WorldWideScience

Sample records for two-component liquid mixtures

  1. Liquids and liquid mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Rowlinson, J S; Baldwin, J E; Buckingham, A D; Danishefsky, S

    2013-01-01

    Liquids and Liquid Mixtures, Third Edition explores the equilibrium properties of liquids and liquid mixtures and relates them to the properties of the constituent molecules using the methods of statistical thermodynamics. Topics covered include the critical state, fluid mixtures at high pressures, and the statistical thermodynamics of fluids and mixtures. This book consists of eight chapters and begins with an overview of the liquid state and the thermodynamic properties of liquids and liquid mixtures, including vapor pressure and heat capacities. The discussion then turns to the thermodynami

  2. Two-way and three-way approaches to ultra high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array dataset for the quantitative resolution of a two-component mixture containing ciprofloxacin and ornidazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinç, Erdal; Ertekin, Zehra Ceren; Büker, Eda

    2016-09-01

    Two-way and three-way calibration models were applied to ultra high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array data with coeluted peaks in the same wavelength and time regions for the simultaneous quantitation of ciprofloxacin and ornidazole in tablets. The chromatographic data cube (tensor) was obtained by recording chromatographic spectra of the standard and sample solutions containing ciprofloxacin and ornidazole with sulfadiazine as an internal standard as a function of time and wavelength. Parallel factor analysis and trilinear partial least squares were used as three-way calibrations for the decomposition of the tensor, whereas three-way unfolded partial least squares was applied as a two-way calibration to the unfolded dataset obtained from the data array of ultra high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. The validity and ability of two-way and three-way analysis methods were tested by analyzing validation samples: synthetic mixture, interday and intraday samples, and standard addition samples. Results obtained from two-way and three-way calibrations were compared to those provided by traditional ultra high performance liquid chromatography. The proposed methods, parallel factor analysis, trilinear partial least squares, unfolded partial least squares, and traditional ultra high performance liquid chromatography were successfully applied to the quantitative estimation of the solid dosage form containing ciprofloxacin and ornidazole. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Measuring two-phase and two-component mixtures by radiometric technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackuliak, D.; Rajniak, I.

    1984-01-01

    The possibility was tried of the application of the radiometric method in measuring steam water content. The experiments were carried out in model conditions where steam was replaced with the two-component mixture of water and air. The beta radiation source was isotope 204 Tl (Esub(max)=0.765 MeV) with an activity of 19.35 MBq. Measurements were carried out within the range of the surface density of the mixture from 0.119 kg.m -2 to 0.130 kg.m -2 . Mixture speed was 5.1 m.s -1 to 7.1 m.s -1 . The observed dependence of relative pulse frequency on the specific water content in the mixture was approximated by a linear regression. (B.S.)

  4. Two-component mixture model: Application to palm oil and exchange rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoong, Seuk-Yen; Ismail, Mohd Tahir; Hamzah, Firdaus Mohamad

    2014-12-01

    Palm oil is a seed crop which is widely adopt for food and non-food products such as cookie, vegetable oil, cosmetics, household products and others. Palm oil is majority growth in Malaysia and Indonesia. However, the demand for palm oil is getting growth and rapidly running out over the years. This phenomenal cause illegal logging of trees and destroy the natural habitat. Hence, the present paper investigates the relationship between exchange rate and palm oil price in Malaysia by using Maximum Likelihood Estimation via Newton-Raphson algorithm to fit a two components mixture model. Besides, this paper proposes a mixture of normal distribution to accommodate with asymmetry characteristics and platykurtic time series data.

  5. Two-component mixture cure rate model with spline estimated nonparametric components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Du, Pang; Liang, Hua

    2012-09-01

    In some survival analysis of medical studies, there are often long-term survivors who can be considered as permanently cured. The goals in these studies are to estimate the noncured probability of the whole population and the hazard rate of the susceptible subpopulation. When covariates are present as often happens in practice, to understand covariate effects on the noncured probability and hazard rate is of equal importance. The existing methods are limited to parametric and semiparametric models. We propose a two-component mixture cure rate model with nonparametric forms for both the cure probability and the hazard rate function. Identifiability of the model is guaranteed by an additive assumption that allows no time-covariate interactions in the logarithm of hazard rate. Estimation is carried out by an expectation-maximization algorithm on maximizing a penalized likelihood. For inferential purpose, we apply the Louis formula to obtain point-wise confidence intervals for noncured probability and hazard rate. Asymptotic convergence rates of our function estimates are established. We then evaluate the proposed method by extensive simulations. We analyze the survival data from a melanoma study and find interesting patterns for this study. © 2011, The International Biometric Society.

  6. Lignin Structure and Aggregation Behavior in a Two-Component Ionic Liquid Solvent System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Bylin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ionic liquids are of potential interest in the processing of lignocellulosic biomass. In this study, the ionic liquid co-solvent system of 1-methylimidazole (MIM and 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium acetate (EMIMAc was used to solvate LignoBoost lignin fractionated from black liquor obtained from a kraft paper mill. Lignin ethanol-precipitated (LEP and ethanol-soluble (LES fractions were characterized via gel permeation chromatography (GPC and 13C- and 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR to determine structural characteristics and their relationship to polymer solubility in the system. Polymer integrity and solubility were optimal at ~20% lignin loading (w/w. Results showed that LEPs were generally of higher apparent molecular weight (Mw and enriched with condensed/aliphatic ether linkages and aliphatic hydroxyls. The LESs had a lower apparent Mw and were enriched with carboxylic and phenolic groups. This newly gained knowledge on lignin fractionation and aggregation in the present solvent system provides future opportunities for tuning fractionation/extraction to suit a specific biomass-derived product, e.g., carbon fibers.

  7. Determination of Bisphenol A and Bisphenol AF in Vinegar samples by two-component mixed ionic liquid dispersive liquid-phase microextraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tai, Z.; Liu, M.; Hu, X.; Yang, Y.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a sensitive and simple method for the determination of bisphenol A (BPA) and bisphenol AF (BPAF) in vinegar samples using two-component mixed ionic liquid dispersive liquid-phase microextraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography. In this work, BPA and BPAF were selected as the model analytes, and two-component mixed ionic liquid included 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ((C4Mim)PF6) and 1-hexyl-3-methyl-imidazolium hexafluorophosphate ((C6Mim)PF6) was used as the extraction solvent for the first time here. Parameters that affect the extraction efficiency were investigated. Under the optimum conditions, good linear relationships were discovered in the range of 1.0-100 micro g/L for BPA and 2.0-150 micro g/L for BPAF, respectively. Detection limits of proposed method based on the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N=3) were in the range of 0.15-0.38 micro g/L. The efficiencies of proposed method have also been demonstrated with spiked real vinegar samples. The result show this method/ procedure to be a more efficient approach for the determination of BPA and BPAF in real vinegar, presenting average recovery rate of 89.3-112 % and precision values of 0.9-13.5% (RSDs, n = 6). In comparison with traditional solid phase extraction procedures this method results in lower solvent consumption, low pollution levels, and faster sample preparation. (author)

  8. I. A model for the magnetic equation of state of liquid 3He. II. An induced interaction model for a two-component Fermi liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Castro, C.R.

    1988-01-01

    This dissertation is divided in six chapters. Chapter 1 is an introduction to the rest of the dissertation. In it, the author presents the different models for the magnetic equation state of liquid 3 He, a derivation of the induced interaction equations for a one component Fermi liquid, and discuss the basic hamiltonian describing the heavy fermion compounds. In Chapter 2 and Chapter 3, he presents a complete discussion of the thermodynamics and Landau theory of a spin polarized Fermi liquid. A phenomenological model is then developed to predict the polarization dependence of the longitudinal Landau parameters in liquid 3 He. This model predicts a new magnetic equation of state and the possibility of liquid 3 He being 'nearly metamagnetic' at high pressures. Chapter 4 contains a microscopic calculation of the magnetic field dependence of the Landau parameters in a strongly correlated Fermi system using the induced interaction model. The system he studied consists of a single component Fermi liquid with parabolic energy bands, and a large on-site repulsive interaction. In Chapter 5, he presents a complete discussion of the Landau theory of a two component Fermi liquid. Then, he generalizes the induced interaction equations to calculate Landau parameters and scattering amplitudes for an arbitrary, spin polarized, two component Fermi liquid. The resulting equations are used to study a model for the heavy fermion Fermi liquid state: a two band electronic system with an antiferromagnetic interaction between the two bands. Chapter 6 contains the concluding remarks of the dissertation

  9. Isolation of EPR spectra and estimation of spin-states in two-component mixtures of paramagnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabbra, Sonia; Smith, David M; Bode, Bela E

    2018-04-26

    The presence of multiple paramagnetic species can lead to overlapping electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signals. This complication can be a critical obstacle for the use of EPR to unravel mechanisms and aid the understanding of earth abundant metal catalysis. Furthermore, redox or spin-crossover processes can result in the simultaneous presence of metal centres in different oxidation or spin states. In this contribution, pulse EPR experiments on model systems containing discrete mixtures of Cr(i) and Cr(iii) or Cu(ii) and Mn(ii) complexes demonstrate the feasibility of the separation of the EPR spectra of these species by inversion recovery filters and the identification of the relevant spin states by transient nutation experiments. We demonstrate the isolation of component spectra and identification of spin states in a mixture of catalyst precursors. The usefulness of the approach is emphasised by monitoring the fate of the chromium species upon activation of an industrially used precatalyst system.

  10. Critical point of gas-liquid type phase transition and phase equilibrium functions in developed two-component plasma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butlitsky, M A; Zelener, B B; Zelener, B V

    2014-07-14

    A two-component plasma model, which we called a "shelf Coulomb" model has been developed in this work. A Monte Carlo study has been undertaken to calculate equations of state, pair distribution functions, internal energies, and other thermodynamics properties. A canonical NVT ensemble with periodic boundary conditions was used. The motivation behind the model is also discussed in this work. The "shelf Coulomb" model can be compared to classical two-component (electron-proton) model where charges with zero size interact via a classical Coulomb law. With important difference for interaction of opposite charges: electrons and protons interact via the Coulomb law for large distances between particles, while interaction potential is cut off on small distances. The cut off distance is defined by an arbitrary ɛ parameter, which depends on system temperature. All the thermodynamics properties of the model depend on dimensionless parameters ɛ and γ = βe(2)n(1/3) (where β = 1/kBT, n is the particle's density, kB is the Boltzmann constant, and T is the temperature) only. In addition, it has been shown that the virial theorem works in this model. All the calculations were carried over a wide range of dimensionless ɛ and γ parameters in order to find the phase transition region, critical point, spinodal, and binodal lines of a model system. The system is observed to undergo a first order gas-liquid type phase transition with the critical point being in the vicinity of ɛ(crit) ≈ 13(T(*)(crit) ≈ 0.076), γ(crit) ≈ 1.8(v(*)(crit) ≈ 0.17), P(*)(crit) ≈ 0.39, where specific volume v* = 1/γ(3) and reduced temperature T(*) = ɛ(-1).

  11. Shear viscosity of liquid mixtures: Mass dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaushal, Rohan; Tankeshwar, K.

    2002-06-01

    Expressions for zeroth, second, and fourth sum rules of transverse stress autocorrelation function of two component fluid have been derived. These sum rules and Mori's memory function formalism have been used to study shear viscosity of Ar-Kr and isotopic mixtures. It has been found that theoretical result is in good agreement with the computer simulation result for the Ar-Kr mixture. The mass dependence of shear viscosity for different mole fraction shows that deviation from ideal linear model comes even from mass difference in two species of fluid mixture. At higher mass ratio shear viscosity of mixture is not explained by any of the emperical model. (author)

  12. Shear viscosity of liquid mixtures Mass dependence

    CERN Document Server

    Kaushal, R

    2002-01-01

    Expressions for zeroth, second, and fourth sum rules of transverse stress autocorrelation function of two component fluid have been derived. These sum rules and Mori's memory function formalism have been used to study shear viscosity of Ar-Kr and isotopic mixtures. It has been found that theoretical result is in good agreement with the computer simulation result for the Ar-Kr mixture. The mass dependence of shear viscosity for different mole fraction shows that deviation from ideal linear model comes even from mass difference in two species of fluid mixture. At higher mass ratio shear viscosity of mixture is not explained by any of the emperical model.

  13. Experimental (solid + liquid) or (liquid + liquid) phase equilibria of (amine + nitrile) binary mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanska, Urszula; Marciniak, Malgorzata

    2007-01-01

    (Solid + liquid) phase diagrams have been determined for (hexylamine, or octylamine, or 1,3-diaminopropane + acetonitrile) mixtures. Simple eutectic systems have been observed in these mixtures. (Liquid + liquid) phase diagrams have been determined for (octylamine, or decylamine + propanenitrile, or + butanenitrile) mixtures. Mixtures with propanenitrile and butanenitrile show immiscibility in the liquid phase with an upper critical solution temperature, UCST. (Solid + liquid) phase diagrams have been correlated using NRTL, NRTL 1, Wilson and UNIQUAC equations. (Liquid + liquid) phase diagrams have been correlated using NRTL equation

  14. Liquid mixtures for scintillation counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauffmann, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    Liquid scintillators contain emulsifiers or combinations of these which can be used over a wide temperature range for a multitude of aqueous samples. These emulsifiers are block-polymerides with a nonhygroscopic center part of the chain of oxypropylene combinations recieved by addition of propylene oxide to both hydroxyl groups of a propylene-glycol nucleus and both ends of the center part of the chain terminating in hygroscopic poly(oxyethylene) groups. The length of the nonhygroscopic center part of the chain varies from about 800 to 3,000 or 4,000 in molecular weight. The hygroscopic poly(oxyethylene) end groups have a controlled length constituting about 10 to 80wt.% of the finished molecule. The most useful members of this group of co-polymerides possess a length of their poly(oxypropylene) chains corresponding to a value of y of about 15 to 56 and a length of their poly(oxyethylene)chains corresponding to values of x and z between 1 and 35 . All known fluorines can be used. With the scintillators the radioimmunoassay can also be carried through. (DG/PB) [de

  15. The Viscosity of Organic Liquid Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Len, C. W.; Trusler, J. P. M.; Vesovic, V.; Wakeham, W. A.

    2006-01-01

    The paper reports measurements of the viscosity and density of two heavy hydrocarbon mixtures, Dutrex and Arab Light Flashed Distillate (ALFD), and of their mixtures with hydrogen. The measurements have been carried out with a vibrating-wire device over a range of temperatures from 399 to 547 K and at pressures up to 20 MPa. Measurements have also been carried out on systems in which hydrogen at different concentrations has been dissolved in the liquids. The measurements have an estimated uncertainty of ±5% for viscosity and ±2% for density and represent the first results on these prototypical heavy hydrocarbons. The results reveal that the addition of hydrogen reduces both the density and viscosity of the original hydrocarbon mixture at a particular temperature and pressure.

  16. Separation of alcohols from organic liquid mixtures by pervaporation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, Hyun-Chae

    1993-01-01

    In the chemical industry, distillation is generally the preferred technique to separate a liquid mixture. However some liquid mixtures such as azeotropic mixtures, close-boiling hydrocarbons, and various isomers are difficult to separate by simple distillation. For the separation of these mixtures

  17. Evaluation of the H-point standard additions method (HPSAM) and the generalized H-point standard additions method (GHPSAM) for the UV-analysis of two-component mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hund, E; Massart, D L; Smeyers-Verbeke, J

    1999-10-01

    The H-point standard additions method (HPSAM) and two versions of the generalized H-point standard additions method (GHPSAM) are evaluated for the UV-analysis of two-component mixtures. Synthetic mixtures of anhydrous caffeine and phenazone as well as of atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride were used. Furthermore, the method was applied to pharmaceutical formulations that contain these compounds as active drug substances. This paper shows both the difficulties that are related to the methods and the conditions by which acceptable results can be obtained.

  18. Ternary liquid-liquid equilibria for mixtures of toluene + n-heptane + an ionic liquid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meindersma, G.W.; Podt, J.G.; de Haan, A.B.

    2006-01-01

    This research has been focused on a study of sulfolane and four ionic liquids as solvents in liquid–liquid extraction. Liquid–liquid equilibria data were obtained for mixtures of (sulfolane or 4-methyl-N-butylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate ([mebupy]BF4) or 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylsulfate

  19. Survey of studies on the flow and heat transfer of two-component, two-phase flow of liquid metal in magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumamaru, Hiroshige

    1980-01-01

    Brief review of the studies on the flow and heat transfer of two-component, two-phase flow of liquid metal in magnetic field is presented. R.J. Thome measured the distribution of void rate, slip ratio and pressure loss for the two-phase flow of NaK-N 2 under vertical magnetic field. The void rate distribution became even and the slip ratio increased with the increasing magnetic field. The experimental results of pressure loss was compared with the calculation by an equation derived from the homogeneous flow model. R.G. Owen et al. made the analytical studies of the MHD friction loss of two phase flow. Michiyoshi et al. made experimental studies on the hydrodynamic local properties of Hg-Ar two-phase flow of slug region in a vertically ascending tube under magnetic field, and Kimi et al. also made studies on the heat transfer of Hg-Ar flow under magnetic field. Saito et al. measured the slip ratio and pressure loss of NaK-N 2 flow. As a whole, it can be said that the average void rate decreases, and its distribution becomes even under magnetic field. The slip ratio increases, and the friction loss factor becomes nearly one. It was hard to make clear the heat transfer characteristics. (Kato, T.)

  20. Temperature dependence on mutual solubility of binary (methanol + limonene) mixture and (liquid + liquid) equilibria of ternary (methanol + ethanol + limonene) mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Kazuhiro; Li Xiaoli; Li Hengde

    2009-01-01

    Mutual solubility data of the binary (methanol + limonene) mixture at the temperatures ranging from 288.15 K close to upper critical solution temperature, and ternary (liquid + liquid) equilibrium (tie-lines) of the (methanol + ethanol + limonene) mixture at the temperatures (288.15, 298.15, and 308.15) K have been obtained. The experimental results have been represented accurately in terms of the extended and modified UNIQUAC models with binary parameters, compared with the UNIQUAC model. The temperature dependence of binary and ternary (liquid + liquid) equilibrium for the binary (methanol + limonene) and ternary (methanol + ethanol + limonene) mixtures could be calculated successfully using the extended and modified UNIQUAC model

  1. Phase Behavior of Mixtures of Ionic Liquids and Organic Solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildskov, Jens; Ellegaard, Martin Dela; O’Connell, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    A corresponding-states form of the generalized van der Waals equation, previously developed for mixtures of an ionic liquid and a supercritical solute, is here extended to mixtures including an ionic liquid and a solvent (water or organic). Group contributions to characteristic parameters...... are implemented, leading to an entirely predictive method for densities of mixed compressed ionic liquids. Quantitative agreement with experimental data is obtained over wide ranges of conditions. Previously, the method has been applied to solubilities of sparingly soluble gases in ionic liquids and in organic...... solvents. Here we show results for heavier and more-than-sparingly solutes such as carbon dioxide and propane in ionic liquids....

  2. The separation of solid and liquid components of mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, W.M.

    1980-01-01

    An improved method of separating solid and liquid components of mixtures is described which is particularly suited for use in automated radioimmunoassay systems in the analysis of bound and free fractions. A second liquid, having a density intermediate between those of the solid and liquid components, is delivered to the solid/ liquid mixture to form a discrete layer below the mixture and the solid separates into this lower liquid layer assisted by centrifugal force. The second liquid of intermediate density is an aqueous solution of a highly hydrophilic and electrically non-polar solute, such as an aqueous sucrose solution. Further liquids of intermediate density and progressively higher density may be delivered to form further discrete layers below the initial layer of the second dense liquid. After separation of the solid and liquid components of the mixture, the supernatant liquid component of the original mixture is removed in a controlled and non-turbulent manner. The method is illustrated in radioimmunoassays for platelet β-thromboglobulin and human follicle stimulating hormone. (U.K.)

  3. A Variational Statistical-Field Theory for Polar Liquid Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Bilin; Wang, Zhen-Gang

    Using a variational field-theoretic approach, we derive a molecularly-based theory for polar liquid mixtures. The resulting theory consists of simple algebraic expressions for the free energy of mixing and the dielectric constant as functions of mixture composition. Using only the dielectric constants and the molar volumes of the pure liquid constituents, the theory evaluates the mixture dielectric constants in good agreement with the experimental values for a wide range of liquid mixtures, without using adjustable parameters. In addition, the theory predicts that liquids with similar dielectric constants and molar volumes dissolve well in each other, while sufficient disparity in these parameters result in phase separation. The calculated miscibility map on the dielectric constant-molar volume axes agrees well with known experimental observations for a large number of liquid pairs. Thus the theory provides a quantification for the well-known empirical ``like-dissolves-like'' rule. Bz acknowledges the A-STAR fellowship for the financial support.

  4. in Binary Liquid Mixtures of Ethyl benzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaik Babu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic velocity is measured at 2MHz frequency in the binary mixtures of Ethyl Benzoate with 1-Propanol, 1-Butanol, 1-Pentanol and theoretical values of ultrasonic velocity have been evaluated at 303K using Nomoto's relation, Impedance relation, Ideal mixture relation, Junjie's method and free length theory. Theoretical values are compared with the experimental values and the validity of the theories is checked by applying the chi-square test for goodness of fit and by calculating the average percentage error (APE. A good agreement has been found between experimental and Nomoto’s ultrasonic velocity.

  5. Challenge of coal-liquid mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peirce, T

    1985-09-01

    The near-term prospect for coal-water (CWMs) mixtures as a convenient replacement fuel for UK oil-fired plant is discussed. Specific use of CWMs in industrial water-tube boilers is presented. The article shows how such developments complement the introduction of new, modern coal-designed industrial combustion equipment in the form of fully automatic stokers and fluidized bed combustion systems. Topics presented include properties and preparation of CWM, combustion characteristics of CWM, and boiler conversion. 9 references, 4 figures.

  6. Thermodynamic properties of mixtures of liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedetti, A.V.; Cilense, M.; Vollet, D.

    1982-01-01

    The molar excess enthalpy (H sup(-E)) of water-ethanol has been measured at 298.15, 306.85, 313.95 and 319.75 K. The mixtures are exothermics at studied temperatures with minimum values of -785, -655, -555 and -490 J. mol -1 respectively, at value of X 2 about 0.16. The other thermodynamics properties have been obtained from experimental data and data from literature. The results are interpreted qualitatively by considering molecular interactions in solution. (Author) [pt

  7. The stability and stratification of a quantum liquid mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yukalov, V.I.

    1980-01-01

    A mixture of quantum liquids was investigated microscopically. The spectrum of collective excitations at finite temperature was determined. The form of the spectrum demonstrates whether there is a stability or stratification of the mixture. The influence of a relative motion of liquids on the spectrum was considered. It was demonstrated that beginning with some finite momentun, the spectrum of each component of the solution splits into two branches, one of which continues the spectrum into the single-particle region. The dynamic susceptibility, the dynamic form-factor, the coefficients of compressibility and the structure factor for the mixture of two Bose liquids were obtained. The integral relations that generalize some rules concerning the binary Bose solution was established. (author)

  8. Innovative aspects of protein stability in ionic liquid mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Awanish; Venkatesu, Pannuru

    2018-06-01

    Mixtures of ionic liquids (ILs) have attracted our attention because of their extraordinary performances in extraction technologies and in absorbing large amount of CO 2 gas. It has been observed that when two or more ILs are mixed in different proportions, a new solvent is obtained which is much better than that of each component of ILs from which the mixture is obtained. Within a mixture of ILs, several unidentified interactions occur among several ions which give rise to unique solvent properties to the mixture. Herein, in this review, we have highlighted the utilization of the advantageous properties of the IL mixtures in protein stability studies. This approach is exceptional and opens new directions to the use of ILs in biotechnology.

  9. Observations of mass transport phenomena in multicomponent liquid mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mruzek, M.T.; Musinski, D.L.; Jacobs, R.B.

    1985-01-01

    Examples of surface tension effects on liquid behavior are common, such as liquid rising in a capillary tube or the beading of rain drops on a freshly waxed car. Usually through, the surface tension forces are small compared to other forces such as gravity. Situations exist, however, where the simple statement attributed to Marangoni can explain striking and unexpected observations. ''If for any reason difference of surface tension exist along a free liquid surface, liquid will flow toward the region of higher surface tension''. Such flows are called Marangoni flows. Observations of isotopic hydrogen fuel mixtures in cryogenic Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) targets can be explained on the basis of Marangoni flows. Additional experiments at KMS with common room temperature mixtures have produced similar results

  10. Thermodynamics of liquid mixtures of methane and ethene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calado, J C.G.; Soares, V A.M.

    1977-08-01

    Experiments conducted by Portugal's Instituto Superior Tecnico provide liquid and vapor equilibrium compositions and pressures for the methane-ethene system at 103.94 and -115.77 K as well as the molar volumes of the mixtures at the lower temperature. From the results, researchers estimated the excess Gibbs energies at these tempertures and the molar enthalpy of mixing.

  11. Studies on Molecular Interaction in Ternary Liquid Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Uvarani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic velocity, density and viscosity for the ternary liquid mixtures of cyclohexanone with 1-propanol and 1-butanol in carbon tetrachloride were measured at 303 K. The acoustical parameters and their excess values were calculated. The trends in the variation of these excess parameters were used to discuss the nature and strength of the interactions present between the component molecules.

  12. Thermodynamics of liquid mixtures of methane and ethene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calado, J.C.G.; Soares, V.A.M.

    1977-08-01

    Experiments conducted by Portugal's Instituto Superior Tecnico provide liquid and vapor equilibrium compositions and pressures for the methane-ethene system at 103.94 and -115.77 K as well as the molar volumes of the mixtures at the lower temperature. From the results, researchers estimated the excess Gibbs energies at these tempertures and the molar enthalpy of mixing.

  13. Surface Structures of Binary Mixture of Ionic Liquids.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nakajima, K.; Nakanishi, S.; Lísal, Martin; Kimura, K.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 230, MARCH (2017), s. 542-549 ISSN 0167-7322 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-12291S Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : ionic liquids * mixture * surface structure Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 3.648, year: 2016

  14. Quantum statistics and liquid helium 3 - helum 4 mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, E.G.D.

    1979-01-01

    The behaviour of liquid helium 3-helium 4 mixtures is considered from the point of view of manifestation of quantum statistics effects in macrophysics. The Boze=Einstein statistics is shown to be of great importance for understanding superfluid helium-4 properties whereas the Fermi-Dirac statistics is of importance for understanding helium-3 properties. Without taking into consideration the interaction between the helium atoms it is impossible to understand the basic properties of liquid helium 33 - helium 4 mixtures at constant pressure. Proposed is a simple model of the liquid helium 3-helium 4 mixture, namely the binary mixture consisting of solid spheres of two types subjecting to the Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein statistics relatively. This model predicts correctly the most surprising peculiarities of phase diagrams of concentration dependence on temperature for helium solutions. In particular, the helium 4 Bose-Einstein statistics is responsible for the phase lamination of helium solutions at low temperatures. It starts in the peculiar critical point. The helium 4 Fermi-Dirac statistics results in incomplete phase lamination close to the absolute zero temperatures, that permits operation of a powerful cooling facility, namely refrigerating machine on helium solution

  15. Gas--liquid equilibria in mixtures of hydrogen and thianaphthene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebastian, H M; Simnick, J J; Lin, H M; Chao, K C

    1978-12-01

    Gas--liquid equilibrium conditions in binary mixtures of hydrogen and thianaphthene were experimentally determined at temperature of 190 to 430/sup 0/C and pressures to 250 atm in a flow apparatus. The same apparatus was also employed to measure the vapor pressure of thianaphthene. Comparisons of the new mixture data with Chao--Seader and Grayson--Streed correlations show that both correlations predict the thianaphthene equilibrium ratios well but are in error by up to about 45 and 35% respectively for K-values of hydrogen. 4 figures, 2 tables.

  16. Thermodynamic properties of liquid mixtures of carbon monoxide and methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calado, J.C.G.; Guedes, H.J.R.; Nunes da Ponte, M.; Streett, W.B.

    1984-04-01

    Researchers conducted pressure-volume-temperature measurements of liquid methane at -230/sup 0/F and of six liquid mixtures of carbon monoxide and methane at -250/sup 0/, -240/sup 0/, and -230/sup 0/F from just above the saturation vapor pressure to the freezing pressure of methane. The excess volume proved to be large and negative at low pressures but less negative as the pressure increased, being almost zero at the highest pressure. Of the thermodynamic functions, excess enthalpy and excess entropy were much more sensitive to pressure than excess Gibbs energy. Conformal solution theory in the van der Waals one-fluid form reproduced the experimental results very successfully.

  17. Ionic liquids for separation of olefin-paraffin mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Sheng; Luo, Huimin; Huang, Jing-Fang

    2013-09-17

    The invention is directed to an ionic liquid comprising (i) a cationic portion containing a complex of a silver (I) ion and one or more neutral ligands selected from organoamides, organoamines, olefins, and organonitriles, and (ii) an anionic portion having the chemical formula ##STR00001## wherein m and n are independently 0 or an integer of 1 or above, and p is 0 or 1, provided that when p is 0, the group --N--SO.sub.2--(CF.sub.2).sub.nCF.sub.3 subtended by p is replaced with an oxide atom connected to the shown sulfur atom. The invention is also directed to a method for separating an olefin from an olefin-paraffin mixture by passing the mixture through a layer of the ionic liquid described above.

  18. New models for predicting thermophysical properties of ionic liquid mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Zhang, Xiangping; Zhao, Yongsheng; Zeng, Shaojuan; Dong, Haifeng; Zhang, Suojiang

    2015-10-28

    Potential applications of ILs require the knowledge of the physicochemical properties of ionic liquid (IL) mixtures. In this work, a series of semi-empirical models were developed to predict the density, surface tension, heat capacity and thermal conductivity of IL mixtures. Each semi-empirical model only contains one new characteristic parameter, which can be determined using one experimental data point. In addition, as another effective tool, artificial neural network (ANN) models were also established. The two kinds of models were verified by a total of 2304 experimental data points for binary mixtures of ILs and molecular compounds. The overall average absolute deviations (AARDs) of both the semi-empirical and ANN models are less than 2%. Compared to previously reported models, these new semi-empirical models require fewer adjustable parameters and can be applied in a wider range of applications.

  19. Dissolution and biodegradation of a mixture of immiscible liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandhi, P.; Erickson, L.E.; Fan, L.T.

    1994-01-01

    Subsurface contaminants are frequently encountered as mixtures of nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) at sites contaminated by gasoline or coal tar comprising organic mixtures. The leaching of these organic mixtures from the aquifer has been examined with and without biodegradation. The results obtained have been compared with the limiting case of a single component NAPL. Various physical processes involved have been quantified based on the assumptions that liquid-liquid and sorption equilibria are established at the beginning of each flushing; oxygen required for biochemical oxidation is completely consumed by the end of each flushing; and the rate of biochemical oxidation obeys the Monod kinetics for a multi-substrate system, characterized by an oxygen utilization factor. This has given rise to an equilibrium model expressing the mass fraction of any component remaining in the aquifer, its aqueous concentration, and the composition of the NAPL as functions of the number of flushings. The results of the simulation with the model demonstrate that bioremediation can significantly reduce the time necessary for removing the components of intermediate solubility such as xylene. Highly soluble components of the NAPL are mainly removed by the pump-and-treat mechanism while the components of extremely low solubility are unavailable to the microbes as substrates in a multi-component system

  20. Phase equilibrium and physical properties of biobased ionic liquid mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo Hijo, Ariel A C; Maximo, Guilherme J; Cunha, Rosiane L; Fonseca, Felipe H S; Cardoso, Lisandro P; Pereira, Jorge F B; Costa, Mariana C; Batista, Eduardo A C; Meirelles, Antonio J A

    2018-02-28

    Protic ionic liquid crystals (PILCs) obtained from natural sources are promising compounds due to their peculiar properties and sustainable appeal. However, obtaining PILCs with higher thermal and mechanical stabilities for product and process design is in demand and studies on such approaches using this new IL generation are still scarce. In this context, this work discloses an alternative way for tuning the physicochemical properties of ILCs by mixing PILs. New binary mixtures of PILs derived from fatty acids and 2-hydroxy ethylamines have been synthesized here and investigated through the characterization of the solid-solid-[liquid crystal]-liquid thermodynamic equilibrium and their rheological and critical micellar concentration profiles. The mixtures presented a marked nonideal melting profile with the formation of solid solutions. This work revealed an improvement of the PILCs' properties based on a significant increase in the ILC temperature domain and the obtainment of more stable mesophases at high temperatures when compared to pure PILs. In addition, mixtures of PILs also showed significant changes in their non-Newtonian and viscosity profile up to 100 s -1 , as well as mechanical stability over a wide temperature range. The enhancement of the physicochemical properties of PILs here disclosed by such an approach leads to more new possibilities of their industrial application at high temperatures.

  1. Ionic-Liquid Based Separation of Azeotropic Mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulajanpeng, Kusuma; Suriyapraphadilok, Uthaiporn; Gani, Rafiqul

    2014-01-01

    methodology for the screening of ionic liquids (ILs) as entrainers for ILs-based separation processes in binary aqueous azeotropic systems (e.g., water + ethanol and water + isopropanol) is presented. Ionic liquids as entrainers were first screened based on a combination of criteria such as stabi......methodology for the screening of ionic liquids (ILs) as entrainers for ILs-based separation processes in binary aqueous azeotropic systems (e.g., water + ethanol and water + isopropanol) is presented. Ionic liquids as entrainers were first screened based on a combination of criteria...... [C1MIM][DMP]. For the final evaluation, the best candidates for aqueous systems were used as entrainers, and then the vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) of the ternary systems containing ILs was predicted by the Non Random Two Liquids (NRTL) model to confirm the breaking of the azeotrope. Based...... on minimum concentration of the ILs required to break the given azeotrope, the best ILs as entrainers for water + ethanol and water + isopropanol azeotropic mixtures were [C1MIM][DMP] and [C2MIM][N(CN)2], respectively....

  2. Structure and lifetimes in ionic liquids and their mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrke, Sascha; von Domaros, Michael; Clark, Ryan; Hollóczki, Oldamur; Brehm, Martin; Welton, Tom; Luzar, Alenka; Kirchner, Barbara

    2018-01-01

    With the aid of molecular dynamics simulations, we study the structure and dynamics of different ionic liquid systems, with focus on hydrogen bond, ion pair and ion cage formation. To do so, we report radial distribution functions, their number integrals, and various time-correlation functions, from which we extract well-defined lifetimes by means of the reactive flux formalism. We explore the influence of polarizable force fields vs. non-polarizable ones with downscaled charges (±0.8) for the example of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide. Furthermore, we use 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate to investigate the impact of temperature and mixing with water as well as with the chloride ionic liquid. Smaller coordination numbers, larger distances, and tremendously accelerated dynamics are observed when the polarizable force field is applied. The same trends are found with increasing temperature. Adding water decreases the ion-ion coordination numbers whereas the water-ion and water-water coordination is enhanced. A domain analysis reveals that the nonpolar parts of the ions are dispersed and when more water is added the water clusters increase in size. The dynamics accelerate in general upon addition of water. In the ionic liquid mixture, the coordination number around the cation changes between the two anions, but the number integrals of the cation around the anions remain constant and the dynamics slow down with increasing content of the chloride ionic liquid.

  3. Liquid-liquid interfacial properties of a symmetrical Lennard-Jones binary mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-Ruiz, F. J.; Blas, F. J., E-mail: felipe@uhu.es [Laboratorio de Simulación Molecular y Química Computacional, CIQSO-Centro de Investigación en Química Sostenible and Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad de Huelva, 21007 Huelva (Spain); Moreno-Ventas Bravo, A. I. [Laboratorio de Simulación Molecular y Química Computacional, CIQSO-Centro de Investigación en Química Sostenible and Departamento de Geología, Universidad de Huelva, 21007 Huelva (Spain)

    2015-09-14

    We determine the interfacial properties of a symmetrical binary mixture of equal-sized spherical Lennard-Jones molecules, σ{sub 11} = σ{sub 22}, with the same dispersive energy between like species, ϵ{sub 11} = ϵ{sub 22}, but different dispersive energies between unlike species low enough to induce phase separation. We use the extensions of the improved version of the inhomogeneous long-range corrections of Janecek [J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 6264 (2006)], presented recently by MacDowell and Blas [J. Chem. Phys. 131, 074705 (2009)] and Martínez-Ruiz et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 141, 184701 (2014)], to deal with the interaction energy and microscopic components of the pressure tensor. We perform Monte Carlo simulations in the canonical ensemble to obtain the interfacial properties of the symmetrical mixture with different cut-off distances r{sub c} and in combination with the inhomogeneous long-range corrections. The pressure tensor is obtained using the mechanical (virial) and thermodynamic route. The liquid-liquid interfacial tension is also evaluated using three different procedures, the Irving-Kirkwood method, the difference between the macroscopic components of the pressure tensor, and the test-area methodology. This allows to check the validity of the recent extensions presented to deal with the contributions due to long-range corrections for intermolecular energy and pressure tensor in the case of binary mixtures that exhibit liquid-liquid immiscibility. In addition to the pressure tensor and the surface tension, we also obtain density profiles and coexistence densities and compositions as functions of pressure, at a given temperature. According to our results, the main effect of increasing the cut-off distance r{sub c} is to sharpen the liquid-liquid interface and to increase the width of the biphasic coexistence region. Particularly interesting is the presence of a relative minimum in the total density profiles of the symmetrical mixture. This minimum is related

  4. Liquid-liquid interfacial properties of a symmetrical Lennard-Jones binary mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez-Ruiz, F. J.; Blas, F. J.; Moreno-Ventas Bravo, A. I.

    2015-01-01

    We determine the interfacial properties of a symmetrical binary mixture of equal-sized spherical Lennard-Jones molecules, σ 11 = σ 22 , with the same dispersive energy between like species, ϵ 11 = ϵ 22 , but different dispersive energies between unlike species low enough to induce phase separation. We use the extensions of the improved version of the inhomogeneous long-range corrections of Janecek [J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 6264 (2006)], presented recently by MacDowell and Blas [J. Chem. Phys. 131, 074705 (2009)] and Martínez-Ruiz et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 141, 184701 (2014)], to deal with the interaction energy and microscopic components of the pressure tensor. We perform Monte Carlo simulations in the canonical ensemble to obtain the interfacial properties of the symmetrical mixture with different cut-off distances r c and in combination with the inhomogeneous long-range corrections. The pressure tensor is obtained using the mechanical (virial) and thermodynamic route. The liquid-liquid interfacial tension is also evaluated using three different procedures, the Irving-Kirkwood method, the difference between the macroscopic components of the pressure tensor, and the test-area methodology. This allows to check the validity of the recent extensions presented to deal with the contributions due to long-range corrections for intermolecular energy and pressure tensor in the case of binary mixtures that exhibit liquid-liquid immiscibility. In addition to the pressure tensor and the surface tension, we also obtain density profiles and coexistence densities and compositions as functions of pressure, at a given temperature. According to our results, the main effect of increasing the cut-off distance r c is to sharpen the liquid-liquid interface and to increase the width of the biphasic coexistence region. Particularly interesting is the presence of a relative minimum in the total density profiles of the symmetrical mixture. This minimum is related with a desorption of the

  5. Non-linearity parameter of binary liquid mixtures at elevated pressures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . Ultrasonic studies in liquid mixtures provide valuable information about structure and interaction in such systems. The present investigation comprises of theoretical evaluation of the acoustic non-linearity parameter / of four binary liquid ...

  6. Thermodynamics of mixtures containing alkoxyethanols. XXVIII: Liquid-liquid equilibria for 2-phenoxyethanol + selected alkanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, Victor; Garcia, Mario [G.E.T.E.F., Grupo Especializado en Termodinamica de Equilibrio entre Fases, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47071 Valladolid (Spain); Gonzalez, Juan Antonio, E-mail: jagl@termo.uva.es [G.E.T.E.F., Grupo Especializado en Termodinamica de Equilibrio entre Fases, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47071 Valladolid (Spain); Garcia De La Fuente, Isaias; Cobos, Jose Carlos [G.E.T.E.F., Grupo Especializado en Termodinamica de Equilibrio entre Fases, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47071 Valladolid (Spain)

    2011-07-10

    Highlights: {yields} LLE coexistence curves were determined for mixtures of 2PhEE with alkanes. {yields} UCST values are higher for n-alkane systems than for solutions with cyclic alkanes. {yields} For the latter mixtures, UCST increases with the size of the alkyl group attached. {yields} Alkoxyethanol-alkoxyethanol interactions are enhanced by aromatic group in cellosolve. - Abstract: The coexistence curves of the liquid-liquid equilibria (LLE) for systems of 2-phenoxyethanol (2PhEE) with heptane, octane, cyclohexane, methylcyclohexane or ethylcyclohexane have been determined by the method of the critical opalescence using a laser scattering technique. All the curves show an upper critical solution temperature (UCST), have a rather horizontal top and their symmetry depends on the relative size of the mixture compounds. UCST values are higher for systems with linear alkanes than for solutions including cyclic alkanes. For these mixtures, the UCST increases with the size of the alkyl group attached to the cyclic part of the molecule. It is shown that interactions between alkoxyethanol molecules are stronger when the hydroxyether contains an aromatic group. Data are used to determine the critical exponent for the order parameter mole fraction. Values obtained are consistent with those provided by the Ising model or by the renormalization group theory.

  7. Thermodynamics of mixtures containing alkoxyethanols. XXVIII: Liquid-liquid equilibria for 2-phenoxyethanol + selected alkanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, Victor; Garcia, Mario; Gonzalez, Juan Antonio; Garcia De La Fuente, Isaias; Cobos, Jose Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → LLE coexistence curves were determined for mixtures of 2PhEE with alkanes. → UCST values are higher for n-alkane systems than for solutions with cyclic alkanes. → For the latter mixtures, UCST increases with the size of the alkyl group attached. → Alkoxyethanol-alkoxyethanol interactions are enhanced by aromatic group in cellosolve. - Abstract: The coexistence curves of the liquid-liquid equilibria (LLE) for systems of 2-phenoxyethanol (2PhEE) with heptane, octane, cyclohexane, methylcyclohexane or ethylcyclohexane have been determined by the method of the critical opalescence using a laser scattering technique. All the curves show an upper critical solution temperature (UCST), have a rather horizontal top and their symmetry depends on the relative size of the mixture compounds. UCST values are higher for systems with linear alkanes than for solutions including cyclic alkanes. For these mixtures, the UCST increases with the size of the alkyl group attached to the cyclic part of the molecule. It is shown that interactions between alkoxyethanol molecules are stronger when the hydroxyether contains an aromatic group. Data are used to determine the critical exponent for the order parameter mole fraction. Values obtained are consistent with those provided by the Ising model or by the renormalization group theory.

  8. Combustion characteristics of nanoaluminum, liquid water, and hydrogen peroxide mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabourin, J.L.; Yetter, R.A. [The Pennsylvania State University, Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, University Park, PA 16801 (United States); Risha, G.A. [The Pennsylvania State University, Division of Business and Engineering, Altoona, PA 16601 (United States); Son, S.F. [Purdue University, School of Mechanical Engineering, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Tappan, B.C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2008-08-15

    An experimental investigation of the combustion characteristics of nanoaluminum (nAl), liquid water (H{sub 2}O{sub (l)}), and hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) mixtures has been conducted. Linear and mass-burning rates as functions of pressure, equivalence ratio ({phi}), and concentration of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in H{sub 2}O{sub (l)} oxidizing solution are reported. Steady-state burning rates were obtained at room temperature using a windowed pressure vessel over an initial pressure range of 0.24 to 12.4 MPa in argon, using average nAl particle diameters of 38 nm, {phi} from 0.5 to 1.3, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentrations between 0 and 32% by mass. At a nominal pressure of 3.65 MPa, under stoichiometric conditions, mass-burning rates per unit area ranged between 6.93 g/cm{sup 2} s (0% H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and 37.04 g/cm{sup 2} s (32% H{sub 2}O{sub 2}), which corresponded to linear burning rates of 9.58 and 58.2 cm/s, respectively. Burning rate pressure exponents of 0.44 and 0.38 were found for stoichiometric mixtures at room temperature containing 10 and 25% H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, respectively, up to 5 MPa. Burning rates are reduced above {proportional_to}5 MPa due to the pressurization of interstitial spaces of the packed reactant mixture with argon gas, diluting the fuel and oxidizer mixture. Mass burning rates were not measured above {proportional_to}32% H{sub 2}O{sub 2} due to an anomalous burning phenomena, which caused overpressurization within the quartz sample holder, leading to tube rupture. High-speed imaging displayed fingering or jetting ahead of the normal flame front. Localized pressure measurements were taken along the sample length, determining that the combustion process proceeded as a normal deflagration prior to tube rupture, without significant pressure buildup within the tube. In addition to burning rates, chemical efficiencies of the combustion reaction were determined to be within approximately 10% of the theoretical maximum under all conditions

  9. Itinerant Ferromagnetism in a Polarized Two-Component Fermi Gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Massignan, Pietro; Yu, Zhenhua; Bruun, Georg

    2013-01-01

    We analyze when a repulsively interacting two-component Fermi gas becomes thermodynamically unstable against phase separation. We focus on the strongly polarized limit, where the free energy of the homogeneous mixture can be calculated accurately in terms of well-defined quasiparticles, the repul......We analyze when a repulsively interacting two-component Fermi gas becomes thermodynamically unstable against phase separation. We focus on the strongly polarized limit, where the free energy of the homogeneous mixture can be calculated accurately in terms of well-defined quasiparticles...

  10. Liquid-liquid extraction of plutonium(IV) in monoamide - ammonium ionic liquid mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rout, Alok; Venkatesan, K.A.; Antony, M.P.

    2016-01-01

    Room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) can be regarded as a sustainable alternative to the conventional molecular diluent, n-dodecane (n-DD), in solvent extraction process. Replacement of volatile organic solvents by RTILs in solvent extraction could lead to inherently safer processes. As far as the cation is concerned, most of the studies reported in literature are focused on imidazolium-based ionic liquids. In contrast to imiadazolium ionic liquids, quarternary ammonium ionic liquids like trioctylmethylammonium chloride (Aliquat 336), trioctylmethylammonium nitrate etc., do not exhibit any cation exchange with the metal ions from aqueous phase during extraction. However, there is no report available in literature that emphasizes the application of trioctylmethylammonium bis(trifluoromethane-sulfonyl)imide ((N_1_8_8_8)(NTf_2)) ionic liquid, for the extraction of Pu(IV). In this paper, we report the advantages of using the ionic liquid, trioctylmethylammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ((N_1_8_8_8)(NTf_2)), as diluent, for the extraction of plutonium(IV) in DHOA/(N_1_8_8_8)(NTf_2)

  11. Ultrafast and ultrasensitive dielectric liquids/mixtures: Basic measurements and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christophorou, L.G.; Faidas, H.; McCorkle, D.L.; Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN

    1989-01-01

    Basic properties of cryogenic and room temperature dielectric liquids/mixtures with high electron yields (under irradiation by ionizing particles) and high excess electron drift velocities are discussed. A number of ultrafast and ultrasensitive liquid media -- appropriate for possible use in liquid-filled radiation detectors and other applications -- are identified. 44 refs., 12 figs

  12. Kinetics of liquid lithium reaction with oxygen-nitrogen mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, T.K.; Kazimi, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    A series of experiments have been conducted in order to characterize the kinetics of lithium chemical reaction with a mixture of oxygen and nitrogen. Three mixed gas compositions were used; 80% N 2 and 20% O 2 , 90% N 2 and 10% O 2 , and 95% N 2 and 5% O 2 . The reaction rate was obtained as a function of lithium temperature and the oxygen fraction. Liquid lithium temperature varied from 400 to 1100 0 C. By varying the composition, the degree of inhibition of the lithium-nitrogen reaction rate due to the presence of oxygen was observed. The results indicate that the lithium-nitrogen reaction rate depended on both the fraction of oxygen present and lithium temperature. The lithium nitride layer formed from the reaction also had a significant inhibition effect on the lithium-nitrogen reaction rate while the lithium-oxygen reaction rate was not as greatly hindered. LITFIRE, a computer code which simulates temperature and pressure history in a containment building following lithium spills, was modified by including (1) an improved model for the lithium-nitrogen reaction rate and (2) a model for the lithium-CO 2 reaction. LITFIRE was used to simulate HEDL's LC-2 and LA-5 experiments, and the predicted temperatures and pressures were in a reasonable agreement. Furthermore, LITFIRE was applied to a prototypical fusion reactor containment in order to simulate the consequences of a lithium spill accident. The result indicated that if nitrogen was used as containment building gas during the accident, the consequences of the accident would be less severe than those with air. The pressure rise in the building was found to be reduced by 50% and the maximum temperature of the combustion zone was limited to 900 0 C instead of 1200 0 C in the case of air

  13. Combined physical and chemical absorption of carbon dioxide in a mixture of ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, Alicia M.; Rodríguez, Héctor; Arce, Alberto; Soto, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Carbon dioxide can be absorbed in mixtures of two ionic liquids: [C 2 mim][EtSO 4 ] and [C 2 mim][OAc]. • A combination of physical and chemical absorption mechanisms is observed. • The CO 2 absorption capacity of the mixture of ionic liquids decreases with increasing temperature. • [C 2 mim][EtSO 4 ] in the mixture prevents solidification of the product resulting from reaction of [C 2 mim][OAc] and CO 2 . • Density and viscosity studies of the mixture of ionic liquids also lead to synergies, in particular at low temperatures. - Abstract: Ionic liquids have attracted great interest recently as the basis of a potential alternative technology for the capture of carbon dioxide. Beyond the inherent tunability of properties of individual ionic liquids, a further strategy in optimising the ionic liquid sorbent for this application is the use of mixtures of ‘pure’ ionic liquids. Some ionic liquids absorb CO 2 physically, whereas others do so chemically. Both mechanisms of absorption present advantages and disadvantages for a CO 2 capture process operating in a continuous regime. In this work, a mixture of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (an ionic liquid that reacts chemically with CO 2 ) and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylsulfate (an ionic liquid that absorbs CO 2 only through a physical mechanism) was investigated for the absorption of CO 2 as a function of temperature and at pressures up to 17 bar. The absorption/desorption studies were complemented by the characterisation of thermal and physical properties of the mixture of ionic liquids, which provide extra information on the interactions at a molecular level, and are also critical for the assessment of its suitability for a proposed process and for the subsequent process design

  14. Ultrasonic study of molecular interaction in binary liquid mixtures at ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The variation of these parameters with composition of the mixture helps us in understanding the nature and extent of interaction between unlike molecules in the mixtures. Further, theoretical values of ultrasonic speed were evaluated using theories and empirical relations. The relative merits of these theories and relations ...

  15. Amphiphile Meets Amphiphile: Beyond the Polar-Apolar Dualism in Ionic Liquid/Alcohol Mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russina, Olga; Sferrazza, Alessio; Caminiti, Ruggero; Triolo, Alessandro

    2014-05-15

    The mesoscopic morphology of binary mixtures of ethylammonium nitrate (EAN), the protic ionic liquid par excellence, and methanol is explored using neutron/X-ray diffraction and computational techniques. Both compounds are amphiphilic and characterized by an extended hydrogen bonding network: surprisingly, though macroscopically homogeneous, these mixtures turn out to be mesoscopically highly heterogeneous. Our study reveals that even in methanol-rich mixtures, a wide distribution of clusters exists where EAN preserves its bulk, sponge-like morphology. Accordingly methanol does not succeed in fully dissociating the ionic liquid that keeps on organizing in a bulk-like fashion. This behavior represents the premises to the more dramatic phenomenology observed with longer alcohols that eventually phase separate from EAN. These results challenge the commonly accepted polar and apolar moieties segregation in ionic liquids/molecular liquids mixtures and the current understanding of technologically relevant solvation processes.

  16. Prediction of vapour-liquid and vapour-liquid-liquid equilibria of nitrogen-hydrocarbon mixtures used in J-T refrigerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Vineed; Venkatarathnam, G.

    2018-03-01

    Nitrogen-hydrocarbon mixtures are widely used as refrigerants in J-T refrigerators operating with mixtures, as well as in natural gas liquefiers. The Peng-Robinson equation of state has traditionally been used to simulate the above cryogenic process. Multi parameter Helmholtz energy equations are now preferred for determining the properties of natural gas. They have, however, been used only to predict vapour-liquid equilibria, and not vapour-liquid-liquid equilibria that can occur in mixtures used in cryogenic mixed refrigerant processes. In this paper the vapour-liquid equilibrium of binary mixtures of nitrogen-methane, nitrogen-ethane, nitrogen-propane, nitrogen-isobutane and three component mixtures of nitrogen-methane-ethane and nitrogen-methane-propane have been studied with the Peng-Robinson and the Helmholtz energy equations of state of NIST REFPROP and compared with experimental data available in the literature.

  17. Chemical kinetics of detonation in some liquid mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raikova, Vlada M.; Likholatov, Evgeny A. [Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2005-09-01

    The main objective of this work is to study the chemical kinetics of detonation reactions in some nitroester mixtures and solutions of nitrocompounds in concentrated nitric acid. The main source of information on chemical kinetics in the detonation wave was the experimental dependence of failure diameter on composition of mixtures. Calculations were carried out in terms of classic theory of Dremin using the SGKR computer code. Effective values for the activation energies and pre-exponential factors for detonation reactions in the mixtures under investigation have been defined. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  18. Organosilica Membrane with Ionic Liquid Properties for Separation of Toluene/H₂ Mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirota, Yuichiro; Maeda, Yohei; Yamamoto, Yusuke; Miyamoto, Manabu; Nishiyama, Norikazu

    2017-08-03

    In this study, we present a new concept in chemically stabilized ionic liquid membranes: an ionic liquid organosilica (ILOS) membrane, which is an organosilica membrane with ionic liquid-like properties. A silylated ionic liquid was used as a precursor for synthesis. The permselectivity, permeation mechanism, and stability of the membrane in the H₂/toluene binary system were then compared with a supported ionic liquid membrane. The membrane showed a superior separation factor of toluene/H₂ (>17,000) in a binary mixture system based on a solution-diffusion mechanism with improved durability over the supported ionic liquid membrane.

  19. Combustible gas production (methane) and biodegradation of solid and liquid mixtures of meat industry wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcos, A.; Al-Kassir, A.; Cuadros, F.; Lopez-Rodriguez, F. [School of Engineering, University of Extremadura, Avda. De Elva, s/n, 06071, Badajoz (Spain); Mohamad, A.A. [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Calgary, 2500 University Dr. N.W., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    2010-05-15

    This work is devoted to determine the optimal operational conditions on the methane production as well as on the biodegradation obtained from the anaerobic codigestion of solid (fat, intestines, rumen, bowels, whiskers, etc.) and liquid (blood, washing water, manure, etc.) wastes of meat industry, particularly the ones rising from the municipal slaughterhouse of Badajoz (Spain). The experiments were performed using a 2 l capacity discontinuous digester at 38 C. The loading rate were 0.5, 1, 2, 3, and 4.5 g COD for wastewater (washing water and blood; Mixture 1), and 0.5, 1, 2, 3, and 4 g COD for the co-digestion of a mixture of 97% liquid effluent and 3% solid wastes v/v (Mixture 2) which represents the annual mean composition of the waste generated by the slaughterhouse. The maximal biodegradation rates obtained were: Mixture 1, 56.9% for a COD load of 1 g; and Mixture 2, 19.1% for a COD load of 2 g. For both mixtures, the greatest methane production was for the maximum COD load (4.5 g for Mixture 1, and 4 g for Mixture 2), at which values the amounts of methane obtained during and at the end of the co-digestion were practically indistinguishable between the two mixtures. The results will be used to design, construct, and establish the optimal operating conditions of a continuous complete-mixture biodigester. (author)

  20. Prediction of adsorption from liquid mixtures in microporous media by the potential theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monsalvo, Matias Alfonso; Shapiro, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Despite its industrial importance, adsorption from the liquid phase has been studied much less extensively than adsorption from the gas phase. In this paper, we study the adsorption of liquid mixtures on the basis of the multicomponent potential theory of adsorption (MPTA). The MPTA is based on t...

  1. Densities of Pure Ionic Liquids and Mixtures: Modeling and Data Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildskov, Jens; O’Connell, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Our two-parameter corresponding states model for liquid densities and compressibilities has been extended to more pure ionic liquids and to their mixtures with one or two solvents. A total of 19 new group contributions (5 new cations and 14 new anions) have been obtained for predicting pressure...

  2. Exposure of Mammalian Cells to Air-Pollutant Mixtures at the Air-Liquid Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    It has been widely accepted that exposure of mammalian cells to air-pollutant mixtures at the air-liquid interface is a more realistic approach than exposing cell under submerged conditions. The VITROCELL systems, are commercially available systems for air-liquid interface expo...

  3. Fine tuning the ionic liquid-vacuum outer atomic surface using ion mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar-Garcia, Ignacio J; Fearn, Sarah; Ismail, Nur L; McIntosh, Alastair J S; Lovelock, Kevin R J

    2015-03-28

    Ionic liquid-vacuum outer atomic surfaces can be created that are remarkably different from the bulk composition. In this communication we demonstrate, using low-energy ion scattering (LEIS), that for ionic liquid mixtures the outer atomic surface shows significantly more atoms from anions with weaker cation-anion interactions (and vice versa).

  4. Maximum discharge rate of liquid-vapor mixtures from vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moody, F.J.

    1975-09-01

    A discrepancy exists in theoretical predictions of the two-phase equilibrium discharge rate from pipes attached to vessels. Theory which predicts critical flow data in terms of pipe exit pressure and quality severely overpredicts flow rates in terms of vessel fluid properties. This study shows that the discrepancy is explained by the flow pattern. Due to decompression and flashing as fluid accelerates into the pipe entrance, the maximum discharge rate from a vessel is limited by choking of a homogeneous bubbly mixture. The mixture tends toward a slip flow pattern as it travels through the pipe, finally reaching a different choked condition at the pipe exit

  5. Change of hydrogen bonding structure in ionic liquid mixtures by anion type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Seoncheol; Kim, Doseok

    2018-05-01

    Ionic liquid mixtures have gained attention as a way of tuning material properties continuously with composition changes. For some mixture systems, physicochemical properties such as excess molar volume have been found to be significantly different from the value expected by linear interpolation, but the origin of this deviation is not well understood yet. The microstructure of the mixture, which can range from an ideal mixture of two initial consisting ionic liquids to a different structure from those of pure materials, has been suggested as the origin of the observed deviation. The structures of several different ionic liquid mixtures are studied by IR spectroscopy to confirm this suggestion, as a particular IR absorption band (νC(2)-D) for the moiety participating in the hydrogen bonding changes sensitively with the change of the anion in the ionic liquid. The absorbance of νC(2)-D changes proportionally with the composition, and a relatively small excess molar volume is observed for the mixtures containing an electronegative halide anion. By contrast, the absorbance changes nonlinearly, and the excess molar volumes are larger for the mixtures of which one of the anions has multiple interaction sites.

  6. Experimental measurements and prediction of liquid densities for n-alkane mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos-Estrada, Mariana; Iglesias-Silva, Gustavo A.; Hall, Kenneth R.

    2006-01-01

    We present experimental liquid densities for n-pentane, n-hexane and n-heptane and their binary mixtures from (273.15 to 363.15) K over the entire composition range (for the mixtures) at atmospheric pressure. A vibrating tube densimeter produces the experimental densities. Also, we present a generalized correlation to predict the liquid densities of n-alkanes and their mixtures. We have combined the principle of congruence with the Tait equation to obtain an equation that uses as variables: temperature, pressure and the equivalent carbon number of the mixture. Also, we present a generalized correlation for the atmospheric liquid densities of n-alkanes. The average absolute percentage deviation of this equation from the literature experimental density values is 0.26%. The Tait equation has an average percentage deviation of 0.15% from experimental density measurements

  7. Ultrasonic Studies of Molecular Interactions in Organic Binary Liquid Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Thirumaran

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The ultrasonic velocity, density and viscosity have been measured for the mixtures of 1-alkanols such as 1-propanol and 1-butanol with N-N dimethylformamide (DMF at 303 K. The experimental data have been used to calculate the acoustical parameters namely adiabatic compressibility (β, free length (Lf, free volume (Vf and internal pressure (πi. The excess values of the above parameters are also evaluated and discussed in the light of molecular interaction existing in the mixtures. It is obvious that there is a formation of hydrogen bonding between DMF and 1-alkanols. Further, the addition of DMF causes dissociation of hydrogen bonded structure of 1-alkanols. The evaluated excess values confirm that the molecular association is more pronounced in system-II comparing to the system-I.

  8. Mass transport thermodynamics in nonisothermal molecular liquid mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semenov, Semen N [Institute for Biochemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Schimpf, M E [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Boise State University, Boise, ID (United States)

    2009-10-31

    Mass transport in a nonisothermal binary molecular mixture is systematically discussed in terms of nonequilibrium thermodynamics, which for the first time allows a consistent and unambiguous description of the process. The thermodynamic and hydrodynamic approaches are compared, revealing that nonequilibrium thermodynamics and physicochemical hydrodynamics yield essentially the same results for molecular systems. The applicability limits for the proposed version of the thermodynamic approach are determined for large particles. (methodological notes)

  9. Investigation on the structure of liquid N-methylformamide-dimethylsulfoxide mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordeiro, Joao M.M., E-mail: cordeiro@dfq.feis.unesp.br [ISIS Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Soper, Alan K. [ISIS Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-18

    Graphical abstract: Structure of liquid NMF and DMSO mixtures investigated using a combination of neutron diffraction techniques augmented with isotopic substitution and empirical potential structure refinement simulations. Research highlights: {yields} NMF-DMSO mixture is a well-structured liquid. {yields} The liquid structure is driven by strong hydrogen bonds. {yields} There is a preference for NMF-DMSO hydrogen bonding compared to the NMF-NMF. {yields} There are very stable NMF-DMSO dimers dispersed through the liquid. {yields} The peptide structure is very well solvated in DMSO. - Abstract: The structures of liquid mixtures of N-methylformamide (NMF) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) at two concentrations (80% and 50% NMF) are investigated using a combination of neutron diffraction augmented with isotopic substitution and empirical potential structure refinement simulations. The results indicate that the NMF and DMSO molecules are hydrogen-bonded to one another with a preference for NMF-DMSO hydrogen bonding, compared to the NMF-NMF ones. The liquid is orientationally structured as a consequence of these hydrogen bonds between molecules. NMF-DMSO dimers are very stable species in the bulk of the mixture. The structure of the dimers is such that the angle between the molecular dipole moments is around 60{sup o}. The NMF molecules are well solvated in DMSO with potential implications for peptides solvation in this solvent.

  10. Investigation on the structure of liquid N-methylformamide-dimethylsulfoxide mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordeiro, Joao M.M.; Soper, Alan K.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Structure of liquid NMF and DMSO mixtures investigated using a combination of neutron diffraction techniques augmented with isotopic substitution and empirical potential structure refinement simulations. Research highlights: → NMF-DMSO mixture is a well-structured liquid. → The liquid structure is driven by strong hydrogen bonds. → There is a preference for NMF-DMSO hydrogen bonding compared to the NMF-NMF. → There are very stable NMF-DMSO dimers dispersed through the liquid. → The peptide structure is very well solvated in DMSO. - Abstract: The structures of liquid mixtures of N-methylformamide (NMF) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) at two concentrations (80% and 50% NMF) are investigated using a combination of neutron diffraction augmented with isotopic substitution and empirical potential structure refinement simulations. The results indicate that the NMF and DMSO molecules are hydrogen-bonded to one another with a preference for NMF-DMSO hydrogen bonding, compared to the NMF-NMF ones. The liquid is orientationally structured as a consequence of these hydrogen bonds between molecules. NMF-DMSO dimers are very stable species in the bulk of the mixture. The structure of the dimers is such that the angle between the molecular dipole moments is around 60 o . The NMF molecules are well solvated in DMSO with potential implications for peptides solvation in this solvent.

  11. Diffusion measurements in binary liquid mixtures by Raman spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.; Hansen, Susanne Brunsgaard; Shapiro, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    It is shown that Raman spectroscopy allows determination of the molar fractions in mixtures subjected to molecular diffusion. Spectra of three binary systems, benzene/n-hexane, benzene/cyclohexane, and benzene/ acetone, were obtained during vertical (exchange) diffusion at several different heights...... in the literature were found, even in a thermostatically controlled diffusion cell, recording spectra through circulating water. For the system benzene/acetone, the determined diffusion coefficients were in good agreement with the literature data. The limitations of the Raman method are discussed...

  12. Modeling of nanoscale liquid mixture transport by density functional hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinariev, Oleg Yu.; Evseev, Nikolay V.

    2017-06-01

    Modeling of multiphase compositional hydrodynamics at nanoscale is performed by means of density functional hydrodynamics (DFH). DFH is the method based on density functional theory and continuum mechanics. This method has been developed by the authors over 20 years and used for modeling in various multiphase hydrodynamic applications. In this paper, DFH was further extended to encompass phenomena inherent in liquids at nanoscale. The new DFH extension is based on the introduction of external potentials for chemical components. These potentials are localized in the vicinity of solid surfaces and take account of the van der Waals forces. A set of numerical examples, including disjoining pressure, film precursors, anomalous rheology, liquid in contact with heterogeneous surface, capillary condensation, and forward and reverse osmosis, is presented to demonstrate modeling capabilities.

  13. The study on process of recycling uranium in mixture of residue and liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jie; Shen Weiwei; Hao Jidong; Wu Jiangming

    2014-01-01

    The treat method of mixture of residue and liquid produced from HWR nuclear fuel chemical process using some kind of U_3O_8 powder was studied in this experiment. For recycling the uranium in mixture of residue and liquid, chemical dissolving method, washing and centrifuging method and dilute nitric acid leaching uranium method was contrasted in this test. The merit of dilute nitric acid leaching uranium method is simpler, more effective and higher uranium recycling ratio. Next, dilute nitric acid leaching uranium method was studied systematically. As a result, the main influence factors of uranium recycling ratio is dip sour degree and dip sour temperature. The influence law of factors to uranium recycling ratio and filtering effect was found out also. Along with increasing of dip sour degree and dip sour temperature, uranium recycling ratio increases and speed of filtrate increases also. At last, the process of batch treating mixture of residue and liquid was build and abundant uranium was recycled. (authors)

  14. Representation and Validation of Liquid Densities for Pure Compounds and Mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connell, J.; V. Dicky, V.; Abildskov, Jens

    Reliable correlation and prediction of liquid densities are important for designing chemical processes at normal and elevated pressures. We have extended a corresponding states model from molecular theory to yield a robust method for quality testing of experimental data that also provides predicted...... values at unmeasured conditions. The model has been shown to successfully validate and represent the pressure and temperature dependence of liquid densities greater than 1.5 of the critical density for pure compounds, binary mixtures, and ternary mixtures from the triple to critical temperatures...... at pressures up to 1000 MPa. The systems include the full range of organic compounds, including complex mixtures, and ionic liquids. Minimal data are required for making predictions.The presentation will show the implementation of the method, criteria for its deployment, examples of its application to a wide...

  15. Electron drift velocity measurements in liquid krypton-methane mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Folegani, M; Magri, M; Piemontese, L

    1999-01-01

    Electron drift velocities have been measured in liquid krypton, pure and mixed with methane at different concentrations (1-10% in volume) versus electric field strength, and a possible effect of methane on electron lifetime has been investigated. While no effect on lifetime could be detected, since lifetimes were in all cases longer than what measurable, a very large increase in drift velocity (up to a factor 6) has been measured.

  16. The effect of heat exchanger parameters on performance predictions for nonazeotropic refrigerant mixtures in liquid-liquid heat pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanger, S.; Den Braven, K.R.; Owre, T.A.S.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of constant heat exchanger area on the coefficient of performance (COP) for liquid-liquid heat pumps were analyzed for systems which use nonazeotropic mixtures as the working fluid. For this analysis, two different computer models were compared. In the first, the log mean temperature differences (LMTDs) through the heat exchangers were specified, and were held constant for all refrigerant compositions. The second method was constructed so that the heat exchanger UA product was held constant, thus approximating constant heat exchanger area over a range of refrigerant compositions. Results from these models show only a one percent difference in COP prediction between holding LMTD constant and holding UA constant over the range of mixture composition. This paper reports the models compared using mixtures of R-22/R-11 and R-22/R-114. It is also shown that changes in glide and lift temperatures have little influence on the differences between the two models

  17. Velocity of large bubble in liquid-solid mixture in a vertical tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamaguchi, H.; Sakaguchi, T.

    1995-01-01

    The upward movement of a large bubble in a stationary mixture of liquid and solid is one of the most fundamental phenomena of gas-liquid-solid three phase slug flow in a vertical tube. The purpose of this study is to make clear the characteristic of the rising velocity of this fundamental flow experimentally. The rising velocity of a large bubble V in a liquid-solid mixture was measured and compared with the velocity V o in a liquid (without solid). The experimental results were correlated using a non-dimensional velocity V * (=V/V o ), and the following results were obtained. It was found that the characteristic of the rising velocity differs according to the tube diameter and the liquid viscosity, or the Galileo number in the non-dimensional expression. It can be classified into two regimes. (i) When the liquid viscosity is large (or the tube diameter is small), V * decreases linearly against the volumetric solid fraction ε of the mixture. (ii) When the viscosity is small, on the other hand, the relation between V * and ε is not linear. This classification can be explained by the results in the previous papers by the authors dealing with a large bubble in a liquid

  18. Velocity of large bubble in liquid-solid mixture in a vertical tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamaguchi, H.; Sakaguchi, T. [Kobe Univ., Kobe (Japan)

    1995-09-01

    The upward movement of a large bubble in a stationary mixture of liquid and solid is one of the most fundamental phenomena of gas-liquid-solid three phase slug flow in a vertical tube. The purpose of this study is to make clear the characteristic of the rising velocity of this fundamental flow experimentally. The rising velocity of a large bubble V in a liquid-solid mixture was measured and compared with the velocity V{sub o} in a liquid (without solid). The experimental results were correlated using a non-dimensional velocity V{sup *}(=V/V{sub o}), and the following results were obtained. It was found that the characteristic of the rising velocity differs according to the tube diameter and the liquid viscosity, or the Galileo number in the non-dimensional expression. It can be classified into two regimes. (i) When the liquid viscosity is large (or the tube diameter is small), V{sup *} decreases linearly against the volumetric solid fraction {epsilon} of the mixture. (ii) When the viscosity is small, on the other hand, the relation between V{sup *} and {epsilon} is not linear. This classification can be explained by the results in the previous papers by the authors dealing with a large bubble in a liquid.

  19. Representation and validation of liquid densities for pure compounds and mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diky, Vladimir; O'Connell, John P.; Abildskov, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Reliable correlation and prediction of liquid densities are important for designing chemical processes at normal and elevated pressures. A corresponding-states model from molecular theory was extended to yield a robust method for quality testing of experimental data that also provides predicted...... values at unmeasured conditions. The model has been shown to successfully represent and validate the pressure and temperature dependence of liquid densities greater than 1.5 of the critical density for pure compounds, binary mixtures, and ternary mixtures from the triple to critical temperatures...

  20. VISCOSITY OF BINARY NON-ELECTROLYTE LIQUID MIXTURES: PREDICTION AND CORRELATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Lj. Kijevčanin

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The viscosity of 31 binary liquid mixtures containing diverse groups of organic compounds, determined at atmospheric pressure: alcohols, alkanes (cyclo and aliphatic, esters, aromatics, ketones etc., were calculated using two different approaches, correlative (with Teja-Rice and McAllister models and predictive by group contribution models (UNIFAC-VISCO, ASOG-VISCO and Grunberg-Nissan. The obtained results were analysed in terms of the applied approach and model, the structure of the investigated mixtures, the nature of components of the mixtures and the influence of alkyl chain length of the alcohol molecule.

  1. Correlation of vapor - liquid equilibrium data for acetic acid - isopropanol - water - isopropyl acetate mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Mandagarán

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A correlation procedure for the prediction of vapor - liquid equilibrium of acetic acid - isopropanol - water - isopropyl acetate mixtures has been developed. It is based on the NRTL model for predicting liquid activity coefficients, and on the Hayden-O'Connell second virial coefficients for predicting the vapor phase of systems containing association components. When compared with experimental data the correlation shows a good agreement for binary and ternary data. The correlation also shows good prediction for reactive quaternary data.

  2. Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva-Aguilar Martín

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Metals are ubiquitous pollutants present as mixtures. In particular, mixture of arsenic-cadmium-lead is among the leading toxic agents detected in the environment. These metals have carcinogenic and cell-transforming potential. In this study, we used a two step cell transformation model, to determine the role of oxidative stress in transformation induced by a mixture of arsenic-cadmium-lead. Oxidative damage and antioxidant response were determined. Metal mixture treatment induces the increase of damage markers and the antioxidant response. Loss of cell viability and increased transforming potential were observed during the promotion phase. This finding correlated significantly with generation of reactive oxygen species. Cotreatment with N-acetyl-cysteine induces effect on the transforming capacity; while a diminution was found in initiation, in promotion phase a total block of the transforming capacity was observed. Our results suggest that oxidative stress generated by metal mixture plays an important role only in promotion phase promoting transforming capacity.

  3. Fully integrated microfluidic measurement system for real-time determination of gas and liquid mixtures composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lötters, Joost Conrad; Groenesteijn, Jarno; van der Wouden, E.J.; Sparreboom, Wouter; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Wiegerink, Remco J.

    2015-01-01

    We have designed and realised a fully integrated microfluidic measurement system for real-time determination of both flow rate and composition of gas- and liquid mixtures. The system comprises relative permittivity sensors, pressure sensors, a Coriolis flow and density sensor, a thermal flow sensor

  4. Non-linearity parameter of binary liquid mixtures at elevated pressures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    parameter B/A of four binary liquid mixtures using Tong and Dong equation at high pressures and .... in general as regular or ideal as no recognized association takes place between the unlike molecules. In this case ... Using the definition and.

  5. Density, viscosity and surface tension of liquid phase Beckmann rearrangement mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidhof, K.T.; Croon, de M.H.J.M.; Schouten, J.C.; Tinge, J.T.

    2015-01-01

    We have determined the density, dynamic viscosity, and surface tension of liquid phase Beckmann rearrangement mixtures, consisting of e-caprolactam and fuming oleum. These important properties have been measured in wide ranges of both temperature and molar ratios of acid and e-caprolactam, covering

  6. Construction of Lines of Constant Density and Constant Refractive Index for Ternary Liquid Mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasic, Aleksandar Z.; Djordjevic, Bojan D.

    1983-01-01

    Demonstrates construction of density constant and refractive index constant lines in triangular coordinate system on basis of systematic experimental determinations of density and refractive index for both homogeneous (single-phase) ternary liquid mixtures (of known composition) and the corresponding binary compositions. Background information,…

  7. Computer simulation of solid-liquid coexistence in binary hard sphere mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranendonk, W.G.T.; Frenkel, D.

    1991-01-01

    We present the results of a computer simulation study of the solid-liquid coexistence of a binary hard sphere mixture for diameter ratios in the range 0·85 ⩽ ğa ⩽ 1>·00. For the solid phase we only consider substitutionally disordered FCC and HCP crystals. For 0·9425 < α < 1·00 we find a

  8. Two component plasma vortex approach to fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikuta, Kazunari.

    1978-09-01

    Two component operation of the field reversed theta pinch plasma by injection of the energetic ion beam with energy of the order of 1 MeV is considered. A possible trapping scheme of the ion beam in the plasma is discussed in detail. (author)

  9. Measurements and modeling of quaternary (liquid + liquid) equilibria for mixtures of (methanol or ethanol + water + toluene + n-dodecane)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad Doulabi, F.S.; Mohsen-Nia, M.; Modarress, H.

    2006-01-01

    The extraction of aromatic compound toluene from alkane, dodecane, by mixed solvents (water + methanol) (water + ethanol) and (methanol + ethanol) have been studied by (liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) measurements at three temperatures (298.15, 303.15, and 313.15) K and ambient pressure. The compositions of liquid phases at equilibrium were determined by gas liquid chromatography. The experimental tie-line data for three quaternary mixtures of {(water + methanol) + toluene + dodecane}, {(water + ethanol) + toluene + dodecane}, and {(methanol + ethanol) + toluene + dodecane} are presented. The experimental quaternary LLE data have been satisfactorily correlated by using the UNIQUAC and NRTL activity coefficient models. The parameters of the models have been evaluated and presented. The tie-line data of the studied quaternary mixtures also were correlated using the Hand method. The partition coefficients and the selectivity factor of solvent are calculated and compared for the three mixed solvents. The comparisons indicate that the selectivity factor for mixed solvent (methanol + ethanol) is higher than the other two mixed solvents at the three studied temperatures. However, considering the temperature variations of partition coefficients of toluene in two liquid phases at equilibrium, an optimum temperature may be obtained for an efficient extraction of toluene from dodecane by the mixed solvents

  10. Liquid, urea group-containing polyisocyanate mixtures and plastics derived therefrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buethe, I.; Marx, M.; Schoenleben, W.

    1988-04-05

    The invention relates to urea group-containing polyisocyanate mixtures which are liquid at room temperature and have an isocyanate group content of from 15 to 30 weight percent and a diphenylmethane diisocyanate content of from 55 to 90 weight percent. These mixtures are obtained through the reaction of polyoxyalkylene polyamines having a functionality of from 2 to 5 and an amine number from 20 to 250 with a polyisocyanate selected from the group consisting of: a mixture of diphenylmethane diisocyanates and polyphenyl polymethylene polysocyanates having a diphenylmethane diisocyanate content of from 55 to 90 wt%, or at least one diphenylmethane diisocyanate isomer. The polyisocyanate mixtures claimed in the invention are used to prepare dense or cellular polyurethane and/or polyisocyanurate plastics, in particular, flexible polyurethane foams.

  11. Chromonic liquid crystalline nematic phase exhibited in binary mixture of two liquid crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Govindaiah, T. N., E-mail: tngovi.phy@gmail.com; Sreepad, H. R. [Post-Graduate Department of Physics, Government College (Autonomous), Mandya-571401 (India); Sridhar, K. N.; Sridhara, G. R.; Nagaraja, N. [Government College for Boys, Kolar-563101 (India)

    2015-06-24

    A binary mixture of abietic acid and orthophosphoric acid (H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}) exhibits co-existence of biphasic region of Nematic+Isotropic (N+I), lyotropic Nematic (ND) and Smectic-G (SmG) phases. The mixture exhibits N+I, N and SmG phases at different concentrations and at different temperatures. Mixtures with all concentrations of abietic acid exhibit I→N+I→N→SmG phases sequentially when the specimen is cooled from its isotropic melt. These phases have been characterized by using differential scanning calorimetric, X-ray diffraction, and optical texture studies.

  12. Liquid--vapor isotope fractionation factors in argon--krypton binary mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.W.; Neufeld, P.; Bigeleisen, J.

    1977-01-01

    An equilibrium isotope effect has been studied as a continuous function of the potential field acting on the atom undergoing isotopic exchange. This has been accomplished through a study of the liquid vapor isotope fractionation factors for both, 36 Ar/ 40 Ar and 80 Kr/ 84 Kr in a series of binary mixtures which span the range between the pure components at 117.5 0 K. The 36 Ar/ 40 Ar fractionation factor increases (linearly) from (lnα)2.49 x 10 -3 in pure liquid argon to 2.91 x 10 -3 in an infinitely dilute solution in liquid krypton. Conversely, the 80 Kr/ 84 Kr fractionation factor decreases (linearly) from (lnα)0.98 x 10 -3 in pure liquid krypton to 0.64 x 10 -3 in an infinetely dilute solution in pure liquid argon. The mean force constants 2 U>/sub c/ on both argon and krypton atoms in the mixtures are derived from the respective isotope fractionation factors.The mean force constants for argon and krypton as a function of composition have been calculated by a modified corresponding states theory which uses the pure liquids as input parameters. The discrepancy is 8 percent at X/sub Ar/ + O. A systematic set of calculations has been made of 2 U> (Ar) and 2 U> (Kr) as a function of composition using radial distribution functions generated by the Weeks--Chandler--Anderson perturbation theory

  13. Thermodynamic properties of binary mixtures combining two pyridinium-based ionic liquids and two alkanols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Mardones, Mónica; Barrós, Alba; Bandrés, Isabel; Artigas, Héctor; Lafuente, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Thermodynamic properties of an ionic liquid and an alkanol have been reported. ► The ionic liquids studied were 1-butyl-3 (or 4)-methylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate. ► The alkanols were methanol and ethanol. ► From measured data excess properties have been obtained and correlated. - Abstract: Densities and speeds of sound have been determined for the binary mixtures containing an ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate or 1-butyl-4-methylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate) and an alkanol (methanol or ethanol) over the temperature range (293.15 to 323.15) K. Excess volumes and excess isentropic compressibilities have been calculated from density and speed of sound data and correlated. All the mixtures show negative values for these excess properties. Furthermore, the isothermal (vapour + liquid) equilibrium has been measured at T = (303.15 and 323.15) K, and the corresponding activity coefficients and excess Gibbs functions have been obtained. In this case, positive excess Gibbs functions have been found. We have carried out an exhaustive interpretation of the experimental results in terms of structural and energetic effects taking also into account the thermodynamic information of pure compounds. Finally, in order to study the influence of both, the presence and the position of methyl group in the cation, we have compared the results of these systems with those obtained for the mixtures formed by 1-butylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate and methanol or ethanol.

  14. Liquid-liquid extraction of Th4+ and UO22+ by LIX-26 and its mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.; Panda, C.R.; Chakravortty, V.; Dash, K.C.

    1988-01-01

    Solvent extractions of thorium(IV) and uranium(VI) by a commercially available chelating extractant LIX-26 (an alkylated 8-hydroxyquinoline) of 8-hydroxyquinoline, benzoic or salicylic acid, dipentyl sulfoxide (DPSO) and their mixtures with butanol as modifier in benzene/methylisobutyl ketone (MIBK) as a diluent were studied. The influence of concentration of various anions on the extraction of Th 4+ by mixtures of LIX-26 and benzoic acid was studied. Studies on extraction of thorium(IV) and uranium(VI) by mixtures of LIX-26 (HQ) and DPSO show that the extracted species are possibly of the type [(ThQ 2 (DPSO) 2 (SCN) 2 )] and [(UO 2 Q 2 (DPSO)]), respectively. (author) 22 refs.; 8 figs

  15. Ideal gas solubilities and solubility selectivities in a binary mixture of room-temperature ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finotello, Alexia; Bara, Jason E; Narayan, Suguna; Camper, Dean; Noble, Richard D

    2008-02-28

    This study focuses on the solubility behaviors of CO2, CH4, and N2 gases in binary mixtures of imidazolium-based room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) using 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([C2mim][Tf2N]) and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([C2mim][BF4]) at 40 degrees C and low pressures (approximately 1 atm). The mixtures tested were 0, 25, 50, 75, 90, 95, and 100 mol % [C2mim][BF4] in [C2mim][Tf2N]. Results show that regular solution theory (RST) can be used to describe the gas solubility and selectivity behaviors in RTIL mixtures using an average mixture solubility parameter or an average measured mixture molar volume. Interestingly, the solubility selectivity, defined as the ratio of gas mole fractions in the RTIL mixture, of CO2 with N2 or CH4 in pure [C2mim][BF4] can be enhanced by adding 5 mol % [C2mim][Tf2N].

  16. Experimental and predicted refractive index properties in ternary mixtures of associated liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sechenyh, Vitaliy V.; Legros, Jean-Claude; Shevtsova, Valentina

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Measurements of refractive indices of 200 different aqueous ternary mixtures have been performed for two wave lengths. → Refractive indices of the associated ternary mixtures can be modeled with a relative error of about 0.9. → Difference between experimental and calculated derivatives of refractive index with concentration is unsatisfactory large. - Abstract: Refractive indices of ternary mixtures formed by (water + ethanol + k-ethylene glycol) (when k is mono, di or tri) and (water + t-butanol + dimethyl sulfoxide) are presented over a wide range of mixture compositions. All measurements have been conducted at 298.15 K and atmospheric pressure using two light sources: one in the visible (λ = 670 nm) and the other in the infrared (λ = 925 nm) spectrum. The performance of several mixing rules that are commonly used in modeling optical constants are examined. We demonstrate that the refractive indices of the associated ternary mixtures can be modeled with a relative error of about 0.9% by using the thermodynamical properties of the pure components. The concentration derivatives of the refractive index are an important parameter, as they are required for different experimental techniques. These derivatives have been determined from the experimental data on refractive indices. However, applying mixing rules for calculation of the derivatives of the refractive indices with respect to concentrations does not provide satisfactory results in the case of ternary mixtures of associated liquids.

  17. Problems of hydrogen - water vapor - inert gas mixture use in heavy liquid metal coolant technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ul'yanov, V.V.; Martynov, P.N.; Gulevskij, V.A.; Teplyakov, Yu.A.; Fomin, A.S.

    2014-01-01

    The reasons of slag deposit formation in circulation circuits with heavy liquid metal coolants, which can cause reactor core blockage, are considered. To prevent formation of deposits hydrogen purification of coolant and surfaces of circulation circuit is used. It consists in introduction of gaseous mixtures hydrogen - water vapor - rare gas (argon or helium) directly into coolant flow. The principle scheme of hydrogen purification and the processes occurring during it are under consideration. Measures which make it completely impossible to overlap of the flow cross section of reactor core, steam generators, pumps and other equipment by lead oxides in reactor facilities with heavy liquid metal coolants are listed [ru

  18. Recent developments in thermodynamics and thermophysics of non-aqueous mixtures containing ionic liquids. A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heintz, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    Mixtures of ionic liquids with organic solvents exhibit a most interesting research area in thermodynamics. The increasing utilization of ionic liquids in chemical processes and separation processes requires reliable and systematic data of thermodynamic and thermophysical properties such as activity coefficients, VLE and LLE data, heats of mixing as well as gas solubility data, densities and transport properties like viscosity, electric conductivity and mutual diffusion coefficients. This review presents an survey of the most recent data material including current developments and aspects of research activities needed in the future

  19. Thermally excited capillary waves at vapor/liquid interfaces of water-alcohol mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaknin, David; Bu Wei; Sung, Jaeho; Jeon, Yoonnam; Kim, Doseok

    2009-01-01

    The density profiles of liquid/vapor interfaces of water-alcohol (methanol, ethanol and propanol) mixtures were studied by surface-sensitive synchrotron x-ray scattering techniques. X-ray reflectivity and diffuse scattering measurements, from the pure and mixed liquids, were analyzed in the framework of capillary wave theory to address the characteristic length scales of the intrinsic roughness and the shortest capillary wavelength (alternatively, the upper wavevector cutoff in capillary wave theory). Our results establish that the intrinsic roughness is dominated by average interatomic distances. The extracted effective upper wavevector cutoff indicates capillary wave theory breaks down at distances of the order of bulk correlation lengths.

  20. Investigation on the structure of liquid N-methylformamide-dimethylsulfoxide mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, João M. M.; Soper, Alan K.

    2011-03-01

    The structures of liquid mixtures of N-methylformamide (NMF) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) at two concentrations (80% and 50% NMF) are investigated using a combination of neutron diffraction augmented with isotopic substitution and empirical potential structure refinement simulations. The results indicate that the NMF and DMSO molecules are hydrogen-bonded to one another with a preference for NMF-DMSO hydrogen bonding, compared to the NMF-NMF ones. The liquid is orientationally structured as a consequence of these hydrogen bonds between molecules. NMF-DMSO dimers are very stable species in the bulk of the mixture. The structure of the dimers is such that the angle between the molecular dipole moments is around 60°. The NMF molecules are well solvated in DMSO with potential implications for peptides solvation in this solvent.

  1. Divergent trend in density versus viscosity of ionic liquid/water mixtures: a molecular view from guanidinium ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Akhil Pratap; Gardas, Ramesh L; Senapati, Sanjib

    2015-10-14

    Ionic liquids (ILs) have shown great potential in the dissolution and stability of biomolecules when a low-to-moderate quantity of water is added. Hence, determining the thermophysical properties and understanding these novel mixtures at the molecular level are of both fundamental and practical importance. In this context, here we report the synthesis of two nontoxic guanidinium cation based ILs, tetramethylguanidinium benzoate [TMG][BEN] and tetramethylguanidinium salicylate [TMG][SAL], and present a detailed comparison of their thermophysical properties in the presence of water. The results show that the [TMG][SAL]/water mixtures have higher density and higher apparent molar volume, but a lower viscosity and higher compressibility than the [TNG][BEN]/water mixtures. The measured viscosity and compressibility data are explained from ab initio quantum mechanical calculations and liquid-phase molecular dynamics simulations, where salicylate anions of denser [TMG][SAL]/water were found to exist as isolated ions due to intramolecular H-bonding. On the contrary, intermolecular H-bonding among the benzoate anions and their strong tendency to form an extended H-bonding network with water made [TMG][BEN]/water solutions more viscous and less compressible. This study shows the importance of probing these emerging solvents at the molecular-to-atomic level, which could be helpful in their optimal usage for task-specific applications.

  2. Refractive indices of ternary liquid mixtures containing aliphatic alcohols at several temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sovilj Milan N.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The refractive indices of ternary liquid mixtures (2-propanol+2-butanol+ethanol and (chloroform+2-propanol+2-butanol were measured at 20, 25, 30, and 35°C, and atmospheric pressure. The results were used to calculate the refractive index deviations over the entire mole fraction range for the mixtures. The refractive index deviations for the ternary mixtures were further fitted to empirical correlations (Cibulka Nagata-Tamura, and Lopez et al to estimate the ternary fitting parameters. Standard deviations and average percentage deviations from the regression lines are shown. The best fit was obtained by the Nagata-Tamura empirical correlation. Some of the existing predictive equations for the refractive index deviations (Tsao-Smith, Köhler, and Colinet were tested.

  3. Excess enthalpies and (vapour + liquid) equilibrium data for the binary mixtures of dimethylsulphoxide with ketones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radhamma, M.; Venkatesu, P.; Rao, M.V. Prabhakara; Prasad, D.H.L.

    2007-01-01

    Excess enthalpies (H E ), at ambient pressure and T = 298.15 K, have been measured by using a solution calorimeter for the binary liquid mixtures of dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) with ketones, as a function of composition. The ketones chosen in the present investigation were methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK), and cyclohexanone (CH). The H E values are positive over the entire composition range for the three binary mixtures. Furthermore, the (vapour + liquid) equilibrium (VLE) was measured at 715 Torr for these mixtures, of different compositions, with the help of Swietoslawski-ebulliometer. The experimental temperature-mole fraction (t-x) data were used to compute Wilson parameters and then used to calculate the equilibrium vapour-phase compositions as well as the theoretical points for these binary mixtures. These Wilson parameters are used to calculate activity coefficients (γ) and these in turn to calculate excess Gibbs free energy (G E ). The intermolecular interactions and structural effects were analyzed on the basis of the measured and derived properties

  4. Experimental Investigation Evaporation of Liquid Mixture Droplets during Depressurization into Air Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L.; Bi, Q. C.; Terekhov, Victor I.; Shishkin, Nikolay E.

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this study is to develop experimental method to study the evaporation process of liquid mixture droplets during depressurization and into air stream. During the experiment, a droplet was suspended on a thermocouple; an infrared thermal imager was used to measure the droplet surface temperature transition. Saltwater droplets were used to investigate the evaporation process during depressurization, and volatile liquid mixtures of ethanol, methanol and acetone in water were applied to experimentally research the evaporation into air stream. According to the results, the composition and concentration has a complex influence on the evaporation rate and the temperature transition. With an increase in the share of more volatile component, the evaporation rate increases. While, a higher salt concentration in water results in a lower evaporation rate. The shape variation of saltwater droplet also depends on the mass concentration in solution, whether it is higher or lower than the eutectic point (22.4%). The results provide important insight into the complex heat and mass transfer of liquid mixture during evaporation.

  5. Formulation of electroclinic, ferroelectric and antiferroelectric liquid crystal mixtures suitable for display devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Asim; Goswami, Debarghya; Mandal, Pradip Kumar

    2018-04-01

    Most of the liquid crystal display (LCD) devices starting from simplest wrist watches or calculators to complex laptops or flat TV sets are based on nematics. Although a tremendous improvement in the quality of display as well as reduction of manufacturing cost has taken place over the years, there are many issues which the LC industry is trying hard to address. Ferroelectric liquid crystals (FLC) are of current interest in the LCD industry since among various other advantages FLC based displays have micro-second order switching compared to milli-second order switching in nematic based displays. To meet the market demand much effort has been made to optimize the physical parameters of FLCs, such as temperature range, spontaneous polarization (PS), helical pitch (p), switching time (τ), tilt angle (θ) and rotational viscosity (γ). Multicomponent mixtures are, therefore, formulated to optimize all the required properties for practical applications since no single FLC compound can satisfy the above requirements. To the best of our knowledge electroclinic, ferroelectric and antiferroelectric liquid crystal mixtures have been formulated first time by any Indian group which have properties suitable for FLC based display devices and at par with mixtures used in the industry.

  6. Effect of the oxygen balance on ignition and detonation properties of liquid explosive mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genetier, M; Osmont, A; Baudin, G

    2014-01-01

    The objective is to compare the ignition and detonation properties of various liquid high explosives having negative up to positive oxygen balance (OB): nitromethane (OB < 0), saccharose and hydrogen peroxide based mixture (quasi nil OB), hydrogen peroxide with more than 90% purity (OB > 0). The decomposition kinetic rates and the equations of state (EOS) for the liquid mixtures and detonation products (DP) are the input data for a detonation model. EOS are theoretically determined using the Woolfolk et al. universal liquid polar shock law and thermochemical computations for DP. The decomposition kinetic rate laws are determined to reproduce the shock to detonation transition for the mixtures submitted to planar plate impacts. Such a model is not sufficient to compute open field explosions. The aerial overpressure is well reproduced in the first few microseconds, however, after it becomes worse at large expansion of the fireball and the impulse is underestimated. The problem of the DP EOS alone is that it takes only the detonation into account, the secondary combustion DP – air is not considered. To solve this problem a secondary combustion model has been developed to take the OB effect into account. The detonation model has been validated on planar plate impact experiments. The secondary combustion parameters were deduced from thermochemical computations. The whole model has been used to predict the effects of the oxygen balance on open air blast effects of spherical charges.

  7. Mutual diffusion of binary liquid mixtures containing methanol, ethanol, acetone, benzene, cyclohexane, toluene, and carbon tetrachloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guevara-Carrion, Gabriela; Janzen, Tatjana; Muñoz-Muñoz, Y. Mauricio; Vrabec, Jadran, E-mail: jadran.vrabec@uni-paderborn.de [Thermodynamics and Energy Technology, University of Paderborn, 33098 Paderborn (Germany)

    2016-03-28

    Mutual diffusion coefficients of all 20 binary liquid mixtures that can be formed out of methanol, ethanol, acetone, benzene, cyclohexane, toluene, and carbon tetrachloride without a miscibility gap are studied at ambient conditions of temperature and pressure in the entire composition range. The considered mixtures show a varying mixing behavior from almost ideal to strongly non-ideal. Predictive molecular dynamics simulations employing the Green-Kubo formalism are carried out. Radial distribution functions are analyzed to gain an understanding of the liquid structure influencing the diffusion processes. It is shown that cluster formation in mixtures containing one alcoholic component has a significant impact on the diffusion process. The estimation of the thermodynamic factor from experimental vapor-liquid equilibrium data is investigated, considering three excess Gibbs energy models, i.e., Wilson, NRTL, and UNIQUAC. It is found that the Wilson model yields the thermodynamic factor that best suits the simulation results for the prediction of the Fick diffusion coefficient. Four semi-empirical methods for the prediction of the self-diffusion coefficients and nine predictive equations for the Fick diffusion coefficient are assessed and it is found that methods based on local composition models are more reliable. Finally, the shear viscosity and thermal conductivity are predicted and in most cases favorably compared with experimental literature values.

  8. Phase behaviour, interactions, and structural studies of (amines+ionic liquids) binary mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquemin, Johan; Bendová, Magdalena; Sedláková, Zuzana; Blesic, Marijana; Holbrey, John D; Mullan, Claire L; Youngs, Tristan G A; Pison, Laure; Wagner, Zdeněk; Aim, Karel; Costa Gomes, Margarida F; Hardacre, Christopher

    2012-05-14

    We present a study on the phase equilibrium behaviour of binary mixtures containing two 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bis{(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl}imide-based ionic liquids, [C(n)mim] [NTf(2)] (n=2 and 4), mixed with diethylamine or triethylamine as a function of temperature and composition using different experimental techniques. Based on this work, two systems showing an LCST and one system with a possible hourglass shape are measured. Their phase behaviours are then correlated and predicted by using Flory-Huggins equations and the UNIQUAC method implemented in Aspen. The potential of the COSMO-RS methodology to predict the phase equilibria was also tested for the binary systems studied. However, this methodology is unable to predict the trends obtained experimentally, limiting its use for systems involving amines in ionic liquids. The liquid-state structure of the binary mixture ([C(2)mim] [NTf(2)]+diethylamine) is also investigated by molecular dynamics simulation and neutron diffraction. Finally, the absorption of gaseous ethane by the ([C(2)mim][NTf(2)]+diethylamine) binary mixture is determined and compared with that observed in the pure solvents. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Phase Diagram of Binary Mixture E7:TM74A Liquid Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serafin Delica

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Although there are many liquid crystalline materials, difficulty is often experienced in obtaining LCs that are stable and has a wide mesophase range. In this study, mixtures of two different LCs were used to formulate a technologically viable LC operating at room temperature. Nematic E7(BDH and cholesteric TM74A were mixed at different weight ratios at 10% increments. Transition temperatures were determined via Differential Scanning Calorimetry and phase identification was done using Optical Polarizing Microscopy. The phase diagram showed the existence of three different phases for the temperature range of 10-80°C. Mixtures with 0-20% E7 exhibit only the cholesteric-nematic mesophase, which could be due to the mixture's being largely TM74A and its behavior in the temperature range considered is similar to the behavior of pure TM74A. With an increase in the concentration of E7, the smectic phase of the pure cholesteric was enhanced, as seen from the increased transition to the cholesteric-nematic phase and a broader smectic range. The cholesteric-nematic to isotropic transition increased as the nematic concentration increases, following the behavior expected from LC mixtures. For mixtures that are largely nematic (more than 50% E7, the smectic phase has vanished and the cholesteric-nematic phase dominated from 30-60°C.

  10. Molar excess volumes of liquid hydrogen and neon mixtures from path integral simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Challa, S.R.; Johnson, J.K.

    1999-01-01

    Volumetric properties of liquid mixtures of neon and hydrogen have been calculated using path integral hybrid Monte Carlo simulations. Realistic potentials have been used for the three interactions involved. Molar volumes and excess volumes of these mixtures have been evaluated for various compositions at 29 and 31.14 K, and 30 atm. Significant quantum effects are observed in molar volumes. Quantum simulations agree well with experimental molar volumes. Calculated excess volumes agree qualitatively with experimental values. However, contrary to the existing understanding that large positive deviations from ideal mixtures are caused due to quantum effects in Ne - H 2 mixtures, both classical as well as quantum simulations predict the large positive deviations from ideal mixtures. Further investigations using two other Ne - H 2 potentials of Lennard - Jones (LJ) type show that excess volumes are very sensitive to the cross-interaction potential. We conclude that the cross-interaction potential employed in our simulations is accurate for volumetric properties. This potential is more repulsive compared to the two LJ potentials tested, which have been obtained by two different combining rules. This repulsion and a comparatively lower potential well depth can explain the positive deviations from ideal mixing. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  11. Easy prediction of the refractive index for binary mixtures of ionic liquids with water or ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rilo, E.; Domínguez-Pérez, M.; Vila, J.; Segade, L.; García, M.; Varela, L.M.; Cabeza, O.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We measure refractive index, n, in seven systems formed by IL + water or ethanol. ► Independently, theoretical estimations of the refractive index values were performed. ► To do that we use Gladstone–Dale and Newton models, relating n and density. ► We calculate density of each system from the value of the pure components. ► The agreement between experimental and calculated n values is about 99.8%. - Abstract: In this paper, we demonstrate that it is possible to know the refractive index, n D , of every given mixture of 1-alkyl-3methyl imidazolium tetrafluoroborate with water and ethanol just from the knowledge of the refractive index and density of pure components. To do that, we measured n D for seven different mixtures in all range of existing concentrations and, independently, we deduce n D theoretically. Both sets of values differ less than a 0.2% on average. The theoretical deduction takes into account that these mixtures are quasi-ideal from the molar volume point of view, as recently published, and so density for any composition of the mixture can be obtained with a precision better than 0.5% from the pure compounds value. Now we simply apply Newton or Gladstone–Dale models, which relate the refractive index of a binary mixture with its density from the value of both pure components, without any fitting parameter. Both models are very similar in form and in the values they deduce (less than a 0.2% of difference), but while that of Newton performs slightly better for ethanol mixtures, the model of Gladstone–Dale gives some better results for aqueous mixtures. We think that these results can be extended to the majority of ionic liquid plus solvent systems.

  12. Quantum liquid droplets in a mixture of Bose-Einstein condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, C. R.; Tanzi, L.; Sanz, J.; Naylor, B.; Thomas, P.; Cheiney, P.; Tarruell, L.

    2018-01-01

    Quantum droplets are small clusters of atoms self-bound by the balance of attractive and repulsive forces. Here, we report on the observation of droplets solely stabilized by contact interactions in a mixture of two Bose-Einstein condensates. We demonstrate that they are several orders of magnitude more dilute than liquid helium by directly measuring their size and density via in situ imaging. We show that the droplets are stablized against collapse by quantum fluctuations and that they require a minimum atom number to be stable. Below that number, quantum pressure drives a liquid-to-gas transition that we map out as a function of interaction strength. These ultradilute isotropic liquids remain weakly interacting and constitute an ideal platform to benchmark quantum many-body theories.

  13. Phase separation temperatures of a liquid mixture: Dynamic light scattering technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dangudom, K.; Wongtawatnugool, C.; Lacharojana, S.

    2010-01-01

    Light scattering intensity measurements and photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) techniques were employed in an investigation of liquid-liquid phase separation behaviour of a mixture of cyclohexane and methanol at seven different compositions. It was found that, except for one composition (29% methanol), the temperature at which the scattering intensity was a maximum did not coincide with the one where the diffusion coefficient was a minimum, as would be for the case of a vapour-liquid system. The difference may be explained in terms of the local density fluctuation and the random walk problem responsible for the peak intensity and the minimum in the diffusion coefficient, respectively. The definition of phase separation temperature, as determined from diffusion process, was also proposed in this work.

  14. Fundamental Study of Sorption of Pure Liquids and Liquid Mixtures into Polymeric Membrane

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Randová, A.; Bartovská, L.; Friess, K.; Hovorka, Š.; Izák, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 61, DEC 2014 (2014), s. 64-71 ISSN 0014-3057 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP106/12/0569 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : organic liquids * gravimetric sorption * flat polymer membrane Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 3.005, year: 2014

  15. Two Component Signal Transduction in Desulfovibrio Species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luning, Eric; Rajeev, Lara; Ray, Jayashree; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila

    2010-05-17

    The environmentally relevant Desulfovibrio species are sulfate-reducing bacteria that are of interest in the bioremediation of heavy metal contaminated water. Among these, the genome of D. vulgaris Hildenborough encodes a large number of two component systems consisting of 72 putative response regulators (RR) and 64 putative histidinekinases (HK), the majority of which are uncharacterized. We classified the D. vulgaris Hildenborough RRs based on their output domains and compared the distribution of RRs in other sequenced Desulfovibrio species. We have successfully purified most RRs and several HKs as His-tagged proteins. We performed phospho-transfer experiments to verify relationships between cognate pairs of HK and RR, and we have also mapped a few non-cognate HK-RR pairs. Presented here are our discoveries from the Desulfovibrio RR categorization and results from the in vitro studies using purified His tagged D. vulgaris HKs and RRs.

  16. Primordial two-component maximally symmetric inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enqvist, K.; Nanopoulos, D. V.; Quirós, M.; Kounnas, C.

    1985-12-01

    We propose a two-component inflation model, based on maximally symmetric supergravity, where the scales of reheating and the inflation potential at the origin are decoupled. This is possible because of the second-order phase transition from SU(5) to SU(3)×SU(2)×U(1) that takes place when φ≅φcinflation at the global minimum, and leads to a reheating temperature TR≅(1015-1016) GeV. This makes it possible to generate baryon asymmetry in the conventional way without any conflict with experimental data on proton lifetime. The mass of the gravitinos is m3/2≅1012 GeV, thus avoiding the gravitino problem. Monopoles are diluted by residual inflation in the broken phase below the cosmological bounds if φcUSA.

  17. Conductivity of two-component systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuijper, A. de; Hofman, J.P.; Waal, J.A. de [Shell Research BV, Rijswijk (Netherlands). Koninklijke/Shell Exploratie en Productie Lab.; Sandor, R.K.J. [Shell International Petroleum Maatschappij, The Hague (Netherlands)

    1996-01-01

    The authors present measurements and computer simulation results on the electrical conductivity of nonconducting grains embedded in a conductive brine host. The shapes of the grains ranged from prolate-ellipsoidal (with an axis ratio of 5:1) through spherical to oblate-ellipsoidal (with an axis ratio of 1:5). The conductivity was studied as a function of porosity and packing, and Archie`s cementation exponent was found to depend on porosity. They used spatially regular and random configurations with aligned and nonaligned packings. The experimental results agree well with the computer simulation data. This data set will enable extensive tests of models for calculating the anisotropic conductivity of two-component systems.

  18. Structural and interactional behaviour of aqueous mixture of room temperature ionic liquid; 2-hydroxyethyl-trimethylammonium L-lactate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhary, Ganga Ram; Bansal, Shafila; Mehta, S.K.; Ahluwalia, A.S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermophysical and spectroscopic properties of aqueous mixtures 2-[HE3MA]LAC have been measured. • Effect of temperature on thermophysical properties has also been studied. • Stronger intermolecular have been observed between [HE3MA]LAC and H 2 O. • Magnitude of interactions decreases with the rise in temperature. • Spectroscopic studies shows interactions between -N + -(CH 3 ) 3 with -OH - group and COO − with -H + of IL and H 2 O. - Abstract: In order to understand the molecular interactions between the green solvent system, (water + lactate based ionic liquid); 2-hydroxyethyl-trimethylammonium L-lactate ([(C 2 H 4 OH)(CH 3 ) 3 N][Lactate]), the thermophysical properties viz. density ρ, speed of sound u, specific conductivity κ, refractive index n D and spectroscopic properties viz. IR, 1 H and 13 C NMR have been investigated over the whole composition range at atmospheric pressure with temperature varied from (293.15 to 323.15) K. To gain more insight of intermolecular interactions occurring in the aqueous mixture of [(C 2 H 4 OH)(CH 3 ) 3 N][Lactate], intermolecular free length L f , acoustic impedance Z, relative association R A , excess molar volume V E , deviations in isentropic compressibility ΔK S , partial molar excess volume V i E , partial molar deviations in isentropic compressibility ΔK S,i , deviation in specific conductivity Δκ and deviation in refractive index Δn D have been predicted as a function of IL concentration over the whole composition range. These results have been fitted to the Redlich–Kister polynomial. A large deviation from ideality has been observed on mixing water and [(C 2 H 4 OH)(CH 3 ) 3 N][Lactate] which are due to the formation of strong intermolecular hydrogen bonding between the two molecules. Also, it has been noticed that the mixture of water and [(C 2 H 4 OH)(CH 3 ) 3 N][Lactate] became warm that indicates mixing of these two components is exothermic. Thermodynamic and spectroscopic data

  19. Structure of ionic liquid-water mixtures at interfaces: x-ray and neutron reflectometry studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauw, Yansen; Rodopoulos, Theo; Horne, Mike; Follink, Bart; Hamilton, Bill; Knott, Robert; Nelson, Andy

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Fundamental studies on the effect of water in ionic liquids are necessary since the overall performance of ionic liquids in many industrial applications is often hampered by the presence of water.[1] Based on this understanding, the surface and interfacial structures of 1-butyl-1methylpyrrolidinium trifluoromethylsulfonylimide [C4mpyr][NTf2] ionic liquid-water mixtures were probed using x-ray and neutron reflectometry techniques. At the gas-liquid surface, a thick cation+water layer was detected next to the phase boundary, followed by an increasing presence of anion towards the bulk. The overall thickness of the surface exhibits non-monotonic trends with an increasing water content, which explains similar phenomenological trends in surface tension reported in the literature.[2] At an electrified interface, the interfacial structure of pure ionic liquids probed by neutron reflectometry shows similar trends to those predicted by a mean-field model.[3] However, the presence of water within the electrical double-layer is less obvious, although it is widely known that water reduces electrochemical window of ionic liquids. To shed light on this issue, further studies are currently in progress.

  20. Experimental study of single taylor bubbles rising in stagnant liquid mixtures inside of vertical tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, Marcos B. de; Faccini, Jose L.H.; Su, Jian

    2015-01-01

    The present work reports an experimental study of single Taylor bubbles rising in vertical tubes filled with water-glycerin mixtures by using the pulse-echo ultrasonic technique. A 2m long acrylic tube with inner diameter of 24 mm was used in the experiments. Initially, the tube was sealed at the ends and filled partially with the liquid mixtures to leave an air pocket of length L 0 at the top end. A Taylor bubble was formed by the inversion of the tube. The rising bubbles were detected by ultrasonic transducers located at the upper part of the tube. The velocity, the length and the pro le of the bubbles and the thickness of the liquid lm around them were obtained from the ultrasonic signals processing. The liquid lm thickness in the vertical tube was also determined by a graphic method that relates the bubble length L b with the initial length of the air pocket L 0 . It was observed that the bubble velocity decreased with increasing viscosity, while the lm thickness increased. It was shown that the liquid lm thickness determined by the graphic method fitted well the higher viscosities data, but overestimated the lower viscosities data. Additionally, the results indicated that some correlations developed to estimate the thickness of liquid films falling down inside/outside of tubes and down a plane surface could be applied to estimate the thickness of liquid films falling around Taylor bubbles in an Inverse Viscosity Number (N f ) range different to those considered in the literature. (author)

  1. The wetting of planar solid surfaces by symmetric binary mixtures near bulk gas-liquid coexistence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woywod, Dirk; Schoen, Martin

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the wetting of planar, nonselective solid substrates by symmetric binary mixtures where the attraction strength between like molecules of components A and B is the same, that is ε AA ε BB AB vertical bar ≤ vertical bar ε AA vertical bar, that is by varying the attraction between a pair of unlike molecules. By means of mean-field lattice density functional calculations we observe a rich wetting behaviour as a result of the interplay between ε AB and the attraction of fluid molecules by the solid substrate ε W . In accord with previous studies we observe complete wetting only above the critical end point if the bulk mixture exhibits a moderate to weak tendency to liquid-liquid phase separation even for relatively strong fluid-substrate attraction. However, in this case layering transitions may arise below the temperature of the critical end point. For strongly phase separating mixtures complete wetting is observed for all temperatures T ≥0 along the line of discontinuous phase transitions in the bulk

  2. Mixtures of glyme and aprotic-protic ionic liquids as electrolytes for energy storage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stettner, T.; Huang, P.; Goktas, M.; Adelhelm, P.; Balducci, A.

    2018-05-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) have been proven to be promising electrolytes for electrochemical energy storage devices such as supercapacitors and lithium ion batteries. In the last years, due to deficiency in storage of lithium on earth, innovative systems, such as sodium-based devices, attracted considerable attention. IL-based electrolytes have been proposed also as electrolytes for these devices. Nevertheless, in the case of these systems, the advantages and limits of IL-based electrolytes need to be further investigated. In this work we report an investigation about the chemical-physical properties of mixtures containing bis(2-methoxyethyl)ether diglyme (2G), which is presently considered as one of the most interesting solvents for sodium-based devices, and the ionic liquids 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (Pyr14TFSI) and 1-butylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (PyrH4TFSI). The conductivities, viscosities, and densities of several mixtures of 2G and these ILs have been investigated. Furthermore, their impact on the electrochemical behaviour of activated carbon composite electrodes has been considered. The results of this investigation indicate that these mixtures are promising electrolytes for the realization of advanced sodium-based devices.

  3. Excess molar volumes of binary mixtures (an ionic liquid + water): A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahadur, Indra; Letcher, Trevor M.; Singh, Sangeeta; Redhi, Gan G.; Venkatesu, Pannuru; Ramjugernath, Deresh

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Review of excess molar volumes for mixtures of (ionic liquids (ILs) + H 2 O). • 6 cation groups reviewed including imidazolium and pyrrolidinium groups. • 13 anions reviewed including tetraborate, triflate, and hydrogensulphate. • Effects of anion, cation, and temperature investigated. - Abstract: This review covers recent developments in the area of excess molar volumes for mixtures of {ILs (1) + H 2 O (2)} where ILs refers to ionic liquids involving cations: imidazolium, pyridinium, pyrrolidinium, piperidinium, morpholinium and ammonium groups; and anions: tetraborate, triflate, hydrogensulphate, methylsulphate, ethylsulphate, thiocyanate, dicyanamide, octanate, acetate, nitrate, chloride, bromide, and iodine. The excess molar volumes of aqueous ILs were found to cover a wide range of values for the different ILs (ranging from −1.7 cm 3 · mol −1 to 1.2 cm 3 · mol −1 ). The excess molar volumes increased with increasing temperature for all systems studied in this review. The magnitude and in some cases the sign of the excess molar volumes for all the aqueous ILs mixtures, apart from the ammonium ILs, were very dependent on temperature. This was particularly important in the dilute IL concentration region. It was found that the sign and magnitude of the excess molar volumes of aqueous ILs (for ILs with hydrophobic cations), was more dependent on the nature of the anion than on the cation

  4. Vapor-liquid equilibrium of ethanol/ethyl acetate mixture in ultrasonic intensified environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahdi, Taha; Ahmad, Arshad; Ripin, Adnan Nasef; Mohamed, Mahmoud [Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru (Malaysia)

    2014-05-15

    A vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) study was conducted on ethanol/ethylacetate mixture as a preliminary step towards developing an ultrasonic-assisted distillation process for separating azeotropic mixtures. The influence of ultrasonic intensity and frequency on the vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) of the mixture was examined using a combination of four ultrasonic intensities in range of 100-400W/cm{sup 2} and three frequencies ranging from 25-68 kHz. The sonication was found to have significant impacts on the VLE of the system as it alters both the relative volatility and azeotrope point, with preference to lower frequency operation. A maximum relative volatility of 2.32 was obtained at an intensity of 300 W/cm{sup 2} and a frequency of 25 kHz coupled with complete elimination of ethanol-ethyl acetate azeotrope. Results from this work were also congruent with some experimental and theoretical works presented in the literature. These findings set a good beginning towards the development of an ultrasonic assisted distillation that is currently in progress.

  5. The precise measurement of the (vapour + liquid) equilibrium properties for (CO2 + isobutane) binary mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Y.; Mizutani, K.; Miyamoto, H.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, it has been suggested that natural working fluids, such as CO 2 , hydrocarbons, and their mixtures, could provide a long-term alternative to fluorocarbon refrigerants. (Vapour + liquid) equilibrium (VLE) data for these fluids are essential for the development of equations of state, and for industrial process such as separation and refinement. However, there are large inconsistencies among the available literature data for (CO 2 + isobutane) binary mixtures, and therefore provision of reliable and new measurements with expanded uncertainties is required. In this study, we determined precise VLE data using a new re-circulating type apparatus, which was mainly designed by Akico Co., Japan. An equilibrium cell with an inner volume of about 380 cm 3 and two optical windows was used to observe the phase behaviour. The cell had re-circulating loops and expansion loops that were immersed in a thermostatted liquid bath and air bath, respectively. After establishment of a steady state in these loops, the compositions of the samples were measured by a gas chromatograph (GL Science, GC-3200). The VLE data were measured for CO 2 /propane and CO 2 /isobutane binary mixtures within the temperature range from 300 K to 330 K and at pressures up to 7 MPa. These data were compared with the available literature data and with values predicted by thermodynamic property models.

  6. Vapor-liquid equilibrium of ethanol/ethyl acetate mixture in ultrasonic intensified environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahdi, Taha; Ahmad, Arshad; Ripin, Adnan Nasef; Mohamed, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    A vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) study was conducted on ethanol/ethylacetate mixture as a preliminary step towards developing an ultrasonic-assisted distillation process for separating azeotropic mixtures. The influence of ultrasonic intensity and frequency on the vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) of the mixture was examined using a combination of four ultrasonic intensities in range of 100-400W/cm 2 and three frequencies ranging from 25-68 kHz. The sonication was found to have significant impacts on the VLE of the system as it alters both the relative volatility and azeotrope point, with preference to lower frequency operation. A maximum relative volatility of 2.32 was obtained at an intensity of 300 W/cm 2 and a frequency of 25 kHz coupled with complete elimination of ethanol-ethyl acetate azeotrope. Results from this work were also congruent with some experimental and theoretical works presented in the literature. These findings set a good beginning towards the development of an ultrasonic assisted distillation that is currently in progress

  7. Photo polymerization-induced vertical phase separation and homeotropic alignment in liquid crystal and polymer mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hyo; Joo, Sangwoo; Kang, Daeseung

    2012-01-01

    We presented a novel method for the homeotropic alignment of LC by using the irradiation of UV light on the LC/NOA65 mixture cell, in which the photo-initiated-polymerization-induced phase separation lowers the surface energy. When the amount of polymer content is sufficiently small, the gravel and network patterns were formed at the substrates via the vertical phase separation. We found that surface roughness plays an important role in the formation of the homeotropic alignment of LC. We also observed the alignment transition of the cells by varying the mixing ratio of LC/NOA65 or the UV radiation time. Furthermore, the present proposed method has great potential for application in display devices. For decades, studies on the alignment of liquid crystal (LC) molecules have been of significant interest due to their immediate applications for display devices and the intriguing physiochemical properties they exhibit at the surface of mixtures. Usually, homeotropic (or vertical) alignment, in which the long axes of the LC molecules are oriented in a direction perpendicular to the surface, is achieved by using surfactants such as lecithin, silanes or polyimide. Recently homeotropic alignment of liquid crystal molecules was achieved by irradiating photosensitive polymers, by doping nanoparticles into LC, by utilizing nano/micro patterns, or by incorporating self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). However, a clear understanding about the alignment mechanism is still elusive. In this paper, we report a novel method for homeotropic alignment of LC by utilizing the phase separation of LC/polymer mixtures

  8. The (gas + liquid) critical properties and phase behaviour of some binary alkanol (C2-C5) + alkane (C5-C12) mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morton, David W.; Lui, Matthew P.W.; Young, Colin L.

    2003-01-01

    Previously, the investigation of the (gas + liquid) critical properties of (alkanol + alkane) mixtures has focussed on (primary alkanol + straight chain alkane) mixtures. The experimental data available for (alkanol + alkane) mixtures, which include secondary or tertiary alcohols and/or branched chain alkanes, are extremely limited. This work extends the existing body of data on (alkanol + alkane) mixtures to include mixtures containing these components. Here the (gas + liquid) critical temperatures of 29 {alkanol (C 2 -C 5 ) + alkane (C 5 -C 12 )} mixtures are reported. All the (gas + liquid) critical lines for the binary mixtures studied are continuous, indicating they obey either Type I or Type II phase behaviour

  9. Surface tensions of binary mixtures of ionic liquids with bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide as the common anion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, M.B.; Domínguez-Pérez, M.; Cabeza, O.; Lopes-da-Silva, J.A.; Freire, M.G.; Coutinho, J.A.P.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel data for the surface tensions of mixtures [C 4 mim][NTf 2 ] + [C 4 C 1 mim]/[C 3 mpy]/[C 3 mpyr]/[C 3 mpip][NTf 2 ] are presented. • γ were determined at a fixed temperature, 298.2 K, and at atmospheric pressure, for the whole composition range. • Surface tension deviations showed the near ideal behavior of the selected mixtures. • Gibbs adsorption isotherms showed the surface preferential adsorption of one ionic liquid over the other. -- Abstract: While values for thermophysical properties of ionic liquids are becoming widely available, data for ionic liquid mixtures are still scarce. In an effort to overcome this limitation and understand the behavior of ionic liquid mixtures, novel data for the surface tension of mixtures composed of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, [C 4 mim][NTf 2 ], with other ionic liquids with a common anion, namely 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium, [C 4 C 1 mim] + , 3-methyl-1-propylpyridinium, [C 3 mpy] + , 1-methyl-1-propylpyrrolidinium, [C 3 mpyr] + , and 1-methyl-1-propylpiperidinium, [C 3 mpip] + , were measured at T = 298.2 K and atmospheric pressure over the entire composition range. From the surface tension deviations derived from the experimental results, it was possible to infer that the cation alkyl chain length of the second ionic liquid constituting the mixture has a stronger influence in the ideal mixture behavior than the type of family the ionic liquid cation belongs to. The Gibbs adsorption isotherms, estimated from the experimental values, show that the composition of the vapor–liquid interface is not the same as that of the bulk and that the interface is richer in the ionic liquid with the lowest surface tension, [C 4 mim][NTf 2

  10. Vapour pressures and osmotic coefficients of binary mixtures containing alcohol and pyrrolidinium-based ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvar, N.; Domínguez, Á.; Macedo, E.A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Osmotic coefficients of alcohols with pyrrolidinium ILs are determined. • Experimental data were correlated with extended Pitzer model of Archer and MNRTL. • Mean molal activity coefficients and excess Gibbs free energies were calculated. • The results have been interpreted in terms of interactions. -- Abstract: The osmotic and activity coefficients and vapour pressures of mixtures containing primary (1-propanol, 1-butanol and 1-pentanol) and secondary (2-propanol and 2-butanol) alcohols with pyrrolidinium-based ionic liquids (1-butyl-1-methyl pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, C 4 MpyrNTf 2 , and 1-butyl-1-methyl pyrrolidinium trifluoromethanesulfonate, C 4 MpyrTFO) have been experimentally determined at T = 323.15 K. For the experimental measurements, the vapour pressure osmometry technique has been used. The results on the influence of the structure of the alcohol and of the anion of the ionic liquid on the determined properties have been discussed and compared with literature data. For the correlation of the osmotic coefficients obtained, the Extended Pitzer model of Archer and the Modified Non-Random Two Liquids model were applied. The mean molal activity coefficients and the excess Gibbs energy for the studied mixtures were calculated from the parameters obtained in the correlation

  11. Experimental vapor-liquid equilibria data for binary mixtures of xylene isomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.L. Rodrigues

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Separation of aromatic C8 compounds by distillation is a difficult task due to the low relative volatilities of the compounds and to the high degree of purity required of the final commercial products. For rigorous simulation and optimization of this separation, the use of a model capable of describing vapor-liquid equilibria accurately is necessary. Nevertheless, experimental data are not available for all binaries at atmospheric pressure. Vapor-liquid equilibria data for binary mixtures were isobarically obtained with a modified Fischer cell at 100.65 kPa. The vapor and liquid phase compositions were analyzed with a gas chromatograph. The methodology was initially tested for cyclo-hexane+n-heptane data; results obtained are similar to other data in the literature. Data for xylene binary mixtures were then obtained, and after testing, were considered to be thermodynamically consistent. Experimental data were regressed with Aspen Plus® 10.1 and binary interaction parameters were reported for the most frequently used activity coefficient models and for the classic mixing rules of two cubic equations of state.

  12. Convective boiling heat transfer of mixture of immiscible two-liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hijikata, K.; Ito, H.; Mori, Y.

    1987-01-01

    Thermal energy conversion of low or middle temperature difference to electric power is conventionally made by the Rankine cycle using the organic compound as a working fluid. However, the energy conversion efficiency from thermal energy to electric power is limited by the pinch point temperature difference in the high temperature side heat exchanging. In order to avoid the efficiency ceiling due to the pinch point temperature difference, utilization of mixture of miscible two liquids as the working fluid of the Rankine cycle has been proposed and its cycle efficiency has been calculated. However, in the miscible mixture, mutual diffusion process is considered to greatly affect the thermo-fluid characteristics, but has not been clarified yet because of its complexity

  13. Robust optimization of psychotropic drug mixture separation in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakić, Tijana; Jovanović, Marko; Dumić, Aleksandra; Pekić, Marina; Ribić, Sanja; Stojanović, Biljana Jancić

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents multiobjective optimization of complex mixtures separation in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC). The selected model mixture consisted of five psychotropic drugs: clozapine, thioridazine, sulpiride, pheniramine and lamotrigine. Three factors related to the mobile phase composition (acetonitrile content, pH of the water phase and concentration of ammonium acetate) were optimized in order to achieve the following goals: maximal separation quality, minimal total analysis duration and robustness of an optimum. The consideration of robustness in early phases of the method development provides reliable methods with low risk for failure in validation phase. The simultaneous optimization of all goals was achieved by multiple threshold approach combined with grid point search. The identified optimal separation conditions (acetonitrile content 83%, pH of the water phase 3.5 and ammonium acetate content in water phase 14 mM) were experimentally verified.

  14. Properties for binary mixtures of (acetamide + KSCN) eutectic ionic liquid with ethanol at several temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Baoyou; Liu, Yaru

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Viscosity deviation (Δη) against mole fraction of ethanol for [ethanol(1) + [(acetamide + KSCN)](2)] mixtures at several temperatures. The solid lines represent the corresponding correlation by the Redlich–Kister equation. - Highlights: • Density, viscosity and conductivity of (acetamide + KSCN) ethanol solution were measured. • V"E and Δη were calculated from the measured density and viscosity respectively. • V"E and Δη were both well fitted by a third order Redlich–Kister equation. • The conductivity was described by a Castell–Amis equation. - Abstract: Density, viscosity and conductivity were determined for the binary mixture of (acetamide + KSCN) eutectic ionic liquid with ethanol at T = (298.15, 303.15, 308.15, 313.15, 318.15) K and atmospheric pressure. The density, viscosity values decrease with the increase of temperature while the conductivity values increase over the whole concentration range. The density and viscosity values decrease monotonically with the increase of the mole content of ethanol. From the experimental values, excess molar volumes V"E and viscosity deviations Δη for the binary mixture were calculated and V"E and Δη were both well fitted by a third order Redlich–Kister equation. With the increase mole fraction of ethanol, the conductivity values of the mixture increase gradually first and then decrease dramatically, and the highest conductivity values appear at 0.8562 mol fraction of ethanol. The relationship between the conductivity and the mole fraction of ethanol can be well described by a Castell–Amis equation. The interactions with ethanol molecular and ions of (acetamide + KSCN) ionic liquid were discussed by FTIR spectra.

  15. Thermophysical properties of binary mixtures of {ionic liquid 2-hydroxy ethylammonium acetate + (water, methanol, or ethanol)}

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, Victor H.; Mattedi, Silvana; Martin-Pastor, Manuel; Aznar, Martin; Iglesias, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → This paper reports the density and speed of sound data of binary mixtures {2-hydroxy ethylammonium acetate + (water, or methanol, or ethanol)} measured between the temperatures (298.15 and 313.15) K at atmospheric pressure. → The aggregation, dynamic behavior, and hydrogen-bond network were studied using thermo-acoustic, X-ray, and NMR techniques. → The Peng-Robinson equation of state, coupled with the Wong-Sandler mixing rule using the COSMO-SAC model predicted the density of the solutions with relative mean deviations below than 3.0%. - Abstract: In this work, density and speed of sound data of binary mixtures of an ionic liquid consisting of {2-hydroxy ethylammonium acetate (2-HEAA) + (water, methanol, or ethanol)} have been measured throughout the entire concentration range, from the temperature of (288.15 to 323.15) K at atmospheric pressure. The excess molar volumes, variations of the isentropic compressibility, the apparent molar volume, isentropic apparent molar compressibility, and thermal expansion coefficient were calculated from the experimental data. The excess molar volumes were negative throughout the whole composition range. Compressibility data in combination with low angle X-ray scattering and NMR measurements proved that the presence of micelles formed due to ion pair interaction above a critical concentration of the ionic liquid in the mixtures. The Peng-Robinson equation of state coupled with the Wong-Sandler mixing rule and COSMO-SAC model was used to predict densities and the calculated deviations were lower than 3%, for binary mixtures in all composition range.

  16. Thermodynamic and spectroscopic studies on binary mixtures of imidazolium ionic liquids in ethylene glycol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Bhupinder [Department of Chemistry, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 136119, Haryana (India); Singh, Tejwant; Rao, K. Srinivasa [Salt and Marine Chemicals Division, Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), G.B. Marg, Bhavnagar 364002 (India); Pal, Amalendu, E-mail: palchem@sify.com [Department of Chemistry, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 136119, Haryana (India); Kumar, Arvind, E-mail: arvind@csmcri.org [Salt and Marine Chemicals Division, Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), G.B. Marg, Bhavnagar 364002 (India)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: > Macroscopic and molecular level interactions of imidazolium ionic liquids in ethylene glycol have been determined. > V{sub m}{sup E} is positive over the whole composition range for all the investigated mixtures. > Multiple hydrogen bonding interactions are prevailing between unlike components in mixtures of varying strengths. > Microscopic level interactions are not reflected in the mixing macroscopic behaviour. - Abstract: The thermodynamic behaviour of imidazolium based ionic liquids (ILs), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride [C{sub 4}mim][Cl]; 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride [C{sub 8}mim][Cl], and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium methylsulfate [C{sub 4}mim][C{sub 1}OSO{sub 3}] in ethylene glycol [HOCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}OH] (EG) have been investigated over the whole composition range at T = (298.15 to 318.15) K to probe the interactions in bulk. For the purpose, volumetric properties such as excess molar volume, V{sub m}{sup E}, apparent molar volume, V{sub {phi},i}, and its limiting values at infinite dilution, V{sub {phi},i}{sup {infinity}}, have been calculated from the experimental density measurements. The molecular scale interactions between ionic liquids and EG have been investigated through Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy. The shift in the vibrational frequency for C-H stretch of aromatic ring protons of ILs and O-H stretch of EG molecules has been analysed. The NMR chemical shifts for various protons of RTILS or EG molecules and their deviations show multiple hydrogen bonding interactions of varying strengths between RTILs and EG in their binary mixtures.

  17. Design of advanced multicomponent ferroelectric liquid crystalline mixtures with submicrometre helical pitch

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kurp, K.; Czerwiński, M.; Tykarska, M.; Bubnov, Alexej

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 4 (2017), s. 748-756 ISSN 0267-8292 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7AMB13PL041; GA MŠk(CZ) LD14007; GA ČR GA15-02843S Grant - others:COST Association EU(XE) COST Action IC1208 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : ferroelectric liquid crystal * self-assembling materials * submicrometre helical pitch * room temperature mixture * switching time Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials OBOR OECD: Nano-materials (production and properties) Impact factor: 2.661, year: 2016

  18. Electro-optic and dielectric properties of new binary ferroelectric and antiferroelectric liquid crystalline mixtures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fitas, J.; Marzec, M.; Kurp, K.; Żurowska, M.; Tykarska, M.; Bubnov, Alexej

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 9 (2017), s. 1468-1476 ISSN 0267-8292 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD14007; GA ČR GA15-02843S Grant - others:EU - ICT(XE) COST Action IC1208 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : liquid crystals * ferroelectric and antiferroelectric phase * binary mixture * dielectric spectroscopy * switching time * tilt angle Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials OBOR OECD: Nano-materials (production and properties) Impact factor: 2.661, year: 2016

  19. Study of Molecular Interactions in Binary Liquid Mixtures by Acoustical Method at 303K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Paul Divakar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic velocity and density measurements were made in two binary liquid mixtures Isopropyl acetate (IPA and Isobutyl acetate (IBA with cyclohexanone (CY as a common component at 303K, at fixed frequency of 2MHz using single crystal variable path interferometer and specific gravity bottle respectively. The experimental data have been used to calculate the acoustic impedance, adiabatic compressibility, inter molecular free length and molar volume. The excess thermodynamic parameters have been evaluated and discussed in the light of molecular interactions.

  20. Analysis of organic solvents and liquid mixtures using a fiber-tip evaporation sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preter, Eyal; Donlagic, Denis; Artel, Vlada; Katims, Rachel A.; Sukenik, Chaim N.; Zadok, Avi

    2014-05-01

    The instantaneous size and rate of evaporation of pendant liquid droplets placed on the cleaved facet of a standard fiber are reconstructed based on reflected optical power. Using the evaporation dynamics, the relative contents of ethanol in ethanol-water binary mixtures are assessed with 1% precision and different blends of methanol in gasoline are properly recognized. The latter application, in particular, is significant for the use of alternative fuels in the automotive sector. Also, ten organic solvents are identified based on their evaporation from a fiber facet coated with a hydrophobic, selfassembled monolayer.

  1. Theoretical Rocket Performance of Liquid Methane with Several Fluorine-Oxygen Mixtures Assuming Frozen Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Sanford; Kastner, Michael E

    1958-01-01

    Theoretical rocket performance for frozen composition during expansion was calculated for liquid methane with several fluorine-oxygen mixtures for a range of pressure ratios and oxidant-fuel ratios. The parameters included are specific impulse, combustion-chamber temperature, nozzle-exit temperature molecular weight, characteristic velocity, coefficient of thrust, ratio of nozzle-exit area to throat area, specific heat at constant pressure, isentropic exponent, viscosity, and thermal conductivity. The maximum calculated value of specific impulse for a chamber pressure of 600 pounds per square inch absolute (40.827atm) and an exit pressure of 1 atmosphere is 315.3 for 79.67 percent fluorine in the oxidant.

  2. Experimental determination and prediction of liquid-solid equilibria for binary (methyl palimitate + naphthalene mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benziane M.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Solid-liquid equilibria for binary mixtures of {Methyl palmitate (1 + Naphthalene (2} were measured using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC. Simple eutectic behaviours for this system are observed. The experimental results were correlated by means of the NRTL, Wilson, UNIQUAC and ideal models. The root-mean-square deviations of the solubility temperatures for all measured data vary from 0.5477 K (for UNIQUAC model to 3.34K; the deviation depend on the model used. The best solubility correlation was obtained with UNIQUAC model and this observation confirms previous results.

  3. Generation of thermodynamic data for organic liquid mixtures from molecular simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Steen; Peters, Günther H.j.; Hansen, Flemming Yssing

    2007-01-01

    Fluctuation solution theory (FST) is employed to analyze results of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of liquid mixtures. The objective is to generate parameters for macroscopic thermodynamic property models. Two benchmark systems, benzene-methyl acetate at 303.15 K and benzene-ethanol at 298.......15 K, are used. MD simulations are performed in the isobaric-isothermal ensemble (NPT) at the respective temperatures and at a pressure of 1 atm. We use the CHARMM27 force field at different mixing ratios. We sample positions to determine the binary (between the centers-of-mass of molecules of a pair...

  4. Ultrasonic absorption and velocity dispersion of binary mixture liquid crystal MBBA/EBBA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, K.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of phase transitions and the partial magnetic alignment for liquid crystal molecules on the ultrasonic absorption and velocity dispersion has been investigated. The binary mixture of Shiff base liquid crystals MBBA/EBBA (55:45 mole %) showed anomalous ultrasonic absorption and velocity dispersion at eutectic (Tsub(m) = -20 0 C) and clearing point (Tsub(c) = 50 0 C) at the frequency range of 5 MHz, 10MHz, 15MHz and 30 MHz. The experimental data were analyzed in terms of relaxation time and Fixman theory. The anisotropy of the propagation velocity due to the magnetic alignment was about 0.9% (the deviation between velocities propagating parallel and perpendicular to the applied field). (author)

  5. CFD-DEM based numerical simulation of liquid-gas-particle mixture flow in dam break

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyung Min; Yoon, Hyun Sik; Kim, Min Il

    2018-06-01

    This study investigates the multiphase flow of a liquid-gas-particle mixture in dam break. The open source codes, OpenFOAM and CFDEMproject, were used to reproduce the multiphase flow. The results of the present study are compared with those of previous results obtained by numerical and experimental methods, which guarantees validity of present numerical method to handle the multiphase flow. The particle density ranging from 1100 to 2500 kg/m3 is considered to investigate the effect of the particle density on the behavior of the free-surface and the particles. The particle density has no effect on the liquid front, but it makes the particle front move with different velocity. The time when the liquid front reach at the opposite wall is independent of particle density. However, such time for particle front decrease as particle density increases, which turned out to be proportional to particle density. Based on these results, we classified characteristics of the movement by the front positions of the liquid and the particles. Eventually, the response of the free-surface and particles to particle density is identified by three motion regimes of the advancing, overlapping and delaying motions.

  6. Nonlinear Raman spectroscopy of liquid crystals: orientational alignment and switching behaviour in a ferroelectric liquid crystal mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grofcsik, Andras

    Picosecond inverse Raman spectroscopy has been employed to probe the alignment behaviour and switching characteristics of a 6 mum thick ferroelectric liquid crystal based on a host mixture of fluorinated phenyl biphenylcarboxylates and a chiral dopant. Optical bistability is observed in the Raman signal on application of dc electric fields of opposite polarity. For particular polarities of the applied field, the Raman signals display a cos4theta dependence on the angle of rotation around the beam direction. Reorientational rate constants of 300 mus and 590 mus are observed for the aromatic core at the high-voltage limit for the rise and decay of the 1600 cm-1 Raman signal on application of a switching ac electric field.

  7. An Improved Computational Method for the Calculation of Mixture Liquid-Vapor Critical Points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrakopoulos, Panagiotis; Jia, Wenlong; Li, Changjun

    2014-05-01

    Knowledge of critical points is important to determine the phase behavior of a mixture. This work proposes a reliable and accurate method in order to locate the liquid-vapor critical point of a given mixture. The theoretical model is developed from the rigorous definition of critical points, based on the SRK equation of state (SRK EoS) or alternatively, on the PR EoS. In order to solve the resulting system of nonlinear equations, an improved method is introduced into an existing Newton-Raphson algorithm, which can calculate all the variables simultaneously in each iteration step. The improvements mainly focus on the derivatives of the Jacobian matrix, on the convergence criteria, and on the damping coefficient. As a result, all equations and related conditions required for the computation of the scheme are illustrated in this paper. Finally, experimental data for the critical points of 44 mixtures are adopted in order to validate the method. For the SRK EoS, average absolute errors of the predicted critical-pressure and critical-temperature values are 123.82 kPa and 3.11 K, respectively, whereas the commercial software package Calsep PVTSIM's prediction errors are 131.02 kPa and 3.24 K. For the PR EoS, the two above mentioned average absolute errors are 129.32 kPa and 2.45 K, while the PVTSIM's errors are 137.24 kPa and 2.55 K, respectively.

  8. Thermophysical properties of energetic ionic liquids/nitric acid mixtures: insights from molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Justin B; Smith, Grant D; Bedrov, Dmitry

    2013-09-14

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of mixtures of the room temperature ionic liquids (ILs) 1-butyl-4-methyl imidazolium [BMIM]/dicyanoamide [DCA] and [BMIM][NO3(-)] with HNO3 have been performed utilizing the polarizable, quantum chemistry based APPLE&P(®) potential. Experimentally it has been observed that [BMIM][DCA] exhibits hypergolic behavior when mixed with HNO3 while [BMIM][NO3(-)] does not. The structural, thermodynamic, and transport properties of the IL/HNO3 mixtures have been determined from equilibrium MD simulations over the entire composition range (pure IL to pure HNO3) based on bulk simulations. Additional (non-equilibrium) simulations of the composition profile for IL/HNO3 interfaces as a function of time have been utilized to estimate the composition dependent mutual diffusion coefficients for the mixtures. The latter have been employed in continuum-level simulations in order to examine the nature (composition and width) of the IL/HNO3 interfaces on the millisecond time scale.

  9. (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium at T = 298.15 K for ternary mixtures of alkane + aromatic compounds + imidazolium-based ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domínguez, Irene; Requejo, Patricia F.; Canosa, José; Domínguez, Ángeles

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The LLE ternary phase diagrams with 2 imidazolium-based ionic liquids were measured. • The LLE data were experimental determined at T = 298.15 K and p = 1 atm. • Mixtures of (octane or nonane) and (benzene or toluene or ethylbenzene) were studied. • LLE experimental data were correlated with NRTL and UNIQUAC thermodynamic models. - Abstract: Ionic liquids, with their unique and tunable properties, can be an advantageous alternative as extractive solvents in separation processes involving systems containing aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. In this work, (liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) data for the ternary systems {nonane (1) + benzene (2) + 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, [BMim][NTf 2 ] (3)}, {octane (1) + benzene (2) + 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, [PMim][NTf 2 ] (3)}, and {nonane (1) + aromatic compound (benzene or toluene or ethylbenzene) (2) + [PMim][NTf 2 ] (3)} were determined at T = 298.15 K and atmospheric pressure. Selectivity and solute distribution ratio, derived from the equilibrium data, were used to determine if this ionic liquid can be considered as a potential solvent for the separation of aromatic compounds (benzene, toluene, and ethylbenzene) from alkanes (octane and nonane). The experimental data were satisfactorily correlated with NRTL and UNIQUAC models

  10. Liquid entrainment and off-take from the two-phase mixture surface in a vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang Hyun; No, Hee Cheon

    2003-01-01

    In order to determine the bleed capacity of the Safety Depressurization System (SDS) of Advanced Power Reactor 1400 (APR1400) in the case of Total Loss of Feed Water (TLOFW), we performed an experimental study of liquid entrainment and liquid off-take from the swelled two-phase mixture surface in a vessel. A total of 220 experimental data on the entrainment and off-take are obtained using a test vessel with a height of 2.0m and an inner diameter of 0.3m, and a top break with a diameter of 0.05m. Two-phase mixture levels are measured by an ultrasonic sensor within ±1.77% with respect to the visual level data. Droplet entrainment data are obtained with and without the top break and are compared with the existing pool entrainment data. The present droplet entrainment data have higher values than those of the existing pool entrainment due to (a) the pulling toward the break of the liquid deentrained on the top wall of the vessel and (b) gas acceleration in the vicinity of the break. In the present experiment, droplet entrainment, Efg, strongly depends upon jg/h and is proportional to the 7th power of jg/h in the same way as the off-take data. The empirical correlation for the onset of off-take is developed in terms of the Froude number (Frg) at the break and the non-dimensional inception height (hb/d). This correlation shows agreement with the present experimental data within ±15%. The present off-take quality data show agreement with Schrock's off-take quality correlation with the r.m.s. error of 15.8%

  11. Automated high performance liquid chromatography and liquid scintillation counting determination of pesticide mixture octanol/water partition rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moody, R.P.; Carroll, J.M.; Kresta, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    Two novel methods are reported for measuring octanol/water partition rates of pesticides. A liquid scintillation counting (LSC) method was developed for automated monitoring of 14 C-labeled pesticides partitioning in biphasic water/octanol cocktail systems with limited success. A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed for automated partition rate monitoring of several constituents in a pesticide mixture, simultaneously. The mean log Kow +/- SD determined from triplicate experimental runs were for: 2,4-D-DMA (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid dimethylamine), 0.65 +/- .17; Deet (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide), 2.02 +/- .01; Guthion (O,O-dimethyl-S-(4-oxo-1,2,3-benzotriazin-3(4H)-ylmethyl) phosphorodithioate), 2.43 +/- .03; Methyl-Parathion (O,O-dimethyl-O-(p-nitrophenyl) phosphorothioate), 2.68 +/- .05; and Fenitrothion (O,O-dimethyl O-(4-nitro-m-tolyl) phosphorothioate), 3.16 +/- .03. A strong positive linear correlation (r = .9979) was obtained between log Kow and log k' (log Kow = 2.35 (log k') + 0.63). The advantages that this automated procedure has in comparison with the standard manual shake-flask procedure are discussed

  12. Synergy in lipofection by cationic lipid mixtures: superior activity at the gel-liquid crystalline phase transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koynova, Rumiana; Wang, Li; MacDonald, Robert C

    2007-07-12

    Some mixtures of two cationic lipids including phospholipid compounds (O-ethylphosphatidylcholines) as well as common, commercially available cationic lipids, such as dimethylammonium bromides and trimethylammonium propanes, deliver therapeutic DNA considerably more efficiently than do the separate molecules. In an effort to rationalize this widespread "mixture synergism", we examined the phase behavior of the cationic lipid mixtures and constructed their binary phase diagrams. Among a group of more than 50 formulations, the compositions with maximum delivery activity resided unambiguously in the solid-liquid crystalline two-phase region at physiological temperature. Thus, the transfection efficacy of formulations exhibiting solid-liquid crystalline phase coexistence is more than 5 times higher than that of formulations in the gel (solid) phase and over twice that of liquid crystalline formulations; phase coexistence occurring at physiological temperature thus appears to contribute significantly to mixture synergism. This relationship between delivery activity and physical property can be rationalized on the basis of the known consequences of lipid-phase transitions, namely, the accumulation of defects and increased disorder at solid-liquid crystalline phase boundaries. Packing defects at the borders of coexisting solid and liquid crystalline domains, as well as large local density fluctuations, could be responsible for the enhanced fusogenicity of mixtures. This study leads to the important conclusion that manipulating the composition of the lipid carriers so that their phase transition takes place at physiological temperature can enhance their delivery efficacy.

  13. Positron Spur Reactions with Excess Electrons and Anions in Liquid Organic Mixtures of Electron Acceptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lévay, B.; Mogensen, O. E.

    1980-01-01

    By means of the positron lifetime technique we have measured positronium (Ps) yields in mixtures of nonpolar liquids with various electron scavengers which bind the electron fairly weakly (1–2 eV) in stable anions. The results are discussed with reference to recent excess electron works, and new...... experiments on anions and excess electrons are proposed. The minimum of the Ps yield versus CS2 concentration curves caused by partly delocalization of electrons on several scavenger molecules, which was observed previously in saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons occurred also in the saturated cyclic hydrocarbon...... cyclohexane, but did not appear in the aromatic benzene. This might be explained by the weak electron acceptor property of aromatics. In the Ps yield versus SF6 concentration curve in hexane a similar minimum appeared as in the CS2 case, probably by the same reason. By adding 0.8 M CS2 to the system...

  14. Gas-liquid equilibrium in mixtures of methane + m-xylene, and methane + m-cresol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simnick, J J; Sebastian, H M; Lin, H M; Chao, K C

    1979-01-01

    Compositions of saturated equilibrium liquid and vapor phases as determined in a flow apparatus for methane + m-xylene mixtures at 370/sup 0/, 450/sup 0/, 520/sup 0/, and 600/sup 0/F (190/sup 0/, 230/sup 0/, 270/sup 0/, and 310/sup 0/C) and up to 200 atm, and for methane + m-cresol at 370/sup 0/, 520/sup 0/, 660/sup 0/, and 730/sup 0/F (190/sup 0/, 270/sup 0/, 350/sup 0/, and 390/sup 0/C) and up to 250 atm. Compared with published data on its solubility in benzene, methane appears to be more soluble in m-xylene at similar conditions but substantially less soluble in m-cresol. This difference indicates that the functional groups CH/sub 3/ and OH play different roles in determining the solubility of methane.

  15. Efficacy of Ultrasonic Homogenization in the Separation of Benzene-n-Heptane Mixture by Liquid Membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B.S.; Chung, T.S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Sung Kyun Kwan University, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    In the separation of benzene-n-heptane mixture by liquid membrane, the efficacy of ultrasonic homogenization in emulsification was studied with two anionic surfactants. The two anionic surfactants used were triethanolamine lauryl sulfate and sodium polyoxyethylene(2) lauryl ether sulfate. The two anionic surfactants used were triethanolamine lauryl sulfate and sodium polyoxyethylene(2) lauryl ether stifle. The highest value of the separation factor obtained by ultrasonic homogenization was approximately three times as large as that for triethanolamine lauryl sulfate and one and a half times as large as that for sodium polyoxyethylene(2) lauryl sulfate when the mechanical stirring was used on the same operational conditions. The lowest membrane breakup was observed when the highest value of the separation factor was achieved with sodium polyoxyethylene(2) lauryl sulfate. 14 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  16. SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF PARACETAMOL AND IBUPROFENE MIXTURES BY HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophi Damayanti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Analytical method for the determination of paracetamol and ibuprofene mixtures has been developed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography using C-18 column and acetinitrile - phosphate buffer pH = 4.5 (75:25 containing 0.075% sodium hexanesulfunate as a mobile phase. The detector was set at 215 nm. Using such conditions, retention time for paracetamol and ibuprofen was 4.89 and 7.11 min, respectively. The recovery for paracetamol and ibuprofen was found to be 101.07± 0.73% and 102.02 ± 1.58%, respectively. The detector limits of the method was 1.30 and 1.60 μg/mL with the relative standard deviation (RSD 0.74 and 1.52% for paracetamol and ibuprofen, respectively.   Keywords: paracetamol, ibuprofen, multi-component, validation, HPLC.

  17. Multiphase flow modeling of molten material-vapor-liquid mixtures in thermal nonequilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ik Kyu; Park, Goon Cherl; Bang, Kwang Hyun

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a numerical model of multiphase flow of the mixtures of molten material-liquid-vapor, particularly in thermal nonequilibrium. It is a two-dimensional, transient, three-fluid model in Eulerian coordinates. The equations are solved numerically using the finite difference method that implicitly couples the rates of phase changes, momentum, and energy exchange to determine the pressure, density, and velocity fields. To examine the model's ability to predict an experimental data, calculations have been performed for tests of pouring hot particles and molten material into a water pool. The predictions show good agreement with the experimental data. It appears, however, that the interfacial heat transfer and breakup of molten material need improved models that can be applied to such high temperature, high pressure, multiphase flow conditions

  18. Equation of state for thermodynamic properties of pure and mixtures liquid alkali metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mousazadeh, M.H.; Faramarzi, E.; Maleki, Z.

    2010-01-01

    We developed an equation of state based on statistical-mechanical perturbation theory for pure and mixtures alkali metals. Thermodynamic properties were calculated by the equation of state, based on the perturbed-chain statistical associating fluid theory (PC-SAFT). The model uses two parameters for a monatomic system, segment size, σ, and segment energy, ε. In this work, we calculate the saturation and compressed liquid density, heat capacity at constant pressure and constant volume, isobaric expansion coefficient, for which accurate experimental data exist in the literatures. Results on the density of binary and ternary alkali metal alloys of Cs-K, Na-K, Na-K-Cs, at temperatures from the freezing point up to several hundred degrees above the boiling point are presented. The calculated results are in good agreement with experimental data.

  19. Cesium transport across flat sheet supported liquid membrane containing CCD in NPOE-dodecane mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandwal, P.; Mohapatra, P.K.

    2012-01-01

    137 Cs is an important fission product of concern for separation scientists working in the area of radioactive waste management. Removal of this long lived heat and gamma ray emitting radionuclides (t 1/2 = 30.2 y) from radioactive waste would drastically bring down the MANREM problem. In addition to this, the recovered cesium can find applications in irradiators for sterilization of foods, medical accessories, sewage sludge treatment, etc. Chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide (CCD) in nitrobenzene and xylene mixture as the diluent has been used for the extraction of radio-cesium from acidic wastes. Other studies have used phenyl trifluoromethylsulfone (FS-13) as the diluent and have been used for supported liquid membrane (SLM) based separation methods which not only have the advantage of simultaneous extraction and stripping, but also drastically cut down the VOC inventory which is welcome from environmental concern point of view

  20. Volumetric and sound speed study of ammonium-based ionic liquid mixtures with ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Ângela F.S.; Moita, Maria-Luísa C.J.; Silva, João F.C.C.; Lampreia, Isabel M.S.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Densities and sound speeds were measured at five temperatures in three ammonium-based ionic liquids mixtures with ethanol. • Excess molar and limiting molar and partial molar properties were derived and interpreted. • Specific interactions and packing effects were compared in the three systems. • Reduced variables were used to highlight differences in cation size and solvophilic effects. - Abstract: Thermodynamic studies embracing molecular interactions between ionic liquids (ILs) and molecular solvents are scarce and are required to explore molecular interactions and structural effects with interest in engineering applications. Ammonium-based are interesting ILs since they can be tailored to provide information concerning both chain length and solvophobic/solvophilic effects. In this work from accurately measured density and sound speed data in the systems ethanol + {[N 4111 ]; [N 4441 ] or [choline]}[NTf 2 ] derived quantities such as excess partial molar volumes and isentropic compressions including their limiting values were obtained. The reasoning of the results permitted to conclude that while in the [N 4441 ][NTf 2 ] case packing effects due to the difference in size of the components prevail, in the other two cases specific interaction ethanol–cation explains both the lower minimums in the excess properties and the higher magnitude of the negative limiting excess partial molar, volumes and isentropic compression values in the mixture containing [N 4111 ][NTf 2 ] in relation to [N 4441 ][NTf 2 ] and the negative limiting partial molar isentropic compression in the [choline][NTf 2 ] case in contrast with positive values for the other two ILs.

  1. Hydroxyl group as IR probe to detect the structure of ionic liquid-acetonitrile mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Deng, Geng; Zhou, Yu; Ashraf, Hamad; Yu, Zhi-Wu

    2018-06-01

    Task-specific ionic liquids (ILs) are those with functional groups introduced in the cations or anions of ILs to bring about specific properties for various tasks. In this work, the hydrogen bonding interactions between a hydroxyl functionalized IL 1-(2-hydroxylethyl)-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([C2OHMIM][BF4]) and acetonitrile were investigated in detail by infrared spectroscopy, excess spectroscopy, two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy, combined with hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance and density functional theory calculations (DFT). The hydroxyl group rather than C2sbnd H is found to be the main interaction site in the cation. And the ν(Osbnd H) is more sensitive than v(C-Hs) to the environment, which has been taken as an intrinsic probe to reflect the structural change of IL. Examining the region of ν(Osbnd H), by combining excess spectroscopy and DFT calculation, a number of species were identified in the mixtures. Other than the hydrogen bond between a cation and an anion, the hydroxyl group allows the formation of a hydrogen bond between two like-charged cations. The Osbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonding interactions in the hydroxyl-mediated cation-cation complexes are cooperative, while Osbnd H⋯F and C2sbnd H⋯F hydrogen bonding interactions in cation-anion complexes are anti-cooperative. These in-depth studies on the properties of the ionic liquid-acetonitrile mixtures may shed light on exploring their applications as mixed solvents and understanding the nature of doubly ionic hydrogen bonds.

  2. Solid-Liquid Equilibria for the Binary Mixtures 1,4-Xylene + Ethylbenzene and 1,4-Xylene + Toluene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huyghe, Raphaël; Rasmussen, Peter; Thomsen, Kaj

    2004-01-01

    Solid-liquid equilibrium (SLE) data for the binary mixtures 1,4-xylene + ethylbenzene, and 1,4-xylene + toluene have been measured using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) in the temperature range from 133.15 K to 293.15 K.......Solid-liquid equilibrium (SLE) data for the binary mixtures 1,4-xylene + ethylbenzene, and 1,4-xylene + toluene have been measured using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) in the temperature range from 133.15 K to 293.15 K....

  3. Thermodynamic properties of binary liquid mixtures of diethylenetriamine with alcohols at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubey, Gyan Prakash, E-mail: gyan.dubey@rediffmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 136119 (India); Kumar, Krishan [Department of Chemistry, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 136119 (India)

    2011-09-20

    Highlights: {yields} Thermodynamic study of diethylenetriamine + 2-methyl-1-propanol, +2-propanol or +1-butanol have been made. {yields} Excess molar volumes and isentropic compressibility were determined. {yields} Types of interactions were discussed based on derived properties. - Abstract: Densities, {rho}, viscosities, {eta}, and speeds of sound, u, were measured for the binary liquid mixtures containing diethylenetriamine with 2-methyl-1-propanol, 2-propanol and 1-butanol at 293.15, 298.15, 303.15, 308.15 and 313.15 K. From density and speed of sound data, excess molar volumes, V{sub m}{sup E} and deviations in isentropic compressibility, {Delta}{kappa}{sub s}, and speed of sound, {Delta}u have been evaluated. Viscosity data were used to compute deviations in viscosity and excess Gibbs energy of activation of viscous flow {Delta}G*{sup E} at 298.15, 303.15 and 308.15 K. A Redlich-Kister type equation was applied to fit the excess molar volumes and deviations in isentropic compressibility, speed of sound and viscosity data. The viscosity data have been correlated with the equations of Grunberg-Nissan, Tamura-Kurata, Heric-Brewer and of Hind et al. All the binary systems of the present study have negative values of excess molar volumes and deviations in isentropic compressibility over whole composition range and at all temperatures which indicates strong interactions between the components of binary mixtures.

  4. Thermodynamic properties of binary liquid mixtures of diethylenetriamine with alcohols at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubey, Gyan Prakash; Kumar, Krishan

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Thermodynamic study of diethylenetriamine + 2-methyl-1-propanol, +2-propanol or +1-butanol have been made. → Excess molar volumes and isentropic compressibility were determined. → Types of interactions were discussed based on derived properties. - Abstract: Densities, ρ, viscosities, η, and speeds of sound, u, were measured for the binary liquid mixtures containing diethylenetriamine with 2-methyl-1-propanol, 2-propanol and 1-butanol at 293.15, 298.15, 303.15, 308.15 and 313.15 K. From density and speed of sound data, excess molar volumes, V m E and deviations in isentropic compressibility, Δκ s , and speed of sound, Δu have been evaluated. Viscosity data were used to compute deviations in viscosity and excess Gibbs energy of activation of viscous flow ΔG* E at 298.15, 303.15 and 308.15 K. A Redlich-Kister type equation was applied to fit the excess molar volumes and deviations in isentropic compressibility, speed of sound and viscosity data. The viscosity data have been correlated with the equations of Grunberg-Nissan, Tamura-Kurata, Heric-Brewer and of Hind et al. All the binary systems of the present study have negative values of excess molar volumes and deviations in isentropic compressibility over whole composition range and at all temperatures which indicates strong interactions between the components of binary mixtures.

  5. Effects of complex organic mixtures of coal liquid on cardiovascular function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Springer, D.L.; Sasser, L.B.; Zangar, R.C.; Mahlum, D.D.

    1986-01-01

    The most common diseases in the US are those involving the cardiovascular system. Exposure to certain environmental chemicals and complex mixtures may be involved in some aspects of cardiovascular disease. They have previously reported that high-boiling coal liquids resulted in several affects related to the cardiovascular system of the rate when exposed via whole-body inhalation to the mixture. The most striking observation was a dose dependent elevation in arterial blood pressure for heavy distillate (HD) exposed rates compared to control animals at 2 weeks. They also noted an increase in heart rate and plasma and blood volume. Additional rats were evaluated 6 weeks after exposure, to determine whether these effects represented permanent changes in cardiovascular function, and the effects appeared to be reversible after this longer period. During the past year they have completed the assays of the studies initiated previously and have addressed some possible factors which could explain the effects that they observed. Electrolytes in plasma of rats exposed to the HD were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Plasma aldosterone and angiotensin were measured by radioimmunoassays, and plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein were evaluated with an Abbott VP bichromatic chemistry analyzer. In addition, a comparison of the blood pressure of control rats and rats fed a restricted diet were made, to determine if the anorexia which resulted from HD exposure could be responsible for the changes they observed in cardiovascular function

  6. Kinetic energy of He atoms in liquid 4He-3He mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senesi, R.; Andreani, C.; Fielding, A.L.; Mayers, J.; Stirling, W.G.

    2003-01-01

    Deep inelastic neutron scattering measurements on liquid 3 He- 4 He mixtures in the normal phase have been performed on the VESUVIO spectrometer at the ISIS pulsed neutron source at exchanged wave vectors of about q≅120.0 A -1 . The neutron Compton profiles J(y) of the mixtures were measured along the T=1.96 K isotherm for 3 He concentrations, x, ranging from 0.1 to 1.0 at saturated vapor pressures. Values of kinetic energies of 3 He and 4 He atoms as a function of x, (x), were extracted from the second moment of J(y). The present determinations of (x) confirm previous experimental findings for both isotopes and, in the case of 3 He, a substantial disagreement with theory is found. In particular (x) for the 3 He atoms is found to be independent of concentration yielding a value 3 (x=0.1)≅12 K, much lower than the value suggested by the most recent theoretical estimates of approximately 19 K

  7. Dynamic depletion attraction between colloids suspended in a phase-separating binary liquid mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Takeaki; Tanaka, Hajime

    2008-01-01

    Understanding interactions between colloids (or nanoparticles) immersed in a phase-separating binary mixture is of both fundamental and technological importance. Here we report a novel type of interparticle attractive interaction of a purely dynamic origin, which is found by a coarse-grained numerical simulation. Due to surface wetting effects, there are strong diffusion fluxes towards particles just after the initiation of phase separation of the matrix binary liquid mixture. The flux in the region between particles soon becomes weaker than that in the other regions since the depletion zones formed around particles overlap selectively between the particles. The resulting imbalance of the diffusion flux induces interparticle attractive interactions, i.e., the osmotic force pushes particles closer. We confirm that this wetting-induced 'dynamic' depletion force can be stronger than a van der Waals force and a capillary force that is induced by the interfacial tension, and thus plays a dominant role in the early stage of particle aggregation. We note that this novel interaction originating from the momentum conservation law may be generic to particles acting as diffusional sinks or sources. (fast track communication)

  8. Detection of a new 'nematic-like' phase in liquid crystal-amphiphile mixture by differential scanning calorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dan, Kaustabh, E-mail: kaustabhdan@gmail.com; Roy, Madhusudan, E-mail: kaustabhdan@gmail.com; Datta, Alokmay, E-mail: kaustabhdan@gmail.com [Surface Physics and Materials Science Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar Block, Sector 1, Kolkata-700064 (India)

    2014-04-24

    Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) studies on phase transitions of the pure liquid crystalline material N-4-methoxybenzylidene-4-butylaniline (MBBA) and mixtures of MBBA and the amphiphile Stearic Acid (StA) show significant changes in the behavior of mixture from pure MBBA, as regards the nematic-isotropic (N-I) transition temperature (T{sub c}) and other thermodynamic parameters like enthalpy, specific heat and activation energy with concentration of StA. In particular, the convexity of the Arrhenius plot in pure MBBA vanishes with StA concentration pointing to the formation of a new, perhaps 'nematic-like', phase in the mixtures.

  9. A quantum mechanical strategy to investigate the structure of liquids: the cases of acetonitrile, formamide, and their mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennucci, Benedetta; da Silva, Clarissa O

    2008-06-05

    A computational strategy based on quantum mechanical (QM) calculations and continuum solvation models is used to investigate the structure of liquids (either neat liquids or mixtures). The strategy is based on the comparison of calculated and experimental spectroscopic properties (IR-Raman vibrational frequencies and Raman intensities). In particular, neat formamide, neat acetonitrile, and their equimolar mixture are studied comparing isolated and solvated clusters of different nature and size. In all cases, the study seems to indicate that liquids, even when strongly associated, can be effectively modeled in terms of a shell-like system in which clusters of strongly interacting molecules (the microenvironments) are solvated by a polarizable macroenvironment represented by the rest of the molecules. Only taking into proper account both these effects can a correct picture of the liquid structure be achieved.

  10. Diffusion-stress coupling in liquid phase during rapid solidification of binary mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobolev, S.L.

    2014-01-01

    An analytical model has been developed to describe the diffusion-viscous stress coupling in the liquid phase during rapid solidification of binary mixtures. The model starts with a set of evolution equations for diffusion flux and viscous pressure tensor, based on extended irreversible thermodynamics. It has been demonstrated that the diffusion-stress coupling leads to non-Fickian diffusion effects in the liquid phase. With only diffusive dynamics, the model results in the nonlocal diffusion equations of parabolic type, which imply the transition to complete solute trapping only asymptotically at an infinite interface velocity. With the wavelike dynamics, the model leads to the nonlocal diffusion equations of hyperbolic type and describes the transition to complete solute trapping and diffusionless solidification at a finite interface velocity in accordance with experimental data and molecular dynamic simulation. -- Highlights: •We propose the diffusion-stress coupling model for binary solidification. •The coupling arises at deep undercooling. •With diffusive dynamics, the models result in parabolic transfer equations. •With the wavelike dynamics, the models lead to hyperbolic transfer equations. •The coupling strongly affects the solute partition coefficient

  11. Analysis of water hammer in two-component two-phase flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warde, H.; Marzouk, E.; Ibrahim, S.

    1989-01-01

    The water hammer phenomena caused by a sudden valve closure in air-water two-phase flows must be clarified for the safety analysis of LOCA in reactors and further for the safety of boilers, chemical plants, pipe transport of fluids such as petroleum and natural gas. In the present work water hammer phenomena caused by sudden valve closure in two-component two-phase flows are investigated theoretically and experimentally. The phenomena are more complicated than in single phase-flows due to the fact of the presence of compressible component. Basic partial differential equations based on a one-dimensional homogeneous flow model are solved by the method of characteristic. The analysis is extended to include friction in a two-phase mixture depending on the local flow pattern. The profiles of the pressure transients, the propagation velocity of pressure waves and the effect of valve closure on the transient pressure are found. Different two-phase flow pattern and frictional pressure drop correlations were used including Baker, Chesholm and Beggs and Bril correlations. The effect of the flow pattern on the characteristic of wave propagation is discussed primarily to indicate the effect of void fraction on the velocity of wave propagation and on the attenuation of pressure waves. Transient pressure in the mixture were recorded at different air void fractions, rates of uniform valve closure and liquid flow velocities with the aid of pressure transducers, transient wave form recorders interfaced with an on-line pc computer. The results are compared with computation, and good agreement was obtained within experimental accuracy

  12. The Umov effect in application to an optically thin two-component cloud of cosmic dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubko, Evgenij; Videen, Gorden; Zubko, Nataliya; Shkuratov, Yuriy

    2018-04-01

    The Umov effect is an inverse correlation between linear polarization of the sunlight scattered by an object and its geometric albedo. The Umov effect has been observed in particulate surfaces, such as planetary regoliths, and recently it also was found in single-scattering small dust particles. Using numerical modeling, we study the Umov effect in a two-component mixture of small irregularly shaped particles. Such a complex chemical composition is suggested in cometary comae and other types of optically thin clouds of cosmic dust. We find that the two-component mixtures of small particles also reveal the Umov effect regardless of the chemical composition of their end-member components. The interrelation between log(Pmax) and log(A) in a two-component mixture of small irregularly shaped particles appears either in a straight linear form or in a slightly curved form. This curvature tends to decrease while the index n in a power-law size distribution r-n grows; at n > 2.5, the log(Pmax)-log(A) diagrams are almost straight linear in appearance. The curvature also noticeably decreases with the packing density of constituent material in irregularly shaped particles forming the mixture. That such a relation exists suggest the Umov effect may also be observed in more complex mixtures.

  13. The study of different methods of bio-liquids production from wood biomass and from biomass/polyolefine mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, B.N. [Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 660049 Krasnoyarsk, K. Marx str., 42 (Russian Federation); Siberian Federal University, Svobodny, 79, 660041 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Sharypov, V.I.; Kuznetsova, S.A.; Taraban' ko, V.E.; Ivanchenko, N.M. [Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 660049 Krasnoyarsk, K. Marx str., 42 (Russian Federation)

    2009-08-15

    The different methods of wood biomass thermal liquefaction at atmospheric and elevated pressures were investigated in order to select the more effective one. Wood biomass liquefaction by melted formate/alkali mixtures and with the use of metallic iron/Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} system is carried out at low pressures. But these methods give only moderate yield of bio-liquids. The highest yield of bio-liquid was obtained in the process of biomass dissolvation in methanol media in the presence of Zn-Cr-Fe catalyst at 20 MPa. Co-pyrolysis and co-hydropyrolysis of biomass/polyolefine mixtures makes it possible to obtain the rather high yield of bio-liquid at the moderate pressures (3 MPa). (author)

  14. Anisotropic properties of phase separation in two-component dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Li, Jinbin

    2018-03-01

    Using Crank-Nicolson method, we calculate ground state wave functions of two-component dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) and show that, due to dipole-dipole interaction (DDI), the condensate mixture displays anisotropic phase separation. The effects of DDI, inter-component s-wave scattering, strength of trap potential and particle numbers on the density profiles are investigated. Three types of two-component profiles are present, first cigar, along z-axis and concentric torus, second pancake (or blood cell), in xy-plane, and two non-uniform ellipsoid, separated by the pancake and third two dumbbell shapes.

  15. DETERMINATION OF SOLID-LIQUID EQUILIBRIA DATA FOR MIXTURES OF HEAVY HYDROCARBONS IN A LIGHT SOLVENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F.V. Hanson; J.V. Fletcher; Karthik R.

    2003-06-01

    A methodology was developed using an FT-IR spectroscopic technique to obtain solid-liquid equilibria (SLE) data for mixtures of heavy hydrocarbons in significantly lighter hydrocarbon diluents. SLE was examined in multiple Model Oils that were assembled to simulate waxes. The various Model oils were comprised of C-30 to C-44 hydrocarbons in decane. The FT-IR technique was used to identify the wax precipitation temperature (WPT). The DSC technique was also used in the identification of the onset of the two-phase equilibrium in this work. An additional Model oil made up of C-20 to C-30 hydrocarbons in decane was studied using the DSC experiment. The weight percent solid below the WPT was calculated using the FT-IR experimental results. The WPT and the weight percent solid below the WPT were predicted using an activity coefficient based thermodynamic model. The FT-IR spectroscopy method is found to successfully provide SLE data and also has several advantages over other laboratory-based methods.

  16. Densities and derived thermodynamic properties of binary (alkanol + boldine) mixtures in the compressed liquid region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durán-Zenteno, Moisés S.; Pérez-López, Hugo I.; Galicia-Luna, Luis A.; Elizalde-Solis, Octavio

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We measured densities for {alkanol (ethanol or 1-propanol) + boldine} mixtures. ► Liquid densities are reported in the ranges of (1 to 20) MPa and (313 to 363) K. ► Thermodynamic derived properties were calculated using an empirical correlation. ► Extrapolated densities at atmospheric pressure agree with the literature data. - Abstract: In this work, densities of two binary systems of {alkanol (ethanol and 1-propanol) + boldine} are measured at temperatures from (313 to 363) K and pressures up to 20 MPa using an Anton Paar vibrating tube densimeter. Each (alkanol + boldine) system was prepared at five diluted compositions with respect to the alkaloid. These are (x 2 = 0.0012, 0.0074, 0.0136, 0.0196, 0.0267) and (x 2 = 0.0018, 0.0046, 0.0077, 0.0112, 0.0142) mixed in ethanol and 1-propanol, respectively. Experimental densities are correlated using an empirical 6-parameter equation with deviations within 0.04%. Extrapolated densities at atmospheric pressure agree with the literature data. Isobaric expansivity, isothermal compressibility, thermal pressure coefficient, and internal pressure have been calculated.

  17. Comparative study of physical properties of binary mixtures of halogen free ionic liquids with alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkhaldi, Khaled H.A.E.; Al-Jimaz, Adel S.; AlTuwaim, Mohammad S.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Physical properties of binary mixtures of halogen free ILs with C 3 , C 4 and C 5 were invetigated. • Densities, refractive indices and speed of sound were measured. • V E , K s E , u D and n D E were calculated using the experimental data. • Speed of sound data were analyzed using different theories and relations. • Different mixing rules were used to predict the experimental refractive indices. - Abstract: Densities, refractive indices and speeds of sound along with their excess or deviation properties for both 1,3-dimethylimidazolium methylsulfate ([dmim][MeSO 4 ]) and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium methylsulfate ([emim][MeSO 4 ]) with 1-propanol, 1-butanol and 1-pentanol over the entire range of mole fraction are reported at temperatures ranging from 298.15 K to 313.15 K and atmospheric pressure. Isentropic and excess isentropic compressibilities for both ionic liquids with 1-alcohols were calculated from the experimental results. Excess and deviation properties were further correlated using the Redlich-Kister polynomial. The measured speeds of sound were compared to the values obtained from Schaaffs' collision factor theory, Jacobson's intermolecular free length theory of solutions and Nomoto’s relation. In addition, the experimentally obtained refractive indices were compared to the calculated values using Lorentz-Lorenz, Dale-Gladstone and Eykman mixing rules.

  18. Method of extracting iodine from liquid mixtures of iodine, water and hydrogen iodide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mysels, Karol J.

    1979-01-01

    The components of a liquid mixture consisting essentially of HI, water and at least about 50 w/o iodine are separated in a countercurrent extraction zone by treating with phosphoric acid containing at least about 90 w/o H.sub.3 PO.sub.4. The bottom stream from the extraction zone is substantially completely molten iodine, and the overhead stream contains water, HI, H.sub.3 PO.sub.4 and a small fraction of the amount of original iodine. When the water and HI are present in near-azeotropic proportions, there is particular advantage in feeding the overhead stream to an extractive distillation zone wherein it is treated with additional concentrated phosphoric acid to create an anhydrous HI vapor stream and bottoms which contain at least about 85 w/o H.sub.3 PO.sub.4. Concentration of these bottoms provides phosphoric acid infeed for both the countercurrent extraction zone and for the extractive distillation zone.

  19. Simultaneous biodegradation of volatile and toxic contaminant mixtures by solid–liquid two-phase partitioning bioreactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poleo, Eduardo E.; Daugulis, Andrew J., E-mail: andrew.daugulis@chee.queensu.ca

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: • We investigate the simultaneous biodegradation of phenol and butyl acetate. • We identify an effective polymer mixture to selectively absorb each of the substrates and decrease their initial concentration. •The polymer mixture is used to overcome the high phenol cytotoxicity and reduce the abiotic losses of butyl acetate associated with volatility. • The solid–liquid Two Phase Partitioning Bioreactor (TPPB) outperforms the liquid–liquid TPPB and the single phase systems. -- Abstract: Microbial inhibition and stripping of volatile compounds are two common problems encountered in the biotreatment of contaminated wastewaters. Both can be addressed by the addition of a hydrophobic auxiliary phase that can absorb and subsequently re-release the substrates, lowering their initial aqueous concentrations. Such systems have been described as Two Phase Partitioning Bioreactors (TPPBs). In the current work the performances of a solid–liquid TPPB, a liquid–liquid TPPB and a single phase reactor for the simultaneous degradation of butyl acetate (the volatile component) and phenol (the toxic component) have been compared. The auxiliary phase used in the solid–liquid TPPB was a 50:50 polymer mixture of styrene–butadiene rubber and Hytrel{sup ®} 8206, with high affinities for butyl acetate and phenol, respectively. The liquid–liquid TPPB employed silicone oil which has fixed physical properties, and had no capacity to absorb the toxic contaminant (phenol). Butyl acetate degradation was enhanced in both TPPBs relative to the single phase, arising from its sequestration into the auxiliary phase, thereby reducing volatilization losses. The solid–liquid TPPB additionally showed a substantial increase in the phenol degradation rate, relative to the silicone oil system, demonstrating the superiority and versatility of polymer based systems.

  20. Molecular Orientation in Two Component Vapor-Deposited Glasses: Effect of Substrate Temperature and Molecular Shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Charles; Jiang, Jing; Walters, Diane; Ediger, Mark

    Vapor-deposited glasses are widely investigated for use in organic electronics including the emitting layers of OLED devices. These materials, while macroscopically homogenous, have anisotropic packing and molecular orientation. By controlling this orientation, outcoupling efficiency can be increased by aligning the transition dipole moment of the light-emitting molecules parallel to the substrate. Light-emitting molecules are typically dispersed in a host matrix, as such, it is imperative to understand molecular orientation in two-component systems. In this study we examine two-component vapor-deposited films and the orientations of the constituent molecules using spectroscopic ellipsometry, UV-vis and IR spectroscopy. The role of temperature, composition and molecular shape as it effects molecular orientation is examined for mixtures of DSA-Ph in Alq3 and in TPD. Deposition temperature relative to the glass transition temperature of the two-component mixture is the primary controlling factor for molecular orientation. In mixtures of DSA-Ph in Alq3, the linear DSA-Ph has a horizontal orientation at low temperatures and slight vertical orientation maximized at 0.96Tg,mixture, analogous to one-component films.

  1. Excess Volumes and Excess Isentropic Compressibilities of Binary Liquid Mixtures of Trichloroethylene with Esters at 303.15 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanaiah, S.; Rao, C. Narasimha; Nagaraja, P.; Venkateswarlu, P.

    2015-11-01

    Exces volumes, VE, and excess isentropic compressibilities, κSE, have been reported as a function of composition for binary liquid mixtures of trichloroethylene with ethyl acetate, n-propyl acetate, and n-butyl acetate at 303.15 K. Isentropic compressibilities are calculated using measured sound speeds and density data for pure components and for binary mixtures. Excess volumes and excess isentropic compressibilities are found to be negative for the three systems studied over the entire composition range at 303.15 K, whereas these values become more negative with an increase of carbon chain length. The results are discussed in terms of intermolecular interactions between unlike molecules.

  2. Liquid viscosity of low-GWP refrigerant mixtures (R32 + R1234yf) and (R125 + R1234yf)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, Yagu; Kamiaka, Takumi; Dang, Chaobin; Hihara, Eiji

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We measured liquid viscosity of low GWP refrigerant R1234yf binary mixtures. • Viscosity of R1234yf mixtures were correlated with the roughness hard-sphere method. • Viscosity of R1234yf mixtures were correlated with the Grunberg and Nissan method. - Abstract: In this work, the viscosity of R1234yf, (R32 + R1234yf), and (R125 + R1234yf) in one-phase liquid was measured. The combined expanded uncertainty of viscosity measurement apparatus of confidence of 0.95 (k = 2) is about 2.0%. The measurements of mixtures containing (30.0, 50.0, and 70.0) wt% R32 or R125 were carried out between T = (283.0 and 323.0) K (at intervals of T = 5 K) and P = (1.58 and 2.74) MPa, with a moving piston viscometer (VISCOpro 1600, accuracy ±1.0%) and a Coriolis flowmeter (Ultramass MKII, accuracy ±0.001 g/ml). The measured data were correlated with a hard-sphere (RSH) method and the Grunberg and Nissan method. The average absolute deviations are (2.2 and 3.3)% for the (R32 + R1234yf) and (R125 + R1234yf) mixtures by RSH method, (2.8 and 1.3)% for the (R32 + R1234yf) and (R125 + R1234yf) mixtures by Grunberg and Nissan method, while (3.5 and 2.4)% for the (R32 + R1234yf) and (R125 + R1234yf) mixtures by RefProp V9.1, respectively

  3. In situ liquid-liquid extraction as a sample preparation method for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization MS analysis of polypeptide mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellström, Sven; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard

    2003-01-01

    A novel liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) procedure was investigated for preparation of peptide and protein samples for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS). LLE using ethyl acetate as the water-immiscible organic solvent enabled segregation of hydrophobic...... matrix to the organic solvent enhanced the efficiency of the LLE-MALDI MS method for analysis of hydrophobic peptides and proteins. LLE-MALDI MS enabled the detection of the hydrophobic membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin as a component in a simple protein mixture. Peptide mixtures containing...... phosphorylated, glycosylated, or acylated peptides were successfully separated and analyzed by the in situ LLE-MALDI MS technique and demonstrate the potential of this method for enhanced separation and structural analysis of posttranslationally modified peptides in proteomics research....

  4. Quantitative NMR spectroscopy of binary liquid mixtures (aldehyde + alcohol) Part I: Acetaldehyde + (methanol or ethanol or 1-propanol)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaubert, Silke; Maurer, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Formation of hemiacetal/poly(oxymethylene) hemiacetals in liquid binary mixtures. • Acetaldehyde and a low molecular alcohol (methanol or ethanol or 1-propanol). • Quantitative 13 C NMR spectroscopy at temperatures between (255 and 295) K. • Hemiacetals are the predominant species. • (Acetaldehyde + methanol (50 + 50)) at 255 K: hemiacetal (polymers) >80% (≈10%). -- Abstract: Aldehydes react with alcohols to hemiacetals and poly(oxymethylene) hemiacetals. The chemical reaction equilibria of such reactions, in particular in the liquid state, can have an essential influence on the thermodynamic properties and related phenomena like, for example, on the vapour + liquid phase equilibrium. Therefore, thermodynamic models that aim to describe quantitatively such phase equilibria have to consider the chemical reaction equilibrium in the coexisting phases. This is well known in the literature for systems such as, for example, formaldehyde and methanol. However, experimental information on the chemical reaction equilibria in mixtures with other aldehydes (than formaldehyde) and alcohols is extremely scarce. Therefore, quantitative NMR spectroscopy was used to investigate the chemical reaction equilibria in binary mixtures of acetaldehyde and a single alcohol (here either methanol, ethanol or 1-propanol) at temperatures between (255 and 295) K. The results reveal that the majority of the constituents of the mixture is present as hemiacetal and the first two poly(oxymethylene) hemiacetals: in an equimolar mixture of (acetaldehyde + methanol or ethanol or 1-propanol), between about 90% at T = 255 K and about 75% at 295 K. The mole-fraction based chemical reaction equilibrium constants for the formation of those species were determined and some derived properties are reported

  5. Effect of interaction between inclusions in a gas-liquid mixture on interphase heat and mass transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigmatulin, B.I.; Kroshilin, A.E.; Kroshilin, V.E.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of interaction between inclusions in a gas-liquid mixture on interphase heat and mass transfer is analyzed. It is taken into account that inclusions (bubbles or drops) are not in a pure carrier phase, but in a disperse medium, mean properties of which are determined by the presence of other inclusions in it and by a temperature field around them. The consideration is carried out in the framework of two model of monodisperse mixture, i.e. that with a chaotic distribution of inclusions, and that with a regular distribution, when the distance between centers of inclusions is fixed. The correlation functions method is shown to be effective for the both models. Mean temperature fields around inclusions are determined along with the intensity of interphase heat and mass transfer. The dependences obtained are in a satisfactory agreement with experimental data. The dependence of interphase heat and mass transfer on the structure of disperse mixture is analyzed

  6. Phase behaviors of binary mixtures composed of electron-rich and electron-poor triphenylene discotic liquid crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Lingling; Jing Min; Xiao Bo; Bai Xiao-Yan; Zhao Ke-Qing; Zeng Qing-Dao

    2016-01-01

    Disk-like liquid crystals (DLCs) can self-assemble to ordered columnar mesophases and are intriguing one-dimensional organic semiconductors with high charge carrier mobility. To improve their applicable property of mesomorphic temperature ranges, we exploit the binary mixtures of electronic donor-acceptor DLC materials. The electron-rich 2,3,6,7,10,11-hexakis(alkoxy)triphenylenes (C4, C6, C8, C10, C12) and an electron-deficient tetrapentyl triphenylene-2,3,6,10-tetracarboxylate have been prepared and their binary mixtures have been investigated. The mesomorphism of the 1:1 (molar ratio) mixtures has been characterized by polarizing optical microscopy (POM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and small angel x-ray scattering (SAXS). The self-assembled monolayer structure of a discogen on a solid-liquid interface has been imaged by the high resolution scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The match of peripheral chain length has important influence on the mesomorphism of the binary mixtures. (special topic)

  7. Experimental, theoretical and numerical interpretation of thermodiffusion separation for a non-associating binary mixture in liquid/porous layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahadi, Amirhossein; Jawad, H.; Saghir, M.Z.; Giraudet, C.; Croccolo, F.; Bataller, H.

    2014-01-01

    Thermodiffusion in a hydrocarbon binary mixture has been investigated experimentally and numerically in a liquid-porous cavity. The solutal separation of the 50% toluene and 50% n-hexane binary mixture induced by a temperature difference at atmospheric pressure has been performed in a new thermodiffusion cell. A new optimized cell design is used in this study. The inner part of the cell is a cylindrical porous medium sandwiched between two liquid layers of the same binary hydrocarbon mixture. Experimental measurement and theoretical estimation of the molecular diffusion and thermodiffusion coefficients showed a good agreement. In order to understand the different regimes occurring in the different parts of the cell, a full transient numerical simulation of the solutal separation of the binary mixture has been performed. Numerical results showed that the lighter species, which are of n-hexane migrated toward the hot surface, while the denser species, which is toluene migrated towards the cold surface. Also, it was found that a good agreement has been reached between experimental measurements and numerical calculations for the solutal separation between the hot and cold surface for different medium porosity. In addition, we used the numerical results to analyse convection and diffusion regions in the cell precisely. (authors)

  8. (Ternary liquid + liquid) equilibria for (water + acetone + α-pinene, or β-pinene, or limonene) mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaoli; Tamura, Kazuhiro

    2010-01-01

    (Ternary liquid + liquid) equilibria (tie-lines) of (water + acetone + α-pinene) at T = (288.15, 298.15, and 308.15) K and (water + acetone + β-pinene, or limonene) at T = 298.15 K have been measured. The experimental (ternary liquid + liquid) equilibrium data have been correlated successfully by the original UNIQUAC and modified UNIQUAC models. The modified UNIQUAC model reproduced accurately the experimental results for the (water + acetone + α-pinene) system at all the temperatures but fairly agreed with the experimental data for the (water + acetone + β-pinene, or limonene) systems.

  9. Application of High-Resolution Ultrasonic Spectroscopy for analysis of complex formulations. Compressibility of solutes and solute particles in liquid mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckin, V

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes key aspects of interpretation of compressibility of solutes in liquid mixtures obtained through high-resolution measurements of ultrasonic parameters. It examines the fundamental relationships between the characteristics of solutes and the contributions of solutes to compressibility of liquid mixtures expressed through apparent adiabatic compressibility of solutes, and adiabatic compressibility of solute particles. In addition, it analyses relationships between the adiabatic compressibility of solutes and the measured ultrasonic characteristics of mixtures. Especial attention is given to the effects of solvents on the measured adiabatic compressibility of solutes and on concentration increment of ultrasonic velocity of solutes in mixtures.

  10. Evaluation of solution stability for two-component polydisperse systems by small-angle scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryukova, A. E.; Konarev, P. V.; Volkov, V. V.

    2017-12-01

    The article is devoted to the modelling of small-angle scattering data using the program MIXTURE designed for the study of polydisperse multicomponent mixtures. In this work we present the results of solution stability studies for theoretical small-angle scattering data sets from two-component models. It was demonstrated that the addition of the noise to the data influences the stability range of the restored structural parameters. The recommendations for the optimal minimization schemes that permit to restore the volume size distributions for polydisperse systems are suggested.

  11. Thermodynamic behavior of binary mixtures CnMpyNTf2 ionic liquids with primary and secondary alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvar, N.; Gómez, E.; Domínguez, Á.; Macedo, E.A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Osmotic coefficients of alcohols with C n MpyNTf 2 (n = 2, 3, 4) are determined. ► Experimental data were correlated with Extended Pitzer model of Archer and MNRTL. ► Mean molal activity coefficients and excess Gibbs free energies were calculated. ► The results have been interpreted in terms of interactions. - Abstract: In this paper, the osmotic and activity coefficients and vapor pressures of the binary mixtures containing the ionic liquids 1-ethyl-3-methylpyridinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, C 2 MpyNTf 2 , and 1-methyl-3-propylpyridinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, C 3 MpyNTf 2 , with 1-propanol, or 2-propanol and the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylpyridinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, C 4 MpyNTf 2 , with 1-propanol or 2-propanol or 1-butanol or 2-butanol were determined at T = 323.15 K using the vapor pressure osmometry technique. The influence of the structure of the alcohol and of the ionic liquid on both coefficients and vapor pressures is discussed and a comparison with literature data on binary mixtures containing ionic liquids with different cations and anion is also performed. Besides, the results have been interpreted in terms of solute–solvent and ion–ion interactions. The experimental osmotic coefficients were correlated using the Extended Pitzer model of Archer and the Modified Non-Random Two Liquids model obtaining standard deviations lower than 0.059 and 0.102 respectively, and the mean molal activity coefficients and the excess Gibbs free energy for the studied mixtures were calculated.

  12. Binary, ternary and quaternary liquid-liquid equilibria in 1-butanol, oleic acid, water and n-heptane mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkelman, J. G. M.; Kraai, G. N.; Heeres, H. J.

    2009-01-01

    This work reports on liquid-liquid equilibria in the system 1-butanol, oleic acid, water and n-heptane used for biphasic, lipase catalysed esterifications. The literature was studied on the mutual solubility in binary systems of water and each of the organic components. Experimental results were

  13. Spin-excited oscillations in two-component fermion condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Tomoyuki; Bertsch, George F.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate collective spin excitations in two-component fermion condensates with special consideration of unequal populations of the two components. The frequencies of monopole and dipole modes are calculated using Thomas-Fermi theory and the scaling approximation. As the fermion-fermion coupling is varied, the system shows various phases of the spin configuration. We demonstrate that spin oscillations have more sensitivity to the spin phase structures than the density oscillations

  14. Glass transition behaviour of the quaternary ammonium type ionic liquid, {[DEME][I] + H2O} mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Yusuke; Abe, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Hitoshi; Shimada, Osamu; Hanasaki, Tomonori; Yoshimura, Yukihiro

    2011-01-01

    By a simple DTA system, the glass transition temperatures of the quaternary ammonium type ionic liquid, {N,N-diethyl-N-methyl-N-(2-methoxyethyl) ammonium iodide, [DEME][I] + H 2 O} mixtures after quick pre-cooling were measured as a function of water concentration (x mol% H 2 O). Results were compared with the previous results of {[DEME][BF 4 ] + H 2 O} mixtures in which double glass transitions were observed in the water concentration region of (16.5 to 30.0) mol% H 2 O. Remarkably, we observed the double glass transition phenomenon in {[DEME][I] + H 2 O} mixtures too, but the two-T g s regions lie towards the water-rich side of (77.5 to 85.0) mol% H 2 O. These clearly reflect the difference in the anionic effect between BF 4 - and I - on the water structure. The end of the glass-formation region of {[DEME][I] + H 2 O} mixtures is around x = 95.0 mol% H 2 O, and this is comparable to that of {[DEME][BF 4 ] + H 2 O} mixtures (x = 96.0 mol% H 2 O).

  15. Vapor-liquid equilibrium prediction with pseudo-cubic equation of state for binary mixtures containing hydrogen, helium, or neon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, M.; Tanaka, H. (Nihon Univ.,Fukushima, (Japan). Faculty of Enineering)

    1990-03-01

    As an equation of state of vapor-liquid equilibrium, an original pseudo-cubic equation of state was previously proposed by the authors of this report and its study is continued. In the present study, new effective critical values of hydrogen, helium and neon were determined empirically from vapor-liquid equilibrium data of literature values against their critical temperatures, critical pressures and critical volumes. The vapor-liquid equilibrium relations of binary system quantum gas mixtures were predicted combining the conventinal pseudo-cubic equation of state and the new effective critical values, and without using binary heteromolecular interaction parameter. The predicted values of hydrogen-ethylene, helium-propane and neon-oxygen systems were compared with literature values. As a result, it was indicated that the vapor-liquid relations of binary system mixtures containing hydrogen, helium and neon can be predicted with favorable accuracy combining the effective critical values and the three parameter pseudo-cubic equation of state. 37 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Two-phase mixture level swell and liquid entrainment/off-take in a vessel during rapid depressurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang Hyun

    2004-02-01

    An experimental study has been performed to analyze the two-phase mixture level swell and the liquid entrainment/off-take through the break in a vessel, which are important phenomena to determine the bleed capacity of the Safety Depressurization System (SDS) of Korea Advanced Power Reactor 1400 (APR1400). Three separate experiments are performed in this study: (a) the depressurization and two-phase mixture level swell experiment: (b) the two-phase mixture level measurement experiment: (c) the liquid entrainment and off-take experiment. A series of experiments has been performed using a scaled pressurized vessel in various depressurization conditions to analyze the two-phase mixture level swell and the liquid entrainment/off-take phenomena from the two-phase mixture surface in the first experiment. The test parameters are the initial pressure (10 - 38.75bars), the initial water level (43.7% - 80.0% of full height), the orifice inner diameter (10mm, 17.5mm, and 20mm). The liquid off-take takes place in certain experimental conditions. The measured parameters in the present experiments are axial void fraction distributions, pressures, temperatures in the test vessel, and the mixture density and mass flowrate through the discharge pipe. An assessment of RELAP5/MOD3 code with the present experimental data has been performed. With appropriate nodalization and time step, RELAP5/MOD3 showed reasonable agreement with the present experimental data for the gradual depressurization without liquid off-take. In the case that the off-take takes place, however, RELAP5/MOD3 under-predicts the amount of liquid entrainment/off-take during depressurization. In the second experiment, an assessment of an ultrasonic sensor and a two-wire type capacitance probe for the two-phase mixture level measurement has been performed under the same experimental conditions to adopt an appropriate measurement method for the two-phase mixture level swell and to investigate pool void fraction by the

  17. Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium in the Mixture 1,1-Difluoroethane C2H4F2 + C4H8 2-Methylpropene (EVLM1131, LB5730_E)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes I' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium in the Mixture 1,1-Difluoroethane C2H4F2 + C4H8 2-Methylpropene (EVLM1131, LB5730_E)' providing data from direct measurement of pressure and mole fraction in vapor phase at variable mole fraction in liquid phase and constant temperature.

  18. Composition shift in liquid-recirculation refrigerating systems: an experimental investigation for the pure fluid R134a and the mixture R32/134a

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giuliani, G.; Marchesi Donati, F.; Polonara, F. [Ancona Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Energetica; Hewitt, N.J. [University of Ulster at Coleraine, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom). NICERT

    1999-09-01

    The ability of zeotropic mixtures with a remarkable temperature glide to operate in liquid-recirculation systems is investigated and the results of an experimental comparison between the performances of the pure fluid R134a and the zeotropic mixture R32/134a (25/75% by mass) are presented. R134a performs slightly better in the liquid-recirculation mode than in the traditional dry-expansion mode; on the other hand, liquid-recirculation configuration has a detrimental effect on the zeotropic mixture's performance. The reason for this detrimental effect is the mixture component separation which occurs at the liquid/vapor separator. The effect of this separation is investigated using gas chromatograph analysis.

  19. Global phase equilibrium calculations: Critical lines, critical end points and liquid-liquid-vapour equilibrium in binary mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cismondi, Martin; Michelsen, Michael Locht

    2007-01-01

    A general strategy for global phase equilibrium calculations (GPEC) in binary mixtures is presented in this work along with specific methods for calculation of the different parts involved. A Newton procedure using composition, temperature and Volume as independent variables is used for calculation...

  20. First measurements of dtμ-cycle characteristics in liquid H/D/T mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Averin, Yu.P.; Balin, D.V.; Bom, V.R.

    1998-01-01

    The muon catalyzed fusion in dense triple mixture of hydrogen isotopes has been investigated for the first time. The experimental method is based on the registration of neutrons from dtμ fusions by a full absorption detectors in 4π geometry. The measurements have been performed in H/D/T mixture at T = 22 K and φ ≅ 1.1 LHD at four sets of isotope concentrations. The basic parameters of dtμ cycle (neutron yield, cycling rate and total sticking) in H/D/T mixtures are presented and discussed

  1. Molecular dynamics simulations of the structure and single-particle dynamics of mixtures of divalent salts and ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gómez-González, Víctor; Docampo-Álvarez, Borja; Gallego, Luis J.; Varela, Luis M., E-mail: luismiguel.varela@usc.es [Grupo de Nanomateriais e Materia Branda, Departamento de Física da Materia Condensada, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Campus Vida s/n, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Cabeza, Oscar [Facultade de Ciencias, Universidade da Coruña, Campus A Zapateira s/n, E-15008 A Coruña (Spain); Fedorov, Maxim [Department of Physics, Scottish University Physics Alliance (SUPA), University of Strathclyde, John Anderson Bldg., 107 Rottenrow East, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Lynden-Bell, Ruth M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Lensfield Road, Cambridge CB2 1EW (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-28

    We report a molecular dynamics study of the structure and single-particle dynamics of mixtures of a protic (ethylammonium nitrate) and an aprotic (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexaflurophosphate [BMIM][PF{sub 6}]) room-temperature ionic liquids doped with magnesium and calcium salts with a common anion at 298.15 K and 1 atm. The solvation of these divalent cations in dense ionic environments is analyzed by means of apparent molar volumes of the mixtures, radial distribution functions, and coordination numbers. For the protic mixtures, the effect of salt concentration on the network of hydrogen bonds is also considered. Moreover, single-particle dynamics of the salt cations is studied by means of their velocity autocorrelation functions and vibrational densities of states, explicitly analyzing the influence of salt concentration, and cation charge and mass on these magnitudes. The effect of the valency of the salt cation on these properties is considered comparing the results with those for the corresponding mixtures with lithium salts. We found that the main structural and dynamic features of the local solvation of divalent cations in ionic liquids are similar to those of monovalent salts, with cations being localized in the polar nanoregions of the bulk mixture coordinated in monodentate and bidentate coordination modes by the [NO{sub 3}]{sup −} and [PF{sub 6}]{sup −} anions. However, stronger electrostatic correlations of these polar nanoregions than in mixtures with salts with monovalent cations are found. The vibrational modes of the ionic liquid (IL) are seen to be scarcely affected by the addition of the salt, and the effect of mass and charge on the vibrational densities of states of the dissolved cations is reported. Cation mass is seen to exert a deeper influence than charge on the low-frequency vibrational spectra, giving a red shift of the vibrational modes and a virtual suppression of the higher energy vibrational modes for the heavier Ca{sup 2

  2. Molecular dynamics simulations of the structure and single-particle dynamics of mixtures of divalent salts and ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gómez-González, Víctor; Docampo-Álvarez, Borja; Gallego, Luis J.; Varela, Luis M.; Cabeza, Oscar; Fedorov, Maxim; Lynden-Bell, Ruth M.

    2015-01-01

    We report a molecular dynamics study of the structure and single-particle dynamics of mixtures of a protic (ethylammonium nitrate) and an aprotic (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexaflurophosphate [BMIM][PF 6 ]) room-temperature ionic liquids doped with magnesium and calcium salts with a common anion at 298.15 K and 1 atm. The solvation of these divalent cations in dense ionic environments is analyzed by means of apparent molar volumes of the mixtures, radial distribution functions, and coordination numbers. For the protic mixtures, the effect of salt concentration on the network of hydrogen bonds is also considered. Moreover, single-particle dynamics of the salt cations is studied by means of their velocity autocorrelation functions and vibrational densities of states, explicitly analyzing the influence of salt concentration, and cation charge and mass on these magnitudes. The effect of the valency of the salt cation on these properties is considered comparing the results with those for the corresponding mixtures with lithium salts. We found that the main structural and dynamic features of the local solvation of divalent cations in ionic liquids are similar to those of monovalent salts, with cations being localized in the polar nanoregions of the bulk mixture coordinated in monodentate and bidentate coordination modes by the [NO 3 ] − and [PF 6 ] − anions. However, stronger electrostatic correlations of these polar nanoregions than in mixtures with salts with monovalent cations are found. The vibrational modes of the ionic liquid (IL) are seen to be scarcely affected by the addition of the salt, and the effect of mass and charge on the vibrational densities of states of the dissolved cations is reported. Cation mass is seen to exert a deeper influence than charge on the low-frequency vibrational spectra, giving a red shift of the vibrational modes and a virtual suppression of the higher energy vibrational modes for the heavier Ca 2+ cations. No qualitative

  3. Volumetric and surface properties of pure ionic liquid n-octyl-pyridinium nitrate and its binary mixture with alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Haichao; Wang Jianying; Zhao Fengyun; Qi Guodi; Hu Yongqi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Density and surface tension of [Ocpy][NO 3 ] were measured. ► Thermal expansion coefficient, molecular volume, and standard entropies were obtained. ► The critical temperature and enthalpy of vaporization were discussed. ► Density and surface tension were measured for (ionic liquid + alcohols) mixtures. ► Excess molar volumes and surface tension deviations were fitted to Redlich–Kister equation. - Abstract: The density and surface tension for pure ionic liquid N-octyl-pyridinium nitrate were measured from (293.15 to 328.15) K. The coefficient of thermal expansion, molecular volume, standard entropies, and lattice energy were calculated from the experimental density values. The critical temperature, surface entropy, surface enthalpy, and enthalpy of vaporization were also studied from the experimental surface tension results. Density and surface tension were also determined for binary mixtures of (N-octyl-pyridinium nitrate + alcohol) (methanol, ethanol, and 1-butanol) systems over the whole composition range at 298.15 K and atmospheric pressure. Excess molar volumes and surface tension deviations for the binary systems have been calculated and were fitted to a Redlich–Kister equation to determine the fitting parameters and the root mean square deviations. The partial molar volume, excess partial molar volume, and apparent molar volume of the component IL and alcohol in the binary mixtures were also discussed.

  4. Investigating magnetorheological properties of a mixture of two types of carbonyl iron powders suspended in an ionic liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodbiba, Gjergj; Park, Hyun Seo; Okaya, Katsunori; Fujita, Toyohisa

    2008-01-01

    In this work, properties of a magnetorheological (MR) fluid, prepared by dispersing a mixture of two types of carbonyl iron powders (CIPs) of different sizes, in an ionic liquid (N,N-diethyl-N-methyl-N-(2-methoxyethyl) ammonium tetrafluoroborate) that is stable from 9 deg. C to ca. 300 deg. C, have been investigated. At first, the random packing density of the mixture was computed as function of mixing ratio of CIP, in order to find out the tendency of the variation. Next, several mixtures, all having the same weight, were prepared at various mixing ratios and dispersed in the ionic liquid, in order to experimentally find the most suitable mixing ratio of CIP. Then, the magnetic clusters of the synthesized MR fluids were observed by using a digital microscope equipped with two permanent magnets, whereas the MR properties were investigated by using a rotation viscometer equipped with a solenoid coil. The experimental results pointed out that the MR fluid with 60 wt% fraction of large particles exhibited the highest MR response

  5. Determination and correlation thermodynamic models for solid–liquid equilibrium of the Nifedipine in pure and mixture organic solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Gang; Hu, Yonghong; Gu, Pengfei; Yang, Wenge; Wang, Chunxiao; Ding, Zhiwen; Deng, Renlun; Li, Tao; Hong, Housheng

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The solubility increased with increasing temperature. • The data were fitted using the modified Apelblat equation in pure solvents. • The data were fitted using the CNIBS/R-K model in binary solvent mixture. - Abstract: Knowledge of thermodynamic parameters on corresponding solid-liquid equilibrium of nifedipine in different solvents is essential for a preliminary study of pharmaceutical engineering and industrial applications. In this paper, a gravimetric method was used to correct the solid-liquid equilibrium of nifedipine in methanol, ethanol, 1-butanol, acetone, acetonitrile, ethyl acetate and tetrahydrofuran pure solvents as well as in the (tetrahydrofuran + acetonitrile) mixture solvents at temperatures from 278.15 K to 328.15 K under 0.1 MPa. For the temperature range investigation, the solubility of nifedipine in the solvents increased with increasing temperature. The solubility of nifedipine in tetrahydrofuran is superior to other selected pure solvents. The modified Apelblat model, the Buchowski-Ksiazaczak λh model, and the ideal model were adopted to describe and predict the change tendency of solubility. Computational results showed that the modified Apelblat model stood out to be more suitable with the higher accuracy. The solubility values were fitted using a modified Apelblat model, a variant of the combined nearly ideal binary solvent/Redich-Kister (CNIBS/R-K) model and Jouyban-Acree model in (tetrahydrofuran + acetonitrile) binary solvent mixture. Computational results showed that the CNIBS/R-K model had more advantages than other models.

  6. Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibria for the extractive distillation of 2-propanol + water mixtures using 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide ionic liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orchillés, A. Vicent; Miguel, Pablo J.; González-Alfaro, Vicenta; Llopis, Francisco J.; Vercher, Ernesto; Martínez-Andreu, Antoni

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • VLE of binary and ternary systems of 2-propanol, water and [emim][DCA] at 100 kPa. • The e-NRTL model fits the VLE data of 2-propanol + water + [emim][DCA] system. • [emim][DCA] breaks the 2-propanol + water azeotrope at an IL mole fraction >0.085. - Abstract: Isobaric vapor–liquid equilibria for the binary systems 2-propanol + water, 2-propanol + 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide ([emim][DCA]), and water + [emim][DCA] as well as the vapor–liquid equilibria for the 2-propanol + water + [emim][DCA] ternary system have been obtained at 100 kPa using a recirculating still. The electrolyte nonrandom two-liquid (e-NRTL) model was used for fitting successfully the experimental data. The effect of [emim][DCA] on the 2-propanol + water system has been compared with that produced by other ionic liquids reported in the literature. From the results, [emim][DCA] appears as a good entrainer for the extractive distillation of this solvent mixture, causing the azeotrope to disappear at 100 kPa when the ionic liquid mole fraction is greater than 0.085.

  7. Determination of favorable conditions of detonation in liquid and solid substance mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubeau, Raymond; Carles, Maurice; Cochet Muchy, Bernard; Ducouret, Andre

    1976-03-01

    Theoretical methods or testing techniques may be employed to provide for possible detonations of chemical substances capable of interreactions. The theoretical methods are based upon the determination of the specific energy of possible mixtures and the system geometry. But the testing techniques are the only ones to insure whether a given mixture may detonate, deflagrate or to be inert. Different possible examples are given [fr

  8. Two component micro injection moulding for moulded interconnect devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul

    2008-01-01

    Moulded interconnect devices (MIDs) contain huge possibilities for many applications in micro electro-mechanical-systems because of their capability of reducing the number of components, process steps and finally in miniaturization of the product. Among the available MID process chains, two...... component injection moulding is one of the most industrially adaptive processes. However, the use of two component injection moulding for MID fabrication, with circuit patterns in the sub-millimeter range, is still a big challenge at the present state of technology. The scope of the current Ph.D. project...... and a reasonable adhesion between them. • Selective metallization of the two component plastic part (coating one polymer with metal and leaving the other one uncoated) To overcome these two main issues in MID fabrication for micro applications, the current Ph.D. project explores the technical difficulties...

  9. The effect of the alkyl chain length on physicochemical features of (ionic liquids + γ-butyrolactone) binary mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papović, Snežana; Bešter-Rogač, Marija; Vraneš, Milan; Gadžurić, Slobodan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Influence of alkyl substituent length on IL properties was studied. • Nature of interactions between studied [C_nC_1im][NTf_2] and GBL were discussed. • Angell strength parameter indicates [C_nC_1im][NTf_2] are fragile liquids. • ILs properties regularly change with increase of the alkyl chain length. • Absence of GBL self-association upon addition of IL is observed. - Abstract: Densities and viscosities were determined and analysed for γ-butyrolactone (GBL) binary mixtures with 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquids (where alkyl = ethyl, hexyl, octyl) as a function of temperature at atmospheric pressure (p = 0.1 MPa) and over the whole composition range. Excess molar volumes have been calculated from the experimental densities and were fitted using Redlich–Kister’s polynomial equation. Other volumetric parameters have been also calculated in order to obtain information about interactions between GBL and imidazolium based ionic liquids with different alkyl chain length. From the viscosity measurements, the Angell strength parameter was calculated for pure ionic liquids indicating that all investigated electrolytes are “fragile” liquids.

  10. Two-component feedback loops and deformed mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tourigny, David S.

    2015-01-01

    It is shown that a general two-component feedback loop can be viewed as a deformed Hamiltonian system. Some of the implications of using ideas from theoretical physics to study biological processes are discussed. - Highlights: • Two-component molecular feedback loops are viewed as q-deformed Hamiltonian systems. • Deformations are reversed using Jackson derivatives to take advantage of working in the Hamiltonian limit. • New results are derived for the particular examples considered. • General deformations are suggested to be associated with a broader class of biological processes

  11. Chiral domain formation from the mixture of achiral rod-like liquid crystal and tri boomerang-shaped molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Hoon; Yoon, Tae-Hoon

    2013-08-01

    Spontaneous formation of chiral domains such as a helical filament and a bent-broom texture was observed from the mixture of a rod-like liquid crystal octylcyano-biphenyl (8CB) and a tri boomerang-shaped 2,4,6-triphenoxy-1,3,5-triazine (triphenoxy) molecule. Although the constituent molecules were achiral, their mixture showed the chiral domains with the equal fraction of the opposite handedness. No tilt of 8CB molecules in the smectic layer was observed, implying the chirality is not due to the polar packing and tilt of the molecules. In addition, the splay and bend elastic constant of 8CB was decreased after doping triphenoxy. A structural conformation of triphenoxy and an orientational coupling between 8CB and triphenoxy are considered to be related to the chiral domain formation.

  12. Study of thermodynamic and transport properties of binary liquid mixture of diesel with biodiesel at 298.15K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthar, Shyam Sunder; Purohit, Suresh

    2018-05-01

    Properties of diesel and biodiesel (produced from corn oil) are used. Densities and viscosities of binary mixture of diesel with biodiesel (produced from corn oil) have been computed by using liquid binary mixture law over the entire range of compositions at T=298.15K and atmospheric pressure. From the computed values of density and viscosities, viscosity deviation (Δη), the excess molar volume (VE) and excess Gibbs energy of activation of viscous flow (ΔG#E) have been calculated. The results of excess volume, excess Gibbs energy of activation of viscous flow and viscosity deviation have been fitted to Redlich -Kister models to estimate the binary coefficients. The results are communicated in terms of the molecular interactions and the best suited composition has been found.

  13. Thermodynamic analysis of an absorption refrigeration system with ionic-liquid/refrigerant mixture as a working fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yoon Jo; Kim, Sarah; Joshi, Yogendra K.; Fedorov, Andrei G.; Kohl, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Thermodynamics of an ionic-liquid (IL) based absorption refrigeration system has been numerically analyzed. It provides an alternative to the normally toxic working fluids, such as the ammonia in conventional absorption systems. The use of ILs also eliminates crystallization and metal-compatibility problems of the water/LiBr system. Mixtures of refrigerants and imidazolium-based ILs are theoretically explored as the working fluid pairs in a miniature absorption refrigeration system, so as to utilize waste-heat to power a refrigeration/heat pump system for electronics cooling. A non-random two-liquid (NRTL) model was built and used to predict the solubility of the mixtures. Saturation temperatures at the evaporator and condenser were set at 25 °C and 50 °C, respectively, with the power dissipation of 100 W. Water in combination with [emim][BF 4 ] (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate) gave the highest coefficient of performance (COP) around 0.9. The refrigerant/IL compatibility indicated by the circulation ratio, alkyl chain length of the IL, and thermodynamic properties of the refrigerants, such as latent heat of evaporation were proven to be important factors in determining the performance of the absorption system. The negative effect of high viscosity was mitigated by dilution of the IL with the refrigerant and the use of slightly larger microfluidic channel heat exchangers. -- Highlights: ► Mixtures of refrigerant/ionic-liquid are studied for absorption system. ► We carry out comprehensive theoretical thermodynamic analysis. ► The essential factors of refrigerant/IL affecting the performance are identified. ► Water/[emim][BF 4 ] showed the best performance of COP. ► The effects of high viscosity ILs on the system performance are not significant.

  14. New theories for smectic and nematic liquid-crystal polymers: Backbone LCPs [liquid crystalline polymers] and their mixtures and side-chain LCPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowell, F.

    1987-01-01

    A summary of predictions and explanations from statistical-physics theories for both backbone and side-chain liquid crystalline polymers (LCPs) and for mixtures with backbone LCPs are presented. Trends in the thermodynamic and molecular ordering properties have been calculated as a function of pressure, density, temperature, and molecule chemical structures (including degree of polymerization and the following properties of the chemical structures of the repeat units: lengths and shapes, intra-chain rotation energies, dipole moments, site-site polarizabilities and Lennard-Jones potentials, etc.) in nematic and multiple smectic-A LC phases and in the isotropic liquid phase. The theoretical results are found to be in good agreement with existing experimental data. These theories can also be applied to combined LCPs. Since these theories have no ad hoc or arbitrarily adjustable parameters, these theories can be used to design new LCPs and new solvents as well as to predict and explain properties. 27 refs., 4 tabs

  15. Solid-Liquid Equilibria for Many-component Mixtures Using Cubic-Plus-Association (CPA) equation of state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fettouhi, André; Thomsen, Kaj

    2010-01-01

    In the creation of liquefied natural gas the formation of solids play a substantial role, hence detailed knowledge is needed about solid-liquid equilibria (SLE). In this abstract we shortly summarize the work we have carried out at CERE over the past year with SLE for many-component mixtures usin...... the Cubic-Plus-Association (CPA) equation of state. Components used in this work are highly relevant to the oil and gas industry and include light and heavy hydrocarbons, alcohols, water and carbon dioxide....

  16. Empirical equation of state of the products of the detonation of a liquid explosive based on mixtures of tetranitromethane and nitrobenzene of various compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adigamova, T.A.; Davydov, N.B.

    2012-01-01

    The equation of state of the products of the detonation of liquid explosives has been derived by theoretical analysis and calculations. The dependence of the detonation rate on the oxygen balance has been obtained using the existing data on the physicomechanical and detonation properties of liquid explosive mixtures. Calculation dependences of the density on the weight content of nitrobenzene have been obtained [ru

  17. Competitive adsorption of a two-component gas on a deformable adsorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usenko, A S

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the competitive adsorption of a two-component gas on the surface of an adsorbent whose adsorption properties vary due to the adsorbent deformation. The essential difference of adsorption isotherms for a deformable adsorbent both from the classical Langmuir adsorption isotherms of a two-component gas and from the adsorption isotherms of a one-component gas is obtained, taking into account variations in the adsorption properties of the adsorbent in adsorption. We establish bistability and tristability of the system caused by variations in adsorption properties of the adsorbent in competitive adsorption of gas particles on it. We derive conditions under which adsorption isotherms of a binary gas mixture have two stable asymptotes. It is shown that the specific features of the behavior of the system under study can be described in terms of a potential of the known explicit form. (paper)

  18. Synthesis and Characterization of Two Component Alloy Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaei, Salomeh

    Alloying is an old trick used to produce new materials by synergistically combining at least two components. New developments in nanoscience have enabled new degrees of freedom, such as size, solubility and concentration of the alloying element to be utilized in the design of the physical properties of alloy nanoparticles (ANPs). ANPs as multi-functional materials have applications in catalysis, biomedical technologies and electronics. Phase diagrams of ANPs are very little known and may not represent that of bulk picture, furthermore, ANPs with different crystallite orientation and compositions could remain far from equilibrium. Here, we studied the synthesis and stability of Au-Sn and Ag-Ni ANPs with chemical reduction method at room temperature. Due to the large difference in the redox potentials of Au and Sn, co-reduction is not a reproducible method. However, two step successive reductions was found to be more reliable to generate Au-Sn ANPs which consists of forming clusters in the first step (either without capping agent or with weakly coordinated surfactant molecules) and then undergoing a second reduction step in the presence of another metal salt. Our observation also showed that capping agents (Cetrimonium bromide or (CTAB)) and Polyacrylic acid (PAA)) play a key role in the alloying process and shorter length capping agent (PAA) may facilitate the diffusion of individual components and thus enabling better alloying. Different molar ratios of Sn and Au precursors were used to study the effect of alloying elements on the melting point and the crystalline structures and melting points were determined by various microscopy and spectroscopy techniques and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A significant depression (up to150°C) in the melting transition was observed for the Au-Sn ANPs compared to the bulk eutectic point (Tm 280°C) due to the size and shape effect. Au-Sn ANPs offer a unique set of advantages as lead-free solder material which can

  19. Viscosity and Liquid Density of Asymmetric n-Alkane Mixtures: Measurement and Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Queimada, António J.; Marrucho, Isabel M.; Coutinho, João A.P.

    2005-01-01

    Viscosity and liquid density Measurements were performed, at atmospheric pressure. in pure and mixed n-decane. n-eicosane, n-docosane, and n-tetracosane from 293.15 K (or above the melting point) up to 343.15 K. The viscosity was determined with a rolling ball viscometer and liquid densities...... with a vibrating U-tube densimeter. Pure component results agreed, oil average, with literature values within 0.2% for liquid density and 3% for viscosity. The measured data were used to evaluate the performance of two models for their predictions: the friction theory coupled with the Peng-Robinson equation...... of state and a corresponding states model recently proposed for surface tension, viscosity, vapor pressure, and liquid densities of the series of n-alkanes. Advantages and shortcoming of these models are discussed....

  20. Enhanced Membrane System for Recovery of Water from Gas-Liquid Mixtures, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Gas-Liquid separation is an acute microgravity problem. Existing devices use centrifugal motion on microporous membranes to separate the two phases. Centrifugal...

  1. Separation of Gas Mixtures by New Type of Membranes – Dynamic Liquid Membranes.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Setničková, Kateřina; Šíma, Vladimír; Petričkovič, Roman; Řezníčková Čermáková, Jiřina; Uchytil, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 160, FEB 29 (2016), s. 132-135 ISSN 1383-5866 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : gas separation * liquid membrane * methane Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 3.359, year: 2016

  2. Density profiles and collective excitations of a trapped two-component Fermi vapour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoruso, M.; Meccoli, I.; Minguzzi, A.; Tosi, M.P.

    1999-08-01

    We discuss the ground state and the small-amplitude excitations of a degenerate vapour of fermionic atoms placed in two hyperfine states inside a spherical harmonic trap. An equations-of-motion approach is set up to discuss the hydrodynamic dissipation processes from the interactions between the two components of the fluid beyond mean-field theory and to emphasize analogies with spin dynamics and spin diffusion in a homogeneous Fermi liquid. The conditions for the establishment of a collisional regime via scattering against cold-atom impurities are analyzed. The equilibrium density profiles are then calculated for a two-component vapour of 40 K atoms: they are little modified by the interactions for presently relevant values of the system parameters, but spatial separation of the two components will spontaneously arise as the number of atoms in the trap is increased. The eigenmodes of collective oscillation in both the total particle number density and the concentration density are evaluated analytically in the special case of a symmetric two-component vapour in the collisional regime. The dispersion relation of the surface modes for the total particle density reduces in this case to that of a one-component Fermi vapour, whereas the frequencies of all other modes are shifted by the interactions. (author)

  3. CuInS2/ZnS QD-ferroelectric liquid crystal mixtures for faster electro-optical devices and their energy storage aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Dharmendra Pratap; Vimal, Tripti; Mange, Yatin J.; Varia, Mahesh C.; Nann, Thomas; Pandey, K. K.; Manohar, Rajiv; Douali, Redouane

    2018-01-01

    CuInS2/ZnS core/shell quantum dots (CIS/ZnS QDs) dispersed ferroelectric liquid crystal (FLC) mixtures have been characterized for their application in electro-optical devices, energy storage, and solar cells. Physical properties of the CIS/ZnS QD-FLC (ferroelectric liquid crystal) mixtures have also been investigated with varying QD concentrations in order to optimize the critical concentration of QDs in mixtures. The presence of QDs breaks the geometrical symmetry in the FLC matrix, which results in a change in the physical properties of the mixtures. We observed the reduced values of primary and secondary order parameters (tilt angle and spontaneous polarization, respectively) for mixtures, which also depend on the concentration of QDs. The reduction of spontaneous polarization in QDs-FLC mixtures is attributed to the adverse role of flexoelectric contribution in the mixtures. The 92% faster electro-optic response and enhanced capacitance indicate the possible application of these mixtures in electro-optical devices and solar cells. Photoluminescence emission of pure FLC and QDs-FLC mixtures has been thermally tailored, which is explained by suitable models.

  4. Liquid-liquid extraction of uranium from Egyptian phosphoric acid using a synergistic D2EHPA-DBBP mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Khalek, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of uranium from Egyptian phosphoric acid with synergistic mixture of di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid (D2EHPA) and di-butyl butyl phosphonate (DBBP) is reported in this paper. The influence of various factors such as D2EHPA concentration, DBBP concentration, phosphoric acid concentration, contact time, aqueous: organic phase's ratio (aq:org) and temperature on the degree of extraction has been established. The data on the effect of temperature on the extraction showed that the enthalpy change is -23.12 kJ/mol. Uranium extracted by D2EHPA- DBBP is further subjected to a second cycle of extraction and scrubbing impurities. The uranium is finally converted to a high purity UO 3 product using precipitation with hydrogen peroxide and heat treatment at 375 deg C. (author)

  5. BEHAVIOR OF SURFACTANT MIXTURE AT SOLID/LIQUID AND OIL/LIQUID INTERFACE IN CHEMICAL FLOODING SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prof. P. Somasundaran

    2002-03-01

    The aim of the project is to develop and evaluate efficient novel surfactant mixtures for enhanced oil recovery. Preliminary ultra-filtration tests suggest that two kinds of micelles may exist in binary surfactant mixtures at different concentrations. Due to the important role played in interfacial processes by micelles as determined by their structures, focus of the current work is on the delineation of the relationship between such aggregate structures and chemical compositions of the surfactants. A novel analytical centrifuge application is explored to generate information on structures of different surfactants aggregates. In this report, optical systems, typical output of the analytical ultracentrifuge results and four basic experiments are discussed. Initial sedimentation velocity investigations were conducted using nonyl phenol ethoxylated decyl ether (NP-10) to choose the best analytical protocol, calculate the partial specific volume and obtain information on sedimentation coefficient, aggregation mass of micelles. The partial specific volume was calculated to be 0.920. Four softwares: Optima{trademark} XL-A/XL-I data analysis software, DCDT+, Svedberg and SEDFIT, were compared for the analysis of sedimentation velocity experimental data. The sedimentation coefficient and aggregation number of NP-10 micelles obtained using the first three softwares at 25 C are 209, 127, and 111, respectively. The last one is closest to the result from Light Scattering. The reason for the differences in numbers obtained using the three softwares is discussed. Based on these tests, Svedberg and SEDFIT analysis are chosen for further studies. This approach using the analytical ultracentrifugation offers an unprecedented opportunity now to obtain important information on mixed micelles and their role in interfacial processes.

  6. A two-component NZRI metamaterial based rectangular cloak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikder Sunbeam Islam

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A new two-component, near zero refractive index (NZRI metamaterial is presented for electromagnetic rectangular cloaking operation in the microwave range. In the basic design a pi-shaped, metamaterial was developed and its characteristics were investigated for the two major axes (x and z-axis wave propagation through the material. For the z-axis wave propagation, it shows more than 2 GHz bandwidth and for the x-axis wave propagation; it exhibits more than 1 GHz bandwidth of NZRI property. The metamaterial was then utilized in designing a rectangular cloak where a metal cylinder was cloaked perfectly in the C-band area of microwave regime. The experimental result was provided for the metamaterial and the cloak and these results were compared with the simulated results. This is a novel and promising design for its two-component NZRI characteristics and rectangular cloaking operation in the electromagnetic paradigm.

  7. Brazilian two-component TLD albedo neutron individual monitoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, M.M., E-mail: marcelo@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Av. Salvador Allende, s/n, CEP: 22780-160, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mauricio, C.L.P., E-mail: claudia@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Av. Salvador Allende, s/n, CEP: 22780-160, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Fonseca, E.S. da, E-mail: evaldo@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Av. Salvador Allende, s/n, CEP: 22780-160, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, A.X. da, E-mail: ademir@con.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia, COPPE/PEN Caixa Postal 68509, CEP: 21941-972, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-12-15

    Since 1983, Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, Brazil, uses a TLD one-component albedo neutron monitor, which has a single different calibration factor specifically for each installation type. In order to improve its energy response, a two-component albedo monitor was developed, which measure the thermal neutron component besides the albedo one. The two-component monitor has been calibrated in reference neutron fields: thermal, five accelerator-produced monoenergetic beams (70, 144, 565, 1200 and 5000 keV) and five radionuclide sources ({sup 252}Cf, {sup 252}Cf(D{sub 2}O), {sup 241}Am-Be, {sup 241}Am-B and {sup 238}Pu-Be) at several distances. Since January 2008, mainly Brazilian workers who handle neutron sources at different distances and moderation, such as in well logging and calibration facilities are using it routinely.

  8. On the Alexander polynominals of alternating two-component links

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark E. Kidwell

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available Let L be an alternating two-component link with Alexander polynomial Δ(x,y. Then the polynomials (1−xΔ(x,y and (1−yΔ(x,y are alternating. That is, (1−yΔ(x,y can be written as ∑i,jcijxiyj in such a way that (−1i+jcij≥0.

  9. Transport properties of binary liquid mixtures - candidate solvents for optimized flue gas cleaning processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanimirović Andrej M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal conductivities and viscosities of three pure chemicals, monoethanol amine (MEA, tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether (TEGDME and polyethylene glycol 200 (PEG 200 and two binary mixtures (MEA + + TEGDME and MEA + PEG 200 were measured at six temperatures: 298.15, 303.15, 308.15, 313.15, 318.15 and 323.15 K and atmospheric pressure. Measurement of thermal conductivities was based on a transient hot wire measurement setup, while viscosities were measured with a digital Stabinger SVM 3000/G2 viscometer. From these data, deviations in thermal conductivity and viscosity were calculated and fitted to the Redlich-Kister equation. Thermal conductivities of mixtures were correlated using Filippov, Jamieson, Baroncini and Rowley models, while viscosity data were correlated with the Eyring-UNIQUAC, Eyring-NRTL and McAlistermodels. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172063

  10. Two-component gravitational instability in spiral galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchuk, A. A.; Sotnikova, N. Y.

    2018-04-01

    We applied a criterion of gravitational instability, valid for two-component and infinitesimally thin discs, to observational data along the major axis for seven spiral galaxies of early types. Unlike most papers, the dispersion equation corresponding to the criterion was solved directly without using any approximation. The velocity dispersion of stars in the radial direction σR was limited by the range of possible values instead of a fixed value. For all galaxies, the outer regions of the disc were analysed up to R ≤ 130 arcsec. The maximal and sub-maximal disc models were used to translate surface brightness into surface density. The largest destabilizing disturbance stars can exert on a gaseous disc was estimated. It was shown that the two-component criterion differs a little from the one-fluid criterion for galaxies with a large surface gas density, but it allows to explain large-scale star formation in those regions where the gaseous disc is stable. In the galaxy NGC 1167 star formation is entirely driven by the self-gravity of the stars. A comparison is made with the conventional approximations which also include the thickness effect and with models for different sound speed cg. It is shown that values of the effective Toomre parameter correspond to the instability criterion of a two-component disc Qeff < 1.5-2.5. This result is consistent with previous theoretical and observational studies.

  11. Morphology-tunable and photoresponsive properties in a self-assembled two-component gel system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yifeng; Xu, Miao; Yi, Tao; Xiao, Shuzhang; Zhou, Zhiguo; Li, Fuyou; Huang, Chunhui

    2007-01-02

    Photoresponsive C3-symmetrical trisurea self-assembling building blocks containing three azobenzene groups (LC10 and LC4) at the rim were designed and synthesized. By introducing a trisamide gelator (G18), which can self-aggregate through hydrogen bonds of acylamino moieties to form a fibrous network, the mixture of LC10 (or LC4) and G18 forms an organogel with coral-like supramolecular structure from 1,4-dioxane. The cooperation of hydrogen bonding and the hydrophobic diversity between these components are the main contributions to the specific superstructure. The two-component gel exhibits reversible photoisomerization from trans to cis transition without breakage of the gel state.

  12. Osmotic and apparent molar properties of binary mixtures alcohol + 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate ionic liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González, Emilio J.; Calvar, Noelia; Domínguez, Ángeles; Macedo, Eugénia A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Osmotic and physical properties of binary mixtures {alcohol + [BMim][TfO]} were measured. ► From experimental data, apparent molar properties and osmotic coefficients were calculated. ► The apparent properties were fitted using a Redlich–Meyer type equation. ► The osmotic coefficients were correlated using the Extended Pitzer model. -- Abstract: In this work, physical properties (densities and speeds of sound) for the binary systems {1-propanol, or 2-propanol, or 1-butanol, or 2-butanol, or 1-pentanol + 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate} were experimentally measured from T = (293.15 to 323.15) K and at atmospheric pressure. These data were used to calculate the apparent molar volume and apparent molar isentropic compression which were fitted to a Redlich–Meyer type equation. This fit was used to obtain the corresponding apparent molar properties at infinite dilution. On the other hand, the osmotic and activity coefficients and vapor pressures of these binary mixtures were also determined at T = 323.15 K using the vapor pressure osmometry technique. The Extended Pitzer model of Archer was employed to correlate the experimental osmotic coefficients. From the parameters obtained in the correlation, the mean molal activity coefficients and the excess Gibbs free energy for the studied mixtures were calculated

  13. Optical properties of binary and ternary liquid mixtures containing tetralin, isobutylbenzene and dodecane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sechenyh, Vitaliy V.; Legros, Jean-Claude; Shevtsova, Valentina

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The refractive indices in binary and ternary mixtures of hydrocarbons were measured. ► The error of the theoretical prediction of the refractive indices does not exceed 0.13%. ► The error of the prediction of concentration derivatives is unsatisfactory large. ► Feasibility of application of optical methods to measuring mass transport coefficients is studied. -- Abstract: Refractive indices of binary and ternary mixtures formed by tetralin (1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene), isobutylbenzene (2-methyl-1-propyl benzene) and n-dodecane are presented over a wide range of compositions. All measurements of the refractive index have been conducted at 298.15 K and atmospheric pressure using two light sources: one in the visible (λ = 670 nm) and the other in the infrared (λ = 925 nm) spectrum. The concentration derivatives of the refractive index have been determined. The mixture compositions, where these two wavelengths are applicable for the measurements of mass transport coefficients by interferometry, are estimated and discussed

  14. The Making of a Liquid Soap Process From Used Wasted Cooking Oil and Coconut Oil Mixture

    OpenAIRE

    S.T., M.T., Zulkarnain

    2011-01-01

    This Moment, used frying oil has not been used well and only used discarded as household waste or industrial. Therefore, to use of used frying oil as raw material a liquid soap will provide added value for used frying oil. The main purpose of this research is to cultivative used frying oil become a liquid soap way saponification with potassium hidroxide . This research do with variation feed ratio that is used frying oil and coconut oil (0:1; 0,5:1; 1:1; 1,5:1; and 2:1) and time of saponifica...

  15. Continuous Fractionation of a two-component mixture by zone electrophoresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zalewski, D.R.; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.

    2009-01-01

    Synchronized continuous-flow zone electrophoresis is a recently demonstrated tool for performing electrophoretic fractionation of a complex sample. The method resembles free flow electrophoresis, but unlike in that technique, no mechanical fluid pumping is required. Instead, fast electrokinetic flow

  16. Solute Transport from Aqueous Mixture through Supported Ionic Liquid Membrane by Pervaporation.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Izák, Pavel; Koekerling, M.; Kragl, U.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 199, 1-3 (2006) , s. 96–98 ISSN 0011-9164. [Euromembrane 2006. Giardini, Naxos, 24.09.2006-28.09.2006] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : supported ionic liquid membrane * pervaporation * 1,3-propanediol Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 0.917, year: 2006

  17. Density and viscosity behavior of a North Sea crude oil, natural gas liquid, and their mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, KAG; Cisneros, Sergio; Kvamme, B

    2005-01-01

    to accurately model the saturation pressures, densities, and viscosities of petroleum systems ranging from natural gases to heavy crude oils. The applicability of this overall modeling technique to reproduce measured bubble points, densities, and viscosities of a North Sea crude oil, a natural gas liquid...

  18. Modeling the Phase Behavior in Mixtures of Pharmaceuticals with Liquid or Supercritical Solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsivintzelis, Ioannis; Economou, Ioannis; Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2009-01-01

    of the studied pharmaceuticals in liquid solvents was calculated. The average root-mean-square deviation between experimental and calculated solubilities is 0.190 and 0.037 in log10 units for prediction (calculations without a binary interaction parameter adjustment) and for correlation (calculations using one...

  19. Relaxation phenomena of polar non-polar liquid mixtures under low ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    der high-frequency electric field have gained much importance to study the structure as ... Purohit et al [1,2] and Srivastava and Srivastava [3] had measured the real ε¼ ... The cell containing the experimental liquid in a given solvent .... due to inductive, mesomeric and electromeric effects of the substituent polar groups at-.

  20. Induced liquid-crystalline ordering in solutions of stiff and flexible amphiphilic macromolecules: Effect of mixture composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glagolev, Mikhail K.; Vasilevskaya, Valentina V.; Khokhlov, Alexei R.

    2016-01-01

    Impact of mixture composition on self-organization in concentrated solutions of stiff helical and flexible macromolecules was studied by means of molecular dynamics simulation. The macromolecules were composed of identical amphiphilic monomer units but a fraction f of macromolecules had stiff helical backbones and the remaining chains were flexible. In poor solvents the compacted flexible macromolecules coexist with bundles or filament clusters from few intertwined stiff helical macromolecules. The increase of relative content f of helical macromolecules leads to increase of the length of helical clusters, to alignment of clusters with each other, and then to liquid-crystalline-like ordering along a single direction. The formation of filament clusters causes segregation of helical and flexible macromolecules and the alignment of the filaments induces effective liquid-like ordering of flexible macromolecules. A visual analysis and calculation of order parameter relaying the anisotropy of diffraction allow concluding that transition from disordered to liquid-crystalline state proceeds sharply at relatively low content of stiff components.

  1. (Liquid + liquid) equilibria for the ternary mixtures (alkane + toluene + ionic liquid) at T = 298.15 K: Influence of the anion on the phase equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seoane, Raquel G.; Gómez, Elena; González, Emilio J.; Domínguez, Ángeles

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► [BMpyr][NTF 2 ] and [BMpyr][TFO] were studied as solvents to extract aromatics from alkanes. ► (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium data were measured at 298.15 K for six ternary systems. ► Selectivity and solute distribution ratio were calculated and compared. ► The influence of the structure of anion of the ionic liquid was analyzed. ► Experimental data were satisfactorily correlated using NRTL model. - Abstract: (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium data for the ionic liquids 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, [BMpyr][NTf 2 ], and 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium trifluoromethanesulfonate, [BMpyr][TFO], with toluene, and heptane or cyclohexane were determined at T = 298.15 K and atmospheric pressure. In order to check if these ILs can be used as potential solvents for the extraction of toluene from aliphatic compounds, the ability of the ILs as solvents was evaluated in terms of selectivity and solute distribution ratio. The experimental data were correlated accurately with the Non Random Two-Liquid model.

  2. Pressure drop in the flow of gas/steam liquid mixtures in pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedel, L.

    1978-01-01

    Pressure drop in two phase flow is considered to be made up of terms for geodetical elevation or depression, acceleration, and friction. The geodetical and momentum pressure drop are discussed and reasonable correlations are presented, along with their limitations and range of application. Various relationships are available for calculating the technically important friction component. If purely empirical correlations are neclected, all the remaining predictive schemes can be related to three basic physical models. These models as well as the commonly accepted and most reliable relationships are discussed and classified according to type. Furthermore, their scope is defined and the accuracy of prediction systematicaπly compared with the aid of a newly set-up data bank. The extensive literature data consulted refer to single component two phase flow of water and various refrigerants and several two-component systems in horizontal and vertical unheated straight pipes under industrially relevant flow conditions. Finally, the accuracy of the prediction of some generally accepted void correlations is dealt with: here too, numerous published void fraction data have been gathered and checked. (orig./HP) [de

  3. Fluorescence lifetime selectivity in excitation-emission matrices for qualitative analysis of a two-component system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millican, D.W.; McGown, L.B.

    1989-01-01

    Steady-state fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (EEMs), and phase-resolved EEMs (PREEMs) collected at modulation frequencies of 6, 18, and 30 MHz, were used for qualitative analysis of mixtures of benzo[k]fluoranthene (τ = 8 ns) and benzo[b]fluoranthene (τ = 29 ns) in ethanol. The EEMs of the individual components were extracted from mixture EEMs by means of wavelength component vector-gram (WCV) analysis. Phase resolution was found to be superior to steady-state measurements for extraction of the component spectra, for mixtures in which the intensity contributions from the two components are unequal

  4. Experimental (liquid + liquid) equilibrium data for ternary and quaternary mixtures of fatty acid methyl and ethyl esters (FAME/FAEE) from soybean oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beneti, Stéphani C.; Lanza, Marcelo; Mazutti, Marcio A.; Kunita, Marcos Hiroiuqui; Cardozo-Filho, Lúcio; Vladimir Oliveira, J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Innovative technique for quantification of compounds involved in the biodiesel production. • Easy and quick determination from NIR combined with multivariate calibration. • Reliable LLE correlation and predictions can be attained from the technique. -- Abstract: This work is aimed at providing an easy and quick determination of the biodiesel products using near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) by combination with the multivariate calibration in the analysis of (liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) data for ternary and quaternary mixtures containing soybean fatty acid methyl (FAME) and ethyl (FAEE) esters, glycerol, ethanol, methanol and water, at various temperatures. The mass balance for the compositions obtained for each phase was carried out so as to demonstrate the reliability of the models generated by the multivariate calibration. Two distinct phases are observed, a glycerol-rich and the other ester-rich, while ethanol is dissolved among the phases hence reducing the partial mutual miscibility between glycerol and ester. Through (liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) results, systems containing FAEE at T = 318.15 K and 303.15 K (calibration using data obtained at temperature of 318.15 K), a good agreement is verified among the values determined using conventional and NIR technique for alcoholic phase (AP) or aqueous phase (WP) and biodiesel phase (BP). Likewise in the systems containing FAME at 318.15 K, 303.15 K and 333.15 K (calibration using data obtained at temperature of 318.15 K), the LLE results were reproduced at the upper and lower temperature to the tests of the reproducibility of the models generated by the multivariate calibration

  5. Two-component scattering model and the electron density spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, A. Z.; Tan, J. Y.; Esamdin, A.; Wu, X. J.

    2010-02-01

    In this paper, we discuss a rigorous treatment of the refractive scintillation caused by a two-component interstellar scattering medium and a Kolmogorov form of density spectrum. It is assumed that the interstellar scattering medium is composed of a thin-screen interstellar medium (ISM) and an extended interstellar medium. We consider the case that the scattering of the thin screen concentrates in a thin layer represented by a δ function distribution and that the scattering density of the extended irregular medium satisfies the Gaussian distribution. We investigate and develop equations for the flux density structure function corresponding to this two-component ISM geometry in the scattering density distribution and compare our result with the observations. We conclude that the refractive scintillation caused by this two-component ISM scattering gives a more satisfactory explanation for the observed flux density variation than does the single extended medium model. The level of refractive scintillation is strongly sensitive to the distribution of scattering material along the line of sight (LOS). The theoretical modulation indices are comparatively less sensitive to the scattering strength of the thin-screen medium, but they critically depend on the distance from the observer to the thin screen. The logarithmic slope of the structure function is sensitive to the scattering strength of the thin-screen medium, but is relatively insensitive to the thin-screen location. Therefore, the proposed model can be applied to interpret the structure functions of flux density observed in pulsar PSR B2111 + 46 and PSR B0136 + 57. The result suggests that the medium consists of a discontinuous distribution of plasma turbulence embedded in the interstellar medium. Thus our work provides some insight into the distribution of the scattering along the LOS to the pulsar PSR B2111 + 46 and PSR B0136 + 57.

  6. HoTbTi2O7, the mixtures of spin ice and spin liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, L.J.; Terashita, H.; Schweika, W.; Chen, Y.Y.; Gardner, J.S.

    2007-01-01

    Polycrystalline samples of Ho 2- x Tb x Ti 2 O 7 (x=0.5, 1, and 1.5) have been prepared and characterized. No long-range order is observed for HoTbTi 2 O 7 in magnetization and specific heat measurements down to 2 K. The low-energy magnetic excitation measurements suggests that HoTbTi 2 O 7 possesses both characteristics of spin ice and spin liquid in the ground state

  7. Contribution to the liquid-vapour equilibrium of potassium and sodium mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreinlechner, I.; Schwarz, N.

    1975-10-01

    In this paper the phase diagram of the binary system potassium-sodium in the liquid-vapour range was calculated for different pressures and temperatures, assuming the two metals acting as ideal solution. The assumption was verified by experimental results. It is thus possible to calculate the separation factor for the rectification of potassium and to estimate the content of sodium in the vapour phase during experiments with vapourized potassium from the data of the vapour pressures of the pure metals. (author)

  8. Viscosity of binary mixtures of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ionic liquid with four organic solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciocirlan, Oana; Croitoru, Oana; Iulian, Olga

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Viscosities of four binary mixtures of [Emim][BF4] with organic solvents. • Viscosity models based on Eyring’s theory. • Excess functions calculated. • Data for binaries new in the literature, except for system with DMSO. - Abstract: This paper reports experimental values of dynamic viscosity for four binary systems of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, [Emim][BF4], with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), acetonitrile (ACN), ethylene glycol (EG) and 1,4-dioxane over the temperature ranges from 293.15 K to 353.15 K at p = 0.1 MPa. All binary mixtures were completely miscible over the entire range of mole fraction, except the system with 1,4-dioxane. The viscosity results have been correlated by the one parameter Grunberg–Nissan and Fang and He equations and the two-parameter McAllister, Eyring-UNIQUAC, Eyring-NRTL and Eyring-Wilson models and the results were compared. Additionally, the viscosity deviations, Δη, and the excess Gibbs energy of activation for viscous flow, G"∗"E, were calculated and fitted to the Redlich–Kister equation. The results show that all Δη values are negative over the whole composition range and the G"∗"E values are positive, except for the system with EG. The results of the excess functions are discussed in terms of molecular interactions.

  9. Functionalized copolyimide membranes for the separation of gaseous and liquid mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Schmeling

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Functionalized copolyimides continue to attract much attention as membrane materials because they can fulfill the demands for industrial applications. Thus not only good separation characteristics but also high temperature stability and chemical resistance are required. Furthermore, it is very important that membrane materials are resistant to plasticization since it has been shown that this phenomenon leads to a significant increase in permeability with a dramatic loss in selectivity. Plasticization effects occur with most polymer membranes at high CO2 concentrations and pressures, respectively. Plasticization effects are also observed with higher hydrocarbons such as propylene, propane, aromatics or sulfur containing aromatics. Unfortunately, these components are present in mixtures of high commercial relevance and can be separated economically by single membrane units or hybrid processes where conventional separation units are combined with membrane-based processes. In this paper the advantages of carboxy group containing 6FDA (4,4′-hexafluoroisopropylidene diphthalic anhydride -copolyimides are discussed based on the experimental results for non cross-linked, ionically and covalently cross-linked membrane materials with respect to the separation of olefins/paraffins, e.g. propylene/propane, aromatic/aliphatic separation e.g. benzene/cyclohexane as well as high pressure gas separations, e.g. CO2/CH4 mixtures. In addition, opportunities for implementing the membrane units in conventional separation processes are discussed.

  10. A two-component copula with links to insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail S.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new copula to model dependencies between insurance entities, by considering how insurance entities are affected by both macro and micro factors. The model used to build the copula assumes that the insurance losses of two companies or lines of business are related through a random common loss factor which is then multiplied by an individual random company factor to get the total loss amounts. The new two-component copula is not Archimedean and it extends the toolkit of copulas for the insurance industry.

  11. Vortex formation in a rotating two-component Fermi gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warringa, Harmen J.; Sedrakian, Armen [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    A two-component Fermi gas with attractive s-wave interactions forms a superfluid at low temperatures. When this gas is confined in a rotating trap, fermions can unpair at the edges of the gas and vortices can arise beyond certain critical rotation frequencies. We compute these critical rotation frequencies and construct the phase diagram in the plane of scattering length and rotation frequency for different total numbers of particles. We work at zero temperature and consider a cylindrically symmetric harmonic trapping potential. The calculations are performed in the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov approximation which implies that our results are quantitatively reliable for weak interactions.

  12. Two component micro injection molding for MID fabrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Mohammad Aminul; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Tang, Peter Torben

    2009-01-01

    Molded Interconnect Devices (MIDs) are plastic substrates with electrical infrastructure. The fabrication of MIDs is usually based on injection molding and different process chains may be identified from this starting point. The use of MIDs has been driven primarily by the automotive sector......, but recently the medical sector seems more and more interested. In particular the possibility of miniaturization of 3D components with electrical infrastructure is attractive. The paper describes possible manufacturing routes and challenges of miniaturized MIDs based on two component micro injection molding...

  13. Ebulliometric determination and prediction of (vapor + liquid) equilibria for binary and ternary mixtures containing alcohols (C{sub 1}-C{sub 4}) and dimethyl carbonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Hiroyuki, E-mail: matsuda@chem.cst.nihon-u.ac.jp [Department of Materials and Applied Chemistry, Nihon University, 1-8 Kanda Surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8308 (Japan); Fukano, Makoto; Kikkawa, Shinichiro [Department of Materials and Applied Chemistry, Nihon University, 1-8 Kanda Surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8308 (Japan); Constantinescu, Dana [Carl von Ossietzky Universitaet Oldenburg, Technische Chemie, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Kurihara, Kiyofumi; Tochigi, Katsumi; Ochi, Kenji [Department of Materials and Applied Chemistry, Nihon University, 1-8 Kanda Surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8308 (Japan); Gmehling, Juergen [Carl von Ossietzky Universitaet Oldenburg, Technische Chemie, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: > The VLE behavior of systems containing dimethyl carbonate (DMC) was investigated. > VLE data for ternary and binary mixtures containing alcohol and DMC were measured. > Several activity coefficient models were used for data reduction or prediction. > Valley line, i.e., distillation boundary, was observed for the ternary mixture. > Residue curves were calculated to investigate composition profile for distillation. - Abstract: (Vapor + liquid) equilibrium (VLE) data for a ternary mixture, namely {l_brace}methanol + propan-1-ol + dimethyl carbonate (DMC){r_brace}, and four binary mixtures, namely an {l_brace}alcohol (C{sub 3} or C{sub 4}) + DMC{r_brace}, containing the binary constituent mixtures of the ternary mixture, were measured at p = (40.00 to 93.32) kPa using a modified Swietoslawski-type ebulliometer. The experimental data for the binary systems were correlated using the Wilson model. The Wilson model was also applied to the ternary system to predict the VLE behavior using parameters from the binary mixtures. The modified UNIFAC (Dortmund) model was also tested for the predictions of the VLE behavior of the binary and ternary mixtures. In addition, the experimental VLE data for the ternary and constituent binary mixtures were correlated using the extended Redlich-Kister (ERK) model, which can completely represent the azeotropic points. For the ternary system, a comparison of the experimental and the predicted or correlated boiling points obtained using the Wilson and ERK models showed that the ERK model is more accurate. The valley line, i.e., the curve which divides the patterns of vapor-liquid tie lines, was found in the (methanol + propan-1-ol + DMC) system. This valley line could be represented by the ERK model. Finally, the composition profile for simple distillation of this ternary mixture was obtained by analysis of the residue curves from the estimated Wilson parameters of the constituent binary mixtures.

  14. Ebulliometric determination and prediction of (vapor + liquid) equilibria for binary and ternary mixtures containing alcohols (C1-C4) and dimethyl carbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Hiroyuki; Fukano, Makoto; Kikkawa, Shinichiro; Constantinescu, Dana; Kurihara, Kiyofumi; Tochigi, Katsumi; Ochi, Kenji; Gmehling, Juergen

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: → The VLE behavior of systems containing dimethyl carbonate (DMC) was investigated. → VLE data for ternary and binary mixtures containing alcohol and DMC were measured. → Several activity coefficient models were used for data reduction or prediction. → Valley line, i.e., distillation boundary, was observed for the ternary mixture. → Residue curves were calculated to investigate composition profile for distillation. - Abstract: (Vapor + liquid) equilibrium (VLE) data for a ternary mixture, namely {methanol + propan-1-ol + dimethyl carbonate (DMC)}, and four binary mixtures, namely an {alcohol (C 3 or C 4 ) + DMC}, containing the binary constituent mixtures of the ternary mixture, were measured at p = (40.00 to 93.32) kPa using a modified Swietoslawski-type ebulliometer. The experimental data for the binary systems were correlated using the Wilson model. The Wilson model was also applied to the ternary system to predict the VLE behavior using parameters from the binary mixtures. The modified UNIFAC (Dortmund) model was also tested for the predictions of the VLE behavior of the binary and ternary mixtures. In addition, the experimental VLE data for the ternary and constituent binary mixtures were correlated using the extended Redlich-Kister (ERK) model, which can completely represent the azeotropic points. For the ternary system, a comparison of the experimental and the predicted or correlated boiling points obtained using the Wilson and ERK models showed that the ERK model is more accurate. The valley line, i.e., the curve which divides the patterns of vapor-liquid tie lines, was found in the (methanol + propan-1-ol + DMC) system. This valley line could be represented by the ERK model. Finally, the composition profile for simple distillation of this ternary mixture was obtained by analysis of the residue curves from the estimated Wilson parameters of the constituent binary mixtures.

  15. Superfluid drag in the two-component Bose-Hubbard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellin, Karl; Babaev, Egor

    2018-03-01

    In multicomponent superfluids and superconductors, co- and counterflows of components have, in general, different properties. A. F. Andreev and E. P. Bashkin [Sov. Phys. JETP 42, 164 (1975)] discussed, in the context of He3/He4 superfluid mixtures, that interparticle interactions produce a dissipationless drag. The drag can be understood as a superflow of one component induced by phase gradients of the other component. Importantly, the drag can be both positive (entrainment) and negative (counterflow). The effect is known to have crucial importance for many properties of diverse physical systems ranging from the dynamics of neutron stars and rotational responses of Bose mixtures of ultracold atoms to magnetic responses of multicomponent superconductors. Although substantial literature exists that includes the drag interaction phenomenologically, only a few regimes are covered by quantitative studies of the microscopic origin of the drag and its dependence on microscopic parameters. Here we study the microscopic origin and strength of the drag interaction in a quantum system of two-component bosons on a lattice with short-range interaction. By performing quantum Monte Carlo simulations of a two-component Bose-Hubbard model we obtain dependencies of the drag strength on the boson-boson interactions and properties of the optical lattice. Of particular interest are the strongly correlated regimes where the ratio of coflow and counterflow superfluid stiffnesses can diverge, corresponding to the case of saturated drag.

  16. From ionic liquid to electrolyte solution: dynamics of 1-N-butyl-3-N-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate/dichloromethane mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunger, Johannes; Stoppa, Alexander; Buchner, Richard; Hefter, Glenn

    2008-10-16

    Dielectric spectra have been measured at 25 degrees C for mixtures of the room temperature ionic liquid 1- N-butyl-3- N-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (IL) with dichloromethane (DCM) over the entire composition range at frequencies 0.2 less than or approximately nu/GHz < or = 89. The spectra could be satisfactorily fitted by assuming only two relaxation modes: a Cole-Cole process at lower frequencies and a Debye process at higher frequencies. However, detailed analysis indicated that both spectral features contain additional modes, which could not be resolved due to overlaps. The spectra indicate that the IL appears to retain its chemical character to extraordinarily high levels of dilution ( x IL greater than or approximately 0.5) in DCM. At even higher dilutions ( x IL less than or approximately 0.3), the IL behaves as a conventional but strongly associated electrolyte.

  17. Argentation gas chromatography revisited: Separation of light olefin/paraffin mixtures using silver-based ionic liquid stationary phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, He; Zhang, Cheng; Venkatesh, Amrit; Rossini, Aaron J; Anderson, Jared L

    2017-11-10

    Silver ion or argentation chromatography utilizes stationary phases containing silver ions for the separation of unsaturated compounds. In this study, a mixed-ligand silver-based ionic liquid (IL) was evaluated for the first time as a gas chromatographic (GC) stationary phase for the separation of light olefin/paraffin mixtures. The selectivity of the stationary phase toward olefins can be tuned by adjusting the ratio of silver ion and the mixed ligands. The maximum allowable operating temperature of these stationary phases was determined to be between 125°C and 150°C. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to characterize the coordination behavior of the silver-based IL as well as provide an understanding into the retention mechanism of light olefins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Ferroelectric BaTiO3 and LiNbO3 Nanoparticles Dispersed in Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal Mixtures: Electrooptic and Dielectric (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-14

    strength for non- doped LF4 and LiNbO3/LF4 nanocolloids at temperature 30C. 146 R. K . SHUKLA ET AL. 6 Distribution A. Approved for public release (PA...AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2017-0210 FERROELECTRIC BaTiO3 AND LiNbO3 NANOPARTICLES DISPERSED IN FERROELECTRIC LIQUID CRYSTAL MIXTURES: ELECTROOPTIC...COMMAND UNITED STATES AIR FORCE Ferroelectric BaTiO3 and LiNbO3 nanoparticles dispersed in ferroelectric liquid crystal mixtures: Electrooptic and

  19. (Vapour + liquid) equilibria for the binary mixtures (1-propanol + dibromomethane, or + bromochloromethane, or + 1,2-dichloroethane or + 1-bromo-2-chloroethane) at T = 313.15 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil-Hernandez, V.; Garcia-Gimenez, P.; Otin, S.; Artal, M.; Velasco, I.

    2005-01-01

    Isothermal (vapour + liquid) equilibria (VLE) at 313.15 K have been measured for liquid 1-propanol + dibromomethane, or + bromochloromethane or + 1,2-dichloroethane or + 1-bromo-2-chloroethane mixtures. The VLE data were reduced using the Redlich-Kister equation taking into consideration the vapour phase imperfection in terms of the 2nd molar virial coefficients. The excess molar Gibbs free energies of all the studied mixtures are positive and ranging from 794 J·mol -1 for (1-propanol + bromochloromethane) and 1052 J·mol -1 for (1-propanol + 1-bromo-2-chloroethane), at x = 0.5. The experimental results are compared with modified UNIFAC predictions

  20. Unimolecular H2 elimination during the liquid phase radiolysis and photolysis of alkane - alkane mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojnarovits, L.; Foeldiak, G.

    1980-01-01

    Unimolecular H 2 elimination from alkanes was investigated in cyclopentane-cyclohexane, n-hexane-cyclohexane and cyclohexane-cyclooctane mixtures during fluradiolysis and 7.6 eV photolysis. During the radiolysis of all systems, and when the fluorescence shift law allowed it, during the photolysis as well, inhibited H 2 detachment was observed from the first component and sensitized hydrogen molecule elimination from the second. It has been concluded that the same excited state (the lowest singlet, S 1 ) is responsible for the H 2 elimination during radiolysis and photolysis and this is that one that gives rise to fluorescence in the experiments of other authors. The H 2 and H elimination from alkanes generally have different excited precursors. The direct population of S 1 by γ-irradiation is of limited importance and this intermediate is mainly produced in ''charge neutralization'' processes. (author)

  1. Physicochemical properties of the liquid mixture between stearate methyl / acid methyl sulfur stearate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Alfonso Torres Ortega

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The need of new alternatives for advance of the domestic oil-chemical industry, based local natural resources, make use of palm oil (Elaeis guineensis, as a source for obtaining alkyl esters, an excellent alternative development to be explored initially by the research groups at universities or institutions of scientifc innovation and development. The sulfonation process for the manufacture of surfactant were conducted in a falling flm reactor by the absorption and chemical reaction with SO3 gas on methyl esters derived from hydrogenated palm stearin. Identifying the properties of the reactants, products, and its mix is very important for the characterized by gas chromatography and infrared spectroscopy. It presents the properties of these inputs as a result of a series of experiments, which varies the mole ratio of the mixture of reactants and products, the process temperature and the percentage of sulfonate agent in the gas fow.

  2. The direct determination of double bond positions in lipid mixtures by liquid chromatography/in-line ozonolysis/mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Chenxing; Zhao, Yuan-Yuan; Curtis, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► An ozonolysis reactor was coupled in-line with mass spectrometry (O 3 -MS). ► Double bond positions in FAME were determined unambiguously without standards. ► LC directly connected to O 3 -MS allowed double bond localization in lipid mixtures. ► LC/O 3 -MS applied to bovine fat demonstrated practical use in lipid analysis. -- Abstract: The direct determination of double bond positions in unsaturated lipids using in-line ozonolysis-mass spectrometry (O 3 -MS) is described. In this experiment, ozone penetrates through the semi-permeable Teflon AF-2400 tubing containing a flow of a solution of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). Unsaturated FAME are thus oxidized by the ozone and cleaved at the double bond positions. The ozonolysis products then flow directly into the atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) source of a mass spectrometer for analysis. Aldehyde products retaining the methyl ester group are indicative of the double bond positions in unsaturated FAME. For the first time, O 3 -MS is able to couple directly to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), making the double bond localization in lipid mixtures possible. The application of LC/O 3 -MS has been demonstrated for a fat sample from bovine adipose tissue. A total of 9 unsaturated FAME including 6 positional isomers were identified unambiguously, without comparison to standards. The in-line ozonolysis reaction apparatus is applicable to most mass spectrometers without instrumental modification; it is also directly compatible with various LC columns. The LC/O 3 -MS method described here is thus a practical, versatile and easy to use new approach to the direct determination of double bond positions in lipids, even in complex mixtures

  3. The direct determination of double bond positions in lipid mixtures by liquid chromatography/in-line ozonolysis/mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Chenxing; Zhao, Yuan-Yuan [Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2P5 (Canada); Curtis, Jonathan M., E-mail: jcurtis1@ualberta.ca [Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2P5 (Canada)

    2013-01-31

    Highlights: ► An ozonolysis reactor was coupled in-line with mass spectrometry (O{sub 3}-MS). ► Double bond positions in FAME were determined unambiguously without standards. ► LC directly connected to O{sub 3}-MS allowed double bond localization in lipid mixtures. ► LC/O{sub 3}-MS applied to bovine fat demonstrated practical use in lipid analysis. -- Abstract: The direct determination of double bond positions in unsaturated lipids using in-line ozonolysis-mass spectrometry (O{sub 3}-MS) is described. In this experiment, ozone penetrates through the semi-permeable Teflon AF-2400 tubing containing a flow of a solution of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). Unsaturated FAME are thus oxidized by the ozone and cleaved at the double bond positions. The ozonolysis products then flow directly into the atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) source of a mass spectrometer for analysis. Aldehyde products retaining the methyl ester group are indicative of the double bond positions in unsaturated FAME. For the first time, O{sub 3}-MS is able to couple directly to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), making the double bond localization in lipid mixtures possible. The application of LC/O{sub 3}-MS has been demonstrated for a fat sample from bovine adipose tissue. A total of 9 unsaturated FAME including 6 positional isomers were identified unambiguously, without comparison to standards. The in-line ozonolysis reaction apparatus is applicable to most mass spectrometers without instrumental modification; it is also directly compatible with various LC columns. The LC/O{sub 3}-MS method described here is thus a practical, versatile and easy to use new approach to the direct determination of double bond positions in lipids, even in complex mixtures.

  4. On the solid–liquid phase diagrams of binary mixtures of even saturated fatty alcohols: Systems exhibiting peritectic reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carareto, Natália D.D. [EXTRAE, Department of Food Engineering, Food Engineering Faculty, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, CEP 13083-862 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Santos, Adenílson O. dos [Social Sciences, Health and Technology Center, University of Maranhão, UFMA, CEP 65900-410 Imperatriz, MA (Brazil); Rolemberg, Marlus P. [Institute of Science and Technology, University of Alfenas, UNIFAL, Rodovia José AurélioVilela, CEP 37715400 Poços de Caldas, MG (Brazil); Cardoso, Lisandro P. [Institute of Physics GlebWataghin, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, C.P. 6165, CEP 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Costa, Mariana C. [School of Applied Science, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, CEP 13484-350 Limeira, SP (Brazil); Meirelles, Antonio J.A., E-mail: tomze@fea.unicamp.br [EXTRAE, Department of Food Engineering, Food Engineering Faculty, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, CEP 13083-862 Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2014-08-10

    Highlights: • SLE of binary mixtures of saturated fatty alcohols was studied. • Experimental data were obtained using DSC and stepscan DSC. • Microscopy and X-ray diffraction used as complementary techniques. • Systems presented eutectic, peritectic and metatectic points. - Abstract: The solid–liquid phase diagrams of the following binary mixtures of even saturated fatty alcohols are reported in the literature for the first time: 1-octanol (C8OH) + 1-decanol (C10OH), 1-decanol + 1-dodecanol (C12OH), 1-dodecanol + 1-hexadecanol (C16OH) and 1-tetradecanol (C14OH) + 1-octadecanol (C18OH). The phase diagrams were obtained by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) using a linear heating rate of 1 K min{sup −1} and further investigated by using a stepscan DSC method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and polarized light microscopy were also used to complement the characterization of the phase diagrams which have shown a complex global behavior, presenting not only peritectic and eutectic reactions, but also the metatectic reaction and partial immiscibility on solid state.

  5. On the solid–liquid phase diagrams of binary mixtures of even saturated fatty alcohols: Systems exhibiting peritectic reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carareto, Natália D.D.; Santos, Adenílson O. dos; Rolemberg, Marlus P.; Cardoso, Lisandro P.; Costa, Mariana C.; Meirelles, Antonio J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • SLE of binary mixtures of saturated fatty alcohols was studied. • Experimental data were obtained using DSC and stepscan DSC. • Microscopy and X-ray diffraction used as complementary techniques. • Systems presented eutectic, peritectic and metatectic points. - Abstract: The solid–liquid phase diagrams of the following binary mixtures of even saturated fatty alcohols are reported in the literature for the first time: 1-octanol (C8OH) + 1-decanol (C10OH), 1-decanol + 1-dodecanol (C12OH), 1-dodecanol + 1-hexadecanol (C16OH) and 1-tetradecanol (C14OH) + 1-octadecanol (C18OH). The phase diagrams were obtained by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) using a linear heating rate of 1 K min −1 and further investigated by using a stepscan DSC method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and polarized light microscopy were also used to complement the characterization of the phase diagrams which have shown a complex global behavior, presenting not only peritectic and eutectic reactions, but also the metatectic reaction and partial immiscibility on solid state

  6. Phase Behaviour, Interactions, and Structural Studies of (Amines+Ionic Liquids) Binary Mixtures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jacquemin, J.; Bendová, Magdalena; Sedláková, Zuzana; Holbrey, J.D.; Mullan, C.L.; Youngs, T.G.A.; Pison, L.; Wagner, Zdeněk; Aim, Karel; Costa Gomes, M.F.; Hardacre, Ch.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 7 (2012), s. 1825-1835 ISSN 1439-4235 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP203/09/P141; GA ČR GA104/07/0444; GA AV ČR IAA400720710; GA ČR GP104/06/P066 Grant - others:QUILL(GB) EP/D029538 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : amines * interactions * ionic liquids Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.349, year: 2012

  7. Liquid fuel obtain from polypropylene (PP-5) and high density polyethylene (HDPE-2) waste plastics mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarker, Moinuddin; Rashid, Mohammad Mamunor; Rahman, Md. Sadikur; Molla, Mohammed [Department of Research and Development, Natural State Research Inc, Stamford, (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Plastics are made by combination of small based molecules to form monomers. The monomers are then joined together by chemical polymerization mechanism to form polymers also known as plastics. These plastics contain various elements such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine and sul fur. The use of plastics is vastly expanded and it is being used in every sector of the world. However, using plastics does have a negative aspect, after use they end up in our landfill as waste causing numerous health and environmental problems. Landfill waste plastics release harmful gases due to the presence of carbon, chlorine and sul fur in them into the atmosphere causing climates to change drastically, equivalent to the effects of greenhouse gases (GHG) emission. To overcome these environmental issues, scientists have already developed many methods to converting these waste plastics into energy and fuel . We developed one new methods thermal cracking conversion to convert these waste plastics into usable liquid fuel . Thermal cracking conversion is a process to shorten the long chain hydrocarbons to produce liquid fuel in the absence of a catalyst. The thermal degradation process of the waste plastics long chain hydrocarbon to makes short chain hydrocarbon fuel. The fuel produced has been analyzed and tested according to standard methods. Key words: fuel , hydrocarbon, waste plastic, thermal degradation, conversion, GC/MS.

  8. Liquid fuel obtain from polypropylene (PP-5) and high density polyethylene (HDPE-2) waste plastics mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarker, Moinuddin; Rashid, Mohammad Mamunor; Rahman, Md. Sadikur; Molla, Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    Plastics are made by combination of small based molecules to form monomers. The monomers are then joined together by chemical polymerization mechanism to form polymers also known as plastics. These plastics contain various elements such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine and sul fur. The use of plastics is vastly expanded and it is being used in every sector of the world. However, using plastics does have a negative aspect, after use they end up in our landfill as waste causing numerous health and environmental problems. Landfill waste plastics release harmful gases due to the presence of carbon, chlorine and sul fur in them into the atmosphere causing climates to change drastically, equivalent to the effects of greenhouse gases (GHG) emission. To overcome these environmental issues, scientists have already developed many methods to converting these waste plastics into energy and fuel . We developed one new methods thermal cracking conversion to convert these waste plastics into usable liquid fuel . Thermal cracking conversion is a process to shorten the long chain hydrocarbons to produce liquid fuel in the absence of a catalyst. The thermal degradation process of the waste plastics long chain hydrocarbon to makes short chain hydrocarbon fuel. The fuel produced has been analyzed and tested according to standard methods. Key words: fuel , hydrocarbon, waste plastic, thermal degradation, conversion, GC/MS

  9. The analysis of aqueous mixtures using liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Steven [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1999-02-12

    The focus of this dissertation is the use of chromatographic methods coupled with electrospray mass spectrometry (ES-MS) for the determination of both organic and inorganic compounds in aqueous solutions. The combination of liquid chromatography (LC) methods and ES-MS offers one of the foremost methods for determining compounds in complex aqueous solutions. In this work, LC-ES-MS methods are devised using ion exclusion chromatography, reversed phase chromatography, and ion exchange chromatography, as well as capillary electrophoresis (CE). For an aqueous sample, these LC-ES-MS and CE-ES-MS techniques require no sample preparation or analyte derivatization, which makes it possible to observe a wide variety of analytes as they exist in solution. The majority of this work focuses on the use of LC-ES-MS for the determination of unknown products and intermediates formed during electrochemical incineration (ECI), an experimental waste remediation process. This report contains a general introduction to the project and the general conclusions. Four chapters have been removed for separate processing. Titles are: Chapter 2: Determination of small carboxylic acids by ion exclusion chromatography with electrospray mass spectrometry; Chapter 3: Electrochemical incineration of benzoquinone in aqueous media using a quaternary metal oxide electrode in the absence of a soluble supporting electrolyte; Chapter 4: The determination of electrochemical incineration products of 4-chlorophenol by liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry; and Chapter 5: Determination of small carboxylic acids by capillary electrophoresis with electrospray mass spectrometry.

  10. Two-component thermosensitive hydrogels : Phase separation affecting rheological behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbadessa, Anna; Landín, Mariana; Oude Blenke, Erik; Hennink, Wim E.; Vermonden, Tina

    2017-01-01

    Extracellular matrices are mainly composed of a mixture of different biopolymers and therefore the use of two or more building blocks for the development of tissue-mimicking hydrogels is nowadays an attractive strategy in tissue-engineering. Multi-component hydrogel systems may undergo phase

  11. Synthesis of diamond films by pulsed liquid injection chemical vapor deposition using a mixture of acetone and water as precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apatiga, L.M.; Morales, J.

    2009-01-01

    A chemical vapor deposition reactor based on the flash evaporation of an organic liquid precursor was used to grow diamond films on Si substrates. An effective pulsed liquid injection mechanism consisting of an injector, normally used for fuel injection in internal combustion engines, injects micro-doses of the precursor to the evaporation zone at 280 o C and is instantly evaporated. The resulting vapor mixture is transported by a carrier gas to the high-temperature reaction chamber where the diamond nucleates and grows on the substrate surface at temperatures ranging from 750 to 850 o C. The injection frequency, opening time, number of pulses and other injector parameters are controlled by a computer-driven system. The diamond film morphology and structure were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The as-deposited diamond films show a ball-shaped morphology with a grain size that varies from 100 to 400 nm, as well as the characteristic diamond Raman band at 1332 cm -1 . The effects of the experimental parameters and operation principle on the diamond films quality are analyzed and discussed in terms of crystallinity, composition, structure, and morphology.

  12. Efficient implementation of one- and two-component analytical energy gradients in exact two-component theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzke, Yannick J.; Middendorf, Nils; Weigend, Florian

    2018-03-01

    We present an efficient algorithm for one- and two-component analytical energy gradients with respect to nuclear displacements in the exact two-component decoupling approach to the one-electron Dirac equation (X2C). Our approach is a generalization of the spin-free ansatz by Cheng and Gauss [J. Chem. Phys. 135, 084114 (2011)], where the perturbed one-electron Hamiltonian is calculated by solving a first-order response equation. Computational costs are drastically reduced by applying the diagonal local approximation to the unitary decoupling transformation (DLU) [D. Peng and M. Reiher, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 244108 (2012)] to the X2C Hamiltonian. The introduced error is found to be almost negligible as the mean absolute error of the optimized structures amounts to only 0.01 pm. Our implementation in TURBOMOLE is also available within the finite nucleus model based on a Gaussian charge distribution. For a X2C/DLU gradient calculation, computational effort scales cubically with the molecular size, while storage increases quadratically. The efficiency is demonstrated in calculations of large silver clusters and organometallic iridium complexes.

  13. Characterization of liquid products from the co-cracking of ternary and quaternary mixture of petroleum vacuum residue, polypropylene, Samla coal and Calotropis Procera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Ahmaruzzaman; D.K. Sharma [Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi (India). Centre for Energy Studies

    2008-08-15

    The co-cracking of the petroleum vacuum residue (XVR) with polypropylene (PP), Samla coal (SC) and Calotropis procera (CL) has been carried out in a batch reactor under isothermal conditions at atmospheric pressure. The liquids obtained by co-cracking have been characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography, {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), {sup 13}C NMR, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and inductively coupled argon plasma analyses. It was found that the liquid products obtained from the co-cracking of ternary and quaternary mixtures of the petroleum vacuum residue with polypropylene, coal and C. procera contained less than 1 ppm of Ni and V. The HPLC analyses indicates that the liquids obtained from the cracking of ternary mixture of XVR+PP+CL were mainly aliphatic in nature (saturates content 87.4%). NMR analyses showed that the aromatic carbon contents decreased (15.0%) in the liquid products derived from the co-cracking of quaternary mixtures of XVR+PP+SC+CL compared to their theoretical averages (taking the averages of aromatic carbon contents of the liquids from XVR, PP, SC and CL individually). The overall results indicated that there exists a definite interaction of reactive species when XVR, PP, SC and CL were co-cracked together. 27 refs., 5 tabs.

  14. Zero-range approximation for two-component boson systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sogo, T.; Fedorov, D.V.; Jensen, A.S.

    2005-01-01

    The hyperspherical adiabatic expansion method is combined with the zero-range approximation to derive angular Faddeev-like equations for two-component boson systems. The angular eigenvalues are solutions to a transcendental equation obtained as a vanishing determinant of a 3 x 3 matrix. The eigenfunctions are linear combinations of Jacobi functions of argument proportional to the distance between pairs of particles. We investigate numerically the influence of two-body correlations on the eigenvalue spectrum, the eigenfunctions and the effective hyperradial potential. Correlations decrease or increase the distance between pairs for effectively attractive or repulsive interactions, respectively. New structures appear for non-identical components. Fingerprints can be found in the nodal structure of the density distributions of the condensates. (author)

  15. How insects overcome two-component plant chemical defence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pentzold, Stefan; Zagrobelny, Mika; Rook, Frederik

    2014-01-01

    Insect herbivory is often restricted by glucosylated plant chemical defence compounds that are activated by plant β-glucosidases to release toxic aglucones upon plant tissue damage. Such two-component plant defences are widespread in the plant kingdom and examples of these classes of compounds...... are alkaloid, benzoxazinoid, cyanogenic and iridoid glucosides as well as glucosinolates and salicinoids. Conversely, many insects have evolved a diversity of counteradaptations to overcome this type of constitutive chemical defence. Here we discuss that such counter-adaptations occur at different time points......, before and during feeding as well as during digestion, and at several levels such as the insects’ feeding behaviour, physiology and metabolism. Insect adaptations frequently circumvent or counteract the activity of the plant β-glucosidases, bioactivating enzymes that are a key element in the plant’s two...

  16. Bond strength of two component injection moulded MID

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Mohammad Aminul; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Tang, Peter Torben

    2006-01-01

    Most products of the future will require industrially adapted, cost effective production processes and on this issue two-component (2K) injection moulding is a potential candidate for MID manufacturing. MID based on 2k injection moulded plastic part with selectively metallised circuit tracks allows...... the two different plastic materials in the MID structure require good bonding between them. This paper finds suitable combinations of materials for MIDs from both bond strength and metallisation view-point. Plastic parts were made by two-shot injection moulding and the effects of some important process...... the integration of electrical and mechanical functionalities in a real 3D structure. If 2k injection moulding is applied with two polymers, of which one is plateable and the other is not, it will be possible to make 3D electrical structures directly on the component. To be applicable in the real engineering field...

  17. Two Component Injection Moulding for Moulded Interconnect Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul

    component (2k) injection moulding is one of the most industrially adaptive processes. However, the use of two component injection moulding for MID fabrication, with circuit patterns in sub-millimeter range, is still a big challenge. This book searches for the technical difficulties associated...... with the process and makes attempts to overcome those challenges. In search of suitable polymer materials for MID applications, potential materials are characterized in terms of polymer-polymer bond strength, polymer-polymer interface quality and selective metallization. The experimental results find the factors...... which can effectively control the quality of 2k moulded parts and metallized MIDs. This book presents documented knowledge about MID process chains, 2k moulding and selective metallization which can be valuable source of information for both academic and industrial users....

  18. Chemical evolution of two-component galaxies. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caimmi, R.

    1978-01-01

    In order to confirm and refine the results obtained in a previous paper the chemical evolution of two-component (spheroid + disk) galaxies is derived rejecting the instantaneous recycling approximation, by means of numerical computations, accounting for (i) the collapse phase of the gas, assumed to be uniform in density and composition, and (ii) a birth-rate stellar function. Computations are performed relatively to the solar neighbourhood and to model galaxies which closely resemble the real morphological sequence: in both cases, numerical results are compared with analytical ones. The numerical models of this paper constitute a first-order approximation, while higher order approximations could be made by rejecting the hypothesis of uniform density and composition, and making use of detailed dynamical models. (Auth.)

  19. Phosphatase activity tunes two-component system sensor detection threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Brian P; Palanki, Rohan; Dyulgyarov, Nikola; Hartsough, Lucas A; Tabor, Jeffrey J

    2018-04-12

    Two-component systems (TCSs) are the largest family of multi-step signal transduction pathways in biology, and a major source of sensors for biotechnology. However, the input concentrations to which biosensors respond are often mismatched with application requirements. Here, we utilize a mathematical model to show that TCS detection thresholds increase with the phosphatase activity of the sensor histidine kinase. We experimentally validate this result in engineered Bacillus subtilis nitrate and E. coli aspartate TCS sensors by tuning their detection threshold up to two orders of magnitude. We go on to apply our TCS tuning method to recently described tetrathionate and thiosulfate sensors by mutating a widely conserved residue previously shown to impact phosphatase activity. Finally, we apply TCS tuning to engineer B. subtilis to sense and report a wide range of fertilizer concentrations in soil. This work will enable the engineering of tailor-made biosensors for diverse synthetic biology applications.

  20. Rapid hydrogen hydrate growth from non-stoichiometric tuning mixtures during liquid nitrogen quenching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grim, R Gary; Kerkar, Prasad B; Sloan, E Dendy; Koh, Carolyn A; Sum, Amadeu K

    2012-06-21

    In this study the rapid growth of sII H(2) hydrate within 20 min of post formation quenching towards liquid nitrogen (LN(2)) temperature is presented. Initially at 72 MPa and 258 K, hydrate samples would cool to the conditions of ~60 MPa and ~90 K after quenching. Although within the stability region for H(2) hydrate, new hydrate growth only occurred under LN(2) quenching of the samples when preformed hydrate "seeds" of THF + H(2) were in the presence of unconverted ice. The characterization of hydrate seeds and the post-quenched samples was performed with confocal Raman spectroscopy. These results suggest that quenching to LN(2) temperature, a common preservation technique for ex situ hydrate analysis, can lead to rapid unintended hydrate growth. Specifically, guest such as H(2) that may otherwise need sufficiently long induction periods to nucleate, may still experience rapid growth through an increased kinetic effect from a preformed hydrate template.

  1. Experimental and theoretical studies on subcooled flow boiling of pure liquids and multicomponent mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamialahmadi, M.; Abdollahi, H.; Shariati, A. [The University of Petroleum Industry, Ahwaz (Iran); Mueller-Steinhagen, H. [Institute of Technical Thermodynamics, German Aerospace Center (Germany); Institute of Thermodynamics and Thermal Engineering, University of Stuttgart (Germany)

    2008-05-15

    To improve the design of modern industrial reboilers, accurate knowledge of boiling heat transfer coefficients is essential. In this study flow boiling heat transfer coefficients for binary and ternary mixtures of acetone, isopropanol and water were measured over a wide range of heat flux, subcooling, flow velocity and composition. The measurements cover the regimes of convective heat transfer, transitional boiling and fully developed subcooled flow boiling. Two models are presented for the prediction of flow boiling heat transfer coefficients. The first model is the combination of the Chen model with the Gorenflo correlation and the Schluender model for single and multicomponent boiling, respectively. This model predicts flow boiling heat transfer coefficients with acceptable accuracy, but fails to predict the nucleate boiling fraction NBF reasonably well. The second model is based on the asymptotic addition of forced convective and nucleate boiling heat transfer coefficients. The benefit of this model is a further improvement in the accuracy of flow boiling heat transfer coefficient over the Chen type model, simplicity and the more realistic prediction of the nucleate boiling fraction NBF. (author)

  2. Two-component multistep direct reactions: A microscopic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koning, A.J.; Chadwick, M.B.

    1998-03-01

    The authors present two principal advances in multistep direct theory: (1) A two-component formulation of multistep direct reactions, where neutron and proton excitations are explicitly accounted for in the evolution of the reaction, for all orders of scattering. While this may at first seem to be a formidable task, especially for multistep processes where the many possible reaction pathways becomes large in a two-component formalism, the authors show that this is not so -- a rather simple generalization of the FKK convolution expression 1 automatically generates these pathways. Such considerations are particularly relevant when simultaneously analyzing both neutron and proton emission spectra, which is always important since these processes represent competing decay channels. (2) A new, and fully microscopic, method for calculating MSD cross sections which does not make use of particle-hole state densities but instead directly calculates cross sections for all possible particle-hole excitations (again including an exact book-keeping of the neutron/proton type of the particle and hole at all stages of the reaction) determined from a simple non-interacting shell model. This is in contrast to all previous numerical approaches which sample only a small number of such states to estimate the DWBA strength, and utilize simple analytical formulae for the partial state density, based on the equidistant spacing model. The new approach has been applied, along with theories for multistep compound, compound, and collective reactions, to analyze experimental emission spectra for a range of targets and energies. The authors show that the theory correctly accounts for double-differential nucleon spectra

  3. Two-component HLMC-gas flow instability and inhomogeneity phenomena in open-pool reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergey I Shcherbakov

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Consideration is being given to two-component gas-liquid flows with inhomogeneous gas content. The inhomogeneity of gas content over flow space can be caused by local mixing of gas and liquid, gas injection, gas-containing liquid jet penetration into the bulk of liquid without gas. The paper presents the computational results obtained using the direct non-stationary calculation with the TURBO-FLOW computer code. The results refer to flows near the liquid level, flows in downcomer gaps, collectors, elements with varying geometry (jet outlet into space, flow turn) for the pool-type reactors and experimental models. The following processes have been shown and discussed: formation of new liquid levels, entrainment of gas from the level, change in density composition of gas, flow stratification, effect of gas emergence rate and density convection on flow pattern. At gas phase transfer by liquid, two phenomena governing this transfer proceed: gas slip in liquid and density convection of non-uniformly aerated liquid. In horizontal flows, a vertical stratification of gas content always occurs. If the flow changes its direction to an upward one (collector at core inlet), the gas content maximum would be observed in channels nearest to the inlet. At the liquid level, the processes of gas separation from liquid and gas entrainment take place. The separation is a self-sustained process due to circulations arising near the level. The rate of gas entrainment is proportional to the rate of overflow and inversely proportional to the height of liquid level. At the downcomer region in case of its expansion, there occurs the instability of flow resulting in formation of liquid level and falling jet. The level is lower the more the gas content at inlet. The accumulation of gas occurs at sharp turns, encumbered regions (tube bundle), at all regions with upper (ceiling) constraints of flow. The flow instability being often observed in gas-liquid flows

  4. Method of estimating changes in vapor concentrations continuously generated from two-component organic solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Hajime; Ishidao, Toru; Ishimatsu, Sumiyo

    2010-12-01

    We measured vapor concentrations continuously evaporated from two-component organic solvents in a reservoir and proposed a method to estimate and predict the evaporation rate or generated vapor concentrations. Two kinds of organic solvents were put into a small reservoir made of glass (3 cm in diameter and 3 cm high) that was installed in a cylindrical glass vessel (10 cm in diameter and 15 cm high). Air was introduced into the glass vessel at a flow rate of 150 ml/min, and the generated vapor concentrations were intermittently monitored for up to 5 hours with a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector. The solvent systems tested in this study were the methanoltoluene system and the ethyl acetate-toluene system. The vapor concentrations of the more volatile component, that is, methanol in the methanol-toluene system and ethyl acetate in the ethyl acetate-toluene system, were high at first, and then decreased with time. On the other hand, the concentrations of the less volatile component were low at first, and then increased with time. A model for estimating multicomponent organic vapor concentrations was developed, based on a theory of vapor-liquid equilibria and a theory of the mass transfer rate, and estimated values were compared with experimental ones. The estimated vapor concentrations were in relatively good agreement with the experimental ones. The results suggest that changes in concentrations of two-component organic vapors continuously evaporating from a liquid reservoir can be estimated by the proposed model.

  5. Vapor-liquid critical surface of ternary difluoromethane + pentafluoroethane + 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (R-32/125/134a) mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higashi, Y.

    1999-09-01

    The plane of vapor-liquid criticality for ternary refrigerant mixtures of difluoromethane (R-32) + pentafluoroethane (R-125) + 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (R-134a) was determined from data on the vapor-liquid coexistence curve near the mixture critical points. The composition (mass percentage) of the mixtures studied were 23% R-32 + 25% R-125 + 52% R-134a (R-407C). 25% R-32 + 15% R-125 + 60% R-134a (R-407E), and 20% R-32 + 40% R-125 + 40% R-134a (R-407A). The critical temperature of each mixture was determined by observation of the disappearance of the meniscus. The critical density of each mixture was determined on the basis of meniscus disappearance level and the intensity of the critical opalescence. The uncertainties of the temperature, density, and composition measurements are estimated as {+-}10mK, {+-}5kg{center_dot}m{sup {minus}3}, and {+-}0.05%, respectively. In addition, predictive methods for the critical parameters of R-32/125/134a mixtures are discussed.

  6. Interfaces and fluctuations in confined polymeric liquid mixtures: from immiscible to near critical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sferrazza, Michele; Carelli, Clara

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the structure of the interface between polymer films is discussed to elucidate fluctuations and confinement effects in fluid polymer mixtures. The neutron reflectivity technique has been employed to investigate the dependence of the structure of the interface on the degree of immiscibility of the polymers over a wide range, as criticality is approached, and to characterize it in terms of intrinsic width, as calculated by mean field theories, and capillary fluctuations. For more immiscible systems, as the degree of incompatibility between the polymers is decreased, the width of the interface increases slowly, and it is independent of the molecular weight of the polymers. Closer to the critical point the dependence on the degree of miscibility becomes stronger and the way in which the interfacial width diverges, as criticality is approached, is related to both chain length and Flory-Huggins interaction parameter (χ). The results have been compared to the predictions of mean field theories. Self-consistent field numerical calculations, with the additional contribution due to capillary waves, provide a good description of the width of the interface between two polymer bulk phases, in particular at higher and intermediate degrees of immiscibility-the product of the Flory-Huggins interaction parameter χ and the number N of monomers of the chain, χN. For more miscible systems a crossover is observed to a region where the square gradient theory in the weak segregation limit better approximates the experimental results. Moreover, the mechanisms by which confinement affects the interface have been investigated. To understand the relative importance of the long ranged van der Waals forces and short ranged 'truncation forces' in modifying thermally excited fluctuations at the polymer/polymer interface, the thickness dependence of the interfacial width has been studied for different degrees of miscibility, approaching criticality. The results show a gradual

  7. Separation of toluene from n-heptane by liquid–liquid extraction using binary mixtures of [bpy][BF4] and [4bmpy][Tf2N] ionic liquids as solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García, Silvia; Larriba, Marcos; García, Julián; Torrecilla, José S.; Rodríguez, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Binary mixtures of ionic liquids as extraction solvents of aromatics. ► [4bmpy][Tf 2 N] shows higher capacity but lower selectivity than sulfolane. ► [bpy][BF 4 ] shows lower capacity but higher selectivity than sulfolane. ► Mixed {[4bmpy][Tf 2 N] + [bpy][BF 4 ]} improves both extractive properties. - Abstract: The use of binary mixture of ionic liquids N-butylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate ([bpy][BF 4 ]), and 1-butyl-4-methylpyridinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([4bmpy][Tf 2 N]) in the liquid–liquid extraction of toluene from n-heptane has been investigated at 313.2 K and atmospheric pressure. The experimental capacity of extraction and selectivity for this binary mixture has proved to be intermediate to those corresponding to the pure ionic liquids, and they can be predicted using a logarithmic–linear model of solubility. Furthermore, the results showed that the use of binary mixture of {[bpy][BF 4 ] + [4bmpy][Tf 2 N]} at a mole solvent composition around 0.7 for [bpy][BF 4 ] improves both the capacity of extraction of toluene and the selectivity with respect to those of sulfolane, the organic solvent taken as a benchmark. Thus, this mixed ionic liquid could be likely to be used in the extraction of aromatic from aliphatic in replacement to sulfolane.

  8. Global existence and blow-up phenomena for two-component Degasperis-Procesi system and two-component b-family system

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jingjing; Yin, Zhaoyang

    2014-01-01

    This paper is concerned with global existence and blow-up phenomena for two-component Degasperis-Procesi system and two-component b-family system. The strategy relies on our observation on new conservative quantities of these systems. Several new global existence results and a new blowup result of strong solutions to the two-component Degasperis- Procesi system and the two-component b-family system are presented by using these new conservative quantities.

  9. Influence of trace elements mixture on bacterial diversity and fermentation characteristics of liquid diet fermented with probiotics under air-tight condition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuyong He

    Full Text Available Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe2+ and I- are often supplemented to the diet of suckling and early weaning piglets, but little information is available regarding the effects of different Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe2+ and I- mixtures on bacteria growth, diversity and fermentation characteristics of fermented liquid diet for piglets. Pyrosequencing was performed to investigate the effect of Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe2+ and I- mixtures on the diversity, growth and fermentation characteristics of bacteria in the liquid diet fermented with Bacillus subtilis and Enterococcus faecalis under air-tight condition. Results showed that the mixtures of Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe2+ and I- at different concentrations promoted Bacillus growth, increased bacterial diversity and lactic acid production and lowered pH to about 5. The importance of Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe2+ and I- is different for Bacillus growth with the order Zn2+> Fe2+>Cu2+> I- in a 21-d fermentation and Cu2+>I->Fe2+>Zn2+ in a 42-d fermentation. Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe2+ and I- is recommended at a level of 150, 60, 150 and 0.6 mg/kg respectively for the production of fermented liquid diet with Bacillus subtilis. The findings improve our understanding of the influence of trace elements on liquid diet fermentation with probiotics and support the proper use of trace elements in the production of fermented liquid diet for piglets.

  10. A minimal model for two-component dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esch, Sonja; Klasen, Michael; Yaguna, Carlos E.

    2014-01-01

    We propose and study a new minimal model for two-component dark matter. The model contains only three additional fields, one fermion and two scalars, all singlets under the Standard Model gauge group. Two of these fields, one fermion and one scalar, are odd under a Z_2 symmetry that renders them simultaneously stable. Thus, both particles contribute to the observed dark matter density. This model resembles the union of the singlet scalar and the singlet fermionic models but it contains some new features of its own. We analyze in some detail its dark matter phenomenology. Regarding the relic density, the main novelty is the possible annihilation of one dark matter particle into the other, which can affect the predicted relic density in a significant way. Regarding dark matter detection, we identify a new contribution that can lead either to an enhancement or to a suppression of the spin-independent cross section for the scalar dark matter particle. Finally, we define a set of five benchmarks models compatible with all present bounds and examine their direct detection prospects at planned experiments. A generic feature of this model is that both particles give rise to observable signals in 1-ton direct detection experiments. In fact, such experiments will be able to probe even a subdominant dark matter component at the percent level.

  11. Exploring a minimal two-component p53 model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Tingzhe; Zhu, Feng; Shen, Pingping; Yuan, Ruoshi; Xu, Wei

    2010-01-01

    The tumor suppressor p53 coordinates many attributes of cellular processes via interlocked feedback loops. To understand the biological implications of feedback loops in a p53 system, a two-component model which encompasses essential feedback loops was constructed and further explored. Diverse bifurcation properties, such as bistability and oscillation, emerge by manipulating the feedback strength. The p53-mediated MDM2 induction dictates the bifurcation patterns. We first identified irradiation dichotomy in p53 models and further proposed that bistability and oscillation can behave in a coordinated manner. Further sensitivity analysis revealed that p53 basal production and MDM2-mediated p53 degradation, which are central to cellular control, are most sensitive processes. Also, we identified that the much more significant variations in amplitude of p53 pulses observed in experiments can be derived from overall amplitude parameter sensitivity. The combined approach with bifurcation analysis, stochastic simulation and sampling-based sensitivity analysis not only gives crucial insights into the dynamics of the p53 system, but also creates a fertile ground for understanding the regulatory patterns of other biological networks

  12. Parameter studies for a two-component fusion experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towner, H.H.

    1975-01-01

    The sensitivity of the energy multiplication of a two-component fusion experiment is examined relative to the following parameters: energy confinement time (tau/sub E/), particle confinement time (tau/sub p/), effective Z of the plasma (Z/sub eff/), injection rate (j/sub I/) and injection energy (E/sub I/). The Energy Research and Development Administration recently approved funding for such a fusion device (the Toroidal Fusion Test Reactor or TFTR) which will be built at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. Hence, such a parameter study seems both timely and necessary. This work also serves as an independent check on the design values proposed for the TFTR to enable it to achieve energy breakeven (F = 1). Using the nominal TFTR design parameters and a self-consistent ion-electron power balance, the maximum F-value is found to be approximately 1.2 which occurs at an injection energy of approximately 210 KeV. The injector operation, i.e. its current and energy capability are shown to be a very critical factor in the TFTR performance. However, if the injectors meet the design objectives, there appears to be sufficient latitude in the other parameters to offer reasonable assurance that energy breakeven can be achieved. (U.S.)

  13. Composite fermion basis for two-component Bose gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Marius; Liabotro, Ola

    The composite fermion (CF) construction is known to produce wave functions that are not necessarily orthogonal, or even linearly independent, after projection. While usually not a practical issue in the quantum Hall regime, we have previously shown that it presents a technical challenge for rotating Bose gases with low angular momentum. These are systems where the CF approach yield surprisingly good approximations to the exact eigenstates of weak short-range interactions, and so solving the problem of linearly dependent wave functions is of interest. It can also be useful for studying CF excitations for fermions. Here we present several ways of constructing a basis for the space of ``simple CF states'' for two-component rotating Bose gases in the lowest Landau level, and prove that they all give a basis. Using the basis, we study the structure of the lowest-lying state using so-called restricted wave functions. We also examine the scaling of the overlap between the exact and CF wave functions at the maximal possible angular momentum for simple states. This work was financially supported by the Research Council of Norway.

  14. Cold component flow in a two-component mirror machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rognlien, T.D.

    1975-12-01

    Steady-state solutions are given for the flow characteristics along the magnetic field of the cold plasma component in a two-component mirror machine. The hot plasma component is represented by a fixed density profile. The fluid equations are used to describe the cold plasma, which is assumed to be generated in a localized region at one end of the machine. The ion flow speed, v/sub i/, is required to satisfy the Bohm sheath condition at the end walls, i.e., v/sub i/ greater than or equal to c/sub s/, where c/sub s/ is the ion-acoustic speed. For the case when the cold plasma density, n/sub c/, is much less than the hot plasma density, n/sub h/, the cold plasma is stagnant and does not penetrate through the machine in the zero temperature case. The effect of a finite temperature is to allow for the penetration of a small amount of cold plasma through the machine. For the density range n/sub c/ approximately n/sub h/, the flow solutions are asymmetric about the midplane and have v/sub i/ = c/sub s/ near the midplane. Finally, for n/sub c/ much greater than n/sub h/, the solutions become symmetric about the midplane and approach the Lee--McNamara type solutions with v/sub i/ = c/sub s/ near the mirror throats

  15. Fast-wave heating of a two-component plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stix, T.H.

    1975-02-01

    The use of the compressional hydromagnetic mode (also called the magnetosonic or, simply, the fast wave) is examined in some detail with respect to the heating of a tritium plasma containing a few percent deuterium. Efficient absorption of wave energy by the deuteron component is found when ω = ω/sub c/ (deuterons), with Q/sub wave/ greater than or equal to 100. The dominant behavior of the high-energy deuteron distribution function is found to be f(v) approximately exp[3/2) ∫/sup v/ dv less than Δv greater than/less than(Δv/sub perpendicular to/) 2 greater than], where [Δv] is the Chandrasekhar-Spitzer drag coefficient, and [(Δv/sub perpendicular to/) 2 sigma] is the Kennel-Englemann quasilinear diffusion coefficient for wave--particle interaction at the deuteron cyclotron frequency. An analytic solution to the one-dimensional Fokker--Planck equation, with rf-induced diffusion, is developed, and using this solution together with Duane's fit to the D-T fusion cross-section, it is found that the nuclear fusion power output from an rf-produced two-component plasma can significantly exceed the incremental (radiofrequency) power input. (auth)

  16. Implementation of two-component advective flow solution in XSPEC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Dipak; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.; Mondal, Santanu

    2014-05-01

    Spectral and temporal properties of black hole candidates can be explained reasonably well using Chakrabarti-Titarchuk solution of two-component advective flow (TCAF). This model requires two accretion rates, namely the Keplerian disc accretion rate and the halo accretion rate, the latter being composed of a sub-Keplerian, low-angular-momentum flow which may or may not develop a shock. In this solution, the relevant parameter is the relative importance of the halo (which creates the Compton cloud region) rate with respect to the Keplerian disc rate (soft photon source). Though this model has been used earlier to manually fit data of several black hole candidates quite satisfactorily, for the first time, we made it user friendly by implementing it into XSPEC software of Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC)/NASA. This enables any user to extract physical parameters of the accretion flows, such as two accretion rates, the shock location, the shock strength, etc., for any black hole candidate. We provide some examples of fitting a few cases using this model. Most importantly, unlike any other model, we show that TCAF is capable of predicting timing properties from the spectral fits, since in TCAF, a shock is responsible for deciding spectral slopes as well as quasi-periodic oscillation frequencies. L86

  17. Light-front QCD. II. Two-component theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, W.; Harindranath, A.

    1993-01-01

    The light-front gauge A a + =0 is known to be a convenient gauge in practical QCD calculations for short-distance behavior, but there are persistent concerns about its use because of its ''singular'' nature. The study of nonperturbative field theory quantizing on a light-front plane for hadronic bound states requires one to gain a priori systematic control of such gauge singularities. In the second paper of this series we study the two-component old-fashioned perturbation theory and various severe infrared divergences occurring in old-fashioned light-front Hamiltonian calculations for QCD. We also analyze the ultraviolet divergences associated with a large transverse momentum and examine three currently used regulators: an explicit transverse cutoff, transverse dimensional regularization, and a global cutoff. We discuss possible difficulties caused by the light-front gauge singularity in the applications of light-front QCD to both old-fashioned perturbative calculations for short-distance physics and upcoming nonperturbative investigations for hadronic bound states

  18. Enhanced CO2 capture in binary mixtures of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium tricyanomethanide ionic liquids with water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanos, George E; Zubeir, Lawien F; Likodimos, Vlassis; Falaras, Polycarpos; Kroon, Maaike C; Iliev, Boyan; Adamova, Gabriela; Schubert, Thomas J S

    2013-10-10

    Absorption of carbon dioxide and water in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazoliun tricyanomethanide ([C4C1im][TCM]) and 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium tricyanomethanide ([C8C1im][TCM]) ionic liquids (ILs) was systematically investigated for the first time as a function of the H2O content by means of a gravimetric system together with in-situ Raman spectroscopy, excess molar volume (V(E)), and viscosity deviation measurements. Although CO2 absorption was marginally affected by water at low H2O molar fractions for both ILs, an increase of the H2O content resulted in a marked enhancement of both the CO2 solubility (ca. 4-fold) and diffusivity (ca. 10-fold) in the binary [C(n)C1im][TCM]/H2O systems, in contrast to the weak and/or detrimental influence of water in most physically and chemically CO2-absorbing ILs. In-situ Raman spectroscopy on the IL/CO2 systems verified that CO2 is physically absorbed in the dry ILs with no significant effect on their structural organization. A pronounced variation of distinct tricyanomethanide Raman modes was disclosed in the [C(n)C1im][TCM]/H2O mixtures, attesting to the gradual disruption of the anion-cation coupling by the hydrogen-bonded water molecules to the [TCM](-) anions, in accordance with the positive excess molar volumes and negative viscosity deviations for the binary systems. Most importantly, CO2 absorption in the ILs/H2O mixtures at high water concentrations revealed that the [TCM](-) Raman modes tend to restore their original state for the heavily hydrated ILs, in qualitative agreement with the intriguing nonmonotonous transients of CO2 absorption kinetics unveiled by the gravimetric measurements for the hybrid solvents. A molecular exchange mechanism between CO2 in the gas phase and H2O in the liquid phase was thereby proposed to explain the enhanced CO2 absorption in the hybrid [C(n)C1im][TCM]//H2O solvents based on the subtle competition between the TCM-H2O and TCM-CO2 interactions, which renders these ILs very promising for CO2

  19. Improvement in device performance from a mixture of a liquid crystal and photosensitive acrylic prepolymer with the photoinduced vertical alignment method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czung-Yu Ho, Fa-Hsin Lin, Yu-Tai Tao and Jiunn-Yih Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In a multicomponent nematic liquid crystal (NLC mixture of a liquid crystal (negative-type NLC and a photosensitive acrylic prepolymer, photopolymerization upon UV irradiation induces the separation of the LC and photosensitive acrylic prepolymer layers, thereby leading to a vertical arrangement of LC molecules. In this study, we propose a simple vertical alignment method for LC molecules, by adding a chiral smectic A (SmA* liquid crystal having homeotropic texture characteristics to an NLC mixture solution. Measurements of electro-optical properties revealed that the addition of the SmA* LC not only strengthened the anchoring force of the copolymer alignment film surface, but also significantly enhanced the contrast ratio (~73%, response time and grayscale switching performance of the device.

  20. Experimental determination of the (vapor + liquid) equilibrium data of binary mixtures of fatty acids by differential scanning calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matricarde Falleiro, Rafael M.; Meirelles, Antonio J.A.; Kraehenbuehl, Maria A.

    2010-01-01

    (Vapor + liquid) equilibrium (VLE) data for three binary mixtures of saturated fatty acids were obtained by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). However, changes in the calorimeter pressure cell and the use of hermetic pans with holes (φ = 250 mm) in the lids were necessary to make it possible to apply this analytical technique, obtaining accurate results with smaller samples and shorter operational times. The systems evaluated in this study were: myristic acid (C 14:0 ) + palmitic acid (C 16:0 ), myristic acid (C 14:0 ) + stearic acid (C 18:0 ), and palmitic acid (C 16:0 ) + stearic acid (C 18:0 ), all measured at 50 mm Hg and with mole fractions between 0.0 and 1.0 in relation to the most volatile component of each diagram. The fugacity coefficients for the components in the vapor phase were calculated using the Hayden and O'Connell method [J.G. Hayden, J.P. O'Connell, Ind. Eng. Chem. Process Design Develop. 14 (3) (1975) 209-216] and the activity coefficients for the liquid phase were correlated with the traditional g E models (NRTL [H. Renon, J.M. Prausnitz, Aiche J. 14 (1968) 135-144], UNIQUAC [D.S. Abrams, J.M. Prausnitz, Aiche J. 21 (1975) 116-128], and Wilson [J.M. Prausnitz, N.L. Linchtenthaler, E.G. Azevedo, Molecular Thermodynamics of Fluid-phase Equilibria, River-Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle, 1999]). The sets of parameters were then compared in order to determine which adjustments best represented the VLE.

  1. Determination of two-dimensional correlation lengths in an anisotropic two-component flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, O.

    1994-05-01

    Former studies have shown that correlation methods can be used for determination of various two-component flow parameters, among these the correlation length. In cases where the flow can be described as a mixture, in which the minority component forms spatially limited perturbations within the majority component, this parameter gives a good indication of the maximum extension of these perturbations. In the former studies, spherical symmetry of the perturbations has been assumed, and the correlation length has been measured in the direction of the flow (axially) only. However, if the flow structure is anisotropic, the correlation length will be different in different directions. In the present study, the method has been developed further, allowing also measurements perpendicular to the flow direction (radially). The measurements were carried out using laser beams and the two-component flows consisted of either glass beads and air or air and water. In order to make local measurements of both the axial and radial correlation length simultaneously, it is necessary to use 3 laser beams and to form the triple cross-covariance. This lead to some unforeseen complications, due to the character of this function. The experimental results are generally positive and size determinations with an accuracy of better than 10% have been achieved in most cases. Less accurate results appeared only for difficult conditions (symmetrical signals), when 3 beams were used. 5 refs, 13 figs, 3 tabs

  2. The two-component afterglow of Swift GRB 050802

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates, S. R.; de Pasquale, M.; Page, M. J.; Blustin, A. J.; Zane, S.; McGowan, K.; Mason, K. O.; Poole, T. S.; Schady, P.; Roming, P. W. A.; Page, K. L.; Falcone, A.; Gehrels, N.

    2007-09-01

    This paper investigates GRB 050802, one of the best examples of a Swift gamma-ray burst afterglow that shows a break in the X-ray light curve, while the optical counterpart decays as a single power law. This burst has an optically bright afterglow of 16.5 mag, detected throughout the 170-650nm spectral range of the Ultraviolet and Optical Telescope (UVOT) onboard Swift. Observations began with the X-ray Telescope and UVOT telescopes 286s after the initial trigger and continued for 1.2 ×106s. The X-ray light curve consists of three power-law segments: a rise until 420s, followed by a slow decay with α =0.63 +/-0.03 until 5000s, after which, the light curve decays faster with a slope of α3 =1.59 +/-0.03. The optical light curve decays as a single power law with αO =0.82 +/-0.03 throughout the observation. The X-ray data on their own are consistent with the break at 5000s being due to the end of energy injection. Modelling the optical to X-ray spectral energy distribution, we find that the optical afterglow cannot be produced by the same component as the X-ray emission at late times, ruling out a single-component afterglow. We therefore considered two-component jet models and find that the X-ray and optical emission is best reproduced by a model in which both components are energy injected for the duration of the observed afterglow and the X-ray break at 5000s is due to a jet break in the narrow component. This bright, well-observed burst is likely a guide for interpreting the surprising finding of Swift that bursts seldom display achromatic jet breaks.

  3. Complexation in two-component chlortetracycline-melanin solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapina, V. A.; Pershukevich, P. P.; Dontsov, A. E.; Bel'Kov, M. V.

    2008-01-01

    The spectra and kinetics of fluorescence of two-component solutions of the chlortetracycline (CHTC)-DOPA-melanin (melanin or ME) system in water have been investigated. The data obtained have been compared to similar data for solutions of CHTC-melanosome from bull eye (MB), which contains natural melanin, in K-phosphate buffer at pH 7.4. The overall results indicate the occurrence of complexation between molecules of CHTC and ME as they are being excited. The studies of complexation in the solution of CHTC-MB in the buffer are complicated by the formation of a CHTC-buffer complex. The effect of optical radiation in the range 330-750 nm on the CHTC-ME complex shows selectivity: the greatest change in the spectrum occurs when the wavelength of the exciting radiation coincides with the long-wavelength band maximum of the fluorescence excitation spectrum of the CHTC-ME complex in aqueous solution. In this range, CHTC and especially ME show high photochemical stability. The nature of the radiation effect on the studied compounds in the hard UV range (λ < 330 nm) differs greatly from that in the range 330-750 nm. It is apparently accompanied by significant photochemical transmutations of all system components. By comparing the characteristics of the CHTC-ME systems with those of the related drug doxycycline (DC-ME), the conclusion has been made that the chlorine atom plays a vital role in formation of the short-wavelength band in the fluorescence spectrum of the CHTC-ME complex.

  4. Two component systems: physiological effect of a third component.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldiri Salvado

    Full Text Available Signal transduction systems mediate the response and adaptation of organisms to environmental changes. In prokaryotes, this signal transduction is often done through Two Component Systems (TCS. These TCS are phosphotransfer protein cascades, and in their prototypical form they are composed by a kinase that senses the environmental signals (SK and by a response regulator (RR that regulates the cellular response. This basic motif can be modified by the addition of a third protein that interacts either with the SK or the RR in a way that could change the dynamic response of the TCS module. In this work we aim at understanding the effect of such an additional protein (which we call "third component" on the functional properties of a prototypical TCS. To do so we build mathematical models of TCS with alternative designs for their interaction with that third component. These mathematical models are analyzed in order to identify the differences in dynamic behavior inherent to each design, with respect to functionally relevant properties such as sensitivity to changes in either the parameter values or the molecular concentrations, temporal responsiveness, possibility of multiple steady states, or stochastic fluctuations in the system. The differences are then correlated to the physiological requirements that impinge on the functioning of the TCS. This analysis sheds light on both, the dynamic behavior of synthetically designed TCS, and the conditions under which natural selection might favor each of the designs. We find that a third component that modulates SK activity increases the parameter space where a bistable response of the TCS module to signals is possible, if SK is monofunctional, but decreases it when the SK is bifunctional. The presence of a third component that modulates RR activity decreases the parameter space where a bistable response of the TCS module to signals is possible.

  5. The fractional virial potential energy in two-component systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caimmi R.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-component systems are conceived as macrogases, and the related equation of state is expressed using the virial theorem for subsystems, under the restriction of homeoidally striated density profiles. Explicit calculations are performed for a useful reference case and a few cases of astrophysical interest, both with and without truncation radius. Shallower density profiles are found to yield an equation of state, φ = φ(y, m, characterized (for assigned values of the fractional mass, m = Mj /Mi by the occurrence of two extremum points, a minimum and a maximum, as found in an earlier attempt. Steeper density profiles produce a similar equation of state, which implies that a special value of m is related to a critical curve where the above mentioned extremum points reduce to a single horizontal inflexion point, and curves below the critical one show no extremum points. The similarity of the isofractional mass curves to van der Waals' isothermal curves, suggests the possibility of a phase transition in a bell-shaped region of the (Oyφ plane, where the fractional truncation radius along a selected direction is y = Rj /Ri , and the fractional virial potential energy is φ = (Eji vir /(Eij vir . Further investigation is devoted to mass distributions described by Hernquist (1990 density profiles, for which an additional relation can be used to represent a sample of N = 16 elliptical galaxies (EGs on the (Oyφ plane. Even if the evolution of elliptical galaxies and their hosting dark matter (DM haloes, in the light of the model, has been characterized by equal fractional mass, m, and equal scaled truncation radius, or concentration, Ξu = Ru /r† , u = i, j, still it cannot be considered as strictly homologous, due to different values of fractional truncation radii, y, or fractional scaling radii, y† = r† /r† , deduced from sample objects.

  6. Algorithms for GPU-based molecular dynamics simulations of complex fluids: Applications to water, mixtures, and liquid crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazachenko, Sergey; Giovinazzo, Mark; Hall, Kyle Wm; Cann, Natalie M

    2015-09-15

    A custom code for molecular dynamics simulations has been designed to run on CUDA-enabled NVIDIA graphics processing units (GPUs). The double-precision code simulates multicomponent fluids, with intramolecular and intermolecular forces, coarse-grained and atomistic models, holonomic constraints, Nosé-Hoover thermostats, and the generation of distribution functions. Algorithms to compute Lennard-Jones and Gay-Berne interactions, and the electrostatic force using Ewald summations, are discussed. A neighbor list is introduced to improve scaling with respect to system size. Three test systems are examined: SPC/E water; an n-hexane/2-propanol mixture; and a liquid crystal mesogen, 2-(4-butyloxyphenyl)-5-octyloxypyrimidine. Code performance is analyzed for each system. With one GPU, a 33-119 fold increase in performance is achieved compared with the serial code while the use of two GPUs leads to a 69-287 fold improvement and three GPUs yield a 101-377 fold speedup. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Stratification of mixtures in evaporating liquid films occurs only for a range of volume fractions of the smaller component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sear, Richard P.

    2018-04-01

    I model the drying of a liquid film containing small and big colloid particles. Fortini et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 118301 (2016)] studied these films with both computer simulation and experiment. They found that at the end of drying, the mixture had stratified with a layer of the smaller particles on top of the big particles. I develop a simple model for this process. The model has two ingredients: arrest of the diffusion of the particles at high density and diffusiophoretic motion of the big particles due to gradients in the volume fraction of the small particles. The model predicts that stratification only occurs over a range of initial volume fractions of the smaller colloidal species. Above and below this range, the downward diffusiophoretic motion of the big particles is too slow to remove the big particles from the top of the film, and so there is no stratification. In agreement with earlier work, the model also predicts that large Péclet numbers for drying are needed to see stratification.

  8. The Fractional Virial Potential Energy in Two-Component Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caimmi, R.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Two-component systems are conceived as macrogases, and the related equation of state is expressed using the virial theorem for subsystems, under the restriction of homeoidally striated density profiles. Explicit calculations are performed for a useful reference case and a few cases of astrophysical interest, both with and without truncation radius. Shallower density profiles are found to yield an equation of state, $phi=phi(y,m$, characterized (for assigned values of the fractional mass, $m=M_j/ M_i$ by the occurrence of two extremum points, a minimum and a maximum, as found in an earlier attempt. Steeper density profiles produce a similar equation of state, which implies that a special value of $m$ is related to a critical curve where the above mentioned extremum points reduce to a single horizontal inflexion point, and curves below the critical one show no extremum points. The similarity of the isofractional mass curves to van der Waals' isothermal curves, suggests the possibility of a phase transition in a bell-shaped region of the $({sf O}yphi$ plane, where the fractional truncation radius along a selected direction is $y=R_j/R_i$, and the fractional virial potential energy is $phi=(E_{ji}_mathrm{vir}/(E_{ij}_mathrm{vir}$. Further investigation is devoted to mass distributions described by Hernquist (1990 density profiles, for which an additional relation can be used to represent a sample of $N=16$ elliptical galaxies (EGs on the $({sf O}yphi$ plane. Even if the evolution of elliptical galaxies and their hosting dark matter (DM haloes, in the light of the model, has been characterized by equal fractional mass, $m$, and equal scaled truncation radius, or concentration, $Xi_u=R_u/r_u^dagger$, $u=i,j$, still it cannot be considered as strictly homologous, due to different values of fractional truncation radii, $y$, or fractional scaling radii, $y^dagger=r_j^dagger/r_i^dagger$, deduced from sample objects.

  9. Isobaric (vapour + liquid) equilibria for the (1-pentanol + propionic acid) binary mixture at (53.3 and 91.3) kPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohsen-Nia, M.; Memarzadeh, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    Isobaric (vapour + liquid) equilibrium measurements have been reported for the binary mixture of (1-pentanol + propionic acid) at (53.3 and 91.3) kPa. Liquid phase activity coefficients were calculated from the equilibrium data. The thermodynamic consistency of the experimental results was checked using the area test and direct test methods. According to these criteria, the measured (vapour + liquid) equilibrium results were found to be consistent thermodynamically. The obtained results showed a maximum boiling temperature azeotrope at both pressures studied. The measured equilibrium results were satisfactorily correlated by the models of Wilson, UNIQUAC, and NRTL activity coefficients. The results obtained indicate that the performance of the NRTL model is superior to the Wilson and UNIQUAC models for correlating the measured isobaric (vapour + liquid) equilibrium data.

  10. Numerical analysis of a non equilibrium two-component two-compressible flow in porous media

    KAUST Repository

    Saad, Bilal Mohammed

    2013-09-01

    We propose and analyze a finite volume scheme to simulate a non equilibrium two components (water and hydrogen) two phase flow (liquid and gas) model. In this model, the assumption of local mass non equilibrium is ensured and thus the velocity of the mass exchange between dissolved hydrogen and hydrogen in the gas phase is supposed finite. The proposed finite volume scheme is fully implicit in time together with a phase-by-phase upwind approach in space and it is discretize the equations in their general form with gravity and capillary terms We show that the proposed scheme satisfies the maximum principle for the saturation and the concentration of the dissolved hydrogen. We establish stability results on the velocity of each phase and on the discrete gradient of the concentration. We show the convergence of a subsequence to a weak solution of the continuous equations as the size of the discretization tends to zero. At our knowledge, this is the first convergence result of finite volume scheme in the case of two component two phase compressible flow in several space dimensions.

  11. Effect of Differential Diffusion in Two-Component Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingel', L. Kh.

    2017-03-01

    Examples are presented of an exact solution of a nonstationary problem on the development of convection in a binary mixture (seawater) near an infinite vertical surface in which the buoyancy disturbances are determined both by the temperature and by the disturbances of the impurity (salt) concentration. Consideration is given to the development of convection in a homogeneous medium near an infinite vertical surface at whose boundary specification is made of constant (after ″switching on″ at the initial moment) heat fluxes and impurities or variations of these substances, i.e., problems with boundary conditions of 1st and 2nd kind are considered. The obtained analytical solutions demonstrate the possibility of a nontrivial effect associated with the difference in the values of the coefficients of transfer of two substances: the inflows of positive buoyancy may lead, contrary to intuitive notions, to the origination of descending motion of the medium rather than the ascending one. Clarification is provided for the physical meaning of such effects, which can be substantial, for example, in melting of sea ice.

  12. Studies on thermo-acoustic parameters in binary liquid mixtures of phosphinic acid (Cyanex 272) with different diluents at temperature 303.15 K: an ultrasonic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamila, Susmita; Jena, Satyaban; Swain, Bipin Bihari

    2005-01-01

    Acoustical investigations for the binary mixtures of phosphinic acid (Cyanex 272), used as liquid-liquid extractant, have been made in various diluents such as benzene, toluene, and xylene from ultrasonic velocity and density measurements at temperature 303.15 K and atmospheric pressure. This study involves evaluation of different thermo-acoustic parameters along with the excess properties, which are interpreted in the light of molecular interaction between a polar extractant, Cyanex 272 with non-polar diluent, benzene and weakly polar diluents, toluene and xylene. The excess values are correlated using Redlich-Kister polynomial equation, and corresponding adjustable parameters are derived

  13. Modeling Phase Equilibria for Acid Gas Mixtures using the Cubic-Plus-Association Equation of State. 3. Applications Relevant to Liquid or Supercritical CO2 Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsivintzelis, Ioannis; Ali, Shahid; Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2014-01-01

    density data for both CO2 and CO2–water and for vapor–liquid equilibrium for mixtures of CO2 with various compounds present in transport systems. In all of these cases we consider various possibilities for modeling CO2 (inert, self-associating using two-, three-, and four sites) and the possibility......The CPA (cubic-plus-association) equation of state is applied in this work to a wide range of systems of relevance to CO2 transport. Both phase equilibria and densities over extensive temperature and pressure ranges are considered. More specifically in this study we first evaluate CPA against......” for applying CPA to acid gas mixtures. The overall conclusion is that CPA performs satisfactorily; the model in most cases correlates well binary data and predicts with good accuracy multicomponent vapor–liquid equilibria. Among the various approaches investigated, the best ones are when cross association...

  14. Excess molar volumes and deviation in viscosities of binary liquid mixtures of acrylic esters with hexane-1-ol at 303.15 and 313.15K

    OpenAIRE

    Patil, Sujata S.; Mirgane, Sunil R.; Arbad, Balasaheb R.

    2014-01-01

    Densities and viscosities for the four binary liquid mixtures of methyl acrylate, ethyl acrylate, butyl acrylate and methyl methacrylate with hexane-1-ol at temperatures 303.15 and 313.15 K and at atmospheric pressure were measured over the entire composition range. These values were used to calculate excess molar volumes and deviation in viscosities which were fitted to Redlich–Kister polynomial equation. Recently proposed Jouyban Acree model was also used to correlate the experimental value...

  15. Measurements of the osmotic pressure in liquid mixtures of 3He and 4He near the lambda line and tricritical point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gearhart, C.A. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Values of the concentration susceptibility (par. deltax/par. deltaΔ)/sub T,P/ near the lambda line and tricritical point in liquid mixtures of 3He and 4 He were calculated from measurements of osmotic pressure differences. Measurements were made by inducing a small 3 He mole fraction difference Δx between two chambrs separated by a pressure transducer, and measuring the resulting osmotic pressure difference as a function of temperature

  16. Oxygen reduction reaction properties of nitrogen-incorporated nanographenes synthesized using in-liquid plasma from mixture of ethanol and iron phthalocyanine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Tomoki; Kondo, Hiroki; Takeda, Keigo; Ishikawa, Kenji; Hiramatsu, Mineo; Sekine, Makoto; Hori, Masaru

    2018-04-01

    Nanographenes were synthesized using in-liquid plasma from a mixture of iron phthalocyanine and ethanol. In a previous study, micrometer-scale flakes with nitrogen incorporation were obtained. A nonprecious metal catalytic activity was observed with 3.13 electrons in an oxygen reduction reaction under an acidic solute condition. Large-surface-area, high-graphene-crystallinity, and iron-carbon-bonding sites were found owing to a high catalytic activity in Fe-N/nanographene.

  17. Densities and viscosities for ionic liquids mixtures containing [eOHmim][BF4], [bmim][BF4] and [bpy][BF4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Dayong; Chen, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Targets of this research are ILs mixtures. • Densities and viscosities were measured for three ILs mixtures. • Excess molar properties were deduced from the experiments. • Viscosities were discussed by the ideal Grunberg and Nissan mixing law. - Abstract: Densities and viscosities of binary ionic liquids mixtures, 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([eOHmim][BF 4 ]) + 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([bmim][BF 4 ]), 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([eOHmim][BF 4 ]) + N-butylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate ([bpy][BF 4 ]) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([bmim][BF 4 ]) + N-butylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate ([bpy][BF 4 ]) were measured over the entire mole fraction from T = (298.15 to 343.15) K. The excess molar volumes were calculated and correlated by Redlich–Kiser polynomial expansions. The viscosities for pure ionic liquids were analyzed by means of the Vogel–Tammann–Fulcher equation and ideal mixing rules were applied for the ILs mixtures

  18. Study of the Vapor-Liquid Coexistence Curve and the Critical Curve for Nonazeotropic Refrigerant Mixture R152a + R114 System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabata, Yasuo; Higashi, Yukihiro; Uematsu, Masahiko; Watanabe, Koichi

    Measurements of the vapor-liquid coexistence curve in the critical region for the refrigerant mixture of R152a (CH3CHF2: 1, l-difluoroethane) +R 114 (CCIF2CCIF2 :1, 2-dichloro-1, 1, 2, 2-tetrafluoroethane) system were made by visual observation of the disappearance of the meniscus at the vapor-liquid interface within an optical cell. Forty-eight saturated densities along the vapor-liquid coexistence curve between 204 and 861 kg·m-3 for five different compositions of 10, 20, 50, 80 and 90 wt% R 152a were obtained in the temperature range 370 to 409 K. The experimental errors of temperature, density, and mass fraction were estimated within ±10mK, ±0.5% and +0.05 %, respectively. On the basis of these measurements, the critical parameters of five different compositions for the R 152a +R 114 system were determined in consideration of the meniscus disappearance level as well as intensity of the critical opalescence. In accordance with the previous results of three other refrigerant mixtures, i.e., R 12 +R 22 system, R 22 +R 114 system and R 13B1 + R 114 system, the coexistence curve and critical curve on the temperature-density diagram for binary refrigerant mixtures were discussed. In addition, correlations of its composition dependence for this system were proposed.

  19. Characterization of Mixtures. Part 2: QSPR Models for Prediction of Excess Molar Volume and Liquid Density Using Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajmani, Subhash; Rogers, Stephen C; Barley, Mark H; Burgess, Andrew N; Livingstone, David J

    2010-09-17

    In our earlier work, we have demonstrated that it is possible to characterize binary mixtures using single component descriptors by applying various mixing rules. We also showed that these methods were successful in building predictive QSPR models to study various mixture properties of interest. Here in, we developed a QSPR model of an excess thermodynamic property of binary mixtures i.e. excess molar volume (V(E) ). In the present study, we use a set of mixture descriptors which we earlier designed to specifically account for intermolecular interactions between the components of a mixture and applied successfully to the prediction of infinite-dilution activity coefficients using neural networks (part 1 of this series). We obtain a significant QSPR model for the prediction of excess molar volume (V(E) ) using consensus neural networks and five mixture descriptors. We find that hydrogen bond and thermodynamic descriptors are the most important in determining excess molar volume (V(E) ), which is in line with the theory of intermolecular forces governing excess mixture properties. The results also suggest that the mixture descriptors utilized herein may be sufficient to model a wide variety of properties of binary and possibly even more complex mixtures. Copyright © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Applications of the Simple Multi-Fluid Model to Correlations of the Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium of Refrigerant Mixtures Containing Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akasaka, Ryo

    This study presents a simple multi-fluid model for Helmholtz energy equations of state. The model contains only three parameters, whereas rigorous multi-fluid models developed for several industrially important mixtures usually have more than 10 parameters and coefficients. Therefore, the model can be applied to mixtures where experimental data is limited. Vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) of the following seven mixtures have been successfully correlated with the model: CO2 + difluoromethane (R-32), CO2 + trifluoromethane (R-23), CO2 + fluoromethane (R-41), CO2 + 1,1,1,2- tetrafluoroethane (R-134a), CO2 + pentafluoroethane (R-125), CO2 + 1,1-difluoroethane (R-152a), and CO2 + dimethyl ether (DME). The best currently available equations of state for the pure refrigerants were used for the correlations. For all mixtures, average deviations in calculated bubble-point pressures from experimental values are within 2%. The simple multi-fluid model will be helpful for design and simulations of heat pumps and refrigeration systems using the mixtures as working fluid.

  1. Ethanol production from a biomass mixture of furfural residues with green liquor-peroxide saccarified cassava liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Li; Zheng, Tianran; Zhao, Pengxiang; Zhang, Weiming; Jiang, Jianxin

    2016-06-01

    As the most abundant renewable resources, lignocellulosic materials are ideal candidates as alternative feedstock for bioethanol production. Cassava residues (CR) are byproducts of the cassava starch industry which can be mixed with lignocellulosic materials for ethanol production. The presence of lignin in lignocellulosic substrates can inhibit saccharification by reducing the cellulase activity. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of furfural residues (FR) pretreated with green liquor and hydrogen peroxide (GL-H2O2) with CR saccharification liquid was investigated. The final ethanol concentration, yield, initial rate, number of live yeast cells, and the dead yeast ratio were compared to evaluate the effectiveness of combining delignificated lignocellulosic substrates and starchy substrates for ethanol production. Our results indicate that 42.0 % of FR lignin removal was achieved on FR using of 0.06 g H2O2/g-substrate and 9 mL GL/g-substrate at 80 °C. The highest overall ethanol yield was 93.6 % of the theoretical. When the ratio of 0.06 g/g-H2O2-GL-pretreated FR to CR was 5:1, the ethanol concentration was the same with that ratio of untreated FR to CR of 1:1. Using 0.06 g/g-H2O2-GL-pretreated FR with CR at a ratio of 2:1 resulted in 51.9 g/L ethanol concentration. Moreover, FR pretreated with GL-H2O2 decreased the concentration of byproducts in SSF compared with that obtained in the previous study. The lignin in FR would inhibit enzyme activity and GL-H2O2 is an advantageous pretreatment method to treat FR and high intensity of FR pretreatment increased the final ethanol concentration. The efficiency of ethanol fermentation of was improved when delignification increased. GL-H2O2 is an advantageous pretreatment method to treat FR. As the pretreatment dosage of GL-H2O2 on FR increased, the proportion of lignocellulosic substrates was enhanced in the SSF of the substrate mixture of CR and FR as compared with untreated FR. Moreover, the

  2. Modelling phase equilibria for acid gas mixtures using the CPA equation of state. Part VI. Multicomponent mixtures with glycols relevant to oil and gas and to liquid or supercritical CO_2 transport applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsivintzelis, Ioannis; Kontogeorgis, Georgios M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • CPA EoS was applied to predict the phase behaviour of multicomponent mixtures containing CO_2, glycols, water and alkanes. • Mixtures relevant to oil and gas, CO_2 capture and liquid or supercritical CO_2 transport applications were investigated. • Results are presented using various modelling approaches/association schemes. • The predicting ability of the model was evaluated against experimental data. • Conclusions for the best modelling approach are drawn. - Abstract: In this work the Cubic Plus Association (CPA) equation of state is applied to multicomponent mixtures containing CO_2 with alkanes, water, and glycols. Various modelling approaches are used i.e. different association schemes for pure CO_2 (assuming that it is a non-associating compound, or that it is a self-associating fluid with two, three or four association sites) and different possibilities for modelling mixtures of CO_2 with other hydrogen bonding fluids (only use of one interaction parameter k_i_j or assuming cross association interactions and obtaining the relevant parameters either via a combining rule or using an experimental value for the cross association energy). Initially, new binary interaction parameters were estimated for (CO_2 + glycol) binary mixtures. Having the binary parameters from the binary systems, the model was applied in a predictive way (i.e. no parameters were adjusted to data on ternary and multicomponent mixtures) to model the phase behaviour of ternary and quaternary systems with CO_2 and glycols. It is concluded that CPA performs satisfactorily for most multicomponent systems considered. Some differences between the various modelling approaches are observed. This work is the last part of a series of studies, which aim to arrive in a single “engineering approach” for applying CPA to acid gas mixtures, without introducing significant changes to the model. An overall assessment, based also on the obtained results of this series (Tsivintzelis

  3. (Vapour + liquid) equilibria for binary and ternary mixtures of 2-propanol, tetrahydropyran, and 2,2,4-trimethylpentane at P = 101.3 kPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Dun-Yi; Tu, Chein-Hsiun

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We report the VLE data at P = 101.3 kPa involving a cyclic ether. ► The activity coefficients of mixtures were obtained from modified Raoult’s law. ► The VLE data were correlated by four liquid activity coefficient models. ► The ternary VLE data were predicted from binary parameters of the four models. - Abstract: (Vapour + liquid) equilibrium (VLE) at P = 101.3 kPa have been determined for a ternary system (2-propanol + tetrahydropyran + 2,2,4-trimethylpentane) and its constituent binary systems (2-propanol + tetrahydropyran, 2-propanol + 2,2,4-trimethylpentane), and (tetrahydropyran + 2,2,4-trimethylpentane). Analysis of VLE data reveals that two binary systems (2-propanol + tetrahydropyran) and (2-propanol + 2,2,4-trimethylpentane) have a minimum boiling azeotrope. No azeotrope was found for the ternary system. The activity coefficients of liquid mixtures were obtained from the modified Raoult’s law and were used to calculate the reduced excess molar Gibbs free energy (g E /RT). Thermodynamic consistency tests were performed for all VLE data using the Van Ness direct test for the binary systems and the test of McDermott–Ellis as modified by Wisniak and Tamir for the ternary system. The VLE data of the binary mixtures were correlated using the three-suffix Margules, Wilson, NRTL, and UNIQUAC activity-coefficient models. The models with their best-fitted interaction parameters of the binary systems were used to predict the ternary (vapour + liquid) equilibrium.

  4. A thermal lens response of the two components liquid in a thin Him cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V I; Ivanova, G D

    2016-01-01

    It was proposed a new thermal lens scheme with a thin layer of cell thickness which is significantly less than the size of the beam. As a result the exact analytical expression for the thermal lens response is achieved, taking into account the thermal lens in the windows of the cell. (paper)

  5. Nonlinear light scattering in a two component medium: optical limiting application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joudrier, Valerie

    1998-01-01

    Scattering is a fundamental manifestation of the interaction between matter and radiation, resulting from inhomogeneities in the refractive index, which decrease transmission. This phenomenon is then especially attractive for sensor protection from laser light by optical limiting. One of the methods to induce scattering at high incident energy is to make use of the Kerr effect where the index of refraction is intensity dependent. Thus, the idea is to use a two component medium with a good index matching between the two components at low intensity, resulting in the medium transparency, and to modify it, at high intensity, due to the non linearity of one component making the medium highly scattering. Some of the experimental and theoretical investigations concerning a new material (here, a cell containing some liquid with small silica particles as inclusion in it) are presented in the visible domain (I=532 nm), for the nanosecond protection regime, beginning, with the chemical synthesis of the sample. The experimental results concerning the optical limiting process are presented, showing that nonlinear scattering is clearly the dominant mechanism in confrontation with other potential nonlinear effects. Several complementary experiments are then performed to complete the nonlinear scattering characterization, involving the measurement of the angular distribution of scattered energy and the integrating sphere measurement. Further information are also gained by studying the time response of the nonlinearities with a dual-beam (pulsed-pump, cw probe) technique. The previous experimental data is also analyzed with some simple theoretical models to evaluate the nonlinearity of the material from optical limiting, the angular scattering and the total scattering energy measurements. The good match between all the analytical results permits to delineate the physical mechanisms responsible for the nonlinear scattering effect and to direct the final conclusion. (author) [fr

  6. Molecular dynamics simulation for the test of calibrated OPLS-AA force field for binary liquid mixture of tri-iso-amyl phosphate and n-dodecane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Arya; Ali, Sk. Musharaf

    2018-02-01

    Tri-isoamyl phosphate (TiAP) has been proposed to be an alternative for tri-butyl phosphate (TBP) in the Plutonium Uranium Extraction (PUREX) process. Recently, we have successfully calibrated and tested all-atom optimized potentials for liquid simulations using Mulliken partial charges for pure TiAP, TBP, and dodecane by performing molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. It is of immense importance to extend this potential for the various molecular properties of TiAP and TiAP/n-dodecane binary mixtures using MD simulation. Earlier, efforts were devoted to find out a suitable force field which can explain both structural and dynamical properties by empirical parameterization. Therefore, the present MD study reports the structural, dynamical, and thermodynamical properties with different mole fractions of TiAP-dodecane mixtures at the entire range of mole fraction of 0-1 employing our calibrated Mulliken embedded optimized potentials for liquid simulation (OPLS) force field. The calculated electric dipole moment of TiAP was seen to be almost unaffected by the TiAP concentration in the dodecane diluent. The calculated liquid densities of the TiAP-dodecane mixture are in good agreement with the experimental data. The mixture densities at different temperatures are also studied which was found to be reduced with temperature as expected. The plot of diffusivities for TiAP and dodecane against mole fraction in the binary mixture intersects at a composition in the range of 25%-30% of TiAP in dodecane, which is very much closer to the TBP/n-dodecane composition used in the PUREX process. The excess volume of mixing was found to be positive for the entire range of mole fraction and the excess enthalpy of mixing was shown to be endothermic for the TBP/n-dodecane mixture as well as TiAP/n-dodecane mixture as reported experimentally. The spatial pair correlation functions are evaluated between TiAP-TiAP and TiAP-dodecane molecules. Further, shear viscosity has been computed by

  7. Molecular dynamics simulation for the test of calibrated OPLS-AA force field for binary liquid mixture of tri-iso-amyl phosphate and n-dodecane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Arya; Ali, Sk Musharaf

    2018-02-21

    Tri-isoamyl phosphate (TiAP) has been proposed to be an alternative for tri-butyl phosphate (TBP) in the Plutonium Uranium Extraction (PUREX) process. Recently, we have successfully calibrated and tested all-atom optimized potentials for liquid simulations using Mulliken partial charges for pure TiAP, TBP, and dodecane by performing molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. It is of immense importance to extend this potential for the various molecular properties of TiAP and TiAP/n-dodecane binary mixtures using MD simulation. Earlier, efforts were devoted to find out a suitable force field which can explain both structural and dynamical properties by empirical parameterization. Therefore, the present MD study reports the structural, dynamical, and thermodynamical properties with different mole fractions of TiAP-dodecane mixtures at the entire range of mole fraction of 0-1 employing our calibrated Mulliken embedded optimized potentials for liquid simulation (OPLS) force field. The calculated electric dipole moment of TiAP was seen to be almost unaffected by the TiAP concentration in the dodecane diluent. The calculated liquid densities of the TiAP-dodecane mixture are in good agreement with the experimental data. The mixture densities at different temperatures are also studied which was found to be reduced with temperature as expected. The plot of diffusivities for TiAP and dodecane against mole fraction in the binary mixture intersects at a composition in the range of 25%-30% of TiAP in dodecane, which is very much closer to the TBP/n-dodecane composition used in the PUREX process. The excess volume of mixing was found to be positive for the entire range of mole fraction and the excess enthalpy of mixing was shown to be endothermic for the TBP/n-dodecane mixture as well as TiAP/n-dodecane mixture as reported experimentally. The spatial pair correlation functions are evaluated between TiAP-TiAP and TiAP-dodecane molecules. Further, shear viscosity has been computed by

  8. Relationship between composition of mixture charged and that in circulation in an auto refrigerant cascade and a J-T refrigerator operating in liquid refrigerant supply mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivas, Bura; Nayak, H. Gurudath; Venkatarathnam, G.

    2017-01-01

    The composition of the refrigerant mixture in circulation during steady state operation of J-T and allied refrigerators is not the same as that charged due to liquid hold up in the heat exchangers and phase separators, as well as the differential solubility of different refrigerant components in the compressor lubricating oil. The performance of refrigerators/liquefiers operating on mixed refrigerant cycles is dependent on the mixture composition. It is therefore important to charge the right mixture that results in an optimum composition in circulation during steady state operation. The relationship between the charged and circulating composition has been experimentally studied in a J-T refrigerator operating in the liquid refrigerant supply (LRS) mode and an auto refrigerant cascade refrigerator (with a phase separator) operating in the gas refrigerant supply (GRS) mode. The results of the study are presented in this work. The results show that the method presented earlier for J-T refrigerators operating in GRS mode is also applicable in the case of refrigerators studied in this work.

  9. Characteristics of liquid product from the pyrolysis of waste plastic mixture at low and high temperatures: influence of lapse time of reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyong-Hwan; Shin, Dae-Hyun

    2007-01-01

    Pyrolysis of a waste plastic mixture (high-density polyethylene: low-density polyethylene: polypropylene: polystyrene = 3:2:3:1) into a liquid product was carried out in a stirred semi-batch reactor at low (350 degrees C) and high (400 degrees C) temperatures. The effect of lapse time of reaction in the reactor and also degradation temperature on the characteristics of the liquid product from pyrolysis of the mixture was investigated. Liquid products were described by cumulative amount distribution, paraffin, olefin, naphthene and aromatic (PONA) distribution and molecular weight distribution. Their characteristic was quite differed with a lapse time of reaction and also at a low and high degradation temperatures, because of the different physicochemical properties of the plastic types in the mixture. With increase of lapse time of reaction, the order for the main products in PONA components obtained at 350 degrees C was firstly aromatic products and then olefin products, while at 400 degrees C the order was firstly aromatic products, then olefin products and finally paraffin products. The experiments also showed from the molecular weight distribution of liquid PONA components that the paraffin and olefin products had a wide distribution by mainly random scission of polymer, but in the case of olefin products were produced by an end-chain scission mechanism as well as random scission mechanism, as evidenced by much more light olefin products. This phenomenon was evident at a higher degradation temperature. Also, both the light olefin and naphthene products with a molecular weight of around 120, as a main product, showed a similar trend as a function of lapse time, which had a maximum fraction at 343 min (at 350 degrees C) and 83 min (at 400 degrees C). Among PONA components, the highest concentrations of aromatic products were obtained with a molecular weight of around 100 at the fastest lapse time of reaction, regardless of degradation temperature. It was

  10. Characteristics of liquid product from the pyrolysis of waste plastic mixture at low and high temperatures: Influence of lapse time of reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyong-Hwan; Shin, Dae-Hyun

    2007-01-01

    Pyrolysis of a waste plastic mixture (high-density polyethylene: low-density polyethylene: polypropylene: polystyrene = 3:2:3:1) into a liquid product was carried out in a stirred semi-batch reactor at low (350 deg. C) and high (400 deg. C) temperatures. The effect of lapse time of reaction in the reactor and also degradation temperature on the characteristics of the liquid product from pyrolysis of the mixture was investigated. Liquid products were described by cumulative amount distribution, paraffin, olefin, naphthene and aromatic (PONA) distribution and molecular weight distribution. Their characteristic was quite differed with a lapse time of reaction and also at a low and high degradation temperatures, because of the different physicochemical properties of the plastic types in the mixture. With increase of lapse time of reaction, the order for the main products in PONA components obtained at 350 deg. C was firstly aromatic products and then olefin products, while at 400 deg. C the order was firstly aromatic products, then olefin products and finally paraffin products. The experiments also showed from the molecular weight distribution of liquid PONA components that the paraffin and olefin products had a wide distribution by mainly random scission of polymer, but in the case of olefin products were produced by an end-chain scission mechanism as well as random scission mechanism, as evidenced by much more light olefin products. This phenomenon was evident at a higher degradation temperature. Also, both the light olefin and naphthene products with a molecular weight of around 120, as a main product, showed a similar trend as a function of lapse time, which had a maximum fraction at 343 min (at 350 deg. C) and 83 min (at 400 deg. C). Among PONA components, the highest concentrations of aromatic products were obtained with a molecular weight of around 100 at the fastest lapse time of reaction, regardless of degradation temperature. It was concluded that the

  11. Quantum particle-number fluctuations in a two-component Bose gas in a double-well potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zin, Pawel; Oles, Bartlomiej; Sacha, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    A two-component Bose gas in a double-well potential with repulsive interactions may undergo a phase separation transition if the interspecies interactions outweigh the intraspecies ones. We analyze the transition in the strong interaction limit within the two-mode approximation. Numbers of particles in each potential well are equal and constant. However, at the transition point, the ground state of the system reveals huge fluctuations of numbers of particles belonging to the different gas components; that is, the probability for observation of any mixture of particles in each potential well becomes uniform.

  12. Pressure-induced change in the Raman spectra of ionic liquid [DEME][BF4]-H2O mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Y; Abe, H; Goto, T; Miyashita, T; Yoshimura, Y

    2010-01-01

    We have measured Raman spectral changes of N,N,diethyl-N-methyl-N-(2-methoxyethyl) ammonium tetrafluoroborate, [DEME][BF 4 ]-H 2 O mixtures under high pressure. All the Raman spectra of mixtures of water concentrations below 50.0 mol% H 2 O changed at around 1 GPa at room temperature. The spectrum at high pressure is completely different from that obtained by cooling the sample at a normal pressure.

  13. Studies on transport behaviour of a binary liquid mixture of ethanol and toluene at 298.15K in terms of viscosity models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purohit, Suresh; Suthar, Shyam Sunder; Vyas, Mahendra; Beniwal, Ram Chandra

    2018-05-01

    The main transport properties of liquid or liquid mixtures are viscosity, diffusion, transference and electrical conductance. Viscosities of various liquid mixtures have been studied and their analyses have also been done by the help of some parameters. For each solution, the excess thermodynamic properties (YE) have been investigated. These excess thermodynamic properties are excess molar volume (VE), viscosity deviation (Δη) and excess Gibbs free energy of activation of viscous flow (ΔG*E). These parameters provide us the important information about interaction between molecules. For example, the negative value of VE and positive value of Δη shows the strong interaction between the solute and solvent molecules while positive value of VE and negative value of Δη shows the weak interaction between solute and solvent molecules. Above parameters and their discussion have been made in our earlier paper. In the present research paper, the viscosity data have been correlated with the equations of Grunberg and Nissan, Hind et al., Tamura and Kurata Katti. The excess values have been correlated using Redlich-Kister polynomial equation to obtain their coefficients and standard deviations. It has been found that in all cases, the data obtained fitted with the values correlated by the corresponding models very well. The results are interpreted in terms of molecular interactions occurring in the solution.

  14. Calculation of liquid-liquid phase separation in a ternary system of a polymer in a mixture of a solvent and a nonsolvent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altena, Frank W.; Smolders, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    A numerical method for the calculation of the binodal of liquid-liquid phase separation in a ternary system is described. The Flory-Huggins theory for three-component systems is used. Binodals are calculated for polymer/solvent/nonsolvent systems which are used in the preparation of asymmetric

  15. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with post-column dual-bioactivity assay for simultaneous screening of xanthine oxidase inhibitors and free radical scavengers from complex mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D Q; Zhao, J; Li, S P

    2014-06-06

    Xanthine oxidase (XO) can catalyze hypoxanthine and xanthine to generate uric acid and reactive oxygen species (ROS), including superoxide anion radical (O₂(•-)) and hydrogen peroxide. XO inhibitors and free radical scavengers are beneficial to the treatment of gout and many related diseases. In the present study, an on-line high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with post-column dual-bioactivity assay was established and successfully applied to simultaneously screening of XO inhibitors and free radical scavengers from a complex mixture, Oroxylum indicum extract. The integrated system of HPLC separation, bioactivity screening and mass spectrometry identification was proved to be simple and effective for rapid and sensitive screening of individual bioactive compounds in complex mixtures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Physical properties and solubility parameters of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium based ionic liquids/DMSO mixtures at 298.15 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, H.; Yumei, Z.; Huaping, W.

    2015-12-01

    Densities, refractive indices, conductivities and viscosities of binary mixtures of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs) with dimethyl sulfoxide at 298.15 K are reported. Excess molar volumes have been calculated from experimental data and were fitted with Redlich-Kister equation. The density and refractive index were found to increase with increasing concentration in all cases except [EMIM]COOH. The free mobility of ions has found to enhance conductivity and decrease viscosity to varying extent in all mixtures being studied. It has been observed that solubility parameters, dielectric constants and nature of anions of ILs being used play a vital role in determining the subsequent characteristics. As DMSO has high dielectric constant therefore, it was able to form interactions with most of ILs except with [EMIM]COOH due to anomalous nature of anion.

  17. Thermophysical properties of binary mixtures of {l_brace}ionic liquid 2-hydroxy ethylammonium acetate + (water, methanol, or ethanol){r_brace}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, Victor H. [School of Chemical Engineering, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), P.O. Box 6066, 13083-970 Campinas-SP (Brazil); Chemical Engineering Department, ETSE, University of Santiago de Compostela (USC), P.O. Box 15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Mattedi, Silvana [Chemical Engineering Department, Polytechnic School, Federal University of Bahia (UFBA), 40210-630 Salvador-BA (Brazil); Martin-Pastor, Manuel [Unidade de Resonancia Magnetica, RIAIDT, edif. CACTUS, University of Santiago de Compostela (USC), P.O. Box 15706, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Aznar, Martin [School of Chemical Engineering, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), P.O. Box 6066, 13083-970 Campinas-SP (Brazil); Iglesias, Miguel, E-mail: miguel.iglesias@usc.es [Chemical Engineering Department, ETSE, University of Santiago de Compostela (USC), P.O. Box 15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2011-07-15

    Research highlights: > This paper reports the density and speed of sound data of binary mixtures {l_brace}2-hydroxy ethylammonium acetate + (water, or methanol, or ethanol){r_brace} measured between the temperatures (298.15 and 313.15) K at atmospheric pressure. > The aggregation, dynamic behavior, and hydrogen-bond network were studied using thermo-acoustic, X-ray, and NMR techniques. > The Peng-Robinson equation of state, coupled with the Wong-Sandler mixing rule using the COSMO-SAC model predicted the density of the solutions with relative mean deviations below than 3.0%. - Abstract: In this work, density and speed of sound data of binary mixtures of an ionic liquid consisting of {l_brace}2-hydroxy ethylammonium acetate (2-HEAA) + (water, methanol, or ethanol){r_brace} have been measured throughout the entire concentration range, from the temperature of (288.15 to 323.15) K at atmospheric pressure. The excess molar volumes, variations of the isentropic compressibility, the apparent molar volume, isentropic apparent molar compressibility, and thermal expansion coefficient were calculated from the experimental data. The excess molar volumes were negative throughout the whole composition range. Compressibility data in combination with low angle X-ray scattering and NMR measurements proved that the presence of micelles formed due to ion pair interaction above a critical concentration of the ionic liquid in the mixtures. The Peng-Robinson equation of state coupled with the Wong-Sandler mixing rule and COSMO-SAC model was used to predict densities and the calculated deviations were lower than 3%, for binary mixtures in all composition range.

  18. A filter paper-based liquid culture system for citrus shoot organogenesis - a mixture-amount experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of a static liquid culture system on shoot regeneration from citrus epicotyl explants. Two citrus types were used, Carrizo citrange and Ridge Pineapple sweet orange. A liquid culture system comprised of a Petri dish, cellulose filter paper dis...

  19. Application of numerical modelling to scaling-up of electrically induced extraction from an organic mixture using an ionic liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamiński Kamil

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Liquid-liquid extraction provides an environmentally friendly process as an alternative to azeotropic distillation, pervaporation and reverse osmosis because these techniques require the use of large amounts of energy, may involve volatile organic compounds, and operation at high pressure.

  20. Computational solvation analysis of biomolecules in aqueous ionic liquid mixtures : From large flexible proteins to small rigid drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeindlhofer, Veronika; Schröder, Christian

    2018-06-01

    Based on their tunable properties, ionic liquids attracted significant interest to replace conventional, organic solvents in biomolecular applications. Following a Gartner cycle, the expectations on this new class of solvents dropped after the initial hype due to the high viscosity, hydrolysis, and toxicity problems as well as their high cost. Since not all possible combinations of cations and anions can be tested experimentally, fundamental knowledge on the interaction of the ionic liquid ions with water and with biomolecules is mandatory to optimize the solvation behavior, the biodegradability, and the costs of the ionic liquid. Here, we report on current computational approaches to characterize the impact of the ionic liquid ions on the structure and dynamics of the biomolecule and its solvation layer to explore the full potential of ionic liquids.

  1. Differential dynamic optical microscopy for the characterization of soft matter: liquid crystal dynamics, volume phase transition of hydrogels, and phase transition of binary mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Beom-Jin; Park, Jung Ok; Srinivasarao, Mohan; Smith, Michael H.; Lyon, L. Andrew

    2011-03-01

    The structure and dynamics of soft matter were studied by differential dynamic optical microscopy. One can retrieve q-space information through image processing and Fourier analysis, even when the feature sizes in real space image are too small to be resolved or even visible in an optical microscope. The temporal sequence of real space images were Fourier transformed, and analyzed for the temporal and spatial fluctuations of power spectrum. Here, we present the results on liquid crystal dynamics and their elastic properties, volume phase transition of hydrogels when their dimensions are sub-micron, and critical opalescence of binary mixtures (water/2,6-lutidine).

  2. Thermodynamics of binary mixtures of N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone and ketone. Experimental results and modelling of the (solid + liquid) equilibrium and the (vapour + liquid) equilibrium. The modified UNIFAC (Do) model characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanska, Urszula; Lachwa, Joanna

    2005-01-01

    The (solid + liquid) equilibrium (SLE) of eight binary systems containing N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) with (2-propanone, or 2-butanone, or 2-pentanone, or 3-pentanone, or cyclopentanone, or 2-hexanone, or 4-methyl-2-pentanone, or 3-heptanone) were carried out by using a dynamic method from T = 200 K to the melting point of the NMP. The isothermal (vapour + liquid) equilibrium data (VLE) have been measured for three binary mixtures of NMP with 2-propanone, 3-pentanone and 2-hexanone at pressure range from p = 0 kPa to p = 115 kPa. Data were obtained at the temperature T = 333.15 K for the first system and at T = 373.15 K for the second two systems. The experimental results of SLE have been correlated using the binary parameters Wilson, UNIQUAC ASM and two modified NRTL equations. The root-mean-square deviations of the solubility temperatures for all the calculated values vary from (0.32 K to 0.68 K) and depend on the particular equation used. The data of VLE were correlated with one to three parameters in the Redlich-Kister expansion. Binary mixtures of NMP with (2-propanone, or 2-butanone, or 2-pentanone, or 3-pentanone, or cyclopentanone, or 2-hexanone, or 4-methyl-2-pentanone, or 3-heptanone) have been investigated in the framework of the modified UNIFAC (Do) model. The reported new interaction parameters for NMP-group (c-CONCH 3 ) and carbonyl group ( C=O) let the model consistently described a set of thermodynamic properties, including (solid + liquid) equilibrium (vapour + liquid) equilibrium, excess Gibbs energy and molar excess enthalpies of mixing. Our experimental and literature data of binary mixtures containing NMP and ketones were compared with the results of prediction with the modified UNIFAC (Do) model

  3. Evaluation of Vapor Pressure and Ultra-High Vacuum Tribological Properties of Ionic Liquids (2) Mixtures and Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Wilfredo; Koch, Victor R.; Street, Kenneth W., Jr.; Richard, Ryan M.

    2008-01-01

    Ionic liquids are salts, many of which are typically viscous fluids at room temperature. The fluids are characterized by negligible vapor pressures under ambient conditions. These properties have led us to study the effectiveness of ionic liquids containing both organic cations and anions for use as space lubricants. In the previous paper we have measured the vapor pressure and some tribological properties of two distinct ionic liquids under simulated space conditions. In this paper we will present vapor pressure measurements for two new ionic liquids and friction coefficient data for boundary lubrication conditions in a spiral orbit tribometer using stainless steel tribocouples. In addition we present the first tribological data on mixed ionic liquids and an ionic liquid additive. Post mortem infrared and Raman analysis of the balls and races indicates the major degradation pathway for these two organic ionic liquids is similar to those of other carbon based lubricants, i.e. deterioration of the organic structure into amorphous graphitic carbon. The coefficients of friction and lifetimes of these lubricants are comparable to or exceed these properties for several commonly used space oils.

  4. Development of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction technique using ternary solvents mixture followed by heating for the rapid and sensitive analysis of phthalate esters and di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajzadeh, Mir Ali; Khoshmaram, Leila

    2015-01-30

    In this study, for the first time, a dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction technique using a ternary solvent mixture is reported. In order to extract five phthalate esters and di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate with different polarities from aqueous samples, a simplex centroid experimental design method was used to select an optimal mixture of ternary solvents prior to gas chromatographyflame ionization detection. In this work, dimethyl formamide as a disperser solvent containing dichloromethane, chloroform, and carbon tetrachloride as a ternary extraction solvent mixture is injected into sample solution and a cloudy solution is formed. After centrifuging, 250μL of the obtained sedimented phase was transferred into another tube and 5μL DMF was added to it. Then, the tube was heated in a water bath at 75°C for 5min in order to evaporate the main portion of the extraction solvents. Finally, 2μL of the remained phase is injected into the separation system. Under the optimum extraction conditions, the method shows wide linear ranges and low limits of detection and quantification between 0.03-0.15 and 0.09-0.55μgL(-1), respectively. Enrichment factors and extraction recoveries are in the ranges of 980-4500 and 20-90%, respectively. The method is successfully applied in the determination of the target analytes in mineral water, soda, lemon juice, vinegar, dough, and yogurt packed in plastic packages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. ACOUSTIC WAVES EMISSION IN THE TWO-COMPONENT HEREDITARY-ELASTIC MEDIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Polenov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. On the dynamics of two-component media a number of papers, which address the elastic waves in a homogeneous, unbounded fluid-saturated porous medium. In other studies address issues of dissipative processes in harmonic deformation hereditary elastic medium. In the article the dissipative processes of the viscoelastic porous medium, which hereditary properties are described by the core relaxation fractional exponential function U.N. Rabotnova integro-differential Boltzmann-Volterr ratio, harmonic deformation by the straining saturated incompressible liquid are investigated. Speed of wave propagation, absorption coefficient, mechanical loss tangent, logarithmic decrement, depending on fractional parameter γ, determining formulas received. The frequency logarithm and temperature graph dependences with the goal fractional parameter are constructed. Shows the dependences velocity and attenuation coefficient of the tangent of the phase angle of the logarithm of the temperature, and the dependence of the attenuation coefficient of the logarithm of the frequency. Dependencies the speed and the tangent of the phase angle of the frequency identical function of the logarithm of temperature.

  6. First Principles Modeling of Structure and Transport in Solid Polymer Electrolytes, Ionic Liquids, and Methanol/Water Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-10

    chemical calculations of the magnesium battery electrolytes we were able to make all vibrational frequency assignments (measured in the IR and Raman ...electrolytes for magnesium batteries incorporating chloro- or iodo- ionic liquids. Much of this work was done in collaboration with the experimental group... magnesium batteries incorporating chloro- or iodo- ionic liquids. Much of this work was done in collaboration with the experimental group of Prof. Vito Di

  7. Vapor-liquid equilibria of binary and ternary mixtures of acetaldehyde with Versatic 9 and Veova 9

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raeissi, S.; Florusse, L.J.; Kroon, M.C.; Peters, C.J.

    2016-01-01

    In continuation of our earlier publication on the phase behavior of binary and ternary mixtures involving acetaldehyde, Versatic 10, and Veova 10, in this work we present bubble-point pressures of the binary and ternary systems of acetaldehyde, Versatic 9, and Veova 9. The measurements were carried

  8. Co-processing of lignite-plastic mixtures into liquid distillate fractions in the presence of iron catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, B.N.; Sharypov, V.I.; Beregovtsova, N.G.; Baryshnikov, S.V.; Doroginskaya, A.N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation). Inst. of Chemistry of Natural Organic Materials Sibirian Branch

    1997-12-31

    Some features of co-processing of Kansk-Achinsk lignite with plastics into hydrocarbon mixtures in the presence of activated iron-containing minerals (hematite, magnetite, pyrrhotite) were investigated under various operating parameters. The following catalytic processes were studied: pyrolysis in an inert atmosphere, hydropyrolysis and water-steam cracking. (orig.)

  9. Characterization of van der Waals type bimodal,- lambda,- meta- and spinodal phase transitions in liquid mixtures, solid suspensions and thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenholm, Jarl B

    2018-03-01

    The perfect gas law is used as a reference when selecting state variables (P, V, T, n) needed to characterize ideal gases (vapors), liquids and solids. Van der Waals equation of state is used as a reference for models characterizing interactions in liquids, solids and their mixtures. Van der Waals loop introduces meta- and unstable states between the observed gas (vapor)-liquid P-V transitions at low T. These intermediate states are shown to appear also between liquid-liquid, liquid-solid and solid-solid phase transitions. First-order phase transitions are characterized by a sharp discontinuity of first-order partial derivatives (P, S, V) of Helmholtz and Gibbs free energies. Second-order partial derivatives (K T , B, C V , C P , E) consist of a static contribution relating to second-order phase transitions and a relaxation contribution representing the degree of first-order phase transitions. Bimodal (first-order) and spinodal (second-order) phase boundaries are used to separate stable phases from metastable and unstable phases. The boundaries are identified and quantified by partial derivatives of molar Gibbs free energy or chemical potentials with respect to P, S, V and composition (mole fractions). Molecules confined to spread Langmuir monolayers or adsorbed Gibbs monolayers are characterized by equation of state and adsorption isotherms relating to a two-dimensional van der Waals equation of state. The basic work of two-dimensional wetting (cohesion, adsorption, spreading, immersion), have to be adjusted by a horizontal surface pressure in the presence of adsorbed vapor layers. If the adsorption is extended to liquid films a vertical surface pressure (Π) may be added to account for the lateral interaction, thus restoring PV = ΠAh dependence of thin films. Van der Waals attraction, Coulomb repulsion and structural hydration forces contribute to the vertical surface pressure. A van der Waals type coexistence of ordered (dispersed) and disordered

  10. Properties of pure n-butylammonium nitrate ionic liquid and its binary mixtures of with alcohols at T = (293.15 to 313.15) K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Yingjie; Chen, Bin; Qian, Wu; Li, Haoran

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Densities and viscosities of (N4NO 3 + alcohols) mixtures were measured. ► Coefficient of thermal expansion, molecular volume, standard entropy, and lattice energy were obtained. ► Excess molar volumes, viscosity deviations, and partial molar volumes were calculated. ► Redlich–Kister polynomial was used to correlate the excess properties. ► The intermolecular interactions between N4NO 3 and alcohols were analysed. -- Abstract: Values of the density and viscosity of the pure ionic liquid n-butylammonium nitrate (N4NO 3 ) and its binary mixtures with methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, and 1-butanol were measured at temperature ranging from T = (293.15 to 313.15) K. The thermal expansion coefficient, molecular volume, standard entropy, and lattice energy of N4NO 3 were deduced from the experimental density results. The temperature dependence of the viscosity of N4NO 3 was fitted to the fluidity equation. Excess molar volumes V E and viscosity deviations Δη for the binary mixtures were calculated and fitted to the Redlich–Kister equation with satisfactory results. Both excess molar volumes and viscosity deviations show negative deviations for (N4NO 3 + alcohol) mixtures. The effect of the temperature and the size of the alcohol on the excess molar volumes and viscosity deviations are discussed and analysed. Other derived properties, such as the apparent molar volume, partial molar volume, excess partial molar volume, thermal expansion coefficient, and excess thermal expansion coefficient of the above-mentioned systems were also calculated

  11. Properties of pure 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidine imidazole ionic liquid and its binary mixtures with alcohols at T = (293.15 to 313.15) K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jiayi; Chen, Lingxiao; Xu, Yingjie

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Densities and viscosities of [TMG]IM + alcohol mixtures were measured. • Coefficient of thermal expansion, molecular volume, standard entropy, and lattice energy were obtained. • Excess molar volumes and viscosity deviations were calculated and fitted to Redlich–Kister equation. • Other volumetric properties and excess Gibbs free energy of activation for viscous flow were deduced. • The intermolecular interactions between [TMG]IM and alcohols were analyzed. - Abstract: Densities and viscosities of the pure ionic liquid 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidine imidazole ([TMG]IM) and its binary mixtures with methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, and 1-butanol were measured at temperatures from T = (293.15 to 313.15) K. The thermal expansion coefficient, molecular volume, standard entropy, and lattice energy of [TMG]IM were obtained from the experimental density value. The temperature dependence of the viscosity of [TMG]IM was fitted to the fluidity equation. Excess molar volumes V E and viscosity deviations Δη of the binary mixtures were calculated and fitted to the Redlich–Kister equation with satisfactory results. The result shows that the V E values of the binary mixtures are negative over the whole composition range, while Δη values have an S-shape deviation. Temperature has little effect on the V E of the systems, but it has significant effect on the Δη. Furthermore, the absolute values of V E for {[TMG]IM (1) + alcohol (2)} systems at the same temperature decrease with increasing carbon alkyl chain of the primary alcohol. Other derived properties, such as the apparent molar volumes, partial molar volumes, excess partial molar volumes, Gibbs free energy of activation for viscous flow, and excess Gibbs free energy of activation for viscous flow of the above-mentioned systems were also calculated

  12. Methods for applying microchannels to separate methane using liquid absorbents, especially ionic liquid absorbents from a mixture comprising methane and nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y [Dublin, OH; Litt, Robert D [Westerville, OH; Dongming, Qiu [Dublin, OH; Silva, Laura J [Plain City, OH; Lamont, Micheal Jay [Plain City, OH; Fanelli, Maddalena [Plain City, OH; Simmons, Wayne W [Plain city, OH; Perry, Steven [Galloway, OH

    2011-10-04

    Methods of using microchannel separation systems including absorbents to improve thermal efficiency and reduce parasitic power loss. Energy is typically added to desorb methane and then energy or heat is removed to absorb methane using a working solution. The working solution or absorbent may comprise an ionic liquid, or other fluids that demonstrate a difference in affinity between methane and nitrogen in a solution.

  13. A Class of Two-Component Adler—Bobenko—Suris Lattice Equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Wei; Zhang Da-Jun; Zhou Ru-Guang

    2014-01-01

    We study a class of two-component forms of the famous list of the Adler—Bobenko—Suris lattice equations. The obtained two-component lattice equations are still consistent around the cube and they admit solutions with ‘jumping properties’ between two levels. (general)

  14. Densities, viscosities, and excess properties of binary mixtures of two imidazolide anion functionalized ionic liquids with water at T = (293.15 to 313.15) K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Lingxiao; Chen, Jiayi; Song, Zihao; Cui, Guokai; Xu, Yingjie; Wang, Xuhong; Liu, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Densities and viscosities of binary mixtures of [HDBU]IM and [BDBU]IM with water were measured. • Excess molar volumes and viscosity deviations were calculated and fitted to Redlich–Kister equation. • Other volumetric properties and excess Gibbs free energy of activation for viscous flow were deduced. • The intermolecular interactions between water and [HDBU]IM or [BDBU]IM were analyzed and compared. - Abstract: Densities and viscosities of binary mixtures of 8-hydrogen-1,8-diazabicyclo[5,4,0]-undec-7-enium imidazolide ([HDBU]IM) and 8-butyl-1,8-diazabicyclo[5,4,0]-undec-7-enium imidazolide ([BDBU]IM) ionic liquids (ILs) with water were measured at temperatures from T = (293.15 to 313.15) K. Excess molar volumes V"E and viscosity deviations Δη of the mixtures were calculated to study the intermolecular interactions and structural factors between ILs and water. The results show that the V"E values of the two mixtures are negative over the whole composition range, while the Δη values have positive deviations, indicating that the hydrogen bonding interactions between IL and water are dominant in the mixtures. Moreover, the absolute values of V"E (|V"E|) of {[HDBU]IM (1) + H_2O (2)} system are larger than those of {[BDBU]IM (1) + H_2O (2)} system at the same condition, indicating that the hydrogen bonding interactions between [HDBU]IM and water are stronger than those between [BDBU]IM and water. Both |V"E| and Δη values of the mixtures decrease with the increasing temperature, resulting from the decreasing the hydrogen bonding interactions between IL and water. Other derived properties of the studied systems, such as the apparent molar volumes, partial molar volumes, excess partial molar volumes, Gibbs free energy of activation for viscous flow, and excess Gibbs free energy of activation for viscous flow were also calculated from the experimental values.

  15. Cyano-containing ionic liquids for the extraction of aromatic hydrocarbons from an aromatic/aliphatic mixture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meindersma, G.W.; Haan, de A.B.

    2012-01-01

    Ionic liquids can replace conventional solvents in aromatic/aliphatic extractions, if they have higher aromatic distribution coefficients and higher or similar aromatic/aliphatic selectivities. Also physical properties, such as density and viscosity, must be taken into account if a solvent is

  16. Enhanced CO2 capture in binary mixtures of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium tricyanomethanide ionic liquids with water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romanos, G.E.; Zubeir, L.F.; Likodimos, V.; Falaras, P.; Kroon, M.C.; Iliev, B.; Adamova, G.; Schubert, T.J.S.

    2013-01-01

    The absorption of carbon dioxide and water in the 1-butyl-3-methylimidazoliun tricyanomethanide ([C4C1im][TCM]) and 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium tricyanomethanide ([C8C1im][TCM]) ionic liquids (ILs) was systematically investigated for the first time as a function of the H2O content by means of a

  17. Experimental unit to study motion of gas-liquid mixtures in vertical pipes for lifting highly viscous oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abishev, S K; Bulgakov, R R; Sakharov, V A

    1981-01-01

    Basic features are presented of a new experimental-research unit of gas-lift recovery of oil UGDN-2 for conditions of lifting the highly viscous oil. It is proposed that this unit be used to conduct experiments and to determine the calculated relationships of a gas-liquid lifter on fluids simulating highly viscous oil.

  18. Thermophysical properties of ionic liquid {1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide [bmim][Br] in alkoxyalkanols + water} mixtures at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Amalendu; Kumar, Harsh; Kumar, Bhupinder; Sharma, Pooja; Kaur, Kirtanjot

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Densities and speeds of sound of alkoxyalkanols in [bmim][Br]. ► Synthesis of room temperature ionic liquid [bmim][Br]. ► Partial molar volumes and compressibility of transfer. ► Apparent molar expansivities and the Hepler’s constant were calculated. ► Solute–solute and solute–solvent interactions and the structural changes of the solutes. - Abstract: The interactions of alkoxyalkanols with the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide [bmim][Br] as a function of temperature were investigated by combination of volumetric and acoustic methods. The density, ρ, and speed of sound, u, of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether, diethylene glycol monomethyl ether, and triethylene glycol monomethyl ether (0.00–1.01 mol·kg −1 ) in aqueous 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide solutions ranging from pure water to 0.29 mass% of ionic liquid have been measured at T = (288.15, 298.15 and 308.15) K and atmospheric pressure. The apparent molar volume (V φ ) and adiabatic compressibility (K φ,S ) of alkoxyalkanols in aqueous ionic liquid solution were determined at the measured temperatures. The partial molar volume (V φ 0 ) and partial molar adiabatic compressibility (K φ 0 ) of alkoxyalkanols at infinite dilution were evaluated. Transfer volumes (ΔV φ 0 ) and transfer adiabatic compressibility (ΔK φ 0 ) at infinite dilution from water to aqueous ionic liquid solution were also calculated. The temperature dependence of the apparent molar volume was used to calculate apparent molar expansivity (φ E 0 ) and the Hepler’s constant values, (∂ 2 V φ 0 /∂T 2 ). The results were explained on the basis of competing patterns of interactions of co-solvent and the solute.

  19. Protein remains stable at unusually high temperatures when solvated in aqueous mixtures of amino acid based ionic liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chevrot, Guillaume; Fileti, Eudes Eterno; Chaban, Vitaly V.

    2016-01-01

    Using molecular dynamics simulations, we investigated the thermal stability and real-time denaturation of a model mini-protein in four solvents: (1) water, (2) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium alaninate [EMIM][ALA] (5 mol% in water), (3) methioninate [EMIM][MET] (5 mol% in water), and (4) tryptophanat...... (AAILs) than in water. This thermal stability was correlated with the thermodynamics and shear viscosity of the AAIL-containing mixtures. These results suggest that AAILs are generally favorable for protein conservation. [Figure not available: see fulltext.]...

  20. Onward treatment of irradiated liquid egg: Detection in sponge cake mixture after baking by means of LC-GC-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabowski, H.U. von; Schulzki, G.; Pfordt, J.; Spiegelberg, A.; Helle, N.; Boegl, K.W.; Schreiber, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    Irradiated whole liquid egg used for preparation of sponge cake could be identified using gaschromatographic/mass spectrometric detection of the radiation induced hydrocarbons for doses from 1 kGy. Separation of the hydrocarbons out of the fat was carried out by HPLC coupled on-line to the GC. That means, for the first time an irradiated component of a heat treated food could be detected. (orig.) [de

  1. Heat transfer and pressure drop for air-water mixtures in an isoflux vertical annulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattab, M.; El-Sallak, M.; Morcos, S.M.; Salama, A.

    1996-01-01

    Heat transfer and pressure drop in flows of air-water mixtures have been investigated experimentally in an isoflux vertical annulus. The superficial liquid Reynolds number, as a reference parameter, varied from 4500 to 30 000, at different values of gas-to-liquid superficial velocity ratios up to 20 and surface heat fluxes from 50 to 240 kW/m 2 . Enhancement of the two-phase heat transfer coefficient is pronounced particularly at low liquid superficial velocities. The results are correlated and compared with some models of two-phase, two-component flows for air-water mixtures within their range of validity. Satisfactory agreement is obtained from the trend of the experimental data. (orig.) [de

  2. Methods of producing epoxides from alkenes using a two-component catalyst system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Mayfair C.; Kung, Harold H.; Jiang, Jian

    2013-07-09

    Methods for the epoxidation of alkenes are provided. The methods include the steps of exposing the alkene to a two-component catalyst system in an aqueous solution in the presence of carbon monoxide and molecular oxygen under conditions in which the alkene is epoxidized. The two-component catalyst system comprises a first catalyst that generates peroxides or peroxy intermediates during oxidation of CO with molecular oxygen and a second catalyst that catalyzes the epoxidation of the alkene using the peroxides or peroxy intermediates. A catalyst system composed of particles of suspended gold and titanium silicalite is one example of a suitable two-component catalyst system.

  3. Onsager Vortex Formation in Two-component Bose-Einstein Condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Junsik; Tsubota, Makoto

    2018-06-01

    We numerically study the dynamics of quantized vortices in two-dimensional two-component Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) trapped by a box potential. For one-component BECs in a box potential, it is known that quantized vortices form Onsager vortices, which are clusters of same-sign vortices. We confirm that the vortices of the two components spatially separate from each other — even for miscible two-component BECs — suppressing the formation of Onsager vortices. This phenomenon is caused by the repulsive interaction between vortices belonging to different components, hence, suggesting a new possibility for vortex phase separation.

  4. Weak nonlinear matter waves in a trapped two-component Bose-Einstein condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong Wenmei; Xue Jukui

    2008-01-01

    The dynamics of the weak nonlinear matter solitary waves in two-component Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) with cigar-shaped external potential are investigated analytically by a perturbation method. In the small amplitude limit, the two-components can be decoupled and the dynamics of solitary waves are governed by a variable-coefficient Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation. The reduction to the KdV equation may be useful to understand the dynamics of nonlinear matter waves in two-component BEC. The analytical expressions for the evolution of soliton, emitted radiation profiles and soliton oscillation frequency are also obtained

  5. Novel separation process of gaseous mixture of SO2 and O2 with ionic liquid for hydrogen production in thermochemical sulfur-iodine water splitting cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang Soo; Gong, Gyeong Taek; Yoo, Kye Sang; Kim, Honggon; Lee, Byoung Gwon; Ahn, Byoung Sung; Jung, Kwang Deog; Lee, Ki Yong; Song, Kwang Ho

    2007-01-01

    anion in the interaction between SO 2 and ionic liquids during absorption process is analyzed by FT-IR spectra. Peak shift, is recognized by comparing SO 2 absorbed [BMIm] PF 6 and [BMIm] BF 4 spectrum. The amount of interaction which results in the absorption amount difference may not analyzed quantitatively; however, it can be verified qualitatively because only anion is the difference between two spectrum conditions. Based on the properties of SO 2 absorbing ionic liquid mentioned, continuous SO 2 separation process of the gaseous SO 2 /O 2 mixture in the thermochemical sulfur-iodine cycle can be realized after acquiring more properties of ionic liquid which is useful for the process design in the near future. (authors)

  6. Thermodynamic properties of deep eutectic solvent and ionic liquid mixtures at temperatures from 293.15 K to 343.15 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achsah, R. S.; Shyam, S.; Mayuri, N.; Anantharaj, R.

    2018-04-01

    Deep eutectic solvents (DES) and ionic liquids (ILs) have their applications in various fields of research and in industries due to their attractive physiochemical properties. In this study, the combined thermodynamic properties of DES (choline chloride-glycerol) + IL1 (1-butyl-3-methylimiazolium acetate) and DES(choline chloride-glycerol) + IL2 (1-ethyl-3-methylimadzolium ethyl sulphate) have been studied. The thermodynamic properties such as excess molar volume, partial molar volume, excess partial molar volume and apparent molar volume were calculated for different mole fractions ranging from 0 to 1 and varying temperatures from 293.15 K to 343.15 K. In order to know the solvent properties of DESs and ILs mixtures at different temperatures and their molecular interactions to enhance the solvent performance and process efficiency at fixed composition and temperature the thermodynamic properties were analyzed.

  7. Determination of two-liquid mixture composition by assessing its dielectric parameters 2. modified measuring system for monitoring the dehydration process of bioethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilitis O.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In Part 2 of the work we describe a modified measuring system for precise monitoring of the dehydration process of bioethanol production. This is based on the earlier proposed system for measuring the concentration of solutions and two-liquid mixtures using devices with capacitive sensors (1-300pF, which provides a stable measuring resolution of ± 0.005 pF at measuring the capacitance of a sensor. In this part of our work we determine additional requirements that are to be imposed on the measuring system at monitoring the ethanol dehydration process and control of bioethanol production. The most important parameters of the developed measuring system are identified. An exemplary calculation is given for the thermocompensated calibration of measuring devices. The results of tests have shown a good performance of the developed measuring system.

  8. Experimental study of the vapour-liquid equilibria of HI-I-2-H2O ternary mixtures, Part 2: Experimental results at high temperature and pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larousse, B.; Lovera, P.; Borgard, J.M.; Roehrich, G.; Mokrani, N.; Maillault, C.; Doizi, D.; Dauvois, V.; Roujou, J.L.; Lorin, V.; Fauvet, P.; Carles, P.; Hartmann, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    In order to assess the choice of the sulphur-iodine thermochemical cycle for massive hydrogen production, a precise knowledge of the concentrations of the gaseous species (HI, I 2 , and H 2 O) in thermodynamic equilibrium with the liquid phase of the HI-I 2 -H 2 O ternary mixture is required, in a wide range of concentrations and for temperatures and pressures up to 300 degrees C and 50 bar. In the companion paper (Part 1) the experimental device was described, which enables the measurement of the total pressure and concentrations of the vapour phase (and thus the knowledge of the partial pressures of the different gaseous species) for the HI-I 2 -H 2 O mixture in the 20-140 degrees C range and up to 2 bar. This (Part 2) article describes the experimental device which enables similar measurements but now in the process domain. The results concerning concentrations in the vapour phase for the HI-I 2 -H 2 O initial mixture (with a global composition) in the 120-270 degrees C temperature range and up to 30 bar are presented. As previously, optical online diagnostics are used, based on recordings of infrared transmission spectra for HI and H 2 O and on UV/visible spectrometry for I 2 . The concentrations measured in the vapour phase are the first to describe the vapour composition under thermophysical conditions close to those of the distillation column. The experimental results are compared with a thermodynamic model and will help us to scale up and optimize the reactive distillation column we promote for the HI section of the sulphur-iodine cycle. (authors)

  9. Structure-retention and mobile phase-retention relationships for reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography of several hydroxythioxanthone derivatives in binary acetonitrile-water mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiri, Ali Asghar; Hemmateenejad, Bahram; Safavi, Afsaneh; Sharghi, Hashem; Beni, Ali Reza Salimi; Shamsipur, Mojtaba

    2007-01-01

    The reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) behavior of some newly synthesized hydroxythioxanthone derivatives using binary acetonitrile-water mixtures as mobile phase has been examined. First, the variation in the retention time of each molecule as a function of mobile phase properties was studied by Kamlet-Taft solvatochromic equations. Then, the influences of molecular structure of the hydroxythioxanthone derivatives on their retention time in various mobile phase mixtures were investigated by quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) analysis. Finally, a unified model containing both the molecular structure parameters and mobile phase properties was developed to describe the chromatographic behavior of the systems studied. Among the solvent properties, polarity/polarizability parameter (π * ) and hydrogen-bond basicity (β), and among the solute properties, the most positive local charge (MPC), the sum of positive charges on hydrogen atoms contributing in hydrogen bonding (SPCH) and lipophilicity index (log P) were identified as controlling factors in the RP-HPLC behavior of hydroxythioxanthone derivatives in actonitrile-water binary solvents

  10. Droplet size and velocity at the exit of a nozzle with two-component near critical and critical flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemonnier, H.; Camelo-Cavalcanti, E.S.

    1993-01-01

    Two-component critical flow modelling is an important issue for safety studies of various hazardous industrial activities. When the flow quality is high, the critical flow rate prediction is sensitive to the modelling of gas droplet mixture interfacial area. In order to improve the description of these flows, experiments were conducted with air-water flows in converging nozzles. The pressure was 2 and 4 bar and the gas mass quality ranged between 100% and 20%. The droplets size and velocity have been measured close to the outlet section of a nozzle with a 10 mm diameter throat. Subcritical and critical conditions were observed. These data are compared with the predictions of a critical flow model which includes an interfacial area model based on the classical ideas of Hinze and Kolmogorov. (authors). 9 figs., 12 refs

  11. Thermodynamics of two component gaseous and solid state plasmas at any degeneracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraeft, W.D.; Stolzmann, W.; Fromhold-Treu, I.; Rother, T.

    1988-10-01

    We give the results of thermodynamical calculations for two component plasmas which are of interest for dense hydrogen, noble gas and alkali plasmas and for electron hole plasmas in optically excited semiconductors as well. 25 refs, 4 figs

  12. Stability equation and two-component Eigenmode for domain walls in scalar potential model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, G.S.; Graca, E.L.; Rodrigues, R. de Lima

    2002-08-01

    Supersymmetric quantum mechanics involving a two-component representation and two-component eigenfunctions is applied to obtain the stability equation associated to a potential model formulated in terms of two coupled real scalar fields. We investigate the question of stability by introducing an operator technique for the Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) and non-BPS states on two domain walls in a scalar potential model with minimal N 1-supersymmetry. (author)

  13. Competitive Adsorption of a Two-Component Gas on a Deformable Adsorbent

    OpenAIRE

    Usenko, A. S.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the competitive adsorption of a two-component gas on the surface of an adsorbent whose adsorption properties vary in adsorption due to the adsorbent deformation. The essential difference of adsorption isotherms for a deformable adsorbent both from the classical Langmuir adsorption isotherms of a two-component gas and from the adsorption isotherms of a one-component gas taking into account variations in adsorption properties of the adsorbent in adsorption is obtained. We establi...

  14. The mixture of liquid foam soap, ethanol and citric acid as a new fixative-preservative solution in veterinary anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Erkut; Gules, Ozay; Kilimci, Figen Sevil; Kara, Mehmet Erkut; Dilek, Omer Gurkan; Sabanci, Seyyid Said; Tatar, Musa

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigates the efficiency of liquid foam soap, ethanol, citric acid and benzalkonium chloride as a fixative-preservative solution (a soap-and ethanol-based fixing solution, or SEFS). In this study, ethanol serves as the fixative and preservative, liquid foam soap as the modifying agent, citric acid as the antioxidant and benzalkonium chloride as the disinfectant. The goat cadavers perfused with SEFS (n=8) were evaluated over a period of one year with respect to hardness, colour and odour using objective methods. Colour and hardness were compared between one fresh cadaver and the SEFS-embalmed cadavers. Histological and microbiological examinations were also performed in tissue samples. Additionally, the cadavers were subjectively evaluated after dissection and palpation. The SEFS provided the effectiveness expected over a 1-year embalming period for the animal cadavers. No bacteria or fungi were isolated except for some non-pathogenic Bacillus species. Visible mould was not present on either cadavers or in the surrounding environment. The cadavers maintained an appearance close to their original anatomical appearance, with muscles having good hardness and elasticity for dissection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Chloroplast two-component systems: evolution of the link between photosynthesis and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthiyaveetil, Sujith; Allen, John F

    2009-06-22

    Two-component signal transduction, consisting of sensor kinases and response regulators, is the predominant signalling mechanism in bacteria. This signalling system originated in prokaryotes and has spread throughout the eukaryotic domain of life through endosymbiotic, lateral gene transfer from the bacterial ancestors and early evolutionary precursors of eukaryotic, cytoplasmic, bioenergetic organelles-chloroplasts and mitochondria. Until recently, it was thought that two-component systems inherited from an ancestral cyanobacterial symbiont are no longer present in chloroplasts. Recent research now shows that two-component systems have survived in chloroplasts as products of both chloroplast and nuclear genes. Comparative genomic analysis of photosynthetic eukaryotes shows a lineage-specific distribution of chloroplast two-component systems. The components and the systems they comprise have homologues in extant cyanobacterial lineages, indicating their ancient cyanobacterial origin. Sequence and functional characteristics of chloroplast two-component systems point to their fundamental role in linking photosynthesis with gene expression. We propose that two-component systems provide a coupling between photosynthesis and gene expression that serves to retain genes in chloroplasts, thus providing the basis of cytoplasmic, non-Mendelian inheritance of plastid-associated characters. We discuss the role of this coupling in the chronobiology of cells and in the dialogue between nuclear and cytoplasmic genetic systems.

  16. Comparative Analysis of Wolbachia Genomes Reveals Streamlining and Divergence of Minimalist Two-Component Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Steen; Serbus, Laura Renee

    2015-01-01

    Two-component regulatory systems are commonly used by bacteria to coordinate intracellular responses with environmental cues. These systems are composed of functional protein pairs consisting of a sensor histidine kinase and cognate response regulator. In contrast to the well-studied Caulobacter crescentus system, which carries dozens of these pairs, the streamlined bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis encodes only two pairs: CckA/CtrA and PleC/PleD. Here, we used bioinformatic tools to compare characterized two-component system relays from C. crescentus, the related Anaplasmataceae species Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia chaffeensis, and 12 sequenced Wolbachia strains. We found the core protein pairs and a subset of interacting partners to be highly conserved within Wolbachia and these other Anaplasmataceae. Genes involved in two-component signaling were positioned differently within the various Wolbachia genomes, whereas the local context of each gene was conserved. Unlike Anaplasma and Ehrlichia, Wolbachia two-component genes were more consistently found clustered with metabolic genes. The domain architecture and key functional residues standard for two-component system proteins were well-conserved in Wolbachia, although residues that specify cognate pairing diverged substantially from other Anaplasmataceae. These findings indicate that Wolbachia two-component signaling pairs share considerable functional overlap with other α-proteobacterial systems, whereas their divergence suggests the potential for regulatory differences and cross-talk. PMID:25809075

  17. Application of Prigogine-Flory-Patterson theory to excess molar volume of mixtures of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids with N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Feng; Wang Haijun

    2009-01-01

    The densities of two binary mixtures formed by 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate [bmim][BF 4 ] and 1-butyl-3-methy limidazolium hexafluorophosphate [bmim][PF 6 ] with compound N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone have been determined over the full range of composition and range of temperature from (298.15 to 313.15) K and at atmospheric pressure using a vibrating-tube densimeter (DMA4500). Excess molar volumes, V m E , have been obtained from these experimental results, and been fitted by the fourth-order Redlich-Kister equation. From the experimental results, partial molar volumes, apparent molar volume and partial molar volumes at infinite dilution were calculated over the whole composition range. Our results show that V m E decreases slightly when temperature increases in the systems studied. The experimental results have been used to test the applicability of the Prigogine-Flory-Patterson (PFP) theory. The results have been interpreted in terms of ion-dipole interactions and structural factors of the ionic liquid and these organic molecular liquids

  18. Characterization of polyoxyethylene tallow amine surfactants in technical mixtures and glyphosate formulations using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography and triple quadrupole mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tush, Daniel; Loftin, Keith A.; Meyer, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the occurrence, fate, and effects of the ancillary additives in pesticide formulations. Polyoxyethylene tallow amine (POEA) is a non-ionic surfactant used in many glyphosate formulations, a widely applied herbicide both in agricultural and urban environments. POEA has not been previously well characterized, but has been shown to be toxic to various aquatic organisms. Characterization of technical mixtures using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) and mass spectrometry shows POEA is a complex combination of homologs of different aliphatic moieties and ranges of ethoxylate units. Tandem mass spectrometry experiments indicate that POEA homologs generate no product ions readily suitable for quantitative analysis due to poor sensitivity. A comparison of multiple high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and UHPLC analytical columns indicates that the stationary phase is more important in column selection than other parameters for the separation of POEA. Analysis of several agricultural and household glyphosate formulations confirms that POEA is a common ingredient but ethoxylate distributions among formulations vary.

  19. High quality zinc-blende CdSe nanocrystals synthesized in a hexadecylamine-oleic acid-paraffin liquid mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Lan, E-mail: lwang322@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Applied Physics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Department of Physics, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150081 (China); Sun Xiudong, E-mail: xdsun@hit.edu.cn [Department of Applied Physics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Liu Wenjing [Department of Astronautic Science and Mechanics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Liu Bingyi [Laboratory Center for the School of Pharmacy, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150081 (China)

    2010-03-15

    Safe, common, and low-cost compounds were used as solvents for the non-tri-n-octylphosphine (TOP) synthesis of high quality CdSe nanocrystals (NCs) in open air. In oleic acid-paraffin liquid system, CdSe nanocrystals in the less common zinc-blende (ZB, cubic) crystal structure have been obtained. The effects of adding n-hexadecylamine (HDA) to different solutions were discussed. Stable, highly homogeneous and luminescent CdSe nanocrystals were formed by adding n-hexadecylamine to Cd solution rather than to Se solution. Without any size sorting, the size distribution of the nanocrystals can be readily controlled and the highest photoluminescence (PL) quantum efficiency (QE) of the nanocrystals was up to 20-30%.

  20. High quality zinc-blende CdSe nanocrystals synthesized in a hexadecylamine-oleic acid-paraffin liquid mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lan; Sun Xiudong; Liu Wenjing; Liu Bingyi

    2010-01-01

    Safe, common, and low-cost compounds were used as solvents for the non-tri-n-octylphosphine (TOP) synthesis of high quality CdSe nanocrystals (NCs) in open air. In oleic acid-paraffin liquid system, CdSe nanocrystals in the less common zinc-blende (ZB, cubic) crystal structure have been obtained. The effects of adding n-hexadecylamine (HDA) to different solutions were discussed. Stable, highly homogeneous and luminescent CdSe nanocrystals were formed by adding n-hexadecylamine to Cd solution rather than to Se solution. Without any size sorting, the size distribution of the nanocrystals can be readily controlled and the highest photoluminescence (PL) quantum efficiency (QE) of the nanocrystals was up to 20-30%.

  1. MOLECULAR SIMULATION OF THE VAPOR-LIQUID EQUILIBRIUM OF N2-NC5 MIXTURE BY MONTE CARLO SIMULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florianne Castillo-Borja

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study used Monte Carlo simulations in the Gibbs ensemble to describe the liquid-vapor phase equilibrium of nitrogen-n-pentane system for three isotherms. The study analyzed a wide range of pressures ranging up to 25 MPa. The system was modeled using the intermolecular potential Galassi-Tildesley for nitrogen and SKS for n-pentane. Results were compared against experimental data. Far from the critical point region, analyzed models reproduce favorably shape of the curve of phase equilibrium and in the vicinity of the critical point, results tend to move away from the experimental behavior. Critical points were determined (pressure, density and composition for the three isotherms using an extrapolation method based on scaling laws, with satisfactory results. Calculated coexistence curves are adequate even if the models analyzed do not contain optimized binary interaction parameters .

  2. Solubility of gallic acid in liquid mixtures of (ethanol + water) from (293.15 to 318.15) K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noubigh, Adel; Jeribi, Chokri; Mgaidi, Arbi; Abderrabba, Manef

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Solubility of gallic acid vs the mole fraction of ethanol (0.0 to 1) on a solute-free basis in ethanol + water at different temperatures/K. □, 293.15; Δ, 298.15; ◊, 303.15; line calculated by equation. Highlights: ► Solubilities of gallic acid in binary mixtures were determined over the temperatures range (293.15 to 318.15) K. ► The gallic acid solubility in mixed solvents presents a maximum-solubility effect. ► Two empirical equations were proposed to correlate the solubility Data. ► The thermodynamic properties were determined. - Abstract: The solubility of gallic acid in (water + ethanol) binary solvents was determined from (293.15 to 318.15) K at atmospheric pressure using a thermostatted reactor and UV/vis spectrophotometer analysis. The effects of binary solvents composition and temperature on the solubility were discussed. It was found that gallic acid solubility in (water + ethanol) mixed solvents presents a maximum-solubility effect. Two empirical equations were proposed to correlate the solubility data. The calculated solubilities show good agreement with the experimental data within the studied temperature range. Using the experimentally measured solubilities, the thermodynamic properties of dissolution of the gallic acid such as Gibbs energy (Δ sol G°), molar enthalpy of dissolution (Δ sol H°), and molar entropy of dissolution (Δ sol S°) were calculated.

  3. Analysis of conjugated linoleic acid-enriched triacylglycerol mixtures by isocratic silver-ion high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlof, R O; Menzel, A; Dorovska-Taran, V

    2002-04-12

    Silver-ion HPLC (Ag-HPLC) was applied to the fractionation of a triacylglycerol (TAG) sample enriched (>80%) with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). After conversion of the TAGs to fatty acid methyl esters using sodium methoxide in methanol, Ag-HPLC (dual-column; isocratic solvent system of 0.1% acetonitrile in hexane; UV detection at 233 nm) was used to determine the CLA isomer distribution (50:50 mixture of 9c 11t- and 10t,12c-18:2). Three or four Ag-HPLC columns connected in series (0.6-1.0% acetonitrile in hexane as solvent; UV detection at 206 nm) were used to analyze the sample in TAG form. Elution times for CLA-enriched TAGs averaged 30 min or less. Isocratic solvent conditions were used to eliminate the solvent equilibration times (often 30 min or more) required between sample injections when solvent programming is used. The ratio of TAGs containing three vs. only two CLA molecules was found to be approximately 3 to 1. Ag-HPLC has thus been shown to be a useful method for rapidly analyzing not only CLA isomers as esters, but also in the TAG form.

  4. Solid–liquid equilibrium and thermodynamic research of 3-Thiophenecarboxylic acid in (water + acetic acid) binary solvent mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xiang; Liang, Mengmeng; Hu, Yonghong; Yang, Wenge; Shi, Ying; Yin, Jingjing; Liu, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The solubility was measured in (water + acetic acid) from 283.15 to 338.15 K. • The solubility increased with increasing temperature and water contents. • The modified Apelblat equation was more accurate than the λh equation. - Abstract: In this study, the solubility of 3-thiophenecarboxylic acid was measured in (water + acetic acid) binary solvent mixtures in the temperature ranging from 283.15 to 338.15 K by the analytical stirred-flask method under atmospheric pressure. The experimental data were well-correlated with the modified Apelblat equation and the λh equation. In addition, the calculated solubilities showed good agreement with the experimental results. It was found that the modified Apelblat equation could obtain the better correlation results than the λh equation. The experiment results indicated that the solubility of 3-thiophenecarboxylic acid in the binary solvents increased with increasing temperature, increases with increasing water contents, but the increments with temperature differed from different water contents. In addition, the thermodynamic properties of the solution process, including the Gibbs energy, enthalpy, and entropy were calculated by the van’t Hoff analysis. The experimental data and model parameters would be useful for optimizing the process of purification of 3-thiophenecarboxylic acid in industry

  5. Fingerprinting of complex mixtures with the use of high performance liquid chromatography, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy and chemometrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Yongnian; Peng Yunyan; Kokot, Serge

    2008-01-01

    The molecular and metal profile fingerprints were obtained from a complex substance, Atractylis chinensis DC-a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), with the use of the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) techniques. This substance was used in this work as an example of a complex biological material, which has found application as a TCM. Such TCM samples are traditionally processed by the Bran, Cut, Fried and Swill methods, and were collected from five provinces in China. The data matrices obtained from the two types of analysis produced two principal component biplots, which showed that the HPLC fingerprint data were discriminated on the basis of the methods for processing the raw TCM, while the metal analysis grouped according to the geographical origin. When the two data matrices were combined into a one two-way matrix, the resulting biplot showed a clear separation on the basis of the HPLC fingerprints. Importantly, within each different grouping the objects separated according to their geographical origin, and they ranked approximately in the same order in each group. This result suggested that by using such an approach, it is possible to derive improved characterisation of the complex TCM materials on the basis of the two kinds of analytical data. In addition, two supervised pattern recognition methods, K-nearest neighbors (KNNs) method, and linear discriminant analysis (LDA), were successfully applied to the individual data matrices-thus, supporting the PCA approach

  6. Laser photolysis study of anthraquinone in binary mixtures ofionic liquid [bmim][PF6] and organic solvent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Side Yao

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Photochemical properties of the ionic liquid (RTIL 1-butyl-3-methylimidazoliumhexafluorophosphate [bmim][PF6] and its binary mixed solutions with organic solvent(DMF and MeCN were investigated by laser photolysis at an excitation wavelength of 355nm, using anthraquinone (AQ as a probe molecule. It was indicated that the triplet excitedstate of AQ (3AQ* can abstract hydrogen from [bmim][PF6]. Moreover, along with thechange of the ratio of RTIL and organic solvent, the reaction rate constant changes regularly.Critical points were observed at volume fraction VRTIL = 0.2 for RTIL/MeCN and VRTIL =0.05 for RTIL/DMF. For both systems, before the critical point, the rate constant increasesrapidly with increasing VRTIL; however, it decreases obviously with VRTIL after the criticalpoint. We conclude that the concentration dependence is dominant at lower VRTIL, while theviscosity and phase transformation are dominant at higher VRTIL for the effect of ionic liquidon the decay of rate constant.

  7. Transcriptome analysis of all two-component regulatory system mutants of Escherichia coli K-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Taku; Aiba, Hirofumi; Masuda, Yasushi; Kanaya, Shigehiko; Sugiura, Masahito; Wanner, Barry L; Mori, Hirotada; Mizuno, Takeshi

    2002-10-01

    We have systematically examined the mRNA profiles of 36 two-component deletion mutants, which include all two-component regulatory systems of Escherichia coli, under a single growth condition. DNA microarray results revealed that the mutants belong to one of three groups based on their gene expression profiles in Luria-Bertani broth under aerobic conditions: (i) those with no or little change; (ii) those with significant changes; and (iii) those with drastic changes. Under these conditions, the anaeroresponsive ArcB/ArcA system, the osmoresponsive EnvZ/OmpR system and the response regulator UvrY showed the most drastic changes. Cellular functions such as flagellar synthesis and expression of the RpoS regulon were affected by multiple two-component systems. A high correlation coefficient of expression profile was found between several two-component mutants. Together, these results support the view that a network of functional interactions, such as cross-regulation, exists between different two-component systems. The compiled data are avail-able at our website (http://ecoli.aist-nara.ac.jp/xp_analysis/ 2_components).

  8. CHEMOMETRICS IN BIOANALYTICAL SAMPLE PREPARATION - A FRACTIONATED COMBINED MIXTURE AND FACTORIAL DESIGN FOR THE MODELING OF THE RECOVERY OF 5 TRICYCLIC AMINES FROM PLASMA AFTER LIQUID-LIQUID-EXTRACTION PRIOR TO HIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID-CHROMATOGRAPHY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIELING, J; MENSINK, CK; JONKMAN, JHG; COENEGRACHT, PMJ; DUINEVELD, CAA; DOORNBOS, DA

    1993-01-01

    A general systematic approach is described for the chemometric modelling of liquid-liquid extraction data of drugs from biological fluids. Extraction solvents were selected from Snyder's solvent selectivity triangle: methyl tert.-butyl ether, methylene chloride and chloroform. The composition of a

  9. Application of high performance liquid chromatography for the profiling of complex chemical mixtures with the aid of chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Yongnian; Zhang, Liangsheng; Churchill, Jane; Kokot, Serge

    2007-06-15

    In this paper, chemometrics methods were applied to resolve the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprints of complex, many-component substances to compare samples from a batch from a given manufacturer, or from those of different producers. As an example of such complex substances, we used a common Chinese traditional medicine, Huoxiang Zhengqi Tincture (HZT) for this research. Twenty-one samples, each representing a separate HZT production batch from one of three manufacturers were analyzed by HPLC with the aid of a diode array detector (DAD). An Agilent Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C18 column with an Agilent Zorbax high pressure reliance cartridge guard-column were used. The mobile phase consisted of water (A) and methanol (B) with a gradient program of 25-65% (v/v, B) during 0-30min, 65-55% (v/v, B) during 30-35min and 55-100% (v/v, B) during 35-60min (flow rate, 1.0mlmin(-1); injection volume, 20mul; and column temperature-ambient). The detection wavelength was adjusted for maximum sensitivity at different time periods. A peak area matrix with 21objectsx14HPLC variables was obtained by sampling each chromatogram at 14 common retention times. Similarities were then calculated to discriminate the batch-to-batch samples and also, a more informative multi-criteria decision making methodology (MCDM), PROMETHEE and GAIA, was applied to obtain more information from the chromatograms in order to rank and compare the complex HZT profiles. The results showed that with the MCDM analysis, it was possible to match and discriminate correctly the batch samples from the three different manufacturers. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra taken from samples from several batches were compared by the common similarity method with the HPLC results. It was found that the FT-IR spectra did not discriminate the samples from the different batches.

  10. Nonlinear low frequency electrostatic structures in a magnetized two-component auroral plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rufai, O. R., E-mail: rajirufai@gmail.com [University of the Western Cape, Bellville 7535, Cape-Town (South Africa); Scientific Computing, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St John' s, Newfoundland and Labrador A1C 5S7 (Canada); Bharuthram, R., E-mail: rbharuthram@uwc.ac.za [University of the Western Cape, Bellville 7535, Cape-Town (South Africa); Singh, S. V., E-mail: satyavir@iigs.iigm.res.in; Lakhina, G. S., E-mail: lakhina@iigs.iigm.res.in [University of the Western Cape, Bellville 7535, Cape-Town (South Africa); Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, New Panvel (W), Navi Mumbai 410218 (India)

    2016-03-15

    Finite amplitude nonlinear ion-acoustic solitons, double layers, and supersolitons in a magnetized two-component plasma composed of adiabatic warm ions fluid and energetic nonthermal electrons are studied by employing the Sagdeev pseudopotential technique and assuming the charge neutrality condition at equilibrium. The model generates supersoliton structures at supersonic Mach numbers regime in addition to solitons and double layers, whereas in the unmagnetized two-component plasma case only, soliton and double layer solutions can be obtained. Further investigation revealed that wave obliqueness plays a critical role for the evolution of supersoliton structures in magnetized two-component plasmas. In addition, the effect of ion temperature and nonthermal energetic electron tends to decrease the speed of oscillation of the nonlinear electrostatic structures. The present theoretical results are compared with Viking satellite observations.

  11. Two component injection moulding: an interface quality and bond strength dilemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Mohammad Aminul; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Tang, Peter Torben

    2008-01-01

    on quality parameters of the two component parts. Most engineering applications of two component injection moulding calls for high bond strength between the two polymers, on the other hand a sharp and well-defined interface between the two polymers are required for applications like selective metallization...... of polymers, parts for micro applications and also for the aesthetic purpose of the final product. The investigation presented in this paper indicates a dilemma between obtaining reasonably good bond strength and at the same time keeping the interface quality suitable for applications. The required process...... conditions for a sharp and well-defined interface are exactly the opposite of what is congenial for higher bond strength. So in the production of two component injection moulded parts, there is a compromise to make between the interface quality and the bond strength of the two polymers. Also the injection...

  12. MODELING THERMAL DUST EMISSION WITH TWO COMPONENTS: APPLICATION TO THE PLANCK HIGH FREQUENCY INSTRUMENT MAPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meisner, Aaron M.; Finkbeiner, Douglas P.

    2015-01-01

    We apply the Finkbeiner et al. two-component thermal dust emission model to the Planck High Frequency Instrument maps. This parameterization of the far-infrared dust spectrum as the sum of two modified blackbodies (MBBs) serves as an important alternative to the commonly adopted single-MBB dust emission model. Analyzing the joint Planck/DIRBE dust spectrum, we show that two-component models provide a better fit to the 100-3000 GHz emission than do single-MBB models, though by a lesser margin than found by Finkbeiner et al. based on FIRAS and DIRBE. We also derive full-sky 6.'1 resolution maps of dust optical depth and temperature by fitting the two-component model to Planck 217-857 GHz along with DIRBE/IRAS 100 μm data. Because our two-component model matches the dust spectrum near its peak, accounts for the spectrum's flattening at millimeter wavelengths, and specifies dust temperature at 6.'1 FWHM, our model provides reliable, high-resolution thermal dust emission foreground predictions from 100 to 3000 GHz. We find that, in diffuse sky regions, our two-component 100-217 GHz predictions are on average accurate to within 2.2%, while extrapolating the Planck Collaboration et al. single-MBB model systematically underpredicts emission by 18.8% at 100 GHz, 12.6% at 143 GHz, and 7.9% at 217 GHz. We calibrate our two-component optical depth to reddening, and compare with reddening estimates based on stellar spectra. We find the dominant systematic problems in our temperature/reddening maps to be zodiacal light on large angular scales and the cosmic infrared background anisotropy on small angular scales

  13. Modeling the [NTf2] pyridinium ionic liquids family and their mixtures with the soft statistical associating fluid theory equation of state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, M B; Llovell, F; Coutinho, J A P; Vega, L F

    2012-08-02

    In this work, the soft statistical associating fluid theory (soft-SAFT) equation of state (EoS) has been used to provide an accurate thermodynamic characterization of the pyridinium-based family of ionic liquids (ILs) with the bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide anion [NTf(2)](-). On the basis of recent molecular simulation studies for this family, a simple molecular model was proposed within the soft-SAFT EoS framework. The chain length value was transferred from the equivalent imidazolium-based ILs family, while the dispersive energy and the molecular parameters describing the cation-anion interactions were set to constant values for all of the compounds. With these assumptions, an appropriate set of molecular parameters was found for each compound fitting to experimental temperature-density data at atmospheric pressure. Correlations for the nonconstant parameters (describing the volume of the IL) with the molecular weight were established, allowing the prediction of the parameters for other pyridiniums not included in the fitting. Then, the suitability of the proposed model and its optimized parameters were tested by predicting high-pressure densities and second-order thermodynamic derivative properties such as isothermal compressibilities of selected [NTf(2)] pyridinium ILs, in a large range of thermodynamic conditions. The surface tension was also provided using the density gradient theory coupled to the soft-SAFT equation. Finally, the soft-SAFT EoS was applied to describe the phase behavior of several binary mixtures of [NTf(2)] pyridinium ILs with carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and water. In all cases, a temperature-independent binary parameter was enough to reach quantitative agreement with the experimental data. The description of the solubility of CO(2) in these ILs also allowed identification of a relation between the binary parameter and the molecular weight of the ionic liquid, allowing the prediction of the CO(2) + C(12)py[NTf(2)] mixture. The good

  14. Application of two-component phase doppler interferometry to the measurement of particle size, mass flux, and velocities in two-phase flows

    OpenAIRE

    McDonell, VG; Samuelsen, GS

    1989-01-01

    The application of two-component interferometry is described for the spatially-resolved measurement of particle size, velocity and mass flux as well as continuous phase velocity. Such a capability is important to develop an understanding of the physical processes attendant to two-phase flow systems, especially those involving liquid atomization typical of a wide class of combustion systems. Adapted from laser anemometry, the technique (phase Doppler interferometry) measures single particle ev...

  15. Un nouveau moyen de mesure absolue du taux gazeux des mélanges gaz-liquides : le SMAC A New Absolute Measurement of the Volumetric Gas Ratio of Gas-Liquid Mixture: the Smac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porot P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Du graphe (P, V de la compression d'un mélange gaz-liquide, on peut tirer la valeur du taux volumique de gaz dans le mélange. La vérification théorique et expérimentale de ce principe ainsi que ses limites d'application comme moyen de mesure sont présentées. Ce résultat a été utilisé pour développer un système de mesure de l'aération de l'huile moteur, le SMAC (Système de Mesure d'Aération par Compressibilité. Des exemples d'application, tels que l'étude de la sensibilité de certaines huiles à l'aération, sont exposés. Oil aeration can be a real problem in engine oil circuit. The involved lubrication power decrease and thermic properties changes can damage the engine. Furthermore, the increased compressibility is very dangerous for hydraulic systems like valve lash adjusters. A first step to control this aeration is to be able to measure it. Gammametry is often used but this measurement needs a very precise calibration and is quite complicated and dangerous. A new absolute measurement has been discovered, based on the difference of compressibility between air and oil. It is absolute because the measurement principle is independant of the conditions, The system does not need a new calibration at each new environment. It is valid for any gas-liquid mixture. From the (P, V graph of a gas-liquid mixture compression, one can derive the gas-liquid volumetric ratio. The log-log graph (P/PO, 1-V/VO of a mixture sample pressurization always shows an inflexion point. The y value of this inflexion point (1-V/VO is equal to the volumetric gas ratio of the sample (before compression. This phenomenon is obvious on hydraulic curves (see Annexe 1. To check it, we have proceeded to a theoretical demonstration and an experimental verification. The theoretical demonstration of this principle concludes that the principle is verified as long as the ration P index 0 / alpha B is small. B is the oil bulk modulus, alpha is the volumetric gas ratio

  16. The essential YycFG two-component system controls cell wall metabolism in Bacillus subtilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisicchia, Paola; Noone, David; Lioliou, Efthimia

    2007-01-01

    Adaptation of bacteria to the prevailing environmental and nutritional conditions is often mediated by two-component signal transduction systems (TCS). The Bacillus subtilis YycFG TCS has attracted special attention as it is essential for viability and its regulon is poorly defined. Here we show...

  17. Two component system that regulates methanol and formaldehyde oxidation in Paracoccus denitrificans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harms, N.; Reijnders, W.N.M.; Koning, S.; van Spanning, R.J.M.

    2001-01-01

    A chromosomal region encoding a two-component regulatory system, FlhRS, has been isolated from Paracoccus denitrificans. FlhRS-deficient mutants were unable to grow on methanol, methylamine, or choline as the carbon and energy source. Expression of the gene encoding glutathione-dependent

  18. Two-component system that regulates methanol and formaldehyde oxidation in Paracoccus denitrificans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harms, N.; Reijnders, W.N.M.; Koning, S.; van Spanning, R.J.M.

    2001-01-01

    A chromosomal region encoding a two-component regulatory system, FlhRS, has been isolated from Paracoccus denitrificans. FlhRS-deficient mutants were unable to grow on methanol, methylamine, or choline as the carbon and energy source. Expression of the gene encoding glutathione-dependent

  19. A novel two-component system involved in secretion stress response in Streptomyces lividans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Gullón

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Misfolded proteins accumulating outside the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane can interfere with the secretory machinery, hence the existence of quality factors to eliminate these misfolded proteins is of capital importance in bacteria that are efficient producers of secretory proteins. These bacteria normally use a specific two-component system to respond to the stress produced by the accumulation of the misfolded proteins, by activating the expression of HtrA-like proteases to specifically eliminate the incorrectly folded proteins. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Overproduction of alpha-amylase in S. lividans causing secretion stress permitted the identification of a two-component system (SCO4156-SCO4155 that regulates three HtrA-like proteases which appear to be involved in secretion stress response. Mutants in each of the genes forming part of the two-genes operon that encodes the sensor and regulator protein components accumulated misfolded proteins outside the cell, strongly suggesting the involvement of this two-component system in the S. lividans secretion stress response. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: To our knowledge this is the first time that a specific secretion stress response two-component system is found to control the expression of three HtrA-like protease genes in S. lividans, a bacterium that has been repeatedly used as a host for the synthesis of homologous and heterologous secretory proteins of industrial application.

  20. A two-component dark matter model with real singlet scalars ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Theoretical framework. In the present work, the dark matter candidate has two components S and S′ both of ... The scalar sector potential (for Higgs and two real singlet scalars) in this framework can then be written .... In this work we obtain the allowed values of model parameters (δ2, δ′2, MS and M′S) using three direct ...

  1. Design of a Novel Two-Component Hybrid Dermal Scaffold for the Treatment of Pressure Sores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vaibhav; Kohli, Nupur; Moulding, Dale; Afolabi, Halimat; Hook, Lilian; Mason, Chris; García-Gareta, Elena

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study is to design a novel two-component hybrid scaffold using the fibrin/alginate porous hydrogel Smart Matrix combined to a backing layer of plasma polymerized polydimethylsiloxane (Sil) membrane to make the fibrin-based dermal scaffold more robust for the treatment of the clinically challenging pressure sores. A design criteria are established, according to which the Sil membranes are punched to avoid collection of fluid underneath. Manual peel test shows that native silicone does not attach to the fibrin/alginate component while the plasma polymerized silicone membranes are firmly bound to fibrin/alginate. Structural characterization shows that the fibrin/alginate matrix is intact after the addition of the Sil membrane. By adding a Sil membrane to the original fibrin/alginate scaffold, the resulting two-component scaffolds have a significantly higher shear or storage modulus G'. In vitro cell studies show that dermal fibroblasts remain viable, proliferate, and infiltrate the two-component hybrid scaffolds during the culture period. These results show that the design of a novel two-component hybrid dermal scaffold is successful according to the proposed design criteria. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first study that reports the combination of a fibrin-based scaffold with a plasma-polymerized silicone membrane. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Correlation inequalities for two-component hypercubic φ4 models. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soria, J.L.; Instituto Tecnologico de Tijuana

    1990-01-01

    We continue the program started in the first paper (J. Stat. Phys. 52 (1988) 711-726). We find new and already known correlation inequalities for a family of two-component hypercubic φ 4 models, using techniques of rotated correlation inequalities and random walk representation. (orig.)

  3. Multiple Two-Component Systems of Streptococcus mutans Regulate Agmatine Deiminase Gene Expression and Stress Tolerance▿

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yaling; Burne, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Induction of the agmatine deiminase system (AgDS) of Streptococcus mutans requires agmatine and is optimal at low pH. We show here that the VicRK, ComDE, and CiaRH two-component systems influence AgDS gene expression in response to acidic and thermal stresses.

  4. A two-component dark matter model with real singlet scalars ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-05

    Jan 5, 2016 ... We propose a two-component dark matter (DM) model, each component of which is a real singlet scalar, to explain results from both direct and indirect detection experiments. We put the constraints on the model parameters from theoretical bounds, PLANCK relic density results and direct DM experiments.

  5. The 27 Possible Intrinsic Symmetry Groups of Two-Component Links

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Parsley

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We consider the “intrinsic” symmetry group of a two-component link L, defined to be the image ∑(L of the natural homomorphism from the standard symmetry group MCG(S3, L to the product MCG(S3 × MCG(L. This group, first defined by Whitten in 1969, records directly whether L is isotopic to a link L′ obtained from L by permuting components or reversing orientations; it is a subgroup of Γ2, the group of all such operations. For two-component links, we catalog the 27 possible intrinsic symmetry groups, which represent the subgroups of Γ2 up to conjugacy. We are able to provide prime, nonsplit examples for 21 of these groups; some are classically known, some are new. We catalog the frequency at which each group appears among all 77,036 of the hyperbolic two-component links of 14 or fewer crossings in Thistlethwaite’s table. We also provide some new information about symmetry groups of the 293 non-hyperbolic two-component links of 14 or fewer crossings in the table.

  6. Light Responsive Two-Component Supramolecular Hydrogel: A Sensitive Platform for Humidity Sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Samai, Suman

    2016-02-15

    The supramolecular assembly of anionic azobenzene dicarboxylate and cationic cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) formed a stimuli responsive hydrogel with a critical gelation concentration (CGC) of 0.33 wt%. This self-sustainable two-component system was able to repair damage upon light irradiation. Moreover, it was successfully employed in the fabrication of highly sensitive humidity sensors for the first time.

  7. Light Responsive Two-Component Supramolecular Hydrogel: A Sensitive Platform for Humidity Sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Samai, Suman; Sapsanis, Christos; Patil, Sachin; Ezzeddine, Alaa; Moosa, Basem; Omran, Hesham; Emwas, Abdul-Hamid M.; Salama, Khaled N.; Khashab, Niveen M.

    2016-01-01

    The supramolecular assembly of anionic azobenzene dicarboxylate and cationic cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) formed a stimuli responsive hydrogel with a critical gelation concentration (CGC) of 0.33 wt%. This self-sustainable two-component system was able to repair damage upon light irradiation. Moreover, it was successfully employed in the fabrication of highly sensitive humidity sensors for the first time.

  8. New methods for the characterization of pyrocarbon; The two component model of pyrocarbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luhleich, H.; Sutterlin, L.; Hoven, H.; Nickel, H.

    1972-04-19

    In the first part, new experiments to clarify the origin of different pyrocarbon components are described. Three new methods (plasma-oxidation, wet-oxidation, ultrasonic method) are presented to expose the carbon black like component in the pyrocarbon deposited in fluidized beds. In the second part, a two component model of pyrocarbon is proposed and illustrated by examples.

  9. The chemistry of two-component fluoride crystalline optical media for heavy, fast, radiation hard scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobolev, B.P.; Krivandina, E.A.; Fedorov, P.P.; Vasilchenko, V.G.

    1994-01-01

    Prospects for preparation of two-component dense optical materials for scintillators are shown, using data on phase diagrams of about 300 MF m - RF n (m, n ≤ 4) type systems, formed by metal fluorides. Primary characteristics (decay time and light output of luminescence, radiation hardness, etc.) of some multicomponent crystals are reported

  10. Determination of sildenafil mixed into herbal honey mixture by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neira Mustabasic

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been a number of reports of natural products contaminated with illegal adulterants that threaten consumer health because of their adverse pharmacological effects worldwide. In this study, a multi-residual ultra-performance liquid chromatography method with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS was applied for the identification of sildenafil added into a herbal honey mixture used as an immune system booster. Electrospray ionization (ESI source was applied and operated in the positive ion mode. The mobile phase consisted of 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution/acetonitrile (70:30, v/v using the isocratic gradient elution system at a detection wavelength of 290 nm. The compound of sildenafil added into traditional herbal mixed honey was identified according to the spectrum, chromatographic behavior, and mass spectral data were identified by comparison with the reference substance. The method is selective, sensitive and can be used to detect the sildenafil illegally added into traditional herbal medicinal preparations.

  11. Small-angle x-ray scattering and density measurements of liquid Se50-Te50 mixture at high temperatures and high pressures using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajihara, Y; Inui, M; Matsuda, K; Tomioka, Y

    2010-01-01

    We have carried out small-angle x-ray scattering and x-ray transmission measurements of liquid Se 50 -Te 50 mixture at SPring-8 in Japan and obtained the structure factor S(Q) at small-Q region (0.6 -1 ) and the density at high temperatures and high pressures up to 1000 0 C and 180 MPa. We report preliminary results in this paper. With increasing temperature, the density shows a minimum at around 500 0 C and a maximum at around 700 0 C. On the other hand, S(0) becomes maximum and S(Q) strongly depends on Q at around 600 0 C, which is about the middle temperature where the density shows the minimum and maximum. The temperatures shift to lower side when the pressure increases. These results prove that, with increasing temperature, the sample exhibits gradual transition from low-density structure to high-density structure, which causes mesoscopic density fluctuations in the intermediate temperature region.

  12. The Use of Computer-Based Image Analysis on Colour Determination of Liquid Smoked Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Treated with Different Dry Salt-Sugar Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zayde Ayvaz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the changes in % yield, dry matter, ash, lipid, protein content, water activity, pH, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N, total viable aerobic count (TVC, yeast and mold count, lactic acid bacteria (LAB, colour parameters and sensorial properties were analysed in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss exposed to either salt only or two different salt-sugar mixture treatments. For this purpose, three groups were formed. For the first, second and third group, fish samples were treated with only salt (S, salt and sugar blend (WS and salt and brown sugar blend (BS, respectively. Then, the samples were vacuum packaged and stored at +4°C for 3 months. Overall, salt treatments, liquid smoking and cooking as well as storage generally caused remarkable changes in the parameters of interest. However, except for the sensory analysis, not a remarkable change was seen when the three groups were compared among themselves. The results of experienced panelists suggested that group BS samples had superior appearance, taste, odor and texture and therefore expected to be more preferred by the potential consumers.

  13. Volumetric properties of binary liquid-phase mixture of (water + glycerol) at temperatures of (278.15 to 323.15) K and pressures of (0.1 to 100) MPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, Gennadiy I.; Makarov, Dmitriy M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Coefficients of compressibility of liquid binary mixture (water + glycerol) were measured. • Partial molar volumes of the components and excess molar volumes of the mixture were calculated. • Molar isothermal compression, molar isobaric expansion and molar isochoric elasticity of the mixture were evaluated. • Analysis of volume characteristics confirms glycerol hydrophilic nature. - Abstract: The coefficients of compressibility, k = ΔV/V o , of liquid binary mixture of {water (1) + glycerol (2)} were measured over the whole composition range at pressures from (0.1 to 100) MPa and temperatures from (278.15 to 323.15) K. Excess molar volumes of the mixture, V m E , partial molar volumes of the mixture components, V ¯ i , as well as their limiting values, molar isothermal compression K T,m , molar isobaric expansion E P,m , molar isochoric elasticity (isochoric coefficient of thermal pressure) β m were calculated. It was revealed that with glycerol molar fraction increasing the coefficients of compressibility, k, decreased to x 2 ≈ 0.3 ÷ 0.4 (where x 2 was glycerol molar fraction), and further changed insignificantly. It was shown that all isobars of excess molar volumes were negative and their absolute values, V m E , decreased on temperature and pressure rising. No extremes were observed on concentration dependences of partial molar volumes of glycerol in the mixture at its low concentrations. Under the state parameters studied limiting partial volumes of water and glycerol decrease with pressure rising but increase with temperature growth. Dependences of molar isothermal compression and molar isochoric elasticity on glycerol molar fraction passed extremes, and similar dependences of molar isobaric expansion had the temperature inversion regions

  14. Preventive effect of two-component chemical radioprotector and variability in its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambov, V.; Metodiev, S.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the radioprotective efficiency of two-component radioprotective schema consisting of the chemically synthesized radioprotector WR-2721 (OK-79) and a new glycoside pigment obtained from melanoidine CL. The application of melanoidine 7-21 days before WR-2721 significantly increases the radioprotective efficiency of the chemically obtained product and enhances the 30-day survival of hybrid mice treated with 15 Gy whole body gamma irradiation. The effect of potentiated radioprotection is not observed when the interval between the application of the two agents is reduced to 24 h. It is suggested that the observed enhancement of the radioprotective efficiency in the two-component schema is due to the antioxidant and immuno modulating properties of the pigment product, observed and described in our previous investigations. (author)

  15. A hybrid two-component Bose–Einstein condensate interferometer for measuring magnetic field gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Fei [Key Laboratory of Fiber Optic Sensing Technology and Information Processing, Ministry of Education, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Huang, Jiahao, E-mail: hjiahao@mail2.sysu.edu.cn [TianQin Research Center & School of Physics and Astronomy, Sun Yat-Sen University, SYSU Zhuhai Campus, Zhuhai 519082 (China); Liu, Quan [Key Laboratory of Fiber Optic Sensing Technology and Information Processing, Ministry of Education, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2017-03-03

    Highlights: • A scheme for detecting magnetic field gradients via a double-well two-component Bose–Einstein condensate interferometer. • The magnetic field gradient can be extracted by either the spin population or the external state. • Our proposal is potentially sensitive to weak magnetic field inhomogeneity due to its small sensor size. - Abstract: We have proposed a scheme to detect magnetic field gradients via an interferometer based on a double-well two-component Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC). Utilizing a sequence of quantum control operations on both external and internal degree of the BEC, one can extract the magnetic field gradients by measuring either the population in one component or the fidelity between the final external state and the initial ground state. Our scheme can be implemented by current experimental techniques of manipulating ultracold atoms.

  16. Multistability in an optomechanical system with a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Ying; Ye Jinwu; Pu Han

    2011-01-01

    We investigate a system consisting of a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate interacting dispersively with a Fabry-Perot optical cavity where the two components of the condensate are resonantly coupled to each other by another classical field. The key feature of this system is that the atomic motional degrees of freedom and the internal pseudospin degrees of freedom are coupled to the cavity field simultaneously, hence an effective spin-orbital coupling within the condensate is induced by the cavity. The interplay among the atomic center-of-mass motion, the atomic collective spin, and the cavity field leads to a strong nonlinearity, resulting in multistable behavior in both matter wave and light wave at the few-photon level.

  17. The role of the Kubo number in two-component turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, G.; Shalchi, A.

    2013-01-01

    We explore the random walk of magnetic field lines in two-component turbulence by using computer simulations. It is often assumed that the two-component model provides a good approximation for solar wind turbulence. We explore the dependence of the field line diffusion coefficient on the Kubo number which is a fundamental and characteristic quantity in the theory of turbulence. We show that there are two transport regimes. One is the well-known quasilinear regime in which the diffusion coefficient is proportional to the Kubo number squared, and the second one is a nonlinear regime in which the diffusion coefficient is directly proportional to the Kubo number. The so-called percolative transport regime which is often discussed in the literature cannot be found. The numerical results obtained in the present paper confirm analytical theories for random walking field lines developed in the past

  18. Using Partial Least-Squares Regression in Multivariate UV Spectroscopic Analysis ofMixtures of Imidazolium-Based Ionic Liquids and 1-Methylimidazole for Measurements of Liquid-Liquid Equilibria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bendová, Magdalena; Sedláková, Zuzana; Andresová, Adéla; Wagner, Zdeněk

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 12 (2012), s. 2164-2172 ISSN 0095-9782 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP203/09/P141; GA AV ČR IAA400720710 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : room-temperature ionic liquids * PLS2 * uv spectroscopy Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.128, year: 2012

  19. Theoretical calculation of cryogenic distillation for two-component hydrogen isotope system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Xiulong; Luo Yangming; Wang Heyi; Fu Zhonghua; Liu Jun; Han Jun; Gu Mei

    2005-10-01

    Cryogenic distillation model for single column was built to simulating hydrogen isotope separation system. Three two-component system H 2 /HD, H 2 /HT and D 2 /DT was studied. Both temperature and concentration distribution was obtained and the results show a clear separation characteristics. H 2 /HT has the best separation performance while D 2 /DT was the most difficult to separate. (authors)

  20. Nutrition quality, body size and two components of mating behavior in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavković-Lucić, Sofija; Kekić, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    Two components of mating behavior, mating latency and duration of copulation, were investigated in Drosophila melanogaster males from three different "nutritional" strains, reared for more than 35 generations on banana, tomato and cornmeal-agar-yeast substrates. Males from different strains did not differ according to mating latency and duration of copulation. Also, the sizes of males from different strains did not contribute to these behavioral traits.

  1. A two-component generalized extreme value distribution for precipitation frequency analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rulfová, Zuzana; Buishand, A.; Roth, M.; Kyselý, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 534, March (2016), s. 659-668 ISSN 0022-1694 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-18675S Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : precipitation extremes * two-component extreme value distribution * regional frequency analysis * convective precipitation * stratiform precipitation * Central Europe Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 3.483, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022169416000500

  2. Two-component bond for coating materials coming into contact with radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svoboda, L.; Fajfr, K.

    1989-01-01

    The two-component bonding agent consists of an epoxy resin of the diane-bis-glycidyl ether type and an amine hardener containing benzyl alcohol and bis-2-ethylhexyl phthalate. The claimed bond features high radiation stability and very good decontaminability. Thanks to low viscosity of the bond, pigmented reactor-plastics can be prepared. The procedure is described of applying the bond onto a concrete surface. (E.S.)

  3. Two-component fluid membranes near repulsive walls: Linearized hydrodynamics of equilibrium and nonequilibrium states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankararaman, Sumithra; Menon, Gautam I; Sunil Kumar, P B

    2002-09-01

    We study the linearized hydrodynamics of a two-component fluid membrane near a repulsive wall, using a model that incorporates curvature-concentration coupling as well as hydrodynamic interactions. This model is a simplified version of a recently proposed one [J.-B. Manneville et al., Phys. Rev. E 64, 021908 (2001)] for nonequilibrium force centers embedded in fluid membranes, such as light-activated bacteriorhodopsin pumps incorporated in phospholipid egg phosphatidyl choline (EPC) bilayers. The pump-membrane system is modeled as an impermeable, two-component bilayer fluid membrane in the presence of an ambient solvent, in which one component, representing active pumps, is described in terms of force dipoles displaced with respect to the bilayer midpoint. We first discuss the case in which such pumps are rendered inactive, computing the mode structure in the bulk as well as the modification of hydrodynamic properties by the presence of a nearby wall. These results should apply, more generally, to equilibrium fluid membranes comprised of two components, in which the effects of curvature-concentration coupling are significant, above the threshold for phase separation. We then discuss the fluctuations and mode structure in the steady state of active two-component membranes near a repulsive wall. We find that proximity to the wall smoothens membrane height fluctuations in the stable regime, resulting in a logarithmic scaling of the roughness even for initially tensionless membranes. This explicitly nonequilibrium result is a consequence of the incorporation of curvature-concentration coupling in our hydrodynamic treatment. This result also indicates that earlier scaling arguments which obtained an increase in the roughness of active membranes near repulsive walls upon neglecting the role played by such couplings may need to be reevaluated.

  4. Role of Streptococcus mutans two-component systems in antimicrobial peptide resistance in the oral cavity

    OpenAIRE

    Kawada-Matsuo, Miki; Komatsuzawa, Hitoshi

    2017-01-01

    Summary Approximately 100 trillion microorganisms exist in the oral cavity. For the commensal bacteria of the oral cavity, it is important to adapt to environmental stimuli, including human- or bacteria-derived antimicrobial agents. Recently, bacterial-specific signal transduction regulatory systems, called two-component systems (TCSs), which appear to be focused on sensing and adapting to the environment, were discovered. Streptococcus mutans is an oral commensal bacteria and is also known a...

  5. Two components of Na emission in sonoluminescence spectrum from surfactant aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yuichi; Choi, Pak-Kon

    2015-03-01

    Sonoluminescence from sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) aqueous solutions exhibits Na emission. The spectrum of Na emission was measured as a function of sonication time for a total of 30 min at an ultrasonic frequency of 148 kHz. The spectral line profiles changed with the sonication time, suggesting that the Na emission consists of two components: broadened lines, which are shifted from the original D lines, and unshifted narrow lines. The intensity of the unshifted narrow lines decreased at a greater rate than that of the broadened lines with increasing sonication time. This effect was enhanced at a higher acoustic power. The shifted broadened lines remained after sonication for 30 min. We propose that these quenching effects are caused by the accumulation of gases decomposed from SDS molecules inside bubbles. The CO₂ gas dependence of Na emission in NaCl aqueous solutions showed a similar change in the line profiles to that in SDS aqueous solutions, which supported this proposition. The unshifted narrow lines are easily affected by foreign gases. The results suggest that the two components originate from different environments around the emitting species, although both of them originate from the gas phase inside bubbles. The generation mechanisms of the two components are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A Four-Site Molecular Model for Simulations of Liquid Methanol and Water-Methanol Mixtures: MeOH-4P.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Jiménez, Manuel; Saint-Martin, Humberto

    2018-04-17

    In this work, we present a new four-site potential for methanol, MeOH-4P, fitted to reproduce the dielectric constant ε, the surface tension γ s , and the liquid density ρ of the pure liquid at T = 298.15 K and p = 1 bar. The partial charges on each site were taken from the OPLS/2016 model with the only difference of putting the negative charge on the fourth site ( M) instead of on the O atom, as done in four-site water models. The original Lennard-Jones (LJ) parameters of OPLS/2016 for the methyl moiety (Me) were modified for the fitting of ρ and γ s , whereas the parameters of the TIP4P-FB water model were used for the O atom without change. Taking into account the energetic cost of the enhanced dipole relative to the isolated molecule, the results from simulations with this model showed good agreement with experiments for ρ, α p , κ T , C p , and Δ H v- l . Also, the temperature dependence of γ s and ε is satisfactory in the interval between 260 and 360 K, and the critical point description is similar to that of OPLS/2016. It is shown that orientational correlations, described by the Kirkwood factor G k , play a prominent role in the appropriate description of dielectric constants in existing models; unfortunately, the enhancement of the dipole moment produced a low diffusion coefficient D MeOH ; thus, a compromise was required between a good reproduction of ε and an acceptable D MeOH . The use of a fourth site resulted in a significant improvement for water-methanol mixtures described with TIP4P-FB and MeOH-4P, respectively, but required the modification of the LJ geometric combination rule to allow a good description of the methanol molar-fraction dependence of ρ, ε, and methanol (water) diffusion coefficients D MeOH ( D H 2 O ) and excess volume of mixing Δ V mix in the entire range of composition. The resulting free energy of hydration Δ G hyd shows excellent agreement with experiments in the interval between 280 and 360 K.

  7. Differential osmotic pressure measurements of the concentration susceptibility of liquid 3He/4He mixtures near the lambda curve and tricritical point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gearhart, C.A. Jr.; Zimmermann, W. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Values of the concentration susceptibility (partial x/partial Δ)/sub T/,P of liquid 3 He/ 4 He mixtures have been determined near the lambda curve and tricritical point from measurements of the differential osmotic pressure as a function of temperature T at four values of the 3 He mole fraction, x = 0.594, x = 0.644, x = 0.680, and x = 0.706. Here Δ = μ 3 - μ 4 is the difference between molar chemical potentials and P is the pressure. Our results for the two values of x less than the tricritical value x/sub t/ = 0.675 show pronounced peaks at the lambda transition. For 3 x 10 -4 -2 , where t equals [T - T/sub lambda/(x)]/T/sub lambda/(x), these peaks may be characterized both above and below the transition by the form (A/sub plus-or-minus//α/sub plus-or-minus/) (vertical-bart vertical-bar/sup -alpha/ +- - 1) + B/sub plus-or-minus/, with exponents α/sub plus-or-minus/ lying in the range from approx. 0.0 to approx. 0.2. Except perhaps for x -1 [T-T/sub t//T/sub t/)/vertical-barx-x/sub t//x/sub t/vertical-bar], where f and Ψ are functions determined by experiment and T/sub t/ = 0.867 K is the tricritical value of T. With the aid of this scaling relationship, the behavior of (partialx/partialΔ)/sub T/,P along curves of constant Δ near the lambda curve has been constucted from our data at constant x

  8. Measurements of the osmotic pressure in liquid mixtures of 3He and 4He near the lambda line and tricritical point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gearhart, C.A. Jr.

    1977-06-01

    Values of the concentration susceptibility near the lambda line and tricritical point in liquid mixtures of 3 He and 4 He have been calculated from measurements of osmotic pressure differences. Measurements were made by inducing a small 3 He mole fraction difference Δx between two chambers separated by a pressure transducer, and measuring the resulting osmotic pressure difference as a function of temperature. Osmotic equilibrium was established through a Vycor glass superleak, which for 3 He mole fraction x > 0.55 functions not only in the superfluid phase but in portions of the normal fluid region of the phase diagram as well. Measurements were made at four 3 He mole fractions, x = 0.59, x = 0.64, x = 0.68, and x = 0.70. In contrast with determinations from light scattering and vapor pressure measurements, the present measurements show a pronounced peak at the lambda transition for the two values of x less than the tricritical value (x/sub t/ = 0.675). The susceptibilities are consistent with α = 0 both above and below the lambda transition except at x = 0.64, where some combination of α and α' greater than zero seems to be preferred. (The result α = 0 corresponds to a logarithmic divergence.) It is possible that this positive value of α or α' represents the influence of tricritical effects. It should be emphasized that there is considerable ambiguity in our determination of α, with acceptable least-squares fits corresponding to values of α between 0.0 and 0.2 being found at both concentrations, both above and below T/sub lambda/. The results appear to be consistent with the results of other experiments away from the lambda line, and also to be consistent with a simple tricritical scaling relationship

  9. Excess molar volumes and deviation in viscosities of binary liquid mixtures of acrylic esters with hexane-1-ol at 303.15 and 313.15 K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata S. Patil

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Densities and viscosities for the four binary liquid mixtures of methyl acrylate, ethyl acrylate, butyl acrylate and methyl methacrylate with hexane-1-ol at temperatures 303.15 and 313.15 K and at atmospheric pressure were measured over the entire composition range. These values were used to calculate excess molar volumes and deviation in viscosities which were fitted to Redlich–Kister polynomial equation. Recently proposed Jouyban Acree model was also used to correlate the experimental values of density and viscosity. The mixture viscosities were correlated by several semi-empirical approaches like Hind, Choudhary–Katti, Grunberg–Nissan, Tamura and Kurata, McAllister three and four body model equations. A graphical representation of excess molar volumes and deviation in isentropic compressibility shows positive nature whereas deviation in viscosity shows negative nature at both temperatures for all four binary liquid mixtures. Positive values of excess molar volumes show that volume expansion is taking place causing rupture of H-bonds in self associated alcohols. The results were discussed in terms of molecular interactions prevailing in the mixtures.

  10. Intermolecular Interactions in Binary Liquid Mixtures of Styrene with m-, o-, or p-xylene%苯乙烯与邻、间、对-二甲苯二元混合液的分子间相互作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The densities (ρ), ultrasonic speeds (v), and refractive indices (n) of binary mixtures of styrene (STY)with m-, o-, or p-xylene, including those of their pure liquids, were measured over the entire composition range at the temperatures 298.15, 303.15, 308.15, and 313.15 K. The excess volumes (VE), deviations in isentropic compressibilities(△ks), acoustic impedances (△Z), and refractive indices (△n) were calculated from the experimental data. Partial molar volumes (V0φ,2) and partial molar isentropic compressibilities (K0φ,2) of xylenes in styrene have also been calculated. The derived functions, namely, VE, △ks, △Z, △n, V0φ,2, and K0φ,2 were used to have a better understanding of the intermolecular interactions occurring between the component molecules of the present liquid mixtures. The variations of these parameters suggest that the interactions between styrene and o-, m-, or p-xylene molecules follow the sequences: p-xylene>o-xylene>m-xylene. Apart from using density data for the calculation of VE, excess molar volumes were also estimated using refractive index data. Furthermore, several refractive index mixing rules have been used to estimate the refractive indices of the studied liquid mixtures theoretically. Overall, the computed and measured data were interpreted in terms of interactions between the mixing components.

  11. A Principle of Corresponding States for Two-Component, Self-Gravitating Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caimmi, R.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Macrogases are defined as two-component,large-scale celestial objects where the subsystems interact only via gravitation.The macrogas equation of state is formulated and compared to the van der Waals (VDWequation of state for ordinary gases.By analogy, it is assumed that real macroisothermal curves in macrogases occur as real isothermal curves in ordinary gases, where a phase transition(vapour-liquid observed in ordinary gases and gas-stars assumed in macrogases takesplace along a horizontal linein the macrovolume-macropressure{small $({sf O}sX_mathrm{V}sX_mathrm{p}$} plane.The intersections between real and theoretical(deduced from the equation of state macro isothermalcurves, make two regions of equal surface as for ordinary gases obeying the VDW equation of state.A numerical algorithm is developed for determining the following points of a selected theoretical macroisothermal curve on the {small $({sf O}sX_mathrm{V}sX_mathrm{p}$} plane:the three intersections with the related real macroisothermal curve,and the two extremum points (one maximum and one minimum. Different kinds of macrogases are studied in detail: UU, where U density profiles are flat, to be conceived as a simple guidance case; HH, where H density profiles obey the Hernquist (1990 law, which satisfactorily fits the observed spheroidal components of galaxies; HN/NH, where N density profiles obey the Navarro-Frenk-White (1995,1996, 1997 law, which satisfactorily fits the simulated nonbaryonic dark matter haloes.A different trend is shown by theoretical macroisothermal curves on the{small $({sf O}sX_mathrm{V}sX_mathrm{p}$} plane,according to whether density profiles are sufficiently mild (UU or sufficiently steep (HH, HN/NH.In the former alternative, no critical macroisothermal curve exists, below or above which the trend is monotonous. In the latter alternative, a critical macroisothermal curve exists, as shown by VDW gases, where the critical point may be defined as the horizontal

  12. A principle of corresponding states for two-component, self-gravitating fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caimmi R.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Macrogases are defined as two-component, large-scale celestial objects where the subsystems interact only via gravitation. The macrogas equation of state is formulated and compared to the van der Waals (VDW equation of state for ordinary gases. By analogy, it is assumed that real macroisothermal curves in macrogases occur as real isothermal curves in ordinary gases, where a phase transition (vapour-liquid observed in ordinary gases and gas-stars assumed in macrogases takes place along a horizontal line in the macrovolume-macropressure (O, Xv, Xp plane. The intersections between real and theoretical (deduced from the equation of state macroisothermal curves, make two regions of equal surface as for ordinary gases obeying the VDW equation of state. A numerical algorithm is developed for determining the following points of a selected theoretical macroisothermal curve on the (O, Xv, Xp plane: the three intersections with the related real macroisothermal curve, and the two extremum points (one maximum and one minimum. Different kinds of macrogases are studied in detail: UU, where U density profiles are flat, to be conceived as a simple guidance case; HH, where H density profiles obey the Hernquist (1990 law, which satisfactorily fits the observed spheroidal components of galaxies; HN/NH, where N density profiles obey the Navarro-Frenk-White (1995, 1996, 1997 law, which satisfactorily fits the simulated nonbaryonic dark matter haloes. A different trend is shown by theoretical macroisothermal curves on the (O/XV/Xp plane, according to whether density profiles are sufficiently mild (UU or sufficiently steep (HH, HN/NH. In the former alternative, no critical macroisothermal curve exists, below or above which the trend is monotonous. In the latter alternative, a critical macroisothermal curve exists, as shown by VDW gases, where the critical point may be defined as the horizontal inflexion point. In any case, by analogy with VDW gases, the first quadrant

  13. Correlation inequalities for two-component hypercubic /varreverse arrowphi/4 models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soria, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    A collection of new and already known correlation inequalities is found for a family of two-component hypercubic /varreverse arrowphi/ 4 models, using techniques of duplicated variables, rotated correlation inequalities, and random walk representation. Among the interesting new inequalities are: rotated very special Dunlop-Newman inequality 2 ; /varreverse arrowphi//sub 1z/ 2 + /varreverse arrowphi//sub 2z/ 2 ≥ 0, rotated Griffiths I inequality 2 - /varreverse arrowphi//sub 2z/ 2 > ≥ 0, and anti-Lebowitz inequality u 4 1111 ≥ 0

  14. Chemically reacting flow of a compressible thermally radiating two-component plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bestman, A.R.

    1990-12-01

    The paper studies the compressible flow of a hot two-component plasma in the presence of gravitation and chemical reaction in a vertical channel. For the optically thick gas approximation, closed form analytical solutions are possible. Asymptotic solutions are also obtained for the general differential approximation when the temperature of the two bounding walls are the same. In the general case the problem is reduced to the solution of standard nonlinear integral equations which can be tackled by iterative procedure. The results are discussed quantitatively. The problem may be applicable to the understanding of explosive hydrogen-burning model of solar flares. (author). 6 refs, 4 figs

  15. The Two-Component Virial Theorem and the Physical Properties of Stellar Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas; Ribeiro; Capelato; de Carvalho RR

    2000-01-01

    Motivated by present indirect evidence that galaxies are surrounded by dark matter halos, we investigate whether their physical properties can be described by a formulation of the virial theorem that explicitly takes into account the gravitational potential term representing the interaction of the dark halo with the baryonic or luminous component. Our analysis shows that the application of such a "two-component virial theorem" not only accounts for the scaling relations displayed by, in particular, elliptical galaxies, but also for the observed properties of all virialized stellar systems, ranging from globular clusters to galaxy clusters.

  16. Disorder-Induced Order in Two-Component Bose-Einstein Condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niederberger, A.; Schulte, T.; Wehr, J.; Lewenstein, M.; Sanchez-Palencia, L.; Sacha, K.

    2008-01-01

    We propose and analyze a general mechanism of disorder-induced order in two-component Bose-Einstein condensates, analogous to corresponding effects established for XY spin models. We show that a random Raman coupling induces a relative phase of π/2 between the two BECs and that the effect is robust. We demonstrate it in one, two, and three dimensions at T=0 and present evidence that it persists at small T>0. Applications to phase control in ultracold spinor condensates are discussed

  17. An infinite-order two-component relativistic Hamiltonian by a simple one-step transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilias, Miroslav; Saue, Trond

    2007-02-14

    The authors report the implementation of a simple one-step method for obtaining an infinite-order two-component (IOTC) relativistic Hamiltonian using matrix algebra. They apply the IOTC Hamiltonian to calculations of excitation and ionization energies as well as electric and magnetic properties of the radon atom. The results are compared to corresponding calculations using identical basis sets and based on the four-component Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian as well as Douglas-Kroll-Hess and zeroth-order regular approximation Hamiltonians, all implemented in the DIRAC program package, thus allowing a comprehensive comparison of relativistic Hamiltonians within the finite basis approximation.

  18. Simple waves in a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, S. K.; Kamchatnov, A. M.

    2018-04-01

    We study the dynamics of so-called simple waves in a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate. The evolution of the condensate is described by Gross-Pitaevskii equations which can be reduced for these simple wave solutions to a system of ordinary differential equations which coincide with those derived by Ovsyannikov for the two-layer fluid dynamics. We solve the Ovsyannikov system for two typical situations of large and small difference between interspecies and intraspecies nonlinear interaction constants. Our analytic results are confirmed by numerical simulations.

  19. Two-component injection moulding simulation of ABS-POM micro structured surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Islam, Aminul

    2013-01-01

    Multi-component micro injection moulding (μIM) processes such as two-component (2k) μIM are the key technologies for the mass fabrication of multi-material micro products. 2k-μIM experiments involving a miniaturized test component with micro features in the sub-mm dimensional range and moulding...... a pair of thermoplastic materials (ABS and POM) were conducted. Three dimensional process simulations based on the finite element method have been performed to explore the capability of predicting filling pattern shape at component-level and surface micro feature-level in a polymer/polymer overmoulding...

  20. Three-wave interaction in two-component quadratic nonlinear lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konotop, V. V.; Cunha, M. D.; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    1999-01-01

    We investigate a two-component lattice with a quadratic nonlinearity and find with the multiple scale technique that integrable three-wave interaction takes place between plane wave solutions when these fulfill resonance conditions. We demonstrate that. energy conversion and pulse propagation known...... from three-wave interaction is reproduced in the lattice and that exact phase matching of parametric processes can be obtained in non-phase-matched lattices by tilting the interacting plane waves with respect to each other. [S1063-651X(99)15110-9]....

  1. Dynamics of a strongly driven two-component Bose-Einstein condensate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmond, G.L.; Holmes, C.A.; Milburn, G.J.

    2002-01-01

    We consider a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate in two spatially localized modes of a double-well potential, with periodic modulation of the tunnel coupling between the two modes. We treat the driven quantum field using a two-mode expansion and define the quantum dynamics in terms of the Floquet Operator for the time periodic Hamiltonian of the system. It has been shown that the corresponding semiclassical mean-field dynamics can exhibit regions of regular and chaotic motion. We show here that the quantum dynamics can exhibit dynamical tunneling between regions of regular motion, centered on fixed points (resonances) of the semiclassical dynamics

  2. Stripes and honeycomb lattice of quantized vortices in rotating two-component Bose-Einstein condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasamatsu, Kenichi; Sakashita, Kouhei

    2018-05-01

    We study numerically the structure of a vortex lattice in rotating two-component Bose-Einstein condensates with equal atomic masses and equal intra- and intercomponent coupling strengths. The numerical simulations of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation show that the quantized vortices in this situation form lattice configuration accompanying vortex stripes, honeycomb lattices, and their complexes. This is a result of the degeneracy of the system for the SU(2) symmetric operation, which causes a continuous transformation between the above structures. In terms of the pseudospin representation, the complex lattice structures are identified as a hexagonal lattice of doubly winding half skyrmions.

  3. Influence of Wetting and Mass Transfer Properties of Organic Chemical Mixtures in Vadose Zone Materials on Groundwater Contamination by Nonaqueous Phase Liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles J Werth; Albert J Valocchi, Hongkyu Yoon

    2011-05-21

    Previous studies have found that organic acids, organic bases, and detergent-like chemicals change surface wettability. The wastewater and NAPL mixtures discharged at the Hanford site contain such chemicals, and their proportions likely change over time due to reaction-facilitated aging. The specific objectives of this work were to (1) determine the effect of organic chemical mixtures on surface wettability, (2) determine the effect of organic chemical mixtures on CCl4 volatilization rates from NAPL, and (3) accurately determine the migration, entrapment, and volatilization of organic chemical mixtures. Five tasks were proposed to achieve the project objectives. These are to (1) prepare representative batches of fresh and aged NAPL-wastewater mixtures, (2) to measure interfacial tension, contact angle, and capillary pressure-saturation profiles for the same mixtures, (3) to measure interphase mass transfer rates for the same mixtures using micromodels, (4) to measure multiphase flow and interphase mass transfer in large flow cell experiments, all using the same mixtures, and (5) to modify the multiphase flow simulator STOMP in order to account for updated P-S and interphase mass transfer relationships, and to simulate the impact of CCl4 in the vadose zone on groundwater contamination. Results and findings from these tasks and summarized in the attached final report.

  4. Investigation of Deviations from Ideality in the Two Liquid Phase Region of Systems of Medium Molecular Weight Hydrocarbon Mixtures and Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    determined by refractometry using a Bausch and Lomb Refractometer (Abbe 3-L). Refractive index calibrations for the binary mixtures examined are given in...mixture sample was taken and analyzed by refractometry . b. Results The results of the vapor pressure experiments and the Redlich- Kister coefficients

  5. Modelling phase equilibria for acid gas mixtures using the CPA equation of state. Part VI. Multicomponent mixtures with glycols relevant to oil and gas and to liquid or supercritical CO2 transport applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsivintzelis, Ioannis; Kontogeorgis, Georgios M.

    2016-01-01

    to data on ternary and multicomponent mixtures) to model the phase behaviour of ternary and quaternary systems with CO2 and glycols. It is concluded that CPA performs satisfactorily for most multicomponent systems considered. Some differences between the various modelling approaches are observed....... This work is the last part of a series of studies, which aim to arrive in a single "engineering approach" for applying CPA to acid gas mixtures, without introducing significant changes to the model. An overall assessment, based also on the obtained results of this series (Tsivintzelis et al., 2010, 2011...

  6. Two-Component Signal Transduction System SaeRS Positively Regulates Staphylococcus epidermidis Glucose Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Lou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus epidermidis, which is a causative pathogen of nosocomial infection, expresses its virulent traits such as biofilm and autolysis regulated by two-component signal transduction system SaeRS. In this study, we performed a proteomic analysis of differences in expression between the S. epidermidis 1457 wild-type and saeRS mutant to identify candidates regulated by saeRS using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption/lonization mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS. Of 55 identified proteins that significantly differed in expression between the two strains, 15 were upregulated and 40 were downregulated. The downregulated proteins included enzymes related to glycolysis and TCA cycle, suggesting that glucose is not properly utilized in S. epidermidis when saeRS was deleted. The study will be helpful for treatment of S. epidermidis infection from the viewpoint of metabolic modulation dependent on two-component signal transduction system SaeRS.

  7. Rotation and toroidal magnetic field effects on the stability of two-component jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millas, Dimitrios; Keppens, Rony; Meliani, Zakaria

    2017-09-01

    Several observations of astrophysical jets show evidence of a structure in the direction perpendicular to the jet axis, leading to the development of 'spine and sheath' models of jets. Most studies focus on a two-component jet consisting of a highly relativistic inner jet and a slower - but still relativistic - outer jet surrounded by an unmagnetized environment. These jets are believed to be susceptible to a relativistic Rayleigh-Taylor-type instability, depending on the effective inertia ratio of the two components. We extend previous studies by taking into account the presence of a non-zero toroidal magnetic field. Different values of magnetization are examined to detect possible differences in the evolution and stability of the jet. We find that the toroidal field, above a certain level of magnetization σ, roughly equal to 0.01, can stabilize the jet against the previously mentioned instabilities and that there is a clear trend in the behaviour of the average Lorentz factor and the effective radius of the jet when we continuously increase the magnetization. The simulations are performed using the relativistic MHD module from the open source, parallel, grid adaptive, mpi-amrvac code.

  8. Analytical energy gradient for the two-component normalized elimination of the small component method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Wenli; Filatov, Michael; Cremer, Dieter, E-mail: dcremer@smu.edu [Computational and Theoretical Chemistry Group (CATCO), Department of Chemistry, Southern Methodist University, 3215 Daniel Ave, Dallas, Texas 75275-0314 (United States)

    2015-06-07

    The analytical gradient for the two-component Normalized Elimination of the Small Component (2c-NESC) method is presented. The 2c-NESC is a Dirac-exact method that employs the exact two-component one-electron Hamiltonian and thus leads to exact Dirac spin-orbit (SO) splittings for one-electron atoms. For many-electron atoms and molecules, the effect of the two-electron SO interaction is modeled by a screened nucleus potential using effective nuclear charges as proposed by Boettger [Phys. Rev. B 62, 7809 (2000)]. The effect of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) on molecular geometries is analyzed utilizing the properties of the frontier orbitals and calculated SO couplings. It is shown that bond lengths can either be lengthened or shortened under the impact of SOC where in the first case the influence of low lying excited states with occupied antibonding orbitals plays a role and in the second case the jj-coupling between occupied antibonding and unoccupied bonding orbitals dominates. In general, the effect of SOC on bond lengths is relatively small (≤5% of the scalar relativistic changes in the bond length). However, large effects are found for van der Waals complexes Hg{sub 2} and Cn{sub 2}, which are due to the admixture of more bonding character to the highest occupied spinors.

  9. Analytical energy gradient for the two-component normalized elimination of the small component method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Wenli; Filatov, Michael; Cremer, Dieter

    2015-06-01

    The analytical gradient for the two-component Normalized Elimination of the Small Component (2c-NESC) method is presented. The 2c-NESC is a Dirac-exact method that employs the exact two-component one-electron Hamiltonian and thus leads to exact Dirac spin-orbit (SO) splittings for one-electron atoms. For many-electron atoms and molecules, the effect of the two-electron SO interaction is modeled by a screened nucleus potential using effective nuclear charges as proposed by Boettger [Phys. Rev. B 62, 7809 (2000)]. The effect of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) on molecular geometries is analyzed utilizing the properties of the frontier orbitals and calculated SO couplings. It is shown that bond lengths can either be lengthened or shortened under the impact of SOC where in the first case the influence of low lying excited states with occupied antibonding orbitals plays a role and in the second case the jj-coupling between occupied antibonding and unoccupied bonding orbitals dominates. In general, the effect of SOC on bond lengths is relatively small (≤5% of the scalar relativistic changes in the bond length). However, large effects are found for van der Waals complexes Hg2 and Cn2, which are due to the admixture of more bonding character to the highest occupied spinors.

  10. Two component WIMP-FImP dark matter model with singlet fermion, scalar and pseudo scalar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta Banik, Amit; Pandey, Madhurima; Majumdar, Debasish [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, HBNI, Astroparticle Physics and Cosmology Division, Kolkata (India); Biswas, Anirban [Harish Chandra Research Institute, Allahabad (India)

    2017-10-15

    We explore a two component dark matter model with a fermion and a scalar. In this scenario the Standard Model (SM) is extended by a fermion, a scalar and an additional pseudo scalar. The fermionic component is assumed to have a global U(1){sub DM} and interacts with the pseudo scalar via Yukawa interaction while a Z{sub 2} symmetry is imposed on the other component - the scalar. These ensure the stability of both dark matter components. Although the Lagrangian of the present model is CP conserving, the CP symmetry breaks spontaneously when the pseudo scalar acquires a vacuum expectation value (VEV). The scalar component of the dark matter in the present model also develops a VEV on spontaneous breaking of the Z{sub 2} symmetry. Thus the various interactions of the dark sector and the SM sector occur through the mixing of the SM like Higgs boson, the pseudo scalar Higgs like boson and the singlet scalar boson. We show that the observed gamma ray excess from the Galactic Centre as well as the 3.55 keV X-ray line from Perseus, Andromeda etc. can be simultaneously explained in the present two component dark matter model and the dark matter self interaction is found to be an order of magnitude smaller than the upper limit estimated from the observational results. (orig.)

  11. Two-component vector solitons in defocusing Kerr-type media with spatially modulated nonlinearity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Wei-Ping, E-mail: zhongwp6@126.com [Department of Electronic and Information Engineering, Shunde Polytechnic, Guangdong Province, Shunde 528300 (China); Texas A and M University at Qatar, P.O. Box 23874 Doha (Qatar); Belić, Milivoj [Texas A and M University at Qatar, P.O. Box 23874 Doha (Qatar); Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 57, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2014-12-15

    We present a class of exact solutions to the coupled (2+1)-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equation with spatially modulated nonlinearity and a special external potential, which describe the evolution of two-component vector solitons in defocusing Kerr-type media. We find a robust soliton solution, constructed with the help of Whittaker functions. For specific choices of the topological charge, the radial mode number and the modulation depth, the solitons may exist in various forms, such as the half-moon, necklace-ring, and sawtooth vortex-ring patterns. Our results show that the profile of such solitons can be effectively controlled by the topological charge, the radial mode number, and the modulation depth. - Highlights: • Two-component vector soliton clusters in defocusing Kerr-type media are reported. • These soliton clusters are constructed with the help of Whittaker functions. • The half-moon, necklace-ring and vortex-ring patterns are found. • The profile of these solitons can be effectively controlled by three soliton parameters.

  12. Patient Autonomy for the Management of Chronic Conditions: A Two-Component Re-conceptualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Aanand D.; Dyer, Carmel B.; Kunik, Mark E.; McCullough, Laurence B.

    2010-01-01

    The clinical application of the concept of patient autonomy has centered on the ability to deliberate and make treatment decisions (decisional autonomy) to the virtual exclusion of the capacity to execute the treatment plan (executive autonomy). However, the one-component concept of autonomy is problematic in the context of multiple chronic conditions. Adherence to complex treatments commonly breaks down when patients have functional, educational, and cognitive barriers that impair their capacity to plan, sequence, and carry out tasks associated with chronic care. The purpose of this article is to call for a two-component re-conceptualization of autonomy and to argue that the clinical assessment of capacity for patients with chronic conditions should be expanded to include both autonomous decision making and autonomous execution of the agreed-upon treatment plan. We explain how the concept of autonomy should be expanded to include both decisional and executive autonomy, describe the biopsychosocial correlates of the two-component concept of autonomy, and recommend diagnostic and treatment strategies to support patients with deficits in executive autonomy. PMID:19180389

  13. Shape-persistent two-component 2D networks with atomic-size tunability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Zhang, Xu; Wang, Dong; Wang, Jie-Yu; Pei, Jian; Stang, Peter J; Wan, Li-Jun

    2011-09-05

    Over the past few years, two-dimensional (2D) nanoporous networks have attracted great interest as templates for the precise localization and confinement of guest building blocks, such as functional molecules or clusters on the solid surfaces. Herein, a series of two-component molecular networks with a 3-fold symmetry are constructed on graphite using a truxenone derivative and trimesic acid homologues with carboxylic-acid-terminated alkyl chains. The hydrogen-bonding partner-recognition-induced 2D crystallization of alkyl chains makes the flexible alkyl chains act as rigid spacers in the networks to continuously tune the pore size with an accuracy of one carbon atom per step. The two-component networks were found to accommodate and regulate the distribution and aggregation of guest molecules, such as COR and CuPc. This procedure provides a new pathway for the design and fabrication of molecular nanostructures on solid surfaces. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Regularity for 3D Navier-Stokes equations in terms of two components of the vorticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadek Gala

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We establish regularity conditions for the 3D Navier-Stokes equation via two components of the vorticity vector. It is known that if a Leray-Hopf weak solution $u$ satisfies $$ ilde{omega}in L^{2/(2-r}(0,T;L^{3/r}(mathbb{R}^3quad hbox{with }0two components of the vorticity, $omega =operatorname{curl}u$, then $u$ becomes the classical solution on $(0,T]$ (see [5]. We prove the regularity of Leray-Hopf weak solution $u$ under each of the following two (weaker conditions: $$displaylines{ ilde{omega}in L^{2/(2-r}(0,T;dot {mathcal{M}}_{2, 3/r}(mathbb{R}^3quad hbox{for }0

  15. Linearmycins Activate a Two-Component Signaling System Involved in Bacterial Competition and Biofilm Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacteria use two-component signaling systems to adapt and respond to their competitors and changing environments. For instance, competitor bacteria may produce antibiotics and other bioactive metabolites and sequester nutrients. To survive, some species of bacteria escape competition through antibiotic production, biofilm formation, or motility. Specialized metabolite production and biofilm formation are relatively well understood for bacterial species in isolation. How bacteria control these functions when competitors are present is not well studied. To address fundamental questions relating to the competitive mechanisms of different species, we have developed a model system using two species of soil bacteria, Bacillus subtilis and Streptomyces sp. strain Mg1. Using this model, we previously found that linearmycins produced by Streptomyces sp. strain Mg1 cause lysis of B. subtilis cells and degradation of colony matrix. We identified strains of B. subtilis with mutations in the two-component signaling system yfiJK operon that confer dual phenotypes of specific linearmycin resistance and biofilm morphology. We determined that expression of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter yfiLMN operon, particularly yfiM and yfiN, is necessary for biofilm morphology. Using transposon mutagenesis, we identified genes that are required for YfiLMN-mediated biofilm morphology, including several chaperones. Using transcriptional fusions, we found that YfiJ signaling is activated by linearmycins and other polyene metabolites. Finally, using a truncated YfiJ, we show that YfiJ requires its transmembrane domain to activate downstream signaling. Taken together, these results suggest coordinated dual antibiotic resistance and biofilm morphology by a single multifunctional ABC transporter promotes competitive fitness of B. subtilis. IMPORTANCE DNA sequencing approaches have revealed hitherto unexplored diversity of bacterial species in a wide variety of environments that

  16. [Regulation of sporulation by two-component system YvcPQ in Bacillus thuringiensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qingyun; Zhang, Shumeng; Gong, Yujing; He, Jin

    2017-01-04

    To study the regulation of sporulation controlled by two-component system (TCS) YvcPQ. β-galactosidase experiment was used to verify the regulation of YvcP on kapD expression; bacterial one-hybrid assay, EMSA and RT-qPCR were applied to study the regulation of AbrB on yvcPQ expression; markerless gene deletion coupled with spore count was used to reveal the influence of yvcPQ and kapD expressions on sporulation. transcriptional regulator AbrB up-regulated the expression of yvcPQ; YvcP promoted the expression of kapD to inhibit sporulation. AbrB up-regulated the transcription of yvcPQ operon, then the increased YvcP strengthened the transcriptional acitivation of sporulation inhibitor gene kapD, and subsequently inhibited sporulation.

  17. Universal Properties of a Trapped Two-Component Fermi Gas at Unitarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blume, D.; Stecher, J. von; Greene, Chris H.

    2007-01-01

    We treat the trapped two-component Fermi system, in which unlike fermions interact through a two-body short-range potential having no bound state but an infinite scattering length. By accurately solving the Schroedinger equation for up to N=6 fermions, we show that no many-body bound states exist other than those bound by the trapping potential, and we demonstrate unique universal properties of the system: Certain excitation frequencies are separated by 2(ℎ/2π)ω, the wave functions agree with analytical predictions and a virial theorem is fulfilled. Further calculations up to N=30 determine the excitation gap, an experimentally accessible universal quantity, and it agrees with recent predictions based on a density functional approach

  18. TWO-COMPONENT SYSTEM: A MOLECULAR DIALOGUE BETWEEN RUMINAL BACTERIA AND FEED PARTICLES (FORAGE PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Marcela Galicia Jimenez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability to adapt rapidly to changes in the environment is one of the main characteristics of the bacterial cell. The rumen is a highly dynamic environment, and none of the changes are permanent due to the various microbial species found in the rumen. Signal transduction networks are information processing pathways that recognize various physical and chemical stimuli, amplification, signal processing, and trigger responses of the bacterial cell. The aim of the present review is to show the importance of these two component systems in rumen bacteria, because it is based on the knowledge of the principles governing the bacterial population communication, its main interactions and products of metabolism, we can approach the manipulation of Ruminal fermentation to improve animal health, productivity and food safety.

  19. Phosphate sink containing two-component signaling systems as tunable threshold devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amin, Munia; Kothamachu, Varun B; Feliu, Elisenda

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic biology aims to design de novo biological systems and reengineer existing ones. These efforts have mostly focused on transcriptional circuits, with reengineering of signaling circuits hampered by limited understanding of their systems dynamics and experimental challenges. Bacterial two......-component signaling systems offer a rich diversity of sensory systems that are built around a core phosphotransfer reaction between histidine kinases and their output response regulator proteins, and thus are a good target for reengineering through synthetic biology. Here, we explore the signal-response relationship...... rapid signal termination, whereby one of the RRs acts as a phosphate sink towards the other RR (i.e. the output RR), but also implements a sigmoidal signal-response relationship. We identify two mathematical conditions on system parameters that are necessary for sigmoidal signal-response relationships...

  20. Phase diagram of two-component bosons on an optical lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altman, Ehud; Hofstetter, Walter; Demler, Eugene; Lukin, Mikhail D

    2003-01-01

    We present a theoretical analysis of the phase diagram of two-component bosons on an optical lattice. A new formalism is developed which treats the effective spin interactions in the Mott and superfluid phases on the same footing. Using this new approach we chart the phase boundaries of the broken spin symmetry states up to the Mott to superfluid transition and beyond. Near the transition point, the magnitude of spin exchange can be very large, which facilitates the experimental realization of spin-ordered states. We find that spin and quantum fluctuations have a dramatic effect on the transition, making it first order in extended regions of the phase diagram. When each species is at integer filling, an additional phase transition may occur, from a spin-ordered insulator to a Mott insulator with no broken symmetries. We determine the phase boundaries in this regime and show that this is essentially a Mott transition in the spin sector

  1. Characterization of a two-component thermoluminescent albedo dosemeter according to ISO 21909

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, M.M., E-mail: marcelo@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN), Av. Salvador Allende s/n, CEP 22780-160, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mauricio, C.L.P., E-mail: claudia@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN), Av. Salvador Allende s/n, CEP 22780-160, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pereira, W.W., E-mail: walsan@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN), Av. Salvador Allende s/n, CEP 22780-160, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, A.X. da, E-mail: ademir@con.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia, COPPE/PEN Caixa Postal 68509, CEP 21941-972, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-05-15

    A two-component thermoluminescent albedo neutron monitoring system was developed at Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, Brazil. As there is no Brazilian regulation for neutron individual monitoring service, the system was tested according to the ISO 21909 standard. This standard provides performance and test requirements for determining the acceptability of personal neutron dosemeters to be used for the measurement of personal dose equivalent, H{sub p}(10), in neutron fields with energies ranging from thermal to 20 MeV. Up to 40 dosemeters were used in order to accomplish satisfactorily the requirements of some tests. Despite operational difficulties, this albedo system passed all ISO 21909 performance requirements. The results and problems throughout this characterization are discussed in this paper.

  2. Modulational instability for a self-attractive two-component Bose–Einstein condensate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng-Chang, Li; Wen-Shan, Duan

    2009-01-01

    By means of the multiple-scale expansion method, the coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations without an explicit external potential are obtained in two-dimensional geometry for a self-attractive Bose–Einstein condensate composed of different hyperfine states. The modulational instability of two-component condensate is investigated by using a simple technique. Based on the discussion about two typical cases, the explicit expression of the growth rate for a purely growing modulational instability and the optimum stable conditions are given and analysed analytically. The results show that the modulational instability of this two-dimensional system is quite different from that in a one-dimensional system. (general)

  3. A two-component system regulates hemin acquisition in Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodie C Scott

    Full Text Available Porphyromonas gingivalis is a Gram-negative oral anaerobe associated with infection of the periodontia. The organism has a small number of two-component signal transduction systems, and after comparing genome sequences of strains W83 and ATCC 33277 we discovered that the latter was mutant in histidine kinase (PGN_0752, while the cognate response regulator (PGN_0753 remained intact. Microarray-based transcriptional profiling and ChIP-seq assays were carried out with an ATCC 33277 transconjugant containing the functional histidine kinase from strain W83 (PG0719. The data showed that the regulon of this signal transduction system contained genes that were involved in hemin acquisition, including gingipains, at least three transport systems, as well as being self-regulated. Direct regulation by the response regulator was confirmed by electrophoretic mobility shift assays. In addition, the system appears to be activated by hemin and the regulator acts as both an activator and repressor.

  4. Two-component air heating system. Final report. Zweikomponenten-Luftheizungs-System. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radtke, W; Thiel, D

    1986-01-01

    The two-component heating system consists of a combination of air-based floor heating and direct air heating, with ventilation and extraction and heat recovery. The direct airflow consists exclusively of heated outside air, the amount corresponding to the building's external air intake requirement. The control system comprises a two-step sequential control of the air throughput of the direct air heating system and of the air distribution for the floor heating airflow. A special heating switch makes it possible to switch off the direct air heating system separately, and to select rapid warm-up. The way in which the new heating system works has been tested in a pilot set-up and proven by comprehensive measurements. In addition, a simulation model was produced which gave substantial confirmation of the measurements. (orig.) With 9 refs., 37 tabs., 63 figs.

  5. Plasma oscillations and sound waves in collision-dominated two-component plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, J.P.; Sjoegren, L.

    1982-01-01

    Charge, mass, and electron density fluctuation spectra of strongly correlated, fully ionized two-component plasmas within the framework of the Mori--Zwanzig memory function formalism are analyzed. All dynamical correlation functions are expressed in terms of the memory functions of the ion and electron velocity autocorrelation functions by a generalized effective field approximation which preserves the exact initial values (i.e., static correlations). The theory reduces correctly to the mean field (or collisionless Vlasov) results in the weak coupling limit, and yields charge density fluctuation spectra in good agreement with available computer simulation data, as well as reasonable estimates of the transport coefficients. The collisional damping and frequency shift of the plasma oscillation mode are sizeable, even in the long wavelength limit. The theory also predicts the propagation of well-defined sound waves in dense plasmas in thermal equilibrium

  6. A two component model describing nucleon structure functions in the low-x region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bugaev, E.V. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 7a, 60th October Anniversary prospect, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); Mangazeev, B.V. [Irkutsk State University, 1, Karl Marx Street, Irkutsk 664003 (Russian Federation)

    2009-12-15

    A two component model describing the electromagnetic nucleon structure functions in the low-x region, based on generalized vector dominance and color dipole approaches is briefly described. The model operates with the mesons of rho-family having the mass spectrum of the form m{sub n}{sup 2}=m{sub r}ho{sup 2}(1+2n) and takes into account the nondiagonal transitions in meson-nucleon scattering. The special cut-off factors are introduced in the model, to exclude the gamma-qq-bar-V transitions in the case of narrow qq-bar-pairs. For the color dipole part of the model the well known FKS-parameterization is used.

  7. Level shift two-components autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity modelling for WTI crude oil market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Kuek Jia; Cheong, Chin Wen; Hooi, Tan Siow

    2017-04-01

    This study aims to investigate the crude oil volatility using a two components autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity (ARCH) model with the inclusion of abrupt jump feature. The model is able to capture abrupt jumps, news impact, clustering volatility, long persistence volatility and heavy-tailed distributed error which are commonly observed in the crude oil time series. For the empirical study, we have selected the WTI crude oil index from year 2000 to 2016. The results found that by including the multiple-abrupt jumps in ARCH model, there are significant improvements of estimation evaluations as compared with the standard ARCH models. The outcomes of this study can provide useful information for risk management and portfolio analysis in the crude oil markets.

  8. Ultrasonic measurement process of the ratio volume of gas in an enclosure containing a gas-liquid mixture to the total volume of the enclosure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marini, J.; Heinrich, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    Ultrasonic waves with two different frequencies are sent through the fluid in the containment. Time of propagation are measured and the difference is calculated. If propagation times are identical the gas phase forms a layer on the top of the liquid phase and void fraction is determined from propagation speeds in the gas and in the liquid. If propagation times are different, part of the gas forms bubbles and void fraction is the sum of gas on top of the liquid and gas bubbles in the liquid determined separatly. Void fraction coming from the gas over the liquid is determined by waves reflected at the interface gas-liquid. Void fraction coming from the bubbles is determined by relations between the speed of ultrasonic waves and their frequency as a function of pressure and void fraction [fr

  9. Functional assessment of EnvZ/OmpR two-component system in Shewanella oneidensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yuan

    Full Text Available EnvZ and OmpR constitute the bacterial two-component signal transduction system known to mediate osmotic stress response in a number of gram-negative bacteria. In an effort to understand the mechanism through which Shewanella oneidensis senses and responds to environmental osmolarity changes, structure of the ompR-envZ operon was determined with Northern blotting assay and roles of the EnvZ/OmpR two-component system in response to various stresses were investigated with mutational analysis, quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR, and phenotype microarrays. Results from the mutational analysis and qRT-PCR suggested that the EnvZ/OmpR system contributed to osmotic stress response of S. oneidensis and very likely engaged a similar strategy employed by E. coli, which involved reciprocal regulation of two major porin coding genes. Additionally, the ompR-envZ system was also found related to cell motility. We further showed that the ompR-envZ dependent regulation of porin genes and motility resided almost completely on ompR and only partially on envZ, indicating additional mechanisms for OmpR phosphorylation. In contrast to E. coli lacking ompR-envZ, however, growth of S. oneidensis did not show a significant dependence on ompR-envZ even under osmotic stress. Further analysis with phenotype microarrays revealed that the S. oneidensis strains lacking a complete ompR-envZ system displayed hypersensitivities to a number of agents, especially in alkaline environment. Taken together, our results suggest that the function of the ompR-envZ system in S. oneidensis, although still connected with osmoregulation, has diverged considerably from that of E. coli. Additional mechanism must exist to support growth of S. oneidensis under osmotic stress.

  10. Regulation of virulence by a two-component system in group B streptococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Sheng-Mei; Cieslewicz, Michael J; Kasper, Dennis L; Wessels, Michael R

    2005-02-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is frequently carried in the gastrointestinal or genitourinary tract as a commensal organism, yet it has the potential to cause life-threatening infection in newborn infants, pregnant women, and individuals with chronic illness. Regulation of virulence factor expression may affect whether GBS behaves as an asymptomatic colonizer or an invasive pathogen, but little is known about how such factors are controlled in GBS. We now report the characterization of a GBS locus that encodes a two-component regulatory system similar to CsrRS (or CovRS) in Streptococcus pyogenes. Inactivation of csrR, encoding the putative response regulator, in two unrelated wild-type strains of GBS resulted in a marked increase in production of beta-hemolysin/cytolysin and a striking decrease in production of CAMP factor, an unrelated cytolytic toxin. Quantitative RNA hybridization experiments revealed that these two phenotypes were associated with a marked increase and decrease in expression of the corresponding genes, cylE and cfb, respectively. The CsrR mutant strains also displayed increased expression of scpB encoding C5a peptidase. Similar, but less marked, changes in gene expression were observed in CsrS (putative sensor component) mutants, evidence that CsrR and CsrS constitute a functional two-component system. Experimental infection studies in mice demonstrated reduced virulence of both CsrR and CsrS mutant strains relative to the wild type. Together, these results indicate that CsrRS regulates expression of multiple GBS virulence determinants and is likely to play an important role in GBS pathogenesis.

  11. Application of ultraperformance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry-based metabonomic techniques to analyze the joint toxic action of long-term low-level exposure to a mixture of organophosphate pesticides on rat urine profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Longfei; Wang, Hong; Xu, Wei; Zeng, Yan; Hou, Yurong; Zhang, Yuqiu; Zhao, Xiujuan; Sun, Changhao

    2013-07-01

    In previously published articles, we evaluated the toxicity of four organophosphate (OP) pesticides (dichlorvos, dimethoate, acephate, and phorate) to rats using metabonomic technology at their corresponding no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL). Results show that a single pesticide elicits no toxic response. This study aimed to determine whether chronic exposure to a mixture of the above four pesticides (at their corresponding NOAEL) can lead to joint toxic action in rats using the same technology. Pesticides were administered daily to rats through drinking water for 24 weeks. The above mixture of the four pesticides showed joint toxic action at the NOAEL of each pesticide. The metabonomic profiles of rats urine were analyzed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. The 16 metabolites statistically significantly changed in all treated groups compared with the control group. Dimethylphosphate and dimethyldithiophosphate exclusively detected in all treated groups can be used as early, sensitive biomarkers for exposure to a mixture of the OP pesticides. Moreover, exposure to the OP pesticides resulted in increased 7-methylguanine, ribothymidine, cholic acid, 4-pyridoxic acid, kynurenine, and indoxyl sulfate levels, as well as decreased hippuric acid, creatinine, uric acid, gentisic acid, C18-dihydrosphingosine, phytosphingosine, suberic acid, and citric acid. The results indicated that a mixture of OP pesticides induced DNA damage and oxidative stress, disturbed the metabolism of lipids, and interfered with the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Ensuring food safety requires not only the toxicology test data of each pesticide for the calculation of the acceptable daily intake but also the joint toxic action.

  12. Density Functional Theory for Liquid−Liquid Interfaces of Mixtures Using the Perturbed-Chain Polar Statistical Associating Fluid Theory Equation of State

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klink, Ch.; Planková, Barbora; Gross, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 16 (2015), s. 4633-4642 ISSN 0888-5885 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : interfacial tension * liquid-liquid equilibira * PCP-SAFT Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 2.567, year: 2015 http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.iecr.5b00445

  13. Phase diagrams of (vapour + liquid) equilibrium for binary mixtures of α,α,α-trifluorotoluene with ethanol, or benzene, or chloroform at pressure 101.4 kPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atik, Zadjia

    2008-01-01

    (Vapour + liquid) equilibrium (VLE) of binary mixtures of (ethanol + α,α,α-trifluorotoluene), (benzene + α,α,α-trifluorotoluene), and (chloroform + α,α,α-trifluorotoluene) have been investigated at the pressure 101.4 kPa using the dynamic-ebulliometry method over the whole composition range. The correlated VLE phase diagrams were adequately described by means of NRTL and UNIQUAC thermodynamic models. Fair attractive energies in the first two systems are capable to yield azeotropes, while moderate repulsive energies in the later system make it zeotrope

  14. Structural Basis for DNA Recognition by the Two-Component Response Regulator RcsB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippova, Ekaterina V; Zemaitaitis, Bozena; Aung, Theint; Wolfe, Alan J; Anderson, Wayne F

    2018-02-27

    RcsB is a highly conserved transcription regulator of the Rcs phosphorelay system, a complex two-component signal transduction system (N. Majdalani and S. Gottesman, Annu Rev Microbiol 59:379-405, 2005; A. J. Wolfe, Curr Opin Microbiol 13:204-209, 2010, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mib.2010.01.002; D. J. Clarke, Future Microbiol 5:1173-1184, 2010, https://doi.org/10.2217/fmb.10.83). RcsB plays an important role in virulence and pathogenicity in human hosts by regulating biofilm formation. RcsB can regulate transcription alone or together with its auxiliary transcription regulators by forming heterodimers. This complexity allows RcsB to regulate transcription of more than 600 bacterial genes in response to different stresses (D. Wang et al., Mol Plant Microbe Interact 25:6-17, 2012, https://doi.org/10.1094/MPMI-08-11-0207). Despite increasing knowledge of RcsB importance, molecular mechanisms that drive the ability of RcsB to control transcription of a large number of genes remain unclear. Here, we present crystal structures of unphosphorylated RcsB in complex with the consensus DNA-binding sequence of 22-mer (DNA22) and 18-mer (DNA18) of the flhDC operon from Escherichia coli determined at 3.15- and 3.37-Å resolution, respectively. The results of our structural analysis combined with the results of in vitro binding assays provide valuable insights to the protein regulatory mechanism, demonstrate how RcsB recognizes target DNA sequences, and reveal a unique oligomeric state that allows RcsB to form homo- and heterodimers. This information will help us understand the complex mechanisms of transcriptional regulation by RcsB in bacteria. IMPORTANCE RcsB is a well-studied two-component response regulator of the Rcs phosphorelay system, conserved within the family Enterobacteriaceae , which includes many pathogens. It is a global regulator, controlling more than 5% of bacterial genes associated with capsule biosynthesis, flagellar biogenesis, cell wall biosynthesis

  15. Counterbalancing Regulation in Response Memory of a Positively Autoregulated Two-Component System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Rong; Godfrey, Katherine A; Sufian, Mahir A; Stock, Ann M

    2017-09-15

    Fluctuations in nutrient availability often result in recurrent exposures to the same stimulus conditions. The ability to memorize the past event and use the "memory" to make adjustments to current behaviors can lead to a more efficient adaptation to the recurring stimulus. A short-term phenotypic memory can be conferred via carryover of the response proteins to facilitate the recurrent response, but the additional accumulation of response proteins can lead to a deviation from response homeostasis. We used the Escherichia coli PhoB/PhoR two-component system (TCS) as a model system to study how cells cope with the recurrence of environmental phosphate (Pi) starvation conditions. We discovered that "memory" of prior Pi starvation can exert distinct effects through two regulatory pathways, the TCS signaling pathway and the stress response pathway. Although carryover of TCS proteins can lead to higher initial levels of transcription factor PhoB and a faster initial response in prestarved cells than in cells not starved, the response enhancement can be overcome by an earlier and greater repression of promoter activity in prestarved cells due to the memory of the stress response. The repression counterbalances the carryover of the response proteins, leading to a homeostatic response whether or not cells are prestimulated. A computational model based on sigma factor competition was developed to understand the memory of stress response and to predict the homeostasis of other PhoB-regulated response proteins. Our insight into the history-dependent PhoBR response may provide a general understanding of how TCSs respond to recurring stimuli and adapt to fluctuating environmental conditions. IMPORTANCE Bacterial cells in their natural environments experience scenarios that are far more complex than are typically replicated in laboratory experiments. The architectures of signaling systems and the integration of multiple adaptive pathways have evolved to deal with such complexity

  16. Counterbalancing Regulation in Response Memory of a Positively Autoregulated Two-Component System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Rong; Godfrey, Katherine A.; Sufian, Mahir A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Fluctuations in nutrient availability often result in recurrent exposures to the same stimulus conditions. The ability to memorize the past event and use the “memory” to make adjustments to current behaviors can lead to a more efficient adaptation to the recurring stimulus. A short-term phenotypic memory can be conferred via carryover of the response proteins to facilitate the recurrent response, but the additional accumulation of response proteins can lead to a deviation from response homeostasis. We used the Escherichia coli PhoB/PhoR two-component system (TCS) as a model system to study how cells cope with the recurrence of environmental phosphate (Pi) starvation conditions. We discovered that “memory” of prior Pi starvation can exert distinct effects through two regulatory pathways, the TCS signaling pathway and the stress response pathway. Although carryover of TCS proteins can lead to higher initial levels of transcription factor PhoB and a faster initial response in prestarved cells than in cells not starved, the response enhancement can be overcome by an earlier and greater repression of promoter activity in prestarved cells due to the memory of the stress response. The repression counterbalances the carryover of the response proteins, leading to a homeostatic response whether or not cells are prestimulated. A computational model based on sigma factor competition was developed to understand the memory of stress response and to predict the homeostasis of other PhoB-regulated response proteins. Our insight into the history-dependent PhoBR response may provide a general understanding of how TCSs respond to recurring stimuli and adapt to fluctuating environmental conditions. IMPORTANCE Bacterial cells in their natural environments experience scenarios that are far more complex than are typically replicated in laboratory experiments. The architectures of signaling systems and the integration of multiple adaptive pathways have evolved to deal

  17. Device for the continuous measurement of radio-activity of solutions of substances in a homogeneous mixture with a liquid scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, V.N.

    1979-01-01

    The β-activity of marked particles from the radio-chemical industry or nuclear power plants is measured in two isolated, opposed flows of homogeneous integrating mixtures. The measuring vessel for this is represented by a glass cylinder, which is separated by a glass separating wall into two parts of equal volume. The volume of the measuring vessel and therefore the volume of mixture to be measured can be increased without worsening the chromatographic separation of substances. (DG) 891 HP/DG 892 CKA [de

  18. Identification by irradiation, in vitro, of two components of erythroprotein action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barcos, M.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of ionizing radiation on the response of normal cultured rat marrow cells to erythropoietin yielded two-component inactivation curves for induced iron uptake and hemoglobin synthesis. The radioresistant component of the induced hemoglobin response (1) was detected earlier, at 6 to 20 hr after irradiation, (2) had a DO 0 > or = to 900 R, (3) gave a nonlinear erythropoietin dose--response plot at 600 R, (4) disappeared when marrow from erythremic rats was used, and (5) showed maximal inactivation by 500 R when irradiation preceded hormone addition by 1.5 to 2.5 hr. The radiosensitive component (1) was observed without any contribution from the radioresistant component when the time of assay of normal marrow was postponed from 6 to 20 hr to 20 to 44 hr of culture, (2) had a D 0 = 63 R, (3) gave linear erythropoietin dose--response curves at 15 to 60 R, and (4) showed enhanced inhibition by 60 R if irradiation either preceded or followed hormone addition by 3 hr or more

  19. Modified Baryonic Dynamics: two-component cosmological simulations with light sterile neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angus, G.W.; Gentile, G. [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, Brussels, 1050 Belgium (Belgium); Diaferio, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, Torino, I-10125 Italy (Italy); Famaey, B. [Observatoire astronomique de Strasbourg, CNRS UMR 7550, Université de Strasbourg, 11 rue de l' Université, Strasbourg, F-67000 France (France); Heyden, K.J. van der, E-mail: garry.angus@vub.ac.be, E-mail: diaferio@ph.unito.it, E-mail: benoit.famaey@astro.unistra.fr, E-mail: gianfranco.gentile@ugent.be, E-mail: heyden@ast.uct.ac.za [Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Centre, Dept. of Astronomy, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch, 7701 South Africa (South Africa)

    2014-10-01

    In this article we continue to test cosmological models centred on Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) with light sterile neutrinos, which could in principle be a way to solve the fine-tuning problems of the standard model on galaxy scales while preserving successful predictions on larger scales. Due to previous failures of the simple MOND cosmological model, here we test a speculative model where the modified gravitational field is produced only by the baryons and the sterile neutrinos produce a purely Newtonian field (hence Modified Baryonic Dynamics). We use two-component cosmological simulations to separate the baryonic N-body particles from the sterile neutrino ones. The premise is to attenuate the over-production of massive galaxy cluster halos which were prevalent in the original MOND plus light sterile neutrinos scenario. Theoretical issues with such a formulation notwithstanding, the Modified Baryonic Dynamics model fails to produce the correct amplitude for the galaxy cluster mass function for any reasonable value of the primordial power spectrum normalisation.

  20. Quantum characteristics of occurrence scattering time in two-component non-ideal plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Woo-Pyo [Department of Electronics Engineering, Catholic University of Daegu, Hayang, 712-702 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Young-Dae, E-mail: ydjung@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Applied Physics and Department of Bionanotechnology, Hanyang University, Ansan, Kyunggi-Do 15588 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, NY 12180-3590 (United States)

    2015-10-30

    The quantum diffraction and plasma screening effects on the occurrence time for the collision process are investigated in two-component non-ideal plasmas. The micropotential model taking into account the quantum diffraction and screening with the eikonal analysis is employed to derive the occurrence time as functions of the collision energy, density parameter, Debye length, de Broglie wavelength, and scattering angle. It is shown that the occurrence time for forward scattering directions decreases the tendency of time-advance with increasing scattering angle and de Broglie wavelength. However, it is found that the occurrence time shows the oscillatory time-advance and time-retarded behaviors with increasing scattering angle. It is found that the plasma screening effect enhances the tendency of time-advance on the occurrence time for forward scattering regions. It is also shown the quantum diffraction effect suppresses the occurrence time advance for forward scattering angles. In addition, it is shown that the occurrence time advance decreases with an increase of the collision energy. - Highlights: • The quantum diffraction and screening effects on the occurrence scattering time are investigated in non-ideal plasmas. • It is shown the quantum diffraction effect suppresses the occurrence time advance for forward scattering angles. • It is found that the plasma screening effect enhances the tendency of time-advance on the occurrence time.

  1. Determination of the number of and classification of two-component ionic-covalent chemical compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigdorovich, V.N.; Dzhuraev, T.D.; Khanin, V.A.

    1989-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the number of and to classify two-component compounds corresponding to the four-electron and full-valence concepts and characterized by the ionic-covalent type of bond, on which the metallic bond is superimposed to a greater lesser degree. At the same time it was proposed to verify the position of the axes in the periodic system. The presence of numerous compound analogs for the element prototypes of one axis of the Mendeleev periodic system [the group of noble (inert) gases] was confirmed by computer experiments. However, the other axis (the carbon group) is not so obvious and is evidently due, on account of the superimposition of the effect of noncharacteristic (possible) valences, to the elements of various groups (boron, aluminum, germanium, antimony, bismuth). In addition, the compound analogs for the element prototypes of the d block are numerous, i.e., the copper-silver-gold, manganese-technetium-rhenium, and iron and platinum families

  2. Temporal evolution of photon energy emitted from two-component advective flows: origin of time lag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Arka; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.; Ghosh, Himadri

    2017-12-01

    X-ray time lag of black hole candidates contains important information regarding the emission geometry. Recently, study of time lags from observational data revealed very intriguing properties. To investigate the real cause of this lag behavior with energy and spectral states, we study photon paths inside a two-component advective flow (TCAF) which appears to be a satisfactory model to explain the spectral and timing properties. We employ the Monte Carlo simulation technique to carry out the Comptonization process. We use a relativistic thick disk in Schwarzschild geometry as the CENtrifugal pressure supported BOundary Layer (CENBOL) which is the Compton cloud. In TCAF, this is the post-shock region of the advective component. Keplerian disk on the equatorial plane which is truncated at the inner edge i.e. at the outer boundary of the CENBOL, acts as the soft photon source. Ray-tracing code is employed to track the photons to a distantly located observer. We compute the cumulative time taken by a photon during Comptonization, reflection and following the curved geometry on the way to the observer. Time lags between various hard and soft bands have been calculated. We study the variation of time lags with accretion rates, CENBOL size and inclination angle. Time lags for different energy channels are plotted for different inclination angles. The general trend of variation of time lag with QPO frequency and energy as observed in satellite data is reproduced.

  3. A two component system is involved in acid adaptation of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yanhua; Liu, Wei; Qu, Xiaojun; Chen, Zhangting; Zhang, Xu; Liu, Tong; Zhang, Lanwei

    2012-05-20

    The Gram-positive bacterium Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus is of vital importance to the food industry, especially to the dairy industry. Two component systems (TCSs) are one of the most important mechanisms for environmental sensing and signal transduction in the majority of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. A typical TCS consists of a histidine protein kinase (HPK) and a cytoplasmic response regulator (RR). To investigate the functions of TCSs during acid adaptation in L. bulgaricus, we used quantitative PCR to reveal how TCSs expression changes during acid adaptation. Two TCSs (JN675228/JN675229 and JN675230/JN675231) and two HPKs (JN675236 and JN675240) were induced during acid adaptation. These TCSs were speculated to be related with the acid adaptation ability of L. bulgaricus. The mutants of JN675228/JN675229 were constructed in order to investigate the functions of JN675228/JN675229. The mutants showed reduced acid adaptation compared to that of wild type, and the complemented strains were similar to the wild-type strain. These observations suggested that JN675228 and JN675229 were involved in acid adaptation in L. bulgaricus. The interaction between JN675228 and JN675229 was identified by means of yeast two-hybrid system. The results indicated there is interaction between JN675228 and JN675229. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. The Evolution of Two-Component Systems in Bacteria RevealsDifferent Strategies for Niche Adaptation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alm, Eric; Huang, Katherine; Arkin, Adam

    2006-09-13

    Two-component systems including histidine protein kinasesrepresent the primary signal transduction paradigm in prokaryoticorganisms. To understand how these systems adapt to allow organisms todetect niche-specific signals, we analyzed the phylogenetic distributionof nearly 5000 histidine protein kinases from 207 sequenced prokaryoticgenomes. We found that many genomes carry a large repertoire of recentlyevolved signaling genes, which may reflect selective pressure to adapt tonew environmental conditions. Both lineage-specific gene family expansionand horizontal gene transfer play major roles in the introduction of newhistidine kinases into genomes; however, there are differences in howthese two evolutionary forces act. Genes imported via horizontal transferare more likely to retain their original functionality as inferred from asimilar complement of signaling domains, while gene family expansionaccompanied by domain shuffling appears to be a major source of novelgenetic diversity. Family expansion is the dominantsource of newhistidine kinase genes in the genomes most enriched in signalingproteins, and detailed analysis reveals that divergence in domainstructure and changes in expression patterns are hallmarks of recentexpansions. Finally, while these two modes of gene acquisition arewidespread across bacterial taxa, there are clear species-specificpreferences for which mode is used.

  5. PLA and two components silicon rubber blends aiming for frozen foods packaging applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utai Meekum

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Designing of PLA and two components silicone rubber blends was studies. Frozen food packaging application is the main ultimate aim. The statistical method using 23 DOE was conducted. The standard testing methods, in particular impact testing at sub-zero temperature, were performed. The preliminary blend formula comprised 1.0 phr of silane and polyester polyols, respectively, was initially resolved. Then, the optimize the silicone portion in the blends was determined. Blending formula using 8.0 phr of silicone with respect to PLA matrix gave rise to the overall satisfactory properties. 3. TETA was used as the silicone curing agent and reactively blended onto the ingredients. TETA at 0.4 phr, with respect to the silicone, enhanced the mechanical properties, especially flexibility and toughness, of the PLA/silicone blend. Exceeding the optimal TETA loading would cause the chain scission and also the dilution effects. Hence, marginal inferior properties of the blends were be experienced. The preliminary biodegradability investigation found that the PLA/silicone blend initially triggered at the second week. Its degradation rate was likely to be faster than neat PLA. Keywords: PLA/silicone blends, Mechanical properties, Sub-zero impact strength

  6. Two-component regulators involved in the global control of virulence in Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, A R; Andersson, R A; Pirhonen, M; Palva, E T

    1998-08-01

    Production of extracellular, plant cell wall degrading enzymes, the main virulence determinants of the plant pathogen Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora, is coordinately controlled by a complex regulatory network. Insertion mutants in the exp (extracellular enzyme production) loci exhibit pleiotropic defects in virulence and the growth-phase-dependent transcriptional activation of genes encoding extracellular enzymes. Two new exp mutations, designated expA and expS, were characterized. Introduction of the corresponding wild-type alleles to the mutants complemented both the lack of virulence and the impaired production of plant cell wall degrading enzymes. The expA gene was shown to encode a 24-kDa polypeptide that is structurally and functionally related to the uvrY gene product of Escherichia coli and the GacA response regulator of Pseudomonas fluorescens. Functional similarity of expA and uvrY was demonstrated by genetic complementation. The expA gene is organized in an operon together with a uvrC-like gene, identical to the organization of uvrY and uvrC in E. coli. The unlinked expS gene encodes a putative sensor kinase that shows 92% identity to the recently described rpfA gene product from another E. carotovora subsp. carotovora strain. Our data suggest that ExpS and ExpA are members of two-component sensor kinase and response regulator families, respectively. These two proteins might interact in controlling virulence gene expression in E. carotovora subsp. carotovora.

  7. An inverse spectral problem related to the Geng-Xue two-component peakon equation

    CERN Document Server

    Lundmark, Hans

    2016-01-01

    The authors solve a spectral and an inverse spectral problem arising in the computation of peakon solutions to the two-component PDE derived by Geng and Xue as a generalization of the Novikov and Degasperisâe"Procesi equations. Like the spectral problems for those equations, this one is of a âeoediscrete cubic stringâe typeâe"a nonselfadjoint generalization of a classical inhomogeneous stringâe"but presents some interesting novel features: there are two Lax pairs, both of which contribute to the correct complete spectral data, and the solution to the inverse problem can be expressed using quantities related to Cauchy biorthogonal polynomials with two different spectral measures. The latter extends the range of previous applications of Cauchy biorthogonal polynomials to peakons, which featured either two identical, or two closely related, measures. The method used to solve the spectral problem hinges on the hidden presence of oscillatory kernels of Gantmacherâe"Krein type, implying that the spectrum of...

  8. Isomerization and dissociation in competition: the two-component dissociation rates of methyl acetate ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazyar, Oleg A.; Mayer, Paul M.; Baer, Tomas

    1997-11-01

    Threshold photoelectron-photoion coincidence (TPEPICO) spectroscopy has been used to investigate the unimolecular chemistry of metastable methyl acetate ions, CH3COOCH3.+. The rate of molecular ion fragmentation with the loss of CH3O. and CH2OH radicals as a function of ion internal energy was obtained from the coincidence data and used in conjunction with Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Markus and ab initio molecular orbital calculations to model the dissociation/isomerization mechanism of the methyl acetate ion (A). The data were found to be consistent with the mechanism involving a hydrogen-bridged complex CH3CO[middle dot][middle dot][middle dot]H[middle dot][middle dot][middle dot]OCH2.+(E) as the direct precursor of the observed fragments CH3CO+ and CH2OH.. The two-component decay rates were modeled with a three-well-two-product potential energy surface including the distonic ion CH3C(OH)OCH2.+(B) and enol isomer CH2C(OH)OCH3.+(C), which are formed from the methyl acetate ion by two consecutive [1,4]-hydrogen shifts. The 0 K heats of formation of isomers B and C as well as transition states TSAB, TSBC, and TSBE (relative to isomer A) were calculated from Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Markus (RRKM) theory.

  9. Images and Spectra of Time Dependent Two Component Advective Flow in Presence of Outflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Arka; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.; Ghosh, Himadri; Garain, Sudip K.

    2018-05-01

    Two Component Advective Flow (TCAF) successfully explains the spectral and temporal properties of outbursting or persistent sources. Images of static TCAF with Compton cloud or CENtrifugal pressure supported Boundary Layer (CENBOL) due to gravitational bending of photons have been studied before. In this paper, we study time dependent images of advective flows around a Schwarzschild black hole which include cooling effects due to Comptonization of soft photons from a Keplerian disks well as the self-consistently produced jets and outflows. We show the overall image of the disk-jet system after convolving with a typical beamwidth. A long exposure image with time dependent system need not show the black hole horizon conspicuously, unless one is looking at a soft state with no jet or the system along the jet axis. Assuming these disk-jet configurations are relevant to radio emitting systems also, our results would be useful to look for event horizons in high accretion rate Supermassive Black Holes in Seyfert galaxies, RL Quasars.

  10. A two-component regulatory system controls autoregulated serpin expression in Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Martin, Pablo; O'Connell Motherway, Mary; Turroni, Francesca; Foroni, Elena; Ventura, Marco; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2012-10-01

    This work reports on the identification and molecular characterization of a two-component regulatory system (2CRS), encoded by serRK, which is believed to control the expression of the ser(2003) locus in Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003. The ser(2003) locus consists of two genes, Bbr_1319 (sagA) and Bbr_1320 (serU), which are predicted to encode a hypothetical membrane-associated protein and a serpin-like protein, respectively. The response regulator SerR was shown to bind to the promoter region of ser(2003), and the probable recognition sequence of SerR was determined by a combinatorial approach of in vitro site-directed mutagenesis coupled to transcriptional fusion and electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs). The importance of the serRK 2CRS in the response of B. breve to protease-mediated induction was confirmed by generating a B. breve serR insertion mutant, which was shown to exhibit altered ser(2003) transcriptional induction patterns compared to the parent strain, UCC2003. Interestingly, the analysis of a B. breve serU mutant revealed that the SerRK signaling pathway appears to include a SerU-dependent autoregulatory loop.

  11. Development and characterization of two-component albedo based neutron individual monitoring system using thermoluminescent detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Marcelo Marques

    2008-01-01

    A TLD-albedo based two-component neutron individual monitoring system was developed and characterized in this work. The monitor consists of a black plastic holder, an incident neutron boron loaded shield, a moderator polyethylene body (to increase its response), two pairs of TLD-600 and TLD-700 (one pair to each component) and an adjustable belt. This monitoring system was calibrated in thermal neutron fields and in 70 keV, 144 keV, 565 keV, 1.2 MeV and 5 MeV monoenergetic neutron fields. In addition, it was calibrated in 252C f(D 2 O), 252 Cf, 241 Am-B, 241 Am-Be and 238 Pu-Be source fields. For the latter, the lower detection levels are, respectively, 0.009 mSv, 0.06 mSv, 0.12 mSv, 0.09 mSv and 0.08 mSv. The participation in an international intercomparison sponsored by IAEA with simulated workplace fields validated the system. The monitoring system was successfully characterized in the ISO 21909 standard and in an IRD - the Brazilian Institute for Radioprotection and Dosimetry - technical regulation draft. Nowadays, the neutron individual system is in use by IRD for whole body individual monitoring of five institutions, which comprehend several activities. (author)

  12. Short and medium range order in two-component silica glasses by positron annihilation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, K.; Kataoka, H.; Nagai, Y.; Hasegawa, M.; Kobayashi, Y.

    2014-01-01

    The dependence of chemical composition on the average sizes of subnanometer-scale intrinsic structural open spaces surrounded by glass random networks in two-component silica-based glasses was investigated systematically using positronium (Ps) confined in the open spaces. The average sizes of the open spaces for SiO 2 -B 2 O 3 and SiO 2 -GeO 2 glasses are only slightly dependent on the chemical compositions because the B 2 O 3 and GeO 2 are glass network formers that are incorporated into the glass network of the base SiO 2 . However, the open space sizes for all SiO 2 -R 2 O (R = Li, Na, K) glasses, where R 2 O is a glass network modifier that occupies the open spaces, decrease rapidly with an increase in the R 2 O concentration. Despite the large difference in the ionic radii of the alkali metal (R) atoms, the open space sizes decrease similarly for all the alkali metal atoms studied. This dependence of the chemical composition on the open space sizes in SiO 2 -R 2 O observed by Ps shows that the alkali metal atoms do not randomly occupy the structural open spaces, but filling of the open spaces by R 2 O proceeds selectively from the larger to the smaller open spaces as the R 2 O concentrations are increased.

  13. Adaptation to Environmental Stimuli within the Host: Two-Component Signal Transduction Systems of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretl, Daniel J.; Demetriadou, Chrystalla; Zahrt, Thomas C.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Pathogenic microorganisms encounter a variety of environmental stresses following infection of their respective hosts. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiological agent of tuberculosis, is an unusual bacterial pathogen in that it is able to establish lifelong infections in individuals within granulomatous lesions that are formed following a productive immune response. Adaptation to this highly dynamic environment is thought to be mediated primarily through transcriptional reprogramming initiated in response to recognition of stimuli, including low-oxygen tension, nutrient depletion, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, altered pH, toxic lipid moieties, cell wall/cell membrane-perturbing agents, and other environmental cues. To survive continued exposure to these potentially adverse factors, M. tuberculosis encodes a variety of regulatory factors, including 11 complete two-component signal transduction systems (TCSSs) and several orphaned response regulators (RRs) and sensor kinases (SKs). This report reviews our current knowledge of the TCSSs present in M. tuberculosis. In particular, we discuss the biochemical and functional characteristics of individual RRs and SKs, the environmental stimuli regulating their activation, the regulons controlled by the various TCSSs, and the known or postulated role(s) of individual TCSSs in the context of M. tuberculosis physiology and/or pathogenesis. PMID:22126994

  14. A hybrid two-component system protein from Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 was involved in chemotaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yanhua; Tu, Ran; Wu, Lixian; Hong, Yuanyuan; Chen, Sanfeng

    2011-09-20

    We here report the sequence and functional analysis of org35 of Azospirillum brasilense Sp7, which was originally identified to be able to interact with NifA in yeast-two-hybrid system. The org35 encodes a hybrid two-component system protein, including N-terminal PAS domains, a histidine kinase (HPK) domain and a response regulator (RR) domain in C-terminal. To determine the function of the Org35, a deletion-insertion mutant in PAS domain [named Sp7353] and a complemental strain Sp7353C were constructed. The mutant had reduced chemotaxis ability compared to that of wild-type, and the complemental strain was similar to the wild-type strain. These data suggested that the A. brasilense org35 played a key role in chemotaxis. Variants containing different domains of the org35 were expressed, and the functions of these domains were studied in vitro. Phosphorylation assays in vitro demonstrated that the HPK domain of Org35 possessed the autokinase activity and that the phosphorylated HPK was able to transfer phosphate groups to the RR domain. The result indicated Org35 was a phosphorylation-communicating protein. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Discrete kink dynamics in hydrogen-bonded chains: The two-component model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karpan, V.M.; Zolotaryuk, Yaroslav; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    2004-01-01

    We study discrete topological solitary waves (kinks and antikinks) in two nonlinear diatomic chain models that describe the collective dynamics of proton transfers in one-dimensional hydrogen-bonded networks. The essential ingredients of the models are (i) a realistic (anharmonic) ion-proton inte......We study discrete topological solitary waves (kinks and antikinks) in two nonlinear diatomic chain models that describe the collective dynamics of proton transfers in one-dimensional hydrogen-bonded networks. The essential ingredients of the models are (i) a realistic (anharmonic) ion...... chain subject to a substrate with two optical bands), both providing a bistability of the hydrogen-bonded proton. Exact two-component (kink and antikink) discrete solutions for these models are found numerically. We compare the soliton solutions and their properties in both the one- (when the heavy ions...... principal differences, like a significant difference in the stability switchings behavior for the kinks and the antikinks. Water-filled carbon nanotubes are briefly discussed as possible realistic systems, where topological discrete (anti)kink states might exist....

  16. Thermodynamics and kinetics of interstitial diffusion in a two-component system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    Diffusion theory is developed for a two-component system in which only the interstitial element is mobile. A thermodynamic formalism is used in direct parallel with a kinetic theory to construct a mechanism-independent relationship between tracer- and chemical-diffusion coefficients. It is found that D/sup I/=(D-italic*/f)(1+partiallnγ/partiallnC). D/sup I/ is the intrinsic- or chemical-diffusion coefficient for the interstitial, D* is the tracer-diffusion coefficient, f is the correlation factor, and γ is the activity coefficient. This expression accounts for site exclusion, correlation, and drift effects that occur as the interstitial content changes. Generalized phenomenological coefficients that are determined in this analysis can be used for standard representations of diffusion in electric fields and temperature gradients. Moreover, the forms that the phenomenological coefficients take for the interstitial system are the same as those previously derived for vacancy diffusion. A test of this predicted relationship between tracer- and chemical-diffusion coefficients is developed using a comparison between theory and experiment for carbon diffusion in fcc iron

  17. Study of the catalytic selectivity of an aqueous two-component polyurethane system by ftir spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamenković Jakov V.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The difficulty in formulating a two component waterborne polyurethane, is the isocyanate-water side reaction, which can lead to gassing/foaming, loss of isocyanate functionality, low gloss and a reduced pot life. To compensate for this side reaction, these formulations usually contain a large excess of isocyanate. Tin compounds, especially dibutyltin dilaurate, are widely used in coatings as catalysts for the isocyanate/hydroxyl reaction. Because of the high aquatic toxicity of some organotin compounds, there has been an attempt to ban organotin compounds from all coating applications. As a general rule, organotin catalysts are not selective, they catalyze the reaction of isocyanates with both hydroxyl groups and water and also catalyze the hydrolysis of ester groups. One novel approach to control the water side reaction is the use of catalysts which selectively catalyze the isocyanate-polyol reaction and not the isocyanate-water reaction. The selectivity of a variety of metal catalysts (metal octoates, metal acetylacetonates and mangan chelates with mixed ligands to catalyze the preferred reaction was measured using the FTIR method.

  18. PLA and two components silicon rubber blends aiming for frozen foods packaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meekum, Utai; Khiansanoi, Apichart

    2018-03-01

    Designing of PLA and two components silicone rubber blends was studies. Frozen food packaging application is the main ultimate aim. The statistical method using 23 DOE was conducted. The standard testing methods, in particular impact testing at sub-zero temperature, were performed. The preliminary blend formula comprised 1.0 phr of silane and polyester polyols, respectively, was initially resolved. Then, the optimize the silicone portion in the blends was determined. Blending formula using 8.0 phr of silicone with respect to PLA matrix gave rise to the overall satisfactory properties. 3. TETA was used as the silicone curing agent and reactively blended onto the ingredients. TETA at 0.4 phr, with respect to the silicone, enhanced the mechanical properties, especially flexibility and toughness, of the PLA/silicone blend. Exceeding the optimal TETA loading would cause the chain scission and also the dilution effects. Hence, marginal inferior properties of the blends were be experienced. The preliminary biodegradability investigation found that the PLA/silicone blend initially triggered at the second week. Its degradation rate was likely to be faster than neat PLA.

  19. Grouting mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klyusov, A A; Bakshutov, V S; Kulyavtsev, V A

    1980-10-23

    A grouting mixture is proposed for low-temperature boreholes. The mixture contains cement, beta gypsum polyhydrate, and calcium chloride, so as to increase the water resistance and strength properties of expanding brick at conditions from 20 to -5/sup 0/ C, the components are in the following ratios: (by wt.-%): cement, 77.45-88.06; beta gypsum polyhydrate, 9.79-19.36; calcium chloride, 2.15-3.19. Grouting mortar for cold boreholes serves as the cement.

  20. SALT-INDUCED TRANSITION FROM A MICELLAR TO A LAMELLAR LIQUID-CRYSTALLINE PHASE IN DILUTE MIXTURES OF ANIONIC AND NONIONIC SURFACTANTS IN AQUEOUS-SOLUTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SEIN, A; ENGBERTS, JBFN; VANDERLINDEN, E; VANDEPAS, JC

    In dilute mixtures of anionic surfactant, sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (NaDoBS), and nonionic poly(ethylene oxide) alkyl monoether (C13-15E(7)) a transition from a micellar to a lamellar phase is found at high salting-out electrolyte (NaCit) concentrations. With an increase of the salt