WorldWideScience

Sample records for two-color two-photon ionization

  1. Selected cis- and trans-3-fluorostyrene rotamers studied by two-color resonant two-photon mass-analyzed threshold ionization spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pei Ying; Tzeng, Wen Bih

    2015-10-01

    We applied two-color resonant two-photon ionization and mass-analyzed threshold ionization techniques to record the vibronic, photoionization efficiency, and cation spectra of the selected rotamers of 3-fluorostyrene. The adiabatic ionization energies of cis- and trans-3-fluorostyrene were determined to be 69 960 ± 5 and 69 856 ± 5 cm-1, respectively. Cation vibrations 10a, 15, 6b, and 12 of both rotamers have been found to have frequencies of 218, 404, 452, and 971 cm-1, respectively. This finding shows that the relative orientation of the vinyl group with respect to the F atom does not affect these vibrations of the 3-fluorostyrene cation. Our one-dimensional potential energy surface calculations support that the cis-trans isomerization of 3-fluorostyrene does not occur under the present experimental conditions.

  2. Tunneling ionization and harmonic generation in two-color fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, K.; Kobayashi, Y.; Sagisaka, A.; Nabekawa, Y.; Watanabe, S.

    1996-01-01

    Tunneling ionization and harmonic generation in two-color fields were studied with a fundamental beam (ω) and its harmonics (2ω,3ω), which were generated by a 100-fs Ti:sapphire laser. Ion yields of atoms and molecules were successfully controlled by means of a change in the relative phase between ω and 3ω pulses. Two-color interference was clearly observed in photoelectron spectra and harmonic spectra. In the ω endash 2ω field even-order harmonics were observed in which the intensity was almost equal to that of the odd harmonics because of an asymmetric optical field. These results were compared with the quasi-static model for ionization and with the quantum theory for harmonic generation. copyright 1996 Optical Society of America

  3. Two-photon double ionization of the helium atom by ultrashort pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, Alicia; Horner, Daniel A.; Rescigno, Thomas N.; McCurdy, C. William

    2010-01-01

    Two-photon double ionization of the helium atom was the subject of early experiments at FLASH and will be the subject of future benchmark measurements of the associated electron angular and energy distributions. As the photon energy of a single femtosecond pulse is raised from the threshold for two-photon double ionization at 39.5 eV to beyond the sequential ionization threshold at 54.4 eV, the electron ejection dynamics change from the highly correlated motion associated with nonsequential absorption to the much less correlated sequential ionization process. The signatures of both processes have been predicted in accurate ab initio calculations of the joint angular and energy distributions of the electrons, and those predictions contain some surprises. The dominant terms that contribute to sequential ionization make their presence apparent several eV below that threshold. In two-color pump probe experiments with short pulses whose central frequencies require that the sequential ionization process necessarily dominates, a two-electron interference pattern emerges that depends on the pulse delay and the spin state of the atom.

  4. Effects of autoionizing states on two-photon double ionization of the H2 molecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan, Xiaoxu; Bartschat, Klaus; Koesterke, Lars; Schneider, Barry I

    2014-01-01

    We report angle-resolved and angle-integrated cross sections for two-photon double-ionization of H by a strong laser pulse. The effect of doubly excited states on the predicted cross sections is addressed.

  5. Studies of photoionization in liquids using a laser two-photon ionization conductivity technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siomos, K.; Christophorou, L.G.

    1981-01-01

    One-photon ionization studies of solute molecules in a liquid medium are limited by the absorption of the host medium. A laser two-photon ionization (TPI) technique using a frequency tunable dye laser has been developed, whereby the photoionization threshold of a solute molecule was determined from the induced conductivity in the liquid medium under study due to electron-ion pair formation via two-photon ionization of the solute. The two-photon induced electron-ion current is measured as a function of the laser wavelength, lambda/sub laser/. In this paper, results are reported and discussed on the photoionization of N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine (TMPD), pyrene and fluoranthene in liquid n-pentane

  6. The general expression for the transition amplitude of two-photon ionization of atomic hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karule, E [Institute of Atomic Physics and Spectroscopy, University of Latvia, Raina Boulevard 19, Riga, LV-1586 (Latvia); Moine, B [Universite Paris Sud, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2003-05-28

    Two-photon ionization of atomic hydrogen with an excess photon is revisited. The non-relativistic dipole approximation and Coulomb Green function (CGF) formalism are applied. Using the CGF Sturmian expansion straightforwardly, one gets the radial transition amplitude in the form of an infinite sum over Gauss hypergeometric functions which are polynomials. It is convergent if all intermediate states are in the discrete spectrum. In the case of two-photon ionization with an excess photon, when photoionization is also possible, intermediate states are in the continuum. We performed the explicit summation over intermediate states and got a simple general expression for the radial transition amplitude in the form of a finite sum over Appell hypergeometric functions, which are not polynomials. An Appell function may be expressed as an infinite sum over Gauss functions. In the case of ionization by an excess photon, Gauss functions are transformed to give a convergent radial transition amplitude for the whole region. The generalized cross sections for two-photon above-threshold ionization of atomic hydrogen in the ground state and excited states calculated by us agree very well with results of previous calculations. Generalized cross sections for two-photon ionization of positronium in the ground state are obtained by scaling those for atomic hydrogen.

  7. Controlling nonsequential double ionization of Ne with parallel-polarized two-color laser pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Siqiang; Ma, Xiaomeng; Xie, Hui; Li, Min; Zhou, Yueming; Cao, Wei; Lu, Peixiang

    2018-05-14

    We measure the recoil-ion momentum distributions from nonsequential double ionization of Ne by two-color laser pulses consisting of a strong 800-nm field and a weak 400-nm field with parallel polarizations. The ion momentum spectra show pronounced asymmetries in the emission direction, which depend sensitively on the relative phase of the two-color components. Moreover, the peak of the doubly charged ion momentum distribution shifts gradually with the relative phase. The shifted range is much larger than the maximal vector potential of the 400-nm laser field. Those features are well recaptured by a semiclassical model. Through analyzing the correlated electron dynamics, we found that the energy sharing between the two electrons is extremely unequal at the instant of recollison. We further show that the shift of the ion momentum corresponds to the change of the recollision time in the two-color laser field. By tuning the relative phase of the two-color components, the recollision time is controlled with attosecond precision.

  8. Angular anisotropy parameters for sequential two-photon double ionization of helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, I A; Kheifets, A S

    2009-01-01

    We evaluate photoelectron angular anisotropy /3-parameters for the process of sequential two-photon double electron ionization of helium within the time-independent lowest order perturbation theory (LOPT). Our results indicate that for the photoelectron energies outside the interval (E slow , E fast ), where E slow = ω - IP He + and E fast ω - IP He , there is a considerable deviation from the dipole angular distribution thus indicating the effect of electron correlation.

  9. Simultaneous production of spin-polarized ions/electrons based on two-photon ionization of laser-ablated metallic atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Takashi; Yonekura, Nobuaki; Matsuo, Yukari; Kobayashi, Tohru; Fukuyama, Yoshimitsu

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate the simultaneous production of spin-polarized ions/electrons using two-color, two-photon ionization of laser-ablated metallic atoms. Specifically, we have applied the developed technique to laser-ablated Sr atoms, and found that the electron-spin polarization of Sr + ions, and accordingly, the spin polarization of photoelectrons is 64%±9%, which is in good agreement with the theoretical prediction we have recently reported [T. Nakajima and N. Yonekura, J. Chem. Phys. 117, 2112 (2002)]. Our experimental results open up a simple way toward the construction of a spin-polarized dual ion/electron source

  10. Effects of autoionizing states on two-photon double ionization of the H2 molecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan, Xiaoxu; Bartschat, Klaus; Schneider, Barry I; Koesterke, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Treating the effects of autoionizing intermediate states on two-photon double ionization (DI) of the H 2 molecule using time-dependent laser pulses is a significant computational challenge. Relatively long exposure times are critical to understanding the dynamics. Using the fixed-nuclei approximation, we demonstrate how the doubly excited states enhance the angle-integrated generalized cross sections in H 2 , and how they affect the angular distribution pattern of the ejected electrons. As the energy approaches the threshold for sequential DI, there is a sharp rise in the cross section due to virtual sequential ionization

  11. Polarization control of direct (non-sequential) two-photon double ionization of He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pronin, E A; Manakov, N L; Marmo, S I; Starace, Anthony F

    2007-01-01

    An ab initio parametrization of the doubly-differential cross section (DDCS) for two-photon double ionization (TPDI) from an s 2 subshell of an atom in a 1 S 0 -state is presented. Analysis of the elliptic dichroism (ED) effect in the DDCS for TPDI of He and its comparison with the same effect in the concurrent process of sequential double ionization shows their qualitative and quantitative differences, thus providing a means to control and to distinguish sequential and non-sequential processes by measuring the relative ED parameter

  12. Resonantly-enhanced two-photon ionization and mass-analyzed threshold ionization (MATI) spectroscopy of 2-hydroxypyridine

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, D H; Choi, K W; Choi, Y S; Kim, S K

    2002-01-01

    Mass-analyzed threshold ionization (MATI) spectra of 2-hydroxypyridines existing as lactims (2-pyridionl) in a molecular beam are obtained via (1+1') two-photon process to give accurate ionization energies of 8.9344 +- 0.0005 and 8.9284 +- 0.0005 eV for 2-pyridinol (2Py-OH) and its deuterated analogue (2Py-OD), respectively. Resonantly-enhanced two-photon ionization spectra of these compounds are also presented to give vibrational structures of their S sub 1 states. Vibrational frequencies of 2Py-OH and 2Py-OD in ionic ground states are accurately determined from MATI spectra taken via various S sub 1 intermediate states, and associated vibrational modes are assigned with the aid of ab initio calculations.

  13. One- and two-photon ionization of hydrogen atom embedded in Debye plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, T. N.; Fang, T. K.; Ho, Y. K.

    2013-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the plasma-induced resonance-like atomic structures near the ionization threshold in one- and two-photon ionization of hydrogen atom. Such resonance-like structures result from the migration of the upper bound excited states of bound-bound atomic transitions into the continuum due to the less attractive screened Coulomb potential which simulates the external environmental effect for an atom embedded in Debye plasma. The change from the resonance-like narrow structures into broad continuous spectra as the plasma effect increases could be accounted for by the overlap between the respective wavefunctions of the atomic electron in the initial state and its corresponding outgoing ionized state in the continuum

  14. Double ionization of nitrogen molecules in orthogonal two-color femtosecond laser fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qiying; Li, Hui; Wang, Junping; Lu, Peifen; Gong, Xiaochun; Ji, Qinying; Lin, Kang; Zhang, Wenbin; Ma, Junyang; Li, Hanxiao; Zeng, Heping; He, Feng; Wu, Jian

    2018-04-01

    Double ionization of nitrogen molecules in orthogonally polarized two-color femtosecond laser fields is investigated by varying the relative intensity between the fundamental wave (FW) and its second harmonic (SH) components. The yield ratios of the double ionization channels, i.e., the non-dissociative {{{{N}}}2}2+ and Coulomb exploded (N+, N+), to the singly charged N2 + channel exhibit distinct dependences on the relative strength between the FW and SH fields. As the intensity ratio of SH to FW increases, the yield ratio of (N+, N+)/N2 + gradually increases, while the ratio of {{{{N}}}2}2+/N2 + first descends and then increases constituting a valley shape which is similar to the behavior of Ar2+/Ar+ observed in the same experimental condition. Based on the classical trajectory simulations, we found that the different characteristics of the two doubly ionized channels stem from two mechanisms, i.e., the {{{{N}}}2}2+ is mostly accessed by the (e, 2e) impact ionization while the recollision-induced excitation with subsequent ionization plays an important role in producing the (N+, N+) channel.

  15. Resonance-enhanced two-photon ionization of ions by Lyman alpha radiation in gaseous nebulae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, S; Letokhov, V

    2001-01-26

    One of the mysteries of nebulae in the vicinity of bright stars is the appearance of bright emission spectral lines of ions, which imply fairly high excitation temperatures. We suggest that an ion formation mechanism, based on resonance-enhanced two-photon ionization (RETPI) by intense H Lyman alpha radiation (wavelength of 1215 angstroms) trapped inside optically thick nebulae, can produce these spectral lines. The rate of such an ionization process is high enough for rarefied gaseous media where the recombination rate of the ions formed can be 10(-6) to 10(-8) per second for an electron density of 10(3) to 10(5) per cubic centimeter in the nebula. Under such conditions, the photo-ions formed may subsequently undergo further RETPI, catalyzed by intense He i and He ii radiation, which also gets enhanced in optically thick nebulae that contain enough helium.

  16. Electron-electron correlation in two-photon double ionization of He-like ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, S. X.

    2018-01-01

    Electron correlation plays a crucial role in quantum many-body physics ranging from molecular bonding and strong-field-induced multielectron ionization, to superconducting in materials. Understanding the dynamic electron correlation in the photoionization of relatively simple quantum three-body systems, such as He and He-like ions, is an important step toward manipulating complex systems through photoinduced processes. Here we have performed ab initio investigations of two-photon double ionization (TPDI) of He and He-like ions (L i+,B e2 + , and C4 +) exposed to intense attosecond x-ray pulses. Results from such fully correlated quantum calculations show weaker and weaker electron correlation effects in TPDI spectra as the ionic charge increases, which is opposite to the intuition that the absolute increase of correlation in the ground state should lead to more equal energy sharing in photoionization. These findings indicate that the final-state electron-electron correlation ultimately determines the energy sharing of the two ionized electrons in TPDI.

  17. Universal features in sequential and nonsequential two-photon double ionization of helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazourek, R.; Nagele, S.; Persson, E.; Burgdoerfer, J.; Feist, J.; Schneider, B. I.; Collins, L. A.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze two-photon double ionization of helium in both the nonsequential ((ℎ/2π)ω 2 ≅54.4 eV) and sequential ((ℎ/2π)ω>I 2 ) regime. We show that the energy spacing ΔE=E 1 -E 2 between the two emitted electrons provides the key parameter that controls both the energy and the angular distribution and reveals the universal features present in both the nonsequential and sequential regime. This universality, i.e., independence of (ℎ/2π)ω, is a manifestation of the continuity across the threshold for sequential double ionization. For all photon energies considered, the energy distribution can be described by a universal shape function that contains only the spectral and temporal information entering second-order time-dependent perturbation theory. Angular correlations and distributions are found to be more sensitive to the value of (ℎ/2π)ω. In particular, shake-up interferences have a large effect on the angular distribution. Energy spectra, angular distributions parametrized by the anisotropy parameters β j , and total cross sections presented in this paper are obtained by fully correlated time-dependent ab initio calculations.

  18. Alignment effects in two-photon double ionization of H2 in femtosecond xuv laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Xiaoxu; Bartschat, Klaus; Schneider, Barry I.

    2011-01-01

    Triple-differential cross sections for two-photon double ionization of the aligned hydrogen molecule at the equilibrium distance are presented for a central photon energy of 30 eV. The temporal response of the laser-driven molecule is investigated by solving the time-dependent Schroedinger equation in full dimensionality using two-center elliptical coordinates and a finite-element discrete-variable-representation approach. The molecular orientation is found to have a strong effect on the emission modes of the two correlated photoelectrons. This molecular effect is most noticeable when the molecular axis and the laser polarization vector are oriented parallel to each other. For intermediate cases between the parallel and perpendicular geometries, the dominant emission modes for two-electron ejection oscillate between those for the two extreme cases. The contributions from different ionization channels are also analyzed in detail. Depending on the emission direction of the reference electron, the interference contributions from the various channels can be constructive or destructive at small alignment angles, while they always contribute constructively to the triple-differential cross sections near the perpendicular geometry.

  19. Non-Liouvillean ion injection via resonantly enhanced two-photon ionization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Knyazev

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The charge-exchange method is now one of the main techniques for ion injection into accelerators and storage rings. The disadvantages of conventional methods, based on the atom or ion stripping in a material target, are emittance growth, energy straggling, and production of ions in many charge states. Recently suggested stripping methods based on direct photoionization require employment of hard-UV lasers, which still do not exist and must obviously be very bulky and expensive. An alternative method, suggested for injection of proton beams, employs excitation of the atom to 3p intermediate state with subsequent Lorentz ionization in a magnetic field gradient. This technique applies rigid requirements to laser characteristic and is not free of growing of the beam divergence. In this paper a variant of the stripping technique based on the resonantly enhanced two-photon ionization (RETPI is considered. The technique allows ionization of singly charged ions of the elements from helium to bismuth. A variant of the technique can be used for proton injection. RETPI can be applied for both ion injection and stacking, as well as for diagnostics of ion beam characteristics on the orbit. Stripping efficiency can be about 100% for the singly charged ions having the singlet ground state and decreases for the other ions. Special methods for “cleaning” unwanted atomic states in such ions, that can provide high stripping efficiency, are discussed. Excimer lasers with very moderate parameters can be employed for implementation of this technique for almost all elements. Numerical examples show that for most of the singly charged ions and for hydrogen atom necessary laser-beam energy density is merely 0.5–8  J/cm^{2} for a 1 m interaction region, and is 10 times higher for several light ions.

  20. Determination of the absolute two-photon ionization cross section of He by an XUV free electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Takahiro; Iwasaki, Atsushi; Ishibashi, Kazuki; Okino, Tomoya; Yamanouchi, Kaoru; Adachi, Junichi; Yagishita, Akira; Yazawa, Hiroki; Aoyma, Makoto; Yabashi, Makina; Nagasono, Mitsuru; Higashiya, Atsushi; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Kannari, Fumihiko; Yamakawa, Koichi; Midorikawa, Katsumi; Nakano, Hidetoshi

    2011-01-01

    The resonant and non-resonant two-photon single ionization processes of He were investigated using intense free electron laser light in the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) region (53.4-61.4 nm) covering the 1s-2p and 1s-3p resonant transitions of He. On the basis of the dependences of the yield of He + on the XUV light-field intensity at 53.4, 58.4, 56.0 and 61.4 nm, the absolute values of the two-photon ionization cross sections of He at the four different wavelengths and their dependence on the light-field intensity were determined for the first time. (fast track communication)

  1. R-matrix study of ionization in barium via two-photon interfering routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aymar, M.; Luc-Koenig, E.; Lecomte, J. M.; Millet, M.; Lyras, A.

    2000-01-01

    A quantitative analysis of part of the experimental data reported by Wang, Chen and Elliott [1,3] who studied in barium coherent control through two-color resonant interfering paths is reported. Dynamics of the two-color photoionization process, described as an adiabatic process in the rotating wave approximation, is governed by the coherent excitation of the 6s6p and 6s7p 1 P 1 intermediate states. Interference effects are found to play a minor role. The required atomic parameters are obtained from a theoretical approach based on a combination of jj-coupled eigenchannel R-matrix and Multichannel Quantum Defect Theory

  2. Intensity dependence of nonsequential double ionization of helium in IR+XUV two-color laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Facheng; Wang, Bingbing; Chen, Jing; Yang, Yujun; Yan, Zong-Chao

    2016-01-01

    By applying the frequency-domain theory, we investigate the dependence of momentum spectra on laser intensity in a nonsequential double ionization (NSDI) process of helium in infrared (IR) and extreme ultraviolet (XUV) two-color laser fields. We find that the two-color laser fields play distinct roles in an NSDI process, where the IR laser field mainly determines the width of each band, and the XUV laser field mainly plays a role on the NSDI probability. Furthermore, an NSDI process can be decoupled into a two-step process: an above-threshold ionization (ATI), followed by a laser-assisted collision (LAC). It is found that, the IR laser field is responsible for broadening the peak in the ATI process and providing additional momenta to the two ionized electrons in the LAC process; while the XUV laser field plays a crucial role on the strength of the spectrum in the ATI process, and influences the radii of orbits in momentum space in the LAC process. (paper)

  3. Two-color above-threshold ionization of atoms and ions in XUV Bessel beams and intense laser light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seipt, D.; Müller, R. A.; Surzhykov, A.; Fritzsche, S.

    2016-11-01

    The two-color above-threshold ionization (ATI) of atoms and ions is investigated for a vortex Bessel beam in the presence of a strong near-infrared (NIR) light field. While the photoionization is caused by the photons from the weak but extreme ultraviolet (XUV) vortex Bessel beam, the energy and angular distribution of the photoelectrons and their sideband structure are affected by the plane-wave NIR field. We here explore the energy spectra and angular emission of the photoelectrons in such two-color fields as a function of the size and location of the target atoms with regard to the beam axis. In addition, analog to the circular dichroism in typical two-color ATI experiments with circularly polarized light, we define and discuss seven different dichroism signals for such vortex Bessel beams that arise from the various combinations of the orbital and spin angular momenta of the two light fields. For localized targets, it is found that these dichroism signals strongly depend on the size and position of the atoms relative to the beam. For macroscopically extended targets, in contrast, three of these dichroism signals tend to zero, while the other four just coincide with the standard circular dichroism, similar as for Bessel beams with a small opening angle. Detailed computations of the dichroism are performed and discussed for the 4 s valence-shell photoionization of Ca+ ions.

  4. Coherent control of D2/H2 dissociative ionization by a mid-infrared two-color laser field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanie, Vincent; Ibrahim, Heide; Beaulieu, Samuel; Thiré, Nicolas; Schmidt, Bruno E; Légaré, François; Deng, Yunpei; Alnaser, Ali S; Litvinyuk, Igor V; Tong, Xiao-Min

    2016-01-01

    Steering the electrons during an ultrafast photo-induced process in a molecule influences the chemical behavior of the system, opening the door to the control of photochemical reactions and photobiological processes. Electrons can be efficiently localized using a strong laser field with a well-designed temporal shape of the electric component. Consequently, many experiments have been performed with laser sources in the near-infrared region (800 nm) in the interest of studying and enhancing the electron localization. However, due to its limited accessibility, the mid-infrared (MIR) range has barely been investigated, although it allows to efficiently control small molecules and even more complex systems. To push further the manipulation of basic chemical mechanisms, we used a MIR two-color (1800 and 900 nm) laser field to ionize H 2 and D 2 molecules and to steer the remaining electron during the photo-induced dissociation. The study of this prototype reaction led to the simultaneous control of four fragmentation channels. The results are well reproduced by a theoretical model solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for the molecular ion, identifying the involved dissociation mechanisms. By varying the relative phase between the two colors, asymmetries (i.e., electron localization selectivity) of up to 65% were obtained, corresponding to enhanced or equivalent levels of control compared to previous experiments. Experimentally easier to implement, the use of a two-color laser field leads to a better electron localization than carrier-envelope phase stabilized pulses and applying the technique in the MIR range reveals more dissociation channels than at 800 nm. (paper)

  5. Subcycle interference upon tunnel ionization by counter-rotating two-color fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckart, S.; Kunitski, M.; Ivanov, I.; Richter, M.; Fehre, K.; Hartung, A.; Rist, J.; Henrichs, K.; Trabert, D.; Schlott, N.; Schmidt, L. Ph. H.; Jahnke, T.; Schöffler, M. S.; Kheifets, A.; Dörner, R.

    2018-04-01

    We report on three-dimensional (3D) electron momentum distributions from single ionization of helium by a laser pulse consisting of two counter-rotating circularly polarized fields (390 and 780 nm). A pronounced 3D low-energy structure and subcycle interferences are observed experimentally and reproduced numerically using a trajectory-based semiclassical simulation. The orientation of the low-energy structure in the polarization plane is verified by numerical simulations solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation.

  6. Alignment effects in two-photon double ionization of H{sub 2} in femtosecond xuv laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guan Xiaoxu; Bartschat, Klaus [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Drake University, Des Moines, Iowa 50311 (United States); Schneider, Barry I. [Office of Cyberinfrastructure, National Science Foundation, Arlington, Virgina 22230 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Triple-differential cross sections for two-photon double ionization of the aligned hydrogen molecule at the equilibrium distance are presented for a central photon energy of 30 eV. The temporal response of the laser-driven molecule is investigated by solving the time-dependent Schroedinger equation in full dimensionality using two-center elliptical coordinates and a finite-element discrete-variable-representation approach. The molecular orientation is found to have a strong effect on the emission modes of the two correlated photoelectrons. This molecular effect is most noticeable when the molecular axis and the laser polarization vector are oriented parallel to each other. For intermediate cases between the parallel and perpendicular geometries, the dominant emission modes for two-electron ejection oscillate between those for the two extreme cases. The contributions from different ionization channels are also analyzed in detail. Depending on the emission direction of the reference electron, the interference contributions from the various channels can be constructive or destructive at small alignment angles, while they always contribute constructively to the triple-differential cross sections near the perpendicular geometry.

  7. Resonant two-photon ionization and mass-analyzed threshold ionization spectroscopy of 3,5-difluorophenol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wei Chih; Wu, Pei Ying; Tzeng, Shen Yuan; Tzeng, Wen Bih

    2018-05-01

    The first electronic transition and adiabatic ionization energies of 3,5-difluorophenol (35DFP) have been identified as 37614 cm-1 and 72468 cm-1, respectively. These energy values of 35DFP are marginally higher than those of other positional isomers of difluorophenols (25DFP, 34DFP, and 24DFP). The observed active vibrations are primarily due to the in-plane and out-of-plane ring deformation and substituent-sensitive bending motions in the electronically excited (S1) and cationic ground (D0) states.

  8. One- and two-photon single ionization of 1D helium: resolving the role of individual decay channels and resonance states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neimanns, Vera; Zimmermann, Klaus; Joerder, Felix; Buchleitner, Andreas [Albert-Ludwigs-Univ., Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany). Quantum Optics and Statistics; Lugan, Pierre [Laboratory of Theoretical Physics of Nanosystems, Institute of Theoretical Physics, EPF Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2012-07-01

    We combine the method of complex rotation and Floquet theory to analyze the multiphoton ionization of helium atoms in strong laser fields. We focus on 1D Z{sup 2+}e{sup -}e{sup -} helium to highlight the methods that allow us to extract the partial decay rates associated with various decay channels. In the regime of one-photon single ionization, we study the dependence of the partial rates associated with the singly ionized He{sup +}(N) states on the field frequency. We show that the electron-electron interaction provides couplings to higher single-ionization continua. Finally, we examine two-photon single-ionization processes, and analyze the role of the internal electronic structure of the atom, specifically the signature of resonant coupling to intermediate bound states on the decay rates.

  9. Alignment and pulse-duration effects in two-photon double ionization of H2 by femtosecond XUV laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xiaoxu; Bartschat, Klaus; Schneider, Barry I.; Koesterke, Lars

    2014-10-01

    We present calculations for the dependence of the two-photon double ionization (DI) of H2 on the relative orientation of the linear laser polarization to the internuclear axis and the length of the pulse. We use the fixed-nuclei approximation at the equilibrium distance of 1.4 a0, where a0=0.529 ×10-10m is the Bohr radius. Central photon energies cover the entire direct DI domain from 26.5 to 34.0 eV. In contrast to the parallel geometry studied earlier [X. Guan, K. Bartschat, B. I. Schneider, and L. Koesterke, Phys. Rev. A 83, 043403 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevA.83.043403], the effect of the pulse duration is almost negligible for the case when the two axes are perpendicular to each other. This is a consequence of the symmetry rules for dipole excitation in the two cases. In the parallel geometry, doubly excited states of 1Σu+ symmetry affect the cross section, while in the perpendicular geometry only much longer-lived 1Πu states are present. This accounts for the different convergence patterns observed in the calculated cross sections as a function of the pulse length. When the photon energy approaches the threshold of sequential DI, a sharp increase of the generalized total cross section (GTCS) with increasing pulse duration is also observed in the perpendicular geometry, very similar to the case of the molecular axis being oriented along the laser polarization direction. Our results differ from those of Colgan et al. [J. Colgan, M. S. Pindzola, and F. Robicheaux, J. Phys. B 41, 121002 (2008), 10.1088/0953-4075/41/12/121002] and Morales et al. [F. Morales, F. Martín, D. A. Horner, T. N. Rescigno, and C. W. McCurdy, J. Phys. B 42, 134013 (2009), 10.1088/0953-4075/42/13/134013], but are in excellent agreement with the GTCSs of Simonsen et al. [A. S. Simonsen, S. A. Sørngård, R. Nepstad, and M. Førre, Phys. Rev. A 85, 063404 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevA.85.063404] over the entire domain of direct DI.

  10. Phase and ellipticity dependence of the photoelectron angular distribution in non-resonant two-photon ionization of atomic hydrogen. I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faye, M; Wane, S T, E-mail: mamadou.faye@ucad.edu.sn [Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, Universite Cheikh Anta Diop, Boulevard Martin Luther King, (Corniche Ouest) BP 5005-Dakar Fann (Senegal)

    2011-03-14

    We study the ellipticity and the dependence on the phase lag (lead) (between the semimajor and the semiminor axes of the field components) of the photoelectron angular distribution (PAD) in the non-resonant two-photon ionization of atomic hydrogen. We establish exact analytical expressions for azimuthal PAD for 3s, 3p and 3d excited initial states, marked by the occurrence of an asymmetric term. This term gives rise to elliptic dichroism (ED), which can be obtained in two ways: either with the left (versus right) ellipticity, or with the phase lag (versus lead); for 3s and 3p initial states, it is shown that the quantum phase of continua is directly related to the phase lag, one-photon below-threshold ionization, and indirectly one photon above. Another important result is that the magnetic sublevels, m = 0, for 3p and m = {+-}1, for 3d, do not contribute to the azimuthal PAD. Our numerical results show, for 3s and 3d, and near-threshold ionization, that the PAD has maxima either along the semimajor or the semiminor axis, while for above-threshold ionization, they are always shifted from these axes. However, the maxima of the corresponding ED coincide with the PAD maxima, while for 3p, they are shifted from the PAD minima. A strong dependence of the ED sign is noted, regardless of the state or the process. However, strong ED signals are obtained for the 3s initial state and below-threshold ionization.

  11. Phase and ellipticity dependence of the photoelectron angular distribution in non-resonant two-photon ionization of atomic hydrogen. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faye, M; Wane, S T

    2011-01-01

    We study the ellipticity and the dependence on the phase lag (lead) (between the semimajor and the semiminor axes of the field components) of the photoelectron angular distribution (PAD) in the non-resonant two-photon ionization of atomic hydrogen. We establish exact analytical expressions for azimuthal PAD for 3s, 3p and 3d excited initial states, marked by the occurrence of an asymmetric term. This term gives rise to elliptic dichroism (ED), which can be obtained in two ways: either with the left (versus right) ellipticity, or with the phase lag (versus lead); for 3s and 3p initial states, it is shown that the quantum phase of continua is directly related to the phase lag, one-photon below-threshold ionization, and indirectly one photon above. Another important result is that the magnetic sublevels, m = 0, for 3p and m = ±1, for 3d, do not contribute to the azimuthal PAD. Our numerical results show, for 3s and 3d, and near-threshold ionization, that the PAD has maxima either along the semimajor or the semiminor axis, while for above-threshold ionization, they are always shifted from these axes. However, the maxima of the corresponding ED coincide with the PAD maxima, while for 3p, they are shifted from the PAD minima. A strong dependence of the ED sign is noted, regardless of the state or the process. However, strong ED signals are obtained for the 3s initial state and below-threshold ionization.

  12. Two-photon physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardeen, W.A.

    1981-10-01

    A new experimental frontier has recently been opened to the study of two photon processes. The first results of many aspects of these reactions are being presented at this conference. In contrast, the theoretical development of research ito two photon processes has a much longer history. This talk reviews the many different theoretical ideas which provide a detailed framework for our understanding of two photon processes

  13. Tale of two photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    A very profitable spinoff from electron- positron collisions is two-photon physics. Rather than the electron and positron interacting directly via an exchanged photon, two virtual (transient) photons, one from each particle, get tangled up. With new electron-positron colliders appearing on the scene, a topical meeting on two-photon physics - 'From DAPHNE to LEP 200 and beyond' - held from 2-4 February in Paris, in the premises of the Ministry of Higher Education and Research, was particularly timely. Some 60 physicists, both experimentalists and theorists, participated, with some thirty speakers

  14. Two Photon Distribution Amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Beiyad, M.; Pire, B.; Szymanowski, L.; Wallon, S.

    2008-01-01

    The factorization of the amplitude of the process γ*γ→γγ in the low energy and high photon virtuality region is demonstrated at the Born order and in the leading logarithmic approximation. The leading order two photon (generalized) distribution amplitudes exhibit a characteristic ln Q 2 behaviour and obey new inhomogeneous evolution equations

  15. Ultra-low emittance beam generation using two-color ionization injection in a CO2 laser-driven plasma accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, Carl; Benedetti, Carlo; Bulanov, Stepan; Chen, Min; Esarey, Eric; Geddes, Cameron; Vay, J.; Yu, Lule; Leemans, Wim

    2015-01-01

    Ultra-low emittance (tens of nm) beams can be generated in a plasma accelerator using ionization injection of electrons into a wakefield. An all-optical method of beam generation uses two laser pulses of different colors. A long-wavelength drive laser pulse (with a large ponderomotive force and small peak electric field) is used to excite a large wakefield without fully ionizing a gas, and a short-wavelength injection laser pulse (with a small ponderomotive force and large peak electric field), co-propagating and delayed with respect to the pump laser, to ionize a fraction of the remaining bound electrons at a trapped wake phase, generating an electron beam that is accelerated in the wake. The trapping condition, the ionized electron distribution, and the trapped bunch dynamics are discussed. Expressions for the beam transverse emittance, parallel and orthogonal to the ionization laser polarization, are presented. An example is shown using a 10-micron CO 2 laser to drive the wake and a frequency-doubled Ti:Al 2 O 3 laser for ionization injection.

  16. Two-photon excitation of argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pindzola, P.S.; Payne, M.C.

    1982-01-01

    The authors calculate two photon excitation parameters for various excited states of argon assuming the absorption of near resonance broad-bandwidth laser radiation. Results are given for the case of two photons absorbed for the same laser beam as well as the case of absorbing photons of different frequency from each of two laser beams. The authors use multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock wave functions to evaluate the second-order sums over matrix elements. Various experimental laser schemes are suggested for the efficient excitation and subsequent ionization of argon

  17. Controlling the Branching Ratio of Photoionization Products under Two-Color Excitation: Competition between ac Stark Splitting and Two-Path Interference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, T.; Zhang, J.; Lambropoulos, P.; Lambropoulos, P.

    1997-01-01

    We investigate the variation of the photoionization yields into different ionic channels by means of the one-photon-near-resonant two-photon ionization scheme under two-color excitation. We present a general formulation and the results of specific calculations pertaining to the Ca atom with realistic parameters. A significant change of the ionization into Ca + 4s , 3d , and 4p channels has been observed as a detuning is varied, which agrees qualitatively well with the observation by Wang, Chen, and Elliott [Phys.Rev.Lett.77, 2416 (1996)] for the Ba atom. The importance of the laser intensity effects is also addressed. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  18. Two-Electron Time-Delay Interference in Atomic Double Ionization by Attosecond Pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, A.; Rescigno, T. N.; McCurdy, C. W.

    2009-01-01

    A two-color two-photon atomic double ionization experiment using subfemtosecond uv pulses can be designed such that the sequential two-color process dominates and one electron is ejected by each pulse. Nonetheless, ab initio calculations show that, for sufficiently short pulses, a prominent interference pattern in the joint energy distribution of the sequentially ejected electrons can be observed that is due to their indistinguishability and the exchange symmetry of the wave function.

  19. Two-electron time-delay interference in atomic double ionization by attosecond pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rescigno, Thomas N

    2009-10-04

    A two-color two-photon atomic double ionization experiment using subfemtosecond UV pulses can be designed such that the sequential two-color process dominates and one electron is ejected by each pulse. Nonetheless, ab initio calculations show that, for sufficiently short pulses, a prominent interference pattern in the joint energy distribution of the sequentially ejected electrons can be observed that is due to their indistinguishability and the exchange symmetry of the wave function.

  20. Young's double-slit interference with two-color biphotons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, De-Jian; Wu, Shuang; Li, Hong-Guo; Wang, Hai-Bo; Xiong, Jun; Wang, Kaige

    2017-12-12

    In classical optics, Young's double-slit experiment with colored coherent light gives rise to individual interference fringes for each light frequency, referring to single-photon interference. However, two-photon double-slit interference has been widely studied only for wavelength-degenerate biphoton, known as subwavelength quantum lithography. In this work, we report double-slit interference experiments with two-color biphoton. Different from the degenerate case, the experimental results depend on the measurement methods. From a two-axis coincidence measurement pattern we can extract complete interference information about two colors. The conceptual model provides an intuitional picture of the in-phase and out-of-phase photon correlations and a complete quantum understanding about the which-path information of two colored photons.

  1. Two-color infrared detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klem, John F; Kim, Jin K

    2014-05-13

    A two-color detector includes a first absorber layer. The first absorber layer exhibits a first valence band energy characterized by a first valence band energy function. A barrier layer adjoins the first absorber layer at a first interface. The barrier layer exhibits a second valence band energy characterized by a second valence band energy function. The barrier layer also adjoins a second absorber layer at a second interface. The second absorber layer exhibits a third valence band energy characterized by a third valence band energy function. The first and second valence band energy functions are substantially functionally or physically continuous at the first interface and the second and third valence band energy functions are substantially functionally or physically continuous at the second interface.

  2. Precision two-photon spectroscopy of alkali elements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    effect is eliminated if the wave vector of the photons is ka = −kb, i.e., the two beams .... atomic cesium, and the metre is (indirectly) defined from the wavelength of .... plasma absorb radiation, the electrical circuit parameters may vary and this .... two-photon excitation followed by an ionization step in Ca [71], Sr [72] and Gd [73] ...

  3. Two-color studies of autoionizing states of small molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, S.T.; Dehmer, P.M.; Dehmer, J.L.; Tomkins, F.S.; O'Halloran, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Two-color, resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization is proving to be a valuable technique for the study of autoionizing states of small molecules. In this talk, results obtained by combining REMPI, photoelectron spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry will be discussed and will be illustrated by examples from our recent studies of rotational and vibrational autoionization in molecular hydrogen and rotational autoionization in nitric oxide. 2 refs., 1 fig

  4. Holographic Two-Photon Induced Photopolymerization

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Holographic two-photon-induced photopolymerization (HTPIP) offers distinct advantages over conventional one-photon-induced photopolymerization and current techniques...

  5. Ionization of a cesium atom by an absorption process involving two photons from a laser beam; Ionisation d'un atome de cesium par un processus d'absorption a deux photons issus d'un faisceau laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gontier, Y; Trahin, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-01-01

    The expression giving the ionisation cross-section of an atom, by an absorption process involving two photons produced from a laser beam, is derived. The non-relativistic case is considered and the dipolar approximation used. The summation over the intermediate states is carried out rigorously by means of a special technique which is described in detail. A method is presented which makes it possible to obtain the numerical solution. (authors) [French] La formule donnant la section efficace d'ionisation d'un atome, par un processus d'absorption mettant en jeu deux photons issus d'un faiseau Laser, est etablie. On se place dans le cas non relativiste et Pon utilise l'approximation dipolaire. La sommation sur les etats intermediaires est effectuee rigoureusement au moyen d'une technique particuliere qui est decrite en detail. On expose une methode permettant d'obtenir la solution numerique. (auteurs)

  6. Quarkonium two-photon decays in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dulyan, L.S.; Khodjamirian, A.Yu.; Magakian, A.D.

    1989-01-01

    The two-photon decay of tensor charmonium χ c2 → 2 γ is calculated with account of gluon condensate effects. The result is in good agreement with experiment. The two-photon width of pseudoscalar b-quarkonium η b → 2 γ is estimated. 19 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab

  7. Charm production in two-photon collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linde, F.L.

    1988-01-01

    The analysis focuses on the production of charmonium resonances η c , χ 0 and χ 2 in two-photon interactions. The measurement of the inclusive production of charged D* mesons is described. 97 refs.; 54 figs.; 15 tabs

  8. Exclusive hadron production in two photon reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poppe, M.

    1986-02-01

    This paper summarises experimental results on exclusive hadron production in two photon collisions at electron positron storage rings and attempts some interpretation. Experimental know how is described and new suggestions are made for future analyses. New model calculations on resonance form factors and pair production amplitudes are presented. The two photon vertex is decomposed such that experiments can be parameterised with the minimal number of free parameters. Selection rules for off shell photon collisions are given in addition to Yang's theorems. (orig.)

  9. Stimulated emission depletion following two photon excitation

    OpenAIRE

    Marsh, R. J.; Armoogum, D. A.; Bain, A. J.

    2002-01-01

    The technique of stimulated emission depletion of fluorescence (STED) from a two photon excited molecular population is demonstrated in the S, excited state of fluorescein in ethylene glycol and methanol. Two photon excitation (pump) is achieved using the partial output of a regeneratively amplified Ti:Sapphire laser in conjunction with an optical parametric amplifier whose tuneable output provides a synchronous depletion (dump) pulse. Time resolved fluorescence intensity and anisotropy measu...

  10. Electrically Induced Two-Photon Transparency in Semiconductor Quantum Wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayat, Alex; Nevet, Amir; Orenstein, Meir

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate experimentally two-photon transparency, achieved by current injection into a semiconductor quantum-well structure which exhibits two-photon emission. The two-photon induced luminescence is progressively reduced by the injected current, reaching the point of two-photon transparency - a necessary condition for semiconductor two-photon gain and lasing. These results agree with our calculations.

  11. Two-photon superradiance in extended medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branzan, V.; Enache, N.

    1993-01-01

    The possibility of collectivization of an ensemble of atoms of an extended system (the distance between atoms is larger or equal to the wave-length of a spontaneous emitted radiation) during two-photon spontaneous decay is theoretically investigated. It is demonstrated that such systems of inverted atoms should emit phase-correlated pairs of photons. The time-space correlation among atoms is realized due to the two-photon exchanging through the electromagnetic field's vacuum. An increase of the spontaneous decay rate of the two-atom inverted ensemble is demonstrated. The dependence of two-photon superradiance on the sample geometry is investigated. A non-equilibrium method of the elimination of the atoms level Fermi-operators is proposed. (Author)

  12. Squeezing via two-photon transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, C. M.; Walls, D. F.

    1986-05-01

    The squeezing spectrum for a cavity field mode interacting with an ensemble of three-level 'Lambda-configuration' atoms by an effective two-photon transition is calculated. The advantage of the three-level Lambda system as a squeezing medium, that is, optical nonlinearity without atomic saturation, has recently been pointed out by Reid, Walls, and Dalton. Perfect squeezing is predicted at the turning points for dispersive optical bistability and good squeezing for a range of other cases. Three-level ladder atoms interacting by an effective two-photon transition are also shown to give perfect squeezing in the dispersive limit.

  13. A review of two photon physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, S.

    1982-08-01

    This talk is intended as an introduction for those not yet expert in two-photon physics, especially those e + e - one-photon physicists who still think of two-photon events as background. I concentrate on the physics questions involved, especially emphasizing the areas where I feel progress can be made in the near future, and of necessity leaving most experimental details to be found in the references. After a quick survey of the field and a few words about kinematics, I discuss in detail two major fields: the photon structure function and resonance production. (orig.)

  14. Review of Two-Photon Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urner, David

    2004-01-01

    Presented are recent results of two-photon interactions. Topics include photon structure functions, inclusive hadron production, differential cross sections derived from tagged γγ fusion events and results in exclusive hadron production, particularly the observations of the η'c

  15. Two-photon transitions to exciton polaritons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, A.R.

    1979-08-01

    A semiclassical theory for the creation of excitonic polariton states by two-photon absorption, via an intermediate exciton state, is given. A band model has been introduced which gives the dominant contribution to this process. A numerical calculation is found to be in good agreement with a recent observation in CuCl. (author)

  16. Pion-pair production by two photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terazawa, Hidezumi.

    1994-07-01

    The cross section for pion-pair production by two photons is calculated approximately by using the low energy theorem previously derived from partially-conserved-axial-vector-current hypothesis and current algebra, and found to agree very well with the experimental data recently obtained by the Mark II, TPC/Two-Gamma and CLEO Collaborations. (author)

  17. Two-color walking Peregrine solitary waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baronio, Fabio; Chen, Shihua; Mihalache, Dumitru

    2017-09-15

    We study the extreme localization of light, evolving upon a non-zero background, in two-color parametric wave interaction in nonlinear quadratic media. We report the existence of quadratic Peregrine solitary waves, in the presence of significant group-velocity mismatch between the waves (or Poynting vector beam walk-off), in the regime of cascading second-harmonic generation. This finding opens a novel path for the experimental demonstration of extreme rogue waves in ultrafast quadratic nonlinear optics.

  18. Can Two-Photon Interference be Considered the Interference of Two Photons?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pittman, T.B.; Strekalov, D.V.; Migdall, A.; Rubin, M.H.; Sergienko, A.V.; Shih, Y.H.

    1996-01-01

    We report on a open-quote open-quote postponed compensation close-quote close-quote experiment in which the observed two-photon entangled state interference cannot be pictured in terms of the overlap of the two individual photon wave packets of a parametric down-conversion pair on a beam splitter. In the sense of a quantum eraser, the distinguishability of the different two-photon Feynman amplitudes leading to a coincidence detection is removed by delaying the compensation until after the output of an unbalanced two-photon interferometer. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  19. Probing two-photon exchange with OLYMPUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohl, M.

    2014-01-01

    Two-photon exchange is believed to be responsible for the discrepancies in the proton electric to magnetic form factor ratio found with the Rosenbluth and polarization transfer methods. If this explanation is correct, one expects significant differences in the lepton-proton cross sections between positrons and electrons. The OLYMPUS experiment at DESY in Hamburg, Germany was designed to measure the ratio of unpolarized positron-proton and electron-proton elastic scattering cross sections over a wide kinematic range with high precision, in order to quantify the effect of two-photon exchange. The experiment used intense beams of electrons and positrons stored in the DORIS ring at 2.0 GeV interacting with an internal windowless hydrogen gas target. The current status of OLYMPUS will be discussed. (authors)

  20. Symmetry adaptation in two-photon spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kibler, M.

    1991-11-01

    Symmetry adaptation techniques are applied to the determination of the intensity of two-photon transitions for transition ions in finite symmetry environments. The case of intra-configurational transitions are discussed with some details and some results on inter-configurational transitions are briefly reported. In particular, for intra-configurational transitions, a model is described which takes into account the following ingredients: (symmetry, second- plus third-order mechanisms, S-, L- and J-mixings). (author) 20 refs

  1. Two-photon spin generation and detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miah, M Idrish, E-mail: m.miah@griffith.edu.a [Nanoscale Science and Technology Centre, Griffith University, Nathan, Brisbane, QLD 4111 (Australia)

    2009-02-21

    A time- and polarization-resolved two-photon pump-probe investigation is performed in lightly doped GaAs. We generate spin-polarized electrons in bulk GaAs at various temperatures using right-circularly polarized two-photon excitation and detect them by probing the spin-dependent transmission of the sample. The spin polarization (P) of conduction band electrons, as measured using probe pulses with the same (right) and opposite (left) circular polarization, is measured in dependences of pump-probe delay ({Delta}t), lattice temperature (T{sub L}), doping density (n) as well as of the excess photon energy {Delta}E{sub 2{omega}}= {h_bar}2{omega} - E{sub g}, where E{sub g} is the band gap energy. P is found to be decayed with {Delta}t and enhanced with the decrease in T{sub L} or the increase in n. It is also found that P decreases with the increase in {Delta}E{sub 2{omega}}and depolarizes rapidly for {Delta}E{sub 2{omega}}> {Delta}E{sub SO}, where {Delta}E{sub SO} is the spin-orbit splitting energy. The results demonstrate that due to a much longer absorption depth highly polarized spins can be generated optically by two-photon pumping of bulk semiconductors.

  2. Two-photon spin generation and detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, M Idrish

    2009-01-01

    A time- and polarization-resolved two-photon pump-probe investigation is performed in lightly doped GaAs. We generate spin-polarized electrons in bulk GaAs at various temperatures using right-circularly polarized two-photon excitation and detect them by probing the spin-dependent transmission of the sample. The spin polarization (P) of conduction band electrons, as measured using probe pulses with the same (right) and opposite (left) circular polarization, is measured in dependences of pump-probe delay (Δt), lattice temperature (T L ), doping density (n) as well as of the excess photon energy ΔE 2ω = ℎ2ω - E g , where E g is the band gap energy. P is found to be decayed with Δt and enhanced with the decrease in T L or the increase in n. It is also found that P decreases with the increase in ΔE 2ω and depolarizes rapidly for ΔE 2ω > ΔE SO , where ΔE SO is the spin-orbit splitting energy. The results demonstrate that due to a much longer absorption depth highly polarized spins can be generated optically by two-photon pumping of bulk semiconductors.

  3. Long-range predissociation in two-color photoassociation of ultracold Na atoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, P.A.; Straten, P. van der; Heideman, H.G.M.

    1997-01-01

    We report two-color photo-associative ionization of sodium in a Magneto-Optical Trap. The experimental results yield information on both singly and doubly excited states. We find that the highest bound vibrational levels (v > 20) of the singly-excited 0^- g state predissociate into the 3²P3/2

  4. Two-photon emission and multiphoton absorption by atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu, X.

    1988-01-01

    This thesis consists of investigations of two problems concerning photon-atom interactions. The first topic deals with two-photon transitions in atomic inner shells. An independent-particle model has been used to describe the two-photon transitions between different inner-shell electron states. The first relativistic self-consistent-field calculation of these transition rates in Ag, Mo, and Xe has been carried out. The theoretical results are compared with recent measurements. Good agreement with measured rates is found except in some cases where more reliable experiments still need to be done. The second topic is multiphoton multiionization of atoms. The maximum entropy principle has been employed in this theoretical investigation. A detailed statistical analysis of measured ionic charge distributions produced in strong laser pulses has been carried out. The results of this analysis indicates that the charge-state distribution is a Poissonian, rather than the binomial which prevails under infrared radiation, and hence that ionization occurs stepwise during the pulse. This result is shown to be consistent with experimental data

  5. Radiative corrections to two photon physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neervan, W.L. van; Vermaseren, J.A.M.

    1983-06-01

    The authors develop a method to calculate radiative corrections to two photon reactions of the type e + e - →e + e - X where X is an arbitrary final state. To illustrate this they take the example where X stands for a point-like pseudoscalar. It will be shown that the method is an improvement on the standard way in adding real and virtual photon contributions to the (differential) cross-sections. This makes it possible to compute differential and total cross-sections to a very high precision and with a minimum of computer time which is not possible by using more conventional methods. (Auth.)

  6. Inclusive two-photon reactions at TRISTAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drees, M.

    1995-01-01

    After briefly reviewing past accomplishments of TRISTAN experiments in the field of inclusive two-photon reactions, I discuss open problems in the Monte Carlo simulation of such reactions. The main emphasis is on multiple scattering, i.e. events where at least two pairs of partons scatter within the same γγ collision to form at least four (mini)jets. The cross section for such events might just be observable at TRISTAN. While theoretical arguments for the existence of such events are strong, they have not yet been directly observed experimentally, thereby potentially opening a new opportunity for TRISTAN experiments. (author)

  7. Two-photon physics at LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzburg, I.F.

    1988-01-01

    The two-photon production of hadrons in e + e - collisions e + e - →e + e - h from which the γγ→h cross sections are extracted is discussed. The common features of these processes are: hadrons move, as a rule, along e + e - beam axis, their total transverse momentum K perpendicular or perpendicular to is small; the total hadron energy is usually less than √S/2. Physical problems of soft processes, exotics, hard processes, semihard processes are considered. New possibilities of LEP, the most interesting and real are presented

  8. Two-photon cooling of magnesium atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malossi, N.; Damkjær, S.; Hansen, P. L.

    2005-01-01

    A two-photon mechanism for cooling atoms below the Doppler temperature is analyzed. We consider the magnesium ladder system (3s2)S01¿(3s3p)P11 at 285.2nm followed by the (3s3p)P11¿(3s3d)D21 transition at 880.7nm . For the ladder system quantum coherence effects may become important. Combined with...... and experiment is excellent. In addition, by properly choosing the Rabi frequencies of the two optical transitions a velocity independent atomic dark state is observed....

  9. Resonant production in two photon collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, F.

    1988-12-01

    Using 220 picobarn/sup /minus/1/ of data collected by the Mark II detector at PEP, we have measured the width of the /eta/' for quasi real photons. The width is separately measured in the three reactions e + e/sup /minus// → e + e/sup /minus///eta/ 0 π + π/sup /minus//; /eta/ 0 → γγ, e + e/sup /minus// → e + e/sup /minus///eta/ 0 π + π/sup /minus//; /eta/ 0 → π + π/sup /minus//(π 0 ,γ) and e + e/sup /minus// → e + e/sup /minus///rho/ 0 γ, giving a statistically weighted average two-photon width of Γ/sub /eta/'→γγ/ = 5. 21+-0.28 keV. As a by-product of the measurement of Γ/sub /eta/'→γγ/ using the decay mode /eta/' → /rho/γ, we also measured a two-photon decay width for the a 2 (1320) of Γ/sub a 2(1320)→γγ/ = 1.17+-0. 15+-0.25 keV. 47 refs., 50 figs., 8 tabs

  10. Closed form for two-photon free-free transition matrix elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karule, Erna E-mail: karule@latnet.lv

    2000-08-01

    Two-photon free-free transitions happen in the multiphoton ionization with more than one excess photon and in Bremsstrahlung. Up to now, the configuration space free-free transition amplitudes have not been written in closed form. We propose a modified Coulomb Green's function (CGF) Sturm ian expansion which allows one to obtain expressions for two-photon radial transition matrix elements in the closed form which are easy to continue analytically to calculate free-free transitions in H.

  11. Microsphere imaging with confocal microscopy and two photon microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Hyung Su; An, Kyung Won; Lee, Jai Hyung

    2002-01-01

    We have acquired images of polystyrene and fused-silica microsphere by using conventional optical microscopy, confocal microscopy and two-photon microscopy, and performed comparative analysis of these images. Different from conventional optical microscopy, confocal and two-photon microscopy had good optical sectioning capability. In addition, confocal microscopy and two-photon microscopy had better lateral resolution than conventional optical microscopy. These results are attributed to confocality and nonlinearity of confocal microscopy and two photon microscopy, respectively.

  12. On the kinematics of the two-photon Cherenkov effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanas'ev, G.N.; Stepanovskij, Yu.P.

    2003-01-01

    We study the kinematics of the two-photon Cherenkov effect. In the general case, the emission angles of two photons satisfy certain inequalities and the corresponding radiation intensities are rather diffused. In special cases, when the above inequalities reduce to equalities, the emission angles of two photons are fixed and the corresponding radiation intensities should have sharp maxima at these angles. This makes easier the experimental study of the two-photon Cherenkov effect

  13. Attosecond pulse trains generated using two color laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauritsson, J.; Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA; Johnsson, P.; Gustafsson, E.; L'Hullier, A.; Schafer, K.J.; Gaarde, M.B.

    2006-01-01

    Complete test of publication follows. We present the generation of attosecond pulse trains from a superposition of an infrared (IR) laser field and its second harmonic. Our attosecond pulses are synthesized by selecting a number of synchronized harmonics generated in argon. By adding the second harmonic to the driving field the inversion symmetry of generation process is broken and both odd and even harmonics are generated. Consecutive half cycles in the two color field differ beyond the simple sign change that occurs in a one color field and have very different shapes and amplitudes. This sub-cycle structure of the field, which governs the generation of the attosecond pulses, depends strongly on the relative phase and intensity of the two fields, thereby providing additional control over the generation process. The generation of attosecond pulses is frequently described using the semi-classical three step model where an electron is: (1) ionized through tunneling ionization during one half cycle; (2) reaccelerated back towards the ion core by the next half cycle; where it (3) recombines with the ground-state releasing the access energy in a short burst of light. In the two color field the symmetry between the ionizing and reaccelerating field is broken, which leads to two possible scenarios: the electron can either be ionized during a strong half cycle and reaccelerated by a weaker field or vice versa. The periodicity is a full IR cycle in both cases and hence two trains of attosecond pulses are generated which are offset from each other. The generation efficiency, however, is very different for the two cases since it is determined mainly by the electric field strength at the time of tunneling and one of the trains will therefore dominate the other. We investigate experimentally both the spectral and temporal structure of the generated attosecond pulse trains as a function of the relative phase between the two driving fields. We find that for a wide range of

  14. Two-photon interference : spatial aspects of two-photon entanglement, diffraction, and scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, Wouter Herman

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation contains scientific research within the realm of quantum optics, which is a branch of physics. An experimental and theoretical study is made of two-photon interference phenomena in various optical systems. Spatially entangled photon pairs are produced via the nonlinear optical

  15. Angular distributions of low kinetic energy photoelectrons in one- and two-photon ionisation of rare gas atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Keeffe, P; Bolognesi, P; Avaldi, L; Richter, R; Moise, A; Cleva, P De; Mihelic, A

    2012-01-01

    The angular distributions of electrons emitted in the photoionisation of rare gas atoms using one and two photons are presented. The one-photon results show that these differential measurements can provide complementary information on the photoionisation event with respect to the measurement of the total absorption cross section while the two photon ionization allows additional parameters to be extracted from the experiments thus permitting a more complete description of the photoionisation dynamics.

  16. Highly selective population of two excited states in nonresonant two-photon absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hui; Zhang Shi-An; Sun Zhen-Rong

    2011-01-01

    A nonresonant two-photon absorption process can be manipulated by tailoring the ultra-short laser pulse. In this paper, we theoretically demonstrate a highly selective population of two excited states in the nonresonant two-photon absorption process by rationally designing a spectral phase distribution. Our results show that one excited state is maximally populated while the other state population is widely tunable from zero to the maximum value. We believe that the theoretical results may play an important role in the selective population of a more complex nonlinear process comprising nonresonant two-photon absorption, such as resonance-mediated (2+1)-three-photon absorption and (2+1)-resonant multiphoton ionization. (atomic and molecular physics)

  17. Two photon processes in surface photovoltage spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, R.P.; Thurgate, S.M.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: A significant mid-gap effect has been found in Surface Photovoltage Spectroscopy measurements of cleaved GaAs, InP and Si wafer which is normally interpreted as arising from transitions between surface states and band edges. This large mid-gap effect common to various materials is puzzling as such a high proportion of mid-gap states seems unlikely. Most theories of surface states predict states that tail from the band edges into the gap or states that have a well defined energy in the gap. None propose a large state exactly at E G /2. We recently investigated the variation in SPS spectra with flux density. We find a non-linear correlation in the magnitude of Band-Bending arising from mid-gap and band-gap photon energies. We suggest that the mid-gap feature is due to a two photon absorption process leading to carrier pair generation mediated by mid-gap states in the continuum of band-gap surface states

  18. Mechanisms of two-color laser-induced field-free molecular orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanner, Michael; Patchkovskii, Serguei; Frumker, Eugene; Corkum, Paul

    2012-09-14

    Two mechanisms of two-color (ω+2ω) laser-induced field-free molecular orientation, based on the hyperpolarizability and ionization depletion, are explored and compared. The CO molecule is used as a computational example. While the hyperpolarizability mechanism generates small amounts of orientation at intensities below the ionization threshold, ionization depletion quickly becomes the dominant mechanism as soon as ionizing intensities are reached. Only the ionization mechanism leads to substantial orientation (e.g., on the order of ≳0.1). For intensities typical of laser-induced molecular alignment and orientation experiments, the two mechanisms lead to robust, characteristic timings of the field-free orientation wave-packet revivals relative to the alignment revivals and the revival time. The revival timings can be used to detect the active orientation mechanism experimentally.

  19. Enhanced two-photon emission from a dressed biexciton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez Muñoz, Carlos; Laussy, Fabrice P; Tejedor, Carlos; Valle, Elena del

    2015-01-01

    Radiative two-photon cascades from biexcitons in semiconductor quantum dots under resonant two-photon excitation are promising candidates for the generation of photon pairs. In this work, we propose a scheme to obtain two-photon emission that allows us to operate under very intense driving fields. This approach relies on the Purcell enhancement of two-photon virtual transitions between states of the biexciton dressed by the laser. The richness provided by the biexcitonic level structure allows to reach a variety of regimes, from antibunched and bunched photon pairs with polarization orthogonal to the driving field, to polarization entangled two-photon emission. This provides evidence that the general paradigm of two-photon emission from a ladder of dressed states can find interesting, particular implementations in a variety of systems. (paper)

  20. Two-photon decay in heavy atoms and ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokler, P.H.; Dunford, R.W

    2003-08-01

    We review the status of and comment on current developments in the field of two-photon decay in atomic physics research. Recent work has focused on two-photon decays in highly-charged ions and two-photon decay of inner-shell vacancies in heavy neutral atoms. We emphasize the importance of measuring the shape of the continuum emission in two-photon decay as a probe of relativistic effects in the strong central fields found in heavy atomic systems. New experimental approaches and their consequences will be discussed. (orig.)

  1. Probing Xe electronic structure by two-color HHG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faccialà, D; Ciriolo, A G; De Silvestri, S; Devetta, M; Negro, M; Stagira, S; Vozzi, C; Pabst, S; Bruner, B D; Dudovich, N; Soifer, H

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is probing the multi-electron behavior in xenon by two-color driven high harmonic generation. By changing the relative polarization of the two colors we were able to study different aspects of the multi-electron response. (paper)

  2. Resonance production in two-photon interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roe, N.A.

    1989-02-01

    Resonance production in two-photon interactions is studied using data collected with the ASP detector at the PEP e + e/sup /minus// storage ring located at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The ASP detector is a non-magnetic lead-glass calorimeter constructed from 632 lead-glass bars. It covers 94% of 4π in solid angle, extending to within 20/degree/ of the beamline. Lead-scintillator calorimeters extend the coverage to within 21 mr of the beamline on both sides. Energy resolution of √E/10%, where E is the energy is GeV, is achieved for electrons and photons in the lead-glass calorimeter, and particle trajectories are reconstructed with high efficiency. A total luminosity of 108 pb/sup /minus/1/ was collected with the ASP detector at a center-of-mass energy of 29 GeV. The observed process is e + e/sup /minus// → e + e/sup /minus//γ*γ* → e + e/sup /minus//X, is a pseudoscalar resonance (J/sup PC/ = 0/sup /minus/+/) and γ* is a virtual (mass /ne/ 0) photon. The outgoing electrons scatter down the beampipe and are not detected. The observed resonances are the /eta/ and /eta/' mesons, with masses of 549 and 958 MeV, respectively. They are detected in the γγ decay mode; a total of 2380 +- 49 /eta/ → γγ and 568 +- 26 /eta/' → γγ events are observed. From the number of events, the detection efficiency, and the calculated production cross sections the radiative widths, Γ/sub γγ/, of the /eta/ and /eta/' were measured and found to be: Γ/sub γγ/(/eta/) = .481 +- .010 +- .047keV and Γ/sub γγ/(/eta/') = 4.71 +- .22 +- .70keV. These results are in good agreement with the world average values. 67 refs., 42 figs., 20 tabs

  3. Resonance production in two-photon interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roe, N.A.

    1989-02-01

    Resonance production in two-photon interactions is studied using data collected with the ASP detector at the PEP e/sup +/e/sup /minus// storage ring located at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The ASP detector is a non-magnetic lead-glass calorimeter constructed from 632 lead-glass bars. It covers 94% of 4..pi.. in solid angle, extending to within 20/degree/ of the beamline. Lead-scintillator calorimeters extend the coverage to within 21 mr of the beamline on both sides. Energy resolution of ..sqrt..E/10%, where E is the energy is GeV, is achieved for electrons and photons in the lead-glass calorimeter, and particle trajectories are reconstructed with high efficiency. A total luminosity of 108 pb/sup /minus/1/ was collected with the ASP detector at a center-of-mass energy of 29 GeV. The observed process is e/sup +/e/sup /minus// ..-->.. e/sup +/e/sup /minus//..gamma..*..gamma..* ..-->.. e/sup +/e/sup /minus//X, is a pseudoscalar resonance (J/sup PC/ = 0/sup /minus/+/) and ..gamma..* is a virtual (mass /ne/ 0) photon. The outgoing electrons scatter down the beampipe and are not detected. The observed resonances are the /eta/ and /eta/' mesons, with masses of 549 and 958 MeV, respectively. They are detected in the ..gamma gamma.. decay mode; a total of 2380 +- 49 /eta/ ..-->.. ..gamma gamma.. and 568 +- 26 /eta/' ..-->.. ..gamma gamma.. events are observed. From the number of events, the detection efficiency, and the calculated production cross sections the radiative widths, GAMMA/sub ..gamma gamma../, of the /eta/ and /eta/' were measured and found to be: GAMMA/sub ..gamma gamma../(/eta/) = .481 +- .010 +- .047keV and GAMMA/sub ..gamma gamma../(/eta/') = 4.71 +- .22 +- .70keV. These results are in good agreement with the world average values. 67 refs., 42 figs., 20 tabs.

  4. Two-Color Single-Photon Photoinitiation and Photoinhibition for Subdiffraction Photolithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Timothy F.; Kowalski, Benjamin A.; Sullivan, Amy C.; Bowman, Christopher N.; McLeod, Robert R.

    2009-05-01

    Controlling and reducing the developed region initiated by photoexposure is one of the fundamental goals of optical lithography. Here, we demonstrate a two-color irradiation scheme whereby initiating species are generated by single-photon absorption at one wavelength while inhibiting species are generated by single-photon absorption at a second, independent wavelength. Co-irradiation at the second wavelength thus reduces the polymerization rate, delaying gelation of the material and facilitating enhanced spatial control over the polymerization. Appropriate overlapping of the two beams produces structures with both feature sizes and monomer conversions otherwise unobtainable with use of single- or two-photon absorption photopolymerization. Additionally, the generated inhibiting species rapidly recombine when irradiation with the second wavelength ceases, allowing for fast sequential exposures not limited by memory effects in the material and thus enabling fabrication of complex two- or three-dimensional structures.

  5. Molecular photosensitisers for two-photon photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolze, F; Jenni, S; Sour, A; Heitz, V

    2017-11-30

    Two-photon excitation has attracted the attention of biologists, especially after the development of two-photon excited microscopy in the nineties. Since then, new applications have rapidly emerged such as the release of biologically active molecules and photodynamic therapy (PDT) using two-photon excitation. PDT, which requires a light-activated drug (photosensitiser), is a clinically approved and minimally invasive treatment for cancer and for non-malignant diseases. This feature article focuses on the engineering of molecular two-photon photosensitisers for PDT, which should bring important benefits to the treatment, increase the treatment penetration depth with near-infrared light excitation, improve the spatial selectivity and reduce the photodamage to healthy tissues. After an overview of the two-photon absorption phenomenon and the methods to evaluate two-photon induced phototoxicity on cell cultures, the different classes of photosensitisers described in the literature are discussed. The two-photon PDT performed with historical one-photon sensitisers are briefly presented, followed by specifically engineered cyclic tetrapyrrole photosensitisers, purely organic photosensitisers and transition metal complexes. Finally, targeted two-photon photosensitisers and theranostic agents that should enhance the selectivity and efficiency of the treatment are discussed.

  6. Two-photon stimulated emission and pulse amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuen, H.P.

    1975-01-01

    Threshold conditions are given for the sustained operation of standing-wave and long-pulse traveling-wave two-photon lasers. Pulse shortening in long-pulse two-photon amplification, a behavior absent in the one-photon case, is also demonstrated analytically. (U.S.)

  7. The development of efficient two-photon singlet oxygen sensitizers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian Benedikt

    The development of efficient two-photon singlet oxygen sensitizers is addressed focusing on organic synthesis. Photophysical measurements were carried out on new lipophilic molecules, where two-photon absorption cross sections and singlet oxygen quantumyields were measured. Design principles...... for making efficient two-photon singlet oxygen sensitizers were then constructed from these results. Charge-transfer in the excited state of the prepared molecules was shown to play a pivotal role in the generationof singlet oxygen. This was established through studies of substituent effects on both...... the singlet oxygen yield and the two-photon absorption cross section, where it was revealed that a careful balancing of the amount of charge transfer present in theexcited state of the sensitizer is necessary to obtain both a high singlet oxygen quantum yield and a high two-photon cross section. An increasing...

  8. Ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document reprints the text of the French by-law from January 8, 2002 relative to the approval and to the controls and verifications of facilities devoted to the ionizing of food products for human beings and animals. The by-law imposes the operators of such facilities to perform measurements and dosimetric verifications all along the ionization process. (J.S.)

  9. Two-color photoionization and photoelectron studies by combining infrared and vacuum ultraviolet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, C.Y.

    2005-01-01

    Recent developments of two-color infrared (IR)-vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and VUV-IR photoionization and photoelectron detection schemes for spectroscopic studies are described. By preparing molecules in selected rovibrational states by IR excitation prior to VUV-photoionization, state-selected and state-to-state photoionization cross sections can be obtained by IR-VUV-photoionization efficiency (IR-VUV-PIE) and IR-VUV-pulsed field ionization-photoelectron (IR-VUV-PFI-PE) measurements, respectively. Rotationally resolved autoionizing Rydberg states converging to excited ionic states, which cannot be observed by single-photon VUV-PIE measurements, can be examined by the IR-VUV-PIE scheme. By monitoring the photoion and the PFI-PE intensities at a fixed VUV energy as a function of IR frequency, the respective IR photoion and IR absorption spectra of the corresponding neutral molecule can be measured. Two-color VUV-IR photo-induced Rydberg ionization (PIRI) experiment, in which high-n Rydberg states are prepared by VUV-photoexcitation followed by IR-induced autoionization, has also been demonstrated. Since the IR-VUV-PIE, IR-VUV-PFI-PE, and VUV-IR-PIRI methods do not require the existence of a bound intermediate electronic state in the UV and are generally applicable to all molecules, the development of these two-color photoionization and photoelectron schemes is expected to significantly enhance the scope of VUV spectroscopy and chemistry

  10. Two-color stabilization of atomic hydrogen in circularly polarized laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, D.; Ceccherini, F.

    2002-01-01

    The dynamic stabilization of atomic hydrogen against ionization in high-frequency single- and two-color, circularly polarized laser pulses is observed by numerically solving the three-dimensional, time-dependent Schroedinger equation. The single-color case is revisited and numerically determined ionization rates are compared with both, the exact and the approximate high-frequency Floquet rates. The positions of the peaks in the photoelectron spectra can be explained with the help of dressed initial states. In two-color laser fields of opposite circular polarization, the stabilized probability density may be shaped in various ways. For laser frequencies ω 1 and ω 2 =nω 1 , n=2,3,..., and sufficiently large excursion amplitudes (n+1) distinct probability density peaks are observed. This may be viewed as the generalization of the well-known 'dichotomy' in linearly polarized laser fields, i.e, as 'trichotomy', 'quatrochotomy', 'pentachotomy' etc. All those observed structures and their 'hula-hoop'-like dynamics can be understood with the help of high-frequency Floquet theory and the two-color Kramers-Henneberger transformation. The shaping of the probability density in the stabilization regime can be realized without additional loss in the survival probability, as compared to the corresponding single-color results

  11. Two-photon processes in highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahrsetz, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    Two-photon processes are atomic processes in which an atom interacts simultaneously with two photons. Such processes describe a wide range of phenomena, such as two-photon decay and elastic or inelastic scattering of photons. In recent years two-photon processes involving highly charged heavy ions have become an active area of research. Such studies do not only consider the total transition or scattering rates but also their angular and polarization dependence. To support such examinations in this thesis I present a theoretical framework to describe these properties in all two-photon processes with bound initial and final states and involving heavy H-like or He-like ions. I demonstrate how this framework can be used in some detailed studies of different two-photon processes. Specifically a detailed analysis of two-photon decay of H-like and He-like ions in strong external electromagnetic fields shows the importance of considering the effect of such fields for the physics of such systems. Furthermore I studied the elastic Rayleigh as well as inelastic Raman scattering by heavy H-like ions. I found a number of previously unobserved phenomena in the angular and polarization dependence of the scattering cross-sections that do not only allow to study interesting details of the electronic structure of the ion but might also be useful for the measurement of weak physical effects in such systems.

  12. Two-photon processes in highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahrsetz, Thorsten

    2015-03-05

    Two-photon processes are atomic processes in which an atom interacts simultaneously with two photons. Such processes describe a wide range of phenomena, such as two-photon decay and elastic or inelastic scattering of photons. In recent years two-photon processes involving highly charged heavy ions have become an active area of research. Such studies do not only consider the total transition or scattering rates but also their angular and polarization dependence. To support such examinations in this thesis I present a theoretical framework to describe these properties in all two-photon processes with bound initial and final states and involving heavy H-like or He-like ions. I demonstrate how this framework can be used in some detailed studies of different two-photon processes. Specifically a detailed analysis of two-photon decay of H-like and He-like ions in strong external electromagnetic fields shows the importance of considering the effect of such fields for the physics of such systems. Furthermore I studied the elastic Rayleigh as well as inelastic Raman scattering by heavy H-like ions. I found a number of previously unobserved phenomena in the angular and polarization dependence of the scattering cross-sections that do not only allow to study interesting details of the electronic structure of the ion but might also be useful for the measurement of weak physical effects in such systems.

  13. THz field engineering in two-color femtosecond filaments using chirped and delayed laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, A.; González de Alaiza Martínez, P.; Thiele, I.; Skupin, S.; Bergé, L.

    2018-03-01

    We numerically study the influence of chirping and delaying several ionizing two-color light pulses in order to engineer terahertz (THz) wave generation in air. By means of comprehensive 3D simulations, it is shown that two chirped pulses can increase the THz yield when they are separated by a suitable time delay for the same laser energy in focused propagation geometry. To interpret these results, the local current theory is revisited and we propose an easy, accessible all-optical criterion that predicts the laser-to-THz conversion efficiencies given any input laser spectrum. In the filamentation regime, numerical simulations display evidence that a chirped pulse is able to produce more THz radiation due to propagation effects, which maintain the two colors of the laser field more efficiently coupled over long distances. A large delay between two pulses promotes multi-peaked THz spectra as well as conversion efficiencies above 10‑4.

  14. Exciton molecule in semiconductors by two-photon absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arya, K.; Hassan, A.R.

    1976-07-01

    Direct creation of bi-exciton states by two-photon absorption in direct gap semiconductors is investigated theoretically. A numerical application to the case of CuCl shows that the two-photon absorption coefficient for bi-excitonic transitions is larger than that for two-photon interband transitions by three orders of magnitude. It becomes comparable to that for one-photon excitonic transitions for available laser intensities. The main contribution to this enhancement of the absorption coefficient for the transitions to the bi-exciton states is found to be from the resonance effect

  15. Electromagnetically induced two-photon transparency in rubidium atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, D.; Gao, J.Y.; Xu, J.H.; Bassani, F.; La Rocca, G.C.; Salerno Univ.

    2001-01-01

    We present an experimental demonstration of electromagnetically induced two-photon transparency (EITT) in room temperature rubidium vapor. The 8S 1/2 to 5P 1/2 fluorescence is used to monitor the 5S 1/2 (F = 3) to 8S 1/2 (F = 3) two-photon absorption near resonance with the intermediate state 5P 3/2 . A controlling pump laser beam is employed to coherently couple the 5P 3/2 and 5D 5/2 states, thus producing two dressed intermediate states which give rise to destructive interference in the two-photon transition. An induced two-photon transparency of about 80% has been obtained at resonance; our experimental findings are in good agreement with the general theory of Agarwal et al. (1996), when the appropriate spectroscopic parameters are used. (orig.)

  16. Standard Model Higgs decay for two Photons in CMS

    CERN Multimedia

    Daniel Denegri

    2000-01-01

    Simulated two-photon mass distribution for SM Higgs and expected background in the CMS PbW04 crystal calorimeter for an integrated luminosity of 10 . 5 pb-1, with detailed simulation of calorimeter response.

  17. All-optical femtosecond switch using two-photon absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavuz, D. D.

    2006-01-01

    Utilizing a two-photon absorption scheme in an alkali-metal vapor cell, we suggest a technique where a strong laser beam switches off another laser beam of different wavelength in femtosecond time scales

  18. Mass distribution for the two-photon channel

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Mass distribution for the two-photon channel. The strongest evidence for this new particle comes from analysis of events containing two photons. The smooth dotted line traces the measured background from known processes. The solid line traces a statistical fit to the signal plus background. The new particle appears as the excess around 126.5 GeV. The full analysis concludes that the probability of such a peak is three chances in a million.

  19. Two-photon quantum interference in a Michelson interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odate, Satoru; Wang Haibo; Kobayashi, Takayoshi

    2005-01-01

    We have observed two-photon quantum interference in a Michelson interferometer. For the first time, we experimentally demonstrated two-photon quantum interference patterns, which show the transition from nonsubwavelength interference fringes to the general subwavelength interference. At the same time, a photon bunching effect was also shown by a postselection. The |1, 1> state with a single photon in a mode corresponding to each arm of the interferometer was exclusively postselected by using path difference between two arms

  20. Coherence revivals in two-photon frequency combs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres-Company, Victor; Lancis, Jesus; Lajunen, Hanna; Friberg, Ari T.

    2011-01-01

    We describe and theoretically analyze the self-imaging Talbot effect of entangled photon pairs in the time domain. Rich phenomena are observed in coherence propagation along dispersive media of mode-locked two-photon states with frequency entanglement exhibiting a comblike correlation function. Our results can be used to remotely transfer frequency standards through optical fiber networks with two-photon light, avoiding the requirement of dispersion compensation.

  1. Uniform silica nanoparticles encapsulating two-photon absorbing fluorescent dye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Weibing; Liu Chang; Wang Mingliang; Huang Wei; Zhou Shengrui; Jiang Wei; Sun Yueming; Cui Yiping; Xu Chunxinag

    2009-01-01

    We have prepared uniform silica nanoparticles (NPs) doped with a two-photon absorbing zwitterionic hemicyanine dye by reverse microemulsion method. Obvious solvatochromism on the absorption spectra of dye-doped NPs indicates that solvents can partly penetrate into the silica matrix and then affect the ground and excited state of dye molecules. For dye-doped NP suspensions, both one-photon and two-photon excited fluorescence are much stronger and recorded at shorter wavelength compared to those of free dye solutions with comparative overall dye concentration. This behavior is possibly attributed to the restricted twisted intramolecular charge transfer (TICT), which reduces fluorescence quenching when dye molecules are trapped in the silica matrix. Images from two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy demonstrate that the dye-doped silica NPs can be actively uptaken by Hela cells with low cytotoxicity. - Graphical abstract: Water-soluble silica NPs doped with a two-photon absorbing zwitterionic hemicyanine dye were prepared. They were found of enhanced one-photon and two-photon excited fluorescence compared to free dye solutions. Images from two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy demonstrate that the dye-doped silica NPs can be actively uptaken by Hela cells.

  2. Rational choices for the wavelengths of a two color interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jobes, F.C.

    1995-07-01

    If in a two color interferometer for plasma density measurements, the two wavelengths are chosen to have a ratio that is a rational number, and if the signals from each of the wavelengths are multiplied in frequency by the appropriate integer of the rational number and then heterodyned together, the resultant signal will have all effects of component motion nulled out. A phase measurement of this signal will have only plasma density information in it. With CO 2 lasers, it is possible to find suitable wavelength pairs which are close enough to rational numbers to produce an improvement of about 100 in density resolution, compared to standard two color interferometers

  3. Calculation of the spatial resolution in two-photon absorption spectroscopy applied to plasma diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Lechuga, M. [Departamento de Física Teórica, Atómica y Óptica, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011-Valladolid (Spain); Laser Processing Group, Instituto de Óptica “Daza de Valdés,” CSIC, 28006-Madrid (Spain); Fuentes, L. M. [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011-Valladolid (Spain); Grützmacher, K.; Pérez, C., E-mail: concha@opt.uva.es; Rosa, M. I. de la [Departamento de Física Teórica, Atómica y Óptica, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011-Valladolid (Spain)

    2014-10-07

    We report a detailed characterization of the spatial resolution provided by two-photon absorption spectroscopy suited for plasma diagnosis via the 1S-2S transition of atomic hydrogen for optogalvanic detection and laser induced fluorescence (LIF). A precise knowledge of the spatial resolution is crucial for a correct interpretation of measurements, if the plasma parameters to be analysed undergo strong spatial variations. The present study is based on a novel approach which provides a reliable and realistic determination of the spatial resolution. Measured irradiance distribution of laser beam waists in the overlap volume, provided by a high resolution UV camera, are employed to resolve coupled rate equations accounting for two-photon excitation, fluorescence decay and ionization. The resulting three-dimensional yield distributions reveal in detail the spatial resolution for optogalvanic and LIF detection and related saturation due to depletion. Two-photon absorption profiles broader than the Fourier transform-limited laser bandwidth are also incorporated in the calculations. The approach allows an accurate analysis of the spatial resolution present in recent and future measurements.

  4. Calculation of the spatial resolution in two-photon absorption spectroscopy applied to plasma diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Lechuga, M.; Fuentes, L. M.; Grützmacher, K.; Pérez, C.; Rosa, M. I. de la

    2014-01-01

    We report a detailed characterization of the spatial resolution provided by two-photon absorption spectroscopy suited for plasma diagnosis via the 1S-2S transition of atomic hydrogen for optogalvanic detection and laser induced fluorescence (LIF). A precise knowledge of the spatial resolution is crucial for a correct interpretation of measurements, if the plasma parameters to be analysed undergo strong spatial variations. The present study is based on a novel approach which provides a reliable and realistic determination of the spatial resolution. Measured irradiance distribution of laser beam waists in the overlap volume, provided by a high resolution UV camera, are employed to resolve coupled rate equations accounting for two-photon excitation, fluorescence decay and ionization. The resulting three-dimensional yield distributions reveal in detail the spatial resolution for optogalvanic and LIF detection and related saturation due to depletion. Two-photon absorption profiles broader than the Fourier transform-limited laser bandwidth are also incorporated in the calculations. The approach allows an accurate analysis of the spatial resolution present in recent and future measurements.

  5. Polarized two-photon photoselection in EGFP: Theory and experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, T A; Marsh, R J; Blacker, T S; Armoogum, D A; Larijani, B; Bain, A J

    2018-04-07

    In this work, we present a complete theoretical description of the excited state order created by two-photon photoselection from an isotropic ground state; this encompasses both the conventionally measured quadrupolar (K = 2) and the "hidden" degree of hexadecapolar (K = 4) transition dipole alignment, their dependence on the two-photon transition tensor and emission transition dipole moment orientation. Linearly and circularly polarized two-photon absorption (TPA) and time-resolved single- and two-photon fluorescence anisotropy measurements are used to determine the structure of the transition tensor in the deprotonated form of enhanced green fluorescent protein. For excitation wavelengths between 800 nm and 900 nm, TPA is best described by a single element, almost completely diagonal, two-dimensional (planar) transition tensor whose principal axis is collinear to that of the single-photon S 0 → S 1 transition moment. These observations are in accordance with assignments of the near-infrared two-photon absorption band in fluorescent proteins to a vibronically enhanced S 0 → S 1 transition.

  6. Polarized two-photon photoselection in EGFP: Theory and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, T. A.; Marsh, R. J.; Blacker, T. S.; Armoogum, D. A.; Larijani, B.; Bain, A. J.

    2018-04-01

    In this work, we present a complete theoretical description of the excited state order created by two-photon photoselection from an isotropic ground state; this encompasses both the conventionally measured quadrupolar (K = 2) and the "hidden" degree of hexadecapolar (K = 4) transition dipole alignment, their dependence on the two-photon transition tensor and emission transition dipole moment orientation. Linearly and circularly polarized two-photon absorption (TPA) and time-resolved single- and two-photon fluorescence anisotropy measurements are used to determine the structure of the transition tensor in the deprotonated form of enhanced green fluorescent protein. For excitation wavelengths between 800 nm and 900 nm, TPA is best described by a single element, almost completely diagonal, two-dimensional (planar) transition tensor whose principal axis is collinear to that of the single-photon S0 → S1 transition moment. These observations are in accordance with assignments of the near-infrared two-photon absorption band in fluorescent proteins to a vibronically enhanced S0 → S1 transition.

  7. Interference of two photons in parametric down conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, R.; Hong, C.K.; Ou, Z.Y.; Mandel, L.

    1986-01-01

    A theoretical treatment is given of the process in which the two photons produced simultaneously in the parametric frequency splitting of light are allowed to interfere. It is shown that, while there is no interference in the usual sense involving quantities that are of the second order in the field, fourth-order interference effects are present. These may be revealed by measuring the joint probability of detecting two photons at two points x,x' in the interference plane with photoelectric detectors as a function of the separation x-x'. The probability exhibits a cosine modulation with x-x', with visibility that can approach 100%, even though the integration time in the experiment may greatly exceed the reciprocal bandwidth of the photons. The interference effect has a nonclassical origin and implies a violation of local realism in the highly correlated two-photon state

  8. Ionization of a cesium atom by an absorption process involving two photons from a laser beam; Ionisation d'un atome de cesium par un processus d'absorption a deux photons issus d'un faisceau laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gontier, Y.; Trahin, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-01-01

    The expression giving the ionisation cross-section of an atom, by an absorption process involving two photons produced from a laser beam, is derived. The non-relativistic case is considered and the dipolar approximation used. The summation over the intermediate states is carried out rigorously by means of a special technique which is described in detail. A method is presented which makes it possible to obtain the numerical solution. (authors) [French] La formule donnant la section efficace d'ionisation d'un atome, par un processus d'absorption mettant en jeu deux photons issus d'un faiseau Laser, est etablie. On se place dans le cas non relativiste et Pon utilise l'approximation dipolaire. La sommation sur les etats intermediaires est effectuee rigoureusement au moyen d'une technique particuliere qui est decrite en detail. On expose une methode permettant d'obtenir la solution numerique. (auteurs)

  9. Doppler-free two-photon excitation of 238U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgkinson, D.P.; Wort, D.J.H.

    1981-04-01

    A theory of resonantly enhanced two-photon absorption is presented and tested in a number of experiments in which 238 U vapour is excited by two continuous wave dye lasers. Good quantitative agreement between theory and experiment is found. In particular the central prediction of the theory, that antiparallel laser beams of modest intensity can pump an appreciable fraction of the Maxwell velocity distribution, has been checked directly by measuring the spectral width of the fluorescence from the two-photon excited level. (author)

  10. Scanless two-photon excitation of channelrhodopsin-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papagiakoumou, E.; Anselmi, F.; Bègue, A.

    2010-01-01

    developed a method that combines generalized phase contrast with temporal focusing (TF-GPC) to shape two-photon excitation for this purpose. The illumination patterns are generated automatically from fluorescence images of neurons and shaped to cover the cell body or dendrites, or distributed groups...... of cells. The TF-GPC two-photon excitation patterns generated large photocurrents in Channelrhodopsin-2–expressing cultured cells and neurons and in mouse acute cortical slices. The amplitudes of the photocurrents can be precisely modulated by controlling the size and shape of the excitation volume and...

  11. Two-color visible/vacuum ultraviolet photoelectron imaging dynamics of Br2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plenge, Jürgen; Nicolas, Christophe; Caster, Allison G; Ahmed, Musahid; Leone, Stephen R

    2006-10-07

    An experimental two-color photoionization dynamics study of laser-excited Br2 molecules is presented, combining pulsed visible laser excitation and tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) synchrotron radiation with photoelectron imaging. The X 1Sigmag + -B 3Pi0+u transition in Br2 is excited at 527 nm corresponding predominantly to excitation of the v' = 28 vibrational level in the B 3Pi0+u state. Tunable VUV undulator radiation in the energy range of 8.40-10.15 eV is subsequently used to ionize the excited molecules to the X 2Pi32,12 state of the ion, and the ionic ground state is probed by photoelectron imaging. Similar experiments are performed using single-photon synchrotron ionization in the photon energy range of 10.75-12.50 eV without any laser excitation. Photoelectron kinetic energy distributions are extracted from the photoelectron images. In the case of two-color photoionization using resonant excitation of the intermediate B 3Pi0+u state, a broad distribution of photoelectron kinetic energies is observed, and in some cases even a bimodal distribution, which depends on the VUV photon energy. In contrast, for single-photon ionization, a single nearly Gaussian-shaped distribution is observed, which shifts to higher energy with photon energy. Simulated spectra based on Franck-Condon factors for the transitions Br2(X 1Sigmag+, v" = 0)-Br2 +(X 2Pi12,32, v+) and Br2(B 3Pi0+u, v' = 28)-Br2 +(X 2Pi12,32, v+) are generated. Comparison of these calculated spectra with the measured images suggests that the differences in the kinetic energy distributions for the two ionization processes reflect the different extensions of the vibrational wave functions in the v" = 0 electronic ground state (X 1Sigmag+) versus the electronically and vibrationally excited state (B 3Pi0+u, v' = 28).

  12. Two-photon couplings of quarkonia with arbitrary JPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, T.; Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN

    1992-01-01

    We present theoretical results for the two-photon widths of relativistic quarkonium states with arbitrary angular momenta. These relativistic formulas are required to obtain reasonable agreement with the absolute scale of quarkonium decay rates to two photons, and have previously only been derived for spin-singlet q bar q states. We also evaluate these formulas numerically for ell ≤3 q = u, d states in a Coulomb-plus-linear q bar q potential model. Light-quark higher-ell and radially-excited q bar q states should be observable experimentally, as their two-photon widths are typically found to be ∼1 KeV. The radially-excited 1 S 0 higher-mass quarkonium states such as c bar c and b bar b should also be observable in γγ, but orbitally-excited c bar c states with ell>1 and b bar b states with ell>0 are expected to have very small two-photon widths. The helicity structure of the higher-ell q bar q couplings is predicted to be nontrivial, with both λ=0 and λ=2γγ final states contributing significantly; these results may be useful as signatures for q bar q states

  13. Two-photon optics of Bessel-Gaussian modes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    McLaren, M

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider geometrical two-photon optics of Bessel-Gaussian modes generated in spontaneous parametric down-conversion of a Gaussian pump beam. We provide a general theoretical expression for the orbital angular momentum (OAM) spectrum...

  14. Space-time description of the two-photon decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrasko, P.

    1981-09-01

    The time correlation of photons in a two-photon decay is shown to depend on the instantaneous nature of the wave-function collapse in an essential way so the latter hypothesis can be verified by the experimental study of these correlations. (author)

  15. Positron two-photon annihilation coincidence technique: difference mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karol, P J; Klobuchar, R L [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, Pa. (USA). Dept. of Chemistry

    1978-05-01

    A difference (or comparative) mode in the measurement of two-photon coincidences from positron or positronium annihilation has been developed. The method can be used to advantage, particularly in gases, in determining annihilation parameters such as quenching cross sections for low concentration strongly quenching chemical species in a reference medium which is relatively non-quenching.

  16. Two-colorable graph states with maximal Schmidt measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severini, Simone

    2006-01-01

    The Schmidt measure was introduced by Eisert and Briegel for quantifying the degree of entanglement of multipartite quantum systems [J. Eisert, H.-J. Briegel, Phys. Rev. A 64 (2001) 22306]. For two-colorable graph states, the Schmidt measure is related to the spectrum of the associated graph. We observe that almost all two-colorable graph states have maximal Schmidt measure and we construct specific examples. By making appeal to a result of Ehrenfeucht et al. [A. Ehrenfeucht, T. Harju, G. Rozenberg, Discrete Math. 278 (2004) 45], we point out that the graph operations called local complementation and switching form a transitive group acting on the set of all graph states of a given dimension

  17. Design study for a two-color beta measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Design analysis of the beam splitter combined two color beta system is presented. Conventional and dichroic beam splitters are discussed. Design analysis of the beta system employing two beams with focusing at separate points is presented. Alterations and basic parameters of the two beam system are discussed. Alterations in the focus of the initial laser and the returning beams are also discussed. Heterodyne efficiencies for the on axis and off axis reflected radiation are included.

  18. Probing the SEB Sensitive Depth of a Power MOSFET Using a Two-Photon Absorption Laser Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Liu, Sandra; Titus, Jeffrey L.; McMorrow, Dale; Casey, Megan C.; Buchner, Stephen P.; Warner, Jeffrey; Phan, Anthony M.; Topper, Alyson D.; Kim, Hak S.; hide

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents two-photon absorption test results on an engineering single-event burnout- (SEB-) sensitive power MOSFET to verify that the energy deposition/charge ionization in the highly-doped substrate does not contribute to SEB. It is shown that for a vertical power MOSFET, the SEB sensitive volume is the lightly doped epitaxial layer; the most sensitive region is under the polysllicon gate.

  19. Two-photon absorption and two-photon circular dichroism of hexahelicene derivatives: a study of the effect of the nature of intramolecular charge transfer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Díaz, C.; Vesga, Y.; Echevarria, L.; Stará, Irena G.; Starý, Ivo; Anger, E.; Shen, C.; Moussa, M. E. S.; Vanthuyne, N.; Crassous, J.; Rizzo, A.; Hernández, F. E.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 23 (2015), s. 17429-17437 ISSN 2046-2069 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : [6]helicene * two photon absorption * two photon CD Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.289, year: 2015

  20. Determination of the 1s-2s two-photon excitation cross-section in atomic hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bickel, G.A.; McRae, G.A

    2000-07-01

    Hydrogen atoms are ablated from zirconium alloys into the gas phase by a pulsed Nd:YAG laser and photo-ionized with three photons at 243 nm via the two-photon 1s {sup 2}S{sub 1/2}-2s {sup 2}S{sub 1/2} resonant transition. A determination of the effective 1s-2s two-photon excitation cross-section is necessary to quantify the hydrogen atom density in the ablation plume. A measurement of the ion signal vs photo-ionization beam energy is fitted to an expression derived from the rate equations. The temporal and spatial properties of the photo-ionization laser beam, transit of the H atoms through the beam, and detector geometry are taken into account. The effective two-photon cross-section for this experimental configuration, derived with the rate equation formalism, is 3.3 {+-} 0.8 X 10{sup -28} cm{sup 4} W{sup -1}. This compares well with the ab initio prediction of 5 {+-} 1 X 10{sup -28} cm{sup 4} W{sup -1} under these experimental conditions. (author)

  1. Determination of the 1s-2s two-photon excitation cross-section in atomic hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickel, G.A.; McRae, G.A.

    2000-01-01

    Hydrogen atoms are ablated from zirconium alloys into the gas phase by a pulsed Nd:YAG laser and photo-ionized with three photons at 243 nm via the two-photon 1s 2 S 1/2 -2s 2 S 1/2 resonant transition. A determination of the effective 1s-2s two-photon excitation cross-section is necessary to quantify the hydrogen atom density in the ablation plume. A measurement of the ion signal vs photo-ionization beam energy is fitted to an expression derived from the rate equations. The temporal and spatial properties of the photo-ionization laser beam, transit of the H atoms through the beam, and detector geometry are taken into account. The effective two-photon cross-section for this experimental configuration, derived with the rate equation formalism, is 3.3 ± 0.8 X 10 -28 cm 4 W -1 . This compares well with the ab initio prediction of 5 ± 1 X 10 -28 cm 4 W -1 under these experimental conditions. (author)

  2. Deformed two-photon squeezed states in noncommutative space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jianzu

    2004-01-01

    Recent studies on nonperturbation aspects of noncommutative quantum mechanics explored a new type of boson commutation relations at the deformed level, described by deformed annihilation-creation operators in noncommutative space. This correlated boson commutator correlates different degrees of freedom, and shows an essential influence on dynamics. This Letter devotes to the development of formalism of deformed two-photon squeezed states in noncommutative space. General representations of deformed annihilation-creation operators and the consistency condition for the electromagnetic wave with a single mode of frequency in noncommunicative space are obtained. Two-photon squeezed states are studied. One finds that variances of the dimensionless Hermitian quadratures of the annihilation operator in one degree of freedom include variances in the other degree of freedom. Such correlations show the new feature of spatial noncommutativity and allow a deeper understanding of the correlated boson commutator

  3. Meson production in two-photon interactions at LHC energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Silva, D. T.; Goncalves, V. P.; Sauter, W. K. [Instituto de Fisica e Matematica, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Campus Universitario UFPel, CP 354, 96010-900, Capao do Leao-RS (Brazil)

    2013-03-25

    The LHC opens a new kinematical regime at high energy, where several questions related to the description of the high-energy regime of the Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) remain without satisfactory answers. Some open questions are the search for non-q-bar q resonances, the determination of the spectrum of q-bar q states and the identification of states with anomalous {gamma}{gamma} couplings. A possible way to study these problems is the study of meson production in two-photon interactions. In this contribution we calculate the meson production in two-photon interactions at LHC energies considering proton - proton collisions and estimate the total cross section for the production of the mesons {pi}, a, f, {eta} and {chi}.

  4. Two-photon polarization Fourier spectroscopy of metastable atomic hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, A.J.; Beyer, H.-J.; Kleinpoppen, H.; Sheikh, Z.A,; B-Z Univ., Multan

    1997-01-01

    A novel Fourier-transform spectroscopic method using two-photon polarization to determine the spectral distribution of the two photons emitted in the spontaneous decay of metastable atomic hydrogen is described. The method uses birefringent retardation plates and takes advantage of the subtle interplay between the spectral properties and the entangled polarization properties of the radiation emitted in the decay. Assuming the validity of the theoretical spectral distribution, it is shown that the experimental results agree well with theory. On the other hand, success in solving the inverse problem of determining the spectral distribution from the experimental results is limited by the small number of experimental points. However, making reasonable assumptions it is deduced that the observed spectrum is characterized by a broadband signal of width (0.43 ± 0.06) x 10 16 rad s -1 and centre angular frequency (0.77 ± 0.03) x 10 16 rad s -1 in good agreement with the predictions of 0.489 x 10 16 rad s -1 and 0.775 x 10 16 rad s -1 , respectively, obtained from the theoretical spectral distribution modified to take account of the absorption of the two-photon radiation in air. The values of 1.5 fs for the coherence time and 440 nm for the coherence length for single photons of the two-photon pair which are obtained from the measured bandwidth imply that, in the ideal case, these values are determined by the essentially zero lifetime of the virtual intermediate state of the decay process rather than the long lifetime of the metastable state which, it is suggested, determines the coherence time and coherence length appropriate to certain types of fourth-order interference experiments. (Author)

  5. Two-Photon Absorption in Organometallic Bromide Perovskites

    KAUST Repository

    Walters, Grant

    2015-07-21

    Organometallic trihalide perovskites are solution processed semiconductors that have made great strides in third generation thin film light harvesting and light emitting optoelectronic devices. Recently it has been demonstrated that large, high purity single crystals of these perovskites can be synthesized from the solution phase. These crystals’ large dimensions, clean bandgap, and solid-state order, have provided us with a suitable medium to observe and quantify two-photon absorption in perovskites. When CH3NH3PbBr3 single crystals are pumped with intense 800 nm light, we observe band-to-band photoluminescence at 572 nm, indicative of two-photon absorption. We report the nonlinear absorption coefficient of CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskites to be 8.6 cm GW-1 at 800 nm, comparable to epitaxial single crystal semiconductors of similar bandgap. We have leveraged this nonlinear process to electrically autocorrelate a 100 fs pulsed laser using a two-photon perovskite photodetector. This work demonstrates the viability of organometallic trihalide perovskites as a convenient and low-cost nonlinear absorber for applications in ultrafast photonics.

  6. Particle Production in Two-Photon Collisions at Belle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazawa, Hideyuki

    2010-01-01

    Experimental study of η η production in two-photon collisions: The differential cross section for the process γ γ → η η has been measured in the kinematic range above the η η threshold, 1.096 GeV -1 data sample collected with the Belle detector at the KEKB e + e - collider. In the W range 1.1-2.0 GeV/c 2 we perform an analysis of resonance amplitudes for various partial waves; at higher energy we extract the contributions of χ cJ charmonia and compare the energy and angular dependence of the cross section with the predictions of theoretical models. Observation of η c (2S) in six-prong final states produced in two-photon collisions: We report the observation of η c (2S), produced in two-photon collisions, and decaying to the six-prong final states 3(π + π - ), K + K - 2(π + π - ), and K 0 S K + ππ + π - (including the charge-conjugate state). This analysis is based on a large data sample accumulated by the Belle experiment at the KEKB asymmetric-energy electron-positron collider. This is the first observation of decay modes of the η c (2S) other than K 0 S K + π - . (author)

  7. Two-photon excited fluorescence emission from hemoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiqi; Zeng, Yan; Zhang, Wei; Zheng, Wei; Luo, Yi; Qu, Jianan Y.

    2015-03-01

    Hemoglobin, one of the most important proteins in blood, is responsible for oxygen transportation in almost all vertebrates. Recently, we discovered two-photon excited hemoglobin fluorescence and achieved label-free microvascular imaging based on the hemoglobin fluorescence. However, the mechanism of its fluorescence emission still remains unknown. In this work, we studied the two-photon excited fluorescence properties of the hemoglobin subunits, heme/hemin (iron (II)/(III) protoporphyrin IX) and globin. We first studied the properties of heme and the similar spectral and temporal characteristics of heme and hemoglobin fluorescence provide strong evidence that heme is the fluorophore in hemoglobin. Then we studied the fluorescence properties of hemin, globin and methemoglobin, and found that the hemin may have the main effect on the methemoglobin fluorescence and that globin has tryptophan fluorescence like other proteins. Finally, since heme is a centrosymmetric molecule, that the Soret band fluorescence of heme and hemoglobin was not observed in the single photon process in the previous study may be due to the parity selection rule. The discovery of heme two-photon excited fluorescence may open a new window for heme biology research, since heme as a cofactor of hemoprotein has many functions, including chemical catalysis, electron transfer and diatomic gases transportation.

  8. Two-photon exchange in elastic electron-nucleon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blunden, P.G.; Melnitchouk, W.; Tjon, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    A detailed study of two-photon exchange in unpolarized and polarized elastic electron-nucleon scattering is presented, taking particular account of nucleon finite size effects. Contributions from nucleon elastic intermediate states are found to have a strong angular dependence, which leads to a partial resolution of the discrepancy between the Rosenbluth and polarization transfer measurements of the proton electric to magnetic form factor ratio, G E /G M . The two-photon exchange contribution to the longitudinal polarization transfer P L is small, whereas the contribution to the transverse polarization transfer P T is enhanced at backward angles by several percent, increasing with Q 2 . This gives rise to a small, E /G M obtained from the polarization transfer ratio P T /P L at large Q 2 . We also compare the two-photon exchange effects with data on the ratio of e + p to e - p cross sections, which is predicted to be enhanced at backward angles. Finally, we evaluate the corrections to the form factors of the neutron and estimate the elastic intermediate state contribution to the 3 He form factors

  9. Two-Photon Absorption in Organometallic Bromide Perovskites

    KAUST Repository

    Walters, Grant; Sutherland, Brandon R; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Shi, Dong; Comin, Riccardo; Sellan, Daniel P.; Bakr, Osman; Sargent, Edward H.

    2015-01-01

    Organometallic trihalide perovskites are solution processed semiconductors that have made great strides in third generation thin film light harvesting and light emitting optoelectronic devices. Recently it has been demonstrated that large, high purity single crystals of these perovskites can be synthesized from the solution phase. These crystals’ large dimensions, clean bandgap, and solid-state order, have provided us with a suitable medium to observe and quantify two-photon absorption in perovskites. When CH3NH3PbBr3 single crystals are pumped with intense 800 nm light, we observe band-to-band photoluminescence at 572 nm, indicative of two-photon absorption. We report the nonlinear absorption coefficient of CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskites to be 8.6 cm GW-1 at 800 nm, comparable to epitaxial single crystal semiconductors of similar bandgap. We have leveraged this nonlinear process to electrically autocorrelate a 100 fs pulsed laser using a two-photon perovskite photodetector. This work demonstrates the viability of organometallic trihalide perovskites as a convenient and low-cost nonlinear absorber for applications in ultrafast photonics.

  10. Towards Precision Measurement of the 21S0-31D2 Two-Photon Transition in Atomic Helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Jan; Guan, Yu-Chan; Suen, Te-Hwei; Wang, Li-Bang; Shy, Jow-Tsong

    2017-04-01

    We intend to accurately measure the frequency for 2S-3D two-photon transition and to deduce the 2S ionization energy to an accuracy below 100 kHz from the theoretical calculation of the 3D state. In this talk, we present a precision measurement of the 21S0 -31D2 two-photon transition in atomic helium at 1009 nm. A master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) is seeded by an external cavity diode laser (ECDL) is constructed to generate more than 700 mW laser power with TEM00 beam profile at 1009 nm. To observe the two-photon transition, a helium cell is placed inside a power enhancement optical cavity and the helium atoms at 21S metastable level are prepared by a pulsed RF discharge and monitor the 668 nm 31D2 to 21P1 fluorescence after RF discharge is turned off . The absolute frequency metrology of the ECDL is carried out by an Er-fiber optical frequency comb (OFC). The two-photon spectrum is obtained by tuning the repetition frequency of the OFC. The 21S0-31D2 frequency is determined to be 594414291.967 (80) MHz in He-4. More results will be presented at the annual meeting.

  11. Two-Photon Fluorescence Microscope for Microgravity Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, David G.; Zimmerli, Gregory A.; Asipauskas, Marius

    2005-01-01

    A two-photon fluorescence microscope has been developed for the study of biophysical phenomena. Two-photon microscopy is a novel form of laser-based scanning microscopy that enables three-dimensional imaging without many of the problems inherent in confocal microscopy. Unlike one-photon optical microscopy, two-photon microscopy utilizes the simultaneous nonlinear absorption of two near-infrared photons. However, the efficiency of two-photon absorption is much lower than that of one-photon absorption, so an ultra-fast pulsed laser source is typically employed. On the other hand, the critical energy threshold for two-photon absorption leads to fluorophore excitation that is intrinsically localized to the focal volume. Consequently, two-photon microscopy enables optical sectioning and confocal performance without the need for a signal-limiting pinhole. In addition, there is a reduction (relative to one-photon optical microscopy) in photon-induced damage because of the longer excitation wavelength. This reduction is especially advantageous for in vivo studies. Relative to confocal microscopy, there is also a reduction in background fluorescence, and, because of a reduction in Rayleigh scattering, there is a 4 increase of penetration depth. The prohibitive cost of a commercial two-photon fluorescence-microscope system, as well as a need for modularity, has led to the construction of a custom-built system (see Figure 1). This system includes a coherent mode-locked titanium: sapphire laser emitting 120-fs-duration pulses at a repetition rate of 80 MHz. The pulsed laser has an average output power of 800 mW and a wavelength tuning range of 700 to 980 nm, enabling the excitation of a variety of targeted fluorophores. The output from the laser is attenuated, spatially filtered, and then directed into a confocal scanning head that has been modified to provide for side entry of the laser beam. The laser output coupler has been replaced with a dichroic filter that reflects the

  12. Ar 3p photoelectron sideband spectra in two-color XUV + NIR laser fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minemoto, Shinichirou; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Komatsu, Kazma; Komatsubara, Wataru; Majima, Takuya; Mizuno, Tomoya; Owada, Shigeki; Sakai, Hirofumi; Togashi, Tadashi; Yoshida, Shintaro; Yabashi, Makina; Yagishita, Akira

    2018-04-01

    We performed photoelectron spectroscopy using femtosecond XUV pulses from a free-electron laser and femtosecond near-infrared pulses from a synchronized laser, and succeeded in measuring Ar 3p photoelectron sideband spectra due to the two-color above-threshold ionization. In our calculations of the first-order time-dependent perturbation theoretical model based on the strong field approximation, the photoelectron sideband spectra and their angular distributions are well reproduced by considering the timing jitter between the XUV and the NIR pulses, showing that the timing jitter in our experiments was distributed over the width of {1.0}+0.4-0.2 ps. The present approach can be used as a method to evaluate the timing jitter inevitable in FEL experiments.

  13. Long-Range Predissociation in Two-Color Photoassociation of Ultracold Na Atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molenaar, P.A.; van der Straten, P.; Heideman, H.G.

    1996-01-01

    We report two-color photoassociative ionization of sodium in a magneto-optical trap. The experimental results yield information on both singly and doubly excited states. We find that the highest bound vibrational levels (v approx-gt 20) of the singly excited 0 g - state predissociate into the 3 2 P 3/2 +3 2 S 1/2 (F g =1) dissociation continuum due to avoided crossings of the hyperfine components of this potential with other molecular symmetries. Based on symmetry and energy consideration we argue that a doubly excited 1 u state remains autoionizing even when only a few GHz above the dissociation continuum. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  14. Spinor Slow Light and Two-Color Qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ite; Lee, Meng-Jung; Ruseckas, Julius; Lee, Chin-Yuan; Kudriasov, Viaceslav; Chang, Kao-Fang; Cho, Hung-Wen; Juzeliunas, Gediminas; Yu, Ite A.

    2015-05-01

    We report the first experimental demonstration of two-component or spinor slow light (SSL) using a double tripod (DT) atom-light coupling scheme. The scheme involves three atomic ground states coupled to two excited states by six light fields. The oscillation due to the interaction between the two components was observed. SSL can be used to achieve high conversion efficiencies in the sum frequency generation and is a better method than the widely-used double- Λ scheme. On the basis of the stored light, our data showed that the DT scheme behaves like the two outcomes of an interferometer enabling precision measurements of frequency detuning. Furthermore, the single-photon SSL can be considered as the qubit with the superposition state of two frequency modes or, simply, as the two-color qubit. We experimentally demonstrated a possible application of the DT scheme as quantum memory/rotator for the two-color qubit. This work opens up a new direction in the EIT/slow light research. yu@phys.nthu.edu.tw

  15. Two-photon imaging and analysis of neural network dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luetcke, Henry; Helmchen, Fritjof

    2011-01-01

    The glow of a starry night sky, the smell of a freshly brewed cup of coffee or the sound of ocean waves breaking on the beach are representations of the physical world that have been created by the dynamic interactions of thousands of neurons in our brains. How the brain mediates perceptions, creates thoughts, stores memories and initiates actions remains one of the most profound puzzles in biology, if not all of science. A key to a mechanistic understanding of how the nervous system works is the ability to measure and analyze the dynamics of neuronal networks in the living organism in the context of sensory stimulation and behavior. Dynamic brain properties have been fairly well characterized on the microscopic level of individual neurons and on the macroscopic level of whole brain areas largely with the help of various electrophysiological techniques. However, our understanding of the mesoscopic level comprising local populations of hundreds to thousands of neurons (so-called 'microcircuits') remains comparably poor. Predominantly, this has been due to the technical difficulties involved in recording from large networks of neurons with single-cell spatial resolution and near-millisecond temporal resolution in the brain of living animals. In recent years, two-photon microscopy has emerged as a technique which meets many of these requirements and thus has become the method of choice for the interrogation of local neural circuits. Here, we review the state-of-research in the field of two-photon imaging of neuronal populations, covering the topics of microscope technology, suitable fluorescent indicator dyes, staining techniques, and in particular analysis techniques for extracting relevant information from the fluorescence data. We expect that functional analysis of neural networks using two-photon imaging will help to decipher fundamental operational principles of neural microcircuits.

  16. Two-photon imaging and analysis of neural network dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lütcke, Henry; Helmchen, Fritjof

    2011-08-01

    The glow of a starry night sky, the smell of a freshly brewed cup of coffee or the sound of ocean waves breaking on the beach are representations of the physical world that have been created by the dynamic interactions of thousands of neurons in our brains. How the brain mediates perceptions, creates thoughts, stores memories and initiates actions remains one of the most profound puzzles in biology, if not all of science. A key to a mechanistic understanding of how the nervous system works is the ability to measure and analyze the dynamics of neuronal networks in the living organism in the context of sensory stimulation and behavior. Dynamic brain properties have been fairly well characterized on the microscopic level of individual neurons and on the macroscopic level of whole brain areas largely with the help of various electrophysiological techniques. However, our understanding of the mesoscopic level comprising local populations of hundreds to thousands of neurons (so-called 'microcircuits') remains comparably poor. Predominantly, this has been due to the technical difficulties involved in recording from large networks of neurons with single-cell spatial resolution and near-millisecond temporal resolution in the brain of living animals. In recent years, two-photon microscopy has emerged as a technique which meets many of these requirements and thus has become the method of choice for the interrogation of local neural circuits. Here, we review the state-of-research in the field of two-photon imaging of neuronal populations, covering the topics of microscope technology, suitable fluorescent indicator dyes, staining techniques, and in particular analysis techniques for extracting relevant information from the fluorescence data. We expect that functional analysis of neural networks using two-photon imaging will help to decipher fundamental operational principles of neural microcircuits.

  17. Two-photon imaging and analysis of neural network dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luetcke, Henry; Helmchen, Fritjof [Brain Research Institute, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2011-08-15

    The glow of a starry night sky, the smell of a freshly brewed cup of coffee or the sound of ocean waves breaking on the beach are representations of the physical world that have been created by the dynamic interactions of thousands of neurons in our brains. How the brain mediates perceptions, creates thoughts, stores memories and initiates actions remains one of the most profound puzzles in biology, if not all of science. A key to a mechanistic understanding of how the nervous system works is the ability to measure and analyze the dynamics of neuronal networks in the living organism in the context of sensory stimulation and behavior. Dynamic brain properties have been fairly well characterized on the microscopic level of individual neurons and on the macroscopic level of whole brain areas largely with the help of various electrophysiological techniques. However, our understanding of the mesoscopic level comprising local populations of hundreds to thousands of neurons (so-called 'microcircuits') remains comparably poor. Predominantly, this has been due to the technical difficulties involved in recording from large networks of neurons with single-cell spatial resolution and near-millisecond temporal resolution in the brain of living animals. In recent years, two-photon microscopy has emerged as a technique which meets many of these requirements and thus has become the method of choice for the interrogation of local neural circuits. Here, we review the state-of-research in the field of two-photon imaging of neuronal populations, covering the topics of microscope technology, suitable fluorescent indicator dyes, staining techniques, and in particular analysis techniques for extracting relevant information from the fluorescence data. We expect that functional analysis of neural networks using two-photon imaging will help to decipher fundamental operational principles of neural microcircuits.

  18. Two-Photon Fluorescence Microscopy Developed for Microgravity Fluid Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, David G.; Zimmerli, Gregory A.; Asipauskas, Marius

    2004-01-01

    Recent research efforts within the Microgravity Fluid Physics Branch of the NASA Glenn Research Center have necessitated the development of a microscope capable of high-resolution, three-dimensional imaging of intracellular structure and tissue morphology. Standard optical microscopy works well for thin samples, but it does not allow the imaging of thick samples because of severe degradation caused by out-of-focus object structure. Confocal microscopy, which is a laser-based scanning microscopy, provides improved three-dimensional imaging and true optical sectioning by excluding the out-of-focus light. However, in confocal microscopy, out-of-focus object structure is still illuminated by the incoming beam, which can lead to substantial photo-bleaching. In addition, confocal microscopy is plagued by limited penetration depth, signal loss due to the presence of a confocal pinhole, and the possibility of live-cell damage. Two-photon microscopy is a novel form of laser-based scanning microscopy that allows three-dimensional imaging without many of the problems inherent in confocal microscopy. Unlike one-photon microscopy, it utilizes the nonlinear absorption of two near-infrared photons. However, the efficiency of two-photon absorption is much lower than that of one-photon absorption because of the nonlinear (i.e., quadratic) electric field dependence, so an ultrafast pulsed laser source must typically be employed. On the other hand, this stringent energy density requirement effectively localizes fluorophore excitation to the focal volume. Consequently, two-photon microscopy provides optical sectioning and confocal performance without the need for a signal-limiting pinhole. In addition, there is a reduction in photo-damage because of the longer excitation wavelength, a reduction in background fluorescence, and a 4 increase in penetration depth over confocal methods because of the reduction in Rayleigh scattering.

  19. Inclusive $D*^{+-}$ Production in Two-Photon Collisions at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Achard, P.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Alcaraz, J.; Alemanni, G.; Allaby, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alviggi, M.G.; Anderhub, H.; Andreev, Valery P.; Anselmo, F.; Arefev, A.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Bagnaia, P.; Bajo, A.; Baksay, G.; Baksay, L.; Baldew, S.V.; Banerjee, S.; Banerjee, Sw.; Barczyk, A.; Barillere, R.; Bartalini, P.; Basile, M.; Batalova, N.; Battiston, R.; Bay, A.; Becattini, F.; Becker, U.; Behner, F.; Bellucci, L.; Berbeco, R.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Betev, B.L.; Biasini, M.; Biglietti, M.; Biland, A.; Blaising, J.J.; Blyth, S.C.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bohm, A.; Boldizsar, L.; Borgia, B.; Bottai, S.; Bourilkov, D.; Bourquin, M.; Braccini, S.; Branson, J.G.; Brochu, F.; Burger, J.D.; Burger, W.J.; Cai, X.D.; Capell, M.; Cara Romeo, G.; Carlino, G.; Cartacci, A.; Casaus, J.; Cavallari, F.; Cavallo, N.; Cecchi, C.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo, M.; Chang, Y.H.; Chemarin, M.; Chen, A.; Chen, G.; Chen, G.M.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, H.S.; Chiefari, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Clare, I.; Clare, R.; Coignet, G.; Colino, N.; Costantini, S.; de la Cruz, B.; Cucciarelli, S.; van Dalen, J.A.; de Asmundis, R.; Deglon, P.; Debreczeni, J.; Degre, A.; Deiters, K.; della Volpe, D.; Delmeire, E.; Denes, P.; DeNotaristefani, F.; De Salvo, A.; Diemoz, M.; Dierckxsens, M.; Dionisi, C.; Dittmar, M.; Doria, A.; Dova, M.T.; Duchesneau, D.; Echenard, B.; Eline, A.; El Mamouni, H.; Engler, A.; Eppling, F.J.; Ewers, A.; Extermann, P.; Falagan, M.A.; Falciano, S.; Favara, A.; Fay, J.; Fedin, O.; Felcini, M.; Ferguson, T.; Fesefeldt, H.; Fiandrini, E.; Field, J.H.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, P.H.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, I.; Forconi, G.; Freudenreich, K.; Furetta, C.; Galaktionov, Iouri; Ganguli, S.N.; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gataullin, M.; Gentile, S.; Giagu, S.; Gong, Z.F.; Grenier, Gerald Jean; Grimm, O.; Gruenewald, M.W.; Guida, M.; van Gulik, R.; Gupta, V.K.; Gurtu, A.; Gutay, L.J.; Haas, D.; Hakobyan, R.S.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hebbeker, T.; Herve, Alain; Hirschfelder, J.; Hofer, H.; Hohlmann, M.; Holzner, G.; Hou, S.R.; Hu, Y.; Jin, B.N.; Jones, Lawrence W.; de Jong, P.; Josa-Mutuberria, I.; Kafer, D.; Kaur, M.; Kienzle-Focacci, M.N.; Kim, J.K.; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, W.; Klimentov, A.; Konig, A.C.; Kopal, M.; Koutsenko, V.; Kraber, M.; Kraemer, R.W.; Krenz, W.; Kruger, A.; Kunin, A.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Laktineh, I.; Landi, G.; Lebeau, M.; Lebedev, A.; Lebrun, P.; Lecomte, P.; Lecoq, P.; Le Coultre, P.; Le Goff, J.M.; Leiste, R.; Levtchenko, M.; Levtchenko, P.; Li, C.; Likhoded, S.; Lin, C.H.; Lin, W.T.; Linde, F.L.; Lista, L.; Liu, Z.A.; Lohmann, W.; Longo, E.; Lu, Y.S.; Lubelsmeyer, K.; Luci, C.; Luminari, L.; Lustermann, W.; Ma, W.G.; Malgeri, L.; Malinin, A.; Mana, C.; Mangeol, D.; Mans, J.; Martin, J.P.; Marzano, F.; Mazumdar, K.; McNeil, R.R.; Mele, S.; Merola, L.; Meschini, M.; Metzger, W.J.; Mihul, A.; Milcent, H.; Mirabelli, G.; Mnich, J.; Mohanty, G.B.; Muanza, G.S.; Muijs, A.J.M.; Musicar, B.; Musy, M.; Nagy, S.; Natale, S.; Napolitano, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Newman, H.; Niessen, T.; Nisati, A.; Kluge, Hannelies; Ofierzynski, R.; Organtini, G.; Palomares, C.; Pandoulas, D.; Paolucci, P.; Paramatti, R.; Passaleva, G.; Patricelli, S.; Paul, Thomas Cantzon; Pauluzzi, M.; Paus, C.; Pauss, F.; Pedace, M.; Pensotti, S.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Petersen, B.; Piccolo, D.; Pierella, F.; Pioppi, M.; Piroue, P.A.; Pistolesi, E.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Pojidaev, V.; Pothier, J.; Prokofev, D.O.; Prokofiev, D.; Quartieri, J.; Rahal-Callot, G.; Rahaman, M.A.; Raics, P.; Raja, N.; Ramelli, R.; Rancoita, P.G.; Ranieri, R.; Raspereza, A.; Razis, P.; Ren, D.; Rescigno, M.; Reucroft, S.; Riemann, S.; Riles, Keith; Roe, B.P.; Romero, L.; Rosca, A.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Roth, Stefan; Rosenbleck, C.; Roux, B.; Rubio, J.A.; Ruggiero, G.; Rykaczewski, H.; Sakharov, A.; Saremi, S.; Sarkar, S.; Salicio, J.; Sanchez, E.; Sanders, M.P.; Schafer, C.; Schegelsky, V.; Schmidt-Kaerst, S.; Schmitz, D.; Schopper, H.; Schotanus, D.J.; Schwering, G.; Sciacca, C.; Servoli, L.; Shevchenko, S.; Shivarov, N.; Shoutko, V.; Shumilov, E.; Shvorob, A.; Siedenburg, T.; Son, D.; Spillantini, P.; Steuer, M.; Stickland, D.P.; Stoyanov, B.; Straessner, A.; Sudhakar, K.; Sultanov, G.; Sun, L.Z.; Sushkov, S.; Suter, H.; Swain, J.D.; Szillasi, Z.; Tang, X.W.; Tarjan, P.; Tauscher, L.; Taylor, L.; Tellili, B.; Teyssier, D.; Timmermans, Charles; Ting, Samuel C.C.; Ting, S.M.; Tonwar, S.C.; Toth, J.; Tully, C.; Tung, K.L.; Ulbricht, J.; Valente, E.; Van de Walle, R.T.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vetlitsky, I.; Vicinanza, D.; Viertel, G.; Villa, S.; Vivargent, M.; Vlachos, S.; Vodopianov, I.; Vogel, H.; Vogt, H.; Vorobev, I.; Vorobyov, A.A.; Wadhwa, M.; Wallraff, W.; Wang, X.L.; Wang, Z.M.; Weber, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wilkens, H.; Wynhoff, S.; Xia, L.; Xu, Z.Z.; Yamamoto, J.; Yang, B.Z.; Yang, C.G.; Yang, H.J.; Yang, M.; Yeh, S.C.; Zalite, A.; Zalite, Yu.; Zhang, Z.P.; Zhao, J.; Zhu, G.Y.; Zhu, R.Y.; Zhuang, H.L.; Zichichi, A.; Zilizi, G.; Zimmermann, B.; Zoller, M.

    2002-01-01

    Inclusive D^{*+-} production in two-photon collisions is studied with the L3 detector at LEP, using 683 pb^{-1} of data collected at centre-of-mass energies from 183 to 208 GeV. Differential cross sections are determined as functions of the transverse momentum and pseudorapidity of the D^{*+-} mesons in the kinematic region 1 GeV e^+e^-D^{*+-}X)$ in this kinematical region is measured and the sigma(e^+e^- ---> e^+e^- cc{bar}X) cross section is derived. The measurements are compared with next-to-leading order perturbative QCD calculations.

  20. New two-photon based nanoscopic modalities and optogenetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper

    that can be equipped with optical trapping handles for convenient mechanical control using only optical forces [6]. These microstructures illustrated above can be effectively handled with simultaneous top- and side-view on our BioPhotonics Workstation to undertake six-degree-of-freedom optical actuation...... of two-photon polymerised microstructures equipped with features easily entering the submicron-regime. Aided by European collaborators who fabricated test structures with built-in waveguides for us, we were able to put the idea of optically steerable freestanding waveguides – coined: wave-guided optical...

  1. Two photon production of charm states - a charmonium calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suaya, R.

    1980-03-01

    The comparison of the nonrelativistic multichannel calculation with the double Rutherford process shows that duality is satisfied, in the sense that if one averages the actual cross sections for a wide enough range of W one gets the same result as for nonstrongly interacting point like quarks. It has been shown for the case of e + e - annihilation that duality in this sense follows from nonrelativistic potential models; and it has been verified that this proof can be extended to two-photon processes

  2. Two-photon exclusive processes in quantum chromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1986-07-01

    QCD predictions for γγ annihilation into single mesons, meson pairs, and baryon pairs are reviewed. Two-photon exclusive processes provide the most sensitive and practical measure of the distribution amplitudes, and thus a critical confrontation between QCD and experiment. Both the angular distribution and virtual photon mass dependence of these amplitudes are sensitive to the shapes of the phi (chi, Q). Novel effects involving the production of qq anti q anti q states at threshold are also discussed, and a new method is presented for systematically incorporating higher-order QCD corrections in γγ reactions

  3. Two-photon exclusive processes in quantum chromodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1986-07-01

    QCD predictions for ..gamma gamma.. annihilation into single mesons, meson pairs, and baryon pairs are reviewed. Two-photon exclusive processes provide the most sensitive and practical measure of the distribution amplitudes, and thus a critical confrontation between QCD and experiment. Both the angular distribution and virtual photon mass dependence of these amplitudes are sensitive to the shapes of the phi (chi, Q). Novel effects involving the production of qq anti q anti q states at threshold are also discussed, and a new method is presented for systematically incorporating higher-order QCD corrections in ..gamma gamma.. reactions.

  4. Direct and indirect two-photon processes in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, A.R.

    1986-07-01

    The expressions describing direct and indirect two-photon absorption in crystals are given. They are valid both near and far from the energy gap. A perturbative approach through two different band models is adopted. The effects of the non-parabolicity and the degeneracy of the energy bands are considered. The numerical results are compared with the other theories and with a recent experimental data in Zn and AgCl. It is shown that the dominant transition mechanisms are of the allowed-allowed type near and far from the gap for both direct and indirect processes. (author)

  5. {Lambda}{bar {Lambda}} production in two-photon interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, S.; Kubota, Y.; Lattery, M.; ONeill, J.J.; Patton, S.; Poling, R.; Riehle, T.; Savinov, V.; Smith, A. [University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States); Alam, M.S.; Athar, S.B.; Ling, Z.; Mahmood, A.H.; Severini, H.; Timm, S.; Wappler, F. [State University of New York at Albany, Albany, New York 12222 (United States); Anastassov, A.; Blinov, S.; Duboscq, J.E.; Fujino, D.; Fulton, R.; Gan, K.K.; Hart, T.; Honscheid, K.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Lee, J.; Spencer, M.B.; Sung, M.; Undrus, A.; Wanke, R.; Wolf, A.; Zoeller, M.M. [Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Nemati, B.; Richichi, S.J.; Ross, W.R.; Skubic, P.; Wood, M. [University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States); Bishai, M.; Fast, J.; Gerndt, E.; Hinson, J.W.; Menon, N.; Miller, D.H.; Shibata, E.I.; Shipsey, I.P.; Yurko, M. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Gibbons, L.; Johnson, S.D.; Kwon, Y.; Roberts, S.; Thorndike, E.H. [University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Jessop, C.P.; Lingel, K.; Marsiske, H.; Perl, M.L.; Schaffner, S.F.; Ugolini, D.; Wang, R.; Zhou, X. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94309 (United States); Coan, T.E.; Fadeyev, V.; Korolkov, I.; Maravin, Y.; Narsky, I.; Shelkov, V.; Staeck, J.; Stroynowski, R.; Volobouev, I.; Ye, J. [Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas 75275 (United States); Artuso, M.; Efimov, A.; Frasconi, F.; Gao, M.; Goldberg, M.; He, D.; Kopp, S.; Moneti, G.C.; Mountain, R.; Mukhin, Y.; Schuh, S.; Skwarnicki, T.; Stone, S.; Viehhauser, G.; Xing, X. [Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York 13244 (United States); Bartelt, J.; Csorna, S.E.; Jain, V.; Marka, S. [Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States); Freyberger, A.; Gibaut, D.; Godang, R.; Kinoshita, K.; Lai, I.C.; Pomianowski, P.; Schrenk, S.; and others

    1997-09-01

    Using the CLEO detector at the Cornell e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} storage ring CESR we study the two-photon production of {Lambda}{bar {Lambda}}, making the first observation of {gamma}{gamma}{r_arrow}{Lambda}{bar {Lambda}}. We present the cross section for {gamma}{gamma}{r_arrow}{Lambda}{bar {Lambda}} as a function of the {gamma}{gamma} center of mass energy and compare it to that predicted by the quark-diquark model. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  6. Imaging Live Drosophila Brain with Two-Photon Fluorescence Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Syeed Ehsan

    Two-photon fluorescence microscopy is an imaging technique which delivers distinct benefits for in vivo cellular and molecular imaging. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), a second messenger molecule, is responsible for triggering many physiological changes in neural system. However, the mechanism by which this molecule regulates responses in neuron cells is not yet clearly understood. When cAMP binds to a target protein, it changes the structure of that protein. Therefore, studying this molecular structure change with fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) imaging can shed light on the cAMP functioning mechanism. FRET is a non-radiative dipole-dipole coupling which is sensitive to small distance change in nanometer scale. In this study we have investigated the effect of dopamine in cAMP dynamics in vivo. In our study two-photon fluorescence microscope was used for imaging mushroom bodies inside live Drosophila melanogaster brain and we developed a method for studying the change in cyclic AMP level.

  7. Single-organelle tracking by two-photon conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Wataru; Shimada, Tomoko; Matsunaga, Sachihiro; Kurihara, Daisuke; Fukui, Kiichi; Shin-Ichi Arimura, Shin-Ichi; Tsutsumi, Nobuhiro; Isobe, Keisuke; Itoh, Kazuyoshi

    2007-03-01

    Spatial and temporal information about intracellular objects and their dynamics within a living cell are essential for dynamic analysis of such objects in cell biology. A specific intracellular object can be discriminated by photoactivatable fluorescent proteins that exhibit pronounced light-induced spectral changes. Here, we report on selective labeling and tracking of a single organelle by using two-photon conversion of a photoconvertible fluorescent protein with near-infrared femtosecond laser pulses. We performed selective labeling of a single mitochondrion in a living tobacco BY-2 cell using two-photon photoconversion of Kaede. Using this technique, we demonstrated that, in plants, the directed movement of individual mitochondria along the cytoskeletons was mediated by actin filaments, whereas microtubules were not required for the movement of mitochondria. This single-organelle labeling technique enabled us to track the dynamics of a single organelle, revealing the mechanisms involved in organelle dynamics. The technique has potential application in direct tracking of selective cellular and intracellular structures.

  8. Inclusive D*(+/-) production in two photon collisions at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Prokofiev, Denis Olegovich

    2001-01-01

    In this thesis I present my results on the measurement of the open charm production in two-photon collision events done with the L3 detector at Large Electron Positron machine (LEP). The data sample was collected from 1997 through 2000 at center-of-mass energies ranging from 183 GeV to 209 GeV, corresponding to a total integrated luminosity of 683.4pb −1. The open charm production in two-photon collision events extrapolated to the full phase space is estimated to be: s&parl0;e+e-&rarrr;e +e-cc&d1;X&parr0;=9 23±69±109±222pb. The differential cross sections d s /dpT(D*±) and d s /d:η(D*±): are also measured as functions of transverse momentum pT(D*±) and the absolute value of pseudorapidity :η(D*±):, respectively. A fit to the data estimating the relative contributions of Direct and Resolved open charm production mechanisms is performed, giving (28.7 ± 5.6)% and (71.3 ± 8.8)%, respectively. Using those relative fractions, the Direct and Resolved process cross sections yield: s&p...

  9. Temperature dependence of the two photon absorption in indium arsenide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berryman, K.W.; Rella, C.W.

    1995-01-01

    Nonlinear optical processes in semiconductors have long been a source of interesting physics. Two photon absorption (TPA) is one such process, in which two photons provide the energy for the creation of an electron-hole pair. Researchers at other FEL centers have studied room temperature TPA in InSb, InAs, and HgCdTe. Working at the Stanford Picosecond FEL Center, we have extended and refined this work by measuring the temperature dependence of the TPA coefficient in InAs over the range from 80 to 350 K at four wavelengths: 4.5, 5.06, 6.01, and 6.3 microns. The measurements validate the functional dependence of recent band structure calculations with enough precision to discriminate parabolic from non-parabolic models, and to begin to observe smaller effects, such as contributions due to the split-off band. These experiments therefore serve as a strong independent test of the Kane band theory, as well as providing a starting point for detailed observations of other nonlinear absorption mechanisms

  10. Monte Carlo simulation of two-photon processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daverveldt, P.H.W.M.

    1985-01-01

    During the last two decades e + e - collider experiments provided physicists with a wealth of important discoveries concerning elementary particle physics. This thesis explains in detail how the Monte Carlo approach can be applied to establish the comparison between two-photon experiments and theory. The author describes the main motives for and objectives of two-photon research. He defines the kinematics and pays attention to some special kinematical regions. Also a popular approximation for the exact differential cross section is reviewed. Next he discusses the calculation of the complete lowest order cross section for processes with four leptons in the final state and for reactions such as e + e - →e + e - qanti q, e + e - →μ + μ - qanti q. Radiative corrections to the multiperipheral diagrams are considered. The author explains in detail the distinction between soft and hard photon corrections which turns out to be somewhat more tricky than in the case of radiative corrections to one-photon processes. Finally, he presents some results which were obtained by using the event generators. (Auth.)

  11. Quantum theory of two-photon wavepacket interference in a beamsplitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Kaige

    2006-01-01

    A general theory is derived for the interference of a two-photon wavepacket in a beamsplitter. The theory is presented in the Schroedinger picture so that the quantum nature of the two-photon interference is explicitly revealed. We find that the topological symmetry of the probability-amplitude spectrum of the two-photon wavepacket dominates the nature of the two-photon interference, which may be distinguished by the increase or decrease of the coincidence probability in the absence of interference. However, two-photon entanglement can be identified by the nature of the interference. We demonstrate the necessary and sufficient conditions for perfect two-photon interference. It is shown that a two-photon entangled state with an anti-symmetric spectrum passes through a 50/50 beamsplitter with perfect transparency. The theory provides us with a unified understanding of the various two-photon interference effects. (topical review)

  12. Two-color lattice QCD with staggered quarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheffler, David

    2015-07-20

    The study of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) at finite temperature and density provides important contributions to the understanding of strong-interaction matter as it is present e.g. in nuclear matter and in neutron stars or as produced in heavy-ion collision experiments. Lattice QCD is a non-perturbative approach, where equations of motion for quarks and gluons are discretized on a finite space-time lattice. The method successfully describes the behavior of QCD in the vacuum and at finite temperature, however it cannot be applied to finite baryon density due to the fermion sign problem. Various QCD-like theories, that offer to draw conclusions about QCD, allow simulations also at finite densities. In this work we investigate two-color QCD as a popular example of a QCD-like theory free from the sign problem with methods from lattice gauge theory. For the generation of gauge configurations with two dynamical quark flavors in the staggered formalism with the ''rooting trick'' we apply the Rational Hybrid Monte Carlo (RHMC) algorithm. We carry out essential preparatory work for future simulations at finite density. As a start, we concentrate on the calculation of the effective potential for the Polyakov loop, which is an order parameter for the confinement-deconfinement transition, in dependence of the temperature and quark mass. It serves as an important input for effective models of QCD. We obtain the effective potential via the histogram method from local distributions of the Polyakov loop. To study the influence of dynamical quarks on gluonic observables, the simulations are performed with large quark masses and are compared to calculations in the pure gauge theory. In the second part of the thesis we examine aspects of the chiral phase transition along the temperature axis. The symmetry group of chiral symmetry in two-color QCD is enlarged to SU(2N{sub f}). Discretized two-color QCD in the staggered formalism exhibits a chiral symmetry breaking

  13. Development of a two photon microscope for tracking Drosophila larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagyozov, Doycho; Mihovilovic Skanata, Mirna; Gershow, Marc

    Current in vivo methods for measuring neural activity in Drosophila larva require immobilization of the animal. Although we can record neural signals while stimulating the sensory organs, we cannot read the behavioral output because we have prevented the animal from moving. Many research questions cannot be answered without observation of neural activity in behaving (freely-moving) animals. We incorporated a Tunable Acoustic Gradient (TAG) lens into a two-photon microscope to achieve a 70kHz axial scan rate, enabling volumetric imaging at tens of hertz. We then implemented a tracking algorithm based on a Kalman filter to maintain the neurons of interest in the field of view and in focus during the rapid three dimensional motion of a free larva. Preliminary results show successful tracking of a neuron moving at speeds reaching 500 μm/s. NIH Grant 1DP2EB022359 and NSF Grant PHY-1455015.

  14. Two-photon-based photoactivation in live zebrafish embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russek-Blum, Niva; Nabel-Rosen, Helit; Levkowitz, Gil

    2010-12-24

    Photoactivation of target compounds in a living organism has proven a valuable approach to investigate various biological processes such as embryonic development, cellular signaling and adult physiology. In this respect, the use of multi-photon microscopy enables quantitative photoactivation of a given light responsive agent in deep tissues at a single cell resolution. As zebrafish embryos are optically transparent, their development can be monitored in vivo. These traits make the zebrafish a perfect model organism for controlling the activity of a variety of chemical agents and proteins by focused light. Here we describe the use of two-photon microscopy to induce the activation of chemically caged fluorescein, which in turn allows us to follow cell's destiny in live zebrafish embryos. We use embryos expressing a live genetic landmark (GFP) to locate and precisely target any cells of interest. This procedure can be similarly used for precise light induced activation of proteins, hormones, small molecules and other caged compounds.

  15. High contrast two-photon imaging of fingermarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltzfus, Caleb R.; Rebane, Aleksander

    2016-04-01

    Optically-acquired fingermarks are widely used as evidence across law enforcement agencies as well as in the courts of law. A common technique for visualizing latent fingermarks on nonporous surfaces consists of cyanoacrylate fuming of the fingerprint material, followed by impregnation with a fluorescent dye, which under ultra violet (UV) illumination makes the fingermarks visible and thus accessible for digital recording. However, there exist critical circumstances, when the image quality is compromised due to high background scattering, high auto-fluorescence of the substrate material, or other detrimental photo-physical and photo-chemical effects such as light-induced damage to the sample. Here we present a novel near-infrared (NIR), two-photon induced fluorescence imaging modality, which significantly enhances the quality of the fingermark images, especially when obtained from highly reflective and/or scattering surfaces, while at the same time reducing photo-damage to sensitive forensic samples.

  16. Two-photon resonant, stimulated processes in krypton and xenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.C.

    1988-11-01

    Both on-axis and conical emissions have been observed following two-photon pumping of the 5p states of krypton and the 6p', 7p, 8p, and 4f states of xenon. In the former case, coherent emissions from the 5p states to the 5s are observed, and in the latter case, many p→s, d→p, and f→d cascade emissions are observed. By analogy to the well-studied alkali and alkaline earth examples, the emissions are discussed in terms of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE), stimulated hyper-Raman scattering, and parametric four-wave mixing. The physical processes responsible for the conical emission and for intensity anomalies in the xenon p→s emissions are not understood at present. Interference effects due to coherent cancellation between competing excitation pathways may be occurring. 4 refs., 3 figs

  17. Whole brain imaging with Serial Two-Photon Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen P Amato

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Imaging entire mouse brains at submicron resolution has historically been a challenging undertaking and largely confined to the province of dedicated atlasing initiatives. The has limited systematic investigations into important areas of neuroscience, such as neural circuits, brain mapping and neurodegeneration. In this paper, we describe in detail Serial Two-Photon (STP tomography, a robust, reliable method for imaging entire brains with histological detail. We provide examples of how the basic methodology can be extended to other imaging modalities, such as optical coherence tomography, in order to provide unique contrast mechanisms. Furthermore we provide a survey of the research that STP tomography has enabled in the field of neuroscience, provide examples of how this technology enables quantitative whole brain studies, and discuss the current limitations of STP tomography-based approaches

  18. Two-photon excited UV fluorescence for protein crystal detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madden, Jeremy T.; DeWalt, Emma L.; Simpson, Garth J.

    2011-01-01

    Complementary measurements using SONICC and TPE-UVF allow the sensitive and selective detection of protein crystals. Two-photon excited ultraviolet fluorescence (TPE-UVF) microscopy is explored for sensitive protein-crystal detection as a complement to second-order nonlinear optical imaging of chiral crystals (SONICC). Like conventional ultraviolet fluorescence (UVF), TPE-UVF generates image contrast based on the intrinsic fluorescence of aromatic residues, generally producing higher fluorescence emission within crystals than the mother liquor by nature of the higher local protein concentration. However, TPE-UVF has several advantages over conventional UVF, including (i) insensitivity to optical scattering, allowing imaging in turbid matrices, (ii) direct compatibility with conventional optical plates and windows by using visible light for excitation, (iii) elimination of potentially damaging out-of-plane UV excitation, (iv) improved signal to noise through background reduction from out-of-plane excitation and (v) relatively simple integration into instrumentation developed for SONICC

  19. N-dimensional integrability from two-photon coalgebra symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballesteros, Angel; Blasco, Alfonso; Herranz, Francisco J

    2009-01-01

    A wide class of Hamiltonian systems with N degrees of freedom and endowed with, at least, (N - 2) functionally independent integrals of motion in involution is constructed by making use of the two-photon Lie-Poisson coalgebra (h 6 , Δ). The set of (N - 2) constants of the motion is shown to be a universal one for all these Hamiltonians, irrespective of the dependence of the latter on several arbitrary functions and N free parameters. Within this large class of quasi-integrable N-dimensional Hamiltonians, new families of completely integrable systems are identified by finding explicitly a new independent integral I through the analysis of the sub-coalgebra structure of h 6 . In particular, new completely integrable N-dimensional Hamiltonians describing natural systems, geodesic flows and static electromagnetic Hamiltonians are presented

  20. Phonon-assisted two-photon exciton transitions in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, A.R.

    1987-08-01

    The theory of phonon-assisted two-photon transitions to excitonic states in semiconductors has been theoretically investigated. The effects of both the nonparabolicity of the band and the degeneracy of the valence band have been taken into account. Expressions for the absorption coefficient through different band models are calculated. The numerical applications to CdI 2 and GaP show that the 4-band model gives the dominant contribution which leads to a final s-exciton state. An exciton peak appears at an energy which is close to that recently observed in CdI 2 . The non-parabolic effect enhances the absorption coefficient by a two-order of magnitude. (author). 6 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  1. Fluorescent Pluronic nanodots for in vivo two-photon imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurin, Mathieu; Vurth, Laeticia; Vial, Jean-Claude; Baldeck, Patrice; Stephan, Olivier; Marder, Seth R; Sanden, Boudewijn Van der

    2009-01-01

    We report the synthesis of new nanosized fluorescent probes based on bio-compatible polyethylene-polypropylene glycol (Pluronic) materials. In aqueous solution, mini-emulsification of Pluronic with a high fluorescent di-stryl benzene-modified derivative, exhibiting a two-photon absorption cross section as high as 2500 Goeppert-Mayer units at 800 nm, leads to nanoparticles exhibiting a hydrodynamic radius below 100 nm. We have demonstrated that these new probes with luminescence located in the spectral region of interest for bio-imaging (the yellow part of the visible spectrum) allow deep (500 μm) bio-imaging of the mice brain vasculature. The dose injected during our experiments is ten times lower when compared to the classical commercial rhodamine-B isothicyanate-Dextran system but gives similar results to homogeneous blood plasma staining. The mean fluorescent signal intensity stayed constant during more than 1 h.

  2. Clinical multiphoton tomography and clinical two-photon microendoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Karsten; Bückle, Rainer; Weinigel, Martin; Elsner, Peter; Kaatz, Martin

    2009-02-01

    We report on applications of high-resolution clinical multiphoton tomography based on the femtosecond laser system DermaInspectTM with its flexible mirror arm in Australia, Asia, and Europe. Applications include early detection of melanoma, in situ tracing of pharmacological and cosmetical compounds including ZnO nanoparticles in the epidermis and upper dermis, the determination of the skin aging index SAAID as well as the study of the effects of anti-aging products. In addition, first clinical studies with novel rigid high-NA two-photon 1.6 mm GRIN microendoscopes have been conducted to study the effect of wound healing in chronic wounds (ulcus ulcera) as well as to perform intrabody imaging with subcellular resolution in small animals.

  3. Study on two-color planar laser induced fluorescence thermometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shaodan; Tan Sichao; Gao Puzhen; Lin Yuansheng

    2014-01-01

    Many of the convection heat transfer process are involved in the research of nuclear reactor thermal hydraulics. To experimentally determine the variation of the temperature field in those processes is important for the design and safety operation of the nuclear reactor. The application of the two-color planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) in the measurements of fluid temperature distribution is discussed in the paper. The laser dyes used here is rhodamine B (RhB) with negative temperature coefficient and fluorescein 27 (F127) with positive temperature coefficient. The beam of the laser light is adjusted to laser sheet by using the lens group. The fluid with dyes is excited by this laser sheet in a specific plane and temperature dependent fluorescence is released. The temperature field of the plane can be determined through the intensity information. Some technical aspects encountered in the application of the two-laser PLIF are discussed in the paper, such as the spectra characteristic of the dyes and the separation of the spectra. The calibration temperature is higher than the water saturation temperature (at atmosphere pressure). (authors)

  4. Finite density two color chiral perturbation theory revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Prabal; Beleznay, Soma B.; Mannarelli, Massimo

    2018-06-01

    We revisit two-color, two-flavor chiral perturbation theory at finite isospin and baryon density. We investigate the phase diagram obtained varying the isospin and the baryon chemical potentials, focusing on the phase transition occurring when the two chemical potentials are equal and exceed the pion mass (which is degenerate with the diquark mass). In this case, there is a change in the order parameter of the theory that does not lend itself to the standard picture of first order transitions. We explore this phase transition both within a Ginzburg-Landau framework valid in a limited parameter space and then by inspecting the full chiral Lagrangian in all the accessible parameter space. Across the phase transition between the two broken phases the order parameter becomes an SU(2) doublet, with the ground state fixing the expectation value of the sum of the magnitude squared of the pion and the diquark fields. Furthermore, we find that the Lagrangian at equal chemical potentials is invariant under global SU(2) transformations and construct the effective Lagrangian of the three Goldstone degrees of freedom by integrating out the radial fluctuations.

  5. Generation of an isolated sub-30 attosecond pulse in a two-color laser field and a static electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Gang-Tai; Zhang Mei-Guang; Bai Ting-Ting

    2012-01-01

    We theoretically investigate high-order harmonic generation (HHG) from a helium ion model in a two-color laser field, which is synthesized by a fundamental pulse and its second harmonic pulse. It is shown that a supercontinuum spectrum can be generated in the two-color field. However, the spectral intensity is very low, limiting the application of the generated attosecond (as) pulse. By adding a static electric field to the synthesized two-color field, not only is the ionization yield of electrons contributing to the harmonic emission remarkably increased, but also the quantum paths of the HHG can be significantly modulated. As a result, the extension and enhancement of the supercontinuum spectrum are achieved, producing an intense isolated 26-as pulse with a bandwidth of about 170.5 eV. In particular, we also analyse the influence of the laser parameters on the ultrabroad supercontinuum spectrum and isolated sub-30-as pulse generation. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  6. Two-Photon Absorbing Molecules as Potential Materials for 3D Optical Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuya Ogawa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review, recent advances in two-photon absorbing photochromic molecules, as potential materials for 3D optical memory, are presented. The investigations introduced in this review indicate that 3D data storage processing at the molecular level is possible. As 3D memory using two-photon absorption allows advantages over existing systems, the use of two-photon absorbing photochromic molecules is preferable. Although there are some photochromic molecules with good properties for memory, in most cases, the two-photon absorption efficiency is not high. Photochromic molecules with high two-photon absorption efficiency are desired. Recently, molecules having much larger two-photon absorption cross sections over 10,000 GM (GM= 10−50 cm4 s molecule−1 photon−1 have been discovered and are expected to open the way to realize two-photon absorption 3D data storage.

  7. Two-Photon Ghost Image and Interference-Diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Y. H.; Sergienko, A. V.; Pittman, T. B.; Strekalov, D. V.; Klyshko, D. N.

    1996-01-01

    One of the most surprising consequences of quantum mechanics is entanglement of two or more distance particles. The two-particle entangled state was mathematically formulated by Schrodinger. Based on this unusual quantum behavior, EPR defined their 'physical reality' and then asked the question: 'Can Quantum-Mechanical Description of Physical Reality Be Considered Complete?' One may not appreciate EPR's criterion of physical reality and insist that 'no elementary quantum phenomenon is a phenomenon until it is a recorded phenomenon'. Optical spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC) is the most effective mechanism to generate an EPR type entangled two-photon state. In SPDC, an optical beam, called the pump, is incident on a birefringent crystal. The pump is intense enough so that nonlinear effects lead to the conversion of pump photons into pairs of photons, historically called signal and idler. Technically, the SPDC is said to be type-1 or type-2, depending on whether the signal and idler beams have parallel or orthogonal polarization. The SPDC conversion efficiency is typically on the order of 10(exp -9) to 10(exp -11), depending on the SPDC nonlinear material. The signal and idler intensities are extremely low, only single photon detection devices can register them. The quantum entanglement nature of SPDC has been demonstrated in EPR-Bohm experiments and Bell's inequality measurements. The following two experiments were recently performed in our laboratory, which are more closely related to the original 1935 EPR gedankenezperiment. The first experiment is a two-photon optical imaging type experiment, which has been named 'ghost image' by the physics community. The signal and idler beams of SPDC are sent in different directions, so that the detection of the signal and idler photons can be performed by two distant photon counting detectors. An aperture object (mask) is placed in front of the signal photon detector and illuminated by the signal beam through a

  8. Determining the quark charges by one and two photon processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janah, A.

    1982-01-01

    Testable predictions are presented, which may be used to decide between the gauge theories of integer and fractionally charged quarks (icq and fcq). Two distinctive features of icq are exploited, namely (a) presence of color non-singlet components in weak and electromagnetic currents and (b) possible liberation of color non-singlet states above a threshold energy. Consequences are sought in lepton-hadron interaction processes, taking into account the known color-suppression effect. Single photon/weak-boson processes such as nuN → nuX distinguish between icq and fcq only above color-threshold. Experimental consequences of color-liberation in the above process are obtained. It is found that the gluon-parton contribution survives color-suppression to produce a significant rise in the structure functions when color-threshold is exceeded. Two-photon processes such as e + e - → e + e - + 2 jets distinguish between the two theories even below color threshold. To obtain the icq predictions for this process, one must take into account (a) the (momentum-dependent) color suppression and (b) the added contribution from pair production of charged gluons

  9. Two-Photon-Absorption Scheme for Optical Beam Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Gerardo G.; Farr, William H.

    2011-01-01

    A new optical beam tracking approach for free-space optical communication links using two-photon absorption (TPA) in a high-bandgap detector material was demonstrated. This tracking scheme is part of the canonical architecture described in the preceding article. TPA is used to track a long-wavelength transmit laser while direct absorption on the same sensor simultaneously tracks a shorter-wavelength beacon. The TPA responsivity was measured for silicon using a PIN photodiode at a laser beacon wavelength of 1,550 nm. As expected, the responsivity shows a linear dependence with incident power level. The responsivity slope is 4.5 x 10(exp -7) A/W2. Also, optical beam spots from the 1,550-nm laser beacon were characterized on commercial charge coupled device (CCD) and complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) imagers with as little as 13.7 microWatts of optical power (see figure). This new tracker technology offers an innovative solution to reduce system complexity, improve transmit/receive isolation, improve optical efficiency, improve signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and reduce cost for free-space optical communications transceivers.

  10. Higgs decay into two photons in a warped extra dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Juliane; Hörner, Clara; Malm, Raoul; Neubert, Matthias; Novotny, Kristiane; Schmell, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    A detailed five-dimensional calculation of the Higgs-boson decay into two photons is performed in both the minimal and the custodially protected Randall-Sundrum (RS) model, where the Standard Model (SM) fields propagate in the bulk and the scalar sector lives on or near the IR brane. It is explicitly shown that the gauge invariance of the sum of diagrams involving bosonic fields in the SM also applies to the case of these RS scenarios. An exact expression for the amplitude in terms of the five-dimensional (5D) gauge-boson and fermion propagators is presented, which includes the full dependence on the Higgs-boson mass. Closed expressions for the 5D -boson propagators in the minimal and the custodial RS model are derived, which are valid to all orders in . In contrast to the fermion case, the result for the bosonic contributions to the amplitude is insensitive to the details of the localization of the Higgs profile on or near the IR brane. The various RS predictions for the rate of the process are compared with the latest LHC data, and exclusion regions for the RS model parameters are derived.

  11. Review of two-photon exchange in electron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Arrington, P. G. Blunden, W. Melnitchouk

    2011-10-01

    We review the role of two-photon exchange (TPE) in electron-hadron scattering, focusing in particular on hadronic frameworks suitable for describing the low and moderate Q^2 region relevant to most experimental studies. We discuss the effects of TPE on the extraction of nucleon form factors and their role in the resolution of the proton electric to magnetic form factor ratio puzzle. The implications of TPE on various other observables, including neutron form factors, electroproduction of resonances and pions, and nuclear form factors, are summarized. Measurements seeking to directly identify TPE effects, such as through the angular dependence of polarization measurements, nonlinear epsilon contributions to the cross sections, and via e+p to e-p cross section ratios, are also outlined. In the weak sector, we describe the role of TPE and gamma-Z interference in parity-violating electron scattering, and assess their impact on the extraction of the strange form factors of the nucleon and the weak charge of the proton.

  12. Method for universal detection of two-photon polarization entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartkiewicz, Karol; Horodecki, Paweł; Lemr, Karel; Miranowicz, Adam; Życzkowski, Karol

    2015-03-01

    Detecting and quantifying quantum entanglement of a given unknown state poses problems that are fundamentally important for quantum information processing. Surprisingly, no direct (i.e., without quantum tomography) universal experimental implementation of a necessary and sufficient test of entanglement has been designed even for a general two-qubit state. Here we propose an experimental method for detecting a collective universal witness, which is a necessary and sufficient test of two-photon polarization entanglement. It allows us to detect entanglement for any two-qubit mixed state and to establish tight upper and lower bounds on its amount. A different element of this method is the sequential character of its main components, which allows us to obtain relatively complicated information about quantum correlations with the help of simple linear-optical elements. As such, this proposal realizes a universal two-qubit entanglement test within the present state of the art of quantum optics. We show the optimality of our setup with respect to the minimal number of measured quantities.

  13. Terahertz radiation driven by two-color laser pulses at near-relativistic intensities: Competition between photoionization and wakefield effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    González de Alaiza Martínez, P.; Davoine, X.; Debayle, A.; Gremillet, L.; Bergé, L.

    2016-01-01

    We numerically investigate terahertz (THz) pulse generation by linearly-polarized, two-color femtosecond laser pulses in highly-ionized argon. Major processes consist of tunneling photoionization and ponderomotive forces associated with transverse and longitudinal field excitations. By means of two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, we reveal the importance of photocurrent mechanisms besides transverse and longitudinal plasma waves for laser intensities >1015 W/cm2. We demonstrate the following. (i) With two-color pulses, photoionization prevails in the generation of GV/m THz fields up to 1017 W/cm2 laser intensities and suddenly loses efficiency near the relativistic threshold, as the outermost electron shell of ionized Ar atoms has been fully depleted. (ii) PIC results can be explained by a one-dimensional Maxwell-fluid model and its semi-analytical solutions, offering the first unified description of the main THz sources created in plasmas. (iii) The THz power emitted outside the plasma channel mostly originates from the transverse currents. PMID:27255689

  14. Effect of the coherent cancellation of the two-photon resonance on the generation of vacuum ultraviolet light by two-photon reasonantly enhanced four-wave mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, M.G.; Garrett, W.R.; Judish, J.P.; Wunderlich, R.

    1988-11-01

    Many of the most impressive demonstrations of the efficient generation of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light have made use of two- photon resonantly enhanced four-wave mixing to generate light at ω/sub VUV/ = 2ω/sub L1/ +- ω/sub L2/. The two-photon resonance state is coupled to the ground state both by two photons from the first laser, or by a photon from the second laser and one from the generated VUV beam. We show here that these two coherent pathways destructively interfere once the second laser is made sufficiently intense, thereby leading to an important limiting effect on the achievable conversion efficiency. 4 refs

  15. Recent results on two-photon physics from Tasso and a review of measurements of the two-photon total cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolanoski, H.

    1983-03-01

    Recent results on two-photon physics from the Tasso experiment are presented: the measurement of the two-photon production of Kanti K with the determination of the #betta##betta#-width of the f'(1515), an analysis of the angular correlations in the reaction #betta##betta#->rho 0 rho 0 ->π + π - π + π - and the observation of a narrow structure in the four pion mass spectrum around 2.1 GeV. In a separate part the experimental results on the total cross section for hadron production by two photons are reviewed. (orig.)

  16. Distribution of quantum information between an atom and two photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Bernhard

    2008-01-01

    The construction of networks consisting of optically interconnected processing units is a promising way to scale up quantum information processing systems. To store quantum information, single trapped atoms are among the most proven candidates. By placing them in high finesse optical resonators, a bidirectional information exchange between the atoms and photons becomes possible with, in principle, unit efficiency. Such an interface between stationary and ying qubits constitutes a possible node of a future quantum network. The results presented in this thesis demonstrate the prospects of a quantum interface consisting of a single atom trapped within the mode of a high-finesse optical cavity. In a two-step process, we distribute entanglement between the stored atom and two subsequently emitted single photons. The long atom trapping times achieved in the system together with the high photon collection efficiency of the cavity make the applied protocol in principle deterministic, allowing for the creation of an entangled state at the push of a button. Running the protocol on this quasi-stationary quantum interface, the internal state of the atom is entangled with the polarization state of a single emitted photon. The entanglement is generated by driving a vacuum-stimulated Raman adiabatic passage between states of the coupled atom-cavity system. In a second process, the atomic part of the entangled state is mapped onto a second emitted photon using a similar technique and resulting in a polarization-entangled two-photon state. To verify and characterize the photon-photon entanglement, we measured a violation of a Bell inequality and performed a full quantum state tomography. The results prove the prior atom-photon entanglement and demonstrate a quantum information transfer between the atom and the two emitted photons. This reflects the advantages of a high-finesse cavity as a quantum interface in future quantum networks. (orig.)

  17. Dynamical modeling of pulsed two-photon interference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Kevin A; Lagoudakis, Konstantinos G; Vučković, Jelena; Müller, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Single-photon sources are at the heart of quantum-optical networks, with their uniquely quantum emission and phenomenon of two-photon interference allowing for the generation and transfer of nonclassical states. Although a few analytical methods have been briefly investigated for describing pulsed single-photon sources, these methods apply only to either perfectly ideal or at least extremely idealized sources. Here, we present the first complete picture of pulsed single-photon sources by elaborating how to numerically and fully characterize non-ideal single-photon sources operating in a pulsed regime. In order to achieve this result, we make the connection between quantum Monte-Carlo simulations, experimental characterizations, and an extended form of the quantum regression theorem. We elaborate on how an ideal pulsed single-photon source is connected to its photocount distribution and its measured degree of second- and first-order optical coherence. By doing so, we provide a description of the relationship between instantaneous source correlations and the typical experimental interferometers (Hanbury-Brown and Twiss, Hong–Ou–Mandel, and Mach–Zehnder) used to characterize such sources. Then, we use these techniques to explore several prototypical quantum systems and their non-ideal behaviors. As an example numerical result, we show that for the most popular single-photon source—a resonantly excited two-level system—its error probability is directly related to its excitation pulse length. We believe that the intuition gained from these representative systems and characters can be used to interpret future results with more complicated source Hamiltonians and behaviors. Finally, we have thoroughly documented our simulation methods with contributions to the Quantum Optics Toolbox in Python in order to make our work easily accessible to other scientists and engineers. (paper)

  18. Distribution of quantum information between an atom and two photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Bernhard

    2008-11-03

    The construction of networks consisting of optically interconnected processing units is a promising way to scale up quantum information processing systems. To store quantum information, single trapped atoms are among the most proven candidates. By placing them in high finesse optical resonators, a bidirectional information exchange between the atoms and photons becomes possible with, in principle, unit efficiency. Such an interface between stationary and ying qubits constitutes a possible node of a future quantum network. The results presented in this thesis demonstrate the prospects of a quantum interface consisting of a single atom trapped within the mode of a high-finesse optical cavity. In a two-step process, we distribute entanglement between the stored atom and two subsequently emitted single photons. The long atom trapping times achieved in the system together with the high photon collection efficiency of the cavity make the applied protocol in principle deterministic, allowing for the creation of an entangled state at the push of a button. Running the protocol on this quasi-stationary quantum interface, the internal state of the atom is entangled with the polarization state of a single emitted photon. The entanglement is generated by driving a vacuum-stimulated Raman adiabatic passage between states of the coupled atom-cavity system. In a second process, the atomic part of the entangled state is mapped onto a second emitted photon using a similar technique and resulting in a polarization-entangled two-photon state. To verify and characterize the photon-photon entanglement, we measured a violation of a Bell inequality and performed a full quantum state tomography. The results prove the prior atom-photon entanglement and demonstrate a quantum information transfer between the atom and the two emitted photons. This reflects the advantages of a high-finesse cavity as a quantum interface in future quantum networks. (orig.)

  19. Two-Photon Vibrational Spectroscopy using local optical fields of gold and silver nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneipp, Katrin; Kneipp, Janina; Kneipp, Harald

    2007-03-01

    Spectroscopic effects can be strongly affected when they take place in the immediate vicinity of metal nanostructures due to coupling to surface plasmons. We introduce a new approach that suggests highly efficient two-photon labels as well as two-photon vibrational spectroscopy for non-destructive chemical probing. The underlying spectroscopic effect is the incoherent inelastic scattering of two photons on the vibrational quantum states performed in the enhanced local optical fields of gold nanoparticles, surface enhanced hyper Raman scattering (SEHRS). We infer effective two-photon cross sections for SEHRS on the order of 10^5 GM, similar or higher than the best known cross sections for two-photon fluorescence. SEHRS combines the advantages of two-photon spectroscopy with the structural information of vibrational spectroscopy, and the high sensitivity and nanometer-scale local confinement of plasmonics-based spectroscopy.

  20. Two-photon interference of polarization-entangled photons in a Franson interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heonoh; Lee, Sang Min; Kwon, Osung; Moon, Han Seb

    2017-07-18

    We present two-photon interference experiments with polarization-entangled photon pairs in a polarization-based Franson-type interferometer. Although the two photons do not meet at a common beamsplitter, a phase-insensitive Hong-Ou-Mandel type two-photon interference peak and dip fringes are observed, resulting from the two-photon interference effect between two indistinguishable two-photon probability amplitudes leading to a coincidence detection. A spatial quantum beating fringe is also measured for nondegenerate photon pairs in the same interferometer, although the two-photon states have no frequency entanglement. When unentangled polarization-correlated photons are used as an input state, the polarization entanglement is successfully recovered through the interferometer via delayed compensation.

  1. Broadband high-resolution two-photon spectroscopy with laser frequency combs

    OpenAIRE

    Hipke, Arthur; Meek, Samuel A.; Ideguchi, Takuro; Hänsch, Theodor W.; Picqué, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    Two-photon excitation spectroscopy with broad spectral span is demonstrated at Doppler-limited resolution. We describe first Fourier transform two-photon spectroscopy of an atomic sample with two mode-locked laser oscillators in a dual-comb technique. Each transition is uniquely identified by the modulation imparted by the interfering comb excitations. The temporal modulation of the spontaneous two-photon fluorescence is monitored with a single photodetector, and the spectrum is revealed by a...

  2. Broadband Doppler-limited two-photon and stepwise excitation spectroscopy with laser frequency combs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipke, Arthur; Meek, Samuel A.; Ideguchi, Takuro; Hänsch, Theodor W.; Picqué, Nathalie

    2014-07-01

    Multiplex two-photon excitation spectroscopy is demonstrated at Doppler-limited resolution. We describe first Fourier-transform two-photon spectroscopy of an atomic sample with two mode-locked laser oscillators in a dual-comb technique. Each transition is uniquely identified by the modulation imparted by the interfering comb excitations. The temporal modulation of the spontaneous two-photon fluorescence is monitored with a single photodetector, and the spectrum of all excited transitions is revealed by a Fourier transform.

  3. Ion and electron spectroscopy of strontium in the vicinity of the two-photon-excited 5p2 1S0 state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriou, A.; Cohen, S.

    2014-07-01

    Two-photon ionization of ground-state strontium is investigated experimentally in the 360-370-nm spectral range with dye laser pulses of long (˜ns) duration and low (˜1010W cm-2) intensity. The Sr+ spectra recorded with linear laser polarization are dominated by the presence of the highly correlated 5p21S0 state and by the even parity [4d6d

  4. Spectrally resolved measurements of the terahertz beam profile generated from a two-color air plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pernille Klarskov; Zalkovskij, Maksim; Strikwerda, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Using a THz camera and THz bandpass filters, we measure the frequency - resolved beam profile emitted from a two - color air plasma. We observe a frequency - independent emission angle from the plasma .......Using a THz camera and THz bandpass filters, we measure the frequency - resolved beam profile emitted from a two - color air plasma. We observe a frequency - independent emission angle from the plasma ....

  5. On Two Color and CCD Methods for the Determination of Astronomic Position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-03-14

    INTRODUCTION .................................... 2 A. Astroposition Objectives As Related to Two-Color Refractometry .................. 2 B. Results...value for the astronomic longitude and latitude.-_ A. Astroposition Objectives As Related to Two-Color Refractometry The long term objectives consist...The interior of the box was divided into 4 bays containing the telescope, the refractometry optics, the power supplies and the refralctometry

  6. Rovibronically selected and resolved two-color laser photoionization and photoelectron study of cobalt carbide cation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huang; Chang, Yih Chung; Luo, Zhihong; Shi, Xiaoyu; Lam, Chow-Shing; Lau, Kai-Chung; Ng, C Y

    2013-03-07

    We have conducted a two-color visible-ultraviolet (VIS-UV) resonance-enhanced laser photoionization efficiency and pulsed field ionization-photoelectron (PFI-PE) study of gaseous cobalt carbide (CoC) near its ionization onset in the total energy range of 61,200-64,510 cm(-1). The cold gaseous CoC sample was prepared by a laser ablation supersonically cooled beam source. By exciting CoC molecules thus generated to single N' rotational levels of the intermediate CoC∗((2)Σ(+); v') state using a VIS dye laser prior to UV laser photoionization, we have obtained N(+) rotationally resolved PFI-PE spectra for the CoC(+)(X(1)Σ(+); v(+) = 0 and 1) ion vibrational bands free from interference by impurity species except Co atoms produced in the ablation source. The rotationally selected and resolved PFI-PE spectra have made possible unambiguous rotational assignments, yielding accurate values for the adiabatic ionization energy of CoC(X(2)Σ(+)), IE(CoC) = 62,384.3 ± 0.6 cm(-1) (7.73467 ± 0.00007 eV), the vibrational frequency ωe (+) = 985.6 ± 0.6 cm(-1), the anharmonicity constant ωe (+)χe (+) = 6.3 ± 0.6 cm(-1), the rotational constants (Be (+) = 0.7196 ± 0.0005 cm(-1), αe (+) = 0.0056 ± 0.0008 cm(-1)), and the equilibrium bond length re (+) = 1.534 Å for CoC(+)(X(1)Σ(+)). The observation of the N(+) = 0 level in the PFI-PE measurement indicates that the CoC(+) ground state is of (1)Σ(+) symmetry. Large ΔN(+) = N(+) - N' changes up to 6 are observed for the photoionization transitions CoC(+)(X(1)Σ(+); v(+) = 0-2; N(+)) ← CoC∗((2)Σ(+); v'; N' = 6, 7, 8, and 9). The highly precise energetic and spectroscopic data obtained in the present study have served as a benchmark for testing theoretical predictions based on state-of-the-art ab initio quantum calculations at the CCSDTQ∕CBS level of theory as presented in the companion article.

  7. Novel biocompatible materials for in vivo two-photon polymerisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torgersen, J.

    2013-07-01

    Two-photon polymerisation (2PP) is a versatile laser fabrication technique that allows the creation of 3D structures at micro- and nanometre precision. The structures are created additively in direct accordance to a computer-aided design (CAD). It requires tightly focused fs-pulsed light sources usually operating in the near infrared wavelength range. In this region, biological tissues exhibit a window of transparency and only absorb light minimally. When operating below a certain pulse energy threshold, the laser light does not cause any cellular damage. This theoretically allows inducing 2PP in the presence of living biological tissues and cells. Suitable biocompatible formulations that can render bioactive constructs would potentially allow building a dynamic environment with topographical, chemical and mechanical cues similar to that of the natural extracellular matrix. In that way, 2PP would allow to alter key elements of this environment without changing any other influencing factors. To explore these possibilities, 2PP has to overcome two main limitations, the slow process speeds and the lack of available optimised formulations. In this thesis, we report the design and realisation of a 2PP experimental setup, which allows fabricating hydrogel structures from novel water-based formulations. Writing speeds of above 100 mm/s are feasible, which is the highest speed reported in 2PP. Moreover, the presented components have the potential to be formed in vivo, in the presence of living cells and tissues. Using water-soluble two-photon optimised photoinitiators, we could effectively cross-link acrylates in formulations of up to 80% water content. As acrylates show a tendency towards Michael addition to proteins, we explored the use of vinyl ester and vinyl carbonate monomers for 2PP. In contrast to acrylic polymers, which form potentially toxic poly (acrylic acid), vinyl ester and carbonate polymers form biocompatible poly (vinyl alcohol) during degradation

  8. Femtosecond time-resolved two-photon photoemission study of organic semiconductor copper phthalocyanine film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, A.; Tohoku University; University of Rochester, NY; Yan, L.; Watkins, N.J.; Gao, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Organic semiconductors are recently attracting much interest from the viewpoints of both device and fundamental physics. These organic semiconductors are considered to be important constituents of the future devices, such as organic light-emitting diode, organic field effect transistor, and organic solid-state injection laser. In order to elucidate their detailed physical properties and to develop the future devices, it is indispensable to understand their excited-state dynamics as well as their electronic structures. The femtosecond time-resolved two-photon photoemission (TR-2PPE) spectroscopy is attracting much interest because of its capability to observe the energy-resolved excited electron dynamics. In this work, we have carried out a TR-2PPE study of the organic semiconductor copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) film. Furthermore, we have investigated the detailed electronic structure of CuPc film using the photoemission (PES) and inverse photoemission (IPES) spectroscopies. From the simultaneous PES and IPES measurements for CuPc film with a thickness of 100 nm, the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO), highest occupied molecular orbital, and ionization potential of CuPc film have been directly determined. The observed two-photon photoemission (2PPE) spectrum of the present CuPc film, measured with photon energy of about hv=3.3 eV, exhibits a broad feature. From the energy diagram of CuPc film determined by the PES and IPES measurements, the intermediate state observed in the present 2PPE spectrum of CuPc film corresponds to the energy region between about 0.4 and 1.7 eV above the LUMO energy. From the time-resolved pump-probe measurements, it is found that the relaxation lifetimes of excited states in the present CuPc films are very short (all below 50 fs) and monotonously become faster with increasing excitation energy. We attribute this extremely fast relaxation process of photoexcitation to a rapid internal conversion process. From these results

  9. Spin polarization in top pair production in association with two photons at NLO+PS

    CERN Document Server

    Luisoni, Gionata

    2018-01-01

    This talk focuses on the impact of top-quark spin polarization effects in Higgs boson production in association with a top-quark pair, where the Higgs boson decays to two photons. Predictions for the signal are compared with direct top-quark pair production in association with two photons at NLO+PS.

  10. Measurement and model of the infrared two-photon emission spectrum of GaAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Alex; Ginzburg, Pavel; Orenstein, Meir

    2009-07-10

    Two-photon emission from semiconductors was recently observed, but not fully interpreted. We develop a dressed-state model incorporating intraband scattering-related level broadening, yielding nondivergent emission rates. The spectrum calculations for high carrier concentrations including the time dependence of the screening buildup correspond well to our measured two-photon emission spectrum from GaAs.

  11. Effect of morphology and solvent on two-photon absorption of nano zinc oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavitha, M.K. [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Valiamala, Thiruvananthapuram 695547, Kerala (India); Haripadmam, P.C.; Gopinath, Pramod; Krishnan, Bindu [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Valiamala, Thiruvananthapuram 695547, Kerala (India); John, Honey, E-mail: honey@iist.ac.in [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Valiamala, Thiruvananthapuram 695547, Kerala (India)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► ZnO nanospheres and triangular structures synthesis by novel precipitation technique. ► The effect of precursor concentration on the size and shape of nano ZnO. ► Open aperture Z-scan measurements of the ZnO nanoparticle dispersions. ► Nanospheres exhibit higher two photon absorption coefficient than triangular nanostructures. ► Nanospheres dispersed in water exhibit higher two photon absorption coefficient than its dispersion in 2-propanol. - Abstract: In this paper, we report the effect of morphology and solvent on the two-photon absorption of nano zinc oxide. Zinc oxide nanoparticles in two different morphologies like nanospheres and triangular nanostructures are synthesized by novel precipitation technique and their two-photon absorption coefficient is measured using open aperture Z-scan technique. Experimental results show that the zinc oxide nanospheres exhibit higher two-photon absorption coefficient than the zinc oxide triangular nanostructures. The zinc oxide nanospheres dispersed in water exhibit higher two-photon absorption coefficient than that of its dispersion in 2-propanol. The zinc oxide nanospheres dispersed in water shows a decrease in two-photon absorption coefficient with an increase in on-axis irradiance. The result confirms the dependence of shape and solvent on the two-photon absorption of nano zinc oxide.

  12. A survey of two-photon physics: What have we done, where are we going

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolanoski, H.

    1984-11-01

    After a brief general introduction into two-photon scattering processes the status of two-photon physics as of the beginning of this workshop is reported. Emphasis is given to those subjects which should get more attention in the future. (orig.)

  13. Event-by-event simulation of nonclassical effects in two-photon interference experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielsen, K.; Jin, F.; Delina, M.; Raedt, H. De

    2012-01-01

    A corpuscular simulation model for second-order intensity interference phenomena is discussed. It is shown that both the visibility V = 1/2 predicted for two-photon interference experiments with two independent sources and the visibility V = 1 predicted for two-photon interference experiments with a

  14. Two photon emission by hydrogen-like atoms in high temperature plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costescu, A.; Manzatu, I.; Dinu, C.; Mihailescu, I.N.

    1981-08-01

    New exact solutions and a rather simple polynomial expression of the power emitted in the two photon transition from a metastable 2s state to the ground state of a hydrogen-like atom were infered with the aid of the Coulomb Green's function method. It was shown that the two photon decay represents under certain circumstances a significant power loss mechanism. (authors)

  15. Production of e, $\\mu$ and $\\tau$ Pairs in Untagged Two-Photon Collisions at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Acciarri, M; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Ahlen, S P; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alverson, G; Alviggi, M G; Ambrosi, G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Angelescu, T; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Baksay, L; Ball, R C; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, Sw; Banicz, K; Barczyk, A; Barillère, R; Barone, L; Bartalini, P; Baschirotto, A; Basile, M; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Bhattacharya, S; Biasini, M; Biland, A; Bilei, G M; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Böck, R K; Böhm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Boucham, A; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Boutigny, D; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brigljevic, V; Brock, I C; Buffini, A; Buijs, A; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Busenitz, J K; Cai, X D; Campanelli, M; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A M; Casaus, J; Castellini, G; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada-Canales, M; Cesaroni, F; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chang, Y H; Chaturvedi, U K; Chekanov, S V; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chen, M; Chiefari, G; Chien, C Y; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Civinini, C; Clare, I; Clare, R; Cohn, H O; Coignet, G; Colijn, A P; Colino, N; Commichau, V; Costantini, S; Cotorobai, F; de la Cruz, B; Csilling, Akos; Dai, T S; D'Alessandro, R; De Asmundis, R; Degré, A; Deiters, K; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; DiBitonto, Daryl; Diemoz, M; Van Dierendonck, D N; Di Lodovico, F; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, Michael; Dominguez, A; Doria, A; Dorne, I; Dova, M T; Drago, E; Duchesneau, D; Duinker, P; Durán, I; Dutta, S; Easo, S; Efremenko, Yu V; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Erné, F C; Ernenwein, J P; Extermann, Pierre; Fabre, M; Faccini, R; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, Marta; Fenyi, B; Ferguson, T; Ferroni, F; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, Frank; Fisher, P H; Fisk, I; Forconi, G; Fredj, L; Freudenreich, Klaus; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gau, S S; Gentile, S; Gerald, J; Gheordanescu, N; Giagu, S; Goldfarb, S; Goldstein, J; Gong, Z F; Gougas, Andreas; Gratta, Giorgio; Grünewald, M W; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Hartmann, B; Hasan, A; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Van Hoek, W C; Hofer, H; Hong, S J; Hoorani, H; Hou, S R; Hu, G; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janssen, H; Jenkes, K; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Kasser, A; Khan, R A; Kamrad, D; Kamyshkov, Yu A; Kapustinsky, J S; Karyotakis, Yu; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, D; Kim, D H; Kim, J K; Kim, S C; Kim, Y G; Kinnison, W W; Kirkby, A; Kirkby, D; Kirkby, Jasper; Kiss, D; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Kopp, A; Korolko, I; Koutsenko, V F; Krämer, R W; Krenz, W; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Landi, G; Lapoint, C; Lassila-Perini, K M; Laurikainen, P; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Leggett, C; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Leonardi, E; Levchenko, P M; Li Chuan; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lu, W; Lü, Y S; Lübelsmeyer, K; Luci, C; Luckey, D; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Maity, M; Majumder, G; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mangeol, D J J; Mangla, S; Marchesini, P A; Marin, A; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Massaro, G G G; McNally, D; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Von der Mey, M; Mi, Y; Mihul, A; Van Mil, A J W; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Molnár, P; Monteleoni, B; Moore, R; Morganti, S; Moulik, T; Mount, R; Müller, S; Muheim, F; Muijs, A J M; Nahn, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Niessen, T; Nippe, A; Nisati, A; Nowak, H; Oh, Yu D; Opitz, H; Organtini, G; Ostonen, R; Palomares, C; Pandoulas, D; Paoletti, S; Paolucci, P; Park, H K; Park, I H; Pascale, G; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Peach, D; Pei, Y J; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Petrak, S; Pevsner, A; Piccolo, D; Pieri, M; Pinto, J C; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Postema, H; Produit, N; Prokofev, D; Prokofiev, D O; Rahal-Callot, G; Raja, N; Rancoita, P G; Rattaggi, M; Raven, G; Razis, P A; Read, K; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Van Rhee, T; Riemann, S; Riles, K; Rind, O; Robohm, A; Rodin, J; Roe, B P; Romero, L; Rosier-Lees, S; Rosselet, P; Van Rossum, W; Roth, S; Rubio, Juan Antonio; Ruschmeier, D; Rykaczewski, H; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Sanders, M P; Sarakinos, M E; Sarkar, S; Sassowsky, M; Sauvage, G; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schmidt-Kärst, S; Schmitz, D; Schmitz, P; Schneegans, M; Scholz, N; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Schwenke, J; Schwering, G; Sciacca, C; Sciarrino, D; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shukla, J; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A V; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Sopczak, André; Soulimov, V; Smith, B; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stone, H; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Strauch, K; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Susinno, G F; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Tang, X W; Tauscher, Ludwig; Taylor, L; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonutti, M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tully, C; Tuchscherer, H; Tung, K L; Uchida, Y; Ulbricht, J; Uwer, U; Valente, E; Van de Walle, R T; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Viertel, Gert M; Vivargent, M; Völkert, R; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Vorvolakos, A; Wadhwa, M; Wallraff, W; Wang, J C; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Weber, A; Wittgenstein, F; Wu, S X; Wynhoff, S; Xu, J; Xu, Z Z; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yao, X Y; Ye, J B; Yeh, S C; You, J M; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zemp, P; Zeng, Y; Zhang, Z; Zhang, Z P; Zhou, B; Zhou, Y; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zichichi, Antonino; Ziegler, F

    1997-01-01

    The two-photon collision reaction e+e- --> e+e-l+l- has been studied at root(s) ~ 91 GeV using the L3 detector at LEP for l = e, muon , tau. We have analysed untagged configurations where the two photons are quasi-real. Good agreement is found between our measurements and the order alpha**4 QED expectation.

  16. Pressure broadening of atomic oxygen two-photon absorption laser induced fluorescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marinov, D.; Drag, C.; Blondel, C.; Guaitella, O.; Golda, J.; Klarenaar, B.L.M.; Engeln, R.A.H.; Schulz-von der Gathen, V.; Booth, J.-P.

    2016-01-01

    Atomic oxygen, considered to be a determining reactant in plasma applications at ambient pressure, is routinely detected by two-photon absorption laser induced fluorescence (TALIF). Here, pressure broadening of the (2p 4 3 P 2  →  3p 3 P J=0,1,2) two-photon transition in oxygen atoms was

  17. Time gated fluorescence lifetime imaging and micro-volume spectroscopy using two-photon excitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sytsma, J.; Vroom, J.M.; de Grauw, C.J.; Gerritsen, H.C.

    A scanning microscope utilizing two-photon excitation in combination with fluorescence lifetime contrast is presented. The microscope makes use of a tunable femtosecond titanium:sapphire laser enabling the two-photon excitation of a broad range of fluorescent molecules, including UV probes.

  18. Spin polarization in top pair production in association with two photons at NLO+PS

    CERN Document Server

    Luisoni, Gionata

    2017-01-01

    This talk focuses on the impact of top-quark spin polarization effects in Higgs boson production in association with a top-quark pair, where the Higgs boson decays to two photons. Predictions for the signal are compared with direct top-quark pair production in association with two photons at NLO+PS.

  19. A new approach to dual-color two-photon microscopy with fluorescent proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebane Aleks

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two-photon dual-color imaging of tissues and cells labeled with fluorescent proteins (FPs is challenging because most two-photon microscopes only provide one laser excitation wavelength at a time. At present, methods for two-photon dual-color imaging are limited due to the requirement of large differences in Stokes shifts between the FPs used and their low two-photon absorption (2PA efficiency. Results Here we present a new method of dual-color two-photon microscopy that uses the simultaneous excitation of the lowest-energy electronic transition of a blue fluorescent protein and a higher-energy electronic transition of a red fluorescent protein. Conclusion Our method does not require large differences in Stokes shifts and can be extended to a variety of FP pairs with larger 2PA efficiency and more optimal imaging properties.

  20. Folate receptor targeting silica nanoparticle probe for two-photon fluorescence bioimaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuhua; Yao, Sheng; Ahn, Hyo-Yang; Zhang, Yuanwei; Bondar, Mykhailo V.; Torres, Joseph A.; Belfield, Kevin D.

    2010-01-01

    Narrow dispersity organically modified silica nanoparticles (SiNPs), diameter ~30 nm, entrapping a hydrophobic two-photon absorbing fluorenyl dye, were synthesized by hydrolysis of triethoxyvinylsilane and (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane in the nonpolar core of Aerosol-OT micelles. The surface of the SiNPs were functionalized with folic acid, to specifically deliver the probe to folate receptor (FR) over-expressing Hela cells, making these folate two-photon dye-doped SiNPs potential candidates as probes for two-photon fluorescence microscopy (2PFM) bioimaging. In vitro studies using FR over-expressing Hela cells and low FR expressing MG63 cells demonstrated specific cellular uptake of the functionalized nanoparticles. One-photon fluorescence microscopy (1PFM) imaging, 2PFM imaging, and two-photon fluorescence lifetime microscopy (2P-FLIM) imaging of Hela cells incubated with folate-modified two-photon dye-doped SiNPs were demonstrated. PMID:21258480

  1. Two-Photon Excitation Microscopy for the Study of Living Cells and Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benninger, Richard K.P.; Piston, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Two-photon excitation microscopy is an alternative to confocal microscopy that provides advantages for three-dimensional and deep tissue imaging. This unit will describe the basic physical principles behind two-photon excitation and discuss the advantages and limitations of its use in laser-scanning microscopy. The principal advantages of two-photon microscopy are reduced phototoxicity, increased imaging depth, and the ability to initiate highly localized photochemistry in thick samples. Practical considerations for the application of two-photon microscopy will then be discussed, including recent technological advances. This unit will conclude with some recent applications of two-photon microscopy that highlight the key advantages over confocal microscopy and the types of experiments which would benefit most from its application. PMID:23728746

  2. Highly sensitive measurement in two-photon absorption cross section and investigation of the mechanism of two-photon-induced polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Youmei E-mail: luym19@cc.tuat.ac.jp; Hasegawa, Fuyuki; Goto, Takamichi; Ohkuma, Satoshi; Fukuhara, Setsuko; Kawazu, Yukie; Totani, Kenro; Yamashita, Takashi; Watanabe, Toshiyuki E-mail: toshi@cc.tuat.ac.jp

    2004-10-01

    A novel two-photon initiator, 4,4'-bis[4-(di-n-butylamino)styryl]-benzene with the side-group methyl (Me) (abbreviated as Chromophore 1), was synthesized in comparison with the chromophore with the side group methoxy (MeO) (abbreviated as Chromophore 2). Femtosecond laser-induced fluorescence intensity was used to evaluate two-photon absorption (TPA) cross section, {delta}, by means of a charge-coupled device, USB-2000 (abbreviated as CCD). Results showed that changing the side group from Me to MeO led to a significant red-shift of the two-photon absorption ({sup 2}{lambda}{sub max}). However, the microstructures obtained by two-photon-induced polymerization (TPIP) demonstrated that the sensitivities of Chromophore 1 increased despite a two-fold decrease in the two-photon cross section {delta}{sub max,} relative to Chromophore 2. Correlated with the appearance that the long-lived charge transfer emission of the chromophore in the monomer bulk, we suggest that the intramolecular charge transfer (intra-CT) takes place within the excited dye. Then intermolecular charge transfer was successive as a result of the formation of an exciplex between the dye and the monomer. The Me group was favorable for the intra-CT, relative to MeO, which contributed to the enhancement of the sensitivity of TPIP.

  3. Development of two color laser diagnostics for the ITER poloidal polarimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahata, K; Akiyama, T; Tanaka, K; Nakayama, K; Okajima, S

    2010-10-01

    Two color laser diagnostics using terahertz laser sources are under development for a high performance operation of the Large Helical Device and for future fusion devices such as ITER. So far, we have achieved high power laser oscillation lines simultaneously oscillating at 57.2 and 47.7 μm by using a twin optically pumped CH(3)OD laser, and confirmed the original function, compensation of mechanical vibration, of the two color laser interferometer. In this article, application of the two color laser diagnostics to the ITER poloidal polarimeter and recent hardware developments will be described.

  4. Development of two color laser diagnostics for the ITER poloidal polarimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawahata, K.; Akiyama, T.; Tanaka, K.; Nakayama, K.; Okajima, S.

    2010-01-01

    Two color laser diagnostics using terahertz laser sources are under development for a high performance operation of the Large Helical Device and for future fusion devices such as ITER. So far, we have achieved high power laser oscillation lines simultaneously oscillating at 57.2 and 47.7 μm by using a twin optically pumped CH 3 OD laser, and confirmed the original function, compensation of mechanical vibration, of the two color laser interferometer. In this article, application of the two color laser diagnostics to the ITER poloidal polarimeter and recent hardware developments will be described.

  5. Two-color ghost interference with photon pairs generated in hot atoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Sheng Ding

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We report on an experimental observation of a two-photon ghost interference experiment. A distinguishing feature of our experiment is that the photons are generated via a non-degenerated spontaneous four-wave mixing process in a hot atomic ensemble; therefore the photon has narrow bandwidth. Besides, there is a large difference in frequency between two photons in a pair. Our works may be important to achieve more secure, large transmission capacity long-distance quantum communication.

  6. Two-Photon Probes for Lysosomes and Mitochondria: Simultaneous Detection of Lysosomes and Mitochondria in Live Tissues by Dual-Color Two-Photon Microscopy Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chang Su; Hong, Seung Taek; Ryu, Seong Shick; Kang, Dong Eun; Cho, Bong Rae

    2015-10-01

    Novel two-photon (TP) probes were developed for lysosomes (PLT-yellow) and mitochondria (BMT-blue and PMT-yellow). These probes emitted strong TP-excited fluorescence in cells at widely separated wavelength regions and displayed high organelle selectivity, good cell permeability, low cytotoxicity, and pH insensitivity. The BMT-blue and PLT-yellow probes could be utilized to detect lysosomes and mitochondria simultaneously in live tissues by using dual-color two-photon microscopy, with minimum interference from each other. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Identification of CW two-photon transitions in Na2 and NaK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, G.P.

    1983-01-01

    This thesis reports on the two-photon visible excitation spectra of sodium and potassium vapors. In the past, similar work has been performed on sodium and many atomic two-photon transitions have been characterized. However, many extra signals exist which do not possess the ground, 3S, state hyperfine splitting. These extra transitions are due to the sodium dimer Na 2 . 79 such transitions, from 5800A - 6500A, which lie within the resolution of the apparatus have been studied. The molecules are excited with a lowpower narrow band counterpropagating cw dye laser beam and two-photon fluorescence. The fluorescence intensities of many of these transitions are greater than the 3S to 5S and 3S to 4D atomic signals, where the 3P enhancing state lies 300 cm -1 from resonance. By comparing the number density of the atomic with any molecular ground state and also the two-photon transition rates to excited states, the intermediate enhancing state for a two-photon transition in Na 2 can be predicted to be less than 1 cm -1 from resonance with the two-photon transition. This observation, along with published Dunham coefficients, is used to identify the states involved in the two-photon transitions

  8. In vivo two-photon imaging of retina in rabbits and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayabalan, Gopal Swamy; Wu, Yi-Kai; Bille, Josef F; Kim, Samuel; Mao, Xiao Wen; Gimbel, Howard V; Rauser, Michael E; Fan, Joseph T

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the retina using near-infrared (NIR) two-photon scanning laser ophthalmoscopy. New Zealand white rabbits, albino rats, and brown Norway rats were used in this study. An autofluorescence image of the retina, including the retinal cells and its associated vasculatures was obtained by a real-time scan using the ophthalmoscope. Furthermore, the retinal vessels, nerve fiber layers and the non-pigmented retina were recorded with two-photon fluorescein angiography (FA); and the choroidal vasculatures were recorded using two-photon indocyanine green angiography (ICGA). Two-photon ICGA was achieved by exciting a second singlet state at ∼398 nm. Simultaneous two-photon FA and two-photon ICGA were performed to characterize the retinal and choroidal vessels with a single injection. The minimum laser power threshold required to elicit two-photon fluorescence was determined. The two-photon ophthalmoscope could serve as a promising tool to detect and monitor the disease progression in animal models. Moreover, these high-resolution images of retinal and choroidal vessels can be acquired in a real-time scan with a single light source, requiring no additional filters for FA or ICGA. The combination of FA and ICGA using the two-photon ophthalmoscope will help researchers to characterize the retinal diseases in animal models, and also to classify the types (classic, occult or mixed) of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in macular degeneration. Furthermore, the prototype can be adapted to image the retina of rodents and rabbits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterization of scintillating CaWO{sub 4} crystals for the CRESST experiment using two-photon excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampf, Raphael; Dandl, Thomas; Muenster, Andrea; Oberauer, Lothar; Roth, Sabine; Schoenert, Stefan; Ulrich, Andreas [Physik-Department and Excellence Cluster Universe, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85747 Garching (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    In the CRESST experiment for direct dark matter search, phonon and photon signals from cryogenic CaWO{sub 4} crystals are used to search for WIMP-induced nuclear recoil events. We present a novel table-top setup in which the scintillation of CaWO{sub 4} is induced by 0.7 ns laser pulses of 355 nm wavelength. The excitation occurs via two-photon absorption in the bulk material. The scintillation light is observed by time resolved optical spectroscopy. By varying the focusing of the laser-beam the excitation density can be made high enough to study quenching effects due to exciton-exciton annihilation. This allows to perform experiments to test models for the quenching factors of different ionizing projectiles in CaWO{sub 4} which are used to identify these projectiles on an event by event basis.

  10. Theoretical evaluation of measurement uncertainties of two-color pyrometry applied to optical diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Tairan; Cheng Xiaofang; Yang Zangjian

    2008-01-01

    We present a theoretical analysis of two-color pyrometry applied to optical diagnostics. A two-color pyrometer built with a single CCD is advantageous due to the simple system design. We evaluate the possibility and degree of ill-conditionness on the basis of measurement uncertainties for different measurement approaches of this two-color system. We classify measurement approaches. The corresponding ill-conditionness criterion is established. The greater the criterion value is, the worse the ill-conditioned degree of solution is. So, the optimum choice of measurement approach for the two-color system is achieved through intercomparison of the criterion values. Numerical examples are also given to illustrate this point. The theoretical analysis not only provides an effective way of evaluating different measurement approaches, but also may help us to better understand the influences that determine the choices between wavelength/waveband measurements and calibration/noncalibration modes for temperature and soot distribution

  11. A semiclassical approach for two-color four-mode solid-state superfluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambruschini, C.L.P.

    1991-05-01

    A model for multilevel superfluorescence is presented. By using a parametric solution of this model we explain basic features in the two-color solid-state superfluorescence experiments of Florian, Schwan and Schmid. (author). 23 refs

  12. Quantum manipulation of two-color stationary light: Quantum wavelength conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moiseev, S. A.; Ham, B. S.

    2006-01-01

    We present a quantum manipulation of a traveling light pulse using electromagnetically induced transparency-based slow light phenomenon for the generation of two-color stationary light. We theoretically discuss the two-color stationary light for the quantum wavelength conversion process in terms of pulse area, energy transfer, and propagation directions. The condition of the two-color stationary light pulse generation has been found and the quantum light dynamics has been studied analytically in the adiabatic limit. The quantum frequency conversion rate of the traveling light is dependent on the spatial spreading of the two-color stationary light pulse and can be near unity in an optically dense medium for the optimal frequencies of the control laser fields

  13. The study of nonlinear two-photon phenomenon in photonic crystals doped with nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Mahi R [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2007-02-28

    A theory of the nonlinear two-photon absorption has been developed in a photonic crystal doped with an ensemble of four-level nanoparticles. We have considered that the nanoparticles are interacting with the photonic crystal. An expression of two-photon absorption has been obtained by using the density matrix method. The effect of the dipole-dipole interaction has also been included in the formulation. Interesting new phenomena have been predicted. For example, it is found that the inhibition of two-photon absorption can be turned on and off when the decay resonance energies of the four-level nanoparticles are moved within the energy band.

  14. Broadband two-photon absorption cross sections of benzothiazole derivatives and benzobisthiazolium salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noskovičova, Eva; Lorenc, Dušan; Magdolen, Peter; Sigmundová, Ivica; Zahradník, Pavol; Velič, Dušan

    2018-05-01

    Two-photon absorption (TPA) cross sections of conjugated donor-π-acceptor dipolar structures containing benzothiazole or benzobisthiazolium moieties are determined in a broad spectral range from 700 nm to 1000 nm using two-photon induced fluorescence technique. The TPA cross section values range from 150 GM to 4600 GM. The largest values are observed in near-infrared region. The dipolar derivative of benzothiazole has the largest TPA cross section of 4600 GM at wavelength of 890 nm. A combination of the large TPA in the near-infrared region and the high emission quantum yield makes these compounds excellent candidates for two-photon fluorescence microscopy.

  15. Two-photon Doppler cooling of alkaline-earth-metal and ytterbium atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magno, Wictor C.; Cavasso Filho, Reinaldo L.; Cruz, Flavio C.

    2003-01-01

    The possibility of laser cooling of alkaline-earth-metal atoms and ytterbium atoms using a two-photon transition is analyzed. We consider a 1 S 0 - 1 S 0 transition with excitation in near resonance with the 1 P 1 level. This greatly increases the two-photon transition rate, allowing an effective transfer of momentum. The experimental implementation of this technique is discussed and we show that for calcium, for example, two-photon cooling can be used to achieve a Doppler limit of 123 μK. The efficiency of this cooling scheme and the main loss mechanisms are analyzed

  16. Dicke coherent narrowing in two-photon and Raman spectroscopy of thin vapor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutier, Gabriel; Todorov, Petko; Hamdi, Ismahene; Maurin, Isabelle; Saltiel, Solomon; Bloch, Daniel; Ducloy, Martial

    2005-01-01

    The principle of coherent Dicke narrowing in a thin vapor cell, in which sub-Doppler spectral line shapes are observed under a normal irradiation for a λ/2 thickness, is generalized to two-photon spectroscopy. Only the sum of the two wave vectors must be normal to the cell, making the two-photon scheme highly versatile. A comparison is provided between the Dicke narrowing with copropagating fields, and the residual Doppler broadening occurring with counterpropagating geometries. The experimental feasibility is discussed on the basis of a first observation of a two-photon resonance in a 300-nm-thick Cs cell. Extension to the Raman situation is finally considered

  17. Limitations of two-level emitters as nonlinearities in two-photon controlled-PHASE gates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nysteen, Anders; McCutcheon, Dara P. S.; Heuck, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the origin of imperfections in the fidelity of a two-photon controlled-PHASE gate based on two-level-emitter nonlinearities. We focus on a passive system that operates without external modulations to enhance its performance. We demonstrate that the fidelity of the gate is limited...... by opposing requirements on the input pulse width for one-and two-photon-scattering events. For one-photon scattering, the spectral pulse width must be narrow compared with the emitter linewidth, while two-photon-scattering processes require the pulse width and emitter linewidth to be comparable. We find...

  18. Two-photon absorption of a supramolecular pseudoisocyanine J-aggregate assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belfield, Kevin D.; Bondar, Mykhailo V.; Hernandez, Florencio E.; Przhonska, Olga V.; Yao, Sheng

    2006-01-01

    Linear spectral properties, including excitation anisotropy, of pseudoisocyanine or 1,1'-diethyl-2,2'-cyanine iodide (PIC) J-aggregates in aqueous solutions with J-band position at 573 nm were investigated. Two-photon absorption of PIC J-aggregates and monomer molecules was studied using an open aperture Z-scan technique. A strong enhancement of the two-photon absorption cross-section of PIC in the supramolecular J-aggregate assembly was observed in aqueous solution. This enhancement is attributed to a strong coupling of the molecular transition dipoles. No two-photon absorption at the peak of the J-band was detected

  19. Two-photon Anderson localization in a disordered quadratic waveguide array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Y F; Xu, P; Lu, L L; Zhong, M L; Zhu, S N

    2016-01-01

    We theoretically investigate two-photon Anderson localization in a χ (2) waveguide array with off-diagonal disorder. The nonlinear parametric down-conversion process would enhance both the single-photon and the two-photon Anderson localization. In the strong disorder regime, the two-photon position correlation exhibits a bunching distribution around the pumped waveguides, which is independent of pumping conditions and geometrical structures of waveguide arrays. Quadratic nonlinearity can be supplied as a new ingredient for Anderson localization. Also, our results pave the way for engineering quantum states through nonlinear quantum walks. (paper)

  20. Wide-field two-photon microscopy with temporal focusing and HiLo background rejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yew, Elijah Y. S.; Choi, Heejin; Kim, Daekeun; So, Peter T. C.

    2011-03-01

    Scanningless depth-resolved microscopy is achieved through spatial-temporal focusing and has been demonstrated previously. The advantage of this method is that a large area may be imaged without scanning resulting in higher throughput of the imaging system. Because it is a widefield technique, the optical sectioning effect is considerably poorer than with conventional spatial focusing two-photon microscopy. Here we propose wide-field two-photon microscopy based on spatio-temporal focusing and employing background rejection based on the HiLo microscope principle. We demonstrate the effects of applying HiLo microscopy to widefield temporally focused two-photon microscopy.

  1. Multiphoton ionization of atomic cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compton, R.N.; Klots, C.E.; Stockdale, J.A.D.; Cooper, C.D.

    1984-01-01

    We describe experimental studies of resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization (MPI) of cesium atoms in the presence and absence of an external electric field. In the zero-field studies, photoelectron angular distributions for one- and two-photon resonantly enhanced MPI are compared with the theory of Tang and Lambropoulos. Deviations of experiment from theory are attributed to hyperfine coupling effects in the resonant intermediate state. The agreement between theory and experiment is excellent. In the absence of an external electric field, signal due to two-photon resonant three-photon ionization of cesium via np states is undetectable. Application of an electric field mixes nearby nd and ns levels, thereby inducing excitation and subsequent ionization. Signal due to two-photon excitation of ns levels in field-free experiments is weak due to their small photoionization cross section. An electric field mixes nearby np levels which again allows detectable photoionization signal. For both ns and np states the field induced MPI signal increases as the square of the electric field for a given principal quantum number and increases rapidly with n for a given field strength. Finally, we note that the classical two-photon field-ionization threshold is lower for the case in which the laser polarization and the electric field are parallel than it is when they are perpendicular. 22 references, 11 figures

  2. Mitochondria-targeted cationic porphyrin-triphenylamine hybrids for enhanced two-photon photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerer, Fabien; Poyer, Florent; Fourmois, Laura; Chen, Su; Garcia, Guillaume; Teulade-Fichou, Marie-Paule; Maillard, Philippe; Mahuteau-Betzer, Florence

    2018-01-01

    The proof of concept for two-photon activated photodynamic therapy has already been achieved for cancer treatment but the efficiency of this approach still heavily relies on the availability of photosensitizers combining high two-photon absorption and biocompatibility. In this line we recently reported on a series of porphyrin-triphenylamine hybrids which exhibit high singlet oxygen production quantum yield as well as high two-photon absorption cross-sections but with a very poor cellular internalization. We present herein new photosensitizers of the same porphyrin-triphenylamine hybrid series but bearing cationic charges which led to strongly enhanced water solubility and thus cellular penetration. In addition the new compounds have been found localized in mitochondria that are preferential target organelles for photodynamic therapy. Altogether the strongly improved properties of the new series combined with their specific mitochondrial localization lead to a significantly enhanced two-photon activated photodynamic therapy efficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Two-photon Microscopy and Polarimetry for Assessment of Myocardial Tissue Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archambault-Wallenburg, Marika

    Optical methods can provide useful tissue characterization tools. For this project, two-photon microscopy and polarized light examinations (polarimetry) were used to assess the organizational state of myocardium in healthy, infarcted, and stem-cell regenerated states. Two-photon microscopy visualizes collagen through second-harmonic generation and myocytes through two-photon excitation autofluorescence, providing information on the composition and structure/organization of the tissue. Polarimetry measurements yield a value of linear retardance that can serve as an indicator of tissue anisotropy, and with a dual-projection method, information about the anisotropy axis orientation can also be extracted. Two-photon microscopy results reveal that stem-cell treated tissue retains more myocytes and structure than infarcted myocardium, while polarimetry findings suggest that the injury caused by temporary ligation of a coronary artery is less severe and more diffuse that than caused by a permanent ligation. Both these methods show potential for tissue characterization.

  4. A compact two photon light sheet microscope for applications in neuroscience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piksarv, Peeter; Marti, Dominik; Le, Tuan

    2016-01-01

    We present a compact setup for two photon light sheet microscopy. By using pulsed Airy beam illumination we demonstrate eight-fold increase of the FOV compared to Gaussian light sheet with the same axial resolution....

  5. Efficient non-linear two-photon effects from the Cesium 6D manifold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haluska, Nathan D.; Perram, Glen P.; Rice, Christopher A.

    2018-02-01

    We report several non-linear process that occur when two-photon pumping the cesium 6D states. Cesium vapor possess some of the largest two-photon pump cross sections in nature. Pumping these cross sections leads to strong amplified spontaneous emission that we observe on over 17 lasing lines. These new fields are strong enough to couple with the pump to create additional tunable lines. We use a heat pipe with cesium densities of 1014 to 1016 cm-3 and 0 to 5 Torr of helium buffer gas. The cesium 6D States are interrogated by both high energy pulses and low power CW sources. We observe four-wave mixing, six-wave mixing, potential two-photon lasing, other unknown nonlinear processes, and the persistence of some processes at low thresholds. This system is also uniquely qualified to support two-photon lasing under the proper conditions.

  6. Suitable photo-resists for two-photon polymerization using femtosecond fiber lasers

    KAUST Repository

    Rajamanickam, V.P.; Ferrara, L.; Toma, A.; Proietti Zaccaria, R.; Das, G.; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Liberale, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    We present suitable materials with good optical and mechanical properties, simple processing, efficient and optimized for two-photon polymerization (TPP) with femtosecond fiber lasers. We selected readily available acrylic monomer Bisphenol A

  7. Two-photon cooperative emission in the presence of athermal electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enaki, N.A.; Mihalache, D.

    1997-01-01

    The possibility of cooperative spontaneous two-photon emission of an extended radiators system and the influence of the external thermal electromagnetic field on the spontaneous emission rate, in such a system, are investigated. It is concluded that, in an external electromagnetic field, the two-photon cooperative emission rate increases significantly. The importance of this effect on the emission of gamma rays from inverted long-lived isomers triggered by X-ray thermal fields, is emphasized

  8. Saturated two-photon absorption by atoms in a perturber gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nienhuis, G.

    1980-01-01

    We derive a general expression for the two-photon absorption spectrum of a three-state atom excited by two mono-chromatic radiation fields. Collisional line-broadening effects are incorporated, and the result allows inclusion of profiles with a validity outside the impact limit. Results of previous work are recovered in the appropriate limits. Saturation affects the different lines in the two-photon absorption spectrum in a different fashion. (orig.)

  9. Selection rules for the dematerialization of a particle into two photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.N.

    1983-01-01

    Selection rules governing the disintegration of a particle into two photons are derived from the general principle of invariance under rotation and inversion. The polarization state of the photons is completely fixed by the selection rules for initial particles with spin less than 2. These results which are independent of any specific assumption about the interactions may possibly offer a method of deciding the symmetry nature of mesons which decay into two photons. 4 tables

  10. Suppression of two-photon resonantly enhanced nonlinear processes in extended media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, W.R.; Moore, M.A.; Payne, M.G.; Wunderlich, R.K.

    1988-11-01

    On the basis of combined experimental and theoretical studies of nonlinear processes associated with two-photon excitations near 3d and 4d states in Na, we show how resonantly enhanced stimulated hyper-Raman emission, parametric four-wave mixing processes and total resonant two-photon absorption can become severely suppressed through the actions of internally generated fields on the total atomic response in extended media. 7 refs., 3 figs

  11. Influence of Two Photon Absorption on Soliton Self-Frequency Shift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, Henrik; Rottwitt, Karsten; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2011-01-01

    The creation of mid-infrared supercontinua necessitates the use of soft-glass fibers. However, some materials, like chalcogenide, have a substantial two photon absorption. We introduce a model for soliton self-frequency shift that successfully includes this effect.......The creation of mid-infrared supercontinua necessitates the use of soft-glass fibers. However, some materials, like chalcogenide, have a substantial two photon absorption. We introduce a model for soliton self-frequency shift that successfully includes this effect....

  12. Two-Photon Entanglement and EPR Experiments Using Type-2 Spontaneous Parametric Down Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergienko, A. V.; Shih, Y. H.; Pittman, T. B.; Rubin, M. H.

    1996-01-01

    Simultaneous entanglement in spin and space-time of a two-photon quantum state generated in type-2 spontaneous parametric down-conversion is demonstrated by the observation of quantum interference with 98% visibility in a simple beam-splitter (Hanburry Brown-Twiss) anticorrelation experiment. The nonlocal cancellation of two-photon probability amplitudes as a result of this double entanglement allows us to demonstrate two different types of Bell's inequality violations in one experimental setup.

  13. Two-photon laser-induced fluorescence studies of HS radicals, DS radicals, and I atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiee, J J; Ferris, M J; Loge, G W; Wampler, F B

    1983-04-15

    A two-photon laser-induced excitation and fluorescence technique has been used to study the A /sup 2/..sigma../sup +/ - X/sup 2/PI transition of HS and DS radicals and various high-lying /sup 4/P/sup 0/, /sup 2/D/sup 0/, and /sup 4/D/sup 0/ states of the I atom. The two-photon excitation cross sections and detection sensitivity are discussed. 13 references, 5 figures.

  14. Two-photon decay of K-shell vacancy states in heavy atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilakovac, K.; Uroic, M.; Majer, M.; Pasic, S.; Vukovic, B.

    2006-01-01

    Two-photon decay has been extensively studied in atomic, nuclear and particle physics since the 1930s when the problem of stability of the 2s state of the hydrogen atom emerged. Since then, many theoretical and experimental investigations have been made on hydrogen and one-electron (H-like) ions and on helium and two-electron (He-like) ions. The work on two-photon decay in many-electron systems involving inner shells started about 30 years ago and, in the meantime, two-photon decay of the K-shell vacancy state has been the subject of many theoretical and experimental studies. Experimental results have been obtained for 2s->1s and higher-state electron ->1s two-photon transitions in molybdenum, and for 2s -> 1s, 3s -> 1s, 3d -> 1s and 4sd -> 1s two-photon transitions in silver, xenon, hafnium and mercury. Nonrelativistic and relativistic calculations of the processes have been made. The relativistic calculations for transitions in molybdenum, silver and xenon atoms are in a reasonable agreement with the experimental results, but some problems remain to be solved. A review of investigations of two-photon transitions in atomic systems is presented

  15. Porous Porphyrin-Based Organosilica Nanoparticles for NIR Two-Photon Photodynamic Therapy and Gene Delivery in Zebrafish

    KAUST Repository

    Mauriello Jimenez, Chiara; Aggad, Dina; Croissant, Jonas G.; Tresfield, Karen; Laurencin, Danielle; Berthomieu, Dorothé e; Cubedo, Nicolas; Rossel, Mireille; Alsaiari, Shahad K.; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Sougrat, Rachid; Roldan-Gutierrez, Manuel A.; Richeter, Sé bastien; Oliviero, Erwan; Raehm, Laurence; Charnay, Clarence; Cattoë n, Xavier; Clé ment, Sé bastien; Wong Chi Man, Michel; Maynadier, Marie; Chaleix, Vincent; Sol, Vincent; Garcia, Marcel; Gary-Bobo, Magali; Khashab, Niveen M.; Bettache, Nadir; Durand, Jean-Olivier

    2018-01-01

    functionalization of the nanoparticles with aminopropyltriethoxysilane, two-photon-excited photodynamic therapy in zebrafish is successfully achieved. Two-photon photochemical internalization in cancer cells of the nanoparticles loaded with siRNA is also performed

  16. Novel triphenylamine-cored two-photon absorbing dyes for labeling of biomolecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Haibo; Mei Chong; Wang Yaochuan; Li, Hui; Qian Shixiong; Yin Hongyao; Xu Zhisong

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Two novel triphenylamine-cored chromophores were synthesized. → These two dyes have sizable two-photon absorption cross-section at 800 nm. → They possess reasonable water solubility and are suitable as labels in aqueous biological environments. → These dyes have strong chelating ability. → They display a large set of reactivity for coupling to biomolecules. - Abstract: Two novel, V-shaped and Y-shaped dipicolinate derivatives branched from triphenylamine, {4-[(E)-2-(2,6-dimethoxycarbonylpyridin-4-yl)vinyl]}-N-phenyl-N-{4- [(E)-2-(2,6-dimethoxycarbonylpyridin-4-yl)vinylphenyl]}aniline (1) and {4-[(E)-2-(2,6-dimethoxycarbonylpyridin-4-yl) vinyl]}-N,N-bis {4-[(E)-2-(2,6-dimethoxycarbonyl pyridin-4-yl)vinylphenyl]}aniline (2) were synthesized. These compounds were designed for large two-photon absorption and in particular for labeling of biomolecules. Their linear absorption, fluorescence properties and their two-photon absorption properties as well as two-photon fluorescence cell imaging were examined. When excited at 800 nm, the two-photon absorption cross-section values of chromophores 1 and 2 in THF were 208 GM, 376 GM, respectively. These two-photon absorbing dyes possess reasonable water solubility, strong chelating ability and display a large set of reactivity for coupling to biomolecules, which are apparently due to the two methoxycarbonyl groups in pyridine ring. This work suggests that chromophores 1 and 2 are promising labels potentially applicable for the tracking of biomolecules using two-photon scanning microscopy.

  17. Two-photon activation of endogenous store-operated calcium channels without optogenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Pan; Tang, Wanyi; He, Hao

    2018-02-01

    Store-operated calcium (SOC) channels, regulated by intracellular Ca2+ store, are the essential pathway of calcium signaling and participate in a wide variety of cellular activities such as gene expression, secretion and immune response1. However, our understanding and regulation of SOC channels are mainly based on pharmacological methods. Considering the unique advantages of optical control, optogenetic control of SOC channels has been developed2. However, the process of genetic engineering to express exogenous light-sensitive protein is complicated, which arouses concerns about ethic difficulties in some research of animal and applications in human. In this report, we demonstrate rapid, robust and reproducible two-photon activation of endogenous SOC channels by femtosecond laser without optogenetics. We present that the short-duration two-photon scanning on subcellular microregion induces slow Ca2+ influx from extracellular medium, which can be eliminated by removing extracellular Ca2+. Block of SOC channels using various pharmacological inhibitors or knockdown of SOC channels by RNA interference reduce the probability of two-photon activated Ca2+ influx. On the contrary, overexpression of SOC channels can increase the probability of Ca2+ influx by two-photon scanning. These results collectively indicate Ca2+ influx through two-photon activated SOC channels. Different from classical pathway of SOC entry activated by Ca2+ store depletion, STIM1, the sensor protein of Ca2+ level in endoplasmic reticulum, does not show any aggregation or migration in this two-photon activated Ca2+ influx, which rules out the possibility of intracellular Ca2+ store depletion. Thereby, we propose this all-optical method of two-photon activation of SOC channels is of great potential to be widely applied in the research of cell calcium signaling and related biological research.

  18. Two-color quark matter: U(1)A restoration, superfluidity, and quarkyonic phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brauner, Tomas; Fukushima, Kenji; Hidaka, Yoshimasa

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the phase structure of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) with two colors and two flavors of light quarks. This is motivated by the increasing interest in the QCD phase diagram as follows: (1) The QCD critical point search has been under intensive dispute and its location and existence suffer from uncertainty of effective U(1) A symmetry restoration. (2) A new phase called quarkyonic matter is drawing theoretical and experimental attention but it is not clear whether it can coexist with diquark condensation. We point out that two-color QCD is nontrivial enough to contain essential ingredients for (1) and (2) both, and most importantly, is a system without the sign problem in numerical simulations on the lattice. We adopt the two-flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model extended with the two-color Polyakov loop and make quantitative predictions that can be tested by lattice simulations.

  19. Inkjet printing the three organic functional layers of two-colored organic light emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coenen, Michiel J.J.; Slaats, Thijs M.W.L.; Eggenhuisen, Tamara M.; Groen, Pim

    2015-01-01

    Inkjet printing allows for the roll-2-roll fabrication of organic electronic devices at an industrial scale. In this paper we demonstrate the fabrication of two-colored organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) in which three adjacent organic device layers were inkjet printed from halogen free inks. The resulting devices demonstrate the possibilities offered by this technique for the fabrication of OLEDs for signage and personalized electronics. - Highlights: • Two-colored organic light emitting diodes with 3 inkjet printed device layers were fabricated. • All materials were printed from halogen free inks. • Inkjet printing of emissive materials is suitable for signage applications

  20. Investigation of dynamic of unconsolidated materials using two-color digital holography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boileau J.-P.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a two-color digital holographic interferometer. The set-up is devoted to the study of the fundamental dynamic of unconsolidated materials. Optical configuration and algorithms to recover the optical phase of two-color digitally encoded holograms are described. The method is based on a spatial-color-multiplexing scheme in which holographic reconstruction is performed using adapted wavelength zero-padding and reconstructing distance. Experimental results are presented in the case of granular media excited in the frequency range 400Hz-3000Hz and exhibits the 3D movement.

  1. Preparation, one- and two-photon properties of carbazole derivatives containing nitrogen heterocyclic ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yichi; Wang, Ping; Li, Liang; Chen, Zhimin; He, Chunying; Wu, Yiqun

    Preparation of recording materials with high two-photon absorption activities is one of the important issues to superhigh- density two-photon absorption (TPA) three-dimensional (3D) optical data storage. In this paper, three new carbazole derivatives containing nitrogen heterocyclic ring with symmetric and asymmetric structures are prepared using ethylene as the π bridge between the carbazole unit and nitrogen heterocyclic ring, namely, 9-butyl-3-(2-(1,8- naphthyridin)vinyl)-carbazole (material 1), 9-butyl-3,6-bis(2-(1,8-naphthyl)vinyl)-carbazole (material 2) and 9-butyl-3,6- bis(2-(quinolin)vinyl)-carbazole (material 3). Their one photon properties including linear absorption spectra, fluorescence emission spectra, and fluorescence quantum yields are studied. The fluorescence excited by 120 fs pulse at 800 nm Ti: sapphire laser operating at 1 kHz repetition rate with different incident powers of 9-butyl-3-(2-(quinolin) vinyl)-carbazole (material 3) was investigated, and two-photon absorption cross-sections has been obtained. It is shown that material 3 containing quinoline rings as electron acceptor with symmetric structure exhibit high two-photon absorption activity. The result implies that material 3 (9-butyl-3-(2-(quinolin) vinyl)-carbazole) is a good candidate as a promising recording material for super-high-density two-photon absorption (TPA) three-dimensional (3D) optical data storage. The influence of chemical structure of the materials on the optical properties is discussed.

  2. Molecular engineering of two-photon fluorescent probes for bioimaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong-Wen; Liu, Yongchao; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Xiao-Bing

    2017-03-01

    During the past two decades, two-photon microscopy (TPM), which utilizes two near-infrared photons as the excitation source, has emerged as a novel, attractive imaging tool for biological research. Compared with one-photon microscopy, TPM offers several advantages, such as lowering background fluorescence in living cells and tissues, reducing photodamage to biosamples, and a photobleaching phenomenon, offering better 3D spatial localization, and increasing penetration depth. Small-molecule-based two-photon fluorescent probes have been well developed for the detection and imaging of various analytes in biological systems. In this review, we will give a general introduction of molecular engineering of two-photon fluorescent probes based on different fluorescence response mechanisms for bioimaging applications during the past decade. Inspired by the desired advantages of small-molecule two-photon fluorescent probes in biological imaging applications, we expect that more attention will be devoted to the development of new two-photon fluorophores and applications of TPM in areas of bioanalysis and disease diagnosis.

  3. Two-Photon Autofluorescence Imaging Reveals Cellular Structures Throughout the Retina of the Living Primate Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Robin; Williams, David R; Palczewska, Grazyna; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Hunter, Jennifer J

    2016-02-01

    Although extrinsic fluorophores can be introduced to label specific cell types in the retina, endogenous fluorophores, such as NAD(P)H, FAD, collagen, and others, are present in all retinal layers. These molecules are a potential source of optical contrast and can enable noninvasive visualization of all cellular layers. We used a two-photon fluorescence adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope (TPF-AOSLO) to explore the native autofluorescence of various cell classes spanning several layers in the unlabeled retina of a living primate eye. Three macaques were imaged on separate occasions using a custom TPF-AOSLO. Two-photon fluorescence was evoked by pulsed light at 730 and 920 nm excitation wavelengths, while fluorescence emission was collected in the visible range from several retinal layers and different locations. Backscattered light was recorded simultaneously in confocal modality and images were postprocessed to remove eye motion. All retinal layers yielded two-photon signals and the heterogeneous distribution of fluorophores provided optical contrast. Several structural features were observed, such as autofluorescence from vessel walls, Müller cell processes in the nerve fibers, mosaics of cells in the ganglion cell and other nuclear layers of the inner retina, as well as photoreceptor and RPE layers in the outer retina. This in vivo survey of two-photon autofluorescence throughout the primate retina demonstrates a wider variety of structural detail in the living eye than is available through conventional imaging methods, and broadens the use of two-photon imaging of normal and diseased eyes.

  4. Pseudopotential calculations and photothermal lensing measurements of two-photon absorption in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, W.T. III.

    1985-01-01

    We have studied two-photon absorption in solids theoretically and experimentally. We have shown that it is possible to use accurate band structure techniques to compute two-photon absorption spectra within 15% of measured values in a wide band-gap material, ZnS. The empirical pseudopotential technique that we used is significantly more accurate than previous models of two-photon absorption in zinc blende materials, including present tunneling theories (which are essentially parabolic-band results in disguise) and the nonparabolic-band formalism of Pidgeon et al. and Weiler. The agreement between our predictions and previous measurements allowed us to use ZnS as a reference material in order to validate a technique for measuring two-photon absorption that was previously untried in solids, pulsed dual-beam thermal lensing. With the validated technique, we examined nonlinear absorption in one other crystal (rutile) and in several glasses, including silicates, borosilicates, and one phosphate glass. Initially, we believed that the absorption edges of all the materials were comparable; however, subsequent evidence suggested that the effective band-gap energies of the glasses were above the energy of two photons in our measurement. Therefore, we attribute the nonlinear absorption that we observed in glasses to impurities or defects. The measured nonlinear absorption coefficients were of the order of a few cm/TW in the glasses and of the order of 10 cm/GW in the crystals, four orders of magnitude higher than in glasses. 292 refs

  5. Pseudopotential calculations and photothermal lensing measurements of two-photon absorption in solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, W.T. III

    1985-11-04

    We have studied two-photon absorption in solids theoretically and experimentally. We have shown that it is possible to use accurate band structure techniques to compute two-photon absorption spectra within 15% of measured values in a wide band-gap material, ZnS. The empirical pseudopotential technique that we used is significantly more accurate than previous models of two-photon absorption in zinc blende materials, including present tunneling theories (which are essentially parabolic-band results in disguise) and the nonparabolic-band formalism of Pidgeon et al. and Weiler. The agreement between our predictions and previous measurements allowed us to use ZnS as a reference material in order to validate a technique for measuring two-photon absorption that was previously untried in solids, pulsed dual-beam thermal lensing. With the validated technique, we examined nonlinear absorption in one other crystal (rutile) and in several glasses, including silicates, borosilicates, and one phosphate glass. Initially, we believed that the absorption edges of all the materials were comparable; however, subsequent evidence suggested that the effective band-gap energies of the glasses were above the energy of two photons in our measurement. Therefore, we attribute the nonlinear absorption that we observed in glasses to impurities or defects. The measured nonlinear absorption coefficients were of the order of a few cm/TW in the glasses and of the order of 10 cm/GW in the crystals, four orders of magnitude higher than in glasses. 292 refs.

  6. Enhanced Size Selection in Two-Photon Excitation for CsPbBr3 Perovskite Nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junsheng; Chábera, Pavel; Pascher, Torbjörn; Messing, Maria E; Schaller, Richard; Canton, Sophie; Zheng, Kaibo; Pullerits, Tõnu

    2017-10-19

    Cesium lead bromide (CsPbBr 3 ) perovskite nanocrystals (NCs), with large two-photon absorption (TPA) cross-section and bright photoluminescence (PL), have been demonstrated as stable two-photon-pumped lasing medium. With two-photon excitation, red-shifted PL spectrum and increased PL lifetime is observed compared with one-photon excitation. We have investigated the origin of such difference using time-resolved laser spectroscopies. We ascribe the difference to the enhanced size selection of NCs by two-photon excitation. Because of inherent nonlinearity, the size dependence of absorption cross-section under TPA is stronger. Consequently, larger size NCs are preferably excited, leading to longer excited-state lifetime and red-shifted PL emission. In a broad view, the enhanced size selection in two-photon excitation of CsPbBr 3 NCs is likely a general feature of the perovskite NCs and can be tuned via NC size distribution to influence their performance within NC-based nonlinear optical materials and devices.

  7. Inhibition of two-photon absorption in a three-level system with a pair of bichromatic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Jinhua; Hu Xiangming; Cheng Guangling; Li Xing; Du Dan

    2005-01-01

    We study two-photon absorption in a three-level ladder atomic system driven by a pair of bichromatic fields of equal frequency differences. The high-frequency component of one bichromatic field and the low-frequency component of the other are on two-photon resonance. The transition probability is calculated by employing the method of harmonic expansion and matrix inversion. Unexpectedly, when the sums of the phases of the different pairs of field components on the two-photon resonance are equal to each other, two-photon absorption is dramatically suppressed and the atomic system becomes transparent against two-photon absorption. Physically, due to dynamical Stark splitting, the two-photon transitions induced by the different pairs of field components experience different dressed states with phase difference of π. As a result, destructive interference occurs between the two pathways and leads to the inhibition of two-photon absorption

  8. Two-photon calcium imaging in mice navigating a virtual reality environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinweber, Marcus; Zmarz, Pawel; Buchmann, Peter; Argast, Paul; Hübener, Mark; Bonhoeffer, Tobias; Keller, Georg B

    2014-02-20

    In recent years, two-photon imaging has become an invaluable tool in neuroscience, as it allows for chronic measurement of the activity of genetically identified cells during behavior(1-6). Here we describe methods to perform two-photon imaging in mouse cortex while the animal navigates a virtual reality environment. We focus on the aspects of the experimental procedures that are key to imaging in a behaving animal in a brightly lit virtual environment. The key problems that arise in this experimental setup that we here address are: minimizing brain motion related artifacts, minimizing light leak from the virtual reality projection system, and minimizing laser induced tissue damage. We also provide sample software to control the virtual reality environment and to do pupil tracking. With these procedures and resources it should be possible to convert a conventional two-photon microscope for use in behaving mice.

  9. Crossed-coil detection of two-photon excited nuclear quadrupole resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eles, Philip T.; Michal, Carl A.

    2005-08-01

    Applying a recently developed theoretical framework for determining two-photon excitation Hamiltonians using average Hamiltonian theory, we calculate the excitation produced by half-resonant irradiation of the pure quadrupole resonance of a spin-3/2 system. This formalism provides expressions for the single-quantum and double-quantum nutation frequencies as well as the Bloch-Siegert shift. The dependence of the excitation strength on RF field orientation and the appearance of the free-induction signal along an axis perpendicular to the excitation field provide an unmistakable signature of two-photon excitation. We demonstrate single- and double-quantum excitation in an axially symmetric system using 35Cl in a single crystal of potassium chlorate ( ωQ = 28 MHz) with crossed-coil detection. A rotation plot verifies the orientation dependence of the two-photon excitation, and double-quantum coherences are observed directly with the application of a static external magnetic field.

  10. Near-IR Two-Photon Fluorescent Sensor for K(+) Imaging in Live Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Binglin; Yue, Xiling; Kim, Bosung; Belfield, Kevin D

    2015-08-19

    A new two-photon excited fluorescent K(+) sensor is reported. The sensor comprises three moieties, a highly selective K(+) chelator as the K(+) recognition unit, a boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY) derivative modified with phenylethynyl groups as the fluorophore, and two polyethylene glycol chains to afford water solubility. The sensor displays very high selectivity (>52-fold) in detecting K(+) over other physiological metal cations. Upon binding K(+), the sensor switches from nonfluorescent to highly fluorescent, emitting red to near-IR (NIR) fluorescence. The sensor exhibited a good two-photon absorption cross section, 500 GM at 940 nm. Moreover, it is not sensitive to pH in the physiological pH range. Time-dependent cell imaging studies via both one- and two-photon fluorescence microscopy demonstrate that the sensor is suitable for dynamic K(+) sensing in living cells.

  11. Images of photoreceptors in living primate eyes using adaptive optics two-photon ophthalmoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Jennifer J.; Masella, Benjamin; Dubra, Alfredo; Sharma, Robin; Yin, Lu; Merigan, William H.; Palczewska, Grazyna; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Williams, David R.

    2011-01-01

    In vivo two-photon imaging through the pupil of the primate eye has the potential to become a useful tool for functional imaging of the retina. Two-photon excited fluorescence images of the macaque cone mosaic were obtained using a fluorescence adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope, overcoming the challenges of a low numerical aperture, imperfect optics of the eye, high required light levels, and eye motion. Although the specific fluorophores are as yet unknown, strong in vivo intrinsic fluorescence allowed images of the cone mosaic. Imaging intact ex vivo retina revealed that the strongest two-photon excited fluorescence signal comes from the cone inner segments. The fluorescence response increased following light stimulation, which could provide a functional measure of the effects of light on photoreceptors. PMID:21326644

  12. Selective two-photon excitation of a vibronic state by correlated photons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Hisaki

    2011-03-28

    We theoretically investigate the two-photon excitation of a molecular vibronic state by correlated photons with energy anticorrelation. A Morse oscillator having three sets of vibronic states is used, as an example, to evaluate the selectivity and efficiency of two-photon excitation. We show that a vibrational mode can be selectively excited with high efficiency by the correlated photons, without phase manipulation or pulse-shaping techniques. This can be achieved by controlling the quantum correlation so that the photon pair concurrently has two pulse widths, namely, a temporally narrow width and a spectrally narrow width. Though this concurrence is seemingly contradictory, we can create such a photon pair by tailoring the quantum correlation between two photons.

  13. Two-photon patterning of a polymer containing Y-shaped azochromophores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosio, A.; Orabona, E.; Maddalena, P.; Camposeo, A.; Polo, M.; Neves, A. A. R.; Pisignano, D.; Carella, A.; Borbone, F.; Roviello, A.

    2009-01-01

    We report on the patterning of the free surface of azo-based polymer films by means of mass migration driven by one- or two-photon absorption. A symmetric donor-acceptor-donor structured Y-shaped azochromophore is specifically synthesized to enhance two-photon absorption in the polymer. The exposure of the polymer film to a focused laser beam results in light-driven mass migration for both one- and two-photon absorptions. Features with subdiffraction resolution (250 nm) are realized and the patterning dynamics is investigated as a function of the light dose. Furthermore, functional photonic structures, such as diffraction gratings with periods ranging between 0.5 and 2.0 μm, have been realized

  14. Enhanced-locality fiber-optic two-photon-fluorescence live-brain interrogation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedotov, I. V.; Doronina-Amitonova, L. V. [International Laser Center, Physics Department, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Russian Quantum Center, ul. Novaya 100, Skolkovo, Moscow Region 1430125 (Russian Federation); Kurchatov Institute National Research Center, Moscow (Russian Federation); Sidorov-Biryukov, D. A.; Fedotov, A. B. [International Laser Center, Physics Department, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Russian Quantum Center, ul. Novaya 100, Skolkovo, Moscow Region 1430125 (Russian Federation); Anokhin, K. V. [Kurchatov Institute National Research Center, Moscow (Russian Federation); P.K. Anokhin Institute of Normal Physiology, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kilin, S. Ya. [B.I. Stepanov Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Minsk (Belarus); Sakoda, K. [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Zheltikov, A. M. [International Laser Center, Physics Department, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Russian Quantum Center, ul. Novaya 100, Skolkovo, Moscow Region 1430125 (Russian Federation); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Center of Photochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Novatorov 7a, Moscow 117421 (Russian Federation)

    2014-02-24

    Two-photon excitation is shown to substantially enhance the locality of fiber-based optical interrogation of strongly scattering biotissues. In our experiments, a high-numerical-aperture, large-core-are fiber probe is used to deliver the 200-fs output of a 100-MHz mode-locked ytterbium fiber laser to samples of live mouse brain, induce two-photon fluorescence of nitrogen–vacancy centers in diamond markers in brain sample. Fiber probes with a high numerical aperture and a large core area are shown to enable locality enhancement in fiber-laser–fiber-probe two-photon brain excitation and interrogation without sacrificing the efficiency of fluorescence response collection.

  15. Absolute atomic hydrogen density distribution in a hollow cathode discharge by two-photon polarization spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalo, A B; Rosa, M I de la; Perez, C; Mar, S; Gruetzmacher, K

    2004-01-01

    We report on quantitative measurements of ground-state atomic hydrogen densities in a stationary plasma far off thermodynamic equilibrium, generated in a hollow cathode discharge, by two-photon polarization spectroscopy via the 1S-2S transition. Absolute densities are obtained using a well established calibration method based on the non-resonant two-photon polarization signal of xenon gas at room temperature, which serves as the reference at the wavelength of the hydrogen transition. This study is dedicated to demonstrating the capability of two-photon polarization spectroscopy close to the detection limit. Therefore, it requires single-longitudinal mode UV-laser radiation provided by an advanced UV-laser spectrometer

  16. Exact analysis of the response of quantum systems to two-photons using a QSDE approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Yu; Dong, Daoyi; Zhang, Guofeng

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the quantum stochastic differential equation (QSDE) approach to exactly analyze the response of quantum systems to a continuous-mode two-photon input. The QSDE description of the two-photon process allows us to integrate the input–output analysis with the quantum network theory, and so the analytical computability of the output state of a general quantum system can be addressed within this framework. We show that the time-domain two-photon output states can be exactly calculated for a large class of quantum systems including passive linear networks, optomechanical oscillators and two-level emitter in waveguide systems. In particular, we propose to utilise the results for the exact simulation of the stimulated emission as well as the study of the scattering of two-mode photon wave packets. (paper)

  17. Scanless functional imaging of hippocampal networks using patterned two-photon illumination through GRIN lenses

    KAUST Repository

    Moretti, Claudio

    2016-09-12

    Patterned illumination through the phase modulation of light is increasingly recognized as a powerful tool to investigate biological tissues in combination with two-photon excitation and light-sensitive molecules. However, to date two-photon patterned illumination has only been coupled to traditional microscope objectives, thus limiting the applicability of these methods to superficial biological structures. Here, we show that phase modulation can be used to efficiently project complex two-photon light patterns, including arrays of points and large shapes, in the focal plane of graded index (GRIN) lenses. Moreover, using this approach in combination with the genetically encoded calcium indicator GCaMP6, we validate our system performing scanless functional imaging in rodent hippocampal networks in vivo ~1.2 mm below the brain surface. Our results open the way to the application of patterned illumination approaches to deep regions of highly scattering biological tissues, such as the mammalian brain.

  18. THz/Infrared Double Resonance Two-Photon Spectroscopy of HD+ for Determination of Fundamental Constants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Lucian Constantin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A double resonance two-photon spectroscopy scheme is discussed to probe jointly rotational and rovibrational transitions of ensembles of trapped HD+ ions. The two-photon transition rates and lightshifts are calculated with the two-photon tensor operator formalism. The rotational lines may be observed with sub-Doppler linewidth at the hertz level and good signal-to-noise ratio, improving the resolution in HD+ spectroscopy beyond the 10−12 level. The experimental accuracy, estimated at the 10−12 level, is comparable with the accuracy of theoretical calculations of HD+ energy levels. An adjustment of selected rotational and rovibrational HD+ lines may add clues to the proton radius puzzle, may provide an independent determination of the Rydberg constant, and may improve the values of proton-to-electron and deuteron-to-proton mass ratios beyond the 10−11 level.

  19. Two-Photon Rabi Splitting in a Coupled System of a Nanocavity and Exciton Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Chenjiang; Wu, Shiyao; Song, Feilong; Peng, Kai; Xie, Xin; Yang, Jingnan; Xiao, Shan; Steer, Matthew J.; Thayne, Iain G.; Tang, Chengchun; Zuo, Zhanchun; Jin, Kuijuan; Gu, Changzhi; Xu, Xiulai

    2018-05-01

    Two-photon Rabi splitting in a cavity-dot system provides a basis for multiqubit coherent control in a quantum photonic network. Here we report on two-photon Rabi splitting in a strongly coupled cavity-dot system. The quantum dot was grown intentionally large in size for a large oscillation strength and small biexciton binding energy. Both exciton and biexciton transitions couple to a high-quality-factor photonic crystal cavity with large coupling strengths over 130 μ eV . Furthermore, the small binding energy enables the cavity to simultaneously couple with two exciton states. Thereby, two-photon Rabi splitting between the biexciton and cavity is achieved, which can be well reproduced by theoretical calculations with quantum master equations.

  20. Quantum-correlated two-photon transitions to excitons in semiconductor quantum wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, L J; Guzmán, D A; Rodríguez, F J; Quiroga, L

    2012-02-13

    The dependence of the excitonic two-photon absorption on the quantum correlations (entanglement) of exciting biphotons by a semiconductor quantum well is studied. We show that entangled photon absorption can display very unusual features depending on space-time-polarization biphoton parameters and absorber density of states for both bound exciton states as well as for unbound electron-hole pairs. We report on the connection between biphoton entanglement, as quantified by the Schmidt number, and absorption by a semiconductor quantum well. Comparison between frequency-anti-correlated, unentangled and frequency-correlated biphoton absorption is addressed. We found that exciton oscillator strengths are highly increased when photons arrive almost simultaneously in an entangled state. Two-photon-absorption becomes a highly sensitive probe of photon quantum correlations when narrow semiconductor quantum wells are used as two-photon absorbers.

  1. One-dimensional modulation instability in biased two-photon photorefractive-photovoltaic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhan Kaiyun; Hou Chunfeng; Li Xin

    2010-01-01

    The one-dimensional modulation instability of broad optical beams in biased two-photon photorefractive-photovoltaic crystals is investigated under steady-state conditions. Our analysis indicates that the modulation instability growth rate depends on the external bias field, the bulk photovoltaic effect and the ratio of the intensity of the incident beam to that of the dark irradiance. Moreover, our results show that this modulation instability growth rate is the same as that in two-photon photorefractive-photovoltaic crystals under open circuit conditions in the absence of an external bias field, and the modulation instability growth rate in two-photon biased photorefractive-nonphotovoltaic crystals can be predicted when the bulk photovoltaic effect is neglected.

  2. Extended analysis of benchmark datasets for Agilent two-color microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerr Kathleen F

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As part of its broad and ambitious mission, the MicroArray Quality Control (MAQC project reported the results of experiments using External RNA Controls (ERCs on five microarray platforms. For most platforms, several different methods of data processing were considered. However, there was no similar consideration of different methods for processing the data from the Agilent two-color platform. While this omission is understandable given the scale of the project, it can create the false impression that there is consensus about the best way to process Agilent two-color data. It is also important to consider whether ERCs are representative of all the probes on a microarray. Results A comparison of different methods of processing Agilent two-color data shows substantial differences among methods for low-intensity genes. The sensitivity and specificity for detecting differentially expressed genes varies substantially for different methods. Analysis also reveals that the ERCs in the MAQC data only span the upper half of the intensity range, and therefore cannot be representative of all genes on the microarray. Conclusion Although ERCs demonstrate good agreement between observed and expected log-ratios on the Agilent two-color platform, such an analysis is incomplete. Simple loess normalization outperformed data processing with Agilent's Feature Extraction software for accurate identification of differentially expressed genes. Results from studies using ERCs should not be over-generalized when ERCs are not representative of all probes on a microarray.

  3. Effects of a static electric field on two-color photoassociation between different atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Debashree; Deb, Bimalendu

    2014-01-01

    We study non-perturbative effects of a static electric field on two-color photoassociation of different atoms. A static electric field induces anisotropy in scattering between two different atoms and hybridizes field-free rotational states of heteronuclear dimers or polar molecules. In a previous paper [D. Chakraborty et al., J. Phys. B 44, 095201 (2011)], the effects of a static electric field on one-color photoassociation between different atoms has been described through field-modified ground-state scattering states, neglecting electric field effects on heteronuclear diatomic bound states. To study the effects of a static electric field on heteronuclear bound states, and the resulting influence on Raman-type two-color photoassociation between different atoms in the presence of a static electric field, we develop a non-perturbative numerical method to calculate static electric field-dressed heteronuclear bound states. We show that the static electric field induced scattering anisotropy as well as hybridization of rotational states strongly influence two-color photoassociation spectra, leading to significant enhancement in PA rate and large shift. In particular, for static electric field strengths of a few hundred kV/cm, two-color PA rate involving high-lying bound states in electronic ground-state increases by several orders of magnitude even in the weak photoassociative coupling regime

  4. Search for a Higgs Boson Decaying into Two Photons at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Achard, P.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Alcaraz, J.; Alemanni, G.; Allaby, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alviggi, M.G.; Anderhub, H.; Andreev, Valery P.; Anselmo, F.; Arefev, A.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Bagnaia, P.; Bajo, A.; Baksay, G.; Baksay, L.; Baldew, S.V.; Banerjee, S.; Banerjee, Sw.; Barczyk, A.; Barillere, R.; Bartalini, P.; Basile, M.; Batalova, N.; Battiston, R.; Bay, A.; Becattini, F.; Becker, U.; Behner, F.; Bellucci, L.; Berbeco, R.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Betev, B.L.; Biasini, M.; Biglietti, M.; Biland, A.; Blaising, J.J.; Blyth, S.C.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bohm, A.; Boldizsar, L.; Borgia, B.; Bottai, S.; Bourilkov, D.; Bourquin, M.; Braccini, S.; Branson, J.G.; Brochu, F.; Burger, J.D.; Burger, W.J.; Cai, X.D.; Capell, M.; Cara Romeo, G.; Carlino, G.; Cartacci, A.; Casaus, J.; Cavallari, F.; Cavallo, N.; Cecchi, C.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo, M.; Chang, Y.H.; Chemarin, M.; Chen, A.; Chen, G.; Chen, G.M.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, H.S.; Chiefari, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Clare, I.; Clare, R.; Coignet, G.; Colino, N.; Costantini, S.; de la Cruz, B.; Cucciarelli, S.; van Dalen, J.A.; de Asmundis, R.; Deglon, P.; Debreczeni, J.; Degre, A.; Deiters, K.; della Volpe, D.; Delmeire, E.; Denes, P.; DeNotaristefani, F.; De Salvo, A.; Diemoz, M.; Dierckxsens, M.; Dionisi, C.; Dittmar, M.; Doria, A.; Dova, M.T.; Duchesneau, D.; Echenard, B.; Eline, A.; El Mamouni, H.; Engler, A.; Eppling, F.J.; Ewers, A.; Extermann, P.; Falagan, M.A.; Falciano, S.; Favara, A.; Fay, J.; Fedin, O.; Felcini, M.; Ferguson, T.; Fesefeldt, H.; Fiandrini, E.; Field, J.H.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, P.H.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, I.; Forconi, G.; Freudenreich, K.; Furetta, C.; Galaktionov, Iouri; Ganguli, S.N.; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gataullin, M.; Gentile, S.; Giagu, S.; Gong, Z.F.; Grenier, Gerald Jean; Grimm, O.; Gruenewald, M.W.; Guida, M.; van Gulik, R.; Gupta, V.K.; Gurtu, A.; Gutay, L.J.; Haas, D.; Hakobyan, R.S.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hebbeker, T.; Herve, Alain; Hirschfelder, J.; Hofer, H.; Hohlmann, M.; Holzner, G.; Hou, S.R.; Hu, Y.; Jin, B.N.; Jones, Lawrence W.; de Jong, P.; Josa-Mutuberria, I.; Kafer, D.; Kaur, M.; Kienzle-Focacci, M.N.; Kim, J.K.; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, W.; Klimentov, A.; Konig, A.C.; Kopal, M.; Koutsenko, V.; Kraber, M.; Kraemer, R.W.; Krenz, W.; Kruger, A.; Kunin, A.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Laktineh, I.; Landi, G.; Lebeau, M.; Lebedev, A.; Lebrun, P.; Lecomte, P.; Lecoq, P.; Le Coultre, P.; Le Goff, J.M.; Leiste, R.; Levtchenko, M.; Levtchenko, P.; Li, C.; Likhoded, S.; Lin, C.H.; Lin, W.T.; Linde, F.L.; Lista, L.; Liu, Z.A.; Lohmann, W.; Longo, E.; Lu, Y.S.; Lubelsmeyer, K.; Luci, C.; Luminari, L.; Lustermann, W.; Ma, W.G.; Malgeri, L.; Malinin, A.; Mana, C.; Mangeol, D.; Mans, J.; Martin, J.P.; Marzano, F.; Mazumdar, K.; McNeil, R.R.; Mele, S.; Merola, L.; Meschini, M.; Metzger, W.J.; Mihul, A.; Milcent, H.; Mirabelli, G.; Mnich, J.; Mohanty, G.B.; Muanza, G.S.; Muijs, A.J.M.; Musicar, B.; Musy, M.; Nagy, S.; Natale, S.; Napolitano, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Newman, H.; Niessen, T.; Nisati, A.; Kluge, Hannelies; Ofierzynski, R.; Organtini, G.; Palomares, C.; Pandoulas, D.; Paolucci, P.; Paramatti, R.; Passaleva, G.; Patricelli, S.; Paul, Thomas Cantzon; Pauluzzi, M.; Paus, C.; Pauss, F.; Pedace, M.; Pensotti, S.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Petersen, B.; Piccolo, D.; Pierella, F.; Pioppi, M.; Piroue, P.A.; Pistolesi, E.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Pojidaev, V.; Pothier, J.; Prokofev, D.O.; Prokofiev, D.; Quartieri, J.; Rahal-Callot, G.; Rahaman, M.A.; Raics, P.; Raja, N.; Ramelli, R.; Rancoita, P.G.; Ranieri, R.; Raspereza, A.; Razis, P.; Ren, D.; Rescigno, M.; Reucroft, S.; Riemann, S.; Riles, Keith; Roe, B.P.; Romero, L.; Rosca, A.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Roth, Stefan; Rosenbleck, C.; Roux, B.; Rubio, J.A.; Ruggiero, G.; Rykaczewski, H.; Sakharov, A.; Saremi, S.; Sarkar, S.; Salicio, J.; Sanchez, E.; Sanders, M.P.; Schafer, C.; Schegelsky, V.; Schmidt-Kaerst, S.; Schmitz, D.; Schopper, H.; Schotanus, D.J.; Schwering, G.; Sciacca, C.; Servoli, L.; Shevchenko, S.; Shivarov, N.; Shoutko, V.; Shumilov, E.; Shvorob, A.; Siedenburg, T.; Son, D.; Spillantini, P.; Steuer, M.; Stickland, D.P.; Stoyanov, B.; Straessner, A.; Sudhakar, K.; Sultanov, G.; Sun, L.Z.; Sushkov, S.; Suter, H.; Swain, J.D.; Szillasi, Z.; Tang, X.W.; Tarjan, P.; Tauscher, L.; Taylor, L.; Tellili, B.; Teyssier, D.; Timmermans, Charles; Ting, Samuel C.C.; Ting, S.M.; Tonwar, S.C.; Toth, J.; Tully, C.; Tung, K.L.; Ulbricht, J.; Valente, E.; Van de Walle, R.T.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vetlitsky, I.; Vicinanza, D.; Viertel, G.; Villa, S.; Vivargent, M.; Vlachos, S.; Vodopianov, I.; Vogel, H.; Vogt, H.; Vorobev, I.; Vorobyov, A.A.; Wadhwa, M.; Wallraff, W.; Wang, X.L.; Wang, Z.M.; Weber, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wilkens, H.; Wynhoff, S.; Xia, L.; Xu, Z.Z.; Yamamoto, J.; Yang, B.Z.; Yang, C.G.; Yang, H.J.; Yang, M.; Yeh, S.C.; Zalite, A.; Zalite, Yu.; Zhang, Z.P.; Zhao, J.; Zhu, G.Y.; Zhu, R.Y.; Zhuang, H.L.; Zichichi, A.; Zilizi, G.; Zimmermann, B.; Zoller, M.

    2002-01-01

    A Higgs particle produced in association with a Z boson and decaying into two photons is searched for in the data collected by the L3 experiment at LEP. All possible decay modes of the Z boson are investigated. No signal is observed in 447.5 pb^-1 of data recorded at centre-of-mass energies up to 209 GeV. Limits on the branching fraction of the Higgs boson decay into two photons as a function of the Higgs mass are derived. A lower limit on the mass of a fermiophobic Higgs boson is set at 105.4 GeV at 95% confidence level.

  5. Virtual-pion and two-photon production in pp scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholten, O.; Korchin, A.Yu.

    2002-01-01

    Two-photon production in pp scattering is proposed as a means of studying virtual-pion emission. Such a process is complementary to real-pion emission in pp scattering. The virtual-pion signal is embedded in a background of double-photon bremsstrahlung. We have developed a model to describe this background process and show that in certain parts of phase space the virtual-pion signal gives significant contributions. In addition, through interference with the two-photon bremsstrahlung background, one can determine the relative phase of the virtual-pion process

  6. Comments on the observations of two-photon decay in n-p capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alburger, D.E.

    1975-01-01

    Two-photon decay in n-p capture has been reported as having a branching ratio of 10 -3 relative to single 2.23-MeV γ-ray emission. It is suggested that this result can be explained by crosstalk effects between detectors due to single γ rays, principally that associated with annihiliation in flight following pair production. The shape of the observed γ-γ coincidence spectrum is consistent with this type of crosstalk and the apparent two-photon branch is about what is expected from a rough calculation of the magnitude of the crosstalk effect

  7. Enhancement of intermediate-field two-photon absorption by rationally shaped femtosecond pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuntonov, Lev; Rybak, Leonid; Gandman, Andrey; Amitay, Zohar

    2008-01-01

    We extend the powerful frequency-domain analysis of femtosecond two-photon absorption to the intermediate-field regime of considerable absorption yields, where additionally to the weak-field nonresonant two-photon transitions also four-photon transitions play a role. Consequently, we rationally find that the absorption is enhanced over the transform-limited pulse by any shaped pulse having a spectral phase that is antisymmetric around one-half of the transition frequency and a spectrum that is asymmetric around it (red or blue detuned according to the system). The enhancement increases as the field strength increases. The theoretical results for Na are verified experimentally

  8. Two-photon transitions in hydrogen atoms embedded in weakly coupled plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, S.; Ho, Y. K.

    2008-01-01

    The pseudostate method has been applied to calculate energy eigenvalues and corresponding eigenfunctions of the hydrogen atom in Debye plasma environments. Resonant two-photon transition rates from the ground state of atomic hydrogen to 2s and 3s excited states have been computed as a function of photon frequency in the length and velocity gauges for different Debye lengths. A two-photon transparency is found in correspondence to each resonance for 1s-3s. The transparency frequency and resonance enhancement frequency vary significantly with the Debye length.

  9. Two-photon processes of π0, η, η', ηc and ηb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klabucar, D.

    1997-01-01

    Two-photon processes of π 0 , η, η', η c and η b are studied in the consistently coupled Schwinger-Dyson (SD) and Bethe-Salpeter (BS) approach, where dynamical chiral symmetry breaking (DχSB) is obtained through the SD equation for the quark propagator which is then used in the BS equation. It is shown that the coupled SD-BS approach is similarly successful in the description of two-photon processes of pseudoscalar mesons over a wide range of masses. (K.A.)

  10. Measurement of two-photon production of the χc2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominick, J.; Sanghera, S.; Shelkov, V.; Skwarnicki, T.; Stroynowski, R.; Volobouev, I.; Zadorozhny, P.; Artuso, M.; He, D.; Goldberg, M.; Horwitz, N.; Kennett, R.; Moneti, G.C.; Muheim, F.; Mukhin, Y.; Playfer, S.; Rozen, Y.; Stone, S.; Thulasidas, M.; Vasseur, G.; Zhu, G.; Bartelt, J.; Csorna, S.E.; Egyed, Z.; Jain, V.; Sheldon, P.; Akerib, D.S.; Barish, B.; Chadha, M.; Chan, S.; Cowen, D.F.; Eigen, G.; Miller, J.S.; O'Grady, C.; Urheim, J.; Weinstein, A.J.; Acosta, D.; Athanas, M.; Masek, G.; Paar, H.; Sivertz, M.; Bean, A.; Gronberg, J.; Kutschke, R.; Menary, S.; Morrison, R.J.; Nakanishi, S.; Nelson, H.N.; Nelson, T.K.; Richman, J.D.; Ryd, A.; Tajima, H.; Schmidt, D.; Sperka, D.; Witherell, M.S.; Procario, M.; Yang, S.; Balest, R.; Cho, K.; Daoudi, M.; Ford, W.T.; Johnson, D.R.; Lingel, K.; Lohner, M.; Rankin, P.; Smith, J.G.; Alexander, J.P.; Bebek, C.; Berkelman, K.; Besson, D.; Browder, T.E.; Cassel, D.G.; Cho, H.A.; Coffman, D.M.; Drell, P.S.; Ehrlich, R.; Galik, R.S.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Geiser, B.; Gittelman, B.; Gray, S.W.; Hartill, D.L.; Heltsley, B.K.; Jones, C.D.; Jones, S.L.; Kandaswamy, J.; Katayama, N.; Kim, P.C.; Kreinick, D.L.; Ludwig, G.S.; Masui, J.; Mevissen, J.; Mistry, N.B.; Ng, C.R.; Nordberg, E.; Ogg, M.; Patterson, J.R.; Peterson, D.; Riley, D.; Salman, S.; Sapper, M.; Worden, H.; Wuerthwein, F.; Avery, P.; Freyberger, A.; Rodriguez, J.; Stephens, R.; Yelton, J.; Cinabro, D.; Henderson, S.; Kinoshita, K.; Liu, T.; Saulnier, M.; Shen, F.; Wilson, R.; Yamamoto, H.; Ong, B.; Selen, M.; Sadoff, A.J.; Ammar, R.; Ball, S.; Baringer, P.; Coppage, D.; Copty, N.; Davis, R.; Hancock, N.; Kelly, M.; Kwak, N.; Lam, H.; Kubota, Y.; Lattery, M.; Nelson, J.K.; Patton, S.; Perticone, D.; Poling, R.; Savinov, V.; Schrenk, S.; Wang, R.; Alam, M.S.; Kim, I.J.; Nemati, B.; O'Neill, J.J.; Severini, H.; Sun, C.R.; Zoeller, M.M.; Crawford, G.; Daubenmeir, M.; Fulton, R.; Fujino, D.; Gan, K.K.; Honscheid, K.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Lee, J.

    1994-01-01

    The CLEO II detector is used to search for the production of χ c2 states in two-photon interactions. We use the signature χ c2 →γJ/ψ→γl + l - with l=e,μ. Using 1.49 fb -1 of data taken with beam energies near 5.29 GeV, the two-photon width of the χ c2 is determined to be Γ(χ c2 →γγ)=1.08±0.30(stat)±0.26(syst) keV, in agreement with predictions from perturbative QCD

  11. Frequency dependence of coherently amplified two-photon emission from hydrogen molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Hideaki; Miyamoto, Yuki; Hiraki, Takahiro; Masuda, Takahiko; Sasao, Noboru; Uetake, Satoshi; Yoshimi, Akihiro; Yoshimura, Koji; Yoshimura, Motohiko

    2017-12-01

    We investigate how the efficiency of coherently amplified two-photon emission depends on the frequency of one of the two emitted photons, namely the signal photon. This is done over the wavelength range of 5.048-10.21 μ m by using the vibrational transition of parahydrogen. The efficiency increases with the frequency of the signal photon. Considering experimental errors, our results are consistent with the theoretical prediction for the present experimental conditions. This study is an experimental demonstration of the frequency dependence of coherently amplified two-photon emission, and also presents its potential as a light source.

  12. Arduino Due based tool to facilitate in vivo two-photon excitation microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artoni, Pietro; Landi, Silvia; Sato, Sebastian Sulis; Luin, Stefano; Ratto, Gian Michele

    2016-04-01

    Two-photon excitation spectroscopy is a powerful technique for the characterization of the optical properties of genetically encoded and synthetic fluorescent molecules. Excitation spectroscopy requires tuning the wavelength of the Ti:sapphire laser while carefully monitoring the delivered power. To assist laser tuning and the control of delivered power, we developed an Arduino Due based tool for the automatic acquisition of high quality spectra. This tool is portable, fast, affordable and precise. It allowed studying the impact of scattering and of blood absorption on two-photon excitation light. In this way, we determined the wavelength-dependent deformation of excitation spectra occurring in deep tissues in vivo.

  13. Integrated single- and two-photon light sheet microscopy using accelerating beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piksarv, Peeter; Marti, Dominik; Le, Tuan

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate the first light sheet microscope using propagation invariant, accelerating Airy beams that operates both in single- and two-photon modes. The use of the Airy beam permits us to develop an ultra compact, high resolution light sheet system without beam scanning. In two-photon mode......, an increase in the field of view over the use of a standard Gaussian beam by a factor of six is demonstrated. This implementation for light sheet microscopy opens up new possibilities across a wide range of biomedical applications, especially for the study of neuronal processes....

  14. Two-photon collisions and short-distance tests of quantum chromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1978-12-01

    The physics of two-photon collisions in e +- storage rings is reviewed with emphasis on the predictions of perturbative quantum chromodynamics for high transverse momentum reactions. It is noted that because of the remarkable scaling properties predicted by the theory, two-photon collisions may be proved one of the cleanest tests of the quantum chromodynamics picture of short distance hadron dynamics. In order to contrast these predictions for photon-induced reactions with those for incident hadrons, predictions from quantum chromodynamics for hadron structure functions and form factors at large momentum transfer are also discussed. 55 references

  15. Two-photon-excited fluorescence spectroscopy of atomic fluorine at 170 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, G. C.; Dyer, Mark J.; Jusinski, Leonard E.; Bischel, William K.

    1988-01-01

    Two-photon-excited fluorescence spectroscopy of atomic fluorine is reported. A doubled dye laser at 286-nm is Raman shifted in H2 to 170 nm (sixth anti-Stokes order) to excite ground-state 2P(0)J fluorine atoms to the 2D(0)J level. The fluorine atoms are detected by one of two methods: observing the fluorescence decay to the 2PJ level or observing F(+) production through the absorption of an additional photon by the excited atoms. Relative two-photon absorption cross sections to and the radiative lifetimes of the 2D(0)J states are measured.

  16. Insights into esophagus tissue architecture using two-photon confocal microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nenrong; Wang, Yue; Feng, Shangyuan; Chen, Rong

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, microstructures of human esophageal mucosa were evaluated using the two-photon laser scanning confocal microscopy (TPLSCM), based on two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG). The distribution of epithelial cells, muscle fibers of muscularis mucosae has been distinctly obtained. Furthermore, esophageal submucosa characteristics with cancer cells invading into were detected. The variation of collagen, elastin and cancer cells is very relevant to the pathology in esophagus, especially early esophageal cancer. Our experimental results indicate that the MPM technique has the much more advantages for label-free imaging, and has the potential application in vivo in the clinical diagnosis and monitoring of early esophageal cancer.

  17. Multiphoton ionization of atomic cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compton, R.N.; Klots, C.E.; Stockdale, J.A.D.; Cooper, C.D.

    1984-01-01

    We describe experimental studies of resonantly enhanced multi-photon ionization (MPI) of cesium atoms in the presence and absence of an external electric field. In the zero-field studies, photo-electron angular distributions for one- and two-photon resonantly enhanced MPI are compared with the theory of Tang and Lambropoulos. Deviations of experiment from theory are attributed to hyperfine coupling effects in the resonant intermediate state. The agreement between theory and experiment is excellent. In the absence of an external electric field, signal due to two-photon resonant three-photon ionization of cesium via np states is undetectable. Application of an electric field mixes nearby nd and ns levels, thereby inducing excitation and subsequent ionization. Signal due to two-photon excitation of ns levels in field-free experiments is weak due to their small photoionization cross section. An electric field mixes nearby np levels which again allows detectable photo-ionization signal. For both ns and np states the ''field induced'' MPI signal increases as the square of the electric field for a given principal quantum number and increases rapidly with n for a given field strength

  18. Gold Core Mesoporous Organosilica Shell Degradable Nanoparticles for Two-Photon Imaging and Gemcitabine Monophosphate Delivery

    KAUST Repository

    Rhamani, Saher; Chaix, Arnaud; Aggad, Dina; Hoang, Phuong Mai; Moosa, Basem; Garcia, Marcel; Gary-Bobo, Magali; Charnay, Clarence; Almalik, Abdulaziz; Durand, Jean-Olivier; Khashab, Niveen M.

    2017-01-01

    The synthesis of gold core degradable mesoporous organosilica shell nanoparticles is described. The nanopaticles were very efficient for two-photon luminescence imaging of cancer cells and for in vitro gemcitabine monophosphate delivery, allowing promising theranostic applications in the nanomedicine field.

  19. Circular dichroism probed by two-photon fluorescence microscopy in enantiopure chiral polyfluorene thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savoini, M.; Wu, Xiaofei; Celebrano, M.; Ziegler, J.; Biagioni, P.; Meskers, S.C.J.; Duo, L.; Hecht, B.; Finazzi, M.

    2012-01-01

    Two-photon fluorescence scanning confocal microscopy sensitive to circular dichroism with a diffraction-limited resolution well below 500 nm is demonstrated. With this method, the spatial variation of the circular dichroism of thermally annealed chiral polyfluorene thin films has been imaged. We

  20. Dependence of the two-photon photoluminescence yield of gold nanostructures on the laser pulse duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biagioni, P.; Celebrano, M.; Savoini, M.

    2009-01-01

    Two-photon photoluminescence (TPPL) from gold nanostructures is becoming one of the most relevant tools for plasmon-assisted biological imaging and photothermal therapy as well as for the investigation of plasmonic devices. Here we study the yield of TPPL as a function of the temporal width δ of ...

  1. Investigation of the two-photon decay following the neutron capture in hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuest, N.

    1978-01-01

    The continuous two-photon radiation, resulting from thermal neutron capture in hydrogen, has been measured. This reaction can be described in second order perturbation theory and occurs besides the dominating 2223.4 keV single-photon radiation. The theoretical ratio between two-photon and one-photon process is 2.8 10 -7 for the case considered here, so coincidence experiments with extremely high sensitivity have to be performed. In order to exclude systematical errors, three measurements with a different experimental set-up have been performed. Besides the total cross section for the two-photon process, the differential cross section has been studied in one of the experiments as a function of the energy ratio of the two photons. For the branching ratio between the two- and one-photon process an upper limit of 2 x 10 -5 could be obtained. So the hypothesis that the neutron capture state and the deuterium ground state one non-orthogonal, is shown to be false. (orig.) [de

  2. Gold Core Mesoporous Organosilica Shell Degradable Nanoparticles for Two-Photon Imaging and Gemcitabine Monophosphate Delivery

    KAUST Repository

    Rhamani, Saher

    2017-09-12

    The synthesis of gold core degradable mesoporous organosilica shell nanoparticles is described. The nanopaticles were very efficient for two-photon luminescence imaging of cancer cells and for in vitro gemcitabine monophosphate delivery, allowing promising theranostic applications in the nanomedicine field.

  3. Phosphorescent probes for two-photon microscopy of oxygen (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradov, Sergei A.; Esipova, Tatiana V.

    2016-03-01

    The ability to quantify oxygen in vivo in 3D with high spatial and temporal resolution is much needed in many areas of biological research. Our laboratory has been developing the phosphorescence quenching technique for biological oximetry - an optical method that possesses intrinsic microscopic capability. In the past we have developed dendritically protected oxygen probes for quantitative imaging of oxygen in tissue. More recently we expanded our design on special two-photon enhanced phosphorescent probes. These molecules brought about first demonstrations of the two-photon phosphorescence lifetime microscopy (2PLM) of oxygen in vivo, providing new information for neouroscience and stem cell biology. However, current two-photon oxygen probes suffer from a number of limitations, such as sub-optimal brightness and high cost of synthesis, which dramatically reduce imaging performance and limit usability of the method. In this paper we discuss principles of 2PLM and address the interplay between the probe chemistry, photophysics and spatial and temporal imaging resolution. We then present a new approach to brightly phosphorescent chromophores with internally enhanced two-photon absorption cross-sections, which pave a way to a new generation of 2PLM probes.

  4. Phosphorus ligand imaging with two-photon fluorescence spectroscopy: towards rational catalyst immobilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marras, F.; Kluwer, A.M.; Siekierzycka, J.R.; Vozza, A.; Brouwer, A.M.; Reek, J.N.H.

    2010-01-01

    Spotless catalysts: Ligand immobilization was studied by two-photon fluorescence microscopy with a fluorescent nixantphos ligand as probe (see picture). In the immobilization process ligand aggregates form in solution and are deposited on the support, where they appear as bright spots in

  5. Two-photon imaging of field enhancement by groups of gold nanostrip antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novikov, Sergey M.; Beermann, Jonas; Sondergaard, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Resonant field enhancement by groups of 16 nm thin gold nanostrip antennas consisting of four strips (widths of 70, 100, and 130 nm) and fixed gap (50, 100, 150, or 200 nm) between them and positioned on a quartz substrate is investigated by reflection spectroscopy and two-photon photoluminescenc...

  6. Influence of two-photon absorption on soliton self-frequency shift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, Henrik; Agger, Christian; Bang, Ole

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we develop an analytical model for the soliton self-frequency shift, which includes second- and thirdorder dispersion, self-steepening, the full Raman term, and, for the first time to our best knowledge, the effect of two-photon absorption (TPA). We show that TPA can have a signific...

  7. Combined Raman and continuous-wave-excited two-photon fluorescence cell imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uzunbajakava, N.; Otto, Cornelis

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate a confocal optical microscope that combines cw two-photon-excited fluorescence microscopy with confocal Raman microscopy. With this microscope fast image acquisition with fluorescence imaging can be used to select areas of interest for subsequent chemical analysis with spontaneous

  8. Two Photon Induced Lasing in 1550 nm Quantum Dash Optical Gain Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capua, Amir; Saal, Abigael; Reithmaier, Johann Peter

    2011-01-01

    We report on a unique lasing mechanism observed in quantum dash Gain media. While the gain media is electrically pumped below lasing threshold, a strong optical pulse excites carriers by two photon absorption into high energy states of the quantum dashes and wetting layer. Fast inter band carrier...

  9. New cubic perovskites for one- and two-photon water splitting using the computational materials repository

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castelli, Ivano Eligio; Landis, David; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2012-01-01

    screening of around 19 000 oxides, oxynitrides, oxysulfides, oxyfluorides, and oxyfluoronitrides in the cubic perovskite structure with PEC applications in mind. We address three main applications: light absorbers for one- and two-photon water splitting and high-stability transparent shields to protect...

  10. Search for a Higgs boson decaying into two photons in the CMS ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. CMS; Large Hadron Collider; low-mass Higgs; photons; electromagnetic calorimeter. Abstract. A search for a Higgs boson decaying into two photons in collisions at the LHC at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV is presented. The analysis is performed on a dataset corresponding to 1.66 fb-1 of data recorded in ...

  11. Quantum properties of counterpropagating two-photon states generated in a planar waveguide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peřina ml., Jan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 1 (2008), 013803/1-013803/14 ISSN 1050-2947 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : quantum properties * two-photon states Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.908, year: 2008

  12. The description of two-photon Rabi oscillations in the path integral approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biryukov, A. A.; Degtyareva, Ya. V.; Shleenkov, M. A.

    2018-04-01

    The probability of quantum transitions of a molecule between its states under the action of an electromagnetic field is represented as an integral over trajectories from a real alternating functional. A method is proposed for computing the integral using recurrence relations. The method is attached to describe the two-photon Rabi oscillations.

  13. Measurement Induced Enhancement of Squeezing in Nondegenerate Two-Photon Jaynes-Cummings Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Saiyun

    2006-01-01

    Squeezing properties in the nondegenerate two-photon Jaynes-Cummings model are investigated. The effects of direct selective atomic measurement and the application of the classical field followed by atomic measurement are analyzed. Different values of the parameters of the classical field are taken into account. It is found that the field squeezing can be enhanced by measurement.

  14. Theory of two-photon interactions with broadband down-converted light and entangled photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dayan, Barak

    2007-01-01

    When two-photon interactions are induced by down-converted light with a bandwidth that exceeds the pump bandwidth, they can obtain a behavior that is pulselike temporally, yet spectrally narrow. At low photon fluxes this behavior reflects the time and energy entanglement between the down-converted photons. However, two-photon interactions such as two-photon absorption (TPA) and sum-frequency generation (SFG) can exhibit such a behavior even at high power levels, as long as the final state (i.e., the atomic level in TPA, or the generated light in SFG) is narrow-band enough. This behavior does not depend on the squeezing properties of the light, is insensitive to linear losses, and has potential applications. In this paper we describe analytically this behavior for traveling-wave down conversion with continuous or pulsed pumping, both for high- and low-power regimes. For this we derive a quantum-mechanical expression for the down-converted amplitude generated by an arbitrary pump, and formulate operators that represent various two-photon interactions induced by broadband light. This model is in excellent agreement with experimental results of TPA and SFG with high-power down-converted light and with entangled photons [Dayan et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 023005 (2004); 94, 043602 (2005); Pe'er et al., ibid. 94, 073601 (2005)

  15. Chaos in coherent two-photon processes in a ring cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S; Agarwal, G S

    1983-08-01

    The output of a ring cavity containing a resonant medium undergoing two photon transitions is shown to become chaotic, after following a series of bifurcations involving 2 to the nth cycles, as the strength of the driving field is increased. The chaotic regime is followed by a sequence of period doubling bifurcations in reverse order. 14 references.

  16. Applications of two-photon fluorescence microscopy in deep-tissue imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chen-Yuan; Yu, Betty; Hsu, Lily L.; Kaplan, Peter D.; Blankschstein, D.; Langer, Robert; So, Peter T. C.

    2000-07-01

    Based on the non-linear excitation of fluorescence molecules, two-photon fluorescence microscopy has become a significant new tool for biological imaging. The point-like excitation characteristic of this technique enhances image quality by the virtual elimination of off-focal fluorescence. Furthermore, sample photodamage is greatly reduced because fluorescence excitation is limited to the focal region. For deep tissue imaging, two-photon microscopy has the additional benefit in the greatly improved imaging depth penetration. Since the near- infrared laser sources used in two-photon microscopy scatter less than their UV/glue-green counterparts, in-depth imaging of highly scattering specimen can be greatly improved. In this work, we will present data characterizing both the imaging characteristics (point-spread-functions) and tissue samples (skin) images using this novel technology. In particular, we will demonstrate how blind deconvolution can be used further improve two-photon image quality and how this technique can be used to study mechanisms of chemically-enhanced, transdermal drug delivery.

  17. Picosecond phase conjugation in two-photon absorption in poly-di-acetylenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunzi, Dominique Jean-Michel

    1990-01-01

    Poly-di-acetylenes exhibit a large two-photon absorption at 1064 nm wavelength. Its different effects on phase-conjugate nonlinearity are described in the framework of picosecond experiments. In solutions, gels, and films (optically thin media), third-order susceptibility appears as an increasing intensity dependent function. Phase measurements by nonlinear interferometry with the substrate or with the solvent are compared with predictions of a resonantly driven three level system. Phase-conjugate response exhibits a multi-exponential decay. Polarization symmetries analysis shows a one-dimensional effect. Study under strong static electric field action reveals that we face charged species bound to photoconductive polymer chains. In PTS single crystals (optically thick media), response saturates and cancels at high light intensity. This is well accounted for by propagation equations solved in large two-photon absorption conditions. The effect is exploited in a phase conjugation experiment under external optical pump excitation. We thus demonstrate that enhanced nonlinearity is a two-photon absorption relayed and amplified by mid-gap absorbing species which have been created by this two-photon absorption. We formally face a four-photon absorption described by a positive imaginary seventh-order non-linearity. (author) [fr

  18. Sub-diffraction positioning of a two-photon excited and optically trapped quantum dot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Liselotte Jauffred; Kyrsting, Anders Højbo; Christensen, Eva Arnspang

    2014-01-01

    Colloidal quantum dots are luminescent long-lived probes that can be two-photon excited and manipulated by a single laser beam. Therefore, quantum dots can be used for simultaneous single molecule visualization and force manipulation using an infra-red laser. Here, we show that even a single opti...

  19. Two-photon luminescence microscopy of field enhancement at gold nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beermann, Jonas; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2005-01-01

    Using a reflection scanning optical microscope detecting two-photon luminescence (TPL) we have imaged square gold bumps positioned in a periodic array either on a smooth gold film or directly on a glass substrate. The second-harmonic (SH) and TPL response from these structures show both...

  20. Selective two-photon collagen crosslinking in situ measured by Brillouin microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Sheldon J. J.; Kuznetsov, Ivan A.; Kim, Moonseok; Choi, Myunghwan; Scarcelli, Giuliano; Yun, Seok-Hyun

    2017-02-01

    Two-photon polymerization and crosslinking are commonly used methods for microfabrication of three-dimensional structures with applications spanning from photonic microdevices, drug delivery systems, to cellular scaffolds. However, the use of two-photon processes for precise, internal modification of biological tissues has not yet been reported. One of the major challenges has been a lack of appropriate tools to monitor and characterize crosslinked regions nondestructively. Here, we demonstrate spatially selective two-photon collagen crosslinking (2P-CXL) in intact tissue for the first time. Using riboflavin photosensitizer and femtosecond laser irradiation, we crosslinked a small volume of tissue within animal corneas. Collagen fiber orientations and photobleaching were characterized by second harmonic generation and two-photon fluorescence imaging, respectively. Using confocal Brillouin microscopy, we measured local changes in longitudinal mechanical moduli and visualized the cross-linked pattern without perturbing surrounding non-irradiated regions. 2P-CXL-induced tissue stiffening was comparable to that achieved with conventional one-photon CXL. Our results demonstrate the ability to selectively stiffen biological tissue in situ at high spatial resolution, with broad implications in ophthalmology, laser surgery, and tissue engineering.

  1. Single attosecond pulse generation in an orthogonally polarized two-color laser field combined with a static electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Changlong; Zhang Gangtai; Wu Jie; Liu Xueshen

    2010-01-01

    We investigate theoretic high-order harmonic generation and single attosecond pulse generation in an orthogonally polarized two-color laser field, which is synthesized by a mid-infrared (IR) pulse (12.5 fs, 2000 nm) in the y component and a much weaker (12 fs, 800 nm) pulse in the x component. We find that the width of the harmonic plateau can be extended when a static electric field is added in the y component. We also investigate emission time of harmonics in terms of a time-frequency analysis to illustrate the physical mechanism of high-order harmonic generation. We calculate the ionization rate using the Ammosov-Delone-Krainov model and interpret the variation of harmonic intensity for different static electric field strengths. When the ratio of strengths of the static and the y-component laser fields is 0.1, a continuous harmonic spectrum is formed from 220 to 420 eV. By superposing a properly selected range of the harmonic spectrum from 300 to 350 eV, an isolated attosecond pulse with a duration of about 75 as is obtained, which is near linearly polarized.

  2. Polarization and pressure effects in caesium 6S-8S two-photon spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yi-Chi; Tsai, Chin-Chun; Chui, Hsiang-Chen; Chang, Yi-Hsiu; Chen, Ying-Yu

    2010-01-01

    This work analyses the effects of polarization and pressure in caesium 6S-8S two-photon spectroscopy. The linewidth was broadened and the frequency was shifted by a change of polarization states. The frequency shift and the linewidth broadening of the caesium 6S-8S two-photon transition were measured as a function of laser power using one single-frequency Ti:sapphire ring cavity laser, two caesium cells and two quarter-wave plates to ensure polarization states of light, and we showed that the linewidth cannot be evaluated just by fitting data to a Lorentzian shape. As determined by fitting the data to a Voigt profile, the natural linewidth is independent of the polarization states of the pump beams, the laser power and the pressure. Caesium 6S-8S two-photon transitions pumped by a circularly polarized beam have narrower linewidths and smaller shifts than those pumped by a linearly polarized beam. The light shift obtained by pumping with the circularly polarized beam is -6.75(57) Hz (mW mm -2 ) -1 , and that obtained by pumping with a linearly polarized beam is -7.25(45) Hz (mW mm -2 ) -1 . These results agree closely with theoretical calculations. The pressure shift is -588(387) Hz mPa -1 . This work shows how to evaluate two-photon transitions with a Voigt profile, and then helps us to understand two-photon transitions with different polarization states, and improve the signal quality obtained when they are used as frequency markers.

  3. Sensing for intracellular thiols by water-insoluble two-photon fluorescent probe incorporating nanogel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Xudong; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Shuangqing; Li, Shayu [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Key laboratory of Photochemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Hu, Rui, E-mail: hurui@iccas.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Key laboratory of Photochemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Li, Yi, E-mail: yili@mail.ipc.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Photochemical Conversion and Optoelectronic Materials, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Yang, Guoqiang, E-mail: gqyang@iccas.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Key laboratory of Photochemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • A novel “turn-on” two-photon fluorescent probe based on a π-conjugated triarylboron luminogen was designed and synthesized. • Fast, selective and sensitive detection of biothiols in 100% aqueous solution by simply loaded on a nanogel. • Single-photon and two-photon fluorescent bioimaging of biothiols in NIH/3T3 fibroblasts. - Abstract: A novel “turn-on” two-photon fluorescent probe containing a π-conjugated triarylboron luminogen and a maleimide moiety DMDP-M based on the photo-induced electron transfer (PET) mechanism for biothiol detection was designed and synthesized. By simply loading the hydrophobic DMDP-M on a cross-linked Pluronic{sup ®} F127 nanogel (CL-F127), a probing system DMDP-M/CL-F127 was established, which shows quick response, high selectivity and sensitivity to cysteine (Cys), homocysteine (Hcy) and glutathione (GSH) in aqueous phase. The DMDP-M/CL-F127 system presented the fastest response to Cys with a rate constant of 0.56 min{sup −1}, and the detection limit to Cys was calculated to be as low as 0.18 μM. The DMDP-M/CL-F127 system has been successfully applied to the fluorescence imaging of biothiols in NIH/3T3 fibroblasts either with single-photon or two-photon excitation because of its high biocompatibility and cell-membrane permeability. The present work provides a general, simple and efficient strategy for the application of hydrophobic molecules to sensing biothiols in aqueous phase, and a novel sensing system for intracellular biothiols fitted for both single-photon and two-photon fluorescence imaging.

  4. Electron Correlations and Two-Photon States in Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Molecules: A Peculiar Role of Geometry

    OpenAIRE

    Aryanpour, K.; Shukla, A.; Mazumdar, S.

    2013-01-01

    We present numerical studies of one- and two-photon excited states ordering in a number of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules: coronene, hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene and circumcoronene, all possessing $D_{6h}$ point group symmetry versus ovalene with $D_{2h}$ symmetry, within the Pariser-Parr-Pople model of interacting $\\pi$-electrons. The calculated energies of the two-photon states as well as their relative two-photon absorption cross-sections within the interacting model are qualitat...

  5. Making ultracold molecules in a two-color pump-dump photoassociation scheme using chirped pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, Christiane P.; Luc-Koenig, Eliane; Masnou-Seeuws, Francoise

    2006-01-01

    This theoretical paper investigates the formation of ground state molecules from ultracold cesium atoms in a two-color scheme. Following previous work on photoassociation with chirped picosecond pulses [Luc-Koenig et al., Phys. Rev. A, 70, 033414 (2004)], we investigate stabilization by a second (dump) pulse. By appropriately choosing the dump pulse parameters and time delay with respect to the photoassociation pulse, we show that a large number of deeply bound molecules are created in the ground triplet state. We discuss (i) broad-bandwidth dump pulses which maximize the probability to form molecules while creating a broad vibrational distribution as well as (ii) narrow-bandwidth pulses populating a single vibrational ground state level, bound by 113 cm -1 . The use of chirped pulses makes the two-color scheme robust, simple, and efficient

  6. Generation of a strong attosecond pulse train with an orthogonally polarized two-color laser field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chul Min; Kim, I Jong; Nam, Chang Hee

    2005-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the high-order harmonic generation from a neon atom irradiated by an intense two-color femtosecond laser pulse, in which the fundamental field and its second harmonic are linearly polarized and orthogonal to each other. In contrast to usual high-harmonic generation with linearly polarized fundamental field alone, a very strong and clean high-harmonic spectrum, consisting of both odd and even orders of harmonics, can be generated in the orthogonally polarized two-color laser field with proper selection of the relative phase between the fundamental and second-harmonic fields. In time domain, this results in a strong and regular attosecond pulse train. The origin of these behaviors is elucidated by analyzing semiclassical electron paths and by simulating high-harmonic generation quantum mechanically

  7. A spirobifluorene-based two-photon fluorescence probe for mercury ions and its applications in living cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Haibo, E-mail: xiaohb@shnu.edu.cn; Zhang, Yanzhen; Zhang, Wu; Li, Shaozhi; Tan, Jingjing; Han, Zhongying

    2017-05-01

    A novel spirobifluorene derivative SPF-TMS, which containing dithioacetal groups and triphenylamine units, was synthesized. The probing behaviors toward various metal ions were investigated via UV/Vis absorption spectra as well as one-photon fluorescence changes. The results indicated that SPF-TMS exhibits high sensitivity and selectivity for mercury ions. The detection limit was at least 8.6 × 10{sup −8}M, which is excellent comparing with other optical sensors for Hg{sup 2+}. When measured by two-photon excited fluorescence technique in THF at 800 nm, the two-photon cross-section of SPF-TMS is 272 GM. Especially, upon reaction with mercury species, SPF-TMS yielded another two-photon dye SPF-DA. Both SPF-TMS and SPF-DA emit strong two-photon induced fluorescence and can be applied in cell imaging by two-photon microscopy. - Highlights: • We report a spirobifluorene-based molecule as two-photon fluorescent probe with large two-photon cross-section. • The molecule has exclusive selectivity and sensitivity for mercury species. • The molecule has large two-photon emission changes before and after addition of Hg{sup 2+}. • Both the probe and the mercury ion-promoted reaction product can be applied in cell imaging by two-photon microscopy.

  8. A series of fluorene-based two-photon absorbing molecules: synthesis, linear and nonlinear characterization, and bioimaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Carolina D.; Yanez, Ciceron O.; Rodriguez, Luis; Belfield, Kevin D.

    2010-01-01

    The synthesis, structural, and photophysical characterization of a series of new fluorescent donor–acceptor and acceptor-acceptor molecules, based on the fluorenyl ring system, with two-photon absorbing properties is described. These new compounds exhibited large Stokes shifts, high fluorescent quantum yields, and, significantly, high two-photon absorption cross sections, making them well suited for two-photon fluorescence microscopy (2PFM) imaging. Confocal and two-photon fluorescence microscopy imaging of COS-7 and HCT 116 cells incubated with probe I showed endosomal selectivity, demonstrating the potential of this class of fluorescent probes in multiphoton fluorescence microscopy. PMID:20481596

  9. Laser-induced ionization of Na vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, R.C.Y.; Judge, D.L.; Roussel, F.; Carre, B.; Breger, P.; Spiess, G.

    1982-01-01

    The production of Na 2 + ions by off-resonant laser excitation in the 5800-6200A region mainly results from two-photon absorption by the Na 2 molecule to highly excited gerade states followed by (a) direct ionization by absorbing a third photon or (b) coupling to the molecular Na 2 D 1 PIμ Rydberg state which is subsequently ionized by absorbing a third photon. This mechanism, i.e., a two-photon resonance three photon ionization process, explains a recent experimental observation of Roussel et al. It is suggested that the very same mechanism is also responsible for a similar observation reported by Polak-Dingels et al in their work using two crossed Na beams. In the latter two studies the laser-induced associative ionization processes were reported to be responsible for producing the Na 2 + ion. From the ratio of molecular to atomic concentration in the crossed beam experiment of Polak-Dingels et al we estimate that the cross section for producing Na 2 + through laser-induced associative ionization is at least four orders of magnitude smaller than ionization through the two-photon resonance three photon ionization process in Na 2 molecules

  10. Making ultracold molecules in a two color pump-dump photoassociation scheme using chirped pulses

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, Christiane P.; Luc-Koenig, Eliane; Masnou-Seeuws, Françoise

    2005-01-01

    This theoretical paper investigates the formation of ground state molecules from ultracold cesium atoms in a two-color scheme. Following previous work on photoassociation with chirped picosecond pulses [Luc-Koenig et al., Phys. Rev. A {\\bf 70}, 033414 (2004)], we investigate stabilization by a second (dump) pulse. By appropriately choosing the dump pulse parameters and time delay with respect to the photoassociation pulse, we show that a large number of deeply bound molecules are created in t...

  11. Photoionization and trans-to-cis isomerization of β-cyclodextrin-encapsulated azobenzene induced by two-color two-laser-pulse excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Tatsuya; Hara, Michihiro

    2018-03-15

    Azobenzene (1) and the complex resulting from the incorporation of 1 with cyclodextrin (1/CD) are attractive for light-driven applications such as micromachining and chemical biology tools. The highly sensitive photoresponse of 1 is crucial for light-driven applications containing both 1 and 1/CD to reach their full potential. In this study, we investigated the photoionization and trans-to-cis isomerization of 1/CD induced by one- and two-color two-laser pulse excitation. Photoionization of 1/CD, which was induced by stepwise two-photon absorption, was observed using laser pulse excitation at 266nm. Additionally, simultaneous irradiation with 266 and 532nm laser pulses increased the trans-to-cis isomerization yield (Υ t→c ) by 27%. It was concluded that the increase in Υ t→c was caused by the occurrence of trans-to-cis isomerization in the higher-energy singlet state (S n ), which was reached by S 1 →S n transition induced by laser pulse excitation at 532nm. The results of this study are potentially applicable in light-driven applications such as micromachining and chemical biology tools. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Inhibition of two-photon absorption due to dipole-dipole interaction in nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Mahi R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, N6A 3K7 (Canada)], E-mail: msingh@uwo.ca

    2008-07-21

    We have investigated the inhibition of two-photon absorption in photonic crystals doped with an ensemble of four-level nanoparticles. The particles are interacting with one another by the dipole-dipole interaction. Dipoles in nanoparticles are induced by a selected transition. Numerical simulations have been performed for an isotropic photonic crystal. Interesting phenomena have been predicted such as the inhibition of the two-photon absorption due to the dipole-dipole interaction. It has also been found that the inhibition effect can be switched on and off by tuning a decay resonance energy within the energy band of the crystal. A theory of dressed states has been used to explain the results.

  13. Rotational temperature measurement of NO gas using two-photon excitation spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Tadao; Matsui, Yoshihiko; Ohsawa, Toshihiko

    1981-04-01

    The rotational temperature of nitric oxide gas has been measured by means of a single-beam two-photon excitation spectrum method using a pulsed continuously tunable dye laser. The nitric oxide gas was enclosed at about 40 Torr in a quartz cell which was put in an electric oven. The NO γ (0-0) band and R11+Q21 branches were used to obtain the two-photon excitation spectrum. The rotational temperatures were determined using the fact that molecules are distributed in the rotational levels according to the Boltzmann law. The temperature range was from room temperature to about 470 K. Observed temperatures were in good agreement with cell temperatures which were obtained by using a thermocouple.

  14. Cascaded two-photon spectroscopy of Yb atoms with a transportable effusive atomic beam apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Minsoo; Yoon, Tai Hyun [Department of Physics, Korea University, Anam-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    We present a transportable effusive atomic beam apparatus for cascaded two-photon spectroscopy of the dipole-forbidden transition (6s{sup 2} {sup 1}S{sub 0}{r_reversible} 6s7s {sup 1}S{sub 0}) of Yb atoms. An ohmic-heating effusive oven is designed to have a reservoir volume of 1.6 cm{sup 3} and a high degree of atomic beam collimation angle of 30 mrad. The new atomic beam apparatus allows us to detect the spontaneously cascaded two-photons from the 6s7s{sup 1}S{sub 0} state via the intercombination 6s6p{sup 3}P{sub 1} state with a high signal-to-noise ratio even at the temperature of 340 Degree-Sign C. This is made possible in our apparatus because of the enhanced atomic beam flux and superior detection solid angle.

  15. Cascaded two-photon spectroscopy of Yb atoms with a transportable effusive atomic beam apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Minsoo; Yoon, Tai Hyun

    2013-01-01

    We present a transportable effusive atomic beam apparatus for cascaded two-photon spectroscopy of the dipole-forbidden transition (6s 2 1 S 0 ↔ 6s7s 1 S 0 ) of Yb atoms. An ohmic-heating effusive oven is designed to have a reservoir volume of 1.6 cm 3 and a high degree of atomic beam collimation angle of 30 mrad. The new atomic beam apparatus allows us to detect the spontaneously cascaded two-photons from the 6s7s 1 S 0 state via the intercombination 6s6p 3 P 1 state with a high signal-to-noise ratio even at the temperature of 340 °C. This is made possible in our apparatus because of the enhanced atomic beam flux and superior detection solid angle.

  16. Two-photon polymerization of an epoxy-acrylate resin material system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winfield, R.J.; O'Brien, S.

    2011-01-01

    Improved material systems are of great interest in the development of two-photon polymerization techniques for the fabrication of three dimensional micro- and nano-structures. The properties of the photosensitive resin are important in the realisation of structures with submicron dimensions. In this study investigation of a custom organic resin, cross-linked by a two-photon induced process, using a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser, is described. A structural, optical and mechanical analysis of the optimised material is presented. The influence of both material system and laser processing parameters on achievable micro-structure and size is presented as are representative structures. Parameters include: laser power, photo-initiator concentration and material composition.

  17. Additive controlled synthesis of gold nanorods (GNRs) for two-photon luminescence imaging of cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jing; Roy, Indrajit; Hu Rui; Ding Hong; Zhao Lingling; He, Guang S; Prasad, Paras N; Yong, Ken-Tye; Swihart, Mark T; Cui Yiping

    2010-01-01

    Gold nanorods (GNRs) with a longitudinal surface plasmon resonance peak that is tunable from 600 to 1100 nm have been fabricated in a cetyl trimethylammoniumbromide (CTAB) micellar medium using hydrochloric acid and silver nitrate as additives to control their shape and size. By manipulating the concentrations of silver nitrate and hydrochloric acid, the aspect ratio of the GNRs was reliably and reproducibly tuned from 2.5 to 8. The GNRs were first coated with polyelectrolyte multilayers and then bioconjugated to transferrin (Tf) to target pancreatic cancer cells. Two-photon imaging excited from the bioconjugated GNRs demonstrated receptor-mediated uptake of the bioconjugates into Panc-1 cells, overexpressing the transferrin receptor (TfR). The bioconjugated GNR formulation exhibited very low toxicity, suggesting that it is biocompatible and potentially suitable for targeted two-photon bioimaging.

  18. Resonance production in two-photon collisions at lep with the L3 detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kienzle-Focacci, M.N.

    2001-01-01

    A spin-parity-helicity analysis shows the dominance of the γγ → ρ 0 ρ 0 state at threshold, in the wave (J P , J z ) = (2 + , ±2) and a significant signal in the 0 + wave. The negative parity states and the (2 + , 0) wave are negligible. For high two-photon center-of-mass energies a strong production of f 2 (1270) is also observed. The study of the reaction e + e - → e + e - K 0 S K ± π ± shows evidence of the formation of η(1440), f 1 (1285) and f 1 (1420) while only the f 1 (1285) is formed in the e + e - → e + e - ηπ + π - interaction. The measured value of the η(1440) two-photon width indicates a strong gluon content. (author)

  19. Two-Photon Pumped Synchronously Mode-Locked Bulk GaAs Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, W. L.; Vaucher, A. M.; Ling, J. D.; Lee, C. H.

    1982-04-01

    Pulses 7 picoseconds or less in duration have been generated from a bulk GaAs crystal by a synchronous mode-locking technique. The GaAs crystal was optically pumped by two-photon absorption of the emission from a mode-locked Nd:glass laser. Two-photon absorption as the means of excitation increases the volume of the gain medium by increasing the pene-tration depth of the pump intensity, enabling generation of intra-cavity pulses with peak power in the megawatt range. Tuning of the wavelength of the GaAs emission is achieved by varying the temperature. A tuning range covering 840 nm to 885 nm has been observed over a temperature range from 97°K to 260°K. The intensity of the GaAs emission has also been observed to decrease as the temperature of the crystal is increased.

  20. Two-Photon or Higher-Order Absorbing Optical Materials for Generation of Reactive Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumpston, Brian (Inventor); Lipson, Matthew (Inventor); Marder, Seth R. (Inventor); Perry, Joseph W. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Disclosed are highly efficient multiphoton absorbing compounds and methods of their use. The compounds generally include a bridge of pi-conjugated bonds connecting electron donating groups or electron accepting groups. The bridge may be substituted with a variety of substituents as well. Solubility, lipophilicity, absorption maxima and other characteristics of the compounds may be tailored by changing the electron donating groups or electron accepting groups, the substituents attached to or the length of the pi-conjugated bridge. Numerous photophysical and photochemical methods are enabled by converting these compounds to electronically excited states upon simultaneous absorption of at least two photons of radiation. The compounds have large two-photon or higher-order absorptivities such that upon absorption, one or more Lewis acidic species, Lewis basic species, radical species or ionic species are formed.

  1. Additive controlled synthesis of gold nanorods (GNRs) for two-photon luminescence imaging of cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Jing; Roy, Indrajit; Hu Rui; Ding Hong; Zhao Lingling; He, Guang S; Prasad, Paras N [Institute for Lasers, Photonics and Biophotonics, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260-4200 (United States); Yong, Ken-Tye [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Swihart, Mark T [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260-4200 (United States); Cui Yiping, E-mail: ktyong@ntu.edu.sg, E-mail: cyp@seu.edu.cn, E-mail: pnprasad@buffalo.edu [Advanced Photonics Center, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2010-07-16

    Gold nanorods (GNRs) with a longitudinal surface plasmon resonance peak that is tunable from 600 to 1100 nm have been fabricated in a cetyl trimethylammoniumbromide (CTAB) micellar medium using hydrochloric acid and silver nitrate as additives to control their shape and size. By manipulating the concentrations of silver nitrate and hydrochloric acid, the aspect ratio of the GNRs was reliably and reproducibly tuned from 2.5 to 8. The GNRs were first coated with polyelectrolyte multilayers and then bioconjugated to transferrin (Tf) to target pancreatic cancer cells. Two-photon imaging excited from the bioconjugated GNRs demonstrated receptor-mediated uptake of the bioconjugates into Panc-1 cells, overexpressing the transferrin receptor (TfR). The bioconjugated GNR formulation exhibited very low toxicity, suggesting that it is biocompatible and potentially suitable for targeted two-photon bioimaging.

  2. Additive controlled synthesis of gold nanorods (GNRs) for two-photon luminescence imaging of cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jing; Yong, Ken-Tye; Roy, Indrajit; Hu, Rui; Ding, Hong; Zhao, Lingling; Swihart, Mark T.; He, Guang S.; Cui, Yiping; Prasad, Paras N.

    2010-07-01

    Gold nanorods (GNRs) with a longitudinal surface plasmon resonance peak that is tunable from 600 to 1100 nm have been fabricated in a cetyl trimethylammoniumbromide (CTAB) micellar medium using hydrochloric acid and silver nitrate as additives to control their shape and size. By manipulating the concentrations of silver nitrate and hydrochloric acid, the aspect ratio of the GNRs was reliably and reproducibly tuned from 2.5 to 8. The GNRs were first coated with polyelectrolyte multilayers and then bioconjugated to transferrin (Tf) to target pancreatic cancer cells. Two-photon imaging excited from the bioconjugated GNRs demonstrated receptor-mediated uptake of the bioconjugates into Panc-1 cells, overexpressing the transferrin receptor (TfR). The bioconjugated GNR formulation exhibited very low toxicity, suggesting that it is biocompatible and potentially suitable for targeted two-photon bioimaging.

  3. In vivo reactive neural plasticity investigation by means of correlative two photon: electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegra Mascaro, A. L.; Cesare, P.; Sacconi, L.; Grasselli, G.; Mandolesi, G.; Maco, B.; Knott, G.; Huang, L.; De Paola, V.; Strata, P.; Pavone, F. S.

    2013-02-01

    In the adult nervous system, different populations of neurons correspond to different regenerative behavior. Although previous works showed that olivocerebellar fibers are capable of axonal regeneration in a suitable environment as a response to injury1, we have hitherto no details about the real dynamics of fiber regeneration. We set up a model of singularly axotomized climbing fibers (CF) to investigate their reparative properties in the adult central nervous system (CNS) in vivo. Time lapse two-photon imaging has been combined to laser nanosurgery2, 3 to define a temporal pattern of the degenerative event and to follow the structural rearrangement after injury. To characterize the damage and to elucidate the possible formation of new synaptic contacts on the sprouted branches of the lesioned CF, we combined two-photon in vivo imaging with block face scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM). Here we describe the approach followed to characterize the reactive plasticity after injury.

  4. Two-photon excited autofluorescence imaging of human retinal pigment epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Meng; Blindewald-Wittich, Almut; Holz, Frank G.; Giese, Günter; Niemz, Markolf H.; Snyder, Sarah; Sun, Hui; Yu, Jiayi; Agopov, Michael; La Schiazza, Olivier; Bille, Josef F.

    2006-01-01

    Degeneration of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells severely impairs the visual function of retina photoreceptors. However, little is known about the events that trigger the death of RPE cells at the subcellular level. Two-photon excited autofluorescence (TPEF) imaging of RPE cells proves to be well suited to investigate both the morphological and the spectral characteristics of the human RPE cells. The dominant fluorophores of autofluorescence derive from lipofuscin (LF) granules that accumulate in the cytoplasm of the RPE cells with increasing age. Spectral TPEF imaging reveals the existence of abnormal LF granules with blue shifted autofluorescence in RPE cells of aging patients and brings new insights into the complicated composition of the LF granules. Based on a proposed two-photon laser scanning ophthalmoscope, TPEF imaging of the living retina may be valuable for diagnostic and pathological studies of age related eye diseases.

  5. Measurement of electron beam polarization from unstrained GaAs via two-photon photoemission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarter, J.L., E-mail: jlm2ar@virginia.edu [Department of Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22901 (United States); Afanasev, A. [Department of Physics, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Gay, T.J. [Jorgensen Hall, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68588 (United States); Hansknecht, J. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, 12050 Jefferson Avenue, Suite 500, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Kechiantz, A. [Department of Physics, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Poelker, M. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, 12050 Jefferson Avenue, Suite 500, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States)

    2014-02-21

    Two-photon absorption of 1560 nm light was used to generate polarized electron beams from unstrained GaAs photocathodes of varying thickness: 625 μm, 0.32 μm, and 0.18 μm. For each photocathode, the degree of spin polarization of the photoemitted beam was less than 50%, contradicting earlier predictions based on simple quantum mechanical selection rules for spherically-symmetric systems but consistent with the more sophisticated model of Bhat et al. (Phys. Rev. B 71 (2005) 035209). Polarization via two-photon absorption was the highest from the thinnest photocathode sample and comparable to that obtained via one-photon absorption (using 778 nm light), with values 40.3±1.0% and 42.6±1.0%, respectively.

  6. Spectral, energy, and time parameters of two-photon fluorescence of 2,5-diphenyloxazole polycrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agal'tsov, A.M.; Gorelik, V.S.; Rakhmatullaev, I.A.

    1995-01-01

    Two-photon fluorescence (TPF) spectra of 2,5-diphenyloxazole polycrystals (known in the literature as PPO) were obtained and studied as a function of the pump power and time delay. The fluorescence spectrum shape observed upon two-photon excitation is shown to be distinctly different from that observed upon electron-beam excitation. It is shown that high pump powers result in stimulated fluorescence. PPO exhibits a high TPF quantum yield, the integrated conversion efficiency of exciting radiation to TPF being 40%. The TPF decay time is measured to be 20 ns. The spectral data obtained for PPO polycrystals can be used in the development of new TPF light sources tunable in the UV region. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  7. Diagnostics of MCF plasmas using Lyman-α fluorescence excited by one or two photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voslamber, D.

    1998-11-01

    Laser-induced Lyman-α fluorescence of the hydrogen isotopes is investigated with regard to diagnostic applications in magnetically confined fusion plasmas. A formal analysis is presented for two excitation schemes: one-photon and Doppler-free two-photon excitation. The analysis includes estimates of the expected experimental errors arising from the photon noise and from the sensitivity of the observed fluorescence signals to variations of the plasma and laser parameters. Both excitation schemes are suitable primarily for application in the plasma edge, but even in the plasma bulk of large machines they can still be applied in combination with a diagnostic neutral beam. The two-photon excitation scheme is particularly attractive because it involves absorption spectra that are resolved within the Doppler width. This implies a large diagnostic potential and in particular offers a way to measure the deuterium-tritium fuel mix in fusion reactors. (author)

  8. Two-photon equivalent weighting of spatial excimer laser beam profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eva, Eric; Bauer, Harry H.; Metzger, K.; Pfeiffer, A.

    2001-04-01

    Damage in optical materials for semiconductor lithography applications caused by exposure to 248 or 193 nm light is usually two-photon driven, hence it is a nonlinear function of incident intensity. Materials should be tested with flat- topped temporal and spatial laser beam profiles to facilitate interpretation of data, but in reality this is hard to achieve. Sandstrom provided a formula that approximates any given temporal pulse shape with a two- photon equivalent rectangular pulse (Second Symposium on 193 nm Lithography, Colorado Springs 1997). Known as the integral-square pulse duration, this definition has been embraced as an industry standard. Originally faced with the problem of comparing results obtained with pseudo-Gaussian spatial profiles to literature data, we found that a general solution for arbitrarily inhomogeneous spatial beam profiles exists which results in a definition much similar to Sandstrom's. In addition, we proved the validity of our approach in experiments with intentionally altered beam profiles.

  9. Coincidence in the two-photon spectra of Li and Li2 at 735 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeGraffenreid, W; Sansonetti, Craig J

    2005-01-01

    A coincidence between the 2 2 S 1/2 -3 2 S 1/2 two-photon transition in the atomic spectrum of 6 Li and the X 1 Σ + g → E 1 Σ + g two-photon ro-vibrational series of 7 Li 2 was observed near 735 nm in a heat pipe oven using a tunable laser and thermionic diode detection scheme. The molecular transition obscures one component of the 6 Li atomic transition. Selective detection of the atomic transition was obtained by adding an intensity-modulated laser that drives atoms from the 3S to 16P state. The coincident molecular transition and four nearby molecular lines were identified using previously determined Dunham coefficients

  10. Ultrabright narrow-band telecom two-photon source for long-distance quantum communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niizeki, Kazuya; Ikeda, Kohei; Zheng, Mingyang; Xie, Xiuping; Okamura, Kotaro; Takei, Nobuyuki; Namekata, Naoto; Inoue, Shuichiro; Kosaka, Hideo; Horikiri, Tomoyuki

    2018-04-01

    We demonstrate an ultrabright narrow-band two-photon source at the 1.5 µm telecom wavelength for long-distance quantum communication. By utilizing a bow-tie cavity, we obtain a cavity enhancement factor of 4.06 × 104. Our measurement of the second-order correlation function G (2)(τ) reveals that the linewidth of 2.4 MHz has been hitherto unachieved in the 1.5 µm telecom band. This two-photon source is useful for obtaining a high absorption probability close to unity by quantum memories set inside quantum repeater nodes. Furthermore, to the best of our knowledge, the observed spectral brightness of 3.94 × 105 pairs/(s·MHz·mW) is also the highest reported over all wavelengths.

  11. Vibrational excitation of hydrogen molecules by two-photon absorption and third-harmonic generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Yuki; Hara, Hideaki; Hiraki, Takahiro; Masuda, Takahiko; Sasao, Noboru; Uetake, Satoshi; Yoshimi, Akihiro; Yoshimura, Koji; Yoshimura, Motohiko

    2018-01-01

    We report the coherent excitation of the vibrational state of hydrogen molecules by two-photon absorption and the resultant third-harmonic generation (THG). Parahydrogen molecules cooled by liquid nitrogen are irradiated by mid-infrared nanosecond pulses at 4.8 μm with a nearly Fourier-transform-limited linewidth. The first excited vibrational state of parahydrogen is populated by two-photon absorption of the mid-infrared photons. Because of the narrow linewidth of the mid-infrared pulses, coherence between the ground and excited states is sufficient to induce higher-order processes. Near-infrared photons from the THG are observed at 1.6 μm. The dependence of the intensity of the near-infrared radiation on mid-infrared pulse energy, target pressure, and cell length is determined. We used a simple formula for THG with consideration of realistic experimental conditions to explain the observed results.

  12. Molecular Tuning of Phenylene-Vinylene Derivatives for Two-Photon Photosensitized Singlet Oxygen Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian B.; Arnbjerg, Jacob; Johnsen, Mette

    2009-01-01

    Substituent-dependent features and properties of the sensitizer play an important role in the photosensitized production of singlet oxygen, O2(a1Δg). In this work, we systematically examine the effect of molecular changes in the sensitizer on the efficiency of singlet oxygen production using......, as the sensitizer, oligophenylene-vinylene derivatives designed to optimally absorb light in a nonlinear two-photon process. We demonstrate that one cannot always rely on rule-of-thumb guidelines when attempting to construct efficient two-photon singlet oxygen sensitizers. Rather, as a consequence of behavior...... that can deviate from the norm, a full investigation of the photophysical properties of the system is generally required. For example, it is acknowledged that the introduction of a ketone moiety to the sensitizer chromophore often results in more efficient production of singlet oxygen. However, we show...

  13. Two-photon cavity solitons in a laser: radiative profiles, interaction and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrat, C [Departament de FIsica i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Colom 1, E-08222 Terrassa (Spain); Torrent, M C [Departament de FIsica i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Colom 1, E-08222 Terrassa (Spain); Vilaseca, R [Departament de FIsica i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Colom 1, E-08222 Terrassa (Spain); GarcIa-Ojalvo, J [Center for Applied Mathematics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Brambilla, M [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFM, Politecnico di Bari, Via E. Orabona 4, I-70126 Bari (Italy)

    2004-05-01

    We study the properties of two-photon cavity solitons that appear in a broad-area cascade laser. These vectorial solitons consist of islands of two-photon emission emerging over a background of single-photon emission. Analysis of their structural properties reveals singular features such as their short distance radiation of outgoing waves, which can be interpreted in terms of the soliton frequency profile. However, the phase of these solitons is not determined by any external factor, which influences the way in which the structures can be written and erased. We also examine ways of controlling the cavity-soliton position, and analyse the interaction between neighbouring cavity solitons. Finally, investigation of the parameter dependence of these structures shows a route from soliton-dominated to defect-mediated turbulence.

  14. Efficient multi-site two-photon functional imaging of neuronal circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanares, Michael Lawrence; Gautam, Vini; Drury, Jack; Bachor, Hans; Daria, Vincent R

    2016-12-01

    Two-photon imaging using high-speed multi-channel detectors is a promising approach for optical recording of cellular membrane dynamics at multiple sites. A main bottleneck of this technique is the limited number of photons captured within a short exposure time (~1ms). Here, we implement temporal gating to improve the two-photon fluorescence yield from holographically projected multiple foci whilst maintaining a biologically safe incident average power. We observed up to 6x improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in Fluorescein and cultured hippocampal neurons showing evoked calcium transients. With improved SNR, we could pave the way to achieving multi-site optical recording of fluorogenic probes with response times in the order of ~1ms.

  15. Two-photon spectroscopy study of edge absorption peculiarities in oxygen-octahedric ferroelectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shablaev, S.I.; Danishevskij, A.M.; Subashiev, V.K.

    1984-01-01

    Two-photon absorption (TPA) spectra of ferroelectric crystals with BaTiO 3 , KTaO 3 and SrTiO 3 perovskite strUcture Were obtained. The detailed investigation of temperature dependence of edge spectrum regions was conducted and on the basis of their analysis the indirect character of edge absorption was concluded for all mentioned crystals. TPA spectra of BaTiO 3 and KTaO 3 are characterized by the regions corresponding to one indirect edge TPA spectra of SrTiO 3 - to two indirect edges. The corresponding inter-zone gaps were determined for all investigated crystals, the energy of phonons, participating in indirect two photon transitions, inter-zone gaps, corresponding to direct transitions were determined as well

  16. Restricted conformal invariance in QCD and its predictive power for virtual two-photon processes

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, D

    1998-01-01

    The conformal algebra provides powerful constraints, which guarantee that renormalized conformally covariant operators exist in the hypothetical conformal limit of the theory, where the $\\beta$-function vanishes. Thus, in this limit also the conformally covariant operator product expansion on the light cone holds true. This operator product expansion has predictive power for two-photon processes in the generalized Bjorken region. Only the Wilson coefficients and the anomalous dimensions that are known from deep inelastic scattering are required for the prediction of all other two-photon processes in terms of the process-dependent off-diagonal expectation values of conformal operators. It is checked that the next-to-leading order calculations for the flavour non-singlet meson transition form factors are consistent with the corrections to the corresponding Wilson coefficients in deep inelasitic scattering.

  17. Two-photon exchange correction to the hyperfine splitting in muonic hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomalak, Oleksandr [Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet, Institut fuer Kernphysik and PRISMA Cluster of Excellence, Mainz (Germany)

    2017-12-15

    We reevaluate the Zemach, recoil and polarizability corrections to the hyperfine splitting in muonic hydrogen expressing them through the low-energy proton structure constants and obtain the precise values of the Zemach radius and two-photon exchange (TPE) contribution. The uncertainty of TPE correction to S energy levels in muonic hydrogen of 105 ppm exceeds the ppm accuracy level of the forthcoming 1S hyperfine splitting measurements at PSI, J-PARC and RIKEN-RAL. (orig.)

  18. Development and design of advanced two-photon microscope used in neuroscience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doronin, M S; Popov, A V

    2016-01-01

    This work represents the real steps to development and design advanced two-photon microscope by efforts of laboratory staff. Self-developed microscopy system provides possibility to service it and modify the structure of microscope depending on highly specialized experimental design and scientific goals. We are presenting here module-based microscopy system which provides an opportunity to looking for new applications of this setup depending on laboratories needs using with galvo and resonant scanners. (paper)

  19. On the theory of the two-photon linear photovoltaic effect in n-GaP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasulov, V. R.; Rasulov, R. Ya., E-mail: r-rasulov51@mail.ru [Fergana State University (Uzbekistan)

    2016-02-15

    A quantitative theory of the diagonal (ballistic) and nondiagonal (shift) band index contributions to the two-photon current of the linear photovoltaic effect in a semiconductor with a complex band due to the asymmetry of events of electron scattering at phonons and photons is developed. It is shown that processes caused by the simultaneous absorption of two photons do not contribute to the ballistic photocurrent in n-GaP. This is due to the fact that, in this case, there is no asymmetric distribution of the momentum of electrons excited with photons; this distribution arises upon the sequential absorption of two photons with the involvement of LO phonons. It is demonstrated that the temperature dependence of the shift contribution to the two-photon photocurrent in n-GaP is determined by the temperature dependence of the light-absorption coefficient caused by direct optical transitions of electrons between subbands X{sub 1} and X{sub 3}. It is shown that the spectral dependence of the photocurrent has a feature in the light frequency range ω → Δ/2ℏ, which is related to the hump-like shape of subband X{sub 1} in n-GaP{sup 1} and the root-type singularity of the state density determined as k{sub ω}{sup -1}= (2ℏω–Δ){sup –1/2}, where Δ is the energy gap between subbands X{sub 1} and X{sub 3}. The spectral and temperature dependences of the coefficient of absorption of linearly polarized light in n-GaP are obtained with regard to the cone-shaped lower subband of the conduction band.

  20. The impact of two-photon physics on a B factory detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    While preceding workshops have outlined the broad range of physics topics which could be addressed at a B Factory, the challenge in this workshop was to define the impacts of this physics on the detector and delineate areas which will need further study. In this report, the author briefly recap the two-photon physics prospects at a B Factory and then show studies done to assess how the detector at such a facility could accommodate such physics

  1. Attosecond Two-Photon Interferometry for Doubly Excited States of Helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feist, J.; Nagele, S.; Burgdoerfer, J.; Ticknor, C.; Collins, L. A.; Schneider, B. I.

    2011-01-01

    We show that the correlation dynamics in coherently excited doubly excited resonances of helium can be followed in real time by two-photon interferometry. This approach promises to map the evolution of the two-electron wave packet onto experimentally easily accessible noncoincident single-electron spectra. We analyze the interferometric signal in terms of a semianalytical model which is validated by a numerical solution of the time-dependent two-electron Schroedinger equation in its full dimensionality.

  2. Two Photon Decays of Charmonium States Produced in Proton - Anti-proton Annihilations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fast, James Elliot [UC, Irvine

    1992-01-01

    The two photon decays of the $\\eta_c$ and $\\chi_2$ charmonium states have been measured in $p\\bar{p}$ annihilation using the E760 apparatus at Fermilab during the 1990-1991 fixed target run. A search for the $\\eta^\\prime_c$ resonance decaying into two photons has also been conducted. The processes $p\\bar{p} \\to R \\to \\gamma \\gamma$ have been measured using a cooled beam of antiprotons circulating in the Fermilab accumulator ring intersecting an internal hydrogen gas-jet target. The final state photons were measured with a high granularity, high resolution lead glass calorimeter. From a scan of the $\\eta_c$ resonance region, the mass, the total width, and the branching ratio to two photons have been measured. The results are $M_{\\eta_c}$ = 2989.9 ± 2.2 ±0.4 MeV/$c^2$, $\\Gamma_{\\eta_c}$ = 15.6±6.9±6.4 MeV, and $BR({\\eta_c} \\to \\gamma \\gamma)$ = (2.77 ± 1.19 ± 0.43) x $10^{-4}$. Data were taken at the peak of the $X_2$ resonance, and the two photon branching ratio was determined to be $BR(X_2 \\to \\gamma \\gamma)$ = (1.54 ± 0.40 ± 0.24) x $10^{-4}$. Data were collected at several energies around the expected mass of the $\\eta^\\prime_c$. Upper limits have been placed on the product of branching ratios, $BR(\\eta^\\prime_c \\to p\\bar{p})BR(\\eta^\\prime_c \\to \\gamma \\gamma)$, as function of the $\\eta^\\prime_c$ mass and total width.

  3. Experimental entanglement and nonlocality of a two-photon six-qubit cluster state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccarelli, Raino; Vallone, Giuseppe; De Martini, Francesco; Mataloni, Paolo; Cabello, Adán

    2009-10-16

    We create a six-qubit linear cluster state by transforming a two-photon hyperentangled state in which three qubits are encoded in each particle, one in the polarization and two in the linear momentum degrees of freedom. For this state, we demonstrate genuine six-qubit entanglement, persistency of entanglement against the loss of qubits, and higher violation than in previous experiments on Bell inequalities of the Mermin type.

  4. Search for two-photon emission from 2S states of low-Z muonic atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, A.L.; Hincks, E.P.; Cox, C.R.; Dodson, G.W.; Eckhause, M.; Kane, J.R.; Rushton, A.M.; Siegel, R.T.; Welsh, R.E.; Hargrove, C.K.; Mes, H.; Dixit, M.S.; National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario)

    1983-01-01

    A search for two-photon emission from 2S states of low-Z muonic atoms has been made. Intrinsic Ge detectors were positioned around target of Li, Be, B, or their hydrides, or a vessel containing B 2 H 6 , H 2 , or O 2 . Upper limits on the fraction of stopping muons which formed metastable 2S states range from approx.= 10 - 3 to 10 - 5 . (orig.)

  5. Search for two-photon emission from 2S states of low-Z muonic atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, A.L.; Hincks, E.P. (Carleton Univ., Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Physics); Cox, C.R.; Dodson, G.W.; Eckhause, M.; Kane, J.R.; Rushton, A.M.; Siegel, R.T.; Welsh, R.E. (College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (USA). Dept. of Physics); Hargrove, C.K.

    1983-05-12

    A search for two-photon emission from 2S states of low-Z muonic atoms has been made. Intrinsic Ge detectors were positioned around target of Li, Be, B, or their hydrides, or a vessel containing B/sub 2/H/sub 6/, H/sub 2/, or O/sub 2/. Upper limits on the fraction of stopping muons which formed metastable 2S states range from approximately = 10/sup -3/ to 10/sup -5/.

  6. Spectral distribution of the 2S → 1S two-photon transition in atoms ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Two-photon decay process was discussed first by Göppert-Mayer [1,2] in the 1930s for hydrogen and later it was described in detail for hydrogen and helium using non- relativistic approach by Breit and Teller [3]. The 2S state decays to ground state primarily by the emission of two electric-dipole photons, i.e. E1E1 or 2E1.

  7. Search for a Higgs boson decaying into two photons in the CMS ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-11-15

    Nov 15, 2012 ... A search for a Higgs boson decaying into two photons in pp collisions at the LHC at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV is presented. The analysis is performed on a dataset corre- sponding to 1.66 fb. −1 of data recorded in 2011 by the CMS experiment. Limits are set on the cross-section of a Standard Model ...

  8. Aspects of two-photon physics at linear e+e- colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drees, M.; Godbole, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    We discuss various reactions at future e + e - and γγ colliders involving real (beamstrahlung or backscattered laser) or quasi-real (bremsstrahlung) photons in the initial state and hadrons in the final state. The production of two central jets with large transverse momentum p T is described in some detail; we give distributions for the rapidity and p T of the jets as well as the di-jet invariant mass, and discuss the relative importance of various initial state configurations and the uncertainties that arise from the at present rather poor knowledge of the parton content of the photon. We also present results for 'mono-jet' production where one jet goes down a beam pipe, for the production of charm, bottom and top quarks, and for single production of W and Z bosons. Where appropriate, the two-photon processes are compared with annihilation reactions leading to similar final states. We also argue that the behaviour of the total inelastic γγ cross section at high energies will probably have little impact on the severity of background problems caused by soft and semi-hard ('minijet') two-photon reactions. We find very large differences in cross sections for all two-photon processes between existing designs for future e + e - colliders, due to the different beamstrahlung spectra; in particular, both designs with >1 events per bunch crossing exist. The number of hardronic two-photon events is expected to rise quickly with the beam energy. Hadronic backgrounds will be even worse if the e + e - collider is converted into a γγ collider. (orig.)

  9. Two-photon annihilation into octet meson pairs. Symmetry relations in the handbag approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, M.; Kroll, P.; Regensburg Univ.

    2009-11-01

    We explore the implications of SU(3) flavor symmetry in the soft handbag mechanism for two-photon annihilation into pairs of pseudoscalar octet mesons. In this approach we obtain a good description of the experimental results for all measured channels at high energy, with two complex form factors adjusted to the data. We also predict the cross section for γγ→ηη. (orig.)

  10. Higgs boson decay into two photons in an electromagnetic background field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, N. K.

    2014-01-01

    The amplitude for Higgs boson decay into two photons in a homogeneous and time-independent magnetic field is investigated by proper-time regularization in a gauge-invariant manner and is found to be singular at large field values. The singularity is caused by the component of the charged vector...... boson field that is tachyonic in a strong magnetic field. Also, tools for the computation of the amplitude in a more general electromagnetic background are developed....

  11. Unambiguous modification of nonorthogonal single- and two-photon polarization states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres-Ruiz, F. A.; Aguirre, J.; Delgado, A.; Lima, G.; Neves, L.; Roa, L.; Saavedra, C.; Padua, S.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we propose a probabilistic method which allows an unambiguous modification of two nonorthogonal quantum states. We experimentally implement this protocol by using two-photon polarization states generated in the process of spontaneous parametric down conversion. In the experiment, for codifying initial quantum states, we consider single-photon states and heralded detection. We show that the application of this protocol to entangled states allows a fine control of the amount of entanglement of the initial state.

  12. Multiscale vision model for event detection and reconstruction in two-photon imaging data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brazhe, Alexey; Mathiesen, Claus; Lind, Barbara Lykke

    2014-01-01

    on a modified multiscale vision model, an object detection framework based on the thresholding of wavelet coefficients and hierarchical trees of significant coefficients followed by nonlinear iterative partial object reconstruction, for the analysis of two-photon calcium imaging data. The framework is discussed...... of the multiscale vision model is similar in the denoising, but provides a better segmenation of the image into meaningful objects, whereas other methods need to be combined with dedicated thresholding and segmentation utilities....

  13. Structure-property-correlation of 3D microstructures fabricated using two-photon-polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicha, K.

    2012-01-01

    In the research field of materials sciences, the determination of material properties such as Young's modulus, tensile strength, elongation at break and the like is done on a routine basis. However, when the size of the available test sample gets smaller (in the range of a few millimeters) many of the classic material testing methods are no longer applicable. Components or structures which were fabricated using two-photon polymerization (2PP) are micrometer scale - traditional testing methods are no longer applicable. It was therefore the aim of this thesis to develop routines which allow a characterization of materials or material components (monomer, photoinitiator) with respect to their suitability for the two-photon process. The three methods differ significantly in terms of the measurement result, the user friendliness and the effort for evaluation of the measurement. While the first method is based on optical assessment of manufactured structures and thus provides no quantifiable results, method 2 and method 3 give a quantifiable measure as result of the test procedure. In method 2, the double-bond conversion is measured by using FTIR spectroscopy giving direct information on the reactivity of the material formulation. Method 3 is based on the measurement of the Young's modulus of micro-cantilevers that are deflected by a standard nanoindentation device recording the load and the corresponding deflection signals. Quantifiable measurement of material properties on samples that were fabricated by two-photon polymerization represents an absolute novelty and can provide new insights into the exact mechanisms of the two-photon polymerization. (author) [de

  14. Two-photon NADH imaging exposes boundaries of oxygen diffusion in cortical vascular supply regions

    OpenAIRE

    Kasischke, Karl A; Lambert, Elton M; Panepento, Ben; Sun, Anita; Gelbard, Harris A; Burgess, Robert W; Foster, Thomas H; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2010-01-01

    Oxygen transport imposes a possible constraint on the brain's ability to sustain variable metabolic demands, but oxygen diffusion in the cerebral cortex has not yet been observed directly. We show that concurrent two-photon fluorescence imaging of endogenous nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and the cortical microcirculation exposes well-defined boundaries of tissue oxygen diffusion in the mouse cortex. The NADH fluorescence increases rapidly over a narrow, very low pO2 range with a p ...

  15. Evidence for the Direct Two-Photon Transition from psi to J/psi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ambrose, D. J.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; An, Z. H.; Bai, J. Z.; Ferroli, R. B.; Ban, Y.; Becker, J.; Berger, N.; Bertani, M. B.; Bian, J. M.; Boger, E.; Bondarenko, O.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Bytev, V.; Cai, X.; Calcaterra, A. C.; Cao, G. F.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, Y.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, Y. P.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; Ding, W. M.; Ding, Y.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Du, S. X.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fava, L.; Feldbauer, F.; Feng, C. Q.; Fu, C. D.; Fu, J. L.; Gao, Y.; Geng, C.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, Y. P.; Han, Y. L.; Hao, X. Q.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; He, M.; He, Z. Y.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Huang, B.; Huang, G. M.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, Y. P.; Hussain, T.; Ji, C. S.; Ji, Q.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jia, L. K.; Jiang, L. L.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Jing, F. F.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Kuehn, W.; Lai, W.; Lange, J. S.; Leung, J. K. C.; Li, C. H.; Li, Cheng; Li, Cui; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, J. C.; Li, K.; Li, Lei; Li, N. B.; Li, Q. J.; Li, S. L.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, X. R.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Liao, X. T.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. L.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, C. Y.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H.; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, H. W.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, Kun; Liu, Kai; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, P. L.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, X. H.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H.; Lu, G. R.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, Q. W.; Lu, X. R.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lv, M.; Ma, C. L.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, S.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. Y.; Ma, Y.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Malik, Q. A.; Mao, H.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Min, J.; Min, T. J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Morales, C. Morales; Motzko, C.; Muchnoi, N. Yu; Nefedov, Y.; Nicholson, C.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S. P.; Park, J. W.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peters, K.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Prencipe, E.; Pun, C. S. J.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Y.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Rong, G.; Ruan, X. D.; Sarantsev, A.; Schulze, J.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Shepherd, M. R.; Song, X. Y.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Sun, D. H.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, X. D.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Thorndike, E. H.; Tian, H. L.; Toth, D.; Ulrich, M. U.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, B. Q.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, Q.; Wang, Q. J.; Wang, S. G.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. Y.; Wei, D. H.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, Q. G.; Wen, S. P.; Werner, M. W.; Wiedner, U.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, N.; Wu, S. X.; Wu, W.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L. G.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, G. M.; Xu, H.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, X. P.; Xu, Y.; Xu, Z. R.; Xue, F.; Xue, Z.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, T.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, H.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, J. S.; Yu, S. P.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A. Z.; Zeng, Y.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J. G.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, S. H.; Zhang, T. R.; Zhang, X. J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. S.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, H. S.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, K. X.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, X. H.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zheng, Z. P.; Zhong, B.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhu, C.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S. H.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, X. W.; Zhu, Y. M.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.; Zuo, J. X.

    2012-01-01

    The two-photon transition psi(3686) -> gamma gamma J/psi is studied in a sample of 1.06 x 10(8) psi(3686) decays collected by the BESIII detector. The branching fraction is measured to be (3.1 +/- 0.6(stat)(-1.0)(+0.8)(syst)) x 10(-4) using J/psi -> e(+)e(-) and J/psi -> mu(+)mu(-) decays, and its

  16. Two-Photon Activation of p-Hydroxyphenacyl Phototriggers: Toward Spatially Controlled Release of Diethyl Phosphate and ATP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houk, Amanda L; Givens, Richard S; Elles, Christopher G

    2016-03-31

    Two-photon activation of the p-hydroxyphenacyl (pHP) photoactivated protecting group is demonstrated for the first time using visible light at 550 nm from a pulsed laser. Broadband two-photon absorption measurements reveal a strong two-photon transition (>10 GM) near 4.5 eV that closely resembles the lowest-energy band at the same total excitation energy in the one-photon absorption spectrum of the pHP chromophore. The polarization dependence of the two-photon absorption band is consistent with excitation to the same S3 ((1)ππ*) excited state for both one- and two-photon activation. Monitoring the progress of the uncaging reaction under nonresonant excitation at 550 nm confirms a quadratic intensity dependence and that two-photon activation of the uncaging reaction is possible using visible light in the range 500-620 nm. Deprotonation of the pHP chromophore under mildly basic conditions shifts the absorption band to lower energy (3.8 eV) in both the one- and two-photon absorption spectra, suggesting that two-photon activation of the pHP chromophore may be possible using light in the range 550-720 nm. The results of these measurements open the possibility of spatially and temporally selective release of biologically active compounds from the pHP protecting group using visible light from a pulsed laser.

  17. Effects of conjugation length and resonance enhancement on two-photon absorption in phenylene–vinylene oligomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Mette; Paterson, M.J.; Arnbjerg, J.

    2008-01-01

    . This phenomenon of the so-called resonance enhancement allows for greater control in obtaining an optimal response when using existing two-photon chromophores, and provides a much-needed guide for the systematic development and efficient use of two-photon singlet oxygen sensitizers....

  18. Fs-transient absorption and fluorescence upconversion after two- photon excitation of carotenoids in solution and in LHC II

    CERN Document Server

    Wall, P J; Fleming, G R

    2000-01-01

    With time resolved two-photon techniques we determined the lifetime and two-photon spectrum of the forbidden S/sub 1/ state of beta - carotene (9+or-0.2 ps), lutein (15+or-0.5 ps) and the energy transferring carotenoids in LHC II (250+or-50 fs). (7 refs).

  19. Diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma by two photon excited fluorescence combined with lifetime imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shunping; Peng, Xiao; Liu, Lixin; Liu, Shaoxiong; Lu, Yuan; Qu, Junle

    2014-02-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common type of human skin cancer. The traditional diagnostic procedure of BCC is histological examination with haematoxylin and eosin staining of the tissue biopsy. In order to reduce complexity of the diagnosis procedure, a number of noninvasive optical methods have been applied in skin examination, for example, multiphoton tomography (MPT) and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM). In this study, we explored two-photon optical tomography of human skin specimens using two-photon excited autofluorescence imaging and FLIM. There are a number of naturally endogenous fluorophores in skin sample, such as keratin, melanin, collagen, elastin, flavin and porphyrin. Confocal microscopy was used to obtain structures of the sample. Properties of epidermic and cancer cells were characterized by fluorescence emission spectra, as well as fluorescence lifetime imaging. Our results show that two-photon autofluorescence lifetime imaging can provide accurate optical biopsies with subcellular resolution and is potentially a quantitative optical diagnostic method in skin cancer diagnosis.

  20. Supramolecular assembly affording a ratiometric two-photon fluorescent nanoprobe for quantitative detection and bioimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Zhang, Cheng; Liu, Hong-Wen; Xiong, Mengyi; Yin, Sheng-Yan; Yang, Yue; Hu, Xiao-Xiao; Yin, Xia; Zhang, Xiao-Bing; Tan, Weihong

    2017-12-01

    Fluorescence quantitative analyses for vital biomolecules are in great demand in biomedical science owing to their unique detection advantages with rapid, sensitive, non-damaging and specific identification. However, available fluorescence strategies for quantitative detection are usually hard to design and achieve. Inspired by supramolecular chemistry, a two-photon-excited fluorescent supramolecular nanoplatform ( TPSNP ) was designed for quantitative analysis with three parts: host molecules (β-CD polymers), a guest fluorophore of sensing probes (Np-Ad) and a guest internal reference (NpRh-Ad). In this strategy, the TPSNP possesses the merits of (i) improved water-solubility and biocompatibility; (ii) increased tissue penetration depth for bioimaging by two-photon excitation; (iii) quantitative and tunable assembly of functional guest molecules to obtain optimized detection conditions; (iv) a common approach to avoid the limitation of complicated design by adjustment of sensing probes; and (v) accurate quantitative analysis by virtue of reference molecules. As a proof-of-concept, we utilized the two-photon fluorescent probe NHS-Ad-based TPSNP-1 to realize accurate quantitative analysis of hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S), with high sensitivity and good selectivity in live cells, deep tissues and ex vivo -dissected organs, suggesting that the TPSNP is an ideal quantitative indicator for clinical samples. What's more, TPSNP will pave the way for designing and preparing advanced supramolecular sensors for biosensing and biomedicine.

  1. Phonon-Assisted Two-Photon Interference from Remote Quantum Emitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reindl, Marcus; Jöns, Klaus D; Huber, Daniel; Schimpf, Christian; Huo, Yongheng; Zwiller, Val; Rastelli, Armando; Trotta, Rinaldo

    2017-07-12

    Photonic quantum technologies are on the verge of finding applications in everyday life with quantum cryptography and quantum simulators on the horizon. Extensive research has been carried out to identify suitable quantum emitters and single epitaxial quantum dots have emerged as near-optimal sources of bright, on-demand, highly indistinguishable single photons and entangled photon-pairs. In order to build up quantum networks, it is essential to interface remote quantum emitters. However, this is still an outstanding challenge, as the quantum states of dissimilar "artificial atoms" have to be prepared on-demand with high fidelity and the generated photons have to be made indistinguishable in all possible degrees of freedom. Here, we overcome this major obstacle and show an unprecedented two-photon interference (visibility of 51 ± 5%) from remote strain-tunable GaAs quantum dots emitting on-demand photon-pairs. We achieve this result by exploiting for the first time the full potential of a novel phonon-assisted two-photon excitation scheme, which allows for the generation of highly indistinguishable (visibility of 71 ± 9%) entangled photon-pairs (fidelity of 90 ± 2%), enables push-button biexciton state preparation (fidelity of 80 ± 2%) and outperforms conventional resonant two-photon excitation schemes in terms of robustness against environmental decoherence. Our results mark an important milestone for the practical realization of quantum repeaters and complex multiphoton entanglement experiments involving dissimilar artificial atoms.

  2. Two photon spectroscopy of rubidium atoms in a magneto-optic trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fretel, E.

    1997-01-01

    Two photon transitions without doppler effect can be used as an atomic reference. The aim of this work is to study two photon transitions of rubidium atoms in a magneto-optical trap. The chosen transition is from the level 5 2 S 1/2 toward the level 5 2 D 5/2 . The magneto-optical trap is achieved by using 3 pairs of perpendicular laser beams and by setting a magnetic field gradient. About 10 18 atoms are trapped and cooled in a 1 mm 3 volume. In a first stage we have realized an optical double resonance experiment from the level 5 2 S 1/2 toward the level 5 2 D 5/2 by populating the intermediate level 5 2 P 3/2 . Then we have studied the two photon transition in this cluster of cold atoms. A particular setting of the experiment allows to reduce the effect of ray broadening and shifting due to the magnetic field of the trap

  3. Measurement of wavefront aberrations in cortex and peripheral nerve using a two-photon excitation guidestar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futia, Gregory L.; Fontaine, Arjun; McCullough, Connor; Ozbay, Baris N.; George, Nickolas M.; Caldwell, John; Restrepo, Diego; Weir, Richard; Gibson, Emily A.

    2018-02-01

    Neural-machine interfaces using optogenetics are of interest due to their minimal invasiveness and potential for parallel read in and read out of activity. One possible biological target for such an interface is the peripheral nerve, where axonlevel imaging or stimulation could greatly improve interfacing with artificial limbs or enable neuron/fascicle level neuromodulation in the vagus nerve. Two-photon imaging has been successful in imaging brain activity using genetically encoded calcium or voltage indicators, but in the peripheral nerve, this is severely limited by scattering and aberrations from myelin. We employ a Shack-Hartman wavefront sensor and two-photon excitation guidestar to quantify optical scattering and aberrations in peripheral nerves and cortex. The sciatic and vagus nerves, and cortex from a ChAT-Cre ChR-eYFP transgenic mouse were excised and imaged directly. In peripheral nerves, defocus was the strongest aberration followed by astigmatism and coma. Peripheral nerve had orders of magnitude higher aberration compared with cortex. These results point to the potential of adaptive optics for increasing the depth of two-photon access into peripheral nerves.

  4. Two-photon fluorescence and fluorescence imaging of two styryl heterocyclic dyes combined with DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chao; Liu, Shu-yao; Zhang, Xian; Liu, Ying-kai; Qiao, Cong-de; Liu, Zhao-e

    2016-03-05

    Two new styryl heterocyclic two-photon (TP) materials, 4-[4-(N-methyl)styrene]-imidazo [4,5-f][1,10] phenanthroline-benzene iodated salt (probe-1) and 4,4-[4-(N-methyl)styrene]-benzene iodated salt (probe-2) were successfully synthesized and studied as potential fluorescent probes of DNA detection. The linear and nonlinear photophysical properties of two compounds in different solvents were investigated. The absorption, one- and two-photon fluorescent spectra of the free dye and dye-DNA complex were also examined to evaluate their photophysical properties. The binding constants of dye-DNA were obtained according to Scatchard equation with good values. The results showed that two probes could be used as fluorescent DNA probes by two-photon excitation, and TP fluorescent properties of probe-1 are superior to that of probe-2. The fluorescent method date indicated that the mechanisms of dye-DNA complex interaction may be groove binding for probe-1 and electrostatic interaction for probe-2, respectively. The MTT assay experiments showed two probes are low toxicity. Moreover, the TP fluorescence imaging of DNA detection in living cells at 800 nm indicated that the ability to locate in cell nuclei of probe-1 is better than that of probe-2. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Linear photophysics, two-photon absorption and femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy of styryl dye bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaydyuk, Ye.O. [Institute of Physics, Prospect Nauki, 46, Kyiv-28 03028 Ukraine (Ukraine); Levchenko, S.M. [Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics, 150, Akademika Zabolotnoho Str., Kyiv 036803 (Ukraine); Kurhuzenkau, S.A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Parma, Parco Area delle Scienze 17/A, Parma 43124 (Italy); Anderson, D. [NanoScienece Technology Center, University of Central Florida, 12424 Research Parkway, PAV400, Orlando, FL 32826 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Central Florida, 4111 Libra Drive, PSB225, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); Masunov, A.E. [NanoScienece Technology Center, University of Central Florida, 12424 Research Parkway, PAV400, Orlando, FL 32826 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Central Florida, 4111 Libra Drive, PSB225, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); South Ural State University, Lenin pr. 76, Chelyabinsk 454080 (Russian Federation); Department of Condensed Matter Physics, National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Kashirskoye shosse 31, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Photochemistry Center RAS, ul. Novatorov 7a, Moscow 119421 (Russian Federation); Kachkovsky, O.D.; Slominsky, Yu.L.; Bricks, J.L. [Insitute of Organic Chemistry, Murmanskaya Street, 5, Kyiv 03094 (Ukraine); Belfield, K.D. [College of Science and Liberal Arts, New Jersey Institute of Technology, University Heights, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an, 710062 (China); Bondar, M.V., E-mail: mbondar@mail.ucf.edu [Institute of Physics, Prospect Nauki, 46, Kyiv-28 03028 Ukraine (Ukraine)

    2017-03-15

    The steady-state and time-resolved linear spectral properties, two-photon absorption spectra and fast relaxation processes in the excited states of styryl base-type derivatives were investigated. The nature of linear absorption, fluorescence and excitation anisotropy spectra were analyzed in solvents of different polarity at room temperature and specific dependence of the solvatochromic behavior on the donor-acceptor strength of the terminal substituents was shown. Two-photon absorption (2PA) efficiency of styryl dye bases was determined in a broad spectral range using two-photon induced fluorescence technique, and cross-sections maxima of ~ 100 GM were found. The excited state absorption (ESA) and fast relaxation processes in the molecular structures were investigated by transient absorption femtosecond pump-probe methodology. The role of twisted intramolecular charge transfer (TICT) effect in the excited state of styryl dye base with dimethylamino substituent was shown. The experimental spectroscopic data were also verified by quantum chemical calculations at the Time Dependent Density Functional Theory level, combined with a polarizable continuum model.

  6. Two-Photon-Excited Silica and Organosilica Nanoparticles for Spatiotemporal Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croissant, Jonas G; Zink, Jeffrey I; Raehm, Laurence; Durand, Jean-Olivier

    2018-04-01

    Coherent two-photon-excited (TPE) therapy in the near-infrared (NIR) provides safer cancer treatments than current therapies lacking spatial and temporal selectivities because it is characterized by a 3D spatial resolution of 1 µm 3 and very low scattering. In this review, the principle of TPE and its significance in combination with organosilica nanoparticles (NPs) are introduced and then studies involving the design of pioneering TPE-NIR organosilica nanomaterials are discussed for bioimaging, drug delivery, and photodynamic therapy. Organosilica nanoparticles and their rich and well-established chemistry, tunable composition, porosity, size, and morphology provide ideal platforms for minimal side-effect therapies via TPE-NIR. Mesoporous silica and organosilica nanoparticles endowed with high surface areas can be functionalized to carry hydrophobic and biologically unstable two-photon absorbers for drug delivery and diagnosis. Currently, most light-actuated clinical therapeutic applications with NPs involve photodynamic therapy by singlet oxygen generation, but low photosensitizing efficiencies, tumor resistance, and lack of spatial resolution limit their applicability. On the contrary, higher photosensitizing yields, versatile therapies, and a unique spatial resolution are available with engineered two-photon-sensitive organosilica particles that selectively impact tumors while healthy tissues remain untouched. Patients suffering pathologies such as retinoblastoma, breast, and skin cancers will greatly benefit from TPE-NIR ultrasensitive diagnosis and therapy. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Two-photon anisotropy: Analytical description and molecular modeling for symmetrical and asymmetrical organic dyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Jie; Przhonska, Olga V.; Padilha, Lazaro A.; Hagan, David J.; Van Stryland, Eric W.; Belfield, Kevin D.; Bondar, Mikhail V.; Slominsky, Yuriy L.; Kachkovski, Alexei D.

    2006-01-01

    One- and two-photon anisotropy spectra of a series of symmetrical and asymmetrical polymethine (PD) and fluorene molecules were measured experimentally and discussed theoretically within the framework of three-state and four-state models. For all the molecules discussed in this paper, the experimental two-photon anisotropy values, r 2PA , lie in the relatively narrow range from 0.47 to 0.57 and remain almost independent of wavelength over at least two electronic transitions. This is in contrast with their one-photon anisotropy, which shows strong wavelength dependence, typically varying from ∼0 to 0.38 over the same transitions. A detailed analysis of the two-photon absorption (2PA) processes allows us to conclude that a three-state model can explain the 2PA anisotropy spectra of most asymmetrical PDs and fluorenes. However, this model is inadequate for all the symmetrical molecules. Experimental values of r 2PA for symmetrical polymethines and fluorenes can be explained by symmetry breaking leading to the deviation of the orientation of the participating transition dipole moments from their 'classical' orientations

  8. An integrated single- and two-photon non-diffracting light-sheet microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Sze Cheung; Chiu, Hoi Chun; Zhao, Luwei; Zhao, Teng; Loy, M. M. T.; Du, Shengwang

    2018-04-01

    We describe a fluorescence optical microscope with both single-photon and two-photon non-diffracting light-sheet excitations for large volume imaging. With a special design to accommodate two different wavelength ranges (visible: 400-700 nm and near infrared: 800-1200 nm), we combine the line-Bessel sheet (LBS, for single-photon excitation) and the scanning Bessel beam (SBB, for two-photon excitation) light sheet together in a single microscope setup. For a transparent thin sample where the scattering can be ignored, the LBS single-photon excitation is the optimal imaging solution. When the light scattering becomes significant for a deep-cell or deep-tissue imaging, we use SBB light-sheet two-photon excitation with a longer wavelength. We achieved nearly identical lateral/axial resolution of about 350/270 nm for both imagings. This integrated light-sheet microscope may have a wide application for live-cell and live-tissue three-dimensional high-speed imaging.

  9. Volumetric Two-photon Imaging of Neurons Using Stereoscopy (vTwINS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Alexander; Charles, Adam S.; Koay, Sue Ann; Gauthier, Jeff L.; Thiberge, Stephan Y.; Pillow, Jonathan W.; Tank, David W.

    2017-01-01

    Two-photon laser scanning microscopy of calcium dynamics using fluorescent indicators is a widely used imaging method for large scale recording of neural activity in vivo. Here we introduce volumetric Two-photon Imaging of Neurons using Stereoscopy (vTwINS), a volumetric calcium imaging method that employs an elongated, V-shaped point spread function to image a 3D brain volume. Single neurons project to spatially displaced “image pairs” in the resulting 2D image, and the separation distance between images is proportional to depth in the volume. To demix the fluorescence time series of individual neurons, we introduce a novel orthogonal matching pursuit algorithm that also infers source locations within the 3D volume. We illustrate vTwINS by imaging neural population activity in mouse primary visual cortex and hippocampus. Our results demonstrate that vTwINS provides an effective method for volumetric two-photon calcium imaging that increases the number of neurons recorded while maintaining a high frame-rate. PMID:28319111

  10. Fast two-photon imaging of subcellular voltage dynamics in neuronal tissue with genetically encoded indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberland, Simon; Yang, Helen H; Pan, Michael M; Evans, Stephen W; Guan, Sihui; Chavarha, Mariya; Yang, Ying; Salesse, Charleen; Wu, Haodi; Wu, Joseph C; Clandinin, Thomas R; Toth, Katalin; Lin, Michael Z; St-Pierre, François

    2017-07-27

    Monitoring voltage dynamics in defined neurons deep in the brain is critical for unraveling the function of neuronal circuits but is challenging due to the limited performance of existing tools. In particular, while genetically encoded voltage indicators have shown promise for optical detection of voltage transients, many indicators exhibit low sensitivity when imaged under two-photon illumination. Previous studies thus fell short of visualizing voltage dynamics in individual neurons in single trials. Here, we report ASAP2s, a novel voltage indicator with improved sensitivity. By imaging ASAP2s using random-access multi-photon microscopy, we demonstrate robust single-trial detection of action potentials in organotypic slice cultures. We also show that ASAP2s enables two-photon imaging of graded potentials in organotypic slice cultures and in Drosophila . These results demonstrate that the combination of ASAP2s and fast two-photon imaging methods enables detection of neural electrical activity with subcellular spatial resolution and millisecond-timescale precision.

  11. Study of two-photon decays of pseudoscalar mesons via J /ψ radiative decays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ahmed, S.; Albrecht, M.; Amoroso, A.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; Bai, J. Z.; Bai, Y.; Bakina, O.; Baldini Ferroli, R.; Ban, Y.; Bennett, D. W.; Bennett, J. V.; Berger, N.; Bertani, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bian, J. M.; Bianchi, F.; Boger, E.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Cai, H.; Cai, X.; Cakir, O.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Cetin, S. A.; Chai, J.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, P. L.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, X. R.; Chen, Y. B.; Chu, X. K.; Cibinetto, G.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dbeyssi, A.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; de Mori, F.; Ding, Y.; Dong, C.; Dong, J.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Dou, Z. L.; Du, S. X.; Duan, P. F.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fang, Y.; Farinelli, R.; Fava, L.; Fegan, S.; Feldbauer, F.; Felici, G.; Feng, C. Q.; Fioravanti, E.; Fritsch, M.; Fu, C. D.; Gao, Q.; Gao, X. L.; Gao, Y.; Gao, Y. G.; Gao, Z.; Garzia, I.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, L.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, R. P.; Guo, Y. P.; Haddadi, Z.; Han, S.; Hao, X. Q.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; He, X. Q.; Heinsius, F. H.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Holtmann, T.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, T.; Hu, Y.; Huang, G. S.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, X. Z.; Huang, Z. L.; Hussain, T.; Ikegami Andersson, W.; Ji, Q.; Ji, Q. P.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiang, X. Y.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Jin, Y.; Johansson, T.; Julin, A.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kang, X. L.; Kang, X. S.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Ke, B. C.; Khan, T.; Khoukaz, A.; Kiese, P.; Kliemt, R.; Koch, L.; Kolcu, O. B.; Kopf, B.; Kornicer, M.; Kuemmel, M.; Kuhlmann, M.; Kupsc, A.; Kühn, W.; Lange, J. S.; Lara, M.; Larin, P.; Lavezzi, L.; Leithoff, H.; Leng, C.; Li, C.; Li, Cheng; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, F. Y.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, H. J.; Li, J. C.; Li, Jin; Li, K. J.; Li, Kang; Li, Ke; Li, Lei; Li, P. L.; Li, P. R.; Li, Q. Y.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Lin, D. X.; Liu, B.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, D.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, Huanhuan; Liu, Huihui; Liu, J. B.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, J. Y.; Liu, K.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, Ke; Liu, L. D.; Liu, P. L.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqing; Long, Y. F.; Lou, X. C.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, Y.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lyu, X. R.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, M. M.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. N.; Ma, X. Y.; Ma, Y. M.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Malik, Q. A.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Marcello, S.; Meng, Z. X.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Mezzadri, G.; Min, J.; Min, T. J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Mo, Y. J.; Morales Morales, C.; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Muramatsu, H.; Musiol, P.; Mustafa, A.; Nefedov, Y.; Nerling, F.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Nisar, S.; Niu, S. L.; Niu, X. Y.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Pan, Y.; Papenbrock, M.; Patteri, P.; Pelizaeus, M.; Pellegrino, J.; Peng, H. P.; Peters, K.; Pettersson, J.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Prasad, V.; Qi, H. R.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, J. J.; Qin, N.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Redmer, C. F.; Richter, M.; Ripka, M.; Rong, G.; Rosner, Ch.; Sarantsev, A.; Savrié, M.; Schnier, C.; Schoenning, K.; Shan, W.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, P. X.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Song, J. J.; Song, W. M.; Song, X. Y.; Sosio, S.; Sowa, C.; Spataro, S.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, L.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, X. H.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. K.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, G. Y.; Tang, X.; Tapan, I.; Tiemens, M.; Tsednee, B.; Uman, I.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, B. L.; Wang, D.; Wang, D. Y.; Wang, Dan; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, Meng; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, W. P.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. Y.; Wang, Zongyuan; Weber, T.; Wei, D. H.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, S. P.; Wiedner, U.; Wolke, M.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, L. J.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L.; Xia, Y.; Xiao, D.; Xiao, H.; Xiao, Y. J.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xie, Y. H.; Xiong, X. A.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, J. J.; Xu, L.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, Q. N.; Xu, X. P.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. J.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, L.; Yang, Y. H.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yin, J. H.; You, Z. Y.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, J. S.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, Y.; Yuncu, A.; Zafar, A. A.; Zeng, Y.; Zeng, Z.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, S. Q.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. T.; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Yao; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Z. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, J. Y.; Zhao, J. Z.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zhong, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, X.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhou, X. Y.; Zhou, Y. X.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S.; Zhu, S. H.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zotti, L.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.; Besiii Collaboration

    2018-04-01

    Using a sample of 4.48 ×108 ψ (3686 ) events collected with the BESIII detector at the BEPCII collider, we study the two-photon decays of the pseudoscalar mesons π0, η , η', η (1405 ), η (1475 ), η (1760 ), and X (1835 ) in J /ψ radiative decays using ψ (3686 )→π+π-J /ψ events. The π0, η , and η' mesons are clearly observed in the two-photon mass spectra, and the branching fractions are determined to be B (J /ψ →γ π0→3 γ )=(3.57 ±0.12 ±0.16 )×10-5 , B (J /ψ →γ η →3 γ )=(4.42 ±0.04 ±0.18 )×10-4 , and B (J /ψ →γ η'→3 γ )=(1.26 ±0.02 ±0.05 )×10-4 , where the first error is statistical and the second is systematic. No clear signal for η (1405 ), η (1475 ), η (1760 ) or X (1835 ) is observed in the two-photon mass spectra, and upper limits at the 90% confidence level on the product branching fractions are obtained.

  12. Two-photon excitation spectroscopy of carotenoid-containing and carotenoid-depleted LH2 complexes from purple bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanenko, Ilya; Kompanetz, Viktor; Makhneva, Zoya; Chekalin, Sergey; Moskalenko, Andrei; Razjivin, Andrei

    2009-08-27

    We applied two-photon fluorescence excitation spectroscopy to LH2 complex from purple bacteria Allochromatium minutissimum and Rhodobacter sphaeroides . Bacteriochlorophyll fluorescence was measured under two-photon excitation of the samples within the 1200-1500 nm region. Spectra were obtained for both carotenoid-containing and -depleted complexes of each bacterium to allow their direct comparison. The depletion of carotenoids did not alter the two-photon excitation spectra of either bacteria. The spectra featured a wide excitation band around 1350 nm (2x675 nm, 14,800 cm(-1)) which strongly resembled two-photon fluorescence excitation spectra of similar complexes published by other authors. We consider obtained experimental data to be evidence of direct two-photon excitation of bacteriochlorophyll excitonic states in this spectral region.

  13. Assessing probe-specific dye and slide biases in two-color microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldberg Zelanna

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A primary reason for using two-color microarrays is that the use of two samples labeled with different dyes on the same slide, that bind to probes on the same spot, is supposed to adjust for many factors that introduce noise and errors into the analysis. Most users assume that any differences between the dyes can be adjusted out by standard methods of normalization, so that measures such as log ratios on the same slide are reliable measures of comparative expression. However, even after the normalization, there are still probe specific dye and slide variation among the data. We define a method to quantify the amount of the dye-by-probe and slide-by-probe interaction. This serves as a diagnostic, both visual and numeric, of the existence of probe-specific dye bias. We show how this improved the performance of two-color array analysis for arrays for genomic analysis of biological samples ranging from rice to human tissue. Results We develop a procedure for quantifying the extent of probe-specific dye and slide bias in two-color microarrays. The primary output is a graphical diagnostic of the extent of the bias which called ECDF (Empirical Cumulative Distribution Function, though numerical results are also obtained. Conclusion We show that the dye and slide biases were high for human and rice genomic arrays in two gene expression facilities, even after the standard intensity-based normalization, and describe how this diagnostic allowed the problems causing the probe-specific bias to be addressed, and resulted in important improvements in performance. The R package LMGene which contains the method described in this paper has been available to download from Bioconductor.

  14. Two-color planar laser-induced fluorescence thermometry in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, G. Andrew; Lucht, Robert P.; Laurendeau, Normand M.

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate a two-color planar laser-induced fluorescence technique for obtaining two-dimensional temperature images in water. For this method, a pulsed Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm excites a solution of temperature-sensitive rhodamine 560 and temperature-insensitive sulforhodamine 640. The resulting emissions are optically separated through filters and detected via a charged-couple device (CCD) camera system. A ratio of the two images yields temperature images independent of incident irradiance. An uncertainty in temperature of ±1.4 deg. C is established at the 95% confidence interval

  15. Two-color QCD with non-zero chiral chemical potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braguta, V.V. [Institute for High Energy Physics NRC “Kurchatov Institute' ,142281 Protvino (Russian Federation); Far Eastern Federal University, School of Biomedicine,690950 Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Goy, V.A. [Far Eastern Federal University, School of Natural Sciences,690950 Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Ilgenfritz, E.M. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research,BLTP, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Kotov, A.Yu. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics,117259 Moscow (Russian Federation); Molochkov, A.V. [Far Eastern Federal University, School of Biomedicine,690950 Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Müller-Preussker, M.; Petersson, B. [Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Institut für Physik,12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-06-16

    The phase diagram of two-color QCD with non-zero chiral chemical potential is studied by means of lattice simulation. We focus on the influence of a chiral chemical potential on the confinement/deconfinement phase transition and the breaking/restoration of chiral symmetry. The simulation is carried out with dynamical staggered fermions without rooting. The dependences of the Polyakov loop, the chiral condensate and the corresponding susceptibilities on the chiral chemical potential and the temperature are presented. The critical temperature is observed to increase with increasing chiral chemical potential.

  16. Stokes image reconstruction for two-color microgrid polarization imaging systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaster, Daniel A

    2011-07-18

    The Air Force Research Laboratory has developed a new microgrid polarization imaging system capable of simultaneously reconstructing linear Stokes parameter images in two colors on a single focal plane array. In this paper, an effective method for extracting Stokes images is presented for this type of camera system. It is also shown that correlations between the color bands can be exploited to significantly increase overall spatial resolution. Test data is used to show the advantages of this approach over bilinear interpolation. The bounds (in terms of available reconstruction bandwidth) on image resolution are also provided.

  17. Fundamental studies of molecular multiphoton ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.C.; Compton, R.N.

    1984-04-01

    For several years the authors have performed fundamental studies of molecular multiphoton ionization (MPI). We will present a potpourri of techniques and results chosen to illustrate the interesting complexities of molecular MPI. Techniques used include time-of-flight mass spectroscopy, photoelectron spectroscopy, supersonic expansion cooling of molecular beams, harmonic generation, two-color laser MPI, and polarization spectroscopy. Whenever possible the relevance of these results to resonance ionization spectroscopy schemes will be delineated. 23 references, 10 figures

  18. Crustal Strain Observation Using a Two-Color Interferometer with Accurate Correction of Refractive Index of Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souichi Telada

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A highly accurate two-color interferometer with automatic correction of the refractive index of air was developed for crustal strain observation. The two-color interferometer, which can measure a geometrical distance of approximately 70 m, with a relative resolution of 2 × 10−9, clearly detected a change in strain due to earth tides in spite of optical measurement in air. Moreover, a large strain quake due to an earthquake could be observed without disturbing the measurement. We demonstrated the advantages of the two-color interferometer in air for geodetic observation.

  19. Generation and amplification of sub-THz radiation in a rare gases plasma formed by a two-color femtosecond laser pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogatskaya, A. V.; Volkova, E. A.; Popov, A. M.

    2018-06-01

    A new approach to constructing the source of radiation in the sub-THz frequency range is discussed. It is based on the strong-field ionization of heavy rare gases with Ramsauer minimum in the transport cross-section by a two-color () femtosecond laser pulse. Then a four-photon nonlinear process ( are the frequencies from the spectral width of the pulse with frequency ω, and is the frequency from the spectral width of the second harmonic 2ω) with a transition to the initial state results in a low-frequency spontaneous emission that can be amplified in the strongly nonequilibrium laser plasma if the position of the photoelectron peaks is located in the region of growing energy transport cross-section.

  20. Controlling of the electromagnetic solitary waves generation in the wake of a two-color laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, K. Q.; Li, S. W.; Guo, L.; Yang, D.; Li, Z. C.; Zheng, C. Y.; Jiang, S. E.; Zhang, B. H.; He, X. T.

    2018-05-01

    Electromagnetic solitary waves generated by a two-color laser interaction with an underdense plasma are investigated. It is shown that, when the former wave packet of the two-color laser is intense enough, it will excite nonlinear wakefields and generate electron density cavities. The latter wave packets will beat with the nonlinear wakefield and generate both high-frequency and low-frequency components. When the peak density of the cavities exceeds the critical density of the low-frequency component, this part of the electromagnetic field will be trapped to generate electromagnetic solitary waves. By changing the laser and plasma parameters, we can control the wakefield generation, which will also control the generation of the solitary waves. One-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations are performed to prove the controlling of the solitary waves. The simulation results also show that solitary waves generated by higher laser intensities will become moving solitary waves. The two-dimensional particle-in-cell also shows the generation of the solitary waves. In the two-dimensional case, solitary waves are distributed in the transverse directions because of the filamentation instability.

  1. Absolute distance measurement with correction of air refractive index by using two-color dispersive interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hanzhong; Zhang, Fumin; Liu, Tingyang; Li, Jianshuang; Qu, Xinghua

    2016-10-17

    Two-color interferometry is powerful for the correction of the air refractive index especially in the turbulent air over long distance, since the empirical equations could introduce considerable measurement uncertainty if the environmental parameters cannot be measured with sufficient precision. In this paper, we demonstrate a method for absolute distance measurement with high-accuracy correction of air refractive index using two-color dispersive interferometry. The distances corresponding to the two wavelengths can be measured via the spectrograms captured by a CCD camera pair in real time. In the long-term experiment of the correction of air refractive index, the experimental results show a standard deviation of 3.3 × 10-8 for 12-h continuous measurement without the precise knowledge of the environmental conditions, while the variation of the air refractive index is about 2 × 10-6. In the case of absolute distance measurement, the comparison with the fringe counting interferometer shows an agreement within 2.5 μm in 12 m range.

  2. Two-color mid-infrared spectroscopy of optically doped semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forcales, M.; Klik, M.A.J.; Vinh, N.Q.; Phillips, J.; Wells, J-P.R.; Gregorkiewicz, T.

    2003-01-01

    Optical doping is an attractive method to tailor photonic properties of semiconductor matrices for development of solid-state electroluminescent structures. For practical applications, thermal stability of emission obtained from these materials is required. Thermal processes can be conveniently investigated by two-color spectroscopy in the visible and the mid-infrared. Free-electron laser is a versatile high-brilliance source of radiation in the latter spectral range. In this contribution, we briefly review some of the results obtained recently by the two-color spectroscopy with a free-electron laser in different semiconductors optically doped with rare earth and transition metal ions. Effects leading to both enhancement and quenching of emission from optical dopants will be presented. For InP:Yb, Si:Er, and Si:Cu activation of particular optically induced non-radiative recombination paths will be shown. For Si:Er and Si:Ag, observation of a low temperature optical memory effect will be reported

  3. Coherent effects on two-photon correlation and directional emission of two two-level atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooi, C. H. Raymond; Kim, Byung-Gyu; Lee, Hai-Woong

    2007-01-01

    Sub- and superradiant dynamics of spontaneously decaying atoms are manifestations of collective many-body systems. We study the internal dynamics and the radiation properties of two atoms in free space. Interesting results are obtained when the atoms are separated by less than half a wavelength of the atomic transition, where the dipole-dipole interaction gives rise to new coherent effects, such as (a) coherence between two intermediate collective states, (b) oscillations in the two-photon correlation G (2) , (c) emission of two photons by one atom, and (d) the loss of directional correlation. We compare the population dynamics during the two-photon emission process with the dynamics of single-photon emission in the cases of a Λ and a V scheme. We compute the temporal correlation and angular correlation of two successively emitted photons using the G (2) for different values of atomic separation. We find antibunching when the atomic separation is a quarter wavelength λ/4. Oscillations in the temporal correlation provide a useful feature for measuring subwavelength atomic separation. Strong directional correlation between two emitted photons is found for atomic separation larger than a wavelength. We also compare the directionality of a photon spontaneously emitted by the two atoms prepared in phased-symmetric and phased-antisymmetric entangled states vertical bar ±> k 0 =e ik 0 ·r 1 vertical bar a 1 ,b 2 >±e ik 0 ·r 2 vertical bar b 1 ,a 2 > by a laser pulse with wave vector k 0 . Photon emission is directionally suppressed along k 0 for the phased-antisymmetric state. The directionality ceases for interatomic distances less than λ/2

  4. Intravital two-photon microscopy of immune cell dynamics in corneal lymphatic vessels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Steven

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The role of lymphatic vessels in tissue and organ transplantation as well as in tumor growth and metastasis has drawn great attention in recent years. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We now developed a novel method using non-invasive two-photon microscopy to simultaneously visualize and track specifically stained lymphatic vessels and autofluorescent adjacent tissues such as collagen fibrils, blood vessels and immune cells in the mouse model of corneal neovascularization in vivo. The mouse cornea serves as an ideal tissue for this technique due to its easy accessibility and its inducible and modifiable state of pathological hem- and lymphvascularization. Neovascularization was induced by suture placement in corneas of Balb/C mice. Two weeks after treatment, lymphatic vessels were stained intravital by intrastromal injection of a fluorescently labeled LYVE-1 antibody and the corneas were evaluated in vivo by two-photon microscopy (TPM. Intravital TPM was performed at 710 nm and 826 nm excitation wavelengths to detect immunofluorescence and tissue autofluorescence using a custom made animal holder. Corneas were then harvested, fixed and analyzed by histology. Time lapse imaging demonstrated the first in vivo evidence of immune cell migration into lymphatic vessels and luminal transport of individual cells. Cells immigrated within 1-5.5 min into the vessel lumen. Mean velocities of intrastromal corneal immune cells were around 9 µm/min and therefore comparable to those of T-cells and macrophages in other mucosal surfaces. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge we here demonstrate for the first time the intravital real-time transmigration of immune cells into lymphatic vessels. Overall this study demonstrates the valuable use of intravital autofluorescence two-photon microscopy in the model of suture-induced corneal vascularizations to study interactions of immune and subsequently tumor cells with lymphatic vessels under close as possible

  5. Optical Kerr effect and two-photon absorption in monolayer black phosphorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margulis, Vl A.; Muryumin, E. E.; Gaiduk, E. A.

    2018-05-01

    A theoretical treatment of nonlinear refraction and two-photon absorption is presented for a novel two-dimensional material, monolayer black phosphorus (or phosphorene), irradiated by a normally incident and linearly polarized coherent laser beam of frequency ω. It is found that both the nonlinear refractive index n 2(ω) and the two-photon absorption coefficient α 2(ω) of phosphorene depend upon the polarization of the radiation field relative to phosphorene’s crystallographic axes. For the two principal polarization directions considered—viz, the armchair ({ \\mathcal A }{ \\mathcal C }) and zigzag ({ \\mathcal Z }{ \\mathcal Z }), the calculated values of n 2 and α 2 are distinguished by the order of their magnitude, with the n 2 and α 2 values being greater for the { \\mathcal A }{ \\mathcal C } direction. Furthermore, for almost all the incident photon energies below the fundamental absorption edge, except its neighborhood, the signs of n 2 as well as α 2 for the { \\mathcal A }{ \\mathcal C } and { \\mathcal Z }{ \\mathcal Z } polarization directions are opposed to each other. Also, for both the directions, the change of sign of n 2 is predicted to occur in the way between the two-photon absorption edge and the fundamental absorption edge, as well as in the near vicinity of the latter, where the Kerr nonlinearity has a pronounced resonant character and the magnitude of n 2 for the { \\mathcal A }{ \\mathcal C } and { \\mathcal Z }{ \\mathcal Z } polarization directions reaches its largest positive values of the order of 10‑9 and 10‑10 cm2 W‑1, respectively. The implications of the findings for practical all-optical switching applications are discussed.

  6. Polarization dependence of two-photon transition intensities in rare-earth doped crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Nguyen, An-Dien [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    A polarization dependence technique has been developed as a tool to investigate phonon scattering (PS), electronic Raman scattering (ERS), and two-photon absorption (TPA) transition intensities in vanadate and phosphate crystals. A general theory for the polarization dependence (PD) of two-photon transition intensities has been given. Expressions for the polarization dependent behavior of two-photon transition intensities have been tabulated for the 32 crystallographic point groups. When the wavefunctions for the initial and final states of a rare-earth doped in crystals are known, explicit PD expressions with no unknown parameters can be obtained. A spectroscopic method for measuring and interpreting phonon and ERS intensities has been developed to study PrVO4, NdVO4, ErVO4, and TmVO4 crystals. Relative phonon intensities with the polarization of the incident and scattered light arbitrarily varied were accurately predicted and subsequently used for alignment and calibration in ERS measurements in these systems for the first time. Since ERS and PS intensities generally follow different polarization curves as a function of polar angles, the two can be uniquely identified by comparing their respective polarization behavior. The most crucial application of the technique in ERS spectroscopy is the establishment of a stringent test for the Axe theory. For the first time, the F1/F2 ratio extracted from the experimental fits of the ERS intensities were compared with those predicted by theories which include both the second- and third-order contributions. Relatively good agreement between the fitted values of F1/F2 and the predicted values using the second-order theory has been found.

  7. Calculation of the 1s-2s two-photon excitation cross-section in atomic hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celik, G.; Celik, E.; Kilic, H.S. [Selcuk Univ., Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Science (Turkey)

    2008-12-15

    The two-photon excitation cross-section of atomic hydrogen is calculated using explicit summation over intermediate states within the framework of dipole approximation. The matrix element for two-photon excitation is transformed into finite sums, consisting of the product of a radial and angular part. Nine intermediate states are employed in the calculation of the transition matrix element. The two-photon excitation cross-section obtained for the transition 1s{sup 2}S{sub 1/2}-2s{sup 2}S{sub 1/2} in atomic hydrogen is in good agreement with the literature. (authors)

  8. Calculation of the 1s-2s two-photon excitation cross-section in atomic hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celik, G.; Celik, E.; Kilic, H.S.

    2008-01-01

    The two-photon excitation cross-section of atomic hydrogen is calculated using explicit summation over intermediate states within the framework of dipole approximation. The matrix element for two-photon excitation is transformed into finite sums, consisting of the product of a radial and angular part. Nine intermediate states are employed in the calculation of the transition matrix element. The two-photon excitation cross-section obtained for the transition 1s 2 S 1/2 -2s 2 S 1/2 in atomic hydrogen is in good agreement with the literature. (authors)

  9. Ultra-large field-of-view two-photon microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, Philbert S.; Mateo, Celine; Field, Jeffrey J.; Schaffer, Chris B.; Anderson, Matthew E.; Kleinfeld, David

    2015-01-01

    We present a two-photon microscope that images the full extent of murine cortex with an objective-limited spatial resolution across an 8 mm by 10 mm field. The lateral resolution is approximately 1 µm and the maximum scan speed is 5 mm/ms. The scan pathway employs large diameter compound lenses to minimize aberrations and performs near theoretical limits. We demonstrate the special utility of the microscope by recording resting-state vasomotion across both hemispheres of the murine brain thro...

  10. Vector meson pair production in two-photon collisions at ARGUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, P.M.

    1989-01-01

    New ARGUS results on exclusive final states produced in two-photon interactions are presented. Measurements of the vector meson pairs ρ + ρ - , ωρ 0 , ωω, K* + K* - and K* 0 bar K* 0 , as well as a search for φρ 0 , φω and φφ, are described. The results are compared with theoretical models. It is concluded that none of the models tells the full story when one considers the ARGUS data on all the possible vector meson pairs constructed from the 1 - vector nonet. 17 references, 5 figures, 1 table

  11. Manipulation of a two-photon pump in superconductor - semiconductor heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Peter P.; Baireuther, Paul; Vekhter, Ilya; Schmalian, Joerg

    2014-03-01

    We investigate the photon statistics, entanglement and squeezing of a pn-junction sandwiched between two superconducting leads, and show that such an electrically-driven photon pump generates correlated and entangled pairs of photons. In particular, we demonstrate that the squeezing of the fluctuations in the quadrature amplitudes of the emitted light can be manipulated by changing the relative phase of the order parameters of the superconductors. This reveals how macroscopic coherence of the superconducting state can be used to tailor the properties of a two-photon state.

  12. $\\Lambda$ and $\\Sigma^{0}$ Pair Production in Two-Photon Collisions at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Achard, P.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Alcaraz, J.; Alemanni, G.; Allaby, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alviggi, M.G.; Anderhub, H.; Andreev, Valery P.; Anselmo, F.; Arefev, A.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Bagnaia, P.; Bajo, A.; Baksay, G.; Baksay, L.; Baldew, S.V.; Banerjee, S.; Banerjee, Sw.; Barczyk, A.; Barillere, R.; Bartalini, P.; Basile, M.; Batalova, N.; Battiston, R.; Bay, A.; Becattini, F.; Becker, U.; Behner, F.; Bellucci, L.; Berbeco, R.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Betev, B.L.; Biasini, M.; Biglietti, M.; Biland, A.; Blaising, J.J.; Blyth, S.C.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bohm, A.; Boldizsar, L.; Borgia, B.; Bottai, S.; Bourilkov, D.; Bourquin, M.; Braccini, S.; Branson, J.G.; Brochu, F.; Burger, J.D.; Burger, W.J.; Cai, X.D.; Capell, M.; Cara Romeo, G.; Carlino, G.; Cartacci, A.; Casaus, J.; Cavallari, F.; Cavallo, N.; Cecchi, C.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo, M.; Chang, Y.H.; Chemarin, M.; Chen, A.; Chen, G.; Chen, G.M.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, H.S.; Chiefari, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Clare, I.; Clare, R.; Coignet, G.; Colino, N.; Costantini, S.; de la Cruz, B.; Cucciarelli, S.; van Dalen, J.A.; de Asmundis, R.; Deglon, P.; Debreczeni, J.; Degre, A.; Deiters, K.; della Volpe, D.; Delmeire, E.; Denes, P.; DeNotaristefani, F.; De Salvo, A.; Diemoz, M.; Dierckxsens, M.; Dionisi, C.; Dittmar, M.; Doria, A.; Dova, M.T.; Duchesneau, D.; Echenard, B.; Eline, A.; El Mamouni, H.; Engler, A.; Eppling, F.J.; Ewers, A.; Extermann, P.; Falagan, M.A.; Falciano, S.; Favara, A.; Fay, J.; Fedin, O.; Felcini, M.; Ferguson, T.; Fesefeldt, H.; Fiandrini, E.; Field, J.H.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, P.H.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, I.; Forconi, G.; Freudenreich, K.; Furetta, C.; Galaktionov, Iouri; Ganguli, S.N.; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gataullin, M.; Gentile, S.; Giagu, S.; Gong, Z.F.; Grenier, Gerald Jean; Grimm, O.; Gruenewald, M.W.; Guida, M.; van Gulik, R.; Gupta, V.K.; Gurtu, A.; Gutay, L.J.; Haas, D.; Hakobyan, R.S.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hebbeker, T.; Herve, Alain; Hirschfelder, J.; Hofer, H.; Hohlmann, M.; Holzner, G.; Hou, S.R.; Hu, Y.; Jin, B.N.; Jones, Lawrence W.; de Jong, P.; Josa-Mutuberria, I.; Kafer, D.; Kaur, M.; Kienzle-Focacci, M.N.; Kim, J.K.; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, W.; Klimentov, A.; Konig, A.C.; Kopal, M.; Koutsenko, V.; Kraber, M.; Kraemer, R.W.; Krenz, W.; Kruger, A.; Kunin, A.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Laktineh, I.; Landi, G.; Lebeau, M.; Lebedev, A.; Lebrun, P.; Lecomte, P.; Lecoq, P.; Le Coultre, P.; Le Goff, J.M.; Leiste, R.; Levtchenko, M.; Levtchenko, P.; Li, C.; Likhoded, S.; Lin, C.H.; Lin, W.T.; Linde, F.L.; Lista, L.; Liu, Z.A.; Lohmann, W.; Longo, E.; Lu, Y.S.; Lubelsmeyer, K.; Luci, C.; Luminari, L.; Lustermann, W.; Ma, W.G.; Malgeri, L.; Malinin, A.; Mana, C.; Mangeol, D.; Mans, J.; Martin, J.P.; Marzano, F.; Mazumdar, K.; McNeil, R.R.; Mele, S.; Merola, L.; Meschini, M.; Metzger, W.J.; Mihul, A.; Milcent, H.; Mirabelli, G.; Mnich, J.; Mohanty, G.B.; Muanza, G.S.; Muijs, A.J.M.; Musicar, B.; Musy, M.; Nagy, S.; Natale, S.; Napolitano, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Newman, H.; Niessen, T.; Nisati, A.; Kluge, Hannelies; Ofierzynski, R.; Organtini, G.; Palomares, C.; Pandoulas, D.; Paolucci, P.; Paramatti, R.; Passaleva, G.; Patricelli, S.; Paul, Thomas Cantzon; Pauluzzi, M.; Paus, C.; Pauss, F.; Pedace, M.; Pensotti, S.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Petersen, B.; Piccolo, D.; Pierella, F.; Pioppi, M.; Piroue, P.A.; Pistolesi, E.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Pojidaev, V.; Pothier, J.; Prokofev, D.O.; Prokofiev, D.; Quartieri, J.; Rahal-Callot, G.; Rahaman, M.A.; Raics, P.; Raja, N.; Ramelli, R.; Rancoita, P.G.; Ranieri, R.; Raspereza, A.; Razis, P.; Ren, D.; Rescigno, M.; Reucroft, S.; Riemann, S.; Riles, Keith; Roe, B.P.; Romero, L.; Rosca, A.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Roth, Stefan; Rosenbleck, C.; Roux, B.; Rubio, J.A.; Ruggiero, G.; Rykaczewski, H.; Sakharov, A.; Saremi, S.; Sarkar, S.; Salicio, J.; Sanchez, E.; Sanders, M.P.; Schafer, C.; Schegelsky, V.; Schmidt-Kaerst, S.; Schmitz, D.; Schopper, H.; Schotanus, D.J.; Schwering, G.; Sciacca, C.; Servoli, L.; Shevchenko, S.; Shivarov, N.; Shoutko, V.; Shumilov, E.; Shvorob, A.; Siedenburg, T.; Son, D.; Spillantini, P.; Steuer, M.; Stickland, D.P.; Stoyanov, B.; Straessner, A.; Sudhakar, K.; Sultanov, G.; Sun, L.Z.; Sushkov, S.; Suter, H.; Swain, J.D.; Szillasi, Z.; Tang, X.W.; Tarjan, P.; Tauscher, L.; Taylor, L.; Tellili, B.; Teyssier, D.; Timmermans, Charles; Ting, Samuel C.C.; Ting, S.M.; Tonwar, S.C.; Toth, J.; Tully, C.; Tung, K.L.; Ulbricht, J.; Valente, E.; Van de Walle, R.T.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vetlitsky, I.; Vicinanza, D.; Viertel, G.; Villa, S.; Vivargent, M.; Vlachos, S.; Vodopianov, I.; Vogel, H.; Vogt, H.; Vorobev, I.; Vorobyov, A.A.; Wadhwa, M.; Wallraff, W.; Wang, X.L.; Wang, Z.M.; Weber, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wilkens, H.; Wynhoff, S.; Xia, L.; Xu, Z.Z.; Yamamoto, J.; Yang, B.Z.; Yang, C.G.; Yang, H.J.; Yang, M.; Yeh, S.C.; Zalite, A.; Zalite, Yu.; Zhang, Z.P.; Zhao, J.; Zhu, G.Y.; Zhu, R.Y.; Zhuang, H.L.; Zichichi, A.; Zilizi, G.; Zimmermann, B.; Zoller, M.

    2002-01-01

    Strange baryon pair production in two-photon collisions is studied with the L3 detector at LEP. The analysis is based on data collected at e+e- centre-of-mass energies from 91 GeV to 208 GeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 844 pb-1. The processes gamma gamma -> Lambda Anti-lambda and gamma gamma -> Sigma0 Anti-sigma0 are identified. Their cross sections as a function of the gamma gamma centre-of-mass energy are measured and results are compared to predictions of the quark-diquark model.

  13. Proton-Antiproton Pair Production in Two-Photon Collisions at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Achard, P.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Alcaraz, J.; Alemanni, G.; Allaby, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alviggi, M.G.; Anderhub, H.; Andreev, Valery P.; Anselmo, F.; Arefev, A.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Bagnaia, P.; Bajo, A.; Baksay, G.; Baksay, L.; Baldew, S.V.; Banerjee, S.; Banerjee, Sw.; Barczyk, A.; Barillere, R.; Bartalini, P.; Basile, M.; Batalova, N.; Battiston, R.; Bay, A.; Becattini, F.; Becker, U.; Behner, F.; Bellucci, L.; Berbeco, R.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Betev, B.L.; Biasini, M.; Biglietti, M.; Biland, A.; Blaising, J.J.; Blyth, S.C.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bohm, A.; Boldizsar, L.; Borgia, B.; Bottai, S.; Bourilkov, D.; Bourquin, M.; Braccini, S.; Branson, J.G.; Brochu, F.; Burger, J.D.; Burger, W.J.; Cai, X.D.; Capell, M.; Cara Romeo, G.; Carlino, G.; Cartacci, A.; Casaus, J.; Cavallari, F.; Cavallo, N.; Cecchi, C.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo, M.; Chang, Y.H.; Chemarin, M.; Chen, A.; Chen, G.; Chen, G.M.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, H.S.; Chiefari, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Clare, I.; Clare, R.; Coignet, G.; Colino, N.; Costantini, S.; de la Cruz, B.; Cucciarelli, S.; van Dalen, J.A.; de Asmundis, R.; Deglon, P.; Debreczeni, J.; Degre, A.; Dehmelt, K.; Deiters, K.; della Volpe, D.; Delmeire, E.; Denes, P.; DeNotaristefani, F.; De Salvo, A.; Diemoz, M.; Dierckxsens, M.; Dionisi, C.; Dittmar, M.; Doria, A.; Dova, M.T.; Duchesneau, D.; Duda, M.; Echenard, B.; Eline, A.; El Hage, A.; El Mamouni, H.; Engler, A.; Eppling, F.J.; Extermann, P.; Falagan, M.A.; Falciano, S.; Favara, A.; Fay, J.; Fedin, O.; Felcini, M.; Ferguson, T.; Fesefeldt, H.; Fiandrini, E.; Field, J.H.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, P.H.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, I.; Forconi, G.; Freudenreich, K.; Furetta, C.; Galaktionov, Iouri; Ganguli, S.N.; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gataullin, M.; Gentile, S.; Giagu, S.; Gong, Z.F.; Grenier, Gerald Jean; Grimm, O.; Gruenewald, M.W.; Guida, M.; van Gulik, R.; Gupta, V.K.; Gurtu, A.; Gutay, L.J.; Haas, D.; Hakobyan, R.S.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hebbeker, T.; Herve, Alain; Hirschfelder, J.; Hofer, H.; Hohlmann, M.; Holzner, G.; Hou, S.R.; Hu, Y.; Jin, B.N.; Jones, Lawrence W.; de Jong, P.; Josa-Mutuberria, I.; Kafer, D.; Kaur, M.; Kienzle-Focacci, M.N.; Kim, J.K.; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, W.; Klimentov, A.; Konig, A.C.; Kopal, M.; Koutsenko, V.; Kraber, M.; Kraemer, R.W.; Kruger, A.; Kunin, A.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Laktineh, I.; Landi, G.; Lebeau, M.; Lebedev, A.; Lebrun, P.; Lecomte, P.; Lecoq, P.; Le Coultre, P.; Le Goff, J.M.; Leiste, R.; Levtchenko, M.; Levtchenko, P.; Li, C.; Likhoded, S.; Lin, C.H.; Lin, W.T.; Linde, F.L.; Lista, L.; Liu, Z.A.; Lohmann, W.; Longo, E.; Lu, Y.S.; Luci, C.; Luminari, L.; Lustermann, W.; Ma, W.G.; Malgeri, L.; Malinin, A.; Mana, C.; Mans, J.; Martin, J.P.; Marzano, F.; Mazumdar, K.; McNeil, R.R.; Mele, S.; Merola, L.; Meschini, M.; Metzger, W.J.; Mihul, A.; Milcent, H.; Mirabelli, G.; Mnich, J.; Mohanty, G.B.; Muanza, G.S.; Muijs, A.J.M.; Musicar, B.; Musy, M.; Nagy, S.; Natale, S.; Napolitano, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Newman, H.; Nisati, A.; Kluge, Hannelies; Ofierzynski, R.; Organtini, G.; Pal, I.; Palomares, C.; Paolucci, P.; Paramatti, R.; Passaleva, G.; Patricelli, S.; Paul, Thomas Cantzon; Pauluzzi, M.; Paus, C.; Pauss, F.; Pedace, M.; Pensotti, S.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Petersen, B.; Piccolo, D.; Pierella, F.; Pioppi, M.; Piroue, P.A.; Pistolesi, E.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Pojidaev, V.; Pothier, J.; Prokofev, D.; Quartieri, J.; Rahal-Callot, G.; Rahaman, Mohammad Azizur; Raics, P.; Raja, N.; Ramelli, R.; Rancoita, P.G.; Ranieri, R.; Raspereza, A.; Razis, P.; Ren, D.; Rescigno, M.; Reucroft, S.; Riemann, S.; Riles, Keith; Roe, B.P.; Romero, L.; Rosca, A.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Roth, Stefan; Rosenbleck, C.; Rubio, J.A.; Ruggiero, G.; Rykaczewski, H.; Sakharov, A.; Saremi, S.; Sarkar, S.; Salicio, J.; Sanchez, E.; Schafer, C.; Schegelsky, V.; Schopper, H.; Schotanus, D.J.; Sciacca, C.; Servoli, L.; Shevchenko, S.; Shivarov, N.; Shoutko, V.; Shumilov, E.; Shvorob, A.; Son, D.; Souga, C.; Spillantini, P.; Steuer, M.; Stickland, D.P.; Stoyanov, B.; Straessner, A.; Sudhakar, K.; Sultanov, G.; Sun, L.Z.; Sushkov, S.; Suter, H.; Swain, J.D.; Szillasi, Z.; Tang, X.W.; Tarjan, P.; Tauscher, L.; Taylor, L.; Tellili, B.; Teyssier, D.; Timmermans, Charles; Ting, Samuel C.C.; Ting, S.M.; Tonwar, S.C.; Toth, J.; Tully, C.; Tung, K.L.; Ulbricht, J.; Valente, E.; Van de Walle, R.T.; Vasquez, R.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vetlitsky, I.; Vicinanza, D.; Viertel, G.; Villa, S.; Vivargent, M.; Vlachos, S.; Vodopianov, I.; Vogel, H.; Vogt, H.; Vorobev, I.; Vorobyov, A.A.; Wadhwa, M.; Wang, Q.; Wang, X.L.; Wang, Z.M.; Weber, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wilkens, H.; Wynhoff, S.; Xia, L.; Xu, Z.Z.; Yamamoto, J.; Yang, B.Z.; Yang, C.G.; Yang, H.J.; Yang, M.; Yeh, S.C.; Zalite, An.; Zalite, Yu.; Zhang, Z.P.; Zhao, J.; Zhu, G.Y.; Zhu, R.Y.; Zhuang, H.L.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, B.; Zoller, M.

    2003-01-01

    The reaction e+e- -> e+e- proton antiproton is studied with the L3 detector at LEP. The analysis is based on data collected at e+e- center-of-mass energies from 183 GeV to 209 GeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 667 pb-1. The gamma gamma -> proton antiproton differential cross section is measured in the range of the two-photon center-of-mass energy from 2.1 GeV to 4.5 GeV. The results are compared to the predictions of the three-quark and quark-diquark models.

  14. Study of KS0 pair production in single-tag two-photon collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, M.; Uehara, S.; Watanabe, Y.; Adachi, I.; Ahn, J. K.; Aihara, H.; Al Said, S.; Asner, D. M.; Atmacan, H.; Aulchenko, V.; Aushev, T.; Ayad, R.; Babu, V.; Badhrees, I.; Bansal, V.; Behera, P.; Berger, M.; Bhardwaj, V.; Bhuyan, B.; Biswal, J.; Bondar, A.; Bonvicini, G.; Bozek, A.; Bračko, M.; Červenkov, D.; Chen, A.; Cheon, B. G.; Chilikin, K.; Cho, K.; Choi, Y.; Choudhury, S.; Cinabro, D.; Czank, T.; Dash, N.; Di Carlo, S.; Doležal, Z.; Drásal, Z.; Dutta, D.; Eidelman, S.; Epifanov, D.; Fast, J. E.; Ferber, T.; Fulsom, B. G.; Garg, R.; Gaur, V.; Gabyshev, N.; Garmash, A.; Gelb, M.; Giri, A.; Goldenzweig, P.; Guido, E.; Haba, J.; Hayasaka, K.; Hayashii, H.; Hedges, M. T.; Hou, W.-S.; Iijima, T.; Inami, K.; Inguglia, G.; Ishikawa, A.; Itoh, R.; Iwasaki, M.; Iwasaki, Y.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jaegle, I.; Jin, Y.; Joo, K. K.; Julius, T.; Kang, K. H.; Karyan, G.; Kawasaki, T.; Kichimi, H.; Kiesling, C.; Kim, D. Y.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, J. B.; Kim, K. T.; Kim, S. H.; Kodyš, P.; Kotchetkov, D.; Križan, P.; Kroeger, R.; Krokovny, P.; Kulasiri, R.; Kuzmin, A.; Kwon, Y.-J.; Lee, I. S.; Lee, S. C.; Li, L. K.; Li, Y.; Li Gioi, L.; Libby, J.; Liventsev, D.; Lubej, M.; Luo, T.; Matsuda, T.; Matvienko, D.; Merola, M.; Miyabayashi, K.; Miyata, H.; Mizuk, R.; Mohanty, G. B.; Moon, H. K.; Mori, T.; Mussa, R.; Nakao, M.; Nakazawa, H.; Nanut, T.; Nath, K. J.; Natkaniec, Z.; Nayak, M.; Niiyama, M.; Nisar, N. K.; Nishida, S.; Ogawa, S.; Okuno, S.; Ono, H.; Onuki, Y.; Pakhlov, P.; Pakhlova, G.; Pal, B.; Park, H.; Paul, S.; Pedlar, T. K.; Pestotnik, R.; Piilonen, L. E.; Ritter, M.; Rostomyan, A.; Russo, G.; Sakai, Y.; Salehi, M.; Sandilya, S.; Santelj, L.; Sanuki, T.; Savinov, V.; Schneider, O.; Schnell, G.; Schwanda, C.; Seidl, R.; Seino, Y.; Senyo, K.; Seon, O.; Sevior, M. E.; Shebalin, V.; Shen, C. P.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shimizu, N.; Shiu, J.-G.; Shwartz, B.; Sokolov, A.; Solovieva, E.; Starič, M.; Strube, J. F.; Sumihama, M.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Takizawa, M.; Tamponi, U.; Tanida, K.; Tenchini, F.; Teramoto, Y.; Uchida, M.; Uglov, T.; Unno, Y.; Uno, S.; Urquijo, P.; Van Hulse, C.; Varner, G.; Vinokurova, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Vossen, A.; Wang, B.; Wang, C. H.; Wang, M.-Z.; Wang, P.; Wang, X. L.; Watanabe, M.; Widmann, E.; Won, E.; Ye, H.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yusa, Y.; Zakharov, S.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhilich, V.; Zhukova, V.; Zhulanov, V.; Zupanc, A.; Belle Collaboration

    2018-03-01

    We report a measurement of the cross section for KS0 pair production in single-tag two-photon collisions, γ*γ →KS0KS0, for Q2 up to 30 GeV2 , where Q2 is the negative of the invariant mass squared of the tagged photon. The measurement covers the kinematic range 1.0 GeV partial decay widths of the χc 0 and χc 2 mesons are measured as a function of Q2 based on 10 candidate events in total.

  15. Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton nanowaveguides fabricated by two-photon polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Hao; Li, Yan; Cui, Hai-Bo; Yang, Hong; Gong, Qi-Huang [Peking University, State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics and Department of Physics, Beijing (China)

    2009-11-15

    The design, fabrication, and characterization of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton nanowave-guides on a gold film are presented. The nanostructures are produced by two-photon polymerization with femtosecond laser pulses, and the minimum ridge height is {proportional_to}170 nm. Leakage radiation microscopy shows that these surface plasmon-polariton waveguides are single mode with strong mode confinement at the wavelength of 830 nm. The experimental results are in good agreement with the simulation by the effective-index method. (orig.)

  16. General calculation of the cross section for dark matter annihilations into two photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Cely, Camilo [Service de Physique Théorique, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Boulevard du Triomphe, CP225, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Rivera, Andres, E-mail: Camilo.Alfredo.Garcia.Cely@ulb.ac.be, E-mail: afelipe.rivera@udea.edu.co [Instituto de Física, Universidad de Antioquia, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia)

    2017-03-01

    Assuming that the underlying model satisfies some general requirements such as renormalizability and CP conservation, we calculate the non-relativistic one-loop cross section for any self-conjugate dark matter particle annihilating into two photons. We accomplish this by carefully classifying all possible one-loop diagrams and, from them, reading off the dark matter interactions with the particles running in the loop. Our approach is general and leads to the same results found in the literature for popular dark matter candidates such as the neutralinos of the MSSM, minimal dark matter, inert Higgs and Kaluza-Klein dark matter.

  17. Two-photon polarization data storage in bacteriorhodopsin films and its potential use in security applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imhof, Martin; Hampp, Norbert, E-mail: hampp@staff.uni-marburg.de [Department of Chemistry, Material Sciences Center, University of Marburg, Hans-Meerwein-Str., D-35032 Marburg (Germany); Rhinow, Daniel [Max-Planck-Institute of Biophysics, Max-von-Laue-Straße 3, D-60438 Frankfurt (Germany)

    2014-02-24

    Bacteriorhodopsin (BR) films allow write-once-read-many recording of polarization data by a two-photon-absorption (TPA) process. The optical changes in BR films induced by the TPA recording were measured and the Müller matrix of a BR film was determined. A potential application of BR films in security technology is shown. Polarization data can be angle-selective retrieved with high signal-to-noise ratio. The BR film does not only carry optical information but serves also as a linear polarizer. This enables that polarization features recorded in BR films may be retrieved by merely using polarized light from a mobile phone display.

  18. One-bit photon polarization in two-photon experiments. An information mechanics perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantor, F.W.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper is presented a detailed treatment of amount and representation of photon polarization information in the two-photon experiments of Aspect, Grangier, and Roger, seeking to test Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen's thought experiment. Newton's mechanics, Einstein's relativistic mechanics, and quantum mechanics do not treat as fundamental the amount and representation of information in physical systems. The line of reasoning presented here was reached via Kantor's information mechanics. The information bookkeeping presented here appears to offer a simple, physical insight into what the apparatus and the photons are doing together

  19. In vivo imaging of cerebral energy metabolism with two-photon fluorescence lifetime microscopy of NADH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaseen, Mohammad A; Sakadžić, Sava; Wu, Weicheng; Becker, Wolfgang; Kasischke, Karl A; Boas, David A

    2013-02-01

    Minimally invasive, specific measurement of cellular energy metabolism is crucial for understanding cerebral pathophysiology. Here, we present high-resolution, in vivo observations of autofluorescence lifetime as a biomarker of cerebral energy metabolism in exposed rat cortices. We describe a customized two-photon imaging system with time correlated single photon counting detection and specialized software for modeling multiple-component fits of fluorescence decay and monitoring their transient behaviors. In vivo cerebral NADH fluorescence suggests the presence of four distinct components, which respond differently to brief periods of anoxia and likely indicate different enzymatic formulations. Individual components show potential as indicators of specific molecular pathways involved in oxidative metabolism.

  20. Whispering gallery modes in two-photon fluorescence from spherical DCM dye microresonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamonov, Evgeniy A.; Maydykovskiy, Anton I.; Mitetelo, Nikolai V.; Venkatakrishnarao, Dasari; Chandrasekar, Rajadurai; Murzina, Tatyana V.

    2018-03-01

    Organic microstructures are well known for their resonator properties, which bring about whispering gallery mode (WGM) excitation. Here we report on experimental evidence of the WGM in the two-photon fluorescence (TPF) of DCM dye microspheres made using the self-assembly method. The WGM excitation accompanying the overall TPF in the spectral range from 530\\div640 nm demonstrated a quality factor of approximately 102 for spheres that were several microns in diameter. The power dependence of the TPF intensity proved the second order nature of the interaction process involved.

  1. Suitable photo-resists for two-photon polymerization using femtosecond fiber lasers

    KAUST Repository

    Rajamanickam, V.P.

    2014-06-01

    We present suitable materials with good optical and mechanical properties, simple processing, efficient and optimized for two-photon polymerization (TPP) with femtosecond fiber lasers. We selected readily available acrylic monomer Bisphenol A ethoxylate diacrylate (BPA-EDA) with three different photo-initiators (PIs), isopropyl thioxanthone (ITX), 7-diethylamino-3-thenoylcoumarin (DETC), and 4,4′ bis(diethylamino) benzophenone (BDEB), since their absorption spectra match well with the laser wavelength at 780 nm. These PIs grant efficient radical generation, reactivity and high solubility in acrylic monomers. Finally, good optical and mechanical properties are demonstrated by the fabrication of different micro-structures.

  2. Results on two-photon interactions from Mark II at SPEAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrams, G.S.; Alam, M.S.; Blocker, C.A.

    1979-10-01

    Preliminary results on two-photon interactions from the SLAC-LBL Mark II magnetic detector at SPEAR are presented. The cross section for eta' production by the reaction e + e - → e + e - eta' has been measured over the beam energy range from 2 to 4 GeV. The radiative width GAMMA/sub γγ/(eta') has been determined to be 5.8 +- 1.1 keV (+- 20% systematic uncertainty). Upper limits on the radiative widths of the f(1270), and A 2 (1310) and f'(1515) mesons have been determined

  3. Polarised two-photon excitation of quantum well excitons for manipulation of optically pumped terahertz lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slavcheva, G., E-mail: gsk23@bath.ac.uk [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Kavokin, A.V., E-mail: A.Kavokin@soton.ac.uk [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Spin Optics Laboratory, St. Petersburg State University, 1, Ulyanovskaya 198504 (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-15

    Optical pumping of excited exciton states in a semiconductor quantum well embedded in a microcavity is a tool for realisation of ultra-compact terahertz (THz) lasers based on stimulated optical transition between excited (2p) and ground (1s) exciton state. We show that the probability of two-photon absorption by a 2p-exciton is strongly dependent on the polarisation of both pumping photons. Five-fold variation of the threshold power for terahertz lasing by switching from circular to co-linear pumping is predicted. We identify photon polarisation configurations for achieving maximum THz photon generation quantum efficiency.

  4. Direct measurements of neutral density depletion by two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aanesland, A.; Liard, L.; Leray, G.; Jolly, J.; Chabert, P.

    2007-01-01

    The ground state density of xenon atoms has been measured by spatially resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy with two-photon excitation in the diffusion chamber of a magnetized Helicon plasma. This technique allows the authors to directly measure the relative variations of the xenon atom density without any assumptions. A significant neutral gas density depletion was measured in the core of the magnetized plasma, in agreement with previous theoretical and experimental works. It was also found that the neutral gas density was depleted near the radial walls

  5. Bulky Counterions: Enhancing the Two-Photon Excited Fluorescence of Gold Nanoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertorelle, Franck; Moulin, Christophe; Soleilhac, Antonin; Comby-Zerbino, Clothilde; Dugourd, Philippe; Russier-Antoine, Isabelle; Brevet, Pierre-François; Antoine, Rodolphe

    2018-01-19

    Increasing fluorescence quantum yields of ligand-protected gold nanoclusters has attracted wide research interest. The strategy consisting in using bulky counterions has been found to dramatically enhance the fluorescence. In this Communication, we push forward this concept to the nonlinear optical regime. We show that by an appropriate choice of bulky counterions and of solvent, a 30-fold increase in two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) signal at ≈600 nm for gold nanoclusters can be obtained. This would correspond to a TPEF cross-section in the range of 0.1 to 1 GM. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Muon-Pair and Tau-Pair Production in Two-Photon Collisions at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Achard, P.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Alcaraz, J.; Alemanni, G.; Allaby, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alviggi, M.G.; Anderhub, H.; Andreev, Valery P.; Anselmo, F.; Arefev, A.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Bagnaia, P.; Bajo, A.; Baksay, G.; Baksay, L.; Baldew, S.V.; Banerjee, S.; Banerjee, Sw.; Barczyk, A.; Barillere, R.; Bartalini, P.; Basile, M.; Batalova, N.; Battiston, R.; Bay, A.; Becattini, F.; Becker, U.; Behner, F.; Bellucci, L.; Berbeco, R.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Betev, B.L.; Biasini, M.; Biglietti, M.; Biland, A.; Blaising, J.J.; Blyth, S.C.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bohm, A.; Boldizsar, L.; Borgia, B.; Bottai, S.; Bourilkov, D.; Bourquin, M.; Braccini, S.; Branson, J.G.; Brochu, F.; Burger, J.D.; Burger, W.J.; Cai, X.D.; Capell, M.; Cara Romeo, G.; Carlino, G.; Cartacci, A.; Casaus, J.; Cavallari, F.; Cavallo, N.; Cecchi, C.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo, M.; Chang, Y.H.; Chemarin, M.; Chen, A.; Chen, G.; Chen, G.M.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, H.S.; Chiefari, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Clare, I.; Clare, R.; Coignet, G.; Colino, N.; Costantini, S.; de la Cruz, B.; Cucciarelli, S.; van Dalen, J.A.; de Asmundis, R.; Deglon, P.; Debreczeni, J.; Degre, A.; Dehmelt, K.; Deiters, K.; della Volpe, D.; Delmeire, E.; Denes, P.; DeNotaristefani, F.; De Salvo, A.; Diemoz, M.; Dierckxsens, M.; Dionisi, C.; Dittmar, M.; Doria, A.; Dova, M.T.; Duchesneau, D.; Duda, M.; Echenard, B.; Eline, A.; El Hage, A.; El Mamouni, H.; Engler, A.; Eppling, F.J.; Extermann, P.; Falagan, M.A.; Falciano, S.; Favara, A.; Fay, J.; Fedin, O.; Felcini, M.; Ferguson, T.; Fesefeldt, H.; Fiandrini, E.; Field, J.H.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, P.H.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, I.; Forconi, G.; Freudenreich, K.; Furetta, C.; Galaktionov, Iouri; Ganguli, S.N.; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gataullin, M.; Gentile, S.; Giagu, S.; Gong, Z.F.; Grenier, Gerald Jean; Grimm, O.; Gruenewald, M.W.; Guida, M.; van Gulik, R.; Gupta, V.K.; Gurtu, A.; Gutay, L.J.; Haas, D.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hebbeker, T.; Herve, Alain; Hirschfelder, J.; Hofer, H.; Hohlmann, M.; Holzner, G.; Hou, S.R.; Hu, Y.; Jin, B.N.; Jones, Lawrence W.; de Jong, P.; Josa-Mutuberria, I.; Kaur, M.; Kienzle-Focacci, M.N.; Kim, J.K.; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, W.; Klimentov, A.; Konig, A.C.; Kopal, M.; Koutsenko, V.; Kraber, M.; Kraemer, R.W.; Kruger, A.; Kunin, A.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Laktineh, I.; Landi, G.; Lebeau, M.; Lebedev, A.; Lebrun, P.; Lecomte, P.; Lecoq, P.; Le Coultre, P.; Le Goff, J.M.; Leiste, R.; Levtchenko, M.; Levtchenko, P.; Li, C.; Likhoded, S.; Lin, C.H.; Lin, W.T.; Linde, F.L.; Lista, L.; Liu, Z.A.; Lohmann, W.; Longo, E.; Lu, Y.S.; Luci, C.; Luminari, L.; Lustermann, W.; Ma, W.G.; Malgeri, L.; Malinin, A.; Mana, C.; Mans, J.; Martin, J.P.; Marzano, F.; Mazumdar, K.; McNeil, R.R.; Mele, S.; Merola, L.; Meschini, M.; Metzger, W.J.; Mihul, A.; Milcent, H.; Mirabelli, G.; Mnich, J.; Mohanty, G.B.; Muanza, G.S.; Muijs, A.J.M.; Musicar, B.; Musy, M.; Nagy, S.; Natale, S.; Napolitano, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Newman, H.; Nisati, A.; Novak, T.; Kluge, Hannelies; Ofierzynski, R.; Organtini, G.; Pal, I.; Palomares, C.; Paolucci, P.; Paramatti, R.; Passaleva, G.; Patricelli, S.; Paul, Thomas Cantzon; Pauluzzi, M.; Paus, C.; Pauss, F.; Pedace, M.; Pensotti, S.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Petersen, B.; Piccolo, D.; Pierella, F.; Pioppi, M.; Piroue, P.A.; Pistolesi, E.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Pojidaev, V.; Pothier, J.; Prokofev, D.; Quartieri, J.; Rahal-Callot, G.; Rahaman, Mohammad Azizur; Raics, P.; Raja, N.; Ramelli, R.; Rancoita, P.G.; Ranieri, R.; Raspereza, A.; Razis, P.; Ren, D.; Rescigno, M.; Reucroft, S.; Riemann, S.; Riles, Keith; Roe, B.P.; Romero, L.; Rosca, A.; Rosemann, C.; Rosenbleck, C.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Roth, Stefan; Rubio, J.A.; Ruggiero, G.; Rykaczewski, H.; Sakharov, A.; Saremi, S.; Sarkar, S.; Salicio, J.; Sanchez, E.; Schafer, C.; Schegelsky, V.; Schopper, H.; Schotanus, D.J.; Sciacca, C.; Servoli, L.; Shevchenko, S.; Shivarov, N.; Shoutko, V.; Shumilov, E.; Shvorob, A.; Son, D.; Souga, C.; Spillantini, P.; Steuer, M.; Stickland, D.P.; Stoyanov, B.; Straessner, A.; Sudhakar, K.; Sultanov, G.; Sun, L.Z.; Sushkov, S.; Suter, H.; Swain, J.D.; Szillasi, Z.; Tang, X.W.; Tarjan, P.; Tauscher, L.; Taylor, L.; Tellili, B.; Teyssier, D.; Timmermans, Charles; Ting, Samuel C.C.; Ting, S.M.; Tonwar, S.C.; Toth, J.; Tully, C.; Tung, K.L.; Ulbricht, J.; Valente, E.; Van de Walle, R.T.; Vasquez, R.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vetlitsky, I.; Vicinanza, D.; Viertel, G.; Villa, S.; Vivargent, M.; Vlachos, S.; Vodopianov, I.; Vogel, H.; Vogt, H.; Vorobev, I.; Vorobyov, A.A.; Wadhwa, M.; Wang, Q.Wang X.L.; Wang, Z.M.; Weber, M.; Wilkens, H.; Wynhoff, S.; Xia, L.; Xu, Z.Z.; Yamamoto, J.; Yang, B.Z.; Yang, C.G.; Yang, H.J.; Yang, M.; Yeh, S.C.; Zalite, An.; Zalite, Yu.; Zhang, Z.P.; Zhao, J.; Zhu, G.Y.; Zhu, R.Y.; Zhuang, H.L.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, B.; Zoller, M.

    2004-01-01

    The QED processes e^+ e^- -> e^+ e^- \\mu^+ \\mu^- and e^+ e^- -> e^+ e^- \\tau^+ \\tau^- are studied with the L3 detector at LEP using an untagged data sample collected at centre-of-mass energies 161 GeV \\mu^+\\mu^- process is also measured as a function of the two-photon centre-of-mass energy for 3 GeV < W_{\\gamma\\gamma} < 40 GeV. Good agreement is found between these measurements and the O(\\alpha^4) QED expectations. In addition, limits on the anomalous magnetic and electric dipole moments of the tau lepton are extracted.

  7. Novel xenon calibration scheme for two-photon absorption laser induced fluorescence of hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Drew; Scime, Earl; Short, Zachary, E-mail: zdshort@mix.wvu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26056 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Two photon absorption laser induced fluorescence (TALIF) measurements of neutral hydrogen and its isotopes are typically calibrated by performing TALIF measurements on krypton with the same diagnostic system and using the known ratio of the absorption cross sections [K. Niemi et al., J. Phys. D 34, 2330 (2001)]. Here we present the measurements of a new calibration method based on a ground state xenon scheme for which the fluorescent emission wavelength is nearly identical to that of hydrogen, thereby eliminating chromatic effects in the collection optics and simplifying detector calibration. We determine that the ratio of the TALIF cross sections of xenon and hydrogen is 0.024 ± 0.001.

  8. CdSe/AsS core-shell quantum dots: preparation and two-photon fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junzhong; Lin, Ming; Yan, Yongli; Wang, Zhe; Ho, Paul C; Loh, Kian Ping

    2009-08-19

    Arsenic(II) sulfide (AsS)-coated CdSe core-shell nanocrystals can be prepared by a cluster-complex deposition approach under mild conditions. At 60 degrees C, growth of an AsS shell onto a CdSe nanocrystal can be realized through the crystallization of a cluster complex of AsS/butylamine in a mixed solvent of isopropanol/chloroform. The new, type I core-shell nanocrystal exhibits markedly enhanced one-photon fluorescence as well two-photon upconversion fluorescence. The nanocrystals can be used for infrared-excited upconversion cellular labeling.

  9. Polarization dependence of two-photon absorption coefficient and nonlinear susceptibility tensor in InP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsusue, Toshio; Bando, Hiroyuki; Fujita, Shoichi; Takayama, Yusuke

    2011-01-01

    Two-photon absorption (TPA) effect in (001) InP is investigated using fs laser. Its dependences on wavelength and polarization are clarified by single and double beam methods with linearly polarized lights. Characteristic features are revealed and discussed with scaling law, crystal bonding and mutual relation of polarizations for double beams. The results are successfully analyzed on the basis of the third-order susceptibility tensor for comprehensive understanding of TPA effect at any polarization geometry. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. Forward two-photon exchange in elastic lepton-proton scattering and hyperfine-splitting correction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomalak, Oleksandr [Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet, Institut fuer Kernphysik and PRISMA Cluster of Excellence, Mainz (Germany)

    2017-08-15

    We relate the forward two-photon exchange (TPE) amplitudes to integrals of the inclusive lepton-proton scattering cross sections. These relations yield an alternative way for the evaluation of the TPE correction to hyperfine-splitting (HFS) in the hydrogen-like atoms with an equivalent to the standard approach (Iddings, Drell and Sullivan) result implying the Burkhardt-Cottingham sum rule. For evaluation of the individual effects (e.g., elastic contribution) our approach yields a distinct result. We compare both methods numerically on examples of the elastic contribution and the full TPE correction to HFS in electronic and muonic hydrogen. (orig.)

  11. Tunable two-photon correlation in a double-cavity optomechanical system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Bo Feng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Correlated photons are essential sources for quantum information processing. We propose a practical scheme to generate pairs of correlated photons in a controllable fashion from a double-cavity optomechanical system, where the variable optomechanical coupling strength makes it possible to tune the photon correlation at our will. The key operation is based on the repulsive or attractive interaction between the two photons intermediated by the mechanical resonator. The present protocol could provide a potential approach to coherent control of the photon correlation using the optomechanical cavity.

  12. Simple fibre based dispersion management for two-photon excited fluorescence imaging through an endoscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimopoulos, Konstantinos; Marti, Dominik; Andersen, Peter E.

    2018-01-01

    We want to implement two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy (TPEFM) into endoscopes, since TPEFM can provide relevant biomarkers for cancer staging and grading in hollow organs, endoscopically accessible through natural orifices. However, many obstacles must be overcome, among others...... the delivery of short laser pulses to the distal end of the endoscope. To this avail, we present imaging results using an all-fibre dispersion management scheme in a TPEFM setup. The scheme has been conceived by Jespersen et al. in 20101 and relies on the combination of a single mode fibre with normal...

  13. Enhancement of two-photon photoluminescence and SERS for low-coverage gold films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novikov, Sergey M.; Beermann, Jonas; Frydendahl, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Electromagnetic field enhancement (FE) effects occurring in thin gold films 3-12-nm are investigated with two-photon photoluminescence (TPL) and Raman scanning optical microscopies. The samples are characterized using scanning electron microscopy images and linear optical spectroscopy. TPL images...... exhibit a strong increase in the level of TPL signals for films thicknesses 3-8-nm, near the percolation threshold. For some thicknesses, TPL measurements reveal super-cubic dependences on the incident power. We ascribe this feature to the occurrence of very strongly localized and enhanced electromagnetic...

  14. An ultrafast electron microscope gun driven by two-photon photoemission from a nanotip cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bormann, Reiner; Strauch, Stefanie; Schäfer, Sascha; Ropers, Claus

    2015-01-01

    We experimentally and numerically investigate the performance of an advanced ultrafast electron source, based on two-photon photoemission from a tungsten needle cathode incorporated in an electron microscope gun geometry. Emission properties are characterized as a function of the electrostatic gun settings, and operating conditions leading to laser-triggered electron beams of very low emittance (below 20 nm mrad) are identified. The results highlight the excellent suitability of optically driven nano-cathodes for the further development of ultrafast transmission electron microscopy

  15. Resonance formation in the $\\pi^+\\pi^-\\pi^0$ final state in two-photon collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Acciarri, M; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Ahlen, S P; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alverson, G; Alviggi, M G; Ambrosi, G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Angelescu, T; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Baksay, L; Ball, R C; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, Sw; Banicz, K; Barczyk, A; Barillère, R; Barone, L; Bartalini, P; Baschirotto, A; Basile, M; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Bhattacharya, S; Biasini, M; Biland, A; Bilei, G M; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Böck, R K; Böhm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Boucham, A; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Boutigny, D; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brigljevic, V; Brock, I C; Buffini, A; Buijs, A; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Busenitz, J K; Cai, X D; Campanelli, M; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A M; Casaus, J; Castellini, G; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada-Canales, M; Cesaroni, F; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chang, Y H; Chaturvedi, U K; Chekanov, S V; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chen, M; Chiefari, G; Chien, C Y; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Civinini, C; Clare, I; Clare, R; Cohn, H O; Coignet, G; Colijn, A P; Colino, N; Commichau, V; Costantini, S; Cotorobai, F; de la Cruz, B; Csilling, Akos; Dai, T S; D'Alessandro, R; De Asmundis, R; Degré, A; Deiters, K; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; DiBitonto, Daryl; Diemoz, M; Van Dierendonck, D N; Di Lodovico, F; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, Michael; Dominguez, A; Doria, A; Dorne, I; Dova, M T; Drago, E; Duchesneau, D; Duinker, P; Durán, I; Dutta, S; Easo, S; Efremenko, Yu V; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Erné, F C; Ernenwein, J P; Extermann, Pierre; Fabre, M; Faccini, R; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, Marta; Fenyi, B; Ferguson, T; Ferroni, F; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, Frank; Fisher, P H; Fisk, I; Forconi, G; Fredj, L; Freudenreich, Klaus; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gau, S S; Gentile, S; Gerald, J; Gheordanescu, N; Giagu, S; Goldfarb, S; Goldstein, J; Gong, Z F; Gougas, Andreas; Gratta, Giorgio; Grünewald, M W; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Hartmann, B; Hasan, A; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Van Hoek, W C; Hofer, H; Hong, S J; Hoorani, H; Hou, S R; Hu, G; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janssen, H; Jenkes, K; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Kasser, A; Khan, R A; Kamrad, D; Kamyshkov, Yu A; Kapustinsky, J S; Karyotakis, Yu; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, D; Kim, D H; Kim, J K; Kim, S C; Kim, Y G; Kinnison, W W; Kirkby, A; Kirkby, D; Kirkby, Jasper; Kiss, D; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Kopp, A; Korolko, I; Koutsenko, V F; Krämer, R W; Krenz, W; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Landi, G; Lapoint, C; Lassila-Perini, K M; Laurikainen, P; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Leggett, C; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Leonardi, E; Levchenko, P M; Li Chuan; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lu, W; Lü, Y S; Lübelsmeyer, K; Luci, C; Luckey, D; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Maity, M; Majumder, G; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mangeol, D J J; Mangla, S; Marchesini, P A; Marin, A; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Massaro, G G G; McNally, D; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Von der Mey, M; Mi, Y; Mihul, A; Van Mil, A J W; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Molnár, P; Monteleoni, B; Moore, R; Morganti, S; Moulik, T; Mount, R; Müller, S; Muheim, F; Muijs, A J M; Nahn, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Niessen, T; Nippe, A; Nisati, A; Nowak, H; Oh, Yu D; Opitz, H; Organtini, G; Ostonen, R; Palomares, C; Pandoulas, D; Paoletti, S; Paolucci, P; Park, H K; Park, I H; Pascale, G; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Peach, D; Pei, Y J; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Petrak, S; Pevsner, A; Piccolo, D; Pieri, M; Pinto, J C; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Postema, H; Produit, N; Prokofev, D; Prokofiev, D O; Rahal-Callot, G; Raja, N; Rancoita, P G; Rattaggi, M; Raven, G; Razis, P A; Read, K; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Van Rhee, T; Riemann, S; Riles, K; Robohm, A; Rodin, J; Roe, B P; Romero, L; Rosier-Lees, S; Rosselet, P; Van Rossum, W; Roth, S; Rubio, Juan Antonio; Ruschmeier, D; Rykaczewski, H; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Sanders, M P; Sarakinos, M E; Sarkar, S; Sassowsky, M; Sauvage, G; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schmidt-Kärst, S; Schmitz, D; Schmitz, P; Schneegans, M; Scholz, N; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Schwenke, J; Schwering, G; Sciacca, C; Sciarrino, D; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shukla, J; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A V; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Sopczak, André; Soulimov, V; Smith, B; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stone, H; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Strauch, K; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Susinno, G F; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Tang, X W; Tauscher, Ludwig; Taylor, L; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonutti, M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tully, C; Tuchscherer, H; Tung, K L; Uchida, Y; Ulbricht, J; Uwer, U; Valente, E; Van de Walle, R T; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Viertel, Gert M; Vivargent, M; Völkert, R; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Vorvolakos, A; Wadhwa, M; Wallraff, W; Wang, J C; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Weber, A; Wittgenstein, F; Wu, S X; Wynhoff, S; Xu, J; Xu, Z Z; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yao, X Y; Ye, J B; Yeh, S C; You, J M; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zemp, P; Zeng, Y; Zhang, Z; Zhang, Z P; Zhou, B; Zhou, Y; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zichichi, Antonino; Ziegler, F

    1997-01-01

    A study of resonance formation is presented in the $\\pi^+\\pi^-\\pi^0$ final state in two-photon collisions at LEP. The $a_2(1320)$ radiative width is measured to be $\\Gamma_{\\gamma\\gamma}=0.98\\pm0.05\\pm0.09$ keV{}. The helicity 2 production is dominant. Exclusive $\\pi^+\\pi^-\\pi^0$ production has also been studied in the mass region above the $a_2$ in the $\\rho\\pi$ and $f_2\\pi$ channels. This region is dominated by a $\\rm J^P$=$2^+$ helicity 2 wave.

  16. Two-photon polymerization of cylinder microstructures by femtosecond Bessel beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Liang [Department of Precision Machinery and Precision Instrumentation, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., 30419 Hannover (Germany); El-Tamer, Ayman; Hinze, Ulf; Chichkov, Boris N [Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., 30419 Hannover (Germany); Li, Jiawen, E-mail: jwl@ustc.edu.cn; Hu, Yanlei; Huang, Wenhao; Chu, Jiaru [Department of Precision Machinery and Precision Instrumentation, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2014-07-28

    In this work, we present an approach to modulate femtosecond laser beams into Bessel beams with a spatial light modulator (SLM) for two-photon polymerization applications. Bessel beams with different parameters are generated and annular optical fields are produced at the focal plane of the objective. Uniform cylinder microstructures are fabricated by a single illumination during a few seconds without stage translation. By modulating the holograms encoded on the SLM, the diameters of the fabricated annular structures can be flexibly controlled in a wide range with no need of changing the optical elements and realignment of the optical path.

  17. Two-photon collisions at very low Q2 from LEP2. Forthcoming results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almehed, S.; Jarlskog, G.; Mjornmark, U.; Nygren, A.; Zimin, N.; Kapusta, F.; Tyapkin, I.

    1998-01-01

    Experimental results that may soon be obtained in two-photon collisions at very low momentum transfer Q 2 at LEP2 are reviewed. A kinematical range is presented for both the forward and very forward detectors used to measure scattered electrons and positrons. A new acceptance, after this year's upgrade of the beam pipe at the position of the very forward detectors, is evaluated. The corresponding statistics is calculated for an integrated luminosity of 400 pb -1 , that must be collected by the end of LEP2 operation according to current plans

  18. Entanglement in the degenerate two-photon Tavis-Cummings model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bashkirov, E K, E-mail: bash@ssu.samara.r [Departments of General and Theoretical Physics, Samara State University, PO Box 443011, 1 Academican Pavlov Str., Samara (Russian Federation)

    2010-07-15

    An exact solution of the problem of two two-level atoms with degenerate two-photon transitions interacting with a one-mode coherent radiation field is presented. Asymptotic solutions for system state vectors are obtained in the approximation of large initial coherent fields. The atom-field entanglement is investigated on the basis of reduced atomic entropy dynamics. The possibility of the system being initially in a pure disentangled state to revive into this state during the evolution process for the model considered is shown. The conditions and times of disentanglement are derived.

  19. Search for Standard Model Higgs boson in the two-photon final state in ATLAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davignon Olivier

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We report on the search for the Standard Model Higgs boson decaying into two photons based on proton-proton collision data with a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV recorded by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. The dataset has an integrated luminosity of about 1:08 fb−1. The expected cross section exclusion at 95% confidence level varies between 2:0 and 5:8 times the Standard Model cross section over the diphoton mass range 110 – 150 GeV. The maximum deviations from the background-only expectation are consistent with statistical fluctuations.

  20. Transient behaviour of EIT and EIA in an optical-radio two-photon coupling configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoli; Yang, Zicai; Shang, Yaxuan

    2012-11-01

    Both electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA) and transparency (EIT) can be obtained in a modified quasi-lambda four level system consisting of an optical-radio two-photon coupling field and a probing field. A physical account of EIA and EIT is given in terms of a transient state picture in this paper. It can be seen that the optical coupling field in this quasi-lambda four level system has a crucial effect on the forming of EIA and EIT. An EIA is observed under a resonant optical coupling and it evolves into an EIT when there is a detuning.

  1. Rate amplification of the two photon emission from para-hydrogen toward the neutrino mass measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Takahiko; Hara, Hideaki; Miyamoto, Yuki; Kuma, Susumu; Nakano, Itsuo; Ohae, Chiaki; Sasao, Noboru; Tanaka, Minoru; Uetake, Satoshi; Yoshimi, Akihiro; Yoshimura, Koji; Yoshimura, Motohiko

    2015-01-01

    We recently reported an experiment which focused on demonstrating the macro-coherent amplification mechanism. This mechanism, which was proposed for neutrino mass measurements, indicates that a multi-particle emission rate should be amplified by coherence in a suitable medium. Using a para-hydrogen molecule gas target and the adiabatic Raman excitation method, we observed that the two photon emission rate was amplified by a factor of more than 10 15 from the spontaneous emission rate. This paper briefly summarizes the previous experimental result and presents the current status and the future prospect

  2. Nonlinear behavior of photoluminescence from silicon particles under two-photon excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xingsheng; Yokoyama, Shiyoshi

    2011-01-01

    Two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) under continuous-wave excitation from silicon particles produced by a pulsed laser is investigated. Spectra and images of TPEF from silicon particles are studied under different excitation intensities and operation modes (continuous wave or pulse). It is found that the photoluminescence depends superlinearly on the excitation intensity and that the spectral shape and peaks vary with different silicon particles. The above phenomena show the nonlinear behavior of TPEF from silicon particles, and stimulated emission is a possible process.

  3. Two photon laser spectroscopy of antiprotonic helium atoms at CERN’s AD

    CERN Document Server

    Hori, M

    2014-01-01

    The ASACUSA collaboration of CERN has carried out two-photon laser spectroscopy of antiprotonic helium atoms using counter-propagating ultraviolet laser beams. This excited some non-linear transitions of the antiproton at the wavelengths λ = 139.8–197.0 nm, in a way that reduced the thermal Doppler broadening of the observed resonances. The resulting narrow spectral lines allowed the measurement of three transition frequencies with fractional precisions of 2.3–5 parts in 109. By comparing these values with three-body QED calculations, the antiproton-to-electron mass ratio was derived as 1836.1526736(23). We briefly review these results.

  4. Two-photon mapping of localized field enhancements in thin nanostrip antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beermann, I.; Novikov, S.M.; Søndergaard, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    scanning optical microscopy, in which two-photon-excited photoluminescence (TPL) excited with a strongly focused laser beam at the wavelength 745 nm is detected. We use TPL images to map the local field enhancements from individual nanostrips at a resolution of 0.35µm and compare results with theoretical......Resonant scattering and local field enhancements by 11-nm-thin gold nanostrip antennas due to constructive interference of counter propagating slow surface plasmon polaritons is investigated. We characterize nanostrips of widths between 50-530 nm using both reflection spectroscopy and nonlinear...

  5. Correlated two-photon interference in a dual-beam Michelson interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiat, P.G.; Vareka, W.A.; Hong, C.K.; Nathel, H.; Chiao, R.Y.

    1990-01-01

    We report on an interference effect arising from a two-photon entangled state produced in a potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystal pumped by an ultraviolet argon-ion laser. Two conjugate beams of signal and idler photons were injected in a parallel configuration into a single Michelson interferometer, and detected separately by two photomultipliers, while the difference in its arm lengths was slowly scanned. The coincidence rate exhibited fringes with a visibility of nearly 50%, and a period given by half the ultraviolet (not the signal or idler) wavelength, while the singles rate exhibited no fringes

  6. TWO-PHOTON PHYSICS IN NUCLEUS-NUCLEUS COLLISIONS AT RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nystrand, J.; Klein, S.

    1998-01-01

    Ultra-relativistic heavy-ions carry strong electromagnetic and nuclear fields. Interactions between these fields in peripheral nucleus-nucleus collisions can probe many interesting physics topics. This presentation will focus on coherent two-photon and photonuclear processes at RHIC. The rates for these interactions will be high. The coherent coupling of all the protons in the nucleus enhances the equivalent photon flux by a factor Z 2 up to an energy of ∼ 3 GeV. The plans for studying coherent interactions with the STAR experiment will be discussed. Experimental techniques for separating signal from background will be presented

  7. Two-photon physics in nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nystrand, J.; Klein, S.

    1998-01-01

    Ultra-relativistic heavy-ions carry strong electromagnetic and nuclear fields. Interactions between these fields in peripheral nucleus-nucleus collisions can probe many interesting physics topics. This presentation will focus on coherent two-photon and photonuclear processes at RHIC. The rates for these interactions will be high. The coherent coupling of all the protons in the nucleus enhances the equivalent photon flux by a factor Z 2 up to an energy of ∼ 3 GeV. The plans for studying coherent interactions with the STAR experiment will be discussed. Experimental techniques for separating signal from background will be presented

  8. Exclusive two-photon processes: Tests of QCD at the amplitude level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1992-07-01

    Exclusive two-photon processes at large momentum transfer, particularly Compton scattering γp→γp and its crossed-channel reactions γγ→ bar pp and bar pp→γγ, can provide definitive information on the bound-state distributions of quarks in hadrons at the amplitude level. Recent theoretical work has shown that QCD predictions based on the factorization of long and short distance physics are already applicable at momentum transfers of order of a few GeV

  9. Incoherently Coupled Grey-Grey Spatial Soliton Pairs in Biased Two-Photon Photovoltaic Photorefractive Crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Yanli; Jiang Qichang; Ji Xuanmang

    2010-01-01

    The incoherently coupled grey-grey screening-photovoltaic spatial soliton pairs are predicted in biased two-photon photovoltaic photorefractive crystals under steady-state conditions. These grey-grey screening-photovoltaic soliton pairs can be established provided that the incident beams have the same polarization, wavelength, and are mutually incoherent. The grey-grey screening-photovoltaic soliton pairs can be considered as the united form of grey-grey screening soliton pairs and open or closed-circuit grey-grey photovoltaic soliton pairs. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  10. General calculation of the cross section for dark matter annihilations into two photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Cely, Camilo; Rivera, Andres

    2017-01-01

    Assuming that the underlying model satisfies some general requirements such as renormalizability and CP conservation, we calculate the non-relativistic one-loop cross section for any self-conjugate dark matter particle annihilating into two photons. We accomplish this by carefully classifying all possible one-loop diagrams and, from them, reading off the dark matter interactions with the particles running in the loop. Our approach is general and leads to the same results found in the literature for popular dark matter candidates such as the neutralinos of the MSSM, minimal dark matter, inert Higgs and Kaluza-Klein dark matter.

  11. Targeted two-photon photodynamic therapy for the treatment of subcutaneous tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangler, Charles W.; Starkey, Jean R.; Meng, Fanqing; Gong, Aijun; Drobizhev, Mikhail; Rebane, Aleksander; Moss, B.

    2005-04-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has developed into a mature technology over the past several years, and is currently being exploited for the treatment of a variety of cancerous tumors, and more recently for age-related wet macular degeneration of the eye. However, there are still some unresolved problems with PDT that are retarding a more general acceptance in clinical settings, and thus, for the most part, the treatment of most cancerous rumors still involves some combination of invasive surgery, chemotherapy and radiation treatment, particularly subcutaneous tumors. Currently approved PDT agents are activated in the Visible portion of the spectrum below 700 nm, Laser light in this spectral region cannot penetrate the skin more than a few millimeters, and it would be more desirable if PDT could be initiated deep in the Near-infrared (NIR) in the tissue transparency window (700-1000 nm). MPA Technologies, Inc. and Rasiris, Inc. have been co-developing new porphyrin PDT designed to have greatly enhanced intrinsic two-photon cross-sections (>800 GM units) whose two-photon absorption maxima lie deep in the tissue transparency window (ca. 780-850 nm), and have solubility characteristics that would allow for direct IV injection into animal models. Classical PDT also suffers from the lengthy time necessary for accumulation at the tumor site, a relative lack of discrimination between healthy and diseased tissue, particularly at the tumor margins, and difficulty in clearing from the system in a reasonable amount of time post-PDT. We have recently discovered a new design paradigm for the delivery of our two-photon activated PDT agents by incorporating the porphyrins into a triad ensemble that includes a small molecule targeting agent that directs the triad to over-expressed tumor receptor sites, and a NIR one-photon imaging agent that allows the tracking of the triad in terms of accumulation and clearance rates. We are currently using these new two-photon PDT triads in efficacy

  12. Hard Two-Photon Contribution to Elastic Lepton-Proton Scattering: Determined by the OLYMPUS Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson, B. S.; Ice, L. D.; Khaneft, D.; O'Connor, C.; Russell, R.; Schmidt, A.; Bernauer, J. C.; Kohl, M.; Akopov, N.; Alarcon, R.; Ates, O.; Avetisyan, A.; Beck, R.; Belostotski, S.; Bessuille, J.

    2016-01-01

    The OLYMPUS Collaboration reports on a precision measurement of the positron-proton to electron-proton elastic cross section ratio, \\ud R\\ud 2\\ud γ\\ud , a direct measure of the contribution of hard two-photon exchange to the elastic cross section. In the OLYMPUS measurement, 2.01 GeV electron and positron beams were directed through a hydrogen gas target internal to the DORIS storage ring at DESY. A toroidal magnetic spectrometer instrumented with drift chambers and time-of-flight scintillato...

  13. Hard Two-Photon Contribution to Elastic Lepton-Proton Scattering Determined by the OLYMPUS Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson, Brian; Ice, Lauren; Ates, Ozgur; Avetisyan, Albert; Beck, Reinhard; Belostotski, Stanislav; Bessuille, Jason; Brinker, Frank; Calarco, John; Carassiti, V.; Cisbani, E.; Ciullo, G.; Khaneft, Dmitry; Contalbrigo, Marco; De Leo, R.

    2017-01-01

    The OLYMPUS collaboration reports on a precision measurement of the positron-proton to electron-proton elastic cross section ratio, $\\it R_{2 \\gamma}$, a direct measure of the contribution of hard two-photon exchange to the elastic cross section. In the OLYMPUS measurement, 2.01 GeV electron and positron beams were directed through a hydrogen gas target internal to the DORIS storage ring at DESY. A toroidal magnetic spectrometer instrumented with drift chambers and time-of-flight scintillator...

  14. Rate amplification of the two photon emission from para-hydrogen toward the neutrino mass measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masuda, Takahiko, E-mail: masuda@okayama-u.ac.jp; Hara, Hideaki; Miyamoto, Yuki [Okayama University, Research Core for Extreme Quantum World (Japan); Kuma, Susumu [Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics Laboratory, RIKEN (Japan); Nakano, Itsuo [Okayama University, Research Core for Extreme Quantum World (Japan); Ohae, Chiaki [University of Electro-Communications, Department of Engineering Science (Japan); Sasao, Noboru [Okayama University, Research Core for Extreme Quantum World (Japan); Tanaka, Minoru [Osaka University, Department of Physics (Japan); Uetake, Satoshi [Okayama University, Research Center of Quantum Universe (Japan); Yoshimi, Akihiro; Yoshimura, Koji [Okayama University, Research Core for Extreme Quantum World (Japan); Yoshimura, Motohiko [Okayama University, Research Center of Quantum Universe (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    We recently reported an experiment which focused on demonstrating the macro-coherent amplification mechanism. This mechanism, which was proposed for neutrino mass measurements, indicates that a multi-particle emission rate should be amplified by coherence in a suitable medium. Using a para-hydrogen molecule gas target and the adiabatic Raman excitation method, we observed that the two photon emission rate was amplified by a factor of more than 10{sup 15} from the spontaneous emission rate. This paper briefly summarizes the previous experimental result and presents the current status and the future prospect.

  15. Optimal designs for one- and two-color microarrays using mixed models: a comparative evaluation of their efficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima Passos, Valéria; Tan, Frans E S; Winkens, Bjorn; Berger, Martijn P F

    2009-01-01

    Comparative studies between the one- and two-color microarrays provide supportive evidence for similarities of results on differential gene expression. So far, no design comparisons between the two platforms have been undertaken. With the objective of comparing optimal designs of one- and two-color microarrays in their statistical efficiencies, techniques of design optimization were applied within a mixed model framework. A- and D-optimal designs for the one- and two-color platforms were sought for a 3 x 3 factorial experiment. The results suggest that the choice of the platform will not affect the "subjects to groups" allocation, being concordant in the two designs. However, under financial constraints, the two-color arrays are expected to have a slight upper hand in terms of efficiency of model parameters estimates, once the price of arrays is more expensive than that of subjects. This statement is especially valid for microarray studies envisaging class comparisons.

  16. Active learning of cortical connectivity from two-photon imaging data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ye; Dunson, David; Sapiro, Guillermo; Ringach, Dario

    2018-01-01

    Understanding how groups of neurons interact within a network is a fundamental question in system neuroscience. Instead of passively observing the ongoing activity of a network, we can typically perturb its activity, either by external sensory stimulation or directly via techniques such as two-photon optogenetics. A natural question is how to use such perturbations to identify the connectivity of the network efficiently. Here we introduce a method to infer sparse connectivity graphs from in-vivo, two-photon imaging of population activity in response to external stimuli. A novel aspect of the work is the introduction of a recommended distribution, incrementally learned from the data, to optimally refine the inferred network. Unlike existing system identification techniques, this “active learning” method automatically focuses its attention on key undiscovered areas of the network, instead of targeting global uncertainty indicators like parameter variance. We show how active learning leads to faster inference while, at the same time, provides confidence intervals for the network parameters. We present simulations on artificial small-world networks to validate the methods and apply the method to real data. Analysis of frequency of motifs recovered show that cortical networks are consistent with a small-world topology model. PMID:29718955

  17. Two-photon excited autofluorescence imaging of freshly isolated frog retinas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Rong-Wen; Li, Yi-Chao; Ye, Tong; Strang, Christianne; Keyser, Kent; Curcio, Christine A; Yao, Xin-Cheng

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate cellular sources of autofluorescence signals in freshly isolated frog (Rana pipiens) retinas. Equipped with an ultrafast laser, a laser scanning two-photon excitation fluorescence microscope was employed for sub-cellular resolution examination of both sliced and flat-mounted retinas. Two-photon imaging of retinal slices revealed autofluorescence signals over multiple functional layers, including the photoreceptor layer (PRL), outer nuclear layer (ONL), outer plexiform layer (OPL), inner nuclear layer (INL), inner plexiform layer (IPL), and ganglion cell layer (GCL). Using flat-mounted retinas, depth-resolved imaging of individual retinal layers further confirmed multiple sources of autofluorescence signals. Cellular structures were clearly observed at the PRL, ONL, INL, and GCL. At the PRL, the autofluorescence was dominantly recorded from the intracellular compartment of the photoreceptors; while mixed intracellular and extracellular autofluorescence signals were observed at the ONL, INL, and GCL. High resolution autofluorescence imaging clearly revealed mosaic organization of rod and cone photoreceptors; and sub-cellular bright autofluorescence spots, which might relate to connecting cilium, was observed in the cone photoreceptors only. Moreover, single-cone and double-cone outer segments could be directly differentiated.

  18. Two-Photon Quantum Entanglement from Type-II Spontaneous Parametric Down-Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, Todd Butler

    The concept of two (or more) particle entanglement lies at the heart of many fascinating questions concerning the foundations of quantum mechanics. The counterintuitive nonlocal behavior of entangled states led Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen (EPR) to ask their famous 1935 question, "Can quantum mechanical description of reality be considered complete?". Although the debate has been raging on for more than 60 years, there is still no absolutely conclusive answer to this question. For if entangled states exist and can be observed, then accepting quantum mechanics as a complete theory requires a drastic overhaul of one's physical intuition with regards to the common sense notions of locality and reality put forth by EPR. Contained herein are the results of research investigating various non-classical features of the two-photon entangled states produced in Type-II Spontaneous Parametric Down -Conversion (SPDC). Through a series of experiments we have manifest the nonlocal nature of the quantum mechanical "two-photon effective wavefunction" (or Biphoton) realized by certain photon-counting coincidence measurements performed on these states. In particular, we examine a special double entanglement, in which the states are seen to be simultaneously entangled in both spin and space-time variables. The observed phenomena based on this double entanglement lead to many interesting results which defy classical explanation, but are well described within the framework of quantum mechanics. The implications provide a unique perspective concerning the nature of the photon, and the concept of quantum entanglement.

  19. Search for New Physics with Two Photons in the Final State with the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00441752

    This thesis reports on the search for new physics in the diphoton decay channel with the proton-proton collision data collected by ATLAS at a centre-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s}=8$~TeV in 2012 and $\\sqrt{s}=13$~TeV in 2015 and 2016. A feasibility study of the search for a pseudoscalar $A$ decaying to a $Z$ boson and a 125~GeV Higgs boson in the context of an extended Higgs sector, namedly the two-Higgs-doublet models, is presented. The search is performed with a final state of two jets and two photons using 20.3~${\\rm fb}^{-1}$ of data at $\\sqrt{s}=8$~TeV. The expected sensitivity is found to be competitive with the analysis with a final state of two electrons or muons and two $\\tau$ leptons, but less sensitive to the other searches with the Higgs decaying to a pair of $b$-quarks. Search for high mass resonances decaying to two photons at $\\sqrt{s}=13$~TeV is also presented. The analysed dataset corresponds to an integrated luminosity of $3.2~{\\rm fb}^{-1}$ in 2015 and $12.2~{\\rm fb}^{-1}$ in 2016. Two searche...

  20. Active learning of cortical connectivity from two-photon imaging data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín A Bertrán

    Full Text Available Understanding how groups of neurons interact within a network is a fundamental question in system neuroscience. Instead of passively observing the ongoing activity of a network, we can typically perturb its activity, either by external sensory stimulation or directly via techniques such as two-photon optogenetics. A natural question is how to use such perturbations to identify the connectivity of the network efficiently. Here we introduce a method to infer sparse connectivity graphs from in-vivo, two-photon imaging of population activity in response to external stimuli. A novel aspect of the work is the introduction of a recommended distribution, incrementally learned from the data, to optimally refine the inferred network. Unlike existing system identification techniques, this "active learning" method automatically focuses its attention on key undiscovered areas of the network, instead of targeting global uncertainty indicators like parameter variance. We show how active learning leads to faster inference while, at the same time, provides confidence intervals for the network parameters. We present simulations on artificial small-world networks to validate the methods and apply the method to real data. Analysis of frequency of motifs recovered show that cortical networks are consistent with a small-world topology model.

  1. Efficient Entanglement Concentration of Nonlocal Two-Photon Polarization-Time-Bin Hyperentangled States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zi-Hang; Yu, Wen-Xuan; Wu, Xiao-Yuan; Gao, Cheng-Yan; Alzahrani, Faris; Hobiny, Aatef; Deng, Fu-Guo

    2018-03-01

    We present two different hyperentanglement concentration protocols (hyper-ECPs) for two-photon systems in nonlocal polarization-time-bin hyperentangled states with known parameters, including Bell-like and cluster-like states, resorting to the parameter splitting method. They require only one of two parties in quantum communication to operate her photon in the process of entanglement concentration, not two, and they have the maximal success probability. They work with linear optical elements and have good feasibility in experiment, especially in the case that there are a big number of quantum data exchanged as the parties can obtain the information about the parameters of the nonlocal hyperentangled states by sampling a subset of nonlocal hyperentangled two-photon systems and measuring them. As the quantum state of photons in the time-bin degree of freedom suffers from less noise in an optical-fiber channel, these hyper-ECPs may have good applications in practical long-distance quantum communication in the future.

  2. Deep brain two-photon NIR fluorescence imaging for study of Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Congping; Liang, Zhuoyi; Zhou, Biao; Ip, Nancy Y.; Qu, Jianan Y.

    2018-02-01

    Amyloid depositions in the brain represent the characteristic hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. The abnormal accumulation of extracellular amyloid-beta (Aβ) and resulting toxic amyloid plaques are considered to be responsible for the clinical deficits including cognitive decline and memory loss. In vivo two-photon fluorescence imaging of amyloid plaques in live AD mouse model through a chronic imaging window (thinned skull or craniotomy) provides a mean to greatly facilitate the study of the pathological mechanism of AD owing to its high spatial resolution and long-term continuous monitoring. However, the imaging depth for amyloid plaques is largely limited to upper cortical layers due to the short-wavelength fluorescence emission of commonly used amyloid probes. In this work, we reported that CRANAD-3, a near-infrared (NIR) probe for amyloid species with excitation wavelength at 900 nm and emission wavelength around 650 nm, has great advantages over conventionally used probes and is well suited for twophoton deep imaging of amyloid plaques in AD mouse brain. Compared with a commonly used MeO-X04 probe, the imaging depth of CRANAD-3 is largely extended for open skull cranial window. Furthermore, by using two-photon excited fluorescence spectroscopic imaging, we characterized the intrinsic fluorescence of the "aging pigment" lipofuscin in vivo, which has distinct spectra from CRANAD-3 labeled plaques. This study reveals the unique potential of NIR probes for in vivo, high-resolution and deep imaging of brain amyloid in Alzheimer's disease.

  3. Theory of even-parity states and two-photon spectra of conjugated polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, P. C. M.; Hayden, G. W.; Soos, Z. G.

    1991-04-01

    The two-photon absorption (TPA) spectrum of interacting π electrons in conjugated polymers is shown to be qualitatively different from any single-particle description, including the Hartree-Fock limit. Alternating transfer integrals t(1+/-δ) along the backbone lead to a weak TPA below the one-photon gap Eg for arbitrarily weak correlations at δ=0, for intermediate correlations at δ=0.07 in polyenes, and for strong correlations at any δtheory to Eg in the limit of strong correlations in Hubbard models and is around 1.5Eg for Pariser-Parr-Pople (PPP) parameters. The PPP model, which accounts for one- and two-photon excitations of finite polyenes, is extended to even-parity states in polydiacetylenes (PDA's), polyacetylene (PA), and polysilanes (PS's). Previous experimental data for PDA and PS support both the strong TPA above Eg and weak TPA slightly below Eg for δ=0.15 in PDA and above Eg for δ~0.3 in PS. The strong TPA expected around 1.5Eg in isolated PA strands shifts to ~Eg due to interchain π-electron dispersion forces. TPA intensities in correlated states are shown to reflect both ionicity and mean-square charge separation. The even-parity states of conjugated polymers, like those of polyenes, show qualitatively different features associated with electron-electron correlations.

  4. Two-photon induced collagen cross-linking in bioartificial cardiac tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuetemeyer, Kai; Kensah, George; Heidrich, Marko; Meyer, Heiko; Martin, Ulrich; Gruh, Ina; Heisterkamp, Alexander

    2011-08-01

    Cardiac tissue engineering is a promising strategy for regenerative therapies to overcome the shortage of donor organs for transplantation. Besides contractile function, the stiffness of tissue engineered constructs is crucial to generate transplantable tissue surrogates with sufficient mechanical stability to withstand the high pressure present in the heart. Although several collagen cross-linking techniques have proven to be efficient in stabilizing biomaterials, they cannot be applied to cardiac tissue engineering, as cell death occurs in the treated area. Here, we present a novel method using femtosecond (fs) laser pulses to increase the stiffness of collagen-based tissue constructs without impairing cell viability. Raster scanning of the fs laser beam over riboflavin-treated tissue induced collagen cross-linking by two-photon photosensitized singlet oxygen production. One day post-irradiation, stress-strain measurements revealed increased tissue stiffness by around 40% being dependent on the fibroblast content in the tissue. At the same time, cells remained viable and fully functional as demonstrated by fluorescence imaging of cardiomyocyte mitochondrial activity and preservation of active contraction force. Our results indicate that two-photon induced collagen cross-linking has great potential for studying and improving artificially engineered tissue for regenerative therapies.

  5. Neural plasticity explored by correlative two-photon and electron/SPIM microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegra Mascaro, A. L.; Silvestri, L.; Costantini, I.; Sacconi, L.; Maco, B.; Knott, G. W.; Pavone, F. S.

    2013-06-01

    Plasticity of the central nervous system is a complex process which involves the remodeling of neuronal processes and synaptic contacts. However, a single imaging technique can reveal only a small part of this complex machinery. To obtain a more complete view, complementary approaches should be combined. Two-photon fluorescence microscopy, combined with multi-photon laser nanosurgery, allow following the real-time dynamics of single neuronal processes in the cerebral cortex of living mice. The structural rearrangement elicited by this highly confined paradigm of injury can be imaged in vivo first, and then the same neuron could be retrieved ex-vivo and characterized in terms of ultrastructural features of the damaged neuronal branch by means of electron microscopy. Afterwards, we describe a method to integrate data from in vivo two-photon fluorescence imaging and ex vivo light sheet microscopy, based on the use of major blood vessels as reference chart. We show how the apical dendritic arbor of a single cortical pyramidal neuron imaged in living mice can be found in the large-scale brain reconstruction obtained with light sheet microscopy. Starting from its apical portion, the whole pyramidal neuron can then be segmented and located in the correct cortical layer. With the correlative approach presented here, researchers will be able to place in a three-dimensional anatomic context the neurons whose dynamics have been observed with high detail in vivo.

  6. Two-photon induced fluorescence and other optical effects in irradiated and doped fused silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, S.D.

    1986-07-01

    The objective of this program was to assess and identify irradiation techniques which could be used to modify the optical charactistics of doped fused silica. Primary emphasis was placed on determining if gamma ray or neutron bombardment of the glass would enhance certain Raman and nonlinear optical effects. In particular, the effect of irradiation on optical two photon induced fluorescence was studied in detail. The maximum radiation exposures used were 10 6 rads (Si) of gamma rays and neutron fluences of 1 x 10 14 neutrons/cm 2 . The optical measurements were made at room temperature between one and four months after irradiation. The maximum input light intensity was 10 9 watts/cm 2 at a near infrared (1.06 μ) input wavelength which was chosen to lie in a transparent spectral region of the glass. Under these experimental conditions a careful search revealed no detectable two-photon induced fluorescence in the region from 550 to 900 nm. The upper limit for the photon efficiency of this process was determined to be less than 1 x 10 -10 %. 89 refs., 12 figs

  7. Two-photon excited fluorescence microscopy application for ex vivo investigation of ocular fundus samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Sven; Hammer, Martin; Schweitzer, Dietrich

    2011-07-01

    Two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) imaging of ocular tissue has recently become a promising tool in ophthalmology for diagnostic and research purposes. The feasibility and the advantages of TPEF imaging, namely deeper tissue penetration and improved high-resolution imaging of microstructures, have been demonstrated lately using human ocular samples. The autofluorescence properties of endogenous fluorophores in ocular fundus tissue are well known from spectrophotometric analysis. But fluorophores, especially when it comes to fluorescence lifetime, typically display a dependence of their fluorescence properties on local environmental parameters. Hence, a more detailed investigation of ocular fundus autofluorescence ideally in vivo is of utmost interest. The aim of this study is to determine space-resolved the stationary and time-resolved fluorescence properties of endogenous fluorophores in ex vivo porcine ocular fundus samples by means of two-photon excited fluorescence spectrum and lifetime imaging microscopy (FSIM/FLIM). By our first results, we characterized the autofluorescence of individual anatomical structures of porcine retina samples excited at 760 nm. The fluorescence properties of almost all investigated retinal layers are relatively homogenous. But as previously unknown, ganglion cell bodies show a significantly shorter fluorescence lifetime compared to the adjacent mueller cells. Since all retinal layers exhibit bi-exponential autofluorescence decays, we were able to achieve a more precise characterization of fluorescence properties of endogenous fluorophores compared to a present in vivo FLIM approach by confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (cSLO).

  8. Formation of the $\\eta_c$ in Two-Photon Collisions at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Acciarri, M.; Adriani, O.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Alcaraz, J.; Alemanni, G.; Allaby, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alviggi, M.G.; Ambrosi, G.; Anderhub, H.; Andreev, Valery P.; Angelescu, T.; Anselmo, F.; Arefev, A.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Bagnaia, P.; Baksay, L.; Balandras, A.; Ball, R.C.; Banerjee, S.; Banerjee, Sw.; Barczyk, A.; Barillere, R.; Barone, L.; Bartalini, P.; Basile, M.; Battiston, R.; Bay, A.; Becattini, F.; Becker, U.; Behner, F.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Betev, B.L.; Bhattacharya, S.; Biasini, M.; Biland, A.; Blaising, J.J.; Blyth, S.C.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bohm, A.; Boldizsar, L.; Borgia, B.; Bourilkov, D.; Bourquin, M.; Braccini, S.; Branson, J.G.; Brigljevic, V.; Brochu, F.; Buffini, A.; Buijs, A.; Burger, J.D.; Burger, W.J.; Busenitz, J.; Button, A.; Cai, X.D.; Campanelli, Mario; Capell, M.; Cara Romeo, G.; Carlino, G.; Cartacci, A.M.; Casaus, J.; Castellini, G.; Cavallari, F.; Cavallo, N.; Cecchi, C.; Cerrada, M.; Cesaroni, F.; Chamizo, M.; Chang, Y.H.; Chaturvedi, U.K.; Chemarin, M.; Chen, A.; Chen, G.; Chen, G.M.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, H.S.; Chereau, X.; Chiefari, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Civinini, C.; Clare, I.; Clare, R.; Coignet, G.; Colijn, A.P.; Colino, N.; Costantini, S.; Cotorobai, F.; Cozzoni, B.; de la Cruz, B.; Csilling, A.; Cucciarelli, S.; Dai, T.S.; van Dalen, J.A.; D'Alessandro, R.; de Asmundis, R.; Deglon, P.; Degre, A.; Deiters, K.; Della Volpe, D.; Denes, P.; de Notaristefani, F.; De Salvo, A.; Diemoz, M.; van Dierendonck, D.; Di Lodovico, F.; Dionisi, C.; Dittmar, M.; Dominguez, A.; Doria, A.; Dova, M.T.; Duchesneau, D.; Dufournand, D.; Duinker, P.; Duran, I.; El Mamouni, H.; Engler, A.; Eppling, F.J.; Erne, F.C.; Extermann, P.; Fabre, M.; Faccini, R.; Falagan, M.A.; Falciano, S.; Favara, A.; Fay, J.; Fedin, O.; Felcini, M.; Ferguson, T.; Ferroni, F.; Fesefeldt, H.; Fiandrini, E.; Field, J.H.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, P.H.; Fisk, I.; Forconi, G.; Fredj, L.; Freudenreich, K.; Furetta, C.; Galaktionov, Iouri; Ganguli, S.N.; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gataullin, M.; Gau, S.S.; Gentile, S.; Gheordanescu, N.; Giagu, S.; Gong, Z.F.; Grenier, Gerald Jean; Grimm, O.; Grunewald, M.W.; van Gulik, R.; Gupta, V.K.; Gurtu, A.; Gutay, L.J.; Haas, D.; Hasan, A.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hebbeker, T.; Herve, Alain; Hidas, P.; Hirschfelder, J.; Hofer, H.; Holzner, G.; Hoorani, H.; Hou, S.R.; Iashvili, I.; Jin, B.N.; Jones, Lawrence W.; de Jong, P.; Josa-Mutuberria, I.; Khan, R.A.; Kamrad, D.; Kaur, M.; Kienzle-Focacci, M.N.; Kim, D.; Kim, D.H.; Kim, J.K.; Kim, S.C.; Kirkby, Jasper; Kiss, D.; Kittel, W.; Klimentov, A.; Konig, A.C.; Kopp, A.; Korolko, I.; Koutsenko, V.; Kraber, M.; Kraemer, R.W.; Krenz, W.; Kunin, A.; Lacentre, P.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Laktineh, I.; Landi, G.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Laurikainen, P.; Lavorato, A.; Lebeau, M.; Lebedev, A.; Lebrun, P.; Lecomte, P.; Lecoq, P.; Le Coultre, P.; Lee, H.J.; Le Goff, J.M.; Leiste, R.; Leonardi, Emanuele; Levtchenko, P.; Li, C.; Lin, C.H.; Lin, W.T.; Linde, F.L.; Lista, L.; Liu, Z.A.; Lohmann, W.; Longo, E.; Lu, Y.S.; Lubelsmeyer, K.; Luci, C.; Luckey, David; Lugnier, L.; Luminari, L.; Lustermann, W.; Ma, W.G.; Maity, M.; Malgeri, L.; Malinin, A.; Mana, C.; Mangeol, D.; Marchesini, P.; Marian, G.; Martin, J.P.; Marzano, F.; Massaro, G.G.G.; Mazumdar, K.; McNeil, R.R.; Mele, S.; Merola, L.; Meschini, M.; Metzger, W.J.; von der Mey, M.; Migani, D.; Mihul, A.; Milcent, H.; Mirabelli, G.; Mnich, J.; Mohanty, G.B.; Molnar, P.; Monteleoni, B.; Moulik, T.; Muanza, G.S.; Muheim, F.; Muijs, A.J.M.; Napolitano, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Newman, H.; Niessen, T.; Nisati, A.; Kluge, Hannelies; Oh, Y.D.; Organtini, G.; Ostonen, R.; Palomares, C.; Pandoulas, D.; Paoletti, S.; Paolucci, P.; Park, H.K.; Park, I.H.; Pascale, G.; Passaleva, G.; Patricelli, S.; Paul, Thomas Cantzon; Pauluzzi, M.; Paus, C.; Pauss, F.; Peach, D.; Pedace, M.; Pei, Y.J.; Pensotti, S.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Petersen, B.; Piccolo, D.; Pieri, M.; Piroue, P.A.; Pistolesi, E.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Pojidaev, V.; Postema, H.; Pothier, J.; Produit, N.; Prokofev, D.O.; Prokofev, D.; Quartieri, J.; Rahal-Callot, G.; Rahaman, M.A.; Raja, N.; Ramelli, R.; Rancoita, P.G.; Raven, G.; Razis, P.; Ren, D.; Rescigno, M.; Reucroft, S.; van Rhee, T.; Riemann, S.; Riles, Keith; Robohm, A.; Rodin, J.; Roe, B.P.; Romero, L.; Rosca, A.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rubio, J.A.; Ruschmeier, D.; Rykaczewski, H.; Sarkar, S.; Salicio, J.; Sanchez, E.; Sanders, M.P.; Sarakinos, M.E.; Schafer, C.; Schegelsky, V.; Schmidt-Kaerst, S.; Schmitz, D.; Schopper, H.; Schotanus, D.J.; Schwenke, J.; Schwering, G.; Sciacca, C.; Sciarrino, D.; Seganti, A.; Servoli, L.; Shevchenko, S.; Shivarov, N.; Shoutko, V.; Shumilov, E.; Shvorob, A.; Siedenburg, T.; Son, D.; Smith, B.; Spillantini, P.; Steuer, M.; Stickland, D.P.; Stone, A.; Stone, H.; Stoyanov, B.; Straessner, A.; Sudhakar, K.; Sultanov, G.; Sun, L.Z.; Suter, H.; Swain, J.D.; Szillasi, Z.; Tang, X.W.; Tauscher, L.; Taylor, L.; Timmermans, Charles; Ting, S.C.C.; Ting, S.M.; Tonwar, S.C.; Toth, J.; Tully, C.; Tung, K.L.; Uchida, Y.; Ulbricht, J.; Valente, E.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vetlitsky, I.; Vicinanza, D.; Viertel, G.; Villa, S.; Vivargent, M.; Vlachos, S.; Vodopianov, I.; Vogel, H.; Vogt, H.; Vorobev, I.; Vorobov, A.A.; Vorvolakos, A.; Wadhwa, M.; Wallraff, W.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.L.; Wang, Z.M.; Weber, A.; Weber, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wilkens, H.; Wu, S.X.; Wynhoff, S.; Xia, L.; Xu, Z.Z.; Yang, B.Z.; Yang, C.G.; Yang, H.J.; Yang, M.; Ye, J.B.; Yeh, S.C.; You, J.M.; Zalite, A.; Zalite, Yu.; Zhang, Z.P.; Zhu, G.Y.; Zhu, R.Y.; Zichichi, A.; Ziegler, F.; Zilizi, G.; Zoller, M.

    1999-01-01

    The two-photon width $\\Gamma_{\\gamma\\gamma}$ of the $\\eta_{\\mathrm{c}}$ meson has been measured with the L3 detector at LEP. The $\\eta_{\\mathrm{c}}$ is studied in the decay modes $\\pi^+\\pi^-\\pi^+\\pi^-$, $\\pi^+\\pi^-$K$^+$K$^-$, K$_s^0$K$^\\pm\\pi^\\mp$, K$^+$K$^-\\pi^{0}$, $\\pi^+\\pi^-\\eta$, $\\pi^+\\pi^-\\eta'$, and $\\rho^+\\rho^-$ using an integrated luminosity of 140 pb$^{-1}$ at $\\sqrt{s} \\simeq 91$ GeV and of 52 pb$^{-1}$ at $\\sqrt{s} \\simeq 183$ GeV. The result is $\\Gamma_{\\gamma\\gamma}(\\eta_{\\mathrm{c}}) = 6.9 \\pm 1.7 \\mbox{(stat.)} \\pm 0.8 \\mbox{(sys.)} \\pm 2.0$(BR) keV. The $Q^2$ dependence of the $\\eta_{\\mathrm{c}}$ cross section is studied for $Q^2 < 9$ GeV$^{2}$. It is found to be better described by a Vector Meson Dominance model form factor with a J-pole than with a $\\rho$-pole. In addition, a signal of $29 \\pm 11$ events is observed at the $\\chi_{\\mathrm{c}0}$ mass. Upper limits for the two-photon widths of the $\\chi_{\\mathrm{c}0}$, $\\chi_{\\mathrm{c}2}$, and $\\eta_{\\mathrm{c}}'$ are also given.

  9. Double-Tag Events in Two-Photon Collisions at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Achard, P.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Alcaraz, J.; Alemanni, G.; Allaby, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alviggi, M.G.; Anderhub, H.; Andreev, Valery P.; Anselmo, F.; Arefev, A.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Bagnaia, P.; Bajo, A.; Baksay, G.; Baksay, L.; Baldew, S.V.; Banerjee, S.; Banerjee, Sw.; Barczyk, A.; Barillere, R.; Bartalini, P.; Basile, M.; Batalova, N.; Battiston, R.; Bay, A.; Becattini, F.; Becker, U.; Behner, F.; Bellucci, L.; Berbeco, R.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Betev, B.L.; Biasini, M.; Biglietti, M.; Biland, A.; Blaising, J.J.; Blyth, S.C.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bohm, A.; Boldizsar, L.; Borgia, B.; Bottai, S.; Bourilkov, D.; Bourquin, M.; Braccini, S.; Branson, J.G.; Brochu, F.; Buijs, A.; Burger, J.D.; Burger, W.J.; Cai, X.D.; Capell, M.; Cara Romeo, G.; Carlino, G.; Cartacci, A.; Casaus, J.; Cavallari, F.; Cavallo, N.; Cecchi, C.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo, M.; Chang, Y.H.; Chemarin, M.; Chen, A.; Chen, G.; Chen, G.M.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, H.S.; Chiefari, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Clare, I.; Clare, R.; Coignet, G.; Colino, N.; Costantini, S.; de la Cruz, B.; Cucciarelli, S.; van Dalen, J.A.; de Asmundis, R.; Deglon, P.; Debreczeni, J.; Degre, A.; Deiters, K.; della Volpe, D.; Delmeire, E.; Denes, P.; DeNotaristefani, F.; De Salvo, A.; Diemoz, M.; Dierckxsens, M.; van Dierendonck, D.; Dionisi, C.; Dittmar, M.; Doria, A.; Dova, M.T.; Duchesneau, D.; Duinker, P.; Echenard, B.; Eline, A.; El Mamouni, H.; Engler, A.; Eppling, F.J.; Ewers, A.; Extermann, P.; Falagan, M.A.; Falciano, S.; Favara, A.; Fay, J.; Fedin, O.; Felcini, M.; Ferguson, T.; Fesefeldt, H.; Fiandrini, E.; Field, J.H.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, P.H.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, I.; Forconi, G.; Freudenreich, K.; Furetta, C.; Galaktionov, Iouri; Ganguli, S.N.; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gataullin, M.; Gentile, S.; Giagu, S.; Gong, Z.F.; Grenier, Gerald Jean; Grimm, O.; Gruenewald, M.W.; Guida, M.; van Gulik, R.; Gupta, V.K.; Gurtu, A.; Gutay, L.J.; Haas, D.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hebbeker, T.; Herve, Alain; Hirschfelder, J.; Hofer, H.; Hohlmann, M.; Holzner, G.; Hou, S.R.; Hu, Y.; Jin, B.N.; Jones, Lawrence W.; de Jong, P.; Josa-Mutuberria, I.; Kafer, D.; Kaur, M.; Kienzle-Focacci, M.N.; Kim, J.K.; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, W.; Klimentov, A.; Konig, A.C.; Kopal, M.; Koutsenko, V.; Kraber, M.; Kraemer, R.W.; Krenz, W.; Kruger, A.; Kunin, A.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Laktineh, I.; Landi, G.; Lebeau, M.; Lebedev, A.; Lebrun, P.; Lecomte, P.; Lecoq, P.; Le Coultre, P.; Le Goff, J.M.; Leiste, R.; Levtchenko, P.; Li, C.; Likhoded, S.; Lin, C.H.; Lin, W.T.; Linde, F.L.; Lista, L.; Liu, Z.A.; Lohmann, W.; Longo, E.; Lu, Y.S.; Lubelsmeyer, K.; Luci, C.; Luminari, L.; Lustermann, W.; Ma, W.G.; Malgeri, L.; Malinin, A.; Mana, C.; Mangeol, D.; Mans, J.; Martin, J.P.; Marzano, F.; Mazumdar, K.; McNeil, R.R.; Mele, S.; Merola, L.; Meschini, M.; Metzger, W.J.; Mihul, A.; Milcent, H.; Mirabelli, G.; Mnich, J.; Mohanty, G.B.; Muanza, G.S.; Muijs, A.J.M.; Musicar, B.; Musy, M.; Nagy, S.; Natale, S.; Napolitano, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Newman, H.; Niessen, T.; Nisati, A.; Kluge, Hannelies; Ofierzynski, R.; Organtini, G.; Palomares, C.; Pandoulas, D.; Paolucci, P.; Paramatti, R.; Passaleva, G.; Patricelli, S.; Paul, Thomas Cantzon; Pauluzzi, M.; Paus, C.; Pauss, F.; Pedace, M.; Pensotti, S.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Petersen, B.; Piccolo, D.; Pierella, F.; Pioppi, M.; Piroue, P.A.; Pistolesi, E.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Pojidaev, V.; Pothier, J.; Prokofev, D.O.; Prokofiev, D.; Quartieri, J.; Rahal-Callot, G.; Rahaman, M.A.; Raics, P.; Raja, N.; Ramelli, R.; Rancoita, P.G.; Ranieri, R.; Raspereza, A.; Razis, P.; Ren, D.; Rescigno, M.; Reucroft, S.; Riemann, S.; Riles, Keith; Roe, B.P.; Romero, L.; Rosca, A.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Roth, Stefan; Rosenbleck, C.; Roux, B.; Rubio, J.A.; Ruggiero, G.; Rykaczewski, H.; Sakharov, A.; Saremi, S.; Sarkar, S.; Salicio, J.; Sanchez, E.; Sanders, M.P.; Schafer, C.; Schegelsky, V.; Schmidt-Kaerst, S.; Schmitz, D.; Schopper, H.; Schotanus, D.J.; Schwering, G.; Sciacca, C.; Servoli, L.; Shevchenko, S.; Shivarov, N.; Shoutko, V.; Shumilov, E.; Shvorob, A.; Siedenburg, T.; Son, D.; Spillantini, P.; Steuer, M.; Stickland, D.P.; Stoyanov, B.; Straessner, A.; Sudhakar, K.; Sultanov, G.; Sun, L.Z.; Sushkov, S.; Suter, H.; Swain, J.D.; Szillasi, Z.; Tang, X.W.; Tarjan, P.; Tauscher, L.; Taylor, L.; Tellili, B.; Teyssier, D.; Timmermans, Charles; Ting, Samuel C.C.; Ting, S.M.; Tonwar, S.C.; Toth, J.; Tully, C.; Tung, K.L.; Ulbricht, J.; Valente, E.; Van de Walle, R.T.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vetlitsky, I.; Vicinanza, D.; Viertel, G.; Villa, S.; Vivargent, M.; Vlachos, S.; Vodopianov, I.; Vogel, H.; Vogt, H.; Vorobev, I.; Vorobyov, A.A.; Wadhwa, M.; Wallraff, W.; Wang, X.L.; Wang, Z.M.; Weber, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wilkens, H.; Wynhoff, S.; Xia, L.; Xu, Z.Z.; Yamamoto, J.; Yang, B.Z.; Yang, C.G.; Yang, H.J.; Yang, M.; Yeh, S.C.; Zalite, A.; Zalite, Yu.; Zhang, Z.P.; Zhao, J.; Zhu, G.Y.; Zhu, R.Y.; Zhuang, H.L.; Zichichi, A.; Zilizi, G.; Zimmermann, B.; Zoller, M.

    2002-01-01

    Double-tag events in two-photon collisions are studied using the L3 detector at LEP centre-of-mass energies from root(s)=189 GeV to 209 GeV. The cross sections of the e+e- -> e+e- hadrons and gamma*gamma* -> hadrons processes are measured as a function of the photon virtualities, Q2_1 and Q2_2, of the two-photon mass, W_gammagamma, and of the variable Y=ln(W2_gammagamma/(Q_1Q_2)), for an average photon virtuality = 16 GeV2. The results are in agreement with next-to-leading order calculations for the process gamma*gamma* -> q qbar in the interval 2 <= Y <= 5. An excess is observed in the interval 5 < Y <= 7, corresponding to W_gammagamma greater than 40 GeV . This may be interpreted as a sign of resolved photon QCD processes or the onset of BFKL phenomena.

  10. The two-photon self-energy and other QED radiative corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zschocke, S.

    2001-07-01

    One of the main issues in current nuclear physics is the precise measurement of the Lamb shift of strongly bound electrons in quantum electrodynamic (QED) tests in strong fields in highly charged ions. The currently performed high-precision measurements require extreme accuracy in the theoretical calculation of Lamb shift. This requires consideration of all α and α 2 order QED corrections as well as of precisely all orders in Zα. In the past years most of these QED corrections have been calculated both in 1st order and in 2nd order interference theory. As yet however, it has not been possible to assess the contribution of the two-photon self-energy, which has therefore been the greatest uncertainty factor in predicting Lamb shift in hydrogen-like systems. This study examines the contribution of these processes to Lamb shift. It also provides the first ever derivation of renormalized terms of two-photon vacuum polarisation and self-energy vacuum polarisation. Until now it has only been possible to evaluate these contributions by way of an Uehling approximation [de

  11. Thermally activated delayed fluorescence organic dots for two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Tingchao; Ren, Can; Li, Zhuohua; Xiao, Shuyu; Li, Junzi; Lin, Xiaodong; Ye, Chuanxiang; Zhang, Junmin; Guo, Lihong; Hu, Wenbo; Chen, Rui

    2018-05-01

    Autofluorescence is a major challenge in complex tissue imaging when molecules present in the biological tissue compete with the fluorophore. This issue may be resolved by designing organic molecules with long fluorescence lifetimes. The present work reports the two-photon absorption (TPA) properties of a thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) molecule with carbazole as the electron donor and dicyanobenzene as the electron acceptor (i.e., 4CzIPN). The results indicate that 4CzIPN exhibits a moderate TPA cross-section (˜9 × 10-50 cm4 s photon-1), high fluorescence quantum yield, and a long fluorescence lifetime (˜1.47 μs). 4CzIPN was compactly encapsulated into an amphiphilic copolymer via nanoprecipitation to achieve water-soluble organic dots. Interestingly, 4CzIPN organic dots have been utilized in applications involving two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM). Our work aptly demonstrates that TADF molecules are promising candidates of nonlinear optical probes for developing next-generation multiphoton FLIM applications.

  12. Pattern generation using axicon lens beam shaping in two-photon polymerisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhuian, B.; Winfield, R.J.; O'Brien, S.; Crean, G.M.

    2007-01-01

    The fabrication of three-dimensional microstructures by two-photon polymerisation has been widely reported as a viable route to the development of photonic crystals, rotors, bridges and other complex artefacts requiring nanoscale resolution. Conventionally, single point serial writing is used to write the structures but recently multipoint beam delivery using beam division optics has been reported as a method of introducing parallel processing. In this paper we present an alternative and novel approach using an axicon lens to give profiled beam delivery. This enables complete three-dimensional annular structure fabrication without the use of scanning stages. In addition, the concept of axicon delivery is developed further to investigate three-dimensional structure as a function of axicon geometry. A Ti:sapphire laser, with wavelength 795 nm, 80 MHz repetition rate, 100 fs pulse duration and an average power of 700 mW, was used to initiate two-photon polymerisation. The axicon was used, in combination with a 100x microscope objective, to form representative three-dimensional structures based on the annular cell with varying diameter. The structures were written in a Zr-loaded resin prepared on a glass substrate using dip coating deposition of a Zr/PMMA hybrid prepared by the sol-gel method. Annuli with diameters up to 50 μm were characterised in terms of topography and surface roughness using SEM and Zygo interferometer. The writing technique was also extended to fabrication of stacked structures

  13. Luminosity measurements at LHCb using dimuon pairs produced via elastic two photon fusion.

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, J

    2010-01-01

    This note outlines the feasibility of using the elastic two photon process pp$\\rightarrow$ p+$\\mu^{+}\\mu^{-}+p$ to make luminosity measurements at LHCb. The overall efficiency at LHCb for recording and selecting pp$\\rightarrow$ p+$\\mu^{+}\\mu^{-}+p$ events produced within 1.6<$\\eta$<5 has been determined using Monte-Carlo to be 0.0587 $\\pm$ 0.0008, yielding 5210$\\pm$71(stat.) events for an integrated luminosity of 1fb$^{-1}$. The main background processes where dimuons are produced via inelastic two-photon fusion and double Pomeron exchange have been studied using the full LHCb detector simulation while the other background sources, including backgrounds caused by K/$\\pi$ mis-identification, have been studied at four vector level. The background is estimated to be (4.1 $\\pm$ 0.5(stat.) $\\pm$ 0.6(syst.))% of the signal level. Most of this background comes from K/$\\pi$ mis-identification, although the largest source of uncertainty in the estimation is due to knowledge of the number of events produced via d...

  14. Simultaneous morphological and functional imaging of the honeybee's brain by two-photon microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haase, A.

    2011-01-01

    Thanks to its rather simply structured but highly performing brain, the honeybee (Apis mellifera) is an important model for neurobiological studies. Therefore there is a great need for new functional imaging modalities adapted to this species. Herein we give a detailed report on the development and performance of a platform for in vivo functional and morphological imaging of the honeybee's brain, focusing on its primary olfactory centres, the antennal lobes (ALs). The experimental setup consists of a two-photon microscope combined with a synchronized odour stimulus generator. Our imaging platform allows to simultaneously obtain both morphological measurements of the ALs functional units, the glomeruli, and in vivo calcium recording of their neural activity. We were able to record the characteristic glomerular response maps to odour stimuli applied to the bee's antennae. Our approach offers several advantages over the commonly used conventional fluorescence microscopy. Two-photon microscopy provides substantial enhancement in both spatial and temporal resolutions, while minimizing photo damage. Calcium recordings show a more than fourfold improvement in the functional signal with respect to the techniques available up to now. Finally, the extended penetration depth, thanks to the infrared excitation, allows the functional imaging of profound glomeruli which have not been optically accessible up to now.

  15. Low momentum transfer theorem for two photon exchange in lepton hardron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penarrocha, J.A.; Bernabeu, J.

    1981-01-01

    The two photon contribution to lepton-hardon scattering is considered. Under the assumptions of Lorentz covarience, gauge invarience, unitarity, and analyticity, we prove a low momentum transfer theorem for the relevant amplitudes. Fixed energy dispersion relations tell us that their nonanalytic part, in the neighbourhood of t = 0, is given by the contribution of the two photon cut in the t-channel. The t-channel absorptive parts are obtained from unitarity. Their calculation has as input the two amplitudes corresponding to Compton scattering on the hadron with a pole contribution, and the continuum controlled at low t by the electromagnetic polarizabilities. By means of the dispersion integral, one proves the expansion k 1 (s)+k 2 (s)√-t+k 3 (s)tlog(-t)+O(t) for the continuum contribution, where k 1 (s) is the only unknown. Explicit expressions are obtained for the pole contribution as M→infinity, where M is the hadron mass, and for the continuum when (-t) 2 , where m is the muon mass and Λ is a characteristic parameter of the hadron structure

  16. Hard two-photon contribution to elastic lepton-proton scattering determined by the OLYMPUS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, B.S. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Ice, L.D. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Khaneft, D. [Mainz Univ. (Germany); Collaboration: OLYMPUS Collaboration; and others

    2016-12-15

    The OLYMPUS collaboration reports on a precision measurement of the positron-proton to electron-proton elastic cross section ratio, R{sub 2γ}, a direct measure of the contribution of hard two- photon exchange to the elastic cross section. In the OLYMPUS measurement, 2.01 GeV electron and positron beams were directed through a hydrogen gas target internal to the DORIS storage ring at DESY. A toroidal magnetic spectrometer instrumented with drift chambers and time-of-flight scintillators detected elastically scattered leptons in coincidence with recoiling protons over a scattering angle range of ∼20 to 80 . The relative luminosity between the two beam species was monitored using tracking telescopes of interleaved GEM and MWPC detectors at 12 , as well as symmetric Moeller/Bhabha calorimeters at 1.29 . A total integrated luminosity of 4.5 fb{sup -1} was collected. In the extraction of R{sub 2γ}, radiative effects were taken into account using a Monte Carlo generator to simulate the convolutions of internal bremsstrahlung with experiment-specific conditions such as detector acceptance and reconstruction efficiency. The resulting values of R{sub 2γ}, presented here for a wide range of virtual photon polarization 0.456<ε<0.978, are smaller than some hadronic two-photon exchange calculations predict, but are in reasonable agreement with a subtracted dispersion model and a phenomenological fit to the form factor data.

  17. Resonant two-photon absorption and electromagnetically induced transparency in open ladder-type atomic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Han Seb; Noh, Heung-Ryoul

    2013-03-25

    We have experimentally and theoretically studied resonant two-photon absorption (TPA) and electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in the open ladder-type atomic system of the 5S(1/2) (F = 1)-5P(3/2) (F' = 0, 1, 2)-5D(5/2) (F″ = 1, 2, 3) transitions in (87)Rb atoms. As the coupling laser intensity was increased, the resonant TPA was transformed to EIT for the 5S(1/2) (F = 1)-5P(3/2) (F' = 2)-5D(5/2) (F″ = 3) transition. The transformation of resonant TPA into EIT was numerically calculated for various coupling laser intensities, considering all the degenerate magnetic sublevels of the 5S(1/2)-5P(3/2)-5D(5/2) transition. From the numerical results, the crossover from TPA to EIT could be understood by the decomposition of the spectrum into an EIT component owing to the pure two-photon coherence and a TPA component caused by the mixed term.

  18. Charge Transport in Two-Photon Semiconducting Structures for Solar Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guohua; Du, Kang; Haussener, Sophia; Wang, Kaiying

    2016-10-20

    Semiconducting heterostructures are emerging as promising light absorbers and offer effective electron-hole separation to drive solar chemistry. This technology relies on semiconductor composites or photoelectrodes that work in the presence of a redox mediator and that create cascade junctions to promote surface catalytic reactions. Rational tuning of their structures and compositions is crucial to fully exploit their functionality. In this review, we describe the possibilities of applying the two-photon concept to the field of solar fuels. A wide range of strategies including the indirect combination of two semiconductors by a redox couple, direct coupling of two semiconductors, multicomponent structures with a conductive mediator, related photoelectrodes, as well as two-photon cells are discussed for light energy harvesting and charge transport. Examples of charge extraction models from the literature are summarized to understand the mechanism of interfacial carrier dynamics and to rationalize experimental observations. We focus on a working principle of the constituent components and linking the photosynthetic activity with the proposed models. This work gives a new perspective on artificial photosynthesis by taking simultaneous advantages of photon absorption and charge transfer, outlining an encouraging roadmap towards solar fuels. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Two-photon NADH imaging exposes boundaries of oxygen diffusion in cortical vascular supply regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasischke, Karl A; Lambert, Elton M; Panepento, Ben; Sun, Anita; Gelbard, Harris A; Burgess, Robert W; Foster, Thomas H; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2011-01-01

    Oxygen transport imposes a possible constraint on the brain's ability to sustain variable metabolic demands, but oxygen diffusion in the cerebral cortex has not yet been observed directly. We show that concurrent two-photon fluorescence imaging of endogenous nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and the cortical microcirculation exposes well-defined boundaries of tissue oxygen diffusion in the mouse cortex. The NADH fluorescence increases rapidly over a narrow, very low pO(2) range with a p(50) of 3.4 ± 0.6 mm Hg, thereby establishing a nearly binary reporter of significant, metabolically limiting hypoxia. The transient cortical tissue boundaries of NADH fluorescence exhibit remarkably delineated geometrical patterns, which define the limits of tissue oxygen diffusion from the cortical microcirculation and bear a striking resemblance to the ideal Krogh tissue cylinder. The visualization of microvessels and their regional contribution to oxygen delivery establishes penetrating arterioles as major oxygen sources in addition to the capillary network and confirms the existence of cortical oxygen fields with steep microregional oxygen gradients. Thus, two-photon NADH imaging can be applied to expose vascular supply regions and to localize functionally relevant microregional cortical hypoxia with micrometer spatial resolution.

  20. Adapting a compact confocal microscope system to a two-photon excitation fluorescence imaging architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaspro, A; Corosu, M; Ramoino, P; Robello, M

    1999-11-01

    Within the framework of a national National Institute of Physics of Matter (INFM) project, we have realised a two-photon excitation (TPE) fluorescence microscope based on a new generation commercial confocal scanning head. The core of the architecture is a mode-locked Ti:Sapphire laser (Tsunami 3960, Spectra Physics Inc., Mountain View, CA) pumped by a high-power (5 W, 532 nm) laser (Millennia V, Spectra Physics Inc.) and an ultracompact confocal scanning head, Nikon PCM2000 (Nikon Instruments, Florence, Italy) using a single-pinhole design. Three-dimensional point-spread function has been measured to define spatial resolution performances. The TPE microscope has been used with a wide range of excitable fluorescent molecules (DAPI, Fura-2, Indo-1, DiOC(6)(3), fluoresceine, Texas red) covering a single photon spectral range from UV to green. An example is reported on 3D imaging of the helical structure of the sperm head of the Octopus Eledone cirrhosa labelled with an UV excitable dye, i.e., DAPI. The system can be easily switched for operating both in conventional and two-photon mode. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Wide-band acousto-optic deflectors for large field of view two-photon microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Runhua; Zhou, Zhenqiao; Lv, Xiaohua; Zeng, Shaoqun

    2012-04-01

    Acousto-optic deflector (AOD) is an attractive scanner for two-photon microscopy because it can provide fast and versatile laser scanning and does not involve any mechanical movements. However, due to the small scan range of available AOD, the field of view (FOV) of the AOD-based microscope is typically smaller than that of the conventional galvanometer-based microscope. Here, we developed a novel wide-band AOD to enlarge the scan angle. Considering the maximum acceptable acoustic attenuation in the acousto-optic crystal, relatively lower operating frequencies and moderate aperture were adopted. The custom AOD was able to provide 60 MHz 3-dB bandwidth and 80% peak diffraction efficiency at 840 nm wavelength. Based on a pair of such AOD, a large FOV two-photon microscope was built with a FOV up to 418.5 μm (40× objective). The spatiotemporal dispersion was compensated simultaneously with a single custom-made prism. By means of dynamic power modulation, the variation of laser intensity within the FOV was reduced below 5%. The lateral and axial resolution of the system were 0.58-2.12 μm and 2.17-3.07 μm, respectively. Pollen grain images acquired by this system were presented to demonstrate the imaging capability at different positions across the entire FOV. © 2012 American Institute of Physics

  2. Two photon versus one photon fluorescence excitation in whispering gallery mode microresonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastells, Carme; Marco, M.-Pilar; Merino, David; Loza-Alvarez, Pablo; Pasquardini, Laura; Lunelli, Lorenzo; Pederzolli, Cecilia; Daldosso, Nicola; Farnesi, Daniele; Berneschi, Simone; Righini, Giancarlo C.; Quercioli, Franco; Nunzi Conti, Gualtiero; Soria, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the feasibility of both one photon and two photon fluorescence excitation using whispering gallery mode microresonators. We report the linear and non linear fluorescence real-time detection of labeled IgG covalently bonded to the surface of a silica whispering gallery mode resonator (WGMR). The immunoreagents have been immobilized onto the surface of the WGMR sensor after being activated with an epoxy silane and an orienting layer. The developed immunosensor presents great potential as a robust sensing device for fast and early detection of immunoreactions. We also investigate the potential of microbubbles as nonlinear enhancement platform. The dyes used in these studies are dylight800, tetramethyl rhodamine isothiocyanate, rhodamine 6G and fluorescein. All measurements were performed in a modified confocal microscope. - Highlights: • One photon fluorescence overlaps with the semiconductor pump laser gain bandwidth. • We report on the feasibility to excite two photon fluorescence in microbubble resonators. • Our functionalization process maintains a good quality factor of the microresonator.

  3. Hard Two-Photon Contribution to Elastic Lepton-Proton Scattering Determined by the OLYMPUS Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, B. S.; Ice, L. D.; Khaneft, D.; O'Connor, C.; Russell, R.; Schmidt, A.; Bernauer, J. C.; Kohl, M.; Akopov, N.; Alarcon, R.; Ates, O.; Avetisyan, A.; Beck, R.; Belostotski, S.; Bessuille, J.; Brinker, F.; Calarco, J. R.; Carassiti, V.; Cisbani, E.; Ciullo, G.; Contalbrigo, M.; de Leo, R.; Diefenbach, J.; Donnelly, T. W.; Dow, K.; Elbakian, G.; Eversheim, P. D.; Frullani, S.; Funke, Ch.; Gavrilov, G.; Gläser, B.; Görrissen, N.; Hasell, D. K.; Hauschildt, J.; Hoffmeister, Ph.; Holler, Y.; Ihloff, E.; Izotov, A.; Kaiser, R.; Karyan, G.; Kelsey, J.; Kiselev, A.; Klassen, P.; Krivshich, A.; Lehmann, I.; Lenisa, P.; Lenz, D.; Lumsden, S.; Ma, Y.; Maas, F.; Marukyan, H.; Miklukho, O.; Milner, R. G.; Movsisyan, A.; Murray, M.; Naryshkin, Y.; Perez Benito, R.; Perrino, R.; Redwine, R. P.; Rodríguez Piñeiro, D.; Rosner, G.; Schneekloth, U.; Seitz, B.; Statera, M.; Thiel, A.; Vardanyan, H.; Veretennikov, D.; Vidal, C.; Winnebeck, A.; Yeganov, V.; Olympus Collaboration

    2017-03-01

    The OLYMPUS Collaboration reports on a precision measurement of the positron-proton to electron-proton elastic cross section ratio, R2 γ , a direct measure of the contribution of hard two-photon exchange to the elastic cross section. In the OLYMPUS measurement, 2.01 GeV electron and positron beams were directed through a hydrogen gas target internal to the DORIS storage ring at DESY. A toroidal magnetic spectrometer instrumented with drift chambers and time-of-flight scintillators detected elastically scattered leptons in coincidence with recoiling protons over a scattering angle range of ≈20 ° to 80°. The relative luminosity between the two beam species was monitored using tracking telescopes of interleaved gas electron multiplier and multiwire proportional chamber detectors at 12°, as well as symmetric Møller or Bhabha calorimeters at 1.29°. A total integrated luminosity of 4.5 fb-1 was collected. In the extraction of R2 γ, radiative effects were taken into account using a Monte Carlo generator to simulate the convolutions of internal bremsstrahlung with experiment-specific conditions such as detector acceptance and reconstruction efficiency. The resulting values of R2 γ, presented here for a wide range of virtual photon polarization 0.456 <ɛ <0.978 , are smaller than some hadronic two-photon exchange calculations predict, but are in reasonable agreement with a subtracted dispersion model and a phenomenological fit to the form factor data.

  4. In situ electrical and thermal monitoring of printed electronics by two-photon mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorelli, Francesco; Accanto, Nicolò; Jørgensen, Mikkel; van Hulst, Niek F; Krebs, Frederik C

    2017-06-19

    Printed electronics is emerging as a new, large scale and cost effective technology that will be disruptive in fields such as energy harvesting, consumer electronics and medical sensors. The performance of printed electronic devices relies principally on the carrier mobility and molecular packing of the polymer semiconductor material. Unfortunately, the analysis of such materials is generally performed with destructive techniques, which are hard to make compatible with in situ measurements, and pose a great obstacle for the mass production of printed electronics devices. A rapid, in situ, non-destructive and low-cost testing method is needed. In this study, we demonstrate that nonlinear optical microscopy is a promising technique to achieve this goal. Using ultrashort laser pulses we stimulate two-photon absorption in a roll coated polymer semiconductor and map the resulting two-photon induced photoluminescence and second harmonic response. We show that, in our experimental conditions, it is possible to relate the total amount of photoluminescence detected to important material properties such as the charge carrier density and the molecular packing of the printed polymer material, all with a spatial resolution of 400 nm. Importantly, this technique can be extended to the real time mapping of the polymer semiconductor film, even during the printing process, in which the high printing speed poses the need for equally high acquisition rates.

  5. Two photon versus one photon fluorescence excitation in whispering gallery mode microresonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastells, Carme; Marco, M.-Pilar [Nanobiotechnology for Diagnostics Group (Nb4Dg), IQAC-CSIC, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); CIBER de Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Merino, David; Loza-Alvarez, Pablo [ICFO-Institut de Ciències Fotòniques, Castelldefels, 08860 Barcelona (Spain); Pasquardini, Laura [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, 38123 Povo, TN (Italy); Lunelli, Lorenzo [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, 38123 Povo, TN (Italy); IBF-CNR, 38123 Povo, TN (Italy); Pederzolli, Cecilia [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, 38123 Povo, TN (Italy); Daldosso, Nicola [Department of Computer Science, University of Verona, Strada le Grazie 15, 37134 Verona (Italy); Farnesi, Daniele [CNR-IFAC “Nello Carrara” Institute of Applied Physics, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, FI (Italy); Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche “E. Fermi”, 00184 Roma (Italy); Berneschi, Simone [CNR-IFAC “Nello Carrara” Institute of Applied Physics, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, FI (Italy); Righini, Giancarlo C. [CNR-IFAC “Nello Carrara” Institute of Applied Physics, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, FI (Italy); Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche “E. Fermi”, 00184 Roma (Italy); Quercioli, Franco [CNR-INO National Institute of Optics, Sesto Fiorentino, FI (Italy); Nunzi Conti, Gualtiero [CNR-IFAC “Nello Carrara” Institute of Applied Physics, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, FI (Italy); Soria, Silvia, E-mail: s.soria@ifac.cnr.it [CNR-IFAC “Nello Carrara” Institute of Applied Physics, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, FI (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    We investigate the feasibility of both one photon and two photon fluorescence excitation using whispering gallery mode microresonators. We report the linear and non linear fluorescence real-time detection of labeled IgG covalently bonded to the surface of a silica whispering gallery mode resonator (WGMR). The immunoreagents have been immobilized onto the surface of the WGMR sensor after being activated with an epoxy silane and an orienting layer. The developed immunosensor presents great potential as a robust sensing device for fast and early detection of immunoreactions. We also investigate the potential of microbubbles as nonlinear enhancement platform. The dyes used in these studies are dylight800, tetramethyl rhodamine isothiocyanate, rhodamine 6G and fluorescein. All measurements were performed in a modified confocal microscope. - Highlights: • One photon fluorescence overlaps with the semiconductor pump laser gain bandwidth. • We report on the feasibility to excite two photon fluorescence in microbubble resonators. • Our functionalization process maintains a good quality factor of the microresonator.

  6. Imaging immune response of skin mast cells in vivo with two-photon microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunqiang; Pastila, Riikka K.; Lin, Charles P.

    2012-02-01

    Intravital multiphoton microscopy has provided insightful information of the dynamic process of immune cells in vivo. However, the use of exogenous labeling agents limits its applications. There is no method to perform functional imaging of mast cells, a population of innate tissue-resident immune cells. Mast cells are widely recognized as the effector cells in allergy. Recently their roles as immunoregulatory cells in certain innate and adaptive immune responses are being actively investigated. Here we report in vivo mouse skin mast cells imaging with two-photon microscopy using endogenous tryptophan as the fluorophore. We studied the following processes. 1) Mast cells degranulation, the first step in the mast cell activation process in which the granules are released into peripheral tissue to trigger downstream reactions. 2) Mast cell reconstitution, a procedure commonly used to study mast cells functioning by comparing the data from wild type mice, mast cell-deficient mice, and mast-cell deficient mice reconstituted with bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs). Imaging the BMMCs engraftment in tissue reveals the mast cells development and the efficiency of BMMCs reconstitution. We observed the reconstitution process for 6 weeks in the ear skin of mast cell-deficient Kit wsh/ w-sh mice by two-photon imaging. Our finding is the first instance of imaging mast cells in vivo with endogenous contrast.

  7. Hadron wave functions as a probe of a two-color baryonic medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amato, Alessandro [Swansea University, Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea (United Kingdom); University of Helsinki, Department of Physics and Helsinki Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 64, Helsinki (Finland); Giudice, Pietro [Universitaet Muenster, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Muenster (Germany); Hands, Simon [Swansea University, Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-01

    The properties of the ground state of two-color QCD at non-zero baryon chemical potential μ present an interesting problem in strongly interacting gauge theory; in particular the nature of the physically relevant degrees of freedom in the superfluid phase in the post-onset regime μ > m{sub π} /2 still needs clarification. In this study we present evidence for in-medium effects at high μ by studying the wave functions of mesonic and diquark states using orthodox lattice simulation techniques, made possible by the absence of a sign problem for the model with N{sub f} = 2. Our results show that beyond onset the spatial extent of hadrons decreases as μ grows, and that the wave function profiles are consistent with the existence of a dynamically gapped Fermi surface in this regime. (orig.)

  8. Non-destructive spatial characterization of buried interfaces in multilayer stacks via two color picosecond acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Jorge C. D.; Garnier, Philippe; Devos, Arnaud

    2017-12-01

    We demonstrate the ability to construct wide-area spatial mappings of buried interfaces in thin film stacks in a non-destructive manner using two color picosecond acoustics. Along with the extraction of layer thicknesses and sound velocities from acoustic signals, the morphological information presented is a powerful demonstration of phonon imaging as a metrological tool. For a series of heterogeneous (polymer, metal, and semiconductor) thin film stacks that have been treated with a chemical procedure known to alter layer properties, the spatial mappings reveal changes to interior thicknesses and chemically modified surface features without the need to remove uppermost layers. These results compare well to atomic force microscopy scans showing that the technique provides a significant advantage to current characterization methods for industrially important device stacks.

  9. Calibration of a two-color soft x-ray diagnostic for electron temperature measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reusch, L. M., E-mail: lmmcguire@wisc.edu; Den Hartog, D. J.; Goetz, J.; McGarry, M. B. [University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53703 (United States); Franz, P. [Consorzio RFX, Padova (Italy); Stephens, H. D. [University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53703 (United States); Pierce College Fort Steilacoom, Lakewood, Washington 98498 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    The two-color soft x-ray (SXR) tomography diagnostic on the Madison Symmetric Torus is capable of making electron temperature measurements via the double-filter technique; however, there has been a 15% systematic discrepancy between the SXR double-filter (SXR{sub DF}) temperature and Thomson scattering (TS) temperature. Here we discuss calibration of the Be filters used in the SXR{sub DF} measurement using empirical measurements of the transmission function versus energy at the BESSY II electron storage ring, electron microprobe analysis of filter contaminants, and measurement of the effective density. The calibration does not account for the TS and SXR{sub DF} discrepancy, and evidence from experiments indicates that this discrepancy is due to physics missing from the SXR{sub DF} analysis rather than instrumentation effects.

  10. Two-color Fermi-liquid theory for transport through a multilevel Kondo impurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karki, D. B.; Mora, Christophe; von Delft, Jan; Kiselev, Mikhail N.

    2018-05-01

    We consider a quantum dot with K ≥2 orbital levels occupied by two electrons connected to two electric terminals. The generic model is given by a multilevel Anderson Hamiltonian. The weak-coupling theory at the particle-hole symmetric point is governed by a two-channel S =1 Kondo model characterized by intrinsic channels asymmetry. Based on a conformal field theory approach we derived an effective Hamiltonian at a strong-coupling fixed point. The Hamiltonian capturing the low-energy physics of a two-stage Kondo screening represents the quantum impurity by a two-color local Fermi liquid. Using nonequilibrium (Keldysh) perturbation theory around the strong-coupling fixed point we analyze the transport properties of the model at finite temperature, Zeeman magnetic field, and source-drain voltage applied across the quantum dot. We compute the Fermi-liquid transport constants and discuss different universality classes associated with emergent symmetries.

  11. Enhanced hole boring with two-color relativistic laser pulses in the fast ignition scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Changhai; Tian, Ye; Li, Wentao; Wang, Wentao; Zhang, Zhijun; Qi, Rong; Wang, Cheng [State Key Laboratory of High Field Laser Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Deng, Aihua, E-mail: aihuadeng1985@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Liu, Jiansheng, E-mail: michaeljs-liu@siom.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of High Field Laser Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of IFSA (CICIFSA), Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2016-08-15

    A scheme of using two-color laser pulses for hole boring into overdense plasma as well as energy transfer into electron and ion beams has been studied using particle-in-cell simulations. Following an ultra-short ultra-intense hole-boring laser pulse with a short central wavelength in extreme ultra-violet range, the main infrared driving laser pulse can be guided in the hollow channel preformed by the former laser and propagate much deeper into an overdense plasma, as compared to the case using the infrared laser only. In addition to efficiently transferring the main driving laser energy into energetic electrons and ions generation deep inside the overdense plasma, the ion beam divergence can be greatly reduced. The results might be beneficial for the fast ignition concept of inertial confinement fusion.

  12. Memory effects, two color percolation, and the temperature dependence of Mott variable-range hopping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agam, Oded; Aleiner, Igor L.

    2014-06-01

    There are three basic processes that determine hopping transport: (a) hopping between normally empty sites (i.e., having exponentially small occupation numbers at equilibrium), (b) hopping between normally occupied sites, and (c) transitions between normally occupied and unoccupied sites. In conventional theories all these processes are considered Markovian and the correlations of occupation numbers of different sites are believed to be small (i.e., not exponential in temperature). We show that, contrary to this belief, memory effects suppress the processes of type (c) and manifest themselves in a subleading exponential temperature dependence of the variable-range hopping conductivity. This temperature dependence originates from the property that sites of type (a) and (b) form two independent resistor networks that are weakly coupled to each other by processes of type (c). This leads to a two-color percolation problem which we solve in the critical region.

  13. Fabrication of optical multilayer for two-color phase plate in super-resolution microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iketaki, Yoshinori; Kitagawa, Katsuichi; Hidaka, Kohjiro; Kato, Naoki; Hirabayashi, Akira; Bokor, Nandor

    2014-07-01

    In super-resolution microscopy based on fluorescence depletion, the two-color phase plate (TPP) is an indispensable optical element, which can independently control the phase shifts for two beams of different color, i.e., the pump and erase beams. By controlling a phase shift of the erase beam through the TPP, the erase beam can be modulated into a doughnut shape, while the pump beam maintains the initial Gaussian shape. To obtain a reliable optical multiplayer (ML) for the TPP, we designed a ML with only two optical layers by performing numerical optimization. The measured phase shifts generated by the fabricated ML using interferometry correspond to the design values. The beam profiles in the focal plane are also consistent with theoretical results. Although the fabricated ML consists of only two optical layers, the ML can provide a suitable phase modulation function for the TPP in a practical super-resolution microscope.

  14. Fabrication of optical multilayer for two-color phase plate in super-resolution microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iketaki, Yoshinori; Kitagawa, Katsuichi; Hidaka, Kohjiro; Kato, Naoki; Hirabayashi, Akira; Bokor, Nandor

    2014-01-01

    In super-resolution microscopy based on fluorescence depletion, the two-color phase plate (TPP) is an indispensable optical element, which can independently control the phase shifts for two beams of different color, i.e., the pump and erase beams. By controlling a phase shift of the erase beam through the TPP, the erase beam can be modulated into a doughnut shape, while the pump beam maintains the initial Gaussian shape. To obtain a reliable optical multiplayer (ML) for the TPP, we designed a ML with only two optical layers by performing numerical optimization. The measured phase shifts generated by the fabricated ML using interferometry correspond to the design values. The beam profiles in the focal plane are also consistent with theoretical results. Although the fabricated ML consists of only two optical layers, the ML can provide a suitable phase modulation function for the TPP in a practical super-resolution microscope

  15. Design of a real-time two-color interferometer for MAST Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O’Gorman, T.; Naylor, G.; Scannell, R.; Cunningham, G.; Martin, R.; Croft, D.; Brunner, K. J.

    2014-01-01

    A single chord two-color CO 2 /HeNe (10.6/0.633 μm) heterodyne laser interferometer has been designed to measure the line integral electron density along the mid-plane of the MAST Upgrade tokamak, with a typical error of 1 × 10 18 m −3 (∼2° phase error) at 4 MHz temporal resolution. To ensure this diagnostic system can be restored from any failures without stopping MAST Upgrade operations, it has been located outside of the machine area. The final design and initial testing of this system, including details of the optics, vibration isolation, and a novel phase detection scheme are discussed in this paper

  16. A dual-targeting upconversion nanoplatform for two-color fluorescence imaging-guided photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Yang, Cheng-Xiong; Chen, Jia-Tong; Yan, Xiu-Ping

    2014-04-01

    The targetability of a theranostic probe is one of the keys to assuring its theranostic efficiency. Here we show the design and fabrication of a dual-targeting upconversion nanoplatform for two-color fluorescence imaging-guided photodynamic therapy (PDT). The nanoplatform was prepared from 3-aminophenylboronic acid functionalized upconversion nanocrystals (APBA-UCNPs) and hyaluronated fullerene (HAC60) via a specific diol-borate condensation. The two specific ligands of aminophenylboronic acid and hyaluronic acid provide synergistic targeting effects, high targetability, and hence a dramatically elevated uptake of the nanoplatform by cancer cells. The high generation yield of (1)O2 due to multiplexed Förster resonance energy transfer between APBA-UCNPs (donor) and HAC60 (acceptor) allows effective therapy. The present nanoplatform shows great potential for highly selective tumor-targeted imaging-guided PDT.

  17. Spatial properties of a terahertz beam generated from a two-color air plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pernille Klarskov; Wang, Tianwu; Buron, Jonas Christian Due

    2013-01-01

    We present a spatial characterization of terahertz (THz) beams generated from a two-color air plasma under different conditions by measuring full 3D beam profiles using a commercial THz camera. We compare two THz beam profiles emitted from plasmas generated by 35 fs and 100 fs laser pulses...... that this reduces the beam waist, and that the beam spot shape changes from Lorentzian to Gaussian. Finally, we observe a forward-propagating Gaussian THz beam by spatially filtering away the conical off-axis radiation with a 1 cm aperture......., and show that the spatial properties of the two THz beams do not change significantly. For the THz beam profile generated by the 35 fs pulse, the spatial effect of eliminating the lower frequencies is investigated by implementing two crossed polarizers working as a high-pass filter. We show...

  18. Melting the diquark condensate in two-color QCD: A renormalization group analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirstam, J.; Lenaghan, J.T.; Splittorff, K.

    2003-01-01

    We use a Landau theory and the ε expansion to study the superfluid phase transition of two-color QCD at a nonzero temperature T and baryonic chemical potential μ. At low T, and for N f flavors of massless quarks, the global SU(N f )xSU(N f )xU(1) symmetry is spontaneously broken by a diquark condensate down to Sp(N f )xSp(N f ) for any μ>0. As the temperature increases, the diquark condensate melts, and at sufficiently large T the symmetry is restored. Using renormalization group arguments, we find that in the presence of the chiral anomaly term there can be a second order phase transition when N f =2 or N f ≥6, while the transition is first order for N f =4. We discuss the relevance of these results for the emergence of a tricritical point recently observed in lattice simulations

  19. Mid-infrared two-photon absorption in an extended-wavelength InGaAs photodetector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccardo, Marco; Rubin, Noah A.; Meadowcroft, Lauren; Chevalier, Paul; Yuan, Henry; Kimchi, Joseph; Capasso, Federico

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the nonlinear optical response of a commercial extended-wavelength In0.81Ga0.19As uncooled photodetector. Degenerate two-photon absorption in the mid-infrared range is observed using a quantum cascade laser emitting at λ = 4.5 μm as the excitation source. From the measured two-photon photocurrent signal, we extract a two-photon absorption coefficient β(2) = 0.6 ± 0.2 cm/MW, in agreement with the theoretical value obtained from the Eg-3 scaling law. Considering the wide spectral range covered by extended-wavelength InxGa1-xAs alloys, this result holds promise for applications based on two-photon absorption for this family of materials at wavelengths between 1.8 and 5.6 μm.

  20. Two-photon induced fluorescence of Cy5-DNA in buffer solution and on silver island films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukomska, Joanna; Gryczynski, Ignacy; Malicka, Joanna; Makowiec, Slawomir; Lakowicz, Joseph R.; Gryczynski, Zygmunt

    2005-01-01

    We report the observation of a strong two-photon induced fluorescence emission of Cy5-DNA within the tunable range of a Ti:Sapphire laser. The estimated two-photon cross-section for Cy5-DNA of 400 GM is about 3.5-fold higher than it was reported for rhodamine B. The fundamental anisotropies of Cy5-DNA are close to the theoretical limits of 2/5 and 4/7 for one- and two-photon excitation, respectively. We also observed an enhanced two-photon induced fluorescence (TPIF) of Cy5-DNA deposited on silver island films (SIFs). In the presence of SIFs, the TPIF is about 100-fold brighter. The brightness increase of Cy5-DNA TPIF near SIFs is mostly due to enhanced local field

  1. Selective labeling of a single organelle by using two-photon conversion of a photoconvertible fluorescent protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Wataru; Shimada, Tomoko; Matsunaga, Sachihiro; Kurihara, Daisuke; Arimura, Shin-ichi; Tsutsumi, Nobuhiro; Fukui, Kiichi; Itoh, Kazuyoshi

    2008-02-01

    We present space-selective labeling of organelles by using two-photon conversion of a photoconvertible fluorescent protein with near-infrared femtosecond laser pulses. Two-photon excitation of photoconvertible fluorescent-protein, Kaede, enables space-selective labeling of organelles. We alter the fluorescence of target mitochondria in a tobacco BY-2 cell from green to red by focusing femtosecond laser pulses with a wavelength of 750 nm.

  2. Possibility of producing the event-ready two-photon polarization entangled state with normal photon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiangbin

    2003-01-01

    We propose a scheme to produce the maximally two-photon polarization entangled state with single-photon sources and the passive linear optics devices. In particular, our scheme only requires the normal photon detectors which distinguish the vacuum and non-vacuum Fock number states. A sophisticated photon detector distinguishing between one-photon state and two-photon state is unnecessary in the scheme

  3. Photonic crystal fibre enables short-wavelength two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy with fura-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, Gail; Riis, Erling

    2004-01-01

    We report on a novel and compact reliable laser source capable of short-wavelength two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy based on soliton self-frequency shift effects in photonic crystal fibre. We demonstrate the function of the system by performing two-photon microscopy of smooth muscle cells and cardiac myocytes from the rat pulmonary vein and Chinese hamster ovary cells loaded with the fluorescent calcium indicator fura-2/AM

  4. One-way quantum computation via manipulation of polarization and momentum qubits in two-photon cluster states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallone, G; Pomarico, E; De Martini, F; Mataloni, P

    2008-01-01

    Four-qubit cluster states of two photons entangled in polarization and linear momentum have been used to realize a complete set of single qubit rotations and the C-NOT gate for equatorial qubits with high values of fidelity. By the computational equivalence of the two degrees of freedom our result demonstrate the suitability of two photon cluster states for rapid and efficient one-way quantum computing

  5. A bioaccumulative cyclometalated platinum(II) complex with two-photon-induced emission for live cell imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Chi-Kin; Wong, Ka-Leung; Man, Cornelia Wing-Yin; Lam, Yun-Wah; So, Leo King-Yan; Tam, Hoi-Lam; Tsao, Sai-Wah; Cheah, Kok-Wai; Lau, Kai-Chung; Yang, Yang-Yi; Chen, Jin-Can; Lam, Michael Hon-Wah

    2009-02-02

    The cyclometalated platinum(II) complex [Pt(L)Cl], where HL is a new cyclometalating ligand 2-phenyl-6-(1H-pyrazol-3-yl)pyridine containing C(phenyl), N(pyridyl), and N(pyrazolyl) donor moieties, was found to possess two-photon-induced luminescent properties. The two-photon-absorption cross section of the complex in N,N-dimethylformamide at room temperature was measured to be 20.8 GM. Upon two-photon excitation at 730 nm from a Ti:sapphire laser, bright-green emission was observed. Besides its two-photon-induced luminescent properties, [Pt(L)Cl] was able to be rapidly accumulated in live HeLa and NIH3T3 cells. The two-photon-induced luminescence of the complex was retained after live cell internalization and can be observed by two-photon confocal microscopy. Its bioaccumulation properties enabled time-lapse imaging of the internalization process of the dye into living cells. Cytotoxicity of [Pt(L)Cl] to both tested cell lines was low, according to MTT assays, even at loadings as high as 20 times the dose concentration for imaging for 6 h.

  6. Strong-field QED processes in short laser pulses. One- and two-photon Compton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seipt, Daniel

    2012-12-20

    The purpose of this thesis is to advance the understanding of strong-field QED processes in short laser pulses. The processes of non-linear one-photon and two-photon Compton scattering are studied, that is the scattering of photons in the interaction of relativistic electrons with ultra-short high-intensity laser pulses. These investigations are done in view of the present and next generation of ultra-high intensity optical lasers which are supposed to achieve unprecedented intensities of the order of 10{sup 24} W/cm{sup 2} and beyond, with pulse lengths in the order of some femtoseconds. The ultra-high laser intensity requires a non-perturbative description of the interaction of charged particles with the laser field to allow for multi-photon interactions, which is beyond the usual perturbative expansion of QED organized in powers of the fine structure constant. This is achieved in strong-field QED by employing the Furry picture and non-perturbative solutions of the Dirac equation in the presence of a background laser field as initial and final state wave functions, as well as the laser dressed Dirac-Volkov propagator. The primary objective is a realistic description of scattering processes with regard to the finite laser pulse duration beyond the common approximation of infinite plane waves, which is made necessary by the ultra-short pulse length of modern high-intensity lasers. Non-linear finite size effects are identified, which are a result of the interplay between the ultra-high intensity and the ultra-short pulse length. In particular, the frequency spectra and azimuthal photon emission spectra are studied emphasizing the differences between pulsed and infinite laser fields. The proper description of the finite temporal duration of the laser pulse leads to a regularization of unphysical infinities (due to the infinite plane-wave description) of the laser-dressed Dirac-Volkov propagator and in the second-order strong-field process of two-photon Compton

  7. Ab-initio validation of a simple heuristic expression for the sequential-double-ionization contribution to the double ionization of helium by ultrashort XUV pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Aihua; Thumm, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    We study two-photon double ionization of helium by short XUV pulses by numerically solving the time-dependent Schrodinger equation in full dimensionality within a finite-element discrete-variable-representation scheme. Based on the emission asymmetries in joint photoelectron angular distributions, we identify sequential and non-sequential contributions to two-photon double ionization for ultrashort pulses whose spectrum overlaps the sequential (ħω > 54.4 eV) and non-sequential (39.5 eV < ħω < 54.4 eV) double-ionization regimes. (paper)

  8. Nanoshells for in vivo imaging using two-photon excitation microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao Liang; Nammalvar, Vengadesan [Department of Bioengineering, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Vadakkan, Tegy J, E-mail: lg3@rice.edu, E-mail: venkyn@rice.edu [Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)

    2011-09-07

    Gold nanoshells have been intensively investigated and applied to various biomedical fields because of their flexible optical tunability and biological compatibility. They hold great potential to serve as luminescent contrast agents excitable with near-infrared (NIR) lasers. In this paper, we describe the development of nanoshells with a peak of plasmon resonance at 800 nm and their subsequent use for in vivo blood vessel imaging using two-photon excitation microscopy at an excitation wavelength of 750 nm. We were able to image single nanoshell particles in blood vessels and generate optical contrast for blood vessel structure using luminescent signals. These results confirm the feasibility of engineering nanoshells with controlled optical properties for single-particle-based in vivo imaging.

  9. Time-resolved stimulated emission depletion and energy transfer dynamics in two-photon excited EGFP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, T. A.; Robinson, N. A.; Marsh, R. J.; Blacker, T. S.; Armoogum, D. A.; Larijani, B.; Bain, A. J.

    2018-04-01

    Time and polarization-resolved stimulated emission depletion (STED) measurements are used to investigate excited state evolution following the two-photon excitation of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). We employ a new approach for the accurate STED measurement of the hitherto unmeasured degree of hexadecapolar transition dipole moment alignment ⟨α40 ⟩ present at a given excitation-depletion (pump-dump) pulse separation. Time-resolved polarized fluorescence measurements as a function of pump-dump delay reveal the time evolution of ⟨α40 ⟩ to be considerably more rapid than predicted for isotropic rotational diffusion in EGFP. Additional depolarization by homo-Förster resonance energy transfer is investigated for both ⟨α20 ⟩ (quadrupolar) and ⟨α40 ⟩ transition dipole alignments. These results point to the utility of higher order dipole correlation measurements in the investigation of resonance energy transfer processes.

  10. f$_1$(1285) Formation in Two-Photon Collisions at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Achard, P.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Alcaraz, J.; Alemanni, G.; Allaby, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alviggi, M.G.; Anderhub, H.; Andreev, Valery P.; Anselmo, F.; Arefev, A.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Bagnaia, P.; Bajo, A.; Baksay, G.; Baksay, L.; Baldew, S.V.; Banerjee, S.; Banerjee, Sw.; Barczyk, A.; Barillere, R.; Bartalini, P.; Basile, M.; Batalova, N.; Battiston, R.; Bay, A.; Becattini, F.; Becker, U.; Behner, F.; Bellucci, L.; Berbeco, R.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Betev, B.L.; Biasini, M.; Biglietti, M.; Biland, A.; Blaising, J.J.; Blyth, S.C.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bohm, A.; Boldizsar, L.; Borgia, B.; Bottai, S.; Bourilkov, D.; Bourquin, M.; Braccini, S.; Branson, J.G.; Brochu, F.; Buijs, A.; Burger, J.D.; Burger, W.J.; Cai, X.D.; Capell, M.; Cara Romeo, G.; Carlino, G.; Cartacci, A.; Casaus, J.; Cavallari, F.; Cavallo, N.; Cecchi, C.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo, M.; Chang, Y.H.; Chemarin, M.; Chen, A.; Chen, G.; Chen, G.M.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, H.S.; Chiefari, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Clare, I.; Clare, R.; Coignet, G.; Colino, N.; Costantini, S.; de la Cruz, B.; Cucciarelli, S.; van Dalen, J.A.; de Asmundis, R.; Deglon, P.; Debreczeni, J.; Degre, A.; Deiters, K.; della Volpe, D.; Delmeire, E.; Denes, P.; DeNotaristefani, F.; De Salvo, A.; Diemoz, M.; Dierckxsens, M.; van Dierendonck, D.; Dionisi, C.; Dittmar, M.; Doria, A.; Dova, M.T.; Duchesneau, D.; Duinker, P.; Echenard, B.; Eline, A.; El Mamouni, H.; Engler, A.; Eppling, F.J.; Ewers, A.; Extermann, P.; Falagan, M.A.; Falciano, S.; Favara, A.; Fay, J.; Fedin, O.; Felcini, M.; Ferguson, T.; Fesefeldt, H.; Fiandrini, E.; Field, J.H.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, P.H.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, I.; Forconi, G.; Freudenreich, K.; Furetta, C.; Galaktionov, Iouri; Ganguli, S.N.; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gataullin, M.; Gentile, S.; Giagu, S.; Gong, Z.F.; Grenier, Gerald Jean; Grimm, O.; Gruenewald, M.W.; Guida, M.; van Gulik, R.; Gupta, V.K.; Gurtu, A.; Gutay, L.J.; Haas, D.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hebbeker, T.; Herve, Alain; Hirschfelder, J.; Hofer, H.; Hohlmann, M.; Holzner, G.; Hou, S.R.; Hu, Y.; Jin, B.N.; Jones, Lawrence W.; de Jong, P.; Josa-Mutuberria, I.; Kafer, D.; Kaur, M.; Kienzle-Focacci, M.N.; Kim, J.K.; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, W.; Klimentov, A.; Konig, A.C.; Kopal, M.; Koutsenko, V.; Kraber, M.; Kraemer, R.W.; Krenz, W.; Kruger, A.; Kunin, A.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Laktineh, I.; Landi, G.; Lebeau, M.; Lebedev, A.; Lebrun, P.; Lecomte, P.; Lecoq, P.; Le Coultre, P.; Le Goff, J.M.; Leiste, R.; Levtchenko, P.; Li, C.; Likhoded, S.; Lin, C.H.; Lin, W.T.; Linde, F.L.; Lista, L.; Liu, Z.A.; Lohmann, W.; Longo, E.; Lu, Y.S.; Lubelsmeyer, K.; Luci, C.; Luminari, L.; Lustermann, W.; Ma, W.G.; Malgeri, L.; Malinin, A.; Mana, C.; Mangeol, D.; Mans, J.; Martin, J.P.; Marzano, F.; Mazumdar, K.; McNeil, R.R.; Mele, S.; Merola, L.; Meschini, M.; Metzger, W.J.; Mihul, A.; Milcent, H.; Mirabelli, G.; Mnich, J.; Mohanty, G.B.; Muanza, G.S.; Muijs, A.J.M.; Musicar, B.; Musy, M.; Nagy, S.; Natale, S.; Napolitano, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Newman, H.; Niessen, T.; Nisati, A.; Kluge, Hannelies; Ofierzynski, R.; Organtini, G.; Palomares, C.; Pandoulas, D.; Paolucci, P.; Paramatti, R.; Passaleva, G.; Patricelli, S.; Paul, Thomas Cantzon; Pauluzzi, M.; Paus, C.; Pauss, F.; Pedace, M.; Pensotti, S.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Petersen, B.; Piccolo, D.; Pierella, F.; Pioppi, M.; Piroue, P.A.; Pistolesi, E.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Pojidaev, V.; Pothier, J.; Prokofev, D.O.; Prokofiev, D.; Quartieri, J.; Rahal-Callot, G.; Rahaman, M.A.; Raics, P.; Raja, N.; Ramelli, R.; Rancoita, P.G.; Ranieri, R.; Raspereza, A.; Razis, P.; Ren, D.; Rescigno, M.; Reucroft, S.; Riemann, S.; Riles, Keith; Roe, B.P.; Romero, L.; Rosca, A.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Roth, Stefan; Rosenbleck, C.; Roux, B.; Rubio, J.A.; Ruggiero, G.; Rykaczewski, H.; Sakharov, A.; Saremi, S.; Sarkar, S.; Salicio, J.; Sanchez, E.; Sanders, M.P.; Schafer, C.; Schegelsky, V.; Schmidt-Kaerst, S.; Schmitz, D.; Schopper, H.; Schotanus, D.J.; Schwering, G.; Sciacca, C.; Servoli, L.; Shevchenko, S.; Shivarov, N.; Shoutko, V.; Shumilov, E.; Shvorob, A.; Siedenburg, T.; Son, D.; Spillantini, P.; Steuer, M.; Stickland, D.P.; Stoyanov, B.; Straessner, A.; Sudhakar, K.; Sultanov, G.; Sun, L.Z.; Sushkov, S.; Suter, H.; Swain, J.D.; Szillasi, Z.; Tang, X.W.; Tarjan, P.; Tauscher, L.; Taylor, L.; Tellili, B.; Teyssier, D.; Timmermans, Charles; Ting, Samuel C.C.; Ting, S.M.; Tonwar, S.C.; Toth, J.; Tully, C.; Tung, K.L.; Ulbricht, J.; Valente, E.; Van de Walle, R.T.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vetlitsky, I.; Vicinanza, D.; Viertel, G.; Villa, S.; Vivargent, M.; Vlachos, S.; Vodopianov, I.; Vogel, H.; Vogt, H.; Vorobev, I.; Vorobyov, A.A.; Wadhwa, M.; Wallraff, W.; Wang, X.L.; Wang, Z.M.; Weber, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wilkens, H.; Wynhoff, S.; Xia, L.; Xu, Z.Z.; Yamamoto, J.; Yang, B.Z.; Yang, C.G.; Yang, H.J.; Yang, M.; Yeh, S.C.; Zalite, A.; Zalite, Yu.; Zhang, Z.P.; Zhao, J.; Zhu, G.Y.; Zhu, R.Y.; Zhuang, H.L.; Zichichi, A.; Zilizi, G.; Zimmermann, B.; Zoller, M.

    2002-01-01

    The $\\eta \\pi^+ \\pi^-$ final state in two-photon collisions is studied with the L3 detector at LEP, at centre-of-mass energies from 183 to 209~GeV with an integrated luminosity of 664.6~pb$^{-1}$. The f$_1$(1285) meson is observed and the $Q^2$ dependence of its production is compared to different form factor models. The $\\gamma\\gamma$-coupling parameter $\\tilde\\Gamma_{\\gamma\\gamma}$ is found to be $3.5 \\pm 0.6\\,(stat.) \\pm 0.5\\,(sys.)$~keV. The branching fraction $\\Gamma\\bigl({\\rm f}_1(1285)\\rightarrow{\\rm a}_0\\pi\\bigr) / \\Gamma\\bigl({\\rm f}_1(1285)\\rightarrow\\eta\\pi\\pi\\bigr)$ is also measured.

  11. GPC light shaper for speckle-free one- and two-photon contiguous pattern excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Palima, Darwin; Villangca, Mark Jayson

    2014-01-01

    Generalized Phase Contrast (GPC) is an efficient method for generating speckle-free contiguous optical distributions useful in diverse applications such as static beam shaping, optical manipulation and recently, for excitation in two-photon optogenetics. To fully utilize typical Gaussian lasers...... in such applications, we analytically derive conditions for photon efficient light shaping with GPC. When combined with the conditions for optimal contrast developed in previous works, our analysis further simplifies GPCx2019;s implementation. The results of our analysis are applied to practical illumination shapes......, such as a circle and different rectangles commonly used in industrial or commercial applications. We also show simple and efficient beam shaping of arbitrary shapes geared towards biophotonics research and other contemporary applications. Optimized GPC configurations consistently give ~84% efficiency and ~3x...

  12. Evaluation of the two-photon absorption characteristics of GaSb/GaAs quantum rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagener, M. C.; Botha, J. R. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Carrington, P. J. [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Krier, A. [Department of Physics, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YB (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-28

    The optical parameters describing the sub-bandgap response of GaSb/GaAs quantum rings solar cells have been obtained from photocurrent measurements using a modulated pseudo-monochromatic light source in combination with a second, continuous photo-filling source. By controlling the charge state of the quantum rings, the photoemission cross-sections describing the two-photon sub-bandgap transitions could be determined independently. Temperature dependent photo-response measurements also revealed that the barrier for thermal hole emission from the quantum rings is significantly below the quantum ring localisation energy. The temperature dependence of the sub-bandgap photo-response of the solar cell is also described in terms of the photo- and thermal-emission characteristics of the quantum rings.

  13. Two-photon transitions driven by a combination of diode and femtosecond lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Marco P; Nogueira, Giovana T; Felinto, Daniel; Vianna, Sandra S

    2012-10-15

    We report on the combined action of a cw diode laser and a train of ultrashort pulses when each of them drives one step of the 5S-5P-5D two-photon transition in rubidium vapor. The fluorescence from the 6P(3/2) state is detected for a fixed repetition rate of the femtosecond laser while the cw-laser frequency is scanned over the rubidium D(2) lines. This scheme allows for a velocity selective spectroscopy in a large spectral range including the 5D(3/2) and 5D(5/2) states. The results are well described in a simplified frequency domain picture, considering the interaction of each velocity group with the cw laser and a single mode of the frequency comb.

  14. Two-photon spin-polarization spectroscopy in silicon-doped GaAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, M Idrish

    2009-05-14

    We generate spin-polarized electrons in bulk GaAs using circularly polarized two-photon pumping with excess photon energy (DeltaE) and detect them by probing the spin-dependent transmission of the sample. The spin polarization of conduction band electrons is measured and is found to be strongly dependent on DeltaE. The initial polarization, pumped with DeltaE=100 meV, at liquid helium temperature is estimated to be approximately 49.5%, which is very close to the theoretical value (50%) permitted by the optical selection rules governing transitions from heavy-hole and light-hole states to conduction band states in a bulk sample. However, the polarization pumped with larger DeltaE decreases rapidly because of the exciting carriers from the split-off band.

  15. Multichannel modeling and two-photon coherent transfer paths in NaK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, T. A.; Temelkov, I. I.; Gempel, M. W.; Hartmann, T.; Knöckel, H.; Ospelkaus, S.; Tiemann, E.

    2013-08-01

    We explore possible pathways for the creation of ultracold polar NaK molecules in their absolute electronic and rovibrational ground state starting from ultracold Feshbach molecules. In particular, we present a multichannel analysis of the electronic ground and K(4p)+Na(3s) excited-state manifold of NaK, analyze the spin character of both the Feshbach molecular state and the electronically excited intermediate states and discuss possible coherent two-photon transfer paths from Feshbach molecules to rovibronic ground-state molecules. The theoretical study is complemented by the demonstration of stimulated Raman adiabatic passage from the X1Σ+(v=0) state to the a3Σ+ manifold on a molecular beam experiment.

  16. Two-photon or higher-order absorbing optical materials and methods of use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marder, Seth (Inventor); Perry, Joseph (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Compositions capable of simultaneous two-photon absorption and higher order absorptivities are provided. Compounds having a donor-pi-donor or acceptor-pi-acceptor structure are of particular interest, where the donor is an electron donating group, acceptor is an electron accepting group, and pi is a pi bridge linking the donor and/or acceptor groups. The pi bridge may additionally be substituted with electron donating or withdrawing groups to alter the absorptive wavelength of the structure. Also disclosed are methods of generating an excited state of such compounds through optical stimulation with light using simultaneous absorption of photons of energies individually insufficient to achieve an excited state of the compound, but capable of doing so upon simultaneous absorption of two or more such photons. Applications employing such methods are also provided, including controlled polymerization achieved through focusing of the light source(s) used.

  17. Direct measurement of the biphoton Wigner function through two-photon interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douce, T.; Eckstein, A.; Walborn, S. P.; Khoury, A. Z.; Ducci, S.; Keller, A.; Coudreau, T.; Milman, P.

    2013-01-01

    The Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) experiment was a benchmark in quantum optics, evidencing the non–classical nature of photon pairs, later generalized to quantum systems with either bosonic or fermionic statistics. We show that a simple modification in the well-known and widely used HOM experiment provides the direct measurement of the Wigner function. We apply our results to one of the most reliable quantum systems, consisting of biphotons generated by parametric down conversion. A consequence of our results is that a negative value of the Wigner function is a sufficient condition for non-gaussian entanglement between two photons. In the general case, the Wigner function provides all the required information to infer entanglement using well known necessary and sufficient criteria. The present work offers a new vision of the HOM experiment that further develops its possibilities to realize fundamental tests of quantum mechanics using simple optical set-ups. PMID:24346262

  18. Optical components based on two-photon absorption process in functionalized polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, S.; Barsella, A.; Taupier, G.; Stortz, V.; Fort, A.; Dorkenoo, K.D.

    2006-01-01

    We report on the fabrication of basic elements needed in optical circuits in a photopolymerizable resin, using a two-photon absorption (TPA) process to perform a selective polymerization. By taking advantage of the high spatial selectivity of the TPA approach, we can control the value of the local index of refraction in the material and realize permanent optical pathways in the bulk of photopolymerizable matrices. The computer-controlled design of such pathways allows creating optical circuits. As an example of application, optical fibers separated by millimetric distances and placed in arbitrary positions have been connected with moderate losses. Moreover, active components, such as electro-optical Mach-Zehnder interferometers, can be fabricated using photopolymers functionalized with non-linear optical chromophores, in order to be integrated in micro-optical circuits

  19. Microspot two-photon photoemission spectroscopy for CuPc film on HOPG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, T.; Yamamoto, R.; Munakata, T.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Unoccupied levels of CuPc/HOPG are assigned by using 2PPE microspectroscopy. • Lateral distribution of unoccupied energy levels is imaged. • Modified IPS stabilized by the hole localized in the 2nd layer molecule is identified. - Abstract: Microspot two-photon photoemission (micro-2PPE) spectroscopy has been applied to measure the lateral distribution of unoccupied levels on copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) film on HOPG. In addition to the LUMO-derived level and the image potential state (IPS) on the film, we identified the modified IPS which is stabilized by the hole localized in a molecule. We show that modified IPS is observed only on bilayer area, reflecting the localization of the hole in a molecule. The modified IPS is absent on monolayer area, because the hole strongly interacts with substrate.

  20. Two-Photon Polymerization lithography for three-dimensional micro polymer parts manufacturing evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davoudinejad, Ali; Malureanu, Radu; Palima, Darwin

    2017-01-01

    Two-photon polymerization (2PP) technique is one of the common techniques to realize the fabrication of high-quality 3D microstructures. The combination between the laser power, the printing strategy, and the printed feature size are not completely assessed. This study characterizes the additive...... manufacturing processes by Direct Laser Writing (DLW) for fabrication of 3D microstructures. The printing samples were selected from a certified calibrated set with different sizes consisting of five boxes ranging from 8 μm to 200 μm. The laser power was selected as a variable parameter in order to find out...... for too low one. In addition, they show the importance of a good scaffolding, especially for bigger structures where the geometry can be distorted....