晶体;Si-B-C陶瓷涂敷改性的C/SiC具有优良的抗氧化性能,随氧化温度的升高,复合材料失重率增加,但在1200℃氧化10h后失重率仅为0.47%;此外材料在1000℃氧化后的强度保持率最高,达到91.6%,Si-B-C陶瓷氧化形

  18. All-optical cryptography of M-QAM formats by using two-dimensional spectrally sliced keys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbade, Marcelo L F; Cvijetic, Milorad; Messani, Carlos A; Alves, Cleiton J; Tenenbaum, Stefan

    2015-05-10

    There has been an increased interest in enhancing the security of optical communications systems and networks. All-optical cryptography methods have been considered as an alternative to electronic data encryption. In this paper we propose and verify the use of a novel all-optical scheme based on cryptographic keys applied on the spectral signal for encryption of the M-QAM modulated data with bit rates of up to 200 gigabits per second.

  19. Elucidating gigahertz acoustic modulation of extraordinary optical transmission through a two-dimensional array of nano-holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbricht, R.; Sakuma, H.; Imade, Y.; Otsuka, P. H.; Tomoda, M.; Matsuda, O.; Kim, H.; Park, G.-W.; Wright, O. B.

    2017-02-01

    The ultrafast modulation of light transmitted by a metamaterial making up an extraordinary optical transmission geometry is investigated by means of optical pump-probe spectroscopy. Using a sample consisting of a lattice of square nano-holes in a gold film on a glass substrate, we monitor the high-frequency oscillations in the intensity of transmitted infrared light. A variety of gigahertz acoustic modes, involving the opening and shutting motion of the holes as well as the straining of the glass substrate below the holes, are revealed to be active in the optical modulation. Numerical simulations of the transient deformations and strain fields elucidate the nature of the vibrational modes contributing most strongly to the variations in optical transmission, and point to the hole-area modulation as the dominant effect. Potential applications include ultrafast acousto-optic modulators.

  20. Titanium trisulfide (TiS3): a 2D semiconductor with quasi-1D optical and electronic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Island, Joshua O.; Biele, Robert; Barawi, Mariam; Clamagirand, José M.; Ares, José R.; Sánchez, Carlos; van der Zant, Herre S. J.; Ferrer, Isabel J.; D'Agosta, Roberto; Castellanos-Gomez, Andres

    2016-03-01

    We present characterizations of few-layer titanium trisulfide (TiS3) flakes which, due to their reduced in-plane structural symmetry, display strong anisotropy in their electrical and optical properties. Exfoliated few-layer flakes show marked anisotropy of their in-plane mobilities reaching ratios as high as 7.6 at low temperatures. Based on the preferential growth axis of TiS3 nanoribbons, we develop a simple method to identify the in-plane crystalline axes of exfoliated few-layer flakes through angle resolved polarization Raman spectroscopy. Optical transmission measurements show that TiS3 flakes display strong linear dichroism with a magnitude (transmission ratios up to 30) much greater than that observed for other anisotropic two-dimensional (2D) materials. Finally, we calculate the absorption and transmittance spectra of TiS3 in the random-phase-approximation (RPA) and find that the calculations are in qualitative agreement with the observed experimental optical transmittance.

  1. Two-dimensional cubic convolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenbach, Stephen E; Geng, Frank

    2003-01-01

    The paper develops two-dimensional (2D), nonseparable, piecewise cubic convolution (PCC) for image interpolation. Traditionally, PCC has been implemented based on a one-dimensional (1D) derivation with a separable generalization to two dimensions. However, typical scenes and imaging systems are not separable, so the traditional approach is suboptimal. We develop a closed-form derivation for a two-parameter, 2D PCC kernel with support [-2,2] x [-2,2] that is constrained for continuity, smoothness, symmetry, and flat-field response. Our analyses, using several image models, including Markov random fields, demonstrate that the 2D PCC yields small improvements in interpolation fidelity over the traditional, separable approach. The constraints on the derivation can be relaxed to provide greater flexibility and performance.

  2. Impact of Radii Ratios on a Two-Dimensional Cloaking Structure and Corresponding Analysis for Practical Design at Optical Wavelengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Anam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is an extension to the evaluation and analysis of a two-dimensional cylindrical cloak in the Terahertz or visible range spectrum using Finite Difference Time-Domain (FDTD method. It was concluded that it is possible to expand the frequency range of a cylindrical cloaking model by careful scaling of the inner and outer radius of the simulation geometry with respect to cell size and/or number of time steps in the simulation grid while maintaining appropriate stability conditions. Analysis in this study is based on a change in the radii ratio, that is, outer radius to inner radius, of the cloaking structure for an array of wavelengths in the visible spectrum. Corresponding outputs show inconsistency in the cloaking pattern with respect to frequency. The inconsistency is further increased as the radii ratio is decreased. The results also help to establish a linear relationship between the transmission coefficient and the real component of refractive index with respect to different radii ratios which may simplify the selection of the material for practical design purposes. Additional performance analysis is carried out such that the dimensions of the cloak are held constant at an average value and the frequency varied to determine how a cloaked object may be perceived by the human eye which considers different wavelengths to be superimposed on each other simultaneously.

  3. ScintSim1: A new Monte Carlo simulation code for transport of optical photons in 2D arrays of scintillation detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosleh-Shirazi, Mohammad Amin; Zarrini-Monfared, Zinat; Karbasi, Sareh; Zamani, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) arrays of thick segmented scintillators are of interest as X-ray detectors for both 2D and 3D image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT). Their detection process involves ionizing radiation energy deposition followed by production and transport of optical photons. Only a very limited number of optical Monte Carlo simulation models exist, which has limited the number of modeling studies that have considered both stages of the detection process. We present ScintSim1, an in-house optical Monte Carlo simulation code for 2D arrays of scintillation crystals, developed in the MATLAB programming environment. The code was rewritten and revised based on an existing program for single-element detectors, with the additional capability to model 2D arrays of elements with configurable dimensions, material, etc., The code generates and follows each optical photon history through the detector element (and, in case of cross-talk, the surrounding ones) until it reaches a configurable receptor, or is attenuated. The new model was verified by testing against relevant theoretically known behaviors or quantities and the results of a validated single-element model. For both sets of comparisons, the discrepancies in the calculated quantities were all detector optimization.

  4. Highly sensitive size discrimination of sub-micron objects using optical Fourier processing based on two-dimensional Gabor filters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robert M. Pasternack; Zhen Qian; Jing-Yi Zheng; Dimitris N. Metaxas; Nada N. Boustany

    2009-01-01

    .... The method consists of applying an optical Fourier filter bank consisting of Gabor-like filters of varying periods and extracting the optimum filter period that maximizes the filtered object signal...

  5. Two-dimensional subwavelength plasmonic lattice solitons

    CERN Document Server

    Ye, F; Hu, B; Panoiu, N C

    2010-01-01

    We present a theoretical study of plasmonic lattice solitons (PLSs) formed in two-dimensional (2D) arrays of metallic nanowires embedded into a nonlinear medium with Kerr nonlinearity. We analyze two classes of 2D PLSs families, namely, fundamental and vortical PLSs in both focusing and defocusing media. Their existence, stability, and subwavelength spatial confinement are studied in detai

  6. Terahertz all-optical NOR and AND logic gates based on 2D photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parandin, Fariborz; Karkhanehchi, Mohammad Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    Usually, photonic crystals are used in designing optical logic gates. This study focuses on the design and simulation of an all optical NOR and AND logic gates based on two dimensional photonic crystals. The simplicity of the proposed structure is a characteristic feature of this designation. Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) as well as Plane Wave Expansion (PWE) methods have been used for this structural analysis. The simulation results revealed an increase in the interval between "zero" and "one" logic levels. Also, the simple structure and its small size demonstrate the usefulness of this structure in optical integrated circuits. The proposed optical gates can operate with a bit rate of about 1.54 Tbit/s.

  7. Projectile Two-dimensional Coordinate Measurement Method Based on Optical Fiber Coding Fire and its Coordinate Distribution Probability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hanshan; Lei, Zhiyong

    2013-01-01

    To improve projectile coordinate measurement precision in fire measurement system, this paper introduces the optical fiber coding fire measurement method and principle, sets up their measurement model, and analyzes coordinate errors by using the differential method. To study the projectile coordinate position distribution, using the mathematical statistics hypothesis method to analyze their distributing law, firing dispersion and probability of projectile shooting the object center were put under study. The results show that exponential distribution testing is relatively reasonable to ensure projectile position distribution on the given significance level. Through experimentation and calculation, the optical fiber coding fire measurement method is scientific and feasible, which can gain accurate projectile coordinate position.

  8. Single-lens Fourier-transform-based optical color image encryption using dual two-dimensional chaotic maps and the Fresnel transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yonggang; Tang, Chen; Li, Biyuan; Chen, Xia; Xu, Wenjun; Cai, Yuanxue

    2017-01-20

    We propose an optical color image encryption system based on the single-lens Fourier transform, the Fresnel transform, and the chaotic random phase masks (CRPMs). The proposed encryption system contains only one optical lens, which makes it more efficient and concise to implement. The introduction of the Fresnel transform makes the first phase mask of the proposed system also act as the main secret key when the input image is a non-negative amplitude-only map. The two CRPMs generated by dual two-dimensional chaotic maps can provide more security to the proposed system. In the proposed system, the key management is more convenient and the transmission volume is reduced greatly. In addition, the secret keys can be updated conveniently in each encryption process to invalidate the chosen plaintext attack and the known plaintext attack. Numerical simulation results have demonstrated the feasibility and security of the proposed encryption system.

  9. Local doping of two-dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Dillon; Velasco, Jr, Jairo; Ju, Long; Kahn, Salman; Lee, Juwon; Germany, Chad E.; Zettl, Alexander K.; Wang, Feng; Crommie, Michael F.

    2016-09-20

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to locally doping two-dimensional (2D) materials. In one aspect, an assembly including a substrate, a first insulator disposed on the substrate, a second insulator disposed on the first insulator, and a 2D material disposed on the second insulator is formed. A first voltage is applied between the 2D material and the substrate. With the first voltage applied between the 2D material and the substrate, a second voltage is applied between the 2D material and a probe positioned proximate the 2D material. The second voltage between the 2D material and the probe is removed. The first voltage between the 2D material and the substrate is removed. A portion of the 2D material proximate the probe when the second voltage was applied has a different electron density compared to a remainder of the 2D material.

  10. Highly sensitive size discrimination of sub-micron objects using optical Fourier processing based on two-dimensional Gabor filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasternack, Robert M; Qian, Zhen; Zheng, Jing-Yi; Metaxas, Dimitris N; Boustany, Nada N

    2009-07-06

    We use optical Gabor-like filtering implemented with a digital micromirror device to achieve nanoscale sensitivity to changes in the size of finite and periodic objects imaged at low resolution. The method consists of applying an optical Fourier filter bank consisting of Gabor-like filters of varying periods and extracting the optimum filter period that maximizes the filtered object signal. Using this optimum filter period as a measure of object size, we show sensitivity to a 7.5 nm change in the period of a chirped phase mask with period around 1 microm. We also show 30 nm sensitivity to change in the size of polystyrene spheres with diameters around 500 nm. Unlike digital post-processing our optical processing method retains its sensitivity when implemented at low magnification in undersampled images. Furthermore, the optimum Gabor filter period found experimentally is linearly related to sphere diameter over the range 0.46 microm-1 microm and does not rely on a predictive scatter model such as Mie theory. The technique may have applications in high throughput optical analysis of subcellular morphology to study organelle function in living cells.

  11. 2D wave-front shaping in optical superlattices using nonlinear volume holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Hong, Xu-Hao; Lu, Rong-Er; Yue, Yang-Yang; Zhang, Chao; Qin, Yi-Qiang; Zhu, Yong-Yuan

    2016-07-01

    Nonlinear volume holography is employed to realize arbitrary wave-front shaping during nonlinear processes with properly designed 2D optical superlattices. The concept of a nonlinear polarization wave in nonlinear volume holography is investigated. The holographic imaging of irregular patterns was performed using 2D LiTaO3 crystals with fundamental wave propagating along the spontaneous polarization direction, and the results agree well with the theoretical predictions. This Letter not only extends the application area of optical superlattices, but also offers an efficient method for wave-front shaping technology.

  12. Energy-efficient optical line terminal for WDM-OFDM-PON based on two-dimensional subcarrier and layer allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaofeng; Cao, Pan; Zhuang, Zhiming; Zhang, Liang; Yang, Qi; Su, Yikai

    2012-11-05

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a scheme to reduce the energy consumption of optical line terminal (OLT) in wavelength division multiplexing - orthogonal frequency division multiplexing - passive optical networks (WDM-OFDM-PONs). In our scheme, a wireless communication technique, termed layered modulation, is introduced to maximize the transmission capacity of OFDM modulation module in the OLT by multiplexing data from different ONU groups with signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) margins onto the same subcarriers. With adaptive and dynamic subcarrier and layer allocation, several ONU groups with low traffic demands can share one OFDM modulation module to deliver their data during non-peak hours of a day, thus greatly reducing the number of running devices and minimizing the energy consumption of the OLT. Numerical calculation shows that an energy efficiency improvement of 28.3% in the OLT can be achieved by using proposed scheme compared to the conventional WDM-OFDM-PON.

  13. Strongly interacting two-dimensional Dirac fermions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lim, L.K.; Lazarides, A.; Hemmerich, Andreas; de Morais Smith, C.

    2009-01-01

    We show how strongly interacting two-dimensional Dirac fermions can be realized with ultracold atoms in a two-dimensional optical square lattice with an experimentally realistic, inherent gauge field, which breaks time reversal and inversion symmetries. We find remarkable phenomena in a temperature

  14. Conditionally sampled two-dimensional optical wavefront measurements in the near-nozzle region of a heated axisymmetric jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugo, Ronald J.; McMackin, Lenore J.

    1996-10-01

    The time-evolution of optical degradation in the near nozzle region of a heated axisymmetric jet is measured using conditional sampling techniques. A novel linearized stability experiment is performed in order to identify the flowfield states most applicable for conditional sampling techniques. The results of the conditional sampling experiment exhibit a condition where two distinct flowfield states are evident. Potential explanations for the observance of these two distinct states are proposed, with the most probable explanation being due to pi-jumps that can arise between the phase of the excitation signal and the phase of the flowfield events.

  15. Facile synthesis of CuSe nanoparticles and high-quality single-crystal two-dimensional hexagonal nanoplatelets with tunable near-infrared optical absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yimin [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Korolkov, Ilia [Laboratory of Glasses and Ceramics, Institute of Chemistry, CNRS-Université de Rennes I, Campus de Beaulieu, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Qiao, Xvsheng [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Zhang, Xianghua [Laboratory of Glasses and Ceramics, Institute of Chemistry, CNRS-Université de Rennes I, Campus de Beaulieu, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Wan, Jun; Fan, Xianping [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2016-06-15

    A rapid injection approach is used to synthesize the copper selenide nanoparticles and two-dimensional single crystal nanoplates. This technique excludes the use of toxic or expensive materials, increasing the availability of two-dimensional binary chalcogenide semiconductors. The structure of the nanocrystals has been studied and the possible formation mechanism of the nanoplates has been proposed. The optical absorption showed that the nanoplates demonstrated wide and tuneable absorption band in the visible and near infrared region. These nanoplates could be interesting for converting solar energy and for nanophotonic devices operating in the near infrared. - Graphical abstract: TEM images of the copper selenides nanoparticles and nanoplates synthesized at 180 °C for 0 min, 10 min, 60 min. And the growth mechanism of the copper selenide nanoplates via the “oriented attachment”. Display Omitted - Highlights: • CuSe nanoparticles and nanoplates are synthesized by a rapid injection approach. • CuSe band gap can be widely tuned simply by modifying the synthesized time. • Al{sup 3+} ions have a significant impact on the growth rate of the nanoplates. • Growth mechanism of the CuSe nanoplates is based on the “oriented attachment”.

  16. Approach to quantify two-dimensional strain of chick embryonic heart in early stage based on spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuqian; Dou, Shidan; Zhu, Wenlong; Wang, Yi; Xu, Tao; Wang, Fengwen; Ma, Zhenhe

    2015-03-01

    The heart undergoes remarkable changes during embryonic development due to genetic programming and epigenetic influences, in which mechanical loads is a key factor. As embryonic research development, an important goal is to develop mathematical models that describe the influence of mechanics on embryonic heart development. However, basic parameters for the modeling are difficult to acquire since the embryonic heart is tiny and beating fast in the early stages. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) technique provides depth-resolved image with high resolution and high acquisition speed in a noninvasive manner. In this paper, we performed 4D[(x,y,z) + t] scan on the outflow tract (OFT) of the chick embryonic heart at stage of HH18(~ 3 days of incubation) in vivo using spectral domain OCT (SDOCT). Parameters such as displacement and geometrical size of the OFT were extracted from the structural images of the SDOCT. Two-dimensional strain vector were solved using strain-displacement relations in curvilinear cylindrical coordinates based on kinetic theory of elasticity. Based on the geometrical size and other initial conditions, two-dimensional elasticity finite element model of the OFT myocardial wall deformation were established and then solved by direct frequency response method. Comparison between experimental data and simulation result shows the utility of the finite element models. Our results demonstrate that mathematical modeling based on parameters provided by SDOCT is a useful approach for studying cardiac development in early stage.

  17. Optical absorbance and band-gap engineering of (BN) 1 -x(C2)x two-dimensional alloys: Phase separation and composition fluctuation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilhon, I.; Marques, M.; Teles, L. K.; Bechstedt, F.

    2017-01-01

    The (BN) 1 -x(C2)x alloys are promising materials for band-gap engineering in two-dimensional electronics. In this work, we provide a complete scenario of statistical possibilities for the distribution of atoms and its influence on electronic and optical properties. Using first-principles calculations combined with the generalized quasichemical approximation to account for disorder effects, we study the properties of these two-dimensional alloys as a function of their average composition. Our results show that atomic arrangements with C-C and B-N bonds are energetically favored over the ones with B-B and N-N bonds, explaining the known tendency to phase separation, verified by a T -x phase diagram. We calculate the energy gap as a function of the composition considering both composition fluctuation and phase separation effects. Experimental data are discussed in this context. Finally, we obtain absorption spectra reproducing a two-peak pattern for intermediate carbon concentrations found experimentally and identified with phase-segregated instead of homogeneous alloys.

  18. Binding energy of two-dimensional biexcitons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Jai; Birkedal, Dan; Vadim, Lyssenko;

    1996-01-01

    Using a model structure for a two-dimensional (2D) biexciton confined in a quantum well, it is shown that the form of the Hamiltonian of the 2D biexciton reduces into that of an exciton. The binding energies and Bohr radii of a 2D biexciton in its various internal energy states are derived...... analytically using the fractional dimension approach. The ratio of the binding energy of a 2D biexciton to that of a 2D exciton is found to be 0.228, which agrees very well with the recent experimental value. The results of our approach are compared with those of earlier theories....

  19. Optical Transient-Grating Measurements of Spin Diffusion andRelaxation in a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Christopher Phillip [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Spin diffusion in n-GaAs quantum wells, as measured by our optical transient-grating technique, is strongly suppressed relative to that of charge. Over a broad range of temperatures and dopings, the suppression of Ds relative to Dc agrees quantitatively with the prediction of ''spin Coulomb dra'' theory, which takes into account the exchange of spin in electron-electron collisions. Moreover, the spin-diffusion length, Ls, is a nearly constant 1 micrometer over the same range of T and n, despite Ds's varying by nearly two orders of magnitude. This constancy supports the D'yakonov-Perel'-Kachorovskii model of spin relaxation through interrupted precessional dephasing in the spin-orbit field.

  20. Spin-orbital exchange of strongly interacting fermions in the p band of a two-dimensional optical lattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhenyu; Zhao, Erhai; Liu, W Vincent

    2015-03-13

    Mott insulators with both spin and orbital degeneracy are pertinent to a large number of transition metal oxides. The intertwined spin and orbital fluctuations can lead to rather exotic phases such as quantum spin-orbital liquids. Here, we consider two-component (spin 1/2) fermionic atoms with strong repulsive interactions on the p band of the optical square lattice. We derive the spin-orbital exchange for quarter filling of the p band when the density fluctuations are suppressed, and show that it frustrates the development of long-range spin order. Exact diagonalization indicates a spin-disordered ground state with ferro-orbital order. The system dynamically decouples into individual Heisenberg spin chains, each realizing a Luttinger liquid accessible at higher temperatures compared to atoms confined to the s band.

  1. Optical Transient-Grating Measurements of Spin Diffusion andRelaxation in a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Christopher P.

    2005-12-15

    Spin diffusion in n-GaAs quantum wells, as measured by our optical transient-grating technique, is strongly suppressed relative to that of charge. Over a broad range of temperatures and dopings, the suppression of Ds relative to Dc agrees quantitatively with the prediction of ''spin Coulomb dra'' theory, which takes into account the exchange of spin in electron-electron collisions. Moreover, the spin-diffusion length, Ls, is a nearly constant 1 micrometer over the same range of T and n, despite Ds's varying by nearly two orders of magnitude. This constancy supports the D'yakonov-Perel'-Kachorovskii model of spin relaxation through interrupted precessional dephasing in the spin-orbit field.

  2. A Method to Formulate the Unit Cell for Density Functional Theory (DFT) Calculations of the Electronic Band Structure of Heterostructures of Two-dimensional Nanosheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    distribution is unlimited. i CONTENTS Page Introduction 1 Two-dimensional Material Geometry and Analogs with Close-packed Systems 1 Matching...distribution is unlimited. 1 INTRODUCTION Two-dimensional (2D) material heterostructures offer novel and compelling electronic and optical...methods have undoubtedly been created for matching lattice constants of dissimilar nanomaterials , very few are actually covered explicitly in literature

  3. Comparison of 3D double inversion recovery and 2D STIR FLAIR MR sequences for the imaging of optic neuritis: pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodel, Jerome; Bocher, Anne-Laure; Pruvo, Jean-Pierre; Leclerc, Xavier [Hopital Roger Salengro, Department of Neuroradiology, Lille (France); Outteryck, Olivier; Zephir, Helene; Vermersch, Patrick [Hopital Roger Salengro, Department of Neurology, Lille (France); Lambert, Oriane [Fondation Ophtalmologique Rothschild, Department of Neuroradiology, Paris (France); Benadjaoud, Mohamed Amine [Radiation Epidemiology Team, Inserm, CESP Centre for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, U1018, Villejuif (France); Chechin, David [Philips Medical Systems, Suresnes (France)

    2014-12-15

    We compared the three-dimensional (3D) double inversion recovery (DIR) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequence with the coronal two-dimensional (2D) short tau inversion recovery (STIR) fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) for the detection of optic nerve signal abnormality in patients with optic neuritis (ON). The study group consisted of 31 patients with ON (44 pathological nerves) confirmed by visual-evoked potentials used as the reference. MRI examinations included 2D coronal STIR FLAIR and 3D DIR with 3-mm coronal reformats to match with STIR FLAIR. Image artefacts were graded for each portion of the optic nerves. Each set of MR images (2D STIR FLAIR, DIR reformats and multiplanar 3D DIR) was examined independently and separately for the detection of signal abnormality. Cisternal portion of optic nerves was better delineated with DIR (p < 0.001), while artefacts impaired analysis in four patients with STIR FLAIR. Inter-observer agreement was significantly improved (p < 0.001) on 3D DIR (κ = 0.96) compared with STIR FLAIR images (κ = 0.60). Multiplanar DIR images reached the best performance for the diagnosis of ON (95 % sensitive and 94 % specific). Our study showed a high sensitivity and specificity of 3D DIR compared with STIR FLAIR for the detection of ON. These findings suggest that the 3D DIR sequence may be more useful in patients suspected of ON. (orig.)

  4. Numerical design of X-ray tabletop Talbot interferometer using polycapillary optics as two-dimensional gratings with high aspect ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Weiyuan; Liu, Zhiguo; Sun, Tianxi; Sun, Xuepeng; Li, Fangzuo; Jiang, Bowen; Ding, Xunliang

    2015-12-01

    The polycapillary optics was proposed to be used as two-dimensional X-ray gratings with high aspect ratios for high energy X-rays. The X-ray Talbot interferometer was designed numerically using the polycapillary X-ray gratings and a conventional X-ray source. The simulation showed that it was available to get a high-aspect-ratio pattern of the polycapillary X-ray gratings for higher energies than 60 keV. Moreover, this design of polycapillary gratings decreased the requirement for high power of the X-ray source. The polycapillary X-ray gratings had potential applications in X-ray imaging technology for medical fields, industrial nondestructive tests, public security, physical science, chemical analysis, life science, nanoscience biology and energy science.

  5. Drude weight in quasi-two-dimensional organic conductors close to the Mott transition: Optical studies of the bandwidth, filling and temperature dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drichko, Natalia [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Polytekhnicheskaya 26, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); 1. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 57, 70550 Stuttgart (Germany)], E-mail: drichko@pi1.physik.uni-stuttgart.de; Dumm, Michael; Faltermeier, Daniel; Dressel, Martin [1. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 57, 70550 Stuttgart (Germany); Merino, Jaime [Dept. de Fisica Teorica de la Materia Condensada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain); Greco, Andres [Facultad de Ciencias Exactas Ingenieria y Agrimensura e Instituto de Fisica Rosario (UNR-CONICET), Rosario (Argentina)

    2007-09-01

    We explore the effects of electronic correlations in quasi-two-dimensional BEDT-TTF-based organic conductors with half, quarter and 1/5-filled bands. Close to the Mott transition but still on the metallic side, quasiparticles are observed in the 1/2-filled systems only at temperatures well below 100 K, with a considerable growth of the Drude-like contribution. In contrast, the 1/4-filled conductors show a zero-frequency conduction peak already at room temperature which increases slightly upon cooling. Basically no change with temperature is observed for the Drude contribution of the 1/5-filled compound. Optical studies allow us to investigate the formation of quasiparticles at low temperature for systems of different filling. The strongest effect is observed in 1/2-filled compounds, it becomes weaker in 1/4 filled, while in the 1/5-filled compound no change of the Dude-peak on temperature is seen.

  6. Optical nanostructures in 2D for wide-diameter and broadband beam collimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, James; Anguita, José V.; Chen, Ying; Silva, S. Ravi P.

    2016-01-01

    Eliminating curved refracting lensing components used in conventional projection, imaging and sensing optical assemblies, is critical to enable compactness and miniaturisation of optical devices. A suitable means is replacing refracting lenses with two-dimensional optical media in flat-slab form, to achieve an equivalent optical result. One approach, which has been the focus of intense research, uses a Veselago lens which features a negative-index metamaterial. However, practical implementations rely on resonance techniques, thus broadband operation at optical frequencies imposes significant technical challenges that have been difficult to overcome. Here, we demonstrate a highly-collimated, broadband, wide-diameter beam from a compact source in flat-slab form, based on light collimation using nanomaterials ordered in patterns and embedded into flexible polymers. These provide a highly anisotropic absorption coefficient due to patterns created by vertical carbon nanotube structures grown on glass, and the anisotropic electrical conductivity of the nanotubes. We show this nanostructure strongly absorbs unwanted off-axis light rays, whilst transmitting the desired on-axis rays, to achieve the required optical effect over broadband, from visible to short-infrared, thus circumventing some technical limitations of negative-index metamaterials. We further show a low substrate-temperature system for nanotube growth, allowing direct implementation into heat-sensitive large-area devices.

  7. Cavity-enhanced ultrafast two-dimensional spectroscopy using higher order modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Thomas K.

    2017-02-01

    We describe methods using frequency combs and optical resonators for recording two-dimensional (2D) ultrafast spectroscopy signals with high sensitivity. By coupling multiple frequency combs to higher-order modes of one or more optical cavities, background-free, cavity-enhanced 2D spectroscopy signals are naturally generated via phase cycling. As in cavity-enhanced ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy, the signal to noise is enhanced by a factor proportional to the cavity finesse squared, so even using cavities of modest finesse, a very high sensitivity is expected, enabling ultrafast 2D spectroscopy experiments in dilute molecular beams.

  8. Cavity-enhanced ultrafast two-dimensional spectroscopy using higher-order modes

    CERN Document Server

    Allison, Thomas K

    2016-01-01

    We describe methods using frequency combs and optical resonators for recording two-dimensional (2D) ultrafast spectroscopy signals with high sensitivity. By coupling multiple frequency combs to higher-order modes of one or more optical cavities, background-free, cavity-enhanced 2D spectroscopy signals are naturally generated via phase cycling. As in cavity-enhanced ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy (CE-TAS), the signal to noise is enhanced by a factor proportional to the cavity finesse squared, so even using cavities of modest finesse, a very high sensitivity is expected, enabling ultrafast 2D spectroscopy experiments in dilute molecular beams.

  9. Two-dimensional photonic crystal surfactant detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Tao; Smith, Natasha; Asher, Sanford A

    2012-08-07

    We developed a novel two-dimensional (2-D) crystalline colloidal array photonic crystal sensing material for the visual detection of amphiphilic molecules in water. A close-packed polystyrene 2-D array monolayer was embedded in a poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm)-based hydrogel film. These 2-D photonic crystals placed on a mirror show intense diffraction that enables them to be used for visual determination of analytes. Binding of surfactant molecules attaches ions to the sensor that swells the PNIPAAm-based hydrogel. The resulting increase in particle spacing red shifts the 2-D diffracted light. Incorporation of more hydrophobic monomers increases the sensitivity to surfactants.

  10. A spectroelectrochemical cell for ultrafast two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Khoury, Youssef; Van Wilderen, Luuk J. G. W.; Vogt, Tim; Winter, Ernst; Bredenbeck, Jens, E-mail: bredenbeck@biophysik.uni-frankfurt.org, E-mail: bredenbeck@biophysik.uni-frankfurt.de [Institut für Biophysik, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 1, 60438 Frankfurt (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    A spectroelectrochemical cell has been designed to combine electrochemistry and ultrafast two-dimensional infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy, which is a powerful tool to extract structure and dynamics information on the femtosecond to picosecond time scale. Our design is based on a gold mirror with the dual role of performing electrochemistry and reflecting IR light. To provide the high optical surface quality required for laser spectroscopy, the gold surface is made by electron beam evaporation on a glass substrate. Electrochemical cycling facilitates in situ collection of ultrafast dynamics of redox-active molecules by means of 2D-IR. The IR beams are operated in reflection mode so that they travel twice through the sample, i.e., the signal size is doubled. This methodology is optimal for small sample volumes and successfully tested with the ferricyanide/ferrocyanide redox system of which the corresponding electrochemically induced 2D-IR difference spectrum is reported.

  11. Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy with birefringent wedges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Réhault, Julien; Maiuri, Margherita; Oriana, Aurelio; Cerullo, Giulio [IFN-CNR, Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2014-12-15

    We present a simple experimental setup for performing two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectroscopy in the partially collinear pump-probe geometry. The setup uses a sequence of birefringent wedges to create and delay a pair of phase-locked, collinear pump pulses, with extremely high phase stability and reproducibility. Continuous delay scanning is possible without any active stabilization or position tracking, and allows to record rapidly and easily 2D spectra. The setup works over a broad spectral range from the ultraviolet to the near-IR, it is compatible with few-optical-cycle pulses and can be easily reconfigured to two-colour operation. A simple method for scattering suppression is also introduced. As a proof of principle, we present degenerate and two-color 2D spectra of the light-harvesting complex 1 of purple bacteria.

  12. A spectroelectrochemical cell for ultrafast two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Khoury, Youssef; Van Wilderen, Luuk J. G. W.; Vogt, Tim; Winter, Ernst; Bredenbeck, Jens

    2015-08-01

    A spectroelectrochemical cell has been designed to combine electrochemistry and ultrafast two-dimensional infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy, which is a powerful tool to extract structure and dynamics information on the femtosecond to picosecond time scale. Our design is based on a gold mirror with the dual role of performing electrochemistry and reflecting IR light. To provide the high optical surface quality required for laser spectroscopy, the gold surface is made by electron beam evaporation on a glass substrate. Electrochemical cycling facilitates in situ collection of ultrafast dynamics of redox-active molecules by means of 2D-IR. The IR beams are operated in reflection mode so that they travel twice through the sample, i.e., the signal size is doubled. This methodology is optimal for small sample volumes and successfully tested with the ferricyanide/ferrocyanide redox system of which the corresponding electrochemically induced 2D-IR difference spectrum is reported.

  13. Two-dimensional multiferroics in monolayer group IV monochalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hua; Qian, Xiaofeng

    2017-03-01

    Low-dimensional multiferroic materials hold great promises in miniaturized device applications such as nanoscale transducers, actuators, sensors, photovoltaics, and nonvolatile memories. Here, using first-principles theory we predict that two-dimensional (2D) monolayer group IV monochalcogenides including GeS, GeSe, SnS, and SnSe are a class of 2D semiconducting multiferroics with giant strongly-coupled in-plane spontaneous ferroelectric polarization and spontaneous ferroelastic lattice strain that are thermodynamically stable at room temperature and beyond, and can be effectively modulated by elastic strain engineering. Their optical absorption spectra exhibit strong in-plane anisotropy with visible-spectrum excitonic gaps and sizable exciton binding energies, rendering the unique characteristics of low-dimensional semiconductors. More importantly, the predicted low domain wall energy and small migration barrier together with the coupled multiferroic order and anisotropic electronic structures suggest their great potentials for tunable multiferroic functional devices by manipulating external electrical, mechanical, and optical field to control the internal responses, and enable the development of four device concepts including 2D ferroelectric memory, 2D ferroelastic memory, and 2D ferroelastoelectric nonvolatile photonic memory as well as 2D ferroelectric excitonic photovoltaics.

  14. Two-dimensional function photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Jing; Liang, Yu; Ma, Ji; Zhang, Si-Qi; Li, Hong; Wu, Xiang-Yao; Wu, Yi-Heng

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we have studied two-dimensional function photonic crystals, in which the dielectric constants of medium columns are the functions of space coordinates , that can become true easily by electro-optical effect and optical kerr effect. We calculated the band gap structures of TE and TM waves, and found the TE (TM) wave band gaps of function photonic crystals are wider (narrower) than the conventional photonic crystals. For the two-dimensional function photonic crystals, when the dielectric constant functions change, the band gaps numbers, width and position should be changed, and the band gap structures of two-dimensional function photonic crystals can be adjusted flexibly, the needed band gap structures can be designed by the two-dimensional function photonic crystals, and it can be of help to design optical devices.

  15. Superconductivity in the two-dimensional electron gas induced by high-energy optical phonon mode and large polarization of the SrTiO3 substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenstein, Baruch; Shapiro, B. Ya.; Shapiro, I.; Li, Dingping

    2016-07-01

    Pairing in one-atomic-layer-thick two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) by a single flat band of high-energy longitudinal optical phonons is considered. The polar dielectric SrTiO3 (STO) exhibits such an energetic phonon mode and the 2DEG is created both when one unit cell FeSe layer is grown on its (100 ) surface and on the interface with another dielectric like LaAlO3 (LAO). We obtain a quantitative description of both systems solving the gap equation for Tc for arbitrary Fermi energy ɛF, electron-phonon coupling λ , and the phonon frequency Ω , and direct (random-phase approximation) electron-electron repulsion strength α . The focus is on the intermediate region between the adiabatic, ɛF>>Ω , and the nonadiabatic, ɛF<<Ω , regimes. The high-temperature superconductivity in single-unit-cell FeSe/STO is possible due to a combination of three factors: high-longitudinal-optical phonon frequency, large electron-phonon coupling λ ˜0.5 , and huge dielectric constant of the substrate suppression the Coulomb repulsion. It is shown that very low density electron gas in the interfaces is still capable of generating superconductivity of the order of 0.1 K in LAO/STO.

  16. Carrier dynamics of optical emission from two-dimensional electron gas in undoped AlGaN/GaN single heterojunctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwack, H.S.; Cho, Y.H. [Department of Physics and Institute for Basic Science Research, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea); Kim, G.H. [School of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea); Park, M.R.; Youn, D.H.; Bae, S.B.; Lee, K.S. [Basic Research Laboratory, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea); Lee, J.H.; Lee, J.H. [Department of Electric and Electronic Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Taegu 702-701 (Korea)

    2006-06-15

    The structural and optical properties of undoped AlGaN/GaN single heterojunctions (HJs) were studied by means of high-resolution x-ray diffraction, photoluminescence (PL), cathodoluminescence (CL), and time-resolved PL spectroscopy. An additional two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG)-related PL and CL emission appeared at about 40 meV below the GaN band-edge emission energy and persisted up to about 100 K, while this peak disappeared when the top AlGaN layer was removed by reactive ion etching. Depth-resolved CL spectra reveal the presence of a 2DEG at the heterointerface. The additional PL and CL emission below the GaN band-edge emission is attributed to the recombination between photogenerated holes and electrons confined at 2DEG states in the triangular-shaped interface potential. For the 2DEG emission, we observed an about 50-ps delayed rise time than the GaN and AlGaN emissions by using time-resolved PL, indicating effective carrier transfer from the GaN flatband and AlGaN regions to the heterointerface. From the results, we explained the optical properties and carrier recombination dynamics of 2DEG, GaN, and AlGaN emissions in undoped AlGaN/GaN single HJs. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. Carrier dynamics of optical emission from two-dimensional electron gas in undoped AlGaN/GaN single heterojunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwack, H. S.; Cho, Y. H.; Kim, G. H.; Park, M. R.; Youn, D. H.; Bae, S. B.; Lee, K.-S.; Lee, J. H.; Lee, J. H.

    2006-06-01

    The strucutral and optical properties of undoped AlGaN/GaN single heterojunctions (HJs) were studied by means of high-resolution x-ray diffraction, photoluminescence (PL), cathodoluminescence (CL), and time-resolved PL spectroscopy. An additional two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG)-related PL and CL emission appeared at about 40 meV below the GaN band-edge emission energy and persisted up to about 100 K, while this peak disappeared when the top AlGaN layer was removed by reactive ion etching. Depth-resolved CL spectra reveal the presence of a 2DEG at the heterointerface. The additional PL and CL emission below the GaN band-edge emission is attributed to the recombination between photogenerated holes and electrons confined at 2DEG states in the triangular-shaped interface potential. For the 2DEG emission, we observed an about 50-ps delayed rise time than the GaN and AlGaN emissions by using time-resolved PL, indicating effective carrier transfer from the GaN flatband and AlGaN regions to the heterointerface. From the results, we explained the optical properties and carrier recombination dynamics of 2DEG, GaN, and AlGaN emissions in undoped AlGaN/GaN single HJs.

  18. Interferometric approach to measuring band topology in 2D optical lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abanin, Dmitry A; Kitagawa, Takuya; Bloch, Immanuel; Demler, Eugene

    2013-04-19

    Recently, optical lattices with nonzero Berry's phases of Bloch bands have been realized. New approaches for measuring Berry's phases and topological properties of bands with experimental tools appropriate for ultracold atoms need to be developed. In this Letter, we propose an interferometric method for measuring Berry's phases of two-dimensional Bloch bands. The key idea is to use a combination of Ramsey interference and Bloch oscillations to measure Zak phases, i.e., Berry's phases for closed trajectories corresponding to reciprocal lattice vectors. We demonstrate that this technique can be used to measure the Berry curvature of Bloch bands, the π Berry's phase of Dirac points, and the first Chern number of topological bands. We discuss several experimentally feasible realizations of this technique, which make it robust against low-frequency magnetic noise.

  19. Evolution of Matter Wave Interference of Bose-Condensed Gas in a 2D Optical Lattice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUZhi-Jun; LINGuo-Cheng; XUJun; LIZhen

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the average particle-number distribution of the atoms in the combined potential of 2D optical lattices and 31) harmonic magnetic trap based on the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. After the combined potential is switched of[, and only the optical lattice is switched off, we give the analytical results of the wavefunction of the Bosecondensed gas at any time t by using a propagator method. For both disk-shaped and cigar-shaped Bose-condensed gas,we discuss the evolution process of the central and side peaks of the interference pattern.

  20. Piezoelectricity in Two-Dimensional Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Tao

    2015-02-25

    Powering up 2D materials: Recent experimental studies confirmed the existence of piezoelectricity - the conversion of mechanical stress into electricity - in two-dimensional single-layer MoS2 nanosheets. The results represent a milestone towards embedding low-dimensional materials into future disruptive technologies. © 2015 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  1. A two-dimensional Dirac fermion microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøggild, Peter; Caridad, Jose; Stampfer, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    in the solid state. Here we provide a perspective view on how a two-dimensional (2D) Dirac fermion-based microscope can be realistically implemented and operated, using graphene as a vacuum chamber for ballistic electrons. We use semiclassical simulations to propose concrete architectures and design rules of 2...

  2. Recent advances in optoelectronic properties and applications of two-dimensional metal chalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congxin, Xia; Jingbo, Li

    2016-05-01

    Since two-dimensional (2D) graphene was fabricated successfully, many kinds of graphene-like 2D materials have attracted extensive attention. Among them, the studies of 2D metal chalcogenides have become the focus of intense research due to their unique physical properties and promising applications. Here, we review significant recent advances in optoelectronic properties and applications of 2D metal chalcogenides. This review highlights the recent progress of synthesis, characterization and isolation of single and few layer metal chalcogenides nanosheets. Moreover, we also focus on the recent important progress of electronic, optical properties and optoelectronic devices of 2D metal chalcogenides. Additionally, the theoretical model and understanding on the band structures, optical properties and related physical mechanism are also reviewed. Finally, we give some personal perspectives on potential research problems in the optoelectronic characteristics of 2D metal chalcogenides and related device applications.

  3. Formation of Photonic Structures in Photorefractive Lithium Niobate by 1D and 2D Bessel-like Optical Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inyushov, A.; Safronova, P.; Trushnikov, I.; Sarkyt, A.; Shandarov, V.

    2017-06-01

    Both, one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) Bessel-like beams with different topology of 2D beam cross-sections are formed from Gaussian laser beams using the amplitude masks and Fresnel biprisms. These almost diffraction-free light fields with wavelengths of 532 and 633 nm can change the refractive indices of photorefractive lithium niobate samples and form within them the nonlinear photonic diffraction structures. The characteristics of photonic structures induced in this way are studied by diffraction of monochromatic light with wavelengths of 633 and 532 nm.

  4. Two-dimensional calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Osserman, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The basic component of several-variable calculus, two-dimensional calculus is vital to mastery of the broader field. This extensive treatment of the subject offers the advantage of a thorough integration of linear algebra and materials, which aids readers in the development of geometric intuition. An introductory chapter presents background information on vectors in the plane, plane curves, and functions of two variables. Subsequent chapters address differentiation, transformations, and integration. Each chapter concludes with problem sets, and answers to selected exercises appear at the end o

  5. Two dimensional vernier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juday, Richard D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A two-dimensional vernier scale is disclosed utilizing a cartesian grid on one plate member with a polar grid on an overlying transparent plate member. The polar grid has multiple concentric circles at a fractional spacing of the spacing of the cartesian grid lines. By locating the center of the polar grid on a location on the cartesian grid, interpolation can be made of both the X and Y fractional relationship to the cartesian grid by noting which circles coincide with a cartesian grid line for the X and Y direction.

  6. Enhanced Doppler reflectometry power response: physical optics and 2D full wave modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzón, J. R.; Happel, T.; Blanco, E.; Conway, G. D.; Estrada, T.; Stroth, U.

    2017-03-01

    The power response of a Doppler reflectometer is investigated by means of the physical optics model; a simple model which considers basic scattering processes at the reflection layer. Apart from linear and saturated scattering regimes, non-linear regimes with an enhanced backscattered power are found. The different regimes are characterized and understood based on analytical calculations. The power response is also studied with two-dimensional full wave simulations, where the enhanced backscattered power regimes are also found in qualitative agreement with the physical optics results. The ordinary and extraordinary modes are compared for the same angle of incidence, with the conclusion that the ordinary mode is better suited for Doppler reflectometry turbulence level measurements due to the linearity of its response. The scattering efficiency is studied and a first approximation to describe it is proposed. At the end, the application of the physical optics results to experimental data analysis is discussed. In particular, a formula to assess the linearity of Doppler reflectometry measurements is provided.

  7. Heterostructures based on two-dimensional layered materials and their potential applications

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ming-yang

    2015-12-04

    The development of two-dimensional (2D) layered materials is driven by fundamental interest and their potential applications. Atomically thin 2D materials provide a wide range of basic building blocks with unique electrical, optical, and thermal properties which do not exist in their bulk counterparts. The van der Waals interlayer interaction enables the possibility to exfoliate and reassemble different 2D materials into arbitrarily and vertically stacked heterostructures. Recently developed vapor phase growth of 2D materials further paves the way of directly synthesizing vertical and lateral heterojunctions. This review provides insights into the layered 2D heterostructures, with a concise introduction to preparative approaches for 2D materials and heterostructures. These unique 2D heterostructures have abundant implications for many potential applications.

  8. WE-D-17A-02: Evaluation of a Two-Dimensional Optical Dosimeter On Measuring Lateral Profiles of Proton Pencil Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsi, W; Lee, T; Schultz, T; Arjomandy, B; Park, S [McLaren Cancer Institute, Flint, MI (United States); Gao, M; Pankuch, M [ProCure Treatment Centers, Warrenville, IL (United States); Boyer, S; Mah, D [Procure Treatment Center, Somerset, NJ (United States); Pillainayagam, M [Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Schreuder, A [Provision Healthcare Partners, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy of a two-dimensional optical dosimeter on measuring lateral profiles for spots and scanned fields of proton pencil beams. Methods: A digital camera with a color image senor was utilized to image proton-induced scintillations on Gadolinium-oxysulfide phosphor reflected by a stainless-steel mirror. Intensities of three colors were summed for each pixel with proper spatial-resolution calibration. To benchmark this dosimeter, the field size and penumbra for 100mm square fields of singleenergy pencil-scan protons were measured and compared between this optical dosimeter and an ionization-chamber profiler. Sigma widths of proton spots in air were measured and compared between this dosimeter and a commercial optical dosimeter. Clinical proton beams with ranges between 80 mm and 300 mm at CDH proton center were used for this benchmark. Results: Pixel resolutions vary 1.5% between two perpendicular axes. For a pencil-scan field with 302 mm range, measured field sizes and penumbras between two detection systems agreed to 0.5 mm and 0.3 mm, respectively. Sigma widths agree to 0.3 mm between two optical dosimeters for a proton spot with 158 mm range; having widths of 5.76 mm and 5.92 mm for X and Y axes, respectively. Similar agreements were obtained for others beam ranges. This dosimeter was successfully utilizing on mapping the shapes and sizes of proton spots at the technical acceptance of McLaren proton therapy system. Snow-flake spots seen on images indicated the image sensor having pixels damaged by radiations. Minor variations in intensity between different colors were observed. Conclusions: The accuracy of our dosimeter was in good agreement with other established devices in measuring lateral profiles of pencil-scan fields and proton spots. A precise docking mechanism for camera was designed to keep aligned optical path while replacing damaged image senor. Causes for minor variations between emitted color lights will be investigated.

  9. Applying a new computational method for biological tissue optics based on the time-dependent two-dimensional radiative transfer equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asllanaj, Fatmir; Fumeron, Sebastien

    2012-07-01

    Optical tomography is a medical imaging technique based on light propagation in the near infrared (NIR) part of the spectrum. We present a new way of predicting the short-pulsed NIR light propagation using a time-dependent two-dimensional-global radiative transfer equation in an absorbing and strongly anisotropically scattering medium. A cell-vertex finite-volume method is proposed for the discretization of the spatial domain. The closure relation based on the exponential scheme and linear interpolations was applied for the first time in the context of time-dependent radiative heat transfer problems. Details are given about the application of the original method on unstructured triangular meshes. The angular space (4πSr) is uniformly subdivided into discrete directions and a finite-differences discretization of the time domain is used. Numerical simulations for media with physical properties analogous to healthy and metastatic human liver subjected to a collimated short-pulsed NIR light are presented and discussed. As expected, discrepancies between the two kinds of tissues were found. In particular, the level of light flux was found to be weaker (inside the medium and at boundaries) in the healthy medium than in the metastatic one.

  10. Optical investigation of the quasi-two-dimensional Mott system Ca_2-xSr_xRuO4 (0.0<= x<= 2.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. S.; Noh, T. W.; Lee, Y. S.; Oh, S.-J.; Nakatsuji, S.; Maeno, Y.

    2002-03-01

    The doping and temperature dependent optical conductivity spectra σ (ω ) in the ab-plane of the quasi-two-dimensional system Ca_2-xSr_xRuO4 (0.0= 0.2, the σ (ω ) show features of the Mott-Hubbard system. However, the insulating spectra of x=0.00 and 0.06 show an unusual two-peak structure around 1.0 and 2.0 eV. From the systematic changes with doping, it was found that both excitations have the correlation-induced Ru 4 d characters. Interestingly, for the x=0.06 sample, softening of the streching phonon mode and strong spectral weight redistribution between these two peaks were observed with decreasing temperature. These could be understood by the orbital occupancy changes with the RuO6 octahedral flattening. Possible connections to the critical behaviors of the specific heat and susceptibility at x=0.5 will be also discussed.

  11. Two-dimensional heterostructures for energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantseva, Ekaterina; Gogotsi, Yury

    2017-07-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials provide slit-shaped ion diffusion channels that enable fast movement of lithium and other ions. However, electronic conductivity, the number of intercalation sites, and stability during extended cycling are also crucial for building high-performance energy storage devices. While individual 2D materials, such as graphene, show some of the required properties, none of them can offer all properties needed to maximize energy density, power density, and cycle life. Here we argue that stacking different 2D materials into heterostructured architectures opens an opportunity to construct electrodes that would combine the advantages of the individual building blocks while eliminating the associated shortcomings. We discuss characteristics of common 2D materials and provide examples of 2D heterostructured electrodes that showed new phenomena leading to superior electrochemical performance. We also consider electrode fabrication approaches and finally outline future steps to create 2D heterostructured electrodes that could greatly expand current energy storage technologies.

  12. Bound states and Cooper pairs of molecules in 2D optical lattices bilayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camacho-Guardian, A.; Dominguez-Castro, G.A.; Paredes, R. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)

    2016-08-15

    We investigate the formation of Cooper pairs, bound dimers and the dimer-dimer elastic scattering of ultracold dipolar Fermi molecules confined in a 2D optical lattice bilayer configuration. While the energy and their associated bound states are determined in a variational way, the correlated two-molecule pair is addressed as in the original Cooper formulation. We demonstrate that the 2D lattice confinement favors the formation of zero center mass momentum bound states. Regarding the Cooper pairs binding energy, this depends on the molecule populations in each layer. Maximum binding energies occur for non-zero (zero) pair momentum when the Fermi system is polarized (unpolarized). We find an analytic expression for the dimer-dimer effective interaction in the deep BEC regime. The present analysis represents a route for addressing the BCS-BEC crossover in dipolar Fermi gases confined in 2D optical lattices within the current experimental panorama. (copyright 2016 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Label-free optical detection of C-reactive protein by nanoimprint lithography-based 2D-photonic crystal film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Tatsuro; Kajita, Hiroshi; Kawaguchi, Yukio; Kosaka, Terumasa; Himi, Toshiyuki

    2016-06-01

    The development of high-sensitive, and cost-effective novel biosensors have been strongly desired for future medical diagnostics. To develop novel biosensor, the authors focused on the specific optical characteristics of photonic crystal. In this study, a label-free optical biosensor, polymer-based two-dimensional photonic crystal (2D-PhC) film fabricated using nanoimprint lithography (NIL), was developed for detection of C-reactive protein (CRP) in human serum. The nano-hole array constructed NIL-based 2D-PhC (hole diameter: 230 nm, distance: 230, depth: 200 nm) was fabricated on a cyclo-olefin polymer (COP) film (100 µm) using thermal NIL and required surface modifications to reduce nonspecific adsorption of target proteins. Antigen-antibody reactions on the NIL-based 2D-PhC caused changes to the surrounding refractive index, which was monitored as reflection spectrum changes in the visible region. By using surface modified 2D-PhC, the calculated detection limit for CRP was 12.24 pg/mL at an extremely short reaction time (5 min) without the need for additional labeling procedures and secondary antibody. Furthermore, using the dual-functional random copolymer, CRP could be detected in a pooled blood serum diluted 100× with dramatic reduction of nonspecific adsorption. From these results, the NIL-based 2D-PhC film has great potential for development of an on-site, high-sensitivity, cost-effective, label-free biosensor for medical diagnostics applications.

  14. SU-E-CAMPUS-T-04: Measurement of Proton Pencil Beam Spot Profile Using Cherenkov Radiation in Two Dimensional Optical Fiber Arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, M; SHIN, D; Park, J; Lim, Y; Lee, S; Kim, J [National Cancer Center, Goyang, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Son, J [National Cancer Center, Goyang, Gyeonggi-do, Korea University, Seoul, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, U [National Medical Center in Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Proton therapy aims to deliver a high dose in a well-defined target volume while sparing the healthy surrounding tissues thanks to their inherent depth dose characteristic (Bragg peak). In proton therapy, several techniques can be used to deliver the dose into the target volume. The one that allows the best conformity with the tumor, is called PBS (Pencil Beam Scanning). The measurement of the proton pencil beam spot profile (spot size) and position is very important for the accurate delivery of dose to the target volume with a good conformity. Methods: We have developed a fine segmented detector array to monitor the PBS. A prototype beam monitor using Cherenkov radiation in clear plastic optical fibers (cPOF) has been developed for continuous display of the pencil beam status during the therapeutic proton Pencil Beam Scanning mode operation. The benefit of using Cherenkov radiation is that the optical output is linear to the dose. Pedestal substraction and the gain adjustment between channels are performed. Spot profiles of various pencil beam energies(100 MeV to 226 MeV) are measured. Two dimensional gaussian fit is used to analyze the beam width and the spot center. The results are compared with that of Lynx(Scintillator-based sensor with CCD camera) and EBT3 Film. Results: The measured gaussian widths using fiber array system changes from 13 to 5 mm for the beam energies from 100 to 226 MeV. The results agree well with Lynx and Film within the systematic error. Conclusion: The results demonstrate good monitoring capability of the system. Not only measuing the spot profile but also monitoring dose map by accumulating each spot measurement is available. The x-y monitoing system with 128 channel readout will be mounted to the snout for the in-situ real time monitoring.

  15. Quantum simulation of 2D topological physics in a 1D array of optical cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xi-Wang; Zhou, Xingxiang; Li, Chuan-Feng; Xu, Jin-Shi; Guo, Guang-Can; Zhou, Zheng-Wei

    2015-07-06

    Orbital angular momentum of light is a fundamental optical degree of freedom characterized by unlimited number of available angular momentum states. Although this unique property has proved invaluable in diverse recent studies ranging from optical communication to quantum information, it has not been considered useful or even relevant for simulating nontrivial physics problems such as topological phenomena. Contrary to this misconception, we demonstrate the incredible value of orbital angular momentum of light for quantum simulation by showing theoretically how it allows to study a variety of important 2D topological physics in a 1D array of optical cavities. This application for orbital angular momentum of light not only reduces required physical resources but also increases feasible scale of simulation, and thus makes it possible to investigate important topics such as edge-state transport and topological phase transition in a small simulator ready for immediate experimental exploration.

  16. Design & Analysis of Optical Lenses by using 2D Photonic Crystals for Sub-wavelength Focusing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajib Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available 2D Photonic lenses (Convex-Convex, Convex-Plane, Plane-Convex, Concave-Concave, Concave-plane, and PlaneConcave have been designed, simulated and optimized for optical communication using FDTD method. The effect of Crystal structures (Rectangular, Hexagonal, Face centered Cubic (FCC, Body centered Cubic (BCC, variation lattice constant (Λ, hole radius(r, reflective index (n, is demonstrated to get optimized parameters. Finally, with optimized parameters the effect of variation of lens radius on focal lengths and Electrical Field Intensity (Ey is analyzed. Like optical lens, the focal length of photonic lens is also increased with lens radii, has dependency on optical axis. Moreover, with optimized parameters, ConcaveConcave lens have been found as an optimal photonic lens that show sub-wavelength focusing with spatial resolutions-9.22439μm (Rectangular crystal, 7.379512μm (Hexagonal Crystal, 7.840732μm (FCC, BCC.

  17. Quantum simulation of 2D topological physics in a 1D array of optical cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xi-Wang; Zhou, Xingxiang; Li, Chuan-Feng; Xu, Jin-Shi; Guo, Guang-Can; Zhou, Zheng-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Orbital angular momentum of light is a fundamental optical degree of freedom characterized by unlimited number of available angular momentum states. Although this unique property has proved invaluable in diverse recent studies ranging from optical communication to quantum information, it has not been considered useful or even relevant for simulating nontrivial physics problems such as topological phenomena. Contrary to this misconception, we demonstrate the incredible value of orbital angular momentum of light for quantum simulation by showing theoretically how it allows to study a variety of important 2D topological physics in a 1D array of optical cavities. This application for orbital angular momentum of light not only reduces required physical resources but also increases feasible scale of simulation, and thus makes it possible to investigate important topics such as edge-state transport and topological phase transition in a small simulator ready for immediate experimental exploration. PMID:26145177

  18. Two-dimensional Imaging Velocity Interferometry: Technique and Data Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erskine, D J; Smith, R F; Bolme, C; Celliers, P; Collins, G

    2011-03-23

    We describe the data analysis procedures for an emerging interferometric technique for measuring motion across a two-dimensional image at a moment in time, i.e. a snapshot 2d-VISAR. Velocity interferometers (VISAR) measuring target motion to high precision have been an important diagnostic in shockwave physics for many years Until recently, this diagnostic has been limited to measuring motion at points or lines across a target. We introduce an emerging interferometric technique for measuring motion across a two-dimensional image, which could be called a snapshot 2d-VISAR. If a sufficiently fast movie camera technology existed, it could be placed behind a traditional VISAR optical system and record a 2d image vs time. But since that technology is not yet available, we use a CCD detector to record a single 2d image, with the pulsed nature of the illumination providing the time resolution. Consequently, since we are using pulsed illumination having a coherence length shorter than the VISAR interferometer delay ({approx}0.1 ns), we must use the white light velocimetry configuration to produce fringes with significant visibility. In this scheme, two interferometers (illuminating, detecting) having nearly identical delays are used in series, with one before the target and one after. This produces fringes with at most 50% visibility, but otherwise has the same fringe shift per target motion of a traditional VISAR. The 2d-VISAR observes a new world of information about shock behavior not readily accessible by traditional point or 1d-VISARS, simultaneously providing both a velocity map and an 'ordinary' snapshot photograph of the target. The 2d-VISAR has been used to observe nonuniformities in NIF related targets (polycrystalline diamond, Be), and in Si and Al.

  19. A NEW FAMILY OF TWO-DIMENSIONAL OPTICAL ORTHOGONAL CODES FOR MASSIVE OPTICAL CDMA NETWORKS%一种新的大容量的二维光正交码(英)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吉建华; 范戈

    2002-01-01

    A new one-dimensional optical orthogonal codes(1-D OOC) named extended hyperbolic line congruence codes(EHLC) is constructed,and its performance is analyzed.Compared with extended quadratic congruence codes(EQC),EHLC has large code cardinality,but has a little poor performances of auto-correlation and cross-correlation.Then,using EHLC for time spreading and prime sequence(PC) for wavelength hopping,a new two-dimensional optical orthogonal codes(2-D OOC)named EHLC/PC is constructed.Because the code weight of EHLC equals(p-1) and the code weight of PC equals p,selection function f(i) should be used to pick out(p-1)wavelengths from each prime sequence.At last,the performance of EHLC/PC is analyzed,and is also compared with EQC/PC.Because each wavelength within a code is different,auto-correlation of EHLC/PC equals zero.When examining the cross-correlation of EHLC/PC,authors should consider four different modes:same time spreading pattern/same wavelength hopping pattern(different sk),same time spreading pattern/different wavelength hopping pattern,different time spreading pattern/same wavelength hopping pattern,different time spreading pattern/different wavelenght hopping pattern.By using difference function and wavelength hopping pattern,it is not difficult to get the cross-correlation performances of EHLC/PC.It is shown that the cross-correlation performance of EHLC/PC is a little worse than EQC/PC,but EHLC/PC has much larger code cardinality.Moreover,EHLC/PC has shorter code length and smaller code weight,which can enhance user data rate and also can reduce the complexity of optical encoders/decoders.Therefore,EHLC/PC is suitable for massive optical code-division multiple-access(OCDMA) networks.%构造了一种扩展的双曲线性同余码(EHLC)并分析了其码字性能.用该码作为时间扩频伪随机序列和以素数码(PC)作为波长跳频伪随机序列,再构成一种新的二维光正交码EHLC/PC.然后分析了EHLC/PC码字的性能,并与EQC/PC

  20. Electronic and optical properties of strained graphene and other strained 2D materials: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumis, Gerardo G.; Barraza-Lopez, Salvador; Oliva-Leyva, Maurice; Terrones, Humberto

    2017-09-01

    This review presents the state of the art in strain and ripple-induced effects on the electronic and optical properties of graphene. It starts by providing the crystallographic description of mechanical deformations, as well as the diffraction pattern for different kinds of representative deformation fields. Then, the focus turns to the unique elastic properties of graphene, and to how strain is produced. Thereafter, various theoretical approaches used to study the electronic properties of strained graphene are examined, discussing the advantages of each. These approaches provide a platform to describe exotic properties, such as a fractal spectrum related with quasicrystals, a mixed Dirac–Schrödinger behavior, emergent gravity, topological insulator states, in molecular graphene and other 2D discrete lattices. The physical consequences of strain on the optical properties are reviewed next, with a focus on the Raman spectrum. At the same time, recent advances to tune the optical conductivity of graphene by strain engineering are given, which open new paths in device applications. Finally, a brief review of strain effects in multilayered graphene and other promising 2D materials like silicene and materials based on other group-IV elements, phosphorene, dichalcogenide- and monochalcogenide-monolayers is presented, with a brief discussion of interplays among strain, thermal effects, and illumination in the latter material family.

  1. Fractal characteristics of far-field diffraction patterns for two-dimensional Thue-Morse quasicrystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ming-yang; ZHOU Jun; L Petti; S De Nicola; P Mormile

    2011-01-01

    We report a numerical method to analyze the fractal characteristics of far-field diffraction patterns for two-dimensional Thue-Morse(2-D TM) structures.The far-field diffraction patterns of the 2-D TM structures can be obtained by the numerical method,and they have a good agreement with the experimental ones.The analysis shows that the fractal characteristics of far-field diffraction patterns for the 2-D TM structures are determined by the inflation rule,which have potential applications in the design of optical diffraction devices.

  2. Motion analysis of optically trapped particles and cells using 2D Fourier analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Martin Verner; Ahrendt, Peter; Lindballe, Thue Bjerring;

    2012-01-01

    Motion analysis of optically trapped objects is demonstrated using a simple 2D Fourier transform technique. The displacements of trapped objects are determined directly from the phase shift between the Fourier transform of subsequent images. Using end-and side-view imaging, the stiffness...... of the trap is determined in three dimensions. The Fourier transform method is simple to implement and applicable in cases where the trapped object changes shape or where the lighting conditions change. This is illustrated by tracking a fluorescent particle and a myoblast cell, with subsequent determination...

  3. Two-Dimensional Electrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    Isihara and Y. Nalane, Elementary Excitations and Energy Dispersion in TTF-TCNQ;Proc. Internat. Conf. on Phys. and Chem. of Low-Dimen. Syn. Conductors ...Abano Terme, Molec. Crys. Liq. Crys. 120, 85 (1984). One-dimensiona4 conductors such as TTF-TCNQ are attracting considerable attention for their...A. Isihara and Y. Nakane; Magnetoconductivity of 2D Conductors ; Proc. Internat. Conf. on Phys. and Chem. of Low-Dimen. Syn. Conductors , Abano Terme

  4. Soliton nanoantennas in two-dimensional arrays of quantum dots

    CERN Document Server

    Gligorić, G; Hadžievski, Lj; Slepyan, G Ya; Malomed, B A

    2015-01-01

    We consider two-dimensional (2D) arrays of self-organized semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) strongly interacting with electromagnetic field in the regime of Rabi oscillations. The QD array built of two-level states is modelled by two coupled systems of discrete nonlinear Schr\\"{o}dinger equations. Localized modes in the form of single-peaked fundamental and vortical stationary Rabi solitons and self-trapped breathers have been found. The results for the stability, mobility and radiative properties of the Rabi modes suggest a concept of a self-assembled 2D \\textit{% soliton-based nano-antenna}, which should be stable against imperfections In particular, we discuss the implementation of such a nano-antenna in the form of surface plasmon solitons in graphene, and illustrate possibilities to control their operation by means of optical tools.

  5. High-pressure crystal structure of the non-linear optical compound BiB(3)O(6) from two-dimensional powder diffraction data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinnebier, R E; Hinrichsen, B; Lennie, A; Jansen, M

    2009-02-01

    Our recently proposed method for automatic detection, calibration and evaluation of Debye-Scherrer ellipses using pattern-recognition techniques and advanced signal filtering was applied to the two-dimensional powder diffraction data of the non-ferroelectric, non-centrosymmetric non-linear optical (NLO) compound alpha-BiB(3)O(6) as a function of pressure. At ambient conditions, alpha-BiB(3)O(6) crystallizes in the space group C2 (phase I). In the pressure range between P = 6.09 and 6.86 GPa, it exhibits a first-order phase transition into a structure with the space group C1 (P1) [phase II at P = 8.34 GPa: a = 7.4781 (6), b = 3.9340 (4), c = 6.2321 (6) A, alpha = 93.73 (1), beta = 102.93 (1), gamma = 90.76 (1) degrees , and V = 178.24 (3) A(3)]. Non-linear compression behaviour over the entire pressure range is observed, which can be described by two Vinet relations in the ranges from P = 0.0 to 6.09 GPa, and from P = 6.86 to 11.6 GPa. The extrapolated bulk moduli of the high-pressure phases were determined to be K(0) = 38 (1) GPa for phase I, and K(0) = 114 (10) GPa for phase II. The crystal structures of both phases were refined against X-ray powder diffraction data measured at several pressures between 0.0 and 11.6 GPa. The structural phase transition of alpha-BiB(3)O(6) is mainly characterized by a reorientation of the [BO(3)](3-) triangles, the [BO(4)](5-) tetrahedra and the lone electron pair which is localized at Bi(3+), in order to optimize crystal packing.

  6. Automated classification of single airborne particles from two-dimensional angle-resolved optical scattering (TAOS) patterns by non-linear filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosta, Giovanni Franco; Pan, Yong-Le; Aptowicz, Kevin B.; Casati, Caterina; Pinnick, Ronald G.; Chang, Richard K.; Videen, Gorden W.

    2013-12-01

    Measurement of two-dimensional angle-resolved optical scattering (TAOS) patterns is an attractive technique for detecting and characterizing micron-sized airborne particles. In general, the interpretation of these patterns and the retrieval of the particle refractive index, shape or size alone, are difficult problems. By reformulating the problem in statistical learning terms, a solution is proposed herewith: rather than identifying airborne particles from their scattering patterns, TAOS patterns themselves are classified through a learning machine, where feature extraction interacts with multivariate statistical analysis. Feature extraction relies on spectrum enhancement, which includes the discrete cosine FOURIER transform and non-linear operations. Multivariate statistical analysis includes computation of the principal components and supervised training, based on the maximization of a suitable figure of merit. All algorithms have been combined together to analyze TAOS patterns, organize feature vectors, design classification experiments, carry out supervised training, assign unknown patterns to classes, and fuse information from different training and recognition experiments. The algorithms have been tested on a data set with more than 3000 TAOS patterns. The parameters that control the algorithms at different stages have been allowed to vary within suitable bounds and are optimized to some extent. Classification has been targeted at discriminating aerosolized Bacillus subtilis particles, a simulant of anthrax, from atmospheric aerosol particles and interfering particles, like diesel soot. By assuming that all training and recognition patterns come from the respective reference materials only, the most satisfactory classification result corresponds to 20% false negatives from B. subtilis particles and classification method may be adapted into a real-time operation technique, capable of detecting and characterizing micron-sized airborne particles.

  7. Analysis of directional dependence of the two-dimensional array of detectors 2D array seven 29 implications in the planning system; Analisis de la dependencia direcccional de la matriz bidimensional de detectores 2D array seven29. Implicaciones en el sistema de planificacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora Melendez, R.; Seguro Fernandez, A.; Iborra Oquendo, M.; Urena Llinares, A.

    2013-07-01

    The main objective of our study is to find correction factors dependent on the 2D array incidence angles, and to give account of the phenomenon, allowing the Planner to faithfully reproduce data and curves measured experimentally. (Author)

  8. Comparative analysis between two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) MRI acquisitions - clinical applications for the evaluation of the knees in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA); Analise comparativa entre aquisicao tri (3D) e bidimensional (2D) em ressonancia magnetica - aplicabilidade clinica em joelhos em artrite reumatoide juvenil (ARJ)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doria, Andre S. [Hospital das Clinicas, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Radiologia; Rebelo, Marina de Sa [Hospital das Clinicas, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto do Coracao. Servico de Informatica; Castro, Claudio Campi de [Hospital das Clinicas, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto do Coracao. Servico de Ressonancia Magnetica] [and others

    2000-06-01

    In this cross-sectional study in patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis the authors compare two-dimensional evaluation of the maximum synovial diameter on post-contrast axial T1-weighted SE (spin-echo) sequences with volumetric (three-dimensional assessment) on post-contrast axial T1-weighted SPIR (spectral presaturation with inversion recovery) SE sequences. With the aim of determining their cost-effectiveness these two methods of assessment were compared to clinical and laboratorial parameters, as well as the presence of synovial enhancement seen on magnetic resonance imaging. (author)

  9. Photonics and optoelectronics of two-dimensional materials beyond graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponraj, Joice Sophia; Xu, Zai-Quan; Chander Dhanabalan, Sathish; Mu, Haoran; Wang, Yusheng; Yuan, Jian; Li, Pengfei; Thakur, Siddharatha; Ashrafi, Mursal; Mccoubrey, Kenneth; Zhang, Yupeng; Li, Shaojuan; Zhang, Han; Bao, Qiaoliang

    2016-11-01

    Apart from conventional materials, the study of two-dimensional (2D) materials has emerged as a significant field of study for a variety of applications. Graphene-like 2D materials are important elements of potential optoelectronics applications due to their exceptional electronic and optical properties. The processing of these materials towards the realization of devices has been one of the main motivations for the recent development of photonics and optoelectronics. The recent progress in photonic devices based on graphene-like 2D materials, especially topological insulators (TIs) and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) with the methodology level discussions from the viewpoint of state-of-the-art designs in device geometry and materials are detailed in this review. We have started the article with an overview of the electronic properties and continued by highlighting their linear and nonlinear optical properties. The production of TIs and TMDs by different methods is detailed. The following main applications focused towards device fabrication are elaborated: (1) photodetectors, (2) photovoltaic devices, (3) light-emitting devices, (4) flexible devices and (5) laser applications. The possibility of employing these 2D materials in different fields is also suggested based on their properties in the prospective part. This review will not only greatly complement the detailed knowledge of the device physics of these materials, but also provide contemporary perception for the researchers who wish to consider these materials for various applications by following the path of graphene.

  10. Two-dimensional effects in nonlinear Kronig-Penney models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Rasmussen, Kim

    1997-01-01

    An analysis of two-dimensional (2D) effects in the nonlinear Kronig-Penney model is presented. We establish an effective one-dimensional description of the 2D effects, resulting in a set of pseudodifferential equations. The stationary states of the 2D system and their stability is studied...

  11. Generalized non-separable two-dimensional Dammann encoding method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Junjie; Zhou, Changhe; Zhu, Linwei; Lu, Yancong; Wu, Jun; Jia, Wei

    2017-01-01

    We generalize for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the Dammann encoding method into non-separable two-dimensional (2D) structures for designing various pure-phase Dammann encoding gratings (DEGs). For examples, three types of non-separable 2D DEGs, including non-separable binary Dammann vortex gratings, non-separable binary distorted Dammann gratings, and non-separable continuous-phase cubic gratings, are designed theoretically and demonstrated experimentally. Correspondingly, it is shown that 2D square arrays of optical vortices with topological charges proportional to the diffraction orders, focus spots shifting along both transversal and axial directions with equal spacings, and Airy-like beams with controllable orientation for each beam, are generated in symmetry or asymmetry by these three DEGs, respectively. Also, it is shown that a more complex-shaped array of modulated beams could be achieved by this non-separable 2D Dammann encoding method, which will be a big challenge for those conventional separable 2D Dammann encoding gratings. Furthermore, the diffractive efficiency of the gratings can be improved around ∼10% when the non-separable structure is applied, compared with their conventional separable counterparts. Such improvement in the efficiency should be of high significance for some specific applications.

  12. 2D materials for nanophotonic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Renjing; Yang, Jiong; Zhang, Shuang; Pei, Jiajie; Lu, Yuerui

    2015-12-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials have become very important building blocks for electronic, photonic, and phononic devices. The 2D material family has four key members, including the metallic graphene, transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) layered semiconductors, semiconducting black phosphorous, and the insulating h-BN. Owing to the strong quantum confinements and defect-free surfaces, these atomically thin layers have offered us perfect platforms to investigate the interactions among photons, electrons and phonons. The unique interactions in these 2D materials are very important for both scientific research and application engineering. In this talk, I would like to briefly summarize and highlight the key findings, opportunities and challenges in this field. Next, I will introduce/highlight our recent achievements. We demonstrated atomically thin micro-lens and gratings using 2D MoS2, which is the thinnest optical component around the world. These devices are based on our discovery that the elastic light-matter interactions in highindex 2D materials is very strong. Also, I would like to introduce a new two-dimensional material phosphorene. Phosphorene has strongly anisotropic optical response, which creates 1D excitons in a 2D system. The strong confinement in phosphorene also enables the ultra-high trion (charged exciton) binding energies, which have been successfully measured in our experiments. Finally, I will briefly talk about the potential applications of 2D materials in energy harvesting.

  13. A two-dimensional Dirac fermion microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøggild, Peter; Caridad, José M.; Stampfer, Christoph; Calogero, Gaetano; Papior, Nick Rübner; Brandbyge, Mads

    2017-06-01

    The electron microscope has been a powerful, highly versatile workhorse in the fields of material and surface science, micro and nanotechnology, biology and geology, for nearly 80 years. The advent of two-dimensional materials opens new possibilities for realizing an analogy to electron microscopy in the solid state. Here we provide a perspective view on how a two-dimensional (2D) Dirac fermion-based microscope can be realistically implemented and operated, using graphene as a vacuum chamber for ballistic electrons. We use semiclassical simulations to propose concrete architectures and design rules of 2D electron guns, deflectors, tunable lenses and various detectors. The simulations show how simple objects can be imaged with well-controlled and collimated in-plane beams consisting of relativistic charge carriers. Finally, we discuss the potential of such microscopes for investigating edges, terminations and defects, as well as interfaces, including external nanoscale structures such as adsorbed molecules, nanoparticles or quantum dots.

  14. A two-dimensional Dirac fermion microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøggild, Peter; Caridad, José M; Stampfer, Christoph; Calogero, Gaetano; Papior, Nick Rübner; Brandbyge, Mads

    2017-06-09

    The electron microscope has been a powerful, highly versatile workhorse in the fields of material and surface science, micro and nanotechnology, biology and geology, for nearly 80 years. The advent of two-dimensional materials opens new possibilities for realizing an analogy to electron microscopy in the solid state. Here we provide a perspective view on how a two-dimensional (2D) Dirac fermion-based microscope can be realistically implemented and operated, using graphene as a vacuum chamber for ballistic electrons. We use semiclassical simulations to propose concrete architectures and design rules of 2D electron guns, deflectors, tunable lenses and various detectors. The simulations show how simple objects can be imaged with well-controlled and collimated in-plane beams consisting of relativistic charge carriers. Finally, we discuss the potential of such microscopes for investigating edges, terminations and defects, as well as interfaces, including external nanoscale structures such as adsorbed molecules, nanoparticles or quantum dots.

  15. Two-dimensional in situ metrology of X-ray mirrors using the speckle scanning technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hongchang, E-mail: hongchang.wang@diamond.ac.uk; Kashyap, Yogesh; Laundy, David; Sawhney, Kawal [Diamond Light Source Ltd, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-06

    The two-dimensional slope error of an X-ray mirror has been retrieved by employing the speckle scanning technique, which will be valuable at synchrotron radiation facilities and in astronomical telescopes. In situ metrology overcomes many of the limitations of existing metrology techniques and is capable of exceeding the performance of present-day optics. A novel technique for precisely characterizing an X-ray bimorph mirror and deducing its two-dimensional (2D) slope error map is presented. This technique has also been used to perform fast optimization of a bimorph mirror using the derived 2D piezo response functions. The measured focused beam size was significantly reduced after the optimization, and the slope error map was then verified by using geometrical optics to simulate the focused beam profile. This proposed technique is expected to be valuable for in situ metrology of X-ray mirrors at synchrotron radiation facilities and in astronomical telescopes.

  16. Mobility anisotropy of two-dimensional semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Lang, Haifeng; Liu, Zhirong

    2016-01-01

    The carrier mobility of anisotropic two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors under longitudinal acoustic (LA) phonon scattering was theoretically studied with the deformation potential theory. Based on Boltzmann equation with relaxation time approximation, an analytic formula of intrinsic anisotropic mobility was deduced, which shows that the influence of effective mass to the mobility anisotropy is larger than that of deformation potential constant and elastic modulus. Parameters were collected for various anisotropic 2D materials (black phosphorus, Hittorf's phosphorus, BC$_2$N, MXene, TiS$_3$, GeCH$_3$) to calculate their mobility anisotropy. It was revealed that the anisotropic ratio was overestimated in the past.

  17. Optical flat bands in 2D waveguide arrays with alternating sign of refraction index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimistov, A. I.; Gabitov, I. R.

    2016-05-01

    We consider the coupled forward and backward waves propagating in two dimensional array of waveguide, which are featured by a positive and negative refraction indexes. The existence of the flat band under certain conditions is demonstrated.

  18. Novel 2D-sequential color code system employing Image Sensor Communications for Optical Wireless Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trang Nguyen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The IEEE 802.15.7r1 Optical Wireless Communications Task Group (TG7r1, also known as the revision of the IEEE 802.15.7 Visible Light Communication standard targeting the commercial usage of visible light communication systems, is of interest in this paper. The paper is mainly concerned with Image Sensor Communications (ISC of TG7r1; however, the major challenge facing ISC, as addressed in the Technical Consideration Document (TCD of TG7r1, is Image Sensor Compatibility among the variety of different commercial cameras on the market. One of the most challenging but interesting compatibility requirements is the need to support the verified presence of frame rate variation. This paper proposes a novel design for 2D-sequential color code. Compared to a QR-code-based sequential transmission, the proposed design of 2D-sequential code can overcome the above challenge that it is compatible with different frame rate variations and different shutter operations, and has the ability to mitigate the rolling effect as well as the rotating effect while effectively minimizing transmission overhead. Practical implementations are demonstrated and a performance comparison is presented.

  19. Optical Signatures from Magnetic 2-D Electron Gases in High Magnetic Fields to 60 Tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crooker, S.A.; Kikkawa, J.M.; Awschalom, D.D.; Smorchikova, I.P.; Samarth, N.

    1998-11-08

    We present experiments in the 60 Tesla Long-Pulse magnet at the Los Alamos National High Magnetic Field Lab (NHMFL) focusing on the high-field, low temperature photoluminescence (PL) from modulation-doped ZnSe/Zn(Cd,Mn)Se single quantum wells. High-speed charge-coupled array detectors and the long (2 second) duration of the magnet pulse permit continuous acquisition of optical spectra throughout a single magnet shot. High-field PL studies of the magnetic 2D electron gases at temperatures down to 350mK reveal clear intensity oscillations corresponding to integer quantum Hall filling factors, from which we determine the density of the electron gas. At very high magnetic fields, steps in the PL energy are observed which correspond to the partial unlocking of antiferromagnetically bound pairs of Mn2+ spins.

  20. Experimental Demonstration of the Microscopic Origin of Circular Dichroism in Two dimensional Metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-22

    dichroism in two-dimensional metamaterials A.B. Khanikaev1, N. Arju2, Z. Fan2, D. Purtseladze2, F. Lu3, J. Lee3, P. Sarriugarte4, M. Schnell4, R. Hillenbrand4...M.A. Belkin3 & G. Shvets2 Optical activity and circular dichroism are fascinating physical phenomena originating from the interaction of light with...spatial symmetry of their building blocks is broken on a nanoscale. Although originally discovered in 3D structures, circular dichroism can also emerge

  1. Natural and magnetic optical activity of 2-D chiral cyanido-bridged Mn(II)-Nb(IV) molecular ferrimagnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorazy, Szymon; Podgajny, Robert; Nitek, Wojciech; Fic, Tomasz; Görlich, Edward; Rams, Michał; Sieklucka, Barbara

    2013-08-04

    Unique two dimensional enantiopure cyanido-bridged {[Mn(II)(R-mpm)2]2[Nb(IV)(CN)8]}·4H2O and {[Mn(II)(S-mpm)2]2[Nb(IV)(CN)8]}·4H2O (-S) (mpm = α-methyl-2-pyridine-methanol) ferrimagnets with TC = 23.5 K were synthesized and characterized. They reveal natural optical activity (NOA) due to the chiral crystal structure, and magnetic optical activity (MOA) in the presence of an external magnetic field, with the strong enhancement in the magnetically ordered phase below TC.

  2. A Ternary Solvent Method for Large-Sized Two-Dimensional Perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junnian; Gan, Lin; Zhuge, Fuwei; Li, Huiqiao; Song, Jizhong; Zeng, Haibo; Zhai, Tianyou

    2017-02-20

    Recent reports demonstrate that a two-dimensional (2D) structural characteristic can endow perovskites with both remarkable photoelectric conversion efficiency and high stability, but the synthesis of ultrathin 2D perovskites with large sizes by facile solution methods is still a challenge. Reported herein is the controlled growth of 2D (C4 H9 NH3 )2 PbBr4 perovskites by a chlorobenzene-dimethylformide-acetonitrile ternary solvent method. The critical factors, including solvent volume ratio, crystallization temperature, and solvent polarity on the growth dynamics were systematically studied. Under optimum reaction condition, 2D (C4 H9 NH3 )2 PbBr4 perovskites, with the largest lateral dimension of up to 40 μm and smallest thickness down to a few nanometers, were fabricated. Furthermore, various iodine doped 2D (C4 H9 NH3 )2 PbBrx I4-x perovskites were accessed to tune the optical properties rationally.

  3. Two-Dimensional Transition Metal Dichalcogenides and Their Charge Carrier Mobilities in Field-Effect Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sohail; Yi, Jiabao

    2017-10-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials have attracted extensive interest due to their excellent electrical, thermal, mechanical, and optical properties. Graphene has been one of the most explored 2D materials. However, its zero band gap has limited its applications in electronic devices. Transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC), another kind of 2D material, has a nonzero direct band gap (same charge carrier momentum in valence and conduction band) at monolayer state, promising for the efficient switching devices (e.g., field-effect transistors). This review mainly focuses on the recent advances in charge carrier mobility and the challenges to achieve high mobility in the electronic devices based on 2D-TMDC materials and also includes an introduction of 2D materials along with the synthesis techniques. Finally, this review describes the possible methodology and future prospective to enhance the charge carrier mobility for electronic devices.

  4. Nonlocal bottleneck effect in two-dimensional turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Biskamp, D; Schwarz, E

    1998-01-01

    The bottleneck pileup in the energy spectrum is investigated for several two-dimensional (2D) turbulence systems by numerical simulation using high-order diffusion terms to amplify the effect, which is weak for normal diffusion. For 2D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence, 2D electron MHD (EMHD) turbulence and 2D thermal convection, which all exhibit direct energy cascades, a nonlocal behavior is found resulting in a logarithmic enhancement of the spectrum.

  5. Spectroscopy of charge transfer complexes of four amino acids as organic two-dimensional conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padhiyar, Ashvin; Patel, A J; Oza, A T [Department of Physics, Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyanagar-388 120, Gujarat (India)

    2007-12-05

    It is found in this study that four amino acids, namely asparagine, arginine, histidine and glutamine form two-dimensional conducting systems which are charge transfer complexes (CTCs) with organic acceptors like TCNQ, TCNE, chloranil, DDQ, TNF and iodine. It is verified using optical absorption edges that these are 2d conductors like transition metal dichalcogenides obeying absorption functions different from 1d and 3d conductors. This 2d nature is related to the network of intermolecular H-bonding in these complexes, which leads to a global H-bonded network resulting in the absence of local deformation due to the relaxation of strain.

  6. Spectroscopy of charge transfer complexes of four amino acids as organic two-dimensional conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhiyar, Ashvin; Patel, A. J.; Oza, A. T.

    2007-12-01

    It is found in this study that four amino acids, namely asparagine, arginine, histidine and glutamine form two-dimensional conducting systems which are charge transfer complexes (CTCs) with organic acceptors like TCNQ, TCNE, chloranil, DDQ, TNF and iodine. It is verified using optical absorption edges that these are 2d conductors like transition metal dichalcogenides obeying absorption functions different from 1d and 3d conductors. This 2d nature is related to the network of intermolecular H-bonding in these complexes, which leads to a global H-bonded network resulting in the absence of local deformation due to the relaxation of strain.

  7. A compact chaotic laser device with a two-dimensional external cavity structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunada, Satoshi, E-mail: sunada@se.kanazawa-u.ac.jp; Adachi, Masaaki [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Institute of Science and Engineering, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1192 (Japan); Fukushima, Takehiro [Department of Information and Communication Engineering, Okayama Prefectural University, 111 Kuboki, Soja, Okayama 719-1197 (Japan); Shinohara, Susumu; Arai, Kenichi [NTT Communication Science Laboratories, NTT Corporation, 2-4 Hikaridai, Seika-cho, Soraku-gun, Kyoto 619-0237 (Japan); Harayama, Takahisa [NTT Communication Science Laboratories, NTT Corporation, 2-4 Hikaridai, Seika-cho, Soraku-gun, Kyoto 619-0237 (Japan); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Toyo University, 2100 Kujirai, Kawagoe, Saitama 350-8585 (Japan)

    2014-06-16

    We propose a compact chaotic laser device, which consists of a semiconductor laser and a two-dimensional (2D) external cavity for delayed optical feedback. The overall size of the device is within 230 μm × 1 mm. A long time delay sufficient for chaos generation can be achieved with the small area by the multiple reflections at the 2D cavity boundary, and the feedback strength is controlled by the injection current to the external cavity. We experimentally demonstrate that a variety of output properties, including chaotic output, can be selectively generated by controlling the injection current to the external cavity.

  8. Mathematical description of the two-dimensional Gabor transform. Application to image encryption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Ronal; Vilardy, Juan M.; Torres, Cesar O.

    2017-01-01

    Information security with optical processing, such as the double random phase encoding and the Gabor transform (GT) has been investigated by various researchers. We present a two-dimensional (2-D) generalization of the one-dimensional GT. This 2-D GT is applied to encrypt digital images in this paper. The scaling factors of the GT can be used as new keys, providing a new encryption system with a high security characteristics. This method can encrypt and protect the information of the digital images with a high security for information processing systems.

  9. Rationally synthesized two-dimensional polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colson, John W; Dichtel, William R

    2013-06-01

    Synthetic polymers exhibit diverse and useful properties and influence most aspects of modern life. Many polymerization methods provide linear or branched macromolecules, frequently with outstanding functional-group tolerance and molecular weight control. In contrast, extending polymerization strategies to two-dimensional periodic structures is in its infancy, and successful examples have emerged only recently through molecular framework, surface science and crystal engineering approaches. In this Review, we describe successful 2D polymerization strategies, as well as seminal research that inspired their development. These methods include the synthesis of 2D covalent organic frameworks as layered crystals and thin films, surface-mediated polymerization of polyfunctional monomers, and solid-state topochemical polymerizations. Early application targets of 2D polymers include gas separation and storage, optoelectronic devices and membranes, each of which might benefit from predictable long-range molecular organization inherent to this macromolecular architecture.

  10. The CU 2-D-MAX-DOAS instrument - Part 2: Raman scattering probability measurements and retrieval of aerosol optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Ivan; Coburn, Sean; Berg, Larry K.; Lantz, Kathy; Michalsky, Joseph; Ferrare, Richard A.; Hair, Johnathan W.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Volkamer, Rainer

    2016-08-01

    The multiannual global mean of aerosol optical depth at 550 nm (AOD550) over land is ˜ 0.19, and that over oceans is ˜ 0.13. About 45 % of the Earth surface shows AOD550 smaller than 0.1. There is a need for measurement techniques that are optimized to measure aerosol optical properties under low AOD conditions. We present an inherently calibrated retrieval (i.e., no need for radiance calibration) to simultaneously measure AOD and the aerosol phase function parameter, g, based on measurements of azimuth distributions of the Raman scattering probability (RSP), the near-absolute rotational Raman scattering (RRS) intensity. We employ radiative transfer model simulations to show that for solar azimuth RSP measurements at solar elevation and solar zenith angle (SZA) smaller than 80°, RSP is insensitive to the vertical distribution of aerosols and maximally sensitive to changes in AOD and g under near-molecular scattering conditions. The University of Colorado two-dimensional Multi-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (CU 2-D-MAX-DOAS) instrument was deployed as part of the Two Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) at Cape Cod, MA, during the summer of 2012 to measure direct sun spectra and RSP from scattered light spectra at solar relative azimuth angles (SRAAs) between 5 and 170°. During two case study days with (1) high aerosol load (17 July, 0.3 CIMEL sun photometer, Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR), and an airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL-2). The average difference (relative to DOAS) for AOD430 is +0.012 ± 0.023 (CIMEL), -0.012 ± 0.024 (MFRSR), -0.011 ± 0.014 (HSRL-2), and +0.023 ± 0.013 (CIMELAOD - MFRSRAOD) and yields the following expressions for correlations between different instruments: DOASAOD = -(0.019 ± 0.006) + (1.03 ± 0.02) × CIMELAOD (R2 = 0.98), DOASAOD = -(0.006 ± 0.005) + (1.08 ± 0.02) × MFRSRAOD (R2 = 0.98), and CIMELAOD = (0.013 ± 0.004) + (1.05 ± 0.01)

  11. Experimental investigation on the high chip rate of 2D incoherent optical CDMA system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Guorui; Wang, Rong; Pu, Tao; Fang, Tao; Zheng, Jilin; Zhu, Huatao; Wu, Weijiang

    2015-08-01

    An innovative approach to realise high chip rate in OCDMA transmission system is proposed and experimentally investigation, the high chip rate is achieved through a 2-D wavelength-hopping time-spreading en/decoder based on the supercontinuum light source. The source used in the experiment is generated by high nonlinear optical fiber (HNLF), Erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) which output power is 26 dBm, and distributed feed-back laser diode which works in the gain switch state. The span and the flatness of the light source are 20 nm and 3 dB, respectively, after equalization of wavelength selective switch (WSS). The wavelength-hopping time-spreading coder can be changed 20 nm in the wavelength and 400 ps in the time, is consist of WSS and delay lines. Therefore, the experimental results show that the chip rate can achieve 500 Gchip/s, in the case of 2.5 Gbit/s, while keeping a bit error rate below forward error correction limit after 40 km transmission.

  12. Addressable, large-field second harmonic generation microscopy based on 2D acousto-optical deflector and spatial light modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yonghong; Liu, Honghai; Qin, Wan; Qu, Junle; Peng, Xiang; Niu, Hanben; Gao, Bruce Z

    2012-09-01

    We present an addressable, large-field second harmonic generation microscope by combining a 2D acousto-optical deflector with a spatial light modulator. The SLM shapes an incoming mode-locked, near-infrared Ti:Sapphire laser beam into a multifocus array, which can be rapidly scanned by changing the incident angle of the laser beam using a 2D acousto-optical deflector. Compared to the single-beam-scan technique, the multifocus array scan can increase the scanning rate and the field-of-view size with the multi-region imaging ability.

  13. Two-Dimensional Mesoscale-Ordered Conducting Polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Shaohua; Zhang, Jian; Dong, Renhao; Gordiichuk, Pavlo; Zhang, Tao; Zhuang, Xiaodong; Mai, Yiyong; Liu, Feng; Herrmann, Andreas; Feng, Xinliang

    2016-01-01

    Despite the availability of numerous two-dimensional (2D) materials with structural ordering at the atomic or molecular level, direct construction of mesoscale-ordered superstructures within a 2D monolayer remains an enormous challenge. Here, we report the synergic manipulation of two types of assem

  14. Two-Dimensional Mesoscale-Ordered Conducting Polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Shaohua; Zhang, Jian; Dong, Renhao; Gordiichuk, Pavlo; Zhang, Tao; Zhuang, Xiaodong; Mai, Yiyong; Liu, Feng; Herrmann, Andreas; Feng, Xinliang

    2016-01-01

    Despite the availability of numerous two-dimensional (2D) materials with structural ordering at the atomic or molecular level, direct construction of mesoscale-ordered superstructures within a 2D monolayer remains an enormous challenge. Here, we report the synergic manipulation of two types of

  15. Forensic potential of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sampat, A.; Lopatka, M.; Sjerps, M.; Vivo-Truyols, G.; Schoenmakers, P.; van Asten, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the application of comprehensive two-dimensional (2D) gas chromatography (GC × GC) in forensic science is reviewed. The peer-reviewed publications on the forensic use of GC × GC and 2D gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC × GC-MS) have been studied in detail, not o

  16. Forensic potential of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sampat, A.; Lopatka, M.; Sjerps, M.; Vivo-Truyols, G.; Schoenmakers, P.; van Asten, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the application of comprehensive two-dimensional (2D) gas chromatography (GC × GC) in forensic science is reviewed. The peer-reviewed publications on the forensic use of GC × GC and 2D gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC × GC-MS) have been studied in detail, not o

  17. TreePM Method for Two-Dimensional Cosmological Simulations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Suryadeep Ray

    2004-09-01

    We describe the two-dimensional TreePM method in this paper. The 2d TreePM code is an accurate and efficient technique to carry out large two-dimensional N-body simulations in cosmology. This hybrid code combines the 2d Barnes and Hut Tree method and the 2d Particle–Mesh method. We describe the splitting of force between the PM and the Tree parts. We also estimate error in force for a realistic configuration. Finally, we discuss some tests of the code.

  18. Optical contrast of 2D InSe on SiO2/Si and transparent substrates using bandpass filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotons-Gisbert, M.; Andres-Penares, D.; Martínez-Pastor, J. P.; Cros, A.; Sánchez-Royo, J. F.

    2017-03-01

    The particular optical and electronic properties recently reported for 2D InSe depict this 2D material as being very versatile for future electronic and optoelectronic devices with tunable and optimized functionalities. For its fundamental study and the development of practical applications, rapid and accurate identification methods of atomically thin InSe are essential. Here, we demonstrate an enhancement of the optical contrast between InSe nanosheets and the underlying SiO2/Si substrate by illuminating with a 40 nm wide bandpass filter centered at 500 nm. Moreover, we study the optical contrast of 2D InSe on transparent substrates. Our results suggest that a good optical contrast is achieved for transparent substrates with low real refractive indices such as LiF or a viscoelastic polydimethylsiloxane stamp. In this case, an optimum optical contrast would be achieved by using a bandpass filter centered at 450 nm. These results can be very useful for speeding up the continuously growing research on 2D InSe and its applications.

  19. Optical contrast of 2D InSe on SiO2/Si and transparent substrates using bandpass filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotons-Gisbert, M; Andres-Penares, D; Martínez-Pastor, J P; Cros, A; Sánchez-Royo, J F

    2017-03-17

    The particular optical and electronic properties recently reported for 2D InSe depict this 2D material as being very versatile for future electronic and optoelectronic devices with tunable and optimized functionalities. For its fundamental study and the development of practical applications, rapid and accurate identification methods of atomically thin InSe are essential. Here, we demonstrate an enhancement of the optical contrast between InSe nanosheets and the underlying SiO2/Si substrate by illuminating with a 40 nm wide bandpass filter centered at 500 nm. Moreover, we study the optical contrast of 2D InSe on transparent substrates. Our results suggest that a good optical contrast is achieved for transparent substrates with low real refractive indices such as LiF or a viscoelastic polydimethylsiloxane stamp. In this case, an optimum optical contrast would be achieved by using a bandpass filter centered at 450 nm. These results can be very useful for speeding up the continuously growing research on 2D InSe and its applications.

  20. Interactions between lasers and two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Junpeng; Liu, Hongwei; Tok, Eng Soon; Sow, Chorng-Haur

    2016-05-03

    The recent increasing research interest in two-dimensional (2D) layered materials has led to an explosion of in the discovery of novel physical and chemical phenomena in these materials. Among the 2D family, group-VI transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), such as represented by MoS2 and WSe2, are remarkable semiconductors with sizable energy band gaps, which make the TMDs promising building blocks for new generation optoelectronics. On the other hand, the specificity and tunability of the band gaps can generate particularly strong light-matter interactions between TMD crystals and specific photons, which can trigger complex and interesting phenomena such as photo-scattering, photo-excitation, photo-destruction, photo-physical modification, photochemical reaction and photo-oxidation. Herein, we provide an overview of the phenomena explained by various interactions between lasers and the 2D TMDs. Characterizations of the optical fundamentals of the TMDs via laser spectroscopies are reviewed. Subsequently, photoelectric conversion devices enabled by laser excitation and the functionality extension and performance improvement of the TMDs materials via laser modification are comprehensively summarized. Finally, we conclude the review by discussing the prospects for further development in this research area.

  1. Theory of two-dimensional transformations

    OpenAIRE

    Kanayama, Yutaka J.; Krahn, Gary W.

    1998-01-01

    The article of record may be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/70.720359 Robotics and Automation, IEEE Transactions on This paper proposes a new "heterogeneous" two-dimensional (2D) transformation group ___ to solve motion analysis/planning problems in robotics. In this theory, we use a 3×1 matrix to represent a transformation as opposed to a 3×3 matrix in the homogeneous formulation. First, this theory is as capable as the homogeneous theory, Because of the minimal size, its implement...

  2. Sparsity and level set regularization for diffuse optical tomography using a transport model in 2D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Kernel; Dorn, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we address an inverse problem for the time-dependent linear transport equation (or radiative transfer equation) in 2D having in mind applications in diffuse optical tomography (DOT). We propose two new reconstruction algorithms which so far have not been applied to such a situation and compare their performances in certain practically relevant situations. The first of these reconstruction algorithms uses a sparsity promoting regularization scheme, whereas the second one uses a simultaneous level set reconstruction scheme for two parameters of the linear transport equation. We will also compare the results of both schemes with a third scheme which is a more traditional L 2-based Landweber-Kaczmarz scheme. We focus our attention on the DOT application of imaging the human head of a neonate where the simpler diffusion approximation is not well-suited for the inversion due to the presence of a clear layer beneath the skull which is filled with ‘low-scattering’ cerebrospinal fluid. This layer, even if its location and characteristics are known a priori, poses significant difficulties for most reconstruction schemes due to its ‘wave-guiding’ property which reduces sensitivity of the data to the interior regions. A further complication arises due to the necessity to reconstruct simultaneously two different parameters of the linear transport equation, the scattering and the absorption cross-section, from the same data set. A significant ‘cross-talk’ between these two parameters is usually expected. Our numerical experiments indicate that each of the three considered reconstruction schemes do have their merits and perform differently but reasonably well when the clear layer is a priori known. We also demonstrate the behavior of the three algorithms in the particular situation where the clear layer is unknown during the reconstruction.

  3. Rotationally relaxed, grating tuned laser oscillations in optically pumped C/sub 2/D/sub 2/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, T.A.; Wittig, C.

    1982-07-15

    Rotationally relaxed, grating tuned laser oscillations are obtained in the frequency range 500--562 cm/sup -1/ via the optical pumping of C/sub 2/D/sub 2//He mixtures with a transverse, electric, atmospheric (TEA) CO/sub 2/ laser. Strong Q-branch oscillations at 530.8 cm/sup -1/ are also reported.

  4. Two-Dimensional Plasmonics in Massive and Massless Electron Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hosang

    Plasmonic waves in solid-state are caused by collective oscillation of mobile charges inside or at the surface of conductors. In particular, surface plasmonic waves propagating at the skin of metals have recently attracted interest, as they reduce the wavelength of electromagnetic waves coupled to them by up to ˜10 times, allowing one to create miniaturized wave devices at optical frequencies. In contrast, plasmonic waves on two-dimensional (2D) conductors appear at much lower infrared and THz-GHz frequencies, near or in the electronics regime, and can achieve far stronger wavelength reduction factor reaching well above 100. In this thesis, we study the unique machinery of 2D plasmonic waves behind this ultra-subwavelength confinement and explore how it can be used to create various interesting devices. To this end, we first develop a physically intuitive theoretical formulation of 2D plasmonic waves, whose two main components---the Coulomb restoration force and inertia of the collectively oscillating charges---are combined into a transmission-line-like model. We then use this formulation to create various ultra-subwavelength 2D plasmonic devices. For the 2D conductor, we first choose GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure---a 2D electron gas consisting of massive (m* > 0) electrons---demonstrating plasmonic bandgap crystals, interferometers, and negatively refracting metamaterials. We then examine a 2D plasmonic device based on graphene, a 2D electron gas consisting of effectively massless (m* = 0) electrons. We theoretically show and experimentally demonstrate that the massless electrons in graphene can surprisingly exhibit a collective mass when subjected to a collective excitation, providing the inertia that is essential for the propagation of 2D plasmonic waves. Lastly, we theoretically investigate the thermal current fluctuation behaviors in massive and massless electron gases. While seemingly unrelated on first sight, we show that the thermal current fluctuation is

  5. Predicting Two-Dimensional Silicon Carbide Monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhiming; Zhang, Zhuhua; Kutana, Alex; Yakobson, Boris I

    2015-10-27

    Intrinsic semimetallicity of graphene and silicene largely limits their applications in functional devices. Mixing carbon and silicon atoms to form two-dimensional (2D) silicon carbide (SixC1-x) sheets is promising to overcome this issue. Using first-principles calculations combined with the cluster expansion method, we perform a comprehensive study on the thermodynamic stability and electronic properties of 2D SixC1-x monolayers with 0 ≤ x ≤ 1. Upon varying the silicon concentration, the 2D SixC1-x presents two distinct structural phases, a homogeneous phase with well dispersed Si (or C) atoms and an in-plane hybrid phase rich in SiC domains. While the in-plane hybrid structure shows uniform semiconducting properties with widely tunable band gap from 0 to 2.87 eV due to quantum confinement effect imposed by the SiC domains, the homogeneous structures can be semiconducting or remain semimetallic depending on a superlattice vector which dictates whether the sublattice symmetry is topologically broken. Moreover, we reveal a universal rule for describing the electronic properties of the homogeneous SixC1-x structures. These findings suggest that the 2D SixC1-x monolayers may present a new "family" of 2D materials, with a rich variety of properties for applications in electronics and optoelectronics.

  6. Steering light into logic patterns with two-dimensional cascaded multimode waveguide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Hai-Feng; Yang Jian-Yi; Wang Ming-Hua; Jiang Xiao-Qing

    2007-01-01

    Steering light into logic patterns with two-dimensional cascaded multimode waveguide is demonstrated.By employing the imaging properties of 2D multimode interference (MMI) and partial phase modulation method,the design ideas and the implementing methods of the 2(2×2) bits type spatial logic steering are discussed;therefore the structure of logical pattern is proposed.Numerical simulation is carried out to verify the design in detail by using the beam propagation method.It is expected to realize logic coders by using the integrated optical methods and exploit their potential applications in the field of optical logic.

  7. FACE RECOGNITION USING TWO DIMENSIONAL LAPLACIAN EIGENMAP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Jiangfeng; Yuan Baozong; Pei Bingnan

    2008-01-01

    Recently,some research efforts have shown that face images possibly reside on a nonlinear sub-manifold. Though Laplacianfaces method considered the manifold structures of the face images,it has limits to solve face recognition problem. This paper proposes a new feature extraction method,Two Dimensional Laplacian EigenMap (2DLEM),which especially considers the manifold structures of the face images,and extracts the proper features from face image matrix directly by using a linear transformation. As opposed to Laplacianfaces,2DLEM extracts features directly from 2D images without a vectorization preprocessing. To test 2DLEM and evaluate its performance,a series of ex-periments are performed on the ORL database and the Yale database. Moreover,several experiments are performed to compare the performance of three 2D methods. The experiments show that 2DLEM achieves the best performance.

  8. The Rare Two-Dimensional Materials with Dirac Cones

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jinying; Deng, Shibin; Liu, Zhongfan; Liu, Zhirong

    2014-01-01

    Inspired by the great development of graphene, more and more works have been conducted to seek new two-dimensional (2D) materials with Dirac cones. Although 2D Dirac materials possess many novel properties and physics, they are rare compared with the numerous 2D materials. To provide explanation for the rarity of 2D Dirac materials as well as clues in searching for new Dirac systems, here we review the recent theoretical aspects of various 2D Dirac materials, including graphene, silicene, ger...

  9. Room-Temperature Optical Tunability and Inhomogeneous Broadening in 2D-Layered Organic-Inorganic Perovskite Pseudobinary Alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanty, Gaëtan; Jemli, Khaoula; Wei, Yi; Leymarie, Joël; Even, Jacky; Lauret, Jean-Sébastien; Deleporte, Emmanuelle

    2014-11-20

    We focus here our attention on a particular family of 2D-layered and 3D hybrid perovskite molecular crystals, the mixed perovskites (C6H5-C2H4-NH3)2PbZ4(1-x)Y4x and (CH3-NH3)PbZ3(1-x)Y3x, where Z and Y are halogen ions such as I, Br, and Cl. Studying experimentally the disorder-induced effects on the optical properties of the 2D mixed layered materials, we demonstrate that they can be considered as pseudobinary alloys, exactly like Ga1-xAlxAs, Cd1-xHgxTe inorganic semiconductors, or previously reported 3D mixed hybrid perovskite compounds. 2D-layered and 3D hybrid perovskites afford similar continuous optical tunability at room temperature. Our theoretical analysis allows one to describe the influence of alloying on the excitonic properties of 2D-layered perovskite molecular crystals. This model is further refined by considering different Bohr radii for pure compounds. This study confirms that despite a large binding energy of several 100 meV, the 2D excitons present a Wannier character rather than a Frenkel character. The small inhomogeneous broadening previously reported in 3D hybrid compounds at low temperature is similarly consistent with the Wannier character of free excitons.

  10. Two-dimensional signal analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Garello, René

    2010-01-01

    This title sets out to show that 2-D signal analysis has its own role to play alongside signal processing and image processing.Concentrating its coverage on those 2-D signals coming from physical sensors (such as radars and sonars), the discussion explores a 2-D spectral approach but develops the modeling of 2-D signals and proposes several data-oriented analysis techniques for dealing with them. Coverage is also given to potential future developments in this area.

  11. Quadridirectional eigenmode expansion scheme for 2-D modeling of wave propagation in integrated optics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lohmeyer, Manfred; Honsa, R.; Richter, L.

    2003-01-01

    Superpositions of two perpendicularly oriented bidirectional eigenmode propagation (BEP) fields, composed of basis modes that satisfy Dirichlet boundary conditions, can establish rigorous semianalytical solutions for problems of 2-D fixed-frequency wave propagation on unbounded, cross-shaped domains

  12. Optical probing of spin dynamics of two-dimensional and bulk electrons in a GaAs/AlGaAs heterojunction system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizo, P J; Pugzlys, A; Slachter, A; Denega, S Z; Van Loosdrecht, P H M; Van der Wal, C H [Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, NL-9747AG Groningen (Netherlands); Reuter, D; Wieck, A D, E-mail: c.h.van.der.wal@rug.n [Angewandte Festkoerperphysik, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    The electron spin dynamics in a GaAs/AlGaAs heterojunction system containing a high-mobility two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) have been studied in this paper by using pump-probe time-resolved Kerr rotation experiments. Owing to the complex layer structure of this material, the transient Kerr response contains information about electron spins in the 2DEG, an epilayer and the substrate. We analyzed the physics that underlies this Kerr response, and established the conditions under which it is possible to unravel the signatures of the various photo-induced spin populations. This was used to explore how the electron spin dynamics of the various populations depend on the temperature, magnetic field and pump-photon density. The results show that the D'Yakonov-Perel' mechanism for spin dephasing (by spin-orbit fields) plays a prominent role in both the 2DEG and bulk populations over a wide range of temperatures and magnetic fields. Our results are of importance for future studies on the 2DEG in this type of heterojunction system, which offers interesting possibilities for spin manipulation and control of spin relaxation via tunable spin-orbit effects.

  13. Hybrid nanostructures of metal/two-dimensional nanomaterials for plasmon-enhanced applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuanhua; Zhu, Jinmeng; Wei, Bingqing

    2016-06-07

    Hybrid nanostructures composed of graphene or other two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials and plasmonic metal components have been extensively studied. The unusual properties of 2D materials are associated with their atomically thin thickness and 2D morphology, and many impressive structures enable the metal nanomaterials to establish various interesting hybrid nanostructures with outstanding plasmonic properties. In addition, the hybrid nanostructures display unique optical characteristics that are derived from the close conjunction of plasmonic optical effects and the unique physicochemical properties of 2D materials. More importantly, the hybrid nanostructures show several plasmonic electrical effects including an improved photogeneration rate, efficient carrier transfer, and a plasmon-induced "hot carrier", playing a significant role in enhancing device performance. They have been widely studied for plasmon-enhanced optical signals, photocatalysis, photodetectors (PDs), and solar cells. In this review, the developments in the field of metal/2D hybrid nanostructures are comprehensively described. Preparation of hybrid nanostructures is first presented according to the 2D material type, as well as the metal nanomaterial morphology. The plasmonic properties and the enabled applications of the hybrid nanostructures are then described. Lastly, possible future research in this promising field is discussed.

  14. Development of a Semi-Automatic Technique for Flow Estimation using Optical Flow Registration and k-means Clustering on Two Dimensional Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Flow Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Lau; Christoffersen, Christian P. V.; Kristiansen, Martin Søndergaard

    of the aorta. Methods: 2D phase contrast flow images of the aorta were acquired from a patient with an enlarged pulmonary artery on a Philips Achieva 1.5T CMR system. The cardiac motion was removed from the data set using the Cornelius/Kanade registration algorithm. The time resolved flow data...... promising because it saves time for post-processing. However, the k-means cluster approach is not comprehensive for quantitative flow estimations as it is but seems feasible for a subsequent segmentation algorithm like deformable contours (i.e. snakes). Future work may overcome this manual part and make...

  15. Two-dimensional liquid chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Rune

    of this thesis is on online comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography (online LC×LC) with reverse phase in both dimensions (online RP×RP). Since online RP×RP has not been attempted before within this research group, a significant part of this thesis consists of knowledge and experience gained...

  16. Electrical and optoelectronic properties of two-dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiaoming

    Electrical and optoelectronic properties of bulk semiconductor materials have been extensively explored in last century. However, when reduced to one-dimensional and two-dimensional, many semiconductors start to show unique electrical and optoelectronic behaviors. In this dissertation, electrical and optoelectronic properties of one-dimensional (nanowires) and two-dimensional semiconductor materials are investigated by various techniques, including scanning photocurrent microscopy, scanning Kelvin probe microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence, and finite-element simulations. In our work, gate-tunable photocurrent in ZnO nanowires has been observed under optical excitation in the visible regime, which originates from the nanowire/substrate interface states. This gate tunability in the visible regime can be used to enhance the photon absorption efficiency, and suppress the undesirable visible-light photodetection in ZnO-based solar cells. The power conversion efficiency of CuInSe2/CdS core-shell nanowire solar cells has been investigated. The highest power conversion efficiency per unit area/volume is achieved with core diameter of 50 nm and the thinnest shell thickness. The existence of the optimal geometrical parameters is due to a combined effect of optical resonances and carrier transport/dynamics. Significant current crowding in two-dimensional black phosphorus field-effect transistors has been found, which has been significantly underestimated by the commonly used transmission-line model. This current crowding can lead to Joule heating close to the contacts. New van der Waals metal-semiconductor junctions have been mechanically constructed and systematically studied. The photocurrent on junction area has been demonstrated to originate from the photothermal effect rather than the photovoltaic effect. Our findings suggest that a reasonable control of interface/surface state properties can enable new and beneficial functionalities in nanostructures. We

  17. Compact optical true time delay beamformer for a 2D phased array antenna using tunable dispersive elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xingwei; Zhang, Fangzheng; Pan, Shilong

    2016-09-01

    A hardware-compressive optical true time delay architecture for 2D beam steering in a planar phased array antenna is proposed using fiber-Bragg-grating-based tunable dispersive elements (TDEs). For an M×N array, the proposed system utilizes N TDEs and M wavelength-fixed optical carriers to control the time delays. Both azimuth and elevation beam steering are realized by programming the settings of the TDEs. An experiment is carried out to demonstrate the delay controlling in a 2×2 array, which is fed by a wideband pulsed signal. Radiation patterns calculated from the experimentally measured waveforms at the four antennas match well with the theoretical results.

  18. Graphene and Two-Dimensional Materials for Optoelectronic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Bablich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews optoelectronic devices based on graphene and related two-dimensional (2D materials. The review includes basic considerations of process technology, including demonstrations of 2D heterostructure growth, and comments on the scalability and manufacturability of the growth methods. We then assess the potential of graphene-based transparent conducting electrodes. A major part of the review describes photodetectors based on lateral graphene p-n junctions and Schottky diodes. Finally, the progress in vertical devices made from 2D/3D heterojunctions, as well as all-2D heterostructures is discussed.

  19. Cooperative resonances in light scattering from two-dimensional atomic arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Shahmoon, Ephraim; Lukin, Mikhail D; Yelin, Susanne F

    2016-01-01

    We consider light scattering off a two-dimensional (2D) dipolar array and show how it can be tailored by properly choosing the lattice constant of the order of the incident wavelength. In particular, we demonstrate that such arrays can operate as nearly perfect mirrors for a wide range of incident angles and frequencies close to the individual atomic resonance. These results can be understood in terms of the cooperative resonances of the surface modes supported by the 2D array. Experimental realizations are discussed, using ultracold arrays of trapped atoms and excitons in 2D semiconductor materials, as well as potential applications ranging from atomically thin metasurfaces to single photon nonlinear optics and nanomechanics.

  20. Two dimensional unstable scar statistics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Kotulski, Joseph Daniel; Lee, Kelvin S. H. (ITT Industries/AES Los Angeles, CA)

    2006-12-01

    This report examines the localization of time harmonic high frequency modal fields in two dimensional cavities along periodic paths between opposing sides of the cavity. The cases where these orbits lead to unstable localized modes are known as scars. This paper examines the enhancements for these unstable orbits when the opposing mirrors are both convex and concave. In the latter case the construction includes the treatment of interior foci.

  1. Two-Dimensional Vernier Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juday, Richard D.

    1992-01-01

    Modified vernier scale gives accurate two-dimensional coordinates from maps, drawings, or cathode-ray-tube displays. Movable circular overlay rests on fixed rectangular-grid overlay. Pitch of circles nine-tenths that of grid and, for greatest accuracy, radii of circles large compared with pitch of grid. Scale enables user to interpolate between finest divisions of regularly spaced rule simply by observing which mark on auxiliary vernier rule aligns with mark on primary rule.

  2. Rheological, optical, and ballistic investigations of paraffin-based fuels for hybrid rocket propulsion using a two-dimensional slab-burner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobald, M.; Toson, E.; Ciezki, H.; Schlechtriem, S.; di Betta, S.; Coppola, M.; DeLuca, L.

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes combined rheological, ballistic, and optical analyses performed on paraffin-based mixtures that can be used as high regression rate hybrid rocket fuels. Experimental activities have been done at the DLR Institute of Space Propulsion in Lampoldshausen and at SPLab of Politecnico di Milano [1]. Herein, the experiments that were performed at the DLR are described in detail. Viscosity, surface tension, and regression rate of the fuels have been determined. Furthermore, the combustion was evaluated by optical measurements. Data collected so far indicate an increasing regression rate for decreasing viscosity of the liquid paraffin which is in accordance with the current theories. Droplet entrainment, which is related to high regression rates, is only visible for the low-viscosity paraffin-based fuels.

  3. Weakly disordered two-dimensional Frenkel excitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukahil, A.; Zettili, Nouredine

    2004-03-01

    We report the results of studies of the optical properties of weakly disordered two- dimensional Frenkel excitons in the Coherent Potential Approximation (CPA). An approximate complex Green's function for a square lattice with nearest neighbor interactions is used in the self-consistent equation to determine the coherent potential. It is shown that the Density of States is very much affected by the logarithmic singularities in the Green's function. Our CPA results are in excellent agreement with previous investigations by Schreiber and Toyozawa using the Monte Carlo simulation.

  4. Molecular assembly on two-dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Avijit; Banerjee, Kaustuv; Liljeroth, Peter

    2017-02-01

    Molecular self-assembly is a well-known technique to create highly functional nanostructures on surfaces. Self-assembly on two-dimensional (2D) materials is a developing field driven by the interest in functionalization of 2D materials in order to tune their electronic properties. This has resulted in the discovery of several rich and interesting phenomena. Here, we review this progress with an emphasis on the electronic properties of the adsorbates and the substrate in well-defined systems, as unveiled by scanning tunneling microscopy. The review covers three aspects of the self-assembly. The first one focuses on non-covalent self-assembly dealing with site-selectivity due to inherent moiré pattern present on 2D materials grown on substrates. We also see that modification of intermolecular interactions and molecule–substrate interactions influences the assembly drastically and that 2D materials can also be used as a platform to carry out covalent and metal-coordinated assembly. The second part deals with the electronic properties of molecules adsorbed on 2D materials. By virtue of being inert and possessing low density of states near the Fermi level, 2D materials decouple molecules electronically from the underlying metal substrate and allow high-resolution spectroscopy and imaging of molecular orbitals. The moiré pattern on the 2D materials causes site-selective gating and charging of molecules in some cases. The last section covers the effects of self-assembled, acceptor and donor type, organic molecules on the electronic properties of graphene as revealed by spectroscopy and electrical transport measurements. Non-covalent functionalization of 2D materials has already been applied for their application as catalysts and sensors. With the current surge of activity on building van der Waals heterostructures from atomically thin crystals, molecular self-assembly has the potential to add an extra level of flexibility and functionality for applications ranging

  5. Metal Nanoparticle-Decorated Two-Dimensional Molybdenum Sulfide for Plasmonic-Enhanced Polymer Photovoltaic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Kai Chuang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Atomically thin two-dimensional (2D transition metal dichalcogenides have also attracted immense interest because they exhibit appealing electronic, optical and mechanical properties. In this work, we prepared gold nanoparticle-decorated molybdenum sulfide (AuNP@MoS2 through a simple spontaneous redox reaction. Transmission electron microscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy were used to characterize the properties of the AuNP@MoS2 nanomaterials. Then we employed such nanocomposites as the cathode buffer layers of organic photovoltaic devices (OPVs to trigger surface plasmonic resonance, leading to noticeable enhancements in overall device efficiencies. We attribute the primary origin of the improvement in device performance to local field enhancement induced by the effects of localized surface plasmonic resonance. Our results suggest that the metal nanoparticle-decorated two-dimensional materials appear to have great potential for use in high-performance OPVs.

  6. Synthesis and structure of two-dimensional transition-metal dichalcogenides

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Yumeng

    2015-07-13

    Two-dimensional (2D) transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) exhibit unique electrical, optical, thermal, and mechanical properties, which enable them to be used as building blocks in compact and lightweight integrated electronic systems. The controllable and reliable synthesis of atomically thin TMDCs is essential for their practical application. Recent progress in large-area synthesis of monolayer TMDCs paves the way for practical production of various 2D TMDC layers. The intrinsic optical and electrical properties of monolayer TMDCs can be defined by stoichiometry during synthesis. By manipulating the lattice structure or layer stacking manner, it is possible to create atomically thin van der Waals materials with unique and unexplored physical properties. In this article, we review recent developments in the synthesis of TMDC monolayers, alloys, and heterostructures, which shine light on the design of novel TMDCs with desired functional properties.

  7. Two-dimensional in situ metrology of X-ray mirrors using the speckle scanning technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongchang; Kashyap, Yogesh; Laundy, David; Sawhney, Kawal

    2015-07-01

    In situ metrology overcomes many of the limitations of existing metrology techniques and is capable of exceeding the performance of present-day optics. A novel technique for precisely characterizing an X-ray bimorph mirror and deducing its two-dimensional (2D) slope error map is presented. This technique has also been used to perform fast optimization of a bimorph mirror using the derived 2D piezo response functions. The measured focused beam size was significantly reduced after the optimization, and the slope error map was then verified by using geometrical optics to simulate the focused beam profile. This proposed technique is expected to be valuable for in situ metrology of X-ray mirrors at synchrotron radiation facilities and in astronomical telescopes.

  8. Two-dimensional fourier transform spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeFlores, Lauren; Tokmakoff, Andrei

    2016-10-25

    The present invention relates to a system and methods for acquiring two-dimensional Fourier transform (2D FT) spectra. Overlap of a collinear pulse pair and probe induce a molecular response which is collected by spectral dispersion of the signal modulated probe beam. Simultaneous collection of the molecular response, pulse timing and characteristics permit real time phasing and rapid acquisition of spectra. Full spectra are acquired as a function of pulse pair timings and numerically transformed to achieve the full frequency-frequency spectrum. This method demonstrates the ability to acquire information on molecular dynamics, couplings and structure in a simple apparatus. Multi-dimensional methods can be used for diagnostic and analytical measurements in the biological, biomedical, and chemical fields.

  9. Two-dimensional fourier transform spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFlores, Lauren; Tokmakoff, Andrei

    2013-09-03

    The present invention relates to a system and methods for acquiring two-dimensional Fourier transform (2D FT) spectra. Overlap of a collinear pulse pair and probe induce a molecular response which is collected by spectral dispersion of the signal modulated probe beam. Simultaneous collection of the molecular response, pulse timing and characteristics permit real time phasing and rapid acquisition of spectra. Full spectra are acquired as a function of pulse pair timings and numerically transformed to achieve the full frequency-frequency spectrum. This method demonstrates the ability to acquire information on molecular dynamics, couplings and structure in a simple apparatus. Multi-dimensional methods can be used for diagnostic and analytical measurements in the biological, biomedical, and chemical fields.

  10. Two dimensional vibrations of the guinea pig apex organ of Corti measured in vivo using phase sensitive Fourier domain optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamoorthy, Sripriya; Zhang, Yuan; Petrie, Tracy; Fridberger, Anders; Ren, Tianying; Wang, Ruikang; Jacques, Steven L.; Nuttall, Alfred L.

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we measure the in vivo apical-turn vibrations of the guinea pig organ of Corti in both axial and radial directions using phase-sensitive Fourier domain optical coherence tomography. The apical turn in guinea pig cochlea has best frequencies around 100 - 500 Hz which are relevant for human speech. Prior measurements of vibrations in the guinea pig apex involved opening the otic capsule, which has been questioned on the basis of the resulting changes to cochlear hydrodynamics. Here this limitation is overcome by measuring the vibrations through bone without opening the otic capsule. Furthermore, we have significantly reduced the surgery needed to access the guinea pig apex in the axial direction by introducing a miniature mirror inside the bulla. The method and preliminary data are discussed in this article.

  11. Divorticity and dihelicity in two-dimensional hydrodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shivamoggi, B.K.; van Heijst, G.J.F.; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    2010-01-01

    A framework is developed based on the concepts of divorticity B (≡×ω, ω being the vorticity) and dihelicity g (≡vB) for discussing the theoretical structure underlying two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamics. This formulation leads to the global and Lagrange invariants that could impose significant...

  12. Zero sound in a two-dimensional dipolar Fermi gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Z.K.; Matveenko, S.I.; Shlyapnikov, G.V.

    2013-01-01

    We study zero sound in a weakly interacting two-dimensional (2D) gas of single-component fermionic dipoles (polar molecules or atoms with a large magnetic moment) tilted with respect to the plane of their translational motion. It is shown that the propagation of zero sound is provided by both mean-f

  13. On the continua in two-dimensional nonadiabatic magnetohydrodynamic spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Ploey, A.; Van der Linden, R. A. M.; Belien, A. J. C.

    2000-01-01

    The equations for the continuous subspectra of the linear magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) normal modes spectrum of two-dimensional (2D) plasmas are derived in general curvilinear coordinates, taking nonadiabatic effects in the energy equation into account. Previously published derivations of continuous sp

  14. Bounds on the capacity of constrained two-dimensional codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Justesen, Jørn

    2000-01-01

    Bounds on the capacity of constrained two-dimensional (2-D) codes are presented. The bounds of Calkin and Wilf apply to first-order symmetric constraints. The bounds are generalized in a weaker form to higher order and nonsymmetric constraints. Results are given for constraints specified by run...

  15. Linkage analysis by two-dimensional DNA typing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Meerman, G J; Mullaart, E; van der Meulen, M A; den Daas, J H; Morolli, B; Uitterlinden, A G; Vijg, J

    1993-01-01

    In two-dimensional (2-D) DNA typing, genomic DNA fragments are separated, first according to size by electrophoresis in a neutral polyacrylamide gel and second according to sequence by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, followed by hybridization analysis using micro- and minisatellite core pro

  16. Quadridirectional eigenmode expansion scheme for 2-D modeling of wave propagation in integrated optics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lohmeyer, Manfred

    2004-01-01

    The propagation of guided and nonconfined optical waves at fixed frequency through dielectric structures with piecewise constant, rectangular permittivity is considered in two spatial dimensions. Bidirectional versions of eigenmodes, computed for sequences of multilayer slab waveguides, constitute t

  17. 2D optical manipulation and assembly of shape-complementary planar microstructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, Peter John; Kelemen, Lóránd; Alonzo, Carlo Amadeo; Perch-Nielsen, Ivan R; Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Ormos, Pál; Glückstad, Jesper

    2007-07-09

    Optical trapping and manipulation offer great flexibility as a non-contact microassembly tool. Its application to the assembly of microscale building blocks may open new doors for micromachine technology. In this work, we demonstrate all-optical assembly of microscopic puzzle pieces in a fluidic environment using programmable arrays of trapping beams. Identical shape-complimentary pieces are optically fabricated with submicron resolution using two-photon polymerization (2PP) technique. These are efficiently assembled into space-filling tessellations by a multiple-beam optical micromanipulation system. The flexibility of the system allows us to demonstrate both user-interactive and computer-automated modes of serial and parallel assembly of microscale objects with high spatial and angular positioning precision.

  18. Optical properties of GaAs 2D hexagonal and cubic photonic crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arab, F., E-mail: farab@CDTA.DZ; Assali, A.; Grain, R.; Kanouni, F. [Centre for Development of Advanced Technologies (CDTA) Research Unit in Optics and Photonics (UROP), University of Setif 1, El Bez, 19000 Setif (Algeria)

    2015-03-30

    In this paper we present our theoretical study of 2D hexagonal and cubic rods GaAs in air, with plan wave expansion (PWE) and finite difference time domain (FDTD) by using BandSOLVE and FullWAVE of Rsoft photonic CAD package. In order to investigate the effect of symmetry and radius, we performed calculations of the band structures for both TM and TE polarization, contour and electromagnetic propagation and transmission spectra. Our calculations show that the hexagonal structure gives a largest band gaps compare to cubic one for a same filling factor.

  19. Two-dimensional liquid chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Rune

    Two-dimensional liquid chromatography has received increasing interest due to the rise in demand for analysis of complex chemical mixtures. Separation of complex mixtures is hard to achieve as a simple consequence of the sheer number of analytes, as these samples might contain hundreds or even...... dimensions. As a consequence of the conclusions made within this thesis, the research group has, for the time being, decided against further development of online LC×LC systems, since it was not deemed ideal for the intended application, the analysis of the polar fraction of oil. Trap-and...

  20. Internetwork magnetic field as revealed by two-dimensional inversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilovic, S.; van Noort, M.; Rempel, M.

    2016-09-01

    Context. Properties of magnetic field in the internetwork regions are still fairly unknown because of rather weak spectropolarimetric signals. Aims: We address the matter by using the two-dimensional (2D) inversion code, which is able to retrieve the information on smallest spatial scales up to the diffraction limit, while being less susceptible to noise than most of the previous methods used. Methods: Performance of the code and the impact of various effects on the retrieved field distribution is tested first on the realistic magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) simulations. The best inversion scenario is then applied to the real data obtained by Spectropolarimeter (SP) on board Hinode. Results: Tests on simulations show that: (1) the best choice of node position ensures a decent retrieval of all parameters; (2) the code performs well for different configurations of magnetic field; (3) slightly different noise levels or slightly different defocus included in the spatial point spread function (PSF) produces no significant effect on the results; and (4) temporal integration shifts the field distribution to a stronger, more horizontally inclined field. Conclusions: Although the contribution of the weak field is slightly overestimated owing to noise, 2D inversions are able to recover well the overall distribution of the magnetic field strength. Application of the 2D inversion code on the Hinode SP internetwork observations reveals a monotonic field strength distribution. The mean field strength at optical depth unity is ~ 130 G. At higher layers, field strength drops as the field becomes more horizontal. Regarding the distribution of the field inclination, tests show that we cannot directly retrieve it with the observations and tools at hand, however, the obtained distributions are consistent with those expected from simulations with a quasi-isotropic field inclination after accounting for observational effects.

  1. Two-dimensional capillary origami

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brubaker, N.D., E-mail: nbrubaker@math.arizona.edu; Lega, J., E-mail: lega@math.arizona.edu

    2016-01-08

    We describe a global approach to the problem of capillary origami that captures all unfolded equilibrium configurations in the two-dimensional setting where the drop is not required to fully wet the flexible plate. We provide bifurcation diagrams showing the level of encapsulation of each equilibrium configuration as a function of the volume of liquid that it contains, as well as plots representing the energy of each equilibrium branch. These diagrams indicate at what volume level the liquid drop ceases to be attached to the endpoints of the plate, which depends on the value of the contact angle. As in the case of pinned contact points, three different parameter regimes are identified, one of which predicts instantaneous encapsulation for small initial volumes of liquid. - Highlights: • Full solution set of the two-dimensional capillary origami problem. • Fluid does not necessarily wet the entire plate. • Global energy approach provides exact differential equations satisfied by minimizers. • Bifurcation diagrams highlight three different regimes. • Conditions for spontaneous encapsulation are identified.

  2. Trapped fermions with short-range and dipolar interactions in 2D optical lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anne-Louise G.

    Ultracold atoms in optical lattices are ideal quantum simulators of complex many-body Hamiltonians that arise in condensed matter systems. Manipulation of these model systems allows us to explore a variety of physical phenomena taking place in solid state systems. Here, we present mean...

  3. Optical properties of GaAs 2D Archimedean photonic lattice tiling with the p4g symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Đ.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present our investigation of 2D Archimedean lattice photonic crystals with p4g space group symmetry. The structures are made of GaAs both as air holes and dielectric rods in air. In order to analyze the photonic crystal optical properties we performed calculations of the band structures, equi-frequency contours and electromagnetic propagation through the basic structures and waveguides. In addition, we investigated negative refraction and left-handedness in the p4g photonic crystal.

  4. Ultrafast two dimensional infrared chemical exchange spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayer, Michael

    2011-03-01

    The method of ultrafast two dimensional infrared (2D IR) vibrational echo spectroscopy is described. Three ultrashort IR pulses tuned to the frequencies of the vibrational transitions of interest are directed into the sample. The interaction of these pulses with the molecular vibrational oscillators produces a polarization that gives rise to a fourth pulse, the vibrational echo. The vibrational echo pulse is combined with another pulse, the local oscillator, for heterodyne detection of the signal. For fixed time between the second and third pulses, the waiting time, the first pulse is scanned. Two Fourier transforms of the data yield a 2D IR spectrum. The waiting time is increased, and another spectrum is obtained. The change in the 2D IR spectra with increased waiting time provides information on the time evolution of the structure of the molecular system under observation. In a 2D IR chemical exchange experiment, two species A and B, are undergoing chemical exchange. A's are turning into B's, and B's are turning into A's, but the overall concentrations of the species are not changing. The kinetics of the chemical exchange on the ground electronic state under thermal equilibrium conditions can be obtained 2D IR spectroscopy. A vibration that has a different frequency for the two species is monitored. At very short time, there will be two peaks on the diagonal of the 2D IR spectrum, one for A and one for B. As the waiting time is increased, chemical exchange causes off-diagonal peaks to grow in. The time dependence of the growth of these off-diagonal peaks gives the chemical exchange rate. The method is applied to organic solute-solvent complex formation, orientational isomerization about a carbon-carbon single bond, migration of a hydrogen bond from one position on a molecule to another, protein structural substate interconversion, and water hydrogen bond switching between ions and water molecules. This work was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific

  5. Perspective: Two-dimensional resonance Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molesky, Brian P.; Guo, Zhenkun; Cheshire, Thomas P.; Moran, Andrew M.

    2016-11-01

    Two-dimensional resonance Raman (2DRR) spectroscopy has been developed for studies of photochemical reaction mechanisms and structural heterogeneity in complex systems. The 2DRR method can leverage electronic resonance enhancement to selectively probe chromophores embedded in complex environments (e.g., a cofactor in a protein). In addition, correlations between the two dimensions of the 2DRR spectrum reveal information that is not available in traditional Raman techniques. For example, distributions of reactant and product geometries can be correlated in systems that undergo chemical reactions on the femtosecond time scale. Structural heterogeneity in an ensemble may also be reflected in the 2D spectroscopic line shapes of both reactive and non-reactive systems. In this perspective article, these capabilities of 2DRR spectroscopy are discussed in the context of recent applications to the photodissociation reactions of triiodide and myoglobin. We also address key differences between the signal generation mechanisms for 2DRR and off-resonant 2D Raman spectroscopies. Most notably, it has been shown that these two techniques are subject to a tradeoff between sensitivity to anharmonicity and susceptibility to artifacts. Overall, recent experimental developments and applications of the 2DRR method suggest great potential for the future of the technique.

  6. Elastic models of defects in two-dimensional crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesnikova, A. L.; Orlova, T. S.; Hussainova, I.; Romanov, A. E.

    2014-12-01

    Elastic models of defects in two-dimensional (2D) crystals are presented in terms of continuum mechanics. The models are based on the classification of defects, which is founded on the dimensionality of the specification region of their self-distortions, i.e., lattice distortions associated with the formation of defects. The elastic field of an infinitesimal dislocation loop in a film is calculated for the first time. The fields of the center of dilatation, dislocation, disclination, and circular inclusion in planar 2D elastic media, namely, nanofilms and graphenes, are considered. Elastic fields of defects in 2D and 3D crystals are compared.

  7. Integrated packaging of 2D MOEMS mirrors with optical position feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgart, M.; Lenzhofer, M.; Kremer, M. P.; Tortschanoff, A.

    2015-02-01

    Many applications of MOEMS microscanners rely on accurate position feedback. For MOEMS devices which do not have intrinsic on-chip feedback, position information can be provided with optical methods, most simply by using a reflection from the backside of a MOEMS scanner. By measuring the intensity distribution of the reflected beam across a quadrant diode, one can precisely detect the mirror's deflection angles. Previously, we have presented a position sensing device, applicable to arbitrary trajectories, which is based on the measurement of the position of the reflected laser beam with a quadrant diode. In this work, we present a novel setup, which comprises the optical position feedback functionality integrated into the device package itself. The new device's System-in-Package (SiP) design is based on a flip-folded 2.5D PCB layout and fully assembled as small as 9.2×7×4 mm³ in total. The device consists of four layers, which supply the MOEMS mirror, a spacer to provide the required optical path length, the quadrant photo-diode and a laser diode to serve as the light source. In addition to describing the mechanical setup of the novel device, we will present first experimental results and optical simulation studies. Accurate position feedback is the basis for closed-loop control of the MOEMS devices, which is crucial for some applications as image projection for example. Position feedback and the possibility of closed-loop control will significantly improve the performance of these devices.

  8. Optical Observation of Plasmonic Nonlocal Effects in a 2D Superlattice of Ultrasmall Gold Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hao; Chen, Li; Ferrari, Lorenzo; Lin, Meng-Hsien; Mortensen, N Asger; Gwo, Shangjr; Liu, Zhaowei

    2017-03-02

    The advances in recent nanofabrication techniques have facilitated explorations of metal structures into nanometer scales, where the traditional local-response Drude model with hard-wall boundary conditions fails to accurately describe their optical responses. The emerging nonlocal effects in single ultrasmall silver nanoparticles have been experimentally observed in single-particle spectroscopy enabled by the unprecedented high spatial resolution of electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). However, the unambiguous optical observation of such new effects in gold nanoparticles has yet not been reported, due to the extremely weak scattering and the obscuring fingerprint of strong interband transitions. Here we present a nanosystem, a superlattice monolayer formed by sub-10 nm gold nanoparticles. Plasmon resonances are spectrally well-separated from interband transitions, while exhibiting clearly distinguishable blueshifts compared to predictions by the classical local-response model. Our far-field spectroscopy was performed by a standard optical transmission and reflection setup, and the results agreed excellently with the hydrodynamic nonlocal model, opening a simple and widely accessible way for addressing quantum effects in nanoplasmonic systems.

  9. Integrated optical sensors for 2D spatial chemical mapping (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Raquel; Janeiro, Ricardo; Viegas, Jaime

    2017-02-01

    Sensors based on optical waveguides for chemical sensing have attracted increasing interest over the last two decades, fueled by potential applications in commercial lab-on-a-chip devices for medical and food safety industries. Even though the early studies were oriented for single-point detection, progress in device size reduction and device yield afforded by photonics foundries have opened the opportunity for distributed dynamic chemical sensing at the microscale. This will allow researchers to follow the dynamics of chemical species in field of microbiology, and microchemistry, with a complementary method to current technologies based on microfluorescence and hyperspectral imaging. The study of the chemical dynamics at the surface of photoelectrodes in water splitting cells are a good candidate to benefit from such optochemical sensing devices that includes a photonic integrated circuit (PIC) with multiple sensors for real-time detection and spatial mapping of chemical species. In this project, we present experimental results on a prototype integrated optical system for chemical mapping based on the interaction of cascaded resonant optical devices, spatially covered with chemically sensitive polymers and plasmon-enhanced nanostructured metal/metal-oxide claddings offering chemical selectivity in a pixelated surface. In order to achieve a compact footprint, the prototype is based in a silicon photonics platform. A discussion on the relative merits of a photonic platform based on large bandgap metal oxides and nitrides which have higher chemical resistance than silicon is also presented.

  10. Two-dimensional quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallnöfer, J.; Zwerger, M.; Muschik, C.; Sangouard, N.; Dür, W.

    2016-11-01

    The endeavor to develop quantum networks gave rise to a rapidly developing field with far-reaching applications such as secure communication and the realization of distributed computing tasks. This ultimately calls for the creation of flexible multiuser structures that allow for quantum communication between arbitrary pairs of parties in the network and facilitate also multiuser applications. To address this challenge, we propose a two-dimensional quantum repeater architecture to establish long-distance entanglement shared between multiple communication partners in the presence of channel noise and imperfect local control operations. The scheme is based on the creation of self-similar multiqubit entanglement structures at growing scale, where variants of entanglement swapping and multiparty entanglement purification are combined to create high-fidelity entangled states. We show how such networks can be implemented using trapped ions in cavities.

  11. Two-dimensional capillary origami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brubaker, N. D.; Lega, J.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a global approach to the problem of capillary origami that captures all unfolded equilibrium configurations in the two-dimensional setting where the drop is not required to fully wet the flexible plate. We provide bifurcation diagrams showing the level of encapsulation of each equilibrium configuration as a function of the volume of liquid that it contains, as well as plots representing the energy of each equilibrium branch. These diagrams indicate at what volume level the liquid drop ceases to be attached to the endpoints of the plate, which depends on the value of the contact angle. As in the case of pinned contact points, three different parameter regimes are identified, one of which predicts instantaneous encapsulation for small initial volumes of liquid.

  12. Toward two-dimensional nanometer resolution hard X-ray differential-interference-contrast imaging using modified photon sieves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Changqing; Zhu, Xiaoli; Li, Hailiang; Shi, Lina; Hua, Yilei; Liu, Ming

    2012-02-15

    In this Letter, we report a significant step forward in the design of single-optical-element optics for two-dimensional (2D) hard X-ray differential-interference-contrast (DIC) imaging based on modified photon sieves (MPSs). MPSs were obtained by a modified optic, i.e., combining two overlaid binary gratings and a photon sieve through two logical XOR operations. The superior performance of MPSs was demonstrated. Compared to Fresnel zone plates-based DIC diffractive optical elements (DOEs), which help to improve contrast only in one direction, MPSs can provide better resolution and 2D DIC imaging. Compared to normal photon sieves, MPSs are capable of imaging at a significantly higher image contrast. We anticipate that MPSs can provide a complementary and versatile high-resolution nondestructive imaging tool for ultra-large-scale integrated circuits at 45 nm node and below.

  13. A Review of Surface Deformation and Strain Measurement Using Two-Dimensional Digital Image Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoo Sze-Wei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Among the full-field optical measurement methods, the Digital Image Correlation (DIC is one of the techniques which has been given particular attention. Technically, the DIC technique refers to a non-contact strain measurement method that mathematically compares the grey intensity changes of the images captured at two different states: before and after deformation. The measurement can be performed by numerically calculating the displacement of speckles which are deposited on the top of object’s surface. In this paper, the Two-Dimensional Digital Image Correlation (2D-DIC is presented and its fundamental concepts are discussed. Next, the development of the 2D-DIC algorithms in the past 33 years is reviewed systematically. The improvement of 2DDIC algorithms is presented with respect to two distinct aspects: their computation efficiency and measurement accuracy. Furthermore, analysis of the 2D-DIC accuracy is included, followed by a review of the DIC applications for two-dimensional measurements.

  14. Optical nonlinearities of excitonic states in atomically thin 2D transition metal dichalcogenides.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soh, Daniel Beom Soo

    2017-09-01

    We calculated the optical nonlinearities of the atomically thin monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide material (particularly MoS 2 ), particularly for those linear and nonlinear tran- sition processes that utilize the bound exciton states. We adopted the bound and the unbound exciton states as the basis for the Hilbert space, and derived all the dynamical density matri- ces that provides the induced current density, from which the nonlinear susceptibilities can be drawn order-by-order via perturbative calculations. We provide the nonlinear susceptibil- ities for the linear, the second-harmonic, the third-harmonic, and the kerr-type two-photon processes.

  15. Optical Observation of Plasnionic Nonlocal Effects in a 2D Superlattice of Ultrasmall Gold Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Hao; Chen, Li; Ferrari, Lorenzo

    2017-01-01

    in single ultrasmall silver nanopartides have been experimentally observed in single-particle spectroscopy enabled by the unprecedented high spatial resolution of electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). However, the unambig-optical observation of such new effects in gold nanopartides has yet not been...... reported, due to the extremely weak scattering and the obscuring fingerprint of strong interband transitions. Here we present a nanosystem, a superlattice monolayer formed by sub-10 nm gold nanopartides. Plasmon resonances are spectrally well-separated from interband transitions, while exhibiting clearly...

  16. Optical properties and band structure of ZnP{sub 2}-D{sub 4}{sup 8}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamov, I.G. [T.G. Shevchenko State University of Pridnestrovie, 25 Oktyabrya street 107, 3300 Tiraspol, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Syrbu, N.N., E-mail: sirbunn@yahoo.com [Technical University of Moldova, 168 Stefan cel Mare Avenue, 2004 Chisinau, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Zalamai, V.V. [Institute of Applied Physics, Academy of Sciences of Moldova, 5 Academy Street, 2028 Chisinau, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of)

    2014-05-01

    The emission lines of bound and free excitons and their phonon replicas were observed in the luminescence spectra of ZnP{sub 2}-D{sub 4}{sup 8} crystals doped with Mn, Sn, Cd and Sb measured at 10 K. The emission lines are described by the model of axial center levels. Models of the bands of the bound excitons with different axial centers (Mn, Sn, Cd and Sb) are presented. It was observed that the indirect transitions in the excitonic bands were nonpolarized and that the direct transitions were polarized. The minimal direct energy gaps in the polarization E∥c are due to the allowed Γ{sub 1}→Γ{sub 1} transitions, and the gaps in the polarization E⊥c are due to the Γ{sub 2}→Γ{sub 1} transitions. The temperature shift coefficient of the bands gaps differs for different polarizations in the temperature interval from 2 to 10 K (ΔE/ΔT=3.5 meV/K and 1 meV/K for E∥c and E⊥c, respectively). The optical constants n, k, ε{sub 1}, ε{sub 2,}d{sup 2}ε{sub 1}/dE{sup 2} and d{sup 2}ε{sub 2}/dE{sup 2} were calculated for the energy interval 1.5–10 eV using the Kramers-Kronig analysis of measured reflection spectra. The features observed in these spectra were interpreted using two types theoretical calculations of band structure as optical transitions.

  17. Facile synthesis of 2-D Cu doped WO3 nanoplates with structural, optical and differential anti cancer characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmood, Faisal; Iqbal, Javed; Gul, Asma; Ahmed, Waqqar; Ismail, M.

    2017-04-01

    Simple chemical co-precipitation method has been employed to synthesize two dimensional copper (Cu) doped tungsten oxide (WO3) nanoplates. A numbers of characterization techniques have been used to investigate their structural, optical and biocompatible anti cancer properties. The XRD results have confirmed the monoclinic crystal structure of WO3 nanoplates, and also successful doping of Cu ions into the WO3 crystal lattice. The presence of functional groups and chemical bonding have been verified through FTIR and Raman spectroscopy. The SEM images demonstrate that both undoped and Cu doped WO3 samples have squares plate like morphology. The EDX spectra confirm the presence of Cu, W and O ions. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) analysis has revealed a substantial red-shift in the absorption edge and a decrease in the band gap energy of nanoplates with Cu doping. Photoluminescence spectroscopy has been used to study the presence of defects like oxygen vacancies. Furthermore, the differential cytotoxic properties of Cu doped WO3 samples have been evaluated against human breast (MCF-7) and liver (Hep-2) cancer cells with ectocervical epithelial (HECE) healthy cells. The present findings confirm that the Cu doped WO3 nanoplates can be used as an efficient biocompatible anti cancer agent.

  18. Experimental demonstration of the microscopic origin of circular dichroism in two-dimensional metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanikaev, A B; Arju, N; Fan, Z; Purtseladze, D; Lu, F; Lee, J; Sarriugarte, P; Schnell, M; Hillenbrand, R; Belkin, M A; Shvets, G

    2016-06-22

    Optical activity and circular dichroism are fascinating physical phenomena originating from the interaction of light with chiral molecules or other nano objects lacking mirror symmetries in three-dimensional (3D) space. While chiral optical properties are weak in most of naturally occurring materials, they can be engineered and significantly enhanced in synthetic optical media known as chiral metamaterials, where the spatial symmetry of their building blocks is broken on a nanoscale. Although originally discovered in 3D structures, circular dichroism can also emerge in a two-dimensional (2D) metasurface. The origin of the resulting circular dichroism is rather subtle, and is related to non-radiative (Ohmic) dissipation of the constituent metamolecules. Because such dissipation occurs on a nanoscale, this effect has never been experimentally probed and visualized. Using a suite of recently developed nanoscale-measurement tools, we establish that the circular dichroism in a nanostructured metasurface occurs due to handedness-dependent Ohmic heating.

  19. Two-dimensional electromagnetically induced cross-grating in a four-level N-type atomic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianchun; Ai, Baoquan

    2015-06-01

    We propose a scheme for a two-dimensional (2D) electromagnetically induced cross-grating (EICG) in a four-level N-type atomic system. By employing standing-wave fields interacting with the atomic system, the absorption and dispersion of the probe field will change with the spatial periodical modulation. The first-order diffraction intensity sensitively depends on the parameters (the probe detuning, and the amplitude and detuning of the standing-wave fields), and can reach its maximum on varying the system parameters. The present studies may be instructive to design new devices in all-optical switching and optical imaging.

  20. A 3D Polymer Based Printed Two-Dimensional Laser Scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyman, H. A.; Gokdel, Y. D.; Ferhanoglu, O.; Yalcinkaya, A. D.

    2016-10-01

    A two-dimensional (2D) polymer based scanning mirror with magnetic actuation is developed for imaging applications. Proposed device consists of a circular suspension holding a rectangular mirror and can generate a 2D scan pattern. Three dimensional (3D) printing technology which is used for implementation of the device, offers added flexibility in controlling the cross-sectional profile as well as the stress distribution compared to the traditional planar process technologies. The mirror device is developed to meet a portable, miniaturized confocal microscope application in mind, delivering 4.5 and 4.8 degrees of optical scan angles at 111 and 267 Hz, respectively. As a result of this mechanical performance, the resulting microscope incorporating the mirror is estimated to accomplish a field of view (FOV) of 350 µm × 350 µm.

  1. Two-Dimensional Multiferroics: Ferroelasticity, Ferroelectricity, Domain Wall, and Potential Mechano-Opto-Electronic Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Low-dimensional multiferroic materials hold great promises in miniaturized device applications such as nanoscale transducers, actuators, sensors, photovoltaics, and nonvolatile memories. Here, using first-principles theory we predict that two-dimensional (2D) monolayer Group IV monochalcogenides including GeS, GeSe, SnS, and SnSe are a class of 2D semiconducting multiferroics with strongly coupled giant in-plane spontaneous ferroelectric polarization and spontaneous ferroelastic lattice strain that are thermodynamically stable at room temperature and beyond, and can be effectively modulated by elastic strain engineering. Their optical absorption spectra exhibit strong in-plane anisotropy with visible-spectrum excitonic gaps and sizable exciton binding energies, rendering the unique characteristics of low-dimensional semiconductors. More importantly, the predicted low domain wall energy and small migration barrier together with the coupled multiferroic order and anisotropic electronic structures suggest their ...

  2. Vibrational Properties of a Two-Dimensional Silica Kagome Lattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkman, Torbjörn; Skakalova, Viera; Kurasch, Simon; Kaiser, Ute; Meyer, Jannik C; Smet, Jurgen H; Krasheninnikov, Arkady V

    2016-12-27

    Kagome lattices are structures possessing fascinating magnetic and vibrational properties, but in spite of a large body of theoretical work, experimental realizations and investigations of their dynamics are scarce. Using a combination of Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations, we study the vibrational properties of two-dimensional silica (2D-SiO2), which has a kagome lattice structure. We identify the signatures of crystalline and amorphous 2D-SiO2 structures in Raman spectra and show that, at finite temperatures, the stability of 2D-SiO2 lattice is strongly influenced by phonon-phonon interaction. Our results not only provide insights into the vibrational properties of 2D-SiO2 and kagome lattices in general but also suggest a quick nondestructive method to detect 2D-SiO2.

  3. Emergent elemental two-dimensional materials beyond graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanbo; Rubio, Angel; Le Lay, Guy

    2017-02-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials may offer the ultimate scaling beyond the 5 nm gate length. The difficulty of reliably opening a band gap in graphene has led to the search for alternative, semiconducting 2D materials. Emerging classes of elemental 2D materials stand out for their compatibility with existing technologies and/or for their diverse, tunable electronic structures. Among this group, black phosphorene has recently shown superior semiconductor performances. Silicene and germanene feature Dirac-type band dispersions, much like graphene. Calculations show that most group IV and group V elements have one or more stable 2D allotropes, with properties potentially suitable for electronic and optoelectronic applications. Here, we review the advances in these fascinating elemental 2D materials and discuss progress and challenges in their applications in future opto- and nano-electronic devices.

  4. Computationally Driven Two-Dimensional Materials Design: What Is Next?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Jie [Materials Science; Lany, Stephan [Materials Science; Qi, Yue [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, United States

    2017-07-17

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials offer many key advantages to innovative applications, such as spintronics and quantum information processing. Theoretical computations have accelerated 2D materials design. In this issue of ACS Nano, Kumar et al. report that ferromagnetism can be achieved in functionalized nitride MXene based on first-principles calculations. Their computational results shed light on a potentially vast group of materials for the realization of 2D magnets. In this Perspective, we briefly summarize the promising properties of 2D materials and the role theory has played in predicting these properties. In addition, we discuss challenges and opportunities to boost the power of computation for the prediction of the 'structure-property-process (synthesizability)' relationship of 2D materials.

  5. Classifying Two-dimensional Hyporeductive Triple Algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Issa, A Nourou

    2010-01-01

    Two-dimensional real hyporeductive triple algebras (h.t.a.) are investigated. A classification of such algebras is presented. As a consequence, a classification of two-dimensional real Lie triple algebras (i.e. generalized Lie triple systems) and two-dimensional real Bol algebras is given.

  6. 2D Optical Streaking for Ultra-Short Electron Beam Diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Y.T.; Huang, Z.; Wang, L.; /SLAC

    2011-12-14

    field ionization, which occurs in plasma case, gases species with high field ionization threshold should be considered. For a linear polarized laser, the kick to the ionized electrons depends on the phase of the laser when the electrons are born and the unknown timing jitter between the electron beam and laser beam makes the data analysis very difficult. Here we propose to use a circular polarized laser to do a 2-dimensional (2D) streaking (both x and y) and measure the bunch length from the angular distribution on the screen, where the phase jitter causes only a rotation of the image on the screen without changing of the relative angular distribution. Also we only need to know the laser wavelength for calibration. A similar circular RF deflecting mode was used to measure long bunches. We developed a numerical particle-in-Cell (PIC) code to study the dynamics of ionization electrons with the high energy beam and the laser beam.

  7. Two-Dimensional Electronic Spectroscopy Using Incoherent Light: Theoretical Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, Daniel B; Sutor, Erika J; Hendrickson, Rebecca A; Gealy, M W; Ulness, Darin J

    2012-01-01

    Electronic energy transfer in photosynthesis occurs over a range of time scales and under a variety of intermolecular coupling conditions. Recent work has shown that electronic coupling between chromophores can lead to coherent oscillations in two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy measurements of pigment-protein complexes measured with femtosecond laser pulses. A persistent issue in the field is to reconcile the results of measurements performed using femtosecond laser pulses with physiological illumination conditions. Noisy-light spectroscopy can begin to address this question. In this work we present the theoretical analysis of incoherent two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy, I(4) 2D ES. Simulations reveal diagonal peaks, cross peaks, and coherent oscillations similar to those observed in femtosecond two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy experiments. The results also expose fundamental differences between the femtosecond-pulse and noisy-light techniques; the differences lead to new challenges and opp...

  8. Moment-based method for computing the two-dimensional discrete Hartley transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhifang; Wu, Jiasong; Shu, Huazhong

    2009-10-01

    In this paper, we present a fast algorithm for computing the two-dimensional (2-D) discrete Hartley transform (DHT). By using kernel transform and Taylor expansion, the 2-D DHT is approximated by a linear sum of 2-D geometric moments. This enables us to use the fast algorithms developed for computing the 2-D moments to efficiently calculate the 2-D DHT. The proposed method achieves a simple computational structure and is suitable to deal with any sequence lengths.

  9. Two-dimensional function photonic crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Xiang-Yao; Liu, Xiao-Jing; Liang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we have firstly proposed two-dimensional function photonic crystals, which the dielectric constants of medium columns are the functions of space coordinates $\\vec{r}$, it is different from the two-dimensional conventional photonic crystals constituting by the medium columns of dielectric constants are constants. We find the band gaps of two-dimensional function photonic crystals are different from the two-dimensional conventional photonic crystals, and when the functions form of dielectric constants are different, the band gaps structure should be changed, which can be designed into the appropriate band gaps structures by the two-dimensional function photonic crystals.

  10. Grade-2 Teflon (AF1601) PCF for optical communication using 2D FDTD technique: a simplest design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muduli, N.; Achary, J. S. N.; Padhy, Hemanta ku.

    2016-04-01

    A nonlinear ytterbium-doped rectangular proposed PCF structure of inner and outer cladding is used to analyze effective mode field area (Aeff), nonlinear coefficient (γ), dispersion (D), and confinement loss (CL) in a wide range of wavelength. The fabrication of PCF structure is due to different size doped air hole, pitch, and air hole diameter in a regular periodic geometrical array fashion. The various property of PCF structure such as mode field area, nonlinear coefficient, dispersion, and confinement loss are analyzed by implementing 2D FDTD technique. The above PCF property investigated using suitable parameters like Λ1, ?, ?, and ? in three different situations is discussed in simulation. The high nonlinear coefficient and dispersion property of PCF structure are tailored by setting the cladding parameter. However, highly nonlinear fibers with nonzero dispersion at the wavelength of 1.55 μm are very attractive for a range of optical communication application such as laser amplifier, pulse compression, wavelength conversion, all optical switching, and supercontinuum generation. So our newly proposed ytterbium-doped PCF seems to be most suitable exclusively for supercontinuum generation and nonlinear fiber optics. Finally, it is observed that ytterbium-doped Teflon (AF1601) PCF has more nonlinear coefficient (γ(λ) = 65.27 W-1 km-1) as compared to pure silica PCF (γ(λ) = 52 W-1 km-1) design to have same mode field area (Aeff) 1.7 μm2 at an operating wavelength of 1.55 μm.

  11. Intelligent pulse light source in the performance calibration system of two-dimensional neutron detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Zhao, Xiao-Fang

    2017-07-01

    Chinese Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) project will use numerous two-dimensional (2D) neutron detectors whose ZnS (Ag) scintillator is doped with 6Li. To ensure the consistency of all neutron detectors, a calibration system for the performance of 2D neutron detectors is designed. For radiation protection, the state control of the radiation source gets more and more strict. It is impossible to directly carry out experiments with massive radioactive particles. Thus, the following scheme has been designed. The controlled pulsed laser light source on a 2D mobile platform is used to replace the neutron bombardment to generate the photon. The pulse signal drives the laser diode to generate pulse light. The pulse light source located on the 2D platform is controlled by the core controller, and goes to the wavelength shift fiber through the optical fiber. The host computer (PC) receives the signal from the electronics system, processes data, and automatically calibrates the performance parameters. As shown by the experimental results, the pulse light source can perfectly meet all requirements of 2D neutron detector calibration system.

  12. Functionalized graphene and other two-dimensional materials for photovoltaic devices: device design and processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhike; Lau, Shu Ping; Yan, Feng

    2015-08-07

    Graphene is the thinnest two-dimensional (2D) carbon material and has many advantages including high carrier mobilities and conductivity, high optical transparency, excellent mechanical flexibility and chemical stability, which make graphene an ideal material for various optoelectronic devices. The major applications of graphene in photovoltaic devices are for transparent electrodes and charge transport layers. Several other 2D materials have also shown advantages in charge transport and light absorption over traditional semiconductor materials used in photovoltaic devices. Great achievements in the applications of 2D materials in photovoltaic devices have been reported, yet numerous challenges still remain. For practical applications, the device performance should be further improved by optimizing the 2D material synthesis, film transfer, surface functionalization and chemical/physical doping processes. In this review, we will focus on the recent advances in the applications of graphene and other 2D materials in various photovoltaic devices, including organic solar cells, Schottky junction solar cells, dye-sensitized solar cells, quantum dot-sensitized solar cells, other inorganic solar cells, and perovskite solar cells, in terms of the functionalization techniques of the materials, the device design and the device performance. Finally, conclusions and an outlook for the future development of this field will be addressed.

  13. Epitaxial Growth of Two-Dimensional Layered Transition-Metal Dichalcogenides: Growth Mechanism, Controllability, and Scalability

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Henan

    2017-07-06

    Recently there have been many research breakthroughs in two-dimensional (2D) materials including graphene, boron nitride (h-BN), black phosphors (BPs), and transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs). The unique electrical, optical, and thermal properties in 2D materials are associated with their strictly defined low dimensionalities. These materials provide a wide range of basic building blocks for next-generation electronics. The chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique has shown great promise to generate high-quality TMDC layers with scalable size, controllable thickness, and excellent electronic properties suitable for both technological applications and fundamental sciences. The capability to precisely engineer 2D materials by chemical approaches has also given rise to fascinating new physics, which could lead to exciting new applications. In this Review, we introduce the latest development of TMDC synthesis by CVD approaches and provide further insight for the controllable and reliable synthesis of atomically thin TMDCs. Understanding of the vapor-phase growth mechanism of 2D TMDCs could benefit the formation of complicated heterostructures and novel artificial 2D lattices.

  14. A Practical Deconvolution Computation Algorithm to Extract 1D Spectra from 2D Images of Optical Fiber Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Guangwei; Bai, Zhongrui

    2015-01-01

    Bolton and Schlegel presented a promising deconvolution method to extract 1D spectra from a 2D optical fiber spectral CCD image. The method could eliminate the PSF difference between fibers, extract spectra to the photo noise level, as well as improve the resolution. But the method is limited by its huge computation requirement and thus cannot be implemented in actual data reduction. In this article, we develop a practical computation method to solve the computation problem. The new computation method can deconvolve a 2D fiber spectral image of any size with actual PSFs, which may vary with positions. Our method does not require large amounts of memory and can extract a 4k multi 4k noise-free CCD image with 250 fibers in 2 hr. To make our method more practical, we further consider the influence of noise, which is thought to be an intrinsic illposed problem in deconvolution algorithms. We modify our method with a Tikhonov regularization item to depress the method induced noise. Compared with the results of tra...

  15. Phase-sensitive two-dimensional neutron shearing interferometer and Hartmann sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Kevin

    2015-12-08

    A neutron imaging system detects both the phase shift and absorption of neutrons passing through an object. The neutron imaging system is based on either of two different neutron wavefront sensor techniques: 2-D shearing interferometry and Hartmann wavefront sensing. Both approaches measure an entire two-dimensional neutron complex field, including its amplitude and phase. Each measures the full-field, two-dimensional phase gradients and, concomitantly, the two-dimensional amplitude mapping, requiring only a single measurement.

  16. Topological defect formation in 1D and 2D spin chains realized by network of optical parametric oscillators

    CERN Document Server

    Hamerly, Ryan; Inagaki, Takahiro; Takesue, Hiroki; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa; Mabuchi, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    A network of optical parametric oscillators is used to simulate classical Ising and XY spin chains. The collective nonlinear dynamics of this network, driven by quantum noise rather than thermal fluctuations, seeks out the Ising / XY ground state as the system transitions from below to above the lasing threshold. We study the behavior of this "Ising machine" for three canonical problems: a 1D ferromagnetic spin chain, a 2D square lattice, and problems where next-nearest-neighbor couplings give rise to frustration. If the pump turn-on time is finite, topological defects form (domain walls for the Ising model, winding number and vortices for XY) and their density can be predicted from a numerical model involving a linear "growth stage" and a nonlinear "saturation stage". These predictions are compared against recent data for a 10,000-spin 1D Ising machine.

  17. Topological defect formation in 1D and 2D spin chains realized by network of optical parametric oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamerly, Ryan; Inaba, Kensuke; Inagaki, Takahiro; Takesue, Hiroki; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa; Mabuchi, Hideo

    2016-09-01

    A network of optical parametric oscillators (OPOs) is used to simulate classical Ising and XY spin chains. The collective nonlinear dynamics of this network, driven by quantum noise rather than thermal fluctuations, seeks out the Ising/XY ground state as the system transitions from below to above the lasing threshold. We study the behavior of this “Ising machine” for three canonical problems: a 1D ferromagnetic spin chain, a 2D square lattice and problems where next-nearest-neighbor couplings give rise to frustration. If the pump turn-on time is finite, topological defects form (domain walls for the Ising model, winding number and vortices for XY) and their density can be predicted from a numerical model involving a linear “growth stage” and a nonlinear “saturation stage”. These predictions are compared against recent data for a 10,000-spin 1D Ising machine.

  18. Electron and electron-phonon effects in quasi-two-dimensional molecular conductor theta-(BETS) sub 4 HgBr sub 4 (C sub 6 H sub 5 Cl): optical investigations at 300-15 K

    CERN Document Server

    Vlasova, R M; Petrov, B V; Semkin, N D; Zhilyaeva, E I; Bogdanova, O A; Lyubovskaya, R N; Graja, A

    2002-01-01

    One studied the polarized spectra of reflection and spectra of optical transmission of theta-(BETS) sub 4 HgBr sub 4 (C sub 6 H sub 5 Cl) quasi-two-dimensional molecular conductor within 700-6500 cm sup - sup 1 range under 300-15 K temperatures and within 9000-40000 cm sup - sup 1 under 300 K for two principal directions within crystal plane parallel to conducting layers of BETS molecules. Under 300 K within IR region the spectra are characterized by the intensive essential peculiarities (1200-1400 cm sup - sup 1) caused by electron-oscillation coupling (EOC). At temperature drop within 180-80 K range one observes in the spectra a Lorentz term with omega sub t = 2900 cm sup - sup 1 and three extra bands within 800-1180 cm sup - sup 1 region caused by EOC. The derived results are indicative of unstable structural distortions along two principal directions in a crystal followed by formation of a charge density comparable wave

  19. Comparative Two-Dimensional Fluorescence Gel Electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Doreen; König, Simone

    2018-01-01

    Two-dimensional comparative fluorescence gel electrophoresis (CoFGE) uses an internal standard to increase the reproducibility of coordinate assignment for protein spots visualized on 2D polyacrylamide gels. This is particularly important for samples, which need to be compared without the availability of replicates and thus cannot be studied using differential gel electrophoresis (DIGE). CoFGE corrects for gel-to-gel variability by co-running with the sample proteome a standardized marker grid of 80-100 nodes, which is formed by a set of purified proteins. Differentiation of reference and analyte is possible by the use of two fluorescent dyes. Variations in the y-dimension (molecular weight) are corrected by the marker grid. For the optional control of the x-dimension (pI), azo dyes can be used. Experiments are possible in both vertical and horizontal (h) electrophoresis devices, but hCoFGE is much easier to perform. For data analysis, commercial software capable of warping can be adapted.

  20. Development of Novel Two-dimensional Layers, Alloys and Heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheng

    2015-03-01

    The one-atom-think graphene has fantastic properties and attracted tremendous interests in these years, which opens a window towards various two-dimensional (2D) atomic layers. However, making large-size and high-quality 2D layers is still a great challenge. Using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method, we have successfully synthesized a wide varieties of highly crystalline and large scale 2D atomic layers, including h-BN, metal dichalcogenides e.g. MoS2, WS2, CdS, GaSe and MoSe2 which belong to the family of binary 2D materials. Ternary 2D alloys including BCN and MoS2xSe2 (1 - x) are also prepared and characterized. In addition, synthesis of 2D heterostructures such as vertical and lateral graphene/h-BN, vertical and lateral TMDs are also demonstrated. Complementary to CVD grown 2D layers, 2D single-crystal (bulk) such as Phosphorene (P), WTe2, SnSe2, PtS2, PtSe2, PdSe2, WSe2xTe2 (1 - x), Ta2NiS5andTa2NiSe5 are also prepared by solid reactions. There work provide a better understanding of the atomic layered materials in terms of the synthesis, atomic structure, alloying and their physical properties. Potential applications of these 2D layers e.g. optoelectronic devices, energy device and smart coating have been explored.

  1. Phonon transport properties of two-dimensional group-IV materials from ab initio calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Bo; Zhang, Hao; Shao, Hezhu; Xu, Yuanfeng; Ni, Gang; Zhang, Rongjun; Zhu, Heyuan

    2016-12-01

    It has been argued that stanene has lowest lattice thermal conductivity among two-dimensional (2D) group-IV materials because of its largest atomic mass, weakest interatomic bonding, and enhanced ZA phonon scattering due to the breaking of an out-of-plane symmetry selection rule. However, we show that, although the lattice thermal conductivity κ for graphene, silicene, and germanene decreases monotonically with decreasing Debye temperature, unexpected higher κ is observed in stanene. By enforcing all the invariance conditions in 2D materials and including Ge 3 d and Sn 4 d electrons as valence electrons for germanene and stanene, respectively, the lattice dynamics in these materials are accurately described. A large acoustic-optical gap and the bunching of the acoustic-phonon branches significantly reduce phonon scattering in stanene, leading to higher thermal conductivity than germanene. The vibrational origin of the acoustic-optical gap can be attributed to the buckled structure. Interestingly, a buckled system has two competing influences on phonon transport: the breaking of the symmetry selection rule leads to reduced thermal conductivity, and the enlarging of the acoustic-optical gap results in enhanced thermal conductivity. The size dependence of thermal conductivity is investigated as well. In nanoribbons, the κ of silicene, germanene, and stanene is much less sensitive to size effect due to their short intrinsic phonon mean-free paths. This work sheds light on the nature of phonon transport in buckled 2D materials.

  2. Application of 2D Non-Graphene Materials and 2D Oxide Nanostructures for Biosensing Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavanova, Kateryna; Bakakina, Yulia; Burkova, Inna; Shtepliuk, Ivan; Viter, Roman; Ubelis, Arnolds; Beni, Valerio; Starodub, Nickolaj; Yakimova, Rositsa; Khranovskyy, Volodymyr

    2016-02-06

    The discovery of graphene and its unique properties has inspired researchers to try to invent other two-dimensional (2D) materials. After considerable research effort, a distinct "beyond graphene" domain has been established, comprising the library of non-graphene 2D materials. It is significant that some 2D non-graphene materials possess solid advantages over their predecessor, such as having a direct band gap, and therefore are highly promising for a number of applications. These applications are not limited to nano- and opto-electronics, but have a strong potential in biosensing technologies, as one example. However, since most of the 2D non-graphene materials have been newly discovered, most of the research efforts are concentrated on material synthesis and the investigation of the properties of the material. Applications of 2D non-graphene materials are still at the embryonic stage, and the integration of 2D non-graphene materials into devices is scarcely reported. However, in recent years, numerous reports have blossomed about 2D material-based biosensors, evidencing the growing potential of 2D non-graphene materials for biosensing applications. This review highlights the recent progress in research on the potential of using 2D non-graphene materials and similar oxide nanostructures for different types of biosensors (optical and electrochemical). A wide range of biological targets, such as glucose, dopamine, cortisol, DNA, IgG, bisphenol, ascorbic acid, cytochrome and estradiol, has been reported to be successfully detected by biosensors with transducers made of 2D non-graphene materials.

  3. Application of 2D Non-Graphene Materials and 2D Oxide Nanostructures for Biosensing Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateryna Shavanova

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of graphene and its unique properties has inspired researchers to try to invent other two-dimensional (2D materials. After considerable research effort, a distinct “beyond graphene” domain has been established, comprising the library of non-graphene 2D materials. It is significant that some 2D non-graphene materials possess solid advantages over their predecessor, such as having a direct band gap, and therefore are highly promising for a number of applications. These applications are not limited to nano- and opto-electronics, but have a strong potential in biosensing technologies, as one example. However, since most of the 2D non-graphene materials have been newly discovered, most of the research efforts are concentrated on material synthesis and the investigation of the properties of the material. Applications of 2D non-graphene materials are still at the embryonic stage, and the integration of 2D non-graphene materials into devices is scarcely reported. However, in recent years, numerous reports have blossomed about 2D material-based biosensors, evidencing the growing potential of 2D non-graphene materials for biosensing applications. This review highlights the recent progress in research on the potential of using 2D non-graphene materials and similar oxide nanostructures for different types of biosensors (optical and electrochemical. A wide range of biological targets, such as glucose, dopamine, cortisol, DNA, IgG, bisphenol, ascorbic acid, cytochrome and estradiol, has been reported to be successfully detected by biosensors with transducers made of 2D non-graphene materials.

  4. Electronics and optoelectronics of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing Hua; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kourosh; Kis, Andras; Coleman, Jonathan N; Strano, Michael S

    2012-11-01

    The remarkable properties of graphene have renewed interest in inorganic, two-dimensional materials with unique electronic and optical attributes. Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) are layered materials with strong in-plane bonding and weak out-of-plane interactions enabling exfoliation into two-dimensional layers of single unit cell thickness. Although TMDCs have been studied for decades, recent advances in nanoscale materials characterization and device fabrication have opened up new opportunities for two-dimensional layers of thin TMDCs in nanoelectronics and optoelectronics. TMDCs such as MoS(2), MoSe(2), WS(2) and WSe(2) have sizable bandgaps that change from indirect to direct in single layers, allowing applications such as transistors, photodetectors and electroluminescent devices. We review the historical development of TMDCs, methods for preparing atomically thin layers, their electronic and optical properties, and prospects for future advances in electronics and optoelectronics.

  5. А heuristic algorithm for two-dimensional strip packing problem

    OpenAIRE

    Dayong, Cao; Kotov, V.M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we construct an improved best-fit heuristic algorithm for two-dimensional rectangular strip packing problem (2D-RSPP), and compare it with some heuristic and metaheuristic algorithms from literatures. The experimental results show that BFBCC could produce satisfied packing layouts than these methods, especially for the large problem of 50 items or more, BFBCC could get better results in shorter time.

  6. Colloidal interactions in two-dimensional nematic emulsions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N M Silvestre; P Patrício; M M Telo Da Gama

    2005-06-01

    We review theoretical and experimental work on colloidal interactions in two-dimensional (2D) nematic emulsions. We pay particular attention to the effects of (i) the nematic elastic constants, (ii) the size of the colloids, and (iii) the boundary conditions at the particles and the container. We consider the interactions between colloids and fluid (deformable) interfaces and the shape of fluid colloids in smectic-C films.

  7. A comparative study of two-dimensional multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis and two-dimensional multifractal detrended moving average algorithm to estimate the multifractal spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Caiping; Zhang, Shunning; Xiong, Gang; Zhao, Huichang

    2016-07-01

    Multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA) and multifractal detrended moving average (MFDMA) algorithm have been established as two important methods to estimate the multifractal spectrum of the one-dimensional random fractal signal. They have been generalized to deal with two-dimensional and higher-dimensional fractal signals. This paper gives a brief introduction of the two-dimensional multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (2D-MFDFA) and two-dimensional multifractal detrended moving average (2D-MFDMA) algorithm, and a detailed description of the application of the two-dimensional fractal signal processing by using the two methods. By applying the 2D-MFDFA and 2D-MFDMA to the series generated from the two-dimensional multiplicative cascading process, we systematically do the comparative analysis to get the advantages, disadvantages and the applicabilities of the two algorithms for the first time from six aspects such as the similarities and differences of the algorithm models, the statistical accuracy, the sensitivities of the sample size, the selection of scaling range, the choice of the q-orders and the calculation amount. The results provide a valuable reference on how to choose the algorithm from 2D-MFDFA and 2D-MFDMA, and how to make the schemes of the parameter settings of the two algorithms when dealing with specific signals in practical applications.

  8. Two-dimensional materials based transparent flexible electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lili; Ha, Sungjae; El-Damak, Dina; McVay, Elaine; Ling, Xi; Chandrakasan, Anantha; Kong, Jing; Palacios, Tomas

    2015-03-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials have generated great interest recently as a set of tools for electronics, as these materials can push electronics beyond traditional boundaries. These materials and their heterostructures offer excellent mechanical flexibility, optical transparency, and favorable transport properties for realizing electronic, sensing, and optical systems on arbitrary surfaces. These thin, lightweight, bendable, highly rugged and low-power devices may bring dramatic changes in information processing, communications and human-electronic interaction. In this report, for the first time, we demonstrate two complex transparent flexible systems based on molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) grown by chemical vapor method: a transparent active-matrix organic light-emitting diode (AMOLED) display and a MoS2 wireless link for sensor nodes. The 1/2 x 1/2 square inch, 4 x 5 pixels AMOLED structures are built on transparent substrates, containing MoS2 back plane circuit and OLEDs integrated on top of it. The back plane circuit turns on and off the individual pixel with two MoS2 transistors and a capacitor. The device is designed and fabricated based on SPICE simulation to achieve desired DC and transient performance. We have also demonstrated a MoS2 wireless self-powered sensor node. The system consists of as energy harvester, rectifier, sensor node and logic units. AC signals from the environment, such as near-field wireless power transfer, piezoelectric film and RF signal, are harvested, then rectified into DC signal by a MoS2 diode. CIQM, CICS, SRC.

  9. Two-dimensional numerical assessment of the hydrodynamics of the Nile swamps in southern Sudan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Petersen, G; Fohrer, N

    2010-01-01

    A two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamic assessment of the Nile swamps in southern Sudan has been carried out using DHI MIKE 21 software based on a ground referenced and corrected Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM...

  10. Long-Wavelength Infrared Surface Plasmons on Ga-Doped ZnO Films Excited via 2D Hole Arrays for Extraordinary Optical Transmission (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    AFRL-RY-WP-TP-2013-0180 LONG-WAVELENGTH INFRARED SURFACE PLASMONS ON Ga- DOPED ZnO FILMS EXCITED VIA 2D HOLE ARRAYS FOR EXTRAORDINARY OPTICAL...TITLE AND SUBTITLE LONG-WAVELENGTH INFRARED SURFACE PLASMONS ON Ga- DOPED ZnO FILMS EXCITED VIA 2D HOLE ARRAYS FOR EXTRAORDINARY OPTICAL TRANSMISSION...structure size such as period. Pulse laser deposited Ga- doped ZnO has been shown to have fluctuations in optical and electrical parameters based on

  11. Logarithmic divergent thermal conductivity in two-dimensional nonlinear lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Hu, Bambi; Li, Baowen

    2012-10-01

    Heat conduction in three two-dimensional (2D) momentum-conserving nonlinear lattices are numerically calculated via both nonequilibrium heat-bath and equilibrium Green-Kubo algorithms. It is expected by mainstream theories that heat conduction in such 2D lattices is divergent and the thermal conductivity κ increases with lattice length N logarithmically. Our simulations for the purely quartic lattice firmly confirm it. However, very robust finite-size effects are observed in the calculations for the other two lattices, which well explain some existing studies and imply the extreme difficulties in observing their true asymptotic behaviors with affordable computation resources.

  12. Absolute band gaps in two-dimensional graphite photonic crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gaoxin Qiu(仇高新); Fanglei Lin(林芳蕾); Hua Wang(王华); Yongping Li(李永平)

    2003-01-01

    The off-plane propagation of electromagnetic (EM) waves in a two-dimensional (2D) graphite photoniccrystal structure was studied using transfer matrix method. Transmission spectra calculations indicatethat such a 2D structure has a common band gap from 0.202 to 0.2035 c/a for both H and E polarizationsand for all off-plane angles form 0° up to 90°. The presence of such an absolute band gap implies that 2Dgraphite photonic crystal, which is much easier and more feasible to fabricate, can exhibit some propertiesof a three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystal.

  13. Two-dimensional carbon fundamental properties, synthesis, characterization, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yihong, Wu; Ting, Yu

    2013-01-01

    After a brief introduction to the fundamental properties of graphene, this book focuses on synthesis, characterization and application of various types of two-dimensional (2D) nanocarbons ranging from single/few layer graphene to carbon nanowalls and graphene oxides. Three major synthesis techniques are covered: epitaxial growth of graphene on SiC, chemical synthesis of graphene on metal, and chemical vapor deposition of vertically aligned carbon nanosheets or nanowalls. One chapter is dedicated to characterization of 2D nanocarbon using Raman spectroscopy. It provides extensive coverage for a

  14. Band alignment of two-dimensional lateral heterostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Junfeng; Xie, Weiyu; Zhang, S B

    2016-01-01

    Band alignment in two-dimensional (2D) lateral heterostructures is fundamentally different from three-dimensional (3D), as Schottky barrier height is at the Schottky-Mott limit and band offset is at the Anderson limit, regardless interfacial conditions. This robustness arises because, in the asymptotic limit, effect of interfacial dipole vanishes. First-principles calculations of graphene/h-BN and MoS2/WS2 show that 2D junction width W is typically an order of magnitude longer than 3D. Therefore, heterostructures with dimension less than W can also be made, leading to tunable band alignment.

  15. A Direct Two-Dimensional Pressure Formulation in Molecular Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    YD, Sumith

    2016-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) pressure field estimation in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations has been done using three-dimensional (3D) pressure field calculations followed by averaging, which is computationally expensive due to 3D convolutions. In this work, we develop a direct 2D pressure field estimation method which is much faster than 3D methods without losing accuracy. The method is validated with MD simulations on two systems: a liquid film and a cylindrical drop of argon suspended in surrounding vapor.

  16. Design of Optical Tunable CNOT (XOR) and XNOR Logic Gates Based on 2D-Photonic Crystal Cavity Using Electro-Optic Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Abbasian, Karim; Sadeghi, Parvin

    2016-01-01

    We have proposed optical tunable CNOT (XOR) and XNOR logic gates using two-dimensional photonic crystal (2DPhC) cavities. Where, air rods with square lattice array have been embedded in Ag-Polymer substrate with refractive index of 1.59. In this work, we have enhanced speed of logic gates by applying two input signals with a phase dif?ference at the same wavelength for 2DPhC cavities. Where, we have adjusted the phases of input and control signals equal with {\\pi}/3 and zero, respectively. The response time of the structure and quality factor of the cavities are in the range of femtosecond and 2000, respectively. Then, we have used electro-optic property of the substrate material to change the cavities resonance wavelengths. By this means, we could design the logic gates and demonstrate a tunable range of 23nm for their operation wavelength. The quality factor and the response times of cavities remain constant in the tunable range of wavelength, approximately. The evaluated least ON to OFF logic-level contras...

  17. A Two-dimensional Magnetohydrodynamics Scheme for General Unstructured Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livne, Eli; Dessart, Luc; Burrows, Adam; Meakin, Casey A.

    2007-05-01

    We report a new finite-difference scheme for two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations, with and without rotation, in unstructured grids with quadrilateral cells. The new scheme is implemented within the code VULCAN/2D, which already includes radiation hydrodynamics in various approximations and can be used with arbitrarily moving meshes (ALEs). The MHD scheme, which consists of cell-centered magnetic field variables, preserves the nodal finite difference representation of divB by construction, and therefore any initially divergence-free field remains divergence-free through the simulation. In this paper, we describe the new scheme in detail and present comparisons of VULCAN/2D results with those of the code ZEUS/2D for several one-dimensional and two-dimensional test problems. The code now enables two-dimensional simulations of the collapse and explosion of the rotating, magnetic cores of massive stars. Moreover, it can be used to simulate the very wide variety of astrophysical problems for which multidimensional radiation magnetohydrodynamics (RMHD) is relevant.

  18. 1 kHz 2D Visual Motion Sensor Using 20 × 20 Silicon Retina Optical Sensor and DSP Microcontroller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shih-Chii; Yang, MinHao; Steiner, Andreas; Moeckel, Rico; Delbruck, Tobi

    2015-04-01

    Optical flow sensors have been a long running theme in neuromorphic vision sensors which include circuits that implement the local background intensity adaptation mechanism seen in biological retinas. This paper reports a bio-inspired optical motion sensor aimed towards miniature robotic and aerial platforms. It combines a 20 × 20 continuous-time CMOS silicon retina vision sensor with a DSP microcontroller. The retina sensor has pixels that have local gain control and adapt to background lighting. The system allows the user to validate various motion algorithms without building dedicated custom solutions. Measurements are presented to show that the system can compute global 2D translational motion from complex natural scenes using one particular algorithm: the image interpolation algorithm (I2A). With this algorithm, the system can compute global translational motion vectors at a sample rate of 1 kHz, for speeds up to ±1000 pixels/s, using less than 5 k instruction cycles (12 instructions per pixel) per frame. At 1 kHz sample rate the DSP is 12% occupied with motion computation. The sensor is implemented as a 6 g PCB consuming 170 mW of power.

  19. Strong light-matter coupling in two-dimensional atomic crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xiaoze; Sun, Zheng; Xia, Fengnian; Lin, Erh-chen; Lee, Yi-Hsien; Kéna-Cohen, Stéphane; Menon, Vinod M

    2014-01-01

    Two dimensional (2D) atomic crystals of graphene, and transition metal dichalcogenides have emerged as a class of materials that show strong light-matter interaction. This interaction can be further controlled by embedding such materials into optical microcavities. When the interaction is engineered to be stronger than the dissipation of light and matter entities, one approaches the strong coupling regime resulting in the formation of half-light half-matter bosonic quasiparticles called microcavity polaritons. Here we report the evidence of strong light-matter coupling and formation of microcavity polaritons in a two dimensional atomic crystal of molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) embedded inside a dielectric microcavity at room temperature. A Rabi splitting of 46 meV and highly directional emission is observed from the MoS2 microcavity owing to the coupling between the 2D excitons and the cavity photons. Realizing strong coupling effects at room temperature in a disorder free potential landscape is central to the ...

  20. Two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy in protein science, a summary for past 20years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuqing; Zhang, Liping; Jung, Young Mee; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2018-01-15

    Two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2DCOS) has been widely used to Infrared, Raman, Near IR, Optical Activity (ROA), Vibrational Circular Dichroism (VCD) and Fluorescence spectroscopy. In addition, several new developments, such as 2D hetero-correlation analysis, moving-window two-dimensional (MW2D) correlation, model based correlation (βν and kν correlation analyses) have also well incorporated into protein research. They have been used to investigate secondary structure, denaturation, folding and unfolding changes of protein, and have contributed greatly to the field of protein science. This review provides an overview of the applications of 2DCOS in the field of protein science for the past 20 year, especially to memory our old friend, Dr. Boguslawa Czarnik-Matusewicz, for her great contribution in this research field. The powerful utility of 2DCOS combined with various analytical techniques in protein studies is summarized. The noteworthy developments and perspective of 2DCOS in this field are highlighted finally. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Separation of colloidal two dimensional materials by density gradient ultracentrifugation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuang, Yun; Song, Sha [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Huang, Jinyang, E-mail: huangjy@mail.buct.edu.cn [Department of Mathematics, College of Science, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Sun, Xiaoming, E-mail: sunxm@mail.buct.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2015-04-15

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials have been made through various approaches but obtaining monodispersed simply by synthesis optimization gained little success, which highlighted the need for introducing nanoseparation methods. Density gradient ultracentrifugation method has emerged as a versatile and scalable method for sorting colloidal 2D nanomaterials. Isopycnic separation was applied on thickness-dependent separation of graphene nanosheets. And rate-zonal separation, as a more versatile separation method, demonstrated its capability in sorting nanosheets of chemically modified single layered graphene, layered double hydroxide, and even metallic Ag. Establishing such density gradient ultracentrifugation method not only achieves monodispersed nanosheets and provides new opportunities for investigation on size dependent properties of 2D materials, but also makes the surface modification possible by introducing “reaction zones” during sedimentation of the colloids. - Graphical abstract: Two-dimensional (2D) materials have been made through various approaches but obtaining monodispersed simply by synthesis optimization gained little success, which highlighted the need for introducing nanoseparation methods. Density gradient ultracentrifugation method has emerged as a versatile and scalable method for sorting colloidal 2D nanomaterials according to their size of thickness difference. Establishing such density gradient ultracentrifugation method not only achieves monodispersed nanosheets and provides new opportunities for investigation on size dependent properties of 2D materials, but also makes the surface modification possible by introducing “reaction zones” during sedimentation of the colloids. - Highlights: • Density gradient ultracentrifugation was applied on size separation of 2D material. • Isopycnic separation was applied on separation of low density materials. • Rate-zonal separation was applied on separation of large density materials. • Size

  2. Torque magnetometry studies of two-dimensional electron systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaapman, Maaike Ruth

    2004-01-01

    This thesis describes a study of the magnetization two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs). To detect the typically small magnetization, a sensitive magnetometer with optical angular detection was developed. The magnetometer uses a quadrant detector to measure the rotation of the sample. By mounting

  3. Torque magnetometry studies of two-dimensional electron systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaapman, Maaike Ruth

    2004-01-01

    This thesis describes a study of the magnetization two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs). To detect the typically small magnetization, a sensitive magnetometer with optical angular detection was developed. The magnetometer uses a quadrant detector to measure the rotation of the sample. By mounting

  4. Hadamard States and Two-dimensional Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Salehi, H

    2001-01-01

    We have used a two-dimensional analog of the Hadamard state-condition to study the local constraints on the two-point function of a linear quantum field conformally coupled to a two-dimensional gravitational background. We develop a dynamical model in which the determination of the state of the quantum field is essentially related to the determination of a conformal frame. A particular conformal frame is then introduced in which a two-dimensional gravitational equation is established.

  5. Tunable states of interlayer cations in two-dimensional materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, K.; Numata, K. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Tokyo Gakugei University, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8501 (Japan); Dai, W. [Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Materials Chemistry (Ministry of Education), College of Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Hunger, M. [Institute of Chemical Technology, University of Stuttgart, 70550 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2014-03-31

    The local state of cations inside the Ångstrom-scale interlayer spaces is one of the controlling factors for designing sophisticated two-dimensional (2D) materials consisting of 2D nanosheets. In the present work, the molecular mechanism on how the interlayer cation states are induced by the local structures of the 2D nanosheets is highlighted. For this purpose, the local states of Na cations in inorganic 2D materials, in which the compositional fluctuations of a few percent are introduced in the tetrahedral and octahedral units of the 2D nanosheets, were systematically studied by means of {sup 23}Na magic-angle-spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and {sup 23}Na multiple-quantum MAS (MQMAS) NMR spectroscopy. In contrast with an uniform distribution of Na cations expected so far, various well-defined cation states sensitive to the local structures of the 2D nanosheets were identified. The tunability of the interlayer cation states along with the local structure of the 2D nanosheets, as the smallest structural unit of the 2D material, is discussed.

  6. Two-dimensional gallium nitride realized via graphene encapsulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Balushi, Zakaria Y.; Wang, Ke; Ghosh, Ram Krishna; Vilá, Rafael A.; Eichfeld, Sarah M.; Caldwell, Joshua D.; Qin, Xiaoye; Lin, Yu-Chuan; Desario, Paul A.; Stone, Greg; Subramanian, Shruti; Paul, Dennis F.; Wallace, Robert M.; Datta, Suman; Redwing, Joan M.; Robinson, Joshua A.

    2016-11-01

    The spectrum of two-dimensional (2D) and layered materials `beyond graphene’ offers a remarkable platform to study new phenomena in condensed matter physics. Among these materials, layered hexagonal boron nitride (hBN), with its wide bandgap energy (~5.0-6.0 eV), has clearly established that 2D nitrides are key to advancing 2D devices. A gap, however, remains between the theoretical prediction of 2D nitrides `beyond hBN’ and experimental realization of such structures. Here we demonstrate the synthesis of 2D gallium nitride (GaN) via a migration-enhanced encapsulated growth (MEEG) technique utilizing epitaxial graphene. We theoretically predict and experimentally validate that the atomic structure of 2D GaN grown via MEEG is notably different from reported theory. Moreover, we establish that graphene plays a critical role in stabilizing the direct-bandgap (nearly 5.0 eV), 2D buckled structure. Our results provide a foundation for discovery and stabilization of 2D nitrides that are difficult to prepare via traditional synthesis.

  7. Field analysis of two-dimensional focusing grating couplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsboom, P.-P.; Frankena, H. J.

    1995-05-01

    A different technique was developed by which several two-dimensional dielectric optical gratings, consisting 100 or more corrugations, were treated in a numerical reliable approach. The numerical examples that were presented were restricted to gratings made up of sequences of waveguide sections symmetric about the x = 0 plane. The newly developed method was effectively used to investigate the field produced by a two-dimensional focusing grating coupler. Focal-region fields were determined for three symmetrical gratings with 19, 50, and 124 corrugations. For focusing grating coupler with limited length, high-frequency intensity variations were noted in the focal region.

  8. DNA sequencing by two-dimensional materials: As theoretical modeling meets experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Lijun; Shen, Jia-Wei; Zhang, Zhisen; Wang, Qi

    2017-03-15

    Owing to their extraordinary electrical, chemical, optical, mechanical and structural properties, two-dimensional (2D) materials (mainly including graphene, boron nitride, MoS2 etc.) have stimulated exploding interests in sensor applications. 2D-material based nanoscale DNA sequencing is a single-molecule technique with revolutionary potential. In this paper, we review the methodology of DNA sequencing based on the measurements of ionic current, force peak, and transverse electrical currents etc. by 2D materials. The advantages and disadvantages of DNA sequencing by 2D materials are discussed. Besides the recent development of experiments, we will focus on the theoretical calculations of DNA sequencing, which have been played a critical role in the development of this field. Special emphasis will focus on the disagreements between experiments and theoretical calculations, and the explanations for the discrepancy will be highlighted. Finally, some new plausible sequencing methods from computational studies will be discussed, which may be applied in the realistic DNA sequencing experiments in future.

  9. Charge transport and mobility engineering in two-dimensional transition metal chalcogenide semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Song-Lin; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhito; Orgiu, Emanuele; Samorì, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals semiconductors represent the thinnest, air stable semiconducting materials known. Their unique optical, electronic and mechanical properties hold great potential for harnessing them as key components in novel applications for electronics and optoelectronics. However, the charge transport behavior in 2D semiconductors is more susceptible to external surroundings (e.g. gaseous adsorbates from air and trapped charges in substrates) and their electronic performance is generally lower than corresponding bulk materials due to the fact that the surface and bulk coincide. In this article, we review recent progress on the charge transport properties and carrier mobility engineering of 2D transition metal chalcogenides, with a particular focus on the markedly high dependence of carrier mobility on thickness. We unveil the origin of this unique thickness dependence and elaborate the devised strategies to master it for carrier mobility optimization. Specifically, physical and chemical methods towards the optimization of the major factors influencing the extrinsic transport such as electrode/semiconductor contacts, interfacial Coulomb impurities and atomic defects are discussed. In particular, the use of ad hoc molecules makes it possible to engineer the interface with the dielectric and heal the vacancies in such materials. By casting fresh light on the theoretical and experimental studies, we provide a guide for improving the electronic performance of 2D semiconductors, with the ultimate goal of achieving technologically viable atomically thin (opto)electronics.

  10. van der Waals epitaxy and photoresponse of two-dimensional CdSe plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dan-Dan; Xia, Jing; Wang, Lei; Li, Xuan-Ze; Tian, Li-Feng; Meng, Xiang-Min

    2016-06-01

    Here we demonstrate the first growth of two-dimensional (2D) single-crystalline CdSe plates on mica substrates via van der Waals epitaxy. The as-synthesized 2D plates exhibit hexagonal, truncated triangular and triangular shapes with the lateral size around several microns. Photodetectors based on 2D CdSe plates present a fast response time of 24 ms, revealing that 2D CdSe is a promising building block for ultrathin optoelectronic devices.

  11. Electrically tunable two-dimensional holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal grating with variable period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kangni; Zheng, Jihong; Liu, Yourong; Gao, Hui; Zhuang, Songlin

    2017-06-01

    An electrically tunable two-dimensional (2D) holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (H-PDLC) grating with variable period was fabricated by inserting a cylindrical lens in a conventional holographic interference beam. The interference between the plane wave and cylindrical wave resulting in varying intersection angles on the sample, combined with dual exposure along directions perpendicular to each other, generates a 2D H-PDLC grating with varied period. We have identified periods varying from 3.109 to 5.158 μm across a 16 mm width, with supporting theoretical equations for the period. The period exhibits a symmetrical square lattice in a diagonal direction, with an asymmetrical rectangular lattice in off-diagonal locations. With the first exposure at 2 s and the second exposure at 60 s, the phase separation between the prepolymer and liquid crystal was most evident. The diffraction properties and optic-electric characteristics were also studied. The diffraction efficiency of first-order light was observed to be 13.5% without external voltage, and the transmission efficiency of non-diffracted light was 78% with an applied voltage of 100 V. The proposed method provides the capability of generating period variation to the conventional holographic interference path, with potential application in diffractive optics such as tunable multi-wavelength organic lasing from a dye-doped 2D H-PDLC grating.

  12. Two-Dimensional DOA Estimation for Uniform Rectangular Array Using Reduced-Dimension Propagator Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel algorithm is proposed for two-dimensional direction of arrival (2D-DOA estimation with uniform rectangular array using reduced-dimension propagator method (RD-PM. The proposed algorithm requires no eigenvalue decomposition of the covariance matrix of the receive data and simplifies two-dimensional global searching in two-dimensional PM (2D-PM to one-dimensional local searching. The complexity of the proposed algorithm is much lower than that of 2D-PM. The angle estimation performance of the proposed algorithm is better than that of estimation of signal parameters via rotational invariance techniques (ESPRIT algorithm and conventional PM algorithms, also very close to 2D-PM. The angle estimation error and Cramér-Rao bound (CRB are derived in this paper. Furthermore, the proposed algorithm can achieve automatically paired 2D-DOA estimation. The simulation results verify the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  13. Topology optimization of two-dimensional waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Sigmund, Ole

    2003-01-01

    In this work we use the method of topology optimization to design two-dimensional waveguides with low transmission loss.......In this work we use the method of topology optimization to design two-dimensional waveguides with low transmission loss....

  14. Interaction of two-dimensional magnetoexcitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumanov, E. V.; Podlesny, I. V.; Moskalenko, S. A.; Liberman, M. A.

    2017-04-01

    We study interaction of the two-dimensional magnetoexcitons with in-plane wave vector k→∥ = 0 , taking into account the influence of the excited Landau levels (ELLs) and of the external electric field perpendicular to the surface of the quantum well and parallel to the external magnetic field. It is shown that the account of the ELLs gives rise to the repulsion between the spinless magnetoexcitons with k→∥ = 0 in the Fock approximation, with the interaction constant g decreasing inverse proportional to the magnetic field strength B (g (0) ∼ 1 / B) . In the presence of the perpendicular electric field the Rashba spin-orbit coupling (RSOC), Zeeman splitting (ZS) and nonparabolicity of the heavy-hole dispersion law affect the Landau quantization of the electrons and holes. They move along the new cyclotron orbits, change their Coulomb interactions and cause the interaction between 2D magnetoexcitons with k→∥ = 0 . The changes of the Coulomb interactions caused by the electrons and by the holes moving with new cyclotron orbits are characterized by some coefficients, which in the absence of the electric field turn to be unity. The differences between these coefficients of the electron-hole pairs forming the magnetoexcitons determine their affinities to the interactions. The interactions between the homogeneous, semihomogeneous and heterogeneous magnetoexcitons forming the symmetric states with the same signs of their affinities are attractive whereas in the case of different sign affinities are repulsive. In the heterogeneous asymmetric states the interactions have opposite signs in comparison with the symmetric states. In all these cases the interaction constant g have the dependence g (0) 1 /√{ B} .

  15. Two dimensional convolute integers for machine vision and image recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Thomas R.

    1988-01-01

    Machine vision and image recognition require sophisticated image processing prior to the application of Artificial Intelligence. Two Dimensional Convolute Integer Technology is an innovative mathematical approach for addressing machine vision and image recognition. This new technology generates a family of digital operators for addressing optical images and related two dimensional data sets. The operators are regression generated, integer valued, zero phase shifting, convoluting, frequency sensitive, two dimensional low pass, high pass and band pass filters that are mathematically equivalent to surface fitted partial derivatives. These operators are applied non-recursively either as classical convolutions (replacement point values), interstitial point generators (bandwidth broadening or resolution enhancement), or as missing value calculators (compensation for dead array element values). These operators show frequency sensitive feature selection scale invariant properties. Such tasks as boundary/edge enhancement and noise or small size pixel disturbance removal can readily be accomplished. For feature selection tight band pass operators are essential. Results from test cases are given.

  16. Characterization of Al2O3 optically stimulated luminescence films for 2D dosimetry using a 6 MV photon beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, M. F.; Shrestha, N.; Schnell, E.; Ahmad, S.; Akselrod, M. S.; Yukihara, E. G.

    2016-11-01

    This work evaluates the dosimetric properties of newly developed optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) films, fabricated with either Al2O3:C or Al2O3:C,Mg, using a prototype laser scanning reader, a developed image reconstruction algorithm, and a 6 MV therapeutic photon beam. Packages containing OSL films (Al2O3:C and Al2O3:C,Mg) and a radiochromic film (Gafchromic EBT3) were irradiated using a 6 MV photon beam using different doses, field sizes, with and without wedge filter. Dependence on film orientation of the OSL system was also tested. Diode-array (MapCHECK) and ionization chamber measurements were performed for comparison. The OSLD film doses agreed with the MapCHECK and ionization chamber data within the experimental uncertainties (response was approximately linear from the MDD up to a few grays (the linearity correction was  response, resolution and dosimetric properties. The negligible background and potential simple calibration make these OSLD films suitable for remote audits. The characterization presented here may motivate further commercial development of a 2D dosimetry system based on the OSL from Al2O3:C or Al2O3:C,Mg.

  17. Manipulation of surface plasmon polariton propagation on isotropic and anisotropic two-dimensional materials coupled to boron nitride heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inampudi, Sandeep; Nazari, Mina; Forouzmand, Ali; Mosallaei, Hossein, E-mail: hosseinm@coe.neu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Northeastern University, 360 Huntington Ave., Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States)

    2016-01-14

    We present a comprehensive analysis of surface plasmon polariton dispersion characteristics associated with isotropic and anisotropic two-dimensional atomically thin layered materials (2D sheets) coupled to h-BN heterostructures. A scattering matrix based approach is presented to compute the electromagnetic fields and related dispersion characteristics of stacked layered systems composed of anisotropic 2D sheets and uniaxial bulk materials. We analyze specifically the surface plasmon polariton (SPP) dispersion characteristics in case of isolated and coupled two-dimensional layers with isotropic and anisotropic conductivities. An analysis based on residue theorem is utilized to identify optimum optical parameters (surface conductivity) and geometrical parameters (separation between layers) to maximize the SPP field at a given position. The effect of type and degree of anisotropy on the shapes of iso-frequency curves and propagation characteristics is discussed in detail. The analysis presented in this paper gives an insight to identify optimum setup to enhance the SPP field at a given position and in a given direction on the surface of two-dimensional materials.

  18. 2-D Animation's Not Just for Mickey Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinman, Lynda

    1995-01-01

    Discusses characteristics of two-dimensional (2-D) animation; highlights include character animation, painting issues, and motion graphics. Sidebars present Silicon Graphics animations tools and 2-D animation programs for the desktop computer. (DGM)

  19. Two-Dimensional Phononic Crystals: Disorder Matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Markus R; Graczykowski, Bartlomiej; Reparaz, Juan Sebastian; El Sachat, Alexandros; Sledzinska, Marianna; Alzina, Francesc; Sotomayor Torres, Clivia M

    2016-09-14

    The design and fabrication of phononic crystals (PnCs) hold the key to control the propagation of heat and sound at the nanoscale. However, there is a lack of experimental studies addressing the impact of order/disorder on the phononic properties of PnCs. Here, we present a comparative investigation of the influence of disorder on the hypersonic and thermal properties of two-dimensional PnCs. PnCs of ordered and disordered lattices are fabricated of circular holes with equal filling fractions in free-standing Si membranes. Ultrafast pump and probe spectroscopy (asynchronous optical sampling) and Raman thermometry based on a novel two-laser approach are used to study the phononic properties in the gigahertz (GHz) and terahertz (THz) regime, respectively. Finite element method simulations of the phonon dispersion relation and three-dimensional displacement fields furthermore enable the unique identification of the different hypersonic vibrations. The increase of surface roughness and the introduction of short-range disorder are shown to modify the phonon dispersion and phonon coherence in the hypersonic (GHz) range without affecting the room-temperature thermal conductivity. On the basis of these findings, we suggest a criteria for predicting phonon coherence as a function of roughness and disorder.

  20. Two-dimensional boron-nitrogen-carbon monolayers with tunable direct band gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Miao; Gao, Guoying; Kutana, Alex; Wang, Yanchao; Zou, Xiaolong; Tse, John S.; Yakobson, Boris I.; Li, Hongdong; Liu, Hanyu; Ma, Yanming

    2015-07-01

    The search for new candidate semiconductors with direct band gaps of ~1.4 eV has attracted significant attention, especially among the two-dimensional (2D) materials, which have become potential candidates for next-generation optoelectronics. Herein, we systematically studied 2D Bx/2Nx/2C1-x (0 optimization method (CALYPSO) in conjunction with density functional theory. Furthermore, we examine more stoichiometries by the cluster expansion technique based on a hexagonal lattice. The results reveal that all monolayer Bx/2Nx/2C1-x stoichiometries adopt a planar honeycomb character and are dynamically stable. Remarkably, electronic structural calculations show that most of Bx/2Nx/2C1-x phases possess direct band gaps within the optical range, thereby they can potentially be used in high-efficiency conversion of solar energy to electric power, as well as in p-n junction photovoltaic modules. The present results also show that the band gaps of Bx/2Nx/2C1-x can be widely tuned within the optical range by changing the concentration of carbon, thus allowing the fast development of band gap engineered materials in optoelectronics. These new findings may enable new approaches to the design of microelectronic devices.The search for new candidate semiconductors with direct band gaps of ~1.4 eV has attracted significant attention, especially among the two-dimensional (2D) materials, which have become potential candidates for next-generation optoelectronics. Herein, we systematically studied 2D Bx/2Nx/2C1-x (0 optimization method (CALYPSO) in conjunction with density functional theory. Furthermore, we examine more stoichiometries by the cluster expansion technique based on a hexagonal lattice. The results reveal that all monolayer Bx/2Nx/2C1-x stoichiometries adopt a planar honeycomb character and are dynamically stable. Remarkably, electronic structural calculations show that most of Bx/2Nx/2C1-x phases possess direct band gaps within the optical range, thereby they can

  1. Superfluid phase transition in two-dimensional excitonic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apinyan, V.; Kopeć, T.K., E-mail: kopec@int.pan.wroc.pl

    2014-03-01

    We study the superfluid phase transition in the two-dimensional (2D) excitonic system. Employing the extended Falicov–Kimball model (EFKM) and considering the local quantum correlations in the system composed of conduction band electrons and valence band holes we demonstrate the existence of the excitonic insulator (EI) state in the system. We show that at very low temperatures, the particle phase stiffness in the pure-2D excitonic system, governed by the non-local cross correlations, is responsible for the vortex–antivortex binding phase-field state, known as the Berezinskii–Kosterlitz–Thouless (BKT) superfluid state. We demonstrate that the existence of excitonic insulator phase is a necessary prerequisite, leading to quasi-long-range order in the 2D excitonic system.

  2. Synthesis of borophenes: Anisotropic, two-dimensional boron polymorphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannix, Andrew J.; Zhou, Xiang-Feng; Kiraly, Brian; Wood, Joshua D.; Alducin, Diego; Myers, Benjamin D.; Liu, Xiaolong; Fisher, Brandon L.; Santiago, Ulises; Guest, Jeffrey R.; Yacaman, Miguel Jose; Ponce, Arturo; Oganov, Artem R.; Hersam, Mark C.; Guisinger, Nathan P.

    2016-01-01

    At the atomic-cluster scale, pure boron is markedly similar to carbon, forming simple planar molecules and cage-like fullerenes.Theoretical studies predict that two-dimensional (2D) boron sheets will adopt an atomic configuration similar to that of boron atomic clusters. We synthesized atomically thin, crystalline 2D boron sheets (i.e., borophene) on silver surfaces under ultrahigh-vacuum conditions. Atomic-scale characterization, supported by theoretical calculations, revealed structures reminiscent of fused boron clusters with multiple scales of anisotropic, out-of-plane buckling. Unlike bulk boron allotropes, borophene shows metallic characteristics that are consistent with predictions of a highly anisotropic, 2D metal. PMID:26680195

  3. Proximity Induced Superconducting Properties in One and Two Dimensional Semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Morten

    a voltage is passed through the Josephson junction, we observe multiple Andreev reflections and preliminary results point to a highly transmissive interface between the 2D electron gas and the superconductor. In the theoretical section we demonstrate analytically and numerically, that in a 1D nanowire......This report is concerned with the properties of one and two dimensional semiconducting materials when brought into contact with a superconductor. Experimentally we study the 2D electron gas in an InGaAs/InAs heterostructure with aluminum grown in situ on the surface, and theoretically we show...... that a superconducting 1D nanowire can harbor Majorana bound states in the absence of spin–orbit coupling. We fabricate and measure micrometer–sized mesoscopic devices demonstrating the inheritance of superconducting properties in the 2D electron gas. By placing a quantum point contact proximal to the interface between...

  4. A renormalization group analysis of two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wenli Z.; Diamond, P. H.

    1993-01-01

    The renormalization group (RNG) method is used to study the physics of two-dimensional (2D) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. It is shown that, for a turbulent magnetofluid in two dimensions, no RNG transformation fixed point exists on account of the coexistence of energy transfer to small scales and mean-square magnetic flux transfer to large scales. The absence of a fixed point renders the RNG method incapable of describing the 2D MHD system. A similar conclusion is reached for 2D hydrodynamics, where enstrophy flows to small scales and energy to large scales. These analyses suggest that the applicability of the RNG method to turbulent systems is intrinsically limited, especially in the case of systems with dual-direction transfer.

  5. Quasi-Two-Dimensional Magnetism in Co-Based Shandites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Mohamed A.; Tabata, Yoshikazu; Waki, Takeshi; Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2016-06-01

    We report quasi-two-dimensional (Q2D) itinerant electron magnetism in the layered Co-based shandites. Comprehensive magnetization measurements were performed using single crystals of Co3Sn2-xInxS2 (0 ≤ x ≤ 2) and Co3-yFeySn2S2 (0 ≤ y ≤ 0.5). The magnetic parameters of both systems; the Curie temperature TC, effective moment peff and spontaneous moment ps; exhibit almost identical variations against the In- and Fe-concentrations, indicating significance of the electron count on the magnetism in the Co-based shandite. The ferromagnetic-nonmagnetic quantum phase transition is found around xc ˜ 0.8. Analysis based on the extended Q2D spin fluctuation theory clearly reveals the highly Q2D itinerant electron character of the ferromagnetism in the Co-based shandites.

  6. Application of Evolutionary Encryption 2D Barcode Generation Technology in Agricultural Product Quality and Safety Traceability System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaojun; ZHONG; Zhijie; LAI; Yan; CHEN; Jianxin; QIAN; Xiaocong; HONG; Caiyi; LI

    2014-01-01

    Two-dimensional(2D) barcode technology is an electronic tagging technology based on combination of computer and optical technology. It is an important way of information collection and input. 2D barcode technology has been widely used in various fields of logistics,production automation,and e-commerce,but it also has brought about a series of safety problems. Based on evolutionary encryption technology,this paper improved algorithm of traditional 2D barcode generation,to improve forgery- proof performance of 2D barcode. This algorithm is applied to agricultural products quality and safety traceability system and the results show that it is effective.

  7. Modulating two-dimensional non-close-packed colloidal crystal arrays by deformable soft lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao; Wang, Tieqiang; Zhang, Junhu; Yan, Xin; Zhang, Xuemin; Zhu, Difu; Li, Wei; Zhang, Xun; Yang, Bai

    2010-02-16

    We report a simple method to fabricate two-dimensional (2D) periodic non-close-packed (ncp) arrays of colloidal microspheres with controllable lattice spacing, lattice structure, and pattern arrangement. This method combines soft lithography technique with controlled deformation of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer to convert 2D hexagonal close-packed (hcp) silica microsphere arrays into ncp ones. Self-assembled 2D hcp microsphere arrays were transferred onto the surface of PDMS stamps using the lift-up technique, and then their lattice spacing and lattice structure could be adjusted by solvent swelling or mechanical stretching of the PDMS stamps. Followed by a modified microcontact printing (microcp) technique, the as-prepared 2D ncp microsphere arrays were transferred onto a flat substrate coated with a thin film of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). After removing the PVA film by calcination, the ncp arrays that fell on the substrate without being disturbed could be lifted up, deformed, and transferred again by another PDMS stamp; therefore, the lattice feature could be changed step by step. Combining isotropic solvent swelling and anisotropic mechanical stretching, it is possible to change hcp colloidal arrays into full dimensional ncp ones in all five 2D Bravais lattices. This deformable soft lithography-based lift-up process can also generate patterned ncp arrays of colloidal crystals, including one-dimensional (1D) microsphere arrays with designed structures. This method affords opportunities and spaces for fabrication of novel and complex structures of 1D and 2D ncp colloidal crystal arrays, and these as-prepared structures can be used as molds for colloidal lithography or prototype models for optical materials.

  8. Analysis of the IEA 2D test. 2D, 3D, steady or unsteady airflow?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, Ines Olmedo; Nielsen, Peter V.

    The “IEA Annex 20 two-dimensional test case” was defined by proffesor Peter V. Nielsen (1990) and was originally considered two-dimensional and steady flow. However, some recent works considering the case as three dimensional have shown different solutions from the 2D case as well as different so...

  9. Two-dimensional Ni(OH)2-XS2 (X = Mo and W) heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhen-Kun; Tong, Chuan-Jia; Geng, Wei; Zhang, Deng-Yu; Liu, Li-Min

    2015-09-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures have received a lot of attention because of their wide applications in electronics and optoelectronics. In this work, the electronic structures and optical properties of nickel hydroxides (Ni(OH)2) and transition metal dichalcogenides (XS2, X = Mo, W) heterostructures are studied by hybrid density functional theory. The results reveal that all the considered Ni(OH)2-XS2 heterostructures are indirect semiconductors with a band gap of 0.040-0.825 eV. Additionally, the AB stacked Ni(OH)2-XS2 heterostructures are more stable than the AA stacked one. Interestingly, the complete electron-hole separation is found in the Ni(OH)2-XS2 heterostructure, and its conduction band minimum and valence band maximum are located on the XS2 and Ni(OH)2 layers, respectively. Besides, the optical absorption peaks of Ni(OH)2-XS2 heterostructures are mainly located within the visible light region. These fascinating electronic structures and optical absorption of the Ni(OH)2-XS2 heterostructures make them promising candidates for applications in 2D optoelectronics.

  10. Extension of modified power method to two-dimensional problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Lee, Hyunsuk; Lee, Deokjung

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the generalized modified power method was extended to two-dimensional problems. A direct application of the method to two-dimensional problems was shown to be unstable when the number of requested eigenmodes is larger than a certain problem dependent number. The root cause of this instability has been identified as the degeneracy of the transfer matrix. In order to resolve this instability, the number of sub-regions for the transfer matrix was increased to be larger than the number of requested eigenmodes; and a new transfer matrix was introduced accordingly which can be calculated by the least square method. The stability of the new method has been successfully demonstrated with a neutron diffusion eigenvalue problem and the 2D C5G7 benchmark problem.

  11. Two dimensional density and its fluctuation measurements by using phase imaging method in GAMMA 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, M.; Negishi, S.; Shima, Y.; Hojo, H.; Imai, T. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Mase, A. [Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Kogi, Y. [Fukuoka Institute of Technology, 3-30-1 Wajiro-higashi, Higashiku, Fukuoka 811-0295 (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    Two dimensional (2D) plasma image analysis is useful to study the improvement of plasma confinement in magnetically confined fusion plasmas. We have constructed a 2D interferometer system with phase imaging method for studying 2D plasma density distribution and its fluctuation measurement in the tandem mirror GAMMA 10. 2D profiles of electron density and its fluctuation have been successfully obtained by using this 2D phase imaging system. We show that 2D plasma density and fluctuation profiles clearly depends on the axial confining potential formation with application of plug electron cyclotron heating in GAMMA 10.

  12. Enhanced Visibility of MoS2, MoSe2, WSe2 and Black-Phosphorus: Making Optical Identification of 2D Semiconductors Easier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabino Rubio-Bollinger

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We explore the use of Si3N4/Si substrates as a substitute of the standard SiO2/Si substrates employed nowadays to fabricate nanodevices based on 2D materials. We systematically study the visibility of several 2D semiconducting materials that are attracting a great deal of interest in nanoelectronics and optoelectronics: MoS2, MoSe2, WSe2 and black-phosphorus. We find that the use of Si3N4/Si substrates provides an increase of the optical contrast up to a 50%–100% and also the maximum contrast shifts towards wavelength values optimal for human eye detection, making optical identification of 2D semiconductors easier.

  13. Two-dimensional coupled electron-hole layers in high magnetic fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parlangeli, Andrea

    2000-01-01

    In solids, it is nowadays possible to create structures in which electrons are confined into a two-dimensional (2D) plane. The physics of a 2D electron gas (2DEG) has proved to be very rich, in particular in the presence of a transverse magnetic field. The Quantum Hall Effect, i.e. the quantization

  14. Dipeptide Structural Analysis Using Two-Dimensional NMR for the Undergraduate Advanced Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Elizabeth; Dolino, Drew; Schwartzenburg, Danielle; Steiger, Michelle A.

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was developed to introduce students in either an organic chemistry or biochemistry lab course to two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D NMR) spectroscopy using simple biomolecules. The goal of this experiment is for students to understand and interpret the information provided by a 2D NMR spectrum. Students are…

  15. Dipeptide Structural Analysis Using Two-Dimensional NMR for the Undergraduate Advanced Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Elizabeth; Dolino, Drew; Schwartzenburg, Danielle; Steiger, Michelle A.

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was developed to introduce students in either an organic chemistry or biochemistry lab course to two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D NMR) spectroscopy using simple biomolecules. The goal of this experiment is for students to understand and interpret the information provided by a 2D NMR spectrum. Students are…

  16. Two-Dimensional Hydrous Silica : Nanosheets and Nanotubes Predicted from First-Principles Simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fang, Changming; Van Blaaderen, Alfons; Van Huis, Marijn A.

    2015-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) hydrous silica sheets (HSSs) and hydrous silica nanotubes (HSNTs) have many unique properties and potential applications. Although preparation of 2D HSSs was patented already about half a century ago, very little is known about their structure and physical properties. He we pred

  17. On the critical behaviour of two-dimensional liquid crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.l. Fariñas-Sánchez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Lebwohl-Lasher (LL model is the traditional model used to describe the nematic-isotropic transition of real liquid crystals. In this paper, we develop a numerical study of the temperature behaviour and of finite-size scaling of the two-dimensional (2D LL-model. We discuss two possible scenarios. In the first one, the 2D LL-model presents a phase transition similar to the topological transition appearing in the 2D XY-model. In the second one, the 2D LL-model does not exhibit any critical transition, but its low temperature behaviour is rather characterized by a crossover from a disordered phase to an ordered phase at zero temperature. We realize and discuss various comparisons with the 2D XY-model and the 2D Heisenberg model. Having added finite-size scaling behaviour of the order parameter and conformal mapping of order parameter profile to previous studies, we analyze the critical scaling of the probability distribution function, hyperscaling relations and stiffness order parameter and conclude that the second scenario (no critical transition is the most plausible.

  18. Ab Initio Prediction of Piezoelectricity in Two-Dimensional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonsky, Michael N; Zhuang, Houlong L; Singh, Arunima K; Hennig, Richard G

    2015-10-27

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials present many unique materials concepts, including material properties that sometimes differ dramatically from those of their bulk counterparts. One of these properties, piezoelectricity, is important for micro- and nanoelectromechanical systems applications. Using symmetry analysis, we determine the independent piezoelectric coefficients for four groups of predicted and synthesized 2D materials. We calculate with density-functional perturbation theory the stiffness and piezoelectric tensors of these materials. We determine the in-plane piezoelectric coefficient d11 for 37 materials within the families of 2D metal dichalcogenides, metal oxides, and III-V semiconductor materials. A majority of the structures, including CrSe2, CrTe2, CaO, CdO, ZnO, and InN, have d11 coefficients greater than 5 pm/V, a typical value for bulk piezoelectric materials. Our symmetry analysis shows that buckled 2D materials exhibit an out-of-plane coefficient d31. We find that d31 for 8 III-V semiconductors ranges from 0.02 to 0.6 pm/V. From statistical analysis, we identify correlations between the piezoelectric coefficients and the electronic and structural properties of the 2D materials that elucidate the origin of the piezoelectricity. Among the 37 2D materials, CdO, ZnO, and CrTe2 stand out for their combination of large piezoelectric coefficient and low formation energy and are recommended for experimental exploration.

  19. Soluble, Exfoliated Two-Dimensional Nanosheets as Excellent Aqueous Lubricants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenling; Cao, Yanlin; Tian, Pengyi; Guo, Fei; Tian, Yu; Zheng, Wen; Ji, Xuqiang; Liu, Jingquan

    2016-11-30

    Dispersion in water of two-dimensional (2D) nanosheets is conducive to their practical applications in fundamental science communities due to their abundance, low cost, and ecofriendliness. However, it is difficult to achieve stable aqueous 2D material suspensions because of the intrinsic hydrophobic properties of the layered materials. Here, we report an effective and economic way of producing various 2D nanosheets (h-BN, MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and graphene) as aqueous dispersions using carbon quantum dots (CQDs) as exfoliation agents and stabilizers. The dispersion was prepared through a liquid phase exfoliation. The as-synthesized stable 2D nanosheets based dispersions were characterized by UV-vis, HRTEM, AFM, Raman, XPS, and XRD. The solutions based on CQD decorated 2D nanosheets were utilized as aqueous lubricants, which realized a friction coefficient as low as 0.02 and even achieved a superlubricity under certain working conditions. The excellent lubricating properties were attributed to the synergetic effects of the 2D nanosheets and CQDs, such as good dispersion stability and easy-sliding interlayer structure. This work thus proposes a novel strategy for the design and preparation of high-performance water based green lubricants.

  20. Magnetoelectronic transport of the two-dimensional electron gas in CdSe single quantum wells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P K Ghosh; A Ghosal; D Chattopadhyay

    2009-02-01

    Hall mobility and magnetoresistance coefficient for the two-dimensional (2D) electron transport parallel to the heterojunction interfaces in a single quantum well of CdSe are calculated with a numerical iterative technique in the framework of Fermi–Dirac statistics. Lattice scatterings due to polar-mode longitudinal optic (LO) phonons, and acoustic phonons via deformation potential and piezoelectric couplings, are considered together with background and remote ionized impurity interactions. The parallel mode of piezoelectric scattering is found to contribute more than the perpendicular mode. We observe that the Hall mobility decreases with increasing temperature but increases with increasing channel width. The magnetoresistance coefficient is found to decrease with increasing temperature and increase with increasing magnetic field in the classical region.

  1. Supramolecular [60]fullerene liquid crystals formed by self-organized two-dimensional crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyan; Hsu, Chih-Hao; Ren, Xiangkui; Gu, Yan; Song, Bo; Sun, Hao-Jan; Yang, Shuang; Chen, Erqiang; Tu, Yingfeng; Li, Xiaohong; Yang, Xiaoming; Li, Yaowen; Zhu, Xiulin

    2015-01-02

    Fullerene-based liquid crystalline materials have both the excellent optical and electrical properties of fullerene and the self-organization and external-field-responsive properties of liquid crystals (LCs). Herein, we demonstrate a new family of thermotropic [60]fullerene supramolecular LCs with hierarchical structures. The [60]fullerene dyads undergo self-organization driven by π-π interactions to form triple-layer two-dimensional (2D) fullerene crystals sandwiched between layers of alkyl chains. The lamellar packing of 2D crystals gives rise to the formation of supramolecular LCs. This design strategy should be applicable to other molecules and lead to an enlarged family of 2D crystals and supramolecular liquid crystals.

  2. Two Dimensional Plasmonic Cavities on Moire Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balci, Sinan; Kocabas, Askin; Karabiyik, Mustafa; Kocabas, Coskun; Aydinli, Atilla

    2010-03-01

    We investigate surface plasmon polariton (SPP) cavitiy modes on two dimensional Moire surfaces in the visible spectrum. Two dimensional hexagonal Moire surface can be recorded on a photoresist layer using Interference lithography (IL). Two sequential exposures at slightly different angles in IL generate one dimensional Moire surfaces. Further sequential exposure for the same sample at slightly different angles after turning the sample 60 degrees around its own axis generates two dimensional hexagonal Moire cavity. Spectroscopic reflection measurements have shown plasmonic band gaps and cavity states at all the azimuthal angles (omnidirectional cavity and band gap formation) investigated. The plasmonic band gap edge and the cavity states energies show six fold symmetry on the two dimensional Moire surface as measured in reflection measurements.

  3. Quenched dynamics of two-dimensional solitons and vortices in the Gross-Pitaevskii equation

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Qian-Yong; Malomed, Boris A

    2012-01-01

    We consider a two-dimensional (2D) counterpart of the experiment that led to the creation of quasi-1D bright solitons in Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) [Nature 417, 150--153 (2002)]. We start by identifying the ground state of the 2D Gross-Pitaevskii equation for repulsive interactions, with a harmonic-oscillator (HO) trap, and with or without an optical lattice (OL). Subsequently, we switch the sign of the interaction to induce interatomic attraction and monitor the ensuing dynamics. Regions of the stable self-trapping and catastrophic collapse of 2D fundamental solitons are identified in the parameter plane of the OL strength and BEC norm. The increase of the OL strength expands the persistence domain for the solitons to larger norms. For single-charged solitary vortices, in addition to the survival and collapse regimes, an intermediate one is identified, where the vortex resists the collapse but loses its structure, transforming into a fundamental soliton. The same setting may also be implemented in the ...

  4. Mass production of two-dimensional oxides by rapid heating of hydrous chlorides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chunsong; Zhang, Haitian; Si, Wenjie; Wu, Hui

    2016-09-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) nanoscale oxides have attracted research interest owing to their electronic, magnetic optical and catalytic properties. If they could be manufactured on a large scale, 2D oxides would be attractive for applications ranging from electronics to energy conversion and storage. Herein, we report facile fabrication of oxide nanosheets by rapid thermal annealing of corresponding hydrous-chloride compounds. By heating CrCl3.6H2O, ZrOCl2.8H2O, AlCl3.6H2O and YCl3.6H2O crystals as precursors, we immediately collect large quantities of ultrathin Cr2O3, ZrO2, Al2O3 and Y2O3 nanosheets, respectively. The formation of layered nanosheets relies on exfoliation driven by rapid evaporation of water and/or other gas molecules generated under annealing. Our route allows simple, efficient and inexpensive production of 2D oxides. As a demonstration, we evaluate Cr2O3 nanosheets prepared by our method as anodes in lithium-ion batteries and find superior performance in comparison with their microcrystalline counterparts.

  5. Graphene-like two-dimensional layered nanomaterials: applications in biosensors and nanomedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guohai; Zhu, Chengzhou; Du, Dan; Zhu, Junjie; Lin, Yuehe

    2015-08-01

    The development of nanotechnology provides promising opportunities for various important applications. The recent discovery of atomically-thick two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials can offer manifold perspectives to construct versatile devices with high-performance to satisfy multiple requirements. Many studies directed at graphene have stimulated renewed interest on graphene-like 2D layered nanomaterials (GLNs). GLNs including boron nitride nanosheets, graphitic-carbon nitride nanosheets and transition metal dichalcogenides (e.g. MoS2 and WS2) have attracted significant interest in numerous research fields from physics and chemistry to biology and engineering, which has led to numerous interdisciplinary advances in nano science. Benefiting from the unique physical and chemical properties (e.g. strong mechanical strength, high surface area, unparalleled thermal conductivity, remarkable biocompatibility and ease of functionalization), these 2D layered nanomaterials have shown great potential in biochemistry and biomedicine. This review summarizes recent advances of GLNs in applications of biosensors and nanomedicine, including electrochemical biosensors, optical biosensors, bioimaging, drug delivery and cancer therapy. Current challenges and future perspectives in these rapidly developing areas are also outlined. It is expected that they will have great practical foundation in biomedical applications with future efforts.

  6. Three-dimensional versus two-dimensional vision in laparoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Stine Maya Dreier; Savran, Mona M; Konge, Lars;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic surgery is widely used, and results in accelerated patient recovery time and hospital stay were compared with laparotomy. However, laparoscopic surgery is more challenging compared with open surgery, in part because surgeons must operate in a three-dimensional (3D) space...... through a two-dimensional (2D) projection on a monitor, which results in loss of depth perception. To counter this problem, 3D imaging for laparoscopy was developed. A systematic review of the literature was performed to assess the effect of 3D laparoscopy. METHODS: A systematic search of the literature...

  7. Complex Saddles in Two-dimensional Gauge Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Buividovich, P V; Valgushev, S N

    2015-01-01

    We study numerically the saddle point structure of two-dimensional (2D) lattice gauge theory, represented by the Gross-Witten-Wadia unitary matrix model. The saddle points are in general complex-valued, even though the original integration variables and action are real. We confirm the trans-series/instanton gas structure in the weak-coupling phase, and identify a new complex-saddle interpretation of non-perturbative effects in the strong-coupling phase. In both phases, eigenvalue tunneling refers to eigenvalues moving off the real interval, into the complex plane, and the weak-to-strong coupling phase transition is driven by saddle condensation.

  8. Two Dimensional Spatial Independent Component Analysis and Its Application in fMRI Data Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hua-fu; YAO De-zhong

    2005-01-01

    One important application of independent component analysis (ICA) is in image processing. A two dimensional (2-D) composite ICA algorithm framework for 2-D image independent component analysis (2-D ICA) is proposed. The 2-D nature of the algorithm provides it an advantage of circumventing the roundabout transforming procedures between two dimensional (2-D) image data and one-dimensional (1-D) signal. Moreover the combination of the Newton (fixed-point algorithm) and natural gradient algorithms in this composite algorithm increases its efficiency and robustness. The convincing results of a successful example in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) show the potential application of composite 2-D ICA in the brain activity detection.

  9. Exact analytic flux distributions for two-dimensional solar concentrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraidenraich, Naum; Henrique de Oliveira Pedrosa Filho, Manoel; Vilela, Olga C; Gordon, Jeffrey M

    2013-07-01

    A new approach for representing and evaluating the flux density distribution on the absorbers of two-dimensional imaging solar concentrators is presented. The formalism accommodates any realistic solar radiance and concentrator optical error distribution. The solutions obviate the need for raytracing, and are physically transparent. Examples illustrating the method's versatility are presented for parabolic trough mirrors with both planar and tubular absorbers, Fresnel reflectors with tubular absorbers, and V-trough mirrors with planar absorbers.

  10. The influence of the Rashba spin-orbit coupling on the two-dimensional magnetoexcitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakioglu, T [Department of Physics, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Liberman, M A [Department of Physics, Uppsala University, Box 530, SE-751 21, Uppsala (Sweden); Moskalenko, S A; Podlesny, I V [Institute of Applied Physics, Academy of Sciences of Moldova, 5, Academiei street, MD-2028, Chisinau (Moldova, Republic of)

    2011-08-31

    The influence of the Rashba spin-orbit coupling (RSOC) on the two-dimensional (2D) electrons and holes in a strong perpendicular magnetic field leads to different results for the Landau quantization in different spin projections. In the Landau gauge the unidimensional wave vector describing the free motion in one in-plane direction is the same for both spin projections, whereas the numbers of Landau quantization levels are different. For an electron in an s-type conduction band they differ by one, as was established earlier by Rashba (1960 Fiz. Tverd. Tela 2 1224), whereas for heavy holes in a p-type valence band influenced by the 2D symmetry of the layer they differ by three. The shifts and the rearrangements of the 2D hole Landau quantization levels on the energy scale are much larger in comparison with the case of conduction electron Landau levels. This is due to the strong influence of the magnetic field on the RSOC parameter. At sufficiently large values of this parameter the shifts and rearrangements are comparable with the hole cyclotron energy. There are two lowest spin-split Landau levels for electrons as well as four lowest ones for holes in the case of small RSOC parameters. They give rise to eight lowest energy bands of the 2D magnetoexcitons, as well as of the band-to-band quantum transitions. It is shown that three of them are dipole-active, three are quadrupole-active and two are forbidden. The optical orientation under the influence of circularly polarized light leads to optical alignment of the magnetoexcitons with different orbital momentum projections in the direction of the external magnetic field. (paper)

  11. Electron Cryomicroscopy of Membrane Proteins: Specimen Preparation for Two-Dimensional Crystals and Single Particles

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt-Krey, Ingeborg; Rubinstein, John L.

    2010-01-01

    Membrane protein structure and function can be studied by two powerful and highly complementary electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) methods: electron crystallography of two-dimensional (2D) crystals and single particle analysis of detergent-solubilized protein complexes. To obtain the highest-possible resolution data from membrane proteins, whether prepared as 2D crystals or single particles, cryo-EM samples must be vitrified with great care. Grid preparation for cryo-EM of 2D crystals is possi...

  12. 25th anniversary article: hybrid nanostructures based on two-dimensional nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao; Tan, Chaoliang; Yin, Zongyou; Zhang, Hua

    2014-04-09

    Two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials, such as graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), receive a lot of attention, because of their intriguing properties and wide applications in catalysis, energy-storage devices, electronics, optoelectronics, and so on. To further enhance the performance of their application, these 2D nanomaterials are hybridized with other functional nanostructures. In this review, the latest studies of 2D nanomaterial-based hybrid nanostructures are discussed, focusing on their preparation methods, properties, and applications.

  13. Electromagnetically induced two-dimensional grating assisted by incoherent pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yu-Yuan; Liu, Zhuan-Zhuan; Wan, Ren-Gang, E-mail: wrg@snnu.edu.cn

    2017-04-25

    We propose a scheme for realizing electromagnetically induced two-dimensional grating in a double-Λ system driven simultaneously by a coherent field and an incoherent pump field. In such an atomic configuration, the absorption is suppressed owing to the incoherent pumping process and the probe can be even amplified, while the refractivity is mainly attributed to the dynamically induced coherence. With the help of a standing-wave pattern coherent field, we obtain periodically modulated refractive index without or with gain, and therefore phase grating or gain-phase grating which diffracts a probe light into high-order direction efficiently can be formed in the medium via appropriate manipulation of the system parameters. The diffraction efficiency attainable by the present gratings can be controlled by tuning the coherent field intensity or the interaction length. Hence, the two-dimensional grating can be utilized as all-optical splitter or router in optical networking and communication. - Highlights: • Two-dimensional grating is coherently induced in four-level atoms. • Phase and gain-phase gratings are obtained assisted by incoherent pump. • The diffraction power is improved due to the enhanced refraction modulation. • The gratings can be utilized as multi-channel all-optical splitter and router.

  14. Perspectives for spintronics in 2D materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Han

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The past decade has been especially creative for spintronics since the (rediscovery of various two dimensional (2D materials. Due to the unusual physical characteristics, 2D materials have provided new platforms to probe the spin interaction with other degrees of freedom for electrons, as well as to be used for novel spintronics applications. This review briefly presents the most important recent and ongoing research for spintronics in 2D materials.

  15. On-stack two-dimensional conversion of MoS2 into MoO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeoung Ko, Taeg; Jeong, Areum; Kim, Wontaek; Lee, Jinhwan; Kim, Youngchan; Lee, Jung Eun; Ryu, Gyeong Hee; Park, Kwanghee; Kim, Dogyeong; Lee, Zonghoon; Lee, Min Hyung; Lee, Changgu; Ryu, Sunmin

    2017-03-01

    Chemical transformation of existing two-dimensional (2D) materials can be crucial in further expanding the 2D crystal palette required to realize various functional heterostructures. In this work, we demonstrate a 2D ‘on-stack’ chemical conversion of single-layer crystalline MoS2 into MoO3 with a precise layer control that enables truly 2D MoO3 and MoO3/MoS2 heterostructures. To minimize perturbation of the 2D morphology, a nonthermal oxidation using O2 plasma was employed. The early stage of the reaction was characterized by a defect-induced Raman peak, drastic quenching of photoluminescence (PL) signals and sub-nm protrusions in atomic force microscopy images. As the reaction proceeded from the uppermost layer to the buried layers, PL and optical second harmonic generation signals showed characteristic modulations revealing a layer-by-layer conversion. The plasma-generated 2D oxides, confirmed as MoO3 by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, were found to be amorphous but extremely flat with a surface roughness of 0.18 nm, comparable to that of 1L MoS2. The rate of oxidation quantified by Raman spectroscopy decreased very rapidly for buried sulfide layers due to protection by the surface 2D oxides, exhibiting a pseudo-self-limiting behavior. As exemplified in this work, various on-stack chemical transformations can be applied to other 2D materials in forming otherwise unobtainable materials and complex heterostructures, thus expanding the palette of 2D material building blocks.

  16. Incoherent broadband optical pulse generation using an optical gate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Biao Chen; Qiong Jiang

    2008-01-01

    In two-dimensional (2D) time-spreading/wavelength-hopping optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) systems, employing less coherent broadband optical pulse sources allows lower electrical operating rate and better system performance. An optical gate based scheme for generating weakly coherent(approximately incoherent) broadband optical pulses was proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Inthis scheme, the terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer, together with a coherent narrowband controlpulse source, turns an incoherent broadband continuous-wave (CW) light source into the required pulse source.

  17. Gate-induced superconductivity in two-dimensional atomic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Yu; Nojima, Tsutomu; Iwasa, Yoshihiro

    2016-09-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) crystals are attracting growing interest in condensed matter physics, since these systems exhibit not only rich electronic and photonic properties but also exotic electronic phase transitions including superconductivity and charge density wave. Moreover, owing to the recent development of transfer methods after exfoliation and electric-double-layer transistors, superconducting 2D atomic crystals, the thicknesses of which are below 1-2 nm, have been successfully obtained. Here, we present a topical review on the recent discoveries of 2D crystalline superconductors by ionic-liquid gating and a series of their novel properties. In particular, we highlight two topics; quantum metallic states (or possible metallic ground states) and superconductivity robust against in-plane magnetic fields. These phenomena can be discussed with the effects of weakened disorder and/or broken spacial inversion symmetry leading to valley-dependent spin-momentum locking (spin-valley locking). These examples suggest the superconducting 2D crystals are new platforms for investigating the intrinsic quantum phases as well as exotic nature in 2D superconductors.

  18. Band alignment of two-dimensional lateral heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junfeng; Xie, Weiyu; Zhao, Jijun; Zhang, Shengbai

    2017-03-01

    Recent experimental synthesis of two-dimensional (2D) heterostructures opens a door to new opportunities in tailoring the electronic properties for novel 2D devices. Here, we show that a wide range of lateral 2D heterostructures could have a prominent advantage over the traditional three-dimensional (3D) heterostructures, because their band alignments are insensitive to the interfacial conditions. They should be at the Schottky-Mott limits for semiconductor-metal junctions and at the Anderson limits for semiconductor junctions, respectively. This fundamental difference from the 3D heterostructures is rooted in the fact that, in the asymptotic limit of large distance, the effect of the interfacial dipole vanishes for 2D systems. Due to the slow decay of the dipole field and the dependence on the vacuum thickness, however, studies based on first-principles calculations often failed to reach such a conclusion. Taking graphene/hexagonal-BN and MoS2/WS2 lateral heterostructures as the respective prototypes, we show that the converged junction width can be order of magnitude longer than that for 3D junctions. The present results provide vital guidance to high-quality transport devices wherever a lateral 2D heterostructure is involved.

  19. Two-Dimensional Tail-Biting Convolutional Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Alfandary, Liam

    2011-01-01

    The multidimensional convolutional codes are an extension of the notion of convolutional codes (CCs) to several dimensions of time. This paper explores the class of two-dimensional convolutional codes (2D CCs) and 2D tail-biting convolutional codes (2D TBCCs), in particular, from several aspects. First, we derive several basic algebraic properties of these codes, applying algebraic methods in order to find bijective encoders, create parity check matrices and to inverse encoders. Next, we discuss the minimum distance and weight distribution properties of these codes. Extending an existing tree-search algorithm to two dimensions, we apply it to find codes with high minimum distance. Word-error probability asymptotes for sample codes are given and compared with other codes. The results of this approach suggest that 2D TBCCs can perform better than comparable 1D TBCCs or other codes. We then present several novel iterative suboptimal algorithms for soft decoding 2D CCs, which are based on belief propagation. Two ...

  20. Graphene/MoS2 hybrid technology for large-scale two-dimensional electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lili; Lee, Yi-Hsien; Ling, Xi; Santos, Elton J G; Shin, Yong Cheol; Lin, Yuxuan; Dubey, Madan; Kaxiras, Efthimios; Kong, Jing; Wang, Han; Palacios, Tomás

    2014-06-11

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials have generated great interest in the past few years as a new toolbox for electronics. This family of materials includes, among others, metallic graphene, semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides (such as MoS2), and insulating boron nitride. These materials and their heterostructures offer excellent mechanical flexibility, optical transparency, and favorable transport properties for realizing electronic, sensing, and optical systems on arbitrary surfaces. In this paper, we demonstrate a novel technology for constructing large-scale electronic systems based on graphene/molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) heterostructures grown by chemical vapor deposition. We have fabricated high-performance devices and circuits based on this heterostructure, where MoS2 is used as the transistor channel and graphene as contact electrodes and circuit interconnects. We provide a systematic comparison of the graphene/MoS2 heterojunction contact to more traditional MoS2-metal junctions, as well as a theoretical investigation, using density functional theory, of the origin of the Schottky barrier height. The tunability of the graphene work function with electrostatic doping significantly improves the ohmic contact to MoS2. These high-performance large-scale devices and circuits based on this 2D heterostructure pave the way for practical flexible transparent electronics.

  1. Holographic and time-resolving ability of pulse-pair two-dimensional velocity interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erskine, David J., E-mail: erskine1@llnl.gov; Smith, R. F.; Celliers, P. M.; Collins, G. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Bolme, C. A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Ali, S. J. [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Previous velocity interferometers used at research laboratories for shock physics experiments measured target motion at a point or many points on a line on the target. Recently, a two-dimensional (2d) version (2d-velocity interferometer system for any reflector) has been demonstrated using a pair of ultrashort (3 ps) pulses for illumination, separated by 268 ps. We have discovered new abilities for this instrument, by treating the complex output image as a hologram. For data taken in an out of focus configuration, we can Fourier process to bring narrow features such as cracks into sharp focus, which are otherwise completely blurred. This solves a practical problem when using high numerical aperture optics having narrow depth of field to observe moving surface features such as cracks. Furthermore, theory predicts that the target appearance (position and reflectivity) at two separate moments in time are recorded by the main and conjugate images of the same hologram, and are partially separable during analysis for narrow features. Hence, for the cracks we bring into refocus, we can make a two-frame movie with a subnanosecond frame period. Longer and shorter frame periods are possible with different interferometer delays. Since the megapixel optical detectors we use have superior spatial resolution over electronic beam based framing cameras, this technology could be of great use in studying microscopic three-dimensional-behavior of targets at ultrafast times scales. Demonstrations on shocked silicon are shown.

  2. Assessment of the Left Ventricular Systolic Function in Dilated Cardiomyopathy Patients by Two -dimensional Speckle Tracking Imaging( 2D - STI)%二维斑点追踪成像技术评价扩张型心肌病患者左心室心肌纵向收缩功能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄俊; 胡元平; 宋樟伟; 杨炜宇; 徐瑞; 倪显达

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the left ventricular systolic function in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy ( DCM ) . Methods 35 healthy subjects and 39 dilated cardiomyopathy patients underwent conventional echocardiography examination. Left atrial ( LA) diameter were measured by M - mode echocardiography, left ventricular( LV) end - systolic volume, end - diastolic volume and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were calculated by bi -plane Simpson's method. The peak velocity during early diastole(Ve) and late diastole (Va) of anterior mitral valve were measured by pulse -waved doppler, and the ratio Ve/Va was calculated. We acquired the apical four - chamber, two - chamber and the long - axis views of the left ventricular images in these patients with GE - Vivid7 - dimension. Then the peak longitudinal velocity, strain and strain rate in systolic period were measured and recorded. Results The values of LAD, LVESV and LVEDV in DCM patients were significantly higher than those of healthy subjects (P 0. 05 ) . The peak velocity in systolic period of the base and middle LV segments in DCM patients were lower than those of the healthy subjects (P < 0. 05). The peak longitudinal strain and strain rate were significantly lower than healthy subjects (P < 0. 01). The peak velocity of the healthy subjects and the DCM patients were descent from the base to the apex. Conclusion The peak velocity, stain and strain rate of regional myocardial function in long - axis of left ventricular can be analyzed by 2D - STI, and it is a feasible technique for the assessment of cardiac longitudinal systolic function in DCM patients, and it can be widely used in the cardiac examination.%目的 评价二维斑点追踪成像技术(2D - STI)在扩张型心肌病(dilated cardiomyopathy,DCM)患者的左心室心肌纵向收缩功能应用价值.方法 对39例DCM患者和35例正常对照组行常规超声心动图检查得到左心房内径(LAD)、左心室射血分数(LVEF)、过二尖瓣口

  3. Interpolation by two-dimensional cubic convolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiazheng; Reichenbach, Stephen E.

    2003-08-01

    This paper presents results of image interpolation with an improved method for two-dimensional cubic convolution. Convolution with a piecewise cubic is one of the most popular methods for image reconstruction, but the traditional approach uses a separable two-dimensional convolution kernel that is based on a one-dimensional derivation. The traditional, separable method is sub-optimal for the usual case of non-separable images. The improved method in this paper implements the most general non-separable, two-dimensional, piecewise-cubic interpolator with constraints for symmetry, continuity, and smoothness. The improved method of two-dimensional cubic convolution has three parameters that can be tuned to yield maximal fidelity for specific scene ensembles characterized by autocorrelation or power-spectrum. This paper illustrates examples for several scene models (a circular disk of parametric size, a square pulse with parametric rotation, and a Markov random field with parametric spatial detail) and actual images -- presenting the optimal parameters and the resulting fidelity for each model. In these examples, improved two-dimensional cubic convolution is superior to several other popular small-kernel interpolation methods.

  4. Epi-two-dimensional flow and generalized enstrophy

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshida, Zensho

    2016-01-01

    The conservation of the enstrophy ($L^2$ norm of the vorticity $\\omega$) plays an essential role in the physics and mathematics of two-dimensional (2D) Euler fluids. Generalizing to compressible ideal (inviscid and barotropic) fluids, the generalized enstrophy $\\int_{\\Sigma(t)} f(\\omega/\\rho)\\rho\\, d^2 x$, ($f$ an arbitrary smooth function, $\\rho$ the density, and $\\Sigma(t)$ an arbitrary 2D domain co-moving with the fluid) is a constant of motion, and plays the same role. On the other hand, for the three-dimensional (3D) ideal fluid, the helicity $\\int_{M} {V}\\cdot\\omega\\,d^3x$, ($V$ the flow velocity, $\\omega=\

  5. Two-dimensional atom localization induced by a squeezed vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Xu, Jun

    2016-10-01

    A scheme of two-dimensional (2D) atom localization induced by a squeezed vacuum is proposed, in which the three-level V-type atoms interact with two classical standing-wave fields. It is found that when the environment is changed from an ordinary vacuum to a squeezed vacuum, the 2D atom localization is realized by detecting the position-dependent resonance fluorescence spectrum. For comparison, we demonstrate that the atom localization originating from the quantum interference effect is distinct from that induced by a squeezed vacuum. Furthermore, the combined effects of the squeezed vacuum and quantum interference are also discussed under appropriate conditions. The internal physical mechanism is analyzed in terms of dressed-state representation. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11574179 and 11204099) and the Natural Science Foundation of Hubei Province, China (Grant No. 2014CFC1148).

  6. Oriented Two-Dimensional Porous Organic Cage Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shan; Song, Qilei; Massey, Alan; Chong, Samantha Y; Chen, Linjiang; Sun, Shijing; Hasell, Tom; Raval, Rasmita; Sivaniah, Easan; Cheetham, Anthony K; Cooper, Andrew I

    2017-08-01

    The formation of two-dimensional (2D) oriented porous organic cage crystals (consisting of imine-based tetrahedral molecules) on various substrates (such as silicon wafers and glass) by solution-processing is reported. Insight into the crystallinity, preferred orientation, and cage crystal growth was obtained by experimental and computational techniques. For the first time, structural defects in porous molecular materials were observed directly and the defect concentration could be correlated with crystal growth rate. These oriented crystals suggest potential for future applications, such as solution-processable molecular crystalline 2D membranes for molecular separations. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  7. Thermal conductivity of disordered two-dimensional binary alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yang; Guo, Zhi-Xin; Cao, Hai-Yuan; Chen, Shi-You; Xiang, Hong-Jun; Gong, Xin-Gao

    2016-10-20

    Using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, we have studied the effect of disorder on the thermal conductivity of two-dimensional (2D) C1-xNx alloys. We find that the thermal conductivity not only depends on the substitution concentration of nitrogen, but also strongly depends on the disorder distribution. A general linear relationship is revealed between the thermal conductivity and the participation ratio of phonons in 2D alloys. Localization mode analysis further indicates that the thermal conductivity variation in the ordered alloys can be attributed to the number of inequivalent atoms. As for the disordered alloys, we find that the thermal conductivity variation can be described by a simple linear formula with the disorder degree and the substitution concentration. The present study suggests some general guidance for phonon manipulation and thermal engineering in low dimensional alloys.

  8. Two-dimensional random arrays for real time volumetric imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Richard E.; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Smith, Stephen W.

    1994-01-01

    Two-dimensional arrays are necessary for a variety of ultrasonic imaging techniques, including elevation focusing, 2-D phase aberration correction, and real time volumetric imaging. In order to reduce system cost and complexity, sparse 2-D arrays have been considered with element geometries...... real time volumetric imaging system, which employs a wide transmit beam and receive mode parallel processing to increase image frame rate. Depth-of-field comparisons were made from simulated on-axis and off-axis beamplots at ranges from 30 to 160 mm for both coaxial and offset transmit and receive...... selected ad hoc, by algorithm, or by random process. Two random sparse array geometries and a sparse array with a Mills cross receive pattern were simulated and compared to a fully sampled aperture with the same overall dimensions. The sparse arrays were designed to the constraints of the Duke University...

  9. Design of two-dimensional digital filters using neural networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xiaohua; He Yigang

    2005-01-01

    A new approach for the design of two-dimensional (2-D) linear phase FIR digital filters based on a new neural networks algorithm (NNA) is provided. A compact expression for the transfer function of a 2-D linear phase FIR filter is derived based on its frequency response characteristic, and the NNA, based on minimizing the square-error in the frequency-domain, is established according to the compact expression. To illustrate the stability of the NNA, the convergence theorem is presented and proved. Design examples are also given, and the results show that the ripple is considerably small in passband and stopband, and the NNA-based method is of powerful stability and requires quite little amount of computations.

  10. Two-dimensional spatial patterning in developmental systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torii, Keiko U

    2012-08-01

    Multicellular organisms produce complex tissues with specialized cell types. During animal development, numerous cell-cell interactions shape tissue patterning through mechanisms involving contact-dependent cell migration and ligand-receptor-mediated lateral inhibition. Owing to the presence of cell walls, plant cells neither migrate nor undergo apoptosis as a means to correct for mis-specified cells. How can plants generate functional tissue patterns? This review aims to deduce fundamental principles of pattern formation through examining two-dimensional (2-D) spatial tissue patterning in plants and animals. Turing's mathematical framework will be introduced and applied to classic examples of de novo 2-D patterning in both animal and plant systems. By comparing their regulatory circuits, new insights into the similarities and differences of the basic principles governing tissue patterning will be discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Ultrabroadband two-quantum two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellen, Tobias A.; Bizimana, Laurie A.; Carbery, William P.; Breen, Ilana; Turner, Daniel B.

    2016-08-01

    A recent theoretical study proposed that two-quantum (2Q) two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectroscopy should be a background-free probe of post-Hartree-Fock electronic correlations. Testing this theoretical prediction requires an instrument capable of not only detecting multiple transitions among molecular excited states but also distinguishing molecular 2Q signals from nonresonant response. Herein we describe a 2Q 2D spectrometer with a spectral range of 300 nm that is passively phase stable and uses only beamsplitters and mirrors. We developed and implemented a dual-chopping balanced-detection method to resolve the weak molecular 2Q signals. Experiments performed on cresyl violet perchlorate and rhodamine 6G revealed distinct 2Q signals convolved with nonresonant response. Density functional theory computations helped reveal the molecular origin of these signals. The experimental and computational results demonstrate that 2Q electronic spectra can provide a singular probe of highly excited electronic states.

  12. Two-Dimensional Hexagonal Transition-Metal Oxide for Spintronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Erjun; Li, Ming; Hu, Shuanglin; Xiao, Chuanyun; Xiang, Hongjun; Deng, Kaiming

    2013-04-04

    Two-dimensional materials have been the hot subject of studies due to their great potential in applications. However, their applications in spintronics have been blocked by the difficulty in producing ordered spin structures in 2D structures. Here we demonstrated that the ultrathin films of recently experimentally realized wurtzite MnO can automatically transform into a stable graphitic structure with ordered spin arrangement via density functional calculation, and the stability of graphitic structure can be enhanced by external strain. Moreover, the antiferromagnetic ordering of graphitic MnO single layer can be switched into half-metallic ferromagnetism by small hole-doping, and the estimated Curie temperature is higher than 300 K. Thus, our results highlight a promising way toward 2D magnetic materials.

  13. Review—Two-Dimensional Layered Materials for Energy Storage Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Pushpendra

    2016-07-02

    Rechargeable batteries are most important energy storage devices in modern society with the rapid development and increasing demand for handy electronic devices and electric vehicles. The higher surface-to-volume ratio two-dimensional (2D) materials, especially transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) and transition metal carbide/nitrite generally referred as MXene, have attracted intensive research activities due to their fascinating physical/chemical properties with extensive applications. One of the growing applications is to use these 2D materials as potential electrodes for rechargeable batteries and electrochemical capacitors. This review is an attempt to summarize the research and development of TMDCs, MXenes and their hybrid structures in energy storage systems. (C) The Author(s) 2016. Published by ECS. All rights reserved.

  14. TWO-DIMENSIONAL TOPOLOGY OF COSMOLOGICAL REIONIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yougang; Xu, Yidong; Chen, Xuelei [Key Laboratory of Computational Astrophysics, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100012 China (China); Park, Changbom [School of Physics, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, 85 Hoegiro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Juhan, E-mail: wangyg@bao.ac.cn, E-mail: cbp@kias.re.kr [Center for Advanced Computation, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, 85 Hoegiro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-20

    We study the two-dimensional topology of the 21-cm differential brightness temperature for two hydrodynamic radiative transfer simulations and two semi-numerical models. In each model, we calculate the two-dimensional genus curve for the early, middle, and late epochs of reionization. It is found that the genus curve depends strongly on the ionized fraction of hydrogen in each model. The genus curves are significantly different for different reionization scenarios even when the ionized faction is the same. We find that the two-dimensional topology analysis method is a useful tool to constrain the reionization models. Our method can be applied to the future observations such as those of the Square Kilometre Array.

  15. Two dimensional topology of cosmological reionization

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yougang; Xu, Yidong; Chen, Xuelei; Kim, Juhan

    2015-01-01

    We study the two-dimensional topology of the 21-cm differential brightness temperature for two hydrodynamic radiative transfer simulations and two semi-numerical models. In each model, we calculate the two dimensional genus curve for the early, middle and late epochs of reionization. It is found that the genus curve depends strongly on the ionized fraction of hydrogen in each model. The genus curves are significantly different for different reionization scenarios even when the ionized faction is the same. We find that the two-dimensional topology analysis method is a useful tool to constrain the reionization models. Our method can be applied to the future observations such as those of the Square Kilometer Array.

  16. On final states of two-dimensional decaying turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Z.

    2004-12-01

    Numerical and analytical studies of final states of two-dimensional (2D) decaying turbulence are carried out. The first part of this work is trying to give a definition for final states of 2D decaying turbulence. The functional relation of ω-ψ, which is frequently adopted as the characterization of those final states, is merely a sufficient but not necessary condition; moreover, it is not proper to use it as the definition. It is found that the method through the value of the effective area S covered by the scatter ω-ψ plot, initially suggested by Read, Rhines, and White ["Geostrophic scatter diagrams and potential vorticity dynamics," J. Atmos. Sci. 43, 3226 (1986)] is more general and suitable for the definition. Based on this concept, a definition is presented, which covers all existing results in late states of decaying 2D flows (including some previous unexplainable weird double-valued ω-ψ scatter plots). The remaining part of the paper is trying to further study 2D decaying turbulence with the assistance of this definition. Some numerical results, leading to "bar" final states and further verifying the predictive ability of statistical mechanics [Yin, Montgomery, and Clercx, "Alternative statistical-mechanical descriptions of decaying two-dimensional turbulence in terms of patches and points," Phys. Fluids 15, 1937 (2003)], are reported. It is realized that some simulations with narrow-band energy spectral initial conditions result in some final states that cannot be very well interpreted by the statistical theory (meanwhile, those final states are still in the scope of the definition).

  17. Materials synthesis: Two-dimensional gallium nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koratkar, Nikhil A.

    2016-11-01

    Graphene is used as a capping sheet to synthesize 2D gallium nitride by means of migration-enhanced encapsulation growth. This technique may allow the stabilization of 2D materials that are not amenable to synthesis by traditional methods.

  18. Atom-Based Geometrical Fingerprinting of Conformal Two-Dimensional Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehboudi, Mehrshad

    The shape of two-dimensional materials plays a significant role on their chemical and physical properties. Two-dimensional materials are basic meshes that are formed by mesh points (vertices) given by atomic positions, and connecting lines (edges) between points given by chemical bonds. Therefore the study of local shape and geometry of two-dimensional materials is a fundamental prerequisite to investigate physical and chemical properties. Hereby the use of discrete geometry to discuss the shape of two-dimensional materials is initiated. The local geometry of a surface embodied in 3D space is determined using four invariant numbers from the metric and curvature tensors which indicates how much the surface is stretched and curved under a deformation as compared to a reference pre-deformed conformation. Many different disciplines advance theories on conformal two-dimensional materials by relying on continuum mechanics and fitting continuum surfaces to the shape of conformal two-dimensional materials. However two-dimensional materials are inherently discrete. The continuum models are only applicable when the size of two-dimensional materials is significantly large and the deformation is less than a few percent. In this research, the knowledge of discrete differential geometry was used to tell the local shape of conformal two-dimensional materials. Three kind of two-dimensional materials are discussed: 1) one atom thickness structures such as graphene and hexagonal boron nitride; 2) high and low buckled 2D meshes like stanene, leadene, aluminum phosphate; and, 3) multi layer 2D materials such as Bi2Se3 and WSe2. The lattice structures of these materials were created by designing a mechanical model - the mechanical model was devised in the form of a Gaussian bump and density-functional theory was used to inform the local height; and, the local geometries are also discussed.

  19. Image interpolation by two-dimensional parametric cubic convolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiazheng; Reichenbach, Stephen E

    2006-07-01

    Cubic convolution is a popular method for image interpolation. Traditionally, the piecewise-cubic kernel has been derived in one dimension with one parameter and applied to two-dimensional (2-D) images in a separable fashion. However, images typically are statistically nonseparable, which motivates this investigation of nonseparable cubic convolution. This paper derives two new nonseparable, 2-D cubic-convolution kernels. The first kernel, with three parameters (designated 2D-3PCC), is the most general 2-D, piecewise-cubic interpolator defined on [-2, 2] x [-2, 2] with constraints for biaxial symmetry, diagonal (or 90 degrees rotational) symmetry, continuity, and smoothness. The second kernel, with five parameters (designated 2D-5PCC), relaxes the constraint of diagonal symmetry, based on the observation that many images have rotationally asymmetric statistical properties. This paper also develops a closed-form solution for determining the optimal parameter values for parametric cubic-convolution kernels with respect to ensembles of scenes characterized by autocorrelation (or power spectrum). This solution establishes a practical foundation for adaptive interpolation based on local autocorrelation estimates. Quantitative fidelity analyses and visual experiments indicate that these new methods can outperform several popular interpolation methods. An analysis of the error budgets for reconstruction error associated with blurring and aliasing illustrates that the methods improve interpolation fidelity for images with aliased components. For images with little or no aliasing, the methods yield results similar to other popular methods. Both 2D-3PCC and 2D-5PCC are low-order polynomials with small spatial support and so are easy to implement and efficient to apply.

  20. Two-dimensional electromagnetically induced grating via gain and phase modulation in a two-level system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Guang-Ling; Cong, Lu; Chen, Ai-Xi

    2016-04-01

    A scheme for two-dimensional (2D) electromagnetically induced grating via spatial gain and phase modulation is presented in a two-level atomic system. Based on the interactions of two orthogonal standing-wave fields, the atom could diffract the weak probe beam into high-order directions and a 2D diffraction grating is generated. It is shown that the diffraction efficiency of the grating can be efficiently manipulated by controlling the Rabi frequencies of control fields, the detunings of the control and probe fields, and interaction length. Different from 2D cross-grating via electromagnetically induced transparency in a four-level atomic system, the present scheme results from the spatial modulation of gain and phase in a simple two-level system, which could lead to 2D gain-phase grating with larger diffraction intensities in the diffraction directions. The studies we present may have potential applications in developing photon devices for optical-switching, optical imaging and quantum information processing.

  1. Matching Two-dimensional Gel Electrophoresis' Spots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dos Anjos, António; AL-Tam, Faroq; Shahbazkia, Hamid Reza

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an approach for matching Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis (2-DE) gels' spots, involving the use of image registration. The number of false positive matches produced by the proposed approach is small, when compared to academic and commercial state-of-the-art approaches. This ar......This paper describes an approach for matching Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis (2-DE) gels' spots, involving the use of image registration. The number of false positive matches produced by the proposed approach is small, when compared to academic and commercial state-of-the-art approaches...

  2. Mobility anisotropy of two-dimensional semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Haifeng; Zhang, Shuqing; Liu, Zhirong

    2016-12-01

    The carrier mobility of anisotropic two-dimensional semiconductors under longitudinal acoustic phonon scattering was theoretically studied using deformation potential theory. Based on the Boltzmann equation with the relaxation time approximation, an analytic formula of intrinsic anisotropic mobility was derived, showing that the influence of effective mass on mobility anisotropy is larger than those of deformation potential constant or elastic modulus. Parameters were collected for various anisotropic two-dimensional materials (black phosphorus, Hittorf's phosphorus, BC2N , MXene, TiS3, and GeCH3) to calculate their mobility anisotropy. It was revealed that the anisotropic ratio is overestimated by the previously described method.

  3. Towards two-dimensional search engines

    OpenAIRE

    Ermann, Leonardo; Chepelianskii, Alexei D.; Shepelyansky, Dima L.

    2011-01-01

    We study the statistical properties of various directed networks using ranking of their nodes based on the dominant vectors of the Google matrix known as PageRank and CheiRank. On average PageRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of ingoing links, while CheiRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of outgoing links. In this way the ranking of nodes becomes two-dimensional that paves the way for development of two-dimensional search engines of new type. Statistical properties of inf...

  4. The two dimensional fold test in paleomagnetism using ipython notebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiabudidaya, Dedi; Piper, John D. A.

    2016-01-01

    One aspect of paleomagnetic analysis prone to controversy is the result of the fold test used to evaluate the age of a magnetisation component relative to the age of a structural event. Initially, the fold test was conducted by comparing the Fisherian precision parameter (k) to results from different limbs of a fold structure before and after tilt adjustment. To accommodate synfolding magnetisation, the tilt correction can be performed in stepwise fashion to both limbs simultaneously, here called one dimensional (1D) fold test. The two dimensional (2D) fold test described in this paper is carried out by applying stepwise tilt adjustment to each limb of the fold separately. The rationale for this is that tilts observed on contrasting limbs of deformed structure may not be synchronous or even belong to the same episode of deformation. A program for the procedure is presented here which generates two dimensional values of the k-parameter visually presented in contoured form. The use of ipython notebook enables this 2D fold test to be performed interactively and yield a more precise evaluation than the primitive 1D fold test.

  5. Comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatographic analysis of poloxamers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Muhammad Imran; Lee, Sanghoon; Chang, Taihyun

    2016-04-15

    Poloxamers are low molar mass triblock copolymers of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(propylene oxide) (PPO), having number of applications as non-ionic surfactants. Comprehensive one and two-dimensional liquid chromatographic (LC) analysis of these materials is proposed in this study. The separation of oligomers of both types (PEO and PPO) is demonstrated for several commercial poloxamers. This is accomplished at the critical conditions for one of the block while interaction for the other block. Reversed phase LC at CAP of PEO allowed for oligomeric separation of triblock copolymers with regard to PPO block whereas normal phase LC at CAP of PPO renders oligomeric separation with respect to PEO block. The oligomeric separation with regard to PEO and PPO are coupled online (comprehensive 2D-LC) to reveal two-dimensional contour plots by unconventional 2D IC×IC (interaction chromatography) coupling. The study provides chemical composition mapping of both PEO and PPO, equivalent to combined molar mass and chemical composition mapping for several commercial poloxamers.

  6. Wannier-Stark electro-optical effect, quasi-guided and photonic modes in 2D macroporous silicon structures with SiO2 coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karachevtseva, L.; Goltviansky, Yu.; Sapelnikova, O.; Lytvynenko, O.; Stronska, O.; Bo, Wang; Kartel, M.

    2016-12-01

    Opportunities to enhance the properties of structured surfaces were demonstrated on 2D macroporous silicon structures with SiO2 coatings. We investigated the IR light absorption oscillations in macroporous silicon structures with SiO2 coatings 0-800 nm thick. The Wannier-Stark electro-optical effect due to strong electric field on Si-SiO2boundary and an additional electric field of quasi-guided optical modes were taken into account. The photonic modes and band gaps were also considered as peculiarities in absorbance spectra of macroporous silicon structures with a thick SiO2 coating. The photonic modes do not coincide with the quasi-guided modes in the silicon matrix and do not appear in absorption spectra of 2D macroporous silicon structures with surface nanocrystals.

  7. Photodetectors Based on Two-Dimensional Layer-Structured Hybrid Lead Iodide Perovskite Semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiachen; Chu, Yingli; Huang, Jia

    2016-10-05

    Hybrid lead iodide perovskite semiconductors have attracted intense research interests recently because of their easy fabrication processes and high power conversion efficiencies in photovoltaic applications. Layer-structured materials have interesting properties such as quantum confinement effect and tunable band gap due to the unique two-dimensional crystalline structures. ⟨100⟩-oriented layer-structured perovskite materials are inherited from three-dimensional ABX3 perovskite materials with a generalized formula of (RNH3)2(CH3NH3)n-1MnX3n+1, and adopt the Ruddlesden-Popper type crystalline structure. Here we report the synthesis and investigation of three layer-structured perovskite materials with different layer numbers: (C4H9NH3)2PbI4 (n = 1, one-layered perovskite), (C4H9NH3)2(CH3NH3)Pb2I7 (n = 2, two-layered perovskite) and (C4H9NH3)2(CH3NH3)2Pb3I10 (n = 3, three-layered perovskite). Their photoelectronic properties were investigated in related to their molecular structures. Photodetectors based on these two-dimensional (2D) layer-structured perovskite materials showed tunable photoresponse with short response time in milliseconds. The photodetectors based on three-layered perovskite showed better performances than those of the other two devices, in terms of output current, responsivity, Ilight/Idark ratio, and response time, because of its smaller optical band gap and more condensed microstructure comparing the other two materials. These results revealed the relationship between the molecular structures, film microstructures and the photoresponse properties of 2D layer-structured hybrid perovskites, and demonstrated their potentials as flexible, functional, and tunable semiconductors in optoelectronic applications, by taking advantage of their tunable quantum well molecular structure.

  8. 二维氧化锌纳米阵列的制备及光学吸收特性研究%Research on the Preparation and Optical Absorption Properties of Two-Dimensional ZnO Array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔璐; 朱亚彬; 徐浩

    2014-01-01

    采用漂移法,在玻璃衬底上制备出粒径分别为117,350和500 nm单层、大面积的聚苯乙烯胶体球掩膜板,在已制得的掩膜板上用射频磁控溅射的方法沉积一层氧化锌薄膜,最后用有机溶液四氢呋喃(THF)浸泡去除聚苯乙烯胶体球,获得不同粒径的二维氧化锌纳米团簇。通过扫描电子显微镜和能量色散X射线光谱仪对样品的形貌及成份进行表征,表明所制得样品为有序分布的蜂窝网状氧化锌纳米阵列。在室温下,通过吸收光谱仪测试样品在300~800 nm波长范围内的吸收光谱,结果表明对于具有不同尺寸晶粒的氧化锌纳米团簇样品,随着所采用的聚苯乙烯胶体球粒径的增大,即氧化锌纳米团簇粒径的增加,光吸收峰出现了宽化和红移;随着溅射时间的延长,即氧化锌薄膜膜厚的增加,光吸收率提高。此外,对氧化锌纳米团簇阵列的光吸收特性进行了基于离散偶极子近似的理论计算从而获得任意形状和尺寸粒子的吸收。目前,文献报道中用此理论计算各种形状的纳米金、银等金属的结果与实验结果相符,但是应用离散偶极子的近似理论计算氧化锌纳米颗粒的报道很少。应用此理论计算三角棱台形状的氧化锌光学吸收特性,根据氧化锌薄膜介电常数和膜厚的变化进行光吸收特性的模拟,并解释了实验结果。%The present paper’s main work is firstly preparing a single layer and a large area polystyrene microspheres mask,with 117,350 and 500 nm in diameter,and then depositing a layer of zinc oxide thin film on the mask board by RF magnetron sputte-ring technique,using nanospheres lithography technique to remove the polystyrene spheres by soaking with tetrahydrofuran,and two-dimensional zinc oxide nano-array samples were obtained at last.The samples were characterized on the morphology and composition by scanning electron microscopy

  9. Two-dimensional artificial light-harvesting antennae with predesigned high-order structure and robust photosensitising activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiao; Ding, Xuesong; Chen, Long; Wu, Yang; Liu, Lili; Addicoat, Matthew; Irle, Stephan; Dong, Yuping; Jiang, Donglin

    2016-09-01

    Highly ordered discrete assemblies of chlorophylls that are found in natural light-harvesting antennae are key to photosynthesis, which converts light energy to chemical energy and is the principal producer of organic matter on Earth. Porphyrins and phthalocyanines, which are analogues of chlorophylls, exhibit a strong absorbance of visible and near-infrared light, respectively. A highly ordered porphyrin-co-phthalocyanine antennae would harvest photons over the entire solar spectrum for chemical transformation. However, such a robust antennae has not yet been synthesised. Herein, we report a strategy that merges covalent bonds and noncovalent forces to produce highly ordered two-dimensional porphyrin-co-phthalocyanine antennae. This methodology enables control over the stoichiometry and order of the porphyrin and phthalocyanine units; more importantly, this approach is compatible with various metalloporphyrin and metallophthalocyanine derivatives and thus may lead to the generation of a broad structural diversity of two-dimensional artificial antennae. These ordered porphyrin-co-phthalocyanine two-dimensional antennae exhibit unique optical properties and catalytic functions that are not available with single-component or non-structured materials. These 2D artificial antennae exhibit exceptional light-harvesting capacity over the entire solar spectrum as a result of a synergistic light-absorption effect. In addition, they exhibit outstanding photosensitising activities in using both visible and near-infrared photons for producing singlet oxygen.

  10. The CU 2-D-MAX-DOAS instrument – Part 2: Raman scattering probability measurements and retrieval of aerosol optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, Ivan; Coburn, Sean; Berg, Larry K.; Lantz, Kathy; Michalsky, Joseph; Ferrare, Richard A.; Hair, Johnathan W.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Volkamer, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    The multiannual global mean of aerosol optical depth at 550 nm (AOD550) over land is ~0.19, and that over oceans is ~0.13. About 45 % of the Earth surface shows AOD550 smaller than 0.1. There is a need for measurement techniques that are optimized to measure aerosol optical properties under low AOD conditions. We present an inherently calibrated retrieval (i.e., no need for radiance calibration) to simultaneously measure AOD and the aerosol phase function parameter, g, based on measurements of azimuth distributions of the Raman scattering probability (RSP), the near-absolute rotational Raman scattering (RRS) intensity. We employ radiative transfer model simulations to show that for solar azimuth RSP measurements at solar elevation and solar zenith angle (SZA) smaller than 80°, RSP is insensitive to the vertical distribution of aerosols and maximally sensitive to changes in AOD and g under near-molecular scattering conditions. The University of Colorado two-dimensional Multi-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (CU 2-D-MAX-DOAS) instrument was deployed as part of the Two Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) at Cape Cod, MA, during the summer of 2012 to measure direct sun spectra and RSP from scattered light spectra at solar relative azimuth angles (SRAAs) between 5 and 170°. During two case study days with (1) high aerosol load (17 July, 0.3 < AOD430 < 0.6) and (2) near-molecular scattering conditions (22 July, AOD430 < 0.13) we compare RSP-based retrievals of AOD430 and g with data from a co-located CIMEL sun photometer, Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR), and an airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL-2). The average difference (relative to DOAS) for AOD430 is +0.012 ± 0.023 (CIMEL), -0.012 ± 0.024 (MFRSR), -0.011 ± 0.014 (HSRL-2), and +0.023 ± 0.013 (CIMELAOD - MFRSRAOD) and yields the following

  11. Kronecker Product of Two-dimensional Arrays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Hu

    2006-01-01

    Kronecker sequences constructed from short sequences are good sequences for spread spectrum communication systems. In this paper we study a similar problem for two-dimensional arrays, and we determine the linear complexity of the Kronecker product of two arrays. Our result shows that similar good property on linear complexity holds for Kronecker product of arrays.

  12. Two-Dimensional Toda-Heisenberg Lattice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim E. Vekslerchik

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We consider a nonlinear model that is a combination of the anisotropic two-dimensional classical Heisenberg and Toda-like lattices. In the framework of the Hirota direct approach, we present the field equations of this model as a bilinear system, which is closely related to the Ablowitz-Ladik hierarchy, and derive its N-soliton solutions.

  13. A novel two dimensional particle velocity sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pjetri, Olti; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lammerink, Theo S.; Krijnen, Gijs J.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a two wire, two-dimensional particle velocity sensor. The miniature sensor of size 1.0x2.5x0.525 mm, consisting of only two crossed wires, shows excellent directional sensitivity in both directions, thus requiring no directivity calibration, and is relatively easy to fabrica

  14. Two-dimensional microstrip detector for neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oed, A. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1997-04-01

    Because of their robust design, gas microstrip detectors, which were developed at ILL, can be assembled relatively quickly, provided the prefabricated components are available. At the beginning of 1996, orders were received for the construction of three two-dimensional neutron detectors. These detectors have been completed. The detectors are outlined below. (author). 2 refs.

  15. Two-dimensional magma-repository interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhove, O.

    2001-01-01

    Two-dimensional simulations of magma-repository interactions reveal that the three phases --a shock tube, shock reflection and amplification, and shock attenuation and decay phase-- in a one-dimensional flow tube model have a precursor. This newly identified phase ``zero'' consists of the impact of

  16. Performance Estimation for Two-Dimensional Brownian Rotary Ratchet Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutu, Hiroki; Horita, Takehiko; Ouchi, Katsuya

    2015-04-01

    Within the context of the Brownian ratchet model, a molecular rotary system that can perform unidirectional rotations induced by linearly polarized ac fields and produce positive work under loads was studied. The model is based on the Langevin equation for a particle in a two-dimensional (2D) three-tooth ratchet potential of threefold symmetry. The performance of the system is characterized by the coercive torque, i.e., the strength of the load competing with the torque induced by the ac driving field, and the energy efficiency in force conversion from the driving field to the torque. We propose a master equation for coarse-grained states, which takes into account the boundary motion between states, and develop a kinetic description to estimate the mean angular momentum (MAM) and powers relevant to the energy balance equation. The framework of analysis incorporates several 2D characteristics and is applicable to a wide class of models of smooth 2D ratchet potential. We confirm that the obtained expressions for MAM, power, and efficiency of the model can enable us to predict qualitative behaviors. We also discuss the usefulness of the torque/power relationship for experimental analyses, and propose a characteristic for 2D ratchet systems.

  17. Filtering and control for classes of two-dimensional systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Ligang

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on filtering, control and model-reduction problems for two-dimensional (2-D) systems with imperfect information. The time-delayed 2-D systems covered have system parameters subject to uncertain, stochastic and parameter-varying changes. After an initial introduction of 2-D systems and the ideas of linear repetitive processes, the text is divided into two parts detailing: ·         general theory and methods of analysis and optimal synthesis for 2-D systems; and ·         application of the general theory to the particular case of differential/discrete linear repetitive processes. The methods developed provide a framework for stability and performance analysis, optimal and robust controller and filter design and model approximation for the systems considered. Solutions to the design problems are couched in terms of linear matrix inequalities. For readers interested in the state of the art in linear filtering, control and model reduction, Filtering and Control for Classes of ...

  18. Two-dimensional state in driven magnetohydrodynamic turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigot, Barbara; Galtier, Sébastien

    2011-02-01

    The dynamics of the two-dimensional (2D) state in driven three-dimensional (3D) incompressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence is investigated through high-resolution direct numerical simulations and in the presence of an external magnetic field at various intensities. For such a flow the 2D state (or slow mode) and the 3D modes correspond, respectively, to spectral fluctuations in the plane k(∥)=0 and in the area k(∥)>0. It is shown that if initially the 2D state is set to zero it becomes nonnegligible in few turnover times, particularly when the external magnetic field is strong. The maintenance of a large-scale driving leads to a break for the energy spectra of 3D modes; when the driving is stopped, the previous break is removed and a decay phase emerges with Alfvénic fluctuations. For a strong external magnetic field the energy at large perpendicular scales lies mainly in the 2D state, and in all situations a pinning effect is observed at small scales.

  19. Two dimensional electron spin resonance: Structure and dynamics of biomolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Sunil; Freed, Jack H.

    1998-03-01

    The potential of two dimensional (2D) electron spin resonance (ESR) for measuring the structural properties and slow dynamics of labeled biomolecules will be presented. Specifically, it will be shown how the recently developed method of double quantum (DQ) 2D ESR (S. Saxena and J. H. Freed, J. Chem. Phys. 107), 1317, (1997) can be used to measure large interelectron distances in bilabeled peptides. The need for DQ ESR spectroscopy, as well as the challenges and advantages of this method will be discussed. The elucidation of the slow reorientational dynamics of this peptide (S. Saxena and J. H. Freed, J. Phys. Chem. A, 101) 7998 (1997) in a glassy medium using COSY and 2D ELDOR ESR spectroscopy will be demonstrated. The contributions to the homogeneous relaxation time, T_2, from the overall and/or internal rotations of the nitroxide can be distinguished from the COSY spectrum. The growth of spectral diffusion cross-peaks^2 with mixing time in the 2D ELDOR spectra can be used to directly determine a correlation time from the experiment which can be related to the rotational correlation time.

  20. Low-cost two-dimensional gel densitometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, R M; Maytin, E V; Young, D A

    1986-11-01

    A major obstacle to full utilization of the powerful technique of two-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis is the expense and complexity of quantifying the results. Using an analog-to-digital converter already present in the widely available Commodore 64 or Commodore 128 microcomputer, we have developed a 2-D gel densitometer (GELSCAN) which adds only $20.00 to the cost of the Commodore system (currently around $700.00). The system is designed to work with autoradiograms of 2-D gels. Spots of interest are identified visually and then positioned manually over a light source. A pinhole photoelectric sensor mounted in a hand-held, Plexiglas holder, or "mouse," is briefly rubbed over each spot. Maximum density of the spot is determined and its value is converted to counts per minute via an internal calibration curve which corrects for the nonlinear response of film to radiation. Local spot backgrounds can be subtracted and values can be normalized between gels to adjust for variation in amount of radioactivity applied or in exposure time. Reproducibility is excellent and the technique has some practical as well as theoretical advantages over other more complicated approaches to 2-D gel densitometry. In addition, the GELSCAN system can also be used for scanning individual bands in 1-D gels, quantitation of "dot-blot" autoradiograms and other tasks involving transmission densitometry.