Shimizu, Kei; Saal, Alberto E.; Myers, Corinne E.; Nagle, Ashley N.; Hauri, Erik H.; Forsyth, Donald W.; Kamenetsky, Vadim S.; Niu, Yaoling
2016-03-01
We report major, trace, and volatile element (CO2, H2O, F, Cl, S) contents and Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopes of mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) glasses from the Northern East Pacific Rise (NEPR) off-axis seamounts, the Quebrada-Discovery-GoFar (QDG) transform fault system, and the Macquarie Island. The incompatible trace element (ITE) contents of the samples range from highly depleted (DMORB, Th/La ⩽ 0.035) to enriched (EMORB, Th/La ⩾ 0.07), and the isotopic composition spans the entire range observed in EPR MORB. Our data suggest that at the time of melt generation, the source that generated the EMORB was essentially peridotitic, and that the composition of NMORB might not represent melting of a single upper mantle source (DMM), but rather mixing of melts from a two-component mantle (depleted and enriched DMM or D-DMM and E-DMM, respectively). After filtering the volatile element data for secondary processes (degassing, sulfide saturation, assimilation of seawater-derived component, and fractional crystallization), we use the volatiles to ITE ratios of our samples and a two-component mantle melting-mixing model to estimate the volatile content of the D-DMM (CO2 = 22 ppm, H2O = 59 ppm, F = 8 ppm, Cl = 0.4 ppm, and S = 100 ppm) and the E-DMM (CO2 = 990 ppm, H2O = 660 ppm, F = 31 ppm, Cl = 22 ppm, and S = 165 ppm). Our two-component mantle melting-mixing model reproduces the kernel density estimates (KDE) of Th/La and 143Nd/144Nd ratios for our samples and for EPR axial MORB compiled from the literature. This model suggests that: (1) 78% of the Pacific upper mantle is highly depleted (D-DMM) while 22% is enriched (E-DMM) in volatile and refractory ITE, (2) the melts produced during variable degrees of melting of the E-DMM controls most of the MORB geochemical variation, and (3) a fraction (∼65% to 80%) of the low degree EMORB melts (produced by ∼1.3% melting) may escape melt aggregation by freezing at the base of the oceanic lithosphere, significantly enriching it in
Two-component scattering model and the electron density spectrum
Zhou, A. Z.; Tan, J. Y.; Esamdin, A.; Wu, X. J.
2010-02-01
In this paper, we discuss a rigorous treatment of the refractive scintillation caused by a two-component interstellar scattering medium and a Kolmogorov form of density spectrum. It is assumed that the interstellar scattering medium is composed of a thin-screen interstellar medium (ISM) and an extended interstellar medium. We consider the case that the scattering of the thin screen concentrates in a thin layer represented by a δ function distribution and that the scattering density of the extended irregular medium satisfies the Gaussian distribution. We investigate and develop equations for the flux density structure function corresponding to this two-component ISM geometry in the scattering density distribution and compare our result with the observations. We conclude that the refractive scintillation caused by this two-component ISM scattering gives a more satisfactory explanation for the observed flux density variation than does the single extended medium model. The level of refractive scintillation is strongly sensitive to the distribution of scattering material along the line of sight (LOS). The theoretical modulation indices are comparatively less sensitive to the scattering strength of the thin-screen medium, but they critically depend on the distance from the observer to the thin screen. The logarithmic slope of the structure function is sensitive to the scattering strength of the thin-screen medium, but is relatively insensitive to the thin-screen location. Therefore, the proposed model can be applied to interpret the structure functions of flux density observed in pulsar PSR B2111 + 46 and PSR B0136 + 57. The result suggests that the medium consists of a discontinuous distribution of plasma turbulence embedded in the interstellar medium. Thus our work provides some insight into the distribution of the scattering along the LOS to the pulsar PSR B2111 + 46 and PSR B0136 + 57.
Numerical analysis of mixing process of two component gases in vertical fluid layer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hatori, Hirofumi; Takeda, Tetsuaki; Funatani, Shumpei
2015-01-01
When the depressurization accident occurs in the Very-High-Temperature Reactor (VHTR), it is expected that air enter into the reactor core. Therefore, it is important to know a mixing process of different kind of gases in the stable or unstable stratified fluid layer. Especially, it is also important to examine an influence of localized natural convection and molecular diffusion on mixing process from a viewpoint of safety. In order to research the mixing process of two component gases and flow characteristics of the localized natural convection, we have carried out numerical analysis using three dimensional CFD code. The numerical model was consisted of a storage tank and a reverse U-shaped vertical slot. They were separated by a partition plate. One side of the left vertical fluid layer was heated and the other side was cooled. The right vertical fluid layer was also cooled. The procedure of numerical analysis is as follows. Firstly, the storage tank was filled with heavy gas and the reverse U-shaped vertical slot was filled with light gas. In the left vertical fluid layer, the localized natural convection was generated by the temperature difference between the vertical walls. The flow characteristics were obtained by a steady state analysis. The unsteady state analysis was started when the partition plate was opened. The gases were mixed by molecular diffusion and natural convection. After the time elapsed, natural circulation occurred. The result obtained in this numerical analysis is as follows. The temperature difference of the left vertical fluid layer was set to 100 K. The combination of the mixed gas was nitrogen and argon. After 76 minutes elapsed, natural circulation occurred. (author)
A minimal model for two-component dark matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Esch, Sonja; Klasen, Michael; Yaguna, Carlos E.
2014-01-01
We propose and study a new minimal model for two-component dark matter. The model contains only three additional fields, one fermion and two scalars, all singlets under the Standard Model gauge group. Two of these fields, one fermion and one scalar, are odd under a Z_2 symmetry that renders them simultaneously stable. Thus, both particles contribute to the observed dark matter density. This model resembles the union of the singlet scalar and the singlet fermionic models but it contains some new features of its own. We analyze in some detail its dark matter phenomenology. Regarding the relic density, the main novelty is the possible annihilation of one dark matter particle into the other, which can affect the predicted relic density in a significant way. Regarding dark matter detection, we identify a new contribution that can lead either to an enhancement or to a suppression of the spin-independent cross section for the scalar dark matter particle. Finally, we define a set of five benchmarks models compatible with all present bounds and examine their direct detection prospects at planned experiments. A generic feature of this model is that both particles give rise to observable signals in 1-ton direct detection experiments. In fact, such experiments will be able to probe even a subdominant dark matter component at the percent level.
Exploring a minimal two-component p53 model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun, Tingzhe; Zhu, Feng; Shen, Pingping; Yuan, Ruoshi; Xu, Wei
2010-01-01
The tumor suppressor p53 coordinates many attributes of cellular processes via interlocked feedback loops. To understand the biological implications of feedback loops in a p53 system, a two-component model which encompasses essential feedback loops was constructed and further explored. Diverse bifurcation properties, such as bistability and oscillation, emerge by manipulating the feedback strength. The p53-mediated MDM2 induction dictates the bifurcation patterns. We first identified irradiation dichotomy in p53 models and further proposed that bistability and oscillation can behave in a coordinated manner. Further sensitivity analysis revealed that p53 basal production and MDM2-mediated p53 degradation, which are central to cellular control, are most sensitive processes. Also, we identified that the much more significant variations in amplitude of p53 pulses observed in experiments can be derived from overall amplitude parameter sensitivity. The combined approach with bifurcation analysis, stochastic simulation and sampling-based sensitivity analysis not only gives crucial insights into the dynamics of the p53 system, but also creates a fertile ground for understanding the regulatory patterns of other biological networks
Multiparticle production in a two-component dual parton model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aurenche, P.; Bopp, F.W.; Capella, A.; Kwiecinski, J.; Maire, M.; Ranft, J.; Tran Thanh Van, J.
1992-01-01
The dual parton model (DPM) describes soft and semihard multiparticle production. The version of the DPM presented in this paper includes soft and hard mechanisms as well as diffractive processes. The model is formulated as a Monte Carlo event generator. We calculate in this model, in the energy range of the hadron colliders, rapidity distributions and the rise of the rapidity plateau with the collision energy, transverse-momentum distributions and the rise of average transverse momenta with the collision energy, multiplicity distributions in different pseudorapidity regions, and transverse-energy distributions. For most of these quantities we find a reasonable agreement with experimental data
Two-component network model in voice identification technologies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Edita K. Kuular
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Among the most important parameters of biometric systems with voice modalities that determine their effectiveness, along with reliability and noise immunity, a speed of identification and verification of a person has been accentuated. This parameter is especially sensitive while processing large-scale voice databases in real time regime. Many research studies in this area are aimed at developing new and improving existing algorithms for presentation and processing voice records to ensure high performance of voice biometric systems. Here, it seems promising to apply a modern approach, which is based on complex network platform for solving complex massive problems with a large number of elements and taking into account their interrelationships. Thus, there are known some works which while solving problems of analysis and recognition of faces from photographs, transform images into complex networks for their subsequent processing by standard techniques. One of the first applications of complex networks to sound series (musical and speech analysis are description of frequency characteristics by constructing network models - converting the series into networks. On the network ontology platform a previously proposed technique of audio information representation aimed on its automatic analysis and speaker recognition has been developed. This implies converting information into the form of associative semantic (cognitive network structure with amplitude and frequency components both. Two speaker exemplars have been recorded and transformed into pertinent networks with consequent comparison of their topological metrics. The set of topological metrics for each of network models (amplitude and frequency one is a vector, and together those combine a matrix, as a digital "network" voiceprint. The proposed network approach, with its sensitivity to personal conditions-physiological, psychological, emotional, might be useful not only for person identification
Two component WIMP-FImP dark matter model with singlet fermion, scalar and pseudo scalar
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dutta Banik, Amit; Pandey, Madhurima; Majumdar, Debasish [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, HBNI, Astroparticle Physics and Cosmology Division, Kolkata (India); Biswas, Anirban [Harish Chandra Research Institute, Allahabad (India)
2017-10-15
We explore a two component dark matter model with a fermion and a scalar. In this scenario the Standard Model (SM) is extended by a fermion, a scalar and an additional pseudo scalar. The fermionic component is assumed to have a global U(1){sub DM} and interacts with the pseudo scalar via Yukawa interaction while a Z{sub 2} symmetry is imposed on the other component - the scalar. These ensure the stability of both dark matter components. Although the Lagrangian of the present model is CP conserving, the CP symmetry breaks spontaneously when the pseudo scalar acquires a vacuum expectation value (VEV). The scalar component of the dark matter in the present model also develops a VEV on spontaneous breaking of the Z{sub 2} symmetry. Thus the various interactions of the dark sector and the SM sector occur through the mixing of the SM like Higgs boson, the pseudo scalar Higgs like boson and the singlet scalar boson. We show that the observed gamma ray excess from the Galactic Centre as well as the 3.55 keV X-ray line from Perseus, Andromeda etc. can be simultaneously explained in the present two component dark matter model and the dark matter self interaction is found to be an order of magnitude smaller than the upper limit estimated from the observational results. (orig.)
Stability equation and two-component Eigenmode for domain walls in scalar potential model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dias, G.S.; Graca, E.L.; Rodrigues, R. de Lima
2002-08-01
Supersymmetric quantum mechanics involving a two-component representation and two-component eigenfunctions is applied to obtain the stability equation associated to a potential model formulated in terms of two coupled real scalar fields. We investigate the question of stability by introducing an operator technique for the Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) and non-BPS states on two domain walls in a scalar potential model with minimal N 1-supersymmetry. (author)
Mixing efficiency inside micro-droplets coalesced by two components in cross-structure
Ren, Yanlin; Liu, Zhaomiao; Pang, Yan
2017-11-01
The mixing of micro-droplets is used in analytical chemistry, medicine production and material synthesis owing to its advantages including the encapsulation and narrow time residence distribution. In this work, droplets are coalesced by two dispersed phase with different flow rates, generated in cross-structure and mixed in planar serpentine structure. The mixing efficiency of micro-droplets under control characters including the width of entrance and the flow rate of dispersed phases have been investigated by experiments and numerical simulations. The UDS (user-defined scalar) as dimensionless concentration of the solution is adopted in simulation, and is used to calculate the concentration and the mixing effect. By changing the flow rates and the entrances` width, the changing rules of the mixing characters have been obtained. The asymmetry distributions of components make rapid mixing process in half part of each droplet when travel through a straight channel. Increasing of the ratio of entrance width result into larger droplet and weaken the chaotic mixing effect. Meanwhile, the coalesced mechanism can be performed by ranging the ratio of flow rates, the ranges are also determined by the widths of entrances. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11572013).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meisner, Aaron M.; Finkbeiner, Douglas P.
2015-01-01
We apply the Finkbeiner et al. two-component thermal dust emission model to the Planck High Frequency Instrument maps. This parameterization of the far-infrared dust spectrum as the sum of two modified blackbodies (MBBs) serves as an important alternative to the commonly adopted single-MBB dust emission model. Analyzing the joint Planck/DIRBE dust spectrum, we show that two-component models provide a better fit to the 100-3000 GHz emission than do single-MBB models, though by a lesser margin than found by Finkbeiner et al. based on FIRAS and DIRBE. We also derive full-sky 6.'1 resolution maps of dust optical depth and temperature by fitting the two-component model to Planck 217-857 GHz along with DIRBE/IRAS 100 μm data. Because our two-component model matches the dust spectrum near its peak, accounts for the spectrum's flattening at millimeter wavelengths, and specifies dust temperature at 6.'1 FWHM, our model provides reliable, high-resolution thermal dust emission foreground predictions from 100 to 3000 GHz. We find that, in diffuse sky regions, our two-component 100-217 GHz predictions are on average accurate to within 2.2%, while extrapolating the Planck Collaboration et al. single-MBB model systematically underpredicts emission by 18.8% at 100 GHz, 12.6% at 143 GHz, and 7.9% at 217 GHz. We calibrate our two-component optical depth to reddening, and compare with reddening estimates based on stellar spectra. We find the dominant systematic problems in our temperature/reddening maps to be zodiacal light on large angular scales and the cosmic infrared background anisotropy on small angular scales
A two-component dark matter model with real singlet scalars ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2016-01-05
Jan 5, 2016 ... We propose a two-component dark matter (DM) model, each component of which is a real singlet scalar, to explain results from both direct and indirect detection experiments. We put the constraints on the model parameters from theoretical bounds, PLANCK relic density results and direct DM experiments.
A two-component dark matter model with real singlet scalars ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Theoretical framework. In the present work, the dark matter candidate has two components S and S′ both of ... The scalar sector potential (for Higgs and two real singlet scalars) in this framework can then be written .... In this work we obtain the allowed values of model parameters (δ2, δ′2, MS and M′S) using three direct ...
Correlation inequalities for two-component hypercubic φ4 models. Pt. 2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soria, J.L.; Instituto Tecnologico de Tijuana
1990-01-01
We continue the program started in the first paper (J. Stat. Phys. 52 (1988) 711-726). We find new and already known correlation inequalities for a family of two-component hypercubic φ 4 models, using techniques of rotated correlation inequalities and random walk representation. (orig.)
New methods for the characterization of pyrocarbon; The two component model of pyrocarbon
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Luhleich, H.; Sutterlin, L.; Hoven, H.; Nickel, H.
1972-04-19
In the first part, new experiments to clarify the origin of different pyrocarbon components are described. Three new methods (plasma-oxidation, wet-oxidation, ultrasonic method) are presented to expose the carbon black like component in the pyrocarbon deposited in fluidized beds. In the second part, a two component model of pyrocarbon is proposed and illustrated by examples.
Correlation inequalities for two-component hypercubic /varreverse arrowphi/4 models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soria, J.L.
1988-01-01
A collection of new and already known correlation inequalities is found for a family of two-component hypercubic /varreverse arrowphi/ 4 models, using techniques of duplicated variables, rotated correlation inequalities, and random walk representation. Among the interesting new inequalities are: rotated very special Dunlop-Newman inequality 2 ; /varreverse arrowphi//sub 1z/ 2 + /varreverse arrowphi//sub 2z/ 2 ≥ 0, rotated Griffiths I inequality 2 - /varreverse arrowphi//sub 2z/ 2 > ≥ 0, and anti-Lebowitz inequality u 4 1111 ≥ 0
A two component model describing nucleon structure functions in the low-x region
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bugaev, E.V. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 7a, 60th October Anniversary prospect, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); Mangazeev, B.V. [Irkutsk State University, 1, Karl Marx Street, Irkutsk 664003 (Russian Federation)
2009-12-15
A two component model describing the electromagnetic nucleon structure functions in the low-x region, based on generalized vector dominance and color dipole approaches is briefly described. The model operates with the mesons of rho-family having the mass spectrum of the form m{sub n}{sup 2}=m{sub r}ho{sup 2}(1+2n) and takes into account the nondiagonal transitions in meson-nucleon scattering. The special cut-off factors are introduced in the model, to exclude the gamma-qq-bar-V transitions in the case of narrow qq-bar-pairs. For the color dipole part of the model the well known FKS-parameterization is used.
Sin, Kuek Jia; Cheong, Chin Wen; Hooi, Tan Siow
2017-04-01
This study aims to investigate the crude oil volatility using a two components autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity (ARCH) model with the inclusion of abrupt jump feature. The model is able to capture abrupt jumps, news impact, clustering volatility, long persistence volatility and heavy-tailed distributed error which are commonly observed in the crude oil time series. For the empirical study, we have selected the WTI crude oil index from year 2000 to 2016. The results found that by including the multiple-abrupt jumps in ARCH model, there are significant improvements of estimation evaluations as compared with the standard ARCH models. The outcomes of this study can provide useful information for risk management and portfolio analysis in the crude oil markets.
Superfluid drag in the two-component Bose-Hubbard model
Sellin, Karl; Babaev, Egor
2018-03-01
In multicomponent superfluids and superconductors, co- and counterflows of components have, in general, different properties. A. F. Andreev and E. P. Bashkin [Sov. Phys. JETP 42, 164 (1975)] discussed, in the context of He3/He4 superfluid mixtures, that interparticle interactions produce a dissipationless drag. The drag can be understood as a superflow of one component induced by phase gradients of the other component. Importantly, the drag can be both positive (entrainment) and negative (counterflow). The effect is known to have crucial importance for many properties of diverse physical systems ranging from the dynamics of neutron stars and rotational responses of Bose mixtures of ultracold atoms to magnetic responses of multicomponent superconductors. Although substantial literature exists that includes the drag interaction phenomenologically, only a few regimes are covered by quantitative studies of the microscopic origin of the drag and its dependence on microscopic parameters. Here we study the microscopic origin and strength of the drag interaction in a quantum system of two-component bosons on a lattice with short-range interaction. By performing quantum Monte Carlo simulations of a two-component Bose-Hubbard model we obtain dependencies of the drag strength on the boson-boson interactions and properties of the optical lattice. Of particular interest are the strongly correlated regimes where the ratio of coflow and counterflow superfluid stiffnesses can diverge, corresponding to the case of saturated drag.
Two-component mixture model: Application to palm oil and exchange rate
Phoong, Seuk-Yen; Ismail, Mohd Tahir; Hamzah, Firdaus Mohamad
2014-12-01
Palm oil is a seed crop which is widely adopt for food and non-food products such as cookie, vegetable oil, cosmetics, household products and others. Palm oil is majority growth in Malaysia and Indonesia. However, the demand for palm oil is getting growth and rapidly running out over the years. This phenomenal cause illegal logging of trees and destroy the natural habitat. Hence, the present paper investigates the relationship between exchange rate and palm oil price in Malaysia by using Maximum Likelihood Estimation via Newton-Raphson algorithm to fit a two components mixture model. Besides, this paper proposes a mixture of normal distribution to accommodate with asymmetry characteristics and platykurtic time series data.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sergeenkov, S.; Moraes, F.; Furtado, C.; Araujo-Moreira, F.M.
2010-01-01
By mapping a Hubbard-like model describing a two-component polymer in the presence of strong enough electron-phonon interactions (κ) onto the system of two coupled nonlinear Schroedinger equations with U(2) symmetry group, some nontrivial correlations between topological solitons mediated charge Q and spin S degrees of freedom are obtained. Namely, in addition to a charge fractionalization and reentrant like behavior of both Q(κ) and S(κ), the model also predicts a decrease of soliton velocity with κ as well as spin-charge conversion effects which manifest themselves through an explicit S(Q,Ω) dependence (with Ω being a mixing angle between spin-up and spin-down electron amplitudes). A possibility to observe the predicted effects in low-dimensional systems with charge and spin soliton carriers is discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tai, Z.; Liu, M.; Hu, X.; Yang, Y.
2014-01-01
This paper describes a sensitive and simple method for the determination of bisphenol A (BPA) and bisphenol AF (BPAF) in vinegar samples using two-component mixed ionic liquid dispersive liquid-phase microextraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography. In this work, BPA and BPAF were selected as the model analytes, and two-component mixed ionic liquid included 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ((C4Mim)PF6) and 1-hexyl-3-methyl-imidazolium hexafluorophosphate ((C6Mim)PF6) was used as the extraction solvent for the first time here. Parameters that affect the extraction efficiency were investigated. Under the optimum conditions, good linear relationships were discovered in the range of 1.0-100 micro g/L for BPA and 2.0-150 micro g/L for BPAF, respectively. Detection limits of proposed method based on the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N=3) were in the range of 0.15-0.38 micro g/L. The efficiencies of proposed method have also been demonstrated with spiked real vinegar samples. The result show this method/ procedure to be a more efficient approach for the determination of BPA and BPAF in real vinegar, presenting average recovery rate of 89.3-112 % and precision values of 0.9-13.5% (RSDs, n = 6). In comparison with traditional solid phase extraction procedures this method results in lower solvent consumption, low pollution levels, and faster sample preparation. (author)
Discrete kink dynamics in hydrogen-bonded chains: The two-component model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Karpan, V.M.; Zolotaryuk, Yaroslav; Christiansen, Peter Leth
2004-01-01
We study discrete topological solitary waves (kinks and antikinks) in two nonlinear diatomic chain models that describe the collective dynamics of proton transfers in one-dimensional hydrogen-bonded networks. The essential ingredients of the models are (i) a realistic (anharmonic) ion-proton inte......We study discrete topological solitary waves (kinks and antikinks) in two nonlinear diatomic chain models that describe the collective dynamics of proton transfers in one-dimensional hydrogen-bonded networks. The essential ingredients of the models are (i) a realistic (anharmonic) ion...... chain subject to a substrate with two optical bands), both providing a bistability of the hydrogen-bonded proton. Exact two-component (kink and antikink) discrete solutions for these models are found numerically. We compare the soliton solutions and their properties in both the one- (when the heavy ions...... principal differences, like a significant difference in the stability switchings behavior for the kinks and the antikinks. Water-filled carbon nanotubes are briefly discussed as possible realistic systems, where topological discrete (anti)kink states might exist....
Two-component mixture cure rate model with spline estimated nonparametric components.
Wang, Lu; Du, Pang; Liang, Hua
2012-09-01
In some survival analysis of medical studies, there are often long-term survivors who can be considered as permanently cured. The goals in these studies are to estimate the noncured probability of the whole population and the hazard rate of the susceptible subpopulation. When covariates are present as often happens in practice, to understand covariate effects on the noncured probability and hazard rate is of equal importance. The existing methods are limited to parametric and semiparametric models. We propose a two-component mixture cure rate model with nonparametric forms for both the cure probability and the hazard rate function. Identifiability of the model is guaranteed by an additive assumption that allows no time-covariate interactions in the logarithm of hazard rate. Estimation is carried out by an expectation-maximization algorithm on maximizing a penalized likelihood. For inferential purpose, we apply the Louis formula to obtain point-wise confidence intervals for noncured probability and hazard rate. Asymptotic convergence rates of our function estimates are established. We then evaluate the proposed method by extensive simulations. We analyze the survival data from a melanoma study and find interesting patterns for this study. © 2011, The International Biometric Society.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Watanabe, S; Takahashi, R [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)
1996-01-25
The applicability of a cellular automaton technique to engineering problems will be examined by dealing with mixing in multicomponent flow. The quality and accumulation rate of the product depend on the mixing of raw materials basically. After thoroughly understanding the mixing process, we optimize the geometrical allocation of such elements as a propeller with casing, a chimney and a product output nozzle in a reactor. Usually mixing is formulated by partial differential equations of conservation laws and empirical formulae, and solved numerically by the finite difference technique. In order to evaluate the fine structure of time-dependent interfacial behavior in multicomponent flow, the cellular automaton technique is used, since this has an advantage of describing the pattern formation in detail. It will be demonstrated in the present paper that mixing of two-component immiscible flow is reasonably simulated mesoscopically. 13 refs., 17 figs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peres, C.A.; Koo, J.O.
1981-01-01
In this paper, the quadratic model to analyse data of this kind, i.e. S/S 0 = exp(-αD-bD 2 ), where S and Ssub(o) are defined as before is proposed is shown that the same biological interpretation can be given to the parameters α and A and to the parameters β and B. Furthermore it is shown that the quadratic model involves one probabilistic stage more than the two-component model, and therefore the quadratic model would perhaps be more appropriate as a dose-response model for survival of irradiated stage-7 oocytes of Drosophila melanogaster. In order to apply these results, the data presented by Sankaranarayanan and Sankaranarayanan and Volkers are reanalysed using the quadratic model. It is shown that the quadratic model fits better than the two-component model to the data in most situations. (orig./AJ)
Viscous Growth in Spinodal Decomposition of the Two-component Lennard-Jones Model in Two Dimensions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Laradji, M.; Toxvaerd, S.; Mouritsen, Ole G.
1997-01-01
The dynamics of phase separation of a two-component Lennard-Jones model in three dimensions is investigated by means of large scale molecular dynamics simulation. A systematic study over a wide range of quench temperatures within the coexistence region shows that the binary system reaches...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aksenov, D.S.; Aksenov, I.I.; Luchaninov, A.A.; Reshetnyak, E.N.; Strel'nitskij, V.E.; Tolmacheva, G.N.; Yurkov, S.A.
2011-01-01
Ti-Al-N films were obtained by vacuum arc system equipped with two-channel T-shaped magnetic filter. The films were deposited by mixing of filtered plasma streams from two sources with cathodes made of aluminium and titanium in nitrogen environment. An influence of aluminium concentration and substrate bias on structure, hardness and elastic modulus of deposited films was studied by X-ray diffraction analysis and nanoindentation techniques. It was found that coatings with aluminium content in range from 13 to 47 at. % are characterized by cubic nitride based on TiN with NaCl structure. An increase of Al content to 71 at. % leads to the formation of hexagonal AlN-based nitride with wurtzite-like structure. Maximum hardness of 35 GPa is observed in films with 47 at. % aluminium concentration and -100 V substrate bias. Elastic modulus falls off along with increase of Al content and negative substrate bias.
Investigation of low-latitude hydrogen emission in terms of a two-component interstellar gas model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baker, P.L.; Burton, W.B.
1975-01-01
The high-resolution 21-cm hydrogen line observations at low galactic latitude of Burton and Verschuur have been analyzed to determine the large-scale distribution of galactic hydrogen. The distribution parameters are found by model fitting. Optical depth affects have been computed using a two-component gas model. Analysis shows that a multiphase description of the medium is essential to the interpretation of low-latitude emission observations. Where possible, the number of free parameters in the gas model has been reduced. Calculations were performed for a one-component, uniform spin temperature, gas model in order to show the systematic departures between this model and the data caused by the incorrect treatment of the optical depth effect. In the two-component gas, radiative transfer is treated by a Monte Carlo calculation since the opacity of the gas arises in a randomly distributed, cold, optically thick, low velocity-dispersion, cloud medium. The emission arises in both the cloud medium and a smoothly distributed, optically thin, high velocity-dispersion, intercloud medium. The synthetic profiles computed from the two-component model reproduce both the large-scale trends of the observed emission profiles and the magnitude of the small-scale emission irregularities. The analysis permits the determination of values for []he thickness of the galactic disk between half density points, the total observed neutral hydrogen mass of the Galaxy, and the central number density of the intercloud atoms. In addition, the analysis is sensitive to the size of clouds contributing to the observations. Computations also show that synthetic emission profiles based on the two-component model display both the zero-velocity and high-velocity ridges, indicative of optical thinness on a large scale, in spite of the presence of optically thick gas
Photoproduction within the two-component Dual Parton Model: amplitudes and cross sections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Engel, R.; Siegen Univ.
1995-01-01
In the framework of the Dual Parton Model an approximation scheme to describe high energy photoproduction processes is presented. Based on the distinction between direct, resolved soft, and resolved hard interaction processes we construct effective impact parameter amplitudes. In order to treat low mass diffraction within the eikonal formalism in a consistent way a phenomenological ansatz is proposed. The free parameters of the model are determined by fits to high energy hadro- and photoproduction cross sections. We calculate the partial photoproduction cross sections and discuss predictions of the model at HERA energies. Using hadro- and photoproduction data together, the uncertainties of the model predictions are strongly reduced. (orig.)
A two-component dark matter model with real singlet scalars ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2016-01-05
component dark matter model with real singlet scalars confronting GeV -ray excess from galactic centre and Fermi bubble. Debasish Majumdar Kamakshya Prasad Modak Subhendu Rakshit. Special: Cosmology Volume 86 Issue ...
Continuum model of the two-component Becker-Döring equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ali Reza Soheili
2004-01-01
Full Text Available The process of collision between particles is a subject of interest in many fields of physics, astronomy, polymer physics, atmospheric physics, and colloid chemistry. If two types of particles are allowed to participate in the cluster coalescence, then the time evolution of the cluster distribution has been described by an infinite system of ordinary differential equations. In this paper, we describe the model with a second-order two-dimensional partial differential equation, as a continuum model.
Two-component model application for error calculus in the environmental monitoring data analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carvalho, Maria Angelica G.; Hiromoto, Goro
2002-01-01
Analysis and interpretation of results of an environmental monitoring program is often based on the evaluation of the mean value of a particular set of data, which is strongly affected by the analytical errors associated with each measurement. A model proposed by Rocke and Lorenzato assumes two error components, one additive and one multiplicative, to deal with lower and higher concentration values in a single model. In this communication, an application of this method for re-evaluation of the errors reported in a large set of results of total alpha measurements in a environmental sample is presented. The results show that the mean values calculated taking into account the new errors is higher than as obtained with the original errors, being an indicative that the analytical errors reported before were underestimated in the region of lower concentrations. (author)
Continuum model of the two-component Becker-Döring equations
Soheili, Ali Reza
2004-01-01
The process of collision between particles is a subject of interest in many fields of physics, astronomy, polymer physics, atmospheric physics, and colloid chemistry. If two types of particles are allowed to participate in the cluster coalescence, then the time evolution of the cluster distribution has been described by an infinite system of ordinary differential equations. In this paper, we describe the model with a second-order two-dimensional partial differential equation, as a continuum m...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dymski, T.C.
1976-01-01
For high energy scattering of pseudoscalar particles on spin 1 / 2 particles, the transition amplitude (for a given signature) is constructed as an infinite sum over spin of boson exchange graphs of the Feynman type, each of which has impact parameters up to some value R completely removed. This amplitude is advanced as a field theoretic realization of the nondiffractive component of Harari's dual absorption model. Comparing with π/sup +-/p→π/sup +-/p and π - p→π 0 n data shows that the imaginary parts of both helicity amplitudes are excellent, for either signature
A two component model for thermal emission from organic grains in Comet Halley
Chyba, Christopher; Sagan, Carl
1988-01-01
Observations of Comet Halley in the near infrared reveal a triple-peaked emission feature near 3.4 micrometer, characteristic of C-H stretching in hydrocarbons. A variety of plausible cometary materials exhibit these features, including the organic residue of irradiated candidate cometary ices (such as the residue of irradiated methane ice clathrate, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Indeed, any molecule containing -CH3 and -CH2 alkanes will emit at 3.4 micrometer under suitable conditions. Therefore tentative identifications must rest on additional evidence, including a plausible account of the origins of the organic material, a plausible model for the infrared emission of this material, and a demonstration that this conjunction of material and model not only matches the 3 to 4 micrometer spectrum, but also does not yield additional emission features where none is observed. In the case of the residue of irradiated low occupancy methane ice clathrate, it is argued that the lab synthesis of the organic residue well simulates the radiation processing experienced by Comet Halley.
Butlitsky, M A; Zelener, B B; Zelener, B V
2014-07-14
A two-component plasma model, which we called a "shelf Coulomb" model has been developed in this work. A Monte Carlo study has been undertaken to calculate equations of state, pair distribution functions, internal energies, and other thermodynamics properties. A canonical NVT ensemble with periodic boundary conditions was used. The motivation behind the model is also discussed in this work. The "shelf Coulomb" model can be compared to classical two-component (electron-proton) model where charges with zero size interact via a classical Coulomb law. With important difference for interaction of opposite charges: electrons and protons interact via the Coulomb law for large distances between particles, while interaction potential is cut off on small distances. The cut off distance is defined by an arbitrary ɛ parameter, which depends on system temperature. All the thermodynamics properties of the model depend on dimensionless parameters ɛ and γ = βe(2)n(1/3) (where β = 1/kBT, n is the particle's density, kB is the Boltzmann constant, and T is the temperature) only. In addition, it has been shown that the virial theorem works in this model. All the calculations were carried over a wide range of dimensionless ɛ and γ parameters in order to find the phase transition region, critical point, spinodal, and binodal lines of a model system. The system is observed to undergo a first order gas-liquid type phase transition with the critical point being in the vicinity of ɛ(crit) ≈ 13(T(*)(crit) ≈ 0.076), γ(crit) ≈ 1.8(v(*)(crit) ≈ 0.17), P(*)(crit) ≈ 0.39, where specific volume v* = 1/γ(3) and reduced temperature T(*) = ɛ(-1).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gammon, M.; Shalchi, A., E-mail: andreasm4@yahoo.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada)
2017-10-01
In several astrophysical applications one needs analytical forms of cosmic-ray diffusion parameters. Some examples are studies of diffusive shock acceleration and solar modulation. In the current article we explore perpendicular diffusion based on the unified nonlinear transport theory. While we focused on magnetostatic turbulence in Paper I, we included the effect of dynamical turbulence in Paper II of the series. In the latter paper we assumed that the temporal correlation time does not depend on the wavenumber. More realistic models have been proposed in the past, such as the so-called damping model of dynamical turbulence. In the present paper we derive analytical forms for the perpendicular diffusion coefficient of energetic particles in two-component turbulence for this type of time-dependent turbulence. We present new formulas for the perpendicular diffusion coefficient and we derive a condition for which the magnetostatic result is recovered.
Three-body recombination of two-component cold atomic gases into deep dimers in an optical model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mikkelsen, Mathias; Jensen, A. S.; Fedorov, D. V.
2015-01-01
to the decay rate or recombination probability of the three-body system. The method is formulated in details and the relevant qualitative features are discussed as functions of scattering lengths and masses. We use zero-range model in analyses of recent recombination data. The dominating scattering length......We consider three-body recombination into deep dimers in a mass-imbalanced two-component atomic gas. We use an optical model where a phenomenological imaginary potential is added to the lowest adiabatic hyper-spherical potential. The consequent imaginary part of the energy eigenvalue corresponds...... is usually related to the non-equal two-body systems. We account for temperature smearing which tends to wipe out the higher-lying Efimov peaks. The range and the strength of the imaginary potential determine positions and shapes of the Efimov peaks as well as the absolute value of the recombination rate...
Three-body recombination of two-component cold atomic gases into deep dimers in an optical model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mikkelsen, M; Jensen, A S; Fedorov, D V; Zinner, N T
2015-01-01
We consider three-body recombination into deep dimers in a mass-imbalanced two-component atomic gas. We use an optical model where a phenomenological imaginary potential is added to the lowest adiabatic hyper-spherical potential. The consequent imaginary part of the energy eigenvalue corresponds to the decay rate or recombination probability of the three-body system. The method is formulated in details and the relevant qualitative features are discussed as functions of scattering lengths and masses. We use zero-range model in analyses of recent recombination data. The dominating scattering length is usually related to the non-equal two-body systems. We account for temperature smearing which tends to wipe out the higher-lying Efimov peaks. The range and the strength of the imaginary potential determine positions and shapes of the Efimov peaks as well as the absolute value of the recombination rate. The Efimov scaling between recombination peaks is calculated and shown to depend on both scattering lengths. Recombination is predicted to be largest for heavy–heavy–light systems. Universal properties of the optical parameters are indicated. We compare to available experiments and find in general very satisfactory agreement. (paper)
Remote sensing of particle dynamics: a two-component unmixing model in a western UK shelf sea.
Mitchell, Catherine; Cunningham, Alex
2014-05-01
The relationship between the backscattering and absorption coefficients, in particular the backscattering to absorption ratio, is mediated by the type of particles present in the water column. By considering the optical signals to be driven by phytoplankton and suspended minerals, with a relatively constant influence from CDOM, radiative transfer modelling is used to propose a method for retrieving the optical contribution of phytoplankton and suspended minerals to the total absorption coefficient with mean percentage errors of below 5% for both components. These contributions can be converted to constituent concentrations if the appropriate specific inherent optical properties are known or can be determined from the maximum and minimum backscattering to absorption ratios of the data. Remotely sensed absorption and backscattering coefficients from eight years of MODIS data for the Irish Sea reveal maximum backscattering to absorption coefficient ratios over the winter (with an average for the region of 0.27), which then decrease to a minimum over the summer months (with an average of 0.06) before increasing again through to winter, indicating a change in the particles present in the water column. Application of the two-component unmixing model to this data showed seasonal cycles of both phytoplankton and suspended mineral concentrations which vary in both amplitude and periodicity depending on their location. For example, in the Bristol Channel the amplitude of the suspended mineral concentration throughout one cycle is approximately 75% greater than a yearly cycle in the eastern Irish Sea. These seasonal cycles give an insight into the complex dynamics of particles in the water column, indicating the suspension of sediment throughout the winter months and the loss of sediments from the surface layer over the summer during stratification. The relationship between the timing of the phytoplankton spring bloom and changes in the availability of light in the water
Two-component dressed-bag model for NN interaction: deuteron structure and phase shifts up to 1 GeV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kukulin, V.I.; Obukhovsky, I.T.; Pomerantsev, V.N.; Faessler, A.
2002-01-01
A two-component model is developed for the intermediate-range NN interaction based on a new mechanism with an intermediate symmetric six-quark bag 'dressed' by σ and other fields. To calculate the transition amplitude, the microscopic six-quark shell-model in combination with the 3 P 0 -quark pion production mechanism is used. As a result, an effective energy-dependent NN interaction is constructed. The new quark-meson model for the NN interaction has been demonstrated to result in a new type of NN tensor force at intermediate ranges, which is crucially important for the treatment of tensor mixing at intermediate energies. The suggested model is able to describe NN phase shifts in a broad energy range from low energy up to 1 GeV, and the deuteron structure. The generalization of the model results in new spin-orbit 2N and 3N forces and new meson-exchange currents induced by intermediate dressed bag components, and also in the enhancement of a collective σ-field in nuclei. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rebecca B Hoyle
Full Text Available Phenotypic differences of genetically identical cells under the same environmental conditions have been attributed to the inherent stochasticity of biochemical processes. Various mechanisms have been suggested, including the existence of alternative steady states in regulatory networks that are reached by means of stochastic fluctuations, long transient excursions from a stable state to an unstable excited state, and the switching on and off of a reaction network according to the availability of a constituent chemical species. Here we analyse a detailed stochastic kinetic model of two-component system signalling in bacteria, and show that alternative phenotypes emerge in the absence of these features. We perform a bifurcation analysis of deterministic reaction rate equations derived from the model, and find that they cannot reproduce the whole range of qualitative responses to external signals demonstrated by direct stochastic simulations. In particular, the mixed mode, where stochastic switching and a graded response are seen simultaneously, is absent. However, probabilistic and equation-free analyses of the stochastic model that calculate stationary states for the mean of an ensemble of stochastic trajectories reveal that slow transcription of either response regulator or histidine kinase leads to the coexistence of an approximate basal solution and a graded response that combine to produce the mixed mode, thus establishing its essential stochastic nature. The same techniques also show that stochasticity results in the observation of an all-or-none bistable response over a much wider range of external signals than would be expected on deterministic grounds. Thus we demonstrate the application of numerical equation-free methods to a detailed biochemical reaction network model, and show that it can provide new insight into the role of stochasticity in the emergence of phenotypic diversity.
Grasman, J.; Herwaarden, van O.A.; Hemerik, L.; Lenteren, van J.C.
2001-01-01
A two-component differential equation model is formulated for a host–parasitoid interaction. Transient dynamics and population crashes of this system are analysed using differential inequalities. Two different cases can be distinguished: either the intrinsic growth rate of the host population is
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanchez-Castro, C.R.
1988-01-01
This dissertation is divided in six chapters. Chapter 1 is an introduction to the rest of the dissertation. In it, the author presents the different models for the magnetic equation state of liquid 3 He, a derivation of the induced interaction equations for a one component Fermi liquid, and discuss the basic hamiltonian describing the heavy fermion compounds. In Chapter 2 and Chapter 3, he presents a complete discussion of the thermodynamics and Landau theory of a spin polarized Fermi liquid. A phenomenological model is then developed to predict the polarization dependence of the longitudinal Landau parameters in liquid 3 He. This model predicts a new magnetic equation of state and the possibility of liquid 3 He being 'nearly metamagnetic' at high pressures. Chapter 4 contains a microscopic calculation of the magnetic field dependence of the Landau parameters in a strongly correlated Fermi system using the induced interaction model. The system he studied consists of a single component Fermi liquid with parabolic energy bands, and a large on-site repulsive interaction. In Chapter 5, he presents a complete discussion of the Landau theory of a two component Fermi liquid. Then, he generalizes the induced interaction equations to calculate Landau parameters and scattering amplitudes for an arbitrary, spin polarized, two component Fermi liquid. The resulting equations are used to study a model for the heavy fermion Fermi liquid state: a two band electronic system with an antiferromagnetic interaction between the two bands. Chapter 6 contains the concluding remarks of the dissertation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. P. Kochendorfer
2010-10-01
Full Text Available The statistical-dynamical annual water balance model of Eagleson (1978 is a pioneering work in the analysis of climate, soil and vegetation interactions. This paper describes several enhancements and modifications to the model that improve its physical realism at the expense of its mathematical elegance and analytical tractability. In particular, the analytical solutions for the root zone fluxes are re-derived using separate potential rates of transpiration and bare-soil evaporation. Those potential rates, along with the rate of evaporation from canopy interception, are calculated using the two-component Shuttleworth-Wallace (1985 canopy model. In addition, the soil column is divided into two layers, with the upper layer representing the dynamic root zone. The resulting ability to account for changes in root-zone water storage allows for implementation at the monthly timescale. This new version of the Eagleson model is coined the Statistical-Dynamical Ecohydrology Model (SDEM. The ability of the SDEM to capture the seasonal dynamics of the local-scale soil-water balance is demonstrated for two grassland sites in the US Great Plains. Sensitivity of the results to variations in peak green leaf area index (LAI suggests that the mean peak green LAI is determined by some minimum in root zone soil moisture during the growing season. That minimum appears to be close to the soil matric potential at which the dominant grass species begins to experience water stress and well above the wilting point, thereby suggesting an ecological optimality hypothesis in which the need to avoid water-stress-induced leaf abscission is balanced by the maximization of carbon assimilation (and associated transpiration. Finally, analysis of the sensitivity of model-determined peak green LAI to soil texture shows that the coupled model is able to reproduce the so-called "inverse texture effect", which consists of the observation that natural vegetation in dry climates tends
Di Martino, Gerardo; Iodice, Antonio; Natale, Antonio; Riccio, Daniele; Ruello, Giuseppe
2015-04-01
The recently proposed polarimetric two-scale two- component model (PTSTCM) in principle allows us obtaining a reasonable estimation of the soil moisture even in moderately vegetated areas, where the volumetric scattering contribution is non-negligible, provided that the surface component is dominant and the double-bounce component is negligible. Here we test the PTSTCM validity range by applying it to polarimetric SAR data acquired on areas for which, at the same times of SAR acquisitions, ground measurements of soil moisture were performed. In particular, we employ the AGRISAR'06 database, which includes data from several fields covering a period that spans all the phases of vegetation growth.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bang, Yunkyu
2012-01-01
Motivated by neutron scattering experiments in high-T c cuprates, we propose the two-component spin-fermion model as a minimal phenomenological model, which has both local spins and itinerant fermions as independent degrees of freedom (d.o.f.). Our calculations of the dynamic spin correlation function provide a successful description of the puzzling neutron experiment data and show that: (i) the upward dispersion branch of magnetic excitations is mostly due to local spin excitations; (ii) the downward dispersion branch is from collective particle-hole excitations of fermions; and (iii) the resonance mode is a mixture of both d.o.f. Using the same model with the same set of parameters, we calculated the renormalized quasiparticle (q.p.) dispersion and successfully reproduced one of the key features of the angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) experiments, namely the high-energy kink structure in the fermion q.p. dispersion, thus supporting the two-component spin-fermion phenomenology. (paper)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bhanupriya Dash
2017-09-01
Full Text Available Background: Replenishment policy for entropic order quantity model with two component demand and partial backlogging under inflation is an important subject in the stock management. Methods: In this paper an inventory model for non-instantaneous deteriorating items with stock dependant consumption rate and partial back logged in addition the effect of inflection and time value of money on replacement policy with zero lead time consider was developed. Profit maximization model is formulated by considering the effects of partial backlogging under inflation with cash discounts. Further numerical example presented to evaluate the relative performance between the entropic order quantity and EOQ models separately. Numerical example is present to demonstrate the developed model and to illustrate the procedure. Lingo 13.0 version software used to derive optimal order quantity and total cost of inventory. Finally sensitivity analysis of the optimal solution with respect to different parameters of the system carried out. Results and conclusions: The obtained inventory model is very useful in retail business. This model can extend to total backorder.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wiengarten, T.; Fichtner, H.; Kleimann, J.; Scherer, K. [Institut für Theoretische Physik IV, Ruhr-Universität Bochum (Germany); Oughton, S. [Department of Mathematics, University of Waikato, Hamilton 3240 (New Zealand); Engelbrecht, N. E. [Center for Space Research, North-West University, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa)
2016-12-10
We extend a two-component model for the evolution of fluctuations in the solar wind plasma so that it is fully three-dimensional (3D) and also coupled self-consistently to the large-scale magnetohydrodynamic equations describing the background solar wind. The two classes of fluctuations considered are a high-frequency parallel-propagating wave-like piece and a low-frequency quasi-two-dimensional component. For both components, the nonlinear dynamics is dominanted by quasi-perpendicular spectral cascades of energy. Driving of the fluctuations by, for example, velocity shear and pickup ions is included. Numerical solutions to the new model are obtained using the Cronos framework, and validated against previous simpler models. Comparing results from the new model with spacecraft measurements, we find improved agreement relative to earlier models that employ prescribed background solar wind fields. Finally, the new results for the wave-like and quasi-two-dimensional fluctuations are used to calculate ab initio diffusion mean-free paths and drift lengthscales for the transport of cosmic rays in the turbulent solar wind.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wiengarten, T.; Fichtner, H.; Kleimann, J.; Scherer, K.; Oughton, S.; Engelbrecht, N. E.
2016-01-01
We extend a two-component model for the evolution of fluctuations in the solar wind plasma so that it is fully three-dimensional (3D) and also coupled self-consistently to the large-scale magnetohydrodynamic equations describing the background solar wind. The two classes of fluctuations considered are a high-frequency parallel-propagating wave-like piece and a low-frequency quasi-two-dimensional component. For both components, the nonlinear dynamics is dominanted by quasi-perpendicular spectral cascades of energy. Driving of the fluctuations by, for example, velocity shear and pickup ions is included. Numerical solutions to the new model are obtained using the Cronos framework, and validated against previous simpler models. Comparing results from the new model with spacecraft measurements, we find improved agreement relative to earlier models that employ prescribed background solar wind fields. Finally, the new results for the wave-like and quasi-two-dimensional fluctuations are used to calculate ab initio diffusion mean-free paths and drift lengthscales for the transport of cosmic rays in the turbulent solar wind.
Kasper, Joseph M; Lestrange, Patrick J; Stetina, Torin F; Li, Xiaosong
2018-04-10
X-ray absorption spectroscopy is a powerful technique to probe local electronic and nuclear structure. There has been extensive theoretical work modeling K-edge spectra from first principles. However, modeling L-edge spectra directly with density functional theory poses a unique challenge requiring further study. Spin-orbit coupling must be included in the model, and a noncollinear density functional theory is required. Using the real-time exact two-component method, we are able to variationally include one-electron spin-orbit coupling terms when calculating the absorption spectrum. The abilities of different basis sets and density functionals to model spectra for both closed- and open-shell systems are investigated using SiCl 4 and three transition metal complexes, TiCl 4 , CrO 2 Cl 2 , and [FeCl 6 ] 3- . Although we are working in the real-time framework, individual molecular orbital transitions can still be recovered by projecting the density onto the ground state molecular orbital space and separating contributions to the time evolving dipole moment.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, S; Richard Dimenna, R; David Tamburello, D
2008-01-01
The process of recovering the waste in storage tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) typically requires mixing the contents of the tank with one to four dual-nozzle jet mixers located within the tank. The typical criteria to establish a mixed condition in a tank are based on the number of pumps in operation and the time duration of operation. To ensure that a mixed condition is achieved, operating times are set conservatively long. This approach results in high operational costs because of the long mixing times and high maintenance and repair costs for the same reason. A significant reduction in both of these costs might be realized by reducing the required mixing time based on calculating a reliable indicator of mixing with a suitably validated computer code. The work described in this report establishes the basis for further development of the theory leading to the identified mixing indicators, the benchmark analyses demonstrating their consistency with widely accepted correlations, and the application of those indicators to SRS waste tanks to provide a better, physically based estimate of the required mixing time. Waste storage tanks at SRS contain settled sludge which varies in height from zero to 10 ft. The sludge has been characterized and modeled as micron-sized solids, typically 1 to 5 microns, at weight fractions as high as 20 to 30 wt%, specific gravities to 1.4, and viscosities up to 64 cp during motion. The sludge is suspended and mixed through the use of submersible slurry jet pumps. To suspend settled sludge, water is added to the tank as a slurry medium and stirred with the jet pump. Although there is considerable technical literature on mixing and solid suspension in agitated tanks, very little literature has been published on jet mixing in a large-scale tank. If shorter mixing times can be shown to support Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) or other feed requirements, longer pump lifetimes can be achieved with associated operational cost and
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, S; Richard Dimenna, R; David Tamburello, D
2008-11-13
The process of recovering the waste in storage tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) typically requires mixing the contents of the tank with one to four dual-nozzle jet mixers located within the tank. The typical criteria to establish a mixed condition in a tank are based on the number of pumps in operation and the time duration of operation. To ensure that a mixed condition is achieved, operating times are set conservatively long. This approach results in high operational costs because of the long mixing times and high maintenance and repair costs for the same reason. A significant reduction in both of these costs might be realized by reducing the required mixing time based on calculating a reliable indicator of mixing with a suitably validated computer code. The work described in this report establishes the basis for further development of the theory leading to the identified mixing indicators, the benchmark analyses demonstrating their consistency with widely accepted correlations, and the application of those indicators to SRS waste tanks to provide a better, physically based estimate of the required mixing time. Waste storage tanks at SRS contain settled sludge which varies in height from zero to 10 ft. The sludge has been characterized and modeled as micron-sized solids, typically 1 to 5 microns, at weight fractions as high as 20 to 30 wt%, specific gravities to 1.4, and viscosities up to 64 cp during motion. The sludge is suspended and mixed through the use of submersible slurry jet pumps. To suspend settled sludge, water is added to the tank as a slurry medium and stirred with the jet pump. Although there is considerable technical literature on mixing and solid suspension in agitated tanks, very little literature has been published on jet mixing in a large-scale tank. If shorter mixing times can be shown to support Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) or other feed requirements, longer pump lifetimes can be achieved with associated operational cost and
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pegos, V.R.; Oliveira, P.S.L.; Balan, A.
2012-01-01
Full text: In Xanthomonas citri, the phytopathogen responsible for the canker citrus disease, we identified in the ssuABCDE operon, genes encoding the alkanesulfonate ABC transporter as well as the two enzymes responsible for oxido reduction of the respective substrates. SsuD and SsuE proteins represent a two-component system that can be assigned to the group of FMNH 2 -dependent monooxygenases. How- ever, despite of the biochemical information about SsuD and SsuE orthologs from Escherichia coli, there is no structural information of how the two proteins work together. In this work, we used ultracentrifugation, SAXS data and molecular modeling to construct a structural/functional model, which consists of eight molecules organized in a weathervane shape. Through this model, SsuD ligand-binding site for NADPH 2 and FMN substrates is clearly exposed, in a way that might allow the protein-protein interactions with SsuE. Moreover, based on molecular dynamics simulations of SsuD in apo state, docked with NADPH 2 , FMN or both substrates, we characterized the residues of the pocket, the mechanism of substrate interaction and transfer of electrons from NADPH 2 to FMN. This is the first report that links functional and biochemical data with structural analyses. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, S; Dimenna, R; Tamburello, D
2011-02-14
height from zero to 10 ft. The sludge has been characterized and modeled as micron-sized solids, typically 1 to 5 microns, at weight fractions as high as 20 to 30 wt%, specific gravities to 1.4, and viscosities up to 64 cp during motion. The sludge is suspended and mixed through the use of submersible slurry jet pumps. To suspend settled sludge, water is added to the tank as a slurry medium and stirred with the jet pump. Although there is considerable technical literature on mixing and solid suspension in agitated tanks, very little literature has been published on jet mixing in a large-scale tank. One of the main objectives in the waste processing is to provide feed of a uniform slurry composition at a certain weight percentage (e.g. typically {approx}13 wt% at SRS) over an extended period of time. In preparation of the sludge for slurrying, several important questions have been raised with regard to sludge suspension and mixing of the solid suspension in the bulk of the tank: (1) How much time is required to prepare a slurry with a uniform solid composition? (2) How long will it take to suspend and mix the sludge for uniform composition in any particular waste tank? (3) What are good mixing indicators to answer the questions concerning sludge mixing stated above in a general fashion applicable to any waste tank/slurry pump geometry and fluid/sludge combination?
Odille, Fabrice G J; Jónsson, Stefán; Stjernqvist, Susann; Rydén, Tobias; Wärnmark, Kenneth
2007-01-01
A general mathematical model for the characterization of the dynamic (kinetically labile) association of supramolecular assemblies in solution is presented. It is an extension of the equal K (EK) model by the stringent use of linear algebra to allow for the simultaneous presence of an unlimited number of different units in the resulting assemblies. It allows for the analysis of highly complex dynamic equilibrium systems in solution, including both supramolecular homo- and copolymers without the recourse to extensive approximations, in a field in which other analytical methods are difficult. The derived mathematical methodology makes it possible to analyze dynamic systems such as supramolecular copolymers regarding for instance the degree of polymerization, the distribution of a given monomer in different copolymers as well as its position in an aggregate. It is to date the only general means to characterize weak supramolecular systems. The model was fitted to NMR dilution titration data by using the program Matlab, and a detailed algorithm for the optimization of the different parameters has been developed. The methodology is applied to a case study, a hydrogen-bonded supramolecular system, salen 4+porphyrin 5. The system is formally a two-component system but in reality a three-component system. This results in a complex dynamic system in which all monomers are associated to each other by hydrogen bonding with different association constants, resulting in homo- and copolymers 4n5m as well as cyclic structures 6 and 7, in addition to free 4 and 5. The system was analyzed by extensive NMR dilution titrations at variable temperatures. All chemical shifts observed at different temperatures were used in the fitting to obtain the DeltaH degrees and DeltaS degrees values producing the best global fit. From the derived general mathematical expressions, system 4+5 could be characterized with respect to above-mentioned parameters.
System equivalent model mixing
Klaassen, Steven W. B.; van der Seijs, Maarten V.; de Klerk, Dennis
2018-05-01
This paper introduces SEMM: a method based on Frequency Based Substructuring (FBS) techniques that enables the construction of hybrid dynamic models. With System Equivalent Model Mixing (SEMM) frequency based models, either of numerical or experimental nature, can be mixed to form a hybrid model. This model follows the dynamic behaviour of a predefined weighted master model. A large variety of applications can be thought of, such as the DoF-space expansion of relatively small experimental models using numerical models, or the blending of different models in the frequency spectrum. SEMM is outlined, both mathematically and conceptually, based on a notation commonly used in FBS. A critical physical interpretation of the theory is provided next, along with a comparison to similar techniques; namely DoF expansion techniques. SEMM's concept is further illustrated by means of a numerical example. It will become apparent that the basic method of SEMM has some shortcomings which warrant a few extensions to the method. One of the main applications is tested in a practical case, performed on a validated benchmark structure; it will emphasize the practicality of the method.
Generalized, Linear, and Mixed Models
McCulloch, Charles E; Neuhaus, John M
2011-01-01
An accessible and self-contained introduction to statistical models-now in a modernized new editionGeneralized, Linear, and Mixed Models, Second Edition provides an up-to-date treatment of the essential techniques for developing and applying a wide variety of statistical models. The book presents thorough and unified coverage of the theory behind generalized, linear, and mixed models and highlights their similarities and differences in various construction, application, and computational aspects.A clear introduction to the basic ideas of fixed effects models, random effects models, and mixed m
Primordial two-component maximally symmetric inflation
Enqvist, K.; Nanopoulos, D. V.; Quirós, M.; Kounnas, C.
1985-12-01
We propose a two-component inflation model, based on maximally symmetric supergravity, where the scales of reheating and the inflation potential at the origin are decoupled. This is possible because of the second-order phase transition from SU(5) to SU(3)×SU(2)×U(1) that takes place when φ≅φcinflation at the global minimum, and leads to a reheating temperature TR≅(1015-1016) GeV. This makes it possible to generate baryon asymmetry in the conventional way without any conflict with experimental data on proton lifetime. The mass of the gravitinos is m3/2≅1012 GeV, thus avoiding the gravitino problem. Monopoles are diluted by residual inflation in the broken phase below the cosmological bounds if φcUSA.
Conductivity of two-component systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kuijper, A. de; Hofman, J.P.; Waal, J.A. de [Shell Research BV, Rijswijk (Netherlands). Koninklijke/Shell Exploratie en Productie Lab.; Sandor, R.K.J. [Shell International Petroleum Maatschappij, The Hague (Netherlands)
1996-01-01
The authors present measurements and computer simulation results on the electrical conductivity of nonconducting grains embedded in a conductive brine host. The shapes of the grains ranged from prolate-ellipsoidal (with an axis ratio of 5:1) through spherical to oblate-ellipsoidal (with an axis ratio of 1:5). The conductivity was studied as a function of porosity and packing, and Archie`s cementation exponent was found to depend on porosity. They used spatially regular and random configurations with aligned and nonaligned packings. The experimental results agree well with the computer simulation data. This data set will enable extensive tests of models for calculating the anisotropic conductivity of two-component systems.
Abbring, J.H.
2009-01-01
We study mixed hitting-time models, which specify durations as the first time a Levy process (a continuous-time process with stationary and independent increments) crosses a heterogeneous threshold. Such models of substantial interest because they can be reduced from optimal-stopping models with
Cluster Correlation in Mixed Models
Gardini, A.; Bonometto, S. A.; Murante, G.; Yepes, G.
2000-10-01
We evaluate the dependence of the cluster correlation length, rc, on the mean intercluster separation, Dc, for three models with critical matter density, vanishing vacuum energy (Λ=0), and COBE normalization: a tilted cold dark matter (tCDM) model (n=0.8) and two blue mixed models with two light massive neutrinos, yielding Ωh=0.26 and 0.14 (MDM1 and MDM2, respectively). All models approach the observational value of σ8 (and hence the observed cluster abundance) and are consistent with the observed abundance of damped Lyα systems. Mixed models have a motivation in recent results of neutrino physics; they also agree with the observed value of the ratio σ8/σ25, yielding the spectral slope parameter Γ, and nicely fit Las Campanas Redshift Survey (LCRS) reconstructed spectra. We use parallel AP3M simulations, performed in a wide box (of side 360 h-1 Mpc) and with high mass and distance resolution, enabling us to build artificial samples of clusters, whose total number and mass range allow us to cover the same Dc interval inspected through Automatic Plate Measuring Facility (APM) and Abell cluster clustering data. We find that the tCDM model performs substantially better than n=1 critical density CDM models. Our main finding, however, is that mixed models provide a surprisingly good fit to cluster clustering data.
Kriging with mixed effects models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alessio Pollice
2007-10-01
Full Text Available In this paper the effectiveness of the use of mixed effects models for estimation and prediction purposes in spatial statistics for continuous data is reviewed in the classical and Bayesian frameworks. A case study on agricultural data is also provided.
Two component plasma vortex approach to fusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ikuta, Kazunari.
1978-09-01
Two component operation of the field reversed theta pinch plasma by injection of the energetic ion beam with energy of the order of 1 MeV is considered. A possible trapping scheme of the ion beam in the plasma is discussed in detail. (author)
Mathematical study of mixing models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lagoutiere, F.; Despres, B.
1999-01-01
This report presents the construction and the study of a class of models that describe the behavior of compressible and non-reactive Eulerian fluid mixtures. Mixture models can have two different applications. Either they are used to describe physical mixtures, in the case of a true zone of extensive mixing (but then this modelization is incomplete and must be considered only as a point of departure for the elaboration of models of mixtures actually relevant). Either they are used to solve the problem of the numerical mixture. This problem appears during the discretization of an interface which separates fluids having laws of different state: the zone of numerical mixing is the set of meshes which cover the interface. The attention is focused on numerical mixtures, for which the hypothesis of non-miscibility (physics) will bring two equations (the sixth and the eighth of the system). It is important to emphasize that even in the case of the only numerical mixture, the presence in one and same place (same mesh) of several fluids have to be taken into account. This will be formalized by the possibility for mass fractions to take all values between 0 and 1. This is not at odds with the equations that derive from the hypothesis of non-miscibility. One way of looking at things is to consider that there are two scales of observation: the physical scale at which one observes the separation of fluids, and the numerical scale, given by the fineness of the mesh, to which a mixture appears. In this work, mixtures are considered from the mathematical angle (both in the elaboration phase and during their study). In particular, Chapter 5 shows a result of model degeneration for a non-extended mixing zone (case of an interface): this justifies the use of models in the case of numerical mixing. All these models are based on the classical model of non-viscous compressible fluids recalled in Chapter 2. In Chapter 3, the central point of the elaboration of the class of models is
Two Component Signal Transduction in Desulfovibrio Species
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Luning, Eric; Rajeev, Lara; Ray, Jayashree; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila
2010-05-17
The environmentally relevant Desulfovibrio species are sulfate-reducing bacteria that are of interest in the bioremediation of heavy metal contaminated water. Among these, the genome of D. vulgaris Hildenborough encodes a large number of two component systems consisting of 72 putative response regulators (RR) and 64 putative histidinekinases (HK), the majority of which are uncharacterized. We classified the D. vulgaris Hildenborough RRs based on their output domains and compared the distribution of RRs in other sequenced Desulfovibrio species. We have successfully purified most RRs and several HKs as His-tagged proteins. We performed phospho-transfer experiments to verify relationships between cognate pairs of HK and RR, and we have also mapped a few non-cognate HK-RR pairs. Presented here are our discoveries from the Desulfovibrio RR categorization and results from the in vitro studies using purified His tagged D. vulgaris HKs and RRs.
Linear mixed models in sensometrics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kuznetsova, Alexandra
quality of decision making in Danish as well as international food companies and other companies using the same methods. The two open-source R packages lmerTest and SensMixed implement and support the methodological developments in the research papers as well as the ANOVA modelling part of the Consumer...... an open-source software tool ConsumerCheck was developed in this project and now is available for everyone. will represent a major step forward when concerns this important problem in modern consumer driven product development. Standard statistical software packages can be used for some of the purposes......Today’s companies and researchers gather large amounts of data of different kind. In consumer studies the objective is the collection of the data to better understand consumer acceptance of products. In such studies a number of persons (generally not trained) are selected in order to score products...
Multifractal Modeling of Turbulent Mixing
Samiee, Mehdi; Zayernouri, Mohsen; Meerschaert, Mark M.
2017-11-01
Stochastic processes in random media are emerging as interesting tools for modeling anomalous transport phenomena. Applications include intermittent passive scalar transport with background noise in turbulent flows, which are observed in atmospheric boundary layers, turbulent mixing in reactive flows, and long-range dependent flow fields in disordered/fractal environments. In this work, we propose a nonlocal scalar transport equation involving the fractional Laplacian, where the corresponding fractional index is linked to the multifractal structure of the nonlinear passive scalar power spectrum. This work was supported by the AFOSR Young Investigator Program (YIP) award (FA9550-17-1-0150) and partially by MURI/ARO (W911NF-15-1-0562).
Theoretical Models of Neutrino Mixing Recent Developments
Altarelli, Guido
2009-01-01
The data on neutrino mixing are at present compatible with Tri-Bimaximal (TB) mixing. If one takes this indication seriously then the models that lead to TB mixing in first approximation are particularly interesting and A4 models are prominent in this list. However, the agreement of TB mixing with the data could still be an accident. We discuss a recent model based on S4 where Bimaximal mixing is instead valid at leading order and the large corrections needed to reproduce the data arise from the diagonalization of charged leptons. The value of $\\theta_{13}$ could distinguish between the two alternatives.
Mixed models for predictive modeling in actuarial science
Antonio, K.; Zhang, Y.
2012-01-01
We start with a general discussion of mixed (also called multilevel) models and continue with illustrating specific (actuarial) applications of this type of models. Technical details on (linear, generalized, non-linear) mixed models follow: model assumptions, specifications, estimation techniques
Mixed-mode modelling mixing methodologies for organisational intervention
Clarke, Steve; Lehaney, Brian
2001-01-01
The 1980s and 1990s have seen a growing interest in research and practice in the use of methodologies within problem contexts characterised by a primary focus on technology, human issues, or power. During the last five to ten years, this has given rise to challenges regarding the ability of a single methodology to address all such contexts, and the consequent development of approaches which aim to mix methodologies within a single problem situation. This has been particularly so where the situation has called for a mix of technological (the so-called 'hard') and human centred (so-called 'soft') methods. The approach developed has been termed mixed-mode modelling. The area of mixed-mode modelling is relatively new, with the phrase being coined approximately four years ago by Brian Lehaney in a keynote paper published at the 1996 Annual Conference of the UK Operational Research Society. Mixed-mode modelling, as suggested above, is a new way of considering problem situations faced by organisations. Traditional...
Two-component gravitational instability in spiral galaxies
Marchuk, A. A.; Sotnikova, N. Y.
2018-04-01
We applied a criterion of gravitational instability, valid for two-component and infinitesimally thin discs, to observational data along the major axis for seven spiral galaxies of early types. Unlike most papers, the dispersion equation corresponding to the criterion was solved directly without using any approximation. The velocity dispersion of stars in the radial direction σR was limited by the range of possible values instead of a fixed value. For all galaxies, the outer regions of the disc were analysed up to R ≤ 130 arcsec. The maximal and sub-maximal disc models were used to translate surface brightness into surface density. The largest destabilizing disturbance stars can exert on a gaseous disc was estimated. It was shown that the two-component criterion differs a little from the one-fluid criterion for galaxies with a large surface gas density, but it allows to explain large-scale star formation in those regions where the gaseous disc is stable. In the galaxy NGC 1167 star formation is entirely driven by the self-gravity of the stars. A comparison is made with the conventional approximations which also include the thickness effect and with models for different sound speed cg. It is shown that values of the effective Toomre parameter correspond to the instability criterion of a two-component disc Qeff < 1.5-2.5. This result is consistent with previous theoretical and observational studies.
A two-component copula with links to insurance
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ismail S.
2017-12-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a new copula to model dependencies between insurance entities, by considering how insurance entities are affected by both macro and micro factors. The model used to build the copula assumes that the insurance losses of two companies or lines of business are related through a random common loss factor which is then multiplied by an individual random company factor to get the total loss amounts. The new two-component copula is not Archimedean and it extends the toolkit of copulas for the insurance industry.
Linear mixed models for longitudinal data
Molenberghs, Geert
2000-01-01
This paperback edition is a reprint of the 2000 edition. This book provides a comprehensive treatment of linear mixed models for continuous longitudinal data. Next to model formulation, this edition puts major emphasis on exploratory data analysis for all aspects of the model, such as the marginal model, subject-specific profiles, and residual covariance structure. Further, model diagnostics and missing data receive extensive treatment. Sensitivity analysis for incomplete data is given a prominent place. Several variations to the conventional linear mixed model are discussed (a heterogeity model, conditional linear mixed models). This book will be of interest to applied statisticians and biomedical researchers in industry, public health organizations, contract research organizations, and academia. The book is explanatory rather than mathematically rigorous. Most analyses were done with the MIXED procedure of the SAS software package, and many of its features are clearly elucidated. However, some other commerc...
Flapping model of scalar mixing in turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kerstein, A.R.
1991-01-01
Motivated by the fluctuating plume model of turbulent mixing downstream of a point source, a flapping model is formulated for application to other configurations. For the scalar mixing layer, simple expressions for single-point scalar fluctuation statistics are obtained that agree with measurements. For a spatially homogeneous scalar mixing field, the family of probability density functions previously derived using mapping closure is reproduced. It is inferred that single-point scalar statistics may depend primarily on large-scale flapping motions in many cases of interest, and thus that multipoint statistics may be the principal indicators of finer-scale mixing effects
Model Information Exchange System (MIXS).
2013-08-01
Many travel demand forecast models operate at state, regional, and local levels. While they share the same physical network in overlapping geographic areas, they use different and uncoordinated modeling networks. This creates difficulties for models ...
Chemical evolution of two-component galaxies. II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Caimmi, R.
1978-01-01
In order to confirm and refine the results obtained in a previous paper the chemical evolution of two-component (spheroid + disk) galaxies is derived rejecting the instantaneous recycling approximation, by means of numerical computations, accounting for (i) the collapse phase of the gas, assumed to be uniform in density and composition, and (ii) a birth-rate stellar function. Computations are performed relatively to the solar neighbourhood and to model galaxies which closely resemble the real morphological sequence: in both cases, numerical results are compared with analytical ones. The numerical models of this paper constitute a first-order approximation, while higher order approximations could be made by rejecting the hypothesis of uniform density and composition, and making use of detailed dynamical models. (Auth.)
Modeling of particle mixing in the atmosphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu, Shupeng
2015-01-01
This thesis presents a newly developed size-composition resolved aerosol model (SCRAM), which is able to simulate the dynamics of externally-mixed particles in the atmosphere, and evaluates its performance in three-dimensional air-quality simulations. The main work is split into four parts. First, the research context of external mixing and aerosol modelling is introduced. Secondly, the development of the SCRAM box model is presented along with validation tests. Each particle composition is defined by the combination of mass-fraction sections of its chemical components or aggregates of components. The three main processes involved in aerosol dynamic (nucleation, coagulation, condensation/ evaporation) are included in SCRAM. The model is first validated by comparisons with published reference solutions for coagulation and condensation/evaporation of internally-mixed particles. The particle mixing state is investigated in a 0-D simulation using data representative of air pollution at a traffic site in Paris. The relative influence on the mixing state of the different aerosol processes and of the algorithm used to model condensation/evaporation (dynamic evolution or bulk equilibrium between particles and gas) is studied. Then, SCRAM is integrated into the Polyphemus air quality platform and used to conduct simulations over Greater Paris during the summer period of 2009. This evaluation showed that SCRAM gives satisfactory results for both PM2.5/PM10 concentrations and aerosol optical depths, as assessed from comparisons to observations. Besides, the model allows us to analyze the particle mixing state, as well as the impact of the mixing state assumption made in the modelling on particle formation, aerosols optical properties, and cloud condensation nuclei activation. Finally, two simulations are conducted during the winter campaign of MEGAPOLI (Megacities: Emissions, urban, regional and Global Atmospheric Pollution and climate effects, and Integrated tools for
Statistical Tests for Mixed Linear Models
Khuri, André I; Sinha, Bimal K
2011-01-01
An advanced discussion of linear models with mixed or random effects. In recent years a breakthrough has occurred in our ability to draw inferences from exact and optimum tests of variance component models, generating much research activity that relies on linear models with mixed and random effects. This volume covers the most important research of the past decade as well as the latest developments in hypothesis testing. It compiles all currently available results in the area of exact and optimum tests for variance component models and offers the only comprehensive treatment for these models a
Multivariate generalized linear mixed models using R
Berridge, Damon Mark
2011-01-01
Multivariate Generalized Linear Mixed Models Using R presents robust and methodologically sound models for analyzing large and complex data sets, enabling readers to answer increasingly complex research questions. The book applies the principles of modeling to longitudinal data from panel and related studies via the Sabre software package in R. A Unified Framework for a Broad Class of Models The authors first discuss members of the family of generalized linear models, gradually adding complexity to the modeling framework by incorporating random effects. After reviewing the generalized linear model notation, they illustrate a range of random effects models, including three-level, multivariate, endpoint, event history, and state dependence models. They estimate the multivariate generalized linear mixed models (MGLMMs) using either standard or adaptive Gaussian quadrature. The authors also compare two-level fixed and random effects linear models. The appendices contain additional information on quadrature, model...
Mixed-effects regression models in linguistics
Heylen, Kris; Geeraerts, Dirk
2018-01-01
When data consist of grouped observations or clusters, and there is a risk that measurements within the same group are not independent, group-specific random effects can be added to a regression model in order to account for such within-group associations. Regression models that contain such group-specific random effects are called mixed-effects regression models, or simply mixed models. Mixed models are a versatile tool that can handle both balanced and unbalanced datasets and that can also be applied when several layers of grouping are present in the data; these layers can either be nested or crossed. In linguistics, as in many other fields, the use of mixed models has gained ground rapidly over the last decade. This methodological evolution enables us to build more sophisticated and arguably more realistic models, but, due to its technical complexity, also introduces new challenges. This volume brings together a number of promising new evolutions in the use of mixed models in linguistics, but also addres...
Franzke, Yannick J.; Middendorf, Nils; Weigend, Florian
2018-03-01
We present an efficient algorithm for one- and two-component analytical energy gradients with respect to nuclear displacements in the exact two-component decoupling approach to the one-electron Dirac equation (X2C). Our approach is a generalization of the spin-free ansatz by Cheng and Gauss [J. Chem. Phys. 135, 084114 (2011)], where the perturbed one-electron Hamiltonian is calculated by solving a first-order response equation. Computational costs are drastically reduced by applying the diagonal local approximation to the unitary decoupling transformation (DLU) [D. Peng and M. Reiher, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 244108 (2012)] to the X2C Hamiltonian. The introduced error is found to be almost negligible as the mean absolute error of the optimized structures amounts to only 0.01 pm. Our implementation in TURBOMOLE is also available within the finite nucleus model based on a Gaussian charge distribution. For a X2C/DLU gradient calculation, computational effort scales cubically with the molecular size, while storage increases quadratically. The efficiency is demonstrated in calculations of large silver clusters and organometallic iridium complexes.
Mixed models theory and applications with R
Demidenko, Eugene
2013-01-01
Mixed modeling is one of the most promising and exciting areas of statistical analysis, enabling the analysis of nontraditional, clustered data that may come in the form of shapes or images. This book provides in-depth mathematical coverage of mixed models' statistical properties and numerical algorithms, as well as applications such as the analysis of tumor regrowth, shape, and image. The new edition includes significant updating, over 300 exercises, stimulating chapter projects and model simulations, inclusion of R subroutines, and a revised text format. The target audience continues to be g
Phosphatase activity tunes two-component system sensor detection threshold.
Landry, Brian P; Palanki, Rohan; Dyulgyarov, Nikola; Hartsough, Lucas A; Tabor, Jeffrey J
2018-04-12
Two-component systems (TCSs) are the largest family of multi-step signal transduction pathways in biology, and a major source of sensors for biotechnology. However, the input concentrations to which biosensors respond are often mismatched with application requirements. Here, we utilize a mathematical model to show that TCS detection thresholds increase with the phosphatase activity of the sensor histidine kinase. We experimentally validate this result in engineered Bacillus subtilis nitrate and E. coli aspartate TCS sensors by tuning their detection threshold up to two orders of magnitude. We go on to apply our TCS tuning method to recently described tetrathionate and thiosulfate sensors by mutating a widely conserved residue previously shown to impact phosphatase activity. Finally, we apply TCS tuning to engineer B. subtilis to sense and report a wide range of fertilizer concentrations in soil. This work will enable the engineering of tailor-made biosensors for diverse synthetic biology applications.
Two-component multistep direct reactions: A microscopic approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koning, A.J.; Chadwick, M.B.
1998-03-01
The authors present two principal advances in multistep direct theory: (1) A two-component formulation of multistep direct reactions, where neutron and proton excitations are explicitly accounted for in the evolution of the reaction, for all orders of scattering. While this may at first seem to be a formidable task, especially for multistep processes where the many possible reaction pathways becomes large in a two-component formalism, the authors show that this is not so -- a rather simple generalization of the FKK convolution expression 1 automatically generates these pathways. Such considerations are particularly relevant when simultaneously analyzing both neutron and proton emission spectra, which is always important since these processes represent competing decay channels. (2) A new, and fully microscopic, method for calculating MSD cross sections which does not make use of particle-hole state densities but instead directly calculates cross sections for all possible particle-hole excitations (again including an exact book-keeping of the neutron/proton type of the particle and hole at all stages of the reaction) determined from a simple non-interacting shell model. This is in contrast to all previous numerical approaches which sample only a small number of such states to estimate the DWBA strength, and utilize simple analytical formulae for the partial state density, based on the equidistant spacing model. The new approach has been applied, along with theories for multistep compound, compound, and collective reactions, to analyze experimental emission spectra for a range of targets and energies. The authors show that the theory correctly accounts for double-differential nucleon spectra
Statistical models of global Langmuir mixing
Li, Qing; Fox-Kemper, Baylor; Breivik, Øyvind; Webb, Adrean
2017-05-01
The effects of Langmuir mixing on the surface ocean mixing may be parameterized by applying an enhancement factor which depends on wave, wind, and ocean state to the turbulent velocity scale in the K-Profile Parameterization. Diagnosing the appropriate enhancement factor online in global climate simulations is readily achieved by coupling with a prognostic wave model, but with significant computational and code development expenses. In this paper, two alternatives that do not require a prognostic wave model, (i) a monthly mean enhancement factor climatology, and (ii) an approximation to the enhancement factor based on the empirical wave spectra, are explored and tested in a global climate model. Both appear to reproduce the Langmuir mixing effects as estimated using a prognostic wave model, with nearly identical and substantial improvements in the simulated mixed layer depth and intermediate water ventilation over control simulations, but significantly less computational cost. Simpler approaches, such as ignoring Langmuir mixing altogether or setting a globally constant Langmuir number, are found to be deficient. Thus, the consequences of Stokes depth and misaligned wind and waves are important.
Modeling of Salt Solubilities in Mixed Solvents
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chiavone-Filho, O.; Rasmussen, Peter
2000-01-01
A method to correlate and predict salt solubilities in mixed solvents using a UNIQUAC+Debye-Huckel model is developed. The UNIQUAC equation is applied in a form with temperature-dependent parameters. The Debye-Huckel model is extended to mixed solvents by properly evaluating the dielectric...... constants and the liquid densities of the solvent media. To normalize the activity coefficients, the symmetric convention is adopted. Thermochemical properties of the salt are used to estimate the solubility product. It is shown that the proposed procedure can describe with good accuracy a series of salt...
Implementation of two-component advective flow solution in XSPEC
Debnath, Dipak; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.; Mondal, Santanu
2014-05-01
Spectral and temporal properties of black hole candidates can be explained reasonably well using Chakrabarti-Titarchuk solution of two-component advective flow (TCAF). This model requires two accretion rates, namely the Keplerian disc accretion rate and the halo accretion rate, the latter being composed of a sub-Keplerian, low-angular-momentum flow which may or may not develop a shock. In this solution, the relevant parameter is the relative importance of the halo (which creates the Compton cloud region) rate with respect to the Keplerian disc rate (soft photon source). Though this model has been used earlier to manually fit data of several black hole candidates quite satisfactorily, for the first time, we made it user friendly by implementing it into XSPEC software of Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC)/NASA. This enables any user to extract physical parameters of the accretion flows, such as two accretion rates, the shock location, the shock strength, etc., for any black hole candidate. We provide some examples of fitting a few cases using this model. Most importantly, unlike any other model, we show that TCAF is capable of predicting timing properties from the spectral fits, since in TCAF, a shock is responsible for deciding spectral slopes as well as quasi-periodic oscillation frequencies. L86
Linear and Generalized Linear Mixed Models and Their Applications
Jiang, Jiming
2007-01-01
This book covers two major classes of mixed effects models, linear mixed models and generalized linear mixed models, and it presents an up-to-date account of theory and methods in analysis of these models as well as their applications in various fields. The book offers a systematic approach to inference about non-Gaussian linear mixed models. Furthermore, it has included recently developed methods, such as mixed model diagnostics, mixed model selection, and jackknife method in the context of mixed models. The book is aimed at students, researchers and other practitioners who are interested
Evaluation of a Linear Mixing Model to Retrieve Soil and Vegetation Temperatures of Land Targets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang, Jinxin; Jia, Li; Cui, Yaokui; Zhou, Jie; Menenti, Massimo
2014-01-01
A simple linear mixing model of heterogeneous soil-vegetation system and retrieval of component temperatures from directional remote sensing measurements by inverting this model is evaluated in this paper using observations by a thermal camera. The thermal camera was used to obtain multi-angular TIR (Thermal Infra-Red) images over vegetable and orchard canopies. A whole thermal camera image was treated as a pixel of a satellite image to evaluate the model with the two-component system, i.e. soil and vegetation. The evaluation included two parts: evaluation of the linear mixing model and evaluation of the inversion of the model to retrieve component temperatures. For evaluation of the linear mixing model, the RMSE is 0.2 K between the observed and modelled brightness temperatures, which indicates that the linear mixing model works well under most conditions. For evaluation of the model inversion, the RMSE between the model retrieved and the observed vegetation temperatures is 1.6K, correspondingly, the RMSE between the observed and retrieved soil temperatures is 2.0K. According to the evaluation of the sensitivity of retrieved component temperatures on fractional cover, the linear mixing model gives more accurate retrieval accuracies for both soil and vegetation temperatures under intermediate fractional cover conditions
Spin-excited oscillations in two-component fermion condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maruyama, Tomoyuki; Bertsch, George F.
2006-01-01
We investigate collective spin excitations in two-component fermion condensates with special consideration of unequal populations of the two components. The frequencies of monopole and dipole modes are calculated using Thomas-Fermi theory and the scaling approximation. As the fermion-fermion coupling is varied, the system shows various phases of the spin configuration. We demonstrate that spin oscillations have more sensitivity to the spin phase structures than the density oscillations
A Lagrangian mixing frequency model for transported PDF modeling
Turkeri, Hasret; Zhao, Xinyu
2017-11-01
In this study, a Lagrangian mixing frequency model is proposed for molecular mixing models within the framework of transported probability density function (PDF) methods. The model is based on the dissipations of mixture fraction and progress variables obtained from Lagrangian particles in PDF methods. The new model is proposed as a remedy to the difficulty in choosing the optimal model constant parameters when using conventional mixing frequency models. The model is implemented in combination with the Interaction by exchange with the mean (IEM) mixing model. The performance of the new model is examined by performing simulations of Sandia Flame D and the turbulent premixed flame from the Cambridge stratified flame series. The simulations are performed using the pdfFOAM solver which is a LES/PDF solver developed entirely in OpenFOAM. A 16-species reduced mechanism is used to represent methane/air combustion, and in situ adaptive tabulation is employed to accelerate the finite-rate chemistry calculations. The results are compared with experimental measurements as well as with the results obtained using conventional mixing frequency models. Dynamic mixing frequencies are predicted using the new model without solving additional transport equations, and good agreement with experimental data is observed.
Scotogenic model for co-bimaximal mixing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ferreira, P.M. [Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa - ISEL,1959-007 Lisboa (Portugal); Centro de Física Teórica e Computacional - FCUL, Universidade de Lisboa,R. Ernesto de Vasconcelos, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Grimus, W. [Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna,Boltzmanngasse 5, A-1090 Wien (Austria); Jurčiukonis, D. [Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astronomy, Vilnius University,Saul?etekio ave. 3, LT-10222 Vilnius (Lithuania); Lavoura, L. [CFTP, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa,1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)
2016-07-04
We present a scotogenic model, i.e. a one-loop neutrino mass model with dark right-handed neutrino gauge singlets and one inert dark scalar gauge doublet η, which has symmetries that lead to co-bimaximal mixing, i.e. to an atmospheric mixing angle θ{sub 23}=45{sup ∘} and to a CP-violating phase δ=±π/2, while the mixing angle θ{sub 13} remains arbitrary. The symmetries consist of softly broken lepton numbers L{sub α} (α=e,μ,τ), a non-standard CP symmetry, and three ℤ{sub 2} symmetries. We indicate two possibilities for extending the model to the quark sector. Since the model has, besides η, three scalar gauge doublets, we perform a thorough discussion of its scalar sector. We demonstrate that it can accommodate a Standard Model-like scalar with mass 125 GeV, with all the other charged and neutral scalars having much higher masses.
Relating masses and mixing angles. A model-independent model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hollik, Wolfgang Gregor [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Saldana-Salazar, Ulises Jesus [CINVESTAV (Mexico)
2016-07-01
In general, mixing angles and fermion masses are seen to be independent parameters of the Standard Model. However, exploiting the observed hierarchy in the masses, it is viable to construct the mixing matrices for both quarks and leptons in terms of the corresponding mass ratios only. A closer view on the symmetry properties leads to potential realizations of that approach in extensions of the Standard Model. We discuss the application in the context of flavored multi-Higgs models.
A mixed model framework for teratology studies.
Braeken, Johan; Tuerlinckx, Francis
2009-10-01
A mixed model framework is presented to model the characteristic multivariate binary anomaly data as provided in some teratology studies. The key features of the model are the incorporation of covariate effects, a flexible random effects distribution by means of a finite mixture, and the application of copula functions to better account for the relation structure of the anomalies. The framework is motivated by data of the Boston Anticonvulsant Teratogenesis study and offers an integrated approach to investigate substantive questions, concerning general and anomaly-specific exposure effects of covariates, interrelations between anomalies, and objective diagnostic measurement.
The two-component afterglow of Swift GRB 050802
Oates, S. R.; de Pasquale, M.; Page, M. J.; Blustin, A. J.; Zane, S.; McGowan, K.; Mason, K. O.; Poole, T. S.; Schady, P.; Roming, P. W. A.; Page, K. L.; Falcone, A.; Gehrels, N.
2007-09-01
This paper investigates GRB 050802, one of the best examples of a Swift gamma-ray burst afterglow that shows a break in the X-ray light curve, while the optical counterpart decays as a single power law. This burst has an optically bright afterglow of 16.5 mag, detected throughout the 170-650nm spectral range of the Ultraviolet and Optical Telescope (UVOT) onboard Swift. Observations began with the X-ray Telescope and UVOT telescopes 286s after the initial trigger and continued for 1.2 ×106s. The X-ray light curve consists of three power-law segments: a rise until 420s, followed by a slow decay with α =0.63 +/-0.03 until 5000s, after which, the light curve decays faster with a slope of α3 =1.59 +/-0.03. The optical light curve decays as a single power law with αO =0.82 +/-0.03 throughout the observation. The X-ray data on their own are consistent with the break at 5000s being due to the end of energy injection. Modelling the optical to X-ray spectral energy distribution, we find that the optical afterglow cannot be produced by the same component as the X-ray emission at late times, ruling out a single-component afterglow. We therefore considered two-component jet models and find that the X-ray and optical emission is best reproduced by a model in which both components are energy injected for the duration of the observed afterglow and the X-ray break at 5000s is due to a jet break in the narrow component. This bright, well-observed burst is likely a guide for interpreting the surprising finding of Swift that bursts seldom display achromatic jet breaks.
Two component systems: physiological effect of a third component.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Baldiri Salvado
Full Text Available Signal transduction systems mediate the response and adaptation of organisms to environmental changes. In prokaryotes, this signal transduction is often done through Two Component Systems (TCS. These TCS are phosphotransfer protein cascades, and in their prototypical form they are composed by a kinase that senses the environmental signals (SK and by a response regulator (RR that regulates the cellular response. This basic motif can be modified by the addition of a third protein that interacts either with the SK or the RR in a way that could change the dynamic response of the TCS module. In this work we aim at understanding the effect of such an additional protein (which we call "third component" on the functional properties of a prototypical TCS. To do so we build mathematical models of TCS with alternative designs for their interaction with that third component. These mathematical models are analyzed in order to identify the differences in dynamic behavior inherent to each design, with respect to functionally relevant properties such as sensitivity to changes in either the parameter values or the molecular concentrations, temporal responsiveness, possibility of multiple steady states, or stochastic fluctuations in the system. The differences are then correlated to the physiological requirements that impinge on the functioning of the TCS. This analysis sheds light on both, the dynamic behavior of synthetically designed TCS, and the conditions under which natural selection might favor each of the designs. We find that a third component that modulates SK activity increases the parameter space where a bistable response of the TCS module to signals is possible, if SK is monofunctional, but decreases it when the SK is bifunctional. The presence of a third component that modulates RR activity decreases the parameter space where a bistable response of the TCS module to signals is possible.
Discrete Symmetries and Models of Flavour Mixing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
King, Stephen F
2015-01-01
In this talk we shall give an overview of the role of discrete symmetries, including both CP and family symmetry, in constructing unified models of quark and lepton (including especially neutrino) masses and mixing. Various different approaches to model building will be described, denoted as direct, semi-direct and indirect, and the pros and cons of each approach discussed. Particular examples based on Δ(6n 2 ) will be discussed and an A to Z of Flavour with Pati-Salam will be presented. (paper)
Models of neutrino mass and mixing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ma, Ernest
2000-01-01
There are two basic theoretical approaches to obtaining neutrino mass and mixing. In the minimalist approach, one adds just enough new stuff to the Minimal Standard Model to get m ν ≠0 and U αi ≠1. In the holistic approach, one uses a general framework or principle to enlarge the Minimal Standard Model such that, among other things, m ν ≠0 and U αi ≠1. In both cases, there are important side effects besides neutrino oscillations. I discuss a number of examples, including the possibility of leptogenesis from R parity nonconservation in supersymmetry
Two component micro injection moulding for moulded interconnect devices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Islam, Aminul
2008-01-01
Moulded interconnect devices (MIDs) contain huge possibilities for many applications in micro electro-mechanical-systems because of their capability of reducing the number of components, process steps and finally in miniaturization of the product. Among the available MID process chains, two...... component injection moulding is one of the most industrially adaptive processes. However, the use of two component injection moulding for MID fabrication, with circuit patterns in the sub-millimeter range, is still a big challenge at the present state of technology. The scope of the current Ph.D. project...... and a reasonable adhesion between them. • Selective metallization of the two component plastic part (coating one polymer with metal and leaving the other one uncoated) To overcome these two main issues in MID fabrication for micro applications, the current Ph.D. project explores the technical difficulties...
BDA special care case mix model.
Bateman, P; Arnold, C; Brown, R; Foster, L V; Greening, S; Monaghan, N; Zoitopoulos, L
2010-04-10
Routine dental care provided in special care dentistry is complicated by patient specific factors which increase the time taken and costs of treatment. The BDA have developed and conducted a field trial of a case mix tool to measure this complexity. For each episode of care the case mix tool assesses the following on a four point scale: 'ability to communicate', 'ability to cooperate', 'medical status', 'oral risk factors', 'access to oral care' and 'legal and ethical barriers to care'. The tool is reported to be easy to use and captures sufficient detail to discriminate between types of service and special care dentistry provided. It offers potential as a simple to use and clinically relevant source of performance management and commissioning data. This paper describes the model, demonstrates how it is currently being used, and considers future developments in its use.
Two-component feedback loops and deformed mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tourigny, David S.
2015-01-01
It is shown that a general two-component feedback loop can be viewed as a deformed Hamiltonian system. Some of the implications of using ideas from theoretical physics to study biological processes are discussed. - Highlights: • Two-component molecular feedback loops are viewed as q-deformed Hamiltonian systems. • Deformations are reversed using Jackson derivatives to take advantage of working in the Hamiltonian limit. • New results are derived for the particular examples considered. • General deformations are suggested to be associated with a broader class of biological processes
Itinerant Ferromagnetism in a Polarized Two-Component Fermi Gas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Massignan, Pietro; Yu, Zhenhua; Bruun, Georg
2013-01-01
We analyze when a repulsively interacting two-component Fermi gas becomes thermodynamically unstable against phase separation. We focus on the strongly polarized limit, where the free energy of the homogeneous mixture can be calculated accurately in terms of well-defined quasiparticles, the repul......We analyze when a repulsively interacting two-component Fermi gas becomes thermodynamically unstable against phase separation. We focus on the strongly polarized limit, where the free energy of the homogeneous mixture can be calculated accurately in terms of well-defined quasiparticles...
Model Selection with the Linear Mixed Model for Longitudinal Data
Ryoo, Ji Hoon
2011-01-01
Model building or model selection with linear mixed models (LMMs) is complicated by the presence of both fixed effects and random effects. The fixed effects structure and random effects structure are codependent, so selection of one influences the other. Most presentations of LMM in psychology and education are based on a multilevel or…
The fractional virial potential energy in two-component systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Caimmi R.
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Two-component systems are conceived as macrogases, and the related equation of state is expressed using the virial theorem for subsystems, under the restriction of homeoidally striated density profiles. Explicit calculations are performed for a useful reference case and a few cases of astrophysical interest, both with and without truncation radius. Shallower density profiles are found to yield an equation of state, φ = φ(y, m, characterized (for assigned values of the fractional mass, m = Mj /Mi by the occurrence of two extremum points, a minimum and a maximum, as found in an earlier attempt. Steeper density profiles produce a similar equation of state, which implies that a special value of m is related to a critical curve where the above mentioned extremum points reduce to a single horizontal inflexion point, and curves below the critical one show no extremum points. The similarity of the isofractional mass curves to van der Waals' isothermal curves, suggests the possibility of a phase transition in a bell-shaped region of the (Oyφ plane, where the fractional truncation radius along a selected direction is y = Rj /Ri , and the fractional virial potential energy is φ = (Eji vir /(Eij vir . Further investigation is devoted to mass distributions described by Hernquist (1990 density profiles, for which an additional relation can be used to represent a sample of N = 16 elliptical galaxies (EGs on the (Oyφ plane. Even if the evolution of elliptical galaxies and their hosting dark matter (DM haloes, in the light of the model, has been characterized by equal fractional mass, m, and equal scaled truncation radius, or concentration, Ξu = Ru /r† , u = i, j, still it cannot be considered as strictly homologous, due to different values of fractional truncation radii, y, or fractional scaling radii, y† = r† /r† , deduced from sample objects.
Simplified models of mixed dark matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheung, Clifford; Sanford, David
2014-01-01
We explore simplified models of mixed dark matter (DM), defined here to be a stable relic composed of a singlet and an electroweak charged state. Our setup describes a broad spectrum of thermal DM candidates that can naturally accommodate the observed DM abundance but are subject to substantial constraints from current and upcoming direct detection experiments. We identify ''blind spots'' at which the DM-Higgs coupling is identically zero, thus nullifying direct detection constraints on spin independent scattering. Furthermore, we characterize the fine-tuning in mixing angles, i.e. well-tempering, required for thermal freeze-out to accommodate the observed abundance. Present and projected limits from LUX and XENON1T force many thermal relic models into blind spot tuning, well-tempering, or both. This simplified model framework generalizes bino-Higgsino DM in the MSSM, singlino-Higgsino DM in the NMSSM, and scalar DM candidates that appear in models of extended Higgs sectors
J. Lu; F. M. Bowman
2010-01-01
A new method for describing externally mixed particles, the Detailed Aerosol Mixing State (DAMS) representation, is presented in this study. This novel method classifies aerosols by both composition and size, using a user-specified mixing criterion to define boundaries between compositional populations. Interactions between aerosol mixing state, semivolatile partitioning, and coagulation are investigated with a Lagrangian box model that incorporates the DAMS approach. Model results predict th...
Additive action model for mixed irradiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lam, G.K.Y.
1984-01-01
Recent experimental results indicate that a mixture of high and low LET radiation may have some beneficial features (such as lower OER but with skin sparing) for clinical use, and interest has been renewed in the study of mixtures of high and low LET radiation. Several standard radiation inactivation models can readily accommodate interaction between two mixed radiations, however, this is usually handled by postulating extra free parameters, which can only be determined by fitting to experimental data. A model without any free parameter is proposed to explain the biological effect of mixed radiations, based on the following two assumptions: (a) The combined biological action due to two radiations is additive, assuming no repair has taken place during the interval between the two irradiations; and (b) The initial physical damage induced by radiation develops into final biological effect (e.g. cell killing) over a relatively long period (hours) after irradiation. This model has been shown to provide satisfactory fit to the experiment results of previous studies
Mixing parametrizations for ocean climate modelling
Gusev, Anatoly; Moshonkin, Sergey; Diansky, Nikolay; Zalesny, Vladimir
2016-04-01
The algorithm is presented of splitting the total evolutionary equations for the turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) and turbulence dissipation frequency (TDF), which is used to parameterize the viscosity and diffusion coefficients in ocean circulation models. The turbulence model equations are split into the stages of transport-diffusion and generation-dissipation. For the generation-dissipation stage, the following schemes are implemented: the explicit-implicit numerical scheme, analytical solution and the asymptotic behavior of the analytical solutions. The experiments were performed with different mixing parameterizations for the modelling of Arctic and the Atlantic climate decadal variability with the eddy-permitting circulation model INMOM (Institute of Numerical Mathematics Ocean Model) using vertical grid refinement in the zone of fully developed turbulence. The proposed model with the split equations for turbulence characteristics is similar to the contemporary differential turbulence models, concerning the physical formulations. At the same time, its algorithm has high enough computational efficiency. Parameterizations with using the split turbulence model make it possible to obtain more adequate structure of temperature and salinity at decadal timescales, compared to the simpler Pacanowski-Philander (PP) turbulence parameterization. Parameterizations with using analytical solution or numerical scheme at the generation-dissipation step of the turbulence model leads to better representation of ocean climate than the faster parameterization using the asymptotic behavior of the analytical solution. At the same time, the computational efficiency left almost unchanged relative to the simple PP parameterization. Usage of PP parametrization in the circulation model leads to realistic simulation of density and circulation with violation of T,S-relationships. This error is majorly avoided with using the proposed parameterizations containing the split turbulence model
Inference of ICF Implosion Core Mix using Experimental Data and Theoretical Mix Modeling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Welser-Sherrill, L.; Haynes, D.A.; Mancini, R.C.; Cooley, J.H.; Tommasini, R.; Golovkin, I.E.; Sherrill, M.E.; Haan, S.W.
2009-01-01
The mixing between fuel and shell materials in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) implosion cores is a current topic of interest. The goal of this work was to design direct-drive ICF experiments which have varying levels of mix, and subsequently to extract information on mixing directly from the experimental data using spectroscopic techniques. The experimental design was accomplished using hydrodynamic simulations in conjunction with Haan's saturation model, which was used to predict the mix levels of candidate experimental configurations. These theoretical predictions were then compared to the mixing information which was extracted from the experimental data, and it was found that Haan's mix model performed well in predicting trends in the width of the mix layer. With these results, we have contributed to an assessment of the range of validity and predictive capability of the Haan saturation model, as well as increased our confidence in the methods used to extract mixing information from experimental data.
Multiple model adaptive control with mixing
Kuipers, Matthew
Despite the remarkable theoretical accomplishments and successful applications of adaptive control, the field is not sufficiently mature to solve challenging control problems requiring strict performance and safety guarantees. Towards addressing these issues, a novel deterministic multiple-model adaptive control approach called adaptive mixing control is proposed. In this approach, adaptation comes from a high-level system called the supervisor that mixes into feedback a number of candidate controllers, each finely-tuned to a subset of the parameter space. The mixing signal, the supervisor's output, is generated by estimating the unknown parameters and, at every instant of time, calculating the contribution level of each candidate controller based on certainty equivalence. The proposed architecture provides two characteristics relevant to solving stringent, performance-driven applications. First, the full-suite of linear time invariant control tools is available. A disadvantage of conventional adaptive control is its restriction to utilizing only those control laws whose solutions can be feasibly computed in real-time, such as model reference and pole-placement type controllers. Because its candidate controllers are computed off line, the proposed approach suffers no such restriction. Second, the supervisor's output is smooth and does not necessarily depend on explicit a priori knowledge of the disturbance model. These characteristics can lead to improved performance by avoiding the unnecessary switching and chattering behaviors associated with some other multiple adaptive control approaches. The stability and robustness properties of the adaptive scheme are analyzed. It is shown that the mean-square regulation error is of the order of the modeling error. And when the parameter estimate converges to its true value, which is guaranteed if a persistence of excitation condition is satisfied, the adaptive closed-loop system converges exponentially fast to a closed
Mixed models in cerebral ischemia study
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Matheus Henrique Dal Molin Ribeiro
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The data modeling from longitudinal studies stands out in the current scientific scenario, especially in the areas of health and biological sciences, which induces a correlation between measurements for the same observed unit. Thus, the modeling of the intra-individual dependency is required through the choice of a covariance structure that is able to receive and accommodate the sample variability. However, the lack of methodology for correlated data analysis may result in an increased occurrence of type I or type II errors and underestimate/overestimate the standard errors of the model estimates. In the present study, a Gaussian mixed model was adopted for the variable response latency of an experiment investigating the memory deficits in animals subjected to cerebral ischemia when treated with fish oil (FO. The model parameters estimation was based on maximum likelihood methods. Based on the restricted likelihood ratio test and information criteria, the autoregressive covariance matrix was adopted for errors. The diagnostic analyses for the model were satisfactory, since basic assumptions and results obtained corroborate with biological evidence; that is, the effectiveness of the FO treatment to alleviate the cognitive effects caused by cerebral ischemia was found.
A two-component NZRI metamaterial based rectangular cloak
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sikder Sunbeam Islam
2015-10-01
Full Text Available A new two-component, near zero refractive index (NZRI metamaterial is presented for electromagnetic rectangular cloaking operation in the microwave range. In the basic design a pi-shaped, metamaterial was developed and its characteristics were investigated for the two major axes (x and z-axis wave propagation through the material. For the z-axis wave propagation, it shows more than 2 GHz bandwidth and for the x-axis wave propagation; it exhibits more than 1 GHz bandwidth of NZRI property. The metamaterial was then utilized in designing a rectangular cloak where a metal cylinder was cloaked perfectly in the C-band area of microwave regime. The experimental result was provided for the metamaterial and the cloak and these results were compared with the simulated results. This is a novel and promising design for its two-component NZRI characteristics and rectangular cloaking operation in the electromagnetic paradigm.
Brazilian two-component TLD albedo neutron individual monitoring system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martins, M.M., E-mail: marcelo@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Av. Salvador Allende, s/n, CEP: 22780-160, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mauricio, C.L.P., E-mail: claudia@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Av. Salvador Allende, s/n, CEP: 22780-160, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Fonseca, E.S. da, E-mail: evaldo@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Av. Salvador Allende, s/n, CEP: 22780-160, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, A.X. da, E-mail: ademir@con.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia, COPPE/PEN Caixa Postal 68509, CEP: 21941-972, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
2010-12-15
Since 1983, Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, Brazil, uses a TLD one-component albedo neutron monitor, which has a single different calibration factor specifically for each installation type. In order to improve its energy response, a two-component albedo monitor was developed, which measure the thermal neutron component besides the albedo one. The two-component monitor has been calibrated in reference neutron fields: thermal, five accelerator-produced monoenergetic beams (70, 144, 565, 1200 and 5000 keV) and five radionuclide sources ({sup 252}Cf, {sup 252}Cf(D{sub 2}O), {sup 241}Am-Be, {sup 241}Am-B and {sup 238}Pu-Be) at several distances. Since January 2008, mainly Brazilian workers who handle neutron sources at different distances and moderation, such as in well logging and calibration facilities are using it routinely.
The Fractional Virial Potential Energy in Two-Component Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Caimmi, R.
2008-12-01
Full Text Available Two-component systems are conceived as macrogases, and the related equation of state is expressed using the virial theorem for subsystems, under the restriction of homeoidally striated density profiles. Explicit calculations are performed for a useful reference case and a few cases of astrophysical interest, both with and without truncation radius. Shallower density profiles are found to yield an equation of state, $phi=phi(y,m$, characterized (for assigned values of the fractional mass, $m=M_j/ M_i$ by the occurrence of two extremum points, a minimum and a maximum, as found in an earlier attempt. Steeper density profiles produce a similar equation of state, which implies that a special value of $m$ is related to a critical curve where the above mentioned extremum points reduce to a single horizontal inflexion point, and curves below the critical one show no extremum points. The similarity of the isofractional mass curves to van der Waals' isothermal curves, suggests the possibility of a phase transition in a bell-shaped region of the $({sf O}yphi$ plane, where the fractional truncation radius along a selected direction is $y=R_j/R_i$, and the fractional virial potential energy is $phi=(E_{ji}_mathrm{vir}/(E_{ij}_mathrm{vir}$. Further investigation is devoted to mass distributions described by Hernquist (1990 density profiles, for which an additional relation can be used to represent a sample of $N=16$ elliptical galaxies (EGs on the $({sf O}yphi$ plane. Even if the evolution of elliptical galaxies and their hosting dark matter (DM haloes, in the light of the model, has been characterized by equal fractional mass, $m$, and equal scaled truncation radius, or concentration, $Xi_u=R_u/r_u^dagger$, $u=i,j$, still it cannot be considered as strictly homologous, due to different values of fractional truncation radii, $y$, or fractional scaling radii, $y^dagger=r_j^dagger/r_i^dagger$, deduced from sample objects.
On the Alexander polynominals of alternating two-component links
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mark E. Kidwell
1979-01-01
Full Text Available Let L be an alternating two-component link with Alexander polynomial Δ(x,y. Then the polynomials (1−xΔ(x,y and (1−yΔ(x,y are alternating. That is, (1−yΔ(x,y can be written as ∑i,jcijxiyj in such a way that (−1i+jcij≥0.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ohlsson, S.; Stroem, J. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Meteorology
1997-12-31
When exhaust gases from an aircraft engine mix with ambient air the humidity may reach water saturation and water droplets will form on the available cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). It is still not resolved if the CCN, on which the cloud droplets form, are mainly particles present in the ambient air or particles emitted by the aircraft. It the exhaust from a jet engine the particles are believed to consist mainly of black carbon (BC) and sulfate. The aim is to study, with the help of a numerical model, how a two-component aerosol (i.e. BC and sulfate) in an exhaust trail may be transformed in terms of hygroscopicity by coagulation mixing and how this may depend on the sulfur content in the fuel. (R.P.) 15 refs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ohlsson, S; Stroem, J [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Meteorology
1998-12-31
When exhaust gases from an aircraft engine mix with ambient air the humidity may reach water saturation and water droplets will form on the available cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). It is still not resolved if the CCN, on which the cloud droplets form, are mainly particles present in the ambient air or particles emitted by the aircraft. It the exhaust from a jet engine the particles are believed to consist mainly of black carbon (BC) and sulfate. The aim is to study, with the help of a numerical model, how a two-component aerosol (i.e. BC and sulfate) in an exhaust trail may be transformed in terms of hygroscopicity by coagulation mixing and how this may depend on the sulfur content in the fuel. (R.P.) 15 refs.
Nonlinear low frequency electrostatic structures in a magnetized two-component auroral plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rufai, O. R., E-mail: rajirufai@gmail.com [University of the Western Cape, Bellville 7535, Cape-Town (South Africa); Scientific Computing, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St John' s, Newfoundland and Labrador A1C 5S7 (Canada); Bharuthram, R., E-mail: rbharuthram@uwc.ac.za [University of the Western Cape, Bellville 7535, Cape-Town (South Africa); Singh, S. V., E-mail: satyavir@iigs.iigm.res.in; Lakhina, G. S., E-mail: lakhina@iigs.iigm.res.in [University of the Western Cape, Bellville 7535, Cape-Town (South Africa); Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, New Panvel (W), Navi Mumbai 410218 (India)
2016-03-15
Finite amplitude nonlinear ion-acoustic solitons, double layers, and supersolitons in a magnetized two-component plasma composed of adiabatic warm ions fluid and energetic nonthermal electrons are studied by employing the Sagdeev pseudopotential technique and assuming the charge neutrality condition at equilibrium. The model generates supersoliton structures at supersonic Mach numbers regime in addition to solitons and double layers, whereas in the unmagnetized two-component plasma case only, soliton and double layer solutions can be obtained. Further investigation revealed that wave obliqueness plays a critical role for the evolution of supersoliton structures in magnetized two-component plasmas. In addition, the effect of ion temperature and nonthermal energetic electron tends to decrease the speed of oscillation of the nonlinear electrostatic structures. The present theoretical results are compared with Viking satellite observations.
Vortex formation in a rotating two-component Fermi gas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Warringa, Harmen J.; Sedrakian, Armen [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)
2011-08-15
A two-component Fermi gas with attractive s-wave interactions forms a superfluid at low temperatures. When this gas is confined in a rotating trap, fermions can unpair at the edges of the gas and vortices can arise beyond certain critical rotation frequencies. We compute these critical rotation frequencies and construct the phase diagram in the plane of scattering length and rotation frequency for different total numbers of particles. We work at zero temperature and consider a cylindrically symmetric harmonic trapping potential. The calculations are performed in the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov approximation which implies that our results are quantitatively reliable for weak interactions.
Two component micro injection molding for MID fabrication
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Islam, Mohammad Aminul; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Tang, Peter Torben
2009-01-01
Molded Interconnect Devices (MIDs) are plastic substrates with electrical infrastructure. The fabrication of MIDs is usually based on injection molding and different process chains may be identified from this starting point. The use of MIDs has been driven primarily by the automotive sector......, but recently the medical sector seems more and more interested. In particular the possibility of miniaturization of 3D components with electrical infrastructure is attractive. The paper describes possible manufacturing routes and challenges of miniaturized MIDs based on two component micro injection molding...
A Note on the Identifiability of Generalized Linear Mixed Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Labouriau, Rodrigo
2014-01-01
I present here a simple proof that, under general regularity conditions, the standard parametrization of generalized linear mixed model is identifiable. The proof is based on the assumptions of generalized linear mixed models on the first and second order moments and some general mild regularity...... conditions, and, therefore, is extensible to quasi-likelihood based generalized linear models. In particular, binomial and Poisson mixed models with dispersion parameter are identifiable when equipped with the standard parametrization...
Madadi-Kandjani, E.; Fox, R. O.; Passalacqua, A.
2017-06-01
An extended quadrature method of moments using the β kernel density function (β -EQMOM) is used to approximate solutions to the evolution equation for univariate and bivariate composition probability distribution functions (PDFs) of a passive scalar for binary and ternary mixing. The key element of interest is the molecular mixing term, which is described using the Fokker-Planck (FP) molecular mixing model. The direct numerical simulations (DNSs) of Eswaran and Pope ["Direct numerical simulations of the turbulent mixing of a passive scalar," Phys. Fluids 31, 506 (1988)] and the amplitude mapping closure (AMC) of Pope ["Mapping closures for turbulent mixing and reaction," Theor. Comput. Fluid Dyn. 2, 255 (1991)] are taken as reference solutions to establish the accuracy of the FP model in the case of binary mixing. The DNSs of Juneja and Pope ["A DNS study of turbulent mixing of two passive scalars," Phys. Fluids 8, 2161 (1996)] are used to validate the results obtained for ternary mixing. Simulations are performed with both the conditional scalar dissipation rate (CSDR) proposed by Fox [Computational Methods for Turbulent Reacting Flows (Cambridge University Press, 2003)] and the CSDR from AMC, with the scalar dissipation rate provided as input and obtained from the DNS. Using scalar moments up to fourth order, the ability of the FP model to capture the evolution of the shape of the PDF, important in turbulent mixing problems, is demonstrated. Compared to the widely used assumed β -PDF model [S. S. Girimaji, "Assumed β-pdf model for turbulent mixing: Validation and extension to multiple scalar mixing," Combust. Sci. Technol. 78, 177 (1991)], the β -EQMOM solution to the FP model more accurately describes the initial mixing process with a relatively small increase in computational cost.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. I. Lytkina
2016-01-01
Full Text Available A mathematical model of the polydisperse medium mixing process reflects its stochastic features in the form of uneven distribution of phase elements on the time of their presence in apparatus, particle size, ripple retention of the apparatus, random distribution of the material and thermal phase flows of the working volume, heterogeneity of the medium physical- and chemical properties, complicated by chemical reaction. For the mathematical description of the mixing process of animal feed ingredients in the presence of chemical reaction the system of differential equations of Academician V.V. Kafarov was used. Proposed by him hypothesis based on the theory of Markov’s processes stating that "any multicomponent mixture can be considered as the result of an iterative process of mixing the two components to achieve the desired uniformity of all the ingredients in the mixture" allows us to consider a process of mixing binary composition in a paddle mixer in the form of differential equations of two ingredients concentration numerous changes until it becomes a homogenous mixture. It was found out that the mixing process of the two-component mixture is determined in a paddle mixer with a constant mixing speed and a limit (equilibrium dispersion of the ingredients in the mixture i.e. with its uniformity. Adjustment of the model parameters was carried out according to the results of experimental studies on mixing the crushed wheat with metallomagnetic impurity, which was a key (indicator component. According to the best values of the constant of the continuous mixing speed and the equilibrium disperse values of the ingredients contents, the mathematical model parameters identification was carried out. The results obtained are used to develop a new generation mixer design.
Zero-range approximation for two-component boson systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sogo, T.; Fedorov, D.V.; Jensen, A.S.
2005-01-01
The hyperspherical adiabatic expansion method is combined with the zero-range approximation to derive angular Faddeev-like equations for two-component boson systems. The angular eigenvalues are solutions to a transcendental equation obtained as a vanishing determinant of a 3 x 3 matrix. The eigenfunctions are linear combinations of Jacobi functions of argument proportional to the distance between pairs of particles. We investigate numerically the influence of two-body correlations on the eigenvalue spectrum, the eigenfunctions and the effective hyperradial potential. Correlations decrease or increase the distance between pairs for effectively attractive or repulsive interactions, respectively. New structures appear for non-identical components. Fingerprints can be found in the nodal structure of the density distributions of the condensates. (author)
How insects overcome two-component plant chemical defence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pentzold, Stefan; Zagrobelny, Mika; Rook, Frederik
2014-01-01
Insect herbivory is often restricted by glucosylated plant chemical defence compounds that are activated by plant β-glucosidases to release toxic aglucones upon plant tissue damage. Such two-component plant defences are widespread in the plant kingdom and examples of these classes of compounds...... are alkaloid, benzoxazinoid, cyanogenic and iridoid glucosides as well as glucosinolates and salicinoids. Conversely, many insects have evolved a diversity of counteradaptations to overcome this type of constitutive chemical defence. Here we discuss that such counter-adaptations occur at different time points......, before and during feeding as well as during digestion, and at several levels such as the insects’ feeding behaviour, physiology and metabolism. Insect adaptations frequently circumvent or counteract the activity of the plant β-glucosidases, bioactivating enzymes that are a key element in the plant’s two...
Bond strength of two component injection moulded MID
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Islam, Mohammad Aminul; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Tang, Peter Torben
2006-01-01
Most products of the future will require industrially adapted, cost effective production processes and on this issue two-component (2K) injection moulding is a potential candidate for MID manufacturing. MID based on 2k injection moulded plastic part with selectively metallised circuit tracks allows...... the two different plastic materials in the MID structure require good bonding between them. This paper finds suitable combinations of materials for MIDs from both bond strength and metallisation view-point. Plastic parts were made by two-shot injection moulding and the effects of some important process...... the integration of electrical and mechanical functionalities in a real 3D structure. If 2k injection moulding is applied with two polymers, of which one is plateable and the other is not, it will be possible to make 3D electrical structures directly on the component. To be applicable in the real engineering field...
Two Component Injection Moulding for Moulded Interconnect Devices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Islam, Aminul
component (2k) injection moulding is one of the most industrially adaptive processes. However, the use of two component injection moulding for MID fabrication, with circuit patterns in sub-millimeter range, is still a big challenge. This book searches for the technical difficulties associated...... with the process and makes attempts to overcome those challenges. In search of suitable polymer materials for MID applications, potential materials are characterized in terms of polymer-polymer bond strength, polymer-polymer interface quality and selective metallization. The experimental results find the factors...... which can effectively control the quality of 2k moulded parts and metallized MIDs. This book presents documented knowledge about MID process chains, 2k moulding and selective metallization which can be valuable source of information for both academic and industrial users....
Modeling molecular mixing in a spatially inhomogeneous turbulent flow
Meyer, Daniel W.; Deb, Rajdeep
2012-02-01
Simulations of spatially inhomogeneous turbulent mixing in decaying grid turbulence with a joint velocity-concentration probability density function (PDF) method were conducted. The inert mixing scenario involves three streams with different compositions. The mixing model of Meyer ["A new particle interaction mixing model for turbulent dispersion and turbulent reactive flows," Phys. Fluids 22(3), 035103 (2010)], the interaction by exchange with the mean (IEM) model and its velocity-conditional variant, i.e., the IECM model, were applied. For reference, the direct numerical simulation data provided by Sawford and de Bruyn Kops ["Direct numerical simulation and lagrangian modeling of joint scalar statistics in ternary mixing," Phys. Fluids 20(9), 095106 (2008)] was used. It was found that velocity conditioning is essential to obtain accurate concentration PDF predictions. Moreover, the model of Meyer provides significantly better results compared to the IECM model at comparable computational expense.
Lagrangian mixed layer modeling of the western equatorial Pacific
Shinoda, Toshiaki; Lukas, Roger
1995-01-01
Processes that control the upper ocean thermohaline structure in the western equatorial Pacific are examined using a Lagrangian mixed layer model. The one-dimensional bulk mixed layer model of Garwood (1977) is integrated along the trajectories derived from a nonlinear 1 1/2 layer reduced gravity model forced with actual wind fields. The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) data are used to estimate surface freshwater fluxes for the mixed layer model. The wind stress data which forced the 1 1/2 layer model are used for the mixed layer model. The model was run for the period 1987-1988. This simple model is able to simulate the isothermal layer below the mixed layer in the western Pacific warm pool and its variation. The subduction mechanism hypothesized by Lukas and Lindstrom (1991) is evident in the model results. During periods of strong South Equatorial Current, the warm and salty mixed layer waters in the central Pacific are subducted below the fresh shallow mixed layer in the western Pacific. However, this subduction mechanism is not evident when upwelling Rossby waves reach the western equatorial Pacific or when a prominent deepening of the mixed layer occurs in the western equatorial Pacific or when a prominent deepening of the mixed layer occurs in the western equatorial Pacific due to episodes of strong wind and light precipitation associated with the El Nino-Southern Oscillation. Comparison of the results between the Lagrangian mixed layer model and a locally forced Eulerian mixed layer model indicated that horizontal advection of salty waters from the central Pacific strongly affects the upper ocean salinity variation in the western Pacific, and that this advection is necessary to maintain the upper ocean thermohaline structure in this region.
Modeling tides and vertical tidal mixing: A reality check
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Robertson, Robin
2010-01-01
Recently, there has been a great interest in the tidal contribution to vertical mixing in the ocean. In models, vertical mixing is estimated using parameterization of the sub-grid scale processes. Estimates of the vertical mixing varied widely depending on which vertical mixing parameterization was used. This study investigated the performance of ten different vertical mixing parameterizations in a terrain-following ocean model when simulating internal tides. The vertical mixing parameterization was found to have minor effects on the velocity fields at the tidal frequencies, but large effects on the estimates of vertical diffusivity of temperature. Although there was no definitive best performer for the vertical mixing parameterization, several parameterizations were eliminated based on comparison of the vertical diffusivity estimates with observations. The best performers were the new generic coefficients for the generic length scale schemes and Mellor-Yamada's 2.5 level closure scheme.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Lu
2010-04-01
Full Text Available A new method for describing externally mixed particles, the Detailed Aerosol Mixing State (DAMS representation, is presented in this study. This novel method classifies aerosols by both composition and size, using a user-specified mixing criterion to define boundaries between compositional populations. Interactions between aerosol mixing state, semivolatile partitioning, and coagulation are investigated with a Lagrangian box model that incorporates the DAMS approach. Model results predict that mixing state affects the amount and types of semivolatile organics that partition to available aerosol phases, causing external mixtures to produce a more size-varying composition than internal mixtures. Both coagulation and condensation contribute to the mixing of emitted particles, producing a collection of multiple compositionally distinct aerosol populations that exists somewhere between the extremes of a strictly external or internal mixture. The selection of mixing criteria has a significant impact on the size and type of individual populations that compose the modeled aerosol mixture. Computational demands for external mixture modeling are significant and can be controlled by limiting the number of aerosol populations used in the model.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Collins, R.; Perez-Martin, A.M.C.; Dominguez-Vazquez, J.; Jimenez-Rodriguez, J.J.
1994-01-01
A simple model for three-dimensional material relaxation associated with atomic mixing is presented. The relaxation of the solid to accommodate the extra effective displacement volume Ω of an implanted or relocated atom is modelled by treating the surrounding solid as an incompressible medium. This leads to a tractable general formalism which can be used to predict implant distribution and changes in surface topography induced by ion beams, both in monatomic and multicomponent targets. The two-component case is discussed in detail. (orig.)
Liu, Jingjing; Yin, Zhaoyang
2014-01-01
This paper is concerned with global existence and blow-up phenomena for two-component Degasperis-Procesi system and two-component b-family system. The strategy relies on our observation on new conservative quantities of these systems. Several new global existence results and a new blowup result of strong solutions to the two-component Degasperis- Procesi system and the two-component b-family system are presented by using these new conservative quantities.
Modeling Dynamic Effects of the Marketing Mix on Market Shares
D. Fok (Dennis); R. Paap (Richard); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)
2003-01-01
textabstractTo comprehend the competitive structure of a market, it is important to understand the short-run and long-run effects of the marketing mix on market shares. A useful model to link market shares with marketing-mix variables, like price and promotion, is the market share attraction model.
Parameter studies for a two-component fusion experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Towner, H.H.
1975-01-01
The sensitivity of the energy multiplication of a two-component fusion experiment is examined relative to the following parameters: energy confinement time (tau/sub E/), particle confinement time (tau/sub p/), effective Z of the plasma (Z/sub eff/), injection rate (j/sub I/) and injection energy (E/sub I/). The Energy Research and Development Administration recently approved funding for such a fusion device (the Toroidal Fusion Test Reactor or TFTR) which will be built at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. Hence, such a parameter study seems both timely and necessary. This work also serves as an independent check on the design values proposed for the TFTR to enable it to achieve energy breakeven (F = 1). Using the nominal TFTR design parameters and a self-consistent ion-electron power balance, the maximum F-value is found to be approximately 1.2 which occurs at an injection energy of approximately 210 KeV. The injector operation, i.e. its current and energy capability are shown to be a very critical factor in the TFTR performance. However, if the injectors meet the design objectives, there appears to be sufficient latitude in the other parameters to offer reasonable assurance that energy breakeven can be achieved. (U.S.)
Composite fermion basis for two-component Bose gases
Meyer, Marius; Liabotro, Ola
The composite fermion (CF) construction is known to produce wave functions that are not necessarily orthogonal, or even linearly independent, after projection. While usually not a practical issue in the quantum Hall regime, we have previously shown that it presents a technical challenge for rotating Bose gases with low angular momentum. These are systems where the CF approach yield surprisingly good approximations to the exact eigenstates of weak short-range interactions, and so solving the problem of linearly dependent wave functions is of interest. It can also be useful for studying CF excitations for fermions. Here we present several ways of constructing a basis for the space of ``simple CF states'' for two-component rotating Bose gases in the lowest Landau level, and prove that they all give a basis. Using the basis, we study the structure of the lowest-lying state using so-called restricted wave functions. We also examine the scaling of the overlap between the exact and CF wave functions at the maximal possible angular momentum for simple states. This work was financially supported by the Research Council of Norway.
Cold component flow in a two-component mirror machine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rognlien, T.D.
1975-12-01
Steady-state solutions are given for the flow characteristics along the magnetic field of the cold plasma component in a two-component mirror machine. The hot plasma component is represented by a fixed density profile. The fluid equations are used to describe the cold plasma, which is assumed to be generated in a localized region at one end of the machine. The ion flow speed, v/sub i/, is required to satisfy the Bohm sheath condition at the end walls, i.e., v/sub i/ greater than or equal to c/sub s/, where c/sub s/ is the ion-acoustic speed. For the case when the cold plasma density, n/sub c/, is much less than the hot plasma density, n/sub h/, the cold plasma is stagnant and does not penetrate through the machine in the zero temperature case. The effect of a finite temperature is to allow for the penetration of a small amount of cold plasma through the machine. For the density range n/sub c/ approximately n/sub h/, the flow solutions are asymmetric about the midplane and have v/sub i/ = c/sub s/ near the midplane. Finally, for n/sub c/ much greater than n/sub h/, the solutions become symmetric about the midplane and approach the Lee--McNamara type solutions with v/sub i/ = c/sub s/ near the mirror throats
Fast-wave heating of a two-component plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stix, T.H.
1975-02-01
The use of the compressional hydromagnetic mode (also called the magnetosonic or, simply, the fast wave) is examined in some detail with respect to the heating of a tritium plasma containing a few percent deuterium. Efficient absorption of wave energy by the deuteron component is found when ω = ω/sub c/ (deuterons), with Q/sub wave/ greater than or equal to 100. The dominant behavior of the high-energy deuteron distribution function is found to be f(v) approximately exp[3/2) ∫/sup v/ dv less than Δv greater than/less than(Δv/sub perpendicular to/) 2 greater than], where [Δv] is the Chandrasekhar-Spitzer drag coefficient, and [(Δv/sub perpendicular to/) 2 sigma] is the Kennel-Englemann quasilinear diffusion coefficient for wave--particle interaction at the deuteron cyclotron frequency. An analytic solution to the one-dimensional Fokker--Planck equation, with rf-induced diffusion, is developed, and using this solution together with Duane's fit to the D-T fusion cross-section, it is found that the nuclear fusion power output from an rf-produced two-component plasma can significantly exceed the incremental (radiofrequency) power input. (auth)
Light-front QCD. II. Two-component theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, W.; Harindranath, A.
1993-01-01
The light-front gauge A a + =0 is known to be a convenient gauge in practical QCD calculations for short-distance behavior, but there are persistent concerns about its use because of its ''singular'' nature. The study of nonperturbative field theory quantizing on a light-front plane for hadronic bound states requires one to gain a priori systematic control of such gauge singularities. In the second paper of this series we study the two-component old-fashioned perturbation theory and various severe infrared divergences occurring in old-fashioned light-front Hamiltonian calculations for QCD. We also analyze the ultraviolet divergences associated with a large transverse momentum and examine three currently used regulators: an explicit transverse cutoff, transverse dimensional regularization, and a global cutoff. We discuss possible difficulties caused by the light-front gauge singularity in the applications of light-front QCD to both old-fashioned perturbative calculations for short-distance physics and upcoming nonperturbative investigations for hadronic bound states
Molecular Thermodynamic Modeling of Mixed Solvent Solubility
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ellegaard, Martin Dela; Abildskov, Jens; O’Connell, John P.
2010-01-01
A method based on statistical mechanical fluctuation solution theory for composition derivatives of activity coefficients is employed for estimating dilute solubilities of 11 solid pharmaceutical solutes in nearly 70 mixed aqueous and nonaqueous solvent systems. The solvent mixtures range from...... nearly ideal to strongly nonideal. The database covers a temperature range from 293 to 323 K. Comparisons with available data and other existing solubility methods show that the method successfully describes a variety of observed mixed solvent solubility behaviors using solute−solvent parameters from...
Reliability assessment of competing risks with generalized mixed shock models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rafiee, Koosha; Feng, Qianmei; Coit, David W.
2017-01-01
This paper investigates reliability modeling for systems subject to dependent competing risks considering the impact from a new generalized mixed shock model. Two dependent competing risks are soft failure due to a degradation process, and hard failure due to random shocks. The shock process contains fatal shocks that can cause hard failure instantaneously, and nonfatal shocks that impact the system in three different ways: 1) damaging the unit by immediately increasing the degradation level, 2) speeding up the deterioration by accelerating the degradation rate, and 3) weakening the unit strength by reducing the hard failure threshold. While the first impact from nonfatal shocks comes from each individual shock, the other two impacts are realized when the condition for a new generalized mixed shock model is satisfied. Unlike most existing mixed shock models that consider a combination of two shock patterns, our new generalized mixed shock model includes three classic shock patterns. According to the proposed generalized mixed shock model, the degradation rate and the hard failure threshold can simultaneously shift multiple times, whenever the condition for one of these three shock patterns is satisfied. An example using micro-electro-mechanical systems devices illustrates the effectiveness of the proposed approach with sensitivity analysis. - Highlights: • A rich reliability model for systems subject to dependent failures is proposed. • The degradation rate and the hard failure threshold can shift simultaneously. • The shift is triggered by a new generalized mixed shock model. • The shift can occur multiple times under the generalized mixed shock model.
Theoretical calculation of cryogenic distillation for two-component hydrogen isotope system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xia Xiulong; Luo Yangming; Wang Heyi; Fu Zhonghua; Liu Jun; Han Jun; Gu Mei
2005-10-01
Cryogenic distillation model for single column was built to simulating hydrogen isotope separation system. Three two-component system H 2 /HD, H 2 /HT and D 2 /DT was studied. Both temperature and concentration distribution was obtained and the results show a clear separation characteristics. H 2 /HT has the best separation performance while D 2 /DT was the most difficult to separate. (authors)
Complexation in two-component chlortetracycline-melanin solutions
Lapina, V. A.; Pershukevich, P. P.; Dontsov, A. E.; Bel'Kov, M. V.
2008-01-01
The spectra and kinetics of fluorescence of two-component solutions of the chlortetracycline (CHTC)-DOPA-melanin (melanin or ME) system in water have been investigated. The data obtained have been compared to similar data for solutions of CHTC-melanosome from bull eye (MB), which contains natural melanin, in K-phosphate buffer at pH 7.4. The overall results indicate the occurrence of complexation between molecules of CHTC and ME as they are being excited. The studies of complexation in the solution of CHTC-MB in the buffer are complicated by the formation of a CHTC-buffer complex. The effect of optical radiation in the range 330-750 nm on the CHTC-ME complex shows selectivity: the greatest change in the spectrum occurs when the wavelength of the exciting radiation coincides with the long-wavelength band maximum of the fluorescence excitation spectrum of the CHTC-ME complex in aqueous solution. In this range, CHTC and especially ME show high photochemical stability. The nature of the radiation effect on the studied compounds in the hard UV range (λ < 330 nm) differs greatly from that in the range 330-750 nm. It is apparently accompanied by significant photochemical transmutations of all system components. By comparing the characteristics of the CHTC-ME systems with those of the related drug doxycycline (DC-ME), the conclusion has been made that the chlorine atom plays a vital role in formation of the short-wavelength band in the fluorescence spectrum of the CHTC-ME complex.
Analysis and modeling of subgrid scalar mixing using numerical data
Girimaji, Sharath S.; Zhou, YE
1995-01-01
Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of passive scalar mixing in isotropic turbulence is used to study, analyze and, subsequently, model the role of small (subgrid) scales in the mixing process. In particular, we attempt to model the dissipation of the large scale (supergrid) scalar fluctuations caused by the subgrid scales by decomposing it into two parts: (1) the effect due to the interaction among the subgrid scales; and (2) the effect due to interaction between the supergrid and the subgrid scales. Model comparisons with DNS data show good agreement. This model is expected to be useful in the large eddy simulations of scalar mixing and reaction.
Mixing of the Glauber dynamics for the ferromagnetic Potts model
Bordewich, Magnus; Greenhill, Catherine; Patel, Viresh
2013-01-01
We present several results on the mixing time of the Glauber dynamics for sampling from the Gibbs distribution in the ferromagnetic Potts model. At a fixed temperature and interaction strength, we study the interplay between the maximum degree ($\\Delta$) of the underlying graph and the number of colours or spins ($q$) in determining whether the dynamics mixes rapidly or not. We find a lower bound $L$ on the number of colours such that Glauber dynamics is rapidly mixing if at least $L$ colours...
Applied model for the growth of the daytime mixed layer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Batchvarova, E.; Gryning, Sven-Erik
1991-01-01
numerically. When the mixed layer is shallow or the atmosphere nearly neutrally stratified, the growth is controlled mainly by mechanical turbulence. When the layer is deep, its growth is controlled mainly by convective turbulence. The model is applied on a data set of the evolution of the height of the mixed...... layer in the morning hours, when both mechanical and convective turbulence contribute to the growth process. Realistic mixed-layer developments are obtained....
Sankararaman, Sumithra; Menon, Gautam I; Sunil Kumar, P B
2002-09-01
We study the linearized hydrodynamics of a two-component fluid membrane near a repulsive wall, using a model that incorporates curvature-concentration coupling as well as hydrodynamic interactions. This model is a simplified version of a recently proposed one [J.-B. Manneville et al., Phys. Rev. E 64, 021908 (2001)] for nonequilibrium force centers embedded in fluid membranes, such as light-activated bacteriorhodopsin pumps incorporated in phospholipid egg phosphatidyl choline (EPC) bilayers. The pump-membrane system is modeled as an impermeable, two-component bilayer fluid membrane in the presence of an ambient solvent, in which one component, representing active pumps, is described in terms of force dipoles displaced with respect to the bilayer midpoint. We first discuss the case in which such pumps are rendered inactive, computing the mode structure in the bulk as well as the modification of hydrodynamic properties by the presence of a nearby wall. These results should apply, more generally, to equilibrium fluid membranes comprised of two components, in which the effects of curvature-concentration coupling are significant, above the threshold for phase separation. We then discuss the fluctuations and mode structure in the steady state of active two-component membranes near a repulsive wall. We find that proximity to the wall smoothens membrane height fluctuations in the stable regime, resulting in a logarithmic scaling of the roughness even for initially tensionless membranes. This explicitly nonequilibrium result is a consequence of the incorporation of curvature-concentration coupling in our hydrodynamic treatment. This result also indicates that earlier scaling arguments which obtained an increase in the roughness of active membranes near repulsive walls upon neglecting the role played by such couplings may need to be reevaluated.
Computer modeling of jet mixing in INEL waste tanks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meyer, P.A.
1994-01-01
The objective of this study is to examine the feasibility of using submerged jet mixing pumps to mobilize and suspend settled sludge materials in INEL High Level Radioactive Waste Tanks. Scenarios include removing the heel (a shallow liquid and sludge layer remaining after tank emptying processes) and mobilizing and suspending solids in full or partially full tanks. The approach used was to (1) briefly review jet mixing theory, (2) review erosion literature in order to identify and estimate important sludge characterization parameters (3) perform computer modeling of submerged liquid mixing jets in INEL tank geometries, (4) develop analytical models from which pump operating conditions and mixing times can be estimated, and (5) analyze model results to determine overall feasibility of using jet mixing pumps and make design recommendations
The role of the Kubo number in two-component turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qin, G.; Shalchi, A.
2013-01-01
We explore the random walk of magnetic field lines in two-component turbulence by using computer simulations. It is often assumed that the two-component model provides a good approximation for solar wind turbulence. We explore the dependence of the field line diffusion coefficient on the Kubo number which is a fundamental and characteristic quantity in the theory of turbulence. We show that there are two transport regimes. One is the well-known quasilinear regime in which the diffusion coefficient is proportional to the Kubo number squared, and the second one is a nonlinear regime in which the diffusion coefficient is directly proportional to the Kubo number. The so-called percolative transport regime which is often discussed in the literature cannot be found. The numerical results obtained in the present paper confirm analytical theories for random walking field lines developed in the past
Development of a Medicaid Behavioral Health Case-Mix Model
Robst, John
2009-01-01
Many Medicaid programs have either fully or partially carved out mental health services. The evaluation of carve-out plans requires a case-mix model that accounts for differing health status across Medicaid managed care plans. This article develops a diagnosis-based case-mix adjustment system specific to Medicaid behavioral health care. Several…
Effects of the ρ - ω mixing interaction in relativistic models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Menezes, D.P.; Providencia, C.
2003-01-01
The effects of the ρ-ω mixing term in infinite nuclear matter and in finite nuclei are investigated with the non-linear Walecka model in a Thomas-Fermi approximation. For infinite nuclear matter the influence of the mixing term in the binding energy calculated with the NL3 and TM1 parametrizations can be neglected. Its influence on the symmetry energy is only felt for the TM1 with a unrealistically large value for the mixing term strength. For finite nuclei the contribution of the isospin mixing term is very large as compared with the expected value to solve the Nolen-Schiffer anomaly
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Welser-Sherrill, L.; Mancini, R. C.; Haynes, D. A.; Haan, S. W.; Koch, J. A.; Izumi, N.; Tommasini, R.; Golovkin, I. E.; MacFarlane, J. J.; Radha, P. B.; Delettrez, J. A.; Regan, S. P.; Smalyuk, V. A.
2007-01-01
The presence of shell mix in inertial confinement fusion implosion cores is an important characteristic. Mixing in this experimental regime is primarily due to hydrodynamic instabilities, such as Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov, which can affect implosion dynamics. Two independent theoretical mix models, Youngs' model and the Haan saturation model, were used to estimate the level of Rayleigh-Taylor mixing in a series of indirect drive experiments. The models were used to predict the radial width of the region containing mixed fuel and shell materials. The results for Rayleigh-Taylor mixing provided by Youngs' model are considered to be a lower bound for the mix width, while those generated by Haan's model incorporate more experimental characteristics and consequently have larger mix widths. These results are compared with an independent experimental analysis, which infers a larger mix width based on all instabilities and effects captured in the experimental data
Janssen, Dirk P
2012-03-01
Psychologists, psycholinguists, and other researchers using language stimuli have been struggling for more than 30 years with the problem of how to analyze experimental data that contain two crossed random effects (items and participants). The classical analysis of variance does not apply; alternatives have been proposed but have failed to catch on, and a statistically unsatisfactory procedure of using two approximations (known as F(1) and F(2)) has become the standard. A simple and elegant solution using mixed model analysis has been available for 15 years, and recent improvements in statistical software have made mixed models analysis widely available. The aim of this article is to increase the use of mixed models by giving a concise practical introduction and by giving clear directions for undertaking the analysis in the most popular statistical packages. The article also introduces the DJMIXED: add-on package for SPSS, which makes entering the models and reporting their results as straightforward as possible.
Perturbative estimates of lepton mixing angles in unified models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Antusch, Stefan; King, Stephen F.; Malinsky, Michal
2009-01-01
Many unified models predict two large neutrino mixing angles, with the charged lepton mixing angles being small and quark-like, and the neutrino masses being hierarchical. Assuming this, we present simple approximate analytic formulae giving the lepton mixing angles in terms of the underlying high energy neutrino mixing angles together with small perturbations due to both charged lepton corrections and renormalisation group (RG) effects, including also the effects of third family canonical normalization (CN). We apply the perturbative formulae to the ubiquitous case of tri-bimaximal neutrino mixing at the unification scale, in order to predict the theoretical corrections to mixing angle predictions and sum rule relations, and give a general discussion of all limiting cases. We also discuss the implications for the sum rule relations of the measurement of a non-zero reactor angle, as hinted at by recent experimental measurements.
Mixing Paradigms for More Comprehensible Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Westergaard, Michael; Slaats, Tijs
2013-01-01
Petri nets efficiently model both data- and control-flow. Control-flow is either modeled explicitly as flow of a specific kind of data, or implicit based on the data-flow. Explicit modeling of control-flow is useful for well-known and highly structured processes, but may make modeling of abstract...
Markov and mixed models with applications
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mortensen, Stig Bousgaard
This thesis deals with mathematical and statistical models with focus on applications in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modelling. These models are today an important aspect of the drug development in the pharmaceutical industry and continued research in statistical methodology within...... or uncontrollable factors in an individual. Modelling using SDEs also provides new tools for estimation of unknown inputs to a system and is illustrated with an application to estimation of insulin secretion rates in diabetic patients. Models for the eect of a drug is a broader area since drugs may affect...... for non-parametric estimation of Markov processes are proposed to give a detailed description of the sleep process during the night. Statistically the Markov models considered for sleep states are closely related to the PK models based on SDEs as both models share the Markov property. When the models...
Synthesis and Characterization of Two Component Alloy Nanoparticles
Tabatabaei, Salomeh
Alloying is an old trick used to produce new materials by synergistically combining at least two components. New developments in nanoscience have enabled new degrees of freedom, such as size, solubility and concentration of the alloying element to be utilized in the design of the physical properties of alloy nanoparticles (ANPs). ANPs as multi-functional materials have applications in catalysis, biomedical technologies and electronics. Phase diagrams of ANPs are very little known and may not represent that of bulk picture, furthermore, ANPs with different crystallite orientation and compositions could remain far from equilibrium. Here, we studied the synthesis and stability of Au-Sn and Ag-Ni ANPs with chemical reduction method at room temperature. Due to the large difference in the redox potentials of Au and Sn, co-reduction is not a reproducible method. However, two step successive reductions was found to be more reliable to generate Au-Sn ANPs which consists of forming clusters in the first step (either without capping agent or with weakly coordinated surfactant molecules) and then undergoing a second reduction step in the presence of another metal salt. Our observation also showed that capping agents (Cetrimonium bromide or (CTAB)) and Polyacrylic acid (PAA)) play a key role in the alloying process and shorter length capping agent (PAA) may facilitate the diffusion of individual components and thus enabling better alloying. Different molar ratios of Sn and Au precursors were used to study the effect of alloying elements on the melting point and the crystalline structures and melting points were determined by various microscopy and spectroscopy techniques and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A significant depression (up to150°C) in the melting transition was observed for the Au-Sn ANPs compared to the bulk eutectic point (Tm 280°C) due to the size and shape effect. Au-Sn ANPs offer a unique set of advantages as lead-free solder material which can
The Umov effect in application to an optically thin two-component cloud of cosmic dust
Zubko, Evgenij; Videen, Gorden; Zubko, Nataliya; Shkuratov, Yuriy
2018-04-01
The Umov effect is an inverse correlation between linear polarization of the sunlight scattered by an object and its geometric albedo. The Umov effect has been observed in particulate surfaces, such as planetary regoliths, and recently it also was found in single-scattering small dust particles. Using numerical modeling, we study the Umov effect in a two-component mixture of small irregularly shaped particles. Such a complex chemical composition is suggested in cometary comae and other types of optically thin clouds of cosmic dust. We find that the two-component mixtures of small particles also reveal the Umov effect regardless of the chemical composition of their end-member components. The interrelation between log(Pmax) and log(A) in a two-component mixture of small irregularly shaped particles appears either in a straight linear form or in a slightly curved form. This curvature tends to decrease while the index n in a power-law size distribution r-n grows; at n > 2.5, the log(Pmax)-log(A) diagrams are almost straight linear in appearance. The curvature also noticeably decreases with the packing density of constituent material in irregularly shaped particles forming the mixture. That such a relation exists suggest the Umov effect may also be observed in more complex mixtures.
Application of mixed models for the assessment genotype and ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
SAM
2014-05-07
May 7, 2014 ... cused mainly on the yield of cottonseed and fiber, with the CA 324 and ..... Gaps and opportunities for agricultural sector development in ... Adaptability and stability of maize varieties using mixed models. Crop. Breeding and ...
Surface wind mixing in the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS)
Robertson, Robin; Hartlipp, Paul
2017-12-01
Mixing at the ocean surface is key for atmosphere-ocean interactions and the distribution of heat, energy, and gases in the upper ocean. Winds are the primary force for surface mixing. To properly simulate upper ocean dynamics and the flux of these quantities within the upper ocean, models must reproduce mixing in the upper ocean. To evaluate the performance of the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) in replicating the surface mixing, the results of four different vertical mixing parameterizations were compared against observations, using the surface mixed layer depth, the temperature fields, and observed diffusivities for comparisons. The vertical mixing parameterizations investigated were Mellor- Yamada 2.5 level turbulent closure (MY), Large- McWilliams- Doney Kpp (LMD), Nakanishi- Niino (NN), and the generic length scale (GLS) schemes. This was done for one temperate site in deep water in the Eastern Pacific and three shallow water sites in the Baltic Sea. The model reproduced the surface mixed layer depth reasonably well for all sites; however, the temperature fields were reproduced well for the deep site, but not for the shallow Baltic Sea sites. In the Baltic Sea, the models overmixed the water column after a few days. Vertical temperature diffusivities were higher than those observed and did not show the temporal fluctuations present in the observations. The best performance was by NN and MY; however, MY became unstable in two of the shallow simulations with high winds. The performance of GLS nearly as good as NN and MY. LMD had the poorest performance as it generated temperature diffusivities that were too high and induced too much mixing. Further observational comparisons are needed to evaluate the effects of different stratification and wind conditions and the limitations on the vertical mixing parameterizations.
Evaluation of solution stability for two-component polydisperse systems by small-angle scattering
Kryukova, A. E.; Konarev, P. V.; Volkov, V. V.
2017-12-01
The article is devoted to the modelling of small-angle scattering data using the program MIXTURE designed for the study of polydisperse multicomponent mixtures. In this work we present the results of solution stability studies for theoretical small-angle scattering data sets from two-component models. It was demonstrated that the addition of the noise to the data influences the stability range of the restored structural parameters. The recommendations for the optimal minimization schemes that permit to restore the volume size distributions for polydisperse systems are suggested.
Two-component HLMC-gas flow instability and inhomogeneity phenomena in open-pool reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sergey I Shcherbakov
2005-01-01
Full text of publication follows: Consideration is being given to two-component gas-liquid flows with inhomogeneous gas content. The inhomogeneity of gas content over flow space can be caused by local mixing of gas and liquid, gas injection, gas-containing liquid jet penetration into the bulk of liquid without gas. The paper presents the computational results obtained using the direct non-stationary calculation with the TURBO-FLOW computer code. The results refer to flows near the liquid level, flows in downcomer gaps, collectors, elements with varying geometry (jet outlet into space, flow turn) for the pool-type reactors and experimental models. The following processes have been shown and discussed: formation of new liquid levels, entrainment of gas from the level, change in density composition of gas, flow stratification, effect of gas emergence rate and density convection on flow pattern. At gas phase transfer by liquid, two phenomena governing this transfer proceed: gas slip in liquid and density convection of non-uniformly aerated liquid. In horizontal flows, a vertical stratification of gas content always occurs. If the flow changes its direction to an upward one (collector at core inlet), the gas content maximum would be observed in channels nearest to the inlet. At the liquid level, the processes of gas separation from liquid and gas entrainment take place. The separation is a self-sustained process due to circulations arising near the level. The rate of gas entrainment is proportional to the rate of overflow and inversely proportional to the height of liquid level. At the downcomer region in case of its expansion, there occurs the instability of flow resulting in formation of liquid level and falling jet. The level is lower the more the gas content at inlet. The accumulation of gas occurs at sharp turns, encumbered regions (tube bundle), at all regions with upper (ceiling) constraints of flow. The flow instability being often observed in gas-liquid flows
Sensitivity of the urban airshed model to mixing height profiles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rao, S.T.; Sistla, G.; Ku, J.Y.; Zhou, N.; Hao, W. [New York State Dept. of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY (United States)
1994-12-31
The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has recommended the use of the Urban Airshed Model (UAM), a grid-based photochemical model, for regulatory applications. One of the important parameters in applications of the UAM is the height of the mixed layer or the diffusion break. In this study, we examine the sensitivity of the UAM-predicted ozone concentrations to (a) a spatially invariant diurnal mixing height profile, and (b) a spatially varying diurnal mixing height profile for a high ozone episode of July 1988 for the New York Airshed. The 1985/88 emissions inventory used in the EPA`s Regional Oxidant Modeling simulations has been regridded for this study. Preliminary results suggest that the spatially varying case yields a higher peak ozone concentrations compared to the spatially invariant mixing height simulation, with differences in the peak ozone ranging from a few ppb to about 40 ppb for the days simulated. These differences are attributed to the differences in the shape of the mixing height profiles and its rate of growth during the morning hours when peak emissions are injected into the atmosphere. Examination of the impact of emissions reductions associated with these two mixing height profiles indicates that NO{sub x}-focussed controls provide a greater change in the predicted ozone peak under spatially invariant mixing heights than under the spatially varying mixing height profile. On the other hand, VOC-focussed controls provide a greater change in the predicted peak ozone levels under spatially varying mixing heights than under the spatially invariant mixing height profile.
Modelling mixed forest growth : a review of models for forest management
Porte, A.; Bartelink, H.H.
2002-01-01
Most forests today are multi-specific and heterogeneous forests (`mixed forests'). However, forest modelling has been focusing on mono-specific stands for a long time, only recently have models been developed for mixed forests. Previous reviews of mixed forest modelling were restricted to certain
Actuarial statistics with generalized linear mixed models
Antonio, K.; Beirlant, J.
2007-01-01
Over the last decade the use of generalized linear models (GLMs) in actuarial statistics has received a lot of attention, starting from the actuarial illustrations in the standard text by McCullagh and Nelder [McCullagh, P., Nelder, J.A., 1989. Generalized linear models. In: Monographs on Statistics
A Comparison of Item Fit Statistics for Mixed IRT Models
Chon, Kyong Hee; Lee, Won-Chan; Dunbar, Stephen B.
2010-01-01
In this study we examined procedures for assessing model-data fit of item response theory (IRT) models for mixed format data. The model fit indices used in this study include PARSCALE's G[superscript 2], Orlando and Thissen's S-X[superscript 2] and S-G[superscript 2], and Stone's chi[superscript 2*] and G[superscript 2*]. To investigate the…
A new approach to model mixed hydrates
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Hielscher, S.; Vinš, Václav; Jäger, A.; Hrubý, Jan; Breitkopf, C.; Span, R.
2018-01-01
Roč. 459, March (2018), s. 170-185 ISSN 0378-3812 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-08218S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : gas hydrate * mixture * modeling Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 2.473, year: 2016 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378381217304983
Isothermal coarse mixing: experimental and CFD modelling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gilbertson, M.A.; Kenning, D.B.R.; Hall, R.W.
1992-01-01
A plane, two-dimensional flow apparatus has been built which uses a jet of solid 6mm diameter balls to model a jet of molten drops falling into a tank of water to study premixing prior to a vapour explosion. Preliminary experiments with unheated stainless steel balls are here compared with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations by the code CHYMES. (6 figures) (Author)
Comparison between the SIMPLE and ENERGY mixing models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burns, K.J.; Todreas, N.E.
1980-07-01
The SIMPLE and ENERGY mixing models were compared in order to investigate the limitations of SIMPLE's analytically formulated mixing parameter, relative to the experimentally calibrated ENERGY mixing parameters. For interior subchannels, it was shown that when the SIMPLE and ENERGY parameters are reduced to a common form, there is good agreement between the two models for a typical fuel geometry. However, large discrepancies exist for typical blanket (lower P/D) geometries. Furthermore, the discrepancies between the mixing parameters result in significant differences in terms of the temperature profiles generated by the ENERGY code utilizing these mixing parameters as input. For edge subchannels, the assumptions made in the development of the SIMPLE model were extended to the rectangular edge subchannel geometry used in ENERGY. The resulting effective eddy diffusivities (used by the ENERGY code) associated with the SIMPLE model are again closest to those of the ENERGY model for the fuel assembly geometry. Finally, the SIMPLE model's neglect of a net swirl effect in the edge region is most limiting for assemblies exhibiting relatively large radial power skews
Two component memory of Rotstein effect in nuclear emulsions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gushchin, E.M.; Lebedev, A.N.; Somov, S.V.; Timofeev, M.K.; Tipografshchik, G.I.
1991-01-01
Two sharply differing memory components - fast and slow -are simultaneously detected during investigation into the controlled mode of fast charged particle detection in simple nuclear emulsions, with the emulsion trace sensitivity, corresponding to these components, being about 5 time different. The value of memory time is T m ≅40 μs for fast memory and T m ≅3.5 ms for the slow one. The detection of two Rotstein effect memory components confirms the correctness of the trap model
Business models in commercial media markets: Bargaining, advertising, and mixing
Thöne, Miriam; Rasch, Alexander; Wenzel, Tobias
2016-01-01
We consider a product and a media market and show how a change in the business model employed by the media platforms affects consumers, producers (or advertisers), and price negotiations for advertisements. On both markets, two firms differentiated á la Hotelling compete for consumers. On the media market, consumers can mix between the two outlets whereas on the product market, consumers have to decide for one supplier. With pay-tv, as opposed to free-to-air, mixing by consumers disappears, p...
Stochastic model of Rayleigh-Taylor turbulent mixing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abarzhi, S.I.; Cadjan, M.; Fedotov, S.
2007-01-01
We propose a stochastic model to describe the random character of the dissipation process in Rayleigh-Taylor turbulent mixing. The parameter alpha, used conventionally to characterize the mixing growth-rate, is not a universal constant and is very sensitive to the statistical properties of the dissipation. The ratio between the rates of momentum loss and momentum gain is the statistic invariant and a robust parameter to diagnose with or without turbulent diffusion accounted for
Chemically reacting flow of a compressible thermally radiating two-component plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bestman, A.R.
1990-12-01
The paper studies the compressible flow of a hot two-component plasma in the presence of gravitation and chemical reaction in a vertical channel. For the optically thick gas approximation, closed form analytical solutions are possible. Asymptotic solutions are also obtained for the general differential approximation when the temperature of the two bounding walls are the same. In the general case the problem is reduced to the solution of standard nonlinear integral equations which can be tackled by iterative procedure. The results are discussed quantitatively. The problem may be applicable to the understanding of explosive hydrogen-burning model of solar flares. (author). 6 refs, 4 figs
Disorder-Induced Order in Two-Component Bose-Einstein Condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Niederberger, A.; Schulte, T.; Wehr, J.; Lewenstein, M.; Sanchez-Palencia, L.; Sacha, K.
2008-01-01
We propose and analyze a general mechanism of disorder-induced order in two-component Bose-Einstein condensates, analogous to corresponding effects established for XY spin models. We show that a random Raman coupling induces a relative phase of π/2 between the two BECs and that the effect is robust. We demonstrate it in one, two, and three dimensions at T=0 and present evidence that it persists at small T>0. Applications to phase control in ultracold spinor condensates are discussed
Functional Mixed Effects Model for Small Area Estimation.
Maiti, Tapabrata; Sinha, Samiran; Zhong, Ping-Shou
2016-09-01
Functional data analysis has become an important area of research due to its ability of handling high dimensional and complex data structures. However, the development is limited in the context of linear mixed effect models, and in particular, for small area estimation. The linear mixed effect models are the backbone of small area estimation. In this article, we consider area level data, and fit a varying coefficient linear mixed effect model where the varying coefficients are semi-parametrically modeled via B-splines. We propose a method of estimating the fixed effect parameters and consider prediction of random effects that can be implemented using a standard software. For measuring prediction uncertainties, we derive an analytical expression for the mean squared errors, and propose a method of estimating the mean squared errors. The procedure is illustrated via a real data example, and operating characteristics of the method are judged using finite sample simulation studies.
Linear mixed models a practical guide using statistical software
West, Brady T; Galecki, Andrzej T
2006-01-01
Simplifying the often confusing array of software programs for fitting linear mixed models (LMMs), Linear Mixed Models: A Practical Guide Using Statistical Software provides a basic introduction to primary concepts, notation, software implementation, model interpretation, and visualization of clustered and longitudinal data. This easy-to-navigate reference details the use of procedures for fitting LMMs in five popular statistical software packages: SAS, SPSS, Stata, R/S-plus, and HLM. The authors introduce basic theoretical concepts, present a heuristic approach to fitting LMMs based on bo
Large non-Gaussianity from two-component hybrid inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Byrnes, Christian T.; Choi, Ki-Young; Hall, Lisa M.H.
2009-01-01
We study the generation of non-Gaussianity in models of hybrid inflation with two inflaton fields, (2-brid inflation). We analyse the region in the parameter and the initial condition space where a large non-Gaussianity may be generated during slow-roll inflation which is generally characterised by a large f NL , τ NL and a small g NL . For certain parameter values we can satisfy τ NL >> f NL 2 . The bispectrum is of the local type but may have a significant scale dependence. We show that the loop corrections to the power spectrum and bispectrum are suppressed during inflation, if one assume that the fields follow a classical background trajectory. We also include the effect of the waterfall field, which can lead to a significant change in the observables after the waterfall field is destabilised, depending on the couplings between the waterfall and inflaton fields
Stochastic transport models for mixing in variable-density turbulence
Bakosi, J.; Ristorcelli, J. R.
2011-11-01
In variable-density (VD) turbulent mixing, where very-different- density materials coexist, the density fluctuations can be an order of magnitude larger than their mean. Density fluctuations are non-negligible in the inertia terms of the Navier-Stokes equation which has both quadratic and cubic nonlinearities. Very different mixing rates of different materials give rise to large differential accelerations and some fundamentally new physics that is not seen in constant-density turbulence. In VD flows material mixing is active in a sense far stronger than that applied in the Boussinesq approximation of buoyantly-driven flows: the mass fraction fluctuations are coupled to each other and to the fluid momentum. Statistical modeling of VD mixing requires accounting for basic constraints that are not important in the small-density-fluctuation passive-scalar-mixing approximation: the unit-sum of mass fractions, bounded sample space, and the highly skewed nature of the probability densities become essential. We derive a transport equation for the joint probability of mass fractions, equivalent to a system of stochastic differential equations, that is consistent with VD mixing in multi-component turbulence and consistently reduces to passive scalar mixing in constant-density flows.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gholinezhad, Hadi; Zeinal Hamadani, Ali
2017-01-01
This paper develops a new model for redundancy allocation problem. In this paper, like many recent papers, the choice of the redundancy strategy is considered as a decision variable. But, in our model each subsystem can exploit both active and cold-standby strategies simultaneously. Moreover, the model allows for component mixing such that components of different types may be used in each subsystem. The problem, therefore, boils down to determining the types of components, redundancy levels, and number of active and cold-standby units of each type for each subsystem to maximize system reliability by considering such constraints as available budget, weight, and space. Since RAP belongs to the NP-hard class of optimization problems, a genetic algorithm (GA) is developed for solving the problem. Finally, the performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated by applying it to a well-known test problem from the literature with relatively satisfactory results. - Highlights: • A new model for the redundancy allocation problem in series–parallel systems is proposed. • The redundancy strategy of each subsystem is considered as a decision variable and can be active, cold-standby or mixed. • Component mixing is allowed, in other words components of any subsystem can be non-identical. • A genetic algorithm is developed for solving the problem. • Computational experiments demonstrate that the new model leads to interesting results.
The salinity effect in a mixed layer ocean model
Miller, J. R.
1976-01-01
A model of the thermally mixed layer in the upper ocean as developed by Kraus and Turner and extended by Denman is further extended to investigate the effects of salinity. In the tropical and subtropical Atlantic Ocean rapid increases in salinity occur at the bottom of a uniformly mixed surface layer. The most significant effects produced by the inclusion of salinity are the reduction of the deepening rate and the corresponding change in the heating characteristics of the mixed layer. If the net surface heating is positive, but small, salinity effects must be included to determine whether the mixed layer temperature will increase or decrease. Precipitation over tropical oceans leads to the development of a shallow stable layer accompanied by a decrease in the temperature and salinity at the sea surface.
A mathematical model for turbulent incompressible flows through mixing grids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Allaire, G.
1989-01-01
A mathematical model is proposed for the computation of turbulent incompressible flows through mixing grids. This model is obtained as follows: in a three-dimentional-domain we represent a mixing grid by small identical wings of size ε 2 periodically distributed at the nodes of a plane regular mesh of size ε, and we consider incompressible Navier-Stokes equations with a no-slip condition on the wings. Using an appropriate homogenization process we pass to the limit when ε tends to zero and we obtain a Brinkman equation, i.e. a Navier-Stokes equation plus a zero-order term for the velocity, in a homogeneous domain without anymore wings. The interest of this model is that the spatial discretization is simpler in a homogeneous domain, and, moreover, the new term, which expresses the grid's mixing effect, can be evaluated with a local computation around a single wing
Mixed waste treatment model: Basis and analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Palmer, B.A.
1995-09-01
The Department of Energy's Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) required treatment system capacities for risk and cost calculation. Los Alamos was tasked with providing these capacities to the PEIS team. This involved understanding the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex waste, making the necessary changes to correct for problems, categorizing the waste for treatment, and determining the treatment system requirements. The treatment system requirements depended on the incoming waste, which varied for each PEIS case. The treatment system requirements also depended on the type of treatment that was desired. Because different groups contributing to the PEIS needed specific types of results, we provided the treatment system requirements in a variety of forms. In total, some 40 data files were created for the TRU cases, and for the MLLW case, there were 105 separate data files. Each data file represents one treatment case consisting of the selected waste from various sites, a selected treatment system, and the reporting requirements for such a case. The treatment system requirements in their most basic form are the treatment process rates for unit operations in the desired treatment system, based on a 10-year working life and 20-year accumulation of the waste. These results were reported in cubic meters and for the MLLW case, in kilograms as well. The treatment system model consisted of unit operations that are linked together. Each unit operation's function depended on the input waste streams, waste matrix, and contaminants. Each unit operation outputs one or more waste streams whose matrix, contaminants, and volume/mass may have changed as a result of the treatment. These output streams are then routed to the appropriate unit operation for additional treatment until the output waste stream meets the treatment requirements for disposal. The total waste for each unit operation was calculated as well as the waste for each matrix treated by the unit
Numerical analysis of a non equilibrium two-component two-compressible flow in porous media
Saad, Bilal Mohammed
2013-09-01
We propose and analyze a finite volume scheme to simulate a non equilibrium two components (water and hydrogen) two phase flow (liquid and gas) model. In this model, the assumption of local mass non equilibrium is ensured and thus the velocity of the mass exchange between dissolved hydrogen and hydrogen in the gas phase is supposed finite. The proposed finite volume scheme is fully implicit in time together with a phase-by-phase upwind approach in space and it is discretize the equations in their general form with gravity and capillary terms We show that the proposed scheme satisfies the maximum principle for the saturation and the concentration of the dissolved hydrogen. We establish stability results on the velocity of each phase and on the discrete gradient of the concentration. We show the convergence of a subsequence to a weak solution of the continuous equations as the size of the discretization tends to zero. At our knowledge, this is the first convergence result of finite volume scheme in the case of two component two phase compressible flow in several space dimensions.
Hori, Hajime; Ishidao, Toru; Ishimatsu, Sumiyo
2010-12-01
We measured vapor concentrations continuously evaporated from two-component organic solvents in a reservoir and proposed a method to estimate and predict the evaporation rate or generated vapor concentrations. Two kinds of organic solvents were put into a small reservoir made of glass (3 cm in diameter and 3 cm high) that was installed in a cylindrical glass vessel (10 cm in diameter and 15 cm high). Air was introduced into the glass vessel at a flow rate of 150 ml/min, and the generated vapor concentrations were intermittently monitored for up to 5 hours with a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector. The solvent systems tested in this study were the methanoltoluene system and the ethyl acetate-toluene system. The vapor concentrations of the more volatile component, that is, methanol in the methanol-toluene system and ethyl acetate in the ethyl acetate-toluene system, were high at first, and then decreased with time. On the other hand, the concentrations of the less volatile component were low at first, and then increased with time. A model for estimating multicomponent organic vapor concentrations was developed, based on a theory of vapor-liquid equilibria and a theory of the mass transfer rate, and estimated values were compared with experimental ones. The estimated vapor concentrations were in relatively good agreement with the experimental ones. The results suggest that changes in concentrations of two-component organic vapors continuously evaporating from a liquid reservoir can be estimated by the proposed model.
Computer modeling of ORNL storage tank sludge mobilization and mixing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Terrones, G.; Eyler, L.L.
1993-09-01
This report presents and analyzes the results of the computer modeling of mixing and mobilization of sludge in horizontal, cylindrical storage tanks using submerged liquid jets. The computer modeling uses the TEMPEST computational fluid dynamics computer program. The horizontal, cylindrical storage tank configuration is similar to the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST) at Oak Ridge National (ORNL). The MVST tank contents exhibit non-homogeneous, non-Newtonian rheology characteristics. The eventual goals of the simulations are to determine under what conditions sludge mobilization using submerged liquid jets is feasible in tanks of this configuration, and to estimate mixing times required to approach homogeneity of the contents of the tanks
A Mixing Based Model for DME Combustion in Diesel Engines
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bek, Bjarne H.; Sorenson, Spencer C.
1998-01-01
A series of studies has been conducted investigating the behavior of di-methyl ether (DME) fuel jets injected into quiescent combus-tion chambers. These studies have shown that it is possible to make a good estimate of the penetration of the jet based on existing correlations for diesel fuel......, by using appropriate fuel properties. The results of the spray studies have been incorporated into a first generation model for DME combustion. The model is entirely based on physical mixing, where chemical processes have been assumed to be very fast in relation to mixing. The assumption was made...
A mixing based model for DME combustion in diesel engines
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bek, Bjarne Hjort; Sorenson, Spencer C
2001-01-01
A series of studies has been conducted investigating the behavior of di-methyl ether (DME) fuel jets injected into quiescent combustion chambers. These studies have shown that it is possible to make a good estimate of the penetration of the jet based on existing correlations for diesel fuel......, by using appropriate fuel properties. The results of the spray studies have been incorporated into a first generation model for DME combustion. The model is entirely based on physical mixing, where chemical processes have been assumed to be very fast in relation to mixing. The assumption was made...
Multivariate Survival Mixed Models for Genetic Analysis of Longevity Traits
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pimentel Maia, Rafael; Madsen, Per; Labouriau, Rodrigo
2014-01-01
A class of multivariate mixed survival models for continuous and discrete time with a complex covariance structure is introduced in a context of quantitative genetic applications. The methods introduced can be used in many applications in quantitative genetics although the discussion presented co...... applications. The methods presented are implemented in such a way that large and complex quantitative genetic data can be analyzed......A class of multivariate mixed survival models for continuous and discrete time with a complex covariance structure is introduced in a context of quantitative genetic applications. The methods introduced can be used in many applications in quantitative genetics although the discussion presented...... concentrates on longevity studies. The framework presented allows to combine models based on continuous time with models based on discrete time in a joint analysis. The continuous time models are approximations of the frailty model in which the hazard function will be assumed to be piece-wise constant...
Multivariate Survival Mixed Models for Genetic Analysis of Longevity Traits
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pimentel Maia, Rafael; Madsen, Per; Labouriau, Rodrigo
2013-01-01
A class of multivariate mixed survival models for continuous and discrete time with a complex covariance structure is introduced in a context of quantitative genetic applications. The methods introduced can be used in many applications in quantitative genetics although the discussion presented co...... applications. The methods presented are implemented in such a way that large and complex quantitative genetic data can be analyzed......A class of multivariate mixed survival models for continuous and discrete time with a complex covariance structure is introduced in a context of quantitative genetic applications. The methods introduced can be used in many applications in quantitative genetics although the discussion presented...... concentrates on longevity studies. The framework presented allows to combine models based on continuous time with models based on discrete time in a joint analysis. The continuous time models are approximations of the frailty model in which the hazard function will be assumed to be piece-wise constant...
Advective mixing in a nondivergent barotropic hurricane model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. Rutherford
2010-01-01
Full Text Available This paper studies Lagrangian mixing in a two-dimensional barotropic model for hurricane-like vortices. Since such flows show high shearing in the radial direction, particle separation across shear-lines is diagnosed through a Lagrangian field, referred to as R-field, that measures trajectory separation orthogonal to the Lagrangian velocity. The shear-lines are identified with the level-contours of another Lagrangian field, referred to as S-field, that measures the average shear-strength along a trajectory. Other fields used for model diagnostics are the Lagrangian field of finite-time Lyapunov exponents (FTLE-field, the Eulerian Q-field, and the angular velocity field. Because of the high shearing, the FTLE-field is not a suitable indicator for advective mixing, and in particular does not exhibit ridges marking the location of finite-time stable and unstable manifolds. The FTLE-field is similar in structure to the radial derivative of the angular velocity. In contrast, persisting ridges and valleys can be clearly recognized in the R-field, and their propagation speed indicates that transport across shear-lines is caused by Rossby waves. A radial mixing rate derived from the R-field gives a time-dependent measure of flux across the shear-lines. On the other hand, a measured mixing rate across the shear-lines, which counts trajectory crossings, confirms the results from the R-field mixing rate, and shows high mixing in the eyewall region after the formation of a polygonal eyewall, which continues until the vortex breaks down. The location of the R-field ridges elucidates the role of radial mixing for the interaction and breakdown of the mesovortices shown by the model.
The MIDAS Touch: Mixed Data Sampling Regression Models
Ghysels, Eric; Santa-Clara, Pedro; Valkanov, Rossen
2004-01-01
We introduce Mixed Data Sampling (henceforth MIDAS) regression models. The regressions involve time series data sampled at different frequencies. Technically speaking MIDAS models specify conditional expectations as a distributed lag of regressors recorded at some higher sampling frequencies. We examine the asymptotic properties of MIDAS regression estimation and compare it with traditional distributed lag models. MIDAS regressions have wide applicability in macroeconomics and ï¿½nance.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pau Baya
2011-05-01
Full Text Available Remenat (Catalan (Mixed, "revoltillo" (Scrambled in Spanish, is a dish which, in Catalunya, consists of a beaten egg cooked with vegetables or other ingredients, normally prawns or asparagus. It is delicious. Scrambled refers to the action of mixing the beaten egg with other ingredients in a pan, normally using a wooden spoon Thought is frequently an amalgam of past ideas put through a spinner and rhythmically shaken around like a cocktail until a uniform and dense paste is made. This malleable product, rather like a cake mixture can be deformed pulling it out, rolling it around, adapting its shape to the commands of one’s hands or the tool which is being used on it. In the piece Mixed, the contortion of the wood seeks to reproduce the plasticity of this slow heavy movement. Each piece lays itself on the next piece consecutively like a tongue of incandescent lava slowly advancing but with unstoppable inertia.
A system dynamics model to determine products mix
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mahtab Hajghasem
2014-02-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an implementation of system dynamics model to determine appropriate product mix by considering various factors such as labor, materials, overhead, etc. for an Iranian producer of cosmetic and sanitary products. The proposed model of this paper considers three hypotheses including the relationship between product mix and profitability, optimum production capacity and having minimum amount of storage to take advantage of low cost production. The implementation of system dynamics on VENSIM software package has confirmed all three hypotheses of the survey and suggested that in order to reach better mix product, it is necessary to reach optimum production planning, take advantage of all available production capacities and use inventory management techniques.
Practical likelihood analysis for spatial generalized linear mixed models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bonat, W. H.; Ribeiro, Paulo Justiniano
2016-01-01
We investigate an algorithm for maximum likelihood estimation of spatial generalized linear mixed models based on the Laplace approximation. We compare our algorithm with a set of alternative approaches for two datasets from the literature. The Rhizoctonia root rot and the Rongelap are......, respectively, examples of binomial and count datasets modeled by spatial generalized linear mixed models. Our results show that the Laplace approximation provides similar estimates to Markov Chain Monte Carlo likelihood, Monte Carlo expectation maximization, and modified Laplace approximation. Some advantages...... of Laplace approximation include the computation of the maximized log-likelihood value, which can be used for model selection and tests, and the possibility to obtain realistic confidence intervals for model parameters based on profile likelihoods. The Laplace approximation also avoids the tuning...
Rotation and toroidal magnetic field effects on the stability of two-component jets
Millas, Dimitrios; Keppens, Rony; Meliani, Zakaria
2017-09-01
Several observations of astrophysical jets show evidence of a structure in the direction perpendicular to the jet axis, leading to the development of 'spine and sheath' models of jets. Most studies focus on a two-component jet consisting of a highly relativistic inner jet and a slower - but still relativistic - outer jet surrounded by an unmagnetized environment. These jets are believed to be susceptible to a relativistic Rayleigh-Taylor-type instability, depending on the effective inertia ratio of the two components. We extend previous studies by taking into account the presence of a non-zero toroidal magnetic field. Different values of magnetization are examined to detect possible differences in the evolution and stability of the jet. We find that the toroidal field, above a certain level of magnetization σ, roughly equal to 0.01, can stabilize the jet against the previously mentioned instabilities and that there is a clear trend in the behaviour of the average Lorentz factor and the effective radius of the jet when we continuously increase the magnetization. The simulations are performed using the relativistic MHD module from the open source, parallel, grid adaptive, mpi-amrvac code.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zou, Wenli; Filatov, Michael; Cremer, Dieter, E-mail: dcremer@smu.edu [Computational and Theoretical Chemistry Group (CATCO), Department of Chemistry, Southern Methodist University, 3215 Daniel Ave, Dallas, Texas 75275-0314 (United States)
2015-06-07
The analytical gradient for the two-component Normalized Elimination of the Small Component (2c-NESC) method is presented. The 2c-NESC is a Dirac-exact method that employs the exact two-component one-electron Hamiltonian and thus leads to exact Dirac spin-orbit (SO) splittings for one-electron atoms. For many-electron atoms and molecules, the effect of the two-electron SO interaction is modeled by a screened nucleus potential using effective nuclear charges as proposed by Boettger [Phys. Rev. B 62, 7809 (2000)]. The effect of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) on molecular geometries is analyzed utilizing the properties of the frontier orbitals and calculated SO couplings. It is shown that bond lengths can either be lengthened or shortened under the impact of SOC where in the first case the influence of low lying excited states with occupied antibonding orbitals plays a role and in the second case the jj-coupling between occupied antibonding and unoccupied bonding orbitals dominates. In general, the effect of SOC on bond lengths is relatively small (≤5% of the scalar relativistic changes in the bond length). However, large effects are found for van der Waals complexes Hg{sub 2} and Cn{sub 2}, which are due to the admixture of more bonding character to the highest occupied spinors.
Zou, Wenli; Filatov, Michael; Cremer, Dieter
2015-06-01
The analytical gradient for the two-component Normalized Elimination of the Small Component (2c-NESC) method is presented. The 2c-NESC is a Dirac-exact method that employs the exact two-component one-electron Hamiltonian and thus leads to exact Dirac spin-orbit (SO) splittings for one-electron atoms. For many-electron atoms and molecules, the effect of the two-electron SO interaction is modeled by a screened nucleus potential using effective nuclear charges as proposed by Boettger [Phys. Rev. B 62, 7809 (2000)]. The effect of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) on molecular geometries is analyzed utilizing the properties of the frontier orbitals and calculated SO couplings. It is shown that bond lengths can either be lengthened or shortened under the impact of SOC where in the first case the influence of low lying excited states with occupied antibonding orbitals plays a role and in the second case the jj-coupling between occupied antibonding and unoccupied bonding orbitals dominates. In general, the effect of SOC on bond lengths is relatively small (≤5% of the scalar relativistic changes in the bond length). However, large effects are found for van der Waals complexes Hg2 and Cn2, which are due to the admixture of more bonding character to the highest occupied spinors.
Longitudinal mixed-effects models for latent cognitive function
van den Hout, Ardo; Fox, Gerardus J.A.; Muniz-Terrera, Graciela
2015-01-01
A mixed-effects regression model with a bent-cable change-point predictor is formulated to describe potential decline of cognitive function over time in the older population. For the individual trajectories, cognitive function is considered to be a latent variable measured through an item response
Sensitivity Analysis of Mixed Models for Incomplete Longitudinal Data
Xu, Shu; Blozis, Shelley A.
2011-01-01
Mixed models are used for the analysis of data measured over time to study population-level change and individual differences in change characteristics. Linear and nonlinear functions may be used to describe a longitudinal response, individuals need not be observed at the same time points, and missing data, assumed to be missing at random (MAR),…
Application of mixed models for the assessment genotype and ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Application of mixed models for the assessment genotype and environment interactions in cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum ) cultivars in Mozambique. ... The cultivars ISA 205, STAM 42 and REMU 40 showed superior productivity when they were selected by the Harmonic Mean of Genotypic Values (HMGV) criterion in relation ...
Confidence Intervals for Assessing Heterogeneity in Generalized Linear Mixed Models
Wagler, Amy E.
2014-01-01
Generalized linear mixed models are frequently applied to data with clustered categorical outcomes. The effect of clustering on the response is often difficult to practically assess partly because it is reported on a scale on which comparisons with regression parameters are difficult to make. This article proposes confidence intervals for…
Introduction to models of neutrino masses and mixings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Joshipura, Anjan S.
2004-01-01
This review contains an introduction to models of neutrino masses for non-experts. Topics discussed are i) different types of neutrino masses ii) structure of neutrino masses and mixing needed to understand neutrino oscillation results iii) mechanism to generate neutrino masses in gauge theories and iv) discussion of generic scenarios proposed to realize the required neutrino mass structures. (author)
The 4s web-marketing mix model
Constantinides, Efthymios
2002-01-01
This paper reviews the criticism on the 4Ps Marketing Mix framework, the most popular tool of traditional marketing management, and categorizes the main objections of using the model as the foundation of physical marketing. It argues that applying the traditional approach, based on the 4Ps paradigm,
Goodness-of-fit tests in mixed models
Claeskens, Gerda; Hart, Jeffrey D.
2009-01-01
Mixed models, with both random and fixed effects, are most often estimated on the assumption that the random effects are normally distributed. In this paper we propose several formal tests of the hypothesis that the random effects and/or errors
COMBINING SOURCES IN STABLE ISOTOPE MIXING MODELS: ALTERNATIVE METHODS
Stable isotope mixing models are often used to quantify source contributions to a mixture. Examples include pollution source identification; trophic web studies; analysis of water sources for soils, plants, or water bodies; and many others. A common problem is having too many s...
Metabolic modeling of mixed substrate uptake for polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production
Jiang, Y.; Hebly, M.; Kleerebezem, R.; Muyzer, G.; van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.
2011-01-01
Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production by mixed microbial communities can be established in a two-stage process, consisting of a microbial enrichment step and a PHA accumulation step. In this study, a mathematical model was constructed for evaluating the influence of the carbon substrate composition
2017-01-01
ABSTRACT Bacteria use two-component signaling systems to adapt and respond to their competitors and changing environments. For instance, competitor bacteria may produce antibiotics and other bioactive metabolites and sequester nutrients. To survive, some species of bacteria escape competition through antibiotic production, biofilm formation, or motility. Specialized metabolite production and biofilm formation are relatively well understood for bacterial species in isolation. How bacteria control these functions when competitors are present is not well studied. To address fundamental questions relating to the competitive mechanisms of different species, we have developed a model system using two species of soil bacteria, Bacillus subtilis and Streptomyces sp. strain Mg1. Using this model, we previously found that linearmycins produced by Streptomyces sp. strain Mg1 cause lysis of B. subtilis cells and degradation of colony matrix. We identified strains of B. subtilis with mutations in the two-component signaling system yfiJK operon that confer dual phenotypes of specific linearmycin resistance and biofilm morphology. We determined that expression of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter yfiLMN operon, particularly yfiM and yfiN, is necessary for biofilm morphology. Using transposon mutagenesis, we identified genes that are required for YfiLMN-mediated biofilm morphology, including several chaperones. Using transcriptional fusions, we found that YfiJ signaling is activated by linearmycins and other polyene metabolites. Finally, using a truncated YfiJ, we show that YfiJ requires its transmembrane domain to activate downstream signaling. Taken together, these results suggest coordinated dual antibiotic resistance and biofilm morphology by a single multifunctional ABC transporter promotes competitive fitness of B. subtilis. IMPORTANCE DNA sequencing approaches have revealed hitherto unexplored diversity of bacterial species in a wide variety of environments that
Fluctuations in a mixed IS-LM business cycle model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hamad Talibi Alaoui
2008-09-01
Full Text Available In the present paper, we extend a delayed IS-LM business cycle model by introducing an additional advance (anticipated capital stock in the investment function. The resulting model is represented in terms of mixed differential equations. For the deviating argument $au$ (advance and delay being a bifurcation parameter we investigate the local stability and the local Hopf bifurcation. Also some numerical simulations are given to support the theoretical analysis.
Configuration mixing in the sdg interacting boson model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bouldjedri, A; Van Isacker, P; Zerguine, S
2005-01-01
A wavefunction analysis of the strong-coupling limits of the sdg interacting boson model is presented. The analysis is carried out for two-boson states and allows us to characterize the boson configuration mixing in the different limits. Based on these results and those of a shell-model analysis of the sdg IBM, qualitative conclusions are drawn about the range of applicability of each limit
Configuration mixing in the sdg interacting boson model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bouldjedri, A [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Batna, Avenue Boukhelouf M El Hadi, 05000 Batna (Algeria); Van Isacker, P [GANIL, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen cedex 5 (France); Zerguine, S [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Batna, Avenue Boukhelouf M El Hadi, 05000 Batna (Algeria)
2005-11-01
A wavefunction analysis of the strong-coupling limits of the sdg interacting boson model is presented. The analysis is carried out for two-boson states and allows us to characterize the boson configuration mixing in the different limits. Based on these results and those of a shell-model analysis of the sdg IBM, qualitative conclusions are drawn about the range of applicability of each limit.
Ill-posedness in modeling mixed sediment river morphodynamics
Chavarrías, Víctor; Stecca, Guglielmo; Blom, Astrid
2018-04-01
In this paper we analyze the Hirano active layer model used in mixed sediment river morphodynamics concerning its ill-posedness. Ill-posedness causes the solution to be unstable to short-wave perturbations. This implies that the solution presents spurious oscillations, the amplitude of which depends on the domain discretization. Ill-posedness not only produces physically unrealistic results but may also cause failure of numerical simulations. By considering a two-fraction sediment mixture we obtain analytical expressions for the mathematical characterization of the model. Using these we show that the ill-posed domain is larger than what was found in previous analyses, not only comprising cases of bed degradation into a substrate finer than the active layer but also in aggradational cases. Furthermore, by analyzing a three-fraction model we observe ill-posedness under conditions of bed degradation into a coarse substrate. We observe that oscillations in the numerical solution of ill-posed simulations grow until the model becomes well-posed, as the spurious mixing of the active layer sediment and substrate sediment acts as a regularization mechanism. Finally we conduct an eigenstructure analysis of a simplified vertically continuous model for mixed sediment for which we show that ill-posedness occurs in a wider range of conditions than the active layer model.
Dynamic behaviours of mix-game model and its application
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Gou Cheng-Ling
2006-01-01
In this paper a minority game (MG) is modified by adding into it some agents who play a majority game. Such a game is referred to as a mix-game. The highlight of this model is that the two groups of agents in the mix-game have different bounded abilities to deal with historical information and to count their own performance. Through simulations,it is found that the local volatilities change a lot by adding some agents who play the majority game into the MG,and the change of local volatilities greatly depends on different combinations of historical memories of the two groups.Furthermore, the analyses of the underlying mechanisms for this finding are made. The applications of mix-game mode are also given as an example.
Bayesian Option Pricing Using Mixed Normal Heteroskedasticity Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rombouts, Jeroen V.K.; Stentoft, Lars Peter
While stochastic volatility models improve on the option pricing error when compared to the Black-Scholes-Merton model, mispricings remain. This paper uses mixed normal heteroskedasticity models to price options. Our model allows for significant negative skewness and time varying higher order...... moments of the risk neutral distribution. Parameter inference using Gibbs sampling is explained and we detail how to compute risk neutral predictive densities taking into account parameter uncertainty. When forecasting out-of-sample options on the S&P 500 index, substantial improvements are found compared...
Handbook of mixed membership models and their applications
Airoldi, Edoardo M; Erosheva, Elena A; Fienberg, Stephen E
2014-01-01
In response to scientific needs for more diverse and structured explanations of statistical data, researchers have discovered how to model individual data points as belonging to multiple groups. Handbook of Mixed Membership Models and Their Applications shows you how to use these flexible modeling tools to uncover hidden patterns in modern high-dimensional multivariate data. It explores the use of the models in various application settings, including survey data, population genetics, text analysis, image processing and annotation, and molecular biology.Through examples using real data sets, yo
Production, decay, and mixing models of the iota meson. II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Palmer, W.F.; Pinsky, S.S.
1987-01-01
A five-channel mixing model for the ground and radially excited isoscalar pseudoscalar states and a glueball is presented. The model extends previous work by including two-body unitary corrections, following the technique of Toernqvist. The unitary corrections include contributions from three classes of two-body intermediate states: pseudoscalar-vector, pseudoscalar-scalar, and vector-vector states. All necessary three-body couplings are extracted from decay data. The solution of the mixing model provides information about the bare mass of the glueball and the fundamental quark-glue coupling. The solution also gives the composition of the wave function of the physical states in terms of the bare quark and glue states. Finally, it is shown how the coupling constants extracted from decay data can be used to calculate the decay rates of the five physical states to all two-body channels
Linear mixing model applied to AVHRR LAC data
Holben, Brent N.; Shimabukuro, Yosio E.
1993-01-01
A linear mixing model was applied to coarse spatial resolution data from the NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer. The reflective component of the 3.55 - 3.93 microns channel was extracted and used with the two reflective channels 0.58 - 0.68 microns and 0.725 - 1.1 microns to run a Constraine Least Squares model to generate vegetation, soil, and shade fraction images for an area in the Western region of Brazil. The Landsat Thematic Mapper data covering the Emas National park region was used for estimating the spectral response of the mixture components and for evaluating the mixing model results. The fraction images were compared with an unsupervised classification derived from Landsat TM data acquired on the same day. The relationship between the fraction images and normalized difference vegetation index images show the potential of the unmixing techniques when using coarse resolution data for global studies.
Mixing-model Sensitivity to Initial Conditions in Hydrodynamic Predictions
Bigelow, Josiah; Silva, Humberto; Truman, C. Randall; Vorobieff, Peter
2017-11-01
Amagat and Dalton mixing-models were studied to compare their thermodynamic prediction of shock states. Numerical simulations with the Sandia National Laboratories shock hydrodynamic code CTH modeled University of New Mexico (UNM) shock tube laboratory experiments shocking a 1:1 molar mixture of helium (He) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) . Five input parameters were varied for sensitivity analysis: driver section pressure, driver section density, test section pressure, test section density, and mixture ratio (mole fraction). We show via incremental Latin hypercube sampling (LHS) analysis that significant differences exist between Amagat and Dalton mixing-model predictions. The differences observed in predicted shock speeds, temperatures, and pressures grow more pronounced with higher shock speeds. Supported by NNSA Grant DE-0002913.
Comparison of mixed layer models predictions with experimental data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Faggian, P.; Riva, G.M. [CISE Spa, Divisione Ambiente, Segrate (Italy); Brusasca, G. [ENEL Spa, CRAM, Milano (Italy)
1997-10-01
The temporal evolution of the PBL vertical structure for a North Italian rural site, situated within relatively large agricultural fields and almost flat terrain, has been investigated during the period 22-28 June 1993 by experimental and modellistic point of view. In particular, the results about a sunny day (June 22) and a cloudy day (June 25) are presented in this paper. Three schemes to estimate mixing layer depth have been compared, i.e. Holzworth (1967), Carson (1973) and Gryning-Batchvarova models (1990), which use standard meteorological observations. To estimate their degree of accuracy, model outputs were analyzed considering radio-sounding meteorological profiles and stability atmospheric classification criteria. Besides, the mixed layer depths prediction were compared with the estimated values obtained by a simple box model, whose input requires hourly measures of air concentrations and ground flux of {sup 222}Rn. (LN)
Modelling the development of mixing height in near equatorial region
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Samah, A.A. [Univ. of Malaya, Air Pollution Research Unit, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)
1997-10-01
Most current air pollution models were developed for mid-latitude conditions and as such many of the empirical parameters used were based on observations taken in the mid-latitude boundary layer which is physically different from that of the equatorial boundary layer. In the equatorial boundary layer the Coriolis parameter f is small or zero and moisture plays a more important role in the control of stability and the surface energy balance. Therefore air pollution models such as the OMLMULTI or the ADMS which were basically developed for mid-latitude conditions must be applied with some caution and would need some adaptation to properly simulate the properties of equatorial boundary layer. This work elucidates some of the problems of modelling the evolution of mixing height in the equatorial region. The mixing height estimates were compared with routine observations taken during a severe air pollution episodes in Malaysia. (au)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stamenković Jakov V.
2003-01-01
Full Text Available The difficulty in formulating a two component waterborne polyurethane, is the isocyanate-water side reaction, which can lead to gassing/foaming, loss of isocyanate functionality, low gloss and a reduced pot life. To compensate for this side reaction, these formulations usually contain a large excess of isocyanate. Tin compounds, especially dibutyltin dilaurate, are widely used in coatings as catalysts for the isocyanate/hydroxyl reaction. Because of the high aquatic toxicity of some organotin compounds, there has been an attempt to ban organotin compounds from all coating applications. As a general rule, organotin catalysts are not selective, they catalyze the reaction of isocyanates with both hydroxyl groups and water and also catalyze the hydrolysis of ester groups. One novel approach to control the water side reaction is the use of catalysts which selectively catalyze the isocyanate-polyol reaction and not the isocyanate-water reaction. The selectivity of a variety of metal catalysts (metal octoates, metal acetylacetonates and mangan chelates with mixed ligands to catalyze the preferred reaction was measured using the FTIR method.
Numerical modeling of two-phase binary fluid mixing using mixed finite elements
Sun, Shuyu
2012-07-27
Diffusion coefficients of dense gases in liquids can be measured by considering two-phase binary nonequilibrium fluid mixing in a closed cell with a fixed volume. This process is based on convection and diffusion in each phase. Numerical simulation of the mixing often requires accurate algorithms. In this paper, we design two efficient numerical methods for simulating the mixing of two-phase binary fluids in one-dimensional, highly permeable media. Mathematical model for isothermal compositional two-phase flow in porous media is established based on Darcy\\'s law, material balance, local thermodynamic equilibrium for the phases, and diffusion across the phases. The time-lag and operator-splitting techniques are used to decompose each convection-diffusion equation into two steps: diffusion step and convection step. The Mixed finite element (MFE) method is used for diffusion equation because it can achieve a high-order and stable approximation of both the scalar variable and the diffusive fluxes across grid-cell interfaces. We employ the characteristic finite element method with moving mesh to track the liquid-gas interface. Based on the above schemes, we propose two methods: single-domain and two-domain methods. The main difference between two methods is that the two-domain method utilizes the assumption of sharp interface between two fluid phases, while the single-domain method allows fractional saturation level. Two-domain method treats the gas domain and the liquid domain separately. Because liquid-gas interface moves with time, the two-domain method needs work with a moving mesh. On the other hand, the single-domain method allows the use of a fixed mesh. We derive the formulas to compute the diffusive flux for MFE in both methods. The single-domain method is extended to multiple dimensions. Numerical results indicate that both methods can accurately describe the evolution of the pressure and liquid level. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
A marketing mix model for a complex and turbulent environment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. B. Mason
2007-12-01
Full Text Available Purpose: This paper is based on the proposition that the choice of marketing tactics is determined, or at least significantly influenced, by the nature of the companys external environment. It aims to illustrate the type of marketing mix tactics that are suggested for a complex and turbulent environment when marketing and the environment are viewed through a chaos and complexity theory lens. Design/Methodology/Approach: Since chaos and complexity theories are proposed as a good means of understanding the dynamics of complex and turbulent markets, a comprehensive review and analysis of literature on the marketing mix and marketing tactics from a chaos and complexity viewpoint was conducted. From this literature review, a marketing mix model was conceptualised. Findings: A marketing mix model considered appropriate for success in complex and turbulent environments was developed. In such environments, the literature suggests destabilising marketing activities are more effective, whereas stabilising type activities are more effective in simple, stable environments. Therefore the model proposes predominantly destabilising type tactics as appropriate for a complex and turbulent environment such as is currently being experienced in South Africa. Implications: This paper is of benefit to marketers by emphasising a new way to consider the future marketing activities of their companies. How this model can assist marketers and suggestions for research to develop and apply this model are provided. It is hoped that the model suggested will form the basis of empirical research to test its applicability in the turbulent South African environment. Originality/Value: Since businesses and markets are complex adaptive systems, using complexity theory to understand how to cope in complex, turbulent environments is necessary, but has not been widely researched. In fact, most chaos and complexity theory work in marketing has concentrated on marketing strategy, with
Measuring two-phase and two-component mixtures by radiometric technique
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mackuliak, D.; Rajniak, I.
1984-01-01
The possibility was tried of the application of the radiometric method in measuring steam water content. The experiments were carried out in model conditions where steam was replaced with the two-component mixture of water and air. The beta radiation source was isotope 204 Tl (Esub(max)=0.765 MeV) with an activity of 19.35 MBq. Measurements were carried out within the range of the surface density of the mixture from 0.119 kg.m -2 to 0.130 kg.m -2 . Mixture speed was 5.1 m.s -1 to 7.1 m.s -1 . The observed dependence of relative pulse frequency on the specific water content in the mixture was approximated by a linear regression. (B.S.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Radtke, W; Thiel, D
1986-01-01
The two-component heating system consists of a combination of air-based floor heating and direct air heating, with ventilation and extraction and heat recovery. The direct airflow consists exclusively of heated outside air, the amount corresponding to the building's external air intake requirement. The control system comprises a two-step sequential control of the air throughput of the direct air heating system and of the air distribution for the floor heating airflow. A special heating switch makes it possible to switch off the direct air heating system separately, and to select rapid warm-up. The way in which the new heating system works has been tested in a pilot set-up and proven by comprehensive measurements. In addition, a simulation model was produced which gave substantial confirmation of the measurements. (orig.) With 9 refs., 37 tabs., 63 figs.
Wax Precipitation Modeled with Many Mixed Solid Phases
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Heidemann, Robert A.; Madsen, Jesper; Stenby, Erling Halfdan
2005-01-01
The behavior of the Coutinho UNIQUAC model for solid wax phases has been examined. The model can produce as many mixed solid phases as the number of waxy components. In binary mixtures, the solid rich in the lighter component contains little of the heavier component but the second phase shows sub......-temperature and low-temperature forms, are pure. Model calculations compare well with the data of Pauly et al. for C18 to C30 waxes precipitating from n-decane solutions. (C) 2004 American Institute of Chemical Engineers....
Analysis of a PDF model in a mixing layer case
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Minier, J.P.; Pozorski, J.
1996-04-01
A recent turbulence model put forward by Pope (1991) in the context of PDF modeling has been applied to a mixing layer case. This model solves the one-point joint velocity-dissipation pdf equation by simulating the instantaneous behaviour of a large number of Lagrangian fluid particles. Closure of the evolution equations of these Lagrangian particles is based on diffusion stochastic processes. The paper reports numerical results and tries to analyse the physical meaning of some variables, in particular the dissipation-weighted kinetic energy and its relation with external intermittency. (authors). 14 refs., 7 figs
Production, decay, and mixing models of the iota meson
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Palmer, W.F.; Pinsky, S.S.; Bender, C.
1984-01-01
We solve a five-channel mixing problem involving eta, eta', zeta(1275), iota(1440), and a new hypothetical high-mass pseudoscalar state between 1600 and 1900 MeV. We obtain the quark and glue content of iota(1440). We compare two solutions to the mixing problem with iota(1440) production and decay data, and with quark-model predictions for bare masses. In one solution the iota(1440) is primarily a glueball. This solution is preferred by the production and decay data. In the other solution the iota(1440) is a radially excited (ss-bar) state. This solution is preferred by the quark-model picture for the bare masses. We judge the weight of the combined evidence to favor the glueball interpretation
A Class of Two-Component Adler—Bobenko—Suris Lattice Equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fu Wei; Zhang Da-Jun; Zhou Ru-Guang
2014-01-01
We study a class of two-component forms of the famous list of the Adler—Bobenko—Suris lattice equations. The obtained two-component lattice equations are still consistent around the cube and they admit solutions with ‘jumping properties’ between two levels. (general)
Mildly mixed coupled models vs. WMAP7 data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
La Vacca, Giuseppe; Bonometto, Silvio A.
2011-01-01
Mildly mixed coupled models include massive ν's and CDM-DE coupling. We present new tests of their likelihood vs. recent data including WMAP7, confirming it to exceed ΛCDM, although at ∼2--σ's. We then show the impact on the physics of the dark components of ν-mass detection in 3 H β-decay or 0νββ-decay experiments.
Estimation and Inference for Very Large Linear Mixed Effects Models
Gao, K.; Owen, A. B.
2016-01-01
Linear mixed models with large imbalanced crossed random effects structures pose severe computational problems for maximum likelihood estimation and for Bayesian analysis. The costs can grow as fast as $N^{3/2}$ when there are N observations. Such problems arise in any setting where the underlying factors satisfy a many to many relationship (instead of a nested one) and in electronic commerce applications, the N can be quite large. Methods that do not account for the correlation structure can...
GUT and flavor models for neutrino masses and mixing
Meloni, Davide
2017-10-01
In the recent years experiments have established the existence of neutrino oscillations and most of the oscillation parameters have been measured with a good accuracy. However, in spite of many interesting ideas, no real illumination was sparked on the problem of flavor in the lepton sector. In this review, we discuss the state of the art of models for neutrino masses and mixings formulated in the context of flavor symmetries, with particular emphasis on the role played by grand unified gauge groups.
The 4s web-marketing mix model
Constantinides, Efthymios
2002-01-01
This paper reviews the criticism on the 4Ps Marketing Mix framework, the most popular tool of traditional marketing management, and categorizes the main objections of using the model as the foundation of physical marketing. It argues that applying the traditional approach, based on the 4Ps paradigm, is also a poor choice in the case of virtual marketing and identifies two main limitations of the framework in online environments: the drastically diminished role of the Ps and the lack of any st...
Further Improvements to Linear Mixed Models for Genome-Wide Association Studies
Widmer, Christian; Lippert, Christoph; Weissbrod, Omer; Fusi, Nicolo; Kadie, Carl; Davidson, Robert; Listgarten, Jennifer; Heckerman, David
2014-11-01
We examine improvements to the linear mixed model (LMM) that better correct for population structure and family relatedness in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). LMMs rely on the estimation of a genetic similarity matrix (GSM), which encodes the pairwise similarity between every two individuals in a cohort. These similarities are estimated from single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or other genetic variants. Traditionally, all available SNPs are used to estimate the GSM. In empirical studies across a wide range of synthetic and real data, we find that modifications to this approach improve GWAS performance as measured by type I error control and power. Specifically, when only population structure is present, a GSM constructed from SNPs that well predict the phenotype in combination with principal components as covariates controls type I error and yields more power than the traditional LMM. In any setting, with or without population structure or family relatedness, a GSM consisting of a mixture of two component GSMs, one constructed from all SNPs and another constructed from SNPs that well predict the phenotype again controls type I error and yields more power than the traditional LMM. Software implementing these improvements and the experimental comparisons are available at http://microsoft.com/science.
Study on system dynamics of evolutionary mix-game models
Gou, Chengling; Guo, Xiaoqian; Chen, Fang
2008-11-01
Mix-game model is ameliorated from an agent-based MG model, which is used to simulate the real financial market. Different from MG, there are two groups of agents in Mix-game: Group 1 plays a majority game and Group 2 plays a minority game. These two groups of agents have different bounded abilities to deal with historical information and to count their own performance. In this paper, we modify Mix-game model by assigning the evolution abilities to agents: if the winning rates of agents are smaller than a threshold, they will copy the best strategies the other agent has; and agents will repeat such evolution at certain time intervals. Through simulations this paper finds: (1) the average winning rates of agents in Group 1 and the mean volatilities increase with the increases of the thresholds of Group 1; (2) the average winning rates of both groups decrease but the mean volatilities of system increase with the increase of the thresholds of Group 2; (3) the thresholds of Group 2 have greater impact on system dynamics than the thresholds of Group 1; (4) the characteristics of system dynamics under different time intervals of strategy change are similar to each other qualitatively, but they are different quantitatively; (5) As the time interval of strategy change increases from 1 to 20, the system behaves more and more stable and the performances of agents in both groups become better also.
Stochastic scalar mixing models accounting for turbulent frequency multiscale fluctuations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soulard, Olivier; Sabel'nikov, Vladimir; Gorokhovski, Michael
2004-01-01
Two new scalar micromixing models accounting for a turbulent frequency scale distribution are investigated. These models were derived by Sabel'nikov and Gorokhovski [Second International Symposium on Turbulence and Shear FLow Phenomena, Royal Institute of technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden, June 27-29, 2001] using a multiscale extension of the classical interaction by exchange with the mean (IEM) and Langevin models. They are, respectively, called Extended IEM (EIEM) and Extended Langevin (ELM) models. The EIEM and ELM models are tested against DNS results in the case of the decay of a homogeneous scalar field in homogeneous turbulence. This comparison leads to a reformulation of the law governing the mixing frequency distribution. Finally, the asymptotic behaviour of the modeled PDF is discussed
Modified Baryonic Dynamics: two-component cosmological simulations with light sterile neutrinos
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Angus, G.W.; Gentile, G. [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, Brussels, 1050 Belgium (Belgium); Diaferio, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, Torino, I-10125 Italy (Italy); Famaey, B. [Observatoire astronomique de Strasbourg, CNRS UMR 7550, Université de Strasbourg, 11 rue de l' Université, Strasbourg, F-67000 France (France); Heyden, K.J. van der, E-mail: garry.angus@vub.ac.be, E-mail: diaferio@ph.unito.it, E-mail: benoit.famaey@astro.unistra.fr, E-mail: gianfranco.gentile@ugent.be, E-mail: heyden@ast.uct.ac.za [Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Centre, Dept. of Astronomy, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch, 7701 South Africa (South Africa)
2014-10-01
In this article we continue to test cosmological models centred on Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) with light sterile neutrinos, which could in principle be a way to solve the fine-tuning problems of the standard model on galaxy scales while preserving successful predictions on larger scales. Due to previous failures of the simple MOND cosmological model, here we test a speculative model where the modified gravitational field is produced only by the baryons and the sterile neutrinos produce a purely Newtonian field (hence Modified Baryonic Dynamics). We use two-component cosmological simulations to separate the baryonic N-body particles from the sterile neutrino ones. The premise is to attenuate the over-production of massive galaxy cluster halos which were prevalent in the original MOND plus light sterile neutrinos scenario. Theoretical issues with such a formulation notwithstanding, the Modified Baryonic Dynamics model fails to produce the correct amplitude for the galaxy cluster mass function for any reasonable value of the primordial power spectrum normalisation.
Nonlinear light scattering in a two component medium: optical limiting application
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Joudrier, Valerie
1998-01-01
Scattering is a fundamental manifestation of the interaction between matter and radiation, resulting from inhomogeneities in the refractive index, which decrease transmission. This phenomenon is then especially attractive for sensor protection from laser light by optical limiting. One of the methods to induce scattering at high incident energy is to make use of the Kerr effect where the index of refraction is intensity dependent. Thus, the idea is to use a two component medium with a good index matching between the two components at low intensity, resulting in the medium transparency, and to modify it, at high intensity, due to the non linearity of one component making the medium highly scattering. Some of the experimental and theoretical investigations concerning a new material (here, a cell containing some liquid with small silica particles as inclusion in it) are presented in the visible domain (I=532 nm), for the nanosecond protection regime, beginning, with the chemical synthesis of the sample. The experimental results concerning the optical limiting process are presented, showing that nonlinear scattering is clearly the dominant mechanism in confrontation with other potential nonlinear effects. Several complementary experiments are then performed to complete the nonlinear scattering characterization, involving the measurement of the angular distribution of scattered energy and the integrating sphere measurement. Further information are also gained by studying the time response of the nonlinearities with a dual-beam (pulsed-pump, cw probe) technique. The previous experimental data is also analyzed with some simple theoretical models to evaluate the nonlinearity of the material from optical limiting, the angular scattering and the total scattering energy measurements. The good match between all the analytical results permits to delineate the physical mechanisms responsible for the nonlinear scattering effect and to direct the final conclusion. (author) [fr
Understanding and Improving Ocean Mixing Parameterizations for modeling Climate Change
Howard, A. M.; Fells, J.; Clarke, J.; Cheng, Y.; Canuto, V.; Dubovikov, M. S.
2017-12-01
Climate is vital. Earth is only habitable due to the atmosphere&oceans' distribution of energy. Our Greenhouse Gas emissions shift overall the balance between absorbed and emitted radiation causing Global Warming. How much of these emissions are stored in the ocean vs. entering the atmosphere to cause warming and how the extra heat is distributed depends on atmosphere&ocean dynamics, which we must understand to know risks of both progressive Climate Change and Climate Variability which affect us all in many ways including extreme weather, floods, droughts, sea-level rise and ecosystem disruption. Citizens must be informed to make decisions such as "business as usual" vs. mitigating emissions to avert catastrophe. Simulations of Climate Change provide needed knowledge but in turn need reliable parameterizations of key physical processes, including ocean mixing, which greatly impacts transport&storage of heat and dissolved CO2. The turbulence group at NASA-GISS seeks to use physical theory to improve parameterizations of ocean mixing, including smallscale convective, shear driven, double diffusive, internal wave and tidal driven vertical mixing, as well as mixing by submesoscale eddies, and lateral mixing along isopycnals by mesoscale eddies. Medgar Evers undergraduates aid NASA research while learning climate science and developing computer&math skills. We write our own programs in MATLAB and FORTRAN to visualize and process output of ocean simulations including producing statistics to help judge impacts of different parameterizations on fidelity in reproducing realistic temperatures&salinities, diffusivities and turbulent power. The results can help upgrade the parameterizations. Students are introduced to complex system modeling and gain deeper appreciation of climate science and programming skills, while furthering climate science. We are incorporating climate projects into the Medgar Evers college curriculum. The PI is both a member of the turbulence group at
A Linear Mixed-Effects Model of Wireless Spectrum Occupancy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pagadarai Srikanth
2010-01-01
Full Text Available We provide regression analysis-based statistical models to explain the usage of wireless spectrum across four mid-size US cities in four frequency bands. Specifically, the variations in spectrum occupancy across space, time, and frequency are investigated and compared between different sites within the city as well as with other cities. By applying the mixed-effects models, several conclusions are drawn that give the occupancy percentage and the ON time duration of the licensed signal transmission as a function of several predictor variables.
Normal and Special Models of Neutrino Masses and Mixings
Altarelli, Guido
2005-01-01
One can make a distinction between "normal" and "special" models. For normal models $\\theta_{23}$ is not too close to maximal and $\\theta_{13}$ is not too small, typically a small power of the self-suggesting order parameter $\\sqrt{r}$, with $r=\\Delta m_{sol}^2/\\Delta m_{atm}^2 \\sim 1/35$. Special models are those where some symmetry or dynamical feature assures in a natural way the near vanishing of $\\theta_{13}$ and/or of $\\theta_{23}- \\pi/4$. Normal models are conceptually more economical and much simpler to construct. Here we focus on special models, in particular a recent one based on A4 discrete symmetry and extra dimensions that leads in a natural way to a Harrison-Perkins-Scott mixing matrix.
Mixed Portmanteau Test for Diagnostic Checking of Time Series Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sohail Chand
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Model criticism is an important stage of model building and thus goodness of fit tests provides a set of tools for diagnostic checking of the fitted model. Several tests are suggested in literature for diagnostic checking. These tests use autocorrelation or partial autocorrelation in the residuals to criticize the adequacy of fitted model. The main idea underlying these portmanteau tests is to identify if there is any dependence structure which is yet unexplained by the fitted model. In this paper, we suggest mixed portmanteau tests based on autocorrelation and partial autocorrelation functions of the residuals. We derived the asymptotic distribution of the mixture test and studied its size and power using Monte Carlo simulations.
CP violation and flavour mixing in the standard model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ali, A.; London, D.
1995-08-01
We review and update the constraints on the parameters of the quark flavour mixing matrix V CKM in the standard model and estimate the resulting CP asymmetries in B decays, taking into account recent experimental and theoretical developments. In performing our fits, we use inputs from the measurements of the following quantities: (i) vertical stroke εvertical stroke , the CP-violating parameter in K decays, (ii) ΔM d , the mass difference due to the B 0 d - anti B 0 d mixing, (iii) the matrix elements vertical stroke V cb vertical stroke and vertical stroke V ub vertical stroke , (iv) B-hadron lifetimes, and (v) the top quark mass. The experimental input in points (ii) - (v) has improved compared to our previous fits. With the updated CKM matrix we present the currently-allowed range of the ratios vertical stroke V td /V ts vertical stroke and vertical stroke V td /V ub vertical stroke , as well as the standard model predictions for the B s 0 - anti B s 0 mixing parameter x s , (or, equivalently, ΔM s ) and the quantities sin 2α, sin 2β and sin 2 γ, which characterize the CP-asymmetries in B-decays. Various theoretical issues related to the so-called ''penguin-pollution'', which are of importance for the determination of the phases α and γ from the CP-asymmetries in B decays, are also discussed. (orig.)
Criticality in the configuration-mixed interacting boson model: (1) U(5)-Q(χ)Q(χ) mixing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hellemans, V.; Van Isacker, P.; De Baerdemacker, S.; Heyde, K.
2007-01-01
The case of U(5)-Q(χ)Q(χ) mixing in the configuration-mixed interacting boson model is studied in its mean-field approximation. Phase diagrams with analytical and numerical solutions are constructed and discussed. Indications for first-order and second-order shape phase transitions can be obtained from binding energies and from critical exponents, respectively
Nonlinear spectral mixing theory to model multispectral signatures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Borel, C.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Astrophysics and Radiation Measurements Group
1996-02-01
Nonlinear spectral mixing occurs due to multiple reflections and transmissions between discrete surfaces, e.g. leaves or facets of a rough surface. The radiosity method is an energy conserving computational method used in thermal engineering and it models nonlinear spectral mixing realistically and accurately. In contrast to the radiative transfer method the radiosity method takes into account the discreteness of the scattering surfaces (e.g. exact location, orientation and shape) such as leaves and includes mutual shading between them. An analytic radiosity-based scattering model for vegetation was developed and used to compute vegetation indices for various configurations. The leaf reflectance and transmittance was modeled using the PROSPECT model for various amounts of water, chlorophyll and variable leaf structure. The soil background was modeled using SOILSPEC with a linear mixture of reflectances of sand, clay and peat. A neural network and a geometry based retrieval scheme were used to retrieve leaf area index and chlorophyll concentration for dense canopies. Only simulated canopy reflectances in the 6 visible through short wave IR Landsat TM channels were used. The authors used an empirical function to compute the signal-to-noise ratio of a retrieved quantity.
modelling of far modelling of far-field mixing o field mixing o ambient
African Journals Online (AJOL)
User
his study sought to describe the dynamics of advective and dispersive tr .... focused on environmental policy designs targeted at ... consequences such as welfare loss of outright ban on polluting ... optimal DO level. ... carried out a similar study to model the shadow price .... As A varies, we have a family of curves depicted in.
Forecasting Costa Rican Quarterly Growth with Mixed-frequency Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adolfo Rodríguez Vargas
2014-11-01
Full Text Available We assess the utility of mixed-frequency models to forecast the quarterly growth rate of Costa Rican real GDP: we estimate bridge and MiDaS models with several lag lengths using information of the IMAE and compute forecasts (horizons of 0-4 quarters which are compared between themselves, with those of ARIMA models and with those resulting from forecast combinations. Combining the most accurate forecasts is most useful when forecasting in real time, whereas MiDaS forecasts are the best-performing overall: as the forecasting horizon increases, their precisionis affected relatively little; their success rates in predicting the direction of changes in the growth rate are stable, and several forecastsremain unbiased. In particular, forecasts computed from simple MiDaS with 9 and 12 lags are unbiased at all horizons and information sets assessed, and show the highest number of significant differences in forecasting ability in comparison with all other models.
A local mixing model for deuterium replacement in solids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doyle, B.L.; Brice, D.K.; Wampler, W.R.
1980-01-01
A new model for hydrogen isotope exchange by ion implantation has been developed. The basic difference between the present approach and previous work is that the depth distribution of the implanted species is included. The outstanding feature of this local mixing model is that the only adjustable parameter is the saturation hydrogen concentration which is specific to the target material and dependent only on temperature. The model is shown to give excellent agreement both with new data on H/D exchange in the low Z coating materials VB 2 , TiC, TiB 2 , and B reported here and with previously reported data on stainless steel. The saturation hydrogen concentrations used to fit these data were 0.15, 0.25, 0.15, 0.45, and 1.00 times atomic density respectively. This model should be useful in predicting the recycling behavior of hydrogen isotopes in tokamak limiter and wall materials. (author)
Methods of producing epoxides from alkenes using a two-component catalyst system
Kung, Mayfair C.; Kung, Harold H.; Jiang, Jian
2013-07-09
Methods for the epoxidation of alkenes are provided. The methods include the steps of exposing the alkene to a two-component catalyst system in an aqueous solution in the presence of carbon monoxide and molecular oxygen under conditions in which the alkene is epoxidized. The two-component catalyst system comprises a first catalyst that generates peroxides or peroxy intermediates during oxidation of CO with molecular oxygen and a second catalyst that catalyzes the epoxidation of the alkene using the peroxides or peroxy intermediates. A catalyst system composed of particles of suspended gold and titanium silicalite is one example of a suitable two-component catalyst system.
Onsager Vortex Formation in Two-component Bose-Einstein Condensates
Han, Junsik; Tsubota, Makoto
2018-06-01
We numerically study the dynamics of quantized vortices in two-dimensional two-component Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) trapped by a box potential. For one-component BECs in a box potential, it is known that quantized vortices form Onsager vortices, which are clusters of same-sign vortices. We confirm that the vortices of the two components spatially separate from each other — even for miscible two-component BECs — suppressing the formation of Onsager vortices. This phenomenon is caused by the repulsive interaction between vortices belonging to different components, hence, suggesting a new possibility for vortex phase separation.
Weak nonlinear matter waves in a trapped two-component Bose-Einstein condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yong Wenmei; Xue Jukui
2008-01-01
The dynamics of the weak nonlinear matter solitary waves in two-component Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) with cigar-shaped external potential are investigated analytically by a perturbation method. In the small amplitude limit, the two-components can be decoupled and the dynamics of solitary waves are governed by a variable-coefficient Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation. The reduction to the KdV equation may be useful to understand the dynamics of nonlinear matter waves in two-component BEC. The analytical expressions for the evolution of soliton, emitted radiation profiles and soliton oscillation frequency are also obtained
Negative binomial mixed models for analyzing microbiome count data.
Zhang, Xinyan; Mallick, Himel; Tang, Zaixiang; Zhang, Lei; Cui, Xiangqin; Benson, Andrew K; Yi, Nengjun
2017-01-03
Recent advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology enable researchers to collect a large volume of metagenomic sequencing data. These data provide valuable resources for investigating interactions between the microbiome and host environmental/clinical factors. In addition to the well-known properties of microbiome count measurements, for example, varied total sequence reads across samples, over-dispersion and zero-inflation, microbiome studies usually collect samples with hierarchical structures, which introduce correlation among the samples and thus further complicate the analysis and interpretation of microbiome count data. In this article, we propose negative binomial mixed models (NBMMs) for detecting the association between the microbiome and host environmental/clinical factors for correlated microbiome count data. Although having not dealt with zero-inflation, the proposed mixed-effects models account for correlation among the samples by incorporating random effects into the commonly used fixed-effects negative binomial model, and can efficiently handle over-dispersion and varying total reads. We have developed a flexible and efficient IWLS (Iterative Weighted Least Squares) algorithm to fit the proposed NBMMs by taking advantage of the standard procedure for fitting the linear mixed models. We evaluate and demonstrate the proposed method via extensive simulation studies and the application to mouse gut microbiome data. The results show that the proposed method has desirable properties and outperform the previously used methods in terms of both empirical power and Type I error. The method has been incorporated into the freely available R package BhGLM ( http://www.ssg.uab.edu/bhglm/ and http://github.com/abbyyan3/BhGLM ), providing a useful tool for analyzing microbiome data.
Subgrid models for mass and thermal diffusion in turbulent mixing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sharp, David H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lim, Hyunkyung [STONY BROOK UNIV; Li, Xiao - Lin [STONY BROOK UNIV; Gilmm, James G [STONY BROOK UNIV
2008-01-01
We are concerned with the chaotic flow fields of turbulent mixing. Chaotic flow is found in an extreme form in multiply shocked Richtmyer-Meshkov unstable flows. The goal of a converged simulation for this problem is twofold: to obtain converged solutions for macro solution features, such as the trajectories of the principal shock waves, mixing zone edges, and mean densities and velocities within each phase, and also for such micro solution features as the joint probability distributions of the temperature and species concentration. We introduce parameterized subgrid models of mass and thermal diffusion, to define large eddy simulations (LES) that replicate the micro features observed in the direct numerical simulation (DNS). The Schmidt numbers and Prandtl numbers are chosen to represent typical liquid, gas and plasma parameter values. Our main result is to explore the variation of the Schmidt, Prandtl and Reynolds numbers by three orders of magnitude, and the mesh by a factor of 8 per linear dimension (up to 3200 cells per dimension), to allow exploration of both DNS and LES regimes and verification of the simulations for both macro and micro observables. We find mesh convergence for key properties describing the molecular level of mixing, including chemical reaction rates between the distinct fluid species. We find results nearly independent of Reynolds number for Re 300, 6000, 600K . Methodologically, the results are also new. In common with the shock capturing community, we allow and maintain sharp solution gradients, and we enhance these gradients through use of front tracking. In common with the turbulence modeling community, we include subgrid scale models with no adjustable parameters for LES. To the authors' knowledge, these two methodologies have not been previously combined. In contrast to both of these methodologies, our use of Front Tracking, with DNS or LES resolution of the momentum equation at or near the Kolmogorov scale, but without
Mixing Modeling Analysis For SRS Salt Waste Disposition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, S.
2011-01-01
Nuclear waste at Savannah River Site (SRS) waste tanks consists of three different types of waste forms. They are the lighter salt solutions referred to as supernate, the precipitated salts as salt cake, and heavier fine solids as sludge. The sludge is settled on the tank floor. About half of the residual waste radioactivity is contained in the sludge, which is only about 8 percentage of the total waste volume. Mixing study to be evaluated here for the Salt Disposition Integration (SDI) project focuses on supernate preparations in waste tanks prior to transfer to the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) feed tank. The methods to mix and blend the contents of the SRS blend tanks were evalutaed to ensure that the contents are properly blended before they are transferred from the blend tank such as Tank 50H to the SWPF feed tank. The work consists of two principal objectives to investigate two different pumps. One objective is to identify a suitable pumping arrangement that will adequately blend/mix two miscible liquids to obtain a uniform composition in the tank with a minimum level of sludge solid particulate in suspension. The other is to estimate the elevation in the tank at which the transfer pump inlet should be located where the solid concentration of the entrained fluid remains below the acceptance criterion (0.09 wt% or 1200 mg/liter) during transfer operation to the SWPF. Tank 50H is a Waste Tank that will be used to prepare batches of salt feed for SWPF. The salt feed must be a homogeneous solution satisfying the acceptance criterion of the solids entrainment during transfer operation. The work described here consists of two modeling areas. They are the mixing modeling analysis during miscible liquid blending operation, and the flow pattern analysis during transfer operation of the blended liquid. The modeling results will provide quantitative design and operation information during the mixing/blending process and the transfer operation of the blended
Linear mixed models a practical guide using statistical software
West, Brady T; Galecki, Andrzej T
2014-01-01
Highly recommended by JASA, Technometrics, and other journals, the first edition of this bestseller showed how to easily perform complex linear mixed model (LMM) analyses via a variety of software programs. Linear Mixed Models: A Practical Guide Using Statistical Software, Second Edition continues to lead readers step by step through the process of fitting LMMs. This second edition covers additional topics on the application of LMMs that are valuable for data analysts in all fields. It also updates the case studies using the latest versions of the software procedures and provides up-to-date information on the options and features of the software procedures available for fitting LMMs in SAS, SPSS, Stata, R/S-plus, and HLM.New to the Second Edition A new chapter on models with crossed random effects that uses a case study to illustrate software procedures capable of fitting these models Power analysis methods for longitudinal and clustered study designs, including software options for power analyses and suggest...
Solving large mixed linear models using preconditioned conjugate gradient iteration.
Strandén, I; Lidauer, M
1999-12-01
Continuous evaluation of dairy cattle with a random regression test-day model requires a fast solving method and algorithm. A new computing technique feasible in Jacobi and conjugate gradient based iterative methods using iteration on data is presented. In the new computing technique, the calculations in multiplication of a vector by a matrix were recorded to three steps instead of the commonly used two steps. The three-step method was implemented in a general mixed linear model program that used preconditioned conjugate gradient iteration. Performance of this program in comparison to other general solving programs was assessed via estimation of breeding values using univariate, multivariate, and random regression test-day models. Central processing unit time per iteration with the new three-step technique was, at best, one-third that needed with the old technique. Performance was best with the test-day model, which was the largest and most complex model used. The new program did well in comparison to other general software. Programs keeping the mixed model equations in random access memory required at least 20 and 435% more time to solve the univariate and multivariate animal models, respectively. Computations of the second best iteration on data took approximately three and five times longer for the animal and test-day models, respectively, than did the new program. Good performance was due to fast computing time per iteration and quick convergence to the final solutions. Use of preconditioned conjugate gradient based methods in solving large breeding value problems is supported by our findings.
Counterbalancing Regulation in Response Memory of a Positively Autoregulated Two-Component System.
Gao, Rong; Godfrey, Katherine A; Sufian, Mahir A; Stock, Ann M
2017-09-15
Fluctuations in nutrient availability often result in recurrent exposures to the same stimulus conditions. The ability to memorize the past event and use the "memory" to make adjustments to current behaviors can lead to a more efficient adaptation to the recurring stimulus. A short-term phenotypic memory can be conferred via carryover of the response proteins to facilitate the recurrent response, but the additional accumulation of response proteins can lead to a deviation from response homeostasis. We used the Escherichia coli PhoB/PhoR two-component system (TCS) as a model system to study how cells cope with the recurrence of environmental phosphate (Pi) starvation conditions. We discovered that "memory" of prior Pi starvation can exert distinct effects through two regulatory pathways, the TCS signaling pathway and the stress response pathway. Although carryover of TCS proteins can lead to higher initial levels of transcription factor PhoB and a faster initial response in prestarved cells than in cells not starved, the response enhancement can be overcome by an earlier and greater repression of promoter activity in prestarved cells due to the memory of the stress response. The repression counterbalances the carryover of the response proteins, leading to a homeostatic response whether or not cells are prestimulated. A computational model based on sigma factor competition was developed to understand the memory of stress response and to predict the homeostasis of other PhoB-regulated response proteins. Our insight into the history-dependent PhoBR response may provide a general understanding of how TCSs respond to recurring stimuli and adapt to fluctuating environmental conditions. IMPORTANCE Bacterial cells in their natural environments experience scenarios that are far more complex than are typically replicated in laboratory experiments. The architectures of signaling systems and the integration of multiple adaptive pathways have evolved to deal with such complexity
Counterbalancing Regulation in Response Memory of a Positively Autoregulated Two-Component System
Gao, Rong; Godfrey, Katherine A.; Sufian, Mahir A.
2017-01-01
ABSTRACT Fluctuations in nutrient availability often result in recurrent exposures to the same stimulus conditions. The ability to memorize the past event and use the “memory” to make adjustments to current behaviors can lead to a more efficient adaptation to the recurring stimulus. A short-term phenotypic memory can be conferred via carryover of the response proteins to facilitate the recurrent response, but the additional accumulation of response proteins can lead to a deviation from response homeostasis. We used the Escherichia coli PhoB/PhoR two-component system (TCS) as a model system to study how cells cope with the recurrence of environmental phosphate (Pi) starvation conditions. We discovered that “memory” of prior Pi starvation can exert distinct effects through two regulatory pathways, the TCS signaling pathway and the stress response pathway. Although carryover of TCS proteins can lead to higher initial levels of transcription factor PhoB and a faster initial response in prestarved cells than in cells not starved, the response enhancement can be overcome by an earlier and greater repression of promoter activity in prestarved cells due to the memory of the stress response. The repression counterbalances the carryover of the response proteins, leading to a homeostatic response whether or not cells are prestimulated. A computational model based on sigma factor competition was developed to understand the memory of stress response and to predict the homeostasis of other PhoB-regulated response proteins. Our insight into the history-dependent PhoBR response may provide a general understanding of how TCSs respond to recurring stimuli and adapt to fluctuating environmental conditions. IMPORTANCE Bacterial cells in their natural environments experience scenarios that are far more complex than are typically replicated in laboratory experiments. The architectures of signaling systems and the integration of multiple adaptive pathways have evolved to deal
Modelling rainfall amounts using mixed-gamma model for Kuantan district
Zakaria, Roslinazairimah; Moslim, Nor Hafizah
2017-05-01
An efficient design of flood mitigation and construction of crop growth models depend upon good understanding of the rainfall process and characteristics. Gamma distribution is usually used to model nonzero rainfall amounts. In this study, the mixed-gamma model is applied to accommodate both zero and nonzero rainfall amounts. The mixed-gamma model presented is for the independent case. The formulae of mean and variance are derived for the sum of two and three independent mixed-gamma variables, respectively. Firstly, the gamma distribution is used to model the nonzero rainfall amounts and the parameters of the distribution (shape and scale) are estimated using the maximum likelihood estimation method. Then, the mixed-gamma model is defined for both zero and nonzero rainfall amounts simultaneously. The formulae of mean and variance for the sum of two and three independent mixed-gamma variables derived are tested using the monthly rainfall amounts from rainfall stations within Kuantan district in Pahang Malaysia. Based on the Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness of fit test, the results demonstrate that the descriptive statistics of the observed sum of rainfall amounts is not significantly different at 5% significance level from the generated sum of independent mixed-gamma variables. The methodology and formulae demonstrated can be applied to find the sum of more than three independent mixed-gamma variables.
Modelling ice microphysics of mixed-phase clouds
Ahola, J.; Raatikainen, T.; Tonttila, J.; Romakkaniemi, S.; Kokkola, H.; Korhonen, H.
2017-12-01
The low-level Arctic mixed-phase clouds have a significant role for the Arctic climate due to their ability to absorb and reflect radiation. Since the climate change is amplified in polar areas, it is vital to apprehend the mixed-phase cloud processes. From a modelling point of view, this requires a high spatiotemporal resolution to capture turbulence and the relevant microphysical processes, which has shown to be difficult.In order to solve this problem about modelling mixed-phase clouds, a new ice microphysics description has been developed. The recently published large-eddy simulation cloud model UCLALES-SALSA offers a good base for a feasible solution (Tonttila et al., Geosci. Mod. Dev., 10:169-188, 2017). The model includes aerosol-cloud interactions described with a sectional SALSA module (Kokkola et al., Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 2469-2483, 2008), which represents a good compromise between detail and computational expense.Newly, the SALSA module has been upgraded to include also ice microphysics. The dynamical part of the model is based on well-known UCLA-LES model (Stevens et al., J. Atmos. Sci., 56, 3963-3984, 1999) which can be used to study cloud dynamics on a fine grid.The microphysical description of ice is sectional and the included processes consist of formation, growth and removal of ice and snow particles. Ice cloud particles are formed by parameterized homo- or heterogeneous nucleation. The growth mechanisms of ice particles and snow include coagulation and condensation of water vapor. Autoconversion from cloud ice particles to snow is parameterized. The removal of ice particles and snow happens by sedimentation and melting.The implementation of ice microphysics is tested by initializing the cloud simulation with atmospheric observations from the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC). The results are compared to the model results shown in the paper of Ovchinnikov et al. (J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., 6, 223-248, 2014) and they show a good
Thermodynamics of two component gaseous and solid state plasmas at any degeneracy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kraeft, W.D.; Stolzmann, W.; Fromhold-Treu, I.; Rother, T.
1988-10-01
We give the results of thermodynamical calculations for two component plasmas which are of interest for dense hydrogen, noble gas and alkali plasmas and for electron hole plasmas in optically excited semiconductors as well. 25 refs, 4 figs
Mazyar, Oleg A.; Mayer, Paul M.; Baer, Tomas
1997-11-01
Threshold photoelectron-photoion coincidence (TPEPICO) spectroscopy has been used to investigate the unimolecular chemistry of metastable methyl acetate ions, CH3COOCH3.+. The rate of molecular ion fragmentation with the loss of CH3O. and CH2OH radicals as a function of ion internal energy was obtained from the coincidence data and used in conjunction with Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Markus and ab initio molecular orbital calculations to model the dissociation/isomerization mechanism of the methyl acetate ion (A). The data were found to be consistent with the mechanism involving a hydrogen-bridged complex CH3CO[middle dot][middle dot][middle dot]H[middle dot][middle dot][middle dot]OCH2.+(E) as the direct precursor of the observed fragments CH3CO+ and CH2OH.. The two-component decay rates were modeled with a three-well-two-product potential energy surface including the distonic ion CH3C(OH)OCH2.+(B) and enol isomer CH2C(OH)OCH3.+(C), which are formed from the methyl acetate ion by two consecutive [1,4]-hydrogen shifts. The 0 K heats of formation of isomers B and C as well as transition states TSAB, TSBC, and TSBE (relative to isomer A) were calculated from Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Markus (RRKM) theory.
Delta-tilde interpretation of standard linear mixed model results
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brockhoff, Per Bruun; Amorim, Isabel de Sousa; Kuznetsova, Alexandra
2016-01-01
effects relative to the residual error and to choose the proper effect size measure. For multi-attribute bar plots of F-statistics this amounts, in balanced settings, to a simple transformation of the bar heights to get them transformed into depicting what can be seen as approximately the average pairwise...... data set and compared to actual d-prime calculations based on Thurstonian regression modeling through the ordinal package. For more challenging cases we offer a generic "plug-in" implementation of a version of the method as part of the R-package SensMixed. We discuss and clarify the bias mechanisms...
lmerTest Package: Tests in Linear Mixed Effects Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kuznetsova, Alexandra; Brockhoff, Per B.; Christensen, Rune Haubo Bojesen
2017-01-01
One of the frequent questions by users of the mixed model function lmer of the lme4 package has been: How can I get p values for the F and t tests for objects returned by lmer? The lmerTest package extends the 'lmerMod' class of the lme4 package, by overloading the anova and summary functions...... by providing p values for tests for fixed effects. We have implemented the Satterthwaite's method for approximating degrees of freedom for the t and F tests. We have also implemented the construction of Type I - III ANOVA tables. Furthermore, one may also obtain the summary as well as the anova table using...
Linking effort and fishing mortality in a mixed fisheries model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thøgersen, Thomas Talund; Hoff, Ayoe; Frost, Hans Staby
2012-01-01
in fish stocks has led to overcapacity in many fisheries, leading to incentives for overfishing. Recent research has shown that the allocation of effort among fleets can play an important role in mitigating overfishing when the targeting covers a range of species (multi-species—i.e., so-called mixed...... fisheries), while simultaneously optimising the overall economic performance of the fleets. The so-called FcubEcon model, in particular, has elucidated both the biologically and economically optimal method for allocating catches—and thus effort—between fishing fleets, while ensuring that the quotas...
Modeling of speed distribution for mixed bicycle traffic flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cheng Xu
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Speed is a fundamental measure of traffic performance for highway systems. There were lots of results for the speed characteristics of motorized vehicles. In this article, we studied the speed distribution for mixed bicycle traffic which was ignored in the past. Field speed data were collected from Hangzhou, China, under different survey sites, traffic conditions, and percentages of electric bicycle. The statistics results of field data show that the total mean speed of electric bicycles is 17.09 km/h, 3.63 km/h faster and 27.0% higher than that of regular bicycles. Normal, log-normal, gamma, and Weibull distribution models were used for testing speed data. The results of goodness-of-fit hypothesis tests imply that the log-normal and Weibull model can fit the field data very well. Then, the relationships between mean speed and electric bicycle proportions were proposed using linear regression models, and the mean speed for purely electric bicycles or regular bicycles can be obtained. The findings of this article will provide effective help for the safety and traffic management of mixed bicycle traffic.
Spatial generalised linear mixed models based on distances.
Melo, Oscar O; Mateu, Jorge; Melo, Carlos E
2016-10-01
Risk models derived from environmental data have been widely shown to be effective in delineating geographical areas of risk because they are intuitively easy to understand. We present a new method based on distances, which allows the modelling of continuous and non-continuous random variables through distance-based spatial generalised linear mixed models. The parameters are estimated using Markov chain Monte Carlo maximum likelihood, which is a feasible and a useful technique. The proposed method depends on a detrending step built from continuous or categorical explanatory variables, or a mixture among them, by using an appropriate Euclidean distance. The method is illustrated through the analysis of the variation in the prevalence of Loa loa among a sample of village residents in Cameroon, where the explanatory variables included elevation, together with maximum normalised-difference vegetation index and the standard deviation of normalised-difference vegetation index calculated from repeated satellite scans over time. © The Author(s) 2013.
Competitive Adsorption of a Two-Component Gas on a Deformable Adsorbent
Usenko, A. S.
2013-01-01
We investigate the competitive adsorption of a two-component gas on the surface of an adsorbent whose adsorption properties vary in adsorption due to the adsorbent deformation. The essential difference of adsorption isotherms for a deformable adsorbent both from the classical Langmuir adsorption isotherms of a two-component gas and from the adsorption isotherms of a one-component gas taking into account variations in adsorption properties of the adsorbent in adsorption is obtained. We establi...
Chloroplast two-component systems: evolution of the link between photosynthesis and gene expression.
Puthiyaveetil, Sujith; Allen, John F
2009-06-22
Two-component signal transduction, consisting of sensor kinases and response regulators, is the predominant signalling mechanism in bacteria. This signalling system originated in prokaryotes and has spread throughout the eukaryotic domain of life through endosymbiotic, lateral gene transfer from the bacterial ancestors and early evolutionary precursors of eukaryotic, cytoplasmic, bioenergetic organelles-chloroplasts and mitochondria. Until recently, it was thought that two-component systems inherited from an ancestral cyanobacterial symbiont are no longer present in chloroplasts. Recent research now shows that two-component systems have survived in chloroplasts as products of both chloroplast and nuclear genes. Comparative genomic analysis of photosynthetic eukaryotes shows a lineage-specific distribution of chloroplast two-component systems. The components and the systems they comprise have homologues in extant cyanobacterial lineages, indicating their ancient cyanobacterial origin. Sequence and functional characteristics of chloroplast two-component systems point to their fundamental role in linking photosynthesis with gene expression. We propose that two-component systems provide a coupling between photosynthesis and gene expression that serves to retain genes in chloroplasts, thus providing the basis of cytoplasmic, non-Mendelian inheritance of plastid-associated characters. We discuss the role of this coupling in the chronobiology of cells and in the dialogue between nuclear and cytoplasmic genetic systems.
Christensen, Steen; Serbus, Laura Renee
2015-01-01
Two-component regulatory systems are commonly used by bacteria to coordinate intracellular responses with environmental cues. These systems are composed of functional protein pairs consisting of a sensor histidine kinase and cognate response regulator. In contrast to the well-studied Caulobacter crescentus system, which carries dozens of these pairs, the streamlined bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis encodes only two pairs: CckA/CtrA and PleC/PleD. Here, we used bioinformatic tools to compare characterized two-component system relays from C. crescentus, the related Anaplasmataceae species Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia chaffeensis, and 12 sequenced Wolbachia strains. We found the core protein pairs and a subset of interacting partners to be highly conserved within Wolbachia and these other Anaplasmataceae. Genes involved in two-component signaling were positioned differently within the various Wolbachia genomes, whereas the local context of each gene was conserved. Unlike Anaplasma and Ehrlichia, Wolbachia two-component genes were more consistently found clustered with metabolic genes. The domain architecture and key functional residues standard for two-component system proteins were well-conserved in Wolbachia, although residues that specify cognate pairing diverged substantially from other Anaplasmataceae. These findings indicate that Wolbachia two-component signaling pairs share considerable functional overlap with other α-proteobacterial systems, whereas their divergence suggests the potential for regulatory differences and cross-talk. PMID:25809075
Mixing height derived from the DMI-HIRLAM NWP model, and used for ETEX dispersion modelling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Soerensen, J.H.; Rasmussen, A. [Danish Meteorological Inst., Copenhagen (Denmark)
1997-10-01
For atmospheric dispersion modelling it is of great significance to estimate the mixing height well. Mesoscale and long-range diffusion models using output from numerical weather prediction (NWP) models may well use NWP model profiles of wind, temperature and humidity in computation of the mixing height. This is dynamically consistent, and enables calculation of the mixing height for predicted states of the atmosphere. In autumn 1994, the European Tracer Experiment (ETEX) was carried out with the objective to validate atmospheric dispersion models. The Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI) participates in the model evaluations with the Danish Emergency Response Model of the Atmosphere (DERMA) using NWP model data from the DMI version of the High Resolution Limited Area Model (HIRLAM) as well as from the global model of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF). In DERMA, calculation of mixing heights are performed based on a bulk Richardson number approach. Comparing with tracer gas measurements for the first ETEX experiment, a sensitivity study is performed for DERMA. Using DMI-HIRLAM data, the study shows that optimum values of the critical bulk Richardson number in the range 0.15-0.35 are adequate. These results are in agreement with recent mixing height verification studies against radiosonde data. The fairly large range of adequate critical values is a signature of the robustness of the method. Direct verification results against observed missing heights from operational radio-sondes released under the ETEX plume are presented. (au) 10 refs.
A flavor symmetry model for bilarge leptonic mixing and the lepton masses
Ohlsson, Tommy; Seidl, Gerhart
2002-11-01
We present a model for leptonic mixing and the lepton masses based on flavor symmetries and higher-dimensional mass operators. The model predicts bilarge leptonic mixing (i.e., the mixing angles θ12 and θ23 are large and the mixing angle θ13 is small) and an inverted hierarchical neutrino mass spectrum. Furthermore, it approximately yields the experimental hierarchical mass spectrum of the charged leptons. The obtained values for the leptonic mixing parameters and the neutrino mass squared differences are all in agreement with atmospheric neutrino data, the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein large mixing angle solution of the solar neutrino problem, and consistent with the upper bound on the reactor mixing angle. Thus, we have a large, but not close to maximal, solar mixing angle θ12, a nearly maximal atmospheric mixing angle θ23, and a small reactor mixing angle θ13. In addition, the model predicts θ 12≃ {π}/{4}-θ 13.
Models for fluid flows with heat transfer in mixed convection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mompean Munhoz da Cruz, G.
1989-06-01
Second order models were studied in order to predict turbulent flows with heat transfer. The equations used correspond to the characteristic scale of turbulent flows. The order of magnitude of the terms of the equation is analyzed by using Reynolds and Peclet numbers. The two-equation model (K-ε) is applied in the hydrodynamic study. Two models are developed for the heat transfer analysis: the Prt + teta 2 and the complete model. In the first model, the turbulent thermal diffusivity is calculated by using the Prandtl number for turbulent flow and an equation for the variance of the temperature fluctuation. The second model consists of three equations concerning: the turbulent heat flow, the variance of the temperature fluctuation and its dissipation ratio. The equations were validated by four experiments, which were characterized by the analysis of: the air flow after passing through a grid of constant average temperature and with temperature gradient, an axysymmetric air jet submitted to high and low heating temperature, the mixing (cold-hot) of two coaxial jets of sodium at high Peclet number. The complete model is shown to be the most suitable for the investigations presented [fr
Manjunatha, N.; Sumithra, R.
2018-04-01
The problem of surface tension driven two component magnetoconvection is investigated in a Porous-Fluid system, consisting of anincompressible two component electrically conducting fluid saturatedporous layer above which lies a layer of the same fluid in the presence of a uniform vertical magnetic field. The lower boundary of the porous layeris rigid and the upper boundary of the fluid layer is free with surfacetension effects depending on both temperature and concentration, boththese boundaries are insulating to heat and mass. At the interface thevelocity, shear and normal stress, heat and heat flux, mass and mass fluxare assumed to be continuous suitable for Darcy-Brinkman model. Theeigenvalue problem is solved in linear, parabolic and inverted parabolictemperature profiles and the corresponding Thermal Marangoni Numberis obtained for different important physical parameters.
Quantum characteristics of occurrence scattering time in two-component non-ideal plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hong, Woo-Pyo [Department of Electronics Engineering, Catholic University of Daegu, Hayang, 712-702 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Young-Dae, E-mail: ydjung@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Applied Physics and Department of Bionanotechnology, Hanyang University, Ansan, Kyunggi-Do 15588 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, NY 12180-3590 (United States)
2015-10-30
The quantum diffraction and plasma screening effects on the occurrence time for the collision process are investigated in two-component non-ideal plasmas. The micropotential model taking into account the quantum diffraction and screening with the eikonal analysis is employed to derive the occurrence time as functions of the collision energy, density parameter, Debye length, de Broglie wavelength, and scattering angle. It is shown that the occurrence time for forward scattering directions decreases the tendency of time-advance with increasing scattering angle and de Broglie wavelength. However, it is found that the occurrence time shows the oscillatory time-advance and time-retarded behaviors with increasing scattering angle. It is found that the plasma screening effect enhances the tendency of time-advance on the occurrence time for forward scattering regions. It is also shown the quantum diffraction effect suppresses the occurrence time advance for forward scattering angles. In addition, it is shown that the occurrence time advance decreases with an increase of the collision energy. - Highlights: • The quantum diffraction and screening effects on the occurrence scattering time are investigated in non-ideal plasmas. • It is shown the quantum diffraction effect suppresses the occurrence time advance for forward scattering angles. • It is found that the plasma screening effect enhances the tendency of time-advance on the occurrence time.
Temporal evolution of photon energy emitted from two-component advective flows: origin of time lag
Chatterjee, Arka; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.; Ghosh, Himadri
2017-12-01
X-ray time lag of black hole candidates contains important information regarding the emission geometry. Recently, study of time lags from observational data revealed very intriguing properties. To investigate the real cause of this lag behavior with energy and spectral states, we study photon paths inside a two-component advective flow (TCAF) which appears to be a satisfactory model to explain the spectral and timing properties. We employ the Monte Carlo simulation technique to carry out the Comptonization process. We use a relativistic thick disk in Schwarzschild geometry as the CENtrifugal pressure supported BOundary Layer (CENBOL) which is the Compton cloud. In TCAF, this is the post-shock region of the advective component. Keplerian disk on the equatorial plane which is truncated at the inner edge i.e. at the outer boundary of the CENBOL, acts as the soft photon source. Ray-tracing code is employed to track the photons to a distantly located observer. We compute the cumulative time taken by a photon during Comptonization, reflection and following the curved geometry on the way to the observer. Time lags between various hard and soft bands have been calculated. We study the variation of time lags with accretion rates, CENBOL size and inclination angle. Time lags for different energy channels are plotted for different inclination angles. The general trend of variation of time lag with QPO frequency and energy as observed in satellite data is reproduced.
Bayesian Option Pricing using Mixed Normal Heteroskedasticity Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rombouts, Jeroen; Stentoft, Lars
2014-01-01
Option pricing using mixed normal heteroscedasticity models is considered. It is explained how to perform inference and price options in a Bayesian framework. The approach allows to easily compute risk neutral predictive price densities which take into account parameter uncertainty....... In an application to the S&P 500 index, classical and Bayesian inference is performed on the mixture model using the available return data. Comparing the ML estimates and posterior moments small differences are found. When pricing a rich sample of options on the index, both methods yield similar pricing errors...... measured in dollar and implied standard deviation losses, and it turns out that the impact of parameter uncertainty is minor. Therefore, when it comes to option pricing where large amounts of data are available, the choice of the inference method is unimportant. The results are robust to different...
Goodness-of-fit tests in mixed models
Claeskens, Gerda
2009-05-12
Mixed models, with both random and fixed effects, are most often estimated on the assumption that the random effects are normally distributed. In this paper we propose several formal tests of the hypothesis that the random effects and/or errors are normally distributed. Most of the proposed methods can be extended to generalized linear models where tests for non-normal distributions are of interest. Our tests are nonparametric in the sense that they are designed to detect virtually any alternative to normality. In case of rejection of the null hypothesis, the nonparametric estimation method that is used to construct a test provides an estimator of the alternative distribution. © 2009 Sociedad de Estadística e Investigación Operativa.
Linear mixing model applied to coarse resolution satellite data
Holben, Brent N.; Shimabukuro, Yosio E.
1992-01-01
A linear mixing model typically applied to high resolution data such as Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer, Thematic Mapper, and Multispectral Scanner System is applied to the NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer coarse resolution satellite data. The reflective portion extracted from the middle IR channel 3 (3.55 - 3.93 microns) is used with channels 1 (0.58 - 0.68 microns) and 2 (0.725 - 1.1 microns) to run the Constrained Least Squares model to generate fraction images for an area in the west central region of Brazil. The derived fraction images are compared with an unsupervised classification and the fraction images derived from Landsat TM data acquired in the same day. In addition, the relationship betweeen these fraction images and the well known NDVI images are presented. The results show the great potential of the unmixing techniques for applying to coarse resolution data for global studies.
Evaluating significance in linear mixed-effects models in R.
Luke, Steven G
2017-08-01
Mixed-effects models are being used ever more frequently in the analysis of experimental data. However, in the lme4 package in R the standards for evaluating significance of fixed effects in these models (i.e., obtaining p-values) are somewhat vague. There are good reasons for this, but as researchers who are using these models are required in many cases to report p-values, some method for evaluating the significance of the model output is needed. This paper reports the results of simulations showing that the two most common methods for evaluating significance, using likelihood ratio tests and applying the z distribution to the Wald t values from the model output (t-as-z), are somewhat anti-conservative, especially for smaller sample sizes. Other methods for evaluating significance, including parametric bootstrapping and the Kenward-Roger and Satterthwaite approximations for degrees of freedom, were also evaluated. The results of these simulations suggest that Type 1 error rates are closest to .05 when models are fitted using REML and p-values are derived using the Kenward-Roger or Satterthwaite approximations, as these approximations both produced acceptable Type 1 error rates even for smaller samples.
Estimating preferential flow in karstic aquifers using statistical mixed models.
Anaya, Angel A; Padilla, Ingrid; Macchiavelli, Raul; Vesper, Dorothy J; Meeker, John D; Alshawabkeh, Akram N
2014-01-01
Karst aquifers are highly productive groundwater systems often associated with conduit flow. These systems can be highly vulnerable to contamination, resulting in a high potential for contaminant exposure to humans and ecosystems. This work develops statistical models to spatially characterize flow and transport patterns in karstified limestone and determines the effect of aquifer flow rates on these patterns. A laboratory-scale Geo-HydroBed model is used to simulate flow and transport processes in a karstic limestone unit. The model consists of stainless steel tanks containing a karstified limestone block collected from a karst aquifer formation in northern Puerto Rico. Experimental work involves making a series of flow and tracer injections, while monitoring hydraulic and tracer response spatially and temporally. Statistical mixed models (SMMs) are applied to hydraulic data to determine likely pathways of preferential flow in the limestone units. The models indicate a highly heterogeneous system with dominant, flow-dependent preferential flow regions. Results indicate that regions of preferential flow tend to expand at higher groundwater flow rates, suggesting a greater volume of the system being flushed by flowing water at higher rates. Spatial and temporal distribution of tracer concentrations indicates the presence of conduit-like and diffuse flow transport in the system, supporting the notion of both combined transport mechanisms in the limestone unit. The temporal response of tracer concentrations at different locations in the model coincide with, and confirms the preferential flow distribution generated with the SMMs used in the study. © 2013, National Ground Water Association.
Modeling containment of large wildfires using generalized linear mixed-model analysis
Mark Finney; Isaac C. Grenfell; Charles W. McHugh
2009-01-01
Billions of dollars are spent annually in the United States to contain large wildland fires, but the factors contributing to suppression success remain poorly understood. We used a regression model (generalized linear mixed-model) to model containment probability of individual fires, assuming that containment was a repeated-measures problem (fixed effect) and...
Ker, H. W.
2014-01-01
Multilevel data are very common in educational research. Hierarchical linear models/linear mixed-effects models (HLMs/LMEs) are often utilized to analyze multilevel data nowadays. This paper discusses the problems of utilizing ordinary regressions for modeling multilevel educational data, compare the data analytic results from three regression…
Linear models for sound from supersonic reacting mixing layers
Chary, P. Shivakanth; Samanta, Arnab
2016-12-01
We perform a linearized reduced-order modeling of the aeroacoustic sound sources in supersonic reacting mixing layers to explore their sensitivities to some of the flow parameters in radiating sound. Specifically, we investigate the role of outer modes as the effective flow compressibility is raised, when some of these are expected to dominate over the traditional Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H) -type central mode. Although the outer modes are known to be of lesser importance in the near-field mixing, how these radiate to the far-field is uncertain, on which we focus. On keeping the flow compressibility fixed, the outer modes are realized via biasing the respective mean densities of the fast (oxidizer) or slow (fuel) side. Here the mean flows are laminar solutions of two-dimensional compressible boundary layers with an imposed composite (turbulent) spreading rate, which we show to significantly alter the growth of instability waves by saturating them earlier, similar to in nonlinear calculations, achieved here via solving the linear parabolized stability equations. As the flow parameters are varied, instability of the slow modes is shown to be more sensitive to heat release, potentially exceeding equivalent central modes, as these modes yield relatively compact sound sources with lesser spreading of the mixing layer, when compared to the corresponding fast modes. In contrast, the radiated sound seems to be relatively unaffected when the mixture equivalence ratio is varied, except for a lean mixture which is shown to yield a pronounced effect on the slow mode radiation by reducing its modal growth.
Transcriptome analysis of all two-component regulatory system mutants of Escherichia coli K-12.
Oshima, Taku; Aiba, Hirofumi; Masuda, Yasushi; Kanaya, Shigehiko; Sugiura, Masahito; Wanner, Barry L; Mori, Hirotada; Mizuno, Takeshi
2002-10-01
We have systematically examined the mRNA profiles of 36 two-component deletion mutants, which include all two-component regulatory systems of Escherichia coli, under a single growth condition. DNA microarray results revealed that the mutants belong to one of three groups based on their gene expression profiles in Luria-Bertani broth under aerobic conditions: (i) those with no or little change; (ii) those with significant changes; and (iii) those with drastic changes. Under these conditions, the anaeroresponsive ArcB/ArcA system, the osmoresponsive EnvZ/OmpR system and the response regulator UvrY showed the most drastic changes. Cellular functions such as flagellar synthesis and expression of the RpoS regulon were affected by multiple two-component systems. A high correlation coefficient of expression profile was found between several two-component mutants. Together, these results support the view that a network of functional interactions, such as cross-regulation, exists between different two-component systems. The compiled data are avail-able at our website (http://ecoli.aist-nara.ac.jp/xp_analysis/ 2_components).
Modeling of Cd(II) sorption on mixed oxide
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Waseem, M.; Mustafa, S.; Naeem, A.; Shah, K.H.; Hussain, S.Y.; Safdar, M.
2011-01-01
Mixed oxide of iron and silicon (0.75 M Fe(OH)3:0.25 M SiO/sub 2/) was synthesized and characterized by various techniques like surface area analysis, point of zero charge (PZC), energy dispersive X-rays (EDX) spectroscopy, Thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-rays diffraction (XRD) analysis. The uptake of Cd/sup 2+/ ions on mixed oxide increased with pH, temperature and metal ion concentration. Sorption data have been interpreted in terms of both Langmuir and Freundlich models. The Xm values at pH 7 are found to be almost twice as compared to pH 5. The values of both DH and DS were found to be positive indicating that the sorption process was endothermic and accompanied by the dehydration of Cd/sup 2+/. Further, the negative value of DG confirms the spontaneity of the reaction. The ion exchange mechanism was suggested to take place for each Cd/sup 2+/ ions at pH 5, whereas ion exchange was found coupled with non specific adsorption of metal cations at pH 7. (author)
Henriques, David; Rocha, Miguel; Saez-Rodriguez, Julio; Banga, Julio R
2015-09-15
Systems biology models can be used to test new hypotheses formulated on the basis of previous knowledge or new experimental data, contradictory with a previously existing model. New hypotheses often come in the shape of a set of possible regulatory mechanisms. This search is usually not limited to finding a single regulation link, but rather a combination of links subject to great uncertainty or no information about the kinetic parameters. In this work, we combine a logic-based formalism, to describe all the possible regulatory structures for a given dynamic model of a pathway, with mixed-integer dynamic optimization (MIDO). This framework aims to simultaneously identify the regulatory structure (represented by binary parameters) and the real-valued parameters that are consistent with the available experimental data, resulting in a logic-based differential equation model. The alternative to this would be to perform real-valued parameter estimation for each possible model structure, which is not tractable for models of the size presented in this work. The performance of the method presented here is illustrated with several case studies: a synthetic pathway problem of signaling regulation, a two-component signal transduction pathway in bacterial homeostasis, and a signaling network in liver cancer cells. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. julio@iim.csic.es or saezrodriguez@ebi.ac.uk. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jackson, V.L.
2011-01-01
The primary purpose of the tank mixing and sampling demonstration program is to mitigate the technical risks associated with the ability of the Hanford tank farm delivery and celtification systems to measure and deliver a uniformly mixed high-level waste (HLW) feed to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Uniform feed to the WTP is a requirement of 24590-WTP-ICD-MG-01-019, ICD-19 - Interface Control Document for Waste Feed, although the exact definition of uniform is evolving in this context. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling has been used to assist in evaluating scaleup issues, study operational parameters, and predict mixing performance at full-scale.
Subgrid models for mass and thermal diffusion in turbulent mixing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lim, H; Yu, Y; Glimm, J; Li, X-L; Sharp, D H
2010-01-01
We propose a new method for the large eddy simulation (LES) of turbulent mixing flows. The method yields convergent probability distribution functions (PDFs) for temperature and concentration and a chemical reaction rate when applied to reshocked Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) unstable flows. Because such a mesh convergence is an unusual and perhaps original capability for LES of RM flows, we review previous validation studies of the principal components of the algorithm. The components are (i) a front tracking code, FronTier, to control numerical mass diffusion and (ii) dynamic subgrid scale (SGS) models to compensate for unresolved scales in the LES. We also review the relevant code comparison studies. We compare our results to a simple model based on 1D diffusion, taking place in the geometry defined statistically by the interface (the 50% isoconcentration surface between the two fluids). Several conclusions important to physics could be drawn from our study. We model chemical reactions with no closure approximations beyond those in the LES of the fluid variables itself, and as with dynamic SGS models, these closures contain no adjustable parameters. The chemical reaction rate is specified by the joint PDF for temperature and concentration. We observe a bimodal distribution for the PDF and we observe significant dependence on fluid transport parameters.
Two component injection moulding: an interface quality and bond strength dilemma
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Islam, Mohammad Aminul; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Tang, Peter Torben
2008-01-01
on quality parameters of the two component parts. Most engineering applications of two component injection moulding calls for high bond strength between the two polymers, on the other hand a sharp and well-defined interface between the two polymers are required for applications like selective metallization...... of polymers, parts for micro applications and also for the aesthetic purpose of the final product. The investigation presented in this paper indicates a dilemma between obtaining reasonably good bond strength and at the same time keeping the interface quality suitable for applications. The required process...... conditions for a sharp and well-defined interface are exactly the opposite of what is congenial for higher bond strength. So in the production of two component injection moulded parts, there is a compromise to make between the interface quality and the bond strength of the two polymers. Also the injection...
Adaptability and stability of maize varieties using mixed model methodology
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Walter Fernandes Meirelles
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance, adaptability and stability of corn cultivars simultaneously in unbalanced experiments, using the method of harmonic means of the relative performance of genetic values. The grain yield of 45 cultivars, including hybrids and varieties, was evaluated in 49 environments in two growing seasons. In the 2007/2008 growing season, 36 cultivars were evaluated and in 2008/2009 25 cultivars, of which 16 were used in both seasons. Statistical analyses were performed based on mixed models, considering genotypes as random and replications within environments as fixed factors. The experimental precision in the combined analyses was high (accuracy estimates > 92 %. Despite the existence of genotype x environment interaction, hybrids and varieties with high adaptability and stability were identified. Results showed that the method of harmonic means of the relative performance of genetic values is a suitable method for maize breeding programs.
Latent Fundamentals Arbitrage with a Mixed Effects Factor Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrei Salem Gonçalves
2012-09-01
Full Text Available We propose a single-factor mixed effects panel data model to create an arbitrage portfolio that identifies differences in firm-level latent fundamentals. Furthermore, we show that even though the characteristics that affect returns are unknown variables, it is possible to identify the strength of the combination of these latent fundamentals for each stock by following a simple approach using historical data. As a result, a trading strategy that bought the stocks with the best fundamentals (strong fundamentals portfolio and sold the stocks with the worst ones (weak fundamentals portfolio realized significant risk-adjusted returns in the U.S. market for the period between July 1986 and June 2008. To ensure robustness, we performed sub period and seasonal analyses and adjusted for trading costs and we found further empirical evidence that using a simple investment rule, that identified these latent fundamentals from the structure of past returns, can lead to profit.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cascaval Dan
2004-01-01
Full Text Available The mixing time for bioreactors depends mainly on the rheoiogicai properties of the broths, the biomass concentration and morphology, mixing system characteristics and fermentation conditions. For quantifying the influence of these factors on the mixing efficiency for stirred bioreactors, aerated broths of bacteria (P. shermanii, yeasts (S. cerevisiae and fungi (P. chrysogenum, free mycelia and mycelial aggregates of different concentrations have been investigated using a laboratory bioreactor with a double turbine impeller. The experimental data indicated that the influence of the rotation speed, aeration rate and stirrer positions on the mixing intensity strongly differ from one system to another and must be correlated with the microorganism characteristics, namely: the biomass concentration and morphology. Moreover, compared with non-aerated broths, variations of the mixing time with the considered parameters are very different, due to the complex flow mechanism of gas-liquid dispersions. By means of the experimental data and using a multiregression analysis method some mathematical correlations for the mixing time of the general form: tm = a1*Cx2+a2*Cx+a3*IgVa+a4-N2+a5-N+a6/a7*L2+a8*L+a9 were established. The proposed equations offer good agreement with the experiments, the average deviation being ±6.7% - ±9.4 and are adequate for the flow regime Re < 25,000.
Anisotropic properties of phase separation in two-component dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates
Wang, Wei; Li, Jinbin
2018-03-01
Using Crank-Nicolson method, we calculate ground state wave functions of two-component dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) and show that, due to dipole-dipole interaction (DDI), the condensate mixture displays anisotropic phase separation. The effects of DDI, inter-component s-wave scattering, strength of trap potential and particle numbers on the density profiles are investigated. Three types of two-component profiles are present, first cigar, along z-axis and concentric torus, second pancake (or blood cell), in xy-plane, and two non-uniform ellipsoid, separated by the pancake and third two dumbbell shapes.
Cooper, Richard J; Krueger, Tobias; Hiscock, Kevin M; Rawlins, Barry G
2014-11-01
Mixing models have become increasingly common tools for apportioning fluvial sediment load to various sediment sources across catchments using a wide variety of Bayesian and frequentist modeling approaches. In this study, we demonstrate how different model setups can impact upon resulting source apportionment estimates in a Bayesian framework via a one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) sensitivity analysis. We formulate 13 versions of a mixing model, each with different error assumptions and model structural choices, and apply them to sediment geochemistry data from the River Blackwater, Norfolk, UK, to apportion suspended particulate matter (SPM) contributions from three sources (arable topsoils, road verges, and subsurface material) under base flow conditions between August 2012 and August 2013. Whilst all 13 models estimate subsurface sources to be the largest contributor of SPM (median ∼76%), comparison of apportionment estimates reveal varying degrees of sensitivity to changing priors, inclusion of covariance terms, incorporation of time-variant distributions, and methods of proportion characterization. We also demonstrate differences in apportionment results between a full and an empirical Bayesian setup, and between a Bayesian and a frequentist optimization approach. This OFAT sensitivity analysis reveals that mixing model structural choices and error assumptions can significantly impact upon sediment source apportionment results, with estimated median contributions in this study varying by up to 21% between model versions. Users of mixing models are therefore strongly advised to carefully consider and justify their choice of model structure prior to conducting sediment source apportionment investigations. An OFAT sensitivity analysis of sediment fingerprinting mixing models is conductedBayesian models display high sensitivity to error assumptions and structural choicesSource apportionment results differ between Bayesian and frequentist approaches.
Faraway, Julian J
2005-01-01
Linear models are central to the practice of statistics and form the foundation of a vast range of statistical methodologies. Julian J. Faraway''s critically acclaimed Linear Models with R examined regression and analysis of variance, demonstrated the different methods available, and showed in which situations each one applies. Following in those footsteps, Extending the Linear Model with R surveys the techniques that grow from the regression model, presenting three extensions to that framework: generalized linear models (GLMs), mixed effect models, and nonparametric regression models. The author''s treatment is thoroughly modern and covers topics that include GLM diagnostics, generalized linear mixed models, trees, and even the use of neural networks in statistics. To demonstrate the interplay of theory and practice, throughout the book the author weaves the use of the R software environment to analyze the data of real examples, providing all of the R commands necessary to reproduce the analyses. All of the ...
Differential expression analysis for RNAseq using Poisson mixed models.
Sun, Shiquan; Hood, Michelle; Scott, Laura; Peng, Qinke; Mukherjee, Sayan; Tung, Jenny; Zhou, Xiang
2017-06-20
Identifying differentially expressed (DE) genes from RNA sequencing (RNAseq) studies is among the most common analyses in genomics. However, RNAseq DE analysis presents several statistical and computational challenges, including over-dispersed read counts and, in some settings, sample non-independence. Previous count-based methods rely on simple hierarchical Poisson models (e.g. negative binomial) to model independent over-dispersion, but do not account for sample non-independence due to relatedness, population structure and/or hidden confounders. Here, we present a Poisson mixed model with two random effects terms that account for both independent over-dispersion and sample non-independence. We also develop a scalable sampling-based inference algorithm using a latent variable representation of the Poisson distribution. With simulations, we show that our method properly controls for type I error and is generally more powerful than other widely used approaches, except in small samples (n <15) with other unfavorable properties (e.g. small effect sizes). We also apply our method to three real datasets that contain related individuals, population stratification or hidden confounders. Our results show that our method increases power in all three data compared to other approaches, though the power gain is smallest in the smallest sample (n = 6). Our method is implemented in MACAU, freely available at www.xzlab.org/software.html. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.
Research on mixed network architecture collaborative application model
Jing, Changfeng; Zhao, Xi'an; Liang, Song
2009-10-01
When facing complex requirements of city development, ever-growing spatial data, rapid development of geographical business and increasing business complexity, collaboration between multiple users and departments is needed urgently, however conventional GIS software (such as Client/Server model or Browser/Server model) are not support this well. Collaborative application is one of the good resolutions. Collaborative application has four main problems to resolve: consistency and co-edit conflict, real-time responsiveness, unconstrained operation, spatial data recoverability. In paper, application model called AMCM is put forward based on agent and multi-level cache. AMCM can be used in mixed network structure and supports distributed collaborative. Agent is an autonomous, interactive, initiative and reactive computing entity in a distributed environment. Agent has been used in many fields such as compute science and automation. Agent brings new methods for cooperation and the access for spatial data. Multi-level cache is a part of full data. It reduces the network load and improves the access and handle of spatial data, especially, in editing the spatial data. With agent technology, we make full use of its characteristics of intelligent for managing the cache and cooperative editing that brings a new method for distributed cooperation and improves the efficiency.
The transition model test for serial dependence in mixed-effects models for binary data
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Breinegaard, Nina; Rabe-Hesketh, Sophia; Skrondal, Anders
2017-01-01
Generalized linear mixed models for longitudinal data assume that responses at different occasions are conditionally independent, given the random effects and covariates. Although this assumption is pivotal for consistent estimation, violation due to serial dependence is hard to assess by model...
A second order anti-diffusive Lagrange-remap scheme for two-component flows
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lagoutière Frédéric
2011-11-01
Full Text Available We build a non-dissipative second order algorithm for the approximate resolution of the one-dimensional Euler system of compressible gas dynamics with two components. The considered model was proposed in [1]. The algorithm is based on [8] which deals with a non-dissipative first order resolution in Lagrange-remap formalism. In the present paper we describe, in the same framework, an algorithm that is second order accurate in time and space, and that preserves sharp interfaces. Numerical results reported at the end of the paper are very encouraging, showing the interest of the second order accuracy for genuinely non-linear waves. Nous construisons un algorithme d’ordre deux et non dissipatif pour la résolution approchée des équations d’Euler de la dynamique des gaz compressibles à deux constituants en dimension un. Le modèle que nous considérons est celui à cinq équations proposé et analysé dans [1]. L’algorithme est basé sur [8] qui proposait une résolution approchée à l’ordre un et non dissipative au moyen d’un splitting de type Lagrange-projection. Dans le présent article, nous décrivons, dans le même formalisme, un algorithme d’ordre deux en temps et en espace, qui préserve des interfaces « parfaites » entre les constituants. Les résultats numériques rapportés à la fin de l’article sont très encourageants ; ils montrent clairement les avantages d’un schéma d’ordre deux pour les ondes vraiment non linéaires.
Analysis of water hammer in two-component two-phase flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Warde, H.; Marzouk, E.; Ibrahim, S.
1989-01-01
The water hammer phenomena caused by a sudden valve closure in air-water two-phase flows must be clarified for the safety analysis of LOCA in reactors and further for the safety of boilers, chemical plants, pipe transport of fluids such as petroleum and natural gas. In the present work water hammer phenomena caused by sudden valve closure in two-component two-phase flows are investigated theoretically and experimentally. The phenomena are more complicated than in single phase-flows due to the fact of the presence of compressible component. Basic partial differential equations based on a one-dimensional homogeneous flow model are solved by the method of characteristic. The analysis is extended to include friction in a two-phase mixture depending on the local flow pattern. The profiles of the pressure transients, the propagation velocity of pressure waves and the effect of valve closure on the transient pressure are found. Different two-phase flow pattern and frictional pressure drop correlations were used including Baker, Chesholm and Beggs and Bril correlations. The effect of the flow pattern on the characteristic of wave propagation is discussed primarily to indicate the effect of void fraction on the velocity of wave propagation and on the attenuation of pressure waves. Transient pressure in the mixture were recorded at different air void fractions, rates of uniform valve closure and liquid flow velocities with the aid of pressure transducers, transient wave form recorders interfaced with an on-line pc computer. The results are compared with computation, and good agreement was obtained within experimental accuracy
A time dependent mixing model to close PDF equations for transport in heterogeneous aquifers
Schüler, L.; Suciu, N.; Knabner, P.; Attinger, S.
2016-10-01
Probability density function (PDF) methods are a promising alternative to predicting the transport of solutes in groundwater under uncertainty. They make it possible to derive the evolution equations of the mean concentration and the concentration variance, used in moment methods. The mixing model, describing the transport of the PDF in concentration space, is essential for both methods. Finding a satisfactory mixing model is still an open question and due to the rather elaborate PDF methods, a difficult undertaking. Both the PDF equation and the concentration variance equation depend on the same mixing model. This connection is used to find and test an improved mixing model for the much easier to handle concentration variance. Subsequently, this mixing model is transferred to the PDF equation and tested. The newly proposed mixing model yields significantly improved results for both variance modelling and PDF modelling.
Two-component wind fields over ocean waves using atmospheric lidar and motion estimation algorithms
Mayor, S. D.
2016-02-01
Numerical models, such as large eddy simulations, are capable of providing stunning visualizations of the air-sea interface. One reason for this is the inherent spatial nature of such models. As compute power grows, models are able to provide higher resolution visualizations over larger domains revealing intricate details of the interactions of ocean waves and the airflow over them. Spatial observations on the other hand, which are necessary to validate the simulations, appear to lag behind models. The rough ocean environment of the real world is an additional challenge. One method of providing spatial observations of fluid flow is that of particle image velocimetry (PIV). PIV has been successfully applied to many problems in engineering and the geosciences. This presentation will show recent research results that demonstate that a PIV-style approach using pulsed-fiber atmospheric elastic backscatter lidar hardware and wavelet-based optical flow motion estimation software can reveal two-component wind fields over rough ocean surfaces. Namely, a recently-developed compact lidar was deployed for 10 days in March of 2015 in the Eureka, California area. It scanned over the ocean. Imagery reveal that breaking ocean waves provide copius amounts of particulate matter for the lidar to detect and for the motion estimation algorithms to retrieve wind vectors from. The image below shows two examples of results from the experiment. The left panel shows the elastic backscatter intensity (copper shades) under a field of vectors that was retrieved by the wavelet-based optical flow algorithm from two scans that took about 15 s each to acquire. The vectors, that reveal offshore flow toward the NW, were decimated for clarity. The bright aerosol features along the right edge of the sector scan were caused by ocean waves breaking on the beach. The right panel is the result of scanning over the ocean on a day when wave amplitudes ranged from 8-12 feet and whitecaps offshore beyond the
Density profiles and collective excitations of a trapped two-component Fermi vapour
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amoruso, M.; Meccoli, I.; Minguzzi, A.; Tosi, M.P.
1999-08-01
We discuss the ground state and the small-amplitude excitations of a degenerate vapour of fermionic atoms placed in two hyperfine states inside a spherical harmonic trap. An equations-of-motion approach is set up to discuss the hydrodynamic dissipation processes from the interactions between the two components of the fluid beyond mean-field theory and to emphasize analogies with spin dynamics and spin diffusion in a homogeneous Fermi liquid. The conditions for the establishment of a collisional regime via scattering against cold-atom impurities are analyzed. The equilibrium density profiles are then calculated for a two-component vapour of 40 K atoms: they are little modified by the interactions for presently relevant values of the system parameters, but spatial separation of the two components will spontaneously arise as the number of atoms in the trap is increased. The eigenmodes of collective oscillation in both the total particle number density and the concentration density are evaluated analytically in the special case of a symmetric two-component vapour in the collisional regime. The dispersion relation of the surface modes for the total particle density reduces in this case to that of a one-component Fermi vapour, whereas the frequencies of all other modes are shifted by the interactions. (author)
The essential YycFG two-component system controls cell wall metabolism in Bacillus subtilis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bisicchia, Paola; Noone, David; Lioliou, Efthimia
2007-01-01
Adaptation of bacteria to the prevailing environmental and nutritional conditions is often mediated by two-component signal transduction systems (TCS). The Bacillus subtilis YycFG TCS has attracted special attention as it is essential for viability and its regulon is poorly defined. Here we show...
Two component system that regulates methanol and formaldehyde oxidation in Paracoccus denitrificans.
Harms, N.; Reijnders, W.N.M.; Koning, S.; van Spanning, R.J.M.
2001-01-01
A chromosomal region encoding a two-component regulatory system, FlhRS, has been isolated from Paracoccus denitrificans. FlhRS-deficient mutants were unable to grow on methanol, methylamine, or choline as the carbon and energy source. Expression of the gene encoding glutathione-dependent
Two-component system that regulates methanol and formaldehyde oxidation in Paracoccus denitrificans.
Harms, N.; Reijnders, W.N.M.; Koning, S.; van Spanning, R.J.M.
2001-01-01
A chromosomal region encoding a two-component regulatory system, FlhRS, has been isolated from Paracoccus denitrificans. FlhRS-deficient mutants were unable to grow on methanol, methylamine, or choline as the carbon and energy source. Expression of the gene encoding glutathione-dependent
A novel two-component system involved in secretion stress response in Streptomyces lividans.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sonia Gullón
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Misfolded proteins accumulating outside the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane can interfere with the secretory machinery, hence the existence of quality factors to eliminate these misfolded proteins is of capital importance in bacteria that are efficient producers of secretory proteins. These bacteria normally use a specific two-component system to respond to the stress produced by the accumulation of the misfolded proteins, by activating the expression of HtrA-like proteases to specifically eliminate the incorrectly folded proteins. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Overproduction of alpha-amylase in S. lividans causing secretion stress permitted the identification of a two-component system (SCO4156-SCO4155 that regulates three HtrA-like proteases which appear to be involved in secretion stress response. Mutants in each of the genes forming part of the two-genes operon that encodes the sensor and regulator protein components accumulated misfolded proteins outside the cell, strongly suggesting the involvement of this two-component system in the S. lividans secretion stress response. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: To our knowledge this is the first time that a specific secretion stress response two-component system is found to control the expression of three HtrA-like protease genes in S. lividans, a bacterium that has been repeatedly used as a host for the synthesis of homologous and heterologous secretory proteins of industrial application.
Design of a Novel Two-Component Hybrid Dermal Scaffold for the Treatment of Pressure Sores.
Sharma, Vaibhav; Kohli, Nupur; Moulding, Dale; Afolabi, Halimat; Hook, Lilian; Mason, Chris; García-Gareta, Elena
2017-11-01
The aim of this study is to design a novel two-component hybrid scaffold using the fibrin/alginate porous hydrogel Smart Matrix combined to a backing layer of plasma polymerized polydimethylsiloxane (Sil) membrane to make the fibrin-based dermal scaffold more robust for the treatment of the clinically challenging pressure sores. A design criteria are established, according to which the Sil membranes are punched to avoid collection of fluid underneath. Manual peel test shows that native silicone does not attach to the fibrin/alginate component while the plasma polymerized silicone membranes are firmly bound to fibrin/alginate. Structural characterization shows that the fibrin/alginate matrix is intact after the addition of the Sil membrane. By adding a Sil membrane to the original fibrin/alginate scaffold, the resulting two-component scaffolds have a significantly higher shear or storage modulus G'. In vitro cell studies show that dermal fibroblasts remain viable, proliferate, and infiltrate the two-component hybrid scaffolds during the culture period. These results show that the design of a novel two-component hybrid dermal scaffold is successful according to the proposed design criteria. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first study that reports the combination of a fibrin-based scaffold with a plasma-polymerized silicone membrane. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Liu, Yaling; Burne, Robert A.
2009-01-01
Induction of the agmatine deiminase system (AgDS) of Streptococcus mutans requires agmatine and is optimal at low pH. We show here that the VicRK, ComDE, and CiaRH two-component systems influence AgDS gene expression in response to acidic and thermal stresses.
The 27 Possible Intrinsic Symmetry Groups of Two-Component Links
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jason Parsley
2012-02-01
Full Text Available We consider the “intrinsic” symmetry group of a two-component link L, defined to be the image ∑(L of the natural homomorphism from the standard symmetry group MCG(S3, L to the product MCG(S3 × MCG(L. This group, first defined by Whitten in 1969, records directly whether L is isotopic to a link L′ obtained from L by permuting components or reversing orientations; it is a subgroup of Γ2, the group of all such operations. For two-component links, we catalog the 27 possible intrinsic symmetry groups, which represent the subgroups of Γ2 up to conjugacy. We are able to provide prime, nonsplit examples for 21 of these groups; some are classically known, some are new. We catalog the frequency at which each group appears among all 77,036 of the hyperbolic two-component links of 14 or fewer crossings in Thistlethwaite’s table. We also provide some new information about symmetry groups of the 293 non-hyperbolic two-component links of 14 or fewer crossings in the table.
Light Responsive Two-Component Supramolecular Hydrogel: A Sensitive Platform for Humidity Sensors
Samai, Suman
2016-02-15
The supramolecular assembly of anionic azobenzene dicarboxylate and cationic cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) formed a stimuli responsive hydrogel with a critical gelation concentration (CGC) of 0.33 wt%. This self-sustainable two-component system was able to repair damage upon light irradiation. Moreover, it was successfully employed in the fabrication of highly sensitive humidity sensors for the first time.
Light Responsive Two-Component Supramolecular Hydrogel: A Sensitive Platform for Humidity Sensors
Samai, Suman; Sapsanis, Christos; Patil, Sachin; Ezzeddine, Alaa; Moosa, Basem; Omran, Hesham; Emwas, Abdul-Hamid M.; Salama, Khaled N.; Khashab, Niveen M.
2016-01-01
The supramolecular assembly of anionic azobenzene dicarboxylate and cationic cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) formed a stimuli responsive hydrogel with a critical gelation concentration (CGC) of 0.33 wt%. This self-sustainable two-component system was able to repair damage upon light irradiation. Moreover, it was successfully employed in the fabrication of highly sensitive humidity sensors for the first time.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sobolev, B.P.; Krivandina, E.A.; Fedorov, P.P.; Vasilchenko, V.G.
1994-01-01
Prospects for preparation of two-component dense optical materials for scintillators are shown, using data on phase diagrams of about 300 MF m - RF n (m, n ≤ 4) type systems, formed by metal fluorides. Primary characteristics (decay time and light output of luminescence, radiation hardness, etc.) of some multicomponent crystals are reported
Mixed dark matter in left-right symmetric models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Berlin, Asher [Department of Physics, University of Chicago,Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Fox, Patrick J. [Theoretical Physics Department, Fermilab,Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States); Hooper, Dan [Center for Particle Astrophysics, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory,Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States); Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago,Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Mohlabeng, Gopolang [Center for Particle Astrophysics, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory,Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kansas,Lawrence, Kansas 66045 (United States)
2016-06-08
Motivated by the recently reported diboson and dijet excesses in Run 1 data at ATLAS and CMS, we explore models of mixed dark matter in left-right symmetric theories. In this study, we calculate the relic abundance and the elastic scattering cross section with nuclei for a number of dark matter candidates that appear within the fermionic multiplets of left-right symmetric models. In contrast to the case of pure multiplets, WIMP-nucleon scattering proceeds at tree-level, and hence the projected reach of future direct detection experiments such as LUX-ZEPLIN and XENON1T will cover large regions of parameter space for TeV-scale thermal dark matter. Decays of the heavy charged W{sup ′} boson to particles in the dark sector can potentially shift the right-handed gauge coupling to larger values when fixed to the rate of the Run 1 excesses, moving towards the theoretically attractive scenario, g{sub R}=g{sub L}. This region of parameter space may be probed by future collider searches for new Higgs bosons or electroweak fermions.
Extended Mixed-Efects Item Response Models with the MH-RM Algorithm
Chalmers, R. Philip
2015-01-01
A mixed-effects item response theory (IRT) model is presented as a logical extension of the generalized linear mixed-effects modeling approach to formulating explanatory IRT models. Fixed and random coefficients in the extended model are estimated using a Metropolis-Hastings Robbins-Monro (MH-RM) stochastic imputation algorithm to accommodate for…
Numerical modelling of the atmospheric mixing-layer diurnal evolution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Molnary, L. de.
1990-03-01
This paper introduce a numeric procedure to determine the temporal evolution of the height, potential temperature and mixing ratio in the atmospheric mixing layer. The time and spatial derivatives were evaluated via forward in time scheme to predict the local evolution of the mixing-layer parameters, and a forward in time, upstream in space scheme to predict the evolution of the mixing-layer over a flat region with a one-dimensional advection component. The surface turbulent fluxes of sensible and latent heat were expressed using a simple sine wave that is function of the hour day and kind of the surface (water or country). (author) [pt
Oxygen reduction kinetics on mixed conducting SOFC model cathodes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baumann, F.S.
2006-07-01
The kinetics of the oxygen reduction reaction at the surface of mixed conducting solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cathodes is one of the main limiting factors to the performance of these promising systems. For ''realistic'' porous electrodes, however, it is usually very difficult to separate the influence of different resistive processes. Therefore, a suitable, geometrically well-defined model system was used in this work to enable an unambiguous distinction of individual electrochemical processes by means of impedance spectroscopy. The electrochemical measurements were performed on dense thin film microelectrodes, prepared by PLD and photolithography, of mixed conducting perovskite-type materials. The first part of the thesis consists of an extensive impedance spectroscopic investigation of La0.6Sr0.4Co0.8Fe0.2O3 (LSCF) microelectrodes. An equivalent circuit was identified that describes the electrochemical properties of the model electrodes appropriately and enables an unambiguous interpretation of the measured impedance spectra. Hence, the dependencies of individual electrochemical processes such as the surface exchange reaction on a wide range of experimental parameters including temperature, dc bias and oxygen partial pressure could be studied. As a result, a comprehensive set of experimental data has been obtained, which was previously not available for a mixed conducting model system. In the course of the experiments on the dc bias dependence of the electrochemical processes a new and surprising effect was discovered: It could be shown that a short but strong dc polarisation of a LSCF microelectrode at high temperature improves its electrochemical performance with respect to the oxygen reduction reaction drastically. The electrochemical resistance associated with the oxygen surface exchange reaction, initially the dominant contribution to the total electrode resistance, can be reduced by two orders of magnitude. This &apos
Linear mixed-effects modeling approach to FMRI group analysis.
Chen, Gang; Saad, Ziad S; Britton, Jennifer C; Pine, Daniel S; Cox, Robert W
2013-06-01
Conventional group analysis is usually performed with Student-type t-test, regression, or standard AN(C)OVA in which the variance-covariance matrix is presumed to have a simple structure. Some correction approaches are adopted when assumptions about the covariance structure is violated. However, as experiments are designed with different degrees of sophistication, these traditional methods can become cumbersome, or even be unable to handle the situation at hand. For example, most current FMRI software packages have difficulty analyzing the following scenarios at group level: (1) taking within-subject variability into account when there are effect estimates from multiple runs or sessions; (2) continuous explanatory variables (covariates) modeling in the presence of a within-subject (repeated measures) factor, multiple subject-grouping (between-subjects) factors, or the mixture of both; (3) subject-specific adjustments in covariate modeling; (4) group analysis with estimation of hemodynamic response (HDR) function by multiple basis functions; (5) various cases of missing data in longitudinal studies; and (6) group studies involving family members or twins. Here we present a linear mixed-effects modeling (LME) methodology that extends the conventional group analysis approach to analyze many complicated cases, including the six prototypes delineated above, whose analyses would be otherwise either difficult or unfeasible under traditional frameworks such as AN(C)OVA and general linear model (GLM). In addition, the strength of the LME framework lies in its flexibility to model and estimate the variance-covariance structures for both random effects and residuals. The intraclass correlation (ICC) values can be easily obtained with an LME model with crossed random effects, even at the presence of confounding fixed effects. The simulations of one prototypical scenario indicate that the LME modeling keeps a balance between the control for false positives and the sensitivity
Prediction of stock markets by the evolutionary mix-game model
Chen, Fang; Gou, Chengling; Guo, Xiaoqian; Gao, Jieping
2008-06-01
This paper presents the efforts of using the evolutionary mix-game model, which is a modified form of the agent-based mix-game model, to predict financial time series. Here, we have carried out three methods to improve the original mix-game model by adding the abilities of strategy evolution to agents, and then applying the new model referred to as the evolutionary mix-game model to forecast the Shanghai Stock Exchange Composite Index. The results show that these modifications can improve the accuracy of prediction greatly when proper parameters are chosen.
Metabolic modelling of polyhydroxyalkanoate copolymers production by mixed microbial cultures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Reis Maria AM
2008-07-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper presents a metabolic model describing the production of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA copolymers in mixed microbial cultures, using mixtures of acetic and propionic acid as carbon source material. Material and energetic balances were established on the basis of previously elucidated metabolic pathways. Equations were derived for the theoretical yields for cell growth and PHA production on mixtures of acetic and propionic acid as functions of the oxidative phosphorylation efficiency, P/O ratio. The oxidative phosphorylation efficiency was estimated from rate measurements, which in turn allowed the estimation of the theoretical yield coefficients. Results The model was validated with experimental data collected in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR operated under varying feeding conditions: feeding of acetic and propionic acid separately (control experiments, and the feeding of acetic and propionic acid simultaneously. Two different feast and famine culture enrichment strategies were studied: (i either with acetate or (ii with propionate as carbon source material. Metabolic flux analysis (MFA was performed for the different feeding conditions and culture enrichment strategies. Flux balance analysis (FBA was used to calculate optimal feeding scenarios for high quality PHA polymers production, where it was found that a suitable polymer would be obtained when acetate is fed in excess and the feeding rate of propionate is limited to ~0.17 C-mol/(C-mol.h. The results were compared with published pure culture metabolic studies. Conclusion Acetate was more conducive toward the enrichment of a microbial culture with higher PHA storage fluxes and yields as compared to propionate. The P/O ratio was not only influenced by the selected microbial culture, but also by the carbon substrate fed to each culture, where higher P/O ratio values were consistently observed for acetate than propionate. MFA studies suggest that when mixtures of
Log-normal frailty models fitted as Poisson generalized linear mixed models.
Hirsch, Katharina; Wienke, Andreas; Kuss, Oliver
2016-12-01
The equivalence of a survival model with a piecewise constant baseline hazard function and a Poisson regression model has been known since decades. As shown in recent studies, this equivalence carries over to clustered survival data: A frailty model with a log-normal frailty term can be interpreted and estimated as a generalized linear mixed model with a binary response, a Poisson likelihood, and a specific offset. Proceeding this way, statistical theory and software for generalized linear mixed models are readily available for fitting frailty models. This gain in flexibility comes at the small price of (1) having to fix the number of pieces for the baseline hazard in advance and (2) having to "explode" the data set by the number of pieces. In this paper we extend the simulations of former studies by using a more realistic baseline hazard (Gompertz) and by comparing the model under consideration with competing models. Furthermore, the SAS macro %PCFrailty is introduced to apply the Poisson generalized linear mixed approach to frailty models. The simulations show good results for the shared frailty model. Our new %PCFrailty macro provides proper estimates, especially in case of 4 events per piece. The suggested Poisson generalized linear mixed approach for log-normal frailty models based on the %PCFrailty macro provides several advantages in the analysis of clustered survival data with respect to more flexible modelling of fixed and random effects, exact (in the sense of non-approximate) maximum likelihood estimation, and standard errors and different types of confidence intervals for all variance parameters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Electric field-induced reorganization of two-component supported bilayer membranes.
Groves, J T; Boxer, S G; McConnell, H M
1997-12-09
Application of electric fields tangent to the plane of a confined patch of fluid bilayer membrane can create lateral concentration gradients of the lipids. A thermodynamic model of this steady-state behavior is developed for binary systems and tested with experiments in supported lipid bilayers. The model uses Flory's approximation for the entropy of mixing and allows for effects arising when the components have different molecular areas. In the special case of equal area molecules the concentration gradient reduces to a Fermi-Dirac distribution. The theory is extended to include effects from charged molecules in the membrane. Calculations show that surface charge on the supporting substrate substantially screens electrostatic interactions within the membrane. It also is shown that concentration profiles can be affected by other intermolecular interactions such as clustering. Qualitative agreement with this prediction is provided by comparing phosphatidylserine- and cardiolipin-containing membranes.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Jordanova, P.; Dušek, Jiří; Stehlík, M.
2013-01-01
Roč. 128, OCT 15 (2013), s. 124-134 ISSN 0169-7439 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/11/1151; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : environmental chemistry * ebullition of methane * mixed poisson processes * renewal process * pareto distribution * moving average process * robust statistics * sedge–grass marsh Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.381, year: 2013
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Nakamoto, S.; PrasannaKumar, S.; Oberhuber, J.M.; Saito, H.; Muneyama, K.
and supported by quasi-steady upwelling. Remotely sensed chlorophyll pigment concentrations from the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) are used to investigate the chlorophyll modulation of ocean mixed layer thermodynamics in a bulk mixed-layer model, embedded...
An improved mixing model providing joint statistics of scalar and scalar dissipation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Meyer, Daniel W. [Department of Energy Resources Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Jenny, Patrick [Institute of Fluid Dynamics, ETH Zurich (Switzerland)
2008-11-15
For the calculation of nonpremixed turbulent flames with thin reaction zones the joint probability density function (PDF) of the mixture fraction and its dissipation rate plays an important role. The corresponding PDF transport equation involves a mixing model for the closure of the molecular mixing term. Here, the parameterized scalar profile (PSP) mixing model is extended to provide the required joint statistics. Model predictions are validated using direct numerical simulation (DNS) data of a passive scalar mixing in a statistically homogeneous turbulent flow. Comparisons between the DNS and the model predictions are provided, which involve different initial scalar-field lengthscales. (author)
Estimating marginal properties of quantitative real-time PCR data using nonlinear mixed models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gerhard, Daniel; Bremer, Melanie; Ritz, Christian
2014-01-01
A unified modeling framework based on a set of nonlinear mixed models is proposed for flexible modeling of gene expression in real-time PCR experiments. Focus is on estimating the marginal or population-based derived parameters: cycle thresholds and ΔΔc(t), but retaining the conditional mixed mod...
PREDICTION OF THE MIXING ENTHALPIES OF BINARY LIQUID ALLOYS BY MOLECULAR INTERACTION VOLUME MODEL
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
H.W.Yang; D.P.Tao; Z.H.Zhou
2008-01-01
The mixing enthalpies of 23 binary liquid alloys are calculated by molecular interaction volume model (MIVM), which is a two-parameter model with the partial molar infinite dilute mixing enthalpies. The predicted values are in agreement with the experimental data and then indicate that the model is reliable and convenient.
From linear to generalized linear mixed models: A case study in repeated measures
Compared to traditional linear mixed models, generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) can offer better correspondence between response variables and explanatory models, yielding more efficient estimates and tests in the analysis of data from designed experiments. Using proportion data from a designed...
Lewis Jordon; Richard F. Daniels; Alexander Clark; Rechun He
2005-01-01
Earlywood and latewood microfibril angle (MFA) was determined at I-millimeter intervals from disks at 1.4 meters, then at 3-meter intervals to a height of 13.7 meters, from 18 loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) trees grown in southeastern Texas. A modified three-parameter logistic function with mixed effects is used for modeling earlywood and latewood...
Preventive effect of two-component chemical radioprotector and variability in its application
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lambov, V.; Metodiev, S.
1993-01-01
The purpose of the study is to evaluate the radioprotective efficiency of two-component radioprotective schema consisting of the chemically synthesized radioprotector WR-2721 (OK-79) and a new glycoside pigment obtained from melanoidine CL. The application of melanoidine 7-21 days before WR-2721 significantly increases the radioprotective efficiency of the chemically obtained product and enhances the 30-day survival of hybrid mice treated with 15 Gy whole body gamma irradiation. The effect of potentiated radioprotection is not observed when the interval between the application of the two agents is reduced to 24 h. It is suggested that the observed enhancement of the radioprotective efficiency in the two-component schema is due to the antioxidant and immuno modulating properties of the pigment product, observed and described in our previous investigations. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xu, Fei [Key Laboratory of Fiber Optic Sensing Technology and Information Processing, Ministry of Education, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Huang, Jiahao, E-mail: hjiahao@mail2.sysu.edu.cn [TianQin Research Center & School of Physics and Astronomy, Sun Yat-Sen University, SYSU Zhuhai Campus, Zhuhai 519082 (China); Liu, Quan [Key Laboratory of Fiber Optic Sensing Technology and Information Processing, Ministry of Education, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China)
2017-03-03
Highlights: • A scheme for detecting magnetic field gradients via a double-well two-component Bose–Einstein condensate interferometer. • The magnetic field gradient can be extracted by either the spin population or the external state. • Our proposal is potentially sensitive to weak magnetic field inhomogeneity due to its small sensor size. - Abstract: We have proposed a scheme to detect magnetic field gradients via an interferometer based on a double-well two-component Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC). Utilizing a sequence of quantum control operations on both external and internal degree of the BEC, one can extract the magnetic field gradients by measuring either the population in one component or the fidelity between the final external state and the initial ground state. Our scheme can be implemented by current experimental techniques of manipulating ultracold atoms.
Competitive adsorption of a two-component gas on a deformable adsorbent
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Usenko, A S
2014-01-01
We investigate the competitive adsorption of a two-component gas on the surface of an adsorbent whose adsorption properties vary due to the adsorbent deformation. The essential difference of adsorption isotherms for a deformable adsorbent both from the classical Langmuir adsorption isotherms of a two-component gas and from the adsorption isotherms of a one-component gas is obtained, taking into account variations in the adsorption properties of the adsorbent in adsorption. We establish bistability and tristability of the system caused by variations in adsorption properties of the adsorbent in competitive adsorption of gas particles on it. We derive conditions under which adsorption isotherms of a binary gas mixture have two stable asymptotes. It is shown that the specific features of the behavior of the system under study can be described in terms of a potential of the known explicit form. (paper)
Multistability in an optomechanical system with a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dong Ying; Ye Jinwu; Pu Han
2011-01-01
We investigate a system consisting of a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate interacting dispersively with a Fabry-Perot optical cavity where the two components of the condensate are resonantly coupled to each other by another classical field. The key feature of this system is that the atomic motional degrees of freedom and the internal pseudospin degrees of freedom are coupled to the cavity field simultaneously, hence an effective spin-orbital coupling within the condensate is induced by the cavity. The interplay among the atomic center-of-mass motion, the atomic collective spin, and the cavity field leads to a strong nonlinearity, resulting in multistable behavior in both matter wave and light wave at the few-photon level.
Droplet size and velocity at the exit of a nozzle with two-component near critical and critical flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lemonnier, H.; Camelo-Cavalcanti, E.S.
1993-01-01
Two-component critical flow modelling is an important issue for safety studies of various hazardous industrial activities. When the flow quality is high, the critical flow rate prediction is sensitive to the modelling of gas droplet mixture interfacial area. In order to improve the description of these flows, experiments were conducted with air-water flows in converging nozzles. The pressure was 2 and 4 bar and the gas mass quality ranged between 100% and 20%. The droplets size and velocity have been measured close to the outlet section of a nozzle with a 10 mm diameter throat. Subcritical and critical conditions were observed. These data are compared with the predictions of a critical flow model which includes an interfacial area model based on the classical ideas of Hinze and Kolmogorov. (authors). 9 figs., 12 refs
Nutrition quality, body size and two components of mating behavior in Drosophila melanogaster.
Pavković-Lucić, Sofija; Kekić, Vladimir
2010-01-01
Two components of mating behavior, mating latency and duration of copulation, were investigated in Drosophila melanogaster males from three different "nutritional" strains, reared for more than 35 generations on banana, tomato and cornmeal-agar-yeast substrates. Males from different strains did not differ according to mating latency and duration of copulation. Also, the sizes of males from different strains did not contribute to these behavioral traits.
A two-component generalized extreme value distribution for precipitation frequency analysis
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Rulfová, Zuzana; Buishand, A.; Roth, M.; Kyselý, Jan
2016-01-01
Roč. 534, March (2016), s. 659-668 ISSN 0022-1694 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-18675S Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : precipitation extremes * two-component extreme value distribution * regional frequency analysis * convective precipitation * stratiform precipitation * Central Europe Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 3.483, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022169416000500
Two-component bond for coating materials coming into contact with radioactivity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Svoboda, L.; Fajfr, K.
1989-01-01
The two-component bonding agent consists of an epoxy resin of the diane-bis-glycidyl ether type and an amine hardener containing benzyl alcohol and bis-2-ethylhexyl phthalate. The claimed bond features high radiation stability and very good decontaminability. Thanks to low viscosity of the bond, pigmented reactor-plastics can be prepared. The procedure is described of applying the bond onto a concrete surface. (E.S.)
Kawada-Matsuo, Miki; Komatsuzawa, Hitoshi
2017-01-01
Summary Approximately 100 trillion microorganisms exist in the oral cavity. For the commensal bacteria of the oral cavity, it is important to adapt to environmental stimuli, including human- or bacteria-derived antimicrobial agents. Recently, bacterial-specific signal transduction regulatory systems, called two-component systems (TCSs), which appear to be focused on sensing and adapting to the environment, were discovered. Streptococcus mutans is an oral commensal bacteria and is also known a...
Two components of Na emission in sonoluminescence spectrum from surfactant aqueous solutions.
Hayashi, Yuichi; Choi, Pak-Kon
2015-03-01
Sonoluminescence from sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) aqueous solutions exhibits Na emission. The spectrum of Na emission was measured as a function of sonication time for a total of 30 min at an ultrasonic frequency of 148 kHz. The spectral line profiles changed with the sonication time, suggesting that the Na emission consists of two components: broadened lines, which are shifted from the original D lines, and unshifted narrow lines. The intensity of the unshifted narrow lines decreased at a greater rate than that of the broadened lines with increasing sonication time. This effect was enhanced at a higher acoustic power. The shifted broadened lines remained after sonication for 30 min. We propose that these quenching effects are caused by the accumulation of gases decomposed from SDS molecules inside bubbles. The CO₂ gas dependence of Na emission in NaCl aqueous solutions showed a similar change in the line profiles to that in SDS aqueous solutions, which supported this proposition. The unshifted narrow lines are easily affected by foreign gases. The results suggest that the two components originate from different environments around the emitting species, although both of them originate from the gas phase inside bubbles. The generation mechanisms of the two components are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Powell, Charles; Jiang, Jing; Walters, Diane; Ediger, Mark
Vapor-deposited glasses are widely investigated for use in organic electronics including the emitting layers of OLED devices. These materials, while macroscopically homogenous, have anisotropic packing and molecular orientation. By controlling this orientation, outcoupling efficiency can be increased by aligning the transition dipole moment of the light-emitting molecules parallel to the substrate. Light-emitting molecules are typically dispersed in a host matrix, as such, it is imperative to understand molecular orientation in two-component systems. In this study we examine two-component vapor-deposited films and the orientations of the constituent molecules using spectroscopic ellipsometry, UV-vis and IR spectroscopy. The role of temperature, composition and molecular shape as it effects molecular orientation is examined for mixtures of DSA-Ph in Alq3 and in TPD. Deposition temperature relative to the glass transition temperature of the two-component mixture is the primary controlling factor for molecular orientation. In mixtures of DSA-Ph in Alq3, the linear DSA-Ph has a horizontal orientation at low temperatures and slight vertical orientation maximized at 0.96Tg,mixture, analogous to one-component films.
Computer modeling of forced mixing in waste storage tanks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eyler, L.L.; Michener, T.E.
1992-01-01
In this paper, numerical simulation results of fluid dynamic and physical process in radioactive waste storage tanks are presented. Investigations include simulation of jet mixing pump induced flows intended to mix and maintain particulate material uniformly distributed throughout the liquid volume. Physical effects of solids are included in the code. These are particle size through a settling velocity and mixture properties through density and viscosity. Calculations have been accomplished for centrally located, rotationally-oscillating, horizontally-directed jet mixing pump for two cases. One case is with low jet velocity an flow settling velocity. It results in uniform conditions. Results are being used to aid in experiment design and to understand mixing in the waste tanks. These results are to be used in conjunction with scaled experiments to define limits of pump operation to maintain uniformity of the mixture in the storage tanks during waste retrieval operations
Computer modeling of forced mixing in waste storage tanks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eyler, L.L.; Michener, T.E.
1992-04-01
Numerical simulation results of fluid dynamic and physical processes in radioactive waste storage tanks are presented. Investigations include simulation of jet mixing pump induced flows intended to mix and maintain particulate material uniformly distributed throughout the liquid volume. Physical effects of solids are included in the code. These are particle size through a settling velocity and mixture properties through density and viscosity. Calculations have been accomplished for a centrally located, rotationally-oscillating, horizontally-directed jet mixing pump for two cases. One case is with low jet velocity and high settling velocity. It results in nonuniform distribution. The other case is with high jet velocity and low settling velocity. It results in uniform conditions. Results are being used to aid in experiment design and to understand mixing in the waste tanks. These results are to be used in conjunction with scaled experiments to define limits of pump operation to maintain uniformity of the mixture in the storage tanks during waste retrieval operations
Modeling of mixing processes: Fluids, particulates, and powders
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ottino, J.M.; Hansen, S. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)
1995-12-31
Work under this grant involves two main areas: (1) Mixing of Viscous Liquids, this first area comprising aggregation, fragmentation and dispersion, and (2) Mixing of Powders. In order to produce a coherent self-contained picture, we report primarily on results obtained under (1), and within this area, mostly on computational studies of particle aggregation in regular and chaotic flows. Numerical simulations show that the average cluster size of compact clusters grows algebraically, while the average cluster size of fractal clusters grows exponentially; companion mathematical arguments are used to describe the initial growth of average cluster size and polydispersity. It is found that when the system is well mixed and the capture radius independent of mass, the polydispersity is constant for long-times and the cluster size distribution is self-similar. Furthermore, our simulations indicate that the fractal nature of the clusters is dependent upon the mixing.
Mixed models approaches for joint modeling of different types of responses.
Ivanova, Anna; Molenberghs, Geert; Verbeke, Geert
2016-01-01
In many biomedical studies, one jointly collects longitudinal continuous, binary, and survival outcomes, possibly with some observations missing. Random-effects models, sometimes called shared-parameter models or frailty models, received a lot of attention. In such models, the corresponding variance components can be employed to capture the association between the various sequences. In some cases, random effects are considered common to various sequences, perhaps up to a scaling factor; in others, there are different but correlated random effects. Even though a variety of data types has been considered in the literature, less attention has been devoted to ordinal data. For univariate longitudinal or hierarchical data, the proportional odds mixed model (POMM) is an instance of the generalized linear mixed model (GLMM; Breslow and Clayton, 1993). Ordinal data are conveniently replaced by a parsimonious set of dummies, which in the longitudinal setting leads to a repeated set of dummies. When ordinal longitudinal data are part of a joint model, the complexity increases further. This is the setting considered in this paper. We formulate a random-effects based model that, in addition, allows for overdispersion. Using two case studies, it is shown that the combination of random effects to capture association with further correction for overdispersion can improve the model's fit considerably and that the resulting models allow to answer research questions that could not be addressed otherwise. Parameters can be estimated in a fairly straightforward way, using the SAS procedure NLMIXED.
Application of zero-inflated poisson mixed models in prognostic factors of hepatitis C.
Akbarzadeh Baghban, Alireza; Pourhoseingholi, Asma; Zayeri, Farid; Jafari, Ali Akbar; Alavian, Seyed Moayed
2013-01-01
In recent years, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection represents a major public health problem. Evaluation of risk factors is one of the solutions which help protect people from the infection. This study aims to employ zero-inflated Poisson mixed models to evaluate prognostic factors of hepatitis C. The data was collected from a longitudinal study during 2005-2010. First, mixed Poisson regression (PR) model was fitted to the data. Then, a mixed zero-inflated Poisson model was fitted with compound Poisson random effects. For evaluating the performance of the proposed mixed model, standard errors of estimators were compared. The results obtained from mixed PR showed that genotype 3 and treatment protocol were statistically significant. Results of zero-inflated Poisson mixed model showed that age, sex, genotypes 2 and 3, the treatment protocol, and having risk factors had significant effects on viral load of HCV patients. Of these two models, the estimators of zero-inflated Poisson mixed model had the minimum standard errors. The results showed that a mixed zero-inflated Poisson model was the almost best fit. The proposed model can capture serial dependence, additional overdispersion, and excess zeros in the longitudinal count data.
Extending existing structural identifiability analysis methods to mixed-effects models.
Janzén, David L I; Jirstrand, Mats; Chappell, Michael J; Evans, Neil D
2018-01-01
The concept of structural identifiability for state-space models is expanded to cover mixed-effects state-space models. Two methods applicable for the analytical study of the structural identifiability of mixed-effects models are presented. The two methods are based on previously established techniques for non-mixed-effects models; namely the Taylor series expansion and the input-output form approach. By generating an exhaustive summary, and by assuming an infinite number of subjects, functions of random variables can be derived which in turn determine the distribution of the system's observation function(s). By considering the uniqueness of the analytical statistical moments of the derived functions of the random variables, the structural identifiability of the corresponding mixed-effects model can be determined. The two methods are applied to a set of examples of mixed-effects models to illustrate how they work in practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Domain Walls and Textured Vortices in a Two-Component Ginzburg-Landau Model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Søren Peder; Gaididei, Yu. B.; Christiansen, Peter Leth
2005-01-01
coupling between the two order parameters a ''textured vortex'' is found by analytical and numerical solution of the Ginzburg-Landau equations. With a Josephson type coupling between the two order parameters we find the system to split up in two domains separated by a domain wall, where the order parameter...... is depressed to zero....
A two component hot spot/ring model for the NIR flares of Sagittarius A*
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Meyer, L.; Eckart, A.; Schödel, R.; Duschl, W.J.; Dovčiak, Michal; Karas, Vladimír
2006-01-01
Roč. 54, - (2006), s. 443-447 ISSN 1742-6588. [Galactic Center Workshop 2006—From the center of the Milky Way to nearby low-luminosity galactic nuclei. Bad Honnef, 18.04.2006–22.04.2006] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : Black hole physics Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics
Grajeda, Laura M; Ivanescu, Andrada; Saito, Mayuko; Crainiceanu, Ciprian; Jaganath, Devan; Gilman, Robert H; Crabtree, Jean E; Kelleher, Dermott; Cabrera, Lilia; Cama, Vitaliano; Checkley, William
2016-01-01
Childhood growth is a cornerstone of pediatric research. Statistical models need to consider individual trajectories to adequately describe growth outcomes. Specifically, well-defined longitudinal models are essential to characterize both population and subject-specific growth. Linear mixed-effect models with cubic regression splines can account for the nonlinearity of growth curves and provide reasonable estimators of population and subject-specific growth, velocity and acceleration. We provide a stepwise approach that builds from simple to complex models, and account for the intrinsic complexity of the data. We start with standard cubic splines regression models and build up to a model that includes subject-specific random intercepts and slopes and residual autocorrelation. We then compared cubic regression splines vis-à-vis linear piecewise splines, and with varying number of knots and positions. Statistical code is provided to ensure reproducibility and improve dissemination of methods. Models are applied to longitudinal height measurements in a cohort of 215 Peruvian children followed from birth until their fourth year of life. Unexplained variability, as measured by the variance of the regression model, was reduced from 7.34 when using ordinary least squares to 0.81 (p linear mixed-effect models with random slopes and a first order continuous autoregressive error term. There was substantial heterogeneity in both the intercept (p modeled with a first order continuous autoregressive error term as evidenced by the variogram of the residuals and by a lack of association among residuals. The final model provides a parametric linear regression equation for both estimation and prediction of population- and individual-level growth in height. We show that cubic regression splines are superior to linear regression splines for the case of a small number of knots in both estimation and prediction with the full linear mixed effect model (AIC 19,352 vs. 19
Filatov, Michael; Zou, Wenli; Cremer, Dieter
2013-07-01
A new algorithm for the two-component Normalized Elimination of the Small Component (2cNESC) method is presented and tested in the calculation of spin-orbit (SO) splittings for a series of heavy atoms and their molecules. The 2cNESC is a Dirac-exact method that employs the exact two-component one-electron Hamiltonian and thus leads to exact Dirac SO splittings for one-electron atoms. For many-electron atoms and molecules, the effect of the two-electron SO interaction is modeled by a screened nucleus potential using effective nuclear charges as proposed by Boettger [Phys. Rev. B 62, 7809 (2000), 10.1103/PhysRevB.62.7809]. The use of the screened nucleus potential for the two-electron SO interaction leads to accurate spinor energy splittings, for which the deviations from the accurate Dirac Fock-Coulomb values are on the average far below the deviations observed for other effective one-electron SO operators. For hydrogen halides HX (X = F, Cl, Br, I, At, and Uus) and mercury dihalides HgX2 (X = F, Cl, Br, I) trends in spinor energies and SO splittings as obtained with the 2cNESC method are analyzed and discussed on the basis of coupling schemes and the electronegativity of X.
The YvfTU Two-component System is involved in plcR expression in Bacillus cereus
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nguyen-the Christophe
2008-10-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Most extracellular virulence factors produced by Bacillus cereus are regulated by the pleiotropic transcriptional activator PlcR. Among strains belonging to the B. cereus group, the plcR gene is always located in the vicinity of genes encoding the YvfTU two-component system. The putative role of YvfTU in the expression of the PlcR regulon was therefore investigated. Results Expression of the plcR gene was monitored using a transcriptional fusion with a lacZ reporter gene in a yvfTU mutant and in its B. cereus ATCC 14579 parental strain. Two hours after the onset of the stationary phase, a stage at which the PlcR regulon is highly expressed, the plcR expression in the yvfTU mutant was only 50% of that of its parental strain. In addition to the reduced plcR expression in the yvfTU mutant, a few members of the PlcR regulon showed a differential expression, as revealed by transcriptomic and proteomic analyses. The virulence of the yvfTU mutant in a Galleria mellonella insect model was slightly lower than that of the parental strain. Conclusion The YvfTU two-component system is not required for the expression of most of the virulence factors belonging to the PlcR regulon. However, YvfTU is involved in expression of plcR, a major regulator of virulence in B. cereus.
Lode, Axel U. J.; Diorico, Fritz S.; Wu, RuGway; Molignini, Paolo; Papariello, Luca; Lin, Rui; Lévêque, Camille; Exl, Lukas; Tsatsos, Marios C.; Chitra, R.; Mauser, Norbert J.
2018-05-01
We consider laser-pumped one-dimensional two-component bosons in a parabolic trap embedded in a high-finesse optical cavity. Above a threshold pump power, the photons that populate the cavity modify the effective atom trap and mediate a coupling between the two components of the Bose–Einstein condensate. We calculate the ground state of the laser-pumped system and find different stages of self-organization depending on the power of the laser. The modified potential and the laser-mediated coupling between the atomic components give rise to rich many-body physics: an increase of the pump power triggers a self-organization of the atoms while an even larger pump power causes correlations between the self-organized atoms—the BEC becomes fragmented and the reduced density matrix acquires multiple macroscopic eigenvalues. In this fragmented superradiant state, the atoms can no longer be described as two-level systems and the mapping of the system to the Dicke model breaks down.
Halliwell, George R.
Vertical coordinate and vertical mixing algorithms included in the HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) are evaluated in low-resolution climatological simulations of the Atlantic Ocean. The hybrid vertical coordinates are isopycnic in the deep ocean interior, but smoothly transition to level (pressure) coordinates near the ocean surface, to sigma coordinates in shallow water regions, and back again to level coordinates in very shallow water. By comparing simulations to climatology, the best model performance is realized using hybrid coordinates in conjunction with one of the three available differential vertical mixing models: the nonlocal K-Profile Parameterization, the NASA GISS level 2 turbulence closure, and the Mellor-Yamada level 2.5 turbulence closure. Good performance is also achieved using the quasi-slab Price-Weller-Pinkel dynamical instability model. Differences among these simulations are too small relative to other errors and biases to identify the "best" vertical mixing model for low-resolution climate simulations. Model performance deteriorates slightly when the Kraus-Turner slab mixed layer model is used with hybrid coordinates. This deterioration is smallest when solar radiation penetrates beneath the mixed layer and when shear instability mixing is included. A simulation performed using isopycnic coordinates to emulate the Miami Isopycnic Coordinate Ocean Model (MICOM), which uses Kraus-Turner mixing without penetrating shortwave radiation and shear instability mixing, demonstrates that the advantages of switching from isopycnic to hybrid coordinates and including more sophisticated turbulence closures outweigh the negative numerical effects of maintaining hybrid vertical coordinates.
Best practices for use of stable isotope mixing models in food-web studies
Stable isotope mixing models are increasingly used to quantify contributions of resources to consumers. While potentially powerful tools, these mixing models have the potential to be misused, abused, and misinterpreted. Here we draw on our collective experiences to address the qu...
A Proposed Model of Retransformed Qualitative Data within a Mixed Methods Research Design
Palladino, John M.
2009-01-01
Most models of mixed methods research design provide equal emphasis of qualitative and quantitative data analyses and interpretation. Other models stress one method more than the other. The present article is a discourse about the investigator's decision to employ a mixed method design to examine special education teachers' advocacy and…
Three novel approaches to structural identifiability analysis in mixed-effects models.
Janzén, David L I; Jirstrand, Mats; Chappell, Michael J; Evans, Neil D
2016-05-06
Structural identifiability is a concept that considers whether the structure of a model together with a set of input-output relations uniquely determines the model parameters. In the mathematical modelling of biological systems, structural identifiability is an important concept since biological interpretations are typically made from the parameter estimates. For a system defined by ordinary differential equations, several methods have been developed to analyse whether the model is structurally identifiable or otherwise. Another well-used modelling framework, which is particularly useful when the experimental data are sparsely sampled and the population variance is of interest, is mixed-effects modelling. However, established identifiability analysis techniques for ordinary differential equations are not directly applicable to such models. In this paper, we present and apply three different methods that can be used to study structural identifiability in mixed-effects models. The first method, called the repeated measurement approach, is based on applying a set of previously established statistical theorems. The second method, called the augmented system approach, is based on augmenting the mixed-effects model to an extended state-space form. The third method, called the Laplace transform mixed-effects extension, is based on considering the moment invariants of the systems transfer function as functions of random variables. To illustrate, compare and contrast the application of the three methods, they are applied to a set of mixed-effects models. Three structural identifiability analysis methods applicable to mixed-effects models have been presented in this paper. As method development of structural identifiability techniques for mixed-effects models has been given very little attention, despite mixed-effects models being widely used, the methods presented in this paper provides a way of handling structural identifiability in mixed-effects models previously not
How ocean lateral mixing changes Southern Ocean variability in coupled climate models
Pradal, M. A. S.; Gnanadesikan, A.; Thomas, J. L.
2016-02-01
The lateral mixing of tracers represents a major uncertainty in the formulation of coupled climate models. The mixing of tracers along density surfaces in the interior and horizontally within the mixed layer is often parameterized using a mixing coefficient ARedi. The models used in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 exhibit more than an order of magnitude range in the values of this coefficient used within the Southern Ocean. The impacts of such uncertainty on Southern Ocean variability have remained unclear, even as recent work has shown that this variability differs between different models. In this poster, we change the lateral mixing coefficient within GFDL ESM2Mc, a coarse-resolution Earth System model that nonetheless has a reasonable circulation within the Southern Ocean. As the coefficient varies from 400 to 2400 m2/s the amplitude of the variability varies significantly. The low-mixing case shows strong decadal variability with an annual mean RMS temperature variability exceeding 1C in the Circumpolar Current. The highest-mixing case shows a very similar spatial pattern of variability, but with amplitudes only about 60% as large. The suppression of mixing is larger in the Atlantic Sector of the Southern Ocean relatively to the Pacific sector. We examine the salinity budgets of convective regions, paying particular attention to the extent to which high mixing prevents the buildup of low-saline waters that are capable of shutting off deep convection entirely.
The Two-Component Virial Theorem and the Physical Properties of Stellar Systems.
Dantas; Ribeiro; Capelato; de Carvalho RR
2000-01-01
Motivated by present indirect evidence that galaxies are surrounded by dark matter halos, we investigate whether their physical properties can be described by a formulation of the virial theorem that explicitly takes into account the gravitational potential term representing the interaction of the dark halo with the baryonic or luminous component. Our analysis shows that the application of such a "two-component virial theorem" not only accounts for the scaling relations displayed by, in particular, elliptical galaxies, but also for the observed properties of all virialized stellar systems, ranging from globular clusters to galaxy clusters.
An infinite-order two-component relativistic Hamiltonian by a simple one-step transformation.
Ilias, Miroslav; Saue, Trond
2007-02-14
The authors report the implementation of a simple one-step method for obtaining an infinite-order two-component (IOTC) relativistic Hamiltonian using matrix algebra. They apply the IOTC Hamiltonian to calculations of excitation and ionization energies as well as electric and magnetic properties of the radon atom. The results are compared to corresponding calculations using identical basis sets and based on the four-component Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian as well as Douglas-Kroll-Hess and zeroth-order regular approximation Hamiltonians, all implemented in the DIRAC program package, thus allowing a comprehensive comparison of relativistic Hamiltonians within the finite basis approximation.
Simple waves in a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate
Ivanov, S. K.; Kamchatnov, A. M.
2018-04-01
We study the dynamics of so-called simple waves in a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate. The evolution of the condensate is described by Gross-Pitaevskii equations which can be reduced for these simple wave solutions to a system of ordinary differential equations which coincide with those derived by Ovsyannikov for the two-layer fluid dynamics. We solve the Ovsyannikov system for two typical situations of large and small difference between interspecies and intraspecies nonlinear interaction constants. Our analytic results are confirmed by numerical simulations.
Two-component injection moulding simulation of ABS-POM micro structured surfaces
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tosello, Guido; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Islam, Aminul
2013-01-01
Multi-component micro injection moulding (μIM) processes such as two-component (2k) μIM are the key technologies for the mass fabrication of multi-material micro products. 2k-μIM experiments involving a miniaturized test component with micro features in the sub-mm dimensional range and moulding...... a pair of thermoplastic materials (ABS and POM) were conducted. Three dimensional process simulations based on the finite element method have been performed to explore the capability of predicting filling pattern shape at component-level and surface micro feature-level in a polymer/polymer overmoulding...
Three-wave interaction in two-component quadratic nonlinear lattices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Konotop, V. V.; Cunha, M. D.; Christiansen, Peter Leth
1999-01-01
We investigate a two-component lattice with a quadratic nonlinearity and find with the multiple scale technique that integrable three-wave interaction takes place between plane wave solutions when these fulfill resonance conditions. We demonstrate that. energy conversion and pulse propagation known...... from three-wave interaction is reproduced in the lattice and that exact phase matching of parametric processes can be obtained in non-phase-matched lattices by tilting the interacting plane waves with respect to each other. [S1063-651X(99)15110-9]....
Dynamics of a strongly driven two-component Bose-Einstein condensate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salmond, G.L.; Holmes, C.A.; Milburn, G.J.
2002-01-01
We consider a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate in two spatially localized modes of a double-well potential, with periodic modulation of the tunnel coupling between the two modes. We treat the driven quantum field using a two-mode expansion and define the quantum dynamics in terms of the Floquet Operator for the time periodic Hamiltonian of the system. It has been shown that the corresponding semiclassical mean-field dynamics can exhibit regions of regular and chaotic motion. We show here that the quantum dynamics can exhibit dynamical tunneling between regions of regular motion, centered on fixed points (resonances) of the semiclassical dynamics
Morphology-tunable and photoresponsive properties in a self-assembled two-component gel system.
Zhou, Yifeng; Xu, Miao; Yi, Tao; Xiao, Shuzhang; Zhou, Zhiguo; Li, Fuyou; Huang, Chunhui
2007-01-02
Photoresponsive C3-symmetrical trisurea self-assembling building blocks containing three azobenzene groups (LC10 and LC4) at the rim were designed and synthesized. By introducing a trisamide gelator (G18), which can self-aggregate through hydrogen bonds of acylamino moieties to form a fibrous network, the mixture of LC10 (or LC4) and G18 forms an organogel with coral-like supramolecular structure from 1,4-dioxane. The cooperation of hydrogen bonding and the hydrophobic diversity between these components are the main contributions to the specific superstructure. The two-component gel exhibits reversible photoisomerization from trans to cis transition without breakage of the gel state.
Kasamatsu, Kenichi; Sakashita, Kouhei
2018-05-01
We study numerically the structure of a vortex lattice in rotating two-component Bose-Einstein condensates with equal atomic masses and equal intra- and intercomponent coupling strengths. The numerical simulations of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation show that the quantized vortices in this situation form lattice configuration accompanying vortex stripes, honeycomb lattices, and their complexes. This is a result of the degeneracy of the system for the SU(2) symmetric operation, which causes a continuous transformation between the above structures. In terms of the pseudospin representation, the complex lattice structures are identified as a hexagonal lattice of doubly winding half skyrmions.
Experiments and CFD Modelling of Turbulent Mass Transfer in a Mixing Channel
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hjertager Osenbroch, Lene Kristin; Hjertager, Bjørn H.; Solberg, Tron
2006-01-01
. Three different flow cases are studied. The 2D numerical predictions of the mixing channel show that none of the k-ε turbulence models tested is suitable for the flow cases studied here. The turbulent Schmidt number is reduced to obtain a better agreement between measured and predicted mean......Experiments are carried out for passive mixing in order to obtain local mean and turbulent velocities and concentrations. The mixing takes place in a square channel with two inlets separated by a block. A combined PIV/PLIF technique is used to obtain instantaneous velocity and concentration fields...... and fluctuating concentrations. The multi-peak presumed PDF mixing model is tested....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tornøe, Christoffer Wenzel; Agersø, Henrik; Madsen, Henrik
2004-01-01
The standard software for non-linear mixed-effect analysis of pharmacokinetic/phar-macodynamic (PK/PD) data is NONMEM while the non-linear mixed-effects package NLME is an alternative as tong as the models are fairly simple. We present the nlmeODE package which combines the ordinary differential...... equation (ODE) solver package odesolve and the non-Linear mixed effects package NLME thereby enabling the analysis of complicated systems of ODEs by non-linear mixed-effects modelling. The pharmacokinetics of the anti-asthmatic drug theophylline is used to illustrate the applicability of the nlme...
CFD modeling of thermal mixing in a T-junction geometry using LES model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ayhan, Hueseyin, E-mail: huseyinayhan@hacettepe.edu.tr [Hacettepe University, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Beytepe, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Soekmen, Cemal Niyazi, E-mail: cemalniyazi.sokmen@hacettepe.edu.tr [Hacettepe University, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Beytepe, Ankara 06800 (Turkey)
2012-12-15
Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CFD simulations of temperature and velocity fluctuations for thermal mixing cases in T-junction are performed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is found that the frequency range of 2-5 Hz contains most of the energy; therefore, may cause thermal fatigue. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study shows that RANS based calculations fail to predict a realistic mixing between the fluids. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LES model can predict instantaneous turbulence behavior. - Abstract: Turbulent mixing of fluids at different temperatures can lead to temperature fluctuations at the pipe material. These fluctuations, or thermal striping, inducing cyclical thermal stresses and resulting thermal fatigue, may cause unexpected failure of pipe material. Therefore, an accurate characterization of temperature fluctuations is important in order to estimate the lifetime of pipe material. Thermal fatigue of the coolant circuits of nuclear power plants is one of the major issues in nuclear safety. To investigate thermal fatigue damage, the OECD/NEA has recently organized a blind benchmark study including some of results of present work for prediction of temperature and velocity fluctuations performing a thermal mixing experiment in a T-junction. This paper aims to estimate the frequency of velocity and temperature fluctuations in the mixing region using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes and Large Eddy Simulation (LES) models were used to simulate turbulence. CFD results were compared with the available experimental results. Predicted LES results, even in coarse mesh, were found to be in well-agreement with the experimental results in terms of amplitude and frequency of temperature and velocity fluctuations. Analysis of the temperature fluctuations and the power spectrum densities (PSD) at the locations having the strongest temperature fluctuations in the tee junction shows that the frequency range of 2-5 Hz
Modeling Temporal Behavior in Large Networks: A Dynamic Mixed-Membership Model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rossi, R; Gallagher, B; Neville, J; Henderson, K
2011-11-11
Given a large time-evolving network, how can we model and characterize the temporal behaviors of individual nodes (and network states)? How can we model the behavioral transition patterns of nodes? We propose a temporal behavior model that captures the 'roles' of nodes in the graph and how they evolve over time. The proposed dynamic behavioral mixed-membership model (DBMM) is scalable, fully automatic (no user-defined parameters), non-parametric/data-driven (no specific functional form or parameterization), interpretable (identifies explainable patterns), and flexible (applicable to dynamic and streaming networks). Moreover, the interpretable behavioral roles are generalizable, computationally efficient, and natively supports attributes. We applied our model for (a) identifying patterns and trends of nodes and network states based on the temporal behavior, (b) predicting future structural changes, and (c) detecting unusual temporal behavior transitions. We use eight large real-world datasets from different time-evolving settings (dynamic and streaming). In particular, we model the evolving mixed-memberships and the corresponding behavioral transitions of Twitter, Facebook, IP-Traces, Email (University), Internet AS, Enron, Reality, and IMDB. The experiments demonstrate the scalability, flexibility, and effectiveness of our model for identifying interesting patterns, detecting unusual structural transitions, and predicting the future structural changes of the network and individual nodes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maitraye Sen
2017-04-01
Full Text Available A discrete element model (DEM has been developed for an industrial batch bin blender in which three different types of materials are mixed. The mixing dynamics have been evaluated from a model-based study with respect to the blend critical quality attributes (CQAs which are relative standard deviation (RSD and segregation intensity. In the actual industrial setup, a sensor mounted on the blender lid is used to determine the blend composition in this region. A model-based analysis has been used to understand the mixing efficiency in the other zones inside the blender and to determine if the data obtained near the blender-lid region are able to provide a good representation of the overall blend quality. Sub-optimal mixing zones have been identified and other potential sampling locations have been investigated in order to obtain a good approximation of the blend variability. The model has been used to study how the mixing efficiency can be improved by varying the key processing parameters, i.e., blender RPM/speed, fill level/volume and loading order. Both segregation intensity and RSD reduce at a lower fill level and higher blender RPM and are a function of the mixing time. This work demonstrates the use of a model-based approach to improve process knowledge regarding a pharmaceutical mixing process. The model can be used to acquire qualitative information about the influence of different critical process parameters and equipment geometry on the mixing dynamics.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qiang Lou
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Staphylococcus epidermidis, which is a causative pathogen of nosocomial infection, expresses its virulent traits such as biofilm and autolysis regulated by two-component signal transduction system SaeRS. In this study, we performed a proteomic analysis of differences in expression between the S. epidermidis 1457 wild-type and saeRS mutant to identify candidates regulated by saeRS using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption/lonization mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS. Of 55 identified proteins that significantly differed in expression between the two strains, 15 were upregulated and 40 were downregulated. The downregulated proteins included enzymes related to glycolysis and TCA cycle, suggesting that glucose is not properly utilized in S. epidermidis when saeRS was deleted. The study will be helpful for treatment of S. epidermidis infection from the viewpoint of metabolic modulation dependent on two-component signal transduction system SaeRS.
Two-component vector solitons in defocusing Kerr-type media with spatially modulated nonlinearity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhong, Wei-Ping, E-mail: zhongwp6@126.com [Department of Electronic and Information Engineering, Shunde Polytechnic, Guangdong Province, Shunde 528300 (China); Texas A and M University at Qatar, P.O. Box 23874 Doha (Qatar); Belić, Milivoj [Texas A and M University at Qatar, P.O. Box 23874 Doha (Qatar); Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 57, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)
2014-12-15
We present a class of exact solutions to the coupled (2+1)-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equation with spatially modulated nonlinearity and a special external potential, which describe the evolution of two-component vector solitons in defocusing Kerr-type media. We find a robust soliton solution, constructed with the help of Whittaker functions. For specific choices of the topological charge, the radial mode number and the modulation depth, the solitons may exist in various forms, such as the half-moon, necklace-ring, and sawtooth vortex-ring patterns. Our results show that the profile of such solitons can be effectively controlled by the topological charge, the radial mode number, and the modulation depth. - Highlights: • Two-component vector soliton clusters in defocusing Kerr-type media are reported. • These soliton clusters are constructed with the help of Whittaker functions. • The half-moon, necklace-ring and vortex-ring patterns are found. • The profile of these solitons can be effectively controlled by three soliton parameters.
Patient Autonomy for the Management of Chronic Conditions: A Two-Component Re-conceptualization
Naik, Aanand D.; Dyer, Carmel B.; Kunik, Mark E.; McCullough, Laurence B.
2010-01-01
The clinical application of the concept of patient autonomy has centered on the ability to deliberate and make treatment decisions (decisional autonomy) to the virtual exclusion of the capacity to execute the treatment plan (executive autonomy). However, the one-component concept of autonomy is problematic in the context of multiple chronic conditions. Adherence to complex treatments commonly breaks down when patients have functional, educational, and cognitive barriers that impair their capacity to plan, sequence, and carry out tasks associated with chronic care. The purpose of this article is to call for a two-component re-conceptualization of autonomy and to argue that the clinical assessment of capacity for patients with chronic conditions should be expanded to include both autonomous decision making and autonomous execution of the agreed-upon treatment plan. We explain how the concept of autonomy should be expanded to include both decisional and executive autonomy, describe the biopsychosocial correlates of the two-component concept of autonomy, and recommend diagnostic and treatment strategies to support patients with deficits in executive autonomy. PMID:19180389
Shape-persistent two-component 2D networks with atomic-size tunability.
Liu, Jia; Zhang, Xu; Wang, Dong; Wang, Jie-Yu; Pei, Jian; Stang, Peter J; Wan, Li-Jun
2011-09-05
Over the past few years, two-dimensional (2D) nanoporous networks have attracted great interest as templates for the precise localization and confinement of guest building blocks, such as functional molecules or clusters on the solid surfaces. Herein, a series of two-component molecular networks with a 3-fold symmetry are constructed on graphite using a truxenone derivative and trimesic acid homologues with carboxylic-acid-terminated alkyl chains. The hydrogen-bonding partner-recognition-induced 2D crystallization of alkyl chains makes the flexible alkyl chains act as rigid spacers in the networks to continuously tune the pore size with an accuracy of one carbon atom per step. The two-component networks were found to accommodate and regulate the distribution and aggregation of guest molecules, such as COR and CuPc. This procedure provides a new pathway for the design and fabrication of molecular nanostructures on solid surfaces. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Determination of two-dimensional correlation lengths in an anisotropic two-component flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thomson, O.
1994-05-01
Former studies have shown that correlation methods can be used for determination of various two-component flow parameters, among these the correlation length. In cases where the flow can be described as a mixture, in which the minority component forms spatially limited perturbations within the majority component, this parameter gives a good indication of the maximum extension of these perturbations. In the former studies, spherical symmetry of the perturbations has been assumed, and the correlation length has been measured in the direction of the flow (axially) only. However, if the flow structure is anisotropic, the correlation length will be different in different directions. In the present study, the method has been developed further, allowing also measurements perpendicular to the flow direction (radially). The measurements were carried out using laser beams and the two-component flows consisted of either glass beads and air or air and water. In order to make local measurements of both the axial and radial correlation length simultaneously, it is necessary to use 3 laser beams and to form the triple cross-covariance. This lead to some unforeseen complications, due to the character of this function. The experimental results are generally positive and size determinations with an accuracy of better than 10% have been achieved in most cases. Less accurate results appeared only for difficult conditions (symmetrical signals), when 3 beams were used. 5 refs, 13 figs, 3 tabs
Regularity for 3D Navier-Stokes equations in terms of two components of the vorticity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sadek Gala
2010-10-01
Full Text Available We establish regularity conditions for the 3D Navier-Stokes equation via two components of the vorticity vector. It is known that if a Leray-Hopf weak solution $u$ satisfies $$ ilde{omega}in L^{2/(2-r}(0,T;L^{3/r}(mathbb{R}^3quad hbox{with }0
Mixed Higher Order Variational Model for Image Recovery
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pengfei Liu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A novel mixed higher order regularizer involving the first and second degree image derivatives is proposed in this paper. Using spectral decomposition, we reformulate the new regularizer as a weighted L1-L2 mixed norm of image derivatives. Due to the equivalent formulation of the proposed regularizer, an efficient fast projected gradient algorithm combined with monotone fast iterative shrinkage thresholding, called, FPG-MFISTA, is designed to solve the resulting variational image recovery problems under majorization-minimization framework. Finally, we demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed regularization scheme by the experimental comparisons with total variation (TV scheme, nonlocal TV scheme, and current second degree methods. Specifically, the proposed approach achieves better results than related state-of-the-art methods in terms of peak signal to ratio (PSNR and restoration quality.
Advective Mixing in a Nondivergent Barotropic Hurricane Model
2010-01-20
voted to the mixing of fluid from different regions of a hurri- cane, which is considered as a fundamental mechanism that is intimately related to...range is governed by the Cauchy-Riemann deformation tensor , 1(x0,t0)= ( dx0φ t0+T t0 (x0) )∗( dx0φ t0+T t0 (x0) ) , and becomes maximal when ξ0 is
Improving Mixed-phase Cloud Parameterization in Climate Model with the ACRF Measurements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Zhien [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)
2016-12-13
Mixed-phase cloud microphysical and dynamical processes are still poorly understood, and their representation in GCMs is a major source of uncertainties in overall cloud feedback in GCMs. Thus improving mixed-phase cloud parameterizations in climate models is critical to reducing the climate forecast uncertainties. This study aims at providing improved knowledge of mixed-phase cloud properties from the long-term ACRF observations and improving mixed-phase clouds simulations in the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5). The key accomplishments are: 1) An improved retrieval algorithm was developed to provide liquid droplet concentration for drizzling or mixed-phase stratiform clouds. 2) A new ice concentration retrieval algorithm for stratiform mixed-phase clouds was developed. 3) A strong seasonal aerosol impact on ice generation in Arctic mixed-phase clouds was identified, which is mainly attributed to the high dust occurrence during the spring season. 4) A suite of multi-senor algorithms was applied to long-term ARM observations at the Barrow site to provide a complete dataset (LWC and effective radius profile for liquid phase, and IWC, Dge profiles and ice concentration for ice phase) to characterize Arctic stratiform mixed-phase clouds. This multi-year stratiform mixed-phase cloud dataset provides necessary information to study related processes, evaluate model stratiform mixed-phase cloud simulations, and improve model stratiform mixed-phase cloud parameterization. 5). A new in situ data analysis method was developed to quantify liquid mass partition in convective mixed-phase clouds. For the first time, we reliably compared liquid mass partitions in stratiform and convective mixed-phase clouds. Due to the different dynamics in stratiform and convective mixed-phase clouds, the temperature dependencies of liquid mass partitions are significantly different due to much higher ice concentrations in convective mixed phase clouds. 6) Systematic evaluations
A Principle of Corresponding States for Two-Component, Self-Gravitating Fluids
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Caimmi, R.
2010-06-01
Full Text Available Macrogases are defined as two-component,large-scale celestial objects where the subsystems interact only via gravitation.The macrogas equation of state is formulated and compared to the van der Waals (VDWequation of state for ordinary gases.By analogy, it is assumed that real macroisothermal curves in macrogases occur as real isothermal curves in ordinary gases, where a phase transition(vapour-liquid observed in ordinary gases and gas-stars assumed in macrogases takesplace along a horizontal linein the macrovolume-macropressure{small $({sf O}sX_mathrm{V}sX_mathrm{p}$} plane.The intersections between real and theoretical(deduced from the equation of state macro isothermalcurves, make two regions of equal surface as for ordinary gases obeying the VDW equation of state.A numerical algorithm is developed for determining the following points of a selected theoretical macroisothermal curve on the {small $({sf O}sX_mathrm{V}sX_mathrm{p}$} plane:the three intersections with the related real macroisothermal curve,and the two extremum points (one maximum and one minimum. Different kinds of macrogases are studied in detail: UU, where U density profiles are flat, to be conceived as a simple guidance case; HH, where H density profiles obey the Hernquist (1990 law, which satisfactorily fits the observed spheroidal components of galaxies; HN/NH, where N density profiles obey the Navarro-Frenk-White (1995,1996, 1997 law, which satisfactorily fits the simulated nonbaryonic dark matter haloes.A different trend is shown by theoretical macroisothermal curves on the{small $({sf O}sX_mathrm{V}sX_mathrm{p}$} plane,according to whether density profiles are sufficiently mild (UU or sufficiently steep (HH, HN/NH.In the former alternative, no critical macroisothermal curve exists, below or above which the trend is monotonous. In the latter alternative, a critical macroisothermal curve exists, as shown by VDW gases, where the critical point may be defined as the horizontal
A principle of corresponding states for two-component, self-gravitating fluids
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Caimmi R.
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Macrogases are defined as two-component, large-scale celestial objects where the subsystems interact only via gravitation. The macrogas equation of state is formulated and compared to the van der Waals (VDW equation of state for ordinary gases. By analogy, it is assumed that real macroisothermal curves in macrogases occur as real isothermal curves in ordinary gases, where a phase transition (vapour-liquid observed in ordinary gases and gas-stars assumed in macrogases takes place along a horizontal line in the macrovolume-macropressure (O, Xv, Xp plane. The intersections between real and theoretical (deduced from the equation of state macroisothermal curves, make two regions of equal surface as for ordinary gases obeying the VDW equation of state. A numerical algorithm is developed for determining the following points of a selected theoretical macroisothermal curve on the (O, Xv, Xp plane: the three intersections with the related real macroisothermal curve, and the two extremum points (one maximum and one minimum. Different kinds of macrogases are studied in detail: UU, where U density profiles are flat, to be conceived as a simple guidance case; HH, where H density profiles obey the Hernquist (1990 law, which satisfactorily fits the observed spheroidal components of galaxies; HN/NH, where N density profiles obey the Navarro-Frenk-White (1995, 1996, 1997 law, which satisfactorily fits the simulated nonbaryonic dark matter haloes. A different trend is shown by theoretical macroisothermal curves on the (O/XV/Xp plane, according to whether density profiles are sufficiently mild (UU or sufficiently steep (HH, HN/NH. In the former alternative, no critical macroisothermal curve exists, below or above which the trend is monotonous. In the latter alternative, a critical macroisothermal curve exists, as shown by VDW gases, where the critical point may be defined as the horizontal inflexion point. In any case, by analogy with VDW gases, the first quadrant
Generalized linear mixed models modern concepts, methods and applications
Stroup, Walter W
2012-01-01
PART I The Big PictureModeling BasicsWhat Is a Model?Two Model Forms: Model Equation and Probability DistributionTypes of Model EffectsWriting Models in Matrix FormSummary: Essential Elements for a Complete Statement of the ModelDesign MattersIntroductory Ideas for Translating Design and Objectives into ModelsDescribing ""Data Architecture"" to Facilitate Model SpecificationFrom Plot Plan to Linear PredictorDistribution MattersMore Complex Example: Multiple Factors with Different Units of ReplicationSetting the StageGoals for Inference with Models: OverviewBasic Tools of InferenceIssue I: Data
Hossain, Ahmed; Beyene, Joseph
2014-01-01
This article compares baseline, average, and longitudinal data analysis methods for identifying genetic variants in genome-wide association study using the Genetic Analysis Workshop 18 data. We apply methods that include (a) linear mixed models with baseline measures, (b) random intercept linear mixed models with mean measures outcome, and (c) random intercept linear mixed models with longitudinal measurements. In the linear mixed models, covariates are included as fixed effects, whereas relatedness among individuals is incorporated as the variance-covariance structure of the random effect for the individuals. The overall strategy of applying linear mixed models decorrelate the data is based on Aulchenko et al.'s GRAMMAR. By analyzing systolic and diastolic blood pressure, which are used separately as outcomes, we compare the 3 methods in identifying a known genetic variant that is associated with blood pressure from chromosome 3 and simulated phenotype data. We also analyze the real phenotype data to illustrate the methods. We conclude that the linear mixed model with longitudinal measurements of diastolic blood pressure is the most accurate at identifying the known single-nucleotide polymorphism among the methods, but linear mixed models with baseline measures perform best with systolic blood pressure as the outcome.
Valid statistical approaches for analyzing sholl data: Mixed effects versus simple linear models.
Wilson, Machelle D; Sethi, Sunjay; Lein, Pamela J; Keil, Kimberly P
2017-03-01
The Sholl technique is widely used to quantify dendritic morphology. Data from such studies, which typically sample multiple neurons per animal, are often analyzed using simple linear models. However, simple linear models fail to account for intra-class correlation that occurs with clustered data, which can lead to faulty inferences. Mixed effects models account for intra-class correlation that occurs with clustered data; thus, these models more accurately estimate the standard deviation of the parameter estimate, which produces more accurate p-values. While mixed models are not new, their use in neuroscience has lagged behind their use in other disciplines. A review of the published literature illustrates common mistakes in analyses of Sholl data. Analysis of Sholl data collected from Golgi-stained pyramidal neurons in the hippocampus of male and female mice using both simple linear and mixed effects models demonstrates that the p-values and standard deviations obtained using the simple linear models are biased downwards and lead to erroneous rejection of the null hypothesis in some analyses. The mixed effects approach more accurately models the true variability in the data set, which leads to correct inference. Mixed effects models avoid faulty inference in Sholl analysis of data sampled from multiple neurons per animal by accounting for intra-class correlation. Given the widespread practice in neuroscience of obtaining multiple measurements per subject, there is a critical need to apply mixed effects models more widely. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Pragman, Alexa A; Yarwood, Jeremy M; Tripp, Timothy J; Schlievert, Patrick M
2004-04-01
Workers in our laboratory have previously identified the staphylococcal respiratory response AB (SrrAB), a Staphylococcus aureus two-component system that acts in the global regulation of virulence factors. This system down-regulates production of agr RNAIII, protein A, and toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1), particularly under low-oxygen conditions. In this study we investigated the localization and membrane orientation of SrrA and SrrB, transcription of the srrAB operon, the DNA-binding properties of SrrA, and the effect of SrrAB expression on S. aureus virulence. We found that SrrA is localized to the S. aureus cytoplasm, while SrrB is localized to the membrane and is properly oriented to function as a histidine kinase. srrAB has one transcriptional start site which results in either an srrA transcript or a full-length srrAB transcript; srrB must be cotranscribed with srrA. Gel shift assays of the agr P2, agr P3, protein A (spa), TSST-1 (tst), and srr promoters revealed SrrA binding at each of these promoters. Analysis of SrrAB-overexpressing strains by using the rabbit model of bacterial endocarditis demonstrated that overexpression of SrrAB decreased the virulence of the organisms compared to the virulence of isogenic strains that do not overexpress SrrAB. We concluded that SrrAB is properly localized and oriented to function as a two-component system. Overexpression of SrrAB, which represses agr RNAIII, TSST-1, and protein A in vitro, decreases virulence in the rabbit endocarditis model. Repression of these virulence factors is likely due to a direct interaction between SrrA and the agr, tst, and spa promoters.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Brabec, Marek; Konár, Ondřej; Pelikán, Emil; Malý, Marek
2008-01-01
Roč. 24, č. 4 (2008), s. 659-678 ISSN 0169-2070 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET400300513 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : individual gas consumption * nonlinear mixed effects model * ARIMAX * ARX * generalized linear mixed model * conditional modeling Subject RIV: JE - Non-nuclear Energetics, Energy Consumption ; Use Impact factor: 1.685, year: 2008
Mathematical, physical and numerical principles essential for models of turbulent mixing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sharp, David Howland [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lim, Hyunkyung [STONY BROOK UNIV; Yu, Yan [STONY BROOK UNIV; Glimm, James G [STONY BROOK UNIV
2009-01-01
We propose mathematical, physical and numerical principles which are important for the modeling of turbulent mixing, especially the classical and well studied Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities which involve acceleration driven mixing of a fluid discontinuity layer, by a steady accerleration or an impulsive force.
The Simulation of Financial Markets by Agent-Based Mix-Game Models
Chengling Gou
2006-01-01
This paper studies the simulation of financial markets using an agent-based mix-game model which is a variant of the minority game (MG). It specifies the spectra of parameters of mix-game models that fit financial markets by investigating the dynamic behaviors of mix-game models under a wide range of parameters. The main findings are (a) in order to approach efficiency, agents in a real financial market must be heterogeneous, boundedly rational and subject to asymmetric information; (b) an ac...
The Simulation of Financial Markets by an Agent-Based Mix-Game Model
Chengling Gou
2006-01-01
This paper studies the simulation of financial markets using an agent-based mix-game model which is a variant of the minority game (MG). It specifies the spectra of parameters of mix-game models that fit financial markets by investigating the dynamic behaviors of mix-game models under a wide range of parameters. The main findings are (a) in order to approach efficiency, agents in a real financial market must be heterogeneous, boundedly rational and subject to asymmetric information; (b) an ac...
[Regulation of sporulation by two-component system YvcPQ in Bacillus thuringiensis].
Fan, Qingyun; Zhang, Shumeng; Gong, Yujing; He, Jin
2017-01-04
To study the regulation of sporulation controlled by two-component system (TCS) YvcPQ. β-galactosidase experiment was used to verify the regulation of YvcP on kapD expression; bacterial one-hybrid assay, EMSA and RT-qPCR were applied to study the regulation of AbrB on yvcPQ expression; markerless gene deletion coupled with spore count was used to reveal the influence of yvcPQ and kapD expressions on sporulation. transcriptional regulator AbrB up-regulated the expression of yvcPQ; YvcP promoted the expression of kapD to inhibit sporulation. AbrB up-regulated the transcription of yvcPQ operon, then the increased YvcP strengthened the transcriptional acitivation of sporulation inhibitor gene kapD, and subsequently inhibited sporulation.
Universal Properties of a Trapped Two-Component Fermi Gas at Unitarity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blume, D.; Stecher, J. von; Greene, Chris H.
2007-01-01
We treat the trapped two-component Fermi system, in which unlike fermions interact through a two-body short-range potential having no bound state but an infinite scattering length. By accurately solving the Schroedinger equation for up to N=6 fermions, we show that no many-body bound states exist other than those bound by the trapping potential, and we demonstrate unique universal properties of the system: Certain excitation frequencies are separated by 2(ℎ/2π)ω, the wave functions agree with analytical predictions and a virial theorem is fulfilled. Further calculations up to N=30 determine the excitation gap, an experimentally accessible universal quantity, and it agrees with recent predictions based on a density functional approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Monica Marcela Galicia Jimenez
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The ability to adapt rapidly to changes in the environment is one of the main characteristics of the bacterial cell. The rumen is a highly dynamic environment, and none of the changes are permanent due to the various microbial species found in the rumen. Signal transduction networks are information processing pathways that recognize various physical and chemical stimuli, amplification, signal processing, and trigger responses of the bacterial cell. The aim of the present review is to show the importance of these two component systems in rumen bacteria, because it is based on the knowledge of the principles governing the bacterial population communication, its main interactions and products of metabolism, we can approach the manipulation of Ruminal fermentation to improve animal health, productivity and food safety.
Phosphate sink containing two-component signaling systems as tunable threshold devices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Amin, Munia; Kothamachu, Varun B; Feliu, Elisenda
2014-01-01
Synthetic biology aims to design de novo biological systems and reengineer existing ones. These efforts have mostly focused on transcriptional circuits, with reengineering of signaling circuits hampered by limited understanding of their systems dynamics and experimental challenges. Bacterial two......-component signaling systems offer a rich diversity of sensory systems that are built around a core phosphotransfer reaction between histidine kinases and their output response regulator proteins, and thus are a good target for reengineering through synthetic biology. Here, we explore the signal-response relationship...... rapid signal termination, whereby one of the RRs acts as a phosphate sink towards the other RR (i.e. the output RR), but also implements a sigmoidal signal-response relationship. We identify two mathematical conditions on system parameters that are necessary for sigmoidal signal-response relationships...
Phase diagram of two-component bosons on an optical lattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Altman, Ehud; Hofstetter, Walter; Demler, Eugene; Lukin, Mikhail D
2003-01-01
We present a theoretical analysis of the phase diagram of two-component bosons on an optical lattice. A new formalism is developed which treats the effective spin interactions in the Mott and superfluid phases on the same footing. Using this new approach we chart the phase boundaries of the broken spin symmetry states up to the Mott to superfluid transition and beyond. Near the transition point, the magnitude of spin exchange can be very large, which facilitates the experimental realization of spin-ordered states. We find that spin and quantum fluctuations have a dramatic effect on the transition, making it first order in extended regions of the phase diagram. When each species is at integer filling, an additional phase transition may occur, from a spin-ordered insulator to a Mott insulator with no broken symmetries. We determine the phase boundaries in this regime and show that this is essentially a Mott transition in the spin sector
Characterization of a two-component thermoluminescent albedo dosemeter according to ISO 21909
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martins, M.M., E-mail: marcelo@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN), Av. Salvador Allende s/n, CEP 22780-160, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mauricio, C.L.P., E-mail: claudia@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN), Av. Salvador Allende s/n, CEP 22780-160, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pereira, W.W., E-mail: walsan@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN), Av. Salvador Allende s/n, CEP 22780-160, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, A.X. da, E-mail: ademir@con.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia, COPPE/PEN Caixa Postal 68509, CEP 21941-972, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
2011-05-15
A two-component thermoluminescent albedo neutron monitoring system was developed at Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, Brazil. As there is no Brazilian regulation for neutron individual monitoring service, the system was tested according to the ISO 21909 standard. This standard provides performance and test requirements for determining the acceptability of personal neutron dosemeters to be used for the measurement of personal dose equivalent, H{sub p}(10), in neutron fields with energies ranging from thermal to 20 MeV. Up to 40 dosemeters were used in order to accomplish satisfactorily the requirements of some tests. Despite operational difficulties, this albedo system passed all ISO 21909 performance requirements. The results and problems throughout this characterization are discussed in this paper.
Modulational instability for a self-attractive two-component Bose–Einstein condensate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sheng-Chang, Li; Wen-Shan, Duan
2009-01-01
By means of the multiple-scale expansion method, the coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations without an explicit external potential are obtained in two-dimensional geometry for a self-attractive Bose–Einstein condensate composed of different hyperfine states. The modulational instability of two-component condensate is investigated by using a simple technique. Based on the discussion about two typical cases, the explicit expression of the growth rate for a purely growing modulational instability and the optimum stable conditions are given and analysed analytically. The results show that the modulational instability of this two-dimensional system is quite different from that in a one-dimensional system. (general)
A two-component system regulates hemin acquisition in Porphyromonas gingivalis.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jodie C Scott
Full Text Available Porphyromonas gingivalis is a Gram-negative oral anaerobe associated with infection of the periodontia. The organism has a small number of two-component signal transduction systems, and after comparing genome sequences of strains W83 and ATCC 33277 we discovered that the latter was mutant in histidine kinase (PGN_0752, while the cognate response regulator (PGN_0753 remained intact. Microarray-based transcriptional profiling and ChIP-seq assays were carried out with an ATCC 33277 transconjugant containing the functional histidine kinase from strain W83 (PG0719. The data showed that the regulon of this signal transduction system contained genes that were involved in hemin acquisition, including gingipains, at least three transport systems, as well as being self-regulated. Direct regulation by the response regulator was confirmed by electrophoretic mobility shift assays. In addition, the system appears to be activated by hemin and the regulator acts as both an activator and repressor.
Plasma oscillations and sound waves in collision-dominated two-component plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hansen, J.P.; Sjoegren, L.
1982-01-01
Charge, mass, and electron density fluctuation spectra of strongly correlated, fully ionized two-component plasmas within the framework of the Mori--Zwanzig memory function formalism are analyzed. All dynamical correlation functions are expressed in terms of the memory functions of the ion and electron velocity autocorrelation functions by a generalized effective field approximation which preserves the exact initial values (i.e., static correlations). The theory reduces correctly to the mean field (or collisionless Vlasov) results in the weak coupling limit, and yields charge density fluctuation spectra in good agreement with available computer simulation data, as well as reasonable estimates of the transport coefficients. The collisional damping and frequency shift of the plasma oscillation mode are sizeable, even in the long wavelength limit. The theory also predicts the propagation of well-defined sound waves in dense plasmas in thermal equilibrium
Bayes factor between Student t and Gaussian mixed models within an animal breeding context
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
García-Cortés Luis
2008-07-01
Full Text Available Abstract The implementation of Student t mixed models in animal breeding has been suggested as a useful statistical tool to effectively mute the impact of preferential treatment or other sources of outliers in field data. Nevertheless, these additional sources of variation are undeclared and we do not know whether a Student t mixed model is required or if a standard, and less parameterized, Gaussian mixed model would be sufficient to serve the intended purpose. Within this context, our aim was to develop the Bayes factor between two nested models that only differed in a bounded variable in order to easily compare a Student t and a Gaussian mixed model. It is important to highlight that the Student t density converges to a Gaussian process when degrees of freedom tend to infinity. The twomodels can then be viewed as nested models that differ in terms of degrees of freedom. The Bayes factor can be easily calculated from the output of a Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling of the complex model (Student t mixed model. The performance of this Bayes factor was tested under simulation and on a real dataset, using the deviation information criterion (DIC as the standard reference criterion. The two statistical tools showed similar trends along the parameter space, although the Bayes factor appeared to be the more conservative. There was considerable evidence favoring the Student t mixed model for data sets simulated under Student t processes with limited degrees of freedom, and moderate advantages associated with using the Gaussian mixed model when working with datasets simulated with 50 or more degrees of freedom. For the analysis of real data (weight of Pietrain pigs at six months, both the Bayes factor and DIC slightly favored the Student t mixed model, with there being a reduced incidence of outlier individuals in this population.
Swell impact on wind stress and atmospheric mixing in a regional coupled atmosphere-wave model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wu, Lichuan; Rutgersson, Anna; Sahlée, Erik
2016-01-01
Over the ocean, the atmospheric turbulence can be significantly affected by swell waves. Change in the atmospheric turbulence affects the wind stress and atmospheric mixing over swell waves. In this study, the influence of swell on atmospheric mixing and wind stress is introduced into an atmosphere-wave-coupled...... regional climate model, separately and combined. The swell influence on atmospheric mixing is introduced into the atmospheric mixing length formula by adding a swell-induced contribution to the mixing. The swell influence on the wind stress under wind-following swell, moderate-range wind, and near......-neutral and unstable stratification conditions is introduced by changing the roughness length. Five year simulation results indicate that adding the swell influence on atmospheric mixing has limited influence, only slightly increasing the near-surface wind speed; in contrast, adding the swell influence on wind stress...
Functional assessment of EnvZ/OmpR two-component system in Shewanella oneidensis.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jie Yuan
Full Text Available EnvZ and OmpR constitute the bacterial two-component signal transduction system known to mediate osmotic stress response in a number of gram-negative bacteria. In an effort to understand the mechanism through which Shewanella oneidensis senses and responds to environmental osmolarity changes, structure of the ompR-envZ operon was determined with Northern blotting assay and roles of the EnvZ/OmpR two-component system in response to various stresses were investigated with mutational analysis, quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR, and phenotype microarrays. Results from the mutational analysis and qRT-PCR suggested that the EnvZ/OmpR system contributed to osmotic stress response of S. oneidensis and very likely engaged a similar strategy employed by E. coli, which involved reciprocal regulation of two major porin coding genes. Additionally, the ompR-envZ system was also found related to cell motility. We further showed that the ompR-envZ dependent regulation of porin genes and motility resided almost completely on ompR and only partially on envZ, indicating additional mechanisms for OmpR phosphorylation. In contrast to E. coli lacking ompR-envZ, however, growth of S. oneidensis did not show a significant dependence on ompR-envZ even under osmotic stress. Further analysis with phenotype microarrays revealed that the S. oneidensis strains lacking a complete ompR-envZ system displayed hypersensitivities to a number of agents, especially in alkaline environment. Taken together, our results suggest that the function of the ompR-envZ system in S. oneidensis, although still connected with osmoregulation, has diverged considerably from that of E. coli. Additional mechanism must exist to support growth of S. oneidensis under osmotic stress.
Regulation of virulence by a two-component system in group B streptococcus.
Jiang, Sheng-Mei; Cieslewicz, Michael J; Kasper, Dennis L; Wessels, Michael R
2005-02-01
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is frequently carried in the gastrointestinal or genitourinary tract as a commensal organism, yet it has the potential to cause life-threatening infection in newborn infants, pregnant women, and individuals with chronic illness. Regulation of virulence factor expression may affect whether GBS behaves as an asymptomatic colonizer or an invasive pathogen, but little is known about how such factors are controlled in GBS. We now report the characterization of a GBS locus that encodes a two-component regulatory system similar to CsrRS (or CovRS) in Streptococcus pyogenes. Inactivation of csrR, encoding the putative response regulator, in two unrelated wild-type strains of GBS resulted in a marked increase in production of beta-hemolysin/cytolysin and a striking decrease in production of CAMP factor, an unrelated cytolytic toxin. Quantitative RNA hybridization experiments revealed that these two phenotypes were associated with a marked increase and decrease in expression of the corresponding genes, cylE and cfb, respectively. The CsrR mutant strains also displayed increased expression of scpB encoding C5a peptidase. Similar, but less marked, changes in gene expression were observed in CsrS (putative sensor component) mutants, evidence that CsrR and CsrS constitute a functional two-component system. Experimental infection studies in mice demonstrated reduced virulence of both CsrR and CsrS mutant strains relative to the wild type. Together, these results indicate that CsrRS regulates expression of multiple GBS virulence determinants and is likely to play an important role in GBS pathogenesis.
Li, Mingming; Li, Lin; Li, Qiang; Zou, Zongshu
2018-05-01
A filter-based Euler-Lagrange multiphase flow model is used to study the mixing behavior in a combined blowing steelmaking converter. The Euler-based volume of fluid approach is employed to simulate the top blowing, while the Lagrange-based discrete phase model that embeds the local volume change of rising bubbles for the bottom blowing. A filter-based turbulence method based on the local meshing resolution is proposed aiming to improve the modeling of turbulent eddy viscosities. The model validity is verified through comparison with physical experiments in terms of mixing curves and mixing times. The effects of the bottom gas flow rate on bath flow and mixing behavior are investigated and the inherent reasons for the mixing result are clarified in terms of the characteristics of bottom-blowing plumes, the interaction between plumes and top-blowing jets, and the change of bath flow structure.
Alpha-modeling strategy for LES of turbulent mixing
Geurts, Bernard J.; Holm, Darryl D.; Drikakis, D.; Geurts, B.J.
2002-01-01
The α-modeling strategy is followed to derive a new subgrid parameterization of the turbulent stress tensor in large-eddy simulation (LES). The LES-α modeling yields an explicitly filtered subgrid parameterization which contains the filtered nonlinear gradient model as well as a model which
Eliciting mixed emotions: A meta-analysis comparing models, types and measures.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Raul eBerrios
2015-04-01
Full Text Available The idea that people can experience two oppositely valenced emotions has been controversial ever since early attempts to investigate the construct of mixed emotions. This meta-analysis examined the robustness with which mixed emotions have been elicited experimentally. A systematic literature search identified 63 experimental studies that instigated the experience of mixed emotions. Studies were distinguished according to the structure of the underlying affect model – dimensional or discrete – as well as according to the type of mixed emotions studied (e.g., happy-sad, fearful-happy, positive-negative. The meta-analysis using a random-effects model revealed a moderate to high effect size for the elicitation of mixed emotions (dIG+ = .77, which remained consistent regardless of the structure of the affect model, and across different types of mixed emotions. Several methodological and design moderators were tested. Studies using the minimum index (i.e., the minimum value between a pair of opposite valenced affects resulted in smaller effect sizes, whereas subjective measures of mixed emotions increased the effect sizes. The presence of more women in the samples was also associated with larger effect sizes. The current study indicates that mixed emotions are a robust, measurable and non-artifactual experience. The results are discussed in terms of the implications for an affect system that has greater versatility and flexibility than previously thought.
Unit physics performance of a mix model in Eulerian fluid computations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vold, Erik [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Douglass, Rod [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2011-01-25
In this report, we evaluate the performance of a K-L drag-buoyancy mix model, described in a reference study by Dimonte-Tipton [1] hereafter denoted as [D-T]. The model was implemented in an Eulerian multi-material AMR code, and the results are discussed here for a series of unit physics tests. The tests were chosen to calibrate the model coefficients against empirical data, principally from RT (Rayleigh-Taylor) and RM (Richtmyer-Meshkov) experiments, and the present results are compared to experiments and to results reported in [D-T]. Results show the Eulerian implementation of the mix model agrees well with expectations for test problems in which there is no convective flow of the mass averaged fluid, i.e., in RT mix or in the decay of homogeneous isotropic turbulence (HIT). In RM shock-driven mix, the mix layer moves through the Eulerian computational grid, and there are differences with the previous results computed in a Lagrange frame [D-T]. The differences are attributed to the mass averaged fluid motion and examined in detail. Shock and re-shock mix are not well matched simultaneously. Results are also presented and discussed regarding model sensitivity to coefficient values and to initial conditions (IC), grid convergence, and the generation of atomically mixed volume fractions.
Gundersen, Kenneth; Kvaløy, Jan Terje; Eftestøl, Trygve; Kramer-Johansen, Jo
2015-10-15
For patients undergoing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and being in a shockable rhythm, the coarseness of the electrocardiogram (ECG) signal is an indicator of the state of the patient. In the current work, we show how mixed effects stochastic differential equations (SDE) models, commonly used in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic modelling, can be used to model the relationship between CPR quality measurements and ECG coarseness. This is a novel application of mixed effects SDE models to a setting quite different from previous applications of such models and where using such models nicely solves many of the challenges involved in analysing the available data. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
The Impact of Varied Discrimination Parameters on Mixed-Format Item Response Theory Model Selection
Whittaker, Tiffany A.; Chang, Wanchen; Dodd, Barbara G.
2013-01-01
Whittaker, Chang, and Dodd compared the performance of model selection criteria when selecting among mixed-format IRT models and found that the criteria did not perform adequately when selecting the more parameterized models. It was suggested by M. S. Johnson that the problems when selecting the more parameterized models may be because of the low…
Review and comparison of bi-fluid interpenetration mixing models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Enaux, C.
2006-01-01
Today, there is a lot of bi-fluid models with two different speeds: Baer-Nunziato models; Godunov-Romensky models. coupled Euler's equations, and so on. In this report, one compares the most used models in the fields of physics and mathematics while basing this study on the literature. From the point of view of physics. for each model. one reviews: -) the type of mixture considered and modeling assumptions, -) the technique of construction, -) some properties like the respect of thermodynamical principles, the respect of the Galilean invariance principle, or the equilibrium conservation. From the point of view of mathematics, for each model, one looks at: -) the possibility of writing the equations in conservative form, -) hyperbolicity, -) the existence of a mathematical entropy. Finally, a unified review of the models is proposed. It is shown that under certain closing assumptions or for certain flow types. some of the models become equivalent. (author)
Mixed models, linear dependency, and identification in age-period-cohort models.
O'Brien, Robert M
2017-07-20
This paper examines the identification problem in age-period-cohort models that use either linear or categorically coded ages, periods, and cohorts or combinations of these parameterizations. These models are not identified using the traditional fixed effect regression model approach because of a linear dependency between the ages, periods, and cohorts. However, these models can be identified if the researcher introduces a single just identifying constraint on the model coefficients. The problem with such constraints is that the results can differ substantially depending on the constraint chosen. Somewhat surprisingly, age-period-cohort models that specify one or more of ages and/or periods and/or cohorts as random effects are identified. This is the case without introducing an additional constraint. I label this identification as statistical model identification and show how statistical model identification comes about in mixed models and why which effects are treated as fixed and which are treated as random can substantially change the estimates of the age, period, and cohort effects. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An R2 statistic for fixed effects in the linear mixed model.
Edwards, Lloyd J; Muller, Keith E; Wolfinger, Russell D; Qaqish, Bahjat F; Schabenberger, Oliver
2008-12-20
Statisticians most often use the linear mixed model to analyze Gaussian longitudinal data. The value and familiarity of the R(2) statistic in the linear univariate model naturally creates great interest in extending it to the linear mixed model. We define and describe how to compute a model R(2) statistic for the linear mixed model by using only a single model. The proposed R(2) statistic measures multivariate association between the repeated outcomes and the fixed effects in the linear mixed model. The R(2) statistic arises as a 1-1 function of an appropriate F statistic for testing all fixed effects (except typically the intercept) in a full model. The statistic compares the full model with a null model with all fixed effects deleted (except typically the intercept) while retaining exactly the same covariance structure. Furthermore, the R(2) statistic leads immediately to a natural definition of a partial R(2) statistic. A mixed model in which ethnicity gives a very small p-value as a longitudinal predictor of blood pressure (BP) compellingly illustrates the value of the statistic. In sharp contrast to the extreme p-value, a very small R(2) , a measure of statistical and scientific importance, indicates that ethnicity has an almost negligible association with the repeated BP outcomes for the study.
The Brown Muck of $B^0$ and $B^0_s$ Mixing: Beyond the Standard Model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bouchard, Christopher Michael [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)
2011-01-01
Standard Model contributions to neutral $B$ meson mixing begin at the one loop level where they are further suppressed by a combination of the GIM mechanism and Cabibbo suppression. This combination makes $B$ meson mixing a promising probe of new physics, where as yet undiscovered particles and/or interactions can participate in the virtual loops. Relating underlying interactions of the mixing process to experimental observation requires a precise calculation of the non-perturbative process of hadronization, characterized by hadronic mixing matrix elements. This thesis describes a calculation of the hadronic mixing matrix elements relevant to a large class of new physics models. The calculation is performed via lattice QCD using the MILC collaboration's gauge configurations with $2+1$ dynamical sea quarks.
Evaluation of scalar mixing and time scale models in PDF simulations of a turbulent premixed flame
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stoellinger, Michael; Heinz, Stefan [Department of Mathematics, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)
2010-09-15
Numerical simulation results obtained with a transported scalar probability density function (PDF) method are presented for a piloted turbulent premixed flame. The accuracy of the PDF method depends on the scalar mixing model and the scalar time scale model. Three widely used scalar mixing models are evaluated: the interaction by exchange with the mean (IEM) model, the modified Curl's coalescence/dispersion (CD) model and the Euclidean minimum spanning tree (EMST) model. The three scalar mixing models are combined with a simple model for the scalar time scale which assumes a constant C{sub {phi}}=12 value. A comparison of the simulation results with available measurements shows that only the EMST model calculates accurately the mean and variance of the reaction progress variable. An evaluation of the structure of the PDF's of the reaction progress variable predicted by the three scalar mixing models confirms this conclusion: the IEM and CD models predict an unrealistic shape of the PDF. Simulations using various C{sub {phi}} values ranging from 2 to 50 combined with the three scalar mixing models have been performed. The observed deficiencies of the IEM and CD models persisted for all C{sub {phi}} values considered. The value C{sub {phi}}=12 combined with the EMST model was found to be an optimal choice. To avoid the ad hoc choice for C{sub {phi}}, more sophisticated models for the scalar time scale have been used in simulations using the EMST model. A new model for the scalar time scale which is based on a linear blending between a model for flamelet combustion and a model for distributed combustion is developed. The new model has proven to be very promising as a scalar time scale model which can be applied from flamelet to distributed combustion. (author)
Mixed deterministic statistical modelling of regional ozone air pollution
Kalenderski, Stoitchko
2011-03-17
We develop a physically motivated statistical model for regional ozone air pollution by separating the ground-level pollutant concentration field into three components, namely: transport, local production and large-scale mean trend mostly dominated by emission rates. The model is novel in the field of environmental spatial statistics in that it is a combined deterministic-statistical model, which gives a new perspective to the modelling of air pollution. The model is presented in a Bayesian hierarchical formalism, and explicitly accounts for advection of pollutants, using the advection equation. We apply the model to a specific case of regional ozone pollution-the Lower Fraser valley of British Columbia, Canada. As a predictive tool, we demonstrate that the model vastly outperforms existing, simpler modelling approaches. Our study highlights the importance of simultaneously considering different aspects of an air pollution problem as well as taking into account the physical bases that govern the processes of interest. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd..
Consequences of observed Bd-anti Bd mixing in standard and nonstandard models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Datta, A.; Paschos, E.A.; Tuerke, U.
1987-01-01
Implications of the B d -anti B d mixing report by the ARGUS group are investigated. We show that in order for the standard model to accomodate the result, the B → anti B hadronic matrix element must satisfy lower bounds as a function of top quark mass. In this case B S -anti B S mixing is necessarily large (r S > or approx. 0.74) irrespective of m t . This conclusion remains valid in several popular extensions of the standard model with three generations. In contrast to these models, four generation models can accomodate simultaneously the observed B d -anti B d mixing and a relatively small B S -anti B S mixing. (orig.)
On the use of the Prandtl mixing length model in the cutting torch modeling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mancinelli, B [Grupo de Descargas Electricas, Departamento Ing. Electromecanica, Universidad Tecnologica Nacional, Regional Venado Tuerto, Laprida 651, Venado Tuerto (2600), Santa Fe (Argentina); Minotti, F O; Kelly, H, E-mail: bmancinelli@arnet.com.ar [Instituto de Fisica del Plasma (CONICET), Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales (UBA) Ciudad Universitaria Pab. I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)
2011-05-01
The Prandtl mixing length model has been used to take into account the turbulent effects in a 30 A high-energy density cutting torch model. In particular, the model requires the introduction of only one adjustable coefficient c corresponding to the length of action of the turbulence. It is shown that the c value has little effect on the plasma temperature profiles outside the nozzle (the differences being less than 10 %), but severely affects the plasma velocity distribution, with differences reaching about 100% at the middle of the nozzle-anode gap. Within the experimental uncertainties it was also found that the value c = 0.08 allows to reproduce both, the experimental data of velocity and temperature
On the use of the Prandtl mixing length model in the cutting torch modeling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mancinelli, B; Minotti, F O; Kelly, H
2011-01-01
The Prandtl mixing length model has been used to take into account the turbulent effects in a 30 A high-energy density cutting torch model. In particular, the model requires the introduction of only one adjustable coefficient c corresponding to the length of action of the turbulence. It is shown that the c value has little effect on the plasma temperature profiles outside the nozzle (the differences being less than 10 %), but severely affects the plasma velocity distribution, with differences reaching about 100% at the middle of the nozzle-anode gap. Within the experimental uncertainties it was also found that the value c = 0.08 allows to reproduce both, the experimental data of velocity and temperature
Species Distribution Modeling: Comparison of Fixed and Mixed Effects Models Using INLA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lara Dutra Silva
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Invasive alien species are among the most important, least controlled, and least reversible of human impacts on the world’s ecosystems, with negative consequences affecting biodiversity and socioeconomic systems. Species distribution models have become a fundamental tool in assessing the potential spread of invasive species in face of their native counterparts. In this study we compared two different modeling techniques: (i fixed effects models accounting for the effect of ecogeographical variables (EGVs; and (ii mixed effects models including also a Gaussian random field (GRF to model spatial correlation (Matérn covariance function. To estimate the potential distribution of Pittosporum undulatum and Morella faya (respectively, invasive and native trees, we used geo-referenced data of their distribution in Pico and São Miguel islands (Azores and topographic, climatic and land use EGVs. Fixed effects models run with maximum likelihood or the INLA (Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation approach provided very similar results, even when reducing the size of the presences data set. The addition of the GRF increased model adjustment (lower Deviance Information Criterion, particularly for the less abundant tree, M. faya. However, the random field parameters were clearly affected by sample size and species distribution pattern. A high degree of spatial autocorrelation was found and should be taken into account when modeling species distribution.
A brief introduction to mixed effects modelling and multi-model inference in ecology.
Harrison, Xavier A; Donaldson, Lynda; Correa-Cano, Maria Eugenia; Evans, Julian; Fisher, David N; Goodwin, Cecily E D; Robinson, Beth S; Hodgson, David J; Inger, Richard
2018-01-01
The use of linear mixed effects models (LMMs) is increasingly common in the analysis of biological data. Whilst LMMs offer a flexible approach to modelling a broad range of data types, ecological data are often complex and require complex model structures, and the fitting and interpretation of such models is not always straightforward. The ability to achieve robust biological inference requires that practitioners know how and when to apply these tools. Here, we provide a general overview of current methods for the application of LMMs to biological data, and highlight the typical pitfalls that can be encountered in the statistical modelling process. We tackle several issues regarding methods of model selection, with particular reference to the use of information theory and multi-model inference in ecology. We offer practical solutions and direct the reader to key references that provide further technical detail for those seeking a deeper understanding. This overview should serve as a widely accessible code of best practice for applying LMMs to complex biological problems and model structures, and in doing so improve the robustness of conclusions drawn from studies investigating ecological and evolutionary questions.
Zhou, Xuan; Zhang, Nan; Xia, Liming; Li, Qing; Shao, Jiahui; Shen, Qirong; Zhang, Ruifu
2018-04-15
Efficient biofilm formation and root colonization capabilities facilitate the ability of beneficial plant rhizobacteria to promote plant growth and antagonize soilborne pathogens. Biofilm formation by plant-beneficial Bacillus strains is triggered by environmental cues, including oxygen deficiency, but the pathways that sense these environmental signals and regulate biofilm formation have not been thoroughly elucidated. In this study, we showed that the ResDE two-component regulatory system in the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain SQR9 senses the oxygen deficiency signal and regulates biofilm formation. ResE is activated by sensing the oxygen limitation-induced reduction of the NAD + /NADH pool through its PAS domain, stimulating its kinase activity, and resulting in the transfer of a phosphoryl group to ResD. The phosphorylated ResD directly binds to the promoter regions of the qoxABCD and ctaCDEF operons to improve the biosynthesis of terminal oxidases, which can interact with KinB to activate biofilm formation. These results not only revealed the novel regulatory function of the ResDE two-component system but also contributed to the understanding of the complicated regulatory network governing Bacillus biofilm formation. This research may help to enhance the root colonization and the plant-beneficial efficiency of SQR9 and other Bacillus rhizobacteria used in agriculture. IMPORTANCE Bacillus spp. are widely used as bioinoculants for plant growth promotion and disease suppression. The exertion of their plant-beneficial functions is largely dependent on their root colonization, which is closely related to their biofilm formation capabilities. On the other hand, Bacillus is the model bacterium for biofilm study, and the process and molecular network of biofilm formation are well characterized (B. Mielich-Süss and D. Lopez, Environ Microbiol 17:555-565, 2015, https://doi.org/10.1111/1462-2920.12527; L. S. Cairns, L. Hobley, and
The Mixed Quark-Gluon Condensate from the Global Color Symmetry Model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZONG Hong-Shi; PING Jia-Lun; LU Xiao-Fu; WANG Fan; ZHAO En-Guang
2002-01-01
The mixed quark-gluon condensate from the global color symmetry model is derived. It is shown that themixed quark-gluon condensate depends explicitly on the gluon propagator. This interesting feature may be regarded asan additional constraint on the model of gluon propagator. The values of the mixed quark-gluon condensate from someansatz for the gluon propagator are compared with those determined from QCD sum rules.
Development of two phase turbulent mixing model for subchannel analysis relevant to BWR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharma, M.P.; Nayak, A.K.; Kannan, Umasankari
2014-01-01
A two phase flow model is presented, which predicts both liquid and gas phase turbulent mixing rate between adjacent subchannels of reactor rod bundles. The model presented here is for slug churn flow regime, which is dominant as compared to the other regimes like bubbly flow and annular flow regimes, since turbulent mixing rate is the highest in slug churn flow regime. In this paper, we have defined new dimensionless parameters i.e. liquid mixing number and gas mixing number for two phase turbulent mixing. The liquid mixing number is a function of mixture Reynolds number whereas the gas phase mixing number is a function of both mixture Reynolds number and volumetric fraction of gas. The effect of pressure, geometrical influence of subchannel is also included in this model. The present model has been tested against low pressure and temperature air-water and high pressure and temperature steam-water experimental data found that it shows good agreement with available experimental data. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kamerlin, Shina C. L.; Haranczyk, Maciej; Warshel, Arieh
2009-05-01
Phosphate hydrolysis is ubiquitous in biology. However, despite intensive research on this class of reactions, the precise nature of the reaction mechanism remains controversial. In this work, we have examined the hydrolysis of three homologous phosphate diesters. The solvation free energy was simulated by means of either an implicit solvation model (COSMO), hybrid quantum mechanical / molecular mechanical free energy perturbation (QM/MM-FEP) or a mixed solvation model in which N water molecules were explicitly included in the ab initio description of the reacting system (where N=1-3), with the remainder of the solvent being implicitly modelled as a continuum. Here, both COSMO and QM/MM-FEP reproduce Delta Gobs within an error of about 2kcal/mol. However, we demonstrate that in order to obtain any form of reliable results from a mixed model, it is essential to carefully select the explicit water molecules from short QM/MM runs that act as a model for the true infinite system. Additionally, the mixed models tend to be increasingly inaccurate the more explicit water molecules are placed into the system. Thus, our analysis indicates that this approach provides an unreliable way for modelling phosphate hydrolysis in solution.
Eliciting mixed emotions: a meta-analysis comparing models, types, and measures
Berrios, Raul; Totterdell, Peter; Kellett, Stephen
2015-01-01
The idea that people can experience two oppositely valenced emotions has been controversial ever since early attempts to investigate the construct of mixed emotions. This meta-analysis examined the robustness with which mixed emotions have been elicited experimentally. A systematic literature search identified 63 experimental studies that instigated the experience of mixed emotions. Studies were distinguished according to the structure of the underlying affect model—dimensional or discrete—as well as according to the type of mixed emotions studied (e.g., happy-sad, fearful-happy, positive-negative). The meta-analysis using a random-effects model revealed a moderate to high effect size for the elicitation of mixed emotions (dIG+ = 0.77), which remained consistent regardless of the structure of the affect model, and across different types of mixed emotions. Several methodological and design moderators were tested. Studies using the minimum index (i.e., the minimum value between a pair of opposite valenced affects) resulted in smaller effect sizes, whereas subjective measures of mixed emotions increased the effect sizes. The presence of more women in the samples was also associated with larger effect sizes. The current study indicates that mixed emotions are a robust, measurable and non-artifactual experience. The results are discussed in terms of the implications for an affect system that has greater versatility and flexibility than previously thought. PMID:25926805
Data on copula modeling of mixed discrete and continuous neural time series.
Hu, Meng; Li, Mingyao; Li, Wu; Liang, Hualou
2016-06-01
Copula is an important tool for modeling neural dependence. Recent work on copula has been expanded to jointly model mixed time series in neuroscience ("Hu et al., 2016, Joint Analysis of Spikes and Local Field Potentials using Copula" [1]). Here we present further data for joint analysis of spike and local field potential (LFP) with copula modeling. In particular, the details of different model orders and the influence of possible spike contamination in LFP data from the same and different electrode recordings are presented. To further facilitate the use of our copula model for the analysis of mixed data, we provide the Matlab codes, together with example data.
Structural Basis for DNA Recognition by the Two-Component Response Regulator RcsB.
Filippova, Ekaterina V; Zemaitaitis, Bozena; Aung, Theint; Wolfe, Alan J; Anderson, Wayne F
2018-02-27
RcsB is a highly conserved transcription regulator of the Rcs phosphorelay system, a complex two-component signal transduction system (N. Majdalani and S. Gottesman, Annu Rev Microbiol 59:379-405, 2005; A. J. Wolfe, Curr Opin Microbiol 13:204-209, 2010, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mib.2010.01.002; D. J. Clarke, Future Microbiol 5:1173-1184, 2010, https://doi.org/10.2217/fmb.10.83). RcsB plays an important role in virulence and pathogenicity in human hosts by regulating biofilm formation. RcsB can regulate transcription alone or together with its auxiliary transcription regulators by forming heterodimers. This complexity allows RcsB to regulate transcription of more than 600 bacterial genes in response to different stresses (D. Wang et al., Mol Plant Microbe Interact 25:6-17, 2012, https://doi.org/10.1094/MPMI-08-11-0207). Despite increasing knowledge of RcsB importance, molecular mechanisms that drive the ability of RcsB to control transcription of a large number of genes remain unclear. Here, we present crystal structures of unphosphorylated RcsB in complex with the consensus DNA-binding sequence of 22-mer (DNA22) and 18-mer (DNA18) of the flhDC operon from Escherichia coli determined at 3.15- and 3.37-Å resolution, respectively. The results of our structural analysis combined with the results of in vitro binding assays provide valuable insights to the protein regulatory mechanism, demonstrate how RcsB recognizes target DNA sequences, and reveal a unique oligomeric state that allows RcsB to form homo- and heterodimers. This information will help us understand the complex mechanisms of transcriptional regulation by RcsB in bacteria. IMPORTANCE RcsB is a well-studied two-component response regulator of the Rcs phosphorelay system, conserved within the family Enterobacteriaceae , which includes many pathogens. It is a global regulator, controlling more than 5% of bacterial genes associated with capsule biosynthesis, flagellar biogenesis, cell wall biosynthesis
Modeling the Bergeron-Findeisen Process Using PDF Methods With an Explicit Representation of Mixing
Jeffery, C.; Reisner, J.
2005-12-01
Currently, the accurate prediction of cloud droplet and ice crystal number concentration in cloud resolving, numerical weather prediction and climate models is a formidable challenge. The Bergeron-Findeisen process in which ice crystals grow by vapor deposition at the expense of super-cooled droplets is expected to be inhomogeneous in nature--some droplets will evaporate completely in centimeter-scale filaments of sub-saturated air during turbulent mixing while others remain unchanged [Baker et al., QJRMS, 1980]--and is unresolved at even cloud-resolving scales. Despite the large body of observational evidence in support of the inhomogeneous mixing process affecting cloud droplet number [most recently, Brenguier et al., JAS, 2000], it is poorly understood and has yet to be parameterized and incorporated into a numerical model. In this talk, we investigate the Bergeron-Findeisen process using a new approach based on simulations of the probability density function (PDF) of relative humidity during turbulent mixing. PDF methods offer a key advantage over Eulerian (spatial) models of cloud mixing and evaporation: the low probability (cm-scale) filaments of entrained air are explicitly resolved (in probability space) during the mixing event even though their spatial shape, size and location remain unknown. Our PDF approach reveals the following features of the inhomogeneous mixing process during the isobaric turbulent mixing of two parcels containing super-cooled water and ice, respectively: (1) The scavenging of super-cooled droplets is inhomogeneous in nature; some droplets evaporate completely at early times while others remain unchanged. (2) The degree of total droplet evaporation during the initial mixing period depends linearly on the mixing fractions of the two parcels and logarithmically on Damköhler number (Da)---the ratio of turbulent to evaporative time-scales. (3) Our simulations predict that the PDF of Lagrangian (time-integrated) subsaturation (S) goes as
Estimating the numerical diapycnal mixing in an eddy-permitting ocean model
Megann, Alex
2018-01-01
Constant-depth (or "z-coordinate") ocean models such as MOM4 and NEMO have become the de facto workhorse in climate applications, having attained a mature stage in their development and are well understood. A generic shortcoming of this model type, however, is a tendency for the advection scheme to produce unphysical numerical diapycnal mixing, which in some cases may exceed the explicitly parameterised mixing based on observed physical processes, and this is likely to have effects on the long-timescale evolution of the simulated climate system. Despite this, few quantitative estimates have been made of the typical magnitude of the effective diapycnal diffusivity due to numerical mixing in these models. GO5.0 is a recent ocean model configuration developed jointly by the UK Met Office and the National Oceanography Centre. It forms the ocean component of the GC2 climate model, and is closely related to the ocean component of the UKESM1 Earth System Model, the UK's contribution to the CMIP6 model intercomparison. GO5.0 uses version 3.4 of the NEMO model, on the ORCA025 global tripolar grid. An approach to quantifying the numerical diapycnal mixing in this model, based on the isopycnal watermass analysis of Lee et al. (2002), is described, and the estimates thereby obtained of the effective diapycnal diffusivity in GO5.0 are compared with the values of the explicit diffusivity used by the model. It is shown that the effective mixing in this model configuration is up to an order of magnitude higher than the explicit mixing in much of the ocean interior, implying that mixing in the model below the mixed layer is largely dominated by numerical mixing. This is likely to have adverse consequences for the representation of heat uptake in climate models intended for decadal climate projections, and in particular is highly relevant to the interpretation of the CMIP6 class of climate models, many of which use constant-depth ocean models at ¼° resolution
Mathematical modeling of the mixing zone for getting bimetallic compound
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Stanislav L. [Institute of Applied Mechanics, Ural Branch, Izhevsk (Russian Federation)
2011-07-01
A mathematical model of the formation of atomic bonds in metals and alloys, based on the electrostatic interaction between the outer electron shells of atoms of chemical elements. Key words: mathematical model, the interatomic bonds, the electron shell of atoms, the potential, the electron density, bimetallic compound.
A Thermodynamic Mixed-Solid Asphaltene Precipitation Model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lindeloff, Niels; Heidemann, R.A.; Andersen, Simon Ivar
1998-01-01
A simple model for the prediction of asphaltene precipitation is proposed. The model is based on an equation of state and uses standard thermodynamics, thus assuming that the precipitation phenomenon is a reversible process. The solid phase is treated as an ideal multicomponent mixture. An activity...
Mixed Frequency Data Sampling Regression Models: The R Package midasr
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eric Ghysels
2016-08-01
Full Text Available When modeling economic relationships it is increasingly common to encounter data sampled at different frequencies. We introduce the R package midasr which enables estimating regression models with variables sampled at different frequencies within a MIDAS regression framework put forward in work by Ghysels, Santa-Clara, and Valkanov (2002. In this article we define a general autoregressive MIDAS regression model with multiple variables of different frequencies and show how it can be specified using the familiar R formula interface and estimated using various optimization methods chosen by the researcher. We discuss how to check the validity of the estimated model both in terms of numerical convergence and statistical adequacy of a chosen regression specification, how to perform model selection based on a information criterion, how to assess forecasting accuracy of the MIDAS regression model and how to obtain a forecast aggregation of different MIDAS regression models. We illustrate the capabilities of the package with a simulated MIDAS regression model and give two empirical examples of application of MIDAS regression.
Multivariate longitudinal data analysis with mixed effects hidden Markov models.
Raffa, Jesse D; Dubin, Joel A
2015-09-01
Multiple longitudinal responses are often collected as a means to capture relevant features of the true outcome of interest, which is often hidden and not directly measurable. We outline an approach which models these multivariate longitudinal responses as generated from a hidden disease process. We propose a class of models which uses a hidden Markov model with separate but correlated random effects between multiple longitudinal responses. This approach was motivated by a smoking cessation clinical trial, where a bivariate longitudinal response involving both a continuous and a binomial response was collected for each participant to monitor smoking behavior. A Bayesian method using Markov chain Monte Carlo is used. Comparison of separate univariate response models to the bivariate response models was undertaken. Our methods are demonstrated on the smoking cessation clinical trial dataset, and properties of our approach are examined through extensive simulation studies. © 2015, The International Biometric Society.
Thermal hydraulic model validation for HOR mixed core fuel management
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gibcus, H.P.M.; Vries, J.W. de; Leege, P.F.A. de
1997-01-01
A thermal-hydraulic core management model has been developed for the Hoger Onderwijsreactor (HOR), a 2 MW pool-type university research reactor. The model was adopted for safety analysis purposes in the framework of HEU/LEU core conversion studies. It is applied in the thermal-hydraulic computer code SHORT (Steady-state HOR Thermal-hydraulics) which is presently in use in designing core configurations and for in-core fuel management. An elaborate measurement program was performed for establishing the core hydraulic characteristics for a variety of conditions. The hydraulic data were obtained with a dummy fuel element with special equipment allowing a.o. direct measurement of the true core flow rate. Using these data the thermal-hydraulic model was validated experimentally. The model, experimental tests, and model validation are discussed. (author)
Identification by irradiation, in vitro, of two components of erythroprotein action
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barcos, M.
1978-01-01
The effect of ionizing radiation on the response of normal cultured rat marrow cells to erythropoietin yielded two-component inactivation curves for induced iron uptake and hemoglobin synthesis. The radioresistant component of the induced hemoglobin response (1) was detected earlier, at 6 to 20 hr after irradiation, (2) had a DO 0 > or = to 900 R, (3) gave a nonlinear erythropoietin dose--response plot at 600 R, (4) disappeared when marrow from erythremic rats was used, and (5) showed maximal inactivation by 500 R when irradiation preceded hormone addition by 1.5 to 2.5 hr. The radiosensitive component (1) was observed without any contribution from the radioresistant component when the time of assay of normal marrow was postponed from 6 to 20 hr to 20 to 44 hr of culture, (2) had a D 0 = 63 R, (3) gave linear erythropoietin dose--response curves at 15 to 60 R, and (4) showed enhanced inhibition by 60 R if irradiation either preceded or followed hormone addition by 3 hr or more
Determination of the number of and classification of two-component ionic-covalent chemical compounds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vigdorovich, V.N.; Dzhuraev, T.D.; Khanin, V.A.
1989-01-01
The aim of this work was to determine the number of and to classify two-component compounds corresponding to the four-electron and full-valence concepts and characterized by the ionic-covalent type of bond, on which the metallic bond is superimposed to a greater lesser degree. At the same time it was proposed to verify the position of the axes in the periodic system. The presence of numerous compound analogs for the element prototypes of one axis of the Mendeleev periodic system [the group of noble (inert) gases] was confirmed by computer experiments. However, the other axis (the carbon group) is not so obvious and is evidently due, on account of the superimposition of the effect of noncharacteristic (possible) valences, to the elements of various groups (boron, aluminum, germanium, antimony, bismuth). In addition, the compound analogs for the element prototypes of the d block are numerous, i.e., the copper-silver-gold, manganese-technetium-rhenium, and iron and platinum families
ACOUSTIC WAVES EMISSION IN THE TWO-COMPONENT HEREDITARY-ELASTIC MEDIUM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. S. Polenov
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Summary. On the dynamics of two-component media a number of papers, which address the elastic waves in a homogeneous, unbounded fluid-saturated porous medium. In other studies address issues of dissipative processes in harmonic deformation hereditary elastic medium. In the article the dissipative processes of the viscoelastic porous medium, which hereditary properties are described by the core relaxation fractional exponential function U.N. Rabotnova integro-differential Boltzmann-Volterr ratio, harmonic deformation by the straining saturated incompressible liquid are investigated. Speed of wave propagation, absorption coefficient, mechanical loss tangent, logarithmic decrement, depending on fractional parameter γ, determining formulas received. The frequency logarithm and temperature graph dependences with the goal fractional parameter are constructed. Shows the dependences velocity and attenuation coefficient of the tangent of the phase angle of the logarithm of the temperature, and the dependence of the attenuation coefficient of the logarithm of the frequency. Dependencies the speed and the tangent of the phase angle of the frequency identical function of the logarithm of temperature.
Cui, Yanhua; Liu, Wei; Qu, Xiaojun; Chen, Zhangting; Zhang, Xu; Liu, Tong; Zhang, Lanwei
2012-05-20
The Gram-positive bacterium Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus is of vital importance to the food industry, especially to the dairy industry. Two component systems (TCSs) are one of the most important mechanisms for environmental sensing and signal transduction in the majority of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. A typical TCS consists of a histidine protein kinase (HPK) and a cytoplasmic response regulator (RR). To investigate the functions of TCSs during acid adaptation in L. bulgaricus, we used quantitative PCR to reveal how TCSs expression changes during acid adaptation. Two TCSs (JN675228/JN675229 and JN675230/JN675231) and two HPKs (JN675236 and JN675240) were induced during acid adaptation. These TCSs were speculated to be related with the acid adaptation ability of L. bulgaricus. The mutants of JN675228/JN675229 were constructed in order to investigate the functions of JN675228/JN675229. The mutants showed reduced acid adaptation compared to that of wild type, and the complemented strains were similar to the wild-type strain. These observations suggested that JN675228 and JN675229 were involved in acid adaptation in L. bulgaricus. The interaction between JN675228 and JN675229 was identified by means of yeast two-hybrid system. The results indicated there is interaction between JN675228 and JN675229. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
The Evolution of Two-Component Systems in Bacteria RevealsDifferent Strategies for Niche Adaptation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alm, Eric; Huang, Katherine; Arkin, Adam
2006-09-13
Two-component systems including histidine protein kinasesrepresent the primary signal transduction paradigm in prokaryoticorganisms. To understand how these systems adapt to allow organisms todetect niche-specific signals, we analyzed the phylogenetic distributionof nearly 5000 histidine protein kinases from 207 sequenced prokaryoticgenomes. We found that many genomes carry a large repertoire of recentlyevolved signaling genes, which may reflect selective pressure to adapt tonew environmental conditions. Both lineage-specific gene family expansionand horizontal gene transfer play major roles in the introduction of newhistidine kinases into genomes; however, there are differences in howthese two evolutionary forces act. Genes imported via horizontal transferare more likely to retain their original functionality as inferred from asimilar complement of signaling domains, while gene family expansionaccompanied by domain shuffling appears to be a major source of novelgenetic diversity. Family expansion is the dominantsource of newhistidine kinase genes in the genomes most enriched in signalingproteins, and detailed analysis reveals that divergence in domainstructure and changes in expression patterns are hallmarks of recentexpansions. Finally, while these two modes of gene acquisition arewidespread across bacterial taxa, there are clear species-specificpreferences for which mode is used.
PLA and two components silicon rubber blends aiming for frozen foods packaging applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Utai Meekum
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Designing of PLA and two components silicone rubber blends was studies. Frozen food packaging application is the main ultimate aim. The statistical method using 23 DOE was conducted. The standard testing methods, in particular impact testing at sub-zero temperature, were performed. The preliminary blend formula comprised 1.0 phr of silane and polyester polyols, respectively, was initially resolved. Then, the optimize the silicone portion in the blends was determined. Blending formula using 8.0 phr of silicone with respect to PLA matrix gave rise to the overall satisfactory properties. 3. TETA was used as the silicone curing agent and reactively blended onto the ingredients. TETA at 0.4 phr, with respect to the silicone, enhanced the mechanical properties, especially flexibility and toughness, of the PLA/silicone blend. Exceeding the optimal TETA loading would cause the chain scission and also the dilution effects. Hence, marginal inferior properties of the blends were be experienced. The preliminary biodegradability investigation found that the PLA/silicone blend initially triggered at the second week. Its degradation rate was likely to be faster than neat PLA. Keywords: PLA/silicone blends, Mechanical properties, Sub-zero impact strength
Eriksson, A R; Andersson, R A; Pirhonen, M; Palva, E T
1998-08-01
Production of extracellular, plant cell wall degrading enzymes, the main virulence determinants of the plant pathogen Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora, is coordinately controlled by a complex regulatory network. Insertion mutants in the exp (extracellular enzyme production) loci exhibit pleiotropic defects in virulence and the growth-phase-dependent transcriptional activation of genes encoding extracellular enzymes. Two new exp mutations, designated expA and expS, were characterized. Introduction of the corresponding wild-type alleles to the mutants complemented both the lack of virulence and the impaired production of plant cell wall degrading enzymes. The expA gene was shown to encode a 24-kDa polypeptide that is structurally and functionally related to the uvrY gene product of Escherichia coli and the GacA response regulator of Pseudomonas fluorescens. Functional similarity of expA and uvrY was demonstrated by genetic complementation. The expA gene is organized in an operon together with a uvrC-like gene, identical to the organization of uvrY and uvrC in E. coli. The unlinked expS gene encodes a putative sensor kinase that shows 92% identity to the recently described rpfA gene product from another E. carotovora subsp. carotovora strain. Our data suggest that ExpS and ExpA are members of two-component sensor kinase and response regulator families, respectively. These two proteins might interact in controlling virulence gene expression in E. carotovora subsp. carotovora.
An inverse spectral problem related to the Geng-Xue two-component peakon equation
Lundmark, Hans
2016-01-01
The authors solve a spectral and an inverse spectral problem arising in the computation of peakon solutions to the two-component PDE derived by Geng and Xue as a generalization of the Novikov and Degasperisâe"Procesi equations. Like the spectral problems for those equations, this one is of a âeoediscrete cubic stringâe typeâe"a nonselfadjoint generalization of a classical inhomogeneous stringâe"but presents some interesting novel features: there are two Lax pairs, both of which contribute to the correct complete spectral data, and the solution to the inverse problem can be expressed using quantities related to Cauchy biorthogonal polynomials with two different spectral measures. The latter extends the range of previous applications of Cauchy biorthogonal polynomials to peakons, which featured either two identical, or two closely related, measures. The method used to solve the spectral problem hinges on the hidden presence of oscillatory kernels of Gantmacherâe"Krein type, implying that the spectrum of...
Images and Spectra of Time Dependent Two Component Advective Flow in Presence of Outflows
Chatterjee, Arka; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.; Ghosh, Himadri; Garain, Sudip K.
2018-05-01
Two Component Advective Flow (TCAF) successfully explains the spectral and temporal properties of outbursting or persistent sources. Images of static TCAF with Compton cloud or CENtrifugal pressure supported Boundary Layer (CENBOL) due to gravitational bending of photons have been studied before. In this paper, we study time dependent images of advective flows around a Schwarzschild black hole which include cooling effects due to Comptonization of soft photons from a Keplerian disks well as the self-consistently produced jets and outflows. We show the overall image of the disk-jet system after convolving with a typical beamwidth. A long exposure image with time dependent system need not show the black hole horizon conspicuously, unless one is looking at a soft state with no jet or the system along the jet axis. Assuming these disk-jet configurations are relevant to radio emitting systems also, our results would be useful to look for event horizons in high accretion rate Supermassive Black Holes in Seyfert galaxies, RL Quasars.
Alvarez-Martin, Pablo; O'Connell Motherway, Mary; Turroni, Francesca; Foroni, Elena; Ventura, Marco; van Sinderen, Douwe
2012-10-01
This work reports on the identification and molecular characterization of a two-component regulatory system (2CRS), encoded by serRK, which is believed to control the expression of the ser(2003) locus in Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003. The ser(2003) locus consists of two genes, Bbr_1319 (sagA) and Bbr_1320 (serU), which are predicted to encode a hypothetical membrane-associated protein and a serpin-like protein, respectively. The response regulator SerR was shown to bind to the promoter region of ser(2003), and the probable recognition sequence of SerR was determined by a combinatorial approach of in vitro site-directed mutagenesis coupled to transcriptional fusion and electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs). The importance of the serRK 2CRS in the response of B. breve to protease-mediated induction was confirmed by generating a B. breve serR insertion mutant, which was shown to exhibit altered ser(2003) transcriptional induction patterns compared to the parent strain, UCC2003. Interestingly, the analysis of a B. breve serU mutant revealed that the SerRK signaling pathway appears to include a SerU-dependent autoregulatory loop.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martins, Marcelo Marques
2008-01-01
A TLD-albedo based two-component neutron individual monitoring system was developed and characterized in this work. The monitor consists of a black plastic holder, an incident neutron boron loaded shield, a moderator polyethylene body (to increase its response), two pairs of TLD-600 and TLD-700 (one pair to each component) and an adjustable belt. This monitoring system was calibrated in thermal neutron fields and in 70 keV, 144 keV, 565 keV, 1.2 MeV and 5 MeV monoenergetic neutron fields. In addition, it was calibrated in 252C f(D 2 O), 252 Cf, 241 Am-B, 241 Am-Be and 238 Pu-Be source fields. For the latter, the lower detection levels are, respectively, 0.009 mSv, 0.06 mSv, 0.12 mSv, 0.09 mSv and 0.08 mSv. The participation in an international intercomparison sponsored by IAEA with simulated workplace fields validated the system. The monitoring system was successfully characterized in the ISO 21909 standard and in an IRD - the Brazilian Institute for Radioprotection and Dosimetry - technical regulation draft. Nowadays, the neutron individual system is in use by IRD for whole body individual monitoring of five institutions, which comprehend several activities. (author)
Short and medium range order in two-component silica glasses by positron annihilation spectroscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Inoue, K.; Kataoka, H.; Nagai, Y.; Hasegawa, M.; Kobayashi, Y.
2014-01-01
The dependence of chemical composition on the average sizes of subnanometer-scale intrinsic structural open spaces surrounded by glass random networks in two-component silica-based glasses was investigated systematically using positronium (Ps) confined in the open spaces. The average sizes of the open spaces for SiO 2 -B 2 O 3 and SiO 2 -GeO 2 glasses are only slightly dependent on the chemical compositions because the B 2 O 3 and GeO 2 are glass network formers that are incorporated into the glass network of the base SiO 2 . However, the open space sizes for all SiO 2 -R 2 O (R = Li, Na, K) glasses, where R 2 O is a glass network modifier that occupies the open spaces, decrease rapidly with an increase in the R 2 O concentration. Despite the large difference in the ionic radii of the alkali metal (R) atoms, the open space sizes decrease similarly for all the alkali metal atoms studied. This dependence of the chemical composition on the open space sizes in SiO 2 -R 2 O observed by Ps shows that the alkali metal atoms do not randomly occupy the structural open spaces, but filling of the open spaces by R 2 O proceeds selectively from the larger to the smaller open spaces as the R 2 O concentrations are increased.
Bretl, Daniel J.; Demetriadou, Chrystalla; Zahrt, Thomas C.
2011-01-01
Summary: Pathogenic microorganisms encounter a variety of environmental stresses following infection of their respective hosts. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiological agent of tuberculosis, is an unusual bacterial pathogen in that it is able to establish lifelong infections in individuals within granulomatous lesions that are formed following a productive immune response. Adaptation to this highly dynamic environment is thought to be mediated primarily through transcriptional reprogramming initiated in response to recognition of stimuli, including low-oxygen tension, nutrient depletion, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, altered pH, toxic lipid moieties, cell wall/cell membrane-perturbing agents, and other environmental cues. To survive continued exposure to these potentially adverse factors, M. tuberculosis encodes a variety of regulatory factors, including 11 complete two-component signal transduction systems (TCSSs) and several orphaned response regulators (RRs) and sensor kinases (SKs). This report reviews our current knowledge of the TCSSs present in M. tuberculosis. In particular, we discuss the biochemical and functional characteristics of individual RRs and SKs, the environmental stimuli regulating their activation, the regulons controlled by the various TCSSs, and the known or postulated role(s) of individual TCSSs in the context of M. tuberculosis physiology and/or pathogenesis. PMID:22126994
A hybrid two-component system protein from Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 was involved in chemotaxis.
Cui, Yanhua; Tu, Ran; Wu, Lixian; Hong, Yuanyuan; Chen, Sanfeng
2011-09-20
We here report the sequence and functional analysis of org35 of Azospirillum brasilense Sp7, which was originally identified to be able to interact with NifA in yeast-two-hybrid system. The org35 encodes a hybrid two-component system protein, including N-terminal PAS domains, a histidine kinase (HPK) domain and a response regulator (RR) domain in C-terminal. To determine the function of the Org35, a deletion-insertion mutant in PAS domain [named Sp7353] and a complemental strain Sp7353C were constructed. The mutant had reduced chemotaxis ability compared to that of wild-type, and the complemental strain was similar to the wild-type strain. These data suggested that the A. brasilense org35 played a key role in chemotaxis. Variants containing different domains of the org35 were expressed, and the functions of these domains were studied in vitro. Phosphorylation assays in vitro demonstrated that the HPK domain of Org35 possessed the autokinase activity and that the phosphorylated HPK was able to transfer phosphate groups to the RR domain. The result indicated Org35 was a phosphorylation-communicating protein. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Thermodynamics and kinetics of interstitial diffusion in a two-component system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McKee, R.A.
1980-01-01
Diffusion theory is developed for a two-component system in which only the interstitial element is mobile. A thermodynamic formalism is used in direct parallel with a kinetic theory to construct a mechanism-independent relationship between tracer- and chemical-diffusion coefficients. It is found that D/sup I/=(D-italic*/f)(1+partiallnγ/partiallnC). D/sup I/ is the intrinsic- or chemical-diffusion coefficient for the interstitial, D* is the tracer-diffusion coefficient, f is the correlation factor, and γ is the activity coefficient. This expression accounts for site exclusion, correlation, and drift effects that occur as the interstitial content changes. Generalized phenomenological coefficients that are determined in this analysis can be used for standard representations of diffusion in electric fields and temperature gradients. Moreover, the forms that the phenomenological coefficients take for the interstitial system are the same as those previously derived for vacancy diffusion. A test of this predicted relationship between tracer- and chemical-diffusion coefficients is developed using a comparison between theory and experiment for carbon diffusion in fcc iron
PLA and two components silicon rubber blends aiming for frozen foods packaging applications
Meekum, Utai; Khiansanoi, Apichart
2018-03-01
Designing of PLA and two components silicone rubber blends was studies. Frozen food packaging application is the main ultimate aim. The statistical method using 23 DOE was conducted. The standard testing methods, in particular impact testing at sub-zero temperature, were performed. The preliminary blend formula comprised 1.0 phr of silane and polyester polyols, respectively, was initially resolved. Then, the optimize the silicone portion in the blends was determined. Blending formula using 8.0 phr of silicone with respect to PLA matrix gave rise to the overall satisfactory properties. 3. TETA was used as the silicone curing agent and reactively blended onto the ingredients. TETA at 0.4 phr, with respect to the silicone, enhanced the mechanical properties, especially flexibility and toughness, of the PLA/silicone blend. Exceeding the optimal TETA loading would cause the chain scission and also the dilution effects. Hence, marginal inferior properties of the blends were be experienced. The preliminary biodegradability investigation found that the PLA/silicone blend initially triggered at the second week. Its degradation rate was likely to be faster than neat PLA.
Software engineering the mixed model for genome-wide association studies on large samples.
Zhang, Zhiwu; Buckler, Edward S; Casstevens, Terry M; Bradbury, Peter J
2009-11-01
Mixed models improve the ability to detect phenotype-genotype associations in the presence of population stratification and multiple levels of relatedness in genome-wide association studies (GWAS), but for large data sets the resource consumption becomes impractical. At the same time, the sample size and number of markers used for GWAS is increasing dramatically, resulting in greater statistical power to detect those associations. The use of mixed models with increasingly large data sets depends on the availability of software for analyzing those models. While multiple software packages implement the mixed model method, no single package provides the best combination of fast computation, ability to handle large samples, flexible modeling and ease of use. Key elements of association analysis with mixed models are reviewed, including modeling phenotype-genotype associations using mixed models, population stratification, kinship and its estimation, variance component estimation, use of best linear unbiased predictors or residuals in place of raw phenotype, improving efficiency and software-user interaction. The available software packages are evaluated, and suggestions made for future software development.
Estimating the Numerical Diapycnal Mixing in the GO5.0 Ocean Model
Megann, A.; Nurser, G.
2014-12-01
Constant-depth (or "z-coordinate") ocean models such as MOM4 and NEMO have become the de facto workhorse in climate applications, and have attained a mature stage in their development and are well understood. A generic shortcoming of this model type, however, is a tendency for the advection scheme to produce unphysical numerical diapycnal mixing, which in some cases may exceed the explicitly parameterised mixing based on observed physical processes, and this is likely to have effects on the long-timescale evolution of the simulated climate system. Despite this, few quantitative estimations have been made of the magnitude of the effective diapycnal diffusivity due to numerical mixing in these models. GO5.0 is the latest ocean model configuration developed jointly by the UK Met Office and the National Oceanography Centre (Megann et al, 2014), and forms part of the GC1 and GC2 climate models. It uses version 3.4 of the NEMO model, on the ORCA025 ¼° global tripolar grid. We describe various approaches to quantifying the numerical diapycnal mixing in this model, and present results from analysis of the GO5.0 model based on the isopycnal watermass analysis of Lee et al (2002) that indicate that numerical mixing does indeed form a significant component of the watermass transformation in the ocean interior.
Biofabrication of reinforced 3D-scaffolds using two-component hydrogels
Boere, Kristel W. M.; Blokzijl, Maarten M.; Visser, Jetze; Linssen, J. Elder A.; Malda, J; Hennink, Wim E.; Vermonden, Tina
2015-01-01
Progress in biofabrication technologies is mainly hampered by the limited number of suitable hydrogels that can act as bioinks. Here, we present a new bioink for 3D-printing, capable of forming large, highly defined constructs. Hydrogel formulations consisted of a thermoresponsive polymer mixed with
Mixed deterministic statistical modelling of regional ozone air pollution
Kalenderski, Stoitchko; Steyn, Douw G.
2011-01-01
formalism, and explicitly accounts for advection of pollutants, using the advection equation. We apply the model to a specific case of regional ozone pollution-the Lower Fraser valley of British Columbia, Canada. As a predictive tool, we demonstrate
Selecting an optimal mixed products using grey relationship model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Farshad Faezy Razi
2013-06-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an integrated supplier selection and inventory management using grey relationship model (GRM as well as multi-objective decision making process. The proposed model of this paper first ranks different suppliers based on GRM technique and then determines the optimum level of inventory by considering different objectives. To show the implementation of the proposed model, we use some benchmark data presented by Talluri and Baker [Talluri, S., & Baker, R. C. (2002. A multi-phase mathematical programming approach for effective supply chain design. European Journal of Operational Research, 141(3, 544-558.]. The preliminary results indicate that the proposed model of this paper is capable of handling different criteria for supplier selection.
A Situative Space Model for Mobile Mixed-Reality Computing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pederson, Thomas; Janlert, Lars-Erik; Surie, Dipak
2011-01-01
This article proposes a situative space model that links the physical and virtual realms and sets the stage for complex human-computer interaction defined by what a human agent can see, hear, and touch, at any given point in time.......This article proposes a situative space model that links the physical and virtual realms and sets the stage for complex human-computer interaction defined by what a human agent can see, hear, and touch, at any given point in time....
Development of a transverse mixing model for large scale impulsion phenomenon in tight lattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Xiaojing; Ren, Shuo; Cheng, Xu
2017-01-01
Highlights: • Experiment data of Krauss is used to validate the feasibility of CFD simulation method. • CFD simulation is performed to simulate the large scale impulsion phenomenon for tight-lattice bundle. • A mixing model to simulate the large scale impulsion phenomenon is proposed based on CFD result fitting. • The new developed mixing model has been added in the subchannel code. - Abstract: Tight-lattice is widely adopted in the innovative reactor fuel bundles design since it can increase the conversion ratio and improve the heat transfer between fuel bundles and coolant. It has been noticed that a large scale impulsion of cross-velocity exists in the gap region, which plays an important role on the transverse mixing flow and heat transfer. Although many experiments and numerical simulation have been carried out to study the impulsion of velocity, a model to describe the wave length, amplitude and frequency of mixing coefficient is still missing. This research work takes advantage of the CFD method to simulate the experiment of Krauss and to compare experiment data and simulation result in order to demonstrate the feasibility of simulation method and turbulence model. Then, based on this verified method and model, several simulations are performed with different Reynolds number and different Pitch-to-Diameter ratio. By fitting the CFD results achieved, a mixing model to simulate the large scale impulsion phenomenon is proposed and adopted in the current subchannel code. The new mixing model is applied to some fuel assembly analysis by subchannel calculation, it can be noticed that the new developed mixing model can reduce the hot channel factor and contribute to a uniform distribution of outlet temperature.
Mixed Emotions: An Incentive Motivational Model of Sexual Deviance.
Smid, Wineke J; Wever, Edwin C
2018-05-01
Sexual offending behavior is a complex and multifaceted phenomenon. Most existing etiological models describe sexual offending behavior as a variant of offending behavior and mostly include factors referring to disinhibition and sexual deviance. In this article, we argue that there is additional value in describing sexual offending behavior as sexual behavior in terms of an incentive model of sexual motivation. The model describes sexual arousal as an emotion, triggered by a competent stimulus signaling potential reward, and comparable to other emotions coupled with strong bodily reactions. Consequently, we describe sexual offending behavior in terms of this new model with emphasis on the development of deviant sexual interests and preferences. Summarized, the model states that because sexual arousal itself is an emotion, there is a bidirectional relationship between sexual self-regulation and emotional self-regulation. Not only can sex be used to regulate emotional states (i.e., sexual coping), emotions can also be used, consciously or automatically, to regulate sexual arousal (i.e., sexual deviance). Preliminary support for the model is drawn from studies in the field of sex offender research as well as sexology and motivation research.
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Nakamoto, S.; Saito, H.; Muneyama, K.; Sato, T.; PrasannaKumar, S.; Kumar, A.; Frouin, R.
-chemical system that supports steady carbon circulation in geological time scale in the world ocean using Mixed Layer-Isopycnal ocean General Circulation model with remotely sensed Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) chlorophyll pigment concentration....
Hellemans, V; De Baerdemacker, S; Heyde, K
2008-01-01
The case of U(5)--$\\hat{Q}(\\chi)\\cdot\\hat{Q}(\\chi)$ mixing in the configuration-mixed Interacting Boson Model is studied in its mean-field approximation. Phase diagrams with analytical and numerical solutions are constructed and discussed. Indications for first-order and second-order shape phase transitions can be obtained from binding energies and from critical exponents, respectively.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sprague, Michael A.; Stickel, Jonathan J.; Sitaraman, Hariswaran; Crawford, Nathan C.; Fischer, Paul F.
2017-04-11
Designing processing equipment for the mixing of settling suspensions is a challenging problem. Achieving low-cost mixing is especially difficult for the application of slowly reacting suspended solids because the cost of impeller power consumption becomes quite high due to the long reaction times (batch mode) or due to large-volume reactors (continuous mode). Further, the usual scale-up metrics for mixing, e.g., constant tip speed and constant power per volume, do not apply well for mixing of suspensions. As an alternative, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can be useful for analyzing mixing at multiple scales and determining appropriate mixer designs and operating parameters. We developed a mixture model to describe the hydrodynamics of a settling cellulose suspension. The suspension motion is represented as a single velocity field in a computationally efficient Eulerian framework. The solids are represented by a scalar volume-fraction field that undergoes transport due to particle diffusion, settling, fluid advection, and shear stress. A settling model and a viscosity model, both functions of volume fraction, were selected to fit experimental settling and viscosity data, respectively. Simulations were performed with the open-source Nek5000 CFD program, which is based on the high-order spectral-finite-element method. Simulations were performed for the cellulose suspension undergoing mixing in a laboratory-scale vane mixer. The settled-bed heights predicted by the simulations were in semi-quantitative agreement with experimental observations. Further, the simulation results were in quantitative agreement with experimentally obtained torque and mixing-rate data, including a characteristic torque bifurcation. In future work, we plan to couple this CFD model with a reaction-kinetics model for the enzymatic digestion of cellulose, allowing us to predict enzymatic digestion performance for various mixing intensities and novel reactor designs.
An Investigation of a Hybrid Mixing Timescale Model for PDF Simulations of Turbulent Premixed Flames
Zhou, Hua; Kuron, Mike; Ren, Zhuyin; Lu, Tianfeng; Chen, Jacqueline H.
2016-11-01
Transported probability density function (TPDF) method features the generality for all combustion regimes, which is attractive for turbulent combustion simulations. However, the modeling of micromixing due to molecular diffusion is still considered to be a primary challenge for TPDF method, especially in turbulent premixed flames. Recently, a hybrid mixing rate model for TPDF simulations of turbulent premixed flames has been proposed, which recovers the correct mixing rates in the limits of flamelet regime and broken reaction zone regime while at the same time aims to properly account for the transition in between. In this work, this model is employed in TPDF simulations of turbulent premixed methane-air slot burner flames. The model performance is assessed by comparing the results from both direct numerical simulation (DNS) and conventional constant mechanical-to-scalar mixing rate model. This work is Granted by NSFC 51476087 and 91441202.
Modelling Field Bus Communications in Mixed-Signal Embedded Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alassir Mohamad
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract We present a modelling platform using the SystemC-AMS language to simulate field bus communications for embedded systems. Our platform includes the model of an I/O controller IP (in this specific case an C controller that interfaces a master microprocessor with its peripherals on the field bus. Our platform shows the execution of the embedded software and its analog response on the lines of the bus. Moreover, it also takes into account the influence of the circuits's I/O by including their IBIS models in the SystemC-AMS description, as well as the bus lines imperfections. Finally, we present simulation results to validate our platform and measure the overhead introduced by SystemC-AMS over a pure digital SystemC simulation.
Modelling Field Bus Communications in Mixed-Signal Embedded Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Patrick Garda
2008-08-01
Full Text Available We present a modelling platform using the SystemC-AMS language to simulate field bus communications for embedded systems. Our platform includes the model of an I/O controller IP (in this specific case an I2C controller that interfaces a master microprocessor with its peripherals on the field bus. Our platform shows the execution of the embedded software and its analog response on the lines of the bus. Moreover, it also takes into account the influence of the circuits's I/O by including their IBIS models in the SystemC-AMS description, as well as the bus lines imperfections. Finally, we present simulation results to validate our platform and measure the overhead introduced by SystemC-AMS over a pure digital SystemC simulation.
Heath, Andrew; DiRita, Victor J.; Barg, Neil L.; Engleberg, N. Cary
1999-01-01
Certain Tn916 insertions in the chromosome of an M1-type, nonmucoid Streptococcus pyogenes isolate (MGAS166) were previously shown to result in stable mucoidy with increased expression of the capsular synthetic genes. The transposon insertions in these strains are directly upstream of an apparent operon encoding a two-component regulatory system, designated csrR-csrS. Compared with MGAS166, these mucoid mutants are more hemolytic and cause significantly more tissue damage in a murine model of...
Mathematical modeling of a mixed flow spray dryer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kasiri, N.; Delkhan, F.
2001-01-01
In this paper a mathematical model has been developed to simulate the behavior of spray dryers with an up-flowing spray. The model is based on mass, energy and momentum balance on a single droplet , and mass and energy balances on the drying gas. The system of nonlinear differential equations thus obtained is solved to predict the changes in temperature, humidity, diameter, velocity components and the density of the droplets as well as the temperature and the humidity changes of the drying gas. The predicted results were then compared with an industrially available set of results. A good degree of proximity between the two is reported
Titov, O. A.; Lopez, Yu. R.
2018-03-01
We consider a method of reconstructing the structure delay of extended radio sources without constructing their radio images. The residuals derived after the adjustment of geodetic VLBI observations are used for this purpose. We show that the simplest model of a radio source consisting of two point components can be represented by four parameters (the angular separation of the components, the mutual orientation relative to the poleward direction, the flux-density ratio, and the spectral index difference) that are determined for each baseline of a multi-baseline VLBI network. The efficiency of this approach is demonstrated by estimating the coordinates of the radio source 0014+813 observed during the two-week CONT14 program organized by the International VLBI Service (IVS) in May 2014. Large systematic deviations have been detected in the residuals of the observations for the radio source 0014+813. The averaged characteristics of the radio structure of 0014+813 at a frequency of 8.4 GHz can be calculated from these deviations. Our modeling using four parameters has confirmed that the source consists of two components at an angular separation of 0.5 mas in the north-south direction. Using the structure delay when adjusting the CONT14 observations leads to a correction of the average declination estimate for the radio source 0014+813 by 0.070 mas.
Constraints on the mixing angle between ordinary and heavy leptons in a (V - A) model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hioki, Zenro
1977-01-01
The possibility of the mixing between ordinary and heavy leptons in a pure (V-A) model with SU(2) x U(1) gauge group is investigated. It is shown that to be consistent with the present experimental data on various neutral current reactions, this mixing must be small for any choice of the Weinberg angle in the case M sub(W)=M sub(Z) cos theta sub(W). The tri-muon production from the leptonic vertex through this mixing is also discussed. (auth.)
Right-handed quark mixings in minimal left-right symmetric model with general CP violation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Yue; Ji Xiangdong; An Haipeng; Mohapatra, R. N.
2007-01-01
We solve systematically for the right-handed quark mixings in the minimal left-right symmetric model which generally has both explicit and spontaneous CP violations. The leading-order result has the same hierarchical structure as the left-handed Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa mixing, but with additional CP phases originating from a spontaneous CP-violating phase in the Higgs vacuum expectation values. We explore the phenomenology entailed by the new right-handed mixing matrix, particularly the bounds on the mass of W R and the CP phase of the Higgs vacuum expectation values
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nohaile, Michael James [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry
1996-05-01
Multidimensional heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy was used to investigate the N-terminal domain of the transcriptional enhancer NTRC (NiTrogen Regulatory protein C). This domain belongs to the family of receiver domains of two-component regulatory systems involved in signal transduction. Phosphorylation of NTRC at D54 leads to an activated form of the molecule which stimulates transcription of genes involved in nitrogen regulation. Three and four dimensional NMR techniques were used to determine an intermediate resolution structure of the unphosphorylated, inactive form of the N-terminal domain of NTRC. The structure is comprised of five α-helices and a five-stranded β-sheet in a (β/α)_{5} topology. Analysis of the backbone dynamics of NTRC indicate that helix 4 and strand 5 are significantly more flexible than the rest of the secondary structure of the protein and that the loops making up the active site are flexible. The short lifetime of phospho-NTRC hampers the study of this form. However, conditions for determining the resonance assignments and, possibly, the three dimensional structure of phosphorylated NTRC have been obtained. Tentative assignments of the phosphorylated form indicate that the majority of the changes that NTRC experiences upon phosphorylation occur in helix 3, strand 4, helix 4, strand 5, and the loop between strand 5 and helix 5 (the 3445 face of NTRC) as well as near the site of phosphorylation. In order to examine a stable, activated form of the protein, constitutively active mutants of NTRC were investigated.
Transcriptome analysis of the Brucella abortus BvrR/BvrS two-component regulatory system.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cristina Viadas
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The two-component BvrR/BvrS system is essential for Brucella abortus virulence. It was shown previously that its dysfunction alters the expression of some major outer membrane proteins and the pattern of lipid A acylation. To determine the genes regulated by BvrR/BvrS, we performed a whole-genome microarray analysis using B. abortus RNA obtained from wild type and bvrR mutant cells grown in the same conditions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 127 differentially expressed genes were found: 83 were over expressed and 44 were less expressed in the bvrR mutant. Two operons, the phosphotransferase system and the maltose transport system, were down-regulated. Several genes involved in cell envelope or outer membrane biogenesis were differentially expressed: genes for outer membrane proteins (omp25a, omp25d, lipoproteins, LPS and fatty acid biosynthesis, stress response proteins, chaperones, flagellar genes, and twelve genes encoding ABC transport systems. Ten genes related with carbon metabolism (pckA and fumB among others were up-regulated in the bvrR mutant, and denitrification genes (nirK, norC and nosZ were also regulated. Notably, seven transcriptional regulators were affected, including VjbR, ExoR and OmpR that were less expressed in the bvrR mutant. Finally, the expression of eleven genes which have been previously related with Brucella virulence was also altered. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: All these data corroborate the impact of BvrR/BvrS on cell envelope modulation, confirm that this system controls the carbon and nitrogen metabolism, and suggest a cross-talk among some regulators to adjust the Brucella physiology to the shift expected to occur during the transit from the extracellular to the intracellular niche.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vold, Erik L.; Scannapieco, Tony J.
2007-01-01
A sub-grid mix model based on a volume-of-fluids (VOF) representation is described for computational simulations of the transient mixing between reactive fluids, in which the atomically mixed components enter into the reactivity. The multi-fluid model allows each fluid species to have independent values for density, energy, pressure and temperature, as well as independent velocities and volume fractions. Fluid volume fractions are further divided into mix components to represent their 'mixedness' for more accurate prediction of reactivity. Time dependent conversion from unmixed volume fractions (denoted cf) to atomically mixed (af) fluids by diffusive processes is represented in resolved scale simulations with the volume fractions (cf, af mix). In unresolved scale simulations, the transition to atomically mixed materials begins with a conversion from unmixed material to a sub-grid volume fraction (pf). This fraction represents the unresolved small scales in the fluids, heterogeneously mixed by turbulent or multi-phase mixing processes, and this fraction then proceeds in a second step to the atomically mixed fraction by diffusion (cf, pf, af mix). Species velocities are evaluated with a species drift flux, ρ i u di = ρ i (u i -u), used to describe the fluid mixing sources in several closure options. A simple example of mixing fluids during 'interfacial deceleration mixing with a small amount of diffusion illustrates the generation of atomically mixed fluids in two cases, for resolved scale simulations and for unresolved scale simulations. Application to reactive mixing, including Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF), is planned for future work.
Safety of Mixed Model Access Control in a Multilevel System
2014-06-01
42 H. FIREWALL AND IPS LANGUAGES...Research Laboratory AIS automated information system ANOA advance notice of arrival APT advanced persistent threat BFM boundary flow modeling...of Investigation FW firewall GENSER general service xvi GUI graphical user interface HAG high-assurance guard HGS high-grade service H-H-H High
Conflicts Management Model in School: A Mixed Design Study
Dogan, Soner
2016-01-01
The object of this study is to evaluate the reasons for conflicts occurring in school according to perceptions and views of teachers and resolution strategies used for conflicts and to build a model based on the results obtained. In the research, explanatory design including quantitative and qualitative methods has been used. The quantitative part…
Barrett, Eoin; Hayes, Maria; O'Connor, Paula; Gardiner, Gillian; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R. Paul; Hill, Colin
2007-01-01
Lactobacillus salivarius DPC6005, a porcine intestinal isolate, produces a two-component bacteriocin, salivaricin P, with homology to ABP-118 produced by a human probiotic L. salivarius strain. Indeed, molecular characterization revealed that while the peptides Sln1 and ABP-118α are identical, their companion peptides (Sln2 and ABP-118β, respectively) differ by two amino acids. This observation suggests that two-component bacteriocins may be a common feature of intestinal L. salivarius strains. PMID:17416691
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chan, JWYF; Maynard, Scott; Goodwin, PH
1998-01-01
A putative two-component signal transduction system was amplified and cloned from the plant pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli var. fuscans isolate BXPF65. The 620 bp amplified fragment was sequenced and analyzed with the BLAST Enhanced Alignment Utility (BEAUTY). BEAUTY...... that the putative histidine kinase has homology with conserved “transmitter” domains of sensor proteins in two-component signal transduction systems. RFLP analysis using the putative signal transduction system showed polymorphisms among the strains....
Impact of Lateral Mixing in the Ocean on El Nino in Fully Coupled Climate Models
Gnanadesikan, A.; Russell, A.; Pradal, M. A. S.; Abernathey, R. P.
2016-02-01
Given the large number of processes that can affect El Nino, it is difficult to understand why different climate models simulate El Nino differently. This paper focusses on the role of lateral mixing by mesoscale eddies. There is significant disagreement about the value of the mixing coefficient ARedi which parameterizes the lateral mixing of tracers. Coupled climate models usually prescribe small values of this coefficient, ranging between a few hundred and a few thousand m2/s. Observations, however, suggest values that are much larger. We present a sensitivity study with a suite of Earth System Models that examines the impact of varying ARedi on the amplitude of El Nino. We examine the effect of varying a spatially constant ARedi over a range of values similar to that seen in the IPCC AR5 models, as well as looking at two spatially varying distributions based on altimetric velocity estimates. While the expectation that higher values of ARedi should damp anomalies is borne out in the model, it is more than compensated by a weaker damping due to vertical mixing and a stronger response of atmospheric winds to SST anomalies. Under higher mixing, a weaker zonal SST gradient causes the center of convection over the Warm pool to shift eastward and to become more sensitive to changes in cold tongue SSTs . Changes in the SST gradient also explain interdecadal ENSO variability within individual model runs.
Decision-case mix model for analyzing variation in cesarean rates.
Eldenburg, L; Waller, W S
2001-01-01
This article contributes a decision-case mix model for analyzing variation in c-section rates. Like recent contributions to the literature, the model systematically takes into account the effect of case mix. Going beyond past research, the model highlights differences in physician decision making in response to obstetric factors. Distinguishing the effects of physician decision making and case mix is important in understanding why c-section rates vary and in developing programs to effect change in physician behavior. The model was applied to a sample of deliveries at a hospital where physicians exhibited considerable variation in their c-section rates. Comparing groups with a low versus high rate, the authors' general conclusion is that the difference in physician decision tendencies (to perform a c-section), in response to specific obstetric factors, is at least as important as case mix in explaining variation in c-section rates. The exact effects of decision making versus case mix depend on how the model application defines the obstetric condition of interest and on the weighting of deliveries by their estimated "risk of Cesarean." The general conclusion is supported by an additional analysis that uses the model's elements to predict individual physicians' annual c-section rates.
Modeling pedestrian gap crossing index under mixed traffic condition.
Naser, Mohamed M; Zulkiple, Adnan; Al Bargi, Walid A; Khalifa, Nasradeen A; Daniel, Basil David
2017-12-01
There are a variety of challenges faced by pedestrians when they walk along and attempt to cross a road, as the most recorded accidents occur during this time. Pedestrians of all types, including both sexes with numerous aging groups, are always subjected to risk and are characterized as the most exposed road users. The increased demand for better traffic management strategies to reduce the risks at intersections, improve quality traffic management, traffic volume, and longer cycle time has further increased concerns over the past decade. This paper aims to develop a sustainable pedestrian gap crossing index model based on traffic flow density. It focusses on the gaps accepted by pedestrians and their decision for street crossing, where (Log-Gap) logarithm of accepted gaps was used to optimize the result of a model for gap crossing behavior. Through a review of extant literature, 15 influential variables were extracted for further empirical analysis. Subsequently, data from the observation at an uncontrolled mid-block in Jalan Ampang in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia was gathered and Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) and Binary Logit Model (BLM) techniques were employed to analyze the results. From the results, different pedestrian behavioral characteristics were considered for a minimum gap size model, out of which only a few (four) variables could explain the pedestrian road crossing behavior while the remaining variables have an insignificant effect. Among the different variables, age, rolling gap, vehicle type, and crossing were the most influential variables. The study concludes that pedestrians' decision to cross the street depends on the pedestrian age, rolling gap, vehicle type, and size of traffic gap before crossing. The inferences from these models will be useful to increase pedestrian safety and performance evaluation of uncontrolled midblock road crossings in developing countries. Copyright © 2017 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grossman, Y.
1997-10-01
In supersymmetric models with nonvanishing Majorana neutrino masses, the sneutrino and antisneutrino mix. The conditions under which this mixing is experimentally observable are studied, and mass-splitting of the sneutrino mass eigenstates and sneutrino oscillation phenomena are analyzed
Modelling of Wheat-Flour Dough Mixing as an Open-Loop Hysteretic Process
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Anderssen, R.; Kružík, Martin
2013-01-01
Roč. 18, č. 2 (2013), s. 283-293 ISSN 1531-3492 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100750802 Keywords : Dissipation * Dough mixing * Rate-independent systems Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.628, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/MTR/kruzik-modelling of wheat-flour dough mixing as an open-loop hysteretic process.pdf
Suwa , Misako; Fujimoto , Katsuhito
2006-01-01
http://www.suvisoft.com; Color mixing occurs between background and foreground colors when a pattern is post-printed on a colored area because ink is not completely opaque. This paper proposes a new method for the correction of color mixing in line pattern such as characters and stamps, by using a modified particle density model. Parameters of the color correction can be calculated from two sets of foreground and background colors. By employing this method, the colors of foreground patterns o...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feng, Bao-Feng; Maruno, Ken-ichi; Ohta, Yasuhiro
2017-01-01
In the present paper, we propose a two-component generalization of the reduced Ostrovsky (Vakhnenko) equation, whose differential form can be viewed as the short-wave limit of a two-component Degasperis–Procesi (DP) equation. They are integrable due to the existence of Lax pairs. Moreover, we have shown that the two-component reduced Ostrovsky equation can be reduced from an extended BKP hierarchy with negative flow through a pseudo 3-reduction and a hodograph (reciprocal) transform. As a by-product, its bilinear form and N -soliton solution in terms of pfaffians are presented. One- and two-soliton solutions are provided and analyzed. In the second part of the paper, we start with a modified BKP hierarchy, which is a Bäcklund transformation of the above extended BKP hierarchy, an integrable semi-discrete analogue of the two-component reduced Ostrovsky equation is constructed by defining an appropriate discrete hodograph transform and dependent variable transformations. In particular, the backward difference form of above semi-discrete two-component reduced Ostrovsky equation gives rise to the integrable semi-discretization of the short wave limit of a two-component DP equation. Their N -soliton solutions in terms of pffafians are also provided. (paper)
Mixed Platoon Flow Dispersion Model Based on Speed-Truncated Gaussian Mixture Distribution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Weitiao Wu
2013-01-01
Full Text Available A mixed traffic flow feature is presented on urban arterials in China due to a large amount of buses. Based on field data, a macroscopic mixed platoon flow dispersion model (MPFDM was proposed to simulate the platoon dispersion process along the road section between two adjacent intersections from the flow view. More close to field observation, truncated Gaussian mixture distribution was adopted as the speed density distribution for mixed platoon. Expectation maximum (EM algorithm was used for parameters estimation. The relationship between the arriving flow distribution at downstream intersection and the departing flow distribution at upstream intersection was investigated using the proposed model. Comparison analysis using virtual flow data was performed between the Robertson model and the MPFDM. The results confirmed the validity of the proposed model.
The effect of turbulent mixing models on the predictions of subchannel codes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tapucu, A.; Teyssedou, A.; Tye, P.; Troche, N.
1994-01-01
In this paper, the predictions of the COBRA-IV and ASSERT-4 subchannel codes have been compared with experimental data on void fraction, mass flow rate, and pressure drop obtained for two interconnected subchannels. COBRA-IV is based on a one-dimensional separated flow model with the turbulent intersubchannel mixing formulated as an extension of the single-phase mixing model, i.e. fluctuating equal mass exchange. ASSERT-4 is based on a drift flux model with the turbulent mixing modelled by assuming an exchange of equal volumes with different densities thus allowing a net fluctuating transverse mass flux from one subchannel to the other. This feature is implemented in the constitutive relationship for the relative velocity required by the conservation equations. It is observed that the predictions of ASSERT-4 follow the experimental trends better than COBRA-IV; therefore the approach of equal volume exchange constitutes an improvement over that of the equal mass exchange. ((orig.))
Improved Expectation Maximization Algorithm for Gaussian Mixed Model Using the Kernel Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohd Izhan Mohd Yusoff
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Fraud activities have contributed to heavy losses suffered by telecommunication companies. In this paper, we attempt to use Gaussian mixed model, which is a probabilistic model normally used in speech recognition to identify fraud calls in the telecommunication industry. We look at several issues encountered when calculating the maximum likelihood estimates of the Gaussian mixed model using an Expectation Maximization algorithm. Firstly, we look at a mechanism for the determination of the initial number of Gaussian components and the choice of the initial values of the algorithm using the kernel method. We show via simulation that the technique improves the performance of the algorithm. Secondly, we developed a procedure for determining the order of the Gaussian mixed model using the log-likelihood function and the Akaike information criteria. Finally, for illustration, we apply the improved algorithm to real telecommunication data. The modified method will pave the way to introduce a comprehensive method for detecting fraud calls in future work.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rupšys, P.
2015-01-01
A system of stochastic differential equations (SDE) with mixed-effects parameters and multivariate normal copula density function were used to develop tree height model for Scots pine trees in Lithuania. A two-step maximum likelihood parameter estimation method is used and computational guidelines are given. After fitting the conditional probability density functions to outside bark diameter at breast height, and total tree height, a bivariate normal copula distribution model was constructed. Predictions from the mixed-effects parameters SDE tree height model calculated during this research were compared to the regression tree height equations. The results are implemented in the symbolic computational language MAPLE
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rupšys, P. [Aleksandras Stulginskis University, Studenų g. 11, Akademija, Kaunas district, LT – 53361 Lithuania (Lithuania)
2015-10-28
A system of stochastic differential equations (SDE) with mixed-effects parameters and multivariate normal copula density function were used to develop tree height model for Scots pine trees in Lithuania. A two-step maximum likelihood parameter estimation method is used and computational guidelines are given. After fitting the conditional probability density functions to outside bark diameter at breast height, and total tree height, a bivariate normal copula distribution model was constructed. Predictions from the mixed-effects parameters SDE tree height model calculated during this research were compared to the regression tree height equations. The results are implemented in the symbolic computational language MAPLE.
A model of radiative neutrino masses. Mixing and a possible fourth generation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Babu, K.S.; Ma, E.; Pantaleone, J.
1989-01-01
We consider the phenomenological consequences of a recently proposed model with four lepton generations such that the three known neutrinos have radiatively induced Majorana masses. Mixing among generations in the presence of a heavy fourth neutrino necessitates a reevaluation of the usual experimental tests of the standard model. One interesting possibility is to have a τ lifetime longer than predicted by the standard three-generation model. Another is to have neutrino masses and mixing angles in the range needed for a natural explanation of the solar-neutrino puzzle in terms of the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect. (orig.)
An applied model for the height of the daytime mixed layer and the entrainment zone
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Batchvarova, E.; Gryning, Sven-Erik
1994-01-01
A model is presented for the height of the mixed layer and the depth of the entrainment zone under near-neutral and unstable atmospheric conditions. It is based on the zero-order mixed layer height model of Batchvarova and Gryning (1991) and the parameterization of the entrainment zone depth......-layer height: friction velocity, kinematic heat flux near the ground and potential temperature gradient in the free atmosphere above the entrainment zone. When information is available on the horizontal divergence of the large-scale flow field, the model also takes into account the effect of subsidence...
Modelling Stochastic Route Choice Behaviours with a Closed-Form Mixed Logit Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xinjun Lai
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A closed-form mixed Logit approach is proposed to model the stochastic route choice behaviours. It combines both the advantages of Probit and Logit to provide a flexible form in alternatives correlation and a tractable form in expression; besides, the heterogeneity in alternative variance can also be addressed. Paths are compared by pairs where the superiority of the binary Probit can be fully used. The Probit-based aggregation is also used for a nested Logit structure. Case studies on both numerical and empirical examples demonstrate that the new method is valid and practical. This paper thus provides an operational solution to incorporate the normal distribution in route choice with an analytical expression.
Hoerning, Sebastian; Bardossy, Andras; du Plessis, Jaco
2017-04-01
Most geostatistical inverse groundwater flow and transport modelling approaches utilize a numerical solver to minimize the discrepancy between observed and simulated hydraulic heads and/or hydraulic concentration values. The optimization procedure often requires many model runs, which for complex models lead to long run times. Random Mixing is a promising new geostatistical technique for inverse modelling. The method is an extension of the gradual deformation approach. It works by finding a field which preserves the covariance structure and maintains observed hydraulic conductivities. This field is perturbed by mixing it with new fields that fulfill the homogeneous conditions. This mixing is expressed as an optimization problem which aims to minimize the difference between the observed and simulated hydraulic heads and/or concentration values. To preserve the spatial structure, the mixing weights must lie on the unit hyper-sphere. We present a modification to the Random Mixing algorithm which significantly reduces the number of model runs required. The approach involves taking n equally spaced points on the unit circle as weights for mixing conditional random fields. Each of these mixtures provides a solution to the forward model at the conditioning locations. For each of the locations the solutions are then interpolated around the circle to provide solutions for additional mixing weights at very low computational cost. The interpolated solutions are used to search for a mixture which maximally reduces the objective function. This is in contrast to other approaches which evaluate the objective function for the n mixtures and then interpolate the obtained values. Keeping the mixture on the unit circle makes it easy to generate equidistant sampling points in the space; however, this means that only two fields are mixed at a time. Once the optimal mixture for two fields has been found, they are combined to form the input to the next iteration of the algorithm. This
Reliability Estimation of Aero-engine Based on Mixed Weibull Distribution Model
Yuan, Zhongda; Deng, Junxiang; Wang, Dawei
2018-02-01
Aero-engine is a complex mechanical electronic system, based on analysis of reliability of mechanical electronic system, Weibull distribution model has an irreplaceable role. Till now, only two-parameter Weibull distribution model and three-parameter Weibull distribution are widely used. Due to diversity of engine failure modes, there is a big error with single Weibull distribution model. By contrast, a variety of engine failure modes can be taken into account with mixed Weibull distribution model, so it is a good statistical analysis model. Except the concept of dynamic weight coefficient, in order to make reliability estimation result more accurately, three-parameter correlation coefficient optimization method is applied to enhance Weibull distribution model, thus precision of mixed distribution reliability model is improved greatly. All of these are advantageous to popularize Weibull distribution model in engineering applications.
Semiparametric mixed-effects analysis of PK/PD models using differential equations.
Wang, Yi; Eskridge, Kent M; Zhang, Shunpu
2008-08-01
Motivated by the use of semiparametric nonlinear mixed-effects modeling on longitudinal data, we develop a new semiparametric modeling approach to address potential structural model misspecification for population pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) analysis. Specifically, we use a set of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) with form dx/dt = A(t)x + B(t) where B(t) is a nonparametric function that is estimated using penalized splines. The inclusion of a nonparametric function in the ODEs makes identification of structural model misspecification feasible by quantifying the model uncertainty and provides flexibility for accommodating possible structural model deficiencies. The resulting model will be implemented in a nonlinear mixed-effects modeling setup for population analysis. We illustrate the method with an application to cefamandole data and evaluate its performance through simulations.
A consistency assessment of coupled cohesive zone models for mixed-mode debonding problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Dimitri
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Due to their simplicity, cohesive zone models (CZMs are very attractive to describe mixed-mode failure and debonding processes of materials and interfaces. Although a large number of coupled CZMs have been proposed, and despite the extensive related literature, little attention has been devoted to ensuring the consistency of these models for mixed-mode conditions, primarily in a thermodynamical sense. A lack of consistency may affect the local or global response of a mechanical system. This contribution deals with the consistency check for some widely used exponential and bilinear mixed-mode CZMs. The coupling effect on stresses and energy dissipation is first investigated and the path-dependance of the mixed-mode debonding work of separation is analitically evaluated. Analytical predictions are also compared with results from numerical implementations, where the interface is described with zero-thickness contact elements. A node-to-segment strategy is here adopted, which incorporates decohesion and contact within a unified framework. A new thermodynamically consistent mixed-mode CZ model based on a reformulation of the Xu-Needleman model as modified by van den Bosch et al. is finally proposed and derived by applying the Coleman and Noll procedure in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics. The model holds monolithically for loading and unloading processes, as well as for decohesion and contact, and its performance is demonstrated through suitable examples.
Kellogg, Stephanie L; Kristich, Christopher J
2018-04-09
Two common signal transduction mechanisms used by bacteria to sense and respond to changing environments are two-component systems (TCSs) and eukaryotic-like Ser/Thr kinases and phosphatases (eSTK/Ps). Enterococcus faecalis is a Gram-positive bacterium and serious opportunistic pathogen that relies on both a TCS and an eSTK/P pathway for intrinsic resistance to cell wall-targeting antibiotics. The TCS consists of a histidine kinase (CroS) and response regulator (CroR) that become activated upon exposure of cells to cell wall-targeting antibiotics, leading to modulation of gene expression. The eSTK/P pathway consists of a transmembrane kinase (IreK) and its cognate phosphatase (IreP), which act antagonistically to mediate antibiotic resistance through an unknown mechanism. Because both CroS/R and IreK/P contribute to enterococcal resistance towards cell wall-targeting antibiotics, we hypothesized these signaling systems are intertwined. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed CroR phosphorylation and CroS/R-dependent gene expression to probe the influence of IreK and IreP on CroS/R signaling. In addition, we analyzed the phosphorylation state of CroS which revealed IreK-dependent phosphorylation of a Thr residue important for CroS function. Our results are consistent with a model in which IreK positively influences CroR-dependent gene expression through phosphorylation of CroS to promote antimicrobial resistance in E. faecalis Importance Two-component signaling systems (TCSs) and eukaryotic-like Ser/Thr kinases (eSTKs) are used by bacteria to sense and adapt to changing environments. Understanding how these pathways are regulated to promote bacterial survival is critical for a more complete understanding of bacterial stress responses and physiology. The opportunistic pathogen Enterococcus faecalis relies on both a TCS (CroS/R) and an eSTK (IreK) for intrinsic resistance to cell wall-targeting antibiotics. We probed the relationship between CroS/R and IreK, revealing
Evaluation of a Linear Mixing Model to Retrieve Soil and Vegetation Temperatures of Land Targets
Yang, J.; Jia, L.; Cui, Y.; Zhou, J.; Menenti, M.
2014-01-01
A simple linear mixing model of heterogeneous soil-vegetation system and retrieval of component temperatures from directional remote sensing measurements by inverting this model is evaluated in this paper using observations by a thermal camera. The thermal camera was used to obtain multi-angular TIR
Testing the family replication-model through Bsup(O)-Bsup(-O) mixing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Datta, A.; Pati, J.C.
1985-07-01
It is observed that the family-replication idea, proposed in the context of a minimal preon-model, necessarily implies a maximal mixing (i.e. ΔM>>GAMMA) either in the Bsub(s)sup(O)-B-barsub(s)sup(O) or the Bsub(d)sup(O)-B-barsub(d)sup(O) system, in contrast to the standard model. (author)
Bayesian prediction of spatial count data using generalized linear mixed models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Ole Fredslund; Waagepetersen, Rasmus Plenge
2002-01-01
Spatial weed count data are modeled and predicted using a generalized linear mixed model combined with a Bayesian approach and Markov chain Monte Carlo. Informative priors for a data set with sparse sampling are elicited using a previously collected data set with extensive sampling. Furthermore, ...