WorldWideScience

Sample records for two-color phosphor thermography

  1. A survey of phosphors novel for thermography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruebach, J., E-mail: bruebach@ekt.tu-darmstadt.d [Fachgebiet Reaktive Stroemungen und Messtechnik, Center of Smart Interfaces Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Petersenstrasse 32, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Kissel, T. [Fachgebiet Reaktive Stroemungen und Messtechnik, Center of Smart Interfaces Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Petersenstrasse 32, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Frotscher, M. [Eduard-Zintl-Institut fuer Anorganische und Physikalische Chemie, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Petersenstrasse 18, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Euler, M. [Fachgebiet Reaktive Stroemungen und Messtechnik, Center of Smart Interfaces Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Petersenstrasse 32, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Albert, B. [Eduard-Zintl-Institut fuer Anorganische und Physikalische Chemie, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Petersenstrasse 18, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Dreizler, A. [Fachgebiet Reaktive Stroemungen und Messtechnik, Center of Smart Interfaces Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Petersenstrasse 32, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    With regard to phosphor thermometry, seven luminescent ceramic materials were synthesised and characterised, namely CaMoO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+}, CaTiO{sub 3}:Pr{sup 3+}, LaPO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+}, LaVO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+}, LiAl{sub 5}O{sub 8}:Fe{sup 3+}, TiMg{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Mn{sup 4+} and ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Mn{sup 2+}. In this context, emission spectra and temperature lifetime characteristics are presented. Thus, a survey of phosphors novel for thermography is given in order to encourage further studies and more detailed characterisations of the respective materials. - Research Highlights: Seven phosphor materials novel for thermometry were synthesised. These materials were characterised diffractometrically as well as concerning their emission spectra and lifetime temperature characteristics. The number of phosphor materials characterised for thermometry purposes was extended by seven materials.

  2. An imaging system for quantitive surface temperature mapping using two-color thermographic phosphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Gregory M.

    1988-01-01

    A technique for obtaining detailed quantitative temperature distributions on test models in hypersonic wind tunnels is presented. This technique is based on the ratio of blue to green (450, 520 nm) emission from an UV (365 nm) excited phosphor coating. Separately filtered images are recorded from a three-tube color camera, utilizing off-the-shelf front-end video optics to discriminate wavelengths. Two demonstration studies in a 31-inch Mach 10 tunnel are discussed. One study presents the windward surface temperature-time history for a transatmospheric vehicle, and the other illustrates nosetip heating on a spherically blunted slender cone.

  3. Temperature Mapping of Air Film-Cooled Thermal Barrier Coated Surfaces Using Cr-Doped GdAlO3 Phosphor Thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Shyam, Vikram; Wroblewski, Adam C.; Zhu, Dongming; Cuy, Michael D.; Wolfe, Douglas E.

    2016-01-01

    It has been recently shown that the high luminescence intensity from a Cr-doped GdAlO3 (Cr:GdAlO3) thermographic phosphor enables non-rastered full-field temperature mapping of thermal barrier coating (TBC) surfaces to temperatures above 1000C. In this presentation, temperature mapping by Cr:GdAlO3 based phosphor thermometry of air film-cooled TBC-coated surfaces is demonstrated for both scaled-up cooling hole geometries as well as for actual components in a burner rig test environment. The effects of thermal background radiation and flame chemiluminescence on the measurements are investigated, and advantages of this method over infrared thermography as well as the limitations of this method for studying air film cooling are discussed.

  4. Phosphors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    This invention relates to phosphors that can be used in fluorescent lamps and display devices. The phosphor is comprised of a halophosphate of calcium and/or strontium of apatite crystal structure activated with trivalent cerium and trivalent terbium. The phosphor can further include manganese. Preferably, the phosphor includes up to 10% by weight of one or more of the alkali metals lithium, sodium and potassium in the form of a compound or compounds thereof. The emissions appear as a number of fairly narrow discrete bands. The temperature of preparation is 1000degC (as opposed to the usual 1450degC), therefore reducing costs (less energy is needed, more crucibles are readily obtainable and there is no need for special conditions to enable crucibles to overcome thermal shock)

  5. Two-color infrared detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klem, John F; Kim, Jin K

    2014-05-13

    A two-color detector includes a first absorber layer. The first absorber layer exhibits a first valence band energy characterized by a first valence band energy function. A barrier layer adjoins the first absorber layer at a first interface. The barrier layer exhibits a second valence band energy characterized by a second valence band energy function. The barrier layer also adjoins a second absorber layer at a second interface. The second absorber layer exhibits a third valence band energy characterized by a third valence band energy function. The first and second valence band energy functions are substantially functionally or physically continuous at the first interface and the second and third valence band energy functions are substantially functionally or physically continuous at the second interface.

  6. Infrared thermography

    CERN Document Server

    Meola, Carosena

    2012-01-01

    This e-book conveys information about basic IRT theory, infrared detectors, signal digitalization and applications of infrared thermography in many fields such as medicine, foodstuff conservation, fluid-dynamics, architecture, anthropology, condition monitoring, non destructive testing and evaluation of materials and structures.

  7. Thermography colloquium 2017. Abstracts; Thermographie-Kolloquium 2017. Vortraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-07-01

    This volume contains 23 papers on the following main topics: 1. Inductive thermography, 2. Laser thermography, 3. Thermography on fiber composites, 4. Simulation and equipment technology, 5. Optical properties and building thermography. [German] Dieser Band enthaelt 23 Beitraege zu folgenden Themenschwerpunkten: 1. Induktive Thermographie, 2. Laser-Thermographie, 3. Thermographie an Faserverbundwerkstoffen, 4. Simulation und Geraetetechnik, 5. Optische Eigenschaften und Bauthermographie.

  8. Two-color walking Peregrine solitary waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baronio, Fabio; Chen, Shihua; Mihalache, Dumitru

    2017-09-15

    We study the extreme localization of light, evolving upon a non-zero background, in two-color parametric wave interaction in nonlinear quadratic media. We report the existence of quadratic Peregrine solitary waves, in the presence of significant group-velocity mismatch between the waves (or Poynting vector beam walk-off), in the regime of cascading second-harmonic generation. This finding opens a novel path for the experimental demonstration of extreme rogue waves in ultrafast quadratic nonlinear optics.

  9. Probing Xe electronic structure by two-color HHG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faccialà, D; Ciriolo, A G; De Silvestri, S; Devetta, M; Negro, M; Stagira, S; Vozzi, C; Pabst, S; Bruner, B D; Dudovich, N; Soifer, H

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is probing the multi-electron behavior in xenon by two-color driven high harmonic generation. By changing the relative polarization of the two colors we were able to study different aspects of the multi-electron response. (paper)

  10. Infrared thermography of loose hangingwalls

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kononov, VA

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available This project is the continuation of GAP706 “Pre-feasibility investigation of infrared thermography for the identification of loose hangingwall and impending falls of ground”. The main concept behind the infrared thermography method...

  11. Thermography colloquium 2015. Abstracts; Thermographie-Kolloquium 2015. Vortraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-07-01

    The USB stick contains 17 lectures which where held on the Thermography colloquium 2015 in Leinfelden-Echterdingen (Germany). Here a selection of the topics: Thermal Chladni sound figures in nondestructive testing (M. Rahammer); Flash thermography with several flashes (R. Krankenhagen); Frequency optimization of ultrasound-induced thermography during the measurement (C. Srajbr); Worldwide introduction of a thermographic inspection system for gas turbine components (M. Goldammer); Practical aspects of automation of thermographic weld inspection (G.Mahler); Investigations to determine the crack depth with inductive thermography (B. Oswald-Tranta); Testing of spot welds with laser thermography (M. Ziegler).

  12. Matched-Filter Thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima Tabatabaei

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Conventional infrared thermography techniques, including pulsed and lock-in thermography, have shown great potential for non-destructive evaluation of broad spectrum of materials, spanning from metals to polymers to biological tissues. However, performance of these techniques is often limited due to the diffuse nature of thermal wave fields, resulting in an inherent compromise between inspection depth and depth resolution. Recently, matched-filter thermography has been introduced as a means for overcoming this classic limitation to enable depth-resolved subsurface thermal imaging and improving axial/depth resolution. This paper reviews the basic principles and experimental results of matched-filter thermography: first, mathematical and signal processing concepts related to matched-fileting and pulse compression are discussed. Next, theoretical modeling of thermal-wave responses to matched-filter thermography using two categories of pulse compression techniques (linear frequency modulation and binary phase coding are reviewed. Key experimental results from literature demonstrating the maintenance of axial resolution while inspecting deep into opaque and turbid media are also presented and discussed. Finally, the concept of thermal coherence tomography for deconvolution of thermal responses of axially superposed sources and creation of depth-selective images in a diffusion-wave field is reviewed.

  13. Thermoluminescent phosphor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasky, Jerome B.; Moran, Paul R.

    1978-01-01

    A thermoluminescent phosphor comprising LiF doped with boron and magnesium is produced by diffusion of boron into a conventional LiF phosphor doped with magnesium. Where the boron dopant is made to penetrate only the outer layer of the phosphor, it can be used to detect shallowly penetrating radiation such as tritium beta rays in the presence of a background of more penetrating radiation.

  14. Young's double-slit interference with two-color biphotons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, De-Jian; Wu, Shuang; Li, Hong-Guo; Wang, Hai-Bo; Xiong, Jun; Wang, Kaige

    2017-12-12

    In classical optics, Young's double-slit experiment with colored coherent light gives rise to individual interference fringes for each light frequency, referring to single-photon interference. However, two-photon double-slit interference has been widely studied only for wavelength-degenerate biphoton, known as subwavelength quantum lithography. In this work, we report double-slit interference experiments with two-color biphoton. Different from the degenerate case, the experimental results depend on the measurement methods. From a two-axis coincidence measurement pattern we can extract complete interference information about two colors. The conceptual model provides an intuitional picture of the in-phase and out-of-phase photon correlations and a complete quantum understanding about the which-path information of two colored photons.

  15. Rational choices for the wavelengths of a two color interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jobes, F.C.

    1995-07-01

    If in a two color interferometer for plasma density measurements, the two wavelengths are chosen to have a ratio that is a rational number, and if the signals from each of the wavelengths are multiplied in frequency by the appropriate integer of the rational number and then heterodyned together, the resultant signal will have all effects of component motion nulled out. A phase measurement of this signal will have only plasma density information in it. With CO 2 lasers, it is possible to find suitable wavelength pairs which are close enough to rational numbers to produce an improvement of about 100 in density resolution, compared to standard two color interferometers

  16. Thermography by Infrared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harara, W.; Allouch, Y.; Altahan, A.

    2015-08-01

    This study focused on the principle’s explanation of metallic components and structures testing by thermography method using infrared waves. The study confirmed that, thermal waves testing technique as one of the most important method among the modern non-destructive testing methods. It is characterized by its economy, easy to apply and timely testing of components and metallic structures. This method is applicable to a wide variety of components such as testing pieces of planes, power plants, electric transmission lines and aerospace components, in order to verify their structures and fabrication quality and their comformance to the international standards.Testing the components by thermography using infrared radiation is easy and rapid if compared to other NDT methods. The study included an introduction to the thermography testing method, its equipements, components and the applied technique. Finally, two practical applications are given in order to show the importance of this method in industry concerned with determining the liquid level in a tank and testing the stability of the control box of electrical supply.(author)

  17. Thermography without training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahne, E.

    2009-01-01

    In the recent years more and more times and in more and more areas (fields) can we hear about thermography applications. These are mostly building-energetical, electrical and mechanical condition monitoring and human-biological applications. Thousands of termocameras are used in Hungary, but the knowledge of the operators and the analyzers is neither controlled nor qualified by any professional organization. In Hungary there is no THERMOGRAPH profession or recognized and claimed exam, this way the market is uncontrolled. This study mentioned the theoretical basics, the practical point of view, the current situation in Hungary and the foreign situation. (S.I.)

  18. Thermography. Principles and measurements; Thermographie. Principes et mesure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pajani, D. [Ecole Centrale de Lyon, 69 - Ecully (France)

    2001-09-01

    Thermography is a technique which allows to obtain the thermal image of a given scene and for a determined spectral domain. Infrared thermography is the most well-known and used technique of thermography, but this article deals with the thermographic measurements in general and for a wider part of the radiation spectrum: 1 - general considerations: terminology, fluxes and temperatures measurement; 2 - radiations (emission and reception), radiative properties of materials: basic notions, simplified radiometer, radiative properties of materials; 3 - thermographic measurements: general considerations, calibration, radiometric measurement situation, from the radiometric measurement to the thermometric measurement and to the thermographic measurement, measurement uncertainties. (J.S.)

  19. Two-colorable graph states with maximal Schmidt measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severini, Simone

    2006-01-01

    The Schmidt measure was introduced by Eisert and Briegel for quantifying the degree of entanglement of multipartite quantum systems [J. Eisert, H.-J. Briegel, Phys. Rev. A 64 (2001) 22306]. For two-colorable graph states, the Schmidt measure is related to the spectrum of the associated graph. We observe that almost all two-colorable graph states have maximal Schmidt measure and we construct specific examples. By making appeal to a result of Ehrenfeucht et al. [A. Ehrenfeucht, T. Harju, G. Rozenberg, Discrete Math. 278 (2004) 45], we point out that the graph operations called local complementation and switching form a transitive group acting on the set of all graph states of a given dimension

  20. Tunneling ionization and harmonic generation in two-color fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, K.; Kobayashi, Y.; Sagisaka, A.; Nabekawa, Y.; Watanabe, S.

    1996-01-01

    Tunneling ionization and harmonic generation in two-color fields were studied with a fundamental beam (ω) and its harmonics (2ω,3ω), which were generated by a 100-fs Ti:sapphire laser. Ion yields of atoms and molecules were successfully controlled by means of a change in the relative phase between ω and 3ω pulses. Two-color interference was clearly observed in photoelectron spectra and harmonic spectra. In the ω endash 2ω field even-order harmonics were observed in which the intensity was almost equal to that of the odd harmonics because of an asymmetric optical field. These results were compared with the quasi-static model for ionization and with the quantum theory for harmonic generation. copyright 1996 Optical Society of America

  1. Two-color studies of autoionizing states of small molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, S.T.; Dehmer, P.M.; Dehmer, J.L.; Tomkins, F.S.; O'Halloran, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Two-color, resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization is proving to be a valuable technique for the study of autoionizing states of small molecules. In this talk, results obtained by combining REMPI, photoelectron spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry will be discussed and will be illustrated by examples from our recent studies of rotational and vibrational autoionization in molecular hydrogen and rotational autoionization in nitric oxide. 2 refs., 1 fig

  2. Design study for a two-color beta measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Design analysis of the beam splitter combined two color beta system is presented. Conventional and dichroic beam splitters are discussed. Design analysis of the beta system employing two beams with focusing at separate points is presented. Alterations and basic parameters of the two beam system are discussed. Alterations in the focus of the initial laser and the returning beams are also discussed. Heterodyne efficiencies for the on axis and off axis reflected radiation are included.

  3. Infrared thermography in veterinary medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudak, R.; Zivcak, J.; Sevcik, A.; Danko, J.

    2008-01-01

    The use of infrared thermography in veterinary medicine has been practiced since at least the 1960's, but it is only now, in approximately the last 5 years, that it has been viewed with a reasonably open mind in the veterinary community at large. One of the reasons is progress in sensors technology, which contributed for an outstanding improvement of the thermal imager parameters. Paper deals with veterinary thermography and with description of applications at the University of Veterinary Medicine in Kosice. (authors)

  4. Thermography for health care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagavathiappan, S.; Saravanan, T.; Philip, John; Jayakumar, T.; Raj, Baldev; Karunanithi, R.; Panicker, T.M.R.; Paul Korath, M.; Jagadeesan, K.

    2009-01-01

    Body temperature is a very useful parameter for diagnosing diseases. Often there is a definite correlation between body temperature and diseases. We have used infrared thermography to carry out non-invasive diagnosis of peripheral vascular diseases. Temperature gradients are observed in the affected regions of patients with vascular disorders, which indicate abnormal blood flow in the affected region. Thermal imaging results are well correlated with the clinical findings. Certain areas on the affected limbs showed increased temperature profiles, due to inflammation and underlying venues flow changes. In general, the temperature contrast in the affected regions is about 0.7 to 1 deg C above the normal regions, due to sluggish blood circulation. The results suggest that the thermal imaging technique is an effective technique for detecting small temperature changes in human body due to vascular disorders. (author)

  5. Spinor Slow Light and Two-Color Qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ite; Lee, Meng-Jung; Ruseckas, Julius; Lee, Chin-Yuan; Kudriasov, Viaceslav; Chang, Kao-Fang; Cho, Hung-Wen; Juzeliunas, Gediminas; Yu, Ite A.

    2015-05-01

    We report the first experimental demonstration of two-component or spinor slow light (SSL) using a double tripod (DT) atom-light coupling scheme. The scheme involves three atomic ground states coupled to two excited states by six light fields. The oscillation due to the interaction between the two components was observed. SSL can be used to achieve high conversion efficiencies in the sum frequency generation and is a better method than the widely-used double- Λ scheme. On the basis of the stored light, our data showed that the DT scheme behaves like the two outcomes of an interferometer enabling precision measurements of frequency detuning. Furthermore, the single-photon SSL can be considered as the qubit with the superposition state of two frequency modes or, simply, as the two-color qubit. We experimentally demonstrated a possible application of the DT scheme as quantum memory/rotator for the two-color qubit. This work opens up a new direction in the EIT/slow light research. yu@phys.nthu.edu.tw

  6. Application of Thermography in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venger, Ye.F.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The review presents the results of applying the thermography for the tumor diagnosis, vertebral pain of athletes, vascular lesions, joint trauma, maxillofacial pathology, the study of the mechanism of pathogenic effects of the battery in a biologically active environment, the study of heterogeneity of thermal fields of newborns’ incubators, modeling the propagation of pollutants in ecology. Based on its own developments domestic industry ensured the production of thermal imaging devices to solve military problems. A large and varied use of thermal imaging thermography in Ukraine leads to the conclusion that in the coming years thermal imaging will get overall development.

  7. Two-color lattice QCD with staggered quarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheffler, David

    2015-07-20

    The study of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) at finite temperature and density provides important contributions to the understanding of strong-interaction matter as it is present e.g. in nuclear matter and in neutron stars or as produced in heavy-ion collision experiments. Lattice QCD is a non-perturbative approach, where equations of motion for quarks and gluons are discretized on a finite space-time lattice. The method successfully describes the behavior of QCD in the vacuum and at finite temperature, however it cannot be applied to finite baryon density due to the fermion sign problem. Various QCD-like theories, that offer to draw conclusions about QCD, allow simulations also at finite densities. In this work we investigate two-color QCD as a popular example of a QCD-like theory free from the sign problem with methods from lattice gauge theory. For the generation of gauge configurations with two dynamical quark flavors in the staggered formalism with the ''rooting trick'' we apply the Rational Hybrid Monte Carlo (RHMC) algorithm. We carry out essential preparatory work for future simulations at finite density. As a start, we concentrate on the calculation of the effective potential for the Polyakov loop, which is an order parameter for the confinement-deconfinement transition, in dependence of the temperature and quark mass. It serves as an important input for effective models of QCD. We obtain the effective potential via the histogram method from local distributions of the Polyakov loop. To study the influence of dynamical quarks on gluonic observables, the simulations are performed with large quark masses and are compared to calculations in the pure gauge theory. In the second part of the thesis we examine aspects of the chiral phase transition along the temperature axis. The symmetry group of chiral symmetry in two-color QCD is enlarged to SU(2N{sub f}). Discretized two-color QCD in the staggered formalism exhibits a chiral symmetry breaking

  8. Oxidizer in phosphoric reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos Benedetto, J. dos

    1985-01-01

    Oxidation during the manufacture of wet-process phosphoric acid affected the distribution of uranium and impurities between phosphoric acid and gypsum, by decreasing the uranium loss to gypsum and the impurities solubilization in phosphoric acid. (Author) [pt

  9. Study on two-color planar laser induced fluorescence thermometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shaodan; Tan Sichao; Gao Puzhen; Lin Yuansheng

    2014-01-01

    Many of the convection heat transfer process are involved in the research of nuclear reactor thermal hydraulics. To experimentally determine the variation of the temperature field in those processes is important for the design and safety operation of the nuclear reactor. The application of the two-color planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) in the measurements of fluid temperature distribution is discussed in the paper. The laser dyes used here is rhodamine B (RhB) with negative temperature coefficient and fluorescein 27 (F127) with positive temperature coefficient. The beam of the laser light is adjusted to laser sheet by using the lens group. The fluid with dyes is excited by this laser sheet in a specific plane and temperature dependent fluorescence is released. The temperature field of the plane can be determined through the intensity information. Some technical aspects encountered in the application of the two-laser PLIF are discussed in the paper, such as the spectra characteristic of the dyes and the separation of the spectra. The calibration temperature is higher than the water saturation temperature (at atmosphere pressure). (authors)

  10. Finite density two color chiral perturbation theory revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Prabal; Beleznay, Soma B.; Mannarelli, Massimo

    2018-06-01

    We revisit two-color, two-flavor chiral perturbation theory at finite isospin and baryon density. We investigate the phase diagram obtained varying the isospin and the baryon chemical potentials, focusing on the phase transition occurring when the two chemical potentials are equal and exceed the pion mass (which is degenerate with the diquark mass). In this case, there is a change in the order parameter of the theory that does not lend itself to the standard picture of first order transitions. We explore this phase transition both within a Ginzburg-Landau framework valid in a limited parameter space and then by inspecting the full chiral Lagrangian in all the accessible parameter space. Across the phase transition between the two broken phases the order parameter becomes an SU(2) doublet, with the ground state fixing the expectation value of the sum of the magnitude squared of the pion and the diquark fields. Furthermore, we find that the Lagrangian at equal chemical potentials is invariant under global SU(2) transformations and construct the effective Lagrangian of the three Goldstone degrees of freedom by integrating out the radial fluctuations.

  11. Attosecond pulse trains generated using two color laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauritsson, J.; Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA; Johnsson, P.; Gustafsson, E.; L'Hullier, A.; Schafer, K.J.; Gaarde, M.B.

    2006-01-01

    Complete test of publication follows. We present the generation of attosecond pulse trains from a superposition of an infrared (IR) laser field and its second harmonic. Our attosecond pulses are synthesized by selecting a number of synchronized harmonics generated in argon. By adding the second harmonic to the driving field the inversion symmetry of generation process is broken and both odd and even harmonics are generated. Consecutive half cycles in the two color field differ beyond the simple sign change that occurs in a one color field and have very different shapes and amplitudes. This sub-cycle structure of the field, which governs the generation of the attosecond pulses, depends strongly on the relative phase and intensity of the two fields, thereby providing additional control over the generation process. The generation of attosecond pulses is frequently described using the semi-classical three step model where an electron is: (1) ionized through tunneling ionization during one half cycle; (2) reaccelerated back towards the ion core by the next half cycle; where it (3) recombines with the ground-state releasing the access energy in a short burst of light. In the two color field the symmetry between the ionizing and reaccelerating field is broken, which leads to two possible scenarios: the electron can either be ionized during a strong half cycle and reaccelerated by a weaker field or vice versa. The periodicity is a full IR cycle in both cases and hence two trains of attosecond pulses are generated which are offset from each other. The generation efficiency, however, is very different for the two cases since it is determined mainly by the electric field strength at the time of tunneling and one of the trains will therefore dominate the other. We investigate experimentally both the spectral and temporal structure of the generated attosecond pulse trains as a function of the relative phase between the two driving fields. We find that for a wide range of

  12. Therminological problems in medical thermography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenfel'd, L.G.; Kolotilov, N.N.

    1988-01-01

    Some problems of medicotechnical terminology of clinical thermography are discussed. A short hystorical review of stages of the recovery of infrared rays and their medical application was given. An analysis of a number of terms is based on the rules of medical terminology and state standards. An obligatory use in literature of correct terms, mainly of the Greek and Latin origin, is proposed. Commonly used terms on the basis of modern anatomical terminology are recommended for thermogram description

  13. Therminological problems in medical thermography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozenfel' d, L G; Kolotilov, N N

    1988-01-01

    Some problems of medicotechnical terminology of clinical thermography are discussed. A short hystorical review of stages of the recovery of infrared rays and their medical application was given. An analysis of a number of terms is based on the rules of medical terminology and state standards. An obligatory use in literature of correct terms, mainly of the Greek and Latin origin, is proposed. Commonly used terms on the basis of modern anatomical terminology are recommended for thermogram description.

  14. Defect detection using transient thermography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Zaki Umar; Ibrahim Ahmad; Ab Razak Hamzah; Wan Saffiey Wan Abdullah

    2008-08-01

    An experimental research had been carried out to study the potential of transient thermography in detecting sub-surface defect of non-metal material. In this research, eight pieces of bakelite material were used as samples. Each samples had a sub-surface defect in the circular shape with different diameters and depths. Experiment was conducted using one-sided Pulsed Thermal technique. Heating of samples were done using 30 kWatt adjustable quartz lamp while infra red (IR) images of samples were recorded using THV 550 IR camera. These IR images were then analysed with ThermofitTMPro software to obtain the Maximum Absolute Differential Temperature Signal value, ΔΤ m ax and the time of its appearance, τ m ax (ΔΤ). Result showed that all defects were able to be detected even for the smallest and deepest defect (diameter = 5 mm and depth = 4 mm). However the highest value of Differential Temperature Signal (ΔΤ m ax), were obtained at defect with the largest diameter, 20 mm and at the shallowest depth, 1 mm. As a conclusion, the sensitivity of the pulsed thermography technique to detect sub-surface defects of bakelite material is proportionately related with the size of defect diameter if the defects are at the same depth. On the contrary, the sensitivity of the pulsed thermography technique inversely related with the depth of defect if the defects have similar diameter size. (Author)

  15. Practical applications of phosphors

    CERN Document Server

    Yen, William M; Yamamoto, Hajime

    2006-01-01

    Drawn from the second edition of the best-selling Phosphor Handbook, Practical Applications of Phosphors outlines methods for the production of various phosphors and discusses a broad spectrum of applications. Beginning with methods for synthesis and related technologies, the book sets the stage by classifying and then explaining practical phosphors according to usage. It describes the operating principle and structure of phosphor devices and the phosphor characteristics required for a given device, then covers the manufacturing processes and characteristics of phosphors. The book discusses research and development currently under way on phosphors with potential for practical usage and touches briefly on phosphors that have played a historical role, but are no longer of practical use. It provides a comprehensive treatment of applications including lamps and cathode-ray tubes, x-ray and ionizing radiation, and for vacuum fluorescent and field emission displays and covers inorganic and organic electroluminescen...

  16. Spectrally resolved measurements of the terahertz beam profile generated from a two-color air plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pernille Klarskov; Zalkovskij, Maksim; Strikwerda, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Using a THz camera and THz bandpass filters, we measure the frequency - resolved beam profile emitted from a two - color air plasma. We observe a frequency - independent emission angle from the plasma .......Using a THz camera and THz bandpass filters, we measure the frequency - resolved beam profile emitted from a two - color air plasma. We observe a frequency - independent emission angle from the plasma ....

  17. On Two Color and CCD Methods for the Determination of Astronomic Position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-03-14

    INTRODUCTION .................................... 2 A. Astroposition Objectives As Related to Two-Color Refractometry .................. 2 B. Results...value for the astronomic longitude and latitude.-_ A. Astroposition Objectives As Related to Two-Color Refractometry The long term objectives consist...The interior of the box was divided into 4 bays containing the telescope, the refractometry optics, the power supplies and the refralctometry

  18. Rare earth phosphors and phosphor screens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, R.A.; Maple, T.G.; Sklensky, A.F.

    1981-01-01

    Advances in the use of stabilized rare earth phosphors and of conversion screens using these materials are examined. In particular the new phosphors discussed in this invention consist of oxybromides of yttrium, lanthanum and gadolinium with a luminescent activator ion stabilized by an oxychloride or oxyfluoride surface layer and the conversion screens include trivalent cerium as the activator ion. (U.K.)

  19. Development of two color laser diagnostics for the ITER poloidal polarimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahata, K; Akiyama, T; Tanaka, K; Nakayama, K; Okajima, S

    2010-10-01

    Two color laser diagnostics using terahertz laser sources are under development for a high performance operation of the Large Helical Device and for future fusion devices such as ITER. So far, we have achieved high power laser oscillation lines simultaneously oscillating at 57.2 and 47.7 μm by using a twin optically pumped CH(3)OD laser, and confirmed the original function, compensation of mechanical vibration, of the two color laser interferometer. In this article, application of the two color laser diagnostics to the ITER poloidal polarimeter and recent hardware developments will be described.

  20. Development of two color laser diagnostics for the ITER poloidal polarimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawahata, K.; Akiyama, T.; Tanaka, K.; Nakayama, K.; Okajima, S.

    2010-01-01

    Two color laser diagnostics using terahertz laser sources are under development for a high performance operation of the Large Helical Device and for future fusion devices such as ITER. So far, we have achieved high power laser oscillation lines simultaneously oscillating at 57.2 and 47.7 μm by using a twin optically pumped CH 3 OD laser, and confirmed the original function, compensation of mechanical vibration, of the two color laser interferometer. In this article, application of the two color laser diagnostics to the ITER poloidal polarimeter and recent hardware developments will be described.

  1. Theoretical evaluation of measurement uncertainties of two-color pyrometry applied to optical diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Tairan; Cheng Xiaofang; Yang Zangjian

    2008-01-01

    We present a theoretical analysis of two-color pyrometry applied to optical diagnostics. A two-color pyrometer built with a single CCD is advantageous due to the simple system design. We evaluate the possibility and degree of ill-conditionness on the basis of measurement uncertainties for different measurement approaches of this two-color system. We classify measurement approaches. The corresponding ill-conditionness criterion is established. The greater the criterion value is, the worse the ill-conditioned degree of solution is. So, the optimum choice of measurement approach for the two-color system is achieved through intercomparison of the criterion values. Numerical examples are also given to illustrate this point. The theoretical analysis not only provides an effective way of evaluating different measurement approaches, but also may help us to better understand the influences that determine the choices between wavelength/waveband measurements and calibration/noncalibration modes for temperature and soot distribution

  2. A semiclassical approach for two-color four-mode solid-state superfluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambruschini, C.L.P.

    1991-05-01

    A model for multilevel superfluorescence is presented. By using a parametric solution of this model we explain basic features in the two-color solid-state superfluorescence experiments of Florian, Schwan and Schmid. (author). 23 refs

  3. Quantum manipulation of two-color stationary light: Quantum wavelength conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moiseev, S. A.; Ham, B. S.

    2006-01-01

    We present a quantum manipulation of a traveling light pulse using electromagnetically induced transparency-based slow light phenomenon for the generation of two-color stationary light. We theoretically discuss the two-color stationary light for the quantum wavelength conversion process in terms of pulse area, energy transfer, and propagation directions. The condition of the two-color stationary light pulse generation has been found and the quantum light dynamics has been studied analytically in the adiabatic limit. The quantum frequency conversion rate of the traveling light is dependent on the spatial spreading of the two-color stationary light pulse and can be near unity in an optically dense medium for the optimal frequencies of the control laser fields

  4. Fundamentals of phosphors

    CERN Document Server

    Yen, William M; Yamamoto, Hajime

    2006-01-01

    Drawing from the second edition of the best-selling Handbook of Phosphors, Fundamentals of Phosphors covers the principles and mechanisms of luminescence in detail and surveys the primary phosphor materials as well as their optical properties. The book addresses cutting-edge developments in phosphor science and technology including oxynitride phosphors and the impact of lanthanide level location on phosphor performance.Beginning with an explanation of the physics underlying luminescence mechanisms in solids, the book goes on to interpret various luminescence phenomena in inorganic and organic materials. This includes the interpretation of the luminescence of recently developed low-dimensional systems, such as quantum wells and dots. The book also discusses the excitation mechanisms by cathode-ray and ionizing radiation and by electric fields to produce electroluminescence. The book classifies phosphor materials according to the type of luminescence centers employed or the class of host materials used and inte...

  5. Phosphor scintillator structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cusano, D.A.; Prener, J.S.

    1980-01-01

    A method of fabricating scintillators is described in which the phosphor is distributed within the structure in such a way as to enhance the escape of the visible wavelength radiation that would otherwise be dissipated within the scintillator body. Two embodiments of the present invention are disclosed: one in which the phosphor is distributed in a layered structure and another in which the phosphor is dispersed throughout a transparent matrix. (U.K.)

  6. Thermography colloquium 2007; Thermografie-Kolloquium 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The CD contains 16 contributions, mostly in the form of manuscripts or summaries, and two posters on the following subjects: 1. Environmental influences affecting the accuracy of building thermography (G. Dittie, Dittie Thermografie, Koenigswinter). 2. Energetic modernisation of older buildings: BlowerDoor inspection and IR thermography as decision aids for modernisation measures (K. Schwarz, Beratender Ingenieur, Ingenieurbuero Schwarz, Owingen / Baden). 3. Gas leak detection in the oil and gas industry using infrared optical imaging (J. Tegstam, FLIR Systems AB, Danderyd, Sweden; et al.). 4. The Medical Use of Infrared-Thermography; History and Recent Applications (R. Berz, Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Thermographie und Regulationsmedizin, Hilders / Rhoen; et al.). 5. Dual-Band-QWIP IR Camera ''Geminis 110k ML'' Technology and applications (O. Schreer, IRCAM, Erlangen; et al.). 6. Quantitative Phase and Amplitude Evaluation in the Active Thermography Frequency Range using Rectangular Pulse Heating (R. Arndt, BAM Berlin; et al.). 8. Spatially resolved detection of fatigue processes in metals using IR thermography (J. Medgenberg, TU Braunschweig, Institut fuer Bauwerkserhaltung und Tragwerk, Braunschweig, et al.). 9. Active thermography for analysis of transport processes (C.S. Garbe, IWR und IUR, Universitaet Heidelberg et al.). 10. Frequency optimisation of ultrasonic thermography methods (C. Spiessberger, Institut fuer Kunststofftechnik (IKT), Universitaet Stuttgart et al.). 11. Detection of cracks near the tooths of toothed gears using thermography and eddy current testing (W. Reimche, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Garbsen et al.). 12. Spatially resolved solar cell characterisation using Lock-in thermography (K. Ramspeck, Institut fuer Solarenergieforschung, Hameln / Emmerthal et al.). 14. Puls-Phase Thermography of CFRPL components with defined damage and repair (T. Krell, WIWEB, Erding et al.). 15. Depth-resolved defect detection using

  7. Two-color quark matter: U(1)A restoration, superfluidity, and quarkyonic phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brauner, Tomas; Fukushima, Kenji; Hidaka, Yoshimasa

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the phase structure of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) with two colors and two flavors of light quarks. This is motivated by the increasing interest in the QCD phase diagram as follows: (1) The QCD critical point search has been under intensive dispute and its location and existence suffer from uncertainty of effective U(1) A symmetry restoration. (2) A new phase called quarkyonic matter is drawing theoretical and experimental attention but it is not clear whether it can coexist with diquark condensation. We point out that two-color QCD is nontrivial enough to contain essential ingredients for (1) and (2) both, and most importantly, is a system without the sign problem in numerical simulations on the lattice. We adopt the two-flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model extended with the two-color Polyakov loop and make quantitative predictions that can be tested by lattice simulations.

  8. Inkjet printing the three organic functional layers of two-colored organic light emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coenen, Michiel J.J.; Slaats, Thijs M.W.L.; Eggenhuisen, Tamara M.; Groen, Pim

    2015-01-01

    Inkjet printing allows for the roll-2-roll fabrication of organic electronic devices at an industrial scale. In this paper we demonstrate the fabrication of two-colored organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) in which three adjacent organic device layers were inkjet printed from halogen free inks. The resulting devices demonstrate the possibilities offered by this technique for the fabrication of OLEDs for signage and personalized electronics. - Highlights: • Two-colored organic light emitting diodes with 3 inkjet printed device layers were fabricated. • All materials were printed from halogen free inks. • Inkjet printing of emissive materials is suitable for signage applications

  9. Investigation of dynamic of unconsolidated materials using two-color digital holography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boileau J.-P.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a two-color digital holographic interferometer. The set-up is devoted to the study of the fundamental dynamic of unconsolidated materials. Optical configuration and algorithms to recover the optical phase of two-color digitally encoded holograms are described. The method is based on a spatial-color-multiplexing scheme in which holographic reconstruction is performed using adapted wavelength zero-padding and reconstructing distance. Experimental results are presented in the case of granular media excited in the frequency range 400Hz-3000Hz and exhibits the 3D movement.

  10. Thermography of network in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The overall objective of environmental energy sector programmes is to reduce dependency on unsafe nuclear power stations and also to reduce the environmental impact of the energy sector by means of improved energy efficiency, increased use of cleaner technology and cleaner energy sources. In order to ensure sustainability during the reorganisation of the energy sector, support must be provided for organisational development as well as for training and education. The programmes cover both suppliers and consumers. This paper concludes that IR thermography is an excellent performance control method for district heating networks: A biannual or annual inspection gives a good impression of the general condition of the network; Digging costs will be reduced through precise location of any defects; It will be easier to decide the exact timing of any repairs or renovation, leading to improved purchase options; If sudden water losses occur, IR technology can be applied for quick location; It is essential that operators receive very thorough training, and that close attention is paid to qualifications and references when selecting operators. Resources must be made available for individual training in the field, Where trainee operators are given responsibility for completing their own assignments under the supervisoon of experienced operators. (EG)

  11. Infrared thermography quantitative image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skouroliakou, A.; Kalatzis, I.; Kalyvas, N.; Grivas, TB

    2017-11-01

    Infrared thermography is an imaging technique that has the ability to provide a map of temperature distribution of an object’s surface. It is considered for a wide range of applications in medicine as well as in non-destructive testing procedures. One of its promising medical applications is in orthopaedics and diseases of the musculoskeletal system where temperature distribution of the body’s surface can contribute to the diagnosis and follow up of certain disorders. Although the thermographic image can give a fairly good visual estimation of distribution homogeneity and temperature pattern differences between two symmetric body parts, it is important to extract a quantitative measurement characterising temperature. Certain approaches use temperature of enantiomorphic anatomical points, or parameters extracted from a Region of Interest (ROI). A number of indices have been developed by researchers to that end. In this study a quantitative approach in thermographic image processing is attempted based on extracting different indices for symmetric ROIs on thermograms of the lower back area of scoliotic patients. The indices are based on first order statistical parameters describing temperature distribution. Analysis and comparison of these indices result in evaluating the temperature distribution pattern of the back trunk expected in healthy, regarding spinal problems, subjects.

  12. Narrative review: Diabetic foot and infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Contreras, D.; Peregrina-Barreto, H.; Rangel-Magdaleno, J.; Gonzalez-Bernal, J.

    2016-09-01

    Diabetic foot is one of the major complications experienced by diabetic patients. An early identification and appropriate treatment of diabetic foot problems can prevent devastating consequences such as limb amputation. Several studies have demonstrated that temperature variations in the plantar region can be related to diabetic foot problems. Infrared thermography has been successfully used to detect complication related to diabetic foot, mainly because it is presented as a rapid, non-contact and non-invasive technique to visualize the temperature distribution of the feet. In this review, an overview of studies that relate foot temperature with diabetic foot problems through infrared thermography is presented. Through this research, it can be appreciated the potential of infrared thermography and the benefits that this technique present in this application. This paper also presents the different methods for thermogram analysis and the advantages and disadvantages of each one, being the asymmetric analysis the method most used so far.

  13. Thermography detection on the fatigue damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bing

    It has always been a great temptation in finding new methods to in-situ "watch" the material fatigue-damage processes so that in-time reparations will be possible, and failures or losses can be minimized to the maximum extent. Realizing that temperature patterns may serve as fingerprints for stress-strain behaviors of materials, a state-of-art infrared (IR) thermography camera has been used to "watch" the temperature evolutions of both crystalline and amorphous materials "cycle by cycle" during fatigue experiments in the current research. The two-dimensional (2D) thermography technique records the surface-temperature evolutions of materials. Since all plastic deformations are related to heat dissipations, thermography provides an innovative method to in-situ monitor the heat-evolution processes, including plastic-deformation, mechanical-damage, and phase-transformation characteristics. With the understanding of the temperature evolutions during fatigue, thermography could provide the direct information and evidence of the stress-strain distribution, crack initiation and propagation, shear-band growth, and plastic-zone evolution, which will open up wide applications in studying the structural integrity of engineering components in service. In the current research, theoretical models combining thermodynamics and heat-conduction theory have been developed. Key issues in fatigue, such as in-situ stress-strain states, cyclic softening and hardening observations, and fatigue-life predictions, have been resolved by simply monitoring the specimen-temperature variation during fatigue. Furthermore, in-situ visulizations as well as qualitative and quantitative analyses of fatigue-damage processes, such as Luders-band evolutions, crack propagation, plastic zones, and final fracture, have been performed by thermography. As a method requiring no special sample preparation or surface contact by sensors, thermography provides an innovative and convenient method to in-situ monitor

  14. Controlling nonsequential double ionization of Ne with parallel-polarized two-color laser pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Siqiang; Ma, Xiaomeng; Xie, Hui; Li, Min; Zhou, Yueming; Cao, Wei; Lu, Peixiang

    2018-05-14

    We measure the recoil-ion momentum distributions from nonsequential double ionization of Ne by two-color laser pulses consisting of a strong 800-nm field and a weak 400-nm field with parallel polarizations. The ion momentum spectra show pronounced asymmetries in the emission direction, which depend sensitively on the relative phase of the two-color components. Moreover, the peak of the doubly charged ion momentum distribution shifts gradually with the relative phase. The shifted range is much larger than the maximal vector potential of the 400-nm laser field. Those features are well recaptured by a semiclassical model. Through analyzing the correlated electron dynamics, we found that the energy sharing between the two electrons is extremely unequal at the instant of recollison. We further show that the shift of the ion momentum corresponds to the change of the recollision time in the two-color laser field. By tuning the relative phase of the two-color components, the recollision time is controlled with attosecond precision.

  15. Extended analysis of benchmark datasets for Agilent two-color microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerr Kathleen F

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As part of its broad and ambitious mission, the MicroArray Quality Control (MAQC project reported the results of experiments using External RNA Controls (ERCs on five microarray platforms. For most platforms, several different methods of data processing were considered. However, there was no similar consideration of different methods for processing the data from the Agilent two-color platform. While this omission is understandable given the scale of the project, it can create the false impression that there is consensus about the best way to process Agilent two-color data. It is also important to consider whether ERCs are representative of all the probes on a microarray. Results A comparison of different methods of processing Agilent two-color data shows substantial differences among methods for low-intensity genes. The sensitivity and specificity for detecting differentially expressed genes varies substantially for different methods. Analysis also reveals that the ERCs in the MAQC data only span the upper half of the intensity range, and therefore cannot be representative of all genes on the microarray. Conclusion Although ERCs demonstrate good agreement between observed and expected log-ratios on the Agilent two-color platform, such an analysis is incomplete. Simple loess normalization outperformed data processing with Agilent's Feature Extraction software for accurate identification of differentially expressed genes. Results from studies using ERCs should not be over-generalized when ERCs are not representative of all probes on a microarray.

  16. Long-range predissociation in two-color photoassociation of ultracold Na atoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, P.A.; Straten, P. van der; Heideman, H.G.M.

    1997-01-01

    We report two-color photo-associative ionization of sodium in a Magneto-Optical Trap. The experimental results yield information on both singly and doubly excited states. We find that the highest bound vibrational levels (v > 20) of the singly-excited 0^- g state predissociate into the 3²P3/2

  17. Effects of a static electric field on two-color photoassociation between different atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Debashree; Deb, Bimalendu

    2014-01-01

    We study non-perturbative effects of a static electric field on two-color photoassociation of different atoms. A static electric field induces anisotropy in scattering between two different atoms and hybridizes field-free rotational states of heteronuclear dimers or polar molecules. In a previous paper [D. Chakraborty et al., J. Phys. B 44, 095201 (2011)], the effects of a static electric field on one-color photoassociation between different atoms has been described through field-modified ground-state scattering states, neglecting electric field effects on heteronuclear diatomic bound states. To study the effects of a static electric field on heteronuclear bound states, and the resulting influence on Raman-type two-color photoassociation between different atoms in the presence of a static electric field, we develop a non-perturbative numerical method to calculate static electric field-dressed heteronuclear bound states. We show that the static electric field induced scattering anisotropy as well as hybridization of rotational states strongly influence two-color photoassociation spectra, leading to significant enhancement in PA rate and large shift. In particular, for static electric field strengths of a few hundred kV/cm, two-color PA rate involving high-lying bound states in electronic ground-state increases by several orders of magnitude even in the weak photoassociative coupling regime

  18. Unactivated yttrium tantalate phosphor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, V.B.; Cheung, H.K.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes an unactivated yttrium tantalate phosphor having M prime monoclinic structure and containing one or more additives of Rb and Al in an amount of between about 0.001 to 0.1 moles per mole of yttrium tantalate to improve brightness under X-radiation. This patent also describes an unactivated yttrium tantalate phosphor having M prime monoclinic structure and containing additives of Sr in an amount of between 0.001 to 0.1 moles per mole of yttrium tantalate and one or more of Rb and Al in an amount of between 0.001 to 0.1 moles per mole of yttrium tantalate the phosphor exhibiting a greater brightness under X-radiation than the phosphor absent Rb and Al

  19. Low lag luminescent phosphors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The addition of potassium or rubidium salts to europium-activated fluorohalide phosphors produces X-ray screens with low lag, even at very low europium concentrations. The chemical preparation and afterglow test results are described

  20. Phosphors for LED lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, James Edward; Manepalli, Satya Kishore; Kumar, Prasanth Nammalwar

    2013-08-13

    A phosphor, a phosphor blend including the phosphor, a phosphor prepared by a process, and a lighting apparatus including the phosphor blend are disclosed. The phosphor has the formula (Ca.sub.1-p-qCe.sub.pK.sub.q).sub.xSc.sub.y(Si.sub.1-rGa.sub.r).sub.zO.su- b.12+.delta. or derived from a process followed using disclosed amounts of reactants. In the formula, (0

  1. High temperature thermometric phosphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Stephen W.; Cates, Michael R.; Boatner, Lynn A.; Gillies, George T.

    1999-03-23

    A high temperature phosphor consists essentially of a material having the general formula LuPO.sub.4 :Dy.sub.(x),Eu.sub.y) wherein: 0.1 wt %.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.20 wt % and 0.1 wt %.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.20 wt %. The high temperature phosphor is in contact with an article whose temperature is to be determined. The article having the phosphor in contact with it is placed in the environment for which the temperature of the article is to be determined. The phosphor is excited by a laser causing the phosphor to fluoresce. The emission from the phosphor is optically focused into a beam-splitting mirror which separates the emission into two separate emissions, the emission caused by the dysprosium dopant and the emission caused by the europium dopent. The separated emissions are optically filtered and the intensities of the emission are detected and measured. The ratio of the intensity of each emission is determined and the temperature of the article is calculated from the ratio of the intensities of the separate emissions.

  2. Development Of Economic Techniques For Residential Thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Lee R.; Allen, Sharon

    1983-03-01

    Infrared thermography has proven to be a valuable tool in the detection of heat loss in both commercial and residential buildings. The field of residential thermography has needed a simple method with which to report the deficiencies found during an infrared scan. Two major obstacles hindering the cost effectiveness of residential thermography have been 1) the ability to quickly transport some high resolution imaging system equipment from job site to job site without having to totally dismount the instruments at each area, and 2) the lack of a standard form with which to report the findings of the survey to the customer. Since the industry has yet to provide us with either, we believed it necessary to develop our own. Through trial and error, we have come up with a system that makes interior residential thermography a profitable venture at a price the homeowner can afford. Insulation voids, or defects can be instantly spotted with the use of a thermal imaging system under the proper conditions. A special hand-held device was developed that enables the thermographer to carry the equipment from house to house without the need to dismantle and set up at each stop. All the necessary components are attached for a total weight of about 40 pounds. The findings are then conveyed to a form we have developed. The form is simple enough that the client without special training in thermography can understand. The client is then able to locate the problems and take corrective measures or give it to a con-tractor to do the work.

  3. THz field engineering in two-color femtosecond filaments using chirped and delayed laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, A.; González de Alaiza Martínez, P.; Thiele, I.; Skupin, S.; Bergé, L.

    2018-03-01

    We numerically study the influence of chirping and delaying several ionizing two-color light pulses in order to engineer terahertz (THz) wave generation in air. By means of comprehensive 3D simulations, it is shown that two chirped pulses can increase the THz yield when they are separated by a suitable time delay for the same laser energy in focused propagation geometry. To interpret these results, the local current theory is revisited and we propose an easy, accessible all-optical criterion that predicts the laser-to-THz conversion efficiencies given any input laser spectrum. In the filamentation regime, numerical simulations display evidence that a chirped pulse is able to produce more THz radiation due to propagation effects, which maintain the two colors of the laser field more efficiently coupled over long distances. A large delay between two pulses promotes multi-peaked THz spectra as well as conversion efficiencies above 10‑4.

  4. Making ultracold molecules in a two-color pump-dump photoassociation scheme using chirped pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, Christiane P.; Luc-Koenig, Eliane; Masnou-Seeuws, Francoise

    2006-01-01

    This theoretical paper investigates the formation of ground state molecules from ultracold cesium atoms in a two-color scheme. Following previous work on photoassociation with chirped picosecond pulses [Luc-Koenig et al., Phys. Rev. A, 70, 033414 (2004)], we investigate stabilization by a second (dump) pulse. By appropriately choosing the dump pulse parameters and time delay with respect to the photoassociation pulse, we show that a large number of deeply bound molecules are created in the ground triplet state. We discuss (i) broad-bandwidth dump pulses which maximize the probability to form molecules while creating a broad vibrational distribution as well as (ii) narrow-bandwidth pulses populating a single vibrational ground state level, bound by 113 cm -1 . The use of chirped pulses makes the two-color scheme robust, simple, and efficient

  5. Generation of a strong attosecond pulse train with an orthogonally polarized two-color laser field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chul Min; Kim, I Jong; Nam, Chang Hee

    2005-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the high-order harmonic generation from a neon atom irradiated by an intense two-color femtosecond laser pulse, in which the fundamental field and its second harmonic are linearly polarized and orthogonal to each other. In contrast to usual high-harmonic generation with linearly polarized fundamental field alone, a very strong and clean high-harmonic spectrum, consisting of both odd and even orders of harmonics, can be generated in the orthogonally polarized two-color laser field with proper selection of the relative phase between the fundamental and second-harmonic fields. In time domain, this results in a strong and regular attosecond pulse train. The origin of these behaviors is elucidated by analyzing semiclassical electron paths and by simulating high-harmonic generation quantum mechanically

  6. Making ultracold molecules in a two color pump-dump photoassociation scheme using chirped pulses

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, Christiane P.; Luc-Koenig, Eliane; Masnou-Seeuws, Françoise

    2005-01-01

    This theoretical paper investigates the formation of ground state molecules from ultracold cesium atoms in a two-color scheme. Following previous work on photoassociation with chirped picosecond pulses [Luc-Koenig et al., Phys. Rev. A {\\bf 70}, 033414 (2004)], we investigate stabilization by a second (dump) pulse. By appropriately choosing the dump pulse parameters and time delay with respect to the photoassociation pulse, we show that a large number of deeply bound molecules are created in t...

  7. Two-color photoionization and photoelectron studies by combining infrared and vacuum ultraviolet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, C.Y.

    2005-01-01

    Recent developments of two-color infrared (IR)-vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and VUV-IR photoionization and photoelectron detection schemes for spectroscopic studies are described. By preparing molecules in selected rovibrational states by IR excitation prior to VUV-photoionization, state-selected and state-to-state photoionization cross sections can be obtained by IR-VUV-photoionization efficiency (IR-VUV-PIE) and IR-VUV-pulsed field ionization-photoelectron (IR-VUV-PFI-PE) measurements, respectively. Rotationally resolved autoionizing Rydberg states converging to excited ionic states, which cannot be observed by single-photon VUV-PIE measurements, can be examined by the IR-VUV-PIE scheme. By monitoring the photoion and the PFI-PE intensities at a fixed VUV energy as a function of IR frequency, the respective IR photoion and IR absorption spectra of the corresponding neutral molecule can be measured. Two-color VUV-IR photo-induced Rydberg ionization (PIRI) experiment, in which high-n Rydberg states are prepared by VUV-photoexcitation followed by IR-induced autoionization, has also been demonstrated. Since the IR-VUV-PIE, IR-VUV-PFI-PE, and VUV-IR-PIRI methods do not require the existence of a bound intermediate electronic state in the UV and are generally applicable to all molecules, the development of these two-color photoionization and photoelectron schemes is expected to significantly enhance the scope of VUV spectroscopy and chemistry

  8. Two-color stabilization of atomic hydrogen in circularly polarized laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, D.; Ceccherini, F.

    2002-01-01

    The dynamic stabilization of atomic hydrogen against ionization in high-frequency single- and two-color, circularly polarized laser pulses is observed by numerically solving the three-dimensional, time-dependent Schroedinger equation. The single-color case is revisited and numerically determined ionization rates are compared with both, the exact and the approximate high-frequency Floquet rates. The positions of the peaks in the photoelectron spectra can be explained with the help of dressed initial states. In two-color laser fields of opposite circular polarization, the stabilized probability density may be shaped in various ways. For laser frequencies ω 1 and ω 2 =nω 1 , n=2,3,..., and sufficiently large excursion amplitudes (n+1) distinct probability density peaks are observed. This may be viewed as the generalization of the well-known 'dichotomy' in linearly polarized laser fields, i.e, as 'trichotomy', 'quatrochotomy', 'pentachotomy' etc. All those observed structures and their 'hula-hoop'-like dynamics can be understood with the help of high-frequency Floquet theory and the two-color Kramers-Henneberger transformation. The shaping of the probability density in the stabilization regime can be realized without additional loss in the survival probability, as compared to the corresponding single-color results

  9. Development of NDE Technique with Induction Heating and Thermography on Conductive Composite Materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shepard, Steven M; Lhota, James R; Ahmed, Tasdiq; Kim, HeeJune; Yarlagadda, Shridhar

    2004-01-01

    .... Our expectation at the outset of the projects was that the combination of induction heating and thermography would outperform systems based exclusively on either electromagnetic induction or thermography...

  10. Exit Presentation: Infrared Thermography on Graphite/Epoxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comeaux, Kayla

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reports on the internship project that was accomplished during the summer of 2010. The objectives of the project were to: (1) Simulate Flash Thermography on Graphite/Epoxy Flat Bottom hole Specimen and thin void specimens, (2) Obtain Flash Thermography data on Graphite/Epoxy flat bottom hole specimens, (3) Compare experimental results with simulation results, Compare Flat Bottom Hole Simulation with Thin Void Simulation to create a graph to determine size of IR Thermography detected defects

  11. Challenges to Global Implementation of Infrared Thermography Technology: Current Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Shterenshis

    2017-01-01

    Medical infrared thermography (IT) produces an image of the infrared waves emitted by the human body as part of the thermoregulation process that can vary in intensity based on the health of the person. This review analyzes recent developments in the use of infrared thermography as a screening and diagnostic tool in clinical and nonclinical settings, and identifies possible future routes for improvement of the method. Currently, infrared thermography is not considered to be a fully reliable d...

  12. Challenges to Global Implementation of Infrared Thermography Technology: Current Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shterenshis, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Medical infrared thermography (IT) produces an image of the infrared waves emitted by the human body as part of the thermoregulation process that can vary in intensity based on the health of the person. This review analyzes recent developments in the use of infrared thermography as a screening and diagnostic tool in clinical and nonclinical settings, and identifies possible future routes for improvement of the method. Currently, infrared thermography is not considered to be a fully reliable diagnostic method. If standard infrared protocol is established and a normative database is available, infrared thermography may become a reliable method for detecting inflammatory processes.

  13. Challenges to Global Implementation of Infrared Thermography Technology: Current Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Shterenshis

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Medical infrared thermography (IT produces an image of the infrared waves emitted by the human body as part of the thermoregulation process that can vary in intensity based on the health of the person. This review analyzes recent developments in the use of infrared thermography as a screening and diagnostic tool in clinical and nonclinical settings, and identifies possible future routes for improvement of the method. Currently, infrared thermography is not considered to be a fully reliable diagnostic method. If standard infrared protocol is established and a normative database is available, infrared thermography may become a reliable method for detecting inflammatory processes.

  14. Crack imaging by pulsed laser spot thermography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, T; Almond, D P; Rees, D A S; Weekes, B

    2010-01-01

    A surface crack close to a spot heated by a laser beam impedes lateral heat flow and produces alterations to the shape of the thermal image of the spot that can be monitored by thermography. A full 3D simulation has been developed to simulate heat flow from a laser heated spot in the proximity of a crack. The modelling provided an understanding of the ways that different parameters affect the thermal images of laser heated spots. It also assisted in the development of an efficient image processing strategy for extracting the scanned cracks. Experimental results show that scanning pulsed laser spot thermography has considerable potential as a remote, non-contact crack imaging technique.

  15. Application of infrared thermography in sports science

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses the application of infrared thermography in sports, examining the main benefits of this non-invasive, non-radiating and low-cost technique. Aspects covered include the detection of injuries in sports medicine, the assessment of sports performance due to the existing link between physical fitness and thermoregulation and the analysis of heat transfer for sports garments and sports equipment. Although infrared thermography is broadly considered to be a fast and easy-to-use tool, the ability to deliver accurate and repeatable measurements is an important consideration. Furthermore, it is important to be familiar with the latest sports studies published on this technique to understand its potential and limitations. Accordingly, this book establishes a vital link between laboratory tests and the sports field. .

  16. NDT of railway components using induction thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netzelmann, U.; Walle, G.; Ehlen, A.; Lugin, S.; Finckbohner, M.; Bessert, S.

    2016-02-01

    Induction or eddy current thermography is used to detect surface cracks in ferritic steel. The technique is applied to detect surface cracks in rails from a moving test car. Cracks were detected at a train speed between 2 and 15 km/h. An automated demonstrator system for testing railway wheels after production is described. While the wheel is rotated, a robot guides the detection unit consisting of inductor and infrared camera over the surface.

  17. Assessing probe-specific dye and slide biases in two-color microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldberg Zelanna

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A primary reason for using two-color microarrays is that the use of two samples labeled with different dyes on the same slide, that bind to probes on the same spot, is supposed to adjust for many factors that introduce noise and errors into the analysis. Most users assume that any differences between the dyes can be adjusted out by standard methods of normalization, so that measures such as log ratios on the same slide are reliable measures of comparative expression. However, even after the normalization, there are still probe specific dye and slide variation among the data. We define a method to quantify the amount of the dye-by-probe and slide-by-probe interaction. This serves as a diagnostic, both visual and numeric, of the existence of probe-specific dye bias. We show how this improved the performance of two-color array analysis for arrays for genomic analysis of biological samples ranging from rice to human tissue. Results We develop a procedure for quantifying the extent of probe-specific dye and slide bias in two-color microarrays. The primary output is a graphical diagnostic of the extent of the bias which called ECDF (Empirical Cumulative Distribution Function, though numerical results are also obtained. Conclusion We show that the dye and slide biases were high for human and rice genomic arrays in two gene expression facilities, even after the standard intensity-based normalization, and describe how this diagnostic allowed the problems causing the probe-specific bias to be addressed, and resulted in important improvements in performance. The R package LMGene which contains the method described in this paper has been available to download from Bioconductor.

  18. Two-color planar laser-induced fluorescence thermometry in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, G. Andrew; Lucht, Robert P.; Laurendeau, Normand M.

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate a two-color planar laser-induced fluorescence technique for obtaining two-dimensional temperature images in water. For this method, a pulsed Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm excites a solution of temperature-sensitive rhodamine 560 and temperature-insensitive sulforhodamine 640. The resulting emissions are optically separated through filters and detected via a charged-couple device (CCD) camera system. A ratio of the two images yields temperature images independent of incident irradiance. An uncertainty in temperature of ±1.4 deg. C is established at the 95% confidence interval

  19. Two-color QCD with non-zero chiral chemical potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braguta, V.V. [Institute for High Energy Physics NRC “Kurchatov Institute' ,142281 Protvino (Russian Federation); Far Eastern Federal University, School of Biomedicine,690950 Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Goy, V.A. [Far Eastern Federal University, School of Natural Sciences,690950 Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Ilgenfritz, E.M. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research,BLTP, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Kotov, A.Yu. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics,117259 Moscow (Russian Federation); Molochkov, A.V. [Far Eastern Federal University, School of Biomedicine,690950 Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Müller-Preussker, M.; Petersson, B. [Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Institut für Physik,12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-06-16

    The phase diagram of two-color QCD with non-zero chiral chemical potential is studied by means of lattice simulation. We focus on the influence of a chiral chemical potential on the confinement/deconfinement phase transition and the breaking/restoration of chiral symmetry. The simulation is carried out with dynamical staggered fermions without rooting. The dependences of the Polyakov loop, the chiral condensate and the corresponding susceptibilities on the chiral chemical potential and the temperature are presented. The critical temperature is observed to increase with increasing chiral chemical potential.

  20. Stokes image reconstruction for two-color microgrid polarization imaging systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaster, Daniel A

    2011-07-18

    The Air Force Research Laboratory has developed a new microgrid polarization imaging system capable of simultaneously reconstructing linear Stokes parameter images in two colors on a single focal plane array. In this paper, an effective method for extracting Stokes images is presented for this type of camera system. It is also shown that correlations between the color bands can be exploited to significantly increase overall spatial resolution. Test data is used to show the advantages of this approach over bilinear interpolation. The bounds (in terms of available reconstruction bandwidth) on image resolution are also provided.

  1. Crustal Strain Observation Using a Two-Color Interferometer with Accurate Correction of Refractive Index of Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souichi Telada

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A highly accurate two-color interferometer with automatic correction of the refractive index of air was developed for crustal strain observation. The two-color interferometer, which can measure a geometrical distance of approximately 70 m, with a relative resolution of 2 × 10−9, clearly detected a change in strain due to earth tides in spite of optical measurement in air. Moreover, a large strain quake due to an earthquake could be observed without disturbing the measurement. We demonstrated the advantages of the two-color interferometer in air for geodetic observation.

  2. Phosphates and phosphoric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, P [Compagnie Francaise de l' Azote, Paris (France)

    1983-01-01

    In chapter 8.5 the following aspects of uranium recovery are treated: basis of extraction process, extraction principle, solvents, strength of the acid to be treated, technology, main processes in use, impact of uranium recovery on phosphoric acid plants, and economics of uranium recovery plants.

  3. Controlling of the electromagnetic solitary waves generation in the wake of a two-color laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, K. Q.; Li, S. W.; Guo, L.; Yang, D.; Li, Z. C.; Zheng, C. Y.; Jiang, S. E.; Zhang, B. H.; He, X. T.

    2018-05-01

    Electromagnetic solitary waves generated by a two-color laser interaction with an underdense plasma are investigated. It is shown that, when the former wave packet of the two-color laser is intense enough, it will excite nonlinear wakefields and generate electron density cavities. The latter wave packets will beat with the nonlinear wakefield and generate both high-frequency and low-frequency components. When the peak density of the cavities exceeds the critical density of the low-frequency component, this part of the electromagnetic field will be trapped to generate electromagnetic solitary waves. By changing the laser and plasma parameters, we can control the wakefield generation, which will also control the generation of the solitary waves. One-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations are performed to prove the controlling of the solitary waves. The simulation results also show that solitary waves generated by higher laser intensities will become moving solitary waves. The two-dimensional particle-in-cell also shows the generation of the solitary waves. In the two-dimensional case, solitary waves are distributed in the transverse directions because of the filamentation instability.

  4. Absolute distance measurement with correction of air refractive index by using two-color dispersive interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hanzhong; Zhang, Fumin; Liu, Tingyang; Li, Jianshuang; Qu, Xinghua

    2016-10-17

    Two-color interferometry is powerful for the correction of the air refractive index especially in the turbulent air over long distance, since the empirical equations could introduce considerable measurement uncertainty if the environmental parameters cannot be measured with sufficient precision. In this paper, we demonstrate a method for absolute distance measurement with high-accuracy correction of air refractive index using two-color dispersive interferometry. The distances corresponding to the two wavelengths can be measured via the spectrograms captured by a CCD camera pair in real time. In the long-term experiment of the correction of air refractive index, the experimental results show a standard deviation of 3.3 × 10-8 for 12-h continuous measurement without the precise knowledge of the environmental conditions, while the variation of the air refractive index is about 2 × 10-6. In the case of absolute distance measurement, the comparison with the fringe counting interferometer shows an agreement within 2.5 μm in 12 m range.

  5. Two-color mid-infrared spectroscopy of optically doped semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forcales, M.; Klik, M.A.J.; Vinh, N.Q.; Phillips, J.; Wells, J-P.R.; Gregorkiewicz, T.

    2003-01-01

    Optical doping is an attractive method to tailor photonic properties of semiconductor matrices for development of solid-state electroluminescent structures. For practical applications, thermal stability of emission obtained from these materials is required. Thermal processes can be conveniently investigated by two-color spectroscopy in the visible and the mid-infrared. Free-electron laser is a versatile high-brilliance source of radiation in the latter spectral range. In this contribution, we briefly review some of the results obtained recently by the two-color spectroscopy with a free-electron laser in different semiconductors optically doped with rare earth and transition metal ions. Effects leading to both enhancement and quenching of emission from optical dopants will be presented. For InP:Yb, Si:Er, and Si:Cu activation of particular optically induced non-radiative recombination paths will be shown. For Si:Er and Si:Ag, observation of a low temperature optical memory effect will be reported

  6. Using Thermography in Classification of Plants in Greenhouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J. Fly

    2008-01-01

      The objective of this paper is to describe how thermography can be used to make almost invisible parts of plants visible. The technique is based on using differences in the heat capacity together with thermography. The aim of the project described here is to examine the possibility of automated...

  7. Optimal designs for one- and two-color microarrays using mixed models: a comparative evaluation of their efficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima Passos, Valéria; Tan, Frans E S; Winkens, Bjorn; Berger, Martijn P F

    2009-01-01

    Comparative studies between the one- and two-color microarrays provide supportive evidence for similarities of results on differential gene expression. So far, no design comparisons between the two platforms have been undertaken. With the objective of comparing optimal designs of one- and two-color microarrays in their statistical efficiencies, techniques of design optimization were applied within a mixed model framework. A- and D-optimal designs for the one- and two-color platforms were sought for a 3 x 3 factorial experiment. The results suggest that the choice of the platform will not affect the "subjects to groups" allocation, being concordant in the two designs. However, under financial constraints, the two-color arrays are expected to have a slight upper hand in terms of efficiency of model parameters estimates, once the price of arrays is more expensive than that of subjects. This statement is especially valid for microarray studies envisaging class comparisons.

  8. Hadron wave functions as a probe of a two-color baryonic medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amato, Alessandro [Swansea University, Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea (United Kingdom); University of Helsinki, Department of Physics and Helsinki Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 64, Helsinki (Finland); Giudice, Pietro [Universitaet Muenster, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Muenster (Germany); Hands, Simon [Swansea University, Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-01

    The properties of the ground state of two-color QCD at non-zero baryon chemical potential μ present an interesting problem in strongly interacting gauge theory; in particular the nature of the physically relevant degrees of freedom in the superfluid phase in the post-onset regime μ > m{sub π} /2 still needs clarification. In this study we present evidence for in-medium effects at high μ by studying the wave functions of mesonic and diquark states using orthodox lattice simulation techniques, made possible by the absence of a sign problem for the model with N{sub f} = 2. Our results show that beyond onset the spatial extent of hadrons decreases as μ grows, and that the wave function profiles are consistent with the existence of a dynamically gapped Fermi surface in this regime. (orig.)

  9. Non-destructive spatial characterization of buried interfaces in multilayer stacks via two color picosecond acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Jorge C. D.; Garnier, Philippe; Devos, Arnaud

    2017-12-01

    We demonstrate the ability to construct wide-area spatial mappings of buried interfaces in thin film stacks in a non-destructive manner using two color picosecond acoustics. Along with the extraction of layer thicknesses and sound velocities from acoustic signals, the morphological information presented is a powerful demonstration of phonon imaging as a metrological tool. For a series of heterogeneous (polymer, metal, and semiconductor) thin film stacks that have been treated with a chemical procedure known to alter layer properties, the spatial mappings reveal changes to interior thicknesses and chemically modified surface features without the need to remove uppermost layers. These results compare well to atomic force microscopy scans showing that the technique provides a significant advantage to current characterization methods for industrially important device stacks.

  10. Ar 3p photoelectron sideband spectra in two-color XUV + NIR laser fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minemoto, Shinichirou; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Komatsu, Kazma; Komatsubara, Wataru; Majima, Takuya; Mizuno, Tomoya; Owada, Shigeki; Sakai, Hirofumi; Togashi, Tadashi; Yoshida, Shintaro; Yabashi, Makina; Yagishita, Akira

    2018-04-01

    We performed photoelectron spectroscopy using femtosecond XUV pulses from a free-electron laser and femtosecond near-infrared pulses from a synchronized laser, and succeeded in measuring Ar 3p photoelectron sideband spectra due to the two-color above-threshold ionization. In our calculations of the first-order time-dependent perturbation theoretical model based on the strong field approximation, the photoelectron sideband spectra and their angular distributions are well reproduced by considering the timing jitter between the XUV and the NIR pulses, showing that the timing jitter in our experiments was distributed over the width of {1.0}+0.4-0.2 ps. The present approach can be used as a method to evaluate the timing jitter inevitable in FEL experiments.

  11. Long-Range Predissociation in Two-Color Photoassociation of Ultracold Na Atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molenaar, P.A.; van der Straten, P.; Heideman, H.G.

    1996-01-01

    We report two-color photoassociative ionization of sodium in a magneto-optical trap. The experimental results yield information on both singly and doubly excited states. We find that the highest bound vibrational levels (v approx-gt 20) of the singly excited 0 g - state predissociate into the 3 2 P 3/2 +3 2 S 1/2 (F g =1) dissociation continuum due to avoided crossings of the hyperfine components of this potential with other molecular symmetries. Based on symmetry and energy consideration we argue that a doubly excited 1 u state remains autoionizing even when only a few GHz above the dissociation continuum. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  12. Calibration of a two-color soft x-ray diagnostic for electron temperature measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reusch, L. M., E-mail: lmmcguire@wisc.edu; Den Hartog, D. J.; Goetz, J.; McGarry, M. B. [University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53703 (United States); Franz, P. [Consorzio RFX, Padova (Italy); Stephens, H. D. [University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53703 (United States); Pierce College Fort Steilacoom, Lakewood, Washington 98498 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    The two-color soft x-ray (SXR) tomography diagnostic on the Madison Symmetric Torus is capable of making electron temperature measurements via the double-filter technique; however, there has been a 15% systematic discrepancy between the SXR double-filter (SXR{sub DF}) temperature and Thomson scattering (TS) temperature. Here we discuss calibration of the Be filters used in the SXR{sub DF} measurement using empirical measurements of the transmission function versus energy at the BESSY II electron storage ring, electron microprobe analysis of filter contaminants, and measurement of the effective density. The calibration does not account for the TS and SXR{sub DF} discrepancy, and evidence from experiments indicates that this discrepancy is due to physics missing from the SXR{sub DF} analysis rather than instrumentation effects.

  13. Two-color Fermi-liquid theory for transport through a multilevel Kondo impurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karki, D. B.; Mora, Christophe; von Delft, Jan; Kiselev, Mikhail N.

    2018-05-01

    We consider a quantum dot with K ≥2 orbital levels occupied by two electrons connected to two electric terminals. The generic model is given by a multilevel Anderson Hamiltonian. The weak-coupling theory at the particle-hole symmetric point is governed by a two-channel S =1 Kondo model characterized by intrinsic channels asymmetry. Based on a conformal field theory approach we derived an effective Hamiltonian at a strong-coupling fixed point. The Hamiltonian capturing the low-energy physics of a two-stage Kondo screening represents the quantum impurity by a two-color local Fermi liquid. Using nonequilibrium (Keldysh) perturbation theory around the strong-coupling fixed point we analyze the transport properties of the model at finite temperature, Zeeman magnetic field, and source-drain voltage applied across the quantum dot. We compute the Fermi-liquid transport constants and discuss different universality classes associated with emergent symmetries.

  14. Enhanced hole boring with two-color relativistic laser pulses in the fast ignition scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Changhai; Tian, Ye; Li, Wentao; Wang, Wentao; Zhang, Zhijun; Qi, Rong; Wang, Cheng [State Key Laboratory of High Field Laser Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Deng, Aihua, E-mail: aihuadeng1985@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Liu, Jiansheng, E-mail: michaeljs-liu@siom.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of High Field Laser Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of IFSA (CICIFSA), Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2016-08-15

    A scheme of using two-color laser pulses for hole boring into overdense plasma as well as energy transfer into electron and ion beams has been studied using particle-in-cell simulations. Following an ultra-short ultra-intense hole-boring laser pulse with a short central wavelength in extreme ultra-violet range, the main infrared driving laser pulse can be guided in the hollow channel preformed by the former laser and propagate much deeper into an overdense plasma, as compared to the case using the infrared laser only. In addition to efficiently transferring the main driving laser energy into energetic electrons and ions generation deep inside the overdense plasma, the ion beam divergence can be greatly reduced. The results might be beneficial for the fast ignition concept of inertial confinement fusion.

  15. Memory effects, two color percolation, and the temperature dependence of Mott variable-range hopping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agam, Oded; Aleiner, Igor L.

    2014-06-01

    There are three basic processes that determine hopping transport: (a) hopping between normally empty sites (i.e., having exponentially small occupation numbers at equilibrium), (b) hopping between normally occupied sites, and (c) transitions between normally occupied and unoccupied sites. In conventional theories all these processes are considered Markovian and the correlations of occupation numbers of different sites are believed to be small (i.e., not exponential in temperature). We show that, contrary to this belief, memory effects suppress the processes of type (c) and manifest themselves in a subleading exponential temperature dependence of the variable-range hopping conductivity. This temperature dependence originates from the property that sites of type (a) and (b) form two independent resistor networks that are weakly coupled to each other by processes of type (c). This leads to a two-color percolation problem which we solve in the critical region.

  16. Two-Color Single-Photon Photoinitiation and Photoinhibition for Subdiffraction Photolithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Timothy F.; Kowalski, Benjamin A.; Sullivan, Amy C.; Bowman, Christopher N.; McLeod, Robert R.

    2009-05-01

    Controlling and reducing the developed region initiated by photoexposure is one of the fundamental goals of optical lithography. Here, we demonstrate a two-color irradiation scheme whereby initiating species are generated by single-photon absorption at one wavelength while inhibiting species are generated by single-photon absorption at a second, independent wavelength. Co-irradiation at the second wavelength thus reduces the polymerization rate, delaying gelation of the material and facilitating enhanced spatial control over the polymerization. Appropriate overlapping of the two beams produces structures with both feature sizes and monomer conversions otherwise unobtainable with use of single- or two-photon absorption photopolymerization. Additionally, the generated inhibiting species rapidly recombine when irradiation with the second wavelength ceases, allowing for fast sequential exposures not limited by memory effects in the material and thus enabling fabrication of complex two- or three-dimensional structures.

  17. Fabrication of optical multilayer for two-color phase plate in super-resolution microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iketaki, Yoshinori; Kitagawa, Katsuichi; Hidaka, Kohjiro; Kato, Naoki; Hirabayashi, Akira; Bokor, Nandor

    2014-07-01

    In super-resolution microscopy based on fluorescence depletion, the two-color phase plate (TPP) is an indispensable optical element, which can independently control the phase shifts for two beams of different color, i.e., the pump and erase beams. By controlling a phase shift of the erase beam through the TPP, the erase beam can be modulated into a doughnut shape, while the pump beam maintains the initial Gaussian shape. To obtain a reliable optical multiplayer (ML) for the TPP, we designed a ML with only two optical layers by performing numerical optimization. The measured phase shifts generated by the fabricated ML using interferometry correspond to the design values. The beam profiles in the focal plane are also consistent with theoretical results. Although the fabricated ML consists of only two optical layers, the ML can provide a suitable phase modulation function for the TPP in a practical super-resolution microscope.

  18. Fabrication of optical multilayer for two-color phase plate in super-resolution microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iketaki, Yoshinori; Kitagawa, Katsuichi; Hidaka, Kohjiro; Kato, Naoki; Hirabayashi, Akira; Bokor, Nandor

    2014-01-01

    In super-resolution microscopy based on fluorescence depletion, the two-color phase plate (TPP) is an indispensable optical element, which can independently control the phase shifts for two beams of different color, i.e., the pump and erase beams. By controlling a phase shift of the erase beam through the TPP, the erase beam can be modulated into a doughnut shape, while the pump beam maintains the initial Gaussian shape. To obtain a reliable optical multiplayer (ML) for the TPP, we designed a ML with only two optical layers by performing numerical optimization. The measured phase shifts generated by the fabricated ML using interferometry correspond to the design values. The beam profiles in the focal plane are also consistent with theoretical results. Although the fabricated ML consists of only two optical layers, the ML can provide a suitable phase modulation function for the TPP in a practical super-resolution microscope

  19. Design of a real-time two-color interferometer for MAST Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O’Gorman, T.; Naylor, G.; Scannell, R.; Cunningham, G.; Martin, R.; Croft, D.; Brunner, K. J.

    2014-01-01

    A single chord two-color CO 2 /HeNe (10.6/0.633 μm) heterodyne laser interferometer has been designed to measure the line integral electron density along the mid-plane of the MAST Upgrade tokamak, with a typical error of 1 × 10 18 m −3 (∼2° phase error) at 4 MHz temporal resolution. To ensure this diagnostic system can be restored from any failures without stopping MAST Upgrade operations, it has been located outside of the machine area. The final design and initial testing of this system, including details of the optics, vibration isolation, and a novel phase detection scheme are discussed in this paper

  20. A dual-targeting upconversion nanoplatform for two-color fluorescence imaging-guided photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Yang, Cheng-Xiong; Chen, Jia-Tong; Yan, Xiu-Ping

    2014-04-01

    The targetability of a theranostic probe is one of the keys to assuring its theranostic efficiency. Here we show the design and fabrication of a dual-targeting upconversion nanoplatform for two-color fluorescence imaging-guided photodynamic therapy (PDT). The nanoplatform was prepared from 3-aminophenylboronic acid functionalized upconversion nanocrystals (APBA-UCNPs) and hyaluronated fullerene (HAC60) via a specific diol-borate condensation. The two specific ligands of aminophenylboronic acid and hyaluronic acid provide synergistic targeting effects, high targetability, and hence a dramatically elevated uptake of the nanoplatform by cancer cells. The high generation yield of (1)O2 due to multiplexed Förster resonance energy transfer between APBA-UCNPs (donor) and HAC60 (acceptor) allows effective therapy. The present nanoplatform shows great potential for highly selective tumor-targeted imaging-guided PDT.

  1. Spatial properties of a terahertz beam generated from a two-color air plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pernille Klarskov; Wang, Tianwu; Buron, Jonas Christian Due

    2013-01-01

    We present a spatial characterization of terahertz (THz) beams generated from a two-color air plasma under different conditions by measuring full 3D beam profiles using a commercial THz camera. We compare two THz beam profiles emitted from plasmas generated by 35 fs and 100 fs laser pulses...... that this reduces the beam waist, and that the beam spot shape changes from Lorentzian to Gaussian. Finally, we observe a forward-propagating Gaussian THz beam by spatially filtering away the conical off-axis radiation with a 1 cm aperture......., and show that the spatial properties of the two THz beams do not change significantly. For the THz beam profile generated by the 35 fs pulse, the spatial effect of eliminating the lower frequencies is investigated by implementing two crossed polarizers working as a high-pass filter. We show...

  2. Melting the diquark condensate in two-color QCD: A renormalization group analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirstam, J.; Lenaghan, J.T.; Splittorff, K.

    2003-01-01

    We use a Landau theory and the ε expansion to study the superfluid phase transition of two-color QCD at a nonzero temperature T and baryonic chemical potential μ. At low T, and for N f flavors of massless quarks, the global SU(N f )xSU(N f )xU(1) symmetry is spontaneously broken by a diquark condensate down to Sp(N f )xSp(N f ) for any μ>0. As the temperature increases, the diquark condensate melts, and at sufficiently large T the symmetry is restored. Using renormalization group arguments, we find that in the presence of the chiral anomaly term there can be a second order phase transition when N f =2 or N f ≥6, while the transition is first order for N f =4. We discuss the relevance of these results for the emergence of a tricritical point recently observed in lattice simulations

  3. Mechanisms of two-color laser-induced field-free molecular orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanner, Michael; Patchkovskii, Serguei; Frumker, Eugene; Corkum, Paul

    2012-09-14

    Two mechanisms of two-color (ω+2ω) laser-induced field-free molecular orientation, based on the hyperpolarizability and ionization depletion, are explored and compared. The CO molecule is used as a computational example. While the hyperpolarizability mechanism generates small amounts of orientation at intensities below the ionization threshold, ionization depletion quickly becomes the dominant mechanism as soon as ionizing intensities are reached. Only the ionization mechanism leads to substantial orientation (e.g., on the order of ≳0.1). For intensities typical of laser-induced molecular alignment and orientation experiments, the two mechanisms lead to robust, characteristic timings of the field-free orientation wave-packet revivals relative to the alignment revivals and the revival time. The revival timings can be used to detect the active orientation mechanism experimentally.

  4. Two-color visible/vacuum ultraviolet photoelectron imaging dynamics of Br2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plenge, Jürgen; Nicolas, Christophe; Caster, Allison G; Ahmed, Musahid; Leone, Stephen R

    2006-10-07

    An experimental two-color photoionization dynamics study of laser-excited Br2 molecules is presented, combining pulsed visible laser excitation and tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) synchrotron radiation with photoelectron imaging. The X 1Sigmag + -B 3Pi0+u transition in Br2 is excited at 527 nm corresponding predominantly to excitation of the v' = 28 vibrational level in the B 3Pi0+u state. Tunable VUV undulator radiation in the energy range of 8.40-10.15 eV is subsequently used to ionize the excited molecules to the X 2Pi32,12 state of the ion, and the ionic ground state is probed by photoelectron imaging. Similar experiments are performed using single-photon synchrotron ionization in the photon energy range of 10.75-12.50 eV without any laser excitation. Photoelectron kinetic energy distributions are extracted from the photoelectron images. In the case of two-color photoionization using resonant excitation of the intermediate B 3Pi0+u state, a broad distribution of photoelectron kinetic energies is observed, and in some cases even a bimodal distribution, which depends on the VUV photon energy. In contrast, for single-photon ionization, a single nearly Gaussian-shaped distribution is observed, which shifts to higher energy with photon energy. Simulated spectra based on Franck-Condon factors for the transitions Br2(X 1Sigmag+, v" = 0)-Br2 +(X 2Pi12,32, v+) and Br2(B 3Pi0+u, v' = 28)-Br2 +(X 2Pi12,32, v+) are generated. Comparison of these calculated spectra with the measured images suggests that the differences in the kinetic energy distributions for the two ionization processes reflect the different extensions of the vibrational wave functions in the v" = 0 electronic ground state (X 1Sigmag+) versus the electronically and vibrationally excited state (B 3Pi0+u, v' = 28).

  5. Fast infrared thermography on the COMPASS tokamak.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vondráček, Petr; Gauthier, C.; Ficker, Ondřej; Hron, Martin; Imríšek, Martin; Pánek, Radomír

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 123, November (2017), s. 764-767 ISSN 0920-3796. [SOFT 2016: Symposium on Fusion Technology /29./. Prague, 05.09.2016-09.09.2016] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 8D15001; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015045; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-10723S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 633053 - EUROfusion Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Infrared thermography * Heat flux decay length * Runaway electrons * Sawtooth Subject RIV: JF - Nuclear Energetics OBOR OECD: Nuclear related engineering Impact factor: 1.319, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0920379617305392

  6. Infrared thermography for examination of paper structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiiskinen, Harri T.; Pakarinen, Pekka I.

    1998-03-01

    The paper industry has used IR cameras primarily for troubleshooting, where the most common examples include the examination of the condition of dryer fabrics and dryer cylinders and the analysis of moisture variations in a paper web. Another application extensively using IR thermography is non-destructive testing of composite materials. This paper presents some recently developed laboratory methods using an IR camera to examine paper structure. Specific areas include cockling, moisture content, thermal uniformity, mechanism of failure, and an analysis of the copying process.

  7. Infrared thermography examination of paper structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiiskinen, H.T.; Kukkonen, H.K.; Pakarinen, P.I.; Laine, A.J.

    1997-01-01

    The paper industry has used IR cameras primarily for troubleshooting, where the most common examples include the examination of the condition of dryer fabrics and dryer cylinders and the analysis of moisture variations in a paper web. Another application extensively using IR thermography is non-destructive testing of composite materials. This paper presents some recently developed laboratory methods using an IR camera to examine paper structure. Specific areas include cockling, moisture content, thermal uniformity, mechanism of failure, and an analysis of the copying process. (author)

  8. Infrared thermography program at Darlington NGD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speer, B.

    1997-01-01

    Infrared thermography is a proven predictive maintenance tool for improving equipment reliability and reducing maintenance costs. It has been identified as one of the maintenance technologies that could contribute to the reduction of OHN forced incapability factor. At Darlington NGD a program has been established by combining OHN and Nuclear Maintenance Applications Center (NMAC) operating experience. This presentation outlines the development and implementation of this program. The main points are: roles and responsibilities, equipment selection, software requirements, manpower level, inspection equipment, training and a cost/benefit review. (author)

  9. Infrared thermography on TFR 600 Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romain, Roland.

    1980-06-01

    Infrared thermography with a single InSb detector and with a scanning camera has been performed on the TFR fusion device. High power neutral beam injection diagnostic by means of an infrared periscope is showed to be possible. Surface temperature measurements on the limiter during the discharge have been made in order to evaluate the power deposited by the plasma on this part of the inner wall. Various attempts of infrared detection on the high power neutral injector prototype vessel are described, particularly the measurement of the power deposited on one of the extraction grids of the ion source [fr

  10. Improvements in phosphors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabatin, J.G.

    1981-01-01

    For X-ray image converter applications, especially when used in medical radiography, it is desirable to improve the speed and brightness of response for conversion of X-rays in phosphors. The rare earth oxyhalide phosphors coactivated with a combination of rare earth activators described in this patent are capable of exhibiting low afterglow with high ultraviolet emission. They have the general formula Lnsub(1-y-w)OX:Tbsub(y)Tmsub(w) where Ln is lanthanum or gadolinium, X is chlorine and/or bromine, y is from 0.0005 to 0.010 moles per mole and w is from 0.00005 to 0.005 moles per mole of the Lnsub(1-y-w)OX host. The method of preparation and characteristics of speed, afterglow and UV emission are described. (U.K.)

  11. Flash Infrared Thermography Contrast Data Analysis Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshti, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides information on an IR Contrast technique that involves extracting normalized contrast versus time evolutions from the flash thermography inspection infrared video data. The analysis calculates thermal measurement features from the contrast evolution. In addition, simulation of the contrast evolution is achieved through calibration on measured contrast evolutions from many flat-bottom holes in the subject material. The measurement features and the contrast simulation are used to evaluate flash thermography data in order to characterize delamination-like anomalies. The thermal measurement features relate to the anomaly characteristics. The contrast evolution simulation is matched to the measured contrast evolution over an anomaly to provide an assessment of the anomaly depth and width which correspond to the depth and diameter of the equivalent flat-bottom hole (EFBH) similar to that used as input to the simulation. A similar analysis, in terms of diameter and depth of an equivalent uniform gap (EUG) providing a best match with the measured contrast evolution, is also provided. An edge detection technique called the half-max is used to measure width and length of the anomaly. Results of the half-max width and the EFBH/EUG diameter are compared to evaluate the anomaly. The information provided here is geared towards explaining the IR Contrast technique. Results from a limited amount of validation data on reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) hardware are included in this paper.

  12. Experimental developments towards an ITER thermography diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichle, R.; Brichard, B.; Escourbiac, F.; Gardarein, J.L.; Hernandez, D.; Le Niliot, C.; Rigollet, F.; Serra, J.J.; Badie, J.M.; van Ierschot, S.; Jouve, M.; Martinez, S.; Ooms, H.; Pocheau, C.; Rauber, X.; Sans, J.L.; Scheer, E.; Berghmans, F.; Decreton, M.

    2007-01-01

    In the course of the development of a concept for a spectrally resolving thermography diagnostic for the ITER divertor using optical fibres experimental development work has been carried out in three different areas. Firstly ZrF 4 fibres and hollow fibres (silica capillaries with internal AG/AgJ coating) were tested in a Co 60 irradiation facility under γ irradiation up to doses of 5 kGy and 27 kGy, respectively. The ZrF 4 fibres suffered more radiation induced degradation (>1 db/m) then the hollow fibres (0-0.4 db/m). Secondly multi-colour pyroreflectometry is being developed towards tokamak applicability. The emissivity and temperature of tungsten samples were measured in the range of 700-1500 o C. The angular working range for off normal observation of the method was 20-30 o . The working distance of the method has been be increased from cm to the m range. Finally, encouraging preliminary results have been obtained concerning the application of pulsed and modulated active thermography

  13. Frequency modulation of high-order harmonic generation in an orthogonally polarized two-color laser field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guicun; Zheng, Yinghui; Ge, Xiaochun; Zeng, Zhinan; Li, Ruxin

    2016-08-08

    We have experimentally investigated the frequency modulation of high-order harmonics in an orthogonally polarized two-color laser field consisting of a mid-infrared 1800nm fundamental pulse and its second harmonic pulse. It is demonstrated that the high harmonic spectra can be fine-tuned as we slightly change the relative delay of the two-color laser pulses. By analyzing the relative frequency shift of each harmonic at different two-color delays, the nonadiabatic spectral shift induced by the rapid variation of the intensity-dependent intrinsic dipole phase can be distinguished from the blueshift induced by the change of the refractive index during self-phase modulation (SPM). Our comprehensive analysis shows that the frequency modulation pattern is a reflection of the average emission time of high-order harmonic generation (HHG), thus offering a simple method to fine-tune the spectra of the harmonics on a sub-cycle time scale.

  14. Laser-induced plasmas in air studied using two-color interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Zefeng; Wu, Jian; Li, Xingwen; Han, Jiaxun; Jia, Shenli; Qiu, Aici; Wei, Wenfu

    2016-01-01

    Temporally and spatially resolved density profiles of Cu atoms, electrons, and compressed air, from laser-induced copper plasmas in air, are measured using fast spectral imaging and two-color interferometry. From the intensified CCD images filtered by a narrow-band-pass filter centered at 515.32 nm, the Cu atoms expansion route is estimated and used to determine the position of the fracture surface between the Cu atoms and the air. Results indicate that the Cu atoms density at distances closer to the target (0–0.4 mm) is quite low, with the maximum density appearing at the edge of the plasma's core being ∼4.6 × 10"2"4" m"−"3 at 304 ns. The free electrons are mainly located in the internal region of the plume, which is supposed to have a higher temperature. The density of the shock wave is (4–6) × 10"2"5" m"−"3, corresponding to air compression of a factor of 1.7–2.5.

  15. Phase diagram of dense two-color QCD within lattice simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braguta V.V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of a low-temperature scan of the phase diagram of dense two-color QCD with Nf = 2 quarks. The study is conducted using lattice simulation with rooted staggered quarks. At small chemical potential we observe the hadronic phase, where the theory is in a confining state, chiral symmetry is broken, the baryon density is zero and there is no diquark condensate. At the critical point μ = mπ/2 we observe the expected second order transition to Bose-Einstein condensation of scalar diquarks. In this phase the system is still in confinement in conjunction with nonzero baryon density, but the chiral symmetry is restored in the chiral limit. We have also found that in the first two phases the system is well described by chiral perturbation theory. For larger values of the chemical potential the system turns into another phase, where the relevant degrees of freedom are fermions residing inside the Fermi sphere, and the diquark condensation takes place on the Fermi surface. In this phase the system is still in confinement, chiral symmetry is restored and the system is very similar to the quarkyonic state predicted by SU(Nc theory at large Nc.

  16. QCD with two colors at finite baryon density at next-to-leading order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Splittorff, K.; Toublan, D.; Verbaarschot, J.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    We study QCD with two colors and quarks in the fundamental representation at finite baryon density in the limit of light-quark masses. In this limit the free energy of this theory reduces to the free energy of a chiral Lagrangian which is based on the symmetries of the microscopic theory. In earlier work this Lagrangian was analyzed at the mean-field level and a phase transition to a phase of condensed diquarks was found at a chemical potential of half the diquark mass (which is equal to the pion mass). In this article we analyze this theory at next-to-leading order in chiral perturbation theory. We show that the theory is renormalizable and calculate the next-to-leading order free energy in both phases of the theory. By deriving a Landau-Ginzburg theory for the order parameter we show that the finite one-loop contribution and the next-to-leading order terms in the chiral Lagrangian do not qualitatively change the phase transition. In particular, the critical chemical potential is equal to half the next-to-leading order pion mass, and the phase transition is of second order

  17. Double ionization of nitrogen molecules in orthogonal two-color femtosecond laser fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qiying; Li, Hui; Wang, Junping; Lu, Peifen; Gong, Xiaochun; Ji, Qinying; Lin, Kang; Zhang, Wenbin; Ma, Junyang; Li, Hanxiao; Zeng, Heping; He, Feng; Wu, Jian

    2018-04-01

    Double ionization of nitrogen molecules in orthogonally polarized two-color femtosecond laser fields is investigated by varying the relative intensity between the fundamental wave (FW) and its second harmonic (SH) components. The yield ratios of the double ionization channels, i.e., the non-dissociative {{{{N}}}2}2+ and Coulomb exploded (N+, N+), to the singly charged N2 + channel exhibit distinct dependences on the relative strength between the FW and SH fields. As the intensity ratio of SH to FW increases, the yield ratio of (N+, N+)/N2 + gradually increases, while the ratio of {{{{N}}}2}2+/N2 + first descends and then increases constituting a valley shape which is similar to the behavior of Ar2+/Ar+ observed in the same experimental condition. Based on the classical trajectory simulations, we found that the different characteristics of the two doubly ionized channels stem from two mechanisms, i.e., the {{{{N}}}2}2+ is mostly accessed by the (e, 2e) impact ionization while the recollision-induced excitation with subsequent ionization plays an important role in producing the (N+, N+) channel.

  18. Opportunities for two-color experiments at the SASE3 undulator line of the European XFEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, Gianluca; Mazza, Tommaso; Meyer, Michael; Serkez, Svitozar [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-06-15

    X-ray Free Electron Lasers (XFELs) have been proven to generate short and powerful radiation pulses allowing for a wide class of novel experiments. If an XFEL facility supports the generation of two X-ray pulses with different wavelengths and controllable delay, the range of possible experiments is broadened even further to include X-ray-pump/X-ray-probe applications. In this work we discuss the possibility of applying a simple and cost-effective method for producing two-color pulses at the SASE3 soft X-ray beamline of the European XFEL. The technique is based on the installation of a magnetic chicane in the baseline undulator and can be accomplished in several steps. We discuss the scientific interest of this upgrade for the Small Quantum Systems (SQS) instrument, in connection with the high-repetition rate of the European XFEL, and we provide start-to-end simulations up to the radiation focus on the sample, proving the feasibility of our concept.

  19. INFRARED TWO-COLOR DIAGRAMS FOR AGB STARS, POST-AGB STARS, AND PLANETARY NEBULAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Kyung-Won, E-mail: kwsuh@chungbuk.ac.kr [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju-City, 362-763 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-01

    We present various infrared two-color diagrams (2CDs) for asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, post-AGB stars, and Planetary Nebulae (PNe) and investigate possible evolutionary tracks. We use catalogs from the available literature for the sample of 4903 AGB stars (3373 O-rich; 1168 C-rich; 362 S-type), 660 post-AGB stars (326 post-AGB; 334 pre-PN), and 1510 PNe in our Galaxy. For each object in the catalog, we cross-identify the IRAS, AKARI, Midcourse Space Experiment, and 2MASS counterparts. The IR 2CDs can provide useful information about the structure and evolution of the dust envelopes as well as the central stars. To find possible evolutionary tracks from AGB stars to PNe on the 2CDs, we investigate spectral evolution of post-AGB stars by making simple but reasonable assumptions on the evolution of the central star and dust shell. We perform radiative transfer model calculations for the detached dust shells around evolving central stars in the post-AGB phase. We find that the theoretical dust shell model tracks using dust opacity functions of amorphous silicate and amorphous carbon roughly coincide with the densely populated observed points of AGB stars, post-AGB stars, and PNe on various IR 2CDs. Even though some discrepancies are inevitable, the end points of the theoretical post-AGB model tracks generally converge in the region of the observed points of PNe on most 2CDs.

  20. Laser-induced plasmas in air studied using two-color interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zefeng; Wu, Jian, E-mail: jxjawj@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Li, Xingwen; Han, Jiaxun; Jia, Shenli; Qiu, Aici [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Wei, Wenfu [School of Electrical Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Temporally and spatially resolved density profiles of Cu atoms, electrons, and compressed air, from laser-induced copper plasmas in air, are measured using fast spectral imaging and two-color interferometry. From the intensified CCD images filtered by a narrow-band-pass filter centered at 515.32 nm, the Cu atoms expansion route is estimated and used to determine the position of the fracture surface between the Cu atoms and the air. Results indicate that the Cu atoms density at distances closer to the target (0–0.4 mm) is quite low, with the maximum density appearing at the edge of the plasma's core being ∼4.6 × 10{sup 24 }m{sup −3} at 304 ns. The free electrons are mainly located in the internal region of the plume, which is supposed to have a higher temperature. The density of the shock wave is (4–6) × 10{sup 25 }m{sup −3}, corresponding to air compression of a factor of 1.7–2.5.

  1. Airborne thermography of temperature patterns in sugar beet piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, D. G.; Bichsel, S.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to evaluate the use of thermography for locating spoilage areas (chimneys) within storage piles and to subsequently use the information for the scheduling of their processing. Thermal-infrared quantitative scanner data were acquired initially on January 16, 1975, over the storage piles at Moorhead, Minnesota, both during the day and predawn. Photographic data were acquired during the day mission to evaluate the effect of uneven snow cover on the thermal emittance, and the predawn thermography was used to locate potential chimneys. The piles were examined the day prior for indications of spoilage areas, and the ground crew indicated that no spoilage areas were located using their existing methods. Nine spoilage areas were interpreted from the thermography. The piles were rechecked by ground methods three days following the flights. Six of the nine areas delineated by thermography were actual spoilage areas.

  2. Recovering uranium from phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Wet-process phosphoric acid contains a significant amount of uranium. This uranium totals more than 1,500 tons/yr in current U.S. acid output--and projections put the uranium level at 8,000 tons/yr in the year 2000. Since the phosphoric acid is a major raw material for fertilizers, uranium finds its way into those products and is effectively lost as a resource, while adding to the amount of radioactive material that can contaminate the food chain. So, resource-conservation and environmental considerations both make recovery of the uranium from phosphoric acid desirable. This paper describes the newly developed process for recovering uranium from phosphoric acid by using solvent-extraction technique. After many extractants had been tested, the researchers eventually selected the combination of di (2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (DEPA) and trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) as the most suitable. The flowscheme of the process is included

  3. Infrared thermography for wood density estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Gamaliel; Basterra, Luis-Alfonso; Acuña, Luis

    2018-03-01

    Infrared thermography (IRT) is becoming a commonly used technique to non-destructively inspect and evaluate wood structures. Based on the radiation emitted by all objects, this technique enables the remote visualization of the surface temperature without making contact using a thermographic device. The process of transforming radiant energy into temperature depends on many parameters, and interpreting the results is usually complicated. However, some works have analyzed the operation of IRT and expanded its applications, as found in the latest literature. This work analyzes the effect of density on the thermodynamic behavior of timber to be determined by IRT. The cooling of various wood samples has been registered, and a statistical procedure that enables one to quantitatively estimate the density of timber has been designed. This procedure represents a new method to physically characterize this material.

  4. Mapping corrosion of metallic slab by thermography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bison, P; Ceseri, M; Inglese, G

    2010-01-01

    Thermography is used to detect corrosion on a aluminum specimen. Two identical aluminum plates are extracted from the same base material. One of them is machined on one side, in such a way to simulate a material loss. Both the sound and damaged plate are heated on the undamaged side by a sine modulated heating source. A thermographic camera records a sequence of images of the temperature surface of both the sound and damaged sample on the heated (undamaged) sides. Several sequences are recorded with different modulation periods. By a suitable data reduction procedure, the thermographic sequence is reduced to a couple of images representing amplitude and phase of the oscillating temperature field. A perturbative method is used to solve iteratively the direct problem in the corroded domain that is confronted with the experimental data until an optimum matching is reached.

  5. Convective heat transfer and infrared thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlomagno, Giovanni M; Astarita, Tommaso; Cardone, Gennaro

    2002-10-01

    Infrared (IR) thermography, because of its two-dimensional and non-intrusive nature, can be exploited in industrial applications as well as in research. This paper deals with measurement of convective heat transfer coefficients (h) in three complex fluid flow configurations that concern the main aspects of both internal and external cooling of turbine engine components: (1) flow in ribbed, or smooth, channels connected by a 180 degrees sharp turn, (2) a jet in cross-flow, and (3) a jet impinging on a wall. The aim of this study was to acquire detailed measurements of h distribution in complex flow configurations related to both internal and external cooling of turbine components. The heated thin foil technique, which involves the detection of surface temperature by means of an IR scanning radiometer, was exploited to measure h. Particle image velocimetry was also used in one of the configurations to precisely determine the velocity field.

  6. A Review of Microwave Thermography Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Microwave thermography (MWT has many advantages including strong penetrability, selective heating, volumetric heating, significant energy savings, uniform heating, and good thermal efficiency. MWT has received growing interest due to its potential to overcome some of the limitations of microwave nondestructive testing (NDT and thermal NDT. Moreover, during the last few decades MWT has attracted growing interest in materials assessment. In this paper, a comprehensive review of MWT techniques for materials evaluation is conducted based on a detailed literature survey. First, the basic principles of MWT are described. Different types of MWT, including microwave pulsed thermography, microwave step thermography, microwave pulsed phase thermography, and microwave lock-in thermography are defined and introduced. Then, MWT case studies are discussed. Next, comparisons with other thermography and NDT methods are conducted. Finally, the trends in MWT research are outlined, including new theoretical studies, simulations and modelling, signal processing algorithms, internal properties characterization, automatic separation and inspection systems. This work provides a summary of MWT, which can be utilized for material failures prevention and quality control.

  7. A Review of Microwave Thermography Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Yang, Ruizhen; He, Yunze; Foudazi, Ali; Cheng, Liang; Tian, Guiyun

    2017-05-15

    Microwave thermography (MWT) has many advantages including strong penetrability, selective heating, volumetric heating, significant energy savings, uniform heating, and good thermal efficiency. MWT has received growing interest due to its potential to overcome some of the limitations of microwave nondestructive testing (NDT) and thermal NDT. Moreover, during the last few decades MWT has attracted growing interest in materials assessment. In this paper, a comprehensive review of MWT techniques for materials evaluation is conducted based on a detailed literature survey. First, the basic principles of MWT are described. Different types of MWT, including microwave pulsed thermography, microwave step thermography, microwave pulsed phase thermography, and microwave lock-in thermography are defined and introduced. Then, MWT case studies are discussed. Next, comparisons with other thermography and NDT methods are conducted. Finally, the trends in MWT research are outlined, including new theoretical studies, simulations and modelling, signal processing algorithms, internal properties characterization, automatic separation and inspection systems. This work provides a summary of MWT, which can be utilized for material failures prevention and quality control.

  8. A nonlinear deformed su(2) algebra with a two-color quasitriangular Hopf structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonatsos, D.; Daskaloyannis, C.; Kolokotronis, P.; Ludu, A.; Quesne, C.

    1997-01-01

    Nonlinear deformations of the enveloping algebra of su(2), involving two arbitrary functions of J 0 and generalizing the Witten algebra, were introduced some time ago by Delbecq and Quesne. In the present paper, the problem of endowing some of them with a Hopf algebraic structure is addressed by studying in detail a specific example, referred to as scr(A) q + (1). This algebra is shown to possess two series of (N+1)-dimensional unitary irreducible representations, where N=0,1,2,hor-ellipsis. To allow the coupling of any two such representations, a generalization of the standard Hopf axioms is proposed by proceeding in two steps. In the first one, a variant and extension of the deforming functional technique is introduced: variant because a map between two deformed algebras, su q (2) and scr(A) q + (1), is considered instead of a map between a Lie algebra and a deformed one, and extension because use is made of a two-valued functional, whose inverse is singular. As a result, the Hopf structure of su q (2) is carried over to scr(A) q + (1), thereby endowing the latter with a double Hopf structure. In the second step, the definition of the coproduct, counit, antipode, and scr(R)-matrix is extended so that the double Hopf algebra is enlarged into a new algebraic structure. The latter is referred to as a two-color quasitriangular Hopf algebra because the corresponding scr(R)-matrix is a solution of the colored Yang endash Baxter equation, where the open-quotes colorclose quotes parameters take two discrete values associated with the two series of finite-dimensional representations. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  9. Phase diagram of two-color QCD in a Dyson-Schwinger approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buescher, Pascal Joachim

    2014-04-28

    We investigate two-color QCD with N{sub f}=2 at finite temperatures and chemical potentials using a Dyson-Schwinger approach. We employ two different truncations for the quark loop in the gluon DSE: one based on the Hard-Dense/Hard-Thermal Loop (HDTL) approximation of the quark loop and one based on the back-coupling of the full, self-consistent quark propagator (SCQL). We compare results for the different truncations with each other as well as with other approaches. As expected, we find a phase dominated by the condensation of quark-quark pairs. This diquark condensation phase overshadows the critical end point and first-order phase transition which one finds if diquark condensation is neglected. The phase transition from the phase without diquark condensation to the diquark-condensation phase is of second order. We observe that the dressing with massless quarks in the HDTL approximation leads to a significant violation of the Silver Blaze property and to a too small diquark condensate. The SCQL truncation, on the other hand, is found to reproduce all expected features of the μ-dependent quark condensates. Moreover, with parameters adapted to the situation in other approaches, we also find good to very good agreement with model and lattice calculations in all quark quantities. We find indictions that the physics in recent lattice calculations is likely to be driven solely by the explicit chiral symmetry breaking. Discrepancies w.r.t. the lattice are, however, observed in two quantities that are very sensitive to the screening of the gluon propagator, the dressed gluon propagator itself and the phase-transition line at high temperatures.

  10. Tests of a two-color interferometer and polarimeter for ITER density measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Zeeland, M. A.; Carlstrom, T. N.; Finkenthal, D. K.; Boivin, R. L.; Colio, A.; Du, D.; Gattuso, A.; Glass, F.; Muscatello, C. M.; O'Neill, R.; Smiley, M.; Vasquez, J.; Watkins, M.; Brower, D. L.; Chen, J.; Ding, W. X.; Johnson, D.; Mauzey, P.; Perry, M.; Watts, C.; Wood, R.

    2017-12-01

    A full-scale 120 m path length ITER toroidal interferometer and polarimeter (TIP) prototype, including an active feedback alignment system, has been constructed and undergone initial testing at General Atomics. In the TIP prototype, two-color interferometry is carried out at 10.59 μm and 5.22 μm using a CO2 and quantum cascade laser (QCL) respectively while a separate polarimetry measurement of the plasma induced Faraday effect is made at 10.59 μm. The polarimeter system uses co-linear right and left-hand circularly polarized beams upshifted by 40 and 44 MHz acousto-optic cells respectively, to generate the necessary beat signal for heterodyne phase detection, while interferometry measurements are carried out at both 40 MHz and 44 MHz for the CO2 laser and 40 MHz for the QCL. The high-resolution phase information is obtained using an all-digital FPGA based phase demodulation scheme and precision clock source. The TIP prototype is equipped with a piezo tip/tilt stage active feedback alignment system responsible for minimizing noise in the measurement and keeping the TIP diagnostic aligned indefinitely on its 120 m beam path including as the ITER vessel is brought from ambient to operating temperatures. The prototype beam path incorporates translation stages to simulate ITER motion through a bake cycle as well as other sources of motion or misalignment. Even in the presence of significant motion, the TIP prototype is able to meet ITER’s density measurement requirements over 1000 s shot durations with demonstrated phase resolution of 0.06° and 1.5° for the polarimeter and vibration compensated interferometer respectively. TIP vibration compensated interferometer measurements of a plasma have also been made in a pulsed radio frequency device and show a line-integrated density resolution of δ {nL}=3.5× {10}17 m-2.

  11. Optically and non-optically excited thermography for composites: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ruizhen; He, Yunze

    2016-03-01

    Composites, such as glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) and carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP), and adhesive bonding are being increasingly used in fields of aerospace, renewable energy, civil and architecture, and other industries. Flaws and damages are inevitable during either fabrication or lifetime of composites structures or components. Thus, nondestructive testing (NDT) are extremely required to prevent failures and to increase reliability of composite structures or components in both manufacture and in-service inspection. Infrared thermography techniques including pulsed thermography, pulsed phase thermography, and lock-in thermography have shown the great potential and advantages. Besides conventional optical thermography, other sources such as laser, eddy current, microwave, and ultrasound excited thermography are drawing increasingly attentions for composites. In this work, a fully, in-depth and comprehensive review of thermography NDT techniques for composites inspection was conducted based on an orderly and concise literature survey and detailed analysis. Firstly, basic concepts for thermography NDT were defined and introduced, such as volume heating thermography. Next, the developments of conventional optic, laser, eddy current, microwave, and ultrasound thermography for composite inspection were reviewed. Then, some case studies for scanning thermography were also reviewed. After that, the strengths and limitations of thermography techniques were concluded through comparison studies. At last, some research trends were predicted. This work containing critical overview, detailed comparison and extensive list of references will disseminates knowledge between users, manufacturers, designers and researchers involved in composite structures or components inspection by means of thermography NDT techniques.

  12. On the chiral perturbation theory for two-flavor two-color QCD at finite chemical potential

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brauner, Tomáš

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 7 (2006), s. 559-569 ISSN 0217-7323 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GD202/05/H003 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : two-color QCD * chiral perturbation theory * chemical potential Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.564, year: 2006

  13. Luminescent two-color tracer particles for simultaneous velocity and temperature measurements in microfluidics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massing, J; Kähler, C J; Cierpka, C; Kaden, D

    2016-01-01

    The simultaneous and non-intrusive measurement of temperature and velocity fields in flows is of great scientific and technological interest. To sample the velocity and temperature, tracer particle based approaches have been developed, where the velocity is measured using PIV or PTV and the temperature is obtained from the intensity (LIF, thermographic phosphors) or frequency (TLC) of the light emitted or reflected by the tracer particles. In this article, a measurement technique is introduced, that relates the luminescent intensity ratio of individual dual-color luminescent tracer particles to temperature. Different processing algorithms are tested on synthetic particle images and compared with respect to their accuracy in estimating the intensity ratio. Furthermore, polymer particles which are doped with the temperature sensitive dye europium (III) thenoyltrifluoroacetonate (EuTTA) and the nearly temperature insensitive reference dye perylene are characterized as valid tracers. The results show a reduction of the temperature measurement uncertainty of almost 40% (95% confidence interval) compared to previously reported luminescent particle based measurement techniques for microfluidics. (paper)

  14. Rovibronically selected and resolved two-color laser photoionization and photoelectron study of cobalt carbide cation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huang; Chang, Yih Chung; Luo, Zhihong; Shi, Xiaoyu; Lam, Chow-Shing; Lau, Kai-Chung; Ng, C Y

    2013-03-07

    We have conducted a two-color visible-ultraviolet (VIS-UV) resonance-enhanced laser photoionization efficiency and pulsed field ionization-photoelectron (PFI-PE) study of gaseous cobalt carbide (CoC) near its ionization onset in the total energy range of 61,200-64,510 cm(-1). The cold gaseous CoC sample was prepared by a laser ablation supersonically cooled beam source. By exciting CoC molecules thus generated to single N' rotational levels of the intermediate CoC∗((2)Σ(+); v') state using a VIS dye laser prior to UV laser photoionization, we have obtained N(+) rotationally resolved PFI-PE spectra for the CoC(+)(X(1)Σ(+); v(+) = 0 and 1) ion vibrational bands free from interference by impurity species except Co atoms produced in the ablation source. The rotationally selected and resolved PFI-PE spectra have made possible unambiguous rotational assignments, yielding accurate values for the adiabatic ionization energy of CoC(X(2)Σ(+)), IE(CoC) = 62,384.3 ± 0.6 cm(-1) (7.73467 ± 0.00007 eV), the vibrational frequency ωe (+) = 985.6 ± 0.6 cm(-1), the anharmonicity constant ωe (+)χe (+) = 6.3 ± 0.6 cm(-1), the rotational constants (Be (+) = 0.7196 ± 0.0005 cm(-1), αe (+) = 0.0056 ± 0.0008 cm(-1)), and the equilibrium bond length re (+) = 1.534 Å for CoC(+)(X(1)Σ(+)). The observation of the N(+) = 0 level in the PFI-PE measurement indicates that the CoC(+) ground state is of (1)Σ(+) symmetry. Large ΔN(+) = N(+) - N' changes up to 6 are observed for the photoionization transitions CoC(+)(X(1)Σ(+); v(+) = 0-2; N(+)) ← CoC∗((2)Σ(+); v'; N' = 6, 7, 8, and 9). The highly precise energetic and spectroscopic data obtained in the present study have served as a benchmark for testing theoretical predictions based on state-of-the-art ab initio quantum calculations at the CCSDTQ∕CBS level of theory as presented in the companion article.

  15. Uranium extraction from phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lounis, A.

    1983-05-01

    A study has been carried out for the extraction of uranium from phosphoric acid produced in Algeria. First of all, the Algerian phosphoric acid produced in Algeria by SONATRACH has been characterised. This study helped us to synthesize a phosphoric acid that enabled us to pass from laboratory tests to pilot scale tests. We have then examined extraction and stripping parameters: diluent, DZEPHA/TOPO ratio and oxidising agent. The laboratory experiments enabled us to set the optimum condition for the choice of diluent, extractant concentration, ratio of the synergic mixture, oxidant concentration, redox potential. The equilibrium isotherms lead to the determination of the number of theoretical stages for the uranium extraction and stripping of uranium, then the extraction from phosphoric acid has been verified on a pilot scale (using a mixer-settler)

  16. Industrial radiography with phosphor screens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadhead, P.

    1981-01-01

    An experimental system that comprises a film of low silver content and a pair of high resolution phosphor intensifying screens and a commercial industrial X-ray film of similar speed are compared for image quality. It is concluded that the use of phosphor screens offers an increase in image quality when the information is limited by the graininess or quantum mottle of a radiograph which is frequently the case in practical radiography. (author)

  17. Uranium extraction from phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo Figueiredo, C. de

    1984-01-01

    The recovery of uranium from phosphoric liquor by two extraction process is studied. First, uranium is reduced to tetravalent condition and is extracted by dioctypyrophosphoric acid. The re-extraction is made by concentrated phosphoric acid with an oxidizing agent. The re-extract is submitted to the second process and uranium is extracted by di-ethylhexilphosphoric acid and trioctylphosphine oxide. (M.A.C.) [pt

  18. Integrity Evaluation of Railway Bogie Using Infrared Thermography Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Guk

    2011-01-01

    The lock-in thermography was employed to evaluate the integrity of railway bogies. Prior to the actual application on railway bogies, in order to assess the detectability of known flaws, the calibration reference panel was prepared with various dimensions of artificial flaws. The panel was composed of structural steel, which was the same material with actual bogies. Through lock-in thermography evaluation, the optimal frequency of heat source was determined for the best flaw detection. Based on the defects information, the actual defect assessments on railway bogie were conducted with different types of railway bogies, which were used for the current operation. In summary, the defect assessment results with thermography method showed a good agreement as compared with the conventional inspection techniques. Moreover, it was found that the novel infrared thermography technique could be an effective way for the inspection and the detection of surface defects on bogies since the infrared thermography method provided rapid and non-contact mode for the investigation of railway bogies

  19. Electron-beam-pumped phosphors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldhar, J.; Krupke, W.F.

    1985-01-01

    Electron-beam excitation of solid-state scintillators, or phosphors, can result in efficient generation of visible light confined to relatively narrow regions of the spectrum. The conversion efficiency can exceed 20%, and, with proper choice of phosphors, radiation can be obtained anywhere from the near infrared (IR) to the near ultraviolet (UV). These properties qualify the phosphors as a potentially useful pump source for new solid-state lasers. New phosphors are being developed for high-brightness television tubes that are capable of higher power dissipation. Here, an epitaxial film of fluorescing material is grown on a crystalline substrate with good thermal properties. For example, researchers at North American Philips Laboratories have developed a cerium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) grown on a YAG substrate, which has operated at 1 A/cm 2 at 20 kV without observed thermal quenching. The input power is higher by almost two orders of magnitude than that which can be tolerated by a conventional television phosphor. The authors describe tests of these new phosphors

  20. Medical applications of infrared thermography: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, B. B.; Bagavathiappan, S.; Jayakumar, T.; Philip, John

    2012-07-01

    Abnormal body temperature is a natural indicator of illness. Infrared thermography (IRT) is a fast, passive, non-contact and non-invasive alternative to conventional clinical thermometers for monitoring body temperature. Besides, IRT can also map body surface temperature remotely. Last five decades witnessed a steady increase in the utility of thermal imaging cameras to obtain correlations between the thermal physiology and skin temperature. IRT has been successfully used in diagnosis of breast cancer, diabetes neuropathy and peripheral vascular disorders. It has also been used to detect problems associated with gynecology, kidney transplantation, dermatology, heart, neonatal physiology, fever screening and brain imaging. With the advent of modern infrared cameras, data acquisition and processing techniques, it is now possible to have real time high resolution thermographic images, which is likely to surge further research in this field. The present efforts are focused on automatic analysis of temperature distribution of regions of interest and their statistical analysis for detection of abnormalities. This critical review focuses on advances in the area of medical IRT. The basics of IRT, essential theoretical background, the procedures adopted for various measurements and applications of IRT in various medical fields are discussed in this review. Besides background information is provided for beginners for better understanding of the subject.

  1. Thermography hogging the limelight at Big Sky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plastow, C. [Fluke Electronics Canada, Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    2010-02-15

    The high levels of humidity and ammonia found at hog farms can lead to premature corrosion of electrical systems and create potential hazards, such as electrical fires. Big Sky Farms in Saskatchewan has performed on-site inspections at its 44 farms and 16 feed mills using handheld thermography technology from Fluke Electronics. Ti thermal imaging units save time and simplify inspections. The units could be used for everything, from checking out the bearings at the feed mills to electrical circuits and relays. The Ti25 is affordable and has the right features for a preventative maintenance program. Operators of Big Sky Farms use the Ti25 to inspect all circuit breakers of 600 volts or lower as well as transformers where corrosion often causes connections to break off. The units are used to look at bearings, do scanning and thermal imaging on motors. To date, the Ti25 has detected and highlighted 5 or 6 problems on transformers alone that could have been major issues. At one site, the Ti25 indicated that all 30 circuit breakers had loose connections and were overeating. Big Sky Farms fixed the problem right away before a disaster happened. In addition to reducing inspection times, the Ti25 can record all measurements and keep a record of all the readings for downloading. 2 figs.

  2. Electromagnetic pulsed thermography for natural cracks inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yunlai; Tian, Gui Yun; Wang, Ping; Wang, Haitao; Gao, Bin; Woo, Wai Lok; Li, Kongjing

    2017-01-01

    Emerging integrated sensing and monitoring of material degradation and cracks are increasingly required for characterizing the structural integrity and safety of infrastructure. However, most conventional nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods are based on single modality sensing which is not adequate to evaluate structural integrity and natural cracks. This paper proposed electromagnetic pulsed thermography for fast and comprehensive defect characterization. It hybrids multiple physical phenomena i.e. magnetic flux leakage, induced eddy current and induction heating linking to physics as well as signal processing algorithms to provide abundant information of material properties and defects. New features are proposed using 1st derivation that reflects multiphysics spatial and temporal behaviors to enhance the detection of cracks with different orientations. Promising results that robust to lift-off changes and invariant features for artificial and natural cracks detection have been demonstrated that the proposed method significantly improves defect detectability. It opens up multiphysics sensing and integrated NDE with potential impact for natural understanding and better quantitative evaluation of natural cracks including stress corrosion crack (SCC) and rolling contact fatigue (RCF). PMID:28169361

  3. Thermography and thermoregulation of the face

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bremerich Andreas

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although clinical diagnosis of thermoregulation is gaining in importance there is no consistent evidence on the value of thermography of the facial region. In particular there are no reference values established with standardised methods. Methods Skin temperatures were measured in the facial area at 32 fixed measuring sites in 26 health subjects (7–72 years with the aid of a contact thermograph (Eidatherm. A total of 6 measurements were performed separately for the two sides of the face at intervals of equal lengths (4 hours over a period of 24 hours. Thermoregulation was triggered by application of a cold stimulus in the region of the ipsilateral ear lobe. Results Comparison of the sides revealed significant asymmetry of face temperature. The left side of the face showed a temperature that was on the average 0.1°C lower than on the right. No increase in temperature was found following application of the cold stimulus. However, a significant circadian rhythm with mean temperature differences of 0.7°C was observed. Conclusion The results obtained should be seen as an initial basis for compiling an exact thermoprofile of the surface temperature of the facial region that takes into account the circadian rhythm, thus closing gaps in studies on physiological changes in the temperature of the skin of the face.

  4. Thermography and thermoregulation of the face

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustemeyer, Jan; Radtke, Jürgen; Bremerich, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    Background Although clinical diagnosis of thermoregulation is gaining in importance there is no consistent evidence on the value of thermography of the facial region. In particular there are no reference values established with standardised methods. Methods Skin temperatures were measured in the facial area at 32 fixed measuring sites in 26 health subjects (7–72 years) with the aid of a contact thermograph (Eidatherm). A total of 6 measurements were performed separately for the two sides of the face at intervals of equal lengths (4 hours) over a period of 24 hours. Thermoregulation was triggered by application of a cold stimulus in the region of the ipsilateral ear lobe. Results Comparison of the sides revealed significant asymmetry of face temperature. The left side of the face showed a temperature that was on the average 0.1°C lower than on the right. No increase in temperature was found following application of the cold stimulus. However, a significant circadian rhythm with mean temperature differences of 0.7°C was observed. Conclusion The results obtained should be seen as an initial basis for compiling an exact thermoprofile of the surface temperature of the facial region that takes into account the circadian rhythm, thus closing gaps in studies on physiological changes in the temperature of the skin of the face. PMID:17362518

  5. Thermography applied acupuncture and qi-gong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yuwen; Ji, Hong-Wei; Chen, Jin-Long; Li, Hong-Qi

    1997-04-01

    Thermographic technique can be used to measure temperature distribution of body surface in real-time, non-contact and full-field, which has been successfully used in medical diagnosis, remote sensing, and NDT, etc. The authors have developed a thermographic experiment that can be applied to inspect the effect of action of acupuncture and qi-gong (a system of deep breathing exercises) by measuring the temperature of hand and arm. The observation is performed respectively by thermography for the dynamic changes of temperature of the arm and hand after acupuncture therapy and qi-gong therapy. Thermographic results show that the temperature on the collateral channels increases markedly. In the meantime, it can be seen that the above therapies of Chinese medicine can stimulate the channel collateral system. This also contributes a new basis to the effect of action of the therapies of Chinese medicine. The work shows that thermographic technique is a powerful tool for research in Chinese medicine. In this paper, some thermal images are obtained from the persons treated with acupuncture and qi- gong.

  6. Two-color single-photon emission from InAs quantum dots: toward logic information management using quantum light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, David; Muñoz-Matutano, Guillermo; Canet-Ferrer, Josep; García-Calzada, Raúl; Trevisi, Giovanna; Seravalli, Luca; Frigeri, Paola; Martínez-Pastor, Juan P

    2014-02-12

    In this work, we propose the use of the Hanbury-Brown and Twiss interferometric technique and a switchable two-color excitation method for evaluating the exciton and noncorrelated electron-hole dynamics associated with single photon emission from indium arsenide (InAs) self-assembled quantum dots (QDs). Using a microstate master equation model we demonstrate that our single QDs are described by nonlinear exciton dynamics. The simultaneous detection of two-color, single photon emission from InAs QDs using these nonlinear dynamics was used to design a NOT AND logic transference function. This computational functionality combines the advantages of working with light/photons as input/output device parameters (all-optical system) and that of a nanodevice (QD size of ∼ 20 nm) while also providing high optical sensitivity (ultralow optical power operational requirements). These system features represent an important and interesting step toward the development of new prototypes for the incoming quantum information technologies.

  7. Two-color pump-probe laser spectroscopy instrument with picosecond time-resolved electronic delay and extended scan range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Anchi; Ye, Xiong; Ionascu, Dan; Cao, Wenxiang; Champion, Paul M.

    2005-11-01

    An electronically delayed two-color pump-probe instrument was developed using two synchronized laser systems. The instrument has picosecond time resolution and can perform scans over hundreds of nanoseconds without the beam divergence and walk-off effects that occur using standard spatial delay systems. A unique picosecond Ti :sapphire regenerative amplifier was also constructed without the need for pulse stretching and compressing optics. The picosecond regenerative amplifier has a broad wavelength tuning range, which suggests that it will make a significant contribution to two-color pump-probe experiments. To test this instrument we studied the rotational correlation relaxation of myoglobin (τr=8.2±0.5ns) in water as well as the geminate rebinding kinetics of oxygen to myoglobin (kg1=1.7×1011s-1, kg2=3.4×107s-1). The results are consistent with, and improve upon, previous studies.

  8. Compact 6 dB Two-Color Continuous Variable Entangled Source Based on a Single Ring Optical Resonator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Continuous-variable entangled optical beams at the degenerate wavelength of 0.8 μm or 1.5 μm have been investigated extensively, but separately. The two-color entangled states of these two useful wavelengths, with sufficiently high degrees of entanglement, still lag behind. In this work, we analyze the various limiting factors that affect the entanglement degree. On the basis of this, we successfully achieve 6 dB of two-color quadrature entangled light beams by improving the escape efficiency of the nondegenerate optical amplifier, the stability of the phase-locking servo system, and the detection efficiency. Our entangled source is constructed only from a single ring optical resonator, and thus is highly compact, which is suitable for applications in long-distance quantum communication networks.

  9. Chemical reactivation of resin-embedded pHuji adds red for simultaneous two-color imaging with EGFP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wenyan; Liu, Xiuli; Liu, Yurong; Gang, Yadong; He, Xiaobin; Jia, Yao; Yin, Fangfang; Li, Pei; Huang, Fei; Zhou, Hongfu; Wang, Xiaojun; Gong, Hui; Luo, Qingming; Xu, Fuqiang; Zeng, Shaoqun

    2017-01-01

    The pH-sensitive fluorescent proteins enabling chemical reactivation in resin are useful tools for fluorescence microimaging. EGFP or EYFP is good for such applications. For simultaneous two-color imaging, a suitable red fluorescent protein is an urgent need. Here a pH-sensitive red fluorescent protein, pHuji, is selected and verified to remain pH-sensitive in HM20 resin. We observe 183% fluorescence intensity of pHuji in resin-embeded mouse brain and 29.08-fold fluorescence intensity of reactivated pHuji compared to the quenched state. pHuji and EGFP can be quenched and chemically reactivated simultaneously in resin, thus enabling simultaneous two-color micro-optical sectioning tomography of resin-embedded mouse brain. This method may greatly facilitate the visualization of neuronal morphology and neural circuits to promote understanding of the structure and function of the brain. PMID:28717566

  10. Density profiles of small Dirac operator eigenvalues for two color QCD at nonzero chemical potential compared to matrix models

    OpenAIRE

    Akemann, G; Bittner, E; Lombardo, M; Markum, H; Pullirsch, R

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the eigenvalue spectrum of the staggered Dirac matrix in two color QCD at finite chemical potential. The profiles of complex eigenvalues close to the origin are compared to a complex generalization of the chiral Gaussian Symplectic Ensemble, confirming its predictions for weak and strong non-Hermiticity. They differ from the QCD symmetry class with three colors by a level repulsion from both the real and imaginary axis.

  11. Density profiles of small Dirac operator eigenvalues for two color QCD at nonzero chemical potential compared to matrix models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akemann, Gernot; Bittner, Elmar; Lombardo, Maria-Paola; Markum, Harald; Pullirsch, Rainer

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the eigenvalue spectrum of the staggered Dirac matrix in two color QCD at finite chemical potential. The profiles of complex eigenvalues close to the origin are compared to a complex generalization of the chiral Gaussian Symplectic Ensemble, confirming its predictions for weak and strong non-Hermiticity. They differ from the QCD symmetry class with three colors by a level repulsion from both the real and imaginary axis

  12. Thermography in the detection and follow up of chondromalacia patellae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujcić, M; Nedeljković, R

    1991-01-01

    Although diagnostic criteria for chondromalacia patellae exist, the disease is often accompanied by physical signs which are limited or non-diagnostic. Thermographic examination was performed in 157 patients with clinical diagnosis of chondromalacia patellae in 86 patients after surgical treatment for chondromalacia, and in 308 controls. Thermography can help the clinicians in establishing the diagnosis of chondromalacia patellae, but by itself is not sufficiently specific. The specificity of thermography was dependent on age, ranging from 90% for the 15-24 year age group to 65% for the 45-54 year age group. Sensitivity of the method was 68%. Thermography can disclose other knee disorders which imitate chondromalacia patellae. Images PMID:1768161

  13. Pulsed Thermography Applied to the Study of Cultural Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulvio Mercuri

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an overview of the recent applications of pulsed infrared thermography is presented. Pulsed infrared thermography, which provides stratigraphic information by analyzing the heat diffusion process within the sample after a thermal perturbation, is applied to the investigation of different kinds of cultural heritage artefacts. In particular, it is used to analyze repairs, decorative elements, and casting faults on bronzes, to detect texts hidden or damaged in ancient books/documents, and to characterize paint decorations. Moreover, the integration of pulsed infrared thermography and three-dimensional shape recording methods is proposed in order to provide a three-dimensional representation of the thermographic results. Finally, it is shown how the obtained thermographic results may be crucial from the historical and artistic points of view for understanding the modus operandi of a specific artist and/or of a workshop and for reconstructing the manufacturing process of the analyzed artefacts.

  14. Nondestructive detection of surface flaws in materials by infrared thermography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Toshimitsu; Ooka, Norikazu; Eto, Motokuni; Hoshiya, Taiji; Okamoto, Yoshizo

    1999-01-01

    Infrared thermography is one of the useful remote sensing techniques applied to the nondestructive detection of surface flaws in materials. Radiation temperatures of the specimen surface and surrounding walls as well as the difference in them are crucial factors to detect surface flaws from thermal images, and it is essential that these factors be properly evaluated beforehand in order to detect the flaws by infrared thermography. In this study, the radiation temperature of nuclear graphite specimens heated uniformly was measured by infrared thermography to evaluate the radiation characteristics such as emissivity, radiosity coefficient and variation of radiation temperature. The influence of the temperature difference between the test specimen and its surroundings on the limit of detection of pinhole flaws was discussed on the basis of the thermal images of graphite specimen with surface flaws. It was found that the thermal image of a small flaw was clearly visible with increase in the temperature difference. (author)

  15. The design of two color interferometer system for the 3-dimensional analysis of plasma density evolution on KSTAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.C., E-mail: kclee@nfri.re.kr [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 34133 (Korea, Republic of); Juhn, J.-W.; Nam, Y.U.; Kim, Y.S.; Wi, H.M. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 34133 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, S.W.; Ghim, Y.-C. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • A Two Color Interferometer (TCI) system is designed for 3-D measurement of KSTAR. • TCI is consists of 10.6 μm CO2 laser and 0.63 μm HeNe laser with tangential 5 channels. • 2 channels are installed in 2016 and 5 channel operation is planned in 2017. - Abstract: A 5-channel two color interferometer (TCI) system has been designed on KSTAR. TCI system is designed for tangential beam paths, which will combine with two existing interferometer systems of vertical and radial beam paths, so that it will provide 3-dimensional measurement of electron density evolution. TCI system uses wavelengths of 10.6 μm by a CO{sub 2} laser and 0.633 μm by a HeNe laser. The system compensates the vibrational noise by using two colors and avoids refraction by short wavelengths. The main purpose of the TCI is to generate routine measurement of the line integrated plasma density for the real time density control on KSTAR. The 5-channels will provide profile data for the density. Time resolution of the system is expected to be 500 kHz or higher in order to measure 3-dimensional density fluctuations for ELMs and other MHD activities including TAE modes. The system is planned to be working on KSTAR 2016 campaign with 1–2 channels.

  16. Two-color above-threshold ionization of atoms and ions in XUV Bessel beams and intense laser light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seipt, D.; Müller, R. A.; Surzhykov, A.; Fritzsche, S.

    2016-11-01

    The two-color above-threshold ionization (ATI) of atoms and ions is investigated for a vortex Bessel beam in the presence of a strong near-infrared (NIR) light field. While the photoionization is caused by the photons from the weak but extreme ultraviolet (XUV) vortex Bessel beam, the energy and angular distribution of the photoelectrons and their sideband structure are affected by the plane-wave NIR field. We here explore the energy spectra and angular emission of the photoelectrons in such two-color fields as a function of the size and location of the target atoms with regard to the beam axis. In addition, analog to the circular dichroism in typical two-color ATI experiments with circularly polarized light, we define and discuss seven different dichroism signals for such vortex Bessel beams that arise from the various combinations of the orbital and spin angular momenta of the two light fields. For localized targets, it is found that these dichroism signals strongly depend on the size and position of the atoms relative to the beam. For macroscopically extended targets, in contrast, three of these dichroism signals tend to zero, while the other four just coincide with the standard circular dichroism, similar as for Bessel beams with a small opening angle. Detailed computations of the dichroism are performed and discussed for the 4 s valence-shell photoionization of Ca+ ions.

  17. Imaging of particles with 3D full parallax mode with two-color digital off-axis holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara-Mohammed, Soumaya; Bouamama, Larbi; Picart, Pascal

    2018-05-01

    This paper proposes an approach based on two orthogonal views and two wavelengths for recording off-axis two-color holograms. The approach permits to discriminate particles aligned along the sight-view axis. The experimental set-up is based on a double Mach-Zehnder architecture in which two different wavelengths provides the reference and the object beams. The digital processing to get images from the particles is based on convolution so as to obtain images with no wavelength dependence. The spatial bandwidth of the angular spectrum transfer function is adapted in order to increase the maximum reconstruction distance which is generally limited to a few tens of millimeters. In order to get the images of particles in the 3D volume, a calibration process is proposed and is based on the modulation theorem to perfectly superimpose the two views in a common XYZ axis. The experimental set-up is applied to two-color hologram recording of moving non-calibrated opaque particles with average diameter at about 150 μm. After processing the two-color holograms with image reconstruction and view calibration, the location of particles in the 3D volume can be obtained. Particularly, ambiguity about close particles, generating hidden particles in a single-view scheme, can be removed to determine the exact number of particles in the region of interest.

  18. Generation of an isolated sub-30 attosecond pulse in a two-color laser field and a static electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Gang-Tai; Zhang Mei-Guang; Bai Ting-Ting

    2012-01-01

    We theoretically investigate high-order harmonic generation (HHG) from a helium ion model in a two-color laser field, which is synthesized by a fundamental pulse and its second harmonic pulse. It is shown that a supercontinuum spectrum can be generated in the two-color field. However, the spectral intensity is very low, limiting the application of the generated attosecond (as) pulse. By adding a static electric field to the synthesized two-color field, not only is the ionization yield of electrons contributing to the harmonic emission remarkably increased, but also the quantum paths of the HHG can be significantly modulated. As a result, the extension and enhancement of the supercontinuum spectrum are achieved, producing an intense isolated 26-as pulse with a bandwidth of about 170.5 eV. In particular, we also analyse the influence of the laser parameters on the ultrabroad supercontinuum spectrum and isolated sub-30-as pulse generation. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  19. The design of two color interferometer system for the 3-dimensional analysis of plasma density evolution on KSTAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.C.; Juhn, J.-W.; Nam, Y.U.; Kim, Y.S.; Wi, H.M.; Kim, S.W.; Ghim, Y.-C.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A Two Color Interferometer (TCI) system is designed for 3-D measurement of KSTAR. • TCI is consists of 10.6 μm CO2 laser and 0.63 μm HeNe laser with tangential 5 channels. • 2 channels are installed in 2016 and 5 channel operation is planned in 2017. - Abstract: A 5-channel two color interferometer (TCI) system has been designed on KSTAR. TCI system is designed for tangential beam paths, which will combine with two existing interferometer systems of vertical and radial beam paths, so that it will provide 3-dimensional measurement of electron density evolution. TCI system uses wavelengths of 10.6 μm by a CO 2 laser and 0.633 μm by a HeNe laser. The system compensates the vibrational noise by using two colors and avoids refraction by short wavelengths. The main purpose of the TCI is to generate routine measurement of the line integrated plasma density for the real time density control on KSTAR. The 5-channels will provide profile data for the density. Time resolution of the system is expected to be 500 kHz or higher in order to measure 3-dimensional density fluctuations for ELMs and other MHD activities including TAE modes. The system is planned to be working on KSTAR 2016 campaign with 1–2 channels.

  20. Infrared Thermography in Serotonin-Induced Itch Model in Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jasemian, Yousef; Gazerani, Parisa; Dagnæs-Hansen, Frederik

    2012-01-01

    The study validated the application of infrared thermography in a serotonin-induced itch model in rats since the only available method in animal models of itch is the count of scratching bouts. Twenty four adult Sprague-Dawley male rats were used in 3 experiments: 1) local vasomotor response...... with no scratching reflex was investigated. Serotonin elicited significant scratching and lowered the local temperature at the site of injection. A negative dose-temperature relationship of serotonin was found by thermography. Vasoregulation at the site of serotonin injection took place in the absence of scratching...

  1. Heat Flux Sensors for Infrared Thermography in Convective Heat Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlomagno, Giovanni Maria; de Luca, Luigi; Cardone, Gennaro; Astarita, Tommaso

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the most dependable heat flux sensors, which can be used with InfraRed (IR) thermography to measure convective heat transfer coefficient distributions, and some of their applications performed by the authors' research group at the University of Naples Federico II. After recalling the basic principles that make IR thermography work, the various heat flux sensors to be used with it are presented and discussed, describing their capability to investigate complex thermo-fluid-dynamic flows. Several applications to streams, which range from natural convection to hypersonic flows, are also described. PMID:25386758

  2. Infrared thermography applied to monitoring of radioactive waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelmer, P.; Camarano, D.M.; Calado, F.; Phillip, B.; Viana, C.; Andrade, R.M.

    2013-01-01

    The use of thermography in the inspection of drums containing radioactive waste is being stimulated by the absence of physical contact. In Brazil the majority of radioactive wastes are compacted solids packed in metal drums stored temporarily for decades and requires special attention. These drums have only one qualitative indication of the radionuclides present. However, its structural condition is not followed systematically. The aim of this work is presents a methodology by applying thermography for monitoring the structural condition of drums containing radioactive waste in order to detect degraded regions of the drums. (author)

  3. Position of scintigraphy, radiography and thermography in arthropathic psoriasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lips, H.; Schulze, P.; Loreck, D.

    1989-01-01

    In 28 patients suffering from an arthropathic psoriasis with a different duration of the articular symptoms besides clinical inspections roentgenologic and scintigraphic examinations of hands and feet as well as the liquid crystal thermography of the hands were accomplished. There was a conformity of clinical and scintigraphic findings in 64 per cent, of clinical and thermographic ones in 57 per cent of the cases. Scintigraphy as well as liquid crystal thermography are very suitable for early diagnosis of arthropathic psoriasis with articular symptoms not yet to be classifyable. X-ray examinations should be always taken into consideration not at least because of the differential diagnostic point of view. (author)

  4. Heat Flux Sensors for Infrared Thermography in Convective Heat Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Maria Carlomagno

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the most dependable heat flux sensors, which can be used with InfraRed (IR thermography to measure convective heat transfer coefficient distributions, and some of their applications performed by the authors’ research group at the University of Naples Federico II. After recalling the basic principles that make IR thermography work, the various heat flux sensors to be used with it are presented and discussed, describing their capability to investigate complex thermo-fluid-dynamic flows. Several applications to streams, which range from natural convection to hypersonic flows, are also described.

  5. Detection of defects of Kenaf/Epoxy by Thermography Analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suriani, M J; Ali, Aidi; Sapuan, S M; Khalina, A; Abdullah, S

    2012-01-01

    There are quite a few defects can occur due to manufacturing of the composites such as voids, resin-rich zones, pockets of undispersed cross-linker, misaligned fibres and regions where resin has poorly wetted the fibres. Such defect can reduce the mechanical properties as well mechanical performance of the structure and thus must be determine. In this study, the defect of Kenaf/epoxy reinforced composite materials has been determined by thermography analyses and mechanical properties testing of the composites have been done by tensile test. 95% of the thermography analyses have proved that the defects occur in the composite has reduced the mechanical properties of the specimens.

  6. Technologies of high-performance thermography systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breiter, R.; Cabanski, Wolfgang A.; Mauk, K. H.; Kock, R.; Rode, W.

    1997-08-01

    A family of 2 dimensional detection modules based on 256 by 256 and 486 by 640 platinum silicide (PtSi) focal planes, or 128 by 128 and 256 by 256 mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) focal planes for applications in either the 3 - 5 micrometer (MWIR) or 8 - 10 micrometer (LWIR) range was recently developed by AIM. A wide variety of applications is covered by the specific features unique for these two material systems. The PtSi units provide state of the art correctability with long term stable gain and offset coefficients. The MCT units provide extremely fast frame rates like 400 Hz with snapshot integration times as short as 250 microseconds and with a thermal resolution NETD less than 20 mK for e.g. the 128 by 128 LWIR module. The unique design idea general for all of these modules is the exclusively digital interface, using 14 bit analog to digital conversion to provide state of the art correctability, access to highly dynamic scenes without any loss of information and simplified exchangeability of the units. Device specific features like bias voltages etc. are identified during the final test and stored in a memory on the driving electronics. This concept allows an easy exchange of IDCAs of the same type without any need for tuning or e.g. the possibility to upgrade a PtSi based unit to an MCT module by just loading the suitable software. Miniaturized digital signal processor (DSP) based image correction units were developed for testing and operating the units with output data rates of up to 16 Mpixels/s. These boards provide the ability for freely programmable realtime functions like two point correction and various data manipulations in thermography applications.

  7. Damage detection in composites using nonlinear ultrasonically modulated thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malfense Fierro, G.-P.; Dionysopoulos, D.; Meo, M.; Ciampa, F.

    2018-03-01

    This paper proposes a novel nonlinear ultrasonically stimulated thermography technique for a quick and reliable assessment of material damage in carbon fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP) composite materials. The proposed nondestructive evaluation (NDE) method requires narrow sweep ultrasonic excitation using contact piezoelectric transducers in order to identify dual excitation frequencies associated with the damage resonance. High-amplitude signals and higher harmonic generation are necessary conditions for an accurate identification of these two input frequencies. Dual periodic excitation using high- and low-frequency input signals was then performed in order to generate frictional heating at the crack location that was measured by an infrared (IR) camera. To validate this concept, an impact damaged CFRP composite panel was tested and the experimental results were compared with traditional flash thermography. A laser vibrometer was used to investigate the response of the material with dual frequency excitation. The proposed nonlinear ultrasonically modulated thermography successfully detected barely visible impact damage in CFRP composites. Hence, it can be considered as an alternative to traditional flash thermography and thermosonics by allowing repeatable detection of damage in composites.

  8. NASA MUST Paper: Infrared Thermography of Graphite/Epoxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comeaux, Kayla; Koshti, Ajay

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this project is to use Infrared Thermography, a non-destructive test, to detect detrimental cracks and voids beneath the surface of materials used in the space program. This project will consist of developing a simulation model of the Infrared Thermography inspection of the Graphite/Epoxy specimen. The simulation entails finding the correct physical properties for this specimen as well as programming the model for thick voids or flat bottom holes. After the simulation is completed, an Infrared Thermography inspection of the actual specimen will be made. Upon acquiring the experimental test data, an analysis of the data for the actual experiment will occur, which includes analyzing images, graphical analysis, and analyzing numerical data received from the infrared camera. The simulation will then be corrected for any discrepancies between it and the actual experiment. The optimized simulation material property inputs can then be used for new simulation for thin voids. The comparison of the two simulations, the simulation for the thick void and the simulation for the thin void, provides a correlation between the peak contrast ratio and peak time ratio. This correlation is used in the evaluation of flash thermography data during the evaluation of delaminations.

  9. 21 CFR 182.1073 - Phosphoric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Phosphoric acid. 182.1073 Section 182.1073 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN....1073 Phosphoric acid. (a) Product. Phosphoric acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  10. 21 CFR 582.1073 - Phosphoric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Phosphoric acid. 582.1073 Section 582.1073 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1073 Phosphoric acid. (a) Product. Phosphoric acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  11. Coherent control of D2/H2 dissociative ionization by a mid-infrared two-color laser field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanie, Vincent; Ibrahim, Heide; Beaulieu, Samuel; Thiré, Nicolas; Schmidt, Bruno E; Légaré, François; Deng, Yunpei; Alnaser, Ali S; Litvinyuk, Igor V; Tong, Xiao-Min

    2016-01-01

    Steering the electrons during an ultrafast photo-induced process in a molecule influences the chemical behavior of the system, opening the door to the control of photochemical reactions and photobiological processes. Electrons can be efficiently localized using a strong laser field with a well-designed temporal shape of the electric component. Consequently, many experiments have been performed with laser sources in the near-infrared region (800 nm) in the interest of studying and enhancing the electron localization. However, due to its limited accessibility, the mid-infrared (MIR) range has barely been investigated, although it allows to efficiently control small molecules and even more complex systems. To push further the manipulation of basic chemical mechanisms, we used a MIR two-color (1800 and 900 nm) laser field to ionize H 2 and D 2 molecules and to steer the remaining electron during the photo-induced dissociation. The study of this prototype reaction led to the simultaneous control of four fragmentation channels. The results are well reproduced by a theoretical model solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for the molecular ion, identifying the involved dissociation mechanisms. By varying the relative phase between the two colors, asymmetries (i.e., electron localization selectivity) of up to 65% were obtained, corresponding to enhanced or equivalent levels of control compared to previous experiments. Experimentally easier to implement, the use of a two-color laser field leads to a better electron localization than carrier-envelope phase stabilized pulses and applying the technique in the MIR range reveals more dissociation channels than at 800 nm. (paper)

  12. Multi-terminal Two-color ZnCdSe/ZnCdMgSe Based Quantum-well Infrared Photodetector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Yasin; Ravikumar, Arvind; Chen, Guopeng; Tamargo, Maria C.; Shen, Aidong; Gmachl, Claire

    Target recognition and identification applications benefits from two-color infrared (IR) detectors in the mid and long-wavelength IR regions. Currently, InGaAs/AlGaAs and GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum wells (QWs) grown on GaAs substrate are the most commonly used two-color QW IR photodetectors (QWIPs). However, the lattice-mismatch and the buildup of strain limit the number of QWs that can be grown, in turn increasing the dark current noise, and limiting the device detectivity.In this work, we report on two-color QWIPs based on the large conduction band offset (~1.12ev) ZnCdSe/ZnCdMgSe material system lattice matched to InP. QWIPs were designed based on a bound to quasi-bound transition, centered at 4 μm and 7 μm and each QW is repeated 50 times to eliminate the high dark current and a contact layer is inserted between the two stacks of QWs for independent electrical contacts. Wafers are processed into two step rectangular mesas by lithography and wet etching. Experiments showed absorption spectra centered at 4.9 μm and 7.6 μm at 80 K and the full width at half maximums were Δλ / λ = 21 % and Δλ / λ = 23 % , respectively. Current work studies the Johnson and the background noise limited detectivities of these QWIPs. Current address: School of Earth, Energy and Environmental Sciences, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.

  13. Optical trapping of cold neutral atoms using a two-color evanescent light field around a carbon nanotube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nga, Do Thi; Viet, Nguyen Ai; Nga, Dao Thi Thuy; Lan, Nguyen Thi Phuong

    2014-01-01

    We suggest a new schema of trapping cold atoms using a two-color evanescent light field around a carbon nanotube. The two light fields circularly polarized sending through a carbon nanotube generates an evanescent wave around this nanotube. By evanescent effect, the wave decays away from the nanotube producing a set of trapping minima of the total potential in the transverse plane as a ring around the nanotube. This schema allows capture of atoms to a cylindrical shell around the nanotube. We consider some possible boundary conditions leading to the non-trivial bound state solution. Our result will be compared to some recent trapping models and our previous trapping models.

  14. Simulation of Far-Field Superresolution Fluorescence Imaging with Two-Color One-Photon Excitation of Reversible Photoactivatable Protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chen; Qiao Ling-Ling; Mao Zheng-Le

    2011-01-01

    We propose to achieve far-field super-resolution imaging by using offset two-color one-photon (2C1P) excitation of reversible photoactivatable fluorescence proteins. Due to the distinctive photoswitching performance of the proteins, such as dronpa, the fluorescence emission will only come from the overlapped region of activation beam and excitation beam. The analysis solution of rate equation shows that the resolution of offset 2C1P microscope is 'engineered' by laser power of excitation and activation beams and the power ratio between them. Superior lateral and transverse resolution is theoretically demonstrated compared with conventional fluorescence scanning microscopy. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  15. Stimulated emission pumping of NH in flames by using two-color resonant four-wave mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radi, P P; Frey, H M; Mischler, B; Tzannis, A P; Beaud, P; Gerber, T [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    In this work we examine the analytical potential of two-color resonant four-wave mixing for the determination and characterization of trace elements in a combustion environment. Experimental results for NH in flames at atmospheric pressure are presented. The selectivity of the technique is used to simplify the Q-branch region of the (0-0)A{sup 3}{Pi}-X{sup 3}{Sigma} vibronic transition of NH. In addition, we demonstrate that the technique is sensitive to state changing collisions. (author) 2 figs., 5 refs.

  16. Observations of strain accumulation across the san andreas fault near palmdale, california, with a two-color geodimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langbein, J O; Linker, M F; McGarr, A; Slater, L E

    1982-12-17

    Two-color laser ranging measurements during a 15-month period over a geodetic network spanning the San Andreas fault near Palmdale, California, indicate that the crust expands and contracts aseismically in episodes as short as 2 weeks. Shear strain parallel to the fault has accumulated monotonically since November 1980, but at a variable rate. Improvements in measurement precision and temporal resolution over those of previous geodetic studies near Palmdale have resulted in the definition of a time history of crustal deformation that is much more complex than formerly realized.

  17. Distilling two-center-interference information during tunneling of aligned molecules with orthogonally polarized two-color laser fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, F.; Chen, Y. J.; Xin, G. G.; Liu, J.; Fu, L. B.

    2017-12-01

    When electrons tunnel through a barrier formed by the strong laser field and the two-center potential of a diatomic molecule, a double-slit-like interference can occur. However, this interference effect can not be probed directly right now, as it is strongly coupled with other dynamical processes during tunneling. Here, we show numerically and analytically that orthogonally polarized two-color (OTC) laser fields are capable of resolving the interference effect in tunneling, while leaving clear footprints of this effect in photoelectron momentum distributions. Moreover, this effect can be manipulated by changing the relative field strength of OTC fields.

  18. Recovering uranium from phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abodishish, H.A.; Ritchey, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    Precipitation of Fe 3 HN 4 H 8 (PO 4 ) 6 is prevented in the second cycle extractor, in a two cycle uranium recovery process, by washing ammonia laden organic solvent stream, from the second cycle stripper, with first cycle raffinate iron stream containing phosphoric acid, prior to passing the solvent stream into the second cycle extractor. (author)

  19. Terahertz radiation driven by two-color laser pulses at near-relativistic intensities: Competition between photoionization and wakefield effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    González de Alaiza Martínez, P.; Davoine, X.; Debayle, A.; Gremillet, L.; Bergé, L.

    2016-01-01

    We numerically investigate terahertz (THz) pulse generation by linearly-polarized, two-color femtosecond laser pulses in highly-ionized argon. Major processes consist of tunneling photoionization and ponderomotive forces associated with transverse and longitudinal field excitations. By means of two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, we reveal the importance of photocurrent mechanisms besides transverse and longitudinal plasma waves for laser intensities >1015 W/cm2. We demonstrate the following. (i) With two-color pulses, photoionization prevails in the generation of GV/m THz fields up to 1017 W/cm2 laser intensities and suddenly loses efficiency near the relativistic threshold, as the outermost electron shell of ionized Ar atoms has been fully depleted. (ii) PIC results can be explained by a one-dimensional Maxwell-fluid model and its semi-analytical solutions, offering the first unified description of the main THz sources created in plasmas. (iii) The THz power emitted outside the plasma channel mostly originates from the transverse currents. PMID:27255689

  20. Intensity dependence of nonsequential double ionization of helium in IR+XUV two-color laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Facheng; Wang, Bingbing; Chen, Jing; Yang, Yujun; Yan, Zong-Chao

    2016-01-01

    By applying the frequency-domain theory, we investigate the dependence of momentum spectra on laser intensity in a nonsequential double ionization (NSDI) process of helium in infrared (IR) and extreme ultraviolet (XUV) two-color laser fields. We find that the two-color laser fields play distinct roles in an NSDI process, where the IR laser field mainly determines the width of each band, and the XUV laser field mainly plays a role on the NSDI probability. Furthermore, an NSDI process can be decoupled into a two-step process: an above-threshold ionization (ATI), followed by a laser-assisted collision (LAC). It is found that, the IR laser field is responsible for broadening the peak in the ATI process and providing additional momenta to the two ionized electrons in the LAC process; while the XUV laser field plays a crucial role on the strength of the spectrum in the ATI process, and influences the radii of orbits in momentum space in the LAC process. (paper)

  1. Multistabilities and symmetry-broken one-color and two-color states in closely coupled single-mode lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerkin, Eoin; O'Brien, Stephen; Amann, Andreas

    2014-03-01

    We theoretically investigate the dynamics of two mutually coupled, identical single-mode semi-conductor lasers. For small separation and large coupling between the lasers, symmetry-broken one-color states are shown to be stable. In this case the light outputs of the lasers have significantly different intensities while at the same time the lasers are locked to a single common frequency. For intermediate coupling we observe stable symmetry-broken two-color states, where both lasers lase simultaneously at two optical frequencies which are separated by up to 150 GHz. Using a five-dimensional model, we identify the bifurcation structure which is responsible for the appearance of symmetric and symmetry-broken one-color and two-color states. Several of these states give rise to multistabilities and therefore allow for the design of all-optical memory elements on the basis of two coupled single-mode lasers. The switching performance of selected designs of optical memory elements is studied numerically.

  2. High-order harmonic generation spectra and isolated attosecond pulse generation with a two-color time delayed pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Liqiang; Chu Tianshu

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Investigation of HHG spectra and single isolated attosecond pulse generation. ► Irradiation from a model Ne atom by two-color time delayed pulse. ► Observation of time delay effect and relative phase effect. ► Revelation of the optimal condition for generating isolated attosecond pulse. ► Generation of a single isolated attosecond pulse of 45as. - Abstract: In this paper, we theoretically investigate the delay time effect on the high-order harmonic generation (HHG) when a model Ne atom is exposed to a two-color time delayed pulse, consisting of a 5fs/800 nm fundamental field and a 20fs/2000 nm controlling field. It shows that the HHG spectra are strongly sensitive to the delay time between the two laser fields, in particular, for the zero carrier-envelope phase (CEP) φ case (corresponding to the 800 nm fundamental field), the maximum cutoff energy has been achieved at zero delay time. However, with the introduction of the CEP (φ = 180°), the delay effect on HHG is changed, exhibiting a ‘U’ structure harmonic emission from −1 T to 1 T. In addition, the combinations of different controlling pulse frequencies and pulse intensities have also been considered, showing the similar results as the original controlling field case, but with some characteristics. Finally, by properly superposing the optimal harmonic spectrum, an isolated 45as pulse is generated without phase compensation.

  3. Application of strong phosphoric acid to radiochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terada, Kikuo

    1977-01-01

    Not only inorganic and organic compounds but also natural substrances, such as accumulations in soil, are completely decomposed and distilled by heating with strong phosphoric acid for 30 to 50 minutes. As applications of strong phosphoric acid to radiochemistry, determination of uranium and boron by use of solubilization effect of this substance, titration of uranyl ion by use of sulfuric iron (II) contained in this substance, application to tracer experiment, and determination of radioactive ruthenium in environmental samples are reviewed. Strong phosphoric acid is also applied to activation analysis, for example, determination of N in pyrographite with iodate potassium-strong phosphoric acid method, separation of Os and Ru with sulfuric cerium (IV) - strong phosphoric acid method or potassium dechromate-strong phosphoric acid method, analysis of Se, As and Sb rocks and accumulations with ammonium bromide, sodium chloride and sodium bromide-strong phosphoric acid method. (Kanao, N.)

  4. An implementation of infrared thermography in maintenance plans within a world class manufacturing strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović Petar M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to show the implementation of infrared thermography within World Class Manufacturing (WCM maintenance strategy. The results from infrared thermography inspections in a food processing and packaging solutions company were presented. Applicability of the infrared thermography, during a two-year period, caused a substantial reduction the potential breakdown in the pilot area. Upon feasibility confirmation, the proposed method was spread to other production equipment of the company.

  5. Improving visibility of rear surface cracks during inductive thermography of metal plates using Autoencoder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jing; Xu, Changhang; Chen, Guoming; Huang, Weiping

    2018-06-01

    Inductive thermography is one kind of infrared thermography (IRT) technique, which is effective in detection of front surface cracks in metal plates. However, rear surface cracks are usually missed due to their weak indications during inductive thermography. Here we propose a novel approach (AET: AE Thermography) to improve the visibility of rear surface cracks during inductive thermography by employing the Autoencoder (AE) algorithm, which is an important block to construct deep learning architectures. We construct an integrated framework for processing the raw inspection data of inductive thermography using the AE algorithm. Through this framework, underlying features of rear surface cracks are efficiently extracted and new clearer images are constructed. Experiments of inductive thermography were conducted on steel specimens to verify the efficacy of the proposed approach. We visually compare the raw thermograms, the empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) of the prominent component thermography (PCT) technique and the results of AET. We further quantitatively evaluated AET by calculating crack contrast and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The results demonstrate that the proposed AET approach can remarkably improve the visibility of rear surface cracks and then improve the capability of inductive thermography in detecting rear surface cracks in metal plates.

  6. Radioluminescent nuclear batteries with different phosphor layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Liang; Tang, Xiao-Bin; Xu, Zhi-Heng; Liu, Yun-Peng; Chen, Da

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We present and test the electrical properties of the nuclear battery. • The best thickness range for ZnS:Cu phosphor layer is 12–14 mg cm −2 for 147 Pm radioisotope. • The best thickness range for Y 2 O 2 S:Eu phosphor layer is 17–21 mg cm −2147 Pm radioisotope. • The battery with ZnS:Cu phosphor layer can provide higher energy conversion efficiency. • The mechanism affecting the nuclear battery output performance is revealed. - Abstract: A radioluminescent nuclear battery based on the beta radioluminescence of phosphors is presented, and which consists of 147 Pm radioisotope, phosphor layers, and GaAs photovoltaic cell. ZnS:Cu and Y 2 O 2 S:Eu phosphor layers for various thickness were fabricated. To investigate the effect of phosphor layer parameters on the battery, the electrical properties were measured. Results indicate that the optimal thickness ranges for the ZnS:Cu and Y 2 O 2 S:Eu phosphor layers are 12 mg cm −2 to 14 mg cm −2 and 17 mg cm −2 to 21 mg cm −2 , respectively. ZnS:Cu phosphor layer exhibits higher fluorescence efficiency compared with the Y 2 O 2 S:Eu phosphor layer. Its spectrum properly matches the spectral response of GaAs photovoltaic cell. As a result, the battery with ZnS:Cu phosphor layer indicates higher energy conversion efficiency than that with Y 2 O 2 S:Eu phosphor layer. Additionally, the mechanism of the phosphor layer parameters that influence the output performance of the battery is discussed through the Monte Carlo method and transmissivity test

  7. Integration of infrared thermography into various maintenance methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, William T.

    1993-04-01

    Maintenance methodologies are in developmental stages throughout the world as global competitiveness drives all industries to improve operational efficiencies. Rapid progress in technical advancements has added an additional strain on maintenance organizations to progressively change. Accompanying needs for advanced training and documentation is the demand for utilization of various analytical instruments and quantitative methods. Infrared thermography is one of the primary elements of engineered approaches to maintenance. Current maintenance methodologies can be divided into six categories; Routine ('Breakdown'), Preventive, Predictive, Proactive, Reliability-Based, and Total Productive (TPM) maintenance. Each of these methodologies have distinctive approaches to achieving improved operational efficiencies. Popular though is that infrared thermography is a Predictive maintenance tool. While this is true, it is also true that it can be effectively integrated into each of the maintenance methodologies for achieving desired results. The six maintenance strategies will be defined. Infrared applications integrated into each will be composed in tabular form.

  8. Infrared thermography application on predictive maintenance for exhaust fan motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I Wayan Widiana; Jakaria; Artadi Heru; Mulyono

    2013-01-01

    To determine the condition of the exhaust fan motor in terms of heat dissipation, predictive maintenance needs to be done. One way is to use infrared thermography. The method used is an infrared thermography with qualitative technique which the analysis focused on the distribution patterns of heat captured by the infrared camera. From measurement results expected to be obtained data of the heat distribution occurs in the motor exhaust fan so it can be given treatment or further improvements recommendations to avoid failure of the operation. Results of measurements on the motor exhaust fan 9 and the motor exhaust fan 10 indicates that there is excessive heat dissipation (over heating). The recommendation given is increasing the motor capacity of 11 kW to 18 kW with a consideration of the addition load on exhaust fan system and age of motor more than 22 years. (author)

  9. Investigation on a new inducer of pulsed eddy current thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min He

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new inducer of pulsed eddy current thermography (PECT is presented. The use of the inducer can help avoid the problem of blocking the infrared (IR camera’s view in eddy current thermography technique. The inducer can also provide even heating of the test specimen. This paper is concerned with the temperature distribution law around the crack on a specimen when utilizing the new inducer. Firstly, relative mathematical models are provided. In the following section, eddy current distribution and temperature distribution around the crack are studied using the numerical simulation method. The best separation distance between the inducer and the specimen is also determined. Then, results of temperature distribution around the crack stimulated by the inducer are gained by experiments. Effect of current value on temperature rise is studied as well in the experiments. Based on temperature data, temperature features of the crack are discussed.

  10. Calibrated Pulse-Thermography Procedure for Inspecting HDPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. Omar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript discusses the application of a pulse-thermography modality to evaluate the integrity of a high-density polyethylene HDPE joint for delamination, in nonintrusive manner. The inspected HDPE structure is a twin-cup shape, molded through extrusion, and the inspection system comprises a high-intensity, short-duration radiation pulse to excite thermal emission; the text calibrates the experiment settings (pulse duration, and detector sampling rate to accommodate HDPE bulks thermal response. The acquired thermal scans are processed through new contrast computation named “self-referencing”, to investigate the joint tensile strength and further map its adhesion interface in real-time. The proposed system (hardware, software combination performance is assessed through an ultrasound C-scan validation and further benchmarked using a standard pulse phase thermography (PPT routine.

  11. Application of Infrared Thermography in Power Distribution System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwer Ali Sahito

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Electricity sector of Pakistan is facing daunting energy crisis. Generation deficit results in long duration of load shedding throughout the country. Old aged distribution system, lack of maintenance and equipment failure cause long unplanned outages and frequent supply interruptions. HESCO (Hyderabad Electric Supply Company is facing high technical losses, supply interruption and financial loss due to transformer damages. Infrared Thermography is non-contact, safe and fast measure for distribution system inspection. In this paper, thermographic inspection for different distribution system equipment is carried out to identify possible developed faults. It is observed that IR (Infrared thermography is effective measure for detecting developed faulty conditions at the initial stages to avoid unplanned outages

  12. Divertor IR thermography on Alcator C-Moda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, J. L.; LaBombard, B.; Brunner, D.; Payne, J.; Wurden, G. A.

    2010-10-01

    Alcator C-Mod is a particularly challenging environment for thermography. It presents issues that will similarly face ITER, including low-emissivity metal targets, low-Z surface films, and closed divertor geometry. In order to make measurements of the incident divertor heat flux using IR thermography, the C-Mod divertor has been modified and instrumented. A 6° toroidal sector has been given a 2° toroidal ramp in order to eliminate magnetic field-line shadowing by imperfectly aligned divertor tiles. This sector is viewed from above by a toroidally displaced IR camera and is instrumented with thermocouples and calorimeters. The camera provides time histories of surface temperatures that are used to compute incident heat-flux profiles. The camera sensitivity is calibrated in situ using the embedded thermocouples, thus correcting for changes and nonuniformities in surface emissivity due to surface coatings.

  13. Phosphorous loads evaluation from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezzanotte, V.

    1996-01-01

    With reference to the well known difficulty of quantifying non point phosphorous loads, as well as to their growing relative importance where point source leads decrease, a literature review has been carried out concerning soil export coefficients. On such basis, the values which seem to be the most appropriate for Italy have been estimated for different land use categories. The main mechanisms determining non point phosphorous load generation and the factors affecting their importance are also described. In the end, criteria for estimating the importance of non point sources in a basin are suggested to be used for deciding whether a traditional, parametric assessment (inevitably involving a certain error) can be acceptable or experimental measures are needed

  14. Uranium extraction in phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo Figueiredo, C. de

    1984-01-01

    Uranium is recovered from the phosphoric liquor produced from the concentrate obtained from phosphorus-uraniferous mineral from Itataia mines (CE, Brazil). The proposed process consists of two extraction cycles. In the first one, uranium is reduced to its tetravalent state and then extracted by dioctylpyrophosphoric acid, diluted in Kerosene. Re-extraction is carried out with concentrated phosphoric acid containing an oxidising agent to convert uranium to its hexavalent state. This extract (from the first cycle) is submitted to the second cycle where uranium is extracted with DEPA-TOPO (di-2-hexylphosphoric acid/tri-n-octyl phosphine oxide) in Kerosene. The extract is then washed and uranium is backextracted and precipitated as commercial concentrate. The organic phase is recovered. Results from discontinuous tests were satisfactory, enabling to establish operational conditions for the performance of a continuous test in a micro-pilot plant. (Author) [pt

  15. Unquenched Complex Dirac Spectra at Nonzero Chemical Potential: Two-Color QCD Lattice Data versus Matrix Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akemann, Gernot; Bittner, Elmar

    2006-01-01

    We compare analytic predictions of non-Hermitian chiral random matrix theory with the complex Dirac operator eigenvalue spectrum of two-color lattice gauge theory with dynamical fermions at nonzero chemical potential. The Dirac eigenvalues come in complex conjugate pairs, making the action of this theory real and positive for our choice of two staggered flavors. This enables us to use standard Monte Carlo simulations in testing the influence of the chemical potential and quark mass on complex eigenvalues close to the origin. We find excellent agreement between the analytic predictions and our data for two different volumes over a range of chemical potentials below the chiral phase transition. In particular, we detect the effect of unquenching when going to very small quark masses

  16. Detecting the propagation effect of terahertz wave inside the two-color femtosecond laser filament in the air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J.; Zhang, X.; Li, S.; Liu, C.; Chen, Y.; Peng, Y.; Zhu, Y.

    2018-03-01

    In this work, to decide the existence of terahertz (THz) wave propagation effect, THz pulses emitted from a blocked two-color femtosecond laser filament with variable length were recorded by a standard electric-optic sampling setup. The phenomenon of temporal advance of the THz waveform's peak with the increasing filament length has been observed. Together with another method of knife-edge measurement which aims at directly retrieving the THz beam diameter, both the experimental approaches have efficiently indicated the same filament range within which THz wave propagated inside the plasma column. At last, a preliminary two-dimensional near-field scanning imaging of the THz spot inside the cross section of the filament has been suggested as the third way to determine the issue of THz wave propagation effect.

  17. Luminescence studies on phosphor screens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panayiotakis, G.; Nomikos, C.; Bakas, A.; Proimos, B.

    1994-01-01

    We report our results on x-ray phosphor screens prepared of some new materials focusing attention on their efficiency under fluoroscopy conditions, on optimization conditions and on comparisons among the various materials. All data are presented in absolute values. A theoretical model is presented, that takes into account the granular structure of the screens, permitting the explanation and prediction of the luminescence properties of the screens. (authors)

  18. Luminescence studies on phosphor screens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panayiotakis, G; Nomikos, C; Bakas, A; Proimos, B [Medical Physics Department, University of Patras, 265 00 Patras, Greece (Greece)

    1994-12-31

    We report our results on x-ray phosphor screens prepared of some new materials focusing attention on their efficiency under fluoroscopy conditions, on optimization conditions and on comparisons among the various materials. All data are presented in absolute values. A theoretical model is presented, that takes into account the granular structure of the screens, permitting the explanation and prediction of the luminescence properties of the screens. (authors). 12 refs, 3 figs.

  19. Thermography in the detection and follow up of chondromalacia patellae.

    OpenAIRE

    Vujcić, M; Nedeljković, R

    1991-01-01

    Although diagnostic criteria for chondromalacia patellae exist, the disease is often accompanied by physical signs which are limited or non-diagnostic. Thermographic examination was performed in 157 patients with clinical diagnosis of chondromalacia patellae in 86 patients after surgical treatment for chondromalacia, and in 308 controls. Thermography can help the clinicians in establishing the diagnosis of chondromalacia patellae, but by itself is not sufficiently specific. The specificity of...

  20. Pulsed Thermography for Depth Profiling in Marble Sulfation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bison, P.; Clarelli, F.; Vannozzi, A.

    2015-06-01

    Deterioration of stones is a complex problem and one of the main concern for people working in the field of conservation and restoration of cultural heritage. One important point in cultural heritage is to obtain information about the damage in a non-invasive way. By this paper, we propose a new non-invasive tool that permits evaluation of the thickness of (gypsum) grown (sulfation) on marble stones, using a mathematical model on data detected by pulsed infrared thermography.

  1. Thermography Control of Heat Insulation and Tightness of Buildings,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-01

    construction. The method is pedagogical . Results from thermography studies are suitable for use when giving experience feedback. (Excellent complement...visual inspection Instrument Various tools and measures. Principle The construction is opened, and the workmanship of insulation and tight- ness is...most IR cameras. At -196 C (77K) it is sensitive within the wavelength range 0 - 5.6 jam. The lower - 24 - FIGURE 3: Photography with IR camera, AGA

  2. Analysis of Heat Generation Mechanism in Ultrasound Infrared Thermography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Man Yong; Lee, Seung Seok; Park, Jeong Hak; Kang, Ki Soo; Kim, Won Tae

    2009-01-01

    Heat generation mechanism of ultrasound infrared thermography is still not well understood, yet and there are two reliable assumptions of heat generation, friction and thermo-mechanical effect. This paper investigates the principal cause of heat generation at fatigue crack with experimental and numerical approach. Our results show most of heat generation is contributed by friction between crack interface and thermo-mechanical effect is a negligible quantity

  3. Extraction of Independent Structural Images for Principal Component Thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Gavrilov

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Thermography is a powerful tool for non-destructive testing of a wide range of materials. Thermography has a number of approaches differing in both experiment setup and the way the collected data are processed. Among such approaches is the Principal Component Thermography (PCT method, which is based on the statistical processing of raw thermal images collected by thermal camera. The processed images (principal components or empirical orthogonal functions form an orthonormal basis, and often look like a superposition of all possible structural features found in the object under inspection—i.e., surface heating non-uniformity, internal defects and material structure. At the same time, from practical point of view it is desirable to have images representing independent structural features. The work presented in this paper proposes an approach for separation of independent image patterns (archetypes from a set of principal component images. The approach is demonstrated in the application of inspection of composite materials as well as the non-invasive analysis of works of art.

  4. Laser active thermography for non-destructive testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semerok, A.; Grisolia, C.; Fomichev, S.V.; Thro, P.Y.

    2013-01-01

    Thermography methods have found their applications in different fields of human activity. The non-destructive feature of these methods along with the additional advantage by automated remote control and tests of nuclear installations without personnel attendance in the contaminated zone are of particular interest. Laser active pyrometry and laser lock-in thermography for in situ non-destructive characterization of micrometric layers on graphite substrates from European tokamaks were under extensive experimental and theoretical studies in CEA (France). The studies were aimed to obtain layer characterization with cross-checking the layer thermal contact coefficients determined by active laser pyrometry and lock-in thermography. The experimental installation comprised a Nd-YAG pulsed repetition rate laser (1 Hz - 10 kHz repetition rate frequency, homogeneous spot) and a home-made pyrometer system based on two pyrometers for the temperature measurements in 500 - 2600 K range. For both methods, the layer characterization was provided by the best fit of the experimental results and simulations. The layer thermal contact coefficients determined by both methods were quite comparable. Though there was no gain in the measurements accuracy, lock-in measurements have proved their advantage as being much more rapid. The obtained experimental and theoretical results are presented. Some practical applications and possible improvements of the methods are discussed. (authors)

  5. Sub-surface defect detection using transient thermography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Zaki Umar; Huda Abdullah; Abdul Razak Hamzah; Wan Saffiey Wan Abdullah; Ibrahim Ahmad; Vavilov, Vladimir

    2009-04-01

    An experimental research had been carried out to study the potential of transient thermography in detecting sub-surface defect of non-metal material. In this research, eight pieces of bakelite material were used as samples. Each samples had a sub-surface defect in the circular shape with different diameters and depths. Experiment was conducted using one-sided Pulsed Thermal technique. Heating of samples were done using 30 k Watt adjustable quartz lamp while infra red (IR) images of samples were recorded using THV 550 IR camera. These IR images were then analysed with thermo fit TM Pro software to obtain the Maximum Absolute Differential Temperature Signal value, ΔT max and the time of its appearance, τ max (ΔT). Result showed that all defects were able to be detected even for the smallest and deepest defect (diameter = 5 mm and depth = 4 mm). However the highest value of Differential Temperature Signal (ΔT max ), were obtained at defect with the largest diameter, 20 mm and at the shallowest depth, 1 mm. As a conclusion, the sensitivity of the pulsed thermography technique to detect sub-surface defects of bakelite material is proportionately related with the size of defect diameter if the defect area at the same depth. On the contrary, the sensitivity of the pulsed thermography technique inversely related with the depth of defect if the defects have similar diameter size. (author)

  6. Laser active thermography for non-destructive testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semerok, A.; Grisolia, C.; Fomichev, S. V.; Thro, P.-Y.

    2013-11-01

    Thermography methods have found their applications in different fields of human activity. The non-destructive feature of these methods along with the additional advantage by automated remote control and tests of nuclear installations without personnel attendance in the contaminated zone are of particular interest. Laser active pyrometry and laser lock-in thermography for in situ non-destructive characterization of micrometric layers on graphite substrates from European tokamaks were under extensive experimental and theoretical studies in CEA (France). The studies were aimed to obtain layer characterization with cross-checking the layer thermal contact coefficients determined by active laser pyrometry and lock-in thermography. The experimental installation comprised a Nd-YAG pulsed repetition rate laser (1 Hz - 10 kHz repetition rate frequency, homogeneous spot) and a home-made pyrometer system based on two pyrometers for the temperature measurements in 500 - 2600 K range. For both methods, the layer characterization was provided by the best fit of the experimental results and simulations. The layer thermal contact coefficients determined by both methods were quite comparable. Though there was no gain in the measurements accuracy, lock-in measurements have proved their advantage as being much more rapid. The obtained experimental and theoretical results are presented. Some practical applications and possible improvements of the methods are discussed.

  7. [Diagnostic relevance of contact thermography in renal transplantation (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopsa, H

    1980-01-01

    102 renal transplant recipients were checked by contact thermography according to Tricoire for 2 1/2 years. Diagnostic value of this non invasive, quickly available and reproduceable method was investigated. The grafted kidney reveals on the thermographic screen its size, site, and vascularisation. The thermograhic pattern of a well functioning transplant shows warm areas in green, blue and violet colour. Onset of acute or chronic renal rejection leads to impaired heat conduction to the body surface either by oedema or by diminished blood flow. By photographic documentation in natural colour spotted or diffuse cold regions of brown, maroon and orange are seen. In the very early posttransplant period up to two months thermography is helpful in differential diagnosis for those recipients requiring initial haemodialysis treatment. Information is available between non functioning grafts with diminished renal blood supply and transplants with acute tubular necrosis. Impressive thermograms are found by rupture and subrupture of the kidney respectively. Superficial perirenal changes lead to topical temperature elevation as well. The high reliability of 92% correct diagnoses depends on exact application of the thermosensitive film and on determination of the basic individual skin temperature in reference to repeated examinations of the grafted area. Temperature measurement is influenced by subcutaneous abdominal fat distribution and muscle thickness as well as by deep position of the transplant or asymmetry of the lower abdominal region. In the wide field of diagnostic procedures necessary for transplant recipients with complications thermography by Tricoire is recommended.

  8. Consumption of Pt anode in phosphoric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiya, N.; Urata, K.; Motohira, N.; Ota, K. [Yokohama National University, Yokohama (Japan)

    1997-12-05

    Consumption of Pt anode was investigated in phosphoric acid of various concentration. In 30-70wt% phosphoric acid, Pt dissolved at the rate of 19{mu}gcm{sup -2}h{sup -1}. On the other hand, in 85 wt% phosphoric acid, the amount increased to 0.91 mgcm{sup -2}h{sup -1} which is ca. 180 and 1800 times as much as in 1M sulfuric acid and 1M alkaline solution, respectively. In the diluted phosphoric acid solution, the Pt surface was covered with Pt oxides during the electrolysis, which would prevent the surface from corrosion. However, in the concentrated phosphoric acid, no such oxide surface was observed. Concentrated phosphoric acid might form stable complex with Pt species, therefore the uncovered bare Pt surface is situated in the serious corrosion condition under the high overvoltage and Pt would dissolve into the solution directly instead of forming the Pt oxides. 11 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Optical and mechanical excitation thermography for impact response in basalt-carbon hybrid fiber-reinforced composite laminates

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hai; Sfarra, Stefano; Sarasini, Fabrizio; Ibarra-Castanedo, Clemente; Perilli, Stefano; Fernandes, Henrique; Duan, Yuxia; Peeters, Jeroen; Avelidis, Nicholas P; Maldague, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: In this paper, optical and mechanical excitation thermography were used to investigate basalt fiber reinforced polymer (BFRP), carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) and basalt-carbon fiber hybrid specimens subjected to impact loading. Interestingly, two different hybrid structures including sandwich-like and intercalated stacking sequence were used. Pulsed phase thermography (PPT), principal component thermography (PCT) and partial least squares thermography (PLST) were used to pro...

  10. Method of preparing a thermoluminescent phosphor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasky, Jerome B.; Moran, Paul R.

    1979-01-01

    A thermoluminescent phosphor comprising LiF doped with boron and magnesium is produced by diffusion of boron into a conventional LiF phosphor doped with magnesium. Where the boron dopant is made to penetrate only the outer layer of the phosphor, it can be used to detect shallowly penetrating radiation such as tritium beta ays in the presence of a background of more penetrating radiation.

  11. Phosphors for X-ray intensification screens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebatin, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    An improved rare earth oxyhalide phosphor for x-ray intensification screens is described. The phosphors, of formula LnOX.T where Ln = La or Gd, X = Cl or Br and T = Tm or Tb, are mixed with a small amount of a trivalent antimony compound. The addition of antimony overcomes ageing due to attack by atmospheric moisture and renders the phosphor freeflowing so that dispersions can be readily made. Preferably the phosphor is washed with an aqueous solution of the antimony compound and the compound is the fluoride, chloride or butoxide, or potassium antimony tartrate. (U.K.)

  12. Nonvolatile two-step, two-color holography with continuous-wave lights for both congruent and near-stoichiometric LiNbO3:Fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Yan; Zhang Guoquan; Fu Bo; Xu Qingjun; Xu Jingjun

    2004-01-01

    We have studied theoretically the steady-state nonvolatile two-step, two-color holographic recording performance for both the congruent and the near-stoichiometric LiNbO 3 :Fe based on the two-center model (the deep-trap and the shallow-trap centers are Fe 2+ /Fe 3+ and Nb Li 4+ /Nb Li 5+ , respectively). The results show that the direct electron exchange between the Fe 2+ /Fe 3+ centers and the Nb Li 4+ /Nb Li 5+ centers due to the tunneling effect dominates the charge-transfer process during the nonvolatile two-step, two-color holography and determines the two-step, two-color holography performance in LiNbO 3 :Fe. We have further studied the effects of the crystal stoichiometry on the performance of the two-step, two-color holography. It is shown that, as far as the total space-charge field is considered, the nonvolatile two-step, two-color holography performance in the near-stoichiometric LiNbO 3 :Fe is much better than that in the congruent LiNbO 3 :Fe within the intensity range reachable by the continuous-wave lights

  13. Polar red-emitting rhodamine dyes with reactive groups: synthesis, photophysical properties, and two-color STED nanoscopy applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmakov, Kirill; Wurm, Christian A; Meineke, Dirk N H; Göttfert, Fabian; Boyarskiy, Vadim P; Belov, Vladimir N; Hell, Stefan W

    2014-01-03

    The synthesis, reactivity, and photophysical properties of new rhodamines with intense red fluorescence, two polar residues (hydroxyls, primary phosphates, or sulfonic acid groups), and improved hydrolytic stability of the amino-reactive sites (NHS esters or mixed N-succinimidyl carbonates) are reported. All fluorophores contain an N-alkyl-1,2-dihydro-2,2,4-trimethylquinoline fragment, and most of them bear a fully substituted tetrafluoro phenyl ring with a secondary carboxamide group. The absorption and emission maxima in water are in the range of 635-639 and 655-659 nm, respectively. A vastly simplified approach to red-emitting rhodamines with two phosphate groups that are compatible with diverse functional linkers was developed. As an example, a phosphorylated dye with an azide residue was prepared and was used in a click reaction with a strained alkyne bearing an N-hydroxysuccinimid (NHS) ester group. This method bypasses the undesired activation of phosphate groups, and gives an amphiphilic amino-reactive dye, the solubility and distribution of which between aqueous and organic phases can be controlled by varying the pH. The presence of two hydroxyl groups and a phenyl ring with two carboxyl residues in the dyes with another substitution pattern is sufficient for providing the hydrophilic properties. Selective formation of a mono-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl ester from 5-carboxy isomer of this rhodamine is reported. The fluorescence quantum yields varied from 58 to 92% for free fluorophores, and amounted to 18-64% for antibody conjugates in aqueous buffers. The brightness and photostability of these fluorophores facilitated two-color stimulated emission depletion (STED) fluorescence nanoscopy of biological samples with high contrast and minimal background. Selecting a pair of fluorophores with absorption/emission bands at 579/609 and 635/655 nm enabled two-color channels with low cross-talk and negligible background at approximately 40 nm resolution. Copyright

  14. Study on the Micro Crack Detection in Joints by Using Ultrasound Infrared Thermography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hee Sang; Choi, Man Yong; Park, Jeong Hak; Lee, Seung Seok; Huh, Yong Hak; Lee, Bo Young; Jae Seong

    2012-01-01

    This study detected SCC defects of dissimilar metal welded(STS304 and SA106 Gr. b) pipes using the ultrasonic infrared thermography method and the lock-in image treatment method among infrared thermography method. The infrared excitement equipment has 250 Watt of output and 20 kHz of frequency. By using the ultrasound infrared thermography method, the internal defects of dissimilar metal weld joints of pipes used at nuclear power plants could get detected. By an actual PT test, it was observed that the cracks inside the pipe existed not as a single crack but rather as a multiple cracks within a certain area and generated a hot spot image of a broad area on the thermography image. In addition, UT technology could not easily defects detected by the width of 10 μm fine hair cracks. but, ultrasound infrared thermography technique was defect detected

  15. Momentum spectra of electrons rescattered from rare-gas targets following their extraction by one- and two-color femtosecond laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, D.; Chen Zhangjin; De, S.; Cao, W.; Le, A. T.; Lin, C. D.; Cocke, C. L.; Litvinyuk, I. V.; Kling, M. F.

    2011-01-01

    We have used velocity-map imaging to measure the three-dimensional momenta of electrons rescattered from Xe and Ar following the liberation of the electrons from these atoms by 45 fs, 800 nm intense laser pulses. Strong structure in the rescattering region is observed in both angle and energy, and is interpreted in terms of quantitative rescattering (QRS) theory. Momentum images have also been taken with two-color (800 nm + 400 nm) pulses on Xe targets. A strong dependence of the spectra on the relative phase of the two colors is observed in the rescattering region. Interpretation of the phase dependence using both QRS theory and a full solution to the time-dependent Schroedinger equation shows that the rescattered electrons provide a much more robust method for determining the relative phase of the two colors than do the direct electrons.

  16. Single attosecond pulse generation in an orthogonally polarized two-color laser field combined with a static electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Changlong; Zhang Gangtai; Wu Jie; Liu Xueshen

    2010-01-01

    We investigate theoretic high-order harmonic generation and single attosecond pulse generation in an orthogonally polarized two-color laser field, which is synthesized by a mid-infrared (IR) pulse (12.5 fs, 2000 nm) in the y component and a much weaker (12 fs, 800 nm) pulse in the x component. We find that the width of the harmonic plateau can be extended when a static electric field is added in the y component. We also investigate emission time of harmonics in terms of a time-frequency analysis to illustrate the physical mechanism of high-order harmonic generation. We calculate the ionization rate using the Ammosov-Delone-Krainov model and interpret the variation of harmonic intensity for different static electric field strengths. When the ratio of strengths of the static and the y-component laser fields is 0.1, a continuous harmonic spectrum is formed from 220 to 420 eV. By superposing a properly selected range of the harmonic spectrum from 300 to 350 eV, an isolated attosecond pulse with a duration of about 75 as is obtained, which is near linearly polarized.

  17. Two-color cytofluorometry and cellular properties of the urokinase receptor associated with a human metastatic carcinomatous cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, K.; Gojobori, T.; Tanifuji, M.

    1991-01-01

    Purified human urokinase was labeled with either fluorescein isothiocyanate or iodine-125 and used as a probe for binding to the human metastatic carcinomatous cell line, Detroit 562. Cytofluorometry showed that the ligand bound preferentially to cells that had been exposed to acidic pH. The binding was competitive and decreased after mild tryptic digestion. The bound ligand could be removed by restoration of the cells to a low pH. Therefore, the cells had specific binding sites. The bound urokinase was involved in the breakdown of fibrin. Two-color cytofluorometric maps were constructed by counterstaining with propidium iodide. Results suggested that there were different cell populations that had different numbers of receptors and amounts of DNA. We cloned cells and found that single clones had homogeneous levels of receptors with different dissociation constants (from 10(-13) to 10(-11) mol/mg protein) for different clones. Cells of one clone, C5, which had high levels of receptor production, moved characteristically on a glass substratum coated with gold particles and reacted with wheat germ agglutinin, but not with concanavalin A. The receptors were found together with adhesion proteins at the sites where the cells adhered to the substrate. These results and the data obtained by zymography of the cellular proteins suggested that the urokinase-type plasminogen activators were bound to the receptors. The membrane-associated activator may stimulate local proteolysis, facilitating the migration of the tumor cell across the substrate

  18. Two-color cytofluorometry and cellular properties of the urokinase receptor associated with a human metastatic carcinomatous cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, K.; Gojobori, T.; Tanifuji, M. (Shimane Medical Univ., Izumo (Japan))

    1991-02-01

    Purified human urokinase was labeled with either fluorescein isothiocyanate or iodine-125 and used as a probe for binding to the human metastatic carcinomatous cell line, Detroit 562. Cytofluorometry showed that the ligand bound preferentially to cells that had been exposed to acidic pH. The binding was competitive and decreased after mild tryptic digestion. The bound ligand could be removed by restoration of the cells to a low pH. Therefore, the cells had specific binding sites. The bound urokinase was involved in the breakdown of fibrin. Two-color cytofluorometric maps were constructed by counterstaining with propidium iodide. Results suggested that there were different cell populations that had different numbers of receptors and amounts of DNA. We cloned cells and found that single clones had homogeneous levels of receptors with different dissociation constants (from 10(-13) to 10(-11) mol/mg protein) for different clones. Cells of one clone, C5, which had high levels of receptor production, moved characteristically on a glass substratum coated with gold particles and reacted with wheat germ agglutinin, but not with concanavalin A. The receptors were found together with adhesion proteins at the sites where the cells adhered to the substrate. These results and the data obtained by zymography of the cellular proteins suggested that the urokinase-type plasminogen activators were bound to the receptors. The membrane-associated activator may stimulate local proteolysis, facilitating the migration of the tumor cell across the substrate.

  19. Trade-offs in disease and bleaching susceptibility among two color morphs of the Hawaiian reef coral, Montipora capitata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore-Maggio, Amanda; Callahan, Sean M.; Aeby, Greta S.

    2018-06-01

    Two threats impacting coral reefs are bleaching and disease, and differential susceptibility to both exists among and within coral taxa. Bleaching resistance is commonly linked to the clade of endosymbiotic Symbiodinium, but may come at a cost to other biological traits. Montipora capitata is an Indo-Pacific reef-building coral with two color morphs, red and orange, which harbor different clades of Symbiodinium. We explored whether these color morphs displayed differences in bleaching/disease susceptibility and other biological traits (growth rate, reproductive output, and lipid content). We found a trade-off between disease and bleaching susceptibility. The orange morph had significantly higher disease prevalence, whereas the red morph had significantly higher bleaching prevalence. Thermal stress experiments found that bleaching and loss of photochemical efficiency occurred significantly faster in the red morph, but at normal temperatures, the red morph had a significantly higher growth rate. Higher abundance of the red morph in the field suggests that disease resistance is a more successful strategy in the absence of thermal stress events. The orange morph may better tolerate increases in sea temperatures, but may not persist due to decreased growth rate and increased disease susceptibility. Trade-offs in response to stressors highlight the need to consider local and global threats to coral reefs.

  20. Probabilistic Cash Flow-Based Optimal Investment Timing Using Two-Color Rainbow Options Valuation for Economic Sustainability Appraisement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonggu Kim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This research determines the optimal investment timing using real options valuation to support decision-making for economic sustainability assessment. This paper illustrates an option pricing model using the Black-Scholes model applied to a case project to understand the model performance. Applicability of the project to the model requires two Monte Carlo simulations to satisfy a Markov process and a Wiener process. The position of project developers is not only the seller of products, but it is also the buyer of raw materials. Real options valuation can be influenced by the volatility of cash outflow, as well as the volatility of cash inflow. This study suggests two-color rainbow options valuation to overcome this issue, which is demonstrated for a steel plant project. The asymmetric results of the case study show that cash outflow (put option influences the value of the steel plant project more than cash inflow (call option does of which the discussion of the results is referred to a sensitivity analysis. The real options valuation method proposed in this study contributes to the literature on applying the new model, taking into consideration that investors maximize project profitability for economic sustainable development.

  1. Using infrared thermography for understanding and quantifying soil surface processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, João L. M. P.

    2017-04-01

    At present, our understanding of the soil hydrologic response is restricted by measurement limitations. In the literature, there have been repeatedly calls for interdisciplinary approaches to expand our knowledge in this field and eventually overcome the limitations that are inherent to conventional measuring techniques used, for example, for tracing water at the basin, hillslope and even field or plot scales. Infrared thermography is a versatile, accurate and fast technique of monitoring surface temperature and has been used in a variety of fields, such as military surveillance, medical diagnosis, industrial processes optimisation, building inspections and agriculture. However, many applications are still to be fully explored. In surface hydrology, it has been successfully employed as a high spatial and temporal resolution non-invasive and non-destructive imaging tool to e.g. access groundwater discharges into waterbodies or quantify thermal heterogeneities of streams. It is believed that thermal infrared imagery can grasp the spatial and temporal variability of many processes at the soil surface. Thermography interprets the heat signals and can provide an attractive view for identifying both areas where water is flowing or has infiltrated more, or accumulated temporarily in depressions or macropores. Therefore, we hope to demonstrate the potential for thermal infrared imagery to indirectly make a quantitative estimation of several hydrologic processes. Applications include: e.g. mapping infiltration, microrelief and macropores; estimating flow velocities; defining sampling strategies; identifying water sources, accumulation of waters or even connectivity. Protocols for the assessment of several hydrologic processes with the help of IR thermography will be briefly explained, presenting some examples from laboratory soil flumes and field.

  2. Simultaneous neutron radiography and infrared thermography measurement of boiling processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, J.H.; Glickstein, S.S.

    1997-01-01

    Boiling of water at 1 to 15 bar flowing upward within a narrow duct and a round test section was observed using both neutron radiography and infrared (IR) thermography. The IR readings of the test section outer wall temperatures show the effects of both fluid temperature and wall heat transfer coefficient variations, producing a difference between liquid and two phase regions. The IR images, in fact, appear very similar to the neutron images; both show clear indications of spatial and temporal variations in the internal fluid conditions during the boiling process

  3. Simultaneous two-phase flow measurement of spray mixing process by means of high-speed two-color PIV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ming; Xu, Min; Hung, David L S

    2014-01-01

    In this article, a novel high-speed two-color PIV optical diagnostic technique has been developed and applied to simultaneously measure the velocity flow-fields of a multi-hole spark-ignition direct injection (SIDI) fuel injector spray and its ambient gas in a high-pressure constant volume chamber. To allow for the phase discrimination between the fuel droplets and ambient gas, a special tracer-filter system was designed. Fluorescent seeding particles with Sauter mean diameter (SMD) of 4.8 µm were used to trace the gas inside the chamber. With a single high-speed Nd:YLF laser sheet (527 nm) as the incident light source, the Mie-scattering signal marked the phase of the fuel spray, while the fluorescent signal generated from the seeding particles tracked the phase of ambient gas. A high-speed camera, with an image-doubler (mounted in front of the camera lens) that divided the camera pixels into two parts focusing on the same field of view, was used to collect the Mie-scattering signal and LIF (laser induced fluorescence) signal simultaneously with two carefully selected optical filters. To accommodate the large dynamic range of velocities in the two phases (1–2 orders of magnitude difference), two separation times (dt) were introduced. This technique was successfully applied to the liquid spray and ambient gas two-phase flow measurement. The measurement accuracy was compared with those from LDV (laser Doppler velocimetry) measurement and good agreement was obtained. Ambient gas motion surrounding the fuel spray was investigated and characterized into three zones. The momentum transfer process between the fuel spray and ambient gas in each zone was analyzed. The two-phase flow interaction under various superheated conditions was investigated. A strengthened momentum transfer from the liquid spray to the ambient was observed with increased superheat degree. (paper)

  4. Dissection of Rovibronic Structure by Polarization-Resolved Two-Color Resonant Four-Wave Mixing Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, Daniel; Burns, Lori A.; Vaccaro, Patrick H.

    2009-08-01

    A synergistic theoretical and experimental investigation of stimulated emission pumping (SEP) as implemented in the coherent framework of two-color resonant four-wave mixing (TC-RFWM) spectroscopy is presented, with special emphasis directed toward the identification of polarization geometries that can distinguish spectral features according to their attendant changes in rotational quantum numbers. A vector-recoupling formalism built upon a perturbative treatment of matter-field interactions and a state-multipole expansion of the density operator allowed the weak-field signal intensity to be cast in terms of a TC-RFWM response tensor, RQ(K)(ɛ4*ɛ3ɛ2*ɛ1;Jg,Je,Jh,Jf), which separates the transverse characteristics of the incident and generated electromagnetic waves (ɛ4*ɛ3ɛ2*ɛ1) from the angular momentum properties of the PUMP and DUMP resonances (Jg,Je,Jh,Jf). For an isolated SEP process induced in an isotropic medium, the criteria needed to discriminate against subsets of rovibronic structure were encoded in the roots of a single tensor element, R0(0)(ɛ4*ɛ3ɛ2*ɛ1;Jg,Je,Jh,Je). By assuming all optical fields to be polarized linearly and invoking the limit of high quantum numbers, specific angles of polarization for the detected signal field were found to suppress DUMP resonances selectively according to the nature of their rotational branch and the rotational branch of the meshing PUMP line. These predictions were corroborated by performing SEP measurements on the ground electronic potential energy surface of tropolone in two distinct regimes of vibrational excitation, with the near-ultraviolet Ã1B2-X˜1A1 (π* ← π) absorption system affording the requisite PUMP and DUMP transitions.

  5. Comparison of soot formation for diesel and jet-a in a constant volume combustion chamber using two-color pyrometry

    KAUST Repository

    Jing, Wei; Roberts, William L.; Fang, Tiegang

    2014-01-01

    The measurement of the two-color line of sight soot and KL factor for NO.2 diesel and jet-A fuels was conducted in an optical constant volume combustion chamber by using a high speed camera under 1000 K ambient temperature and varied oxygen

  6. Pulsed infrared thermography for assessment of ultrasonic welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Megan E.; Rinker, Teresa J.; Sekol, Ryan C.

    2018-03-01

    Battery packs are a critical component in electric vehicles. During pack assembly, the battery cell tab and busbar are ultrasonically welded. The properties of the welds ultimately affect battery pack durability. Quality inspection of these welds is important to ensure durable battery packs. Pack failure is detrimental economically and could also pose a safety hazard, such as thermal runaway. Ultrasonic welds are commonly checked by measuring electrical resistance or auditing using destructive mechanical testing. Resistance measurements are quick, but sensitive to set-up changes. Destructive testing cannot represent the entire weld set. It is possible for a weak weld to satisfy the electrical requirement check, because only sufficient contact between the tabs and busbar is required to yield a low resistance measurement. Laboratory techniques are often not suitable for inline inspection, as they may be time-consuming, use couplant, or are only suitable for coupons. The complex surface geometry also poses difficulties for conventional nondestructive techniques. A method for inspection of ultrasonic welds is proposed using pulsed infrared thermography to identify discrepant welds in a manufacturing environment. Thermal measurements of welds were compared to electrical and mechanical measurements. The heat source distribution was calculated to obtain thermal images with high temporal and spatial resolution. All discrepant welds were readily identifiable using two thermographic techniques: pixel counting and the gradient image. A positive relationship between pixel count and mechanical strength was observed. The results demonstrate the potential of pulsed thermography for inline inspection, which can complement, or even replace, conventional electrical resistance measurements.

  7. Robust remote monitoring of breathing function by using infrared thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Carina B; Yu, Xinchi; Blazek, Vladimir; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    An abnormal breathing rate (BR) is one of the strongest markers of physiological distress. Moreover, it plays an important role in early detection of sudden infant death syndrome, as well as in the diagnosis of respiratory disorders. However, the current measuring modalities can cause discomfort to the patient, since attachment to the patient's body is required. This paper proposes a new approach based on infrared thermography to remotely monitor BR. This method allows to (1) detect automatically the nose, (2) track the associate region of interest (ROI), and (3) extract BR. To evaluate the performance of this method, thermal recording of 5 healthy subjects were acquired. Results were compared with BR obtained by capnography. The introduced approach demonstrated an excellent performance. ROIs were precisely segmented and tracked. Furthermore, a Bland-Altman diagram showed a good agreement between estimated BR and gold standard. The mean correlation and mean absolute BR error are 0.92 ± 0.07 and 0.53 bpm, respectively. In summary, infrared thermography seems to be a great, clinically relevant alternative to attached sensors, due to its outstanding characteristics and performance.

  8. Thermal comfort of seats as visualized by infrared thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Rosemary Bom Conselho; Pereira, Romeu Rodrigues; Aguilar, Maria Teresa Paulino; Cardoso, Antônio Valadão

    2017-07-01

    Published studies that deal with the question of how the temperature of chair seats influences human activities are few, but the studies considering such a factor, a function of the type of material, could contribute to improvements in the design of chairs. This study evaluates seat temperatures of 8 types of chairs made of different materials. The parts of the furniture that people come into contact with, and the thermal response of the material to heating and cooling have been evaluated. Infrared thermography was used for this, as it is a non-contact technique that does not present any type of risk in the measurement of temperatures. Seats made of synthetic leather (leatherette), wood and polyester fabric were found to have the highest temperatures, and the plywood seat showed the lowest. The study has also revealed that thermography can contribute to studies of thermal comfort of chair seats in addition to determining the most suitable material. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Medical applications of model-based dynamic thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowski, Antoni; Kaczmarek, Mariusz; Ruminski, Jacek; Hryciuk, Marcin; Renkielska, Alicja; Grudzinski, Jacek; Siebert, Janusz; Jagielak, Dariusz; Rogowski, Jan; Roszak, Krzysztof; Stojek, Wojciech

    2001-03-01

    The proposal to use active thermography in medical diagnostics is promising in some applications concerning investigation of directly accessible parts of the human body. The combination of dynamic thermograms with thermal models of investigated structures gives attractive possibility to make internal structure reconstruction basing on different thermal properties of biological tissues. Measurements of temperature distribution synchronized with external light excitation allow registration of dynamic changes of local temperature dependent on heat exchange conditions. Preliminary results of active thermography applications in medicine are discussed. For skin and under- skin tissues an equivalent thermal model may be determined. For the assumed model its effective parameters may be reconstructed basing on the results of transient thermal processes. For known thermal diffusivity and conductivity of specific tissues the local thickness of a two or three layer structure may be calculated. Results of some medical cases as well as reference data of in vivo study on animals are presented. The method was also applied to evaluate the state of the human heart during the open chest cardio-surgical interventions. Reference studies of evoked heart infarct in pigs are referred, too. We see the proposed new in medical applications technique as a promising diagnostic tool. It is a fully non-invasive, clean, handy, fast and affordable method giving not only qualitative view of investigated surfaces but also an objective quantitative measurement result, accurate enough for many applications including fast screening of affected tissues.

  10. Nde of Frp Wrapped Columns Using Infrared Thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halabe, Udaya B.; Dutta, Shasanka Shekhar; GangaRao, Hota V. S.

    2008-02-01

    This paper investigates the feasibility of using Infrared Thermography (IRT) for detecting debonds in Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) wrapped columns. Laboratory tests were conducted on FRP wrapped concrete cylinders of size 6″×12″ (152.4 mm×304.8 mm) in which air-filled and water-filled debonds of various sizes were placed underneath the FRP wraps. Air-filled debonds were made by cutting plastic sheets into the desired sizes whereas water-filled debonds were made by filling water in custom made polyethylene pouches. Both carbon and glass fiber reinforced wraps were considered in this study. Infrared tests were conducted using a fully radiometric digital infrared camera which was successful in detecting air-filled as well as water-filled subsurface debonds. In addition to the laboratory testing, two field trips were made to Moorefield, West Virginia for detecting subsurface debonds in FRP wrapped timber piles of a railroad bridge using infrared testing. The results revealed that infrared thermography can be used as an effective nondestructive evaluation tool for detecting subsurface debonds in structural components wrapped with carbon or glass reinforced composite fabrics.

  11. Eddy Current Thermography: System Development and Its Application in NDT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurliyana Shamimie Rusli; Ilham Mukriz Zainal Abidin; Sidek, H.A.A.

    2015-01-01

    Eddy Current Thermography (ECT) is an integrative technique which combines eddy current and thermographic NDT in order to provide an efficient method for defect detection. The technique is applicable to electrically conductive material and has the ability to detect surface and subsurface defect. ECT is a non-contact technique; has the ability to provide instantaneous response and high scanning speed that makes it reliable for defect detection and assessment. The technique combines electromagnetic excitation of the work-piece via a coil carrying current, heating of the material by induction and inspection by transient infrared thermography. In this paper, the development of ECT system is detailed, including coil design for global and local heating of samples, and optimisation of excitation parameters (frequency, power, heating duration etc). Results from 3D FEM simulation and experimental investigations are also presented to provide the overview of underlying phenomena and application of ECT. The work demonstrates the effectiveness of the developed ECT system and technique in defect detection and assessment. (author)

  12. Lock-in thermography using a cellphone attachment infrared camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razani, Marjan; Parkhimchyk, Artur; Tabatabaei, Nima

    2018-03-01

    Lock-in thermography (LIT) is a thermal-wave-based, non-destructive testing, technique which has been widely utilized in research settings for characterization and evaluation of biological and industrial materials. However, despite promising research outcomes, the wide spread adaptation of LIT in industry, and its commercialization, is hindered by the high cost of the infrared cameras used in the LIT setups. In this paper, we report on the feasibility of using inexpensive cellphone attachment infrared cameras for performing LIT. While the cost of such cameras is over two orders of magnitude less than their research-grade counterparts, our experimental results on block sample with subsurface defects and tooth with early dental caries suggest that acceptable performance can be achieved through careful instrumentation and implementation of proper data acquisition and image processing steps. We anticipate this study to pave the way for development of low-cost thermography systems and their commercialization as inexpensive tools for non-destructive testing of industrial samples as well as affordable clinical devices for diagnostic imaging of biological tissues.

  13. A Classification Method for Seed Viability Assessment with Infrared Thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Men

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a viability assessment method for Pisum sativum L. seeds based on the infrared thermography technique. In this work, different artificial treatments were conducted to prepare seeds samples with different viability. Thermal images and visible images were recorded every five minutes during the standard five day germination test. After the test, the root length of each sample was measured, which can be used as the viability index of that seed. Each individual seed area in the visible images was segmented with an edge detection method, and the average temperature of the corresponding area in the infrared images was calculated as the representative temperature for this seed at that time. The temperature curve of each seed during germination was plotted. Thirteen characteristic parameters extracted from the temperature curve were analyzed to show the difference of the temperature fluctuations between the seeds samples with different viability. With above parameters, support vector machine (SVM was used to classify the seed samples into three categories: viable, aged and dead according to the root length, the classification accuracy rate was 95%. On this basis, with the temperature data of only the first three hours during the germination, another SVM model was proposed to classify the seed samples, and the accuracy rate was about 91.67%. From these experimental results, it can be seen that infrared thermography can be applied for the prediction of seed viability, based on the SVM algorithm.

  14. Lock-in thermography using a cellphone attachment infrared camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Razani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Lock-in thermography (LIT is a thermal-wave-based, non-destructive testing, technique which has been widely utilized in research settings for characterization and evaluation of biological and industrial materials. However, despite promising research outcomes, the wide spread adaptation of LIT in industry, and its commercialization, is hindered by the high cost of the infrared cameras used in the LIT setups. In this paper, we report on the feasibility of using inexpensive cellphone attachment infrared cameras for performing LIT. While the cost of such cameras is over two orders of magnitude less than their research-grade counterparts, our experimental results on block sample with subsurface defects and tooth with early dental caries suggest that acceptable performance can be achieved through careful instrumentation and implementation of proper data acquisition and image processing steps. We anticipate this study to pave the way for development of low-cost thermography systems and their commercialization as inexpensive tools for non-destructive testing of industrial samples as well as affordable clinical devices for diagnostic imaging of biological tissues.

  15. Pretreatment of industrial phosphoric acid by Algerian filter-aids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellah, A.; Setti, Louisa; Chegrouche, Salah

    1993-01-01

    The present work involves the filtration of industrial phosphoric acid by different filter-aids such as kieselguhr, celite and bleaching clay. The retention of substances contained in wet phosphoric acid was determined using the three filter-aids. Thus, the phosphoric acid, obtained by filtration on kieselguhr has the same specifications as technical phosphoric acid produced by Rhone-Poulenc (France) as standard

  16. Method of purifying phosphoric acid after solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouloheris, A.P.; Lefever, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    A method of purifying phosphoric acid after solvent extraction is described. The phosphoric acid is contacted with a sorbent which sorbs or takes up the residual amount of organic carrier and the phosphoric acid separated from the organic carrier-laden sorbent. The method is especially suitable for removing residual organic carrier from phosphoric acid after solvent extraction uranium recovery. (author)

  17. 46 CFR 151.50-23 - Phosphoric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Phosphoric acid. 151.50-23 Section 151.50-23 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-23 Phosphoric acid. (a) The term phosphoric acid as used in this subpart shall include, in addition to phosphoric acid, aqueous solutions of...

  18. Characteristics on Temperature Evolution in the Metallic Specimen by Ultrasound-Excited Thermography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, M. Y.; Park, J. H. [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, K. S. [Hyundai Steel Co., Dangjin (Korea, Republic of); Kim, W. T. [Kongju National University, Gongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    In ultrasound-excited thermography, the injected ultrasound to an object is transformed to heat and the appearance of defects can be visualized by thermography camera. The advantage of this technology is selectively sensitive to thermally active defects. Despite the apparent simplicity of the scheme, there are a number of experimental considerations that can complicate the implementation of ultrasound excitation thermography inspection. Factors including acoustic horn location, horn-crack proximity, horn-sample coupling, and effective detection range all significantly affect the detect ability of this technology. As conclusions, the influence of coupling pressures between ultrasound exciter and specimen was analyzed, which was dominant factor in frictional heating model

  19. Phosphorous-Containing Polymers for Regenerative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Brendan M.; Kasper, F. Kurtis; Mikos, Antonios G.

    2014-01-01

    Disease and injury have resulted in a large, unmet need for functional tissue replacements. Polymeric scaffolds can be used to deliver cells and bioactive signals to address this need for regenerating damaged tissue. Phosphorous-containing polymers have been implemented to improve and accelerate the formation of native tissue both by mimicking the native role of phosphorous groups in the body and by attachment of other bioactive molecules. This manuscript reviews the synthesis, properties, and performance of phosphorous-containing polymers that can be useful in regenerative medicine applications. PMID:24565855

  20. Improvements in x-ray image converters and phosphors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabatin, J.G.

    1981-01-01

    Improvements to an X-ray image converter comprising crystals of rare earth phosphor admixtures are described. The phosphor admixtures utilize thulium-activated lanthanum and/or gadolinium oxyhalide phosphor material to increase the relative speed and resolution of an X-ray image compared with conventional rare earth phosphors. Examples of various radiographic screens containing one or more of the phosphor materials are given. (U.K.)

  1. Characteristics of the Panasonic UD-802 phosphors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Shachar, B.; Catchen, G.L.; Hoffman, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Several basic dosimetric characteristics of Li 2 B 4 O 7 :Cu and CaSO 4 :Tm phosphors in Panasonic UD-802 dosemeters were measured. The TL dose response linearity was determined over the useful range of personnel and environmental dosimetry (0.005 - 10 mGy), and the minimum measurable doses were calculated. The intrinsic ultraviolet (UV) radiation sensitivity of both phosphors was checked before and after γ irradiation for the purpose of re-assessing high doses. The results indicate that Li 2 B 4 O 7 :Cu is UV sensitive and, therefore, re-assessment is not applicable. Although the CaSO 4 :Tm phosphor exhibited UV sensitivity after γ irradiation, the results were not consistent with those reported earlier and more study is required. The fading of both phosphors was evaluated in Panasonic UD-801 dosemeters for periods up to 90 days. (author)

  2. Phosphate Phosphors for Solid-State Lighting

    CERN Document Server

    Shinde, Kartik N; Swart, H C; Park, Kyeongsoon

    2012-01-01

    The idea for this book arose out of the realization that, although excellent surveys and a phosphor handbook are available, there is no single source covering the area of phosphate based phosphors especially for lamp industry. Moreover, as this field gets only limited attention in most general books on luminescence, there is a clear need for a book in which attention is specifically directed toward this rapidly growing field of solid state lighting and its many applications. This book is aimed at providing a sound introduction to the synthesis and optical characterization of phosphate phosphor for undergraduate and graduate students as well as teachers and researchers. The book provides guidance through the multidisciplinary field of solid state lighting specially phosphate phosphors for beginners, scientists and engineers from universities, research organizations, and especially industry. In order to make it useful for a wide audience, both fundamentals and applications are discussed, together.

  3. Electrolyte Additives for Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gang, Xiao; Hjuler, H.A.; Olsen, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    , as a fuel-cell performance with the modified electrolytes. Specific conductivity measurements of some of the modified phosphoric acid electrolytes are reported. At a given temperature, the conductivity of the C4F9SO3K-modified electrolyte decreases with an increasing amount of the additive; the conductivity...... of the remains at the same value as the conductivity of the pure phosphoric acid. At a given composition, the conductivity of any modified electrolyte increases with temperature. We conclude that the improved cell performance for modified electrolytes is not due to any increase in conductivity.......Electrochemical characteristics of a series of modified phosphoric acid electrolytes containing fluorinated car on compounds and silicone fluids as additives are presented. When used in phosphoric acid fuel cells, the modified electrolytes improve the performance due to the enhanced oxygen...

  4. Fluorescent lighting with aluminum nitride phosphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherepy, Nerine J.; Payne, Stephen A.; Seeley, Zachary M.; Srivastava, Alok M.

    2016-05-10

    A fluorescent lamp includes a glass envelope; at least two electrodes connected to the glass envelope; mercury vapor and an inert gas within the glass envelope; and a phosphor within the glass envelope, wherein the phosphor blend includes aluminum nitride. The phosphor may be a wurtzite (hexagonal) crystalline structure Al.sub.(1-x)M.sub.xN phosphor, where M may be drawn from beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium, zinc, scandium, yttrium, lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, europium, gadolinium, terbium, ytterbium, bismuth, manganese, silicon, germanium, tin, boron, or gallium is synthesized to include dopants to control its luminescence under ultraviolet excitation. The disclosed Al.sub.(1-x)M.sub.xN:Mn phosphor provides bright orange-red emission, comparable in efficiency and spectrum to that of the standard orange-red phosphor used in fluorescent lighting, Y.sub.2O.sub.3:Eu. Furthermore, it offers excellent lumen maintenance in a fluorescent lamp, and does not utilize "critical rare earths," minimizing sensitivity to fluctuating market prices for the rare earth elements.

  5. Application of lock-in thermography non destructive technique to CFC armoured plasma facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escourbiac, F.; Constans, S.; Courtois, X.; Durocher, A.

    2007-01-01

    A non destructive testing technique - so called modulated photothermal thermography or lock-in thermography - has been set-up for plasma facing components examination. Reliable measurements of phase contrast were obtained on 8 mm carbon fiber composite (CFC) armoured W7-X divertor component with calibrated flaws. A 3D finite element analysis allowed the correlation of the measured phase contrast and showed that a 4 mm strip flaw can be detected at the CFC/copper interface

  6. The Use of Infrared Thermography as a Novel Approach for Real-Time Validation of PCR Thermocyclers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønlund, Hugo Ahlm; Löfström, Charlotta; Helleskov, Jens Bue

    2010-01-01

    Validation of PCR thermocycler performance is crucial to obtain reliable results. In this study, infrared (IR) thermography was evaluated as a novel validation tool. After stabilisation, no significant difference in the temperatures recorded using thermography and a reference blockbased system wa...... was found. By employing IR thermography, information about the length of the time until temperature stabilisation in the sample could be obtained. This study shows the potential of using IR thermography for validation of thermocyclers.......Validation of PCR thermocycler performance is crucial to obtain reliable results. In this study, infrared (IR) thermography was evaluated as a novel validation tool. After stabilisation, no significant difference in the temperatures recorded using thermography and a reference blockbased system...

  7. The mental and subjective skin: Emotion, empathy, feelings and thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-López, E; Domínguez, E; Juárez Ramos, V; de la Fuente, J; Meins, A; Iborra, O; Gálvez, G; Rodríguez-Artacho, M A; Gómez-Milán, E

    2015-07-01

    We applied thermography to investigate the cognitive neuropsychology of emotions, using it as a somatic marker of subjective experience during emotional tasks. We obtained results that showed significant correlations between changes in facial temperature and mental set. The main result was the change in the temperature of the nose, which tended to decrease with negative valence stimuli but to increase with positive emotions and arousal patterns. However, temperature change was identified not only in the nose, but also in the forehead, the oro-facial area, the cheeks and in the face taken as a whole. Nevertheless, thermic facial changes, mostly nasal temperature changes, correlated positively with participants' empathy scores and their performance. We found that temperature changes in the face may reveal maps of bodily sensations associated with different emotions and feelings like love. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Year-Round Use Of Thermography In House Doctoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadsby, Kenneth J.; Harrje, David T.; Dutt, Gautam S.

    1983-03-01

    There have been many presentations of thermographic residential building analyses at the past ThermosInse conferences. A number of these papers have dealt with evaluation of insulation voids and more recently a few have described air leakage detection 2,3 during the colder winter months. This paper will focus on the thermographic application in the House Doctor instrumented energy analysis approach as developed by Princeton University. The central theme will be the application to a year-round research or commercial activity. Some of the conditions that could create thermographic problems, as well as techniques that may be used to lessen these difficulties, thereby extending the thermographic "season" is discussed. Our experiences in summer thermography with and without the use of a building pressurization system is also covered.

  9. Real time capable infrared thermography for ASDEX Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sieglin, B., E-mail: Bernhard.Sieglin@ipp.mpg.de; Faitsch, M.; Herrmann, A.; Brucker, B.; Eich, T.; Kammerloher, L.; Martinov, S. [Max-Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    Infrared (IR) thermography is widely used in fusion research to study power exhaust and incident heat load onto the plasma facing components. Due to the short pulse duration of today’s fusion experiments, IR systems have mostly been designed for off-line data analysis. For future long pulse devices (e.g., Wendelstein 7-X, ITER), a real time evaluation of the target temperature and heat flux is mandatory. This paper shows the development of a real time capable IR system for ASDEX Upgrade. A compact IR camera has been designed incorporating the necessary magnetic and electric shielding for the detector, cooler assembly. The camera communication is based on the Camera Link industry standard. The data acquisition hardware is based on National Instruments hardware, consisting of a PXIe chassis inside and a fibre optical connected industry computer outside the torus hall. Image processing and data evaluation are performed using real time LabVIEW.

  10. Thermal behavior variations in coating thickness using pulse phase thermography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranjit, Shrestha; Chung, Yoonjae; Kim, Won Tae [Kongju National University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    This paper presents a study on the use of pulsed phase thermography in the measurement of thermal barrier coating thickness with a numerical simulation. A multilayer heat transfer model was used to analyze the surface temperature response acquired from one-sided pulsed thermal imaging. The test sample comprised four layers: the metal substrate, bond coat, thermally grown oxide and the top coat. The finite element software, ANSYS, was used to model and predict the temperature distribution in the test sample under an imposed heat flux on the exterior of the TBC. The phase image was computed with the use of the software MATLAB and Thermofit Pro using a Fourier transform. The relationship between the coating thickness and the corresponding phase angle was then established with the coating thickness being expressed as a function of the phase angle. The method is successfully applied to measure the coating thickness that varied from 0.25 mm to 1.5 mm.

  11. Prognostic value of infrared thermography in an emergency department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jesper K; Kellett, John G; Jensen, Nadia H

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to investigate the prognostic potential of infrared thermography in a population of medical patients admitted to the emergency department. Central-to-peripheral temperature gradients were analyzed for association with 30-day mortality. METHODS: This prospective...... as a marker for central temperature and the three others as markers for peripheral temperatures, resulting in three gradients per patient. Thirty-day follow-up was performed and 30-day mortality was reported. RESULTS: One hundred and ninety-eight patients were included and the number of events was nine...... observational study included 198 medical patients admitted to the Emergency Department, at Odense University Hospital. A standardized thermal picture was taken and temperatures of the inner canthus, the earlobe, the nose tip, and the tip of the third finger were reported. The inner canthus was chosen...

  12. Wearable device for skin contact thermography: design, construction and testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giansanti, D.; Maccioni, G.

    2008-01-01

    The need for wearable devices for thermal monitoring is rising. These devices could be used to continuously monitor patients for breast cancer investigation or vascular, dermatological and rheumatic disorders, in viability studies, or during physical exercise. We designed and constructed a wearable device for skin-contact thermography that uses integrated silicon sensors. The device was validated using a phantom with a dynamic bench test. The thermal resolution was greater than 0.030'C, and the spatial resolution was equal to 1.6x10-5 m'2. We also investigated the device's performance on five clinical subjects. Results of these studies showed a maximal error of less than 0.10'C in each evaluation [it

  13. Recent Advances in Active Infrared Thermography for Non-Destructive Testing of Aerospace Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciampa, Francesco; Mahmoodi, Pooya; Pinto, Fulvio; Meo, Michele

    2018-02-16

    Active infrared thermography is a fast and accurate non-destructive evaluation technique that is of particular relevance to the aerospace industry for the inspection of aircraft and helicopters' primary and secondary structures, aero-engine parts, spacecraft components and its subsystems. This review provides an exhaustive summary of most recent active thermographic methods used for aerospace applications according to their physical principle and thermal excitation sources. Besides traditional optically stimulated thermography, which uses external optical radiation such as flashes, heaters and laser systems, novel hybrid thermographic techniques are also investigated. These include ultrasonic stimulated thermography, which uses ultrasonic waves and the local damage resonance effect to enhance the reliability and sensitivity to micro-cracks, eddy current stimulated thermography, which uses cost-effective eddy current excitation to generate induction heating, and microwave thermography, which uses electromagnetic radiation at the microwave frequency bands to provide rapid detection of cracks and delamination. All these techniques are here analysed and numerous examples are provided for different damage scenarios and aerospace components in order to identify the strength and limitations of each thermographic technique. Moreover, alternative strategies to current external thermal excitation sources, here named as material-based thermography methods, are examined in this paper. These novel thermographic techniques rely on thermoresistive internal heating and offer a fast, low power, accurate and reliable assessment of damage in aerospace composites.

  14. Recent Advances in Active Infrared Thermography for Non-Destructive Testing of Aerospace Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Ciampa

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Active infrared thermography is a fast and accurate non-destructive evaluation technique that is of particular relevance to the aerospace industry for the inspection of aircraft and helicopters’ primary and secondary structures, aero-engine parts, spacecraft components and its subsystems. This review provides an exhaustive summary of most recent active thermographic methods used for aerospace applications according to their physical principle and thermal excitation sources. Besides traditional optically stimulated thermography, which uses external optical radiation such as flashes, heaters and laser systems, novel hybrid thermographic techniques are also investigated. These include ultrasonic stimulated thermography, which uses ultrasonic waves and the local damage resonance effect to enhance the reliability and sensitivity to micro-cracks, eddy current stimulated thermography, which uses cost-effective eddy current excitation to generate induction heating, and microwave thermography, which uses electromagnetic radiation at the microwave frequency bands to provide rapid detection of cracks and delamination. All these techniques are here analysed and numerous examples are provided for different damage scenarios and aerospace components in order to identify the strength and limitations of each thermographic technique. Moreover, alternative strategies to current external thermal excitation sources, here named as material-based thermography methods, are examined in this paper. These novel thermographic techniques rely on thermoresistive internal heating and offer a fast, low power, accurate and reliable assessment of damage in aerospace composites.

  15. Luminescence Studies on Lamp Phosphors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagpal, J.S.; Godbole, S.V.; Varadharajan, G.; Page, A.G

    1998-07-01

    Photoluminescence and thermoluminescence of cerium magnesium aluminate CeMgAl{sub 11}O{sub 17}(Eu,Tb) and calcium halophosphate Ca{sub 5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}(F,Cl):Mn,Sb, two fluorescent materials currently in use for the commercial production of lamps in India, have been studied for possible applications in radiation and ultraviolet dosimetry. Cerium magnesium aluminate is highly sensitive to the visible spectral region. It has a linear response to 254 nm UV radiation over a wide range. Its UV sensitivity is significantly higher as compared to that of other known phosphors; however, its UV response is rate-dependent and may not play a significant role in UV dosimetry. Photoluminescence of CeMg aluminate is characteristic of Eu{sup 2+} and Tb{sup 3+} dopants, whereas the thermoluminescence emission of the UV irradiated powder at room temperature is dominated by Eu{sup 2+} dopant. Calcium halophosphate is insensitive to room lights, has a linear gamma response over 0.2-10{sup 2} Gy and may be useful in the case of radiation accidents. (author)

  16. Luminescence Studies on Lamp Phosphors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagpal, J.S.; Godbole, S.V.; Varadharajan, G.; Page, A.G.

    1998-01-01

    Photoluminescence and thermoluminescence of cerium magnesium aluminate CeMgAl 11 O 17 (Eu,Tb) and calcium halophosphate Ca 5 (PO 4 ) 3 (F,Cl):Mn,Sb, two fluorescent materials currently in use for the commercial production of lamps in India, have been studied for possible applications in radiation and ultraviolet dosimetry. Cerium magnesium aluminate is highly sensitive to the visible spectral region. It has a linear response to 254 nm UV radiation over a wide range. Its UV sensitivity is significantly higher as compared to that of other known phosphors; however, its UV response is rate-dependent and may not play a significant role in UV dosimetry. Photoluminescence of CeMg aluminate is characteristic of Eu 2+ and Tb 3+ dopants, whereas the thermoluminescence emission of the UV irradiated powder at room temperature is dominated by Eu 2+ dopant. Calcium halophosphate is insensitive to room lights, has a linear gamma response over 0.2-10 2 Gy and may be useful in the case of radiation accidents. (author)

  17. The hybrid thermography approach applied to architectural structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfarra, S.; Ambrosini, D.; Paoletti, D.; Nardi, I.; Pasqualoni, G.

    2017-07-01

    This work contains an overview of infrared thermography (IRT) method and its applications relating to the investigation of architectural structures. In this method, the passive approach is usually used in civil engineering, since it provides a panoramic view of the thermal anomalies to be interpreted also thanks to the use of photographs focused on the region of interest (ROI). The active approach, is more suitable for laboratory or indoor inspections, as well as for objects having a small size. The external stress to be applied is thermal, coming from non-natural apparatus such as lamps or hot / cold air jets. In addition, the latter permits to obtain quantitative information related to defects not detectable to the naked eyes. Very recently, the hybrid thermography (HIRT) approach has been introduced to the attention of the scientific panorama. It can be applied when the radiation coming from the sun, directly arrives (i.e., possibly without the shadow cast effect) on a surface exposed to the air. A large number of thermograms must be collected and a post-processing analysis is subsequently applied via advanced algorithms. Therefore, an appraisal of the defect depth can be obtained passing through the calculation of the combined thermal diffusivity of the materials above the defect. The approach is validated herein by working, in a first stage, on a mosaic sample having known defects while, in a second stage, on a Church built in L'Aquila (Italy) and covered with a particular masonry structure called apparecchio aquilano. The results obtained appear promising.

  18. MULTI-PHOTON PHOSPHOR FEASIBILITY RESEARCH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Graham; W. Chow

    2003-05-01

    Development of multi-photon phosphor materials for discharge lamps represents a goal that would achieve up to a doubling of discharge (fluorescent) lamp efficacy. This report reviews the existing literature on multi-photon phosphors, identifies obstacles in developing such phosphors, and recommends directions for future research to address these obstacles. To critically examine issues involved in developing a multi-photon phosphor, the project brought together a team of experts from universities, national laboratories, and an industrial lamp manufacturer. Results and findings are organized into three categories: (1) Multi-Photon Systems and Processes, (2) Chemistry and Materials Issues, and (3) Concepts and Models. Multi-Photon Systems and Processes: This category focuses on how to use our current understanding of multi-photon phosphor systems to design new phosphor systems for application in fluorescent lamps. The quickest way to develop multi-photon lamp phosphors lies in finding sensitizer ions for Gd{sup 3+} and identifying activator ions to red shift the blue emission from Pr{sup 3+} due to the {sup 1}S{sub 0} {yields} {sup 1}I{sub 6} transition associated with the first cascading step. Success in either of these developments would lead to more efficient fluorescent lamps. Chemistry and Materials Issues: The most promising multi-photon phosphors are found in fluoride hosts. However, stability of fluorides in environments typically found in fluorescent lamps needs to be greatly improved. Experimental investigation of fluorides in actual lamp environments needs to be undertaken while working on oxide and oxyfluoride alternative systems for backup. Concepts and Models: Successful design of a multi-photon phosphor system based on cascading transitions of Gd{sup 3+} and Pr{sup 3+} depends critically on how the former can be sensitized and the latter can sensitize an activator ion. Methods to predict energy level diagrams and Judd-Ofelt parameters of multi

  19. Generation of an XUV supercontinuum by optimization of the angle between polarization planes of two linearly polarized pulses in a multicycle two-color laser field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Jinping; Zeng Bin; Fu Yuxi; Chu Wei; Ni Jielei; Li Yao; Xiong Hui; Xu Han; Cheng Ya; Xu Zhizhan; Liu Xiaojun; Chen, J.

    2010-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the high-order harmonic generation (HHG) in helium using a two-color laser field synthesized by an intense 25-fs laser pulse at 800 nm and a relatively weak ∼43-fs laser pulse at 1400 nm. When the polarization between the two pulses is arranged at an angle of ∼73 deg., supercontinuum spectra are dramatically broadened to 180 eV, which is sufficient to support an isolated ∼73-as pulse without any phase compensation. The physical mechanisms behind the phenomenon are well explained in terms of quantum and classical analyses. Furthermore, in the long-pulse regime, this method of extending the supercontinuum spectrum shows the significant advantage over previous two-color HHG schemes.

  20. Silicon isotope separation utilizing infrared multiphoton dissociation of Si{sub 2}F{sub 6} irradiated with two-color CO{sub 2} laser light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, Atsushi; Ohba, Hironori; Hashimoto, Masashi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Ishii, Takeshi; Ohya, Akio [Nuclear Development Corp., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Arai, Shigeyoshi [Hill Research Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-08-01

    Silicon isotope separation has been done by utilizing the Infrared Multiphoton Dissociation (IRMPD) of Si{sub 2}F{sub 6} irradiated with two-color CO{sub 2} laser lights. The two-color excitation method improved the separation efficiency keeping the high enrichment factors. For example, 99.74% of {sup 28}Si was obtained at 49.63% dissociation of Si{sub 2}F{sub 6} after the simultaneous irradiation of 200 pulses with 966.23 cm{sup -1} photons (0.084 J/cm{sup 2}) and 954.55 cm{sup -1} photons (0.658 J/cm{sup 2}), while 2000 pulses were needed to obtain 99.35% of {sup 28}Si at 35.6% dissociation in the case of only one-color irradiation at 954.55 cm{sup -1} (0.97 J/cm{sup 2}). (author)

  1. 'Two-color' reflection multilayers for He-I and He-II resonance lines for micro-UPS using Schwarzschild objective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ejima, Takeo; Kondo, Yuzi; Watanabe, Makoto

    2000-01-01

    'Two-color' multilayers reflecting both He-I (58.4 nm) and He-II (30.4 nm) resonance lines have been designed and fabricated for reflection coatings of Schwarzschild objectives of micro-UPS instruments. They are designed so that their reflectances for both He-I and He-II resonance lines are more than 20%. The 'two-color' multilayers are piled double layers coated with top single layers. Fabricated are multilayers of SiC(top layer)-Mg/SiC(double layers) and SiC(top layer)-Mg/Y 2 O 3 (double layers), and their reflectances for the He-I and the He-II are 23% and 17%, and 20% and 23%, respectively

  2. Silicon isotope separation utilizing infrared multiphoton dissociation of Si2F6 irradiated with two-color CO2 laser light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Atsushi; Ohba, Hironori; Hashimoto, Masashi; Arai, Shigeyoshi

    2002-01-01

    Silicon isotope separation has been done by utilizing the Infrared Multiphoton Dissociation (IRMPD) of Si 2 F 6 irradiated with two-color CO 2 laser lights. The two-color excitation method improved the separation efficiency keeping the high enrichment factors. For example, 99.74% of 28 Si was obtained at 49.63% dissociation of Si 2 F 6 after the simultaneous irradiation of 200 pulses with 966.23 cm -1 photons (0.084 J/cm 2 ) and 954.55 cm -1 photons (0.658 J/cm 2 ), while 2000 pulses were needed to obtain 99.35% of 28 Si at 35.6% dissociation in the case of only one-color irradiation at 954.55 cm -1 (0.97 J/cm 2 ). (author)

  3. Intraminiband Relaxation In Doped GaAs/AlGaAs Superlattices Studied By Two-Color Infrared Pump-Probe Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, M.; Stehr, D.; Schneider, H.; Helm, M.; Andrews, A. M.; Roch, T.; Strasser, G.

    2010-01-01

    In this work we report on two-color pump-probe measurements to investigate the intraminiband dynamics of doped GaAs/AlGaAs superlattices with different miniband widths smaller or larger than the optical phonon energy. For a miniband with a width larger than the optical phonon energy we found a fast relaxation, independent of the excitation intensity. For narrow minibands this relaxation takes longer and shows a strong temperature and intensity dependence.

  4. How do we select multiple features? Transient costs for selecting two colors rather than one, persistent costs for color-location conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Shih-Yu; Holcombe, Alex O

    2014-02-01

    In a previous study Lo, Howard, & Holcombe (Vision Research 63:20-33, 2012), selecting two colors did not induce a performance cost, relative to selecting one color. For example, requiring possible report of both a green and a red target did not yield a worse performance than when both targets were green. Yet a cost of selecting multiple colors was observed when selection needed be contingent on both color and location. When selecting a red target to the left and a green target to the right, superimposing a green distractor to the left and a red distractor to the right impeded performance. Possibly, participants cannot confine attention to a color at a particular location. As a result, distractors that share the target colors disrupt attentional selection of the targets. The attempt to select the targets must then be repeated, which increases the likelihood that the trial terminates when selection is not effective, even for long trials. Consistent with this, here we find a persistent cost of selecting two colors when the conjunction of color and location is needed, but the cost is confined to short exposure durations when the observer just has to monitor red and green stimuli without the need to use the location information. These results suggest that selecting two colors is time-consuming but effective, whereas selection of simultaneous conjunctions is never entirely successful.

  5. Phosphor blends for high-CRI fluorescent lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setlur, Anant Achyut [Niskayuna, NY; Srivastava, Alok Mani [Niskayuna, NY; Comanzo, Holly Ann [Niskayuna, NY; Manivannan, Venkatesan [Clifton Park, NY; Beers, William Winder [Chesterland, OH; Toth, Katalin [Pomaz, HU; Balazs, Laszlo D [Budapest, HU

    2008-06-24

    A phosphor blend comprises at least two phosphors each selected from one of the groups of phosphors that absorb UV electromagnetic radiation and emit in a region of visible light. The phosphor blend can be applied to a discharge gas radiation source to produce light sources having high color rendering index. A phosphor blend is advantageously includes the phosphor (Tb,Y,LuLa,Gd).sub.x(Al,Ga).sub.yO.sub.12:Ce.sup.3+, wherein x is in the range from about 2.8 to and including 3 and y is in the range from about 4 to and including 5.

  6. Color stable manganese-doped phosphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Robert Joseph [Burnt Hills, NY; Setlur, Anant Achyut [Niskayuna, NY; Deshpande, Anirudha Rajendra [Twinsburg, OH; Grigorov, Ljudmil Slavchev [Sofia, BG

    2012-08-28

    A process for preparing color stable Mn.sup.+4 doped phosphors includes providing a phosphor of formula I; A.sub.x[MF.sub.y]:Mn.sup.+4 I and contacting the phosphor in particulate form with a saturated solution of a composition of formula II in aqueous hydrofluoric acid; A.sub.x[MF.sub.y]; II wherein A is Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, NR.sub.4 or a combination thereof; M is Si, Ge, Sn, Ti, Zr, Al, Ga, In, Sc, Y, La, Nb, Ta, Bi, Gd, or a combination thereof; R is H, lower alkyl, or a combination thereof; x is the absolute value of the charge of the [MF.sub.y] ion; and y is 5, 6 or 7. In particular embodiments, M is Si, Ge, Sn, Ti, Zr, or a combination thereof. A lighting apparatus capable of emitting white light includes a semiconductor light source; and a phosphor composition radiationally coupled to the light source, and which includes a color stable Mn.sup.+4 doped phosphor.

  7. Improvement of condition-based maintenance technology by utilization of thermography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Hiroki

    2004-01-01

    In the United States, condition-based maintenance technology comprising IR thermography (hereafter ''thermography'' for short) has been regarded in recent years as the established means for effectively improvement the performance of accident-preventive measures for nuclear power stations. As very few nuclear power plants in Japan have been utilizing the technology, measures for allowing power station personnel to use the technology with ease have been studied on an empirical basis. First, in view of improving the measuring efficiency to determine temperatures more accurately with a single measurement, principal factors affecting the measured temperature values have been analyzed. As a result, it has been found effective for accurate temperature measurement to make use of the table to radiation rates that have been determined for each facility coating specification by using a black body tape and to determine the measuring spot by avoiding rear heat sources (influence of reflection ratio) and background noise (influence of scattered light). Concurrently, as a result of determining the IR attenuation in the atmosphere, thermographic measurement has been found feasible without any significant attenuation as long as the distance is below 10 meters. Further, every power station facility (mainly electrical facilities) that is immune to thermography has been identified. These study results have been documented in the form of the ''Thermography Measurement Manual'' by also including in it the descriptions on abnormal thermal images and the judgment criteria at elevated temperatures that have been used in the United States. Based on these accomplishments, condition-based maintenance technology employing thermography has been applied to on-site investigation of nuclear power stations, and the effectiveness of thermography-aided accident-prevention has been demonstrated by detecting locally temperature rising spots of power cable joints. Moreover, with respect to maintenance

  8. White light quality of phosphor converted light-emitting diodes: A phosphor materials perspective of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommer, Christian; Hartmann, Paul; Pachler, Peter; Hoschopf, Hans; Wenzl, Franz P.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We discuss the impact of the optical properties of a phosphor for colour temperature constancy in solid state lighting. ► Quantitative evaluation of permissible variations of the optical properties for batch-to-batch reproducibility. ► Quantitative evaluation of permissible variations of the optical properties upon temperature increase. ► Quantitative evaluation of permissible variations of the optical properties upon materials degradation. - Abstract: For a systematic approach to improve the white light quality of phosphor converted LEDs and to fulfil the demands for colour temperature reproducibility and constancy, it is imperative to understand how variations of the extinction coefficient and the quantum efficiency of the phosphor particles as well as variations of the excitation wavelength of the blue LED die affect the correlated colour temperature of the white LED source. Based on optical ray tracing of a phosphor converted white LED package we deduce permissible values for the variation of a given extinction coefficient and a given quantum efficiency of a phosphor material in order to maintain acceptable colour variations. These quantitative valuations of the required constancy of the optical properties of the phosphors will in particular provide some benchmarks for the synthesis of improved phosphor materials aiming at solid state lighting applications.

  9. External radiation as element of improvement infrared thermography measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palomo, A.

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Infrared thermography is a very versatile non destructive technique which among other uses, can be applied to the study of moisture in buildings. However, this particular application can present some problems strictly related to the characteristics of the thermocamera device. In this case the available equipment works in the IR range of 2.5 to 5.6 μm. In this part of the spectrum, there exists a small and not very intense band of emission of the water molecules (approximately centered at 2.7 μm, in such a way that detection can be difficult through thermovision. In the present paper, a complementary technique to the IR thermography being able of favouring the emission of water on the mentioned band, has been developed. It enhances the capacity of detection of the instrument. Likewise, the process which takes place in the material has been numerically modelled.

    La termografía infrarroja es una técnica no destructiva, muy versátil, que, entre otras aplicaciones, tiene la de ser capaz de suministrar información en torno a la problemática de las humedades en la edificación. Sin embargo, esta aplicación concreta puede presentar algunos problemas directamente relacionados con las propias características de la termocámara utilizada. En el caso del presente trabajo el equipo de termografía infrarroja manejado trabaja en el rango del espectro IR comprendido entre 2,5 y 5,6 μm. En esta región del espectro existe una pequeña y no muy intensa banda de emisión de las moléculas de agua (aproximadamente centrada en 2,7 μm cuya detección puede no ser fácil a través de la termovisión. En el presente trabajo se ha desarrollado una técnica complementaria a la termografía infrarroja que es capaz de favorecer la intensidad de emisión del agua en la región del espectro antes mencionada. En definitiva, dicha técnica estimula la capacidad de detección de la termocámara. Adicionalmente, el proceso hídrico que tiene lugar en el

  10. High efficiency nitride based phosphores for white LEDs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Yuan Qiang; Hintzen, H.T.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    In this overview paper, novel rare-earth doped silicon nitride based phosphors for white LEDs applications have been demonstrated. The luminescence properties of orange-red-emitting phosphors (M2Si5N8:Eu2+) and green-to-yellow emitting phosphors (MSi2N2O2:Eu2+, M = Ca, Sr, Ba) are discussed in

  11. Infrared thermography inspection and monitoring in oil and gas and petrochemical plant industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamsudin Sin Deraman

    2003-01-01

    Infrared thermography is an electronic technique that quite literally allows us to see thermal energy. The technique allows for the monitoring of temperatures and thermal patterns while the equipment is online and running under full load. Armed with guidelines of allowable operating temperature limits of the equipment, the technique may enhances company's, ?ability to predict equipment failure and plan corrective action before a costly shutdown, equipment damage, or personal injury occurs. Infrared thermography is an excellent condition monitoring tool to assist in the reduction of maintenance costs on mechanical, electrical and equipment. With this new capability plant maintenance personnel have recognized infrared thermography as one of the most versatile and effective condition monitoring tools available today. Infrared can be used on a wide variety of equipment including pumps, motors, bearings, pulleys, fans, drives, conveyors etc. This paper will explain the benefits of Infrared Thermography as a condition monitoring tool for plant equipment and mechanical systems and some examples of infrared thermography application is discussed. (Author)

  12. Application of structured illumination to gas phase thermometry using thermographic phosphor particles: a study for averaged imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zentgraf, Florian; Stephan, Michael; Berrocal, Edouard; Albert, Barbara; Böhm, Benjamin; Dreizler, Andreas

    2017-07-01

    Structured laser illumination planar imaging (SLIPI) is combined with gas phase thermometry measurements using thermographic phosphor (TGP) particles. The technique is applied to a heated jet surrounded by a coflow which is operated at ambient temperature. The respective air flows are seeded with a powder of BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+ (BAM) which is used as temperature-sensitive gas phase tracer. Upon pulsed excitation in the ultraviolet spectral range, the temperature is extracted based on the two-color ratio method combined with SLIPI. The main advantage of applying the SLIPI approach to phosphor thermometry is the reduction of particle-to-particle multiple light scattering and diffuse wall reflections, yielding a more robust calibration procedure as well as improving the measurement accuracy, precision, and sensitivity. For demonstration, this paper focuses on sample-averaged measurements of temperature fields in a jet-in-coflow configuration. Using the conventional approach, which in contrast to SLIPI is based on imaging with an unmodulated laser light sheet, we show that for the present setup typically 40% of the recorded signal is affected by the contribution of multiply scattered photons. At locations close to walls even up to 75% of the apparent signal is due to diffuse reflection and wall luminescence of BAM sticking at the surface. Those contributions lead to erroneous temperature fields. Using SLIPI, an unbiased two-color ratio field is recovered allowing for two-dimensional mean temperature reconstructions which exhibit a more realistic physical behavior. This is in contrast to results deduced by the conventional approach. Furthermore, using the SLIPI approach it is shown that the temperature sensitivity is enhanced by a factor of up to 2 at 270 °C. Finally, an outlook towards instantaneous SLIPI phosphorescence thermometry is provided.

  13. Nonlinear optical response of a gold surface in the visible range: A study by two-color sum-frequency generation spectroscopy. I. Experimental determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalstein, L; Revel, A; Humbert, C; Busson, B

    2018-04-07

    We experimentally determine the effective nonlinear second-order susceptibility of gold over the visible spectral range. To reach that goal, we probe by vibrational two-color sum-frequency generation spectroscopy the methyl stretching region of a dodecanethiol self-assembled monolayer adsorbed on a gold film. The sum-frequency generation spectra show a remarkable shape reversal when the visible probe wavelength is tuned from 435 to 705 nm. After correcting from Fresnel effects, the methyl stretching vibrations serve as an internal reference, allowing to extract the dispersion of the absolute phase and relative amplitude of the effective nonlinear optical response of gold in the visible range.

  14. Controlling the Branching Ratio of Photoionization Products under Two-Color Excitation: Competition between ac Stark Splitting and Two-Path Interference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, T.; Zhang, J.; Lambropoulos, P.; Lambropoulos, P.

    1997-01-01

    We investigate the variation of the photoionization yields into different ionic channels by means of the one-photon-near-resonant two-photon ionization scheme under two-color excitation. We present a general formulation and the results of specific calculations pertaining to the Ca atom with realistic parameters. A significant change of the ionization into Ca + 4s , 3d , and 4p channels has been observed as a detuning is varied, which agrees qualitatively well with the observation by Wang, Chen, and Elliott [Phys.Rev.Lett.77, 2416 (1996)] for the Ba atom. The importance of the laser intensity effects is also addressed. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  15. Blue and Orange Two-Color CW Laser Based on Single-Pass Second-Harmonic and Sum-Frequency Generation in MgO:PPLN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dismas K. Choge

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate a compact blue and orange-two color continuous wave laser source emitting at 487 nm and from 597.4 to 600.3 nm, respectively. The temperature tunable coherent orange radiation is achieved by frequency mixing 974 nm laser diode (LD and a C-band amplified spontaneous emission laser source while the temperature insensitive blue radiation is generated by second-order quasi-phase-matching frequency doubling of 974 nm LD. We implement the simultaneous nonlinear processes in a single magnesium oxide doped periodically poled lithium niobate bulk crystal without the need of an aperiodic design.

  16. Phosphor investigation in the production of Syrian phosphoric acid using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hassanieh, O.; Al-Hameish, M.

    2009-06-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) was applied in this work to the industrial process of extraction of uranium from phosphoric acid and to the process of the purification of the phosphoric acid for food proposes. The structural changes of used extraction materials and the organic content of the final product was studied. 13 C , 1 H and 32 P-spectra of all material during the process were recorded. The spectra of the three used extraction materials Bis(2-ethylhexyl Phosphoric Acid)) DEHPA, TriOctyl Phosphine Oxide (TOPO) (C 8 H 1 7) 3 P=O and TriButyl Phosphate (TBP) (C 4 H 9 O) 3 P=O show a partial degradation during the process. The final product ( Phosphoric acid for Food proposes) doesn't contain any organic solvents or extraction material. (author)

  17. Automated diagnosis of dry eye using infrared thermography images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, U. Rajendra; Tan, Jen Hong; Koh, Joel E. W.; Sudarshan, Vidya K.; Yeo, Sharon; Too, Cheah Loon; Chua, Chua Kuang; Ng, E. Y. K.; Tong, Louis

    2015-07-01

    Dry Eye (DE) is a condition of either decreased tear production or increased tear film evaporation. Prolonged DE damages the cornea causing the corneal scarring, thinning and perforation. There is no single uniform diagnosis test available to date; combinations of diagnostic tests are to be performed to diagnose DE. The current diagnostic methods available are subjective, uncomfortable and invasive. Hence in this paper, we have developed an efficient, fast and non-invasive technique for the automated identification of normal and DE classes using infrared thermography images. The features are extracted from nonlinear method called Higher Order Spectra (HOS). Features are ranked using t-test ranking strategy. These ranked features are fed to various classifiers namely, K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN), Nave Bayesian Classifier (NBC), Decision Tree (DT), Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN), and Support Vector Machine (SVM) to select the best classifier using minimum number of features. Our proposed system is able to identify the DE and normal classes automatically with classification accuracy of 99.8%, sensitivity of 99.8%, and specificity if 99.8% for left eye using PNN and KNN classifiers. And we have reported classification accuracy of 99.8%, sensitivity of 99.9%, and specificity if 99.4% for right eye using SVM classifier with polynomial order 2 kernel.

  18. Infrared thermography of solid surfaces in a fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meléndez, J; Foronda, A; Aranda, J M; López, F; López del Cerro, F J

    2010-01-01

    Fire resistance tests are commonplace in industry. The aerospace sector is particularly active in this area, since the behaviour of advanced materials, such as composites, when in a fire is not fully understood yet. Two of the main obstacles are the inherent difficulty of direct surface measurements in such a harsh environment (especially on the exposed side of the specimens) and the lack of spatial resolution of the usual measuring devices, namely thermocouples (TCs). This paper presents a way to overcome these problems by using an infrared (IR) camera to study the exposed side of composite plates exposed to fire. A method for minimizing the effect of the flame (thus making it as 'transparent' as possible) was developed, resulting in 2D temperature maps of the plate surface. The assumptions that the method relies on were verified by data analysis and ad hoc emission–transmission experiments. The errors associated with two slightly different versions of the method were studied, and comparisons with TC measurements were performed. It was found that the IR method provides better results than TCs, not only due to its spatial resolution capability but also because of the non-intrusive nature of IR thermography, as opposed to the local effects caused by TCs, which became evident during the experiments

  19. Monitoring Sintering Burn-Through Point Using Infrared Thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco G. Bulnes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Sintering is a complex industrial process that applies heat to fine particles of iron ore and other materials to produce sinter, a solidified porous material used in blast furnaces. The sintering process needs to be carefully adjusted, so that the combustion zone reaches the bottom of the material just before the discharge end. This is known as the burnthrough point. Many different parameters need to be finely tuned, including the speed and the quantities of the materials mixed. However, in order to achieve good results, sintering control requires precise feedback to adjust these parameters. This work presents a sensor to monitor the sintering burn-through point based on infrared thermography. The proposed procedure is based on the acquisition of infrared images at the end of the sintering process. At this position, infrared images contain the cross-section temperatures of the mixture. The objective of this work is to process this information to extract relevant features about the sintering process. The proposed procedure is based on four steps: key frame detection, region of interest detection, segmentation and feature extraction. The results indicate that the proposed procedure is very robust and reliable, providing features that can be used effectively to control the sintering process.

  20. Remote monitoring of breathing dynamics using infrared thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Carina Barbosa; Yu, Xinchi; Czaplik, Michael; Rossaint, Rolf; Blazek, Vladimir; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2015-11-01

    An atypical or irregular respiratory frequency is considered to be one of the earliest markers of physiological distress. In addition, monitoring of this vital parameter plays a major role in diagnosis of respiratory disorders, as well as in early detection of sudden infant death syndrome. Nevertheless, the current measurement modalities require attachment of sensors to the patient's body, leading to discomfort and stress. The current paper presents a new robust algorithm to remotely monitor breathing rate (BR) by using thermal imaging. This approach permits to detect and to track the region of interest (nose) as well as to estimate BR. In order to study the performance of the algorithm, and its robustness against motion and breathing disorders, three different thermal recordings of 11 healthy volunteers were acquired (sequence 1: normal breathing; sequence 2: normal breathing plus arbitrary head movements; and sequence 3: sequence of specific breathing patterns). Thoracic effort (piezoplethysmography) served as "gold standard" for validation of our results. An excellent agreement between estimated BR and ground truth was achieved. Whereas the mean correlation for sequence 1-3 were 0.968, 0.940 and 0.974, the mean absolute BR errors reached 0.33, 0.55 and 0.96 bpm (breaths per minute), respectively. In brief, this work demonstrates that infrared thermography is a promising, clinically relevant alternative for the currently available measuring modalities due to its performance and diverse remarkable advantages.

  1. Infrared thermography based studies on mobile phone induced heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, B. B.; Bagavathiappan, S.; Soumya, C.; Jayakumar, T.; Philip, John

    2015-07-01

    Here, we report the skin temperature rise due to the absorption of radio frequency (RF) energy from three handheld mobile phones using infrared thermography technique. Experiments are performed under two different conditions, viz. when the mobile phones are placed in soft touch with the skin surface and away from the skin surface. Additionally, the temperature rise of mobile phones during charging, operation and simultaneous charging and talking are monitored under different exposure conditions. It is observed that the temperature of the cheek and ear regions monotonically increased with time during the usage of mobile phones and the magnitude of the temperature rise is higher for the mobile phone with higher specific absorption rate. The increase in skin temperature is higher when the mobile phones are in contact with the skin surface due to the combined effect of absorption of RF electromagnetic power and conductive heat transfer. The increase in the skin temperature in non-contact mode is found to be within the safety limit of 1 °C. The measured temperature rise is in good agreement with theoretical predictions. The empirical equation obtained from the temperature rise on the cheek region of the subjects correlates well with the specific absorption rate of the mobile phones. Our study suggests that the use of mobile phones in non-contact mode can significantly lower the skin temperature rise during its use and hence, is safer compared to the contact mode.

  2. Induction Thermography for Surface Crack Detection and Depth Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beate Oswald-Tranta

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, induction thermography has been established as a non-destructive testing method for localizing surface cracks in metals. The sample to be inspected is heated with a short induced electrical current pulse, and the infrared camera records—during and after the heating pulse—the temperature distribution at the surface. Transforming the temporal temperature development for each pixel to phase information makes not only highly reliable detection of the cracks possible but also allows an estimation of its depth. Finite element simulations were carried out to investigate how the phase contrast depends on parameters such as excitation frequency, pulse duration, material parameters, crack depth, and inclination angle of the crack. From these results, generalized functions for the dependency of the phase difference on all these parameters were derived. These functions can be used as an excellent guideline as to how measurement parameters should be optimized for a given material to be able to detect cracks and estimate their depth. Several experiments on different samples were also carried out, and the results compared with the simulations showed very good agreement.

  3. Process for recovering a uranium containing concentrate and purified phosphoric acid from a wet process phosphoric acid containing uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weterings, C.A.M.; Janssen, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    A process is claimed for recovering from a wet process phosphoric acid which contains uranium, a uranium containing concentrate and a purified phosphoric acid. The wet process phosphoric acid is treated with a precipitant in the presence of a reducing agent and an aliphatic ketone

  4. Process for recovering a uranium containing concentrate and purified phosphoric acid from a wet process phosphoric acid containing uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weterings, C.A.M.; Janssen, J.A.

    1985-04-30

    A process is claimed for recovering from a wet process phosphoric acid which contains uranium, a uranium containing concentrate and a purified phosphoric acid. The wet process phosphoric acid is treated with a precipitant in the presence of a reducing agent and an aliphatic ketone.

  5. Pretreatment of phosphoric acid for uranium recovery by the wet phosphoric acid process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chern, S.L.P.; Chen, Y.C.L.; Chang, S.S.H.; Kuo, T.S.; Ting, G.C.M.

    1980-01-01

    The proposal deals with reprocessing of phosphoric acid arising from uranium separation according to the wet phosphoric acid process and being intended for recycling. In detail, the sludge will be removed by means of an inclined separating device containing corrugated plates, then the organic impurities are washed out with kerosene in suitable facilities, and the crude phase remaining in the settling tank will be separated from the kerosene in a separating centrifuge. The method has only got low cost of installation. (UWI) [de

  6. Phosphate phosphors for solid-state lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinde, Kartik N. [N.S. Science and Arts College, Bhadrawati (India). Dept. of Physics; Swart, H.C. [University of the Orange Free State, Bloemfontein (South Africa). Dept. of Physics; Dhoble, S.J. [R.T.M. Nagpur Univ. (India). Dept. of Physics; Park, Kyeongsoon [Sejong Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Faculty of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Engineering

    2012-07-01

    Essential information for students in researchers working towards new and more efficient solid-state lighting. Comprehensive survey based on the authors' long experience. Useful both for teaching and reference. The idea for this book arose out of the realization that, although excellent surveys and a phosphor handbook are available, there is no single source covering the area of phosphate based phosphors especially for lamp industry. Moreover, as this field gets only limited attention in most general books on luminescence, there is a clear need for a book in which attention is specifically directed toward this rapidly growing field of solid state lighting and its many applications. This book is aimed at providing a sound introduction to the synthesis and optical characterization of phosphate phosphor for undergraduate and graduate students as well as teachers and researchers. The book provides guidance through the multidisciplinary field of solid state lighting specially phosphate phosphors for beginners, scientists and engineers from universities, research organizations, and especially industry. In order to make it useful for a wide audience, both fundamentals and applications are discussed, together.

  7. doped LiMgPO4 phosphor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    attention because of their remarkable luminescence proper- ties and .... Figure 1. (a) X-ray diffraction patterns of LiMgPO4:Tb3+ phosphor and (b) standard data. ICDD file. .... ground signal which affects the signal to noise ratio [17]. MDD was ...

  8. Intravascular imaging with a storage phosphor detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shikhaliev, Polad M; Petrek, Peter; Matthews, Kenneth L II; Fritz, Shannon G [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Bujenovic, L Steven [PET Imaging Center, Our Lady of the Lake Medical Center, Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Xu Tong, E-mail: pshikhal@lsu.ed [Department of Physics, Carleton University, Ottawa (Canada)

    2010-05-21

    The aim of this study is to develop and test an intravascular positron imaging system based on a storage phosphor detector for imaging and detecting vulnerable plaques of human coronary arteries. The radiotracer F18-FDG accumulates in vulnerable plaques with inflammation of the overlying cap. The vulnerable plaques can, therefore, be imaged by recording positrons emitted from F18-FDG with a detector inserted into the artery. A prototype intravascular detector was constructed based on storage phosphor. The detector uses a flexible storage phosphor tube with 55 mm length, 2 mm diameter and 0.28 mm wall thickness. The intravascular detector is guided into the vessel using x-ray fluoroscopy and the accumulated x-ray signal must be erased prior to positron imaging. For this purpose, a light diffuser, 0.9 mm in diameter and 55 mm in length, was inserted into the detector tube. The light diffuser was connected to a laser source through a 2 m long optical fiber. The diffuser redirected the 0.38 W laser light to the inner surface of the phosphor detector to erase it. A heart phantom with 300 cm{sup 3} volume and three coronary arteries with 3.2 mm diameter and with several plaques was constructed. FDG solution with 0.5 {mu}Ci cm{sup -3} activity concentration was filled in the heart and coronary arteries. The detector was inserted in a coronary artery and the signal from the plaques and surrounding background activity was recorded for 2 min. Then the phosphor detector was extracted and read out using a storage phosphor reader. The light diffuser erased the signal resulting from fluoroscopic exposure to level below that encountered during positron imaging. Vulnerable plaques with area activities higher than 1.2 nCi mm{sup -2} were visualized by the detector. This activity is a factor of 10-20 lower than that expected in human vulnerable plaques. The detector was able to image the internal surface of the coronary vessels with 50 mm length and 360{sup 0} circumference. Spatial

  9. High Extraction Phosphors for Solid State Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, Chris [Phosphortech Corporation, Kennesaw, GA (United States); Menkara, Hisham [Phosphortech Corporation, Kennesaw, GA (United States); Wagner, Brent [Phosphortech Corporation, Kennesaw, GA (United States)

    2011-09-01

    We have developed high-index, high efficiency bulk luminescent materials and novel nano-sized phosphors for improved solid-state white LED lamps. These advances can potentially contribute to reducing the loss in luminous efficiencies due to scattering, re-absorption, and thermal quenching. The bulk and nanostructured luminescent materials investigated are index matched to GaN and have broad and size-tunable absorption bands, size and impurity tuned emission bands, size-driven elimination of scattering effects, and a separation between absorption and emission bands. These innovations were accomplished through the use of novel synthesis techniques suitable for high volume production for LED lamp applications. The program produced a full-color set of high quantum yield phosphors with high chemical stability. In the bulk phosphor study, the ZnSeS:Cu,Ag phosphor was optimized to achieve >91% efficiency using erbium (Er) and other activators as sensitizers. Detailed analysis of temperature quenching effects on a large number of ZnSeS:Cu,Ag,X and strontium- and calcium-thiogallate phosphors lead to a breakthrough in the understanding of the anti-quenching behavior and a physical bandgap model was developed of this phenomena. In a follow up to this study, optimized phosphor blends for high efficiency and color performance were developed and demonstrated a 2-component phosphor system with good white chromaticity, color temperature, and high color rendering. By extending the protocols of quantum dot synthesis, large nanocrystals, greater than 20 nm in diameter were synthesized and exhibited bulk-like behavior and blue light absorption. The optimization of ZnSe:Mn nanophosphors achieved ~85% QE The limitations of core-shell nanocrystal systems were addressed by investigating alternative deltadoped structures. To address the manufacturability of these systems, a one-pot manufacturing protocol was developed for ZnSe:Mn nanophosphors. To enhance the stability of these material

  10. Infrared thermography inspection methods applied to the target elements of W7-X divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Missirlian, M. [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA/DSM/DRFC, CEA/Cadarache, F-13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)], E-mail: marc.missirlian@cea.fr; Traxler, H. [PLANSEE SE, Technology Center, A-6600 Reutte (Austria); Boscary, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Euratom Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Durocher, A.; Escourbiac, F.; Schlosser, J. [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA/DSM/DRFC, CEA/Cadarache, F-13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Schedler, B.; Schuler, P. [PLANSEE SE, Technology Center, A-6600 Reutte (Austria)

    2007-10-15

    The non-destructive examination (NDE) method is one of the key issues in developing highly loaded plasma-facing components (PFCs) for a next generation fusion devices such as W7-X and ITER. The most critical step is certainly the fabrication and the examination of the bond between the armour and the heat sink. Two inspection systems based on the infrared thermography methods, namely, the transient thermography (SATIR-CEA) and the pulsed thermography (ARGUS-PLANSEE), are being developed and have been applied to the pre-series of target elements of the W7-X divertor. Results obtained from qualification experiences performed on target elements with artificial calibrated defects allowed to demonstrate the capability of the two techniques and raised the efficiency of inspection to a level which is appropriate for industrial application.

  11. Infrared thermography inspection methods applied to the target elements of W7-X divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Missirlian, M.; Traxler, H.; Boscary, J.; Durocher, A.; Escourbiac, F.; Schlosser, J.; Schedler, B.; Schuler, P.

    2007-01-01

    The non-destructive examination (NDE) method is one of the key issues in developing highly loaded plasma-facing components (PFCs) for a next generation fusion devices such as W7-X and ITER. The most critical step is certainly the fabrication and the examination of the bond between the armour and the heat sink. Two inspection systems based on the infrared thermography methods, namely, the transient thermography (SATIR-CEA) and the pulsed thermography (ARGUS-PLANSEE), are being developed and have been applied to the pre-series of target elements of the W7-X divertor. Results obtained from qualification experiences performed on target elements with artificial calibrated defects allowed to demonstrate the capability of the two techniques and raised the efficiency of inspection to a level which is appropriate for industrial application

  12. Primjena infracrvene termografije u kemijskom inženjerstvu (Application of Infrared Thermography in Chemical Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolf, N.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The infrared (IR thermography has become a powerful tool for basic and applied research in various scientific fields, varying from heat transfer to non-destructive testing, fluids and solids mechanics, biomedical application, environmental protection, etc. This paper has the intention to familiarize researchers and industrial staff with possibilities of applying IR thermography in the field of chemical engineering and process industry aiming in safe operating, saving of energy and environmental protection. A brief history of the IR thermography development, basic function principles of a modern system for thermographic measurements, and application overview have been shown. Following applications have been highlighted: nondestructive testing, preventive maintenance, and condition monitoring of process equipment. A special attention has been paid to industrial application regarding quality control and process control.

  13. Recuperation of uranium from phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordero, G.; Jodra, L.G.; Otero, J.L.; Josa, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    The Spanish capacity for phosphoric acid production is 500.000 t P 2 O 5 /yr. This acid has an average concentration of 365 g U 3 O 8 / t P 2 O 5 . Therefore about 180 t U 3 O 8 /yr are dissolved. In 1969, the Junta de Energia Nuclear (JEN) developed, in bench scale, a solvent extraction process to recover the uranium from the phosphoric acid. The solvent used was a synergistic mixture of D2EHPA and TOPO. The results were very promising with good recovery and very high quality for the uranium concentrate. Later, the J.E.N. continued the studies in a pilot plant scale. For this purpose, was built an experimental facility in Huelva; it can treat about 7 cu. m/day of brown acid. Fosforico Espanol, S.A. (FESA) collaborated in the studies and agreed to setting up these installations in their factory. They also provided fresh phosphoric acid for the tests. In this pilot plant we studied the following stages: a) Clarification and conditioning of the phosphoric acid; b) Uranium extraction followed by stripping in a reducing medium; c) Purification by extraction and washing; d) Obtention of the concentrate by stripping with ammonia and CO 2 gas, followed by crystallization of the ammonium uranyl tricarbonate (AUT); and e) Calcination of the concentrate to decompose the AUT to uranium oxides. The results confirmed the laboratory test data. Recuperation levels were between 85 and 90%. The AUT calcined at 550 0 C. gave a product with 96-98% U 3 O 8 . In view of the pilot plant results we have prepared a black book for an industrial plant to treat about 3700 cu. m/day of phosphoric acid. At the present time the financial aspects of this installation are being studied [es

  14. Data combination of infrared thermography images and lock-in thermography images for NDE of plasma facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moysan, J.; Gueudre, C.; Corneloup, G.; Durocher, A.

    2006-01-01

    A pioneering activity has been developed by CEA and the European industry in the field of actively cooled high heat flux plasma facing components (PFC) from the very beginning of Tore Supra project. These components have been developed in order to enable a large power exhaust capability. The goal of this study is to improve the Non Destructive Evaluation (NDE) of these components. The difficulty encountered is the evaluation of the junction between a carbon and a metallic substrate. This was even more difficult when complex designs have to be implemented. A first NDE solution was based on the so called SATIR test. The method is based on infrared measurements of tile surface temperatures during a thermal transient produced by hot/cold water flowing in the heat sink cooling channel. In order to improve the definition of acceptance rules for the PFCs, a second NDE method based on Lock-in Thermography is developed. In this work we present how we can combine the two resulting images in order to accept or to reject a component. This prospective study allows improving the experimental setup and the definition of acceptance criteria. The experimental study was conducted on trial components for the Wendelstein 7X stellarator. The conclusions will also influence future non destructive projects dedicated to the ITER project. (orig.)

  15. P1-9: Relationship between Color Shifts in Land's Two-Color Method and Higher- and Lower-Level Visual Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saki Iwaida

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Land's two-color method gives rise to apparent full-color perception, even though only two colors (e.g., red and gray are used. Previous studies indicate that chromatic adaptation, color memory, and inductive effects contribute to the shifts of color perception from real to illusory colors (e.g., Kuriki, 2006 Vision Research 46 3055–3066. This paper investigates the relationship between the color shifts induced by Land images and the skewness of the luminance histogram. In Experiment 1, several Land images are created based on a yellow ball, and the magnitude of the color shifts of the images are measured. The results of Experiment 1 show a significant correlation between the magnitude of the color shifts and skewness, suggesting that skewness is critical for the color shifts. In Experiment 2, we test the hypothesis that color shifts depends on just skewness; the color shifts should be invariant even if the Land images are scrambled. However, the results of Experiment 2 demonstrate that scrambled Land images exhibit less intense color shifts, suggesting that color shifts are determined by the object's overall shape or surface gloss, not just skewness. Taken together, we conclude that both low-level visual processes, such as those associated with luminance histogram skew, and high-level cognitive functions, such as object interpretation or understanding of surface gloss, are involved in the color shift of Land images.

  16. MIDCOURSE SPACE EXPERIMENT VERSUS IRAS TWO-COLOR DIAGRAMS AND THE CIRCUMSTELLAR ENVELOPE-SEQUENCE OF OXYGEN-RICH LATE-TYPE STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjouwerman, Lorant O.; Capen, Stephanie M.; Claussen, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    We present Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) two-color diagrams that can be used to characterize circumstellar environments of sources with good quality MSX colors in terms of IRAS color regions for oxygen-rich stars. With these diagrams, we aim to provide a new tool that can be used to study circumstellar environments and to improve detection rates for targeted surveys for circumstellar maser emission similar to the IRAS two-color diagram. This new tool is especially useful for regions in the sky where IRAS was confused, in particular in the Galactic plane and bulge region. Unfortunately, using MSX colors alone does not allow one to distinguish between carbon-rich and oxygen-rich objects. An application of this tool on 86 GHz SiO masers shows that for this type of masers an instantaneous detection rate of 60% to 80% can be achieved if target sources are selected according to MSX color (region). Our investigations may have revealed an error in the MSX point source catalog version 2.3. That is, the photometry of the 21.3 μm (MSX E filter) band for most weak 8.28 μm (or MSX A filter) band sources seems off by about a factor 2 (0.5-1 mag too bright).

  17. Thermal properties of high-power diode lasers investigated by means of high resolution thermography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozłowska, Anna; Maląg, Andrzej; Dąbrowska, Elżbieta; Teodorczyk, Marian

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, thermal effects in high-power diode lasers are investigated by means of high resolution thermography. Thermal properties of the devices emitting in the 650 nm and 808 nm wavelength ranges are compared. The different versions of the heterostructure design are analyzed. The results show a lowering of active region temperature for diode lasers with asymmetric heterostructure scheme with reduced quantum well distance from the heterostructure surface (and the heat sink). Optimization of technological processes allowed for the improvement of the device performance, e.g. reduction of solder non-uniformities and local defect sites at the mirrors which was visualized by the thermography.

  18. Emissivity-corrected power loss calibration for lock-in thermography measurements on silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasemann, Martin; Walter, Benjamin; Meinhardt, Christoph; Ebser, Jan; Kwapil, Wolfram; Warta, Wilhelm

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes power loss calibration procedures with implemented emissivity correction. The determination of our emissivity correction matrix does neither rely on blackbody reference measurements nor on the knowledge of any sample temperatures. To describe the emissivity-corrected power calibration procedures in detail, we review the theory behind lock-in thermography and show experimentally that the lock-in signal is proportional to the power dissipation in the solar cell. Experiments show the successful application of our emissivity correction procedure, which significantly improves the informative value of lock-in thermography images and the reliability of the conclusions drawn from these images

  19. Evaluation of fiber reinforced polymers using active infrared thermography system with thermoelectric cooling modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chady, Tomasz; Gorący, Krzysztof

    2018-04-01

    Active infrared thermography is increasingly used for nondestructive testing of various materials. Properties of this method are creating a unique possibility to utilize it for inspection of composites. In the case of active thermography, an external energy source is usually used to induce a thermal contrast inside tested objects. The conventional heating methods (like halogen lamps or flash lamps) are utilized for this purpose. In this study, we propose to use a cooling unit. The proposed system consists of a thermal imaging infrared camera, which is used to observe the surface of the inspected specimen and a specially designed cooling unit with thermoelectric modules (the Peltier modules).

  20. Non-destructive Testing by Infrared Thermography Under Random Excitation and ARMA Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnar, J. L.; Nicolas, J. L.; Candoré, J. C.; Detalle, V.

    2012-11-01

    Photothermal thermography is a non-destructive testing (NDT) method, which has many applications in the field of control and characterization of thin materials. This technique is usually implemented under CW or flash excitation. Such excitations are not adapted for control of fragile materials or for multi-frequency analysis. To allow these analyses, in this article, the use of a new control mode is proposed: infrared thermography under random excitation and auto regressive moving average analysis. First, the principle of this NDT method is presented. Then, the method is shown to permit detection, with low energy constraints, of detachments situated in mural paintings.

  1. Infrared thermography method for fast estimation of phase diagrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomo Del Barrio, Elena [Université de Bordeaux, Institut de Mécanique et d’Ingénierie, Esplanade des Arts et Métiers, 33405 Talence (France); Cadoret, Régis [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Institut de Mécanique et d’Ingénierie, Esplanade des Arts et Métiers, 33405 Talence (France); Daranlot, Julien [Solvay, Laboratoire du Futur, 178 Av du Dr Schweitzer, 33608 Pessac (France); Achchaq, Fouzia, E-mail: fouzia.achchaq@u-bordeaux.fr [Université de Bordeaux, Institut de Mécanique et d’Ingénierie, Esplanade des Arts et Métiers, 33405 Talence (France)

    2016-02-10

    Highlights: • Infrared thermography is proposed to determine phase diagrams in record time. • Phase boundaries are detected by means of emissivity changes during heating. • Transition lines are identified by using Singular Value Decomposition techniques. • Different binary systems have been used for validation purposes. - Abstract: Phase change materials (PCM) are widely used today in thermal energy storage applications. Pure PCMs are rarely used because of non adapted melting points. Instead of them, mixtures are preferred. The search of suitable mixtures, preferably eutectics, is often a tedious and time consuming task which requires the determination of phase diagrams. In order to accelerate this screening step, a new method for estimating phase diagrams in record time (1–3 h) has been established and validated. A sample composed by small droplets of mixtures with different compositions (as many as necessary to have a good coverage of the phase diagram) deposited on a flat substrate is first prepared and cooled down to ambient temperature so that all droplets crystallize. The plate is then heated at constant heating rate up to a sufficiently high temperature for melting all the small crystals. The heating process is imaged by using an infrared camera. An appropriate method based on singular values decomposition technique has been developed to analyze the recorded images and to determine the transition lines of the phase diagram. The method has been applied to determine several simple eutectic phase diagrams and the reached results have been validated by comparison with the phase diagrams obtained by Differential Scanning Calorimeter measurements and by thermodynamic modelling.

  2. Using aerial infrared thermography to detect utility theft of service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockton, Gregory R.; Lucas, R. Gillem

    2012-06-01

    Natural gas and electric utility companies, public utility commissions, consumer advocacy groups, city governments, state governments and the federal government United States continue to turn a blind eye towards utility energy theft of service which we conservatively estimate is in excess of 10 billion a year. Why? Many in the United States have exhausted their unemployment benefits. The amounts for federal funding for low income heating assistance programs (LIHEAP) funds were cut by nearly 40% for 2012 to 3.02 billion. "At peak funding ($5.1 billion in 2009), the program was national in scale but still only had enough resources to support roughly 1/4 of the eligible households.i" Contributions to charities are down and the number of families below the poverty line who are unable to pay to heat their houses continues to rise. Many of the less fortunate in our society now consider theft and fraud to be an attractive option for their supply of natural gas and/or electricity. A record high mild winter in 2011-2012 coupled with 10-year low natural gas prices temporarily obscured the need for low income heating assistance programs (LIHEAPs) from the news and federal budgets, but cold winters will return. The proliferation of smart meters and automated meter infrastructures across our nation can do little to detect energy theft because the thieves can simply by-pass the meters, jumper around the meters and/or steal meters from abandoned houses and use them. Many utility systems were never set-up to stop these types of theft. Even with low-cost per identified thief method using aerial infrared thermography, utilities continue to ignore theft detection.

  3. Uranium recovery from wet process phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    In the field of metallurgy, specifically processes for recovering uranium from wet process phosphoric acid solution derived from the acidulation of uraniferous phosphate ores, problems of imbalance of ion exchange agents, contamination of recycled phosphoric acid with process organics and oxidizing agents, and loss and contamination of uranium product, are solved by removing organics from the raffinate after ion exchange conversion of uranium to uranous form and recovery thereof by ion exchange, and returning organics to the circuit to balance mono and disubstituted ester ion exchange agents; then oxidatively stripping uranium from the agent using hydrogen peroxide; then after ion exchange recovery of uranyl and scrubbing, stripping with sodium carbonate and acidifying the strip solution and using some of it for the scrubbing; regenerating the sodium loaded agent and recycling it to the uranous recovery step. Economic recovery of uranium as a by-product of phosphate fertilizer production is effected. (author)

  4. The Influence of Phosphor and Binder Chemistry on the Aging Characteristics of Remote Phosphor Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Lynn; Yaga, Robert; Lamvik, Michael; Mills, Karmann; Fletcher, B.

    2017-06-30

    The influence of phosphor and binder layer chemistries on the lumen maintenance and color stability of remote phosphor disks were examined using wet high-temperature operational lifetime testing (WHTOL). As part of the experimental matrix, two different correlated color temperature (CCT) values, 2700 K and 5000 K, were studied and each had a different binder chemistry. The 2700 K samples used a urethane binder whereas the 5000 K samples used an acrylate binder. Experimental conditions were chosen to enable study of the binder and phosphor chemistries and to minimize photo-oxidation of the polycarbonate substrate. Under the more severe WHTOL conditions of 85°C and 85% relative humidity (RH), absorption in the binder layer significantly reduced luminous flux and produced a blue color shift. The milder WHTOL conditions of 75°C and 75% RH, resulted in chemical changes in the binder layer that may alter its index of refraction. As a result, lumen maintenance remained high, but a slight yellow shift was found. The aging of remote phosphor products provides insights into the impact of materials on the performance of phosphors in an LED lighting system.

  5. [Change traits of phosphorous consumption structure in China and their effects on environmental phosphorous loads].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dun-Chao; Hu, Shan-Ying; Chen, Ding-Jiang; Li, You-Run

    2012-04-01

    Substance flow analysis was used to construct a model to analyze change traits of China's phosphorous (P) consumption structure from 1980 to 2008 and their influences on environmental phosphorous loads, then the correlation between several socioeconomic factors and phosphorous consumption pollution was investigated. It is found that phosphorous nutrient inputs of urban life and rural life on a per capita level climbed to 1.20 kg x a(-1) and 0.99 kg x a(-1) from 0.83 kg x a(-1) and 0.75 kg x a(-1) respectively, but phosphorous recycling ratios of urban life fell to 15.6% from 62.6%. P inputs of animal husbandry and planting also kept increasing, but the recycling ratio of the former decreased from 67.5% to 40.5%, meanwhile much P input of the latter was left in agricultural soil. Correlation coefficients were all above 0.90, indicating that population, urbanization level, development levels of planting and animal husbandry were important incentives for P consumption pollution in China. Environmental Kuznets curve showed that China still stayed in the early development stage, promoting economic growth at an expense of environmental quality. This study demonstrates that China's P consumption system is being transformed into a linear and open structure, and that P nutrient loss and environmental P loads increase continually.

  6. Ultraviolet dosimetry using thermoluminescent phosphors - an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagpal, J.S.

    1998-04-01

    Intrinsic response of various thermoluminescent (TL) materials such as CaSO 4 (Dy, Eu, Mn, Sm, Tb, or Tm), LiF (Mg, Cu, P), Mg 2 SiO 4 :Tb, CaF 2 :Dy, CaF 2 :Tb, ThO 2 :Tb and Al 2 O 3 (Si, Ti); cathodoluminescent phosphors Y 3 Al 5 O 12 :Ce, Y 3 Al 5 O 12 :Tb and Y(V,P)O 4 :Eu; and fluorescent lamp phosphors calcium halophosphate (Mn,Sb) and Ce Mg aluminate (Eu, Tb) to ultraviolet (UV) radiations has been studied. Intrinsic TL response of most of the phosphors is rate (radiant flux) dependent. For the first time, UV response of the materials is reported for a fixed total radiant energy (total UV dose), at a single radiant flux (260 μW.cm -2 ), for an appropriate comparison. A wide range of UV sensitivity is observed. Studies conducted using UV radiation from two unfiltered low pressure mercury lamps show significant differences in glow curves, as compared to those obtained with nearly monochromatic UV radiations. Photons of wavelength 365 nm induce bleaching of TL induced by 254 nm photons, in most of the materials. Sequential/tandem exposures to 254 nm and 365 nm photons have yielded new but alarming results in CaF 2 :Tb. Preferential induction and bleaching of specific TL glow peaks by 365 nm and 254 nm photons are interesting characteristics discovered in CaSO 4 :Eu. Photoluminescence studies of Tb 3+ and Eu 3+ activated phosphors have augmented the inferences drawn from the bleaching effects produced by 365 nm photons. Earlier work carried out on phototransferred thermoluminescence of CaSO 4 :Dy-teflon dosimeters, TLD-100, Mg 2 SiO 4 :Tb and Al 2 O 3 (Si,Ti) has also been reviewed. (author)

  7. Phosphor for thermoluminescent type radiation dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nada, N.; Yamashita, T.

    1975-01-01

    This has the accumulation effect of radiation energy and is mainly used as the element for thermoluminescent type radiation dosimeters. It has as the principal constituent a phosphor consisting of calcium sulfate as the principal constituent and other impurity elements such as dysprosium, thulium and the like. It is more sensitive by the order of 1 to 2 or more figures than the conventional ones and is excellent in the retention of absorbed radiation energy. (U.S.)

  8. Thermoluminescence of calcium-based phosphors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunta, C.M.

    1985-01-01

    The paper reviews the thermoluminescence (TL) properties of calcium fluoride, calcium sulphate and calcium carbonate phosphors. In the case of the calcium fluoride mineral phosphor the main emitter of TL is the cerium impurity. Based on the TL emission spectra, two types of Ce 3+ centres can be easily distinguished; those associated with O 2- compensating ion and those which have either no local compensators or are associated with F - interstitial ions at the adjacent vacant body centre position. The spectra undergo remarkable changes at high doses. Such changes are associated with the probabilities of charge trapping at different types of traps and also with the probabilities of recombination at different types of luminescent centres. Some of the traps and recombination centres are spatially associated while others are distributed randomly. In calcium carbonate mineral, Mn 2+ is invariably the emitting impurity. Mn 2+ can be used as an efficient dopant for TL emission in all the three calcium based TL phosphors. A co-dopant like Ce 3+ intensifies the luminescence yield from Mn 2+ . Models of different types of electron and hole trapping centres are given. (author)

  9. Development of an original active thermography method adapted to ITER plasma facing components control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durocher, A.; Vignal, N.; Escourbiac, F.; Farjon, J.L.; Schlosser, J. [CEA Cadarache, Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Cismondi, F. [Toulon Univ., 83 - La Garde (France)

    2004-07-01

    Among all Non-Destructive Examinations (NDE), active infrared thermography is becoming recognised as a technique available today for improving quality control of many materials and structures involved in heat transfer. The infrared thermography allows to characterise the bond between two materials having different thermal physical properties. In order to increase the defect detection limit of the SATIR test bed, several possibilities have been evaluated to improve the infrared thermography inspection. The implementation in 2003 of a micro-bolometer camera and the improving of the thermo-signal process allowed to increase considerably the detection sensitivity of the SATIR facility. The quality, the spatial stability of infrared image and the detection of edge defect have been also improved. The coupling on the same test bed of SATIR method with a lock-in thermography will be evaluated in this paper. An improvement of the global reliability is expected by data merging produced by the two thermal excitation sources. A new enhanced facility named SATIRPACA has been designed for the full Non Destructive Examination of the High Heat Flux ITER components taking into account these main improvements. These systematic acceptance tests obviously need tools for quality control of critical parts. (authors)

  10. The role of capillaroscopy and thermography in the assessment and management of Raynaud's phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, Ariane L; Murray, Andrea

    2018-05-01

    Most patients with Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) have "benign" primary RP (PRP), but a minority have an underlying cause, for example a connective tissue disease such as systemic sclerosis (SSc). Secondary RP can be associated with structural as well as functional digital vascular changes and can be very severe, potentially progressing to digital ulceration or gangrene. The first step in management is to establish why the patient has RP. This short review discusses the role of nailfold capillaroscopy and thermography in the assessment of RP. Nailfold capillaroscopy examines microvascular structure, which is normal in PRP but abnormal in most patients with SSc: the inclusion of abnormal nailfold capillaries into the 2013 classification criteria for SSc behoves clinicians diagnosing connective tissue disease to be familiar with the technique. For those without access to the gold standard of high magnification videocapillaroscopy, a low magnification dermatoscope or USB microscope can be used. Thermography measures surface temperature and is therefore an indirect measure of blood blow, assessing digital vascular function (abnormal in both PRP and SSc). Until now, the use of thermography has been mainly confined to specialist centres and used mainly in research: this may change with development of mobile phone thermography. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Nondestructive Testing of Ceramic Hip Joint Implants with Laser Spot Thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roemer J.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an application of laser spot thermography for damage detection in ceramic samples with surface breaking cracks. The measurement technique is an active thermographic approach based on an external heat delivery to a test sample, by means of a laser pulse, and signal acquisition by an infrared camera. Damage detection is based on the analysis of surface temperature distribution near the exciting laser spot. The technique is nondestructive, non-contact and allows for full-field measurements. Surface breaking cracks are a very common type of damage in ceramic materials that are introduced in the manufacturing process or during the service period. This paper briefly discusses theoretical background of laser spot thermography, describes the experimental test rig and signal processing methods involved. Damage detection results obtained with laser spot thermography are compared with reference measurements obtained with vibrothermography. This is a different modality of active thermography, that has been previously proven effective for this type of damage. We demonstrate that both measurement techniques can be effectively used for damage detection and quality control applications of ceramic materials.

  12. Current injection phase thermography for low-velocity impact damage identification in composite laminates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grammatikos, S.A.; Kordatos, E.Z.; Matikas, T.E.; David, C.; Paipetis, A.S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel Current injection phase thermography NDE method has been developed. • Blind impact damage has been successfully detected in composite laminates. • Carbon nanotubes enhance detection by improving of through thickness conductivity. • Detection is feasible with considerably less energy than for IR excited thermography. - Abstract: An innovative non-destructive evaluation (NDE) technique is presented based on current stimulated thermography. Modulated electric current is injected to Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastics (CFRP) laminates as an external source of thermal excitation. Pulsed Phase Thermography (PPT) is concurrently employed to identify low velocity impact induced (LVI) damage. The efficiency of the proposed method is demonstrated for both plain and with Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) modified laminates, which are subjected to low-velocity impact damaged composite laminates at different energy levels. The presence of the nano reinforcing phase is important in achieving a uniform current flow along the laminate, as it improves the through thickness conductivity. The acquired thermographs are compared with optical PPT, C-scan images and Computer Tomography (CT) representations. The typical energy input for successful damage identification with current injection is three to four orders of magnitude less compared to the energy required for optical PPT

  13. Study of cost benefits of identification of non-problems with infrared thermography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.P.; Wurzbach, R.N.

    1994-01-01

    Justifying the costs of starting and maintaining an in-house infrared thermography program is essential in ensuring continued funding and sponsorship. Cost benefit studies, whether brief and general, or strictly formalized, tend to focus on costs associated with projected equipment failure and production downtime. While these numbers can be quite dramatic, their validity rests on acceptance of the predicted failure which is inevitably the subject of some conjecture. Sometimes overlooked in these cost benefit analyses is the savings from avoided work through the optimization of routine time-directed tasks and the identification of non-problems. This includes condition based maintenance superseding preventive maintenance, and the value of including thermography in the troubleshooting process of known or suspected equipment performance problems. Using thermography inspection results to direct maintenance to the root cause of a performance problem can shorten downtime and eliminate unnecessary work and material expenditure. Cost benefit analysis of this type of inspection can be considered ''hard dollars,'' that is to say, that the money saved can be accurately calculated based on the repair costs which would normally have taken place if the information from the infrared thermography inspection had not been available. This type of savings, when presented to the administrator of the predictive maintenance program or the head of the maintenance department, represents real savings which are uncontestable in contrast to the postulated failure scenario calculations. This cost benefit analysis was done for PECO's nuclear units

  14. A new measurement method of coatings thickness based on lock-in thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin-Yu; Meng, Xiang-bin; Ma, Yong-chao

    2016-05-01

    Coatings have been widely used in modern industry and it plays an important role. Coatings thickness is directly related to the performance of the functional coatings, therefore, rapid and accurate coatings thickness inspection has great significance. Existing coatings thickness measurement method is difficult to achieve fast and accurate on-site non-destructive coatings inspection due to cost, accuracy, destruction during inspection and other reasons. This paper starts from the introduction of the principle of lock-in thermography, and then performs an in-depth study on the application of lock-in thermography in coatings inspection through numerical modeling and analysis. The numerical analysis helps explore the relationship between coatings thickness and phase, and the relationship lays the foundation for accurate calculation of coatings thickness. The author sets up a lock-in thermography inspection system and uses thermal barrier coatings specimens to conduct an experiment. The specimen coatings thickness is measured and calibrated to verify the quantitative inspection. Experiment results show that the lock-in thermography method can perform fast coatings inspection and the inspection accuracy is about 95%. Therefore, the method can meet the field testing requirements for engineering projects.

  15. Quantitative thermography and methods for in-situ determination of heat losses from district heating networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, B. [ed.

    1996-11-01

    The course and seminar summarizing application of infrared thermography in district heating systems control gathered Danish specialists with 5 contributions on the subject. Maintenance of the heat distribution pipelines and thermographic inspection of the systems are essential in order to avoid heat losses. (EG)

  16. Infra-red thermography for detecting frost pockets on snow-covered clear-fellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattsson, J.O.; Odin, H.; Palenius, H.P.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of the investigation was to find out if IR-thermography from aircraft could be a useful method for registration and studies of regional variation of frost exposition within an area and of distribution of frost risks within individual felling areas. The technique, which was successful, has up till now not been utilized in Sweden for such studies in woodland

  17. Infrared Thermography Characterization of Defects in Seamless Pipes Using an Infrared Reflector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hee Sang; Choi, Man Yong; Park, Jeong Hak; Lee, Jae Jung; Kim, Won Tae; Lee, Bo Young

    2012-01-01

    Infrared thermography uses infrared energy radiated from any objects above absolute zero temperature, and the range of its application has been constantly broadened. As one of the active test techniques detecting radiant energy generated when energy is applied to an object, ultrasound infrared thermography is a method of detecting defects through hot spots occurring at a defect area when 15-100 kHz of ultrasound is excited to an object. This technique is effective in detecting a wide range affected by ultrasound and vibration in real time. Especially, it is really effective when a defect area is minute. Therefore, this study conducted thermography through lock-in signal processing when an actual defect exists inside the austenite STS304 seamless pipe, which simulates thermal fatigue cracks in a nuclear power plant pipe. With ultrasound excited, this study could detect defects on the rear of a pipe by using an aluminium reflector. Besides, by regulating the angle of the aluminium reflector, this study could detect both front and rear defects as a single infrared thermography image.

  18. Development of an original active thermography method adapted to ITER plasma facing components control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durocher, A.; Vignal, N.; Escourbiac, F.; Farjon, J.L.; Schlosser, J.; Cismondi, F.

    2004-01-01

    Among all Non-Destructive Examinations (NDE), active infrared thermography is becoming recognised as a technique available today for improving quality control of many materials and structures involved in heat transfer. The infrared thermography allows to characterise the bond between two materials having different thermal physical properties. In order to increase the defect detection limit of the SATIR test bed, several possibilities have been evaluated to improve the infrared thermography inspection. The implementation in 2003 of a micro-bolometer camera and the improving of the thermo-signal process allowed to increase considerably the detection sensitivity of the SATIR facility. The quality, the spatial stability of infrared image and the detection of edge defect have been also improved. The coupling on the same test bed of SATIR method with a lock-in thermography will be evaluated in this paper. An improvement of the global reliability is expected by data merging produced by the two thermal excitation sources. A new enhanced facility named SATIRPACA has been designed for the full Non Destructive Examination of the High Heat Flux ITER components taking into account these main improvements. These systematic acceptance tests obviously need tools for quality control of critical parts. (authors)

  19. Validation of infrared thermography in serotonin-induced itch model in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dagnæs-Hansen, Frederik; Jasemian, Yousef; Gazerani, Parisa

    The number of scratching bouts is generally used as a standard method in animal models of itch. The aim of the present study was to validate the application of infrared thermography (IR-Th) in a serotonin-induced itch model in rats. Adult Sprague-Dawley male rats (n = 24) were used in 3 consecuti...

  20. Early detection of fires by means of thermography; Frueherkennung von Braenden mit Thermografie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, Matthias; Doeppner, Joerg; Pohl, Gisbert; Mahler, Guido; Dammass, Gunnar; Wendland, Georg [InfraTec GmbH, Dresden (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    The authors of the contribution under consideration report on the physical and technical fundamentals of an early detection of fires by means of thermal imaging. Hereupon, the technical implementation of these fundamentals into a modular automatic monitoring system by thermography is described. The authors report on practical experiences of this monitoring system.

  1. Application of infrared thermography for the analysis of rewarming in patients with cold intolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijs, A.C.J.; Jaquet, J.B.; Brandsma, M.; Daanen, H.A.M.; Hovius, S.E.R.

    2008-01-01

    Cold intolerance is a serious long-term problem after injury to the ulnar and median nerves, and its pathophysiology is unclear. We investigated the use of infrared thermography for the analysis of thermoregulation after injury to peripheral nerves. Four patients with injuries to the ulnar nerve and

  2. Online Chip Temperature Monitoring Using υce-Load Current and IR Thermography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghimire, Pramod; Pedersen, Kristian Bonderup; Trintis, Ionut

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents on-state collector-emitter voltage (υce, on)-load current (Ic) method to monitor chip temperature on power insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) modules in converter operation. The measurement method is also evaluated using infrared (IR) thermography. Temperature dependencies...

  3. Generation and amplification of sub-THz radiation in a rare gases plasma formed by a two-color femtosecond laser pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogatskaya, A. V.; Volkova, E. A.; Popov, A. M.

    2018-06-01

    A new approach to constructing the source of radiation in the sub-THz frequency range is discussed. It is based on the strong-field ionization of heavy rare gases with Ramsauer minimum in the transport cross-section by a two-color () femtosecond laser pulse. Then a four-photon nonlinear process ( are the frequencies from the spectral width of the pulse with frequency ω, and is the frequency from the spectral width of the second harmonic 2ω) with a transition to the initial state results in a low-frequency spontaneous emission that can be amplified in the strongly nonequilibrium laser plasma if the position of the photoelectron peaks is located in the region of growing energy transport cross-section.

  4. Selected cis- and trans-3-fluorostyrene rotamers studied by two-color resonant two-photon mass-analyzed threshold ionization spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pei Ying; Tzeng, Wen Bih

    2015-10-01

    We applied two-color resonant two-photon ionization and mass-analyzed threshold ionization techniques to record the vibronic, photoionization efficiency, and cation spectra of the selected rotamers of 3-fluorostyrene. The adiabatic ionization energies of cis- and trans-3-fluorostyrene were determined to be 69 960 ± 5 and 69 856 ± 5 cm-1, respectively. Cation vibrations 10a, 15, 6b, and 12 of both rotamers have been found to have frequencies of 218, 404, 452, and 971 cm-1, respectively. This finding shows that the relative orientation of the vinyl group with respect to the F atom does not affect these vibrations of the 3-fluorostyrene cation. Our one-dimensional potential energy surface calculations support that the cis-trans isomerization of 3-fluorostyrene does not occur under the present experimental conditions.

  5. Generation of Bright, Spatially Coherent Soft X-Ray High Harmonics in a Hollow Waveguide Using Two-Color Synthesized Laser Pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Cheng; Stein, Gregory J; Hong, Kyung-Han; Lin, C D

    2015-07-24

    We investigate the efficient generation of low-divergence high-order harmonics driven by waveform-optimized laser pulses in a gas-filled hollow waveguide. The drive waveform is obtained by synthesizing two-color laser pulses, optimized such that highest harmonic yields are emitted from each atom. Optimization of the gas pressure and waveguide configuration has enabled us to produce bright and spatially coherent harmonics extending from the extreme ultraviolet to soft x rays. Our study on the interplay among waveguide mode, atomic dispersion, and plasma effect uncovers how dynamic phase matching is accomplished and how an optimized waveform is maintained when optimal waveguide parameters (radius and length) and gas pressure are identified. Our analysis should help laboratory development in the generation of high-flux bright coherent soft x rays as tabletop light sources for applications.

  6. Comparison of soot formation for diesel and jet-a in a constant volume combustion chamber using two-color pyrometry

    KAUST Repository

    Jing, Wei

    2014-04-01

    The measurement of the two-color line of sight soot and KL factor for NO.2 diesel and jet-A fuels was conducted in an optical constant volume combustion chamber by using a high speed camera under 1000 K ambient temperature and varied oxygen concentration conditions. The ambient conditions were set as follows: four oxygen cases including 10%, 15%, 18% and 21% at 1000 K ambient temperature. KL factor and soot temperature were determined based on the two-color pyrometry technique using two band-pass filters with wavelengths of 650 nm and 550 nm. The results show that low soot temperature is observed in the upstream inner flame along the centerline, which is surrounded by high soot temperature regions, and a high KL factor is found in the same region with a low soot temperature. The results under different times suggest that soot temperature is higher for high O2 conditions during the entire flame development; meanwhile, both integrated KL factor and soot area decrease with the increase of O2 concentration. The two fuels share a similar trend of soot temperature and KL factor, however, diesel flame has a higher soot temperature and a larger high soot temperature area compared to jet-A flame. On the other hand, diesel flame shows a lower soot level during the quasi-steady state with a higher total soot level at the end of the combustion under low O2 conditions. A lower O2 concentration range from 10% to 15% is expected to have the possibility to achieve a simultaneous reduction of soot and NOx in sooting flames under the 1000 K ambient temperature condition. Copyright © 2014 SAE International.

  7. A 7.2 keV spherical x-ray crystal backlighter for two-frame, two-color backlighting at Sandia's Z Pulsed Power Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schollmeier, M. S.; Knapp, P. F.; Ampleford, D. J.; Harding, E. C.; Jennings, C. A.; Lamppa, D. C.; Loisel, G. P.; Martin, M. R.; Robertson, G. K.; Shores, J. E.; Smith, I. C.; Speas, C. S.; Weis, M. R.; Porter, J. L.; McBride, R. D.

    2017-10-01

    Many experiments on Sandia National Laboratories' Z Pulsed Power Facility—a 30 MA, 100 ns rise-time, pulsed-power driver—use a monochromatic quartz crystal backlighter system at 1.865 keV (Si He α ) or 6.151 keV (Mn He α ) x-ray energy to radiograph an imploding liner (cylindrical tube) or wire array z-pinch. The x-ray source is generated by the Z-Beamlet laser, which provides two 527-nm, 1 kJ, 1-ns laser pulses. Radiographs of imploding, thick-walled beryllium liners at convergence ratios CR above 15 [ C R = r i ( 0 ) / r i ( t ) ] using the 6.151-keV backlighter system were too opaque to identify the inner radius r i of the liner with high confidence, demonstrating the need for a higher-energy x-ray radiography system. Here, we present a 7.242 keV backlighter system using a Ge(335) spherical crystal with the Co He α resonance line. This system operates at a similar Bragg angle as the existing 1.865 keV and 6.151 keV backlighters, enhancing our capabilities for two-color, two-frame radiography without modifying the system integration at Z. The first data taken at Z include 6.2-keV and 7.2-keV two-color radiographs as well as radiographs of low-convergence (CR about 4-5), high-areal-density liner implosions.

  8. Investigation of saturation effects in ceramic phosphors for laser lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krasnoshchoka, Anastasiia; Thorseth, Anders; Dam-Hansen, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    We report observation of saturation effects in a Ce:LuAG and Eu-doped nitride ceramic phosphor for conversion of blue laser light for white light generation. The luminous flux from the phosphors material increases linearly with the input power until saturation effects limit the conversion....... It is shown, that the temperature of the phosphor layer influences the saturation power level and the conversion efficiency. It is also shown that the correlated color temperature (CCT), phosphor conversion efficiency and color rendering index (CRI) are dependent both on incident power and spot size diameter...... of the illumination. A phosphor conversion efficiency up to 140.8 lm/W with CRI of 89.4 was achieved. The saturation in a ceramic phosphor, when illuminated by high intensity laser diodes, is estimated to play the main role in limiting the available luminance from laser based lighting systems....

  9. Re-processing CRT phosphors for mercury-free applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dexpert-Ghys, Jeannette; Regnier, Sophie; Canac, Sophie; Beaudette, Tristan; Guillot, Philippe; Caillier, Bruno; Mauricot, Robert; Navarro, Julien; Sekhri, Salem

    2009-01-01

    This study is part of an operation in the framework of treatment and revalorization of IEEE (Informatics, Electronics and related) wastes. It aims to recover the active phosphors in cathode ray tubes (CRTs) and to re-cycle these powders by appropriate treatments as phosphors for mercury-free applications such as plasma display panels, flat lamps, advertising and lighting. The studied waste comes from a large panel of CRTs from any supplier. Several thermo-chemical treatments have been investigated. The removal of zinc sulfide-based phosphors and the recovery of a red phosphor Y 2 O 3 :Eu 3+ has been achieved by one (basic attack) route. The photoluminescence efficiency under VUV excitation of the obtained powders is at most 30% that of a commercial phosphor. The second route (acid attack) appears less promising. It has been established that silicate-based impurities could prevent isolating the yttrium based phosphor.

  10. Re-processing CRT phosphors for mercury-free applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dexpert-Ghys, Jeannette, E-mail: jdexpert@cemes.f [CEMES, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig, BP 94347, 31055 Toulouse cedex 4 (France); Regnier, Sophie; Canac, Sophie [ICAM, 75 avenue de Grande Bretagne, 31300 Toulouse (France); Beaudette, Tristan; Guillot, Philippe; Caillier, Bruno [DPHE, Universite Jean Francois Champollion, place de Verdun, 81012 Albi cedex 9 (France); Mauricot, Robert; Navarro, Julien [CEMES, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig, BP 94347, 31055 Toulouse cedex 4 (France); Sekhri, Salem [ENVOI, Cheminement Glueck, 31100 Toulouse (France)

    2009-12-15

    This study is part of an operation in the framework of treatment and revalorization of IEEE (Informatics, Electronics and related) wastes. It aims to recover the active phosphors in cathode ray tubes (CRTs) and to re-cycle these powders by appropriate treatments as phosphors for mercury-free applications such as plasma display panels, flat lamps, advertising and lighting. The studied waste comes from a large panel of CRTs from any supplier. Several thermo-chemical treatments have been investigated. The removal of zinc sulfide-based phosphors and the recovery of a red phosphor Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} has been achieved by one (basic attack) route. The photoluminescence efficiency under VUV excitation of the obtained powders is at most 30% that of a commercial phosphor. The second route (acid attack) appears less promising. It has been established that silicate-based impurities could prevent isolating the yttrium based phosphor.

  11. Focal plane array based infrared thermography in fine physical experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vainer, Boris G

    2008-01-01

    By two examples of dissimilar physical phenomena causing thermophysical effects, the unique capabilities of one of the up-to-date methods of experimental physics-focal plane array (FPA) based infrared (IR) thermography (IRT), are demonstrated distinctly. Experimenters inexperienced in IRT can grasp how this method provides a means for combining real-time visualization with quantitative analysis. A narrow-band short-wavelength IR camera was used in the experiments. It is discussed and stated that IRT is best matched and suited to the next two test conditions-when a heated specimen is thin and when heat is generated in the immediate region of a surface of a solid. The first prerequisite is realized in the search for directional patterns of combined low-power radiation sources with the use of the IRT-aided method. The second one is realized in studies of water vapour adsorption on uneven (irregular) surfaces of solid materials. With multiple swatches taken from a set of different fabrics and used as experimental samples, a sharp distinction between adsorptivities of their surfaces is strikingly illustrated by IRT time-domain measurements exhibiting the associated thermal effect ranging within an order of magnitude. It is justified that the described IRT-aided test can find practical implementation at least in the light industry. Emissivities of different fabrics are evaluated experimentally with the described reflection method based on the narrow spectral range of IRT. On the basis of direct IR observations, attention is paid to the need for close control over the surface temperature increase while the adsorption isotherms are being measured. Sensitivity of the FPA-based IRT method, as applied to examine the kinetics of initial stages of adsorption of gaseous molecules on the solid surface, is evaluated analytically and quantitatively. The relationship between the amount of adsorbate and the measurable excess of adsorbent temperature is found. It is discovered that

  12. Counter current extraction of phosphoric acid: Food grade acid production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shlewit, H.; AlIbrahim, M.

    2009-01-01

    Extraction, scrubbing and stripping of phosphoric acid from the Syrian wet-phosphoric acid was carried out using Micro-pilot plant of mixer settler type of 8 l/h capacity. Tributyl phosphate (TBP)/di-isopropyl ether (DIPE) in kerosene was used as extractant. Extraction and stripping equilibrium curves were evaluated. The number of extraction and stripping stages to achieve the convenient and feasible yield was determined. Detailed flow sheet was suggested for the proposed continuous process. Data obtained include useful information for the design of phosphoric acid extraction plant. The produced phosphoric acid was characterized using different analytical techniques. (author)

  13. Uranium recovery from wet-process phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCullough, J.F.; Phillips, J.F. Jr.; Tate, L.R.

    1979-01-01

    A method of recovering uranium from wet-process phosphoric acid is claimed where the acid is treated with a mixture of an ammonium salt or ammonia, a reducing agent, and then a miscible solvent. Solids are separated from the phosphoric acid liquid phase. The solid consists of a mixture of metal phosphates and uranium. It is washed free of adhering phosphoric acid with fresh miscible solvent. The solid is dried and dissolved in acid whereupon uranium is recovered from the solution. Miscible solvent and water are distilled away from the phosphoric acid. The distillate is rectified and water discarded. All miscible solvent is recovered for recycle. 5 claims

  14. Method of recovering phosphoric acid type decontaminating electrolytes by electrodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Takashi; Wada, Koichi; Kobayashi, Toshio.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To recoving phosphoric acid type highly concentrated decontaminating liquid used for the electrolytic decontamination of contaminated equipments, components, etc in nuclear power plants or the like through electrodeposition by diaphragm electrolysis. Method: Before supplying phosphoric acid decontaminating liquid at high concentration used in the electrolytic decontaminating step to an electrodeposition recovering tank, phosphoric acid in the decontaminating electrolyte is extracted with solvents and decomposed liquid extracts (electrolyte reduced with the phosphoric acid component) are supplied to the cathode chamber of the electrodeposition recovering tank, where phosphoric acid is back-extracted with water from the solvents after extraction of phosphoric acid. Then, the back-extracted liquids (aqueous phosphoric acid solution scarcely containing metal ions) are sent to the anode chamber of the electrodeposition recovering tank. Metal ions in the liquid are captured by electrodeposition in the cathode chamber, as well as phosphoric acid in the liquids is concentrated to the initial concentration of the electrolyte in the anode chamber for reuse as the decontaminating electrolyte. As the phosphoric acid extracting agent used in the electrodeposition recovering step for the decontaminating electrolyte, water-insoluble and non-combustible tributyl phosphate (TBP) is most effective. (Horiuchi, T.)

  15. Point defect engineering strategies to retard phosphorous diffusion in germanium

    KAUST Repository

    Tahini, H. A.; Chroneos, Alexander I.; Grimes, Robin W.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Bracht, Hartmut A.

    2013-01-01

    The diffusion of phosphorous in germanium is very fast, requiring point defect engineering strategies to retard it in support of technological application. Density functional theory corroborated with hybrid density functional calculations are used to investigate the influence of the isovalent codopants tin and hafnium in the migration of phosphorous via the vacancy-mediated diffusion process. The migration energy barriers for phosphorous are increased significantly in the presence of oversized isovalent codopants. Therefore, it is proposed that tin and in particular hafnium codoping are efficient point defect engineering strategies to retard phosphorous migration. © the Owner Societies 2013.

  16. Tm3+ activated lanthanum phosphate: a blue PDP phosphor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, R.P.

    2005-01-01

    Plasma display panels (PDPs) are gaining attention due to their high performance and scalability as a medium for large format TVs. The performance and life of a PDP strongly depends upon the nature of phosphors. Currently, Eu 2+ activated barium magnesium aluminate (BAM) is being used as a blue component. Because of its low life, efforts are being made to explore new blue emitting phosphors. One of the alternatives to BAM is Tm 3+ activated lanthanum phosphate (LPTM) phosphor. LPTM phosphor samples are prepared by a solid-state as well as sol-gel process in presence of flux. The phosphor of the present investigation, having uniform and spherical shape particles in the range of 0.1-2 μm, is appropriate for thin phosphor screens required for PDP applications. It exhibits a narrow band emission in the blue region, peaking at 452 nm and also a number of narrow bands in the UV region when excited by 147 and 173 nm radiation from a xenon gas mixture. Various possible transitions responsible for UV and visible emission from Tm 3+ ion are presented. These phosphors also exhibit good color saturation and better stability when excited with VUV radiation. To achieve higher brightness, they are blended with other UV excited blue emitting phosphors such as BAM. Results related to morphology, excitation, after glow decay, emission and degradation of these phosphors in the powder form as well as in plasma display panels are presented and discussed

  17. Spatially resolved determination of the short-circuit current density of silicon solar cells via lock-in thermography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fertig, Fabian; Greulich, Johannes; Rein, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    We present a spatially resolved method to determine the short-circuit current density of crystalline silicon solar cells by means of lock-in thermography. The method utilizes the property of crystalline silicon solar cells that the short-circuit current does not differ significantly from the illuminated current under moderate reverse bias. Since lock-in thermography images locally dissipated power density, this information is exploited to extract values of spatially resolved current density under short-circuit conditions. In order to obtain an accurate result, one or two illuminated lock-in thermography images and one dark lock-in thermography image need to be recorded. The method can be simplified in a way that only one image is required to generate a meaningful short-circuit current density map. The proposed method is theoretically motivated, and experimentally validated for monochromatic illumination in comparison to the reference method of light-beam induced current.

  18. Skin vasomotor hemiparesis followed by overactivity: characteristic thermography findings in a patient with Horner syndrome due to spinal cord infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Makoto

    2016-04-01

    We present a 21-year-old female with Horner syndrome due to spinal cord infarction. In this patient, infrared thermography revealed a hemibody skin temperature increase followed by excessive focal decreases, indicating skin vasomotor hemiparesis and overactivity.

  19. Determination of surface temperatures in combustion environments using thermographic phosphors; Wandtemperaturmessungen in Verbrennungsumgebungen mithilfe thermographischer Phosphore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruebach, J.; Kissel, T. [TU Darmstadt (Germany). FG Energie- und Kraftwerkstechnik; Dreizler, A. [TU Darmstadt (Germany). FG Reaktive Stroemungen und Messtechnik

    2009-07-01

    A phosphor thermometry system was characterised with regard to all sources of systematic errors. Exemplary, the point measurement of a surface temperature and the determination of wall-normal temperature gradients within an optically accessible combustion chamber are outlined. Furthermore, the temporal temperature characteristic at the quartz ring of an optically accessible engine is presented. (orig.)

  20. Use of a Novel Two Color PALM Method to Examine Structural Properties of Drp1 Helical Rings during Mammalian Mitochondrial Fission In Situ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbloom, Alyssa Blair

    In this thesis, we accomplish two goals: 1) we develop a novel two color photoactivatable light microscopy (PALM) method for imaging in mammalian cells and 2) we explore our original biological question and discern the structural properties of the Drp1 helical ring during fission. We established that mitochondrial membranes can be distinguished with the available photoactivatable fluorescent protein mEos2. However, we were not able to use any of the published photoactivatable and photoswitchable green fluorescent proteins, predominantly because of an inability to identify individual fluorescent events due to rapidity of the photoswitiching. Based on published crystal structures, we created novel Dronpa variants with increasing steric hindrance around the chromophore, likely partially inhibiting the isomerization. We replaced Val157 with isoleucine, leucine, or phenyalanine. DronpaV157F showed no fluorescence and was discarded. DronpaV157I and DronpaV157L showed photoswitchable green fluorescence, with individual fluorescent events that were more easily discerned. DronpaV157L in particular had bright fluorescent events that were well separated when imaged in mammalian cells at 20 Hz. We named this new variant rsKame. Using PALM we successfully imaged rsKame expressed and localized to the mammalian mitochondrial inner membrane. With the novel photoswitchable fluorescent protein, rsKame, available, we returned to the development of a novel two color PALM method. We chose PAmCherry1 as the partner for rsKame since PAmCherry1 has distinct and well separated excitation/emission spectra from rsKame and is not activated by low 405 nm laser power density. We first imaged rsKame with 405 nm activation at (0.61 mW/mm2) and 488 nm activation/excitation (5.87 W/mm 2) to completion. We then imaged PAmCherry1 with increasing 405 nm activation (0.6-6.0 W/mm2) and 561 nm excitation (22 W/mm 2). With the novel PALM imaging method, we labeled the inner and outer mitochondrial

  1. Uranium recovery from wet process phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrington, O.F.; Pyrih, R.Z.; Rickard, R.S.

    1981-01-01

    Improvement in the process for recovering uranium from wetprocess phosphoric acid solution derived from the acidulation of uraniferous phosphate ores by the use of two ion exchange liquidliquid solvent extraction circuits in which in the first circuit (A) the uranium is reduced to the uranous form; (B) the uranous uranium is recovered by liquid-liquid solvent extraction using a mixture of mono- and di-(Alkyl-phenyl) esters of orthophosphoric acid as the ion exchange agent; and (C) the uranium oxidatively stripped from the agent with phosphoric acid containing an oxidizing agent to convert uranous to uranyl ions, and in the second circuit (D) recovering the uranyl uranium from the strip solution by liquid-liquid solvent extraction using di(2ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid in the presence of trioctylphosphine oxide as a synergist; (E) scrubbing the uranium loaded agent with water; (F) stripping the loaded agent with ammonium carbonate, and (G) calcining the formed ammonium uranyl carbonate to uranium oxide, the improvement comprising: (1) removing the organics from the raffinate of step (B) before recycling the raffinate to the wet-process plant, and returning the recovered organics to the circuit to substantially maintain the required balance between the mono and disubstituted esters; (2) using hydogren peroxide as the oxidizing agent in step (C); (3) using an alkali metal carbonate as the stripping agent in step (F) following by acidification of the strip solution with sulfuric acid; (4) using some of the acidified strip solution as the scrubbing agent in step (E) to remove phosphorus and other impurities; and (5) regenerating the alkali metal loaded agent from step (F) before recycling it to the second circuit

  2. Cooling Effectiveness Measurements for Air Film Cooling of Thermal Barrier Coated Surfaces in a Burner Rig Environment Using Phosphor Thermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Shyam, Vikram; Wroblewski, Adam C.; Zhu, Dongming; Cuy, Michael D.; Wolfe, Douglas E.

    2016-01-01

    While the effects of thermal barrier coating (TBC) thermal protection and air film cooling effectiveness are usually studied separately, their contributions to combined cooling effectiveness are interdependent and are not simply additive. Therefore, combined cooling effectiveness must be measured to achieve an optimum balance between TBC thermal protection and air film cooling. In this investigation, surface temperature mapping was performed using recently developed Cr-doped GdAlO3 phosphor thermometry. Measurements were performed in the NASA GRC Mach 0.3 burner rig on a TBC-coated plate using a scaled up cooling hole geometry where both the mainstream hot gas temperature and the blowing ratio were varied. Procedures for surface temperature and cooling effectiveness mapping of the air film-cooled TBC-coated surface are described. Applications are also shown for an engine component in both the burner rig test environment as well as an engine afterburner environment. The effects of thermal background radiation and flame chemiluminescence on the measurements are investigated, and advantages of this method over infrared thermography as well as the limitations of this method for studying air film cooling are discussed.

  3. Fatigue crack detection on structural steel members by using ultrasound excited thermography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plum, Robin Marc

    2015-01-01

    In the field of non-destructive testing (NDT), ultrasound excited thermography has been recognised as a promising technique that was successfully applied to metals, fibre composites and many more engineering materials in order to detect cracks, delaminations and other types of internal flaws. Dating back to the late 1970s, the idea of high-frequency vibration excitation of structural members combined with monitoring the surface temperature by means of infrared thermography aims at the localised energy dissipation at defect regions and its thermal detection. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the potential use of ultrasound excited thermography for detecting surface breaking fatigue cracks in thick-walled components relevant to steel construction. The presented research is motivated by a lack of fast and imaging crack detection methods in the field and the growing acceptance and technological progress of active thermography techniques. After introducing the concept of ultrasound excited thermography or vibrothermography, its current state of the art is described by means of a comprehensive literature review focusing on research activities towards crack detection on metals. Owing to the interdisciplinarity of the test method, all relevant technical subdisciplines from the excitation of plate vibrations via potential heat generation mechanisms and heat transfer to infrared thermography are outlined. The experimental work starts with the manufacture and fatigue loading of suitable plate specimens made from low-carbon steel S355, mostly in the high cycle fatigue regime, to generate throughthickness cracks with specified depths. Using a modified high-power ultrasonic welding generator, basic dependencies of the defect heating on frequency, coupling location and excitation duration are clarified at first. Besides of an estimation of realistic detection limits depending on the plate thickness, main issues such as the relation between vibration intensity and

  4. Fatigue crack detection on structural steel members by using ultrasound excited thermography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plum, Robin Marc

    2015-07-01

    In the field of non-destructive testing (NDT), ultrasound excited thermography has been recognised as a promising technique that was successfully applied to metals, fibre composites and many more engineering materials in order to detect cracks, delaminations and other types of internal flaws. Dating back to the late 1970s, the idea of high-frequency vibration excitation of structural members combined with monitoring the surface temperature by means of infrared thermography aims at the localised energy dissipation at defect regions and its thermal detection. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the potential use of ultrasound excited thermography for detecting surface breaking fatigue cracks in thick-walled components relevant to steel construction. The presented research is motivated by a lack of fast and imaging crack detection methods in the field and the growing acceptance and technological progress of active thermography techniques. After introducing the concept of ultrasound excited thermography or vibrothermography, its current state of the art is described by means of a comprehensive literature review focusing on research activities towards crack detection on metals. Owing to the interdisciplinarity of the test method, all relevant technical subdisciplines from the excitation of plate vibrations via potential heat generation mechanisms and heat transfer to infrared thermography are outlined. The experimental work starts with the manufacture and fatigue loading of suitable plate specimens made from low-carbon steel S355, mostly in the high cycle fatigue regime, to generate throughthickness cracks with specified depths. Using a modified high-power ultrasonic welding generator, basic dependencies of the defect heating on frequency, coupling location and excitation duration are clarified at first. Besides of an estimation of realistic detection limits depending on the plate thickness, main issues such as the relation between vibration intensity and

  5. Concentration and wavelength dependent frequency downshifting photoluminescence from a Tb3+ doped yttria nano-phosphor: A photochromic phosphor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Ram Sagar; Rai, Shyam Bahadur

    2018-03-01

    In this article, the Tb3+ doped Y2O3 nano-phosphor has been synthesized through solution combustion method. The structural measurements of the nano-phosphor have been carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques, which reveal nano-crystalline nature. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) measurements reveal the presence of different molecular species in the nano-phosphor. The UV-Vis-NIR absorption spectrum of the nano-phosphor shows large number of bands due to charge transfer band (CTB) and 4f-4f electronic transitions of Tb3+ ion. The Tb3+ doped Y2O3 nano-phosphor emits intense green downshifting photoluminescence centered at 543 nm due to 5D4 → 7F5 transition on excitation with 350 nm. The emission intensity of the nano-phosphor is optimized at 1.0 mol% concentration of Tb3+ ion. When the as-synthesized nano-phosphor is annealed at higher temperature the emission intensity of the nano-phosphor enhances upto 5 times. The enhancement in the emission intensity is due to an increase in crystallinity of the nano-phosphor, reduction in surface defects and optical quenching centers. The CIE diagram reveals that the Tb3+ doped nano-phosphor samples show the photochromic nature (color tunability) with a change in the concentration of Tb3+ ion and excitation wavelength. The lifetime measurement indicates an increase in the lifetime for the annealed sample. Thus, the Tb3+ doped Y2O3 nano-phosphor may be used in photochromic displays and photonic devices.

  6. Phosphor Scanner For Imaging X-Ray Diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Daniel C.; Hecht, Diana L.; Witherow, William K.

    1992-01-01

    Improved optoelectronic scanning apparatus generates digitized image of x-ray image recorded in phosphor. Scanning fiber-optic probe supplies laser light stimulating luminescence in areas of phosphor exposed to x rays. Luminescence passes through probe and fiber to integrating sphere and photomultiplier. Sensitivity and resolution exceed previously available scanners. Intended for use in x-ray crystallography, medical radiography, and molecular biology.

  7. Analysis of phosphoric ore bacterial and eucaryal microbial diversity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These findings provided new opportunities into phosphoric ore microbiology that could be useful in biological system removing waste gases generated from the phosphoric industry. Keywords: Microbial community, bacteria, archaea, eucarya, mining residue. African Journal of Biotechnology, Vol 13(30) 3023-3029 ...

  8. World wide IFC phosphoric acid fuel cell implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, J.M. Jr

    1996-04-01

    International Fuel Cells, a subsidary of United technologies Corporation, is engaged in research and development of all types of fuel cell technologies and currently manufactures alkaline fuel cell power plants for the U.S. manned space flight program and natural gas fueled stationary power plants using phosphoric acid fuel cells. This paper describes the phosphoric acid fuel cell power plants.

  9. Separation of rare earths from solutions of phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.A.

    1977-01-01

    Rare earths are separated from 6M phosphoric acid by adsorption onto cation resin BIORAD AG50W-X8. The phosphoric acid is then washed from the column, and the rare earths are eluted with 4M hydrochloric acid

  10. Photoionization and trans-to-cis isomerization of β-cyclodextrin-encapsulated azobenzene induced by two-color two-laser-pulse excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Tatsuya; Hara, Michihiro

    2018-03-15

    Azobenzene (1) and the complex resulting from the incorporation of 1 with cyclodextrin (1/CD) are attractive for light-driven applications such as micromachining and chemical biology tools. The highly sensitive photoresponse of 1 is crucial for light-driven applications containing both 1 and 1/CD to reach their full potential. In this study, we investigated the photoionization and trans-to-cis isomerization of 1/CD induced by one- and two-color two-laser pulse excitation. Photoionization of 1/CD, which was induced by stepwise two-photon absorption, was observed using laser pulse excitation at 266nm. Additionally, simultaneous irradiation with 266 and 532nm laser pulses increased the trans-to-cis isomerization yield (Υ t→c ) by 27%. It was concluded that the increase in Υ t→c was caused by the occurrence of trans-to-cis isomerization in the higher-energy singlet state (S n ), which was reached by S 1 →S n transition induced by laser pulse excitation at 532nm. The results of this study are potentially applicable in light-driven applications such as micromachining and chemical biology tools. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The mechanics of unrest at Long Valley caldera, California: 1. Modeling the geometry of the source using GPS, leveling and two-color EDM data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Maurizio; Segall, P.; Murray, J.; Cervelli, Peter; Langbein, J.

    2003-01-01

    We surveyed 44 existing leveling monuments in Long Valley caldera in July 1999, using dual frequency global positioning system (GPS) receivers. We have been able to tie GPS and leveling to a common reference frame in the Long Valley area and computed the vertical deformation by differencing GPS-based and leveled orthometric heights. The resurgent dome uplifted 74??7 cm from 1975 to 1999. To define the inflation source, we invert two-color EDM and uplift data from the 1985-1999 unrest period using spherical or ellipsoidal sources. We find that the ellipsoidal source satisfies both the vertical and horizontal deformation data, whereas the spherical point source cannot. According to our analysis of the 1985-1999 data, the main source of deformation is a prolate ellipsoid located beneath the resurgent dome at a depth of 5.9 km (95% bounds of 4.9-7.5 km). This body is vertically elongated, has an aspect ratio of 0.475 (95% bounds are 0.25-0.65) and a volume change of 0.086 km3 (95% bounds are 0.06-0.13 km3). Failure to account for the ellipsoidal nature of the source biases the estimated source depth by 2.1 km (35%), and the source volume by 0.038 km3 (44%). ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Design and initial operation of a two-color soft x-ray camera system on the Compact Toroidal Hybrid experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herfindal, J. L.; Dawson, J. D.; Ennis, D. A.; Hartwell, G. J.; Loch, S. D.; Maurer, D. A.

    2014-01-01

    A multi-camera soft x-ray diagnostic has been developed to measure the equilibrium electron temperature profile and temperature fluctuations due to magnetohydrodynamic activity on the Compact Toroidal Hybrid experiment. The diagnostic consists of three separate cameras each employing two 20-channel diode arrays that view the same plasma region through different beryllium filter thicknesses of 1.8 μm and 3.0 μm allowing electron temperature measurements between 50 eV and 200 eV. The Compact Toroidal Hybrid is a five-field period current-carrying stellarator, in which the presence of plasma current strongly modifies the rotational transform and degree of asymmetry of the equilibrium. Details of the soft x-ray emission, effects of plasma asymmetry, and impurity line radiation on the design and measurement of the two-color diagnostic are discussed. Preliminary estimates of the temperature perturbation due to sawtooth oscillations observed in these hybrid discharges are given

  13. Unraveling the rat blood genome-wide transcriptome after oral administration of lavender oil by a two-color dye-swap DNA microarray approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motohide Hori

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Lavender oil (LO is a commonly used essential oil in aromatherapy as non-traditional medicine. With an aim to demonstrate LO effects on the body, we have recently established an animal model investigating the influence of orally administered LO in rat tissues, genome-wide. In this brief, we investigate the effect of LO ingestion in the blood of rat. Rats were administered LO at usual therapeutic dose (5 mg/kg in humans, and following collection of the venous blood from the heart and extraction of total RNA, the differentially expressed genes were screened using a 4 × 44-K whole-genome rat chip (Agilent microarray platform; Agilent Technologies, Palo Alto, CA, USA in conjunction with a two-color dye-swap approach. A total of 834 differentially expressed genes in the blood were identified: 362 up-regulated and 472 down-regulated. These genes were functionally categorized using bioinformatics tools. The gene expression inventory of rat blood transcriptome under LO, a first report, has been deposited into the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO: GSE67499. The data will be a valuable resource in examining the effects of natural products, and which could also serve as a human model for further functional analysis and investigation.

  14. Two-color fluorescence analysis of individual virions determines the distribution of the copy number of proteins in herpes simplex virus particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Richard W; Monnier, Nilah; Li, Haitao; Zhou, Dejian; Browne, Helena; Klenerman, David

    2007-08-15

    We present a single virion method to determine absolute distributions of copy number in the protein composition of viruses and apply it to herpes simplex virus type 1. Using two-color coincidence fluorescence spectroscopy, we determine the virion-to-virion variability in copy numbers of fluorescently labeled tegument and envelope proteins relative to a capsid protein by analyzing fluorescence intensity ratios for ensembles of individual dual-labeled virions and fitting the resulting histogram of ratios. Using EYFP-tagged capsid protein VP26 as a reference for fluorescence intensity, we are able to calculate the mean and also, for the first time to our knowledge, the variation in numbers of gD, VP16, and VP22 tegument. The measurement of the number of glycoprotein D molecules was in good agreement with independent measurements of average numbers of these glycoproteins in bulk virus preparations, validating the method. The accuracy, straightforward data processing, and high throughput of this technique make it widely applicable to the analysis of the molecular composition of large complexes in general, and it is particularly suited to providing insights into virus structure, assembly, and infectivity.

  15. Photoluminescence of phosphors for PDP with VUV excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, H.-C.; Chen, H.-K.; Tseng, T.-Y.; Kuo, W.-L.; Alam, M.S.; Cheng, B.-M.

    2005-01-01

    In a plasma display panel (PDP) He-Xe or Ne-Xe gaseous mixtures are subjected to electric discharge between two glass panels, so to generate VUV light. Red, green and blue phosphors absorb this VUV radiation and re-radiate the energy as visible light to produce the colors that appear on the screen. The phosphor plays an important role in the working of a PDP. To improve the efficiency of phosphors, we have established a photoluminescence end station coupled to the beam line of a synchrotron to study the luminescence of PDP phosphors. This luminescence is analyzed with a 0.32 m monochromator having maximum resolution 0.04 nm, and is monitored with a photomultiplier tube operated in a photon-counting mode. Preliminary data demonstrate the powerful performance of this end-station for studying PDP phosphors

  16. Process for winning uranium from wet process phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A process is described for winning uranium from wet process phosphoric acid by means of liquid-liquid extraction with organic phosphoric acid esters. The process is optimised by keeping the sulphate percentage in the phosphoric acid below 2% by weight, and preferably below 0.6% by weight, as compared to P 2 O 5 in the phosphoric acid. This is achieved by adding an excess of Ba and/or Ca carbonate or sulfide solution and filtering off the formed calcium and/or barium sulphate precipitates. Solid KClO 3 is then added to the filtrate to oxidise U 4+ to U 6+ . The normal extraction procedure using organic phosphoric esters as extraction liquid, can then be applied. (Th.P.)

  17. Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Measurements of CDA 510 Phosphor Bronze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, James E.; Canavan, Edgar; DiPirro, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Many cryogenic systems use electrical cables containing phosphor bronze wire. While phosphor bronze's electrical and thermal conductivity values have been published, there is significant variation among different phosphor bronze formulations. The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will use several phosphor bronze wire harnesses containing a specific formulation (CDA 510, annealed temper). The heat conducted into the JWST instrument stage is dominated by these harnesses, and approximately half of the harness conductance is due to the phosphor bronze wires. Since the JWST radiators are expected to just keep the instruments at their operating temperature with limited cooling margin, it is important to know the thermal conductivity of the actual alloy being used. We describe an experiment which measured the electrical and thermal conductivity of this material between 4 and 295 Kelvin.

  18. Pretreatment of phosphoric acid of Annaba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kada, R.

    1990-03-01

    The most important step in the process of uranium recovery from phosphoric acid is the pretreatment operation. In this study, the adsorption of organic matters on activated carbon was carried out in a batch process and in a fixed bed column. First, the chemical and physical characterization of phosphoric acid, activated carbon and gypsum were performed. In addition, the organic matters were qualitatively analysed and a new and original quantitative method was experimented. Next, the various operating parameters such as agitation speed, granulometry, temperature, solid/liquid ratio, initial concentration, acid flowrate, and bed height were optimized. The experimental equilibrium isotherm was compared to the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Redlich-Peterson theoretical isotherms. It was noticed that the three models did not fit the experimental isotherm in the total concentration range. Thus, an original bilinear model was proposed. The influence of the operating conditions on the adsorption kinetics was also investigated. As a result of that, a new mathematical model was proposed to determine both the liquid and solid phases mass transfer and the solid phase diffusion coefficient. Finally, adsorption of organic matters on a fixed bed process allowed computation of the number of transfer units (NTU), the height of adsorption zone and the degree of saturation of activated carbon

  19. Modeling granular phosphor screens by Monte Carlo methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liaparinos, Panagiotis F.; Kandarakis, Ioannis S.; Cavouras, Dionisis A.; Delis, Harry B.; Panayiotakis, George S.

    2006-01-01

    The intrinsic phosphor properties are of significant importance for the performance of phosphor screens used in medical imaging systems. In previous analytical-theoretical and Monte Carlo studies on granular phosphor materials, values of optical properties, and light interaction cross sections were found by fitting to experimental data. These values were then employed for the assessment of phosphor screen imaging performance. However, it was found that, depending on the experimental technique and fitting methodology, the optical parameters of a specific phosphor material varied within a wide range of values, i.e., variations of light scattering with respect to light absorption coefficients were often observed for the same phosphor material. In this study, x-ray and light transport within granular phosphor materials was studied by developing a computational model using Monte Carlo methods. The model was based on the intrinsic physical characteristics of the phosphor. Input values required to feed the model can be easily obtained from tabulated data. The complex refractive index was introduced and microscopic probabilities for light interactions were produced, using Mie scattering theory. Model validation was carried out by comparing model results on x-ray and light parameters (x-ray absorption, statistical fluctuations in the x-ray to light conversion process, number of emitted light photons, output light spatial distribution) with previous published experimental data on Gd 2 O 2 S:Tb phosphor material (Kodak Min-R screen). Results showed the dependence of the modulation transfer function (MTF) on phosphor grain size and material packing density. It was predicted that granular Gd 2 O 2 S:Tb screens of high packing density and small grain size may exhibit considerably better resolution and light emission properties than the conventional Gd 2 O 2 S:Tb screens, under similar conditions (x-ray incident energy, screen thickness)

  20. Is it possible to revive the flagging interest in thermography for neurology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stulin, Igor D.

    1993-11-01

    The paper describes the results of twenty-years of experience in applying thermography (thermal imaging) in routine and urgent neurology, based on the study of more than ten thousand patients. Stress is laid on the fact that thermography is of great significance for diagnosing dextrocerebral hemorrhagic insult with a manifestation of pronounced hemihypothermia in the paralyzed limbs, identifying paraorbital hyperthermia on the side of rhinogenous cerebral abscess, for instrumental registration of transitory heat-up of the nasolabial region in the case of patients suffering from hypertensive nasal bleeding. Much attention is given to diagnosis of intra- and extracerebral phlebopathy in urgent neurology -- early diagnosis of iatrogenic catheterization phlebitis, interference with the venous return in the paralyzed lower limb. The novelty here is the employment of telethermography for complex diagnosis of cerebral death.

  1. A photovoltaic module diagnostic setup for lock-in-thermography and lock-in electroluminescence imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parikh, Harsh; Spataru, Sergiu; Sera, Dezso

    2018-01-01

    Electroluminescence (EL) imaging and infrared (IRT) thermography techniques have become indispensable tools in recent years for health diagnostic of PV modules in solar industry application. Complementary to these imaging methods, lock-in techniques can effectively remove noise by periodically...... modulating the input signal and averaging it over a desired number of periods. We propose a combined lock-in EL and lock-in IRT diagnostic setup for accurate analysis of different types of faults occurring in a solar module. The setup is built around a Goldeye CL-033 high-speed SWIR camera, which can acquire...... experimental work on a (36/72) cell solar module using combined (EL) or (IRT) lock-in-thermography. The setup allows one to investigate the different technological problems that can occur when performing PV diagnostics in drone-based inspections....

  2. Nondestructive diagnosis of rotation components of a railway vehicle using infrared thermography and pattern recognitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Seok Jin; Kim, Min Su; Seo, Jung Won; Kang, Bu Beong

    2016-01-01

    The faults in railway vehicle components may result in either the stoppage of the service and the derailment of the vehicle. Therefore, it is important to diagnose and monitor the main components of a railway vehicle. The use of temperature is one of the basic methods for the diagnosis of abnormal conditions in the rotational components of a railway vehicle, such as bearings, reduction gears, brake discs, wheels and traction motors. In the present study, the diagnose of the rotational components using infrared thermography and a pattern recognition technique was carried out and a field test was performed. The results show that this method of diagnosis using infrared thermography can be used to identify abnormal conditions in rotational components of a railway vehicle

  3. Nondestructive diagnosis of rotation components of a railway vehicle using infrared thermography and pattern recognitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Seok Jin; Kim, Min Su; Seo, Jung Won [New Transportation Research Center, Korea Railroad Research Institute, Uiwang (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Bu Beong [Dept. of of Railway Vehicle System Engineering, Woosong University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    The faults in railway vehicle components may result in either the stoppage of the service and the derailment of the vehicle. Therefore, it is important to diagnose and monitor the main components of a railway vehicle. The use of temperature is one of the basic methods for the diagnosis of abnormal conditions in the rotational components of a railway vehicle, such as bearings, reduction gears, brake discs, wheels and traction motors. In the present study, the diagnose of the rotational components using infrared thermography and a pattern recognition technique was carried out and a field test was performed. The results show that this method of diagnosis using infrared thermography can be used to identify abnormal conditions in rotational components of a railway vehicle.

  4. Panorama Image Processing for Condition Monitoring with Thermography in Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Byoung Joon; Kim, Tae Hwan; Kim, Soon Geol; Mo, Yoon Syub [UNETWARE, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Won Tae [Kongju National University, Gongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    In this paper, imaging processing study obtained from CCD image and thermography image was performed in order to treat easily thermographic data without any risks of personnel who conduct the condition monitoring for the abnormal or failure status occurrable in industrial power plants. This imaging processing is also applicable to the predictive maintenance. For confirming the broad monitoring, a methodology producting single image from the panorama technique was developed no matter how many cameras are employed, including fusion method for discrete configuration for the target. As results, image fusion from quick realtime processing was obtained and it was possible to save time to track the location monitoring in matching the images between CCTV and thermography

  5. Panorama Image Processing for Condition Monitoring with Thermography in Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Byoung Joon; Kim, Tae Hwan; Kim, Soon Geol; Mo, Yoon Syub; Kim, Won Tae

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, imaging processing study obtained from CCD image and thermography image was performed in order to treat easily thermographic data without any risks of personnel who conduct the condition monitoring for the abnormal or failure status occurrable in industrial power plants. This imaging processing is also applicable to the predictive maintenance. For confirming the broad monitoring, a methodology producting single image from the panorama technique was developed no matter how many cameras are employed, including fusion method for discrete configuration for the target. As results, image fusion from quick realtime processing was obtained and it was possible to save time to track the location monitoring in matching the images between CCTV and thermography

  6. Visualizing and measuring the temperature field produced by medical diagnostic ultrasound using thermography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vachutka, J; Grec, P; Mornstein, V; Caruana, C J

    2008-01-01

    The heating of tissues by diagnostic ultrasound can pose a significant hazard particularly in the imaging of the unborn child. The demonstration of the temperature field in tissue is therefore an important objective in the teaching of biomedical physics to healthcare professionals. The temperature field in a soft tissue model was made visible and measured using thermography. Temperature data from the images were used to investigate the dependence of temperature increase within the model on ultrasound exposure time and distance from the transducer. The experiment will be used within a multi-professional biomedical physics teaching laboratory for enhancing learning regarding the principles of thermography and the thermal effects of ultrasound to medical and healthcare students and also for demonstrating the quantitative use of thermographic imaging to students of biophysics, medical physics and medical technology

  7. Use of a remote infrared thermography in experimental medicine at extreme influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Datsenko A.V.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study presents an analysis of published data on the use of remote infrared thermography in medicine and veterinary science and evaluated the main opportunities, methods and ways of thermovision registration in experimental medical studies on biological objects, including at extreme influences. The following resources of the bibliographic electronic databases had been used: eLibrary, PubMed, Clinical Key, Science. Now methods of infrared thermography in insufficient degree are used in experimental medicine, including when studying adverse biological effect of various harmful and dangerous extreme factors, which main manifestation, especially in the early period after exposure, are systemic microvascular disorders, determining the state of capacity of human biomodels. These dynamic remote ther-mographic studies of experimental biological objects can be used to evaluate disorders of the peripheral circulation, working capacity and an emotional condition of the biomodels exposed to extreme factors, including early after experimental studies in laboratory and field work.

  8. Investigation of the energy efficiency of the military museum building by infrared thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavica S. Ristić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Infrared (IR thermography, as a diagnostic technique, is used to find anomalies in the thermal signature of the Military museum building in Belgrade, to identify irregularities or deficiencies, such as wet materials, voids, or missing insulation and to inspect energy efficiency of the museum building and microclimatic indoor conditions.  It is very important to perform preventative maintenance and stop undesirable environment influences that induce structural damage, modification of materials and agglomeration of pollutants and microorganisms on the cultural heritage artifacts, stored in the museum depot or exhibited in the galleries. The main causes for corrosion in historical buildings and museum artifacts are moisture and changeable temperature conditions. This paper deals with the results obtained in the application of IR thermography in determination of these conditions in the Military museum building, where very important metal artifacts are exhibited and deposed. The results show poor thermal insulation, wet walls and, generally, low energy efficiency.

  9. Detection and characterization of exercise induced muscle damage (EIMD) via thermography and image processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avdelidis, Nicolas; Kappatos, Vassilios; Georgoulas, George

    2017-01-01

    of commonly measurement tools and methods. Thermography has been used successfully as a research detection tool in medicine for the last 6 decades but very limited work has been reported on EIMD area. The main purpose of this research is to assess and characterize EIMD, using thermography and image processing...... techniques. The first step towards that goal is to develop a reliable segmentation technique to isolate the region of interest (ROI). A semi-automatic image processing software was designed and regions of the left and right leg based on superpixels were segmented. The image is segmented into a number...... of regions and the user is able to intervene providing the regions which belong to each of the two legs. In order to validate the image processing software, an extensive experimental investigation was carried out, acquiring thermographic images of the rectus femoris muscle before, immediately post and 24, 48...

  10. Motion-induced eddy current thermography for high-speed inspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianbo Wu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This letter proposes a novel motion-induced eddy current based thermography (MIECT for high-speed inspection. In contrast to conventional eddy current thermography (ECT based on a time-varying magnetic field created by an AC coil, the motion-induced eddy current is induced by the relative motion between magnetic field and inspected objects. A rotating magnetic field created by three-phase windings is used to investigate the heating principle and feasibility of the proposed method. Firstly, based on Faraday’s law the distribution of MIEC is investigated, which is then validated by numerical simulation. Further, experimental studies are conducted to validate the proposed method by creating rotating magnetic fields at different speeds from 600 rpm to 6000 rpm, and it is verified that rotating speed will increase MIEC intensity and thereafter improve the heating efficiency. The conclusion can be preliminarily drawn that the proposed MIECT is a platform suitable for high-speed inspection.

  11. Quantitative defects detection in wind turbine blade using optical infrared thermography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwaon, Koo Ahn [School of Aerospace System Engineering, UST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Man Yong; Park, Hee Sang; Park, Jeong Hak; Huh, Yong Hak; Choi, Won Jai [Safety Measurement Center, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    A wind turbine blade is an important component in wind-power generation, and is generally exposed to harsh environmental conditions. Ultrasonic inspection is mainly used to inspect such blades, but it has been difficult to quantify defect sizes in complicated composite structures. Recently, active infrared thermography has been widely studied for inspecting composite structures, in which thermal energy is applied to an object, and an infrared camera detects the energy emitted from it. In this paper, a calibration method for active optical lock-in thermography is proposed to quantify the size. Inclusion, debonding and wrinkle defects, created in a wind blade for 100 kW wind power generation, were all successfully detected using this method. In particular, a 50.0 mm debonding defect was sized with 98.0% accuracy.

  12. Tuning the diurnal natural daylight with phosphor converted white LED – Advent of new phosphor blend composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yoon Hwa; Arunkumar, Paulraj; Park, Seung Hyok; Yoon, Ho Shin; Im, Won Bin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Designed phosphor blend that mimics diurnal daylight for health benefits. • Developed new phosphor blend composition that mimics natural sunlight under near UV. • The phosphor blend also exhibits high CRI (≥90) under blue LED excitation. • Fabricated WLED exhibited ∼91% spectral resemblance with daylight at 4500 K. • While ∼39.2% spectral resemblance were observed for YAG:Ce 3+ at 4500 K. - Abstract: We demonstrate the feasibility of developing phosphor converted white LED (pc-WLED) that mimics diurnal natural daylight with the newly designed phosphor blend in the color temperature (CCT) 2700–6000 K for health benefits. Natural daylight (sunlight) spectrum possesses broad emission in the visible region and closely approximates black body radiator, with color rendition index (CRI) of 100 under wide CCT (2500–6500 K). Current white light LEDs although are efficient and durable, they are not broad enough compared to daylight. We report new phosphor blend based on Sr 3 MgSi 2 O 8 :Eu 2+ blue phosphor with broad emission and high CRI ≥ 96 under both near UV and blue excitation. The fabricated WLED has exhibited ∼91% spectral resemblance with natural daylight compared to 39.2% for YAG:Ce 3+ white LED at 4500 K. The developed phosphor blend tunes the spectrum in wider CCT and would be a prospective candidate for full spectrum daylight WLED

  13. Tuning the diurnal natural daylight with phosphor converted white LED – Advent of new phosphor blend composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yoon Hwa [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Chonnam National University, 300, Yongbong-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute, Force4 Corp., Daechon-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-470 (Korea, Republic of); Arunkumar, Paulraj [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Chonnam National University, 300, Yongbong-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seung Hyok; Yoon, Ho Shin [Research Institute, Force4 Corp., Daechon-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-470 (Korea, Republic of); Im, Won Bin, E-mail: imwonbin@jnu.ac.kr [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Chonnam National University, 300, Yongbong-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Designed phosphor blend that mimics diurnal daylight for health benefits. • Developed new phosphor blend composition that mimics natural sunlight under near UV. • The phosphor blend also exhibits high CRI (≥90) under blue LED excitation. • Fabricated WLED exhibited ∼91% spectral resemblance with daylight at 4500 K. • While ∼39.2% spectral resemblance were observed for YAG:Ce{sup 3+} at 4500 K. - Abstract: We demonstrate the feasibility of developing phosphor converted white LED (pc-WLED) that mimics diurnal natural daylight with the newly designed phosphor blend in the color temperature (CCT) 2700–6000 K for health benefits. Natural daylight (sunlight) spectrum possesses broad emission in the visible region and closely approximates black body radiator, with color rendition index (CRI) of 100 under wide CCT (2500–6500 K). Current white light LEDs although are efficient and durable, they are not broad enough compared to daylight. We report new phosphor blend based on Sr{sub 3}MgSi{sub 2}O{sub 8}:Eu{sup 2+} blue phosphor with broad emission and high CRI ≥ 96 under both near UV and blue excitation. The fabricated WLED has exhibited ∼91% spectral resemblance with natural daylight compared to 39.2% for YAG:Ce{sup 3+} white LED at 4500 K. The developed phosphor blend tunes the spectrum in wider CCT and would be a prospective candidate for full spectrum daylight WLED.

  14. Coupling IR Thermography and BIA to analyse body reaction after one acupuncture session

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piquemal, M

    2013-01-01

    Coupling both thermography and bio-Impedance, some biophysical acupuncture mechanisms are statically studied on a small population of 18 subjects. Results show that a possible way of understanding acupuncture, in an electrical way, should be to consider ionic flux redistribution between vascular and extra cell compartments. This is a two steps mechanism. The first one is starting with needles insertion and the second one is lasting with more intensity after removing them from skin.

  15. Ultrasound Burst Phase Thermography (UBP) for applications in the automotive industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweschper, T.; Riegert, G.; Dillenz, A.; Busse, G.

    2003-01-01

    The use of elastic waves in combination with thermal waves allows to separate structural information about investigated components from defect specific thermal signatures. Ultrasound Burst Phase thermography (UBP) is an defect-selective and fast imaging tool for damage detection. This contribution presents results obtained on various kinds of problems related to modern automobile production (crack detection in grey cast iron and aluminum, characterization of adhesive-bonded joints etc.). Advances resulting from frequency modulated ultrasound excitation will be presented

  16. Energy flux to the ASDEX-upgrade diverter plates determined by thermography and calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, A.; Junker, W.; Guenther, K.

    1995-01-01

    A new thermography system with high time resolution was put into operation at ASDEX-Upgrade and is routinely used to determine the energy flux onto the lower diverter plates. The measurements allow the power deposition to be characterized during dynamic events such as ELMs and disruptions, as well as the asymmetry of the inboard/outboard power load. A power balance is set up even during single discharges and the losses are found to be fairly equal to the power input. (author)

  17. Methodology for heat flux investigation on leading edges using infrared thermography

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Corre, Y.; Gardarein, J.-L.; Dejarnac, Renaud; Gaspar, J.; Gunn, J. P.; Aumeunier, M.-H.; Courtois, X.; Missirlian, M.; Rigollet, F.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 1 (2017), č. článku 016009. ISSN 0029-5515 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : IR thermography * leading edge * heat flux * limiter Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 3.307, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/0029-5515/57/1/016009/meta

  18. Coupling IR Thermography and BIA to analyse body reaction after one acupuncture session

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piquemal, M.

    2013-04-01

    Coupling both thermography and bio-Impedance, some biophysical acupuncture mechanisms are statically studied on a small population of 18 subjects. Results show that a possible way of understanding acupuncture, in an electrical way, should be to consider ionic flux redistribution between vascular and extra cell compartments. This is a two steps mechanism. The first one is starting with needles insertion and the second one is lasting with more intensity after removing them from skin.

  19. Detection of defects in multi-layered aramid composites by ultrasonic IR thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pracht, Monika; Swiderski, Waldemar

    2017-10-01

    In military applications, laminates reinforced with aramid, carbon, and glass fibers are used for the construction of protection products against light ballistics. Material layers can be very different by their physical properties. Therefore, such materials represent a difficult inspection task for many traditional techniques of non-destructive testing (NDT). Defects which can appear in this type of many-layered composite materials usually are inaccuracies in gluing composite layers and stratifications or delaminations occurring under hits of fragments and bullets. IR thermographic NDT is considered as a candidate technique to detect such defects. One of the active IR thermography methods used in nondestructive testing is vibrothermography. The term vibrothermography was created in the 1990s to determine the thermal test procedures designed to assess the hidden heterogeneity of structural materials based on surface temperature fields at cyclical mechanical loads. A similar procedure can be done with sound and ultrasonic stimulation of the material, because the cause of an increase in temperature is internal friction between the wall defect and the stimulation mechanical waves. If the cyclic loading does not exceed the flexibility of the material and the rate of change is not large, the heat loss due to thermal conductivity is small, and the test object returns to its original shape and temperature. The most commonly used method is ultrasonic stimulation, and the testing technique is ultrasonic infrared thermography. Ultrasonic IR thermography is based on two basic phenomena. First, the elastic properties of defects differ from the surroundings, and acoustic damping and heating are always larger in the damaged regions than in the undamaged or homogeneous areas. Second, the heat transfer in the sample is dependent on its thermal properties. In this paper, both modelling and experimental results which illustrate the advantages and limitations of ultrasonic IR

  20. Application of thermography to assess the adequacy training in elite athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jover, A.; Salvador, R.; Cibrian, R.; Gonzalez-Pena, R.; Minguez, M. F.; Pino, L.; Lopez de la O, F. J.; Guillen, J.; Reinado, D.; Cortina, T.; Chinillach, N.; Dalmases, F.; Romero, C.; Martinez-Celorio, R.; Diez, S.; Rosello, J.; Reinado, D.; Cortina, T.; Chinillach, N.; Dalmases, F.; Romero, C.; Martinez-Celorio, R.; Diez, S.; Rosello, J.

    2011-01-01

    Thermography is a technique that allows to know the body surface temperature by infrared radiation, making it a completely non-invasive technique, without physical contact. The differences in body temperature in different parts of the body naturally shown in the thermo gram and given that sport can alter the temperature distribution is imaging technique can help to analyze the effect of training on muscle and determine if it has been appropriate and correct.

  1. On the use of infrared thermography in studies with air curtain devices

    OpenAIRE

    Neto, Luís P. C.; Silva, Manuel Gameiro da; Costa, José J.

    2006-01-01

    Among the different existing methods to characterise the aerodynamic sealing effect provided by an air curtain device placed over the opening between two contiguous compartments, infrared thermography has revealed to be a very useful tool. Besides allowing the capture, in an expedite way, of instantaneous images of the temperature field in the neighbourhood of the door, the technique hereon described has other advantages, in terms of quick and easy setup, low intrusive character and liability ...

  2. Liquid crystal thermography of the testicles in the diagnosis of infertility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goeblyoes, P.; Vydra, G.; Szabolcs, I.; Irsy, G.; Goth, M.; Szilagyi, G.

    1982-08-01

    The use of liquid thermography (LCT) of the testicles in diagnosis of infertility was investigated. Varicocele, the most common cause of male infertility, is easily detectable by LCT. The technique may be used as a control after surgical treatment. In the majority of patients with oligo-azoospermia, LCT corresponded to physical examination of the testicles. In patients with oligo-azoospermia and both testicles normal to palpation, LCT is useful method for determining the colder testicle for biopsy purposes.

  3. Liquid crystal thermography of the testicles in the diagnosis of infertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeblyoes, P.; Vydra, G.; Szabolcs, I.; Irsy, G.; Goth, M.; Szilagyi, G.

    1982-01-01

    The use of liquid thermography (LCT) of the testicles in diagnosis of infertility was investigated. Varicocele, the most common cause of male infertility, is easily detectable by LCT. The technique may be used as a control after surgical treatment. In the majority of patients with oligo-azoospermia, LCT corresponded to physical examination of the testicles. In patients with oligo-azoospermia and both testicles normal to palpation, LCT is useful method for determining the colder testicle for biopsy purposes. (orig.)

  4. Laser lock-in thermography for thermal contact characterisation of surface layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semerok, A.; Jaubert, F.; Fomichev, S.V.; Thro, P.-Y.; Courtois, X.; Grisolia, C.

    2012-01-01

    Lock-in thermography was applied to determine the thermal contact conductance of a W-layer (140 μm) on a CFC-substrate. A lock-in thermography system together with a pulse repetition rate Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm, 1–500 Hz pulse repetition rate) for layer heating was applied for phase shift measurements on the W-layer. A numerical model for direct phase shift calculations was developed and applied to rapid determination of the Fourier amplitudes and phases of the temperature. Thermal conductance coefficients were obtained by comparing the experimental and simulation phase shifts. -- Highlights: ► Lock-in thermography determines a layer/substrate thermal conductance. ► Thermal conductance coefficient of W-layer on a CFC-substrate. ► Model for direct phase shift calculations was developed and applied. ► Rapid determination of the Fourier amplitudes and phases of the temperature. ► Comparing the experimental and simulation phase shifts.

  5. Simulation of surface cracks measurement in first walls by laser spot array thermography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei, Cuixiang; Qiu, Jinxin; Liu, Haocheng; Chen, Zhenmao, E-mail: chenzm@mail.xjtu.edu.cn

    2016-11-01

    The inspection of surface cracks in first walls (FW) is very important to ensure the safe operation of the fusion reactors. In this paper, a new laser excited thermography technique with using laser spot array source is proposed for the surface cracks imaging and evaluation in the FW with an intuitive and non-contact measurement method. Instead of imaging a crack by scanning a single laser spot and superimposing the local discontinuity images with the present laser excited thermography methods, it can inspect a relatively large area at one measurement. It does not only simplify the measurement system and data processing procedure, but also provide a faster measurement for FW. In order to investigate the feasibility of this method, a numerical code based on finite element method (FEM) is developed to simulate the heat flow and the effect of the crack geometry on the thermal wave fields. An imaging method based on the gradient of the thermal images is proposed for crack measurement with the laser spot array thermography method.

  6. Diagnosis of X-Linked Hypohidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia by Meibography and Infrared Thermography of the Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaercher, Thomas; Dietz, Jasna; Jacobi, Christina; Berz, Reinhold; Schneider, Holm

    2015-09-01

    X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XLHED) is the most common form of ectodermal dysplasia. Clinical characteristics include meibomian gland disorder and the resulting hyperevaporative dry eye. In this study, we evaluated meibography and ocular infrared thermography as novel methods to diagnose XLHED. Eight infants, 12 boys and 14 male adults with XLHED and 12 healthy control subjects were subjected to a panel of tests including the ocular surface disease index (OSDI), meibography and infrared thermography, non-invasive measurement of tear film break-up time (NIBUT) and osmolarity, Schirmer's test, lissamine green staining and fluorescein staining. Sensitivity and specificity were determined for single tests and selected test combinations. Meibography had 100% sensitivity and specificity for identifying XLHED. Infrared thermography, a completely non-invasive procedure, revealed a typical pattern for male subjects with XLHED. It was, however, less sensitive (86% for adults and 67% for children) than meibography or a combination of established routine tests. In adults, OSDI and NIBUT were the best single routine tests (sensitivity of 86% and 71%, respectively), whereas increased tear osmolarity appeared as a rather unspecific ophthalmic symptom. In children, NIBUT was the most convincing routine test (sensitivity of 91%). Meibography is the most reliable ophthalmic examination to establish a clinical diagnosis in individuals with suspected hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, even before genetic test results are available. Tear film tests and ocular surface staining are less sensitive in children, but very helpful for estimating the severity of ocular surface disease in individuals with known XLHED.

  7. Infrared thermography based on artificial intelligence for carpal tunnel syndrome diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesensek Papez, B; Palfy, M; Turk, Z

    2008-01-01

    Thermography for the measurement of surface temperatures is well known in industry, although is not established in medicine despite its safety, lack of pain and invasiveness, easy reproducibility, and low running costs. Promising results have been achieved in nerve entrapment syndromes, although thermography has never represented a real alternative to electromyography. Here an attempt is described to improve the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome with thermography using a computer-based system employing artificial neural networks to analyse the images. Method reliability was tested on 112 images (depicting the dorsal and palmar sides of 26 healthy and 30 pathological hands), with the hand divided into 12 segments and compared relative to a reference. Palmar segments appeared to have no beneficial influence on classification outcome, whereas dorsal segments gave improved outcome with classification success rates near to or over 80%, and finger segments influenced by the median nerve appeared to be of greatest importance. These are preliminary results from a limited number of images and further research will be undertaken as our image database grows.

  8. A numerical study on the influence of vulnerable plaque composition on intravascular thermography measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Have, A G ten; Gijsen, F J H; Wentzel, J J; Slager, C J; Serruys, P W; Steen, A F W van der

    2006-01-01

    Intracoronary thermography is a technique that measures lumen wall temperatures for vulnerable plaque detection. In this paper the influence of vulnerable plaque composition on lumen wall temperatures was studied numerically. Concerning the vulnerable plaque heat generation, the location of the heat source and its heat production were varied. Concerning the heat transfer, the thermal properties of the lipid core and the location of the vasa vasorum were studied. The heat source location was the main determinant of the lumen wall temperature distribution. The strongest effect was noted when the heat producing macrophages were located in the shoulder region leading to focal spots of higher temperature. The maximal lumen wall temperature was mainly determined by the heat production of the macrophages and the cooling effect of blood. The insulating properties of the lipid core increased lumen wall temperatures when the heat source was located in the cap and the presence of vasa vasorum lowered the temperatures. These results show that the lumen wall temperature distribution is influenced by vulnerable plaque composition and that intracoronary thermography techniques require a high spatial resolution. To be able to couple temperature measurements to plaque vulnerability, intracoronary thermography needs to be combined with an imaging modality

  9. Active Infrared Thermography for Seal Contamination Detection in Heat-Sealed Food Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlien D’huys

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Packaging protects food products from environmental influences, assuring quality and safety throughout shelf life if properly performed. Packaging quality depends on the quality of the packaging material and of the closure or seal. A common problem possibly jeopardizing seal quality is the presence of seal contamination, which can cause a decreased seal strength, an increased packaging failure risk and leak formation. Therefore, early detection and removal of seal contaminated packages from the production chain is crucial. In this work, a pulsed-type active thermography method using the heated seal bars as an excitation source was studied for detecting seal contamination. Thermal image sequences of contaminated seals were recorded shortly after sealing. The detection performances of six thermal image processing methods, based on a single frame, a fit of the cooling profiles, thermal signal reconstruction, pulsed phase thermography, principal component thermography and a matched filter, were compared. High resolution digital images served as a reference to quantify seal contamination, and processed thermal images were mapped to these references. The lowest detection limit (equivalent diameter 0.60 mm was obtained for the method based on a fit of the cooling profiles. Moreover, the detection performance of this method did not depend strongly on the time after sealing at which recording of the thermal images was started, making it a robust and generally applicable method.

  10. Non-Destructive Thermography Analysis of Impact Damage on Large-Scale CFRP Automotive Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Alexander; Schmidt, Roland; Oswald-Tranta, Beate; Schledjewski, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Laminated composites are increasingly used in aeronautics and the wind energy industry, as well as in the automotive industry. In these applications, the construction and processing need to fulfill the highest requirements regarding weight and mechanical properties. Environmental issues, like fuel consumption and CO2-footprint, set new challenges in producing lightweight parts that meet the highly monitored standards for these branches. In the automotive industry, one main aspect of construction is the impact behavior of structural parts. To verify the quality of parts made from composite materials with little effort, cost and time, non-destructive test methods are increasingly used. A highly recommended non-destructive testing method is thermography analysis. In this work, a prototype for a car’s base plate was produced by using vacuum infusion. For research work, testing specimens were produced with the same multi-layer build up as the prototypes. These specimens were charged with defined loads in impact tests to simulate the effect of stone chips. Afterwards, the impacted specimens were investigated with thermography analysis. The research results in that work will help to understand the possible fields of application and the usage of thermography analysis as the first quick and economic failure detection method for automotive parts. PMID:28788464

  11. Quantification of defects depth in glass fiber reinforced plastic plate by infrared lock-in thermography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranjit, Shrestha; Kim, Won Tae [Kongju National University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Man Yong [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    The increasing use of composite materials in various industries has evidenced the need for development of more effective nondestructive evaluation methodologies in order to reduce rejected parts and to optimize production cost. Infrared thermography is a noncontact, fast and reliable non-destructive evaluation technique that has received vast and growing attention for diagnostic and monitoring in the recent years. This paper describes the quantitative analysis of artificial defects in Glass fiber reinforced plastic plate by using Lockin infrared thermography. The experimental analysis was performed at several excitation frequencies to investigate the sample ranging from 2.946 Hz down to 0.019 Hz and the effects of each excitation frequency on defect detachability. The four point method was used in post processing of every pixel of thermal images using the MATLAB programming language. The relationship between the phase contrast with defects depth and area was examined. Finally, phase contrast method was used to calculate the defects depth considering the thermal diffusivity of the material being inspected and the excitation frequency for which the defect becomes visible. The obtained results demonstrated the effectiveness of Lock-in infrared thermography as a powerful measurement technique for the inspection of Glass fiber reinforced plastic structures.

  12. Non-Destructive Thermography Analysis of Impact Damage on Large-Scale CFRP Automotive Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Maier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Laminated composites are increasingly used in aeronautics and the wind energy industry, as well as in the automotive industry. In these applications, the construction and processing need to fulfill the highest requirements regarding weight and mechanical properties. Environmental issues, like fuel consumption and CO2-footprint, set new challenges in producing lightweight parts that meet the highly monitored standards for these branches. In the automotive industry, one main aspect of construction is the impact behavior of structural parts. To verify the quality of parts made from composite materials with little effort, cost and time, non-destructive test methods are increasingly used. A highly recommended non-destructive testing method is thermography analysis. In this work, a prototype for a car’s base plate was produced by using vacuum infusion. For research work, testing specimens were produced with the same multi-layer build up as the prototypes. These specimens were charged with defined loads in impact tests to simulate the effect of stone chips. Afterwards, the impacted specimens were investigated with thermography analysis. The research results in that work will help to understand the possible fields of application and the usage of thermography analysis as the first quick and economic failure detection method for automotive parts.

  13. Detection and location of fouling on photovoltaic panels using a drone-mounted infrared thermography system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Lifu; Wu, Taixia; Zhang, Hongming; Sun, Xuejian

    2017-01-01

    Due to weathering and external forces, solar panels are subject to fouling and defects after a certain amount of time in service. These fouling and defects have direct adverse consequences such as low-power efficiency. Because solar power plants usually have large-scale photovoltaic (PV) panels, fast detection and location of fouling and defects across large PV areas are imperative. A drone-mounted infrared thermography system was designed and developed, and its ability to detect rapid fouling on large-scale PV panel systems was investigated. The infrared images were preprocessed using the K neighbor mean filter, and the single PV module on each image was recognized and extracted. Combining the local and global detection method, suspicious sites were located precisely. The results showed the flexible drone-mounted infrared thermography system to have a strong ability to detect the presence and determine the position of PV fouling. Drone-mounted infrared thermography also has good technical feasibility and practical value in the detection of PV fouling detection.

  14. Detection and assessment of electrocution in endangered raptors by infrared thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melero, Mar; González, Fernando; Nicolás, Olga; López, Irene; Jiménez, María de Los Ángeles; Jato-Sánchez, Susana; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José Manuel

    2013-07-23

    Most European birds of prey find themselves in a poor state of conservation, with electrocution as one of the most frequent causes of unnatural death. Since early detection of electrocution is difficult, treatment is usually implemented late, which reduces its effectiveness. By considering that electrocution reduces tissue temperature, it may be detectable by thermography, which would allow a more rapid identification. Three individuals from three endangered raptor species [Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti), Lammergeier (Gypaetus barbatus) and Osprey (Pandion haliaetus)] were studied thermographically from the time they were admitted to a rehabilitation centre to the time their clinical cases were resolved. The three raptors presented lesions lacking thermal bilateral symmetry and were consistent with electrocution of feet, wings and eyes, visible by thermography before than clinically; lesions were well-defined and showed a lower temperature than the surrounding tissue. Some lesions evolved thermally and clinically until the appearance of normal tissue recovered, while others evolved and became necrotic. A histopathological analysis of a damaged finger amputated off a Lammergeier, and the necropsy and histopathology examination of an osprey, confirmed the electrocution diagnosis. These results suggest that thermography is effective and useful for the objective and early detection and monitoring of electrocuted birds, and that it may prove especially useful for examining live animals that require no amputation or cannot be subjected to invasive histopathology.

  15. Enhancing the Accuracy of Advanced High Temperature Mechanical Testing through Thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Jones

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the advantages and enhanced accuracy thermography provides to high temperature mechanical testing. This technique is not only used to monitor, but also to control test specimen temperatures where the infra-red technique enables accurate non-invasive control of rapid thermal cycling for non-metallic materials. Isothermal and dynamic waveforms are employed over a 200–800 °C temperature range to pre-oxidised and coated specimens to assess the capability of the technique. This application shows thermography to be accurate to within ±2 °C of thermocouples, a standardised measurement technique. This work demonstrates the superior visibility of test temperatures previously unobtainable by conventional thermocouples or even more modern pyrometers that thermography can deliver. As a result, the speed and accuracy of thermal profiling, thermal gradient measurements and cold/hot spot identification using the technique has increased significantly to the point where temperature can now be controlled by averaging over a specified area. The increased visibility of specimen temperatures has revealed additional unknown effects such as thermocouple shadowing, preferential crack tip heating within an induction coil, and, fundamental response time of individual measurement techniques which are investigated further.

  16. Detection of seal contamination in heat-sealed food packaging based on active infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'huys, Karlien; Saeys, Wouter; De Ketelaere, Bart

    2015-05-01

    In the food industry packaging is often applied to protect the product from the environment, assuring quality and safety throughout shelf life if properly performed. Packaging quality depends on the material used and the closure (seal). The material is selected based on the specific needs of the food product to be wrapped. However, proper closure of the package is often harder to achieve. One problem possibly jeopardizing seal quality is the presence of food particles between the seal. Seal contamination can cause a decreased seal strength and thus an increased packaging failure risk. It can also trigger the formation of microchannels through which air and microorganisms can enter and spoil the enclosed food. Therefore, early detection and removal of seal-contaminated packages from the production chain is essential. In this work, a pulsed-type active thermography method using the heat of the sealing bars as an excitation source was studied for detecting seal contamination. The cooling profile of contaminated seals was recorded. The detection performance of four processing methods (based on a single frame, a fit of the cooling profile, pulsed phase thermography and a matched filter) was compared. High resolution digital images served as a reference to quantify contamination. The lowest detection limit (equivalent diameter of 0.63 mm) and the lowest processing time (0.42 s per sample) were obtained for the method based on a single frame. Presumably, practical limitations in the recording stage prevented the added value of active thermography to be fully reflected in this application.

  17. Non-Destructive Thermography Analysis of Impact Damage on Large-Scale CFRP Automotive Parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Alexander; Schmidt, Roland; Oswald-Tranta, Beate; Schledjewski, Ralf

    2014-01-14

    Laminated composites are increasingly used in aeronautics and the wind energy industry, as well as in the automotive industry. In these applications, the construction and processing need to fulfill the highest requirements regarding weight and mechanical properties. Environmental issues, like fuel consumption and CO₂-footprint, set new challenges in producing lightweight parts that meet the highly monitored standards for these branches. In the automotive industry, one main aspect of construction is the impact behavior of structural parts. To verify the quality of parts made from composite materials with little effort, cost and time, non-destructive test methods are increasingly used. A highly recommended non-destructive testing method is thermography analysis. In this work, a prototype for a car's base plate was produced by using vacuum infusion. For research work, testing specimens were produced with the same multi-layer build up as the prototypes. These specimens were charged with defined loads in impact tests to simulate the effect of stone chips. Afterwards, the impacted specimens were investigated with thermography analysis. The research results in that work will help to understand the possible fields of application and the usage of thermography analysis as the first quick and economic failure detection method for automotive parts.

  18. Application of Infrared Thermography as a Diagnostic Tool of Knee Osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfaoui, Ahlem; Bouzid, Mohamed Amine; Pron, Hervé; Taiar, Redha; Polidori, Guillaume

    This paper aimed to study the feasibility of application of infrared thermography to detect osteoarthritis of the knee and to compare the distribution of skin temperature between participants with osteoarthritis and those without pathology. All tests were conducted at LACM (Laboratory of Mechanical Stresses Analysis) and the gymnasium of the University of Reims Champagne Ardennes. IR thermography was performed using an IR camera. Ten participants with knee osteoarthritis and 12 reference healthy participants without OA participated in this study. Questionnaires were also used. The participants with osteoarthritis of the knee were selected on clinical examination and a series of radiographs. The level of pain was recorded by using a simple verbal scale (0-4). Infrared thermography reveals relevant disease by highlighting asymmetrical behavior in thermal color maps of both knees. Moreover, a linear evolution of skin temperature in the knee area versus time has been found whatever the participant group is in the first stage following a given effort. Results clearly show that the temperature can be regarded as a key parameter for evaluating pain. Thermal images of the knee were taken with an infrared camera. The study shows that with the advantage of being noninvasive and easily repeatable, IRT appears to be a useful tool to detect quantifiable patterns of surface temperatures and predict the singular thermal behavior of this pathology. It also seems that this non-intrusive technique enables to detect the early clinical manifestations of knee OA.

  19. High Efficiency Colloidal Quantum Dot Phosphors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahen, Keith

    2013-12-31

    The project showed that non-Cd containing, InP-based nanocrystals (semiconductor materials with dimensions of ~6 nm) have high potential for enabling next-generation, nanocrystal-based, on chip phosphors for solid state lighting. Typical nanocrystals fall short of the requirements for on chip phosphors due to their loss of quantum efficiency under the operating conditions of LEDs, such as, high temperature (up to 150 °C) and high optical flux (up to 200 W/cm2). The InP-based nanocrystals invented during this project maintain high quantum efficiency (>80%) in polymer-based films under these operating conditions for emission wavelengths ranging from ~530 to 620 nm. These nanocrystals also show other desirable attributes, such as, lack of blinking (a common problem with nanocrystals which limits their performance) and no increase in the emission spectral width from room to 150 °C (emitters with narrower spectral widths enable higher efficiency LEDs). Prior to these nanocrystals, no nanocrystal system (regardless of nanocrystal type) showed this collection of properties; in fact, other nanocrystal systems are typically limited to showing only one desirable trait (such as high temperature stability) but being deficient in other properties (such as high flux stability). The project showed that one can reproducibly obtain these properties by generating a novel compositional structure inside of the nanomaterials; in addition, the project formulated an initial theoretical framework linking the compositional structure to the list of high performance optical properties. Over the course of the project, the synthetic methodology for producing the novel composition was evolved to enable the synthesis of these nanomaterials at a cost approximately equal to that required for forming typical conventional nanocrystals. Given the above results, the last major remaining step prior to scale up of the nanomaterials is to limit the oxidation of these materials during the tens of

  20. The quality study of recycled glass phosphor waste for LED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chun-Chin; Chen, Guan-Hao; Yue, Cheng-Feng; Chen, Cin-Fu; Cheng, Wood-Hi

    2017-02-01

    To study the feasibility and quality of recycled glass phosphor waste for LED packaging, the experiments were conducted to compare optical characteristics between fresh color conversion layer and that made of recycled waste. The fresh color conversion layer was fabricated through sintering pristine mixture of Y.A.G. powder [yellow phosphor (Y3AlO12 : Ce3+). Those recycled waste glass phosphor re-melted to form Secondary Molten Glass Phosphor (S.M.G.P.). The experiments on such low melting temperature glass results showed that transmission rates of S.M.G.P. are 9% higher than those of first-sintered glass phosphor, corresponding to 1.25% greater average bubble size and 36% more bubble coverage area in S.M.G.P. In the recent years, high power LED modules and laser projectors have been requiring higher thermal stability by using glass phosphor materials for light mixing. Nevertheless, phosphor and related materials are too expensive to expand their markets. It seems a right trend and research goal that recycling such waste of high thermal stability and quality materials could be preferably one of feasible cost-down solutions. This technical approach could bring out brighter future for solid lighting and light source module industries.

  1. Compact fluorescent lamp phosphors in accidental radiation monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, K. V. R.; Pallavi, S. P.; Ghildiyal, R.; Parmar, M. C.; Patel, Y. S.; Ravi Kumar, V.; Sai Prasad, A. S.; Natarajan, V.; Page, A. G.

    2006-01-01

    The application of lamp phosphors for accidental dosimetry is a new concept. Since the materials used in fluorescent lamps are good photo luminescent materials, if one can either use the inherent defects present in the phosphor or add suitable modifiers to induce thermoluminescence (TL) in these phosphors, then the device (fluorescent lamp) can be used as an accidental dosemeter. In continuation of our search for a suitable phosphor material, which can serve both as an efficient lamp phosphor and as a good radiation monitoring device, detailed examination has been carried out on cerium and terbium-doped lanthanum phosphate material. A 90 Sr beta source with 50 mCi strength (1.85 GBq) was used as the irradiation source for TL studies. The TL response as a function of dose received was examined for all phosphors used and it was observed that the intensity of the TL peak vs. dose received was a linear function in the dose range 0.1-200 Gy in each case. Incidentally LaPO 4 :Ce,Tb is a component of the compact fluorescent lamp marketed recently as an energy bright light source. Besides having very good luminescence efficiency, good dosimetric properties of these phosphors render them useful for their use in accidental dosimetry also. (authors)

  2. Radioactivity measurements using storage phosphor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Y.T.; Hwang, J.; Hutchinson, M.R.

    1995-01-01

    We propose to apply a recently developed charged particle radiation imaging concept in bio-medical research for fast, cost-effective characterization of radionuclides in contaminated sites and environmental samples. This concept utilizes sensors with storage photostimulable phosphor (SPP) technology as radiation detectors. They exhibit high sensitivity for all types of radiation and the response is linear over a wide dynamic range (>10 5 ), essential for quantitative analysis. These new sensors have an active area of up to 35 cm x 43 cm in size and a spatial resolution as fine as 50 μm. They offer considerable promise as large area detectors for fast characterization of radionuclides with an added ability to locate and identify hot spots

  3. Development of BaSO4:Eu thermoluminescence phosphor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhusoodanan, U.; Jose, M.T.; Lakshmanan, A.R.

    1999-01-01

    A highly sensitive thermoluminescence (TL) phosphor based on BaSO 4 :Eu was developed following the coprecipitation technique and firing in argon atmosphere at 1123 K. Photoluminescence studies confirm that firing in argon atmosphere instead of air increased the incorporation of Eu ions in 2+ valence state. At low γ-ray doses, its TL sensitivity is nearly 2 to 3 times higher than that of CaSO 4 :Dy phosphor. The other salient features of this BaSO 4 :Eu TL phosphor are a constant glow curve shape and a nearly linear γ-ray dose response

  4. Development of BaSO sub 4 :Eu thermoluminescence phosphor

    CERN Document Server

    Madhusoodanan, U; Lakshmanan, A R

    1999-01-01

    A highly sensitive thermoluminescence (TL) phosphor based on BaSO sub 4 :Eu was developed following the coprecipitation technique and firing in argon atmosphere at 1123 K. Photoluminescence studies confirm that firing in argon atmosphere instead of air increased the incorporation of Eu ions in 2+ valence state. At low gamma-ray doses, its TL sensitivity is nearly 2 to 3 times higher than that of CaSO sub 4 :Dy phosphor. The other salient features of this BaSO sub 4 :Eu TL phosphor are a constant glow curve shape and a nearly linear gamma-ray dose response.

  5. Non Destructive Testing by active infrared thermography coupled with shearography under same optical heat excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theroux, Louis-Daniel; Dumoulin, Jean; Maldague, Xavier

    2014-05-01

    As infrastructures are aging, the evaluation of their health is becoming crucial. To do so, numerous Non Destructive Testing (NDT) methods are available. Among them, thermal shearography and active infrared thermography represent two full field and contactless methods for surface inspection. The synchronized use of both methods presents multiples advantages. Most importantly, both NDT are based on different material properties. Thermography depend on the thermal properties and shearography on the mechanical properties. The cross-correlation of both methods result in a more accurate and exact detection of the defects. For real site application, the simultaneous use of both methods is simplified due to the fact that the excitation method (thermal) is the same. Active infrared thermography is the measure of the temperature by an infrared camera of a surface subjected to heat flux. Observation of the variation of temperature in function of time reveal the presence of defects. On the other hand, shearography is a measure of out-of-plane surface displacement. This displacement is caused by the application of a strain on the surface which (in our case) take the form of a temperature gradient inducing a thermal stress To measure the resulting out-of-plane displacement, shearography exploit the relation between the phase difference and the optical path length. The phase difference is measured by the observation of the interference between two coherent light beam projected on the surface. This interference is due to change in optical path length as the surface is deformed [1]. A series of experimentation have been conducted in laboratory with various sample of concrete reinforced with CFRP materials. Results obtained reveal that with both methods it was possible to detect defects in the gluing. An infrared lamp radiating was used as the active heat source. This is necessary if measurements with shearography are to be made during the heating process. A heating lamp in the

  6. Active and passive infrared thermography applied to the detection and characterization of hidden defects in structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumoulin, Jean

    2013-04-01

    Infrared thermography for Non Destructive Testing (NDT) has encountered a wide spreading this last 2 decades, in particular thanks to emergence on the market of low cost uncooled infrared camera. So, infrared thermography is not anymore a measurement technique limited to laboratory application. It has been more and more involved in civil engineering and cultural heritage applications, but also in many other domains, as indicated by numerous papers in the literature. Nevertheless, laboratory, measurements are done as much as possible in quite ideal conditions (good atmosphere conditions, known properties of materials, etc.), while measurement on real site requires to consider the influence of not controlled environmental parameters and additional unknown thermal properties. So, dedicated protocol and additional sensors are required for measurement data correction. Furthermore, thermal excitation is required to enhance the signature of defects in materials. Post-processing of data requires to take into account the protocol used for the thermal excitation and sometimes its nature to avoid false detection. This analysis step is based on signal and image processing tool and allows to carry out the detection. Characterization of anomalies detected at the previous step can be done by additional signal processing in particular for manufactured objects. The use of thermal modelling and inverse method allows to determine properties of the defective area. The present paper will first address a review of some protocols currently in use for field measurement with passive and/or active infrared measurements. Illustrations in various experiments carried out on civil engineering structure will be shown and discussed. In a second part, different post-processing approaches will be presented and discussed. In particular, a review of the most standard processing methods like Fast Fourier Analysis, Principal Components Analysis, Polynomial Decomposition, defect characterization using

  7. Comparison between mixed and spatially separated remote phosphor fabricated via a screen-printing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byung-Ho; Hwang, Jonghee; Lee, Young Jin; Kim, Jin-Ho; Jeon, Dae-Woo; Lee, Mi Jai

    2016-08-01

    We developed a fabrication method for remote phosphor by a screen-printing process, using green phosphor, red phosphor, and thermally stable glass frit. The glass frit was introduced for long-term stability. The optical properties of the remote phosphor were observed via an integrating sphere; the photoluminescence spectrum dramatically changed on incorporating a minor amount of the red phosphor. These unique optical properties were elucidated using four factors: phosphor ratio, scattering induced by packing density, light intensity per unit volume, and reabsorption. The thermal stability of the remote phosphor was investigated at 500°C, demonstrating its outstanding thermal properties.

  8. Short-circuit current density imaging of crystalline silicon solar cells via lock-in thermography: Robustness and simplifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fertig, Fabian; Greulich, Johannes; Rein, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Spatially resolved determination of solar cell parameters is beneficial for loss analysis and optimization of conversion efficiency. One key parameter that has been challenging to access by an imaging technique on solar cell level is short-circuit current density. This work discusses the robustness of a recently suggested approach to determine short-circuit current density spatially resolved based on a series of lock-in thermography images and options for a simplified image acquisition procedure. For an accurate result, one or two emissivity-corrected illuminated lock-in thermography images and one dark lock-in thermography image have to be recorded. The dark lock-in thermography image can be omitted if local shunts are negligible. Furthermore, it is shown that omitting the correction of lock-in thermography images for local emissivity variations only leads to minor distortions for standard silicon solar cells. Hence, adequate acquisition of one image only is sufficient to generate a meaningful map of short-circuit current density. Beyond that, this work illustrates the underlying physics of the recently proposed method and demonstrates its robustness concerning varying excitation conditions and locally increased series resistance. Experimentally gained short-circuit current density images are validated for monochromatic illumination in comparison to the reference method of light-beam induced current

  9. Analysis of phosphoric ore bacterial and eucaryal microbial diversity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    Received 30 July, 2013; Accepted 4 July, 2014. The aim ... using the single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) technique and ... Phosphoric industry generates a considerable quantity of ..... This phenomenon could well be the case for.

  10. The preparation of 32P labelled phosphorous acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, D.; Jenkinson, A.; Sorby, P.

    1986-11-01

    Phosphorous acid labelled with 32 P has been prepared, on a small scale, starting from neutron-irradiated phosphorus. The compound is intended for tracer studies in the development of novel fungicides

  11. Oxycarbonitride phosphors and light emitting devices using the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanqiang; Romanelli, Michael Dennis; Tian, Yongchi

    2013-10-08

    Disclosed herein is a novel family of oxycarbidonitride phosphor compositions and light emitting devices incorporating the same. Within the sextant system of M--Al--Si--O--N--C--Ln and quintuplet system of M--Si--O--N--C--Ln (M=alkaline earth element, Ln=rare earth element), the phosphors are composed of either one single crystalline phase or two crystalline phases with high chemical and thermal stability. In certain embodiments, the disclosed phosphor of silicon oxycarbidonitrides emits green light at wavelength between 530-550 nm. In further embodiments, the disclosed phosphor compositions emit blue-green to yellow light in a wavelength range of 450-650 nm under near-UV and blue light excitation.

  12. Quantitative Characterization of Phosphor Detector for Fusion Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baciero, A.; Zurro, B.; McCarthy, K. J.

    2004-01-01

    Experiments made to characterize phosphor screens with application as broadband radiation detectors, are described. Several radiation sources, covering the spectral range between the ultraviolet and X ray, were used. In addition, details are given of three original phosphor-screen-based detectors that were designed for use as broadband detectors in magnetically confined fusion devices. The first measurements obtained with these detectors in plasmas created in the TJ-II stellarator device are presented together with the analysis performed. (Author)

  13. Phosphors containing boron and metals of Group IIIA and IIIB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setlur, Anant Achyut; Srivastava, Alok Mani; Comanzo, Holly Ann; Manivannan, Venkatesan

    2006-10-31

    A phosphor comprises: (a) at least a first metal selected from the group consisting of yttrium and elements of lanthanide series other than europium; (b) at least a second metal selected from the group consisting of aluminum, gallium, indium, and scandium; (c) boron; and (d) europium. The phosphor is used in light source that comprises a UV radiation source to convert UV radiation to visible light.

  14. Activated phosphors having matrices of yttrium-transition metal compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Kalb, E.L.; Fassel, V.A.

    1975-01-01

    A method is described for preparing a phosphor composition containing a lanthanide activator element with a host matrix having a transition element as a major component. The host matrix is composed of certain rare earth phosphates or vanadates such as YPO 4 with a portion of the rare earth replaced with one or more of the transition elements. On x-ray or other electromagnetic excitation, trace lanthanide impurities or additives within the phosphor are spectrometrically determined from their characteristic luminescence

  15. Limits of the values of thermography in the diagnosis of malignomas of the thyroid - compared with scintigraphy and sonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaick, G. van

    1976-01-01

    In 250 patients suffering from various diseases of the thyroid, infrared thermography was tried out in addition to the common methods of examination such as scintiscanning, ultrasonic examination, and puncture with fine needles. These examinations were carried out using the camera videosystem made by Messrs. Rank. The thermopictures consist of 20,000 dots and are produced at a rate of 45 pictures per second. The measurements were made after exposing the bare throat to the constant room temperature of 19 0 for 15 minutes for adaptation. The results of the test indicate that most of the malignant growths on the thyroid can be detected by clinical diagnosis alone. The combination of cold scintiscanning, solid sonography, and thermography will probably enable a better and more specific diagnosis. Thermography and sonography alone are not suitable as screening methods for diagnosing malignant growths in the thyroid. (GSE) [de

  16. High temperature thermometric phosphors for use in a temperature sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Stephen W.; Cates, Michael R.; Boatner, Lynn A.; Gillies, George T.

    1998-01-01

    A high temperature phosphor consists essentially of a material having the general formula LuPO.sub.4 :Dy.sub.(x),Eu.sub.(y), wherein: 0.1 wt %.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.20 wt % and 0.1 wt %.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.20 wt %. The high temperature phosphor is in contact with an article whose temperature is to be determined. The article having the phosphor in contact with it is placed in the environment for which the temperature of the article is to be determined. The phosphor is excited by a laser causing the phosphor to fluoresce. The emission from the phosphor is optically focused into a beam-splitting mirror which separates the emission into two separate emissions, the emission caused by the dysprosium dopant and the emission caused by the europium dopent. The separated emissions are optically filtered and the intensities of the emission are detected and measured. The ratio of the intensity of each emission is determined and the temperature of the article is calculated from the ratio of the intensities of the separate emissions.

  17. Light Converting Inorganic Phosphors for White Light-Emitting Diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiao-Wen Yeh

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available White light-emitting diodes (WLEDs have matched the emission efficiency of florescent lights and will rapidly spread as light source for homes and offices in the next 5 to 10 years. WLEDs provide a light element having a semiconductor light emitting layer (blue or near-ultraviolet (nUV LEDs and photoluminescence phosphors. These solid-state LED lamps, rather than organic light emitting diode (OLED or polymer light-emitting diode (PLED, have a number of advantages over conventional incandescent bulbs and halogen lamps, such as high efficiency to convert electrical energy into light, reliability and long operating lifetime. To meet with the further requirement of high color rendering index, warm light with low color temperature, high thermal stability and higher energy efficiency for WLEDs, new phosphors that can absorb excitation energy from blue or nUV LEDs and generate visible emissions efficiently are desired. The criteria of choosing the best phosphors, for blue (450-480 nm and nUV (380-400 nm LEDs, strongly depends on the absorption and emission of the phosphors. Moreover, the balance of light between the emission from blue-nUV LEDs and the emissions from phosphors (such as yellow from Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ is important to obtain white light with proper color rendering index and color temperature. Here, we will review the status of phosphors for LEDs and prospect the future development.

  18. Light Converting Inorganic Phosphors for White Light-Emitting Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Lin, Chun-Che; Yeh, Chiao-Wen; Liu, Ru-Shi

    2010-01-01

    White light-emitting diodes (WLEDs) have matched the emission efficiency of florescent lights and will rapidly spread as light source for homes and offices in the next 5 to 10 years. WLEDs provide a light element having a semiconductor light emitting layer (blue or near-ultraviolet (nUV) LEDs) and photoluminescence phosphors. These solid-state LED lamps, rather than organic light emitting diode (OLED) or polymer light-emitting diode (PLED), have a number of advantages over conventional incandescent bulbs and halogen lamps, such as high efficiency to convert electrical energy into light, reliability and long operating lifetime. To meet with the further requirement of high color rendering index, warm light with low color temperature, high thermal stability and higher energy efficiency for WLEDs, new phosphors that can absorb excitation energy from blue or nUV LEDs and generate visible emissions efficiently are desired. The criteria of choosing the best phosphors, for blue (450−480 nm) and nUV (380−400 nm) LEDs, strongly depends on the absorption and emission of the phosphors. Moreover, the balance of light between the emission from blue-nUV LEDs and the emissions from phosphors (such as yellow from Y3Al5O12:Ce3+) is important to obtain white light with proper color rendering index and color temperature. Here, we will review the status of phosphors for LEDs and prospect the future development.

  19. Angle-resolved photoluminescence spectrum of a uniform phosphor layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujieda, Ichiro; Ohta, Masamichi

    2017-10-01

    A photoluminescence spectrum depends on an emission angle due to self-absorption in a phosphor material. Assuming isotropic initial emission and Lambert-Beer's law, we have derived simple expressions for the angle-resolved spectra emerging from the top and bottom surfaces of a uniform phosphor layer. The transmittance of an excitation light through the phosphor layer can be regarded as a design parameter. For a strongly-absorbing phosphor layer, the forward flux is less intense and more red-shifted than the backward flux. The red-shift is enhanced as the emission direction deviates away from the plane normal. When we increase the transmittance, the backward flux decreases monotonically. The forward flux peaks at a certain transmittance value. The two fluxes become similar to each other for a weakly-absorbing phosphor layer. We have observed these behaviors in experiment. In a practical application, self-absorption decreases the efficiency of conversion and results in angle-dependent variations in chromaticity coordinates. A patterned phosphor layer with a secondary optical element such as a remote reflector alleviates these problems.

  20. Rare-earth doped phosphors: oldies or goldies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moine, B.; Bizarri, G.

    2003-01-01

    The scientific research on phosphors has a long history starting more than 100 years ago. But recently the appearance of new kinds of displays and lighting devices (plasma display, fluorescent lamp without mercury, etc.) induced an increase of the research of new phosphors with better luminous efficiency than those available up to now. It has been shown that the behavior of 'classical' phosphors in a plasma display panel is quite different than in a cathode ray tube and that the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) excitation process has to be studied with care in order to improve the phosphors efficiency. That is particularly true in PDPs. It is well established now that a good phosphor for electronic or ultraviolet excitation is not necessarily a good choice for excitation in VUV. This is probably due to the fact that the excitation process is very different in that case and also because the penetration depth of the VUV photons is extremely small inducing a large contribution of the surface of the phosphor. We will illustrate this with some examples. Methods to accelerate luminous intensity decrease under VUV excitation will be described. Low efficiency, fast aging process are both drawbacks that can be solved only in the framework of fundamental studies. Quantum cutting emission may be a solution for the first one but no satisfactory process was proposed for the moment to solve the second

  1. Technique of proton and phosphorous MR spectroscopy; Technik der Protonen- und Phosphor-MR-Spektroskopie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backens, M. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany)

    2017-06-15

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is an important non-invasive method that can reveal the concentration and spatial distribution of particular biochemically relevant tissue metabolites. Proton MRS is routinely applicable in the clinical setting providing good quality results even with a moderate magnetic field strength of 1.5 T. Relative values of metabolite concentrations are mostly used for the assessment of metabolic disorders. Absolute quantification of metabolites can be achieved by means of internal or external reference scans. Phosphorous MRS extends the range of detectable molecules to energy and cell membrane metabolism. The lower detection limit of metabolite concentrations is in the range of some mmol/kg. Depending on the magnetic field strength, MRS enables a spatial resolution of a few milliliters. The use of phosphorous MRS is considerably limited because higher field strengths of at least 3.0 T and additional expensive hardware for signal processing are required. (orig.) [German] Die MR-Spektroskopie (MRS) ist eine wichtige nichtinvasive Untersuchungsmethode, die Konzentration und raeumliche Verteilung einiger biochemisch relevanter Metaboliten im Gewebe ermitteln kann. Die Protonenspektroskopie ist klinisch etabliert, in der Routine einfach durchfuehrbar und liefert bereits bei einer Magnetfeldstaerke von 1,5 T qualitativ gute Ergebnisse. Fuer die Beurteilung von Stoffwechselveraenderungen werden Metabolitenkonzentrationen meist als Relativwerte angegeben. Mithilfe interner oder externer Referenzmessungen sind auch absolute Metabolitenkonzentrationen berechenbar. Die Phosphorspektroskopie erweitert den Bereich der detektierbaren Molekuele auf den Energie- und Zellmembranstoffwechsel. Die minimale nachweisbare Metabolitenkonzentration liegt bei einigen mmol/kg. Abhaengig von der Magnetfeldstaerke ist eine raeumliche Aufloesung der MRS von wenigen Millilitern erreichbar. Der Einsatz der Phosphor-MRS wird dadurch erheblich eingeschraenkt, dass sie

  2. Infrared thermography applied to monitoring of radioactive waste drums; Termografia infravermelha aplicada ao monitoramento de tambores de rejeitos radioativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelmer, P.; Camarano, D.M. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Calado, F.; Phillip, B.; Viana, C.; Andrade, R.M., E-mail: paulafuziki@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: flavio.arcalado@gmail.com, E-mail: bruno.phil@gmail.com, E-mail: criisviana@hotmail.com, E-mail: rma@ufmg.br, E-mail: dmc@cdtn.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Eletrica

    2013-07-01

    The use of thermography in the inspection of drums containing radioactive waste is being stimulated by the absence of physical contact. In Brazil the majority of radioactive wastes are compacted solids packed in metal drums stored temporarily for decades and requires special attention. These drums have only one qualitative indication of the radionuclides present. However, its structural condition is not followed systematically. The aim of this work is presents a methodology by applying thermography for monitoring the structural condition of drums containing radioactive waste in order to detect degraded regions of the drums. (author)

  3. ThermoPoD: A reliability study on active infrared thermography for the inspection of composite materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Yuxia [Beijing Univ. of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing (China); Ibarra-Castanedo, Clemente; Maldague, Xavier P. V. [Univ. Laval, Quebec (Canada); Servais, Pierre; Genest, Marc [National Research Council Canada, Ottawa (Canada)

    2012-07-15

    In this study, a Probability of Detection (PoD) experimental study was carried out in the framework of a Belgian-Quebec/Canada collaborative research project called ThermoPoD. Experiments were implemented on a Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) specimen with embedded material simulating delamination. For active infrared thermography, different heating sources (optical or ultrasound), heating forms (pulsed or lock-in), and data processing methods, such as Fourier Transform, Thermal Signal Reconstruction, Wavelet Transform, Differential Absolute Contrast, and Principal Component Thermography are of interest. In the present study, the effects of various data processing methods on PoD curves are compared.

  4. Infrared thermography inspection methods applied to the target elements of W7-X Divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Missirlian, M.; Durocher, A.; Schlosser, J.; Farjon, J.-L.; Vignal, N.; Traxler, H.; Schedler, B.; Boscary, J.

    2006-01-01

    As heat exhaust capability and lifetime of plasma-facing component (PFC) during in-situ operation are linked to the manufacturing quality, a set of non-destructive testing must be operated during R-and-D and manufacturing phases. Within this framework, advanced non-destructive examination (NDE) methods are one of the key issues to achieve a high level of quality and reliability of joining techniques in the production of high heat flux components but also to develop and built successfully PFCs for a next generation of fusion devices. In this frame, two NDE infrared thermographic approaches, which have been recently applied to the qualification of CFC target elements of the W7-X divertor during the first series production will be discussed in this paper. The first one, developed by CEA (SATIR facility) and used with successfully to the control of the mass-produced actively cooled PFCs on Tore Supra, is based on the transient thermography where the testing protocol consists in inducing a thermal transient within the heat sink structure by an alternative hot/cold water flow. The second one, recently developed by PLANSEE (ARGUS facility), is based on the pulsed thermography where the component is heated externally by a single powerful flash of light. Results obtained on qualification experiences performed during the first series production of W7-X divertor components representing about thirty mock-ups with artificial and manufacturing defects, demonstrated the capabilities of these two methods and raised the efficiency of inspection to a level which is appropriate for industrial application. This comparative study, associated to a cross-checking analysis between the high heat flux performance tests and these inspection methods by infrared thermography, showed a good reproducibility and allowed to set a detectable limit specific at each method. Finally, the detectability of relevant defects showed excellent coincidence with thermal images obtained from high heat flux

  5. Sub-surface defects detection of by using active thermography and advanced image edge detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tse, Peter W.; Wang, Gaochao

    2017-01-01

    Active or pulsed thermography is a popular non-destructive testing (NDT) tool for inspecting the integrity and anomaly of industrial equipment. One of the recent research trends in using active thermography is to automate the process in detecting hidden defects. As of today, human effort has still been using to adjust the temperature intensity of the thermo camera in order to visually observe the difference in cooling rates caused by a normal target as compared to that by a sub-surface crack exists inside the target. To avoid the tedious human-visual inspection and minimize human induced error, this paper reports the design of an automatic method that is capable of detecting subsurface defects. The method used the technique of active thermography, edge detection in machine vision and smart algorithm. An infrared thermo-camera was used to capture a series of temporal pictures after slightly heating up the inspected target by flash lamps. Then the Canny edge detector was employed to automatically extract the defect related images from the captured pictures. The captured temporal pictures were preprocessed by a packet of Canny edge detector and then a smart algorithm was used to reconstruct the whole sequences of image signals. During the processes, noise and irrelevant backgrounds exist in the pictures were removed. Consequently, the contrast of the edges of defective areas had been highlighted. The designed automatic method was verified by real pipe specimens that contains sub-surface cracks. After applying such smart method, the edges of cracks can be revealed visually without the need of using manual adjustment on the setting of thermo-camera. With the help of this automatic method, the tedious process in manually adjusting the colour contract and the pixel intensity in order to reveal defects can be avoided. (paper)

  6. A protocol for analysing thermal stress in insects using infrared thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, Belén; Verdú, José R; Carrascal, Luis M; Lobo, Jorge M

    2016-02-01

    The study of insect responses to thermal stress has involved a variety of protocols and methodologies that hamper the ability to compare results between studies. For that reason, the development of a protocol to standardize thermal assays is necessary. In this sense, infrared thermography solves some of the problems allowing us to take continuous temperature measurements without handling the individuals, an important fact in cold-blooded organisms like insects. Here, we present a working protocol based on infrared thermography to estimate both cold and heat thermal stress in insects. We analyse both the change in the body temperature of individuals and their behavioural response. In addition, we used partial least squares regression for the statistical analysis of our data, a technique that solves the problem of having a large number of variables and few individuals, allowing us to work with rare or endemic species. To test our protocol, we chose two species of congeneric, narrowly distributed dung beetles that are endemic to the southeastern part of the Iberian Peninsula. With our protocol we have obtained five variables in the response to cold and twelve in the response to heat. With this methodology we discriminate between the two flightless species of Jekelius through their thermal response. In response to cold, Jekelius hernandezi showed a higher rate of cooling and reached higher temperatures of stupor and haemolymph freezing than Jekelius punctatolineatus. Both species displayed similar thermoregulation ranges before reaching lethal body temperature with heat stress. Overall, we have demonstrated that infrared thermography is a suitable method to assess insect thermal responses with a high degree of sensitivity, allowing for the discrimination between closely related species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Thermography for detection of scaling in slurry lines and process vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capolingua, Adam; Petrik, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    A major problem in many of today's refineries and mineral processing plants is internal scale build-up within slurry lines and process vessels. Consequences of such an internal scale build-up within lines and vessels include machinery damage, flow restrictions, blockages and localised pipe wear. These problems lead to a loss of production, increased maintenance costs, impinge on worker safety, increase environmental hazards and inevitably reduces profit for the organisation of concern. Hence, the application of an efficient and accurate non-intrusive detection method for locating internal scale within kilometres of lines and numerous process vessels is imperative to reduce maintenance costs and limit production losses. Thermography has been found to be a very useful NDT technique for applications where there is a differential between the ambient and internal product temperatures. The 'insulating' effect of the internal scaling results in a reduced external temperature over the associated area. These temperature differentials can be efficiently detected via a thermographic scan. While this technique is relatively straightforward, the interpretation of the thermographic images usually requires reasonable skill and experience to assess the true extent of each problem detected. In some cases, the true location and extent of scaling within the slurry lines may not be thermally obvious due to the nature of the internal scaling. In such cases, the use of other complementary methods to effectively 'listen'in to the lines has proved to be a valuable procedure. In particular a technology that is typically used in vibration monitoring to assess bearing and gear degradation has been successfully applied in conjunction with thermography to assess lines with localised or dislodged scale. This paper presents a number of case studies where thermography was either applied independently or in conjunction with other measurement techniques, to detect and assess different internal

  8. The quantitative inspection of iron aluminide green sheet using transient thermography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, Michael L.; Hinders, Mark K.; Scorey, Clive; Winfree, William

    1999-01-01

    The recent development of manufacturing techniques for the fabrication of thin iron aluminide, FeAl, sheet requires advanced quantitative methods for on-line inspection. An understanding of the mechanisms responsible for flaws and the development of appropriate flaw detection methods are key elements in an effective quality management system. The first step in the fabrication of thin FeAl alloy sheet is the formation of a green sheet, either by cold rolling or tape casting FeAl powder mixed with organic binding agents. The finished sheet is obtained using a series of process steps involving binder elimination, densification, sintering, and annealing. Non-uniformities within the green sheet are the major contributor to material failure in subsequent sheet processing and the production of non-conforming finished sheet. Previous work has demonstrated the advantages of using active thermography to detect the flaws and heterogeneity within green powder composites (1)(2)(3). The production environment and physical characteristics of these composites provide for unique challenges in developing a rapid nondestructive inspection capability. Thermography is non-contact and minimizes the potential damage to the fragile green sheet. Limited access to the material also demands a one-sided inspection technique. In this paper, we will describe the application of thermography for 100% on-line inspection within an industrial process. This approach is cost competitive with alternative technologies, such as x-ray imaging systems, and provides the required sensitivity to the variations in material composition. The formation of green sheet flaws and their transformation into defects within intermediate and finished sheet products will be described. A green sheet conformance criterion will be presented which would significantly reduce the probability of processing poor quality green sheet which contributes to higher waste and inferior bulk alloy sheet

  9. Preparation of high purification and food grade phosphoric acid from technical grade phosphoric acid by liquid-liquid detraction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alimoradi, M.; Borji, F.; Kishani, A.

    2002-01-01

    Pay attention to increasing consumption of high purification and food grade phosphoric acid in various industries and food industries and on in on hand and lack of preparation between production and distribution of this products its purification is so vital. In this article of liquid-liquid extraction method with normal hexane-mixture of ammonia and acetone-diisopropyl alcohol and normal butanol solvents and these determination of distribution coefficient each one with ph-me try titration we can evaluate effectiveness and sufficiency each one. Because of proper coefficient distribution and its local production of normal butanol solvent and low price is the best solvent. To phosphoric acid modifying coefficient distribution for extraction of phosphoric acid we can add a little value sulfuric acid to the mixture and to remove flouride impurity we add a little Na 2 O. After extraction stage extracted phosphoric acid in the normal strips by evaluating with distilled water and then by passing the carbon active bed and following passes of cationic resine column and concentrated with vacuum distillation. Conclusion of this article is produce of phosphoric acid 85% w/w and food grade from impure phosphoric acid 52% w/w with technical grade

  10. Study of phosphors determination in biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Rosangela Magda de.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, phosphors determination by neutron activation analysis in milk and bone samples was studied employing both instrumental and radiochemical separation methods. The analysis with radiochemistry separation consisted of the simultaneous irradiation of the samples and standards during 30 minutes, dissolution of the samples, hold back carrier, addition precipitation of phosphorus with ammonium phosphomolibdate (A.M.P.) and phosphorus-32 by counting by using Geiger-Mueller detector. The instrumental analysis consisted of the simultaneous irradiation of the samples and standards during 30 minutes, transfer of the samples into a counting planchet and measurement of the beta radiation emitted by phosphorus-32, after a suitable decay period. After the phosphorus analysis methods were established they were applied to both commercial milk and animal bone samples, and data obtained in the instrumental and radiochemical separation methods for each sample, were compared between themselves. In this work, it became possible to obtain analysis methods for phosphorus that can be applied independently of the sample quantity available, and the phosphorus content in the samples or interference that can be present in them. (author). 51 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  11. Phosphoric acid fuel cell platinum use study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundblad, H. L.

    1983-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is promoting the private development of phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) power plants for terrestrial applications. Current PAFC technology utilizes platinum as catalysts in the power electrodes. The possible repercussions that the platinum demand of PAFC power plant commercialization will have on the worldwide supply and price of platinum from the outset of commercialization to the year 2000 are investigated. The platinum demand of PAFC commercialization is estimated by developing forecasts of platinum use per unit of generating capacity and penetration of PAFC power plants into the electric generation market. The ability of the platinum supply market to meet future demands is gauged by assessing the size of platinum reserves and the capability of platinum producers to extract, refine and market sufficient quantities of these reserves. The size and timing of platinum price shifts induced by the added demand of PAFC commercialization are investigated by several analytical methods. Estimates of these price shifts are then used to calculate the subsequent effects on PAFC power plant capital costs.

  12. Research on Defects Inspection of Solder Balls Based on Eddy Current Pulsed Thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuyun Zhou

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve tiny defect detection for solder balls in high-density flip-chip, this paper proposed feasibility study on the effect of detectability as well as classification based on eddy current pulsed thermography (ECPT. Specifically, numerical analysis of 3D finite element inductive heat model is generated to investigate disturbance on the temperature field for different kind of defects such as cracks, voids, etc. The temperature variation between defective and non-defective solder balls is monitored for defects identification and classification. Finally, experimental study is carried on the diameter 1mm tiny solder balls by using ECPT and verify the efficacy of the technique.

  13. An Overview of Recent Application of Medical Infrared Thermography in Sports Medicine in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Hildebrandt

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Medical infrared thermography (MIT is used for analyzing physiological functions related to skin temperature. Technological advances have made MIT a reliable medical measurement tool. This paper provides an overview of MIT´s technical requirements and usefulness in sports medicine, with a special focus on overuse and traumatic knee injuries. Case studies are used to illustrate the clinical applicability and limitations of MIT. It is concluded that MIT is a non-invasive, non-radiating, low cost detection tool which should be applied for pre-scanning athletes in sports medicine.

  14. Outdoor thermal monitoring of large scale structures by infrared thermography integrated in an ICT based architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumoulin, Jean; Crinière, Antoine; Averty, Rodolphe

    2015-04-01

    An infrared system has been developed to monitor transport infrastructures in a standalone configuration. Results obtained on bridges open to traffic allows to retrieve the inner structure of the decks. To complete this study, experiments were carried out over several months to monitor two reinforced concrete beams of 16 m long and 21 T each. Detection of a damaged area over one of the two beams was made by Pulse Phase Thermography approach. Measurements carried out over several months. Finally, conclusion on the robustness of the system is proposed and perspectives are presented.

  15. Monitoring of a burning conical heap by combining topographical mapping with infrared thermography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpentier, O.; Antczak, E.; Defer, D.; Duthoit, B.

    2003-01-01

    One of the most used method for monitoring a slag heap is the air infrared thermography. Even if it permit to survey a large area and provide a well contrasted display of dangerous areas, this method is expensive, perturbed by atmospheric conditions and cannot offer an accurate localization of defects. In order to mitigate this disadvantage, the LAMH, in association with Groupe Charbonnages de France, set up a method based on topographic and infrared thermographic cross reading which is more accurate, less expensive and, in a near future, will permit a monitoring of combustion reaction. (authors)

  16. Characterization of an Inclusion of Plastazote Located in an Academic Fresco by Photothermal Thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnar, J. L.; Nicolas, J. L.; Mouhoubi, K.; Candore, J. C.; Detalle, V.

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study is to approach the possibilities of stimulated infrared thermography in dimensional characterization of defects situated in mural paintings. For this purpose, it is suggested to proceed in two stages. First, an in situ longitudinal thermal-diffusivity measurement is developed. Then the characterization of the depth of the studied defect by means of an extended photothermal analysis and a comparison between theory and experiment is carried out. In this article is shown that this approach allows a good estimate of the depth of a plastazote inclusion in a partial copy of the “Saint Christophe” of the Campana collection in the Louvre Museum.

  17. Photothermal Thermography Applied to the Non-destructive Testing of Different Types of Works of Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnar, J. L.; Mouhoubi, K.; Szatanik-Perrier, G.; Vallet, J. M.; Detalle, V.

    2012-11-01

    In this article, various cases in helping to restore works of art by stimulated infrared thermography are presented. First, the method allows detecting old restorations found on a mural painting in the French senate. Then, it is demonstrated how the photothermal method enables determination of the underlying structure of the mural painting "The Apotheosis of Saint Bruno" in the Charterhouse of Villeneuve-lez-Avignon. Finally, the method allows locating separate canvas paintings on "Avenant de l'aurore" in the "Luxembourg" French Senate building.

  18. Stimulated infrared thermography applied to thermophysical characterization of cultural heritage mural paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnar, Jean-Luc; Nicolas, Jean-Louis; Mouhoubi, Kamel; Detalle, Vincent

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to approach stimulated infrared thermography possibilities in terms of measuring longitudinal thermal diffusivity of mural paintings in situ. The measuring method principle is first submitted. It is based on temporal analysis of changes in the characteristic radius beams of spatial profiles of the photothermal signal, measured on the spot of the laser excitation. The feasibility of the method is demonstrated, thanks to a series of simulations. Lastly, the method enables to correctly estimate longitudinal thermal diffusivity in a test sample, and further in a fragment copy of "Saint Christophe" belonging to the Campana collection in the Louvre.

  19. Spatially resolved measurements of the magnetocaloric effect and the local magnetic field using thermography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dennis; Bjørk, Rasmus; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein

    2010-01-01

    The magnetocaloric effect causes a magnetic material to change temperature upon application of a magnetic field. Here, spatially resolved measurements of the adiabatic temperature change are performed on a plate of gadolinium using thermography. The adiabatic temperature change is used to extract...... the corresponding change in the local magnetic field strength. The measured temperature change and local magnetic field strength are compared to results obtained with a numerical model, which takes demagnetization into account and employs experimental data....

  20. Exploitation of condition monitoring technology for equipment by infrared thermography use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, H.

    2005-01-01

    Recently exploitation of condition monitoring technology for equipment by infrared thermography use has been established in US nuclear power plants (NPPs) because of its effectiveness for accidents prevention. Meanwhile, this technology has never been used in Japanese NPPs. In order to make use of it with ease at NPPs, measuring manuals were provided including the table of emissivity dependent on equipment painting specification and measuring positions kept out of background heat sources at measurement. At in-site application tests, temperature increase points at power cable connection parts were discovered, which showed its effectiveness. (T. Tanaka)

  1. Infrared thermography as a diagnostic tool to indicate sick-house-syndrome: a case-study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungberg, Sven-Ake

    1996-03-01

    Every third child and many adults in Sweden have allergic reactions caused by indoor environmental problems. A lot of buildings constructed during the building-boom period of 1950 - 1990 expose the sick-house-syndrome, due to built-in moisture problems and poor ventilation performance of the building. Leaky building construction, transport of humid air condensing on thermal bridges within the construction gives rise to a humid environment, and forms a base for a microbial deterioration process of organic materials, with emissions hazardous for human health. So far there are no universal and cost efficient techniques or methods developed which could be used to reveal the sick-house-syndrome. In this paper we present the results of a case-study of the sick-house-syndrome, and an investigation concept with a combination of different techniques and methods to detect and to map underlying factors that form the base for microbial activities. The concept includes mobile and indoor thermography, functional control of ventilation systems, tracer gas techniques for measurement of air flow exchange rate in different rooms, microbial investigation of emissions, field inspections within the building construction and the building envelope, and medical investigation of the health status of the people working in the building. Mobile thermography of the exterior facades has been performed with a longwave AGEMA THV 900, respectively THV 1000 infrared system, during the period December 1994 - June 1995, at different and similar weather and radiation conditions, and with the building pressurized at one accession. Indoor thermography has been performed with a shortwave AGEMA THV 470 system, for a selection of objects/surfaces with thermal deviations, indicated in thermograms from the different mobile thermographic surveys. Functional control was performed for the ventilation systems, and air flow rates were measured using tracer gas technique for a selection of rooms with different

  2. Nondestructive Inspection of Thin Basalt Fiber Reinforced Composites Using Combined Terahertz Imaging and Infrared Thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemyslaw Lopato

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The inspection of thin basalt fiber reinforced composite materials was carried out using two nondestructive methods: terahertz time domain imaging and infrared thermography. In order to combine the information about the defects arising in examined materials the inspection results were parametrized. In order to acquire more information content, new approximation based features are proposed. Then, a knowledge extraction based multivariate analysis of preselected features’ vector was carried out. Finally, in order to integrate features distributions of representing different dynamic level of information, a multiresolution wavelet based data fusion algorithm was applied. The results are presented and discussed.

  3. Dynamic Infrared Thermography Study of Blood Flow Relative to Lower Limp Position

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathopoulos, I.; Skouroliakou, K.; Michail, C.; Valais, I.

    2015-09-01

    Thermography is an established method for studying skin temperature distribution. Temperature distribution on body surface is influenced by a variety of physiological mechanisms and has been proven a reliable indicator of various physiological disorders. Blood flow is an important factor that influences body heat diffusion and skin temperature. In an attempt to validate and further elucidate thermal models characterizing the human skin, dynamic thermography of the lower limp in horizontal and vertical position was performed, using a FLIR T460 thermographic camera. Temporal variation of temperature was recorded on five distinct points of the limp. Specific points were initially cooled by the means of an ice cube and measurements of the skin temperature were obtained every 30 seconds as the skin temperature was locally reduced and afterwards restored at its initial value. The return to thermal balance followed roughly the same pattern for all points of measurement, although the heating rate was faster when the foot was in horizontal position. Thermal balance was achieved faster at the spots that were positioned on a vein passage. Our results confirm the influence of blood flow on the thermal regulation of the skin. Spots located over veins exhibit different thermal behaviour due to thermal convection through blood flow. Changing the position of the foot from vertical to horizontal, effectively affects blood perfusion as in the vertical position blood circulation is opposed by gravity.

  4. Application of pulsed flash thermography method for specific defect estimation in aluminum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomić Ljubiša D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nondestructive thermal examination can uncover the presence of defects via temperature distribution profile anomalies that are created on the surface as a result of a defect. There are many factors that affect the temperature distribution map of the surface being tested by Infrared Thermography. Internal defect properties such as thermal conductivity, heat capacity and defect depth, play an important role in the temperature behavior of the pixels or regions being analyzed. Also, it is well known that other external factors such as the convection heat transfer, variations on the surface emissivity and ambient radiation reflectivity can affect the thermographic signal received by the infrared camera. In this paper we considered a simple structure in the form of flat plate covered with several defects, whose surface we heated with a uniform heat flux impulse. We conducted a theoretical analysis and experimental test of the method for case of defects on an aluminum surface. First, experiments were conducted on surfaces with intentionally created defects in order to determine conditions and boundaries for application of the method. Experimental testing of the pulsed flash thermography (PFT method was performed on simulated defects on an aluminum test plate filled with air and organic compound n-hexadecane, hydrocarbon that belongs to the Phase Change Materials (PCMs. Study results indicate that it is possible, using the PFT method, to detect the type of material inside defect holes, whose presence disturbs the homogeneous structure of aluminum.

  5. Extraction of thermal Green's function using diffuse fields: a passive approach applied to thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capriotti, Margherita; Sternini, Simone; Lanza di Scalea, Francesco; Mariani, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    In the field of non-destructive evaluation, defect detection and visualization can be performed exploiting different techniques relying either on an active or a passive approach. In the following paper the passive technique is investigated due to its numerous advantages and its application to thermography is explored. In previous works, it has been shown that it is possible to reconstruct the Green's function between any pair of points of a sensing grid by using noise originated from diffuse fields in acoustic environments. The extraction of the Green's function can be achieved by cross-correlating these random recorded waves. Averaging, filtering and length of the measured signals play an important role in this process. This concept is here applied in an NDE perspective utilizing thermal fluctuations present on structural materials. Temperature variations interacting with thermal properties of the specimen allow for the characterization of the material and its health condition. The exploitation of the thermographic image resolution as a dense grid of sensors constitutes the basic idea underlying passive thermography. Particular attention will be placed on the creation of a proper diffuse thermal field, studying the number, placement and excitation signal of heat sources. Results from numerical simulations will be presented to assess the capabilities and performances of the passive thermal technique devoted to defect detection and imaging of structural components.

  6. Integration of infrared thermography and high-frequency electromagnetic methods in archaeological surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlomagno, Giovanni Maria; Meola, Carosena; Di Maio, Rosa; Fedi, Maurizio

    2011-01-01

    This work is focused on the integration of infrared thermography and ground penetrating radar for the inspection of architectonic structures. First, laboratory tests were carried out with both techniques by considering an ad hoc specimen made of concrete and with the insertion of anomalies of a different nature and at different depths. Such tests provided helpful information for ongoing inspections in situ, which were later performed in two important Italian archaeological sites, namely Pompeii (Naples) and Nora (Cagliari). In the first site, the exploration was devoted to the analysis of the wall paintings of Villa Imperiale with the aim of evaluating the state of conservation of frescoes as well of the underneath masonry structure. As main findings, the applied techniques allowed outlining some areas, which were damaged by ingression in-depth of moisture and/or by disaggregation of the constituent materials, and also for recognition of previous restoration. In the archaeological area of Nora, instead, the attention was driven towards the evaluation of the state of degradation of the theatre remnants. Our prospections show that the front side of the theatre, being more strongly affected by degradation, needs a massive restoration work. As a general result, we demonstrated that a joint interpretation of infrared thermography and ground penetrating radar data supplies detailed 3D information from near-surface to deep layers, which may assist in restoration planning

  7. Use of thermography to monitor sole haemorrhages and temperature distribution over the claws of dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, K; Wilhelm, J; Fürll, M

    2015-02-07

    Subclinical laminitis, an early pathological event in the development of many claw diseases, is an important factor in the welfare and economics of high-producing dairy cows. However, the aetiology and pathogenesis of this complex claw disease are not well understood. The present study investigated to what extent thermographic examination of claws is able to give information about corium inflammation, and whether the technique may be used as a diagnostic tool for early detection of subclinical laminitis. Moreover, the temperature distribution over the individual main claws was investigated to obtain further knowledge about pressure distribution on the claws. For this purpose the claws of 123 cows were evaluated in the first week after calving as well as after the second month of lactation for presence of sole haemorrhages (a sign of subclinical laminitis). Furthermore, the ground contact area was analysed by thermography. Sole haemorrhages were significantly increased by the second month of lactation. Thermography showed clear differences between the claws of the front limbs and hindlimbs, as well as between lateral and medial claws. Although the distribution of sole haemorrhages was consistent with the pattern of the temperature distribution over the main claws, no clear correlation was found between the claw temperature after calving and the visible laminitis-like changes (sole haemorrhages) eight weeks later. British Veterinary Association.

  8. Thermography and Sonic Anemometry to Analyze Air Heaters in Mediterranean Greenhouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araceli Peña

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present work has developed a methodology based on thermography and sonic anemometry for studying the microclimate in Mediterranean greenhouses equipped with air heaters and polyethylene distribution ducts to distribute the warm air. Sonic anemometry allows us to identify the airflow pattern generated by the heaters and to analyze the temperature distribution inside the greenhouse, while thermography provides accurate crop temperature data. Air distribution by means of perforated polyethylene ducts at ground level, widely used in Mediterranean-type greenhouses, can generate heterogeneous temperature distributions inside the greenhouse when the system is not correctly designed. The system analyzed in this work used a polyethylene duct with a row of hot air outlet holes (all of equal diameter that expel warm air toward the ground to avoid plant damage. We have observed that this design (the most widely used in Almería’s greenhouses produces stagnation of hot air in the highest part of the structure, reducing the heating of the crop zone. Using 88 kW heating power (146.7 W∙m−2 the temperature inside the greenhouse is maintained 7.2 to 11.2 °C above the outside temperature. The crop temperature (17.6 to 19.9 °C was maintained above the minimum recommended value of 10 °C.

  9. Thermography and sonic anemometry to analyze air heaters in Mediterranean greenhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Alejandro; Valera, Diego L; Molina-Aiz, Francisco; Peña, Araceli

    2012-10-16

    The present work has developed a methodology based on thermography and sonic anemometry for studying the microclimate in Mediterranean greenhouses equipped with air heaters and polyethylene distribution ducts to distribute the warm air. Sonic anemometry allows us to identify the airflow pattern generated by the heaters and to analyze the temperature distribution inside the greenhouse, while thermography provides accurate crop temperature data. Air distribution by means of perforated polyethylene ducts at ground level, widely used in Mediterranean-type greenhouses, can generate heterogeneous temperature distributions inside the greenhouse when the system is not correctly designed. The system analyzed in this work used a polyethylene duct with a row of hot air outlet holes (all of equal diameter) that expel warm air toward the ground to avoid plant damage. We have observed that this design (the most widely used in Almería's greenhouses) produces stagnation of hot air in the highest part of the structure, reducing the heating of the crop zone. Using 88 kW heating power (146.7 W ∙ m(-2)) the temperature inside the greenhouse is maintained 7.2 to 11.2 °C above the outside temperature. The crop temperature (17.6 to 19.9 °C) was maintained above the minimum recommended value of 10 °C.

  10. Integral methods of active infrared thermography; Integrale Verfahren der aktiven Infrarotthermografie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlichting, Joachim

    2012-07-01

    Non-destructive evaluation is a task of utmost importance for both, the economic point of view and to guarantee the required safety and reliability of technical systems. Thermography is a fast and contactless technique which received continued attention not least through the significant price drop at the infrared camera market. It is typically used to detect near-surface defects which are expanded parallel to the surface. This thesis deals with two non-standard inspection tasks. With the weld lens diameter of spot welds, a feature in the sample's geometrical center is indirectly sized by flash thermography. The presented method is suitable to distinguish typical error classes like stick welds or expulsions. This fact is validated by statistical evaluations of thermographic and destructive test series. As an example for perpendicularly oriented imperfections, surface cracks are investigated, which can be a major problem at welding seams. A technique for detecting cracks entirely based on commercially available equipment is developed. In addition, the accessibility of geometric characteristics of cracks was examined by experiments and FEM-simulations. Similar to the method developed for assessing spot welds, an approach based on the analysis of spatial and temporal integral quantities which depend on the thermal resistance is used. In doing so, the simultaneous determination of crack angle and depth is possible.

  11. Building thermography as a tool in energy audits and building commissioning procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, Timo

    2007-04-01

    A Building Commissioning-project (ToVa) was launched in Finland in the year 2003. A comprehensive commissioning procedure, including the building process and operation stage was developed in the project. This procedure will confirm the precise documentation of client's goals, definition of planning goals and the performance of the building. It is rather usual, that within 1-2 years after introduction the users complain about the defects or performance malfunctions of the building. Thermography is one important manual tool in verifying the thermal performance of the building envelope. In this paper the results of one pilot building (a school) will be presented. In surveying the condition and energy efficiency of buildings, various auxiliary means are needed. We can compare the consumption data of the target building with other, same type of buildings by benchmarking. Energy audit helps to localize and determine the energy saving potential. The most general and also most effective auxiliary means in monitoring the thermal performance of building envelopes is an infrared camera. In this presentation some examples of the use of thermography in energy audits are presented.

  12. Comparative Analysis of Infrared Thermography and CFD Modelling for Assessing the Thermal Performance of Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Morón

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption in the building sector has increased significantly in the developed countries over the last decades. For this reason, the new European standards have become stricter in terms of energy saving. This paper establishes a comparison between using infrared thermography for technical building inspection and modelling with Computational Flow Dynamics (CFD tools for the study of thermal performance of the building. The results show that the use of this type of tools gives a reliable response with the difference in thermal changes lower than 0.5 °C with respect to the data taken in situ. Moreover, these simulators of flow dynamics allow to evaluate the efficiency of proposed measures for energy savings and to obtain a reliable approximation to thermal comfort applying the improvement, deepening in the surface analysis of infrared thermography before performing rehabilitation project. In this research, Predicted Mean Vote Index (PMV comfort index of 0.7 for a living room and 0.6 for a bedroom were obtained, that corresponds to C class that includes values in the range of −0.7 < PMV < 0.7 according to the standard UNE-EN 7730.

  13. Color Segmentation Approach of Infrared Thermography Camera Image for Automatic Fault Diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djoko Hari Nugroho; Ari Satmoko; Budhi Cynthia Dewi

    2007-01-01

    Predictive maintenance based on fault diagnosis becomes very important in current days to assure the availability and reliability of a system. The main purpose of this research is to configure a computer software for automatic fault diagnosis based on image model acquired from infrared thermography camera using color segmentation approach. This technique detects hot spots in equipment of the plants. Image acquired from camera is first converted to RGB (Red, Green, Blue) image model and then converted to CMYK (Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, Key for Black) image model. Assume that the yellow color in the image represented the hot spot in the equipment, the CMYK image model is then diagnosed using color segmentation model to estimate the fault. The software is configured utilizing Borland Delphi 7.0 computer programming language. The performance is then tested for 10 input infrared thermography images. The experimental result shows that the software capable to detect the faulty automatically with performance value of 80 % from 10 sheets of image input. (author)

  14. Evaluation of stator core loss of high speed motor by using thermography camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takeru; Enokizono, Masato

    2018-04-01

    In order to design a high-efficiency motor, the iron loss that is generated in the motor should be reduced. The iron loss of the motor is generated in a stator core that is produced with an electrical steel sheet. The iron loss characteristics of the stator core and the electrical steel sheet are agreed due to a building factor. To evaluate the iron loss of the motor, the iron loss of the stator core should be measured more accurately. Thus, we proposed the method of the iron loss evaluation of the stator core by using a stator model core. This stator model core has been applied to the surface mounted permanent magnet (PM) motors without windings. By rotate the permanent magnet rotor, the rotating magnetic field is generated in the stator core like a motor under driving. To evaluate the iron loss of the stator model core, the iron loss of the stator core can be evaluated. Also, the iron loss can be calculated by a temperature gradient. When the temperature gradient is measured by using thermography camera, the iron loss of entire stator core can be evaluated as the iron loss distribution. In this paper, the usefulness of the iron loss evaluation method by using the stator model core is shown by the simulation with FEM and the heat measurement with thermography camera.

  15. Lock-in thermography as a rapid and reproducible thermal characterization method for magnetic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemal, Philipp; Geers, Christoph; Monnier, Christophe A.; Crippa, Federica; Daum, Leopold; Urban, Dominic A.; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara [Adolphe Merkle Institute, University of Fribourg, Chemin des Verdiers 4, CH-1700 Fribourg (Switzerland); Bonmarin, Mathias, E-mail: mathias.bonmarin@zhaw.ch [Institute of Computational Physics, Zurich University of Applied Sciences, Technikumstrasse 9, 8400 Winterthur (Switzerland); Petri-Fink, Alke, E-mail: alke.fink@unifr.ch [Adolphe Merkle Institute, University of Fribourg, Chemin des Verdiers 4, CH-1700 Fribourg (Switzerland); Chemistry Department, University of Fribourg, Chemin du Museé 9, CH-1700 Fribourg (Switzerland); Moore, Thomas L., E-mail: thomaslee.moore@unifr.ch [Adolphe Merkle Institute, University of Fribourg, Chemin des Verdiers 4, CH-1700 Fribourg (Switzerland)

    2017-04-01

    Lock-in thermography (LIT) is a sensitive imaging technique generally used in engineering and materials science (e.g. detecting defects in composite materials). However, it has recently been expanded for investigating the heating power of nanomaterials, such as superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs). Here we implement LIT as a rapid and reproducible method that can evaluate the heating potential of various sizes of SPIONs under an alternating magnetic field (AMF), as well as the limits of detection for each particle size. SPIONs were synthesized via thermal decomposition and stabilized in water via a ligand transfer process. Thermographic measurements of SPIONs were made by stimulating particles of varying sizes and increasing concentrations under an AMF. Furthermore, a commercially available SPION sample was included as an external reference. While the size dependent heating efficiency of SPIONs has been previously described, our objective was to probe the sensitivity limits of LIT. For certain size regimes it was possible to detect signals at concentrations as low as 0.1 mg Fe/mL. Measuring at different concentrations enabled a linear regression analysis and extrapolation of the limit of detection for different size nanoparticles. - Highlights: • A multi-sample screening assessment of magnetic nanoparticle thermal characteristics is shown via lock-in thermography. • Lower concentration limit of nanoparticle detection based on particle size is proposed. • A commercially available reference sample indicates the stability and reproducibility of LIT.

  16. Analysis of pulse thermography using similarities between wave and diffusion propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershenson, M.

    2017-05-01

    Pulse thermography or thermal wave imaging are commonly used as nondestructive evaluation (NDE) method. While the technical aspect has evolve with time, theoretical interpretation is lagging. Interpretation is still using curved fitting on a log log scale. A new approach based directly on the governing differential equation is introduced. By using relationships between wave propagation and the diffusive propagation of thermal excitation, it is shown that one can transform from solutions in one type of propagation to the other. The method is based on the similarities between the Laplace transforms of the diffusion equation and the wave equation. For diffusive propagation we have the Laplace variable s to the first power, while for the wave propagation similar equations occur with s2. For discrete time the transformation between the domains is performed by multiplying the temperature data vector by a matrix. The transform is local. The performance of the techniques is tested on synthetic data. The application of common back projection techniques used in the processing of wave data is also demonstrated. The combined use of the transform and back projection makes it possible to improve both depth and lateral resolution of transient thermography.

  17. Active Thermography for the Detection of Defects in Powder Metallurgy Compacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benzerrouk, Souheil; Ludwig, Reinhold; Apelian, Diran

    2007-01-01

    Active thermography is an established NDE technique that has become the method of choice in many industrial applications which require non-contact access to the parts under test. Unfortunately, when conducting on-line infrared (IR) inspection of powder metallic compacts, complications can arise due the generally low emissivity of metals and the thermally noisy environment typically encountered in manufacturing plants. In this paper we present results of an investigation that explores the suitability of active IR imaging of powder metallurgy compacts for the detection of surface and sub-surface defects in the pre-sinter state and in an on-line manufacturing setting to ensure complete quality assurance. Additional off-line tests can be carried out for statistical quality analyses. In this research, the IR imaging of sub-surface defects is based on a transient instrumentation approach that relies on an electric control system which synchronizes and monitors the thermal response due to an electrically generated heat source. Preliminary testing reveals that this newly developed pulsed thermography system can be employed for the detection of subsurface defects in green-state parts. Practical measurements agree well with theoretical predictions. The inspection approach being developed can be used for the testing of green-state compacts as they exit the compaction press at speeds of up to 1,000 parts per hour

  18. ON-POWER DETECTION OF PIPE WALL-THINNED DEFECTS USING IR THERMOGRAPHY IN NPPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JU HYUN KIM

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Wall-thinned defects caused by accelerated corrosion due to fluid flow in the inner pipe appear in many structures of the secondary systems in nuclear power plants (NPPs and are a major factor in degrading the integrity of pipes. Wall-thinned defects need to be managed not only when the NPP is under maintenance but also when the NPP is in normal operation. To this end, a test technique was developed in this study to detect such wall-thinned defects based on the temperature difference on the surface of a hot pipe using infrared (IR thermography and a cooling device. Finite element analysis (FEA was conducted to examine the tendency and experimental conditions for the cooling experiment. Based on the FEA results, the equipment was configured before the cooling experiment was conducted. The IR camera was then used to detect defects in the inner pipe of the pipe specimen that had artificially induced defects. The IR thermography developed in this study is expected to help resolve the issues related to the limitations of non-destructive inspection techniques that are currently conducted for NPP secondary systems and is expected to be very useful on the NPPs site.

  19. Rare Earth Doped Lanthanum Calcium Borate Polycrystalline Red Phosphors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. H. Xiong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Single-phased Sm3+ doped lanthanum calcium borate (SmxLa2−xCaB10O19, SLCB, x=0.06 polycrystalline red phosphor was prepared by solid-state reaction method. The phosphor has two main excitation peaks located at 398.5 nm and 469.0 nm, which are nicely in accordance with the emitting wavelengths of commercial near-UV and blue light emitting diode chips. Under the excitation of 398.0 nm, the dominant red emission of Sm3+ in SLCB phosphor is centered at 598.0 nm corresponding to the transition of 4G5/2 → 6H7/2. The Eu3+ fluorescence in the red spectral region is applied as a spectroscopic probe to reveal the local site symmetry in the host lattice and, hence, Judd-Ofelt parameters Ωt  (t=2, 4 of Eu3+ in the phosphor matrix are derived to be 3.62×10-20 and 1.97×10-20 cm2, indicating a high asymmetrical and strong covalent environment around rare earth luminescence centers. Herein, the red phosphors are promising good candidates employed in white light emitting diodes (LEDs illumination.

  20. Laser discrimination by stimulated emission of a phosphor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, V. K.; Chakrabarti, K.

    1991-01-01

    A method for discriminating sources of UV, near infrared, and far infrared laser radiation was discovered. This technology is based on the use of a single magnesium sulfide phosphor doubly doped with rare earth ions, which is thermally/optically stimulated to generate colors correlatable to the incident laser radiation. The phosphor, after initial charging by visible light, exhibits green stimulated luminescence when exposed to a near infrared source (Nd: YAG laser). On exposure to far infrared sources (CO2 laser) the phosphor emission changes to orange color. A UV laser produces both an orange red as well as green color. A device using this phosphor is useful for detecting the laser and for discriminating between the near infrared, far infrared, and UV lasers. The technology is also capable of infrared laser diode beam profiling since the radiation source leaves an imprint on the phosphor that can be photographed. Continued development of the technology offers potential for discrimination between even smaller bandwidths within the infrared spectrum, a possible aid to communication or wavemixing devices that need to rapidly identify and process optical signals.

  1. High-definition infrared thermography of ice nucleation and propagation in wheat under natural frost conditions and controlled freezing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infrared thermography has been used to visualize the freezing process in plants and has greatly enhanced our knowledge of ice nucleation and propagation in plants. The majority of IR analyses have been conducted under controlled rather than natural conditions and often on plant parts instead of wh...

  2. Low-temperature infiltration identified using infrared thermography in patients with subcutaneous edema revealed ultrasonographically: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oya, Maiko; Takahashi, Toshiaki; Tanabe, Hidenori; Oe, Makoto; Murayama, Ryoko; Yabunaka, Koichi; Matsui, Yuko; Sanada, Hiromi

    Infiltration is a frequent complication of infusion therapy. We previously demonstrated the usefulness of infrared thermography as an objective method of detecting infiltration in healthy people. However, whether thermography can detect infiltration in clinical settings remains unknown. Therefore, we report two cases where thermography was useful in detecting infiltration at puncture sites. In both cases, tissue changes were verified ultrasonographically. The patients were a 56-year-old male with cholangitis and a 76-year-old female with hepatoma. In both cases, infiltration symptoms such as swelling and erythema occurred one day after the insertion of a peripheral intravenous catheter. Thermographic images from both patients revealed low-temperature areas spreading from the puncture sites; however, these changes were not observed in other patients. The temperature difference between the low-temperature areas and their surrounding skin surface exceeded 1.0°C. Concurrently, ultrasound images revealed that tissues surrounding the vein had a cobblestone appearance, indicating edema. In both patients, subcutaneous tissue changes suggested infiltration and both had low-temperature areas spreading from the puncture sites. Thus, subcutaneous edema may indicate infusion leakage, resulting in a decrease in the temperature of the associated skin surface. These cases suggest that infrared thermography is an effective method of objectively and noninvasively detecting infiltration.

  3. Process for recovery of uranium from wet process phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiewiorowski, T.K.; Thornsberry, W.L. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Process is claimed for the recovery of uranium from wet process phosphoric acid solution in which an organic extractant, containing uranium values and dissolved iron impurities and comprising a dialkylphosphoric acid and a trialkylphosphine oxide dissolved in a water immiscible organic solvent, is contacted with a substantially iron-free dilute aqueous phosphoric acid to remove said iron impurities. The removed impurities are bled from the system by feeding the resulting iron-loaded phosphoric acid to a secondary countercurrent uranium extraction operation from which they leave as part of the uranium-depleted acid raffinate. Also, process for recovering uranium in which the extractant, after it has been stripped of uranium values by aqueous ammonium carbonate, is contacted with a dilute aqueous acid selected from the group consisting of H 2 SO 4 , HCl, HNO 3 and iron-free H 3 PO 4 to improve the extraction efficiency of the organic extractant

  4. Stacking dependence of carrier transport properties in multilayered black phosphorous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, A.; Audiffred, M.; Heine, T.; Niehaus, T. A.

    2016-02-01

    We present the effect of different stacking orders on carrier transport properties of multi-layer black phosphorous. We consider three different stacking orders AAA, ABA and ACA, with increasing number of layers (from 2 to 6 layers). We employ a hierarchical approach in density functional theory (DFT), with structural simulations performed with generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and the bandstructure, carrier effective masses and optical properties evaluated with the meta-generalized gradient approximation (MGGA). The carrier transmission in the various black phosphorous sheets was carried out with the non-equilibrium green’s function (NEGF) approach. The results show that ACA stacking has the highest electron and hole transmission probabilities. The results show tunability for a wide range of band-gaps, carrier effective masses and transmission with a great promise for lattice engineering (stacking order and layers) in black phosphorous.

  5. Persistent phosphors for painting, medical and biological applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarov, M.

    2013-01-01

    Multiphase micro and nanoparticle persistent phosphors are synthesized and applied for different fields including painting, medical and biological investigations. A lot of examples show a broad range of applications of persistent luminescence from bulk materials to high tech products, especially in medicine. The development of high efficiency nanosized phosphor makes it possible to propose persistent materials as very good candidates for photodynamic therapy of cancer. An artificial block from slag, concrete, and sand covered with SrAl 2 O 4 :Eu 2+ , Dy 3+ based phosphor is prepared, and a new direction in biology for algae cultivation and artificial reef is discussed. For the first time, underwater luminescence is experimentally studied under real sea conditions. Bright blue-green long-lasting afterglow is registered at a depth of 5 m. The fishes are attracted by the light of the artificial reef. (author)

  6. Phosphor plate mammography: contrast studies and clinical experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.H.J.; Martin, N.L.; Templeton, A.W.; Cook, L.T.; Harrison, L.A.; McFadden, M.A.; Dwyer, S.J. III; Spicer, J.; Crystal, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    Mammography and accurate microcalcification detection require very good spatial resolution. We have compared the diagnostic capabilities of reduced-exposure, third-generation, 5 cycles/mm computed radiography (CR) phosphor plates with conventional screen-film in 67 patients. No difference in diagnostic accuracy was detected. The digital characteristics of storage phosphor plates erabled us to study the relationship between contrast and spatial resolution. We developed a computer program to identify a single 100 μm pixel in a digital image and assign various gray levels to that pixel. Using this model, we determined that, for our 5 cycles/mm CR system, the imaged contrast of a 100 μm object was 62% of the original contrast. Current 5 cycles/mm phosphor plate systems cannot adequately detect microcalcifications that approximate 100 μm or smaller unless a magnification technique is used. (orig.)

  7. Ultraviolet /UV/ sensitive phosphors for silicon imaging detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viehmann, W.; Cowens, M. W.; Butner, C. L.

    1981-01-01

    The fluorescence properties of UV sensitive organic phosphors and the radiometric properties of phosphor coated silicon detectors in the VUV, UV, and visible wavelengths are described. With evaporated films of coronene and liumogen, effective quantum efficiencies of up to 20% have been achieved on silicon photodiodes in the vacuum UV. With thin films of methylmethacrylate (acrylic), which are doped with organic laser dyes and deposited from solution, detector quantum efficiencies of the order of 15% for wavelengths of 120-165 nm and of 40% for wavelengths above 190 nm have been obtained. The phosphor coatings also act as antireflection coatings and thereby enhance the response of coated devices throughout the visible and near IR.

  8. Recovery of zinc in phosphor wastes via electrokinetic treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, M.Y.; Wang, H. Paul; Chen, C.Y.; Hsiung, T.-L.; Wei, Yu-Ling; Tai, H.-S.; Chiang, K.-C.

    2007-01-01

    Speciation of zinc in phosphor wastes during electrokinetic treatments has been studied by in situ X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy in the present work. The least-square fits of the in situ XANES spectra show that the major zinc species in the phosphor waste are ZnS (77%), ZnO (10%), and Zn(OH) 2 (13%). During the electrokinetic treatment for 90 min, 25% of ZnS and 4% of ZnO are dissolved. About 42% of zinc is enriched on the cathode under the electric field (5 V/cm). Prolonging the electrokinetic treatment time to 4 h under the electric field of 5 V/cm, at least 80% of zinc in the phosphor waste can be recovered

  9. White-electroluminescent device with horizontally patterned blue/yellow phosphor-layer structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won Park, Boo; Sik Choi, Nam; Won Park, Kwang; Mo Son, So; Kim, Jong Su; Kyun Shon, Pong

    2007-01-01

    White-electroluminescent (EL) devices with stripe-patterned and square-patterned phosphor-layer structures are fabricated through a screen printing method: electrode/BaTiO 3 insulator layer/patterned blue ZnS:Cu, Cl and yellow ZnS:Cu, Mn phosphor layer/ITO PET substrate. The luminous intensities of EL devices with stripe-patterned and square-patterned phosphor-layer structures are 33% and 23% higher than a conventional device with the phosphor-layer structure without any patterns using the phosphor blend. It can be explained in terms of the absorption of the emitted blue light of blue phosphor layer by the yellow-emitting phosphor layer. The EL device of our patterned phosphor-layer structure gives the possibility to enhance the luminance

  10. Method for the recovery of uranium from a concentrate using pure phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Procedure for the recovery of an uranium bearing concentrate and pure phosphoric acid from a wet process phosphoric acid from the treatment fluid with a precipitation means in conjunction with an organic diluent, the thus formed precipitate to separate and from the remaining mixture of phosphoric acid and diluent the phosphoric acid to extract, characterised in that one applies an inorganic fluorine compound. (G.C.)

  11. Reactivity of the cadmium ion in concentrated phosphoric acid solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gyves, J; Gonzales, J; Louis, C; Bessiere, J

    1989-07-01

    The solvation transfer coefficients which characterize the changes of ion reactivity with phosphoric acid concentration have been calculated for cadmium from the constants of the successive chloride complexes, and for silver and diethyldithiophosphate from potentiometric measurements. They evidence the strong desolvation of the cadmium species in concentrated phosphoric acid media, causing a remarkable increase of its reactivity. They allow the results of liquid-liquid extraction, precipitation and flotation reactions to be correctly interpreted and their changes to be foreseen when the reagents are modified.

  12. Phosphoric acid fuel cell R and D activities at KACST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghouse, M.; Aba-Oud, H.; Ba-Junaid, M.; Al-Garni, M.; Quadri, M.I.

    1993-01-01

    The PAFC (Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell) activities are directed towards the development of components of single cell and experimental stacks at KACST. The main aim of the present task is to design and construct a 1 kW PAFC Stack and demonstrate it by integrating with an electrolyser using a DC current generated by a photovoltaic power source. This paper describes the preparation of porous teflon bonded gas diffusion carbon electrodes and their evaluation as single phosphoric acid fuel cells using hydrogen as a fuel and oxygen/air as an oxidant. 6 figs., 2 tabs., 15 refs

  13. Cadmium elemination from phosphoric acid by ionic flotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brikci-Nigassa, Mounir; Hamouche, Hafida

    1995-11-01

    The ion flotation process for the recovery of cadmium from wet phosphoric acid (30%P2O5) has been studied. This technique combines a chemical recation between the collector and the cadmium to form a precipitate (sublate) which is carried to the surface of the solution by air bubbles. the resulting foam containing the cadmium may then separated from solution. The influence of parameters such as collector and cadmium concentration as well as iron content have been investigated for the case a synthetic acid (30% P2O5). The result have been applied to the industrial phosphoric acid produced from Djebel Onk's phosphates (Algeria)

  14. Transport of phosphoric acid through supported liquid membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayzafoon, G.; Yassine, T.; Baidoun, R.

    2003-01-01

    The transport of phosphhoric acid through liquid membranes of amylalkohol, 1-octanol and 2-octanol was studied. It was found that phosphoric acid is transfered from feed side to strip side and the transport increased with the concentration of phosphoric acid up to 5M. The permeability in each membrane was determined for 5M phosphoic acid. It was found that the permeability values are 1.45 x 10 1 0 m 2 s 1 for amylakohol and ∼ 1x10 1 0 m 2 s 1 for each of 1-octanol and 2-octanol

  15. Properties of precipitates formed during ammonization of extractional phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharova, B.S.; Komissarova, L.N.; Naumov, S.V.; Traskin, V.Yu.

    1992-01-01

    Dimensions of precipitated rare-earth phosphate particles -(0.1 μm)- are near the boundary of colloidal system sedimentation stability range at neutralization of extraction phosphoric acid. Thus, formation of multiple aggregates of colloidal particles results in immediate sedimentation of the precipitate. Processes occurring within the system may be described using second order reaction equation. Average efficient size of precipitates grows at reduction of reaction mixture pH. About 30% of rare-earth elements and yttrium in the extraction phosphoric acid is extracted from it; concentration of rare-earth elements, yttrium and scandium in precipitate is maximum 2 mass. %

  16. Purification of di-nonyl phenyl phosphoric acid (DNPPA) for synergistic extraction of uranium from strong phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, D.K.; Vijayalakshmi, R.; Singh, H.; Sharma, J.N.; Ruhela, R.

    2009-01-01

    Di-nonyl phenyl phosphoric acid (DNPPA) obtained from various synthesis methods is always associated with impurities such as mono-nonyl phenyl phosphoric acid and nonyl phenol which need to be separated for its effective use in the extraction of uranium from strong phosphoric acid. Two methods of purification namely liquid-solid separation method using neodymium salt and liquid-liquid separation method using methylene glycol have been described. In the liquid solid separation method the purity of DNPPA obtained was about 95% with less than 1.0% monoester, however it heavily suffers in the recovery aspect which is of the order of 50-60%. The methylene glycol treatment method, results in high purity and recovery of the product. Purity obtained was about 95.0% diester and less than 0.5% monoester and recovery was more than 90%. Analysis of DNPPA was done by potentiometric titration method using autotitrator. (author)

  17. Process for recovering yttrium and lanthanides from wet-process phosphoric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, J.A.; Weterings, C.A.

    1983-06-28

    Process for recovering yttrium and lanthanides from wet-process phosphoric acid by adding a flocculant to the phosphoric acid, separating out the resultant precipitate and then recovering yttrium and lanthanides from the precipitate. Uranium is recovered from the remaining phosphoric acid.

  18. Use of infrared thermography for the diagnosis and grading of sprained ankle injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, João; Vardasca, Ricardo; Pimenta, Madalena; Gabriel, Joaquim; Torres, João

    2016-05-01

    Ankle joint sprains are a common medical condition estimated to be responsible for 15-25% of all musculoskeletal injuries worldwide. The pathophysiology of the lesion can represent considerable time lost to injury, as well as long-term disability in up to 60% of patients. A percentage between 10% and 20% may complicate with chronic instability of the ankle joint and disability in walking, contributing to morbidity and poor life quality. Ankle sprains can be classified as grade I, II, or III, based on the extent of damage and number of ligaments affected. The diagnostic grading is important for setting further treatment and rehabilitation, since more severe injuries carries risk of recurrence, added morbidity and decrease in life quality. The aim of this work was to evaluate the adequacy of infrared thermography as a potential complimentary diagnostic tool of the distinct lesions grades. Evaluation of different thermographic values of the ankle region (in both affected and non-affected foot) was conducted for this purpose. The principal results to be highlighted are that some of the regions, namely anterior view for non defined time after injury analysis, and anterior, frontal, posterior and anterior talofibular ligament regions and proximal calcaneofibular ligament regions in acute lesions (herein defined as less than 6 h post-traumatic event) presented consistent profiles of variation. The analyses were performed considering affected and non-affected ankles results on plotted graphics representing termographic evaluation and grading of these lesions performed using ultrasound by experimented medical radiologists. An increase in temperature values was observed when progressing from mild to severe ankle sprain injuries, with these regions presenting lower values for the affected ankle when compared to the non-affected ankle in all the analysis performed. The remaining analysed regions did not present the same variations. Statistical analysis using Kruskal

  19. In-flight investigations of the unsteady behaviour of the boundary layer with infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szewczyk, Mariusz; Smusz, Robert; de Groot, Klaus; Meyer, Joerg; Kucaba-Pietal, Anna; Rzucidlo, Pawel

    2017-04-01

    Infrared thermography (IRT) has been well established in wind tunnel and flight tests for the last decade. Former applications of IRT were focused, in nearly all cases, on steady measurements. In the last years, requirements of unsteady IRT measurements (up to 10 Hz) have been formulated, but the problem of a very slow thermal response of common materials of wind tunnel models or airplane components has to be overcome by finding a surface modification with a fast thermal response (low heat capacity, low thermal conductivity and high thermal diffusivity). Therefore, lab investigations of potential material combinations and flight tests with a ‘low cost’ aircraft, i.e. a glider with a modified wing surface, were conducted. In order to induce unsteady conditions (rapid change of laminar-turbulent boundary layer transition), special maneuvers of a glider during IRT measurements were performed.

  20. Validation of infrared thermography in serotonin-induced itch model in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dagnæs-Hansen, Frederik; Jasemian, Yousef; Gazerani, Parisa

    The number of scratching bouts is generally used as a standard method in animal models of itch. The aim of the present study was to validate the application of infrared thermography (IR-Th) in a serotonin-induced itch model in rats. Adult Sprague-Dawley male rats (n = 24) were used in 3 consecutive...... experiments. The first experiment evaluated vasomotor response (IR-Th) and scratching behavior (number of bouts) induced by intradermal serotonin (10 μl, 2%). Isotonic saline (control: 10 μl, 0.9%) and Methysergide (antagonist: 10 μl, 0.047 mg/ml) were used. The second experiment evaluated the dose......-response effect of intradermal serotonin (1%, 2% and 4%) on local temperature. The third experiment evaluated the anesthetized rats to test the local vasomotor responses in absent of scratching. Serotonin elicited significant scratching and lowered the local temperature at the site of injection. A dose...

  1. Standard practice for infrared flash thermography of composite panels and repair patches used in aerospace applications

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This practice describes a procedure for detecting subsurface flaws in composite panels and repair patches using Flash Thermography (FT), in which an infrared (IR) camera is used to detect anomalous cooling behavior of a sample surface after it has been heated with a spatially uniform light pulse from a flash lamp array. 1.2 This practice describes established FT test methods that are currently used by industry, and have demonstrated utility in quality assurance of composite structures during post-manufacturing and in-service examinations. 1.3 This practice has utility for testing of polymer composite panels and repair patches containing, but not limited to, bismaleimide, epoxy, phenolic, poly(amide imide), polybenzimidazole, polyester (thermosetting and thermoplastic), poly(ether ether ketone), poly(ether imide), polyimide (thermosetting and thermoplastic), poly(phenylene sulfide), or polysulfone matrices; and alumina, aramid, boron, carbon, glass, quartz, or silicon carbide fibers. Typical as-fabricate...

  2. A novel pulse compression algorithm for frequency modulated active thermography using band-pass filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Krishnendu; Roy, Deboshree; Tuli, Suneet

    2017-05-01

    This paper proposes a novel pulse compression algorithm, in the context of frequency modulated thermal wave imaging. The compression filter is derived from a predefined reference pixel in a recorded video, which contains direct measurement of the excitation signal alongside the thermal image of a test piece. The filter causes all the phases of the constituent frequencies to be adjusted to nearly zero value, so that on reconstruction a pulse is obtained. Further, due to band-limited nature of the excitation, signal-to-noise ratio is improved by suppressing out-of-band noise. The result is similar to that of a pulsed thermography experiment, although the peak power is drastically reduced. The algorithm is successfully demonstrated on mild steel and carbon fibre reference samples. Objective comparisons of the proposed pulse compression algorithm with the existing techniques are presented.

  3. Infrared thermography based on artificial intelligence as a screening method for carpal tunnel syndrome diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesensek Papez, B; Palfy, M; Mertik, M; Turk, Z

    2009-01-01

    This study further evaluated a computer-based infrared thermography (IRT) system, which employs artificial neural networks for the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) using a large database of 502 thermal images of the dorsal and palmar side of 132 healthy and 119 pathological hands. It confirmed the hypothesis that the dorsal side of the hand is of greater importance than the palmar side when diagnosing CTS thermographically. Using this method it was possible correctly to classify 72.2% of all hands (healthy and pathological) based on dorsal images and > 80% of hands when only severely affected and healthy hands were considered. Compared with the gold standard electromyographic diagnosis of CTS, IRT cannot be recommended as an adequate diagnostic tool when exact severity level diagnosis is required, however we conclude that IRT could be used as a screening tool for severe cases in populations with high ergonomic risk factors of CTS.

  4. An Exploratory Study on the Optimized Test Conditions of the Lock-in Thermography Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Yong Jin

    2011-01-01

    This work is devoted to the technique application of lock-in infrared thermography in the shipbuilding and ocean engineering industry. For this purpose, an exploratory study to find the optimized test conditions is carried out by the design of experiments. It has been confirmed to be useful method that the phase contrast images were quantified by a reference image and weighted by defect hole size. Illuminated optical intensity of lower or medium strength give a good result for getting a phase contrast image. In order to get a good phase contrast image, lock-in frequency factors should be high in proportion to the illuminated optical intensity. The integration time of infrared camera should have been inversely proportional to the optical intensity. The other hand, the difference of specimen materials gave a slightly biased results not being discriminative reasoning

  5. Development of LabVIEW Program for Lock-In Infrared Thermography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Tae Hoon; Na, Hyung Chul; Kim, Noh Yu

    2011-01-01

    A LabVIEW program has been developed together with simple infrared thermography(IRT) system to control the lock-in conditions of the system efficiently. The IR imaging software was designed to operate both of infrared camera and halogen lamp by synchronizing them with periodic sine signal based on thyristor(SCR) circuits. LabVIEW software was programmed to provide users with screen-menu functions by which it can change the period and energy of heat source, operate the camera to acquire image, and monitor the state of the system on the computer screen In experiment, lock-in IR image for a specimen with artificial hole defects was obtained by the developed IRT system and compared with optical image

  6. Active infrared thermography for visualizing subsurface micro voids in an epoxy molding compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ji Yeol [Test and Package Center, Samsung Electronics, Asan(Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Soon Kyu; Choi, Jae Mook; Sohn, Hoon [Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    This paper presents an automated subsurface micro void detection technique based on pulsed infrared thermography for inspecting epoxy molding compounds (EMC) used in electronic device packaging. Subsurface micro voids are first detected and visualized by extracting a lock-in amplitude image from raw thermal images. Binary imaging follows to achieve better visualization of subsurface micro voids. A median filter is then applied for removing sparse noise components. The performance of the proposed technique is tested using 36 EMC samples, which have subsurface (below 150 μm ~ 300 μm from the inspection surface) micro voids (150 μm ~ 300 μm in diameter). The experimental results show that the subsurface micro voids can be successfully detected without causing any damage to the EMC samples, making it suitable for automated online inspection.

  7. Aerial thermography from low-cost UAV for the generation of thermographic digital terrain models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagüela, S.; Díaz-Vilariño, L.; Roca, D.; Lorenzo, H.

    2015-03-01

    Aerial thermography is performed from a low-cost aerial vehicle, copter type, for the acquisition of data of medium-size areas, such as neighbourhoods, districts or small villages. Thermographic images are registered in a mosaic subsequently used for the generation of a thermographic digital terrain model (DTM). The thermographic DTM can be used with several purposes, from classification of land uses according to their thermal response to the evaluation of the building prints as a function of their energy performance, land and water management. In the particular case of buildings, apart from their individual evaluation and roof inspection, the availability of thermographic information on a DTM allows for the spatial contextualization of the buildings themselves and the general study of the surrounding area for the detection of global effects such as heat islands.

  8. Characterization of defects situated in a fresco by stimulated infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candoré, J. C.; Bodnar, J. L.; Detalle, V.; Grossel, P.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work is to approach the possibilities of stimulated infrared thermography in dimensional characterization of defects situated in mural paintings. Towards this end, we have proceeded in two stages. Initially, we have developed, with the help of a point source photothermal analysis, an in situ measurement of the longitudinal thermal diffusivity parameter. Then, we have proceeded to the characterization of the depth of the studied defect, by means of a wide photothermal analysis and of a confrontation between theory and experiment. In this article, we present these two measurement techniques and show that the approach allows a good estimation of the depth of an inclusion of plastazote in a copy of the "Saint Christophe" of the "Campana" collection of the "Louvre Museum".

  9. Non-destructive testing of works of art by stimulated infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candoré, J. C.; Bodnar, J. L.; Detalle, V.; Grossel, P.

    2012-02-01

    In this work, we present various examples of assistance to the restoration of works of art by stimulated infrared thermography. We show initially that the method allows the detection of delamination located in mural paintings, such as in the "Saint Christophe" of the Campana collection of the Louvre French museum. We show then that it also makes it possible to detect delaminations or galleries of worms in marquetries. We show in a third stage that it provides for the detection of detachment of grayness in stained glasses. We show in a fourth stage that it allows the visualization of shards or metal inserts located in a Greek "panathénaque" amphora of the French National museum of the Ceramics of Sevres. We show finally, that the method permits the detection of a crack located in an ovoid vase of the same French National museum of the Ceramics of Sevres.

  10. Contribution to the improvement of heritage mural painting non-destructive testing by stimulated infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnar, Jean-Luc; Mouhoubi, Kamel; Di Pallo, Luigi; Detalle, Vincent; Vallet, Jean-Marc; Duvaut, Thierry

    2013-10-01

    Non-destructive testing of heritage mural paintings by means of stimulated infrared thermography has now become rather efficient [1-14]. However, pigments, which form a pictorial layer, have contrasting radiative properties possibly leading to artifact detection. In this paper, attempts to alleviate this difficulty are presented. Based on the spectroscopic study of different paint layers, one can argue that, in the medium infrared field, this radiative disparity decreases significantly. Then, with similar settings, it can be shown that ceramic radiative sources allow reaching this wavelength band. Finally, on the basis of a study carried out on an academic sample and a partial copy of a fresco from the cathedral of Angers, combining ceramic heat sources with a laboratory SAMMTHIR experimental setup enables to make real headway in terms of defects' detection.

  11. Refinement of the Collagen Induced Arthritis Model in Rats by Infrared Thermography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jasemian, Yousef; Deleuran, Bent Winding; Svendsen, Pia

    2011-01-01

    correlation between temperature and clinical scores. Conclusion: The thermographic response appeared prior to the clinical signs, suggesting that thermography may be used as a predictive sign for the development of disease. This technique could be a non-invasive, objective, rapid, and reproducible method...... with other clinical parameters such as clinical score and edema and may serve as a method for quantification of the degree of inflammation. Study design: Experimental animal study. Place and Duration of Study: Institute of Biomedicine, University of Aarhus, Denmark between February and March 2010....... Methodology: Arthritis was induced with collagen immunization in sixteen Lewis rats. Four of the animals were treated with dexamethasone to function as negative controls. Clinical scores were based on the magnitude of paw edema. The mean temperature of the hind feet (region covering the metatarsus and tarsus...

  12. Spatial-time-state fusion algorithm for defect detection through eddy current pulsed thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiang; Gao, Bin; Woo, Wai Lok; Tian, Gui Yun; Xiao, Xiao Ting

    2018-05-01

    Eddy Current Pulsed Thermography (ECPT) has received extensive attention due to its high sensitive of detectability on surface and subsurface cracks. However, it remains as a difficult challenge in unsupervised detection as to identify defects without knowing any prior knowledge. This paper presents a spatial-time-state features fusion algorithm to obtain fully profile of the defects by directional scanning. The proposed method is intended to conduct features extraction by using independent component analysis (ICA) and automatic features selection embedding genetic algorithm. Finally, the optimal feature of each step is fused to obtain defects reconstruction by applying common orthogonal basis extraction (COBE) method. Experiments have been conducted to validate the study and verify the efficacy of the proposed method on blind defect detection.

  13. In-flight investigations of the unsteady behaviour of the boundary layer with infrared thermography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szewczyk, Mariusz; Smusz, Robert; Kucaba-Pietal, Anna; Rzucidlo, Pawel; De Groot, Klaus; Meyer, Joerg

    2017-01-01

    Infrared thermography (IRT) has been well established in wind tunnel and flight tests for the last decade. Former applications of IRT were focused, in nearly all cases, on steady measurements. In the last years, requirements of unsteady IRT measurements (up to 10 Hz) have been formulated, but the problem of a very slow thermal response of common materials of wind tunnel models or airplane components has to be overcome by finding a surface modification with a fast thermal response (low heat capacity, low thermal conductivity and high thermal diffusivity). Therefore, lab investigations of potential material combinations and flight tests with a ‘low cost’ aircraft, i.e. a glider with a modified wing surface, were conducted. In order to induce unsteady conditions (rapid change of laminar-turbulent boundary layer transition), special maneuvers of a glider during IRT measurements were performed. (paper)

  14. Application of infrared thermography for temperature distributions in fluid-saturated porous media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imran, Muhammad; Nick, Hamid; Schotting, Ruud J.

    2016-01-01

    is achieved with a combination of invasive sensors which are inserted into the medium and non-invasive thermal sensors in which sensors are not inserted to measure temperatures but it works through the detection of infrared radiation emitted from the surface. Thermocouples of relatively thin diameter are used......Infrared thermography has increasingly gained importance because of environmental and technological advancements of this method and is applied in a variety of disciplines related to non-isothermal flow. However, it has not been used so far for quantitative thermal analysis in saturated porous media....... This article suggests infrared thermographic approach to obtain the entire surface temperature distribution(s) in water-saturated porous media. For this purpose, infrared thermal analysis is applied with in situ calibration for a better understanding of the heat transfer processes in porous media. Calibration...

  15. The value of dynamic infrared thermography (DIRT) in perforatorselection and planning of free DIEP flaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Weerd, Louis; Weum, Sven; Mercer, James B

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate dynamic infrared thermography (DIRT) as a technique to assist in preoperative perforator selection and planning of free deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flaps. Twenty-seven patients, scheduled for secondary autologous breast reconstruction with either a free DIEP flap or superficial inferior epigastric artery flap, were included in this prospective clinical study. Preoperative mapping of perforators was performed with a hand-held Doppler and DIRT. A multidetector computer tomography scan was additionally carried out in the last 8 patients. In 23 patients a DIEP flap was used. The perforator as selected from DIRT was a suitable perforator in all DIEP flaps. The location and quality of the selected perforator from DIRT corresponded well with the multidetector computer tomography scan results. Preoperative perforator selection and planning of DIEP flaps is facilitated with the use of DIRT. The technique is noninvasive and easy to use.

  16. Investigation of non-reciprocal magnon propagation using lock-in thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wid, Olga; Bauer, Jan; Müller, Alexander; Breitenstein, Otwin; Parkin, Stuart S. P.; Schmidt, Georg

    2017-04-01

    We have investigated the unidirectional spin wave heat conveyer effect in a 200 nm thin yttrium iron garnet (YIG) film using lock-in thermography (LIT). This originates from the non-reciprocal propagation of magnons, which leads to an asymmetric heat transport. To excite the spin waves we use two different respective antenna geometries: a coplanar waveguide (CPW) or a ‘microstrip’-like antenna on top of the YIG. By using the CPW and comparing the results for the Damon-Eshbach and the backward volume modes we are able to show that the origin of the asymmetric heat profile are indeed the non-reciprocal spin waves. Using the ‘microstrip’-like geometry we can confirm these results and we can even observe a distinct excitation profile along the antenna due to small field inhomogeneities.

  17. Development of composite calibration standard for quantitative NDE by ultrasound and thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayal, Vinay; Benedict, Zach G.; Bhatnagar, Nishtha; Harper, Adam G.

    2018-04-01

    Inspection of aircraft components for damage utilizing ultrasonic Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) is a time intensive endeavor. Additional time spent during aircraft inspections translates to added cost to the company performing them, and as such, reducing this expenditure is of great importance. There is also great variance in the calibration samples from one entity to another due to a lack of a common calibration set. By characterizing damage types, we can condense the required calibration sets and reduce the time required to perform calibration while also providing procedures for the fabrication of these standard sets. We present here our effort to fabricate composite samples with known defects and quantify the size and location of defects, such as delaminations, and impact damage. Ultrasonic and Thermographic images are digitally enhanced to accurately measure the damage size. Ultrasonic NDE is compared with thermography.

  18. 46 CFR 153.558 - Special requirements for phosphoric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and... containment system must be: (a) Lined with natural rubber or neoprene; (b) Lined with a material approved for phosphoric acid tanks by the Commandant (CG-522); or (c) Made of a stainless steel that resists corrosion by...

  19. Characterization of metallic surfaces in phosphorous-bronze ordered packings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandru, Claudia; Titescu, Gh.

    1997-01-01

    Copper and its alloys, particularly the phosphorous bronze, are characterized by a high water wettability as compared with other materials. This feature led to utilization of phosphorous bronze in fabrication of contact elements, a packing type equipping the distillation columns. For heavy water separation by isotopic distillation under vacuum, ordered packings of phosphorous bronze networks were fabricated. The superior performances of these packings are determined by the material and also by the geometrical form and the state of the metallic surface. Thus, a procedure of evaluating the wettability has been developed, based on tests of the network material. The results of the tests constitute a criterion of rating the functional performances of packings, particularly of their efficiencies. Also, investigation techniques of the chemical composition and of the thickness of superficial layer on the packing were developed. It was found that the packing surface presents a layer of about 5-20 μm formed mainly by oxides of copper, tin, and, depending on the packing treatment, of oxides of other elements coming from the treatment agent. The paper presents characterization of phosphorous bronze treated with potassium permanganate, a specific treatment for improving the functional performances of the packings used in the heavy water concentration and re-concentration installations

  20. Comparison of different phosphorous adsorption models in acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to compare the phosphorous fixation capacity of three soils series named Tyele, Minkonmingon and Mekoto in the south region of Cameroon and to determine the soil properties that are the main predictors of the P activity of those soils. Five adsorption equations viz. Linear, Langmuir, Van Huay, ...