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Sample records for two-choice discrimination method

  1. Interaction of Reinforcement Conditions and Developmental Level in a Two-Choice Discrimination Task with Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindall, Robert C.; Ratliff, Richard G.

    1974-01-01

    Reports a study of 540 first-, fourth-, and eighth-grade students who participated in a discrimination task under three reinforcement conditions: reward, punishment and a combination of both. Results indicate the superiority of learning under punishment conditions. Interactions involving the sex of subject and experimenter are also discussed.…

  2. The Comprehensive Retrieval Method of Electromagnetic Parameters Using the Scattering Parameters of Metamaterials for Two Choices of Time-Dependent Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Zhi-Ling; KONG Ling-Bao; JIN Hai-Bo; CAO Mao-Sheng; LI Xiao; QI Xin

    2012-01-01

    The electromagnetic parameters (permittivity and permeability) method, retrieved from the reflection and transmission coefficients of a slab, is presented. Improvements over existing methods, including the determination of the permittivity, permeability and impedance of the slab, are expressed as explicit functions of the S parameters for both the time-dependent factors, eiωt and e-iωt (ω is the angular frequency of the incident electromagnetic wave), and the proper selection of the sign of impedance and the real part of the refractive index. Moreover, based on the retrieving method, the calculations of the electromagnetic parameters of the conventional-material teflon slab standard sample through the experimental data of the S parameters are performed, which confirm the validity of the technique for the retrieval of electromagnetic parameters.%The electromagnetic parameters (permittivity and permeability) method,retrieved from the reflection and transmission coefficients of a slab,is presented.Improvements over existing methods,including the determination of the permittivity,permeability and impedance of the slab,are expressed as explicit functions of the S parameters for both the time-dependent factors,eiwt and e-iwt (ω is the angular frequency of the incident electromagnetic wave),and the proper selection of the sign of impedance and the real part of the refractive index.Moreover,based on the retrieving method,the calculations of the electromagnetic parameters of the conventional-material teflon slab standard sample through the experimental data of the S parameters are performed,which confirm the validity of the technique for the retrieval of electromagnetic parameters.

  3. Discrimination method of forked larch trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wen-bin; Sun Ren-shan; Liu Xu-hua; Liu Yong

    2006-01-01

    For the demands of automatíc pruning, an effective discrimination rule of the forked and non-forked larch trees is established. First, information of trunk and branch diameters of a larch plantations was collected from the west mountain of Beijing. The growth characteristics of the forked and non-forked trees were studied. Given the statistical characteristics of the trunk and branch diameters, a discriminant function of the forked branch and non-forked larch trees was established statistically. Excellent discrimination results were obtained by the function and the rule. The study presents an effective discrimination rule to separate forked trees from straight trees for automatic pruning.

  4. Discriminant forest classification method and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Barry Y.; Hanley, William G.; Lemmond, Tracy D.; Hiller, Lawrence J.; Knapp, David A.; Mugge, Marshall J.

    2012-11-06

    A hybrid machine learning methodology and system for classification that combines classical random forest (RF) methodology with discriminant analysis (DA) techniques to provide enhanced classification capability. A DA technique which uses feature measurements of an object to predict its class membership, such as linear discriminant analysis (LDA) or Andersen-Bahadur linear discriminant technique (AB), is used to split the data at each node in each of its classification trees to train and grow the trees and the forest. When training is finished, a set of n DA-based decision trees of a discriminant forest is produced for use in predicting the classification of new samples of unknown class.

  5. Comparing two methods of univariate discriminant analysis for sex discrimination in an Iberian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Arenas, Juan Manuel; Esquivel, José Antonio

    2013-05-10

    This study assesses the performance of two analytical approaches to sex discrimination based on single linear variables: discriminant analysis and the Lubischew's test. Ninety individuals from an archaeological population (La Torrecilla-Arenas del Rey, Granada, southern Spain) and 17 craniometrical variables were included in the analyses. Most craniometrical variables were higher for men. The bizygomatic breadth enabled the highest level of discrimination: 87.5% and 88.5%, using discriminant analysis and Lubischew's test, respectively. Bizygomatic breadth proved highly dimorphic in comparison to other populations reported in the literature. Lubischew's test raised the discrimination percentage in specific craniometrical variables, while others showed a superior performance by means of the discriminant analysis. The inconsistent results across statistical methods resulted from the specific formulation of each procedure. Discriminant analysis accounts both for within-group and between-group variance, while Lubischew's test emphasizes between-group variation only. Therefore, both techniques are recommended, as they provide different means of achieving optimal discrimination percentages.

  6. Study on the method for comprehensive discrimination of small earthquakes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈萍; 郑治真; 刘希强; 滕云田; 杨选辉

    2002-01-01

    In the paper, we apply the theory of modern digital signal processing to analysis 3-component digital seismic data recorded in Datong area of Shanxi Province by digital seismographs developed by the Institute of Geophysics, CSB in November 1999 and study the auto-discrimination of the recorded digital seismic signals. The result shows that the method for comprehensive discrimination in connection with ratios between average values of long-time and shorttime signals, spectral analysis, and wavelet analysis can be used to auto-discrimination of seismic signals through alternate man-computer processing. Many ML>2.0 earthquakes were discriminated better.

  7. Score-moment combined linear discrimination analysis (SMC-LDA) as an improved discrimination method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jintae; Chung, Hoeil; Han, Sung-Hwan; Yoon, Moon-Young

    2007-01-01

    A new discrimination method called the score-moment combined linear discrimination analysis (SMC-LDA) has been developed and its performance has been evaluated using three practical spectroscopic datasets. The key concept of SMC-LDA was to use not only the score from principal component analysis (PCA), but also the moment of the spectrum, as inputs for LDA to improve discrimination. Along with conventional score, moment is used in spectroscopic fields as an effective alternative for spectral feature representation. Three different approaches were considered. Initially, the score generated from PCA was projected onto a two-dimensional feature space by maximizing Fisher's criterion function (conventional PCA-LDA). Next, the same procedure was performed using only moment. Finally, both score and moment were utilized simultaneously for LDA. To evaluate discrimination performances, three different spectroscopic datasets were employed: (1) infrared (IR) spectra of normal and malignant stomach tissue, (2) near-infrared (NIR) spectra of diesel and light gas oil (LGO) and (3) Raman spectra of Chinese and Korean ginseng. For each case, the best discrimination results were achieved when both score and moment were used for LDA (SMC-LDA). Since the spectral representation character of moment was different from that of score, inclusion of both score and moment for LDA provided more diversified and descriptive information.

  8. Discrimination

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Midtbøen, Arnfinn H; Rogstad, Jon

    2012-01-01

    ... of discrimination in the labour market as well as to the mechanisms involved in discriminatory hiring practices. The design has several advantages compared to -‘single-method’ approaches and provides a more substantial understanding of the processes leading to ethnic inequality in the labour market.

  9. The power of two choices with simple tabulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgaard, Søren; Knudsen, Mathias Baek Tejs; Rotenberg, Eva

    2016-01-01

    The power of two choices is a classic paradigm for load balancing when assigning m balls to n bins. When placing a ball, we pick two bins according to two hash functions ho and h1, and place the ball in the least loaded bin. Assuming fully random hash functions, when m = O(n), Azar et al. [STOC'9...

  10. Discriminative tonal feature extraction method in mandarin speech recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Hao; ZHU Jie

    2007-01-01

    To utilize the supra-segmental nature of Mandarin tones, this article proposes a feature extraction method for hidden markov model (HMM) based tone modeling. The method uses linear transforms to project F0 (fundamental frequency) features of neighboring syllables as compensations, and adds them to the original F0 features of the current syllable. The transforms are discriminatively trained by using an objective function termed as "minimum tone error", which is a smooth approximation of tone recognition accuracy. Experiments show that the new tonal features achieve 3.82% tone recognition rate improvement, compared with the baseline, using maximum likelihood trained HMM on the normal F0 features. Further experiments show that discriminative HMM training on the new features is 8.78% better than the baseline.

  11. Discrimination of inflammatory bowel disease using Raman spectroscopy and linear discriminant analysis methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Hao; Cao, Ming; DuPont, Andrew W.; Scott, Larry D.; Guha, Sushovan; Singhal, Shashideep; Younes, Mamoun; Pence, Isaac; Herline, Alan; Schwartz, David; Xu, Hua; Mahadevan-Jansen, Anita; Bi, Xiaohong

    2016-03-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an idiopathic disease that is typically characterized by chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. Recently much effort has been devoted to the development of novel diagnostic tools that can assist physicians for fast, accurate, and automated diagnosis of the disease. Previous research based on Raman spectroscopy has shown promising results in differentiating IBD patients from normal screening cases. In the current study, we examined IBD patients in vivo through a colonoscope-coupled Raman system. Optical diagnosis for IBD discrimination was conducted based on full-range spectra using multivariate statistical methods. Further, we incorporated several feature selection methods in machine learning into the classification model. The diagnostic performance for disease differentiation was significantly improved after feature selection. Our results showed that improved IBD diagnosis can be achieved using Raman spectroscopy in combination with multivariate analysis and feature selection.

  12. Statistical methods of discrimination and classification advances in theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, Sung C

    1986-01-01

    Statistical Methods of Discrimination and Classification: Advances in Theory and Applications is a collection of papers that tackles the multivariate problems of discriminating and classifying subjects into exclusive population. The book presents 13 papers that cover that advancement in the statistical procedure of discriminating and classifying. The studies in the text primarily focus on various methods of discriminating and classifying variables, such as multiple discriminant analysis in the presence of mixed continuous and categorical data; choice of the smoothing parameter and efficiency o

  13. A comparison of stimulus presentation methods in temporal discrimination testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Govern, Eavan M; Butler, John S; Beiser, Ines; Williams, Laura; Quinlivan, Brendan; Narasiham, Shruti; Beck, Rebecca; O'Riordan, Sean; Reilly, Richard B; Hutchinson, Michael

    2017-02-01

    The temporal discrimination threshold (TDT) is the shortest time interval at which an individual detects two stimuli to be asynchronous (normal  =  30-50 ms). It has been shown to be abnormal in patients with disorders affecting the basal ganglia including adult onset idiopathic focal dystonia (AOIFD). Up to 97% of patients have an abnormal TDT with age- and sex-related penetrance in unaffected relatives, demonstrating an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern. These findings support the use of the TDT as a pre-clinical biomarker for AOIFD. The usual stimulus presentation method involves the presentation of progressively asynchronous stimuli; when three sequential stimuli are reported asynchronous is taken as a participant's TDT. To investigate the robustness of the 'staircase' method of presentation, we introduced a method of randomised presentation order to explore any potential 'learning effect' that may be associated with this existing method. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in temporal discrimination using two methods of stimulus presentation. Thirty healthy volunteers were recruited to the study (mean age 33.73  ±  3.4 years). Visual and tactile TDT testing using a staircase and randomised method of presentation order was carried out in a single session. There was a strong relationship between the staircase and random method for TDT values. This observed consistency between testing methods suggests that the existing experimental approach is a robust method of recording an individual's TDT. In addition, our newly devised randomised paradigm is a reproducible and more efficient method for data acquisition in the clinic setting. However, the two presentation methods yield different absolute TDT results and either of the two methods should be used uniformly in all participants in any one particular study.

  14. Robust Speech Recognition Method Based on Discriminative Environment Feature Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Jiqing; GAO Wen

    2001-01-01

    It is an effective approach to learn the influence of environmental parameters,such as additive noise and channel distortions, from training data for robust speech recognition.Most of the previous methods are based on maximum likelihood estimation criterion. However,these methods do not lead to a minimum error rate result. In this paper, a novel discrimina-tive learning method of environmental parameters, which is based on Minimum ClassificationError (MCE) criterion, is proposed. In the method, a simple classifier and the Generalized Probabilistic Descent (GPD) algorithm are adopted to iteratively learn the environmental parameters. Consequently, the clean speech features are estimated from the noisy speech features with the estimated environmental parameters, and then the estimations of clean speech features are utilized in the back-end HMM classifier. Experiments show that the best error rate reduction of 32.1% is obtained, tested on a task of 18 isolated confusion Korean words, relative to a conventional HMM system.

  15. Discriminative power of Campylobacter phenotypic and genotypic typing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Alexandra; Seliwiorstow, Tomasz; Miller, William G; De Zutter, Lieven; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Dierick, Katelijne; Botteldoorn, Nadine

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare different typing methods, individually and combined, for use in the monitoring of Campylobacter in food. Campylobacter jejuni (n=94) and Campylobacter coli (n=52) isolated from different broiler meat carcasses were characterized using multilocus sequence typing (MLST), flagellin gene A restriction fragment length polymorphism typing (flaA-RFLP), antimicrobial resistance profiling (AMRp), the presence/absence of 5 putative virulence genes; and, exclusively for C. jejuni, the determination of lipooligosaccharide (LOS) class. Discriminatory power was calculated by the Simpson's index of diversity (SID) and the congruence was measured by the adjusted Rand index and adjusted Wallace coefficient. MLST was individually the most discriminative typing method for both C. jejuni (SID=0.981) and C. coli (SID=0.957). The most discriminative combination with a SID of 0.992 for both C. jejuni and C. coli was obtained by combining MLST with flaA-RFLP. The combination of MLST with flaA-RFLP is an easy and feasible typing method for short-term monitoring of Campylobacter in broiler meat carcass.

  16. Discrimination of approved drugs from experimental drugs by learning methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yixue

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess whether a compound is druglike or not as early as possible is always critical in drug discovery process. There have been many efforts made to create sets of 'rules' or 'filters' which, it is hoped, will help chemists to identify 'drug-like' molecules from 'non-drug' molecules. However, among the chemical space of the druglike molecules, the minority will be approved drugs. Classifying approved drugs from experimental drugs may be more helpful to obtain future approved drugs. Therefore, discrimination of approved drugs from experimental ones has been done in this paper by analyzing the compounds in terms of existing drugs features and machine learning methods. Results Four methodologies were compared by their performance to classify approved drugs from experimental ones. The best results were obtained by SVM, in which the accuracy is 0.7911, the sensitivity is 0.5929, and the specificity is 0.8743. Based on the results, consensus model was developed to effectively discriminate drugs, which further pushed the correct classification rate up to 0.8517, sensitivity up to 0.7242, specificity up to 0.9352. The applications on the Traditional Chinese Medicine Ingredients Database (TCM-ID tested the methods. Therefore this model has been proven to be a potent tool for identifying drug molecules. Conclusion The studies would have potential applications in the research of combinatorial library design and virtual high throughput screening for drug discovery.

  17. Spatial discrimination and visual discrimination: two methods evaluating learning and memory in juvenile Göttingen minipigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haagensen, Annika M J; Grand, Nanna; Klastrup, Signe; Skytte, Christina; Sørensen, Dorte B

    2013-06-01

    Two methods investigating learning and memory in juvenile Göttingen minipigs were evaluated for potential use in preclinical toxicity testing. Twelve minipigs were tested using a spatial hole-board discrimination test including a learning phase and two memory phases. Five minipigs were tested in a visual discrimination test. The juvenile minipigs were able to learn the spatial hole-board discrimination test and showed improved working and reference memory during the learning phase. Performance in the memory phases was affected by the retention intervals, but the minipigs were able to remember the concept of the test in both memory phases. Working memory and reference memory were significantly improved in the last trials of the memory phases. In the visual discrimination test, the minipigs learned to discriminate between the three figures presented to them within 9-14 sessions. For the memory test, all minipigs performed 9/12 correct choices or better. Juvenile Göttingen minipigs are able to learn to perform in a spatial hole-board discrimination test as well as in a visual discrimination test, showing an increase in performance over time. Both tests have considerable scope to assess learning and memory of pigs, and we seem to have succeeded in establishing two test systems suitable for performing preclinical toxicity testing in juvenile minipigs.

  18. Discrimination of particulate matter emission sources using stochastic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczurek, Andrzej; Maciejewska, Monika; Wyłomańska, Agnieszka; Sikora, Grzegorz; Balcerek, Michał; Teuerle, Marek

    2016-12-01

    Particulate matter (PM) is one of the criteria pollutants which has been determined as harmful to public health and the environment. For this reason the ability to recognize its emission sources is very important. There are a number of measurement methods which allow to characterize PM in terms of concentration, particles size distribution, and chemical composition. All these information are useful to establish a link between the dust found in the air, its emission sources and influence on human as well as the environment. However, the methods are typically quite sophisticated and not applicable outside laboratories. In this work, we considered PM emission source discrimination method which is based on continuous measurements of PM concentration with a relatively cheap instrument and stochastic analysis of the obtained data. The stochastic analysis is focused on the temporal variation of PM concentration and it involves two steps: (1) recognition of the category of distribution for the data i.e. stable or the domain of attraction of stable distribution and (2) finding best matching distribution out of Gaussian, stable and normal-inverse Gaussian (NIG). We examined six PM emission sources. They were associated with material processing in industrial environment, namely machining and welding aluminum, forged carbon steel and plastic with various tools. As shown by the obtained results, PM emission sources may be distinguished based on statistical distribution of PM concentration variations. Major factor responsible for the differences detectable with our method was the type of material processing and the tool applied. In case different materials were processed by the same tool the distinction of emission sources was difficult. For successful discrimination it was crucial to consider size-segregated mass fraction concentrations. In our opinion the presented approach is very promising. It deserves further study and development.

  19. Method of Discriminant Gravity Tolerance using Heart Rate Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Yutaka; Yokoyama, Kiyoko; Takada, Hiroki; Iwase, Satoshi

    When returning on the earth by the space flight, the space deconditioning may be developed. As this countermeasure, the artificial gravity load device using the centrifuge is proposed in the space station. But the gravity load might cause the faint, and safe gravity load is uncertainty. We proposed that discriminate strength of gravity tolerance using heart rate variability time series. Step function was inputted to AR model estimated from heart rate variability time series during rest or under light gravity load, and strength of the gravity tolerance was discriminated by the step response function. On the result, discriminant accuracy was 87.5% by using heart rate variability time series when gravity load of 1.0 G was added to the human lying on the supine. Therefore, possibility of discriminant of gravity tolerance was obtained by using heart rate variability time series when sympathetic hyperactivity. Discriminant of the gravity tolerance is expected before countermeasure of space deconditioning is executed.

  20. Method and apparatus for sub-hysteresis discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Geronimo, Gianluigi

    2015-12-29

    Embodiments of comparator circuits are disclosed. A comparator circuit may include a differential input circuit, an output circuit, a positive feedback circuit operably coupled between the differential input circuit and the output circuit, and a hysteresis control circuit operably coupled with the positive feedback circuit. The hysteresis control circuit includes a switching device and a transistor. The comparator circuit provides sub-hysteresis discrimination and high speed discrimination.

  1. Comparison of discrimination methods for alpha radiation signals using imaging plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, B; Zhuo, W

    2012-11-01

    The discrimination of different radiation signals is important for quantitative measurements of naturally occurring radionulides by using the technique of imaging plates (IPs). In this study, four discrimination algorithms previously proposed for discriminating and counting the incident alpha signals were experimentally compared from the view points of linearity response, the discrimination capability of alpha signals from beta signals and the detection uncertainty. The results showed that all the methods had a good linearity response and could discriminate alpha signals from beta signals. In general, a larger region of interest (ROI) has a higher detection efficiency, but the discrimination capability of alpha signals from beta signals is worse. By taking into account both the detection efficiency and the uncertainty of detection, the algorithm using an ROI of 5 × 100 μm × 100 μm was considered to be the most appropriate method for quantitative measurements of alpha radiation.

  2. Comparison of linear discriminant analysis methods for the classification of cancer based on gene expression data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Miao

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More studies based on gene expression data have been reported in great detail, however, one major challenge for the methodologists is the choice of classification methods. The main purpose of this research was to compare the performance of linear discriminant analysis (LDA and its modification methods for the classification of cancer based on gene expression data. Methods The classification performance of linear discriminant analysis (LDA and its modification methods was evaluated by applying these methods to six public cancer gene expression datasets. These methods included linear discriminant analysis (LDA, prediction analysis for microarrays (PAM, shrinkage centroid regularized discriminant analysis (SCRDA, shrinkage linear discriminant analysis (SLDA and shrinkage diagonal discriminant analysis (SDDA. The procedures were performed by software R 2.80. Results PAM picked out fewer feature genes than other methods from most datasets except from Brain dataset. For the two methods of shrinkage discriminant analysis, SLDA selected more genes than SDDA from most datasets except from 2-class lung cancer dataset. When comparing SLDA with SCRDA, SLDA selected more genes than SCRDA from 2-class lung cancer, SRBCT and Brain dataset, the result was opposite for the rest datasets. The average test error of LDA modification methods was lower than LDA method. Conclusions The classification performance of LDA modification methods was superior to that of traditional LDA with respect to the average error and there was no significant difference between theses modification methods.

  3. Image Processing Method for Automatic Discrimination of Hoverfly Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Crnojević

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An approach to automatic hoverfly species discrimination based on detection and extraction of vein junctions in wing venation patterns of insects is presented in the paper. The dataset used in our experiments consists of high resolution microscopic wing images of several hoverfly species collected over a relatively long period of time at different geographic locations. Junctions are detected using the combination of the well known HOG (histograms of oriented gradients and the robust version of recently proposed CLBP (complete local binary pattern. These features are used to train an SVM classifier to detect junctions in wing images. Once the junctions are identified they are used to extract statistics characterizing the constellations of these points. Such simple features can be used to automatically discriminate four selected hoverfly species with polynomial kernel SVM and achieve high classification accuracy.

  4. Improvement Distance Discriminant Analysis Method%改进的距离判别分析法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄利文

    2011-01-01

    在不对判别变量进行处理的条件下,对传统的距离判别方法进行改进,提出一种新的判别方法,试图解决复杂球形数据的判别问题,以提高判别的正确率.通过实例表明,该方法的判别效果良好,能较好地处理复杂球形数据的判别问题.%This paper presents a new discriminant method through improving the traditional distance discriminant method and tries to improve the accuracy of discriminant problems of complex spherical data in condition of not reducing variables. The example shows that this method has good discriminant effect, and can effectively deal with the discriminant problems of complex spherical data.

  5. About accuracy of the discrimination parameter estimation for the dual high-energy method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipov, S. P.; Chakhlov, S. V.; Osipov, O. S.; Shtein, A. M.; Strugovtsev, D. V.

    2015-04-01

    A set of the mathematical formulas to estimate the accuracy of discrimination parameters for two implementations of the dual high energy method - by the effective atomic number and by the level lines is given. The hardware parameters which influenced on the accuracy of the discrimination parameters are stated. The recommendations to form the structure of the high energy X-ray radiation impulses are formulated. To prove the applicability of the proposed procedure there were calculated the statistical errors of the discrimination parameters for the cargo inspection system of the Tomsk polytechnic university on base of the portable betatron MIB-9. The comparison of the experimental estimations and the theoretical ones of the discrimination parameter errors was carried out. It proved the practical applicability of the algorithm to estimate the discrimination parameter errors for the dual high energy method.

  6. Fast discrimination of hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose using portable Raman spectrometer and multivariate methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Biao; Lu, Dan; Peng, Ming; Li, Xia; Zou, Ye; Huang, Meizhen; Lu, Feng

    2017-02-01

    Raman spectroscopy is developed as a fast and non-destructive method for the discrimination and classification of hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) samples. 44 E series and 41 K series of HPMC samples are measured by a self-developed portable Raman spectrometer (Hx-Raman) which is excited by a 785 nm diode laser and the spectrum range is 200-2700 cm-1 with a resolution (FWHM) of 6 cm-1. Multivariate analysis is applied for discrimination of E series from K series. By methods of principal components analysis (PCA) and Fisher discriminant analysis (FDA), a discrimination result with sensitivity of 90.91% and specificity of 95.12% is achieved. The corresponding receiver operating characteristic (ROC) is 0.99, indicting the accuracy of the predictive model. This result demonstrates the prospect of portable Raman spectrometer for rapid, non-destructive classification and discrimination of E series and K series samples of HPMC.

  7. Methods for Wild Pig Identifications from Moving Pictures and Discrimination of Female Wild Pigs based on Feature Matching Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Kohei Arai; Indra Nugraha Abdullah; Kensuke Kubo; Katsumi Sugawa

    2015-01-01

    Methods for wild pig identifications and discrimination of female wild pigs based on feature matching methods with acquired Near Infrared: NIR moving pictures are proposed. Trials and errors are repeated for identifying wild pigs and for discrimination of female wild pigs through experiments. As a conclusion, feature matching methods with the target nipple features show a better performance. Feature matching method of FLANN shows the best performance in terms of feature extraction and trackin...

  8. Methods for Wild Pig Identifications from Moving Pictures and Discrimination of Female Wild Pigs based on Feature Matching Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Arai

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Methods for wild pig identifications and discrimination of female wild pigs based on feature matching methods with acquired Near Infrared: NIR moving pictures are proposed. Trials and errors are repeated for identifying wild pigs and for discrimination of female wild pigs through experiments. As a conclusion, feature matching methods with the target nipple features show a better performance. Feature matching method of FLANN shows the best performance in terms of feature extraction and tracking capabilities.

  9. [Cross-correlation as a method for discriminating impulses on multineuronal recordings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, A V; Galashina, A G

    1989-01-01

    Impulses series, singled out from multineuronal activity by means of amplitude discriminator, were analyzed by creating crosscorrelation histograms. The authors consider that in studying of net brain activity with crosscorrelation method of analysis "window" discrimination of impulses series in multineuronal record is a quite correct method and may be used along with discrimination of spikes by form. It is shown that the size of the "window", used for singling out of separate impulses series, is not a determining parameter in search of temporal dependence in the activity of the investigated cells, as final discrimination of the impulses of dependently acting neuronal pairs occurs at the level of the crosscorrelation method itself. The step of the analysis under the use of crosscorrelation method is of decisive significance for revealing of direct interconnections between neurones in the cases when these connections are masked on histograms with wide peaks reflecting the influences of common sources, on the recorded cells.

  10. Wavelet transform and real-time learning method for myoelectric signal in motion discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haihua; Chen, Xinhao; Chen, Yaguang

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the applicability of the Wavelet transform for analyzing an EMG signal and discriminating motion classes. In many previous works, researchers have dealt with steady EMG and have proposed suitable analyzing methods for the EMG, for example FFT and STFT. Therefore, it is difficult for the previous approaches to discriminate motions from the EMG in the different phases of muscle activity, i.e., pre-activity, in activity, postactivity phases, as well as the period of motion transition from one to another. In this paper, we introduce the Wavelet transform using the Coiflet mother wavelet into our real-time EMG prosthetic hand controller for discriminating motions from steady and unsteady EMG. A preliminary experiment to discriminate three hand motions from four channel EMG in the initial pre-activity and in activity phase is carried out to show the effectiveness of the approach. However, future research efforts are necessary to discriminate more motions much precisely.

  11. Functor calculus and the discriminant method (Smooth maps to the plane and Pontryagin classes, Part III)

    CERN Document Server

    Reis, Rui M G

    2011-01-01

    The discriminant method is a tool for describing the cohomology, or the homotopy type, of certain spaces of smooth maps with uncomplicated singularities from a smooth compact manifold L to R^k. We recast some of it in the language of functor calculus. This reformulation allows us to use the discriminant method in a setting where we wish to impose conditions on the multilocal behavior of smooth maps f from L to R^k.

  12. Stability classification model of mine-lane surrounding rock based on distance discriminant analysis method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wei; LI Xi-bing; GONG Feng-qiang

    2008-01-01

    Based on the principle of Mahalanobis distance discriminant analysis (DDA) theory, a stability classification model for mine-lane surrounding rock was established, including six indexes of discriminant factors that reflect the engineering quality of surrounding rock: lane depth below surface, span of lane, ratio of directly top layer thickness to coal thickness, uniaxial comprehensive strength of surrounding rock, development degree coefficient of surrounding rock joint and range of broken surrounding rock zone. A DDA model was obtained through training 15 practical measuring samples. The re-substitution method was introduced to verify the stability of DDA model and the ratio of mis-discrimination is zero. The DDA model was used to discriminate3 new samples and the results are identical with actual rock kind. Compared with the artificial neural network method and support vector mechanic method, the results show that this model has high prediction accuracy and can be used in practical engineering.

  13. Neutron–gamma discrimination based on the support vector machine method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Xunzhen [School of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan (China); Key Laboratory of High Energy Density Physics and Technology (Ministry of Education ), Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Zhu, Jingjun [School of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan (China); Lin, ShinTed [School of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan (China); Key Laboratory of High Energy Density Physics and Technology (Ministry of Education ), Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Wang, Li [School of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan (China); Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Xing, Haoyang, E-mail: xhy@scu.edu.cn [School of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan (China); Key Laboratory of High Energy Density Physics and Technology (Ministry of Education ), Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Zhang, Caixun; Xia, Yuxi; Liu, Shukui [School of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan (China); Yue, Qian [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wei, Weiwei; Du, Qiang [School of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan (China); Tang, Changjian [School of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan (China); Key Laboratory of High Energy Density Physics and Technology (Ministry of Education ), Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China)

    2015-03-21

    In this study, the combination of the support vector machine (SVM) method with the moment analysis method (MAM) is proposed and utilized to perform neutron/gamma (n/γ) discrimination of the pulses from an organic liquid scintillator (OLS). Neutron and gamma events, which can be firmly separated on the scatter plot drawn by the charge comparison method (CCM), are detected to form the training data set and the test data set for the SVM, and the MAM is used to create the feature vectors for individual events in the data sets. Compared to the traditional methods, such as CCM, the proposed method can not only discriminate the neutron and gamma signals, even at lower energy levels, but also provide the corresponding classification accuracy for each event, which is useful in validating the discrimination. Meanwhile, the proposed method can also offer a predication of the classification for the under-energy-limit events.

  14. Discrimination of Rice with Different Pretreatment Methods by Using a Voltammetric Electronic Tongue

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In this study, an application of a voltammetric electronic tongue for discrimination and prediction of different varieties of rice was investigated. Different pretreatment methods were selected, which were subsequently used for the discrimination of different varieties of rice and prediction of unknown rice samples. To this aim, a voltammetric array of sensors based on metallic electrodes was used as the sensing part. The different samples were analyzed by cyclic voltammetry with two sample-p...

  15. Analytical calculation of optimal POVM for unambiguous discrimination of quantum states using KKT method

    CERN Document Server

    Karimi, N

    2011-01-01

    In the present paper, an exact analytic solution for the optimal unambiguous state discrimination (OPUSD) problem involving an arbitrary number of pure linearly independent quantum states with real and complex inner product is presented. Using semidefinite programming and Karush-Kuhn-Tucker convex optimization method, we derive an analytical formula which shows the relation between optimal solution of unambiguous state discrimination problem and an arbitrary number of pure linearly independent quantum states.

  16. Comparison of discriminant analysis methods: Application to occupational exposure to particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, M. Rosário; Carolino, E.; Viegas, Carla; Viegas, Sandra

    2016-06-01

    Health effects associated with occupational exposure to particulate matter have been studied by several authors. In this study were selected six industries of five different areas: Cork company 1, Cork company 2, poultry, slaughterhouse for cattle, riding arena and production of animal feed. The measurements tool was a portable device for direct reading. This tool provides information on the particle number concentration for six different diameters, namely 0.3 µm, 0.5 µm, 1 µm, 2.5 µm, 5 µm and 10 µm. The focus on these features is because they might be more closely related with adverse health effects. The aim is to identify the particles that better discriminate the industries, with the ultimate goal of classifying industries regarding potential negative effects on workers' health. Several methods of discriminant analysis were applied to data of occupational exposure to particulate matter and compared with respect to classification accuracy. The selected methods were linear discriminant analyses (LDA); linear quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA), robust linear discriminant analysis with selected estimators (MLE (Maximum Likelihood Estimators), MVE (Minimum Volume Elipsoid), "t", MCD (Minimum Covariance Determinant), MCD-A, MCD-B), multinomial logistic regression and artificial neural networks (ANN). The predictive accuracy of the methods was accessed through a simulation study. ANN yielded the highest rate of classification accuracy in the data set under study. Results indicate that the particle number concentration of diameter size 0.5 µm is the parameter that better discriminates industries.

  17. Discriminative power of Campylobacter phenotypic and genotypic typing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this study was to compare typing methods, individually and combined, to use in the routine surveillance of Campylobacter in broiler carcasses. C. jejuni (n=94) and C. coli (n=52) isolated from different broiler carcasses were characterized using different typing methods: multilocus sequen...

  18. Mathematical method for optimal digitization and discrimination of scintillation detectors' pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, H. I.

    2015-12-01

    The crystal identification and particle identification require applying pulse shape discrimination (PSD) methods to differentiate between two or more types of scintillation pulses according to their decay times. The sampling rate and the number of used samples of scintillation pulses significantly affect the performance and the complexity of the PSD. Despite their importance, there is no method in the literature, to the best of our knowledge, regarding how to optimally select these parameters. This paper introduces a mathematical analysis of the frequency spectra to determine the most discriminated frequency band of any two different pulse-types. The proposed analysis showed that the most discriminated frequency band depends on the two decay times of the pulse-types. Based on this analysis, a digitization criterion is proposed to determine the optimum sampling rate, number of used samples and the cutoff frequency of the anti-aliasing filter. Furthermore, determining the most discriminated frequency band reduces the number of needed frequency components and provides the highest discrimination performance with the lowest number of required computations. The proposed digitization criterion is applied on two pulse-types with different decay times (20 ns and 40 ns) and shows that the most discriminated frequency is 8 MHz . It also recommends using 32 MHz sampling rate, 8 samples and an anti-aliasing filter with 10 MHz cutoff frequency for these two pulse-types.

  19. Discrimination methods between neutron and gamma rays for boron loaded plastic scintillators

    CERN Document Server

    Normand, S; Haan, S; Louvel, M

    2002-01-01

    Boron loaded plastic scintillators exhibit interesting properties for neutron detection in nuclear waste management and especially in investigating the amount of fissile materials when enclosed in waste containers. Combining a high thermal neutron efficiency and a low mean neutron lifetime, they are suitable in neutron multiplicity counting. However, due to their high sensitivity to gamma rays, pulse shape discrimination methods need to be developed in order to optimize the passive neutron assay measurement. From the knowledge of their physical properties, it is possible to separate the three kinds of particles that have interacted in the boron loaded plastic scintillator (gamma, fast neutron and thermal neutron). For this purpose, we have developed and compared the two well known discrimination methods (zero crossing and charge comparison) applied for the first time to boron loaded plastic scintillator. The setup for the zero crossing discrimination method and the charge comparison methods is thoroughly expl...

  20. Discrimination of Rice with Different Pretreatment Methods by Using a Voltammetric Electronic Tongue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an application of a voltammetric electronic tongue for discrimination and prediction of different varieties of rice was investigated. Different pretreatment methods were selected, which were subsequently used for the discrimination of different varieties of rice and prediction of unknown rice samples. To this aim, a voltammetric array of sensors based on metallic electrodes was used as the sensing part. The different samples were analyzed by cyclic voltammetry with two sample-pretreatment methods. Discriminant Factorial Analysis was used to visualize the different categories of rice samples; however, radial basis function (RBF artificial neural network with leave-one-out cross-validation method was employed for prediction modeling. The collected signal data were first compressed employing fast Fourier transform (FFT and then significant features were extracted from the voltammetric signals. The experimental results indicated that the sample solutions obtained by the non-crushed pretreatment method could efficiently meet the effect of discrimination and recognition. The satisfactory prediction results of voltammetric electronic tongue based on RBF artificial neural network were obtained with less than five-fold dilution of the sample solution. The main objective of this study was to develop primary research on the application of an electronic tongue system for the discrimination and prediction of solid foods and provide an objective assessment tool for the food industry.

  1. Discrimination of Rice with Different Pretreatment Methods by Using a Voltammetric Electronic Tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Niu, Qunfeng; Hui, Yanbo; Jin, Huali

    2015-07-22

    In this study, an application of a voltammetric electronic tongue for discrimination and prediction of different varieties of rice was investigated. Different pretreatment methods were selected, which were subsequently used for the discrimination of different varieties of rice and prediction of unknown rice samples. To this aim, a voltammetric array of sensors based on metallic electrodes was used as the sensing part. The different samples were analyzed by cyclic voltammetry with two sample-pretreatment methods. Discriminant Factorial Analysis was used to visualize the different categories of rice samples; however, radial basis function (RBF) artificial neural network with leave-one-out cross-validation method was employed for prediction modeling. The collected signal data were first compressed employing fast Fourier transform (FFT) and then significant features were extracted from the voltammetric signals. The experimental results indicated that the sample solutions obtained by the non-crushed pretreatment method could efficiently meet the effect of discrimination and recognition. The satisfactory prediction results of voltammetric electronic tongue based on RBF artificial neural network were obtained with less than five-fold dilution of the sample solution. The main objective of this study was to develop primary research on the application of an electronic tongue system for the discrimination and prediction of solid foods and provide an objective assessment tool for the food industry.

  2. Identification of discriminant proteins through antibody profiling, methods and apparatus for identifying an individual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Vicki S; Lacey, Jeffrey A; Gentillon, Cynthia A; Apel, William A

    2015-03-03

    A method for determining a plurality of proteins for discriminating and positively identifying an individual based from a biological sample. The method may include profiling a biological sample from a plurality of individuals against a protein array including a plurality of proteins. The protein array may include proteins attached to a support in a preselected pattern such that locations of the proteins are known. The biological sample may be contacted with the protein array such that a portion of antibodies in the biological sample reacts with and binds to the proteins forming immune complexes. A statistical analysis method, such as discriminant analysis, may be performed to determine discriminating proteins for distinguishing individuals. Proteins of interest may be used to form a protein array. Such a protein array may be used, for example, to compare a forensic sample from an unknown source with a sample from a known source.

  3. New discrimination method for ablative control mechanism in solid-propellant rocket nozzle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A reasonable discrimination method for ablative control mechanism in solid-propellant rocket nozzle can improve the calculation accuracy of ablation rate. Based on the different rate constants for reactions of C with H2O and CO2,a new discrimination method for ablative control mechanism,which comprehensively considers the influence of nozzle surface temperature and gas component concentration,is presented. Using this new discrimination method,calculations were performed to simulate the nozzle throat insert ablation. The numerical results showed that the calculated ablation rate,which was more close to the measured values,was less than the value calculated by diffusion control mechanisms or by double control mechanisms. And H2O was proved to be the most detrimental oxidizing species in nozzle ablation.

  4. Identification of discriminant proteins through antibody profiling, methods and apparatus for identifying an individual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apel, William A.; Thompson, Vicki S; Lacey, Jeffrey A.; Gentillon, Cynthia A.

    2016-08-09

    A method for determining a plurality of proteins for discriminating and positively identifying an individual based from a biological sample. The method may include profiling a biological sample from a plurality of individuals against a protein array including a plurality of proteins. The protein array may include proteins attached to a support in a preselected pattern such that locations of the proteins are known. The biological sample may be contacted with the protein array such that a portion of antibodies in the biological sample reacts with and binds to the proteins forming immune complexes. A statistical analysis method, such as discriminant analysis, may be performed to determine discriminating proteins for distinguishing individuals. Proteins of interest may be used to form a protein array. Such a protein array may be used, for example, to compare a forensic sample from an unknown source with a sample from a known source.

  5. Application of the Wavelet Packet Method in Discrimination Between Nuclear Explosion and Earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Xuanhui; Shen Ping; Liu Xiqiang; Zheng Zhizhen

    2004-01-01

    Although the CTBT (Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty) was passed in 1996, it is still necessary to develop new and highly efficient methods (Wu Zhongliang, Chen Yuntai, et al.,1993; Xu Shaoxie, et al. 1994; Richard L. Garwin, 1994) to monitor possible events. Many discrimination criteria (Xu Shaoxie, et al., 1994; Institute of Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1976; Richard L. Garwin, 1994) have been put forward since the 1950s. The results show that each of the existing criteria has its own limitation, but the seismological method is an important and efficient method in the discrimination between nuclear explosion and earthquake. Especially in recent years, because of the little and little equivalent as well as the increasing hiding steps used in the test, a number of more efficient seismological methods have been worked out. In this paper, a new discrimination method, the Wavelet Packet Component Ratio (WPCR) method, is put forward. This method makes full use of the difference in variation with time between the spectra of nuclear explosions and earthquakes. Its discrimination efficiency is rather high.

  6. Application of Fisher method to discriminating earthquakes and explosions using criterion mb/Ms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BIAN Yin-ju

    2005-01-01

    We try to give a quantitative and global discrimination function by studying mb/Ms data using Fisher method that is a kind of pattern recognition methods. The reliability of the function is also analyzed. The results show that this criterion works well and has a global feature, which can be used as first-level filtering criterions in event identification. The quantitative and linear discrimination function makes it possible to identify events automatically and achieve the goal to react the events quickly and effectively.

  7. MSE/SSE discrimination methods of the PC-HPGe detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) Zi-Feng; LI Yu-Lan; LI Jin; YUE Qian; LI Yuan-Jing

    2012-01-01

    Having advantages of low capacitance and low energy threshold,the PC-HPGe (Point-Contact High Purity Germanium) detector has found its application in the direct detection of WIMP(Weak Interaction Massive Particle) in CDEX (China Darkmatter Experiment).The MSE (Multi-Site Event) and SSE(Single-Site Event) discrimination methods of the PC-HPGe detector are introduced in this article,including their physical basis,the electronics system and the algorithms to implement them.Behaviors of the PC-HPGe detector are studied intensively through this research and finally the experimental results of the LE discrimination method are presented.

  8. Comparative analysis of pulse shape discrimination methods in a {sup 6}Li loaded plastic scintillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balmer, Matthew J.I., E-mail: m.balmer@lancaster.ac.uk [Department of Engineering, Lancaster University, LA1 4YR (United Kingdom); Gamage, Kelum A.A. [Department of Engineering, Lancaster University, LA1 4YR (United Kingdom); Taylor, Graeme C. [Neutron Metrology Group, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, TW11 0LW (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-11

    Three algorithms for discriminating between fast neutrons, thermal neutrons and gamma rays in a {sup 6}Li loaded plastic scintillator have been compared. Following a literature review of existing pulse shape discrimination techniques, the performance of the charge comparison method, triangular filtering and frequency gradient analysis were investigated in this work. The scintillator was exposed to three different mixed gamma/neutron radiation fields. The figure of merit of neutron/gamma separation was investigated over a broad energy range, as well as for the neutron capture energy region. After optimisation, all three methods were found to perform similarly in terms of neutron/gamma separation.

  9. Discrete Fourier Transform Method for Discrimination of Digital Scintillation Pulses in Mixed Neutron-Gamma Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Safari, M J; Afarideh, H; Jamili, S; Bayat, E

    2016-01-01

    A Discrete Fourier Transform Method (DFTM) for discrimination between the signal of neutrons and gamma rays in organic scintillation detectors is presented. The method is based on the transformation of signals into the frequency domain using the sine and cosine Fourier transforms in combination with the discrete Fourier transform. The method is largely benefited from considerable differences that usually is available between the zero-frequency components of sine and cosine and the norm of the amplitude of the DFT for neutrons and gamma-ray signals. Moreover, working in frequency domain naturally results in considerable suppression of the unwanted effects of various noise sources that is expected to be effective in time domain methods. The proposed method could also be assumed as a generalized nonlinear weighting method that could result in a new class of pulse shape discrimination methods, beyond definition of the DFT. A comparison to the traditional Charge Integration Method (CIM), as well as the Frequency G...

  10. Discrimination of outer membrane proteins using a K-nearest neighbor method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, C; Hu, J; Wang, Y

    2008-06-01

    Identification of outer membrane proteins (OMPs) from genome is an important task. This paper presents a k-nearest neighbor (K-NN) method for discriminating outer membrane proteins (OMPs). The method makes predictions based on a weighted Euclidean distance that is computed from residue composition. The method achieves 89.1% accuracy with 0.668 MCC (Matthews correlation coefficient) in discriminating OMPs and non-OMPs. The performance of the method is improved by including homologous information into the calculation of residue composition. The final method achieves an accuracy of 96.1%, with 0.873 MCC, 87.5% sensitivity, and 98.2% specificity. Comparisons with multiple recently published methods show that the method proposed in this study outperforms the others.

  11. Indonesian palm civet coffee discrimination using UV-visible spectroscopy and several chemometrics methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulia, M.; Suhandy, D.

    2017-05-01

    Indonesian palm civet coffee or kopi luwak (Indonesian words for coffee and palm civet) is well known as the world’s priciest and rarest coffee. To protect the authenticity of luwak coffee and protect consumer from luwak coffee adulteration, it is very important to develop a simple and inexpensive method to discriminate between civet and non-civet coffee. The discrimination between civet and non-civet coffee in ground roasted (powder) samples is very challenging since it is very difficult to distinguish between the two by using conventional method. In this research, the use of UV-Visible spectra combined with two chemometric methods, SIMCA and PLS-DA, was evaluated to discriminate civet and non-civet ground coffee samples. The spectral data of civet and non-civet coffee were acquired using UV-Vis spectrometer (Genesys™ 10S UV-Vis, Thermo Scientific, USA). The result shows that using both supervised discrimination methods: SIMCA and PLS-DA, all samples were correctly classified into their corresponding classes with 100% rate for accuracy, sensitivity and specificity, respectively.

  12. [Research on discrimination method of tomato via space mutation breeding based on spectroscopy technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jia-Hui; Shao, Yong-Ni; He, Yong; Li, Duo; Feng, Pan; Zhu, Jia-Jin

    2009-11-01

    In order to quickly analyze varieties of tomato via space mutation breeding with near infrared spectra, firstly, principal component analysis was used to analyze the clustering of tomato leaf samples, and then abundant spectral data were compressed by wavelet transform and the model was built with radial basis function neural network, which offered a quantitative analysis of tomato varieties discrimination. The model regarded the compressed data as the input of neural network input vectors and the training process speeded up. One hundred and five leaf samples of CK, M1 and M2 were selected randomly to build the training model, and forty five samples formed the prediction set. The discrimination rate of 97.8% was achieved by this method. It offered a new approach to the fast discrimination of varieties of tomato via space mutation breeding.

  13. Dideoxy single allele-specific PCR - DSASP new method to discrimination allelic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonidas Moura Lima

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer (GC is a multifactorial disease with a high mortality rate in Brazil and worldwide. This work aimed to evaluate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP rs1695, in the Glutathione S-Transferase Pi (GSTP1 gene in GC samples by comparative analysis Specific PCR - ASP and Dideoxy Single Allele-Specific PCR - DSASP methods. The DSASP is the proposed new method for allelic discrimination. This work analyzed 60 GC samples, 26 diffuse and 34 intestinal types. The SNP rs1695 of the GSTP1 gene was significantly associated with GC analyzed by DSASP method (χ2 = 9.7, P 0.05. These results suggest that the SNP rs1695 of the GSTP1 gene was a risk factor associated with gastric carcinogens is and the DSASP method was a new successfully low-cost strategy to study allelic discrimination.

  14. Over-excavation forecast of underground opening by using Bayes discriminant analysis method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Feng-qiang; LI Xi-bing; ZHANG Wei

    2008-01-01

    A method to forecast the over-excavation of underground opening by using the Bayes discriminant analysis(BDA) theory was presented. The Bayes discriminant analysis theory was introduced. Based on an engineering example, the factors influencing the over-excavation of underground opening were taken into account to build a forecast BDA model, and the prior information about over-excavation of underground opening was also taken into consideration. Five parameters influencing the over-excavation of opening, including 2 groups of joints, 1 group of layer surface, extension and space between structure faces were selected as geometric parameters. Engineering data in an underground opening were used as the training samples. The cross-validation method was introduced to verify the stability of BDA model and the ratio of mistake-discrimination was equal to zero after the BDA model was trained. Data in an underground engineering were used to test the discriminant ability of BDA model. The results show that five forecast results are identical with the actual situation and BDA can be used in practical engineering.

  15. Research on the discrimination methods of algae based on the fluorescence excitation spectra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Xupeng; SU Rongguo; ZOU Weiming; REN Shijun; WANG Hongtao; CHAI Xiaoping; WANG Yiming

    2010-01-01

    The excitation spectra of chlorophyll(Chl)fluorescence can be used to differentiate phytoplankton populations at phylum level in vivo and in situ within a few minutes.The investigated phytoplankton divisions(Dinophyta,Bacillariophyta,Chrysophyta,Cyanophyta,Cryptophyta,Chlorophyta)are each characterized by a specific composition of photosynthetic antenna pigments and,consequently,by a specific excitation spectrum of the Chl fluorescence.Norm excitation spectra(emission of 680 nm and excitation of 400-600 nm)of every division were obtained from several species per division by a F4500 fluorescence spectrophotometer.Fisher's linear discriminant analysis of the norm spectra shows that the divisions could be discriminated.The discrimination method,established by multivariate linear regression and weighted least squares,was used to differentiate the phytoplankton samples cultured in the laboratory and samples collected from the Jiaozhao Bay at division level.The correctly discriminated samples were more than 94% for single algal species ones,more than 84% for simulatively mixed ones,more than 83% for real mixed ones and 100% for samples collected from the Jiaozhou Bay for the dominant species.The method for phytoplankton differentiation described here can be applied to routine checking by fluorescence spectrophotometer,and benefit the monitoring and supervision tasks related to phytoplankton populations in the marine environments.

  16. Detection-Discrimination Method for Multiple Repeater False Targets Based on Radar Polarization Echoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. W. ZONG

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Multiple repeat false targets (RFTs, created by the digital radio frequency memory (DRFM system of jammer, are widely used in practical to effectively exhaust the limited tracking and discrimination resource of defence radar. In this paper, common characteristic of radar polarization echoes of multiple RFTs is used for target recognition. Based on the echoes from two receiving polarization channels, the instantaneous polarization radio (IPR is defined and its variance is derived by employing Taylor series expansion. A detection-discrimination method is designed based on probability grids. By using the data from microwave anechoic chamber, the detection threshold of the method is confirmed. Theoretical analysis and simulations indicate that the method is valid and feasible. Furthermore, the estimation performance of IPRs of RFTs due to the influence of signal noise ratio (SNR is also covered.

  17. PSD Methods Comparison and Discrimination Efficiency Study for LaBr3:Ce Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Cang, Jirong; Zeng, Zhi; Cheng, Jianping; Liu, Yinong; Li, Junli

    2016-01-01

    LaBr3:Ce scintillator has been widely studied for nuclear spectroscopy because of its optimal energy resolution (<3% @ 662keV) and time resolution (~300ps). Despite these promising properties, intrinsic radiation background of LaBr3:Ce is a critical issue, and the Pulse Shape Discrimination (PSD) is proved to be efficient and a potential method to suppress the alpha background from the 227Ac. In this paper, a detailed comparison of 3 digital PSD algorithms, the Charge Comparison Method, the Mean Time Method and the Gamma-Alpha Model Analysis Method, for alpha and gamma discrimination in LaBr3:Ce was done. The algorithm parameters and discrimination efficiency were analyzed and optimized for each method. Moreover, for the CCM, the correlation between the CCM feature value distribution and the total charge (energy) was quantitatively analyzed, and a fitting equation of the correlation is inferred and verified with experiment. With the equation, an energy-dependent threshold was chosen to optimize the discrim...

  18. Kernel Local Linear Discriminate Method for Dimensionality Reduction and Its Application in Machinery Fault Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunju Shi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dimensionality reduction is a crucial task in machinery fault diagnosis. Recently, as a popular dimensional reduction technology, manifold learning has been successfully used in many fields. However, most of these technologies are not suitable for the task, because they are unsupervised in nature and fail to discover the discriminate structure in the data. To overcome these weaknesses, kernel local linear discriminate (KLLD algorithm is proposed. KLLD algorithm is a novel algorithm which combines the advantage of neighborhood preserving projections (NPP, Floyd, maximum margin criterion (MMC, and kernel trick. KLLD has four advantages. First of all, KLLD is a supervised dimension reduction method that can overcome the out-of-sample problems. Secondly, short-circuit problem can be avoided. Thirdly, KLLD algorithm can use between-class scatter matrix and inner-class scatter matrix more efficiently. Lastly, kernel trick is included in KLLD algorithm to find more precise solution. The main feature of the proposed method is that it attempts to both preserve the intrinsic neighborhood geometry of the increased data and exact the discriminate information. Experiments have been performed to evaluate the new method. The results show that KLLD has more benefits than traditional methods.

  19. Comparative Study on Discrimination Methods for Identifying Dangerous Red Tide Species Based on Wavelet Utilized Classification Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Arai

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Comparative study on discrimination methods for identifying dangerous red tide species based on wavelet utilized classification methods is conducted. Through experiments, it is found that classification performance with the proposed wavelet derived shape information extracted from the microscopic view of the phytoplankton is effective for identifying dangerous red tide species among the other red tide species rather than the other conventional texture, color information.

  20. A method for discriminating a Japanese chicken, the Nagoya breed, using microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, A; Kino, K; Minezawa, M; Noda, K; Takahashi, H

    2006-12-01

    The Nagoya breed native to Japan is popular as a dual-purpose breed for eggs and meat. The current study describes a method to discriminate between the Nagoya breed and other breeds and commercial stocks of chicken. Four strains of the Nagoya breed established at the Aichi-ken Agricultural Research Center were analyzed using 25 microsatellite markers. In these strains, 5 of the markers (ABR0015, ABR0257, ABR0417, ABR0495, and ADL0262) had a single allele. Other chicken samples (448) of various breeds and hybrids were analyzed using the same 5 markers. None of these chicken samples had the same allele combination as the Nagoya breed strains. These 5 microsatellite markers provide a practical method to accurately discriminate the Nagoya breed from other chicken breeds.

  1. Multilinear Biased Discriminant Analysis: A Novel Method for Facial Action Unit Representation

    CERN Document Server

    Khademi, Mahmoud; Manzuri-Shalmani, Mohammad T

    2010-01-01

    In this paper a novel efficient method for representation of facial action units by encoding an image sequence as a fourth-order tensor is presented. The multilinear tensor-based extension of the biased discriminant analysis (BDA) algorithm, called multilinear biased discriminant analysis (MBDA), is first proposed. Then, we apply the MBDA and two-dimensional BDA (2DBDA) algorithms, as the dimensionality reduction techniques, to Gabor representations and the geometric features of the input image sequence respectively. The proposed scheme can deal with the asymmetry between positive and negative samples as well as curse of dimensionality dilemma. Extensive experiments on Cohn-Kanade database show the superiority of the proposed method for representation of the subtle changes and the temporal information involved in formation of the facial expressions. As an accurate tool, this representation can be applied to many areas such as recognition of spontaneous and deliberate facial expressions, multi modal/media huma...

  2. Geophysical technique for mineral exploration and discrimination based on electromagnetic methods and associated systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhdanov; Michael S.

    2008-01-29

    Mineral exploration needs a reliable method to distinguish between uneconomic mineral deposits and economic mineralization. A method and system includes a geophysical technique for subsurface material characterization, mineral exploration and mineral discrimination. The technique introduced in this invention detects induced polarization effects in electromagnetic data and uses remote geophysical observations to determine the parameters of an effective conductivity relaxation model using a composite analytical multi-phase model of the rock formations. The conductivity relaxation model and analytical model can be used to determine parameters related by analytical expressions to the physical characteristics of the microstructure of the rocks and minerals. These parameters are ultimately used for the discrimination of different components in underground formations, and in this way provide an ability to distinguish between uneconomic mineral deposits and zones of economic mineralization using geophysical remote sensing technology.

  3. Discrimination of EEG-Based Motor Imagery Tasks by Means of a Simple Phase Information Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Loboda

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We propose an off-line analysis method in order to discriminate between motor imagery tasks manipulated in a brain computer interface system. A measure of large-scale synchronization based on phase locking value is established. The results indicate that it can take advantage of the phase synchrony between scalp-recorded EEG activity in the supplementary motor area and in sezorimotor area, computing the differences between the active and the relaxation states. Phase locking value features are more discriminative in ß rhythm than in µ rhythm. The proposed method is simple, computationally efficient and proves good results on EEG Motor Movement/Imagery Dataset available from PhysioNet research resource for physiologic signals.

  4. UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and multivariate analysis as a method to discriminate tequila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa-García, O.; Ramos-Ortíz, G.; Maldonado, J. L.; Pichardo-Molina, J. L.; Meneses-Nava, M. A.; Landgrave, J. E. A.; Cervantes-Martínez, J.

    2007-01-01

    Based on the UV-vis absorption spectra of commercially bottled tequilas, and with the aid of multivariate analysis, it is proved that different brands of white tequila can be identified from such spectra, and that 100% agave and mixed tequilas can be discriminated as well. Our study was done with 60 tequilas, 58 of them purchased at liquor stores in various Mexican cities, and two directly acquired from a distillery. All the tequilas were of the "white" type, that is, no aged spirits were considered. For the purposes of discrimination and quality control of tequilas, the spectroscopic method that we present here offers an attractive alternative to the traditional methods, like gas chromatography, which is expensive and time-consuming.

  5. Molecular Method for Discrimination between Francisella tularensis and Francisella-Like Endosymbionts▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, Raquel; Toledo, A.; Gil, Horacio; Kovácsová, Katarina; Rodríguez-Vargas, Manuela; Jado, Isabel; García-Amil, Cristina; Lobo, Bruno; Bhide, Mangesh; Anda, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    Environmental studies on the distribution of Francisella spp. are hampered by the frequency of Francisella-like endosymbionts that can produce a misleading positive result. A new, efficient molecular method for detection of Francisella tularensis and its discrimination from Francisella-like endosymbionts, as well as two variants associated with human disease (unusual F. tularensis strain FnSp1 and F. tularensis subsp. novicida-like strain 3523), is described. The method is highly specific and sensitive, detecting up to one plasmid copy or 10 genome equivalents. PMID:18650358

  6. Sensitivity to Measurement Errors in Studies on Prosocial Choice using a Two-Choice Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikorska Julia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on prosocial behaviors in primates often relies on the two-choice paradigm. Motoric lateralization is a surprisingly big problem in this field of research research, as it may influence which lever will ultimately be chosen by the actor. The results of lateralization studies on primates do not form a clear picture of that phenomenon, which makes it difficult to address the problem during research. The authors discuss possible ways of managing this confounding variable.

  7. A platform-independent method to reduce CT truncation artifacts using discriminative dictionary representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Budde, Adam; Li, Ke; Li, Yinsheng; Hsieh, Jiang; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2017-01-01

    When the scan field of view (SFOV) of a CT system is not large enough to enclose the entire cross-section of the patient, or the patient needs to be positioned partially outside the SFOV for certain clinical applications, truncation artifacts often appear in the reconstructed CT images. Many truncation artifact correction methods perform extrapolations of the truncated projection data based on certain a priori assumptions. The purpose of this work was to develop a novel CT truncation artifact reduction method that directly operates on DICOM images. The blooming of pixel values associated with truncation was modeled using exponential decay functions, and based on this model, a discriminative dictionary was constructed to represent truncation artifacts and nonartifact image information in a mutually exclusive way. The discriminative dictionary consists of a truncation artifact subdictionary and a nonartifact subdictionary. The truncation artifact subdictionary contains 1000 atoms with different decay parameters, while the nonartifact subdictionary contains 1000 independent realizations of Gaussian white noise that are exclusive with the artifact features. By sparsely representing an artifact-contaminated CT image with this discriminative dictionary, the image was separated into a truncation artifact-dominated image and a complementary image with reduced truncation artifacts. The artifact-dominated image was then subtracted from the original image with an appropriate weighting coefficient to generate the final image with reduced artifacts. This proposed method was validated via physical phantom studies and retrospective human subject studies. Quantitative image evaluation metrics including the relative root-mean-square error (rRMSE) and the universal image quality index (UQI) were used to quantify the performance of the algorithm. For both phantom and human subject studies, truncation artifacts at the peripheral region of the SFOV were effectively reduced, revealing

  8. A robust nonlinear tissue-component discrimination method for computational pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarnecki, Jacob S; Burns, Kathleen H; Wood, Laura D; Waters, Kevin M; Hruban, Ralph H; Wirtz, Denis; Wu, Pei-Hsun

    2016-04-01

    Advances in digital pathology, specifically imaging instrumentation and data management, have allowed for the development of computational pathology tools with the potential for better, faster, and cheaper diagnosis, prognosis, and prediction of disease. Images of tissue sections frequently vary in color appearance across research laboratories and medical facilities because of differences in tissue fixation, staining protocols, and imaging instrumentation, leading to difficulty in the development of robust computational tools. To address this challenge, we propose a novel nonlinear tissue-component discrimination (NLTD) method to register automatically the color space of histopathology images and visualize individual tissue components, independent of color differences between images. Our results show that the NLTD method could effectively discriminate different tissue components from different types of tissues prepared at different institutions. Further, we demonstrate that NLTD can improve the accuracy of nuclear detection and segmentation algorithms, compared with using conventional color deconvolution methods, and can quantitatively analyze immunohistochemistry images. Together, the NLTD method is objective, robust, and effective, and can be easily implemented in the emerging field of computational pathology.

  9. Evaluation of hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis methods for discrimination of primary biological aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Crawford

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present improved methods for discriminating and quantifying Primary Biological Aerosol Particles (PBAP by applying hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis to multi-parameter ultra violet-light induced fluorescence (UV-LIF spectrometer data. The methods employed in this study can be applied to data sets in excess of 1×106 points on a desktop computer, allowing for each fluorescent particle in a dataset to be explicitly clustered. This reduces the potential for misattribution found in subsampling and comparative attribution methods used in previous approaches, improving our capacity to discriminate and quantify PBAP meta-classes. We evaluate the performance of several hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis linkages and data normalisation methods using laboratory samples of known particle types and an ambient dataset. Fluorescent and non-fluorescent polystyrene latex spheres were sampled with a Wideband Integrated Bioaerosol Spectrometer (WIBS-4 where the optical size, asymmetry factor and fluorescent measurements were used as inputs to the analysis package. It was found that the Ward linkage with z-score or range normalisation performed best, correctly attributing 98 and 98.1 % of the data points respectively. The best performing methods were applied to the BEACHON-RoMBAS ambient dataset where it was found that the z-score and range normalisation methods yield similar results with each method producing clusters representative of fungal spores and bacterial aerosol, consistent with previous results. The z-score result was compared to clusters generated with previous approaches (WIBS AnalysiS Program, WASP where we observe that the subsampling and comparative attribution method employed by WASP results in the overestimation of the fungal spore concentration by a factor of 1.5 and the underestimation of bacterial aerosol concentration by a factor of 5. We suggest that this likely due to errors arising from misatrribution

  10. Evaluation of hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis methods for discrimination of primary biological aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Crawford

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present improved methods for discriminating and quantifying primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs by applying hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis to multi-parameter ultraviolet-light-induced fluorescence (UV-LIF spectrometer data. The methods employed in this study can be applied to data sets in excess of 1 × 106 points on a desktop computer, allowing for each fluorescent particle in a data set to be explicitly clustered. This reduces the potential for misattribution found in subsampling and comparative attribution methods used in previous approaches, improving our capacity to discriminate and quantify PBAP meta-classes. We evaluate the performance of several hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis linkages and data normalisation methods using laboratory samples of known particle types and an ambient data set. Fluorescent and non-fluorescent polystyrene latex spheres were sampled with a Wideband Integrated Bioaerosol Spectrometer (WIBS-4 where the optical size, asymmetry factor and fluorescent measurements were used as inputs to the analysis package. It was found that the Ward linkage with z-score or range normalisation performed best, correctly attributing 98 and 98.1 % of the data points respectively. The best-performing methods were applied to the BEACHON-RoMBAS (Bio–hydro–atmosphere interactions of Energy, Aerosols, Carbon, H2O, Organics and Nitrogen–Rocky Mountain Biogenic Aerosol Study ambient data set, where it was found that the z-score and range normalisation methods yield similar results, with each method producing clusters representative of fungal spores and bacterial aerosol, consistent with previous results. The z-score result was compared to clusters generated with previous approaches (WIBS AnalysiS Program, WASP where we observe that the subsampling and comparative attribution method employed by WASP results in the overestimation of the fungal spore concentration by a factor of 1.5 and the

  11. a Multiscale, Lacunarity and Neural Network Method for γ/h Discrimination in Extensive Air Showers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliaro, A.; D'Anna, F.; D'Alí Staiti, G.

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents a new method for the identification of extensive air showers initiated by different primaries. The method uses the multiscale concept and is based on the analysis of multifractal behaviour and lacunarity of secondary particle distributions together with a properly designed and trained artificial neural network. The separation technique is particularly suited for being applied when the topology of the particle distribution in the shower front is as largely detailed as possible. In the present work the method is discussed and applied in the experimental framework of ARGO-YBJ, to obtain hadron to gamma primary separation. We show that the presented approach gives very good results, leading, in the 1 - 10 Tev energy range, to a clear improvement of the discrimination power with respect to the existing figures for extended shower detectors.

  12. Median Fisher Discriminator: a robust feature extraction method with applications to biometrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian YANG; Jingyu YANG; David ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    In existing Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) models,the class population mean is always estimated by the class sample average.In small sample size problems,such as face and palm recognition,however,the class sample average does not suffice to provide an accurate estimate of the class population mean based on a few of the given samples,particularly when there are outliers in the training set.To overcome this weakness,the class median vector is used to estimate the class population mean in LDA modeling.The class median vector has two advantages over the class sample average:(1) the class median (image) vector preserves useful details in the sample images,and (2) the class median vector is robust to outliers that exist in the training sample set.In addition,a weighting mechanism is adopted to refine the characterization of the within-class scatter so as to further improve the robustness of the proposed model.The proposed Median Fisher Discriminator (MFD) method was evaluated using the Yale and the AR face image databases and the PolyU (Polytechnic University) palmprint database.The experimental results demonstrated the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  13. New Geophysical Technique for Mineral Exploration and Mineral Discrimination Based on Electromagnetic Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael S. Zhdanov

    2005-03-09

    The research during the first year of the project was focused on developing the foundations of a new geophysical technique for mineral exploration and mineral discrimination, based on electromagnetic (EM) methods. The proposed new technique is based on examining the spectral induced polarization effects in electromagnetic data using modern distributed acquisition systems and advanced methods of 3-D inversion. The analysis of IP phenomena is usually based on models with frequency dependent complex conductivity distribution. One of the most popular is the Cole-Cole relaxation model. In this progress report we have constructed and analyzed a different physical and mathematical model of the IP effect based on the effective-medium theory. We have developed a rigorous mathematical model of multi-phase conductive media, which can provide a quantitative tool for evaluation of the type of mineralization, using the conductivity relaxation model parameters. The parameters of the new conductivity relaxation model can be used for discrimination of the different types of rock formations, which is an important goal in mineral exploration. The solution of this problem requires development of an effective numerical method for EM forward modeling in 3-D inhomogeneous media. During the first year of the project we have developed a prototype 3-D IP modeling algorithm using the integral equation (IP) method. Our IE forward modeling code INTEM3DIP is based on the contraction IE method, which improves the convergence rate of the iterative solvers. This code can handle various types of sources and receivers to compute the effect of a complex resistivity model. We have tested the working version of the INTEM3DIP code for computer simulation of the IP data for several models including a southwest US porphyry model and a Kambalda-style nickel sulfide deposit. The numerical modeling study clearly demonstrates how the various complex resistivity models manifest differently in the observed EM

  14. Spatial discrimination and visual discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Annika M. J.; Grand, Nanna; Klastrup, Signe

    2013-01-01

    Two methods investigating learning and memory in juvenile Gottingen minipigs were evaluated for potential use in preclinical toxicity testing. Twelve minipigs were tested using a spatial hole-board discrimination test including a learning phase and two memory phases. Five minipigs were tested...... in a visual discrimination test. The juvenile minipigs were able to learn the spatial hole-board discrimination test and showed improved working and reference memory during the learning phase. Performance in the memory phases was affected by the retention intervals, but the minipigs were able to remember...... the concept of the test in both memory phases. Working memory and reference memory were significantly improved in the last trials of the memory phases. In the visual discrimination test, the minipigs learned to discriminate between the three figures presented to them within 9-14 sessions. For the memory test...

  15. A new measurement method for color discrimination thresholds of human eyes based on PWM light-mixing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiyan; Dong, Jinxin

    2016-09-01

    The color discrimination is a powerful tool for detection of eye diseases, and it is is necessary to produce different kinds of color rapidly and precisely for testing color discrimination thresholds of human eyes. Three channels' pulse-width modulation (PWM) and light-mixing technology is a new way to mixing color, and a new measurement method for color discrimination thresholds of human eyes based on PWM light-mix technology can generate kinds of color stimuli. In this study, 5 youth volunteers were measured via this equipment after the test for the stability of the device's illumination and chrominance. Though the theory of Macadam ellipses and the interleaved staircase method, a psychophysical experiment was made to study the color discrimination threshold of the human eyes around a basic color center. By analyzing the data of the chromatic ellipse and the color discrimination threshold, the result shows that each color is not uniform in a single color region and the color difference threshold of normal human is around the third Macadam ellipses. The experimental results show that the repeatability and accuracy of the observer can meet the accuracy requirements of the relevant experiments, and the data is reliable and effective, which means the measurement method is an effective way to measure the color discrimination thresholds of human visual system.

  16. [Geographical origin discrimination of Auricularia auricula using variable selection method of modeling power].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Sun, Guang-ming; He, Yong

    2010-01-01

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy combined with variable selection method of modeling power was investigated for the fast and accurate geographical origin discrimination of auricularia auricula. A total of 240 samples of auriculari auricula were collected in the market, and the spectra of all samples were scanned within the spectral region of 1100-2500 nm. The calibration set was composed of 180 (45 samples for each origin) samples, and the remaining 60 samples were employed as the validation set. The optimal partial least squares (PLS) discriminant model was achieved after performance comparison of different preprocessing (Savitzky-Golay smoothing, standard normal variate, 1-derivative, and 2-derivative). The effective wavelengths, which were selected by modeling power (MP) and used as input data matrix of least squares-support vector machine (LS-SVM), were employed for the development of modeling power-least squares-support vector machine (MP-LS-SVM) model. Radial basis function (RBF) kernel was applied as kernel function. Three threshold methods for variable selection by modeling power were applied in MP-LSSVM models, and there were the values of modeling power higher than 0.95, higher than 0.90, and higher than 0.90 combined with peak location (0.90+Peak). The correct recognition ratio in the validation set was used as evaluation standards. The absolute error of prediction was set as 0.1, 0.2 and 0.5, which showed the wrong recognition threshold value. The results indicated that the MP-LS-SVM (0.90+Peak) model could achieve the optimal performance in all three absolute error standards (0.1, 0.2 and 0.5), and the correct recognition ratio was 98.3%, 100% and 100%, respectively. The variable selection threshold (0.90+Peak) was the most suitable one in the application of modeling power. It was concluded that modeling power was an effective variable selection method, and near infrared spectroscopy combined with MP-LS-SVM model was successfully applied for the origin

  17. A Hidden Markov Model method, capable of predicting and discriminating β-barrel outer membrane proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamodrakas Stavros J

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Integral membrane proteins constitute about 20–30% of all proteins in the fully sequenced genomes. They come in two structural classes, the α-helical and the β-barrel membrane proteins, demonstrating different physicochemical characteristics, structure and localization. While transmembrane segment prediction for the α-helical integral membrane proteins appears to be an easy task nowadays, the same is much more difficult for the β-barrel membrane proteins. We developed a method, based on a Hidden Markov Model, capable of predicting the transmembrane β-strands of the outer membrane proteins of gram-negative bacteria, and discriminating those from water-soluble proteins in large datasets. The model is trained in a discriminative manner, aiming at maximizing the probability of correct predictions rather than the likelihood of the sequences. Results The training has been performed on a non-redundant database of 14 outer membrane proteins with structures known at atomic resolution; it has been tested with a jacknife procedure, yielding a per residue accuracy of 84.2% and a correlation coefficient of 0.72, whereas for the self-consistency test the per residue accuracy was 88.1% and the correlation coefficient 0.824. The total number of correctly predicted topologies is 10 out of 14 in the self-consistency test, and 9 out of 14 in the jacknife. Furthermore, the model is capable of discriminating outer membrane from water-soluble proteins in large-scale applications, with a success rate of 88.8% and 89.2% for the correct classification of outer membrane and water-soluble proteins respectively, the highest rates obtained in the literature. That test has been performed independently on a set of known outer membrane proteins with low sequence identity with each other and also with the proteins of the training set. Conclusion Based on the above, we developed a strategy, that enabled us to screen the entire proteome of E. coli for

  18. New Geophysical Technique for Mineral Exploration and Mineral Discrimination Based on Electromagnetic Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael S. Zhdanov

    2009-03-09

    The research during the first two years of the project was focused on developing the foundations of a new geophysical technique for mineral exploration and mineral discrimination, based on electromagnetic (EM) methods. The developed new technique is based on examining the spectral induced polarization effects in electromagnetic data using effective-medium theory and advanced methods of 3-D modeling and inversion. The analysis of IP phenomena is usually based on models with frequency dependent complex conductivity distribution. In this project, we have developed a rigorous physical/mathematical model of heterogeneous conductive media based on the effective-medium approach. The new generalized effective-medium theory of IP effect (GEMTIP) provides a unified mathematical method to study heterogeneity, multi-phase structure, and polarizability of rocks. The geoelectrical parameters of a new composite conductivity model are determined by the intrinsic petrophysical and geometrical characteristics of composite media: mineralization and/or fluid content of rocks, matrix composition, porosity, anisotropy, and polarizability of formations. The new GEMTIP model of multi-phase conductive media provides a quantitative tool for evaluation of the type of mineralization, and the volume content of different minerals using electromagnetic data. We have developed a 3-D EM-IP modeling algorithm using the integral equation (IE) method. Our IE forward modeling software is based on the contraction IE method, which improves the convergence rate of the iterative solvers. This code can handle various types of sources and receivers to compute the effect of a complex resistivity model. We have demonstrated that the generalized effective-medium theory of induced polarization (GEMTIP) in combination with the IE forward modeling method can be used for rock-scale forward modeling from grain-scale parameters. The numerical modeling study clearly demonstrates how the various complex resistivity

  19. Discriminating between HuR and TTP binding sites using the k-spectrum kernel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Debra S.; Dowell, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Background The RNA binding proteins (RBPs) human antigen R (HuR) and Tristetraprolin (TTP) are known to exhibit competitive binding but have opposing effects on the bound messenger RNA (mRNA). How cells discriminate between the two proteins is an interesting problem. Machine learning approaches, such as support vector machines (SVMs), may be useful in the identification of discriminative features. However, this method has yet to be applied to studies of RNA binding protein motifs. Results Applying the k-spectrum kernel to a support vector machine (SVM), we first verified the published binding sites of both HuR and TTP. Additional feature engineering highlighted the U-rich binding preference of HuR and AU-rich binding preference for TTP. Domain adaptation along with multi-task learning was used to predict the common binding sites. Conclusion The distinction between HuR and TTP binding appears to be subtle content features. HuR prefers strongly U-rich sequences whereas TTP prefers AU-rich as with increasing A content, the sequences are more likely to be bound only by TTP. Our model is consistent with competitive binding of the two proteins, particularly at intermediate AU-balanced sequences. This suggests that fine changes in the A/U balance within a untranslated region (UTR) can alter the binding and subsequent stability of the message. Both feature engineering and domain adaptation emphasized the extent to which these proteins recognize similar general sequence features. This work suggests that the k-spectrum kernel method could be useful when studying RNA binding proteins and domain adaptation techniques such as feature augmentation could be employed particularly when examining RBPs with similar binding preferences. PMID:28333956

  20. Discriminative methods for classification of asynchronous imaginary motor tasks from EEG data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado Saa, Jaime F; Çetin, Müjdat

    2013-09-01

    In this work, two methods based on statistical models that take into account the temporal changes in the electroencephalographic (EEG) signal are proposed for asynchronous brain-computer interfaces (BCI) based on imaginary motor tasks. Unlike the current approaches to asynchronous BCI systems that make use of windowed versions of the EEG data combined with static classifiers, the methods proposed here are based on discriminative models that allow sequential labeling of data. In particular, the two methods we propose for asynchronous BCI are based on conditional random fields (CRFs) and latent dynamic CRFs (LDCRFs), respectively. We describe how the asynchronous BCI problem can be posed as a classification problem based on CRFs or LDCRFs, by defining appropriate random variables and their relationships. CRF allows modeling the extrinsic dynamics of data, making it possible to model the transitions between classes, which in this context correspond to distinct tasks in an asynchronous BCI system. On the other hand, LDCRF goes beyond this approach by incorporating latent variables that permit modeling the intrinsic structure for each class and at the same time allows modeling extrinsic dynamics. We apply our proposed methods on the publicly available BCI competition III dataset V as well as a data set recorded in our laboratory. Results obtained are compared to the top algorithm in the BCI competition as well as to methods based on hierarchical hidden Markov models (HHMMs), hierarchical hidden CRF (HHCRF), neural networks based on particle swarm optimization (IPSONN) and to a recently proposed approach based on neural networks and fuzzy theory, the S-dFasArt. Our experimental analysis demonstrates the improvements provided by our proposed methods in terms of classification accuracy.

  1. Perceived discrimination, humiliation, and mental health: a mixed-methods study among Haitian migrants in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keys, Hunter M; Kaiser, Bonnie N; Foster, Jennifer W; Burgos Minaya, Rosa Y; Kohrt, Brandon A

    2015-01-01

    Many Haitian migrants live and work as undocumented laborers in the Dominican Republic. This study examines the legacy of anti-Haitian discrimination in the Dominican Republic and association of discrimination with mental health among Haitian migrants. This study used mixed methods to generate hypotheses for associations between discrimination and mental health of Haitian migrants in the Dominican Republic. In-depth interviews were conducted with 21 Haitian and 18 Dominican community members and clinicians. One hundred and twenty-seven Haitian migrants participated in a pilot cross-sectional community survey. Instruments included culturally adapted Kreyòl versions of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and a locally developed function impairment scale. Haitian migrants described humiliation (imilyasyon) as a reason for mental distress and barrier to health care. Dominicans reported that discrimination (discriminación) was not a current social problem and attributed negative social interactions to sociocultural, behavioral, and biological differences between Dominicans and Haitians. These qualitative findings were supported in the quantitative analyses. Perceived discrimination was significantly associated with depression severity and functional impairment. Perceived mistreatment by Dominicans was associated with a 6.6-point increase in BDI score (90% confidence interval [CI]: 3.29, 9.9). Knowing someone who was interrogated or deported was associated with a 3.4-point increase in BAI score (90% CI: 0.22, 6.64). Both qualitative and quantitative methods suggest that perceived discrimination and the experience of humiliation contribute to Haitian migrant mental ill-health and limit access to health care. Future research should evaluate these associations and identify intervention pathways for both improved treatment access and reduction of discrimination-related health risk factors.

  2. Photoacoustic discrimination of vascular and pigmented lesions using classical and Bayesian methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swearingen, Jennifer A.; Holan, Scott H.; Feldman, Mary M.; Viator, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Discrimination of pigmented and vascular lesions in skin can be difficult due to factors such as size, subungual location, and the nature of lesions containing both melanin and vascularity. Misdiagnosis may lead to precancerous or cancerous lesions not receiving proper medical care. To aid in the rapid and accurate diagnosis of such pathologies, we develop a photoacoustic system to determine the nature of skin lesions in vivo. By irradiating skin with two laser wavelengths, 422 and 530 nm, we induce photoacoustic responses, and the relative response at these two wavelengths indicates whether the lesion is pigmented or vascular. This response is due to the distinct absorption spectrum of melanin and hemoglobin. In particular, pigmented lesions have ratios of photoacoustic amplitudes of approximately 1.4 to 1 at the two wavelengths, while vascular lesions have ratios of about 4.0 to 1. Furthermore, we consider two statistical methods for conducting classification of lesions: standard multivariate analysis classification techniques and a Bayesian-model-based approach. We study 15 human subjects with eight vascular and seven pigmented lesions. Using the classical method, we achieve a perfect classification rate, while the Bayesian approach has an error rate of 20%.

  3. Development and Validation of a Discriminating In Vitro Dissolution Method for Oral Formulations Containing Satranidazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshal Ashok Pawar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of a meaningful dissolution procedure for drug products with limited water solubility has been a challenge to the pharmaceutical industry. Satranidazole (BCS Class II drug is a new nitroimidazole derivative with potent antiamoebic action. There is no official dissolution medium available in the literature. In the present study, parameters such as saturation solubility in different pH medium, dissolution behavior of formulations, influence of sink conditions, stability, and discriminatory effect of dissolution testing were studied for the selection of a proper dissolution medium. Results of solubility data revealed that solubility of Satranidazole decreases with an increase in pH. Satranidazole showed better sink condition in 0.1 N HCl as compared to other media. The drug and marketed formulations were stable in the dissolution media used. An agitation speed of 75 rpm showed a more discriminating drug release profile than 50 rpm. Using optimized dissolution parameters (paddle at 75 rpm, 900 mL 0.1 N HCl greater than 80% of the label amount is released over 60 minutes. UV-spectroscopic method used was validated for the specificity, linearity, precision, robustness, and solution stability. The method was successfully applied to granular formulations and also to marketed tablets containing 300 mg Satranidazole.

  4. Reduction of truncation artifacts in CT images via a discriminative dictionary representation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Li, Ke; Li, Yinsheng; Hsieh, Jiang; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2016-04-01

    When the scan field of view (SFOV) of a CT system is not large enough to enclose the entire cross-section of a patient, or the patient needs to be intentionally positioned partially outside the SFOV for certain clinical CT scans, truncation artifacts are often observed in the reconstructed CT images. Conventional wisdom to reduce truncation artifacts is to complete the truncated projection data via data extrapolation with different a priori assumptions. This paper presents a novel truncation artifact reduction method that directly works in the CT image domain. Specifically, a discriminative dictionary that includes a sub-dictionary of truncation artifacts and a sub-dictionary of non-artifact image information was used to separate a truncation artifact-contaminated image into two sub-images, one with reduced truncation artifacts, and the other one containing only the truncation artifacts. Both experimental phantom and retrospective human subject studies have been performed to characterize the performance of the proposed truncation artifact reduction method.

  5. A wavelet-based method to discriminate internal faults from inrush currents using correlation coefficient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vahidi, B.; Ghaffarzadeh, N.; Hosseinian, S.H. [Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran)

    2010-09-15

    In this paper a new method based on discrete wavelet transform and correlation coefficient is presented for digital differential protection. The algorithm includes offline and online operations. In offline operation, discrete wavelet transform is used to decompose typical three-phase differential currents for inrush current. Then an index is defined and computed. The index is based on the sum of the energy of detail coefficients at level 5 of three-phase differential currents at each half cycle. The online operation consists of capturing the three-phase differential currents using 10 kHz sampling rate, decomposing it by db1. Finally, the inrush current and internal fault is detected based on correlation coefficients of the computed index of pre-stored typical inrush current and a recorded indistinct signal. The effectiveness of the approach is tested using numerous inrush and internal fault currents. Simulations are used to confirm the aptness and the capability of the proposed method to discriminate inrush current from internal fault. (author)

  6. Discriminant analysis of principal components: a new method for the analysis of genetically structured populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balloux François

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dramatic progress in sequencing technologies offers unprecedented prospects for deciphering the organization of natural populations in space and time. However, the size of the datasets generated also poses some daunting challenges. In particular, Bayesian clustering algorithms based on pre-defined population genetics models such as the STRUCTURE or BAPS software may not be able to cope with this unprecedented amount of data. Thus, there is a need for less computer-intensive approaches. Multivariate analyses seem particularly appealing as they are specifically devoted to extracting information from large datasets. Unfortunately, currently available multivariate methods still lack some essential features needed to study the genetic structure of natural populations. Results We introduce the Discriminant Analysis of Principal Components (DAPC, a multivariate method designed to identify and describe clusters of genetically related individuals. When group priors are lacking, DAPC uses sequential K-means and model selection to infer genetic clusters. Our approach allows extracting rich information from genetic data, providing assignment of individuals to groups, a visual assessment of between-population differentiation, and contribution of individual alleles to population structuring. We evaluate the performance of our method using simulated data, which were also analyzed using STRUCTURE as a benchmark. Additionally, we illustrate the method by analyzing microsatellite polymorphism in worldwide human populations and hemagglutinin gene sequence variation in seasonal influenza. Conclusions Analysis of simulated data revealed that our approach performs generally better than STRUCTURE at characterizing population subdivision. The tools implemented in DAPC for the identification of clusters and graphical representation of between-group structures allow to unravel complex population structures. Our approach is also faster than

  7. A comparison of n-γ discrimination by the rise-time and zero-crossing methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The n-γ discrimination performance of two experimental arrangements based on the rise-time method and the zero-crossing method was compared for a 50.8 mm-diametered and 50.8 mm-high BC501A liquid scintillator coupled to a 50.8 mm-diametered 9807B photomultiplier in this work. The low energy limitation of the detected neutron with different detector high voltages and the figure of merit of the n-γ discrimination in four neutron energy regions (1–2 MeV, 0.75–1 MeV, 0.5–0.75 MeV and below 0.5 MeV) were studied by using the Am-Be neutron source. Under a time statistical model of the photoelectron emission process in scintillation counters, the intrinsic capability of the n-γ discrimination performance under the optimal condition was evaluated. The experimental results of the zero-crossing method demonstrate a better n-γ. discrimination performance than those of the rise-time method, which is consistent with the calculated results.

  8. An Improved Method for Discriminating ECG Signals using Typical Nonlinear Dynamic Parameters and Recurrence Quantification Analysis in Cardiac Disease Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, M; Chang, C Q; Fung, P C W; Chau, K T; Chan, F H Y

    2005-01-01

    The discrimination of ECG signals using nonlinear dynamic parameters is of crucial importance in the cardiac disease therapy and chaos control for arrhythmia defibrillation in the cardiac system. However, the discrimination results of previous studies using features such as maximal Lyapunov exponent (λmax) and correlation dimension (D2) alone are somewhat limited in recognition rate. In this paper, improved methods for computing λmaxand D2are purposed. Another parameter from recurrence quantification analysis is incorporated to the new multi-feature Bayesian classifier with λmaxand D2so as to improve the discrimination power. Experimental results have verified the prediction using Fisher discriminant that the maximal vertical line length (Vmax) from recurrence quantification analysis is the best to distinguish different ECG classes. Experimental results using the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia Database show improved and excellent overall accuracy (96.3%), average sensitivity (96.3%) and average specificity (98.15%) for discriminating sinus, premature ventricular contraction and ventricular flutter signals.

  9. The convergent and discriminant validity of burnout measures in sport: a multi-trait/multi-method analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresswell, Scott L; Eklund, Robert C

    2006-02-01

    Athlete burnout research has been hampered by the lack of an adequate measurement tool. The Athlete Burnout Questionnaire (ABQ) and the Maslach Burnout Inventory General Survey (MBI-GS) are two recently developed self-report instruments designed to assess burnout. The convergent and discriminant validity of the ABQ and MBI-GS were assessed through multi-trait/multi-method analysis with a sporting population. Overall, the ABQ and the MBI-GS displayed acceptable convergent validity with matching subscales highly correlated, and satisfactory internal discriminant validity with lower correlations between non-matching subscales. Both scales also indicated an adequate discrimination between the concepts of burnout and depression. These findings add support to previous findings in non-sporting populations that depression and burnout are separate constructs. Based on the psychometric results, construct validity analysis and practical considerations, the results support the use of the ABQ to assess athlete burnout.

  10. Evaluation of sensory panels of consumers of specialty coffee beverages using the boosting method in discriminant analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Rodrigues Liska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Automatic classification methods have been widely used in numerous situations and the boosting method has become known for use of a classification algorithm, which considers a set of training data and, from that set, constructs a classifier with reweighted versions of the training set. Given this characteristic, the aim of this study is to assess a sensory experiment related to acceptance tests with specialty coffees, with reference to both trained and untrained consumer groups. For the consumer group, four sensory characteristics were evaluated, such as aroma, body, sweetness, and final score, attributed to four types of specialty coffees. In order to obtain a classification rule that discriminates trained and untrained tasters, we used the conventional Fisher’s Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA and discriminant analysis via boosting algorithm (AdaBoost. The criteria used in the comparison of the two approaches were sensitivity, specificity, false positive rate, false negative rate, and accuracy of classification methods. Additionally, to evaluate the performance of the classifiers, the success rates and error rates were obtained by Monte Carlo simulation, considering 100 replicas of a random partition of 70% for the training set, and the remaining for the test set. It was concluded that the boosting method applied to discriminant analysis yielded a higher sensitivity rate in regard to the trained panel, at a value of 80.63% and, hence, reduction in the rate of false negatives, at 19.37%. Thus, the boosting method may be used as a means of improving the LDA classifier for discrimination of trained tasters.

  11. Novel methods for the molecular discrimination of Fasciola spp. on the basis of nuclear protein-coding genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoriki, Takuya; Ichikawa-Seki, Madoka; Suganuma, Keisuke; Naito, Ikunori; Hayashi, Kei; Nakao, Minoru; Aita, Junya; Mohanta, Uday Kumar; Inoue, Noboru; Murakami, Kenji; Itagaki, Tadashi

    2016-06-01

    Fasciolosis is an economically important disease of livestock caused by Fasciola hepatica, Fasciola gigantica, and aspermic Fasciola flukes. The aspermic Fasciola flukes have been discriminated morphologically from the two other species by the absence of sperm in their seminal vesicles. To date, the molecular discrimination of F. hepatica and F. gigantica has relied on the nucleotide sequences of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region. However, ITS1 genotypes of aspermic Fasciola flukes cannot be clearly differentiated from those of F. hepatica and F. gigantica. Therefore, more precise and robust methods are required to discriminate Fasciola spp. In this study, we developed PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism and multiplex PCR methods to discriminate F. hepatica, F. gigantica, and aspermic Fasciola flukes on the basis of the nuclear protein-coding genes, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and DNA polymerase delta, which are single locus genes in most eukaryotes. All aspermic Fasciola flukes used in this study had mixed fragment pattern of F. hepatica and F. gigantica for both of these genes, suggesting that the flukes are descended through hybridization between the two species. These molecular methods will facilitate the identification of F. hepatica, F. gigantica, and aspermic Fasciola flukes, and will also prove useful in etiological studies of fasciolosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Discrimination of Maize Haploid Seeds from Hybrid Seeds Using Vis Spectroscopy and Support Vector Machine Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin; Guo, Ting-ting; Li, Hao-chuan; Jia, Shi-qiang; Yan, Yan-lu; An, Dong; Zhang, Yao; Chen, Shao-jiang

    2015-11-01

    Doubled haploid (DH) lines are routinely applied in the hybrid maize breeding programs of many institutes and companies for their advantages of complete homozygosity and short breeding cycle length. A key issue in this approach is an efficient screening system to identify haploid kernels from the hybrid kernels crossed with the inducer. At present, haploid kernel selection is carried out manually using the"red-crown" kernel trait (the haploid kernel has a non-pigmented embryo and pigmented endosperm) controlled by the R1-nj gene. Manual selection is time-consuming and unreliable. Furthermore, the color of the kernel embryo is concealed by the pericarp. Here, we establish a novel approach for identifying maize haploid kernels based on visible (Vis) spectroscopy and support vector machine (SVM) pattern recognition technology. The diffuse transmittance spectra of individual kernels (141 haploid kernels and 141 hybrid kernels from 9 genotypes) were collected using a portable UV-Vis spectrometer and integrating sphere. The raw spectral data were preprocessed using smoothing and vector normalization methods. The desired feature wavelengths were selected based on the results of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The wavelengths with p values above 0. 05 were eliminated because the distributions of absorbance data in these wavelengths show no significant difference between haploid and hybrid kernels. Principal component analysis was then performed to reduce the number of variables. The SVM model was evaluated by 9-fold cross-validation. In each round, samples of one genotype were used as the testing set, while those of other genotypes were used as the training set. The mean rate of correct discrimination was 92.06%. This result demonstrates the feasibility of using Vis spectroscopy to identify haploid maize kernels. The method would help develop a rapid and accurate automated screening-system for haploid kernels.

  13. THE BOLOCAM GALACTIC PLANE SURVEY. VIII. A MID-INFRARED KINEMATIC DISTANCE DISCRIMINATION METHOD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellsworth-Bowers, Timothy P.; Glenn, Jason; Battersby, Cara; Ginsburg, Adam; Bally, John [CASA, University of Colorado, UCB 389, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Rosolowsky, Erik [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia Okanagan, 3333 University Way, Kelowna, BC V1V 1V7 (Canada); Mairs, Steven [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, 3800 Finnerty Road, Victoria, BC V8P 1A1 (Canada); Evans, Neal J. II [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, 1 University Station C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Shirley, Yancy L., E-mail: timothy.ellsworthbowers@colorado.edu [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2013-06-10

    We present a new distance estimation method for dust-continuum-identified molecular cloud clumps. Recent (sub-)millimeter Galactic plane surveys have cataloged tens of thousands of these objects, plausible precursors to stellar clusters, but detailed study of their physical properties requires robust distance determinations. We derive Bayesian distance probability density functions (DPDFs) for 770 objects from the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey in the Galactic longitude range 7. Degree-Sign 5 {<=} l {<=} 65 Degree-Sign . The DPDF formalism is based on kinematic distances, and uses any number of external data sets to place prior distance probabilities to resolve the kinematic distance ambiguity (KDA) for objects in the inner Galaxy. We present here priors related to the mid-infrared absorption of dust in dense molecular regions and the distribution of molecular gas in the Galactic disk. By assuming a numerical model of Galactic mid-infrared emission and simple radiative transfer, we match the morphology of (sub-)millimeter thermal dust emission with mid-infrared absorption to compute a prior DPDF for distance discrimination. Selecting objects first from (sub-)millimeter source catalogs avoids a bias towards the darkest infrared dark clouds (IRDCs) and extends the range of heliocentric distance probed by mid-infrared extinction and includes lower-contrast sources. We derive well-constrained KDA resolutions for 618 molecular cloud clumps, with approximately 15% placed at or beyond the tangent distance. Objects with mid-infrared contrast sufficient to be cataloged as IRDCs are generally placed at the near kinematic distance. Distance comparisons with Galactic Ring Survey KDA resolutions yield a 92% agreement. A face-on view of the Milky Way using resolved distances reveals sections of the Sagittarius and Scutum-Centaurus Arms. This KDA-resolution method for large catalogs of sources through the combination of (sub-)millimeter and mid-infrared observations of molecular

  14. Optimal Feature Extraction for Discriminating Raman Spectra of Different Skin Samples using Statistical Methods and Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Dehghani Bidgoli

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Raman spectroscopy, that is a spectroscopic technique based on inelastic scattering of monochromatic light, can provide valuable information about molecular vibrations, so using this technique we can study molecular changes in a sample. Material and Methods: In this research, 153 Raman spectra obtained from normal and dried skin samples. Baseline and electrical noise were eliminated in the preprocessing stage with subsequent normalization of Raman spectra. Then, using statistical analysis and Genetic algorithm, optimal features for discrimination between these two classes have been searched.  In statistical analysis for choosing optimal features, T test, Bhattacharyya distance and entropy between two classes have been calculated. Seeing that T test can better discriminate these two classes so this method used for selecting the best features. Another time Genetic algorithm used for selecting optimal features, finally using these selected features and classifiers such as LDA, KNN, SVM and neural network, these two classes have been discriminated. Results: In comparison of classifiers results, under various strategies for selecting features and classifier, the best results obtained in combination of genetic algorithm in feature selection and SVM in classification. Finally using combination of genetic algorithm and SVM, we could discriminate normal and dried skin samples with accuracy of 90%, sensitivity of 89% and specificity of 91%. Discussion and Conclusion: According to obtained results, we can conclude that genetic algorithm demonstrates better performance than statistical analysis in selection of discriminating features of Raman spectra. In addition, results of this research illustrate the potential of Raman spectroscopy in study of different material effects on skin and skin diseases related to skin dehydration.

  15. Gender Discrimination in English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖敏慧

    2014-01-01

    Gender discrimination in language is usually defined as discrimination based on sex, especially discrimination against women. With the rise of women’s liberation movement in the 1960s and 1970s, and the improvement of women’s social status in recent years, gender discrimination in English attracts more and more attention. Based on previous studies, this thesis first dis⁃cusses the manifestations of gender discrimination in English vocabulary and address terms, then analyzes the factors of gender dis⁃crimination in English from social and cultural perspectives, finally puts forward some methods that are good for avoiding or elim⁃inating gender discrimination in English.

  16. Study of digital pulse shape discrimination method for n-{\\gamma} separation of EJ-301 liquid scintillation detector

    CERN Document Server

    Wan, Bo; Chen, Liang; Ge, Honglin; Ma, Fei; Zhang, Hongbin; Ju, Yongqin; Zhang, Yanbin; Li, Yanyan; Xu, Xiaowei

    2015-01-01

    A digital pulse shape discrimination system based on a programmable module NI-5772 has been established and tested with EJ-301 liquid scintillation detector. The module was operated by means of running programs developed in LabVIEW with the sampling frequency up to 1.6GS/s. Standard gamma sources 22Na, 137Cs and 60Co were used to calibrate the EJ-301 liquid scintillation detector, and the gamma response function has been obtained. Digital algorithms for charge comparison method and zero-crossing method have been developed. The experimental results showed that both digital signal processing (DSP) algorithms could discriminate neutrons from gamma-rays. Moreover, the zero-crossing method shows better n-{\\gamma} discrimination at 80 keVee and lower, whereas the charge comparison method gives better results at higher thresholds. In addition, the figure-of-merit (FOM) of two different dimension detectors were extracted at 9 energy thresholds, and it was found that the smaller one presented a better n-{\\gamma} separ...

  17. Protein hydrolysates are avoided by herbivores but not by omnivores in two-choice preference tests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin L Field

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The negative sensory properties of casein hydrolysates (HC often limit their usage in products intended for human consumption, despite HC being nutritious and having many functional benefits. Recent, but taxonomically limited, evidence suggests that other animals also avoid consuming HC when alternatives exist. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We evaluated ingestive responses of five herbivorous species (guinea pig, mountain beaver, gopher, vole, and rabbit and five omnivorous species (rat, coyote, house mouse, white-footed mouse, and deer mouse; N = 16-18/species using solid foods containing 20% HC in a series of two-choice preference tests that used a non-protein, cellulose-based alternative. Individuals were also tested with collagen hydrolysate (gelatin; GE to determine whether it would induce similar ingestive responses to those induced by HC. Despite HC and GE having very different nutritional and sensory qualities, both hydrolysates produced similar preference score patterns. We found that the herbivores generally avoided the hydrolysates while the omnivores consumed them at similar levels to the cellulose diet or, more rarely, preferred them (HC by the white-footed mouse; GE by the rat. Follow-up preference tests pairing HC and the nutritionally equivalent intact casein (C were performed on the three mouse species and the guinea pigs. For the mice, mean HC preference scores were lower in the HC v C compared to the HC v Cel tests, indicating that HC's sensory qualities negatively affected its consumption. However, responses were species-specific. For the guinea pigs, repeated exposure to HC or C (4.7-h sessions; N = 10 were found to increase subsequent HC preference scores in an HC v C preference test, which was interpreted in the light of conservative foraging strategies thought to typify herbivores. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first empirical study of dietary niche-related taxonomic differences in ingestive

  18. A Non-destructive Terahertz Spectroscopy-Based Method for Transgenic Rice Seed Discrimination via Sparse Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaohua; Lang, Wenhui; Liu, Wei; Xu, Xue; Yang, Jianbo; Zheng, Lei

    2017-08-01

    Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy technique has been researched and developed for rapid and non-destructive detection of food safety and quality due to its low-energy and non-ionizing characteristics. The objective of this study was to develop a flexible identification model to discriminate transgenic and non-transgenic rice seeds based on terahertz (THz) spectroscopy. To extract THz spectral features and reduce the feature dimension, sparse representation (SR) is employed in this work. A sufficient sparsity level is selected to train the sparse coding of the THz data, and the random forest (RF) method is then applied to obtain a discrimination model. The results show that there exist differences between transgenic and non-transgenic rice seeds in THz spectral band and, comparing with Least squares support vector machines (LS-SVM) method, SR-RF is a better model for discrimination (accuracy is 95% in prediction set, 100% in calibration set, respectively). The conclusion is that SR may be more useful in the application of THz spectroscopy to reduce dimension and the SR-RF provides a new, effective, and flexible method for detection and identification of transgenic and non-transgenic rice seeds with THz spectral system.

  19. Development of a digital method for neutron/gamma-ray discrimination based on matched filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolczuk, S.; Linczuk, M.; Romaniuk, R.; Zychor, I.

    2016-09-01

    Neutron/gamma-ray discrimination is crucial for measurements with detectors sensitive to both neutron and gamma-ray radiation. Different techniques to discriminate between neutrons and gamma-rays based on pulse shape analysis are widely used in many applications, e.g., homeland security, radiation dosimetry, environmental monitoring, fusion experiments, nuclear spectroscopy. A common requirement is to improve a radiation detection level with a high detection reliability. Modern electronic components, such as high speed analog to digital converters and powerful programmable digital circuits for signal processing, allow us to develop a fully digital measurement system. With this solution it is possible to optimize digital signal processing algorithms without changing any electronic components in an acquisition signal path. We report on results obtained with a digital acquisition system DNG@NCBJ designed at the National Centre for Nuclear Research. A 2'' × 2'' EJ309 liquid scintillator was used to register mixed neutron and gamma-ray radiation from PuBe sources. A dedicated algorithm for pulse shape discrimination, based on real-time filtering, was developed and implemented in hardware.

  20. Genetic Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Genetics Archive Regulation of Genetic Tests Genetic Discrimination Overview Many Americans fear that participating in research ... I) and employment (Title II). Read more Genetic Discrimination and Other Laws Genetic Discrimination and Other Laws ...

  1. Cargo and Container X-Ray Inspection with Intra-Pulse Multi-Energy Method for Material Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saverskiy, Aleksandr Y.; Dinca, Dan-Cristian; Rommel, J. Martin

    The Intra-Pulse Multi-Energy (IPME) method of material discrimination mitigates main disadvantages of the traditional "interlaced" approach: ambiguity caused by sampling different regions of cargo and reduction of effective scanning speed. A novel concept of creating multi-energy probing pulses using a standing-wave structure allows maintaining a constant energy spectrum while changing the time duration of each sub-pulse and thus enables adaptive cargo inspection. Depending on the cargo density, the dose delivered to the inspected object is optimized for best material discrimination, maximum material penetration, or lowest dose to cargo. A model based on Monte-Carlo simulation and experimental reference points were developed for the optimization of inspection conditions.

  2. An EThcD-Based Method for Discrimination of Leucine and Isoleucine Residues in Tryptic Peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhokhov, Sergey S.; Kovalyov, Sergey V.; Samgina, Tatiana Yu.; Lebedev, Albert T.

    2017-08-01

    An EThcD-based approach for the reliable discrimination of isomeric leucine and isoleucine residues in peptide de novo sequencing procedure has been proposed. A multistage fragmentation of peptide ions was performed with Orbitrap Elite mass spectrometer in electrospray ionization mode. At the first stage, z-ions were produced by ETD or ETcaD fragmentation of doubly or triply charged peptide precursor ions. These primary ions were further fragmented by HCD with broad-band ion isolation, and the resulting w-ions showed different mass for leucine and isoleucine residues. The procedure did not require manual isolation of specific z-ions prior to HCD stage. Forty-three tryptic peptides (3 to 27 residues) obtained by trypsinolysis of human serum albumin (HSA) and gp188 protein were analyzed. To demonstrate a proper solution for radical site migration problem, three non-tryptic peptides were also analyzed. A total of 93 leucine and isoleucine residues were considered and 83 of them were correctly identified. The developed approach can be a reasonable substitution for additional Edman degradation procedure, which is still used in peptide sequencing for leucine and isoleucine discrimination.

  3. A New Method for Improving the Discrimination Power and Weights Dispersion in the Data Envelopment Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kordrostami

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The appropriate choice of input-output weights is necessary to have a successful DEA model. Generally, if the number of DMUs i.e., n, is less than number of inputs and outputs i.e., m+s, then many of DMUs are introduced as efficient then the discrimination between DMUs is not possible. Besides, DEA models are free to choose the best weights. For resolving the problems that are resulted from freedom of weights, some constraints are set on the input-output weights. Symmetric weight constraints are a kind of weight constrains. In this paper, we represent a new model based on a multi-criterion data envelopment analysis (MCDEA are developed to moderate the homogeneity of weights distribution by using symmetric weight constrains.Consequently, we show that the improvement of the dispersal of unrealistic input-output weights and the increasing discrimination power for our suggested models. Finally, as an application of the new model, we use this model to evaluate and ranking guilan selected hospitals.

  4. A novel method for discrimination of beef and horsemeat using Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyacı, İsmail Hakkı; Temiz, Havva Tümay; Uysal, Reyhan Selin; Velioğlu, Hasan Murat; Yadegari, Reza Jafarzadeh; Rishkan, Mojtaba Mahmoudi

    2014-04-01

    A new approach, based on the usage of Raman spectroscopy in combination with chemometrics, was developed for the rapid determination of beef adulteration with horsemeat. The data mining process of collected Raman spectra was performed with principal component analysis (PCA). Pure fat samples, extracted from forty-nine meat beef and horsemeat samples, were analysed using the Raman spectroscopy. All meat samples were classified successfully according to their origins. The presence of different concentrations (25%, 50%, 75%, w/w) of horsemeat in beef was also differentiated using the developed model system. This study offers a rapid assay for determination of meat adulteration by discriminating beef and horsemeat with high accuracy, a short analysis time (30s) and no requirement for time-consuming sample preparation procedures.

  5. A method for recognition of coexisting environmental sound sources based on the Fisher’s linear discriminant classifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Creixell Mediante, Ester; Haddad, Karim; Song, Wookeun

    2015-01-01

    . This study distinguishes from other investigations by focusing on cases where the noise sources appear mixed (i.e., several noise sources might be present at the same time in one location), which is a more realistic and frequent situation in cities than a single sound source without other interfering noises...... on the Fisher’s Linear Discriminant classifier, and estimates noise source contributions based on a distance measure of vector projections. The method is able to identify mixed sources in 96% of the 27 tested signals and to correlate the contribution of the individual sources with their sound pressure level...

  6. Novel method based on chromogenic media for discrimination and selective enumeration of lactic acid bacteria in fermented milk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galat, Anna; Dufresne, Jérôme; Combrisson, Jérôme; Thépaut, Jérôme; Boumghar-Bourtchai, Leyla; Boyer, Mickaël; Fourmestraux, Candice

    2016-05-01

    Microbial analyses of fermented milk products require selective methods to discriminate between close species simultaneously present in high amounts. A culture-based method combining novel chromogenic agar media and appropriate incubation conditions was developed to enumerate lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains in fermented milk. M1 agar, containing two chromogenic substrates, allowed selective enumeration of Lactobacillus rhamnosus, two strains of Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei and Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus based on differential β-galactosidase and β-glucosidase activities. Depending on the presence of some or all of the above strains, M1 agar was supplemented with L-rhamnose or vancomycin and incubations were carried out at 37 °C or 44 °C to increase selectivity. A second agar medium, M2, containing one chromogenic substrates was used to selectively enumerate β-galactosidase producing Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus at 47 °C. By contrast with the usual culture media, the chromogenic method allowed unambiguous enumeration of each species, including discrimination between the two L. paracasei, up to 10(9) CFU/g of fermented milk. In addition, the relevance of the method was approved by enumerating reference ATCC strains in pure cultures and fermented milk product. The method could also be used for enumerations on non-Danone commercial fermented milk products containing strains different from those used in this study, showing versatility of the method. To our knowledge, this is the first description of a chromogenic culture method applied to selective enumeration of LAB. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Automatic Estimation of Artemia Hatching Rate Using an Object Discrimination Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Kim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Digital image processing is a process to analyze a large volume of information on digital images. In this study, Artemia hatching rate was measured by automatically classifying and counting cysts and larvae based on color imaging data from cyst hatching experiments using an image processing technique. The Artemia hatching rate estimation consists of a series of processes; a step to convert the scanned image data to a binary image data, a process to detect objects and to extract their shape information in the converted image data, an analysis step to choose an optimal discriminant function, and a step to recognize and classify the objects using the function. The function to classify Artemia cysts and larvae is optimally estimated based on the classification performance using the areas and the plan-form factors of the detected objects. The hatching rate using the image data obtained under the different experimental conditions was estimated in the range of 34-48%. It was shown that the maximum difference is about 19.7% and the average root-mean squared difference is about 10.9% as the difference between the results using an automatic counting (this study and a manual counting were compared. This technique can be applied to biological specimen analysis using similar imaging information.

  8. Price Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Armstrong, Mark

    2008-01-01

    This paper surveys recent economic research on price discrimination, both in monopoly and oligopoly markets. Topics include static and dynamic forms of price discrimination, and both final and input markets are considered. Potential antitrust aspects of price discrimination are highlighted throughout the paper. The paper argues that the informational requirements to make accurate policy are very great, and with most forms of price discrimination a laissez-faire policy may be the best availabl...

  9. In Vitro Cell Death Discrimination and Screening Method by Simple and Cost-Effective Viability Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, Katharina; Beyreis, Marlena; Mayr, Christian; Ritter, Markus; Jakab, Martin; Kiesslich, Tobias; Plaetzer, Kristjan

    2017-01-01

    For in vitro cytotoxicity testing, discrimination of apoptosis and necrosis represents valuable information. Viability analysis performed at two different time points post treatment could serve such a purpose because the dynamics of metabolic activity of apoptotic and necrotic cells is different, i.e. a more rapid decline of cellular metabolism during necrosis whereas cellular metabolism is maintained during the entire execution phase of apoptosis. This study describes a straightforward approach to distinguish apoptosis and necrosis. A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells were treated with different concentrations/doses of actinomycin D (Act-D), 4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-2-azabenzimidazole (TBB), Ro 31-8220, H2O2 and photodynamic treatment (PDT). The resazurin viability signal was recorded at 2 and 24 hrs post treatment. Apoptosis and necrosis were verified by measuring caspase 3/7 and membrane integrity. Calculation of the difference curve between the 2 and 24 hrs resazurin signals yields the following information: a positive difference signal indicates apoptosis (i.e. high metabolic activity at early time points and low signal at 24 hrs post treatment) while an early reduction of the viability signal indicates necrosis. For all treatments, this dose-dependent sequence of cellular responses could be confirmed by independent assays. Simple and cost-effective viability analysis provides reliable information about the dose ranges of a cytotoxic agent where apoptosis or necrosis occurs. This may serve as a starting point for further in-depth characterisation of cytotoxic treatments. © 2017 The Author(s)Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Visual Discrimination Learning with Variable Irrelevant Cues in Autistic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, Teruko

    1985-01-01

    Ten autistic children and 10 normal nursery school children, matched for mean developmental age, were presented with figure stimuli and had variable irrelevant cues in two-choice simultaneous discrimination learning. Performance of the autistic group did not vary as a function of irrelevant variability, a result attributed to poor performance of…

  11. Sex Differences in Discrimination of Forms by Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etaugh, Claire; Turton, William J.

    1977-01-01

    Boys and girls in second and fourth grades were presented with a two-choice simultaneous form discrimination. The forms were five or ten-sided and symmetrical or asymmetrical. Boys performed better than girls and older children were more accurate than younger ones. (MS)

  12. Discrimination Reversal Learning in Capuchin Monkeys ("Cebus apella")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Michael J.; Klein, Emily D.; Evans, Theodore A.; Chan, Betty; Flemming, Timothy M.; Harris, Emily H.; Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    2008-01-01

    Learning styles in capuchin monkeys were assessed with a computerized reversal-learning task called the mediational paradigm. First, monkeys were trained to respond with 90% accuracy on a two-choice discrimination (A+B-). Then the authors examined differences in performance on three different types of reversal trials (A-B+, A-C+, B+C-), each of…

  13. High Resolution Melting Analysis Targeting hsp70 as a Fast and Efficient Method for the Discrimination of Leishmania Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Andrade Zampieri

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania cause a large spectrum of clinical manifestations known as Leishmaniases. These diseases are increasingly important public health problems in many countries both within and outside endemic regions. Thus, an accurate differential diagnosis is extremely relevant for understanding epidemiological profiles and for the administration of the best therapeutic protocol.Exploring the High Resolution Melting (HRM dissociation profiles of two amplicons using real time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR targeting heat-shock protein 70 coding gene (hsp70 revealed differences that allowed the discrimination of genomic DNA samples of eight Leishmania species found in the Americas, including Leishmania (Leishmania infantum chagasi, L. (L. amazonensis, L. (L. mexicana, L. (Viannia lainsoni, L. (V. braziliensis, L. (V. guyanensis, L. (V. naiffi and L. (V. shawi, and three species found in Eurasia and Africa, including L. (L. tropica, L. (L. donovani and L. (L. major. In addition, we tested DNA samples obtained from standard promastigote culture, naturally infected phlebotomines, experimentally infected mice and clinical human samples to validate the proposed protocol.HRM analysis of hsp70 amplicons is a fast and robust strategy that allowed for the detection and discrimination of all Leishmania species responsible for the Leishmaniases in Brazil and Eurasia/Africa with high sensitivity and accuracy. This method could detect less than one parasite per reaction, even in the presence of host DNA.

  14. Multivariate analysis of dermatoglyphics of severe mental retardates: an application of the constellation graphical method for discriminant analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakita,Yoshiharu

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available We studied the dermatoglyphics of 353 severe mental retardates (excluding those with chromosomal abnormalities and major limb malformations, using multivariate analysis, to determine how early intrauterine factors are related to the etiology of mental retardation. First, dermatoglyphics were compared between 140 individuals with undefined prenatal factors and 700 normal controls. After 6 and 9 dermatoglyphic traits were chosen as discriminative variables for males and females, respectively, the data were subjected separately for each sex to the constellation graphical method for discriminant analysis. The same formula as obtained in the idiopathic group was subsequently applied to data from cases in other etiological categories. When the misclassification rate was 0.03, the rates of correct classification of the male patients into the etiological categories of undefined prenatal, defined prenatal, perinatal, postnatal and unknown (no anamnestic data available categories were 19.7% (13/66, 20.0% (3/15, 8.8% (5/57, 5.0% (1/20 and 7.7% (2/26, while the correct classification rates of females were 24.3% (18/74, 42.1% (8/19, 18.9% (7/37, 5.1% (1/16 and 13.0% (3/23, respectively. The results suggest that early intrauterine factors such as those producing dermatoglyphic deviations may contribute to the pathogenesis of severe mental retardation not only in patients with undefined prenatal etiological factors but also in those with perinatal factors, especially those of the female sex.

  15. A two-choice strategy through a medial tibial approach for the treatment of pilon fractures with posterior or anterior fragmentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luigi Di Giorgio; Georgios Touloupakis; Emmanouil Theodorakis; Luca Sodano

    2013-01-01

    Objective:The anterolateral approach to the tibia has been popularized for the management of tibial pilon fractures.For complex fracture pattems a combined anterolateral/anteromedial approach is suitable but a high rate of complication has been reported.In our retrospective study a two-choice strategy adopting a medial tibial approach was proposed for the treatment ofpilon fractures with anterior or posterior fragmentation.Methods:Based on an anatomic study oftibial pilon fractures,we retrospectively analyzed the fractures with primary posterior,posterior-lateral or anterior,anterior-lateral (Tillaux-Chaput) involvement of the distal tibia.This retrospective study consisted of 18 patients with a closed tibial plafond fracture.The inclusion criteria were:(1) presence of an anterior/anterolateral type fragment or a posterior (Volkmann) type fragment involving >25% of the articular surface,(2) a minimum follow-up of 12 months,(3) a fibula fracture associated with a medial column fracture of the distal tibia,and (4) soft tissue conditions at the time of operation that did not compromise the choice of surgical access (Tscherne classification for closed fractures:grade 0 and grade 1).Tibial plafond fractures were classified into two groups:one presenting anterior and the other with posterior rim (Volkmann) fragments.Results:Most patients achieved a good clinical recovery in terms of range of motion and Olerud-Molander scale scores.Only three patients presented a grade 2 osteoarthritis at the 12 month follow-up.Conclusion:Our two-choice strategy highlights concepts which have been previously debated and described in the literature.But a new extended protocol for surgical approach to the distal tibia,including more fracture patterns and their association should be further investigated.

  16. A two-choice strategy through a medial tibial approach for the treatment of pilon fractures with posterior or anterior fragmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Giorgio Luigi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: The anterolateral approach to the tibia has been popularized for the management of tibial pilon fractures. For complex fracture patterns a combined anterolateral/anteromedial approach is suitable buta high rate of complicat ion has been reported. In our retrospective study a two-choice strategy adopting a medial tibial approach was proposed for the treatment of pilon fractures with anterior or posterior fragmentation. Methods: Based on an anatomic study of tibial pilon fractures, we retrospectively analyzed the fractures with primary posterior, posterior-lateral or anterior, anterior-lateral (Tillaux-Chaput involvement of the distal tibia. This retrospective study consisted of 18 patients with a closed tibial plafond fracture. The inclusion criteria were: (1 presence of an anterior/anterolateral type fragment or a posterior (Volkmann type fragment involving >25% of the articular surface, (2 a minimum follow-upof 12 months, (3 a fibula f racture associated with a medial column fracture of the distaltibia, and (4 soft tissue conditions at the time of operation that did not compromise the choice of surgical access (Tscher ne classi fication for closed fr actures: grade 0 and grade 1. Tibial plafond fractures were classified into two groups: one presenting anterior and the other with posterior rim (Volkmann fragments. Resul ts: Most patients achieved a good clinical recovery in terms of range of motion and Olerud-Molander scale scores. Only three patient s presented a grade 2 osteoarthritis at the 12 month follow-up. Conclusion: Our two-choice strategy highlights concepts which have been previously debated and described in the literature. But a new extended protocol for surgical approach to the distal tibia, including more fracture patterns and their association should be further investigated. Key words: Tibial fractures; Fracture fixation; Surgical procedures, operative; Intraoperative complications

  17. The Pabst's method: an effective and low-budget tool for the forensic comparison of opaque thermoplastics--part 1: Additional discrimination of black electrical tapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Siegfried; Schönberger, Torsten; Simmross, Ulrich

    2013-12-10

    For many years now, Pabst's micro-press has been used in German forensic science laboratories as a valuable addition to methods of comparative analysis of plastic trace evidence. However, it is as yet hardly known in laboratories outside of Germany. The principal reproducibility is demonstrated by a homogeneity check of a raw backing material of defined origin. The illustrated results of a proficiency test emphasise the applicability of the Pabst method for forensic comparisons. The discrimination power of the Pabst method was tested by taking 90 black PVC-backings provided by the FBI Laboratory, i.e. those that could not be discriminated by standard methods. In this way further discriminations could be achieved. In the following, the Pabst method is therefore introduced as a straightforward, inexpensive and useful tool.

  18. Neutron-Gamma Pulse Shape Discrimination with a NE-213 Liquid Scintillator by Using Digital Signal Processing Combined with Similarity Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardiyanto

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Neutron-Gamma Pulse Shape Discrimination with a NE-213 Liquid Scintillator by Using Digital Signal Processing Combined with Similarity Method. Measurement of mixed neutron-gamma radiation is difficult because a neuclear detector is usually sensitive to both radiations. A new attempt of neutron-gamma pulse shape discrimination for a NE-213 liquid scintillator is presented by using digital signal processing combined with an off-line similarity method. The output pulse shapes are digitized with a high speed digital oscilloscope. The n-γ discrimination is done by calculating the index of each pulse shape, which is determined by the similarity method, and then fusing it with its corresponding pulse height. Preliminary results demonstrate good separation of neutron and gamma-ray signals from a NE-213 scintillator with a simple digital system. The results were better than those with a conventional rise time method. Figure of Merit is used to determine the quality of discrimination. The figure of merit of the discrimination using digital signal processing combined with of line similarity method are 1.9; 1.7; 1.1; 1.1; and 0.8 ; on the other hand by using conventional method the rise time are 0.9; 0.9; 0.9; 0.7; and 0.4 for the equivalent electron energy of 800 ; 278 ; 139 ; 69 ; and 30 keV

  19. Structural Discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Mira Skadegård

    In this article, I discuss structural discrimination, an underrepresented area of study in Danish discrimination and intercultural research. It is defined here as discursive and constitutive, and presented as a central element of my analytical approach. This notion is employed in the with which...... to understand and identify aspects of power and asymmetry in communication and interactions. With this as a defining term, I address how exclusion and discrimination exist, while also being indiscernible, within widely accepted societal norms. I introduce the concepts of microdiscrimination and benevolent...... discrimination as two ways of articulating particular, opaque forms of racial discrimination that occur in everyday Danish (and other) contexts, and have therefore become normalized. I present and discuss discrimination as it surfaces in data from my empirical studies of discrimination in Danish contexts...

  20. Determination and discrimination of biodiesel fuels by gas chromatographic and chemometric methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milina, R.; Mustafa, Z.; Bojilov, D.; Dagnon, S.; Moskovkina, M.

    2016-03-01

    Pattern recognition method (PRM) was applied to gas chromatographic (GC) data for a fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) composition of commercial and laboratory synthesized biodiesel fuels from vegetable oils including sunflower, rapeseed, corn and palm oils. Two GC quantitative methods to calculate individual fames were compared: Area % and internal standard. The both methods were applied for analysis of two certified reference materials. The statistical processing of the obtained results demonstrates the accuracy and precision of the two methods and allows them to be compared. For further chemometric investigations of biodiesel fuels by their FAME-profiles any of those methods can be used. PRM results of FAME profiles of samples from different vegetable oils show a successful recognition of biodiesels according to the feedstock. The information obtained can be used for selection of feedstock to produce biodiesels with certain properties, for assessing their interchangeability, for fuel spillage and remedial actions in the environment.

  1. Determination and discrimination of biodiesel fuels by gas chromatographic and chemometric methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milina R.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pattern recognition method (PRM was applied to gas chromatographic (GC data for a fatty acid methyl esters (FAME composition of commercial and laboratory synthesized biodiesel fuels from vegetable oils including sunflower, rapeseed, corn and palm oils. Two GC quantitative methods to calculate individual fames were compared: Area % and internal standard. The both methods were applied for analysis of two certified reference materials. The statistical processing of the obtained results demonstrates the accuracy and precision of the two methods and allows them to be compared. For further chemometric investigations of biodiesel fuels by their FAME-profiles any of those methods can be used. PRM results of FAME profiles of samples from different vegetable oils show a successful recognition of biodiesels according to the feedstock. The information obtained can be used for selection of feedstock to produce biodiesels with certain properties, for assessing their interchangeability, for fuel spillage and remedial actions in the environment.

  2. Simple discrimination method between False Acoustic Emission and Acoustic Emission revealed by piezoelectric sensors, in Gran Sasso mountain measurements (L)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diodati, Paolo; Piazza, Stefano

    2004-07-01

    Recently it was shown, studying data acquired with in-situ measurements on the Gran Sasso mountain (Italy), for about ten years, by means of a high sensitivity transducer coupled to the free-end section of a stainless steel rod fixed by cement in a rock-drill hole 10 m high, about 2500 m above sea level, that Acoustic Emission (AE) can be affected by more than 90% False Acoustic Emission (FAE) of an electromagnetic origin. A very simple method to solve the problem of the discrimination between AE events due to elastic waves, from FAE signals, due to electromagnetic noise, both coming from the same ``reception-point,'' is presented. The reliability of the obtained separation is confirmed also by the reported amplitude and time distribution of AE events, typical of fracture dynamics and those of FAE events, similar to those of noise.

  3. Comparison of Predicted Probabilities of Proportional Hazards Regression and Linear Discriminant Analysis Methods Using a Colorectal Cancer Molecular Biomarker Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upender Manne

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although a majority of studies in cancer biomarker discovery claim to use proportional hazards regression (PHREG to the study the ability of a biomarker to predict survival, few studies use the predicted probabilities obtained from the model to test the quality of the model. In this paper, we compared the quality of predictions by a PHREG model to that of a linear discriminant analysis (LDA in both training and test set settings. Methods: The PHREG and LDA models were built on a 491 colorectal cancer (CRC patient dataset comprised of demographic and clinicopathologic variables, and phenotypic expression of p53 and Bcl-2. Two variable selection methods, stepwise discriminant analysis and the backward selection, were used to identify the final models. The endpoint of prediction in these models was five-year post-surgery survival. We also used linear regression model to examine the effect of bin size in the training set on the accuracy of prediction in the test set.Results: The two variable selection techniques resulted in different models when stage was included in the list of variables available for selection. However, the proportion of survivors and non-survivors correctly identified was identical in both of these models. When stage was excluded from the variable list, the error rate for the LDA model was 42% as compared to an error rate of 34% for the PHREG model.Conclusions: This study suggests that a PHREG model can perform as well or better than a traditional classifier such as LDA to classify patients into prognostic classes. Also, this study suggests that in the absence of the tumor stage as a variable, Bcl-2 expression is a strong prognostic molecular marker of CRC.

  4. Hansa: an automated method for discriminating disease and neutral human nsSNPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Vishal; Nagarajaram, Hampapathalu A

    2012-02-01

    Variations are mostly due to nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs), some of which are associated with certain diseases. Phenotypic effects of a large number of nsSNPs have not been characterized. Although several methods have been developed to predict the effects of nsSNPs as "disease" or "neutral," there is still a need for development of methods with improved prediction accuracies. We, therefore, developed a support vector machine (SVM) based method named Hansa which uses a novel set of discriminatory features to classify nsSNPs into disease (pathogenic) and benign (neutral) types. Validation studies on a benchmark dataset and further on an independent dataset of well-characterized known disease and neutral mutations show that Hansa outperforms the other known methods. For example, fivefold cross-validation studies using the benchmark HumVar dataset reveal that at the false positive rate (FPR) of 20% Hansa yields a true positive rate (TPR) of 82% that is about 10% higher than the best-known method. Hansa is available in the form of a web server at http://hansa.cdfd.org.in:8080.

  5. Improving the Accuracy and Scalability of Discriminative Learning Methods for Markov Logic Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    each ex- ample is a verb and all of its semantic arguments in a sentence ( Carreras & Màrquez, 2005). In addition, each example does not contain a...Recently, Riedel (2008) proposed a more efficient method to solve the MPE inference problem called Cutting Plane In- ference (CPI), which does not require...replace the square 2-norm, wTw, on these formulations by the 1-norm, ||w||1 = ∑n i=1 |wi|, 18 Algorithm 2.1 Cutting- plane method for solving the “1

  6. A Correlation Based Method for Discriminating Inrush Current from Short Circuit Current Using Wavelet Transform in Power Transformer Differential Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rasoulpoor

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach for power transformer differential protection. The Wavelet Transform is applied to discriminate between inrush currents and internal fault currents in power transformers. Discrete wavelet transform decomposes the current signal into sub-bands that give more information about the properties of the signals in different frequency bands. Also, this transform is used to investigate the energy distribution of the signal on the different time and frequency scales. Recognition method is based on the correlation factors between energy percentage vectors of the Wavelet coefficients. Discrete Wavelet transform is used for decomposing the current signals to different frequency coefficients. After that, by constituting the energy percentage vectors of wavelet transform coefficients and calculating the correlation factors between these vectors, it is possible to form a recognition criterion to distinguish between inrush and internal fault current in the proposed method. The proposed algorithm is tested for several conditions by simulated inrush and internal fault currents. Simulation of current signals is performed using electromagnetic transient program PSCAD/EMTDC software that is a powerful program for the investigation of transient signals. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme accurately identifies inrush and fault currents in the distance of the power transformer protection in less than quarter of power frequency cycle. Also, beside the sensitivity and high reliability, the proposed method has low computation content and unlike the common methods does not require to determine the threshold for each new power system.

  7. A simple method to discriminate between beta(2)-glycoprotein I- and prothrombin-dependent lupus anticoagulants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simmelink, MJA; Derksen, RHWM; Arnout, J; De Groot, PG

    2003-01-01

    Lupus anticoagulants (LAC) are a heterogeneous group of autoantibodies that prolong phospholipid-dependent clotting assays. The autoantibodies that cause LAC activity are predominantly directed against beta(2)-glycoprotein I (beta(2)GPI) or prothrombin. In the present study, we describe a method to

  8. Automated Test Case Generator for Phishing Prevention Using Generative Grammars and Discriminative Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palka, Sean

    2015-01-01

    This research details a methodology designed for creating content in support of various phishing prevention tasks including live exercises and detection algorithm research. Our system uses probabilistic context-free grammars (PCFG) and variable interpolation as part of a multi-pass method to create diverse and consistent phishing email content on…

  9. Evans blue as a simple method to discriminate mosquitoes' feeding choice on small laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, Ceres; Fujita, André; Gueroni, Daniele I; Ramos, Anderson D; Capurro, Margareth L; Sá-Nunes, Anderson

    2014-01-01

    Temperature, humidity, vision, and particularly odor, are external cues that play essential roles to mosquito blood feeding and oviposition. Entomological and behavioral studies employ well-established methods to evaluate mosquito attraction or repellency and to identify the source of the blood meal. Despite the efficacy of such methods, the costs involved in the production or acquisition of all parts, components and the chemical reagents involved are unaffordable for most researchers from poor countries. Thus, a simple and relatively low-cost method capable of evaluating mosquito preferences and the blood volume ingested is desirable. By using Evans blue (EB) vital dye and few standard laboratory supplies, we developed and validated a system capable of evaluating mosquito's choice between two different host sources of blood. EB-injected and PBS-injected mice submitted to a number of situations were placed side by side on the top of a rounded recipient covered with tulle fabric and containing Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Homogenates from engorged mosquitoes clearly revealed the blood source (EB- or PBS-injected host), either visually or spectrometrically. This method was able to estimate the number of engorded mosquitoes, the volume of blood ingested, the efficacy of a commercial repellent and the attractant effects of black color and human sweat. Despite the obvious limitations due to its simplicity and to the dependence of a live source of blood, the present method can be used to assess a number of host variables (diet, aging, immunity, etc) and optimized for several aspects of mosquito blood feeding and vector-host interactions. Thus, it is proposed as an alternative to field studies, and it could be used for initial screenings of chemical compound candidates for repellents or attractants, since it replicates natural conditions of exposure to mosquitoes in a laboratory environment.

  10. Evans Blue as a Simple Method to Discriminate Mosquitoes’ Feeding Choice on Small Laboratory Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, Ceres; Fujita, André; Gueroni, Daniele I.; Ramos, Anderson D.; Capurro, Margareth L.; Sá-Nunes, Anderson

    2014-01-01

    Background Temperature, humidity, vision, and particularly odor, are external cues that play essential roles to mosquito blood feeding and oviposition. Entomological and behavioral studies employ well-established methods to evaluate mosquito attraction or repellency and to identify the source of the blood meal. Despite the efficacy of such methods, the costs involved in the production or acquisition of all parts, components and the chemical reagents involved are unaffordable for most researchers from poor countries. Thus, a simple and relatively low-cost method capable of evaluating mosquito preferences and the blood volume ingested is desirable. Principal Findings By using Evans blue (EB) vital dye and few standard laboratory supplies, we developed and validated a system capable of evaluating mosquito’s choice between two different host sources of blood. EB-injected and PBS-injected mice submitted to a number of situations were placed side by side on the top of a rounded recipient covered with tulle fabric and containing Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Homogenates from engorged mosquitoes clearly revealed the blood source (EB- or PBS-injected host), either visually or spectrometrically. This method was able to estimate the number of engorded mosquitoes, the volume of blood ingested, the efficacy of a commercial repellent and the attractant effects of black color and human sweat. Significance Despite the obvious limitations due to its simplicity and to the dependence of a live source of blood, the present method can be used to assess a number of host variables (diet, aging, immunity, etc) and optimized for several aspects of mosquito blood feeding and vector-host interactions. Thus, it is proposed as an alternative to field studies, and it could be used for initial screenings of chemical compound candidates for repellents or attractants, since it replicates natural conditions of exposure to mosquitoes in a laboratory environment. PMID:25333369

  11. Evans blue as a simple method to discriminate mosquitoes' feeding choice on small laboratory animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceres Maciel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Temperature, humidity, vision, and particularly odor, are external cues that play essential roles to mosquito blood feeding and oviposition. Entomological and behavioral studies employ well-established methods to evaluate mosquito attraction or repellency and to identify the source of the blood meal. Despite the efficacy of such methods, the costs involved in the production or acquisition of all parts, components and the chemical reagents involved are unaffordable for most researchers from poor countries. Thus, a simple and relatively low-cost method capable of evaluating mosquito preferences and the blood volume ingested is desirable. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By using Evans blue (EB vital dye and few standard laboratory supplies, we developed and validated a system capable of evaluating mosquito's choice between two different host sources of blood. EB-injected and PBS-injected mice submitted to a number of situations were placed side by side on the top of a rounded recipient covered with tulle fabric and containing Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Homogenates from engorged mosquitoes clearly revealed the blood source (EB- or PBS-injected host, either visually or spectrometrically. This method was able to estimate the number of engorded mosquitoes, the volume of blood ingested, the efficacy of a commercial repellent and the attractant effects of black color and human sweat. SIGNIFICANCE: Despite the obvious limitations due to its simplicity and to the dependence of a live source of blood, the present method can be used to assess a number of host variables (diet, aging, immunity, etc and optimized for several aspects of mosquito blood feeding and vector-host interactions. Thus, it is proposed as an alternative to field studies, and it could be used for initial screenings of chemical compound candidates for repellents or attractants, since it replicates natural conditions of exposure to mosquitoes in a laboratory environment.

  12. Basis material decomposition method for material discrimination with a new spectrometric X-ray imaging detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, A.; Gorecki, A.; Potop, A.; Paulus, C.; Verger, L.

    2017-08-01

    Energy sensitive photon counting X-ray detectors provide energy dependent information which can be exploited for material identification. The attenuation of an X-ray beam as a function of energy depends on the effective atomic number Zeff and the density. However, the measured attenuation is degraded by the imperfections of the detector response such as charge sharing or pile-up. These imperfections lead to non-linearities that limit the benefits of energy resolved imaging. This work aims to implement a basis material decomposition method which overcomes these problems. Basis material decomposition is based on the fact that the attenuation of any material or complex object can be accurately reproduced by a combination of equivalent thicknesses of basis materials. Our method is based on a calibration phase to learn the response of the detector for different combinations of thicknesses of the basis materials. The decomposition algorithm finds the thicknesses of basis material whose spectrum is closest to the measurement, using a maximum likelihood criterion assuming a Poisson law distribution of photon counts for each energy bin. The method was used with a ME100 linear array spectrometric X-ray imager to decompose different plastic materials on a Polyethylene and Polyvinyl Chloride base. The resulting equivalent thicknesses were used to estimate the effective atomic number Zeff. The results are in good agreement with the theoretical Zeff, regardless of the plastic sample thickness. The linear behaviour of the equivalent lengths makes it possible to process overlapped materials. Moreover, the method was tested with a 3 materials base by adding gadolinium, whose K-edge is not taken into account by the other two materials. The proposed method has the advantage that it can be used with any number of energy channels, taking full advantage of the high energy resolution of the ME100 detector. Although in principle two channels are sufficient, experimental measurements show

  13. Numerical Methods in Electromagnetics: Evanescent Nanometry for DNA Sequencing, and EM Induction for UXO Detection and Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijamov, Alex

    The main goals of this work are to extend forward and apply inverse EM numerical methods to enhance the fundamental understanding of ultra-wideband frequency range EM fields in complex geometries. The particular emphases are made on medical device development for whole human genome sequencing using force spectroscopy; and underwater target detection, and live sites UXO discrimination. Force spectroscopy is a powerful technique used to manipulate single biomolecules and study their interactions. In these experiments one end of a macromolecule is immobilized on a substrate, while its free end is attached to an externally-manipulated microscopic bead. Crucial to the application of force spectroscopy to DNA sequencing is the ability to apply pulling forces reaching hundreds of pico-Newtons and image molecular extensions with sub-nanometer resolution. To achieve both goals the behavior of EM fields in the vicinity of the beads and the associated far fields need to be investigated using numerical simulations. In recent years our group has developed a numerical technique---the Method of Auxiliary Sources---which was modified here for these problems. In this work the physics of bead scattering and fluorescent responses is studied for a variety of bead and substrate compositions and geometries, including layered structures, to understand their potential in increasing imaging sensitivity. This thesis also studies the inversion problems related to the underwater UXO detection and live-site UXO discrimination. Rigorous analysis of underlying physics of low-frequency EM field scattering from conducting objects in underwater environments is performed. The effects of seawater surface roughness on transmitted EM signals and the associated noise levels are analyzed. A new, magnetic field-based geolocation system is studied numerically for GPS-denied underwater environments. Finally, the performances of statistical and machine learning methods are analyzed for automatic

  14. New theory of discriminant analysis after R. Fisher advanced research by the feature selection method for microarray data

    CERN Document Server

    Shinmura, Shuichi

    2016-01-01

    This is the first book to compare eight LDFs by different types of datasets, such as Fisher’s iris data, medical data with collinearities, Swiss banknote data that is a linearly separable data (LSD), student pass/fail determination using student attributes, 18 pass/fail determinations using exam scores, Japanese automobile data, and six microarray datasets (the datasets) that are LSD. We developed the 100-fold cross-validation for the small sample method (Method 1) instead of the LOO method. We proposed a simple model selection procedure to choose the best model having minimum M2 and Revised IP-OLDF based on MNM criterion was found to be better than other M2s in the above datasets. We compared two statistical LDFs and six MP-based LDFs. Those were Fisher’s LDF, logistic regression, three SVMs, Revised IP-OLDF, and another two OLDFs. Only a hard-margin SVM (H-SVM) and Revised IP-OLDF could discriminate LSD theoretically (Problem 2). We solved the defect of the generalized inverse matrices (Problem 3). For ...

  15. Improved neutron-gamma discrimination for a 6Li-glass neutron detector using digital signal analysis methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C. L.; Riedel, R. A.

    2016-01-01

    A 6Li-glass scintillator (GS20) based neutron Anger camera was developed for time-of-flight single-crystal diffraction instruments at Spallation Neutron Source. Traditional Pulse-Height Analysis (PHA) for Neutron-Gamma Discrimination (NGD) resulted in the neutron-gamma efficiency ratio (defined as NGD ratio) on the order of 104. The NGD ratios of Anger cameras need to be improved for broader applications including neutron reflectometers. For this purpose, six digital signal analysis methods of individual waveforms acquired from photomultiplier tubes were proposed using (i) charge integration, (ii) pulse-amplitude histograms, (iii) power spectrum analysis combined with the maximum pulse-amplitude, (iv) two event parameters (a1, b0) obtained from a Wiener filter, (v) an effective amplitude (m) obtained from an adaptive least-mean-square filter, and (vi) a cross-correlation coefficient between individual and reference waveforms. The NGD ratios are about 70 times those from the traditional PHA method. Our results indicate the NGD capabilities of neutron Anger cameras based on GS20 scintillators can be significantly improved with digital signal analysis methods.

  16. Improved neutron-gamma discrimination for a {sup 6}Li-glass neutron detector using digital signal analysis methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, C. L., E-mail: wangc@ornl.gov; Riedel, R. A. [Instrument and Source Division, Neutron Sciences Directorate, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    A {sup 6}Li-glass scintillator (GS20) based neutron Anger camera was developed for time-of-flight single-crystal diffraction instruments at Spallation Neutron Source. Traditional Pulse-Height Analysis (PHA) for Neutron-Gamma Discrimination (NGD) resulted in the neutron-gamma efficiency ratio (defined as NGD ratio) on the order of 10{sup 4}. The NGD ratios of Anger cameras need to be improved for broader applications including neutron reflectometers. For this purpose, six digital signal analysis methods of individual waveforms acquired from photomultiplier tubes were proposed using (i) charge integration, (ii) pulse-amplitude histograms, (iii) power spectrum analysis combined with the maximum pulse-amplitude, (iv) two event parameters (a{sub 1}, b{sub 0}) obtained from a Wiener filter, (v) an effective amplitude (m) obtained from an adaptive least-mean-square filter, and (vi) a cross-correlation coefficient between individual and reference waveforms. The NGD ratios are about 70 times those from the traditional PHA method. Our results indicate the NGD capabilities of neutron Anger cameras based on GS20 scintillators can be significantly improved with digital signal analysis methods.

  17. Storage auctions as a touchstone for potentially discriminating access methods; Speicherauktionen als Pruefstein potenziell diskriminierender Zugangsmethoden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuler, B. [Sempra Energy Europe Limited, London (United Kingdom)

    2007-06-15

    The practice of gas storage capacity allocation in Germany is attended by disagreeable circumstances: booked-up storage capacities, impenetrable award methods, discriminatory terms and conditions and uncontrolled access charges. The announcement by E.ON Ruhrgas AG of its intention to initiate a secondary market for storage capacities in order to improve competition in the gas market held out hope for improvement. However there is doubt among brokers as to whether this has been of any avail. The present article casts a critical eye on the staging of an auction in an environment characterised by unregulated storage access.

  18. The Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey. VIII. A Mid-Infrared Kinematic Distance Discrimination Method

    CERN Document Server

    Ellsworth-Bowers, Timothy P; Rosolowsky, Erik; Mairs, Steven; Evans, Neal J; Battersby, Cara; Ginsburg, Adam; Shirley, Yancy L; Bally, John

    2013-01-01

    We present a new distance estimation method for dust-continuum-identified molecular cloud clumps. Recent (sub-)millimeter Galactic plane surveys have cataloged tens of thousands of these objects, but detailed study of their physical properties requires robust distance determinations. We derive Bayesian distance probability density functions (DPDFs) for 770 objects from the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey in the longitude range 7.5 < l < 65. The DPDF formalism is based on kinematic distances, and uses external data sets to place prior distance probabilities to resolve the kinematic distance ambiguity (KDA) for objects in the inner Galaxy. We present priors related to the mid-infrared absorption of dust in dense molecular regions and the Galactic distribution of molecular gas. By assuming a numerical model of Galactic mid-infrared emission and simple radiative transfer, we match the morphology of millimeter thermal dust emission with mid-infrared absorption to compute a prior DPDF for distance discriminatio...

  19. Testing different discrimination methods between microearthquakes and quarry blasts - a case study in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalocsai, Lilla; Kiszely, Márta; Süle, Bálint; Győri, Erzsébet

    2017-04-01

    Due to the development of seismological network, increasing number of events have been detected in the last years in Hungary. However about 50% of these shocks were quarry blasts. Therefore decontamination of catalogue for revealing the reliable natural seismicity has become an important task. We have studied the events occurring in the surroundings of Mecsek Hills. The goal of our research was to find the best method to separate earthquakes and quarry blasts. In the first step we have studied the diurnal distributions of the events. Because of different focal mechanisms, the waveforms and amplitudes of arriving phases of earthquakes and quarry blasts are different. We have tested the most typical parameter, the P and S amplitude ratio, which is often used for separation. The waveform similarities have been analyzed using cross-correlation matrix and dendrograms. The earthquakes and the blasts of different quarries have been arranged into different clusters. We have computed spectrograms and because the blasts were carried out by delay-fired technology we have computed binary spectrograms too. Computation of binary spectra is a useful visualization method to recognize the delay-fired explosions, because it emphasizes the long-duration modulations of the spectra. It is made from the original spectra by application of a filter that replaces the spectral amplitudes with a binary code, which simply reflects the local spectral highs and lows. The modulations were present in most of the spectra of blasts and in contrast to the earthquakes, the modulations have been observable until the end of the spectrogram. We also have studied the scalloping and steepness of the spectra.

  20. A method to discriminate solar and antisolar differential rotation in high-precision light curves

    CERN Document Server

    Reinhold, T

    2015-01-01

    Surface differential rotation (DR) is one major ingredient of the magnetic field generation process in the Sun and likely in other stars. The term solar-like differential rotation describes the observation that solar equatorial regions rotate faster than polar ones. The opposite effect of polar regions rotating faster than equatorial ones (termed as antisolar DR) has only been observed in a few stars, although there is evidence from theoretical dynamo models. We present a new method to detect the sign of DR (i.e. solar-like or antisolar DR) by analyzing long-term high-precision light curves with the Lomb-Scargle periodogram.We compute the Lomb-Scargle periodogram and identify a set of significant periods $P_k$, which we associate with active regions located at different latitudes on the the stellar surface. If detectable, the first harmonics ($P_k'$) of these periods were identified to compute their peak-height-ratios $r_k:=h(P_k')/h(P_k)$. Spots rotating at lower latitudes generate less sine-shaped light cur...

  1. Weak "A" blood subgroup discrimination by a rheo-optical method: a new application of laser backscattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasia, Rodolfo J.; Rasia-Valverde, Juana R.; Stoltz, Jean F.

    1996-01-01

    Laser backscattering is an excellent tool to investigate size and concentration of suspended particles. It was successfully applied to the analysis of erythrocyte aggregation. A method is proposed that applies laser backscattering to the evaluation of the strength of the immunologic erythrocyte agglutination by approaching the energy required for the mechanical dissociation of agglutinates. Mills and Snabre have proposed a theory of laser backscattering for erythrocyte aggregation analysis. It is applied here to analyze the dissociation process of erythrocyte agglutinates performed by imposing a constant shear rate to the agglutinate suspension in a couette viscometer until a dispersion of isolated red cells is attained. Experimental verifications of the method were performed on the erythrocytes of the ABO group reacting against an anti-A test serum in twofold series dilutions. Spent energy is approached by a numerical process carried out on the backscattered intensity data registered during mechanical dissociation. Velocities of agglutination and dissociation lead to the calculation of dissociation parameters These values are used to evaluate the strength of the immunological reaction and to discriminate weak subgroups of ABO system.

  2. A Non-Destructive Distinctive Method for Discrimination of Automobile Lubricant Variety by Visible and Short-Wave Infrared Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong He

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel method which is a combination of wavelet packet transform (WPT, uninformative variable elimination by partial least squares (UVE-PLS and simulated annealing (SA to extract best variance information among different varieties of lubricants is presented. A total of 180 samples (60 for each variety were characterized on the basis of visible and short-wave infrared spectroscopy (VIS-SWNIR, and 90 samples (30 for each variety were randomly selected for the calibration set, whereas, the remaining 90 samples (30 for each variety were used for the validation set. The spectral data was split into different frequency bands by WPT, and different frequency bands were obtained. SA was employed to look for the best variance band (BVB among different varieties of lubricants. In order to improve prediction precision further, BVB was processed by UVE-PLS and the optimal cutoff threshold of UVE was found by SA. Finally, five variables were mined, and were set as inputs for a least square-support vector machine (LS-SVM to build the recognition model. An optimal model with a correlation coefficient (R of 0.9850 and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP of 0.0827 was obtained. The overall results indicated that the method of combining WPT, UVE-PLS and SA was a powerful way to select diagnostic information for discrimination among different varieties of lubricating oil, furthermore, a more parsimonious and efficient LS-SVM model could be obtained.

  3. A Novel Method for the Discrimination of Semen Arecae and Its Processed Products by Using Computer Vision, Electronic Nose, and Electronic Tongue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Areca nut, commonly known locally as Semen Arecae (SA in China, has been used as an important Chinese herbal medicine for thousands of years. The raw SA (RAW is commonly processed by stir-baking to yellow (SBY, stir-baking to dark brown (SBD, and stir-baking to carbon dark (SBC for different clinical uses. In our present investigation, intelligent sensory technologies consisting of computer vision (CV, electronic nose (E-nose, and electronic tongue (E-tongue were employed in order to develop a novel and accurate method for discrimination of SA and its processed products. Firstly, the color parameters and electronic sensory responses of E-nose and E-tongue of the samples were determined, respectively. Then, indicative components including 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (5-HMF and arecoline (ARE were determined by HPLC. Finally, principal component analysis (PCA and discriminant factor analysis (DFA were performed. The results demonstrated that these three instruments can effectively discriminate SA and its processed products. 5-HMF and ARE can reflect the stir-baking degree of SA. Interestingly, the two components showed close correlations to the color parameters and sensory responses of E-nose and E-tongue. In conclusion, this novel method based on CV, E-nose, and E-tongue can be successfully used to discriminate SA and its processed products.

  4. FET frequency discriminator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawhinney, F. D.

    1982-03-01

    The FET Frequency Discriminator is an experimental microwave frequency discriminator developed for use in a specialized set-on VCO frequency memory system. Additional development and evaluation work has been done during this program to more fully determine the applicability of the FET frequency discriminator as a low-cost, expendable receiver front-end for both surveillance and ECM systems. Various methods for adjusting the frequency-to-voltage characteristic of the discriminator as well as the effects of detector characteristics and ambient temperature changes were evaluated. A number of discriminators for use in the 7- to 11-GHz and the 11to 18-GHz bands were fabricated and tested. Interim breadboard and final packaged models were either delivered or installed in developmental frequency systems. The major limitations and deficiencies of the FET frequency discriminator that were reviewed during the program include the effects of temperature, input power level variations, nonlinearity, and component repeatability. Additional effort will be required to advance the developmental status of the FET frequency discriminator to the level necessary for inclusion in low-cost receiver systems, but the basic simplicity of the approach continues to show much promise.

  5. Discriminative detection of low-abundance point mutations using a PCR/ligase detection reaction/capillary gel electrophoresis method and fluorescence dual-channel monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Mariko; Shimase, Koji; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhiko; Hashimoto, Masahiko

    2014-04-01

    We applied a facile LIF dual-channel monitoring system recently developed and reported by our group to the polymerase chain reaction/ligase detection reaction/CGE method for detecting low-abundance point mutations present in a wild-type sequence-dominated population. Mutation discrimination limits and signaling fidelity of the analytical system were evaluated using three mutant variations in codon 12 of the K-ras oncogene that have high diagnostic value for colorectal cancer. We demonstrated the high sensitivity of the present method by detecting rare mutations present among an excess of wild-type alleles (one mutation among ~100 normal sequences). This method also simultaneously interrogated the allelic compositions of the test samples with high specificity through spectral discrimination of the dye-tagged ligase detection reaction products using the dual-channel monitoring system. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. 天然草地分类的 Bayes 判别分析法%Bayes Discriminant Analysis Method of Natural Grassland Classification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文畅平; 白银涌; 曾娟娟; 苏伟

    2016-01-01

    基于多元统计分析理论,综合考虑天然草地的生态状况、可再生产能力和经济条件等因素,选择植被覆盖度、可食风干牧草产量、牧草利用率、草地可利用面积系数、草群中优良牧草比率和羊单位需草地面积6个参数作为判别因子,建立了天然草地分类的 Bayes 判别分析法。将天然草地分为温性荒漠类、温性草原类和低山地草甸类3个类别,并作为 Bayes 判别分析的3个正态总体,以新疆准噶尔盆地西部地区的31个天然草地为样本(其中18个为训练样本),以 Bayes 线性函数值和后验概率对样本所归属的总体进行识别,将建立的模型对训练样本进行回判,以回代误判率对模型进行检验。研究表明,Bayes 判别分析模型可以很好地反映不同类型天然草地间的资源属性,对训练样本的回代误判率为0;对另外13个天然草地样本的分类结果与灰色关联度分析法、投影寻踪法、投影寻踪动态聚类法、集对分析法、SOFM 神经网络法以及突变级数法等的分类结果基本一致。%The ecological situations,reproduction abilities and economic conditions of natural grassland were taken into account synthetically,and six parameters including vegetation coverage,dry edible forage grass production,forage grass utilization rate,available grassland area coefficient,forage grass utilization rate,grassland area for every sheep unit were selected as discrimination factors.Bayes discrimination anal-ysis method for natural grassland classification was put forward based on multivariate statistical analysis theory. The natural grassland was divided into 3 grades,i.e. temperate desert type,temperate steppe type and lowland mountain meadow grassland type,and regarded as three normal populations for Bayes discrimination analysis;18 natural grassland samples from western Junggar Basin,Xinjiang,China,were selected as the training samples to present Bayes linear

  7. Study of n-{\\gamma} discrimination in low energy range (above 40 keVee) by charge comparison method with a BC501A liquid scintillation detector

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yonghao; Zhang, Xiaodong; Lei, Jiarong; An, Li; Shao, Jianxiong; Zheng, Pu; Wang, Xinhua; Zhu, Chuanxin; He, Tie; Yang, Jian

    2013-01-01

    A VME-based experiment system for n-{\\gamma} discrimination using the charge comparison method was established. A data acquisition program for controlling the programmable modules and processing data online via VME64X bus was developed through the use of LabVIEW. The two-dimensional (2D) scatter plots of the charge in the slow component vs. the total charge of recorded pulses from Am-Be and Cf neutron sources were presented. The 2D scatter plots of the energy vs. the ratio of the charge in the slow component to the total charge of the pulses were presented at the meantime. The quality of n-{\\gamma} discrimination was checked by the figure-of-merit, and the results showed good performance of n-{\\gamma} discrimination at low energy range. Neutrons and {\\gamma}-rays were separated above 50 keVee (electron-equivalent energy). The quality of n-{\\gamma} discrimination have been improved compared with others' results at 5 energies (150, 250, 350, 450, 550 keVee).

  8. Discriminant Analysis on Land Grading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yaolin; HOU Yajuan

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes the discriminant analysis on land grading after analyzing the common methods and discussing the Fisher's discriminant in detail. Actually this method deduces the dimension from multi to single, thus it makes the feature vectors in n-dimension change to a scalar, and use this scalar to classify samples. This paper illustrates the result by giving an example of the residential land grading by the discriminant analysis.

  9. Experiences of racism and discrimination among migrant care workers in England: findings from a mixed-methods research project

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, Martin; Hussein, Shereen; Manthorpe, Jill

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Abstract This article reports part of the findings of research undertaken in 2007-09 that aimed to investigate the contribution made by migrant workers to the care workforce in England. The study involved analysis of national statistics on social care and social workers and semi-structured interviews with a wide range of stakeholders, including 96 migrant care workers. The interviews elicited some accounts relating experiences of racism and discrimination from some peo...

  10. Morphological evaluation of common bean diversity in Bosnia and Herzegovina using the discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC multivariate method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grahić Jasmin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze morphological characteristics of locally cultivated common bean landraces from Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H, thirteen quantitative and qualitative traits of 40 P. vulgaris accessions, collected from four geographical regions (Northwest B&H, Northeast B&H, Central B&H and Sarajevo and maintained at the Gene bank of the Faculty of Agriculture and Food Sciences in Sarajevo, were examined. Principal component analysis (PCA showed that the proportion of variance retained in the first two principal components was 54.35%. The first principal component had high contributing factor loadings from seed width, seed height and seed weight, whilst the second principal component had high contributing factor loadings from the analyzed traits seed per pod and pod length. PCA plot, based on the first two principal components, displayed a high level of variability among the analyzed material. The discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC created 3 discriminant functions (DF, whereby the first two discriminant functions accounted for 90.4% of the variance retained. Based on the retained DFs, DAPC provided group membership probabilities which showed that 70% of the accessions examined were correctly classified between the geographically defined groups. Based on the taxonomic distance, 40 common bean accessions analyzed in this study formed two major clusters, whereas two accessions Acc304 and Acc307 didn’t group in any of those. Acc360 and Acc362, as well as Acc324 and Acc371 displayed a high level of similarity and are probably the same landrace. The present diversity of Bosnia and Herzegovina’s common been landraces could be useful in future breeding programs.

  11. A discrimination task used as a novel method of testing decision-making behavior following traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Kris M; Vonder Haar, Cole; Hutsell, Blake A; Hoane, Michael R

    2012-10-10

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in a multitude of deficits following injury. Some of the most pervasive in humans are the changes that affect frontally-mediated cognitive functioning, such as decision making. The assessment of decision-making behavior in rodents has been extensively tested in the field of the experimental analysis of behavior. However, due to the narrow therapeutic window following TBI, time-intensive operant paradigms are rarely incorporated into the battery of tests traditionally used, the majority of which assess motor and sensory functioning. The cognitive measures that are used are frequently limited to memory and do not account for changes in decision-making behavior. The purpose of the present study was to develop a simplified discrimination task that can assess deficits in decision-making behavior in rodents. For the task, rats were required to dig in cocoa-scented sand (versus unscented sand) for a reinforcer. Rats were given 12 sessions per day until a criterion level of 80% accuracy for 3 days straight was reached. Once the criterion was achieved, cortical contusion injuries were induced (frontal, parietal, or sham). Following a recovery period, the rats were re-tested on cocoa versus unscented sand. Upon reaching criterion, a reversal discrimination was evaluated in which the reinforcer was placed in unscented sand. Finally, a novel scent discrimination (basil versus coffee with basil reinforced), and a reversal (coffee) were evaluated. The results indicated that the Dig task is a simple experimental preparation that can be used to assess deficits in decision-making behavior following TBI.

  12. Quantity discrimination in Tenebrio molitor: evidence of numerosity discrimination in an invertebrate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carazo, P; Font, E; Forteza-Behrendt, E; Desfilis, E

    2009-05-01

    Numerosity discrimination, the ability to distinguish between sets with more and less items, is recognised as the foundation for higher numerical abilities. Understanding numerosity discrimination from a comparative perspective is hence pivotal in tracing the evolution of numerical representation systems. However, numerosity discrimination has been well studied only in vertebrates, where two innate systems of number representation have been described: an 'analog magnitude system' used to discriminate among numerosities by representing them as cardinal magnitudes and a 'parallel individualisation system' that allows precise discrimination among small arrays of items (Tenebrio molitor) by using a spontaneous two-choice procedure in which males were exposed to substrates bearing odours from different numbers of females (molitor males exhibit a marked preference for sources reflecting more female donors only when numerosity ratios are below 1:2. We discuss the functional significance of this finding and whether our pattern of results could be best explained by summation of a non-numerical continuous variable or by the existence of a numerosity discrimination mechanism with an operational signature ratio of 1:2.

  13. Variable Selection in Discriminant Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huberty, Carl J.; Mourad, Salah A.

    Methods for ordering and selecting variables for discriminant analysis in multiple group comparison or group prediction studies include: univariate Fs, stepwise analysis, learning discriminant function (LDF) variable correlations, communalities, LDF standardized coefficients, and weighted standardized coefficients. Five indices based on distance,…

  14. Variable Selection in Discriminant Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huberty, Carl J.; Mourad, Salah A.

    Methods for ordering and selecting variables for discriminant analysis in multiple group comparison or group prediction studies include: univariate Fs, stepwise analysis, learning discriminant function (LDF) variable correlations, communalities, LDF standardized coefficients, and weighted standardized coefficients. Five indices based on distance,…

  15. Discrimination of membrane transporter protein types using K-nearest neighbor method derived from the similarity distance of total diversity measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Yong-Chun; Su, Wen-Xia; Zhang, Shi-Hua; Wang, Shan-Shan; Wu, Cheng-Yan; Yang, Lei; Li, Guang-Peng

    2015-03-01

    Membrane transporters play crucial roles in the fundamental cellular processes of living organisms. Computational techniques are very necessary to annotate the transporter functions. In this study, a multi-class K nearest neighbor classifier based on the increment of diversity (KNN-ID) was developed to discriminate the membrane transporter types when the increment of diversity (ID) was introduced as one of the novel similarity distances. Comparisons with multiple recently published methods showed that the proposed KNN-ID method outperformed the other methods, obtaining more than 20% improvement for overall accuracy. The overall prediction accuracy reached was 83.1%, when the K was selected as 2. The prediction sensitivity achieved 76.7%, 89.1%, 80.1% for channels/pores, electrochemical potential-driven transporters, primary active transporters, respectively. Discrimination and comparison between any two different classes of transporters further demonstrated that the proposed method is a potential classifier and will play a complementary role for facilitating the functional assignment of transporters.

  16. Detecting categorical perception in continuous discrimination data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, P.; Chládková, K.

    2010-01-01

    We present a method for assessing categorical perception from continuous discrimination data. Until recently, categorical perception of speech has exclusively been measured by discrimination and identification experiments with a small number of repeatedly presented stimuli. Experiments by Rogers and

  17. Color measurement and discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandell, B. A.

    1985-01-01

    Theories of color measurement attempt to provide a quantative means for predicting whether two lights will be discriminable to an average observer. All color measurement theories can be characterized as follows: suppose lights a and b evoke responses from three color channels characterized as vectors, v(a) and v(b); the vector difference v(a) - v(b) corresponds to a set of channel responses that would be generated by some real light, call it *. According to theory a and b will be discriminable when * is detectable. A detailed development and test of the classic color measurement approach are reported. In the absence of a luminance component in the test stimuli, a and b, the theory holds well. In the presence of a luminance component, the theory is clearly false. When a luminance component is present discrimination judgements depend largely on whether the lights being discriminated fall in separate, categorical regions of color space. The results suggest that sensory estimation of surface color uses different methods, and the choice of method depends upon properties of the image. When there is significant luminance variation a categorical method is used, while in the absence of significant luminance variation judgments are continuous and consistant with the measurement approach.

  18. A new method of discriminating different types of post-Archean ophiolitic basalts and their tectonic significance using Th-Nb and Ce-Dy-Yb systematics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emilio Saccani

    2015-01-01

    -derived components (nascent forearc sub-settings) characterized by MTBs and depleted-MORBs. Two additional discrimination diagrams are proposed: (1) a Dy-Yb diagram is used for discriminating boninite and IAT basalts; (2) a Ce/Yb-Dy/Yb diagram is used for discriminating G-MORBs and normal MORBs. The proposed method may effec-tively assist in recovering the tectonic affinity of ancient ophiolites, which is fundamental for establishing the geodynamic evolution of ancient oceanic and continental domains, as well as orogenic belts.

  19. A new method of discriminating different types of post-Archean ophiolitic basalts and their tectonic significance using Th-Nb and Ce-Dy-Yb systematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Saccani

    2015-07-01

    -derived components (nascent forearc sub-settings characterized by MTBs and depleted-MORBs. Two additional discrimination diagrams are proposed: (1 a Dy-Yb diagram is used for discriminating boninite and IAT basalts; (2 a Ce/Yb-Dy/Yb diagram is used for discriminating G-MORBs and normal MORBs. The proposed method may effectively assist in recovering the tectonic affinity of ancient ophiolites, which is fundamental for establishing the geodynamic evolution of ancient oceanic and continental domains, as well as orogenic belts.

  20. Discrimination of Escherichia coli O157, O26 and O111 from other serovars by MALDI-TOF MS based on the S10-GERMS method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojima-Kato, Teruyo; Yamamoto, Naomi; Suzuki, Mayumi; Fukunaga, Tomohiro; Tamura, Hiroto

    2014-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), causes a potentially life-threatening infection in humans worldwide. Serovar O157:H7, and to a lesser extent serovars O26 and O111, are the most commonly reported EHEC serovars responsible for a large number of outbreaks. We have established a rapid discrimination method for E. coli serovars O157, O26 and O111 from other E. coli serovars, based on the pattern matching of mass spectrometry (MS) differences and the presence/absence of biomarker proteins detected in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight MS (MALDI-TOF MS). Three biomarkers, ribosomal proteins S15 and L25, and acid stress chaperone HdeB, with MS m/z peaks at 10138.6/10166.6, 10676.4/10694.4 and 9066.2, respectively, were identified as effective biomarkers for O157 discrimination. To distinguish serovars O26 and O111 from the others, DNA-binding protein H-NS, with an MS peak at m/z 15409.4/15425.4 was identified. Sequence analysis of the O157 biomarkers revealed that amino acid changes: Q80R in S15, M50I in L25 and one mutation within the start codon ATG to ATA in the encoded HdeB protein, contributed to the specific peak pattern in O157. We demonstrated semi-automated pattern matching using these biomarkers and successfully discriminated total 57 O157 strains, 20 O26 strains and 6 O111 strains with 100% reliability by conventional MALDI-TOF MS analysis, regardless of the sample conditions. Our simple strategy, based on the S10-spc-alpha operon gene-encoded ribosomal protein mass spectrum (S10-GERMS) method, therefore allows for the rapid and reliable detection of this pathogen and may prove to be an invaluable tool both clinically and in the food industry.

  1. The application of discriminant analysis and Machine Learning methods as tools to identify and classify compounds with potential as transdermal enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, G P; Shah, A J; Adams, R G; Davey, N; Wilkinson, S C; Pugh, W J; Sun, Y

    2012-01-23

    Discriminant analysis (DA) has previously been shown to allow the proposal of simple guidelines for the classification of 73 chemical enhancers of percutaneous absorption. Pugh et al. employed DA to classify such enhancers into simple categories, based on the physicochemical properties of the enhancer molecules (Pugh et al., 2005). While this approach provided a reasonable accuracy of classification it was unable to provide a consistently reliable estimate of enhancement ratio (ER, defined as the amount of hydrocortisone transferred after 24h, relative to control). Machine Learning methods, including Gaussian process (GP) regression, have recently been employed in the prediction of percutaneous absorption of exogenous chemicals (Moss et al., 2009; Lam et al., 2010; Sun et al., 2011). They have shown that they provide more accurate predictions of these phenomena. In this study several Machine Learning methods, including the K-nearest-neighbour (KNN) regression, single layer networks, radial basis function networks and the SVM classifier were applied to an enhancer dataset reported previously. The SMOTE sampling method was used to oversample chemical compounds with ER>10 in each training set in order to improve estimation of GP and KNN. Results show that models using five physicochemical descriptors exhibit better performance than those with three features. The best classification result was obtained by using the SVM method without dealing with imbalanced data. Following over-sampling, GP gives the best result. It correctly assigned 8 of the 12 "good" (ER>10) enhancers and 56 of the 59 "poor" enhancers (ERMachine Learning methods are that they can provide more accurate classification of enhancer type with fewer false-positive results and that, unlike discriminant analysis, they are able to make predictions of enhancer ability.

  2. 关于整系数多项式无有理根的一个判别法的注记%A note about the discriminating method of integer coefficients polynomial without rational root

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗永超

    2011-01-01

    对整系数多项式无有理根的一个判别法一文中的条件进行分类讨论,得到几类不可约多项式的判别法,较好地推广了Eisenstein判别法.%The paper researched the conditions of integer coefficients polynomial and obtained some discriminating methods of irreducible polynomial, which well extended the Eisenstein discrimination.

  3. Fighting discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wientjens, Wim; Cairns, Douglas

    2012-10-01

    In the fight against discrimination, the IDF launched the first ever International Charter of Rights and Responsibilities of People with Diabetes in 2011: a balance between rights and duties to optimize health and quality of life, to enable as normal a life as possible and to reduce/eliminate the barriers which deny realization of full potential as members of society. It is extremely frustrating to suffer blanket bans and many examples exist, including insurance, driving licenses, getting a job, keeping a job and family affairs. In this article, an example is given of how pilots with insulin treated diabetes are allowed to fly by taking the responsibility of using special blood glucose monitoring protocols. At this time the systems in the countries allowing flying for pilots with insulin treated diabetes are applauded, particularly the USA for private flying, and Canada for commercial flying. Encouraging developments may be underway in the UK for commercial flying and, if this materializes, could be used as an example for other aviation authorities to help adopt similar protocols. However, new restrictions implemented by the new European Aviation Authority take existing privileges away for National Private Pilot Licence holders with insulin treated diabetes in the UK.

  4. The potential of discrimination methods in a high pressure xenon TPC for the search of the neutrinoless double-beta decay of Xe-136

    CERN Document Server

    Iguaz, F J; Castel, J F; Cebrian, S; Dafni, T; Galan, J; Garza, J G; Irastorza, I G; Luzon, G; Mirallas, H; Ruiz-Choliz, E

    2016-01-01

    In the search for the neutrinoless double beta decay of $^{136}$Xe, a high pressure xenon time projection chamber (HPXe-TPC) has two advantages over liquid xenon TPCs: a better energy resolution and the access to topological features, which may provide extra discrimination from background events. The PandaX-III experiment has recently proposed a 200 kg HPXe-TPC based on Micromegas readout planes, to be located at the Jinping Underground Laboratory in China. Its detection concept is based on two results obtained within the T-REX project: Micromegas readouts can be built with extremely low levels of radioactivity; and the operation in xenon-trimethylamine at 10 bar in realistic experimental conditions has proven an energy resolution of 3% FWHM at the region of interest. In this work, two discrimination methods are applied to simulated signal and background data in a generic 200 kg HPXe-TPC, based on two well-known algorithms of graph theory: the identification of connections and the search for the longest path....

  5. 基于二部制的价格歧视方法%Price Discrimination Method Based on Two-parts Tariff

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭云飞

    2012-01-01

    产品实施价格二部制的企业大量采用二级价格歧视、三级价格歧视方法外,还存在混合价格歧视.研究表明:企业收益最大化目标下实施这些价格歧视方法时,固定价格和从量价格的需求弹性、用户数、单位时间里的收益以及用户区间、资费区间分别需要满足不同的条件.这些结论为企业实施二部价格歧视提供了理论依据和决策参考.%Second-degree and third-degree price discriminaions are widely adopted in he product pricing. Research shows: under the constraints of income maximization, some con-ditions for the fixed fee of service packages and the demand elasticity of the quantity rate of bundled services, the number of users, the income per unit time, the users; and price's intervals should be meet in order to implement these price discrimination decision-making methods. These conclusions provide the theoretical and decision-making bases when the enterprises carry out two parts price discrimination

  6. Discrimination of type 2 diabetes mellitus corresponding to different traditional Chinese medicine syndromes based on plasma fatty acid profiles and chemometric methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenjuan; Zhang, Liangxiao; Huang, Yuhong; Yang, Qianxu; Xiao, Hongbin; Zhang, Deqin

    2012-09-28

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has a long history and particular advantages in the diagnosis and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Syndrome differentiation is the foundation and essence of TCM theories. The aims of the study are to discriminate T2DM corresponding to different syndromes (Qi-deficiency, Qi and Yin-deficiency and Damp heat) and discover syndrome-related biomarkers using metabolomics technology. Plasma fatty acid profiles of 85 clinical samples were established by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Moreover, some of the lipid parameters, including total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL), were obtained through clinical testing methods. Orthogonal signal correction-partial least squares (OSC-PLS) and uncorrelated linear discriminant analysis (ULDA) were employed to establish two-class models for three different syndromes. Compared with the plasma fatty acid profiles of healthy controls, the characteristic fatty acids of three TCM syndromes were discovered (pdiabetes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The potential of discrimination methods in a high pressure xenon TPC for the search of the neutrinoless double-beta decay of Xe-136

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iguaz, F. J.; Aznar, F.; Castel, J. F.; Cebrián, S.; Dafni, T.; Galán, J.; Garza, J. G.; Irastorza, I. G.; Luzón, G.; Mirallas, H.; Ruiz-Choliz, E.

    2017-09-01

    In the search for the neutrinoless double beta decay of 136Xe, a high pressure xenon time projection chamber (HPXe-TPC) has two advantages over liquid xenon TPCs: a better energy resolution and the access to topological features, which may provide extra discrimination from background events. The PandaX-III experiment has recently proposed a 200 kg HPXe-TPC based on Micromegas readout planes, to be located at the Jinping Underground Laboratory in China. Its detection concept is based on two results obtained within the T-REX project: Micromegas readouts can be built with extremely low levels of radioactivity; and the operation in xenon-trimethylamine at 10 bar in realistic experimental conditions has proven an energy resolution of 3% FWHM at the region of interest. In this work, two discrimination methods are applied to simulated signal and background data in a generic 200 kg HPXe-TPC, based on two well-known algorithms of graph theory: the identification of connections and the search for the longest path. Rejection factors greater than 100 are obtained for small pixel sizes and a signal efficiency of 40%. Moreover, a new observable (the blob charge density) rejects better surface contaminations, which makes the use of a trigger signal (T 0) not imperative in this experiment.

  8. Discrimination Method of Glyphosate-potassium AS by Ion Chromatography%离子色谱法鉴别检测草甘膦钾盐水剂

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包素萍; 顾爱国; 王莉; 武中平; 朱利利; 曹磊

    2015-01-01

    The discrimination method of glyphosate-potassium AS was established by Ion Chromatography (IC) using 5 mmol/L methanesulfonic acid aqueous solution as the mobile phase,CS 12A ion column (including CG 12A guard column) and conductivity detector. The results showed that the linear correlation coefficient of the method was 0.9999, the standard deviation was less than 0.1, the coefficient of variation was less than 1.0%, the average recovery was 100.65%. The method was precise, accurate and simple, could be used to discriminate the active ingredient in glyphosate- potassium AS.%建立草甘膦钾盐水剂的鉴别检测方法。以5 mmol/L甲磺酸水溶液为流动相,采用CS 12A离子色谱柱(含CG 12A保护柱)以及电导检测器对草甘膦钾盐水剂中的钾离子进行鉴别检测。结果表明:方法线性相关系数为0.9999,标准偏差小于0.1,变异系数小于1.0%,平均回收率为100.65%。该方法能够用于鉴别检测草甘膦钾盐水剂的有效成分。

  9. Discrimination and Anti-discrimination in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tore Vincents

    The purpose of this report is to describe and analyse Danish anti-discrimination legislation and the debate about discrimination in Denmark in order to identify present and future legal challenges. The main focus is the implementation of the EU anti-discrimination directives in Danish law...

  10. Discrimination and Anti-discrimination in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tore Vincents

    The purpose of this report is to describe and analyse Danish anti-discrimination legislation and the debate about discrimination in Denmark in order to identify present and future legal challenges. The main focus is the implementation of the EU anti-discrimination directives in Danish law...

  11. The effect of stimulus height on visual discrimination in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, C A; Cassaday, H J; Derrington, A M

    2003-07-01

    This study investigated the effect of stimulus height on the ability of horses to learn a simple visual discrimination task. Eight horses were trained to perform a two-choice, black/white discrimination with stimuli presented at one of two heights: ground level or at a height of 70 cm from the ground. The height at which the stimuli were presented was alternated from one session to the next. All trials within a single session were presented at the same height. The criterion for learning was four consecutive sessions of 70% correct responses. Performance was found to be better when stimuli were presented at ground level with respect to the number of trials taken to reach the criterion (P discrimination could be enhanced by placing the stimuli on the ground. In addition, the results of the present study suggest that the visual appearance of ground surfaces is an important factor in both horse management and training.

  12. Study on China' s Economic and Social Development Level Based on Distance Discriminating Method%基于距离判别法的中国经济社会发展水平研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晋燕

    2012-01-01

    Distance discriminating method in multivariate statistics is used to study economic and social development level of part of provinces and municipalities of China. According to statistic data in 2011 China Human Development Index Report, ten provinces and municipality are discriminated by distance discriminating method, discriminating function is obtained, then six provinces and municipality are chosen to make discriminating analysis, and discriminating classification completely fits for statistic materials, which is helpful to evaluate the development level of other provinces.%运用多元统计中的距离判别法,对中国部分省市经济社会发展水平进行了研究,根据2011年中国人类发展指数报告的统计数据,先对10个省市进行距离判别法判别,得出了判别函数,然后选取6个省市进行判别分析,判别归类与原统计资料完全吻合,有利于对其他省份发展水平鉴定工作的展开。

  13. Fast method for multielemental analysis of plants and discrimination according to the anatomical part by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Calle, Inmaculada; Costas, Marta; Cabaleiro, Noelia; Lavilla, Isela; Bendicho, Carlos

    2013-05-01

    Fast and reliable analytical methodologies are required for quality control of plants in order to assure human health. Ultrasound-assisted extraction in combination with total reflection X-ray fluorescence is proposed as a fast and simple method for multielemental analysis of plants on a routine basis. For this purpose, five certified reference materials have been analysed for the determination of P, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb. Different extractant media (acids and oxidants) were tried. A mixture of diluted HNO(3)+HCl+HF, was selected as the best option for the achievement of complete extractions. Accurate and precise results can be reached in most cases along with a high sample throughput. Different plants (i.e., herbs, spices and medicinal plants) were analysed. Linear discriminant analysis together with the elemental concentrations allowed the differentiation of commercial preparations corresponding to flower, fruit and leaf.

  14. Identification of indicator components for the discrimination of Cassia plants in health teas and development of analytical method for the components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Mitsuko; Sakurai, Katsumi; Fujii, Hisashi; Saito, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Components that could be used as indicators for the discrimination of senna (Cassia angustifolia) from other cassia plants contained in health teas were identified, and an analytical method for the components was developed. Our results revealed two components in senna that were not found in other Cassia spp. widely used in health teas, such as C. alata, C. corymbosa, C. obtusifolia, and C. occidentalis. Structural elucidation of the two components showed that they were isorhamnetin-3-O-gentiobioside and tinnevellin glucoside. We analyzed commercial health teas using the HPLC method developed in this study. The two indicator components were detected at 366 nm using an RP C18 column and gradient elution with a mixture of water and acetonitrile (with formic acid), as the mobile phase. Our analytical method by HPLC enabled the differentiation of senna from other Cassia plants present in health teas in which sennosides A and B were detected. Moreover, this method allowed us to predict the parts of senna in health teas from the amounts of isorhamnetin-3-O-gentiobioside and tinnevellin glucoside contained in the teas.

  15. Validation of a new background discrimination method for the TACTIC TeV $\\gamma$-ray telescope with Markarian 421 data

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Mradul; Koul, M K; Bose, S; Mitra, Abhas; Dhar, V K; Tickoo, A K; Koul, R

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the validation of a new background discrimination method based on Random Forest technique by re-analysing the Markarian 421 (Mrk 421) observations performed by the TACTIC (TeV Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescope with Imaging Camera) gamma-ray telescope. The Random Forest technique is a flexible multivariate method which combines Bagging and Random Split Selection to construct a large collection of decision trees and then combines them to construct a common classifier. Markarian 421 in a high state was observed by TACTIC during December 07, 2005 - April 30, 2006 for 202 h. Previous analysis of this data led to a detection of flaring activity from the source at Energy $ >$ 1 TeV. Within this data set, a spell of 97 h revealed strong detection of a gamma-ray signal with daily flux of > 1 Crab unit on several days. Here we re-analyze this spell as well as the data from the entire observation period with the Random Forest method. Application of this method led to an improvement in the signal detec...

  16. Comparison of charged particle identification using pulse shape discrimination and ΔE−E methods between front and rear side injection in silicon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Neindre, N., E-mail: leneindre@lpccaen.in2p3.fr [LPC, IN2P3-CNRS, ENSICAEN et Université de Caen, F-14050 Caen Cedex (France); Bougault, R. [LPC, IN2P3-CNRS, ENSICAEN et Université de Caen, F-14050 Caen Cedex (France); Barlini, S. [INFN e Università di Firenze, via G.Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy); Bonnet, E. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, B.P. 5027, F-14076 Caen Cedex (France); Borderie, B. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, CNRS/IN2P3, Université Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Casini, G. [INFN sezione di Firenze, via G.Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy); Chbihi, A. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, B.P. 5027, F-14076 Caen Cedex (France); Edelbruck, P. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, CNRS/IN2P3, Université Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Frankland, J.D.; Gruyer, D. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, B.P. 5027, F-14076 Caen Cedex (France); Legouée, E.; Lopez, O. [LPC, IN2P3-CNRS, ENSICAEN et Université de Caen, F-14050 Caen Cedex (France); Marini, P. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, B.P. 5027, F-14076 Caen Cedex (France); Pârlog, M. [LPC, IN2P3-CNRS, ENSICAEN et Université de Caen, F-14050 Caen Cedex (France); Horia Hulubei, National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, RO-077125 Bucharest-Măgurele (Romania); Pasquali, G. [INFN e Università di Firenze, via G.Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy); Petcu, M. [Horia Hulubei, National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, RO-077125 Bucharest-Măgurele (Romania); and others

    2013-02-11

    The response of silicon–silicon–CsI(Tl) telescopes, developed within the FAZIA collaboration, to fragments produced in nuclear reactions {sup 84}Kr+{sup 120-124}Sn at 35 A MeV, has been used to study ion identification methods. Two techniques are considered for the identification of the nuclear products in the silicon stages. The standard ΔE−E one requires signals induced in two detection layers by ions punching through the first one. Conversely, the digital Pulse Shape Analysis (PSA) allows the identification of ions stopped in the first silicon layer. The capabilities of these two identification methods have been compared for different mountings of the silicons, i.e. rear (particles entering through the low electric field side) or front (particles entering through the high electric field side) side injection. The ΔE−E identification method gives exactly the same results in both configurations. At variance, the pulse shape discrimination is very sensitive to the detector mounting. In case of rear side injection, the identification with the “energy vs. charge rise time” PSA method presents energy thresholds which are significantly lower than in the case of front side injection.

  17. Comparison of charged particle identification using pulse shape discrimination and ΔE-E methods between front and rear side injection in silicon detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Neindre, N.; Bougault, R.; Barlini, S.; Bonnet, E.; Borderie, B.; Casini, G.; Chbihi, A.; Edelbruck, P.; Frankland, J. D.; Gruyer, D.; Legouée, E.; Lopez, O.; Marini, P.; Pârlog, M.; Pasquali, G.; Petcu, M.; Rivet, M. F.; Salomon, F.; Vient, E.; Alba, R.; Baiocco, G.; Bardelli, L.; Bini, M.; Borcea, R.; Bruno, M.; Carboni, S.; Cinausero, M.; Cruceru, I.; Degerlier, M.; Dueñas, J. A.; GaŞior, K.; Gramegna, F.; Grzeszczuk, A.; Kamuda, M.; Kozik, T.; Kravchuk, V.; Lombardo, I.; Maiolino, C.; Marchi, T.; Morelli, L.; Negoita, F.; Olmi, A.; Petrascu, H.; Piantelli, S.; Poggi, G.; Rosato, E.; Santonocito, D.; Spadaccini, G.; Stefanini, A. A.; Twaróg, T.; Vigilante, M.; Fazia Collaboration

    2013-02-01

    The response of silicon-silicon-CsI(Tl) telescopes, developed within the FAZIA collaboration, to fragments produced in nuclear reactions 84Kr+120-124Sn at 35 A MeV, has been used to study ion identification methods. Two techniques are considered for the identification of the nuclear products in the silicon stages. The standard ΔE-E one requires signals induced in two detection layers by ions punching through the first one. Conversely, the digital Pulse Shape Analysis (PSA) allows the identification of ions stopped in the first silicon layer. The capabilities of these two identification methods have been compared for different mountings of the silicons, i.e. rear (particles entering through the low electric field side) or front (particles entering through the high electric field side) side injection. The ΔE-E identification method gives exactly the same results in both configurations. At variance, the pulse shape discrimination is very sensitive to the detector mounting. In case of rear side injection, the identification with the “energy vs. charge rise time” PSA method presents energy thresholds which are significantly lower than in the case of front side injection.

  18. A Validated Spectral Discriminating Derivative Spectrophotometric Method for Simultaneous Quantification of Atorvastatin calcium and Fenofibrate Combination in Tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panikumar D Anumolu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and specific second-order-derivative spectorophotometric method has been developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of atorvastatin calcium (ATV and fenofibrate (FEN in tablet dosage forms. ATV was determined at a wavelength of 281 nm (zero-crossing wavelength point of FEN. Similarly, FEN was measured at 296 nm (zero-crossing wavelength point of ATV in phosphate buffer, pH 2.8 as solvent. The second derivative amplitude-concentration plots were rectilinear over the range of 2-12 µg/mL for ATV and 1-30 µg/mL for FEN. The % assay in commercial formulation was found to be in the range 98.8 – 102.5 for ATV and 99.6 – 100.25 for FEN by the proposed method. The method was validated as per ICH guidelines. The proposed method can be effectively applied for routine analysis of ATV and FEN in tablets

  19. Study on natural gas interchangeability discriminant method%天然气互换性判别方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周理; 郭开华; 皇甫立霞; 高文学; 许文晓

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviewed the research progress of natural gas interchangeability in Euro-pean and American countries and regions ,and summarized that the commonly used gas inter-changeability methods in the world ,which are AGA Bulletin 36 method ,Weaver indices method in US ,Delbourg method in France ,Dutton Diagram method in UK ,ect .These methods are all developed for atmospheric combustion ,with respective applicability and limitation .In China ,the town gas was categorized and defined by composition according to France Delbourg interchangea-bility method in 1982 .The paper also summarized the research and progress on gas interchangea-bility in recent years in China ,and indicated that with the diversification of the fuel gas terminal equipments ,the desirable and scientific gas interchangeability indices and gas distribution control parameters could be studied and chosen according to the specific gas combustion equipment ,and based on the difference of mixed modes of gas and air w hen burning .%综述了欧美等国家和地区在天然气互换性方面的研究进展,归纳、总结和评述了现在国际上应用较多的天然气互换性判别法,分别是美国的AGA 36号公告方法、韦弗指数法,法国德尔布互换法、英国的达顿互换性判别方法等,这些方法都是针对大气式燃烧方式提出的,具备各自的适用性和限制性。我国于1982年借鉴了法国德尔布互换性法,针对我国城镇燃气进行了分类和组分定义。对近年来我国在燃气互换性方面的研究和进展进行了总结,指出随着燃气利用终端设备的多样化,要根据具体燃气燃烧利用设备,基于设备燃烧时燃气和空气混合方式的不同,研究选取适应要求的、科学的燃气互换性指标和配气控制参数。

  20. The determination of biurea: A novel method to discriminate between nitrofurazone and azodicarbonamide use in food products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulder, P.P.J. [RIKILT-Institute of Food Safety, Bornsesteeg 45, Wageningen (Netherlands)]. E-mail: Patrick.Mulder@wur.nl; Beumer, B. [RIKILT-Institute of Food Safety, Bornsesteeg 45, Wageningen (Netherlands); Rhijn, J.A. van [RIKILT-Institute of Food Safety, Bornsesteeg 45, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2007-03-14

    Recently doubts have arisen on the usefulness of semicarbazide as marker residue for the illegal use of the antibiotic nitrofurazone (NFZ) in aquaculture and poultry production. Most notably azodicarbonamide (ADC) has been implicated as an alternative source of semicarbazide. ADC is used in some countries as a dough conditioner at concentrations up to 45 mg kg{sup -1}. The use of ADC-treated flour or dough in coated or breaded food products may generate false non-compliant results in the analytical method for nitrofurazone metabolites, which is currently in use. During the dough preparation process ADC is largely reduced to biurea, which can be considered as an appropriate marker residue of ADC. Thus far no methods have been published for the determination of biurea in food commodities. Due to its polar nature it is very difficult to generate sufficient retention on conventional C{sub 18} HPLC columns. With a TSK amide HILIC type column good retention was obtained. A straightforward extraction-dilution protocol was developed. Using a mixture of dimethyl formamide and water biurea was nearly quantitatively extracted from a variety of fresh, coated and processed products. Mass spectrometric detection was performed with positive electrospray ionisation. The sensitivity and selectivity of the mass spectrometer for biurea was very good, allowing detection at concentrations as low as 10 {mu}g kg{sup -1}. However, in some extracts severe ion suppression effects was observed. To overcome the implications of ion suppression on the quantitative performance of the method an isotopically-labelled biurea internal standard was synthesized and incorporated in the method. The method developed can be used effectively in nitrofurazone analysis to eliminate the risk of false non-compliant results due to the presence of azodicarbonamide-treated components in the food product.

  1. 判别函数在同胞鉴定中的应用%The application of discriminant functions method in full sibling and half sibling identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈子翔; 王福振; 陆惠玲; 章雅清

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the application of discriminant functions method in full sibling and half sibling identification. Methods 360, 90 and 360 pairs of full siblings ( FS ) , half siblings ( HS ) and unrelated individuals ( UR) were genotyped by PowerPlexTM 16 system. The locus numbers of no-allele sharing( X0), halfallele sharing (X1) and two-alleles sharing ( X2) were calculated, respectively. The relationship judgments of the investigated full siblings, half siblings or unrelated individuals depended on the calculation results of the discriminant functions published in our previous. Results The accuracy of these discriminant iunctions ranged from 83. 06% to 98. 61 % , with the highest one in full sibship-unrelated individual groups. Conclusion It is showed that the studied discriminant functions, especially those for full siblings-unrelated individuals, are effective in sibling identification with comparatively high accuracy.%目的 探讨判别函数法在全同胞与半同胞鉴定中的应用价值.方法 根据360对全同胞、90对半同胞及360对无关个体的15个STR基因座分型结果,计算全不同(X0)、半相同(X1)和完全相同(X2)的基因座数目,分别根据DFS1=3.898X0+3.973X1 - 19.481,DHS1=5.687X0+5.300X1 -35.112及DR1=7.309X0+5.533X1 - 44.941的全同胞/半同胞/无关个体判别函数、DFS2 =3.872X0 +3.931X1 - 18.895及DR2 =7.303X0 +5.473X1-44.298全同胞/无关个体判别函数和DHS3=10.227X0+10.436X1 -66.102及DR3=11.863X0+ 11.089X1 -79.494半同胞/无关个体判别函数进行判别.结果 判别准确率:①用全同胞/半同胞/无关个体判别函数,全同胞组为83.61%,半同胞组为81.11%,无关个体组为83.06%;②用全同胞/无关个体判别函数,全同胞组为96.39%,无关个体组为98.61%;③用半同胞/无关个体判别函数,半同胞组为88.89%,无关个体组为85.00%.结论 本文3种判别函数可应用于同胞鉴定,尤其运用全同胞/无关个体判别函数判断

  2. A method of discriminating transuranic radionuclides from radon progeny using low-resolution alpha spectroscopy and curve-fitting techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konzen, Kevin; Brey, Richard

    2012-05-01

    ²²²Rn (radon) and ²²⁰Rn (thoron) progeny are known to interfere with determining the presence of long-lived transuranic radionuclides, such as plutonium and americium, and require from several hours up to several days for conclusive results. Methods are proposed that should expedite the analysis of air samples for determining the amount of transuranic radionuclides present using low-resolution alpha spectroscopy systems available from typical alpha continuous air monitors (CAMs) with multi-channel analyzer (MCA) capabilities. An alpha spectra simulation program was developed in Microsoft Excel visual basic that employed the use of Monte Carlo numerical methods and serial-decay differential equations that resembled actual spectra. Transuranic radionuclides were able to be quantified with statistical certainty by applying peak fitting equations using the method of least squares. Initial favorable results were achieved when samples containing radon progeny were decayed 15 to 30 min, and samples containing both radon and thoron progeny were decayed at least 60 min. The effort indicates that timely decisions can be made when determining transuranic activity using available alpha CAMs with alpha spectroscopy capabilities for counting retrospective air samples if accompanied by analyses that consider the characteristics of serial decay.

  3. A generalized method for discriminating thermodynamic phase and retrieving cloud optical thickness and effective radius using transmitted shortwave radiance spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. LeBlanc

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A new retrieval scheme for cloud optical thickness, effective radius, and thermodynamic phase was developed for ground-based measurements of cloud shortwave spectral transmittance. 15 parameters were derived to quantify spectral variations in shortwave transmittance due to absorption and scattering of liquid water and ice clouds, manifested by shifts in spectral slopes, curvatures, maxima, and minima. To retrieve cloud optical thickness and effective particle radius a weighted least square fit that matched the modeled parameters was applied. The measurements for this analysis were made with a ground-based Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer (SSFR in Boulder, Colorado, between May 2012 and January 2013. We compared the cloud optical thickness and effective radius from the new retrieval to two other retrieval methods. By using multiple spectral features, we find a closer fit (with a root mean square difference over the entire spectra of 3.1% for a liquid water cloud and 5.9% for an ice cloud between measured and modeled spectra compared to two other retrieval methods, which diverge by a root-mean-square of up to 6.4% for a liquid water cloud and 22.5% for an ice cloud. The new retrieval introduced here has an average uncertainty in effective radius (±1.2 μm smaller by factor of at least 2.5 than two other methods when applied to an ice cloud.

  4. The Badness of Discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert-Rasmussen, Kasper

    2006-01-01

    The most blatant forms of discrimination are morally outrageous and very obviously so; but the nature and boundaries of discrimination are more controversial, and it is not clear whether all forms of discrimination are morally bad; nor is it clear why objectionable cases of discrimination are bad....... In this paper I address these issues. First, I offer a taxonomy of discrimination. I then argue that discrimination is bad, when it is, because it harms people. Finally, I criticize a rival, disrespect-based account according to which discrimination is bad regardless of whether it causes harm....

  5. Experimental Method of Temperature and Strain Discrimination in Polymer Composite Material by Embedded Fiber-Optic Sensors Based on Femtosecond-Inscribed FBGs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor V. Shishkin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental method of temperature and strain discrimination with fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs sensors embedded in carbon fiber-reinforced plastic is proposed. The method is based on two-fiber technique, when two FBGs inscribed in different fibers with different sensitivities to strain and/or temperature are placed close to each other and act as a single sensing element. The nonlinear polynomial approximation of Bragg wavelength shift as a function of temperature and strain is presented for this method. The FBGs were inscribed with femtosecond laser by point-by-point inscription technique through polymer cladding of the fiber. The comparison of linear and nonlinear approximation accuracies for array of embedded sensors is performed. It is shown that the use of nonlinear approximation gives 1.5–2 times better accuracy. The obtained accuracies of temperature and strain measurements are 2.6–3.8°C and 50–83 με in temperature and strain range of 30–120°C and 0–400 με, respectively.

  6. Discrimination of edible oils and fats by combination of multivariate pattern recognition and FT-IR spectroscopy: A comparative study between different modeling methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javidnia, Katayoun; Parish, Maryam; Karimi, Sadegh; Hemmateenejad, Bahram

    2013-03-01

    By using FT-IR spectroscopy, many researchers from different disciplines enrich the experimental complexity of their research for obtaining more precise information. Moreover chemometrics techniques have boosted the use of IR instruments. In the present study we aimed to emphasize on the power of FT-IR spectroscopy for discrimination between different oil samples (especially fat from vegetable oils). Also our data were used to compare the performance of different classification methods. FT-IR transmittance spectra of oil samples (Corn, Colona, Sunflower, Soya, Olive, and Butter) were measured in the wave-number interval of 450-4000 cm-1. Classification analysis was performed utilizing PLS-DA, interval PLS-DA, extended canonical variate analysis (ECVA) and interval ECVA methods. The effect of data preprocessing by extended multiplicative signal correction was investigated. Whilst all employed method could distinguish butter from vegetable oils, iECVA resulted in the best performances for calibration and external test set with 100% sensitivity and specificity.

  7. N-methylputrescine oxidation during cocaine biosynthesis: study of prochiral methylene hydrogen discrimination using the remote isotope method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoye, T R; Bjorklund, J A; Koltun, D O; Renner, M K

    2000-01-01

    [structure: see text] The stereoselectivity of N-methylputrescine (3) oxidation to pyrrolinium ion 4 in Erythroxylum coca during cocaine (1) biosynthesis was studied. The remote isotope method was used to advantage. Each enantiomer of 4-monodeuterated N-methylputrescine served as a precursor for plant feeding. To facilitate mass-spectrometric analysis of products, a 2H3 13C-methyl group was also incorporated into the 4-deuterio-N-methylputrescines. Oxidative deamination of N-methylputrescine was found to be stereoselective; the pro-S hydrogen atom is removed with 6-10:1 selectivity.

  8. Socially-Tolerable Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    J. Atsu Amegashie

    2008-01-01

    History is replete with overt discrimination of various forms. However, these forms of discrimination are not equally tolerable. For example, discrimination based on immutable or prohibitively unalterable characteristics such as race or gender is much less acceptable. Why? I develop a simple model of conflict which is driven by either racial (gender) discrimination or generational discrimination (i.e., young versus old). I show that there exist parameters of the model where racial (gender) di...

  9. Validation of a new background discrimination method for the TACTIC TeV γ-ray telescope with Markarian 421 data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Mradul, E-mail: mradul@barc.gov.in [Astrophysical Sciences Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Nayak, J. [The Bayesian and Interdisciplinary Research Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata (India); Koul, M.K. [Astrophysical Sciences Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Bose, S. [The Bayesian and Interdisciplinary Research Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata (India); Mitra, Abhas; Dhar, V.K.; Tickoo, A.K.; Koul, R. [Astrophysical Sciences Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2015-01-11

    This paper describes the validation of a new background discrimination method based on Random Forest technique by re-analysing the Markarian 421 (Mrk 421) observations performed by the TACTIC (TeV Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescope with Imaging Camera) γ-ray telescope. The Random Forest technique is a flexible multivariate method which combines Bagging and Random Split Selection to construct a large collection of decision trees and then combines them to construct a common classifier. Markarian 421 in a high state was observed by TACTIC during December 07, 2005–April 30, 2006 for 202 h. Previous analysis of this data led to a detection of flaring activity from the source at Energy >1TeV. Within this data set, a spell of 97 h revealed strong detection of a γ-ray signal with daily flux of >1 Crab unit on several days. Here we re-analyze this spell as well as the data from the entire observation period with the Random Forest method. Application of this method led to an improvement in the signal detection strength by ∼26% along with a ∼18% increase in detected γ rays compared to the conventional Dynamic Supercuts method. The resultant differential spectrum obtained is represented by a power law with an exponential cut off Γ=−2.51±0.10 and E{sub 0}=4.71±2.20TeV. Such a spectrum is consistent with previously reported results and justifies the use of Random Forest method for analyzing data from atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes.

  10. A Simplified Method of Assessing the Progress of a Cataract Based on Deterioration in Color Discrimination by Scattering Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Iwamoto

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Cataract is one of the most typical age-related eye diseases. As a cataract progress, the crystalline lens becomes hazier and visual ability deteriorates. Since the main cause of visual impairment is light scattered by the hazy lens, both brighter environments and hazier lenses worsen visual ability. In this study, error scores of 50 Hue test were measured for pseudo-cataract subjects (young observer with foggy filters of known as haze factor when the intensity of scattering light was increased. The rate of increase in error score of 50 Hue test was larger with higher haze factor. We propose, as an easy method for assessing the progress of a cataract, the haze estimation of elderly crystalline lens using the obtained error scores of 50 Hue test as a function of the intensity of scattering light.

  11. GDP数据质量分析方法辨析%The Discrimination of Analysis Method of GDP Data Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张健华

    2012-01-01

    It is necessary to further strengthen the study on the consistency of main economic index and GDP and deepen the study on price statistics and accounting of GDP calculation in order to improve GDP calculation in China. Meanwhile, perfect statistic system and method of modem service industry should also be established so as to gradually improve the consistency of GDP data between the local and the nation.%为促进我国GDP核算的进一步完善,有必要进一步加强主要经济指标与GDP之间的一致性研究,深化GDP核算中价格的统计核算研究,同时构建完善的现代服务业统计制度和方法,逐步提高地区与国家GDP数据的一致性。

  12. EMA-LAMP Method Rapidly to Detect and Discriminate Vibrio parahaemolyticus%EMA-LAMP方法快速检测鉴别副溶血性弧菌

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金雪花; 吕淑霞; 张超; 徐彬; 于晓丹

    2012-01-01

    A method utilizing DNA dye EMA (ethidium bromide monoazide) binding with LAMP (loop-mediated I-sothermal amplification) for Vibrio parahaemolyticus ( Vp) discrimination in pure culture containing a mixture of viable and/or dead cells was established. A set of four primers and two loop primers were designed aiming at six sites in thermolabite hemolysin (tlh) gene specific sequence of Vp to carry out the detection. The result showed that concentration at 8.0μg/mL of EMA or above could effectively inhibit the amplification of DNA derived from dead cells of Vp with cell suspension of 1×108 cfu/mL under the light exposure for at least 25 min, whereas the same concentration of EMA to treat viable cells of Vp had no effect on the amplification. After treated with EMA, the minimum level was 1. 0×102 cfu/mL to detect viable cell in a mixed liquid containing different proportion of viable and/or dead Vp cells. Therefore, the EMA-LAMP method was more effective method to discriminate the viable cells from the dead ones than EMA-PCR; it is a rapid, sensitive and more efficient new method to discriminate the viable cells from the dead cells of Vp.%建立将DNA染料EMA(ethidium bromide monoazide)结合环介导等温扩增技术(loop-mediated isothermal amplification,LAMP)的方法(EMA-LAMP),用于检测鉴别副溶血性弧菌(Vibrio parahaemolyticus)死/活菌细胞.针对副溶血性弧菌不耐热溶血素基因tlh(thermolabile hemolysin)特异性序列的6个位点设计4条引物及2条环引物,进行检测.结果表明,浓度为8.0μg/mL或更高浓度的EMA,至少经25 min的曝光处理,能够有效抑制浓度为1 x 1o8 cfu/mL的副溶血性孤菌死细胞的扩增,而对用相同浓度EMA处理的副溶血性弧菌活细胞扩增没有影响.经EMA处理,含有不同比例的副溶血孤菌死细胞和活细胞的混合液中,活菌的最小检测限为1.0×102 cfu/mL.EMA-LAMP方法比EMA-PCR方法区分死活细胞中的活细胞更为有效,是一种能够快

  13. Exterior Ballistic Discrimination Method of a Mortar Bomb Based on Turbine Alternator Output%基于涡轮发电机输出频率的迫弹外弹道辨识方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高敏; 敬亚兴; 刘秋生; 吕静

    2012-01-01

    Based on turbine alternator as a velocity sensor to discriminate trajectory, a new feasible trajectory discrimination method was put forward. Output frequency characteristics of turbine alternators and variable function of trajectory velocity were analyzed, considering various state of turbine alternator rotation, systematic scheme of trajectory discrimination was set up by use of turbine alternator outputs, and realization process of trajectory discrimination was depicted detailed. Moreover, establishment process of basic functions for trajectory discrimination was discussed by instance simulation. The simulation result indicates that calculation workload and error of trajectory discrimination are small and acceptable, therefore , with the addition of turbine alternator application on fuzes, the new trajectory discrimination method is feasible.%将涡轮发电机作为速度传感器用于弹道辨识,旨在提供一种新的、工程上易行的弹道辨识方法.通过分析涡轮发电机输出频率特性和弹速变化规律,针对涡轮发电机全弹道不停转和停转两种情况,提出基于涡轮发电机输出频率的弹道辨识总体方案,阐述了弹道辨识的实现过程,并通过实例仿真,重点探讨了弹道辨识所需基础函数的确立过程.仿真研究结果表明,弹道辨识计算量小、误差可控,加之涡轮发电机在引信型号上已有成熟应用,基于涡轮发电机输出频率的弹道辨识方法可行.

  14. Seismic Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-30

    showed that we need a block allocation method for the graphics unit mem - ory. A group of memory management routines to perform this task have been...master. Shallow activity near the southern terminus of the Philippine Trench is well suited for this comparison because of the intensity of shallow...Deployment ef Accelerometers : A Network of Very Long Period Seismology," Trans. Am. Geophys. Un. EOS 57, 180-188 (1976). 12. A. Dziewonski and M. Landisman

  15. Prosthetic hand control using motion discrimination from EMG signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurisu, Naoyuki; Tsujiuchi, Nobutaka; Koizumi, Takayuki

    2009-01-01

    In this report, we improve the motion discrimination method from electromyogram (EMG) for a prosthetic hand and propose prosthetic hand control. In the past, we proved that a motion discrimination method using conic models could discriminate three hand motions without the incorrect discriminations that the elbow motions cause. In this research, to increase discrimination accuracy of motion discrimination using conic models, we propose a feature extraction method using quadratic polynomials. Additionally, because many prosthetic hands using motion discrimination have constant motion speed that can't be controlled, we propose an angular velocity generation method using multiple regression models. We verified these methods by controlling the 3D hand model. In the experiment, the proposed method could discriminate five motions at a rate of above 90 percent without the incorrect discriminations that elbow motions cause. Moreover, the wrist joint angle of the 3D hand model could be controlled by standard variation of 3[deg] or less.

  16. Error-rate estimation in discriminant analysis of non-linear longitudinal data: A comparison of resampling methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cruz, Rolando; Fuentes, Claudio; Meza, Cristian; Núñez-Antón, Vicente

    2016-07-08

    Consider longitudinal observations across different subjects such that the underlying distribution is determined by a non-linear mixed-effects model. In this context, we look at the misclassification error rate for allocating future subjects using cross-validation, bootstrap algorithms (parametric bootstrap, leave-one-out, .632 and [Formula: see text]), and bootstrap cross-validation (which combines the first two approaches), and conduct a numerical study to compare the performance of the different methods. The simulation and comparisons in this study are motivated by real observations from a pregnancy study in which one of the main objectives is to predict normal versus abnormal pregnancy outcomes based on information gathered at early stages. Since in this type of studies it is not uncommon to have insufficient data to simultaneously solve the classification problem and estimate the misclassification error rate, we put special attention to situations when only a small sample size is available. We discuss how the misclassification error rate estimates may be affected by the sample size in terms of variability and bias, and examine conditions under which the misclassification error rate estimates perform reasonably well.

  17. Discriminative Shape Alignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loog, M.; de Bruijne, M.

    2009-01-01

    The alignment of shape data to a common mean before its subsequent processing is an ubiquitous step within the area shape analysis. Current approaches to shape analysis or, as more specifically considered in this work, shape classification perform the alignment in a fully unsupervised way......, not taking into account that eventually the shapes are to be assigned to two or more different classes. This work introduces a discriminative variation to well-known Procrustes alignment and demonstrates its benefit over this classical method in shape classification tasks. The focus is on two......-dimensional shapes from a two-class recognition problem....

  18. The Reflection of Mainstream Views and Common Methods to Eliminate Gender Discrimination%对消除性别歧视主流观点和常用方法的反思

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    虎业勤; 沈继睿

    2012-01-01

    Currently, The mainstream views and common methods to eliminate gender discrimination are with eco- nomic worship and consider that economic ability can represent the degree of equality which reveals some negative im- pacts in dissemination when pursuing equality of politics, economics and culture that manifast in political discrimina- tion, job discrimination and consumerism. Analyzing the origin of gender discrimination, this paper points out that gender discrimination is wealth discrimination in nature, like elassism. On the basis of enssense of discrimination, this paper puts forward more reasonable solution to eliminate gender discrimination from the perspective of system, guidance, advcoaey and social technology.%目前消除性别歧视主流观点和常用方法处在经济崇拜价值观之下,认为经济能力代表平等程度,这在传播和使用时显露出一些负面的影响,在追求政治、经济和文化上平等时,客观上造成参政歧视、职业歧视、消费主义。通过分析性别歧视的起源,指出性别歧视的实质是财富歧视,与阶级歧视同质。在歧视实质基础上,从制度、引导、宣传、社会技术等角度提出更合理的消除性别歧视的方法。

  19. Study of n-γ discrimination for 0.4-1 MeV neutrons using the zero-crossing method with a BC501A liquid scintillation detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yong-Hao; LEI Jia-Rong; ZHANG Xiao-Dong; AN Li; ZHENG Pu; WANG Xin-Hua; ZHU Chuan-Xin

    2013-01-01

    An experimental system aimed at n-γ discrimination using the zero-crossing method with a φ3"× 2"BC501A liquid scintillation detector was established and tested with an Am-Be neutron source.Two-dimensional plots of energy versus zero-crossing time were obtained.The quality of n-γdiscrimination was checked by the figure-of-merit (FOM),the neutron peak-to-valley ratio,and the proportion of leaked neutrons over all neutron events.The performance of n-γ discrimination in terms of FOM was compared with previous work done by other groups.The n-γ discrimination in four different energy regions with an interval of 0.1 MeV between 0.3 MeV and 0.7 MeV was studied,and the results indicate that the n-γ discrimination threshold can go down to 0.4 MeV.

  20. Predicting Bank Financial Failures Using Discriminant Analysis And Support Vector Machines Methods A Comparative Analysis In Commercial Banks In Sudan 2006-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. SirElkhatim

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Bank failures threaten the economic system as a whole. Therefore predicting bank financial failures is crucial to prevent andor lessen its negative effects on the economic system. Financial crises affecting both emerging markets and advanced countries over the centuries have severe economic consequences but they can be hard to prevent and predict identifying financial crises causes remains both science and art said Stijn Claessens assistant director of the International Monetary Fund. While it would be better to mitigate risks financial crises will recur often in waves and better crisis management is therefore important. Analyses of recurrent causes suggest that to prevent crises governments should consider reforms in many underlying areas. That includes developing prudent fiscal and monetary policies better regulating the financial sector including reducing the problem of too-big-to-fail banks and developing effective macro-prudential policies. Despite new regulations and better supervision crises are likely to recur in part because they can reflect deeper problems related to income inequality the political economy and common human behavior. As such improvements in crisis management are also needed. This is originally a classification problem to categorize banks as healthy or non-healthy ones. This study aims to apply Discriminant analysis and Support Vector Machines methods to the bank failure prediction problem in a Sudanese case and to present a comprehensive computational comparison of the classification performances of the techniques tested. Eleven financial and non-financial ratios with six feature groups including capital adequacy asset quality Earning and liquidity CAMELS are selected as predictor variables in the study. Credit risk also been evaluated using logistic analysis to study the effect of Islamic finance modes sectors and payment types used by Sudanese banks with regard to their possibilities of failure. Experimental results

  1. Unsupervised Linear Discriminant Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    An algorithm for unsupervised linear discriminant analysis was presented. Optimal unsupervised discriminant vectors are obtained through maximizing covariance of all samples and minimizing covariance of local k-nearest neighbor samples. The experimental results show our algorithm is effective.

  2. Airline Price Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Stacey, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Price discrimination enjoys a long history in the airline industry. Borenstein (1989) discusses price discrimination through frequent flyer programs from 1985 as related to the Piedmont-US Air merger, price discrimination strategies have grown in size and scope since then. From Saturday stay over requirements to varying costs based on time of purchase, the airline industry is uniquely situated to enjoy the fruits of price discrimination.

  3. Discriminately Decreasing Discriminability with Learned Image Filters

    CERN Document Server

    Whitehill, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    In machine learning and computer vision, input images are often filtered to increase data discriminability. In some situations, however, one may wish to purposely decrease discriminability of one classification task (a "distractor" task), while simultaneously preserving information relevant to another (the task-of-interest): For example, it may be important to mask the identity of persons contained in face images before submitting them to a crowdsourcing site (e.g., Mechanical Turk) when labeling them for certain facial attributes. Another example is inter-dataset generalization: when training on a dataset with a particular covariance structure among multiple attributes, it may be useful to suppress one attribute while preserving another so that a trained classifier does not learn spurious correlations between attributes. In this paper we present an algorithm that finds optimal filters to give high discriminability to one task while simultaneously giving low discriminability to a distractor task. We present r...

  4. The use of partial thickness method and zero wet bulb temperature for discriminating precipitation type during winter months at the Ebro basin in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buisan, S.; Revuelto, J.

    2010-09-01

    environment favouring each precipitation type. This method is a simple technique for discriminating the different precipitation types. It also provides climatology of snowfall events for each airport, showing the differences due to their geographical location and how different synoptic conditions affect each place.. In the middle of Ebro basin, where Zaragoza airport is placed, the critical parameter to determine the precipitation type is the 1000 - 850 mb thickness. It is possible to find many episodes of snowfall with a very thin 1000-850 mb layer within a wide range of zero wet bulb temperature values. This shows the pool of cold air in the valley over which warm and moist air is advected from the Mediterranean Sea. Located close to the Cantabric sea, Pamplona is about 150 km north of Zaragoza. The snow episodes in this location are more related with cold air in all levels together with a narrow range of zero wet bulb temperature values. The results show that the Logroño area, 150 km northwest of Zaragoza, is influenced by both conditions. This method became operational during 2009-2010 winter season showing a high degree of accuracy in discriminating precipitation type.

  5. 基于分数布朗运动的自相似流量判别及生成方法%Self-similar traffic discrimination and generating methods based on fractal Brown motion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雪媛; 王永刚; 张琼

    2013-01-01

    针对网络流量自相似程度判别方法较少和应用分数布朗运动(FBM)进行自相似流量模拟时可能会产生负值流量等问题,给出一种基于多阶矩的自相似流量判别方法和改进FBM模型的自相似流量模拟方法.首先通过分析样本矩的数学式,在分形矩分析的基础上得到一种多阶矩的自相似判别方法,然后对经典的随机中点置位(RMD)算法进行改进,最后对Bellcore和LBL实验室采集的真实流量数据进行自相似判别和模拟,仿真验证实验结果表明该方法的有效性.%To deal with the difficulties of lacking the discrimination method of network's traffic self-similarity and producing negative traffic based on classical Fractal Brown Motion (FBM), a discrimination method was proposed based on multiple order moment and a generation method was provided based on modified FBM model. Firstly, the mathematical formula of sample moment was studied. The discrimination method of self-similarity traffic was obtained on account of fractal moment analysis. Secondly, the classical Random Midpoint Displacement ( RMD) algorithm was modified. At last, taking account of the real traffic of Bellcore and LBL, the discrimination method and generation method were given. The comparison of the simulation results with the actual experimental data proves that the method is feasible.

  6. Discriminative learning for speech recognition

    CERN Document Server

    He, Xiadong

    2008-01-01

    In this book, we introduce the background and mainstream methods of probabilistic modeling and discriminative parameter optimization for speech recognition. The specific models treated in depth include the widely used exponential-family distributions and the hidden Markov model. A detailed study is presented on unifying the common objective functions for discriminative learning in speech recognition, namely maximum mutual information (MMI), minimum classification error, and minimum phone/word error. The unification is presented, with rigorous mathematical analysis, in a common rational-functio

  7. GRace: a MATLAB-based application for fitting the discrimination-association model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanutti, Luca; Vianello, Michelangelo; Anselmi, Pasquale; Robusto, Egidio

    2014-10-28

    The Implicit Association Test (IAT) is a computerized two-choice discrimination task in which stimuli have to be categorized as belonging to target categories or attribute categories by pressing, as quickly and accurately as possible, one of two response keys. The discrimination association model has been recently proposed for the analysis of reaction time and accuracy of an individual respondent to the IAT. The model disentangles the influences of three qualitatively different components on the responses to the IAT: stimuli discrimination, automatic association, and termination criterion. The article presents General Race (GRace), a MATLAB-based application for fitting the discrimination association model to IAT data. GRace has been developed for Windows as a standalone application. It is user-friendly and does not require any programming experience. The use of GRace is illustrated on the data of a Coca Cola-Pepsi Cola IAT, and the results of the analysis are interpreted and discussed.

  8. Issues in Predictive Discriminant Analysis: Using and Interpreting the Leave-One-Out Jackknife Method and the Improvement-Over-Change "I" Index Effect Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Dae-Yeop

    Prediction of group membership is the goal of predictive discriminant analysis (PDA) and the accuracy of group classification is the focus of PDA. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of how PDA works and how it can be used to answer a variety of research questions. The paper explains what PDA is and why it is important, and it…

  9. Data mining methods in the prediction of Dementia: A real-data comparison of the accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of linear discriminant analysis, logistic regression, neural networks, support vector machines, classification trees and random forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santana Isabel

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dementia and cognitive impairment associated with aging are a major medical and social concern. Neuropsychological testing is a key element in the diagnostic procedures of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI, but has presently a limited value in the prediction of progression to dementia. We advance the hypothesis that newer statistical classification methods derived from data mining and machine learning methods like Neural Networks, Support Vector Machines and Random Forests can improve accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of predictions obtained from neuropsychological testing. Seven non parametric classifiers derived from data mining methods (Multilayer Perceptrons Neural Networks, Radial Basis Function Neural Networks, Support Vector Machines, CART, CHAID and QUEST Classification Trees and Random Forests were compared to three traditional classifiers (Linear Discriminant Analysis, Quadratic Discriminant Analysis and Logistic Regression in terms of overall classification accuracy, specificity, sensitivity, Area under the ROC curve and Press'Q. Model predictors were 10 neuropsychological tests currently used in the diagnosis of dementia. Statistical distributions of classification parameters obtained from a 5-fold cross-validation were compared using the Friedman's nonparametric test. Results Press' Q test showed that all classifiers performed better than chance alone (p Conclusions When taking into account sensitivity, specificity and overall classification accuracy Random Forests and Linear Discriminant analysis rank first among all the classifiers tested in prediction of dementia using several neuropsychological tests. These methods may be used to improve accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of Dementia predictions from neuropsychological testing.

  10. Earthquake-explosion discrimination using diffusion maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, N.; Bregman, Y.; Lindenbaum, O.; Ben-Horin, Y.; Averbuch, A.

    2016-12-01

    Discrimination between earthquakes and explosions is an essential component of nuclear test monitoring and it is also important for maintaining the quality of earthquake catalogues. Currently used discrimination methods provide a partial solution to the problem. In this work, we apply advanced machine learning methods and in particular diffusion maps for modelling and discriminating between seismic signals. Diffusion maps enable us to construct a geometric representation that capture the intrinsic structure of the seismograms. The diffusion maps are applied after a pre-processing step, in which seismograms are converted to normalized sonograms. The constructed low-dimensional model is used for automatic earthquake-explosion discrimination of data that are collected in single seismic stations. We demonstrate our approach on a data set comprising seismic events from the Dead Sea area. The diffusion-based algorithm provides correct discrimination rate that is higher than 90 per cent.

  11. Research on Discrimination Methods of College Students’ Depression%大学生抑郁问题判别方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许彦; 刘群

    2015-01-01

    Regarding some psychological disorders that college students have in the new period , this paper gives information about the morbidity of college students’ depression and the status of inter‐vention .Synthesizing the results of experts’ and scholars’ research ,this paper analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of various discrimination scales and explores the utilization of medical tools to assist in discriminating depression .%针对大学生在新时期存在的一些心理障碍,了解高校大学生抑郁症发病及干预状况,综合专家学者研究成果,分析了各种判别量表的优势与不足,探讨了运用医学手段辅助判别抑郁症心理疾病的方法。

  12. A Molecular Method to Discriminate between Mass-Reared Sterile and Wild Tsetse Flies during Eradication Programmes That Have a Sterile Insect Technique Component.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumaïla Pagabeleguem

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Government of Senegal has embarked several years ago on a project that aims to eradicate Glossina palpalis gambiensis from the Niayes area. The removal of the animal trypanosomosis would allow the development more efficient livestock production systems. The project was implemented using an area-wide integrated pest management strategy including a sterile insect technique (SIT component. The released sterile male flies originated from a colony from Burkina Faso.Monitoring the efficacy of the sterile male releases requires the discrimination between wild and sterile male G. p. gambiensis that are sampled in monitoring traps. Before being released, sterile male flies were marked with a fluorescent dye powder. The marking was however not infallible with some sterile flies only slightly marked or some wild flies contaminated with a few dye particles in the monitoring traps. Trapped flies can also be damaged due to predation by ants, making it difficult to discriminate between wild and sterile males using a fluorescence camera and / or a fluorescence microscope. We developed a molecular technique based on the determination of cytochrome oxidase haplotypes of G. p. gambiensis to discriminate between wild and sterile males. DNA was isolated from the head of flies and a portion of the 5' end of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase I was amplified to be finally sequenced. Our results indicated that all the sterile males from the Burkina Faso colony displayed the same haplotype and systematically differed from wild male flies trapped in Senegal and Burkina Faso. This allowed 100% discrimination between sterile and wild male G. p. gambiensis.This tool might be useful for other tsetse control campaigns with a SIT component in the framework of the Pan-African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign (PATTEC and, more generally, for other vector or insect pest control programs.

  13. Impedance spectroscopy--an outstanding method for label-free and real-time discrimination between brain and tumor tissue in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnke, Heinz-Georg; Heimann, Axel; Azendorf, Ronny; Mpoukouvalas, Konstantinos; Kempski, Oliver; Robitzki, Andrea A; Charalampaki, Patra

    2013-08-15

    Until today, brain tumors especially glioblastoma are difficult to treat and therefore, results in a poor survival rate of 0-14% over five years. To overcome this problem, the development of novel therapeutics as well as optimization of neurosurgical procedures to remove the tumor tissue are subject of intensive research. The main problem of the tumor excision, as the primary clinical intervention is the diffuse infiltration of the tumor cells in unaltered brain tissue that complicates the complete removal of residual tumor cells. In this context, we are developing novel approaches for the label-free discrimination between tumor tissue and unaltered brain tissue in real-time during the surgical process. Using our impedance spectroscopy-based measurement system in combination with flexible microelectrode arrays we could successfully demonstrate the discrimination between a C6-glioma and unaltered brain tissue in an in vivo rat model. The analysis of the impedance spectra revealed specific impedance spectrum shape characteristics of physiologic neuronal tissue in the frequency range of 10-500 kHz that were significantly different from the tumor tissue. Moreover, we used an adapted equivalent circuit model to get a deeper understanding for the nature of the observed effects. The impedimetric label-free and real-time discrimination of tumor from unaltered brain tissue offers the possibility for the implementation in surgical instruments to support surgeons to decide, which tissue areas should be removed and which should be remained.

  14. Discrimination against Black Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloud, Ashwaq; Alsulayyim, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Discrimination is a structured way of abusing people based on racial differences, hence barring them from accessing wealth, political participation and engagement in many spheres of human life. Racism and discrimination are inherently rooted in institutions in the society, the problem has spread across many social segments of the society including…

  15. INTERSECTIONAL DISCRIMINATION AGAINST CHILDREN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnbøl, Camilla Ida

    This paper adds a perspective to existing research on child protection by engaging in a debate on intersectional discrimination and its relationship to child protection. The paper has a twofold objective, (1) to further establish intersectionality as a concept to address discrimination against ch...... children, and (2) to illustrate the importance of addressing intersectionality within rights-based programmes of child protection....

  16. Flash-Type Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshak, William J.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the significant progress made in the flash-type discrimination algorithm development. The contents include: 1) Highlights of Progress for GLM-R3 Flash-Type discrimination Algorithm Development; 2) Maximum Group Area (MGA) Data; 3) Retrieval Errors from Simulations; and 4) Preliminary Global-scale Retrieval.

  17. INTERSECTIONAL DISCRIMINATION AGAINST CHILDREN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnbøl, Camilla Ida

    This paper adds a perspective to existing research on child protection by engaging in a debate on intersectional discrimination and its relationship to child protection. The paper has a twofold objective, (1) to further establish intersectionality as a concept to address discrimination against...

  18. Evaluation of alignment methods and data pretreatments on the determination of the most important peaks for the discrimination of coffee varieties Arabica and Robusta using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovell, A M C; Pereira, E J; Arruda, N P; Rezende, C M

    2010-09-30

    Coffee samples were analyzed by GC/MS in order to determine the most important peaks for the discrimination of the varieties Arabica and Robusta. The resulting peak tables from chromatographic analysis were aligned and pretreated before being submitted to multivariate analysis. A rapid and easy-to-perform peak alignment procedure, which does not require advanced programming skills to use, was compared with the tedious manual alignment procedure. The influence of three types of data pretreatment, normalization, logarithmic and square root transformations and their combinations, on the variables selected as most important by the regression coefficients of partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), are shown. Test samples different from those used in the calibration and comparison with the substances already known as being responsible for Arabica and Robusta coffees discrimination were used to determine the best pretreatments for both datasets. The data pretreatment consisting of square root transformation followed by normalization (RN) was chosen as being the most appropriate. The results obtained showed that the much quicker automated aligned method could be used as a substitute for the manually aligned method, allowing all the peaks in the chromatogram to be used for multivariate analysis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. General description of discriminating quantum operations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Ke-Jia; Zhu Ping; Gao Fei; Guo Fen-Zhuo; Qin Su-Juan; Wen Qiao-Yan

    2011-01-01

    The discrimination of quantum operations plays a key role in quantum information and computation.Unlike discriminating quantum states,it has some special properties which can be carried out in practice.In this paper,we provide a general description of discriminating quantum operations.Concretely speaking,we describe the distinguishability between quantum operations using a measure called operator fidelity.It is shown that,employing the theory of operator fidelity,we can not only verify some previous results to discriminate unitary operations,but also exhibit a more general discrimination condition.We further apply our results to analysing the security of some quantum cryptographic protocols and discuss the realization of our method using well-developed quantum algorithms.

  20. Decision theory for discrimination-aware classification

    KAUST Repository

    Kamiran, Faisal

    2012-12-01

    Social discrimination (e.g., against females) arising from data mining techniques is a growing concern worldwide. In recent years, several methods have been proposed for making classifiers learned over discriminatory data discriminationaware. However, these methods suffer from two major shortcomings: (1) They require either modifying the discriminatory data or tweaking a specific classification algorithm and (2) They are not flexible w.r.t. discrimination control and multiple sensitive attribute handling. In this paper, we present two solutions for discrimination-aware classification that neither require data modification nor classifier tweaking. Our first and second solutions exploit, respectively, the reject option of probabilistic classifier(s) and the disagreement region of general classifier ensembles to reduce discrimination. We relate both solutions with decision theory for better understanding of the process. Our experiments using real-world datasets demonstrate that our solutions outperform existing state-ofthe-art methods, especially at low discrimination which is a significant advantage. The superior performance coupled with flexible control over discrimination and easy applicability to multiple sensitive attributes makes our solutions an important step forward in practical discrimination-aware classification. © 2012 IEEE.

  1. Comparison of Methods to Assess the Discriminating Ability of Testing Locations in Crop Cultivar Regional Trials%作物品种区域试验试点区辨力评价方法的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永建; 魏冰; 胡尔良; 黄玉碧

    2012-01-01

    from the 2003 and 2004 National Maize Cultivar Regional Trials in Southwestern China.A combined analysis of variance,assessment of the discriminating ability of testing locations and rank correlations among the discriminating ability statistics were determined.Effects of location,cultivar and cultivar by location interaction were highly significant (P<0.01).Different statistics could be used to determine the discriminating ability of the studied locations,but the discriminating ability of testing locations evaluated by different methods was dissimilar.The statistics CV,GCV,WE,DA and DG were positively correlated with each other.The statistic DG would be useful to assess the discriminating ability of test locations.

  2. Discriminant Incoherent Component Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakis, Christos; Panagakis, Yannis; Pantic, Maja

    2016-05-01

    Face images convey rich information which can be perceived as a superposition of low-complexity components associated with attributes, such as facial identity, expressions, and activation of facial action units (AUs). For instance, low-rank components characterizing neutral facial images are associated with identity, while sparse components capturing non-rigid deformations occurring in certain face regions reveal expressions and AU activations. In this paper, the discriminant incoherent component analysis (DICA) is proposed in order to extract low-complexity components, corresponding to facial attributes, which are mutually incoherent among different classes (e.g., identity, expression, and AU activation) from training data, even in the presence of gross sparse errors. To this end, a suitable optimization problem, involving the minimization of nuclear-and l1 -norm, is solved. Having found an ensemble of class-specific incoherent components by the DICA, an unseen (test) image is expressed as a group-sparse linear combination of these components, where the non-zero coefficients reveal the class(es) of the respective facial attribute(s) that it belongs to. The performance of the DICA is experimentally assessed on both synthetic and real-world data. Emphasis is placed on face analysis tasks, namely, joint face and expression recognition, face recognition under varying percentages of training data corruption, subject-independent expression recognition, and AU detection by conducting experiments on four data sets. The proposed method outperforms all the methods that are compared with all the tasks and experimental settings.

  3. A signal filtering method for improved quantification and noise discrimination in fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry-based metabolomics data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Tristan G; Southam, Andrew D; Arvanitis, Theodoros N; Viant, Mark R

    2009-06-01

    Direct-infusion electrospray-ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (DI ESI FT-ICR MS) is increasingly being utilized in metabolomics, including the high sensitivity selected ion monitoring (SIM)-stitching approach. Accurate signal quantification and the discrimination of real signals from noise remain major challenges for this approach, with both adversely affected by factors including ion suppression during electrospray, ion-ion interactions in the detector cell, and thermally-induced white noise. This is particularly problematic for complex mixture analysis where hundreds of metabolites are present near the noise level. Here we address relative signal quantification and noise discrimination issues in SIM-stitched DI ESI FT-ICR MS-based metabolomics. Using liver tissue, we first optimized the number of scans (n) acquired per SIM window to address the balance between quantification accuracy versus acquisition time (and thus sample throughput); a minimum of n = 5 is recommended. Secondly, we characterized and computationally-corrected an effect whereby an ion's intensity is dependent upon its location within a SIM window, exhibiting a 3-fold higher intensity at the high m/z end. This resulted in significantly improved quantification accuracy. Finally, we thoroughly characterized a three-stage filter to discriminate noise from real signals, which comprised a signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) hard threshold, then a "replicate" filter (retaining only peaks in r-out-of-3 replicate analyses), and then a "sample" filter (retaining only peaks in >s% of biological samples). We document the benefits of three-stage filtering versus one- and two-stage filters, and show the importance of selecting filter parameters that balance the confidence that a signal is real versus the total number of peaks detected.

  4. Improved discriminative training for generative model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Ya-hui; GUO Jun; LIU Gang

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes a model combination method to enhance the discriminability of the generative model. Generative and discriminative models have different optimization objectives and have their own advantages and drawbacks. The method proposed in this article intends to strike a balance between the two models mentioned above. It extracts the discriminative parameter from the generative model and generates a new model based on a multi-model combination. The weight for combining is determined by the ratio of the inter-variance to the intra-variance of the classes. The higher the ratio is, the greater the weight is, and the more discriminative the model will be. Experiments on speech recognition demonstrate that the performance of the new model outperforms the model trained with the traditional generative method.

  5. Discrimination Method of the Volatiles from Fresh Mushrooms by an Electronic Nose Using a Trapping System and Statistical Standardization to Reduce Sensor Value Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouki Fujioka

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Electronic noses have the benefit of obtaining smell information in a simple and objective manner, therefore, many applications have been developed for broad analysis areas such as food, drinks, cosmetics, medicine, and agriculture. However, measurement values from electronic noses have a tendency to vary under humidity or alcohol exposure conditions, since several types of sensors in the devices are affected by such variables. Consequently, we show three techniques for reducing the variation of sensor values: (1 using a trapping system to reduce the infering components; (2 performing statistical standardization (calculation of z-score; and (3 selecting suitable sensors. With these techniques, we discriminated the volatiles of four types of fresh mushrooms: golden needle (Flammulina velutipes, white mushroom (Agaricus bisporus, shiitake (Lentinus edodes, and eryngii (Pleurotus eryngii among six fresh mushrooms (hen of the woods (Grifola frondosa, shimeji (Hypsizygus marmoreus plus the above mushrooms. Additionally, we succeeded in discrimination of white mushroom, only comparing with artificial mushroom flavors, such as champignon flavor and truffle flavor. In conclusion, our techniques will expand the options to reduce variations in sensor values.

  6. Rapid discrimination method of varieties of rice by using LF-NMR technology%基于低场核磁共振技术的大米品种快速鉴别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜潮; 韩剑众

    2012-01-01

    Based on the Low Field-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (LF-NMR)technology, a new method to discriminate varieties of rice was proposed.Rice samples of different producing areas were tested by the CPMG sequence of LF-NMR.Principal Component Analysis(PCA) method was used to analyze and process the sample data.The results showed that.Rice samples of different producing areas were distinguished effectively on the plot of PCA score.The new method proposed was capable to discriminate the varieties of rice,which provided a new method to discriminate rice varieties.%为探索大米无损检测技术,提出了一种基于低场核磁共振技术的快速、无损鉴别大米品种的新方法。以不同地域的大米为低场核磁共振检测对象,利用主成分分析法(PCA)分析处理Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill(CPMG)序列的检测数据。实验结果表明,不同地域的大米在主成分得分图上可以得到很好的区分;说明所提出的方法具有很好的分类和鉴别作用,为大米的品种鉴别提供了一种新方法。

  7. Quantile forecast discrimination ability and value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ben Bouallègue, Zied; Pinson, Pierre; Friederichs, Petra

    2015-01-01

    While probabilistic forecast verification for categorical forecasts is well established, some of the existing concepts and methods have not found their equivalent for the case of continuous variables. New tools dedicated to the assessment of forecast discrimination ability and forecast value......-based discrimination tool and the quantile value plot translates forecast discrimination ability in terms of economic value. The relationship between the overall value of a quantile forecast and the respective quantile skill score is also discussed. The application of these new verification approaches and tools...

  8. Data mining methods in the prediction of Dementia: A real-data comparison of the accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of linear discriminant analysis, logistic regression, neural networks, support vector machines, classification trees and random forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroco, João; Silva, Dina; Rodrigues, Ana; Guerreiro, Manuela; Santana, Isabel; de Mendonça, Alexandre

    2011-08-17

    Dementia and cognitive impairment associated with aging are a major medical and social concern. Neuropsychological testing is a key element in the diagnostic procedures of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), but has presently a limited value in the prediction of progression to dementia. We advance the hypothesis that newer statistical classification methods derived from data mining and machine learning methods like Neural Networks, Support Vector Machines and Random Forests can improve accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of predictions obtained from neuropsychological testing. Seven non parametric classifiers derived from data mining methods (Multilayer Perceptrons Neural Networks, Radial Basis Function Neural Networks, Support Vector Machines, CART, CHAID and QUEST Classification Trees and Random Forests) were compared to three traditional classifiers (Linear Discriminant Analysis, Quadratic Discriminant Analysis and Logistic Regression) in terms of overall classification accuracy, specificity, sensitivity, Area under the ROC curve and Press'Q. Model predictors were 10 neuropsychological tests currently used in the diagnosis of dementia. Statistical distributions of classification parameters obtained from a 5-fold cross-validation were compared using the Friedman's nonparametric test. Press' Q test showed that all classifiers performed better than chance alone (p Machines showed the larger overall classification accuracy (Median (Me) = 0.76) an area under the ROC (Me = 0.90). However this method showed high specificity (Me = 1.0) but low sensitivity (Me = 0.3). Random Forest ranked second in overall accuracy (Me = 0.73) with high area under the ROC (Me = 0.73) specificity (Me = 0.73) and sensitivity (Me = 0.64). Linear Discriminant Analysis also showed acceptable overall accuracy (Me = 0.66), with acceptable area under the ROC (Me = 0.72) specificity (Me = 0.66) and sensitivity (Me = 0.64). The remaining classifiers showed overall classification accuracy above a

  9. Discrimination in a General Algebraic Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Fine

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Discriminating groups were introduced by G. Baumslag, A. Myasnikov, and V. Remeslennikov as an outgrowth of their theory of algebraic geometry over groups. Algebraic geometry over groups became the main method of attack on the solution of the celebrated Tarski conjectures. In this paper we explore the notion of discrimination in a general universal algebra context. As an application we provide a different proof of a theorem of Malcev on axiomatic classes of Ω-algebras.

  10. Discrimination in a General Algebraic Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Benjamin; Gaglione, Anthony; Lipschutz, Seymour; Spellman, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Discriminating groups were introduced by G. Baumslag, A. Myasnikov, and V. Remeslennikov as an outgrowth of their theory of algebraic geometry over groups. Algebraic geometry over groups became the main method of attack on the solution of the celebrated Tarski conjectures. In this paper we explore the notion of discrimination in a general universal algebra context. As an application we provide a different proof of a theorem of Malcev on axiomatic classes of Ω-algebras.

  11. Discrimination in a General Algebraic Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Benjamin; Gaglione, Anthony; Lipschutz, Seymour; Spellman, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Discriminating groups were introduced by G. Baumslag, A. Myasnikov, and V. Remeslennikov as an outgrowth of their theory of algebraic geometry over groups. Algebraic geometry over groups became the main method of attack on the solution of the celebrated Tarski conjectures. In this paper we explore the notion of discrimination in a general universal algebra context. As an application we provide a different proof of a theorem of Malcev on axiomatic classes of Ω-algebras. PMID:26171421

  12. Railway bearing fault diagnosis with the pattern recognition method of interface geometric discriminant%基于判别域界面几何法模式识别的铁路轴承故障诊断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐英; 李应珍

    2011-01-01

    With the concept of optimal classification lines,a pattern recognition method,which uses interface geometric discriminant to generate a pattern classifier,was proposed.Major procedures of the method include: mapping multidimensional inputted characteristic vectors of different pattern classes to a 2-dimensional(2D) discriminant space with a BP neural network which is characterized by its high nonlinear mapping capability,extracting a polygon axis of the polygon which is formed at the interval clearance space among pattern classes,and constructing a decision-making boundary for pattern recognition by extending polygon axes to all discriminating domains.The method was tested in a case study of fault diagnosis for double row tapered roller-bearings used in railway wheels.The result shows that the proposed method can construct decision-making boundaries for different fault patterns on a 2D discriminant space,which provides a condition to operators for intuitive recognition of fault classifications in practice.%基于最优分类线的概念,提出了一种新的模式识别分类器构建方法——判别域界面几何法.该方法利用BP神经网络的高度非线性,将模式类样本数据从高维输入空间映射至二维判别域空间后,采用多边形中轴提取方法,构造模式类间隙多边形的中轴线,延伸至整个二维判别域空间,生成模式类决策边界.以铁路货车车轮用双列圆锥滚子轴承的故障诊断为例,介绍了判别域界面几何法的应用过程.结果表明,判别域界面几何法能在二维判别域空间上给出各不同故障模式类之间明确的界限,这就给操作者直观判断故障模式类别提供了条件.

  13. The 95% confidence intervals of error rates and discriminant coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuichi Shinmura

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fisher proposed a linear discriminant function (Fisher’s LDF. From 1971, we analysed electrocardiogram (ECG data in order to develop the diagnostic logic between normal and abnormal symptoms by Fisher’s LDF and a quadratic discriminant function (QDF. Our four years research was inferior to the decision tree logic developed by the medical doctor. After this experience, we discriminated many data and found four problems of the discriminant analysis. A revised Optimal LDF by Integer Programming (Revised IP-OLDF based on the minimum number of misclassification (minimum NM criterion resolves three problems entirely [13, 18]. In this research, we discuss fourth problem of the discriminant analysis. There are no standard errors (SEs of the error rate and discriminant coefficient. We propose a k-fold crossvalidation method. This method offers a model selection technique and a 95% confidence intervals (C.I. of error rates and discriminant coefficients.

  14. Cognitive abilities in Malawi cichlids (Pseudotropheus sp.: matching-to-sample and image/mirror-image discriminations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Gierszewski

    Full Text Available The ability to recognize and distinguish between visual stimuli is fundamental for everyday survival of many species. While diverse aspects of cognition, including complex visual discrimination tasks were previously successfully assessed in fish, it remains unknown if fish can learn a matching-to-sample concept using geometrical shapes and discriminate between images and their mirror-image counterparts. For this purpose a total of nine Malawi cichlids (Pseudotropheus sp. were trained in two matching-to-sample (MTS and three two-choice discrimination tasks using geometrical, two-dimensional visual stimuli. Two out of the three discrimination experiments focused on the ability to discriminate between images and their mirror-images, the last was a general discrimination test. All fish showed quick associative learning but were unable to perform successfully in a simultaneous MTS procedure within a period of 40 sessions. Three out of eight fish learned to distinguish between an image and its mirror-image when reflected vertically; however none of the fish mastered the task when the stimulus was reflected horizontally. These results suggest a better discrimination ability of vertical compared to horizontal mirror-images, an observation that is widespread in literature on mirror-image discrimination in animals. All fish performed well in the general visual discrimination task, thereby supporting previous results obtained for this species.

  15. A rapid method for the differentiation of yeast cells grown under carbon and nitrogen-limited conditions by means of partial least squares discriminant analysis employing infrared micro-spectroscopic data of entire yeast cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuligowski, Julia; Quintás, Guillermo; Herwig, Christoph; Lendl, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    This paper shows the ease of application and usefulness of mid-IR measurements for the investigation of orthogonal cell states on the example of the analysis of Pichia pastoris cells. A rapid method for the discrimination of entire yeast cells grown under carbon and nitrogen-limited conditions based on the direct acquisition of mid-IR spectra and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) is described. The obtained PLS-DA model was extensively validated employing two different validation strategies: (i) statistical validation employing a method based on permutation testing and (ii) external validation splitting the available data into two independent sub-sets. The Variable Importance in Projection scores of the PLS-DA model provided deeper insight into the differences between the two investigated states. Hence, we demonstrate the feasibility of a method which uses IR spectra from intact cells that may be employed in a second step as an in-line tool in process development and process control along Quality by Design principles. PMID:22967595

  16. The Influence of Discrimination on Smoking Cessation among Latinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendzor, Darla E.; Businelle, Michael S.; Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Castro, Yessenia; Vidrine, Jennifer I.; Mazas, Carlos A.; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Lam, Cho Y.; Adams, Claire E.; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Cano, Miguel Ángel; Wetter, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although studies have shown a cross-sectional link between discrimination and smoking, the prospective influence of discrimination on smoking cessation has yet to be evaluated. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to determine the influence of everyday and major discrimination on smoking cessation among Latinos making a quit attempt. Methods: Participants were 190 Spanish speaking smokers of Mexican Heritage recruited from the Houston, TX metropolitan area who participated in the study between 2009 and 2012. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the associations of everyday and major discrimination with smoking abstinence at 26 weeks post-quit. Results: Most participants reported at least some everyday discrimination (64.4%), and at least one major discrimination event (56%) in their lifetimes. Race/ethnicity/nationality was the most commonly perceived reason for both everyday and major discrimination. Everyday discrimination was not associated with post-quit smoking status. However, experiencing a greater number of major discrimination events was associated with a reduced likelihood of achieving 7-day point prevalence smoking abstinence, OR = .51, p = .004, and continuous smoking abstinence, OR = .29, p = .018, at 26 weeks post-quit. Conclusions: Findings highlight the high frequency of exposure to discrimination among Latinos, and demonstrate the negative impact of major discrimination events on a smoking cessation attempt. Efforts are needed to attenuate the detrimental effects of major discrimination events on smoking cessation outcomes. PMID:24485880

  17. Variable Selection Strategies in Discriminate Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanguma, Jesus

    This paper presents three variable selection strategies in discriminate analysis (all variables in the model, use of stepwise methods, and all possible subsets). All three methods are illustrated through examples. Although the all variables in the model and the stepwise methods are the most widely used, B. Thompson (1996) and C. Huberty (1994)…

  18. Discriminant Kernel Assignment for Image Coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yue; Zhao, Yanyu; Ren, Zhiquan; Kong, Youyong; Bao, Feng; Dai, Qionghai

    2017-06-01

    This paper proposes discriminant kernel assignment (DKA) in the bag-of-features framework for image representation. DKA slightly modifies existing kernel assignment to learn width-variant Gaussian kernel functions to perform discriminant local feature assignment. When directly applying gradient-descent method to solve DKA, the optimization may contain multiple time-consuming reassignment implementations in iterations. Accordingly, we introduce a more practical way to locally linearize the DKA objective and the difficult task is cast as a sequence of easier ones. Since DKA only focuses on the feature assignment part, it seamlessly collaborates with other discriminative learning approaches, e.g., discriminant dictionary learning or multiple kernel learning, for even better performances. Experimental evaluations on multiple benchmark datasets verify that DKA outperforms other image assignment approaches and exhibits significant efficiency in feature coding.

  19. Experienced discrimination in home mortgage lending

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secchi, Davide; Seri, Raffaello

    2017-01-01

    This article proposes a framework for the analysis of experienced discrimination in home mortgages. It addresses the problem of home mortgage lending discrimination in one of the richest areas of northern Italy. Employees of a local hospital were interviewed to study their perception (or experience......) of discriminatory behavior related to home financing. The analysis follows two steps. The first evaluates self-selection (the probability that individuals apply) and the second focuses on the likelihood that applications are accepted by the bank. Findings show that discrimination is likely to appear when...... the applicant’s nationality is considered. In addition to its findings, the study (a) provides an original econometric model on a two-step procedure to test perceived discrimination and (b) suggests a method and approach that may constitute a point of reference for those willing to study perceived...

  20. 基于多标签核判别分析的人脸身份与性别识别方法%Face and gender recognition method based on multi-label kernel discriminant analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晓彦; 郑文明; 辛明海

    2014-01-01

    为解决多标签线性判别分析(MLDA)方法在非线性维数约简方面的局限性,提出了一种多标签核判别分析(MKDA)方法,并将其用于人脸的身份与性别识别中.该方法的基本思想是通过非线性映射将训练样本从输入空间映射到高维核特征空间中,并在该特征空间中进行基于MLDA的数据降维.在身份和性别识别中,首先采用MKDA方法对人脸图像特征向量进行降维,获取判别特征矢量集;其次,为每幅人脸图像赋予一个表征身份和性别的多标签类别矢量;最后,采用减秩回归模型(RRR)描述判别特征矢量与多标签类别矢量之间的回归关系,并利用该模型进行未知人脸的身份和性别识别.AR人脸数据库上的实验结果表明:在人脸身份和性别识别中,MKDA方法的识别率高于传统核判别分析(KDA)方法.%A multi-label kernel discriminant analysis(MKDA)method is proposed to overcome the limitation of multi-label linear discriminant analysis (MLDA)on nonlinear dimensionality reduction, and applied to the recognition of face and gender.The basic idea of the MKDA method is to map the training data samples from the input data space to a high-dimensional kernel feature space via a non-linear mapping and then to perform data reduction based on the MLDA method in the feature space. During the recognition of face and gender,the dimensionality of the face image feature vectors is firstly reduced by using the MKDA method and a set of discriminative feature vector set is obtained. Then,a multi-label class vector indicating the class membership of face and gender is assigned to each face image.Finally,a reduced-rank regression (RRR)model is built to describe the relation-ship between the discriminative facial feature vectors and multi-label class vectors,and is applied to the face and gender recognition of an unknown face image.The experimental results on AR face da-tabase show

  1. 基于判别空间条件熵加权的土地覆盖分类方法研究%A Weighted Method Using Conditional Entropy for Land Cover Mapping Based on Discriminant Space Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游炯; 张景雄

    2012-01-01

    针对遥感专题类别信息的机理问题,从土地覆盖参考数据的偏差程度对分类精度的影响角度,提出了一种基于判别空间条件熵加权的土地覆盖分类方法.引入判别空间模型概念,基于此模型生成土地覆盖数据类别,并分析了土地覆盖信息类别与数据类别的语义偏差出现的深层次原因;计算信息类别与数据类别的对应关系矩阵,据此得到二者的条件熵,实现对土地覆盖信息类别与数据类别的语义偏差的量化;根据信息类别与数据类别的条件熵计算修正判别变量的权重因子,实现基于判别空间条件熵加权的土地覆盖分类.采用一景SPOT-5影像进行分类实验,并利用同一地区的Landsat 5 TM影像进行方法验证.实验表明,条件熵加权修正方法使土地覆盖分类精度有了显著提高,并对不同分辨率的遥感影像具有适用性.%In allusion to problems on the mechanism of thematic category information of remote sensing,and on the consideration of the semantic bias existed in different land cover reference data which has large influence on the classification accuracy, a weighted method using conditional entropy for land cover mapping based on discriminant space model is suggested in this paper. Discriminant space models,according to which land cover with respect to data classes can be generated,are introduced. Based on these models in discriminant space, the deep seated reasons of the semantic bias existed between land cover with respect to information classes and data classes are analyzed. Correspondence matrix between land cover with respect to information classes and data classes is generated,and the conditional entropies of land cover types with respect to information classes and data classes are also obtained, which realize the quantification of the semantic bias existed between land cover with respect to information classes and data classes. Then,weight factors to realize discriminant

  2. Noncontact discrimination of animal and human blood with vacuum blood vessel and factors affect the discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linna; Zhang, Shengzhao; Sun, Meixiu; Li, Hongxiao; Li, Yingxin; Fu, Zhigang; Guan, Yang; Li, Gang; Lin, Ling

    2017-03-01

    Discrimination of human and nonhuman blood is crucial for import-export ports and inspection and quarantine departments. Current methods are usually destructive, complicated and time-consuming. We had previously demonstrated that visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy combining PLS-DA method can successfully realize human blood discrimination. In that research, the spectra were measured with the fiber probe under the surface of blood samples. However, open sampling may pollute the blood samples. Virulence factors in blood samples can also endanger inspectors. In this paper, we explored the classification effect with the blood samples measured in the original containers-vacuum blood vessel. Furthermore, we studied the impact of different conditions of blood samples, such as coagulation and hemolysis, on the prediction ability of the discrimination model. The calibration model built with blood samples in different conditions displayed a satisfactory prediction result. This research demonstrated that visible and near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy method was potential for noncontact discrimination of human blood.

  3. Aptitude Tests and Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coupland, D. E.

    1970-01-01

    Explains why in the United States the feeling is increasing that much of the aptitude testing now being done discriminates against minority group members seeking employment. Skeptical of eliminating the discriminatory aspects of testing, the article raises the question of eliminating testing itself. (DM)

  4. A Lesson in Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chotiner, Barbara; Hameroff-Cohen, Wendy

    1994-01-01

    Public high school students with deafness vividly learned about the realities of discrimination when they were informed of "new rules for deaf students," which required that they wear "deaf badges" in school, follow a strict dress code, and so on. After the "new rules" hoax was revealed, students' feelings and reactions to the situation were…

  5. Sex Discrimination in Coaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessem, Lawrence

    1980-01-01

    Even in situations in which the underpayment of girls' coaches is due to the sex of the students coached rather than to the sex of the coaches, the coaches and the girls coached are victims of unlawful discrimination. Available from Harvard Women's Law Journal, Harvard Law School, Cambridge, MA 02138. (Author/IRT)

  6. Education and Gender Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumi, V. S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the status of women education in present education system and some measures to overcome the lags existing. Discrimination against girls and women in the developing world is a devastating reality. It results in millions of individual tragedies, which add up to lost potential for entire countries. Gender bias in education is an…

  7. Discrimination. Opposing Viewpoints Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Mary E., Ed.

    Books in the Opposing Viewpoints series challenge readers to question their own opinions and assumptions. By reading carefully balanced views, readers confront new ideas on the topic of interest. The Civil Rights Act of 1964, which prohibited job discrimination based on age, race, religion, gender, or national origin, provided the groundwork for…

  8. Reversing Discrimination: A Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pati, Gopal; Reilly, Charles W.

    1977-01-01

    Examines the debate over affirmative action and reverse discrimination, and discusses how and why the present dilemma has developed. Suggests that organizations can best address the problem through an honest, in-depth analysis of their organizational structure and management practices. (JG)

  9. Immunological self, nonself discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guillet, J G; Lai, M Z; Briner, T J

    1987-01-01

    The ability of immunodominant peptides derived from several antigen systems to compete with each other for T cell activation was studied. Only peptides restricted by a given transplantation antigen are mutually competitive. There is a correlation between haplotype restriction, ability to bind to ...... that provides a basis for explaining self, nonself discrimination as well as alloreactivity....

  10. Analytic boosted boson discrimination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larkoski, Andrew J.; Moult, Ian; Neill, Duff [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2016-05-20

    Observables which discriminate boosted topologies from massive QCD jets are of great importance for the success of the jet substructure program at the Large Hadron Collider. Such observables, while both widely and successfully used, have been studied almost exclusively with Monte Carlo simulations. In this paper we present the first all-orders factorization theorem for a two-prong discriminant based on a jet shape variable, D{sub 2}, valid for both signal and background jets. Our factorization theorem simultaneously describes the production of both collinear and soft subjets, and we introduce a novel zero-bin procedure to correctly describe the transition region between these limits. By proving an all orders factorization theorem, we enable a systematically improvable description, and allow for precision comparisons between data, Monte Carlo, and first principles QCD calculations for jet substructure observables. Using our factorization theorem, we present numerical results for the discrimination of a boosted Z boson from massive QCD background jets. We compare our results with Monte Carlo predictions which allows for a detailed understanding of the extent to which these generators accurately describe the formation of two-prong QCD jets, and informs their usage in substructure analyses. Our calculation also provides considerable insight into the discrimination power and calculability of jet substructure observables in general.

  11. Discrimination Learning in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochocki, Thomas E.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Examined the learning performance of 192 fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade children on either a two or four choice simultaneous color discrimination task. Compared the use of verbal reinforcement and/or punishment, under conditions of either complete or incomplete instructions. (Author/SDH)

  12. Discrimination and its Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Clarence

    1983-01-01

    Reviews challenges facing Black professionals committed to further promoting civil rights. Focuses on the Federal government role, particularly regarding racial discrimination in employment. Warns against the acceptance of orthodoxies, and calls for new action and the exercising of intellectual freedom. (KH)

  13. A Method of Discriminating Microblog Topic Position based on the Text Classiifcation with Correlation of Subject%一种基于主题相关性分类的微博话题立场研判方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王明元; 贾焰; 周斌; 黄九鸣

    2014-01-01

    How to discriminate accurately the microblog topic position is one of the highlights in the short essay mining. This paper proposes a method based on the text classiifcation with correlation of subject, which can discriminate users for the topic who is to support or oppose. The correlation of subject often leads to the text that have greatly different features. The method first obtain the topic keywords by extraction technology and mutual information, then classify the text to conversation corpus with the correlation of subject, at last adopt different method to analyze the comprehensive microblog topic position. The experimental results show that the method of correlated adopting machine learning and the uncorrelated adopting dictionary can greatly improve the discrimination accuracy. On this basis, we construct a model, can be used for the relevant government departments to monitor the Internet public opinion and business evaluate the products market, etc.%对微博话题的立场进行精确研判是短文本挖掘的重点之一。文章提出了一种基于主题相关性对微博分类研判的方法,旨在识别网民对于微博话题的立场,是支持还是反对。微博和主题的相关性大小,常常会导致其文本特征有较大差异。文章首先利用关键词提取技术和互信息计算方法获取话题主题词集,接着对话题语料按是否与主题相关进行分类,然后分别采用机器学习和词典规则两种方法进行研判,综合得到话题的立场。实验结果表明,主题相关文本采用机器学习而主题无关文本采用词典规则的方法可以大大提高研判准确率。以此为基础,文章构建了一个微博话题立场研判模型,可用于政府有关部门监测互联网舆情以及企业评估产品市场等方面。

  14. Examining Workplace Discrimination in a Discrimination-Free Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Braxton, Shawn Lamont

    2010-01-01

    Examining Workplace Discrimination in a Discrimination-Free Environment Shawn L. Braxton Abstract The purpose of this study is to explore how racial and gender discrimination is reproduced in concrete workplace settings even when anti-discrimination policies are present, and to understand the various reactions utilized by those who commonly experience it. I have selected a particular medical center, henceforth referred to by a pseudonym, â The Bliley Medical Centerâ as my case ...

  15. The relative merits of discriminating and non-discriminating dosemeters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marshal, T. O.; Christensen, Palle; Julius, H. W.;

    1986-01-01

    The need for discriminating and non-discriminating personal dosemeters in the field of radiological protection is examined. The ability of various types of dosemeter to meet these needs is also discussed. It is concluded that there is a need for discriminating dosemeters but in the majority of ca...

  16. Discrimination between long-range transport and local pollution sources and precise delineation of polluted soil layers using integrated geophysical-geochemical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magiera, Tadeusz; Szuszkiewisz, Marcin; Szuszkiewicz, Maria; Żogała, Bogdan

    2017-04-01

    The primary goal of this work was to distinguish between soil pollution from long-range and local transport of atmospheric pollutants using soil magnetometry in combination with geochemical analyses and precise delineation of polluted soil layers by using integrated magnetic (surface susceptibility, gradiometric measurement) and other geophysical techniques (conductivity and electrical resistivity tomography). The study area was located in the Izery region of Poland (within the "Black Triangle" region, which is the nickname for one of Europe's most polluted areas, where Germany, Poland and the Czech Republic meet). The study area was located in the Forest Glade where the historical local pollution source (glass factory) was active since and of 18th until the end of 19th century. The magnetic signal here was the combination of long-range transport of magnetic particles, local deposition and anthropogenic layers containing ashes and slags and partly comprising the subsoil of modern soil. Application of the set of different geophysical techniques enabled the precise location of these layers. The effect of the long-range pollution transport was observed on a neighboring hill (Granicznik) of which the western, northwestern and southwestern parts of the slope were exposed to the transport of atmospheric pollutants from the Czech Republic and Germany and Poland. Using soil magnetometry, it was possible to discriminate between long-range transport of atmospheric pollutants and anthropogenic pollution related to the former glasswork located in the Forest Glade. The magnetic susceptibility values (κ) as well as the number of "hot-spots" of volume magnetic susceptibility is significantly larger in the Forest Glade than on the Granicznik Hill where the κ is fact that the western part was subjected mostly to the long-range pollution originating from lignite power plants along the Polish border, while the southeastern part of the hill was shielded by crag and tail formation

  17. Probabilistic models for semisupervised discriminative motif discovery in DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Kyoung; Choi, Seungjin

    2011-01-01

    Methods for discriminative motif discovery in DNA sequences identify transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs), searching only for patterns that differentiate two sets (positive and negative sets) of sequences. On one hand, discriminative methods increase the sensitivity and specificity of motif discovery, compared to generative models. On the other hand, generative models can easily exploit unlabeled sequences to better detect functional motifs when labeled training samples are limited. In this paper, we develop a hybrid generative/discriminative model which enables us to make use of unlabeled sequences in the framework of discriminative motif discovery, leading to semisupervised discriminative motif discovery. Numerical experiments on yeast ChIP-chip data for discovering DNA motifs demonstrate that the best performance is obtained between the purely-generative and the purely-discriminative and the semisupervised learning improves the performance when labeled sequences are limited.

  18. Employment Age Discrimination on Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄捧

    2015-01-01

    Employment age discrimination against women is not an unusual phenomenon in China.Through describing the present situation and negative effect of this phenomenon,this paper claims laws are very important weapon to eliminate age discrimination against women.

  19. Finger dexterity and visual discrimination following two yoga breathing practices

    OpenAIRE

    Shirley Telles; Nilkamal Singh; Acharya Balkrishna

    2012-01-01

    Background: Practicing yoga has been shown to improve motor functions and attention. Though attention is required for fine motor and discrimination tasks, the effect of yoga breathing techniques on fine motor skills and visual discrimination has not been assessed. Aim: To study the effect of yoga breathing techniques on finger dexterity and visual discrimination. Materials and Methods: The present study consisted of one hundred and forty subjects who had enrolled for stress management...

  20. Price Discrimination: A Classroom Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiló, Paula; Sard, Maria; Tugores, Maria

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe a classroom experiment aimed at familiarizing students with different types of price discrimination (first-, second-, and third-degree price discrimination). During the experiment, the students were asked to decide what tariffs to set as monopolists for each of the price discrimination scenarios under…

  1. Price Discrimination: Lessons for Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynes, E. Scott

    1990-01-01

    Explains price and product discrimination, showing how intelligent consumers can achieve increased purchasing power of their income and discusses how consumer educators can explain this discrimination. Evaluates the pros and cons of price/product discrimination from the social viewpoint. (Author/JOW)

  2. Transgender Discrimination and the Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, Richard

    2010-01-01

    An emerging area of law is developing regarding sex/gender identity discrimination, also referred to as transgender discrimination, as distinguished from discrimination based on sexual orientation. A transgendered individual is defined as "a person who has a gender-identity disorder which is a persistent discomfort about one?s assigned sex or…

  3. Racial Discrimination and Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Ross Levine; Alexey Levkov; Yona Rubinstein

    2008-01-01

    This paper assesses the impact of competition on racial discrimination. The dismantling of inter- and intrastate bank restrictions by U.S. states from the mid-1970s to the mid-1990s reduced financial market imperfections, lowered entry barriers facing nonfinancial firms, and boosted the rate of new firm formation. We use bank deregulation to identify an exogenous intensification of competition in the nonfinancial sector, and evaluate its impact on the racial wage gap, which is that component ...

  4. Optimal time discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Coşkun, Filiz; Sayalı, Zeynep Ceyda; Gürbüz, Emine; Balcı, Fuat

    2015-01-01

    Optimal Time Discrimination Journal: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology Manuscript ID: QJE-STD 14-039.R1 Manuscript Type: Standard Article Date Submitted by the Author: n/a Complete List of Authors: Çoskun, Filiz; Koç University, Psychology Sayalı Ungerer, Zeynep; Koç University, Psychology Gürbüz, Emine; Koç University, Psychology Balcı, Fuat; Koç University, Psychology Keywords: Decision making, Interval Timing, Optimality, Response Times, Temporal ...

  5. 外形轮廓法识别南海沿岸4个文蛤地理群体%Discriminating Four Geographical Populations of Meretrix meretrix Based on Outline Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白秀娟; 侯刚; 冯波

    2015-01-01

    35, 34, 35, 37Meretrix meretrixs were collected from the four sea areas of Beihai, Fangchenggang, Haikou and Zhanjiang, respectively, in the South China Sea Coast from October 2013 to March 2014. Shell contours were extracted and digitized by image processing, and converted to binary image, converted elliptic Fourier descriptor (EFDs) by the SHAPE. The EFDs were then identified by using principal component analysis (PCA) and gradual discrimination analysis (GDA). The result indicated that the three principal components (PCs) accounted for 80.67% of the total variation, in which the first PC accounted for 49.72%. The GDA of EFDs indicated that exactitude distinguishing accuracy of four geographical populations (GPs) were among 65.7%-94.6%, and the cross validation were among 60.0%-94.6%. The lowest accuracy of the four areas appeared when discriminating the population in Haikou while the highest appeared when discriminating the population in Zhanjiang. The average exactitude distinguishing accuracy is 78%. And the cross validation were among 60.0%-94.6%. The lowest and the highest distinguishing accuracy appeared when discriminating populations in Haikou and Zhanjiang respectively. The average exactitude distinguishing accuracy is 74.5%. It indicated that outline method was effective in discriminatingMeretrix meretrix from the four sea areas.%2013年10月至2014年3月在北海、防城港、海口和湛江4个海区分别采集35、34、35、37只文蛤样本,用外形轮廓法对各群体进行判别。通过 SHAPE 软件采集傅里叶函数解析出文蛤的外形轮廓参数,并对其进行主成分分析和判别分析。结果表明,前3个主成分共解释外形轮廓信息量的80.67%,其中第1主成分占49.72%。判别分析的逐步判定中,对4个海区文蛤的正确判定率为65.7%~94.6%,判定率最低的是海口群体,判定率最高的为湛江群体,平均正确判定率达到78%;交叉判定中,正确判定率为60

  6. Discrimination in lexical decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Laurie Beth; Ramscar, Michael; Hendrix, Peter; Baayen, R. Harald

    2017-01-01

    In this study we present a novel set of discrimination-based indicators of language processing derived from Naive Discriminative Learning (ndl) theory. We compare the effectiveness of these new measures with classical lexical-distributional measures—in particular, frequency counts and form similarity measures—to predict lexical decision latencies when a complete morphological segmentation of masked primes is or is not possible. Data derive from a re-analysis of a large subset of decision latencies from the English Lexicon Project, as well as from the results of two new masked priming studies. Results demonstrate the superiority of discrimination-based predictors over lexical-distributional predictors alone, across both the simple and primed lexical decision tasks. Comparable priming after masked corner and cornea type primes, across two experiments, fails to support early obligatory segmentation into morphemes as predicted by the morpho-orthographic account of reading. Results fit well with ndl theory, which, in conformity with Word and Paradigm theory, rejects the morpheme as a relevant unit of analysis. Furthermore, results indicate that readers with greater spelling proficiency and larger vocabularies make better use of orthographic priors and handle lexical competition more efficiently. PMID:28235015

  7. Workplace discrimination and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Maureen A; Fabian, Ellen; Hurley, Jessica E; McMahon, Brian T; West, Steven L

    2007-01-01

    Data from the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) Integrated Mission System database were analyzed with specific reference to allegations of workplace discrimination filed by individuals with cancer under ADA Title One. These 6,832 allegations, filed between July 27, 1992 and September 30, 2003, were compared to 167,798 allegations from a general disability population on the following dimensions: type of workplace discrimination; demographic characteristics of the charging parties (CPs); the industry designation, location, and size of employers; and the outcome or resolution of EEOC investigations. Results showed allegations derived from CPs with cancer were more likely than those in the general disability population to include issues involving discharge, terms and conditions of employment, lay-off, wages, and demotion. Compared to the general disability group, CPs with cancer were more likely to be female, older, and White. Allegations derived from CPs with cancer were also more likely to be filed against smaller employers (15-100 workers) or those in service industries. Finally, the resolution of allegations by CPs with cancer were more likely to be meritorious than those filed from the general disability population; that is, actual discrimination is more likely to have occurred.

  8. [Comment on] Statistical discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, Douglas

    In the December 8, 1981, issue of Eos, a news item reported the conclusion of a National Research Council study that sexual discrimination against women with Ph.D.'s exists in the field of geophysics. Basically, the item reported that even when allowances are made for motherhood the percentage of female Ph.D.'s holding high university and corporate positions is significantly lower than the percentage of male Ph.D.'s holding the same types of positions. The sexual discrimination conclusion, based only on these statistics, assumes that there are no basic psychological differences between men and women that might cause different populations in the employment group studied. Therefore, the reasoning goes, after taking into account possible effects from differences related to anatomy, such as women stopping their careers in order to bear and raise children, the statistical distributions of positions held by male and female Ph.D.'s ought to be very similar to one another. Any significant differences between the distributions must be caused primarily by sexual discrimination.

  9. Development of mother discrimination by single and multiple newborn lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, R; Poindron, P; Putu, I G

    1989-12-01

    Most research on recognition of the ewe by her lamb has focused on lambs several days or even several weeks old, whereas newly born lambs have received little attention. The aim of this work was therefore to study the attraction of Merino lambs to postparturient ewes and their ability to discriminate between their own and alien mothers in a two-choice situation 12, 18, 24, 48, and 72 hr after birth. A comparison between singles and multiples was also made in 18 and 24-hr-old lambs. When released in the testing pen, approximately 90% of the lambs in each group (older than 12 hr) spent more than 3 min with the two ewes during the 5-min test. It was only from 24 hr old, however, that a high proportion of lambs spent at least two-thirds of this time close to their own mothers (correct choice). The proportion of singles spending more than 3 min with the ewes or making a correct choice was higher than that of multiples. This effect was related to litter size but not to birth weight. It is concluded that a majority of Merino lambs are clearly attracted to ewes by the time they are 18 hr old and can discriminate their own dams from alien mothers at about 24 hr of age. At this stage singles perform better than multiples.

  10. 一种基于MR数据空间分布的网络格局判别方法%A Network Pattern Discriminating Method Based on Spatial Distribution of MR Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许景渊; 杨沣

    2016-01-01

    In order to dig up and present existing problems from large amount of MR data, and put forward effective solutions, the paper analyzed the problem of ifxing position of MR data, and transformed it into the problem of ifnding the maximum probability of perceived weak area, then using the method of data mining and grid-clustering, proposed a new method for locating MR data accurately and discriminating network pattern exactly. Taking MR data analysis in a certain area as an example, the paper processed MR data, constructed indicators, discriminated network pattern and put forward solutions, which veriifed the model’s effectiveness, providing a new way of MR data analysis.%为了从海量MR数据中挖掘和呈现网络存在的问题,并提出行之有效的解决方案,通过分析MR数据定位难题,将MR定位问题转化为寻找最大概率感知弱区问题,应用数据挖掘及网格聚类手段,提出了一种MR数据精准评估及网络格局判别方法。并以某地MR数据为例,进行数据处理、指标构造、格局判别以及方案提出,验证了该模型的有效性,为MR数据分析提供了一种新思路。

  11. 提高塑料闪烁体n/γ甄别能力的一种新途径%A New Method of Increasing Neutron/gamma Discrimination of Plastic Scintillator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯璟华; 彭太平; 蒙世坚

    2011-01-01

    Plastic scintillator is usually used to detect neutrons in high power pulsed neutron/gamma mixed radiation field. Since gamma rays can make background signals in the scintillator, it needs to take some measures to increase neutron/gamma discrimination. Based on the fact that electrons are much more easily deflected than protons in magnetic field, this text proposes a new method of increasing neutron/gamma discrimination of plastic scintillator. The Geant4 simulation indicates that the new method can be used to measure neutrons in fission mixed radiation field where, in some cases, gamma flux might be as high as two orders of magnitude of neutron flux.%在强脉冲束中子、γ混合辐射场中,一般使用塑料闪烁体探测器测量中子注量,为了尽可能地减少γ辐射的干扰,需要提高塑料闪烁体的n/γ甄别能力.利用电子与质子在磁场中的偏转半径不同,提出一种提高塑料闪烁体n/γ甄别能力的新途径,并采用Geant4输运程序探讨了该探测方法的可行性,模拟结果表明:该方法使用较薄的闪烁体和磁铁构成探测系统,可用于探测γ注量高于中子注量1~2个量级的强γ裂变辐射场中子.

  12. Vigilance in the discrimination-stress model for Black Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmelstein, Mary S.; Young, Danielle M.; Sanchez, Diana T.; Jackson, James S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Daily events of discrimination are important factors in understanding health disparities. Vigilant coping, or protecting against anticipated discrimination by monitoring and modifying behaviour, is an understudied mechanism that may link discrimination and health outcomes. This study investigates how responding to everyday discrimination with anticipatory vigilance relates to the health of Black men and women. Methods Black adults (N = 221) from the Detroit area completed measures of discrimination, adverse life events, vigilance coping, stress, depressive symptoms and self-reported health. Results Vigilance coping strategies mediated the relationship between discrimination and stress. Multi-group path analysis revealed that stress in turn was associated with increased depression in men and women. Self-reported health consequences of stress differed between men and women. Conclusions Vigilance coping mediates the link between discrimination and stress, and stress has consequences for health outcomes resulting from discrimination. More research is needed to understand other underlying contributors to discrimination, stress and poor health outcomes as well as to create potential interventions to ameliorate health outcomes in the face of discrimination-related stress. PMID:25247925

  13. Cloud type discrimination via multispectral textural analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamei, Niloufar; Crawford, Melba M.; Hutchison, Keith D.; Khazenie, Nahid

    1993-09-01

    One of the primary interests in digital image processing is the development of robust methods to perform feature detection, extraction, and classification. Until recently, classification methods for cloud discrimination were mainly based on the spectral information of the imagery. However, because of the spectral similarities of certain features (such as ice clouds and snow) and the effects of atmospheric attenuation, multi-spectral rule based classifications do not necessarily produce accurate feature discrimination. Spectral homogeneity of two different features within a scene can lead to misclassification. Furthermore, the opposite problem can occur when one feature exhibits different spectral signatures locally but is homogeneous in its cyclic spatial variation. The exploration of spatial information is often advantageous in these discrimination problems. A texture-based method for feature identification has been investigated. This method uses a set of localized spatial filters known as two dimensional Gabor functions. Gabor filters can be described as a sinusoidal plane wave within a two-dimensional Gaussian envelope. The frequency and orientation of the sine plane and the width of the Gaussian envelope are determined by the Gabor parameters. These tunable channels yield joint optimal information both in the spatial and the frequency domains. The new method has been applied to the thermal channels of the NOAA-advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) data for cloud type discrimination.

  14. Discriminative stimulus effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in humans trained to discriminate among d-amphetamine, meta-chlorophenylpiperazine and placebo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johanson, Chris-Ellyn; Kilbey, Marlyne; Gatchalian, Kristin; Tancer, Manuel

    2006-01-04

    In animals, two-choice drug discrimination studies have demonstrated that the behavioral effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) are mediated by dopaminergic and serotonergic systems. In order to delineate the relative role of these systems, three-choice paradigms have been used in animals, with findings indicating a more prominent role for serotonin. Human studies assessing the subjective and physiological effects of MDMA have also indicated a mixed action. To parallel animal studies, the participants in the present study were trained to discriminate among a prototypic dopaminergic agonist, d-amphetamine, a prototypic serotonergic agonist, meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP) and placebo and then were tested with two doses of MDMA. In addition, subjective and physiological effects were measured. The results demonstrated that humans could be trained to discriminate among 20 mg d-amphetamine, 0.75 mg/kg mCPP and placebo. When tested with 1.0 and 1.5 mg/kg, half the participants reported MDMA to be like amphetamine and half like mCPP. There were no clear differences between these two groups in other dimensions, although there was an indication that the individuals who discriminated MDMA as d-amphetamine were more sensitive to the effects of all the drugs. The subjective effects of all three drugs overlapped, although the effects of MDMA appeared more amphetamine-like.

  15. Covariate-adjusted measures of discrimination for survival data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    White, Ian R; Rapsomaniki, Eleni; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    MOTIVATION: Discrimination statistics describe the ability of a survival model to assign higher risks to individuals who experience earlier events: examples are Harrell's C-index and Royston and Sauerbrei's D, which we call the D-index. Prognostic covariates whose distributions are controlled...... by the study design (e.g. age and sex) influence discrimination and can make it difficult to compare model discrimination between studies. Although covariate adjustment is a standard procedure for quantifying disease-risk factor associations, there are no covariate adjustment methods for discrimination...

  16. Polarization discrimination between repeater false-target and radar target

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI LongFei; WANG XueSong; XIAO ShunPing

    2009-01-01

    High fidelity repeater false-target badly affects a radar system's detecting, tracking, and data processing. It is an available approach of confronting false-target for radar that discriminates firstly and then eliminates. Whereas for the technique progress about the repeater false-target jam, it is more and more difficult to discriminate this jam in the time-domain, frequency-domain, or space-domain. The technique using polarization information to discriminate the target and false-target is discussed in this paper. With the difference that false-target signal vector's polarization ratio is fixed and target echo signal vector's polarization ratio is variational along with radar transmission signal's polarization, we transform the discrimination problem to beeline distinguish problem in the 2-dim complex space. The distributing characteristic expression of the false-target discrimination statistic is constructed, with which the discrimination ratio of false-target is analyzed. For the target case, the decomposed model of target scattering matrix and the concept of distinguish quantity are proposed. Then, the discrimination ratio of target can be forecasted according to target distinguish quantity. Thus, the performance of discrimination method has been analyzed integrally. The simulation results demonstrate the method in this paper is effective on the discrimination of target and false-target.

  17. Discriminative Structured Dictionary Learning for Image Classification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王萍; 兰俊花; 臧玉卫; 宋占杰

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a discriminative structured dictionary learning algorithm is presented. To enhance the dictionary’s discriminative power, the reconstruction error, classification error and inhomogeneous representation error are integrated into the objective function. The proposed approach learns a single structured dictionary and a linear classifier jointly. The learned dictionary encourages the samples from the same class to have similar sparse codes, and the samples from different classes to have dissimilar sparse codes. The solution to the objective function is achieved by employing a feature-sign search algorithm and Lagrange dual method. Experimental results on three public databases demonstrate that the proposed approach outperforms several recently proposed dictionary learning techniques for classification.

  18. Analysis of clinical laboratory data by biplot methods using a three-dimensional display: discrimination of renal stone-patients with idiopathic hypercalciuria and primary hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschöpe, W; Schmidt-Gayk, H; Ritz, E; Weber, E; Berger, J

    1979-08-01

    The biplot technique is a very useful graphical method to display the relationships between row and column characteristics in two-way tables. This method is applicable as long as the rank-2 approximation explains a large part (e.g. 95%) of the whole variability. However, since in large tables only a rank-3 approximation will yield such a high degree of explanation, a three-dimensional biplot technique has been introduced, using a 3d-screen as a matter of presentation of clinical laboratory data. The value of such a procedure is illustrated using as a clinical example a patient population with recurrent renal stone formation due either to primary hyperparathyroidism or to idiopathic hypercalciuria.

  19. Discriminative syntactic reranking for statistical machine translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carter, S.; Monz, C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a method that successfully exploits simple syntactic features for n-best translation candidate reranking using perceptrons. Our approach uses discriminative language modelling to rerank the n-best translations generated by a statistical machine translation system. The performanc

  20. Optimal Experimental Design for Model Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myung, Jay I.; Pitt, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    Models of a psychological process can be difficult to discriminate experimentally because it is not easy to determine the values of the critical design variables (e.g., presentation schedule, stimulus structure) that will be most informative in differentiating them. Recent developments in sampling-based search methods in statistics make it…

  1. Discriminative power of visual attributes in dermatology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giotis, Ioannis; Visser, Margaretha; Jonkman, Marcel; Petkov, Nicolai

    Background/purpose: Visual characteristics such as color and shape of skin lesions play an important role in the diagnostic process. In this contribution, we quantify the discriminative power of such attributes using an information theoretical approach. Methods: We estimate the probability of

  2. [Discrimination and depression in ethnic minority groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikram, U.Z.; Snijder, M.B.; Fassaert, T.J.; Schene, A.H.; Kunst, A.E.; Stronks, K.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the contribution of perceived ethnic discrimination to depression in various ethnic minority groups in Amsterdam. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHOD: We included participants aged 18-70 years of Dutch (n = 1,744), Asian Surinamese (n = 1,126), Creole Surinamese (n = 1,770)

  3. Group-specific PCR-RFLP and real-time PCR methods for detection and tentative discrimination of strictly anaerobic beer-spoilage bacteria of the class Clostridia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvonen, Riikka; Koivula, Teija; Haikara, Auli

    2008-07-15

    The strictly anaerobic brewery contaminants of the genera Pectinatus, Megasphaera, Selenomonas and Zymophilus in the class Clostridia constitute an important group of spoilage bacteria of unpasteurised, packaged beers. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate group-specific PCR methods to detect and differentiate these bacteria in beer. A group-specific primer pair targeting a 342-bp variable region of the 16S rRNA gene was designed and evaluated in end-point PCR with gel electrophoresis and in real-time PCR with SYBR Green I dye. Significant cross-reactions with DNAs from any of the forty-two brewery-related, non-target microbes or from real brewery samples were not detected in either PCR system. The group-specific end-point and real-time PCR products could be differentiated according to species/genus and spoilage potential using restriction fragment length polymorphism (KpnI, XmnI, BssHII, ScaI) and melting point curve analysis, respectively. In combination with a rapid DNA extraction method, the PCR reactions detected ca 10(0)-10(3) CFU per 25 ml of beer depending on the strain and on the PCR system. The end-point and real-time PCR analysis took 6-7 h and 2-3 h, respectively. Pre-PCR enrichment of beer samples for 1-3 days ensured the detection of even a single cultivable cell. The PCR and cultivation results of real brewery samples were mostly congruent but the PCR methods were occasionally more sensitive. The PCR methods developed allow the detection of all the nine beer-spoilage Pectinatus, Megasphaera, Selenomonas and Zymophilus species in a single reaction and their differentiation below group level and reduce the analysis time for testing of their presence in beer samples by 1-2 days. The methods can be applied for brewery routine quality control and for studying occurrence, diversity and numbers of the strictly anaerobic beer spoilers in the brewing process.

  4. Discriminative Hash Tracking With Group Sparsity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Dandan; Zhang, Lihe; Lu, Huchuan; Mei, Xue; Li, Xiaoli

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel tracking framework based on discriminative supervised hashing algorithm. Different from previous methods, we treat tracking as a problem of object matching in a binary space. Using the hash functions, all target templates and candidates are mapped into compact binary codes, with which the target matching is conducted effectively. To be specific, we make full use of the label information to assign a compact and discriminative binary code for each sample. And to deal with out-of-sample case, multiple hash functions are trained to describe the learned binary codes, and group sparsity is introduced to the hash projection matrix to select the representative and discriminative features dynamically, which is crucial for the tracker to adapt to target appearance variations. The whole training problem is formulated as an optimization function where the hash codes and hash function are learned jointly. Extensive experiments on various challenging image sequences demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed tracker.

  5. Quantile forecast discrimination ability and value

    CERN Document Server

    Bouallegue, Zied Ben; Friederichs, Petra

    2015-01-01

    While probabilistic forecast verification for categorical forecasts is well established, some of the existing concepts and methods have not found their equivalent for the case of continuous variables. New tools dedicated to the assessment of forecast discrimination ability and forecast value are introduced here, based on quantile forecasts being the base product for the continuous case (hence in a nonparametric framework). The relative user characteristic (RUC) curve and the quantile value plot allow analysing the performance of a forecast for a specific user in a decision-making framework. The RUC curve is designed as a user-based discrimination tool and the quantile value plot translates forecast discrimination ability in terms of economic value. The relationship between the overall value of a quantile forecast and the respective quantile skill score is also discussed. The application of these new verification approaches and tools is illustrated based on synthetic datasets, as well as for the case of global...

  6. Kernel Partial Least Squares for Nonlinear Regression and Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosipal, Roman; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper summarizes recent results on applying the method of partial least squares (PLS) in a reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS). A previously proposed kernel PLS regression model was proven to be competitive with other regularized regression methods in RKHS. The family of nonlinear kernel-based PLS models is extended by considering the kernel PLS method for discrimination. Theoretical and experimental results on a two-class discrimination problem indicate usefulness of the method.

  7. Robust discriminative response map fitting with constrained local models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asthana, Akshay; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Cheng, Shiyang; Pantic, Maja

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel discriminative regression based approach for the Constrained Local Models (CLMs) framework, referred to as the Discriminative Response Map Fitting (DRMF) method, which shows impressive performance in the generic face fitting scenario. The motivation behind this approach is that, u

  8. Perceptual Adaptation of Voice Gender Discrimination with Spectrally Shifted Vowels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianhao; Fu, Qian-Jie

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether perceptual adaptation improves voice gender discrimination of spectrally shifted vowels and, if so, which acoustic cues contribute to the improvement. Method: Voice gender discrimination was measured for 10 normal-hearing subjects, during 5 days of adaptation to spectrally shifted vowels, produced by processing the…

  9. Discrimination, Mastery, and Depressive Symptoms among African American Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Daphne C.; Hudson, Darrell L.; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Siefert, Kristine; Jackson, James S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the influence of discrimination and mastery on depressive symptoms for African American men at young (18-34), middle (35-54), and late (55+) adulthood. Method: Analyses are based on responses from 1,271 African American men from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL). Results: Discrimination was significantly…

  10. Equal Opportunities between Men and Women and Gender Mainstreaming under the European Employment Strategy (EES and the Open Method of Coordination (OMC – A New Policy Approach to Combat Gender Discrimination?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beate Braams

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyse the development of the concepts of equal opportunities between men and women and gender mainstreaming with regard to a new policy approach taken outside the traditional community method and to raise the question to what extent these policy instruments can be considered as a 'new tool' to combat gender discrimination. The European Employment Strategy (EES and the Open Method of Coordination (OMC are two examples of an instrument outside the community method, which tries to increase the recognition of the gender dimension of the labour market and to improve the initiatives taken in the interrelated field of social inclusion of women by the use of 'soft' policy instruments and voluntarist procedures. The paper illustrates the development of the concept of equal opportunities between men and women and gender mainstreaming under the EES and the OMC; more precisely, the paper seeks to demonstrate that the concepts of equal opportunities between men and women and gender mainstreaming cannot be addressed by reference to harmonisation instruments exclusively, but need, due to the diverse approach towards gender equality on a national level, a decentralised approach as it is offered by the coordination instrument, which should be understood as a complementary tool of integration.

  11. Method of gait recognition based on Modified Locality Sensitive Discriminant Analysis%基于改进的局部敏感判别分析的步态识别方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张善文; 巨春飞

    2012-01-01

    Compared with other widely used biometric feature recognition such as face and fingerprint recognition, the gait recognition is a relatively new and at a distance human identification. A method of gait recognition based on Modified Locality Sensitive Discriminant Analysis (MLSDA) method is proposed. The experimental results on the real-world gait databases show that the proposed method is effective and feasible for gait recognition.%相对于人脸和指纹等广泛使用的生物特征识别手段而言,步态识别是一种相对新的非接触式的身份识别方法.提出了一种基于改进的局部敏感判别分析的步态识别方法.在真实的步态数据库上的实验结果表明,提出的步态识别方法是有效可行的.

  12. New method to discriminate between cathepsin B and cathepsin L in crude extracts from fish muscle based on a simple acidification procedure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godiksen, Helene; Nielsen, Henrik Hauch

    2007-01-01

    A new and simple method to distinguish between cathepsin B and cathepsin L in crude extracts of herring (Clupea harengus) muscle has been established. An acid treatment of crude extracts (exposed to pH 3 for 5 min) activated a latent form of cathepsin L and inactivated cathepsin B. Furthermore......). Cathepsin B activity is measured in neutral extract using the specific cathepsin B substrate Z-Arg-Arg-MCA and cathepsin L activity is measured in acid-treated extract with Z-Phe-Arg-MCA as substrate. The specific cathepsin B inhibitor, CA-074, did not inhibit the Z-Arg-Arg-MCA significantly without...

  13. Optical methods and differential scanning calorimetry as a potential tool for discrimination of olive oils (extra virgin and mix with vegetable oils)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolova, Kr.; Yovcheva, T.; Marudova, M.; Eftimov, T.; Bodurov, I.; Viraneva, A.; Vlaeva, I.

    2016-03-01

    Eleven samples from olive oil have been investigated using four physical methods - refractive index measurement, fluorescence spectra, color parameters and differential scanning colorimetry. In pomace olive oil (POO) and extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) the oleic acid (65.24 %-78.40 %) predominates over palmitic (10.47 %-15.07 %) and linoleic (5.26 %-13.92 %) acids. The fluorescence spectra contain three peaks related to oxidation products at about λ = (500-540) nm, chlorophyll content at about λ = (675-680) nm and non determined pigments at λ = (700-750) nm. The melting point for EVOO and POO is between -1 °C and -6 °C. In contrast, the salad olive oils melt between -24 °C and -30 °C. The refractive index for EVOO is lower than that for mixed olive oils. The proposed physical methods could be used for fast and simple detection of vegetable oils in EVOO without use of chemical substances. The experimental results are in accordance with those obtained by chemical analysis.

  14. 基于模糊推理的交通拥堵判别方法%The Discrimination Method used for Traffic Jam based on Fuzzy Inference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张一鸣; 尹春桥; 王鹏

    2012-01-01

    文章从交通量、平均速度、天气条件、前一时段的拥堵状况等与交通拥堵有直接关系的模糊条件入手,根据确定的模糊集合和模糊规则,提出了一种用于交通拥堵判别的模糊推理算法,并利用GPS采集数据对算法进行了验证分析。结果表明,该模糊推理算法能准确判别道路的交通拥堵情况。%Starting from the fuzzy condition of direct relationship between traffic volume,average speed,weather condition,previous traffic jam condition and current traffic jam,the article proposes the a fuzzy inference calculation method based on fuzzy union and principle,and performs test analysis using GPS collecting data.The result shows that this method can dif-ferentiate the traffic jam condition.

  15. 几种自适应线性判别分析方法在肌电假肢控制中的应用研究%A Study of Different Linear Discriminant Analysis Methods in Myoelectric Prosthesis Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵曜楠; 张浩诗; 徐礼胜; 李光林

    2013-01-01

      体表肌电信号会随着外部或人体内部环境变化而发生改变,这种时变特征使得固定参数肌电模式分类器的分类精度会随着时间的延长而下降。为了获得具有稳定性能的肌电假肢控制系统,在肌电模式分类器中加入自适应机制是很有必要的。本文以传统线性判别分析(Linear Discriminant Analysis,LDA)为基础,尝试在肌电模式分类器中引入三种自适应方案,并探讨了这三种方案在肌电模式分类应用中的优缺点。初步研究表明:自增强线性判别分析(Self-enhancing LDA, SELDA)分类器和循环训练集线性判别(Cycle Substitution LDA,CSLDA)分类器都能够将识别准确率提升5%左右。其中,SELDA 是一种有效的自适应方案,而 CSLDA 可以得到更高的识别率提升和更好的稳定性,但是计算量较大,需要更大的代价。卡尔曼自适应线性判别(Kalman Adaptive LDA,KALDA)分类器单独使用效果不明显,需要进一步改进或结合其他方法使用。%When the surface electromyography (sEMG) signals change along with external or internal environment of the human body, general pattern classifiers will lead to a decrease of identification accuracy since they do not update their parameters adaptively. In order to adapt to the time-varying characteristics of sEMG signals, three kinds of adaptive algorithms for updating the parameters of a classifier during the use of artificial limb were introduced to improve the classification accuracy of time-variant sEMG signals. The pilot results of this study show that self-enhancing linear discriminant analysis is an effective solution and cycle substitution linear discriminant analysis presents the best performance but requires a large amount of calculations. The performance of the Kalman adaptive linear discriminant analysis is not prominent when it was used alone, and therefore it needs to be combined with other methods.

  16. 认知诊断中基于条件期望的距离判别方法%Distance Discrimination Method based on Conditional Expectation in Cognitive Diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪文义; 丁树良; 宋丽红

    2015-01-01

    The primary purpose for cognitive diagnostic assessment is to classify examinees into mutually exclusive categories. The current practice of obtaining classification categories relies on the distance between the ideal and observed response patterns, such as generalized distance discrimination method (Sun et al., 2011, 2013) and nonparametric approach (Chiu and Douglas, 2013). In these methods, an appropriate set of ideal response patterns can be computed from the universal set of knowledge states and a Q matrix (Tatsuoka, 1995; Leighton et al., 2004; Ding et al., 2009, 2010). However, the ideal response pattern is generated for each knowledge state without considering the stochastic nature of item response, which is contrary to real test situations. For example, examinees who have mastered some of attributes required to solve a particular item can have a higher probability of answering it correctly than less able examinees having mastered none of the attributes. The purpose of this study is focused on choosing the center for each of the classification categories or clusters that is representative of the data. Since this task probably requires knowledge on the distribution of the data, as a practical matter, it is often reasonable to assume that item response pattern is a random vector with a discrete conditional distribution for each knowledge state. The conditional expected vector is considered to be class-center. Once the center is decided for each knowledge state, observed responses pattern can be assigned to the closest class according to minimum Euclidean distance classifier, well-known for measuring the distance between observed response pattern and the center. This method is called distance discrimination method. The conditional distribution can be defined by item response function (IRF) in cognitive diagnostic models. However, many existing item banks are developed under the framework of item response theory. In this case, we propose a method utilizing the

  17. Benzodiazepine-like discriminative stimulus effects of toluene vapor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Keith L; Nicholson, Katherine L

    2013-11-15

    In vitro studies show that the abused inhalant toluene affects a number of ligand-gated ion channels.The two most consistently implicated of these are γ-aminobutyric acid type A(GABAA) receptors which are positively modulated by toluene and N-methyl-D-aspartate(NMDA) receptors which are negatively modulated by toluene. Behavioral studies also suggest an interaction of toluene with GABAA and/or NMDA receptors but it is unclear if these receptors underlie the abuse-related intoxicating effects of toluene. Seventeen B6SJLF1/J mice were trained using a two-choice operant drug discrimination procedure to discriminate 10 min of exposure to 2000 ppm toluene vapor from 10 min of exposure to air. The discrimination was acquired in a mean of 65 training sessions. The stimulus effects of 2000 ppm toluene vapor were exposure concentration-dependent but rapidly diminished following the cessation of vapor exposure. The stimulus effects of toluene generalized to the chlorinated hydrocarbon vapor perchloroethylene but not 1,1,2-trichloroethane nor the volatile anesthetic isoflurane. The competitive NMDA antagonist CGS-19755, the uncompetitive antagonist dizocilpine and the glycine-site antagonist L701,324 all failed to substitute for toluene. The classical nonselective benzodiazepines midazolam and chlordiazepoxide produced toluene-like stimulus effects but the alpha 1 subunit preferring positive GABAA modulator zaleplon failed to substitute for toluene. The barbiturates pentobarbital and methohexital and the GABAA positive modulator neurosteroid allopregnanolone did not substitute for toluene. These data suggest that the stimulus effects of toluene may be at least partially mediated by benzodiazepine-like positive allosteric modulation of GABAA receptors containing alpha 2, 3 or 5 subunits.

  18. Discriminative sensing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Keith

    2008-10-01

    The typical human vision system is able to discriminate between a million or so different colours, yet is able to do this with a chromatic sensor array that is fundamentally based on three different receptors, sensitive to light in the blue, green and red portions of the visible spectrum. Some biological organisms have extended capabilities, providing vision in the ultra-violet, whilst others, such as some species of mantis shrimp reportedly have sixteen different types of photo-receptors. In general the biological imaging sensor takes a minimalist approach to sensing its environment, whereas current optical engineering approaches follow a 'brute' force solution where the challenge of hyperspectral imaging is addressed by various schemes for spatial and spectral dispersion of radiation across existing detector arrays. This results in a problem for others to solve in the processing and communication of the generated hypercube of data. This paper explores the parallels between some of those biological systems and the various design concepts being developed for discriminative imaging, drawing on activity supported by the UK Electro-Magnetic Remote Sensing Defence Technology Centre (EMRS DTC).

  19. A DNA barcoding method to discriminate between the model plant Brachypodium distachyon and its close relatives B. stacei and B. hybridum (Poaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Alvarez, Diana; López-Herranz, Maria Luisa; Betekhtin, Alexander; Catalán, Pilar

    2012-01-01

    Brachypodium distachyon s. l. has been widely investigated across the world as a model plant for temperate cereals and biofuel grasses. However, this annual plant shows three cytotypes that have been recently recognized as three independent species, the diploids B. distachyon (2n = 10) and B. stacei (2n = 20) and their derived allotetraploid B. hybridum (2n = 30). We propose a DNA barcoding approach that consists of a rapid, accurate and automatable species identification method using the standard DNA sequences of complementary plastid (trnLF) and nuclear (ITS, GI) loci. The highly homogenous but largely divergent B. distachyon and B. stacei diploids could be easily distinguished (100% identification success) using direct trnLF (2.4%), ITS (5.5%) or GI (3.8%) sequence divergence. By contrast, B. hybridum could only be unambiguously identified through the use of combined trnLF+ITS sequences (90% of identification success) or by cloned GI sequences (96.7%) that showed 5.4% (ITS) and 4% (GI) rate divergence between the two parental sequences found in the allopolyploid. Our data provide an unbiased and effective barcode to differentiate these three closely-related species from one another. This procedure overcomes the taxonomic uncertainty generated from methods based on morphology or flow cytometry identifications that have resulted in some misclassifications of the model plant and its allies. Our study also demonstrates that the allotetraploid B. hybridum has resulted from bi-directional crosses of B. distachyon and B. stacei plants acting either as maternal or paternal parents.

  20. A DNA barcoding method to discriminate between the model plant Brachypodium distachyon and its close relatives B. stacei and B. hybridum (Poaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana López-Alvarez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Brachypodium distachyon s. l. has been widely investigated across the world as a model plant for temperate cereals and biofuel grasses. However, this annual plant shows three cytotypes that have been recently recognized as three independent species, the diploids B. distachyon (2n = 10 and B. stacei (2n = 20 and their derived allotetraploid B. hybridum (2n = 30. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We propose a DNA barcoding approach that consists of a rapid, accurate and automatable species identification method using the standard DNA sequences of complementary plastid (trnLF and nuclear (ITS, GI loci. The highly homogenous but largely divergent B. distachyon and B. stacei diploids could be easily distinguished (100% identification success using direct trnLF (2.4%, ITS (5.5% or GI (3.8% sequence divergence. By contrast, B. hybridum could only be unambiguously identified through the use of combined trnLF+ITS sequences (90% of identification success or by cloned GI sequences (96.7% that showed 5.4% (ITS and 4% (GI rate divergence between the two parental sequences found in the allopolyploid. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data provide an unbiased and effective barcode to differentiate these three closely-related species from one another. This procedure overcomes the taxonomic uncertainty generated from methods based on morphology or flow cytometry identifications that have resulted in some misclassifications of the model plant and its allies. Our study also demonstrates that the allotetraploid B. hybridum has resulted from bi-directional crosses of B. distachyon and B. stacei plants acting either as maternal or paternal parents.

  1. Evaluation of the standard normal variate method for Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy data treatment applied to the discrimination of painting layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syvilay, D.; Wilkie-Chancellier, N.; Trichereau, B.; Texier, A.; Martinez, L.; Serfaty, S.; Detalle, V.

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays, Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is frequently used for in situ analyses to identify pigments from mural paintings. Nonetheless, in situ analyses require a robust instrumentation in order to face to hard experimental conditions. This may imply variation of fluencies and thus inducing variation of LIBS signal, which degrades spectra and then results. Usually, to overcome these experimental errors, LIBS signal is processed. Signal processing methods most commonly used are the baseline subtraction and the normalization by using a spectral line. However, the latter suggests that this chosen element is a constant component of the material, which may not be the case in paint layers organized in stratigraphic layers. For this reason, it is sometimes difficult to apply this normalization. In this study, another normalization will be carried out to throw off these signal variations. Standard normal variate (SNV) is a normalization designed for these conditions. It is sometimes implemented in Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy and in Raman Spectroscopy but rarely in LIBS. The SNV transformation is not newly applied on LIBS data, but for the first time the effect of SNV on LIBS spectra was evaluated in details (energy of laser, shot by shot, quantification). The aim of this paper is the quick visualization of the different layers of a stratigraphic painting sample by simple data representations (3D or 2D) after SNV normalization. In this investigation, we showed the potential power of SNV transformation to overcome undesired LIBS signal variations but also its limit of application. This method appears as a promising way to normalize LIBS data, which may be interesting for in-situ depth analyses.

  2. 基于中文人名用字特征的性别判定方法%A method of gender discrimination based on character feature of Chinese names

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于江德; 赵红丹; 郑勃举; 余正涛

    2014-01-01

    Based on the strong gender discrimination of Chinese names, a method of gender discrimination based on character feature of Chinese names using naïve Bayes classifier was presented.In this method, the first character of each Chinese name ( Zi1 ) , the second character ( Zi2 ) , the first and the second characters ( Zi1 Zi2 ) were regarded as distin-guishing features.The naïve Bayes classification method was used for gender discrimination of Chinese names.Training and testing were done on 412 775 Chinese names corpus using 10 fold cross validation method, and comparative experi-ments were done according to the different feature combinations, they were Zi1 , Zi2 , Zi1 +Zi2 , Zi1 +Zi1 Zi2 , Zi2 +Zi1 Zi2 , Zi1 +Zi2 +Zi1 Zi2 ( all the distinguishing features) .The average accuracy were as followings in turn, 72.75%, 86.92%, 88.84%, 87.37%, 89.35%, 90.06%, of which the best average accuracy was 90.06%.%基于中文人名用字具有的较强的性别区分性,提出一种利用朴素贝叶斯分类器对中文人名性别进行判定的方法,该方法将每个中文人名中的第一个字(字1)、第二个字(字2)、第一和第二个字组合(字1字2)作为区分特征,利用朴素贝叶斯分类方法对该人名所属性别进行判定。在412775个中文人名语料上采用10重交叉验证法进行训练和测试,对比了依据不同区分特征组合进行性别判定的准确率,分别采用字1,字2,字1+字2,字1+字1字2,字2+字1字2,字1+字2+字1字2(全部区分特征)构成的特征组合进行性别判定,平均判定准确率分别为72.75%,86.92%,88.84%,87.37%,89.35%,90.06%,取得的最好平均判定准确率为90.06%。

  3. PCR method for the rapid detection and discrimination of Legionella spp. based on the amplification of pcs, pmtA, and 16S rRNA genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janczarek, Monika; Palusińska-Szysz, Marta

    2016-05-01

    Legionella bacteria are organisms of public health interest due to their ability to cause pneumonia (Legionnaires' disease) in susceptible humans and their ubiquitous presence in water supply systems. Rapid diagnosis of Legionnaires' disease allows the use of therapy specific for the disease. L. pneumophila serogroup 1 is the most common cause of infection acquired in community and hospital environments. The non-L. pneumophila infections are likely under-detected because of a lack of effective diagnosis. In this work, simplex and duplex PCR assays with the use of new molecular markers pcs and pmtA involved in phosphatidylcholine synthesis were specified for rapid and cost-efficient identification and distinguishing Legionella species. The sets of primers developed were found to be sensitive and specific for reliable detection of Legionella belonging to the eight most clinically relevant species. Among these, four primer sets I, II, VI, and VII used for duplex-PCRs proved to have the highest identification power and reliability in the detection of the bacteria. Application of this PCR-based method should improve detection of Legionella spp. in both clinical and environmental settings and facilitate molecular typing of these organisms.

  4. Study on Rapid Identification Methods of Waste Edible Oil Based on Near Infrared Spectroscopy and Discriminant Partial Least Squares%基于近红外光谱与DPLS的潲水油快速鉴别方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝诗平; 梁晶; 屠大伟; 徐原春

    2012-01-01

    A new identification method of waste edible oil based on near infrared spectroscopy was putted forward in this paper. Food safety problems, such as reselling waste edible oil as edible oil, were attracted more and more attention. In order to meet the identification requirements for edible oil safety, an accu- rate, fast, easy, efficient and low cost identification technology was needed. In this paper, 82 samples of waste edible oil and edible oil were collected, and 37 waste edible oil and 45 edible oil samples from the 82 samples were identified by chemical and physical methods. 24 samples randomly selected from 82 samples were first group samples, and the rest 58 samples was second group samples. In the first stage, the first group samples as the calibration set were used to build discriminant partial least squares(DPLS) model, which was used to identify the second group samples, and the accuracy rating was 86.21%. In the second stage, the second group samples as the calibration set were used to build discriminant partial least squares (DPLS) model, which was used to identify the first group samples, and the accuracy rating was 95.83%. The research showed that, the rapid identification method of waste edible oil based on near infrared spec- troscopy and discriminant partial least squares was feasible, its identification effect was preferably, and it can supply a new approach for the rapid identification of waste edible oil.%潲水油回流餐桌等食品安全问题越来越受到社会关注,探寻准确、快速、简便、高效且成本低廉的潲水油鉴别新方法成为食用油安全性能检测的新要求.对收集的82份潲水油和合格食用油样品进行了理化检测,鉴别出潲水油样品37份,合格油样品45份.从82份样品中随机选出24份样品作为第一组,余下58份样品作为第二组,以第一组24份样品作为校正集,建立判别偏最小二乘法(DPLS)模型,鉴别第二组58份样

  5. A novel chiral stationary phase HPLC-MS/MS method to discriminate between enzymatic oxidation and auto-oxidation of phosphatidylcholine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Junya; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Kato, Shunji; Hirokawa, Takafumi; Kuwahara, Shigefumi; Nagai, Toshiharu; Miyazawa, Teruo

    2016-11-01

    To elucidate the role of enzymatic lipid peroxidation in disease pathogenesis and in food deterioration, we recently achieved stereoselective analysis of phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide (PCOOH) possessing 13S-hydroperoxy-9Z,11E-octadecadienoic acid (13(S)-9Z,11E-HPODE) using HPLC-MS/MS with a CHIRALPAK OP (+) column. Because enzymatic oxidation progresses concurrently with auto-oxidation, we need to distinguish them further. Here, we attempted such an analysis. First, we used lipoxygenase, linoleic acid, and lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) to synthesize the enzymatic oxidation product 13(S)-9Z,11E-HPODE PC, and the auto-oxidation products 13(RS)-9Z,11E-HPODE PC and 13(RS)-9E,11E-HPODE PC, which were used as standards to test the ability of various columns to separate the enzymatic oxidation product from auto-oxidation products. Separation was achieved by connecting in series two columns with different properties: CHIRALPAK OP (+) and CHIRALPAK IB-3. The CHIRALPAK OP (+) column separated 13(R)-9Z,11E-HPODE PC and 13(S)-9Z,11E-HPODE PC, whereas CHIRALPAK IB-3 enabled separation of 13(S)-9Z,11E-HPODE PC and 13(RS)-9E,11E-HPODE PC. The results for the analysis of both enzymatically oxidized and auto-oxidized lecithin (an important phospholipid mixture in vivo and in food) indicate that our method would be useful for distinguishing enzymatic oxidation and auto-oxidation reactions. Such information will be invaluable for elucidating the involvement of PCOOH in disease pathogenesis and in food deterioration.

  6. Women Status and their Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    PEŠKOVÁ, Pavlína

    2008-01-01

    My work deal with women status and their discrimination. Chapter one contains women status in different historical periods and development of their status to bigger equal with men. There is also written about present feminist trends. Chapter two is about women discrimination. There is about women´ job discrimination, job segregation according to gender and inequality in payment. There is also written about women status at home and unequal duties at home among family mates. Chapter three is ab...

  7. Improvement Comparison of Different Lattice-based Discriminative Training Methods in Chinese-monolingual and Chinese-English-bilingual Speech Recognition%各种不同的基于词格的鉴别性训练方法在中文单语以及中英双语语音识别系统中的性能改善调研及比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Yan-Min; SHAN Yu-Xiang; WANG Lin-Fang; LIU Jia

    2012-01-01

    Discriminative training approaches such as minimum phone error (MPE),feature minimum phone error (fMPE) and boosted maximum mutual information (BMMI) have brought remarkable improvement to the speech community in recent years,however,much work still remains to be done.This paper investigates the performances of three lattice-based discriminative training methods in detail,and does a comparison of different I-smoothing methods to obtain more robust models in the Chinese-monolingual situation.The complementary properties of the different discriminative training methods are explored to perform a system combination by recognizer output voting error reduction (ROVER).Although discriminative training is normally used in monolingual systems,this paper systematically investigates its use for bilingual speech recognition,including MPE,fMPE,and BMMI.A new method is proposed to generate significantly better lattices for training the bilingual model,and complementary discriminative training models are also explored to get the best ROVER performance in the bilingual situation.Experimental results show that all forms of discriminative training can reduce the word error rate in both monolingual and bilingual systems,and that combining complementary discriminative training methods can improve the performance significantly.

  8. Plant Leaf Recognition through Local Discriminative Tangent Space Alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanlei Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Manifold learning based dimensionality reduction algorithms have been payed much attention in plant leaf recognition as the algorithms can select a subset of effective and efficient discriminative features in the leaf images. In this paper, a dimensionality reduction method based on local discriminative tangent space alignment (LDTSA is introduced for plant leaf recognition based on leaf images. The proposed method can embrace part optimization and whole alignment and encapsulate the geometric and discriminative information into a local patch. The experiments on two plant leaf databases, ICL and Swedish plant leaf datasets, demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method.

  9. Olfactory discrimination ability of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) for structurally related odorants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvanovic, Alisa; Amundin, Mats; Laska, Matthias

    2013-02-01

    Using a food-rewarded two-choice instrumental conditioning paradigm, we assessed the ability of Asian elephants, Elephas maximus, to discriminate between 2 sets of structurally related odorants. We found that the animals successfully discriminated between all 12 odor pairs involving members of homologous series of aliphatic 1-alcohols, n-aldehydes, 2-ketones, and n-carboxylic acids even when the stimuli differed from each other by only 1 carbon. With all 4 chemical classes, the elephants displayed a positive correlation between discrimination performance and structural similarity of odorants in terms of differences in carbon chain length. The animals also successfully discriminated between all 12 enantiomeric odor pairs tested. An analysis of odor structure-activity relationships suggests that a combination of molecular structural properties rather than a single molecular feature may be responsible for the discriminability of enantiomers. Compared with other species tested previously on the same sets of odor pairs (or on subsets thereof), the Asian elephants performed at least as well as mice and clearly better than human subjects, squirrel monkeys, pigtail macaques, South African fur seals, and honeybees. Further comparisons suggest that neither the relative nor the absolute size of the olfactory bulbs appear to be reliable predictors of between-species differences in olfactory discrimination capabilities. In contrast, we found a positive correlation between the number of functional olfactory receptor genes and the proportion of discriminable enantiomeric odor pairs. Taken together, the results of the present study support the notion that the sense of smell may play an important role in regulating the behavior of Asian elephants.

  10. 一种改进的多流形判别分析方法在特征提取中的应用%APPLYING AN IMPROVED MULTI-MANIFOLD DISCRIMINANT ANALYSIS METHOD IN FEATURE EXTRACTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉娇

    2015-01-01

    传统的多流形判别分析(MMDA)方法要求每类样本数目必须相同,这在实际中往往很难满足,因此限制了它的应用。针对此问题,提出一种改进的多流形判别分析(IMMDA)方法。该方法去除了MMDA中的限制条件,用类内图和类间图来描述类内紧凑度和类间离散度,类内图可以代表子流形信息,类间图可以代表多流形信息,从而更好地实现分类。在FERET、ORL人脸库及UCI数据集上的实验证明了该方法的有效性。相比其他几种子空间学习方法,该方法取得了更好的识别效果。%Traditional multi-manifold discriminant analysis (MMDA)usually requires the number of samples in each class must be the identical,which is hard to be satisfied in real-world applications,so its application is restrained.To tackle this problem,we propose an improved multi-manifold discriminant analysis (IMMDA)method.IMMDA removes the limitation in MMDA.It uses within-class graph and between-class graph to describe the within-class compactness and the between-class separability.In addition,the within-class graph can represent the sub-manifold information, while the between-class graph can represent the multi-manifold information, so that better classification is achieved.The experiments carried out on FERET,ORL and the UCI datasets proves the effectiveness of IMMDA.It is superior to other learning methods in terms of the recognition performance.

  11. Arrhythmia discrimination using a smart phone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Jo Woon; Esa, Nada; McManus, David D; Chon, Ki H

    2015-05-01

    We hypothesize that our smartphone-based arrhythmia discrimination algorithm with data acquisition approach reliably differentiates between normal sinus rhythm (NSR), atrial fibrillation (AF), premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) and premature atrial contraction (PACs) in a diverse group of patients having these common arrhythmias. We combine root mean square of successive RR differences and Shannon entropy with Poincare plot (or turning point ratio method) and pulse rise and fall times to increase the sensitivity of AF discrimination and add new capabilities of PVC and PAC identification. To investigate the capability of the smartphone-based algorithm for arrhythmia discrimination, 99 subjects, including 88 study participants with AF at baseline and in NSR after electrical cardioversion, as well as seven participants with PACs and four with PVCs were recruited. Using a smartphone, we collected 2-min pulsatile time series from each recruited subject. This clinical application results show that the proposed method detects NSR with specificity of 0.9886, and discriminates PVCs and PACs from AF with sensitivities of 0.9684 and 0.9783, respectively.

  12. Weight discrimination and bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, Rebecca M; King, Kelly M

    2013-04-01

    Despite significant attention to the medical impacts of obesity, often ignored are the negative outcomes that obese children and adults experience as a result of stigma, bias, and discrimination. Obese individuals are frequently stigmatized because of their weight in many domains of daily life. Research spanning several decades has documented consistent weight bias and stigmatization in employment, health care, schools, the media, and interpersonal relationships. For overweight and obese youth, weight stigmatization translates into pervasive victimization, teasing, and bullying. Multiple adverse outcomes are associated with exposure to weight stigmatization, including depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, suicidal ideation, poor academic performance, lower physical activity, maladaptive eating behaviors, and avoidance of health care. This review summarizes the nature and extent of weight stigmatization against overweight and obese individuals, as well as the resulting consequences that these experiences create for social, psychological, and physical health for children and adults who are targeted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Semisupervised Sparse Multilinear Discriminant Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄锴; 张丽清

    2014-01-01

    Various problems are encountered when adopting ordinary vector space algorithms for high-order tensor data input. Namely, one must overcome the Small Sample Size (SSS) and overfitting problems. In addition, the structural information of the original tensor signal is lost during the vectorization process. Therefore, comparable methods using a direct tensor input are more appropriate. In the case of electrocardiograms (ECGs), another problem must be overcome;the manual diagnosis of ECG data is expensive and time consuming, rendering it difficult to acquire data with diagnosis labels. However, when effective features for classification in the original data are very sparse, we propose a semisupervised sparse multilinear discriminant analysis (SSSMDA) method. This method uses the distribution of both the labeled and the unlabeled data together with labels discovered through a label propagation algorithm. In practice, we use 12-lead ECGs collected from a remote diagnosis system and apply a short-time-fourier transformation (STFT) to obtain third-order tensors. The experimental results highlight the sparsity of the ECG data and the ability of our method to extract sparse and effective features that can be used for classification.

  14. Wepman Test of Auditory Discrimination: What Does it Discriminate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Helen Warren

    1979-01-01

    This study investigated auditory discrimination as a function of ethnic group membership within the same socioeconimic status (SES). Subjects were 126 six-year-old students attending schools in a lower SES community. Contrary to previous findings, there were no differences between the groups on the Wepman Test of Auditory Discrimination. (Author)

  15. Perceived discrimination: why applicants and employees expect and perceive discrimination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abu Ghazaleh, N.

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation we have investigated perceptions of discrimination. We have shown discrimination exists in the eyes of applicants and employees and especially when from an ethnic minority group. There are psychological variables that influence these perceptions differently for minority and

  16. Investigating social discrimination of group members by laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeyesinghe, Siobhan M; McLeman, Morven A; Owen, Rachael C; McMahon, Claire E; Wathes, Christopher M

    2009-05-01

    Social relationships in domestic fowl are commonly assumed to rely on social recognition and its pre-requisite, discrimination of group-mates. If this is true, then the unnatural physical and social environments in which commercial laying hens are typically housed, when compared with those in which their progenitor species evolved, may compromise social function with consequent implications for welfare. Our aims were to determine whether adult hens can discriminate between unique pairs of familiar conspecifics, and to establish the most appropriate method for assessing this social discrimination. We investigated group-mate discrimination using two learning tasks in which there was bi-directional exchange of visual, auditory and olfactory information. Learning occurred in a Y-maze task (psocial discrimination or to the response task. Learning also failed to occur in this familiar/unfamiliar social discrimination task (p=0.001; n=1/10). Our findings demonstrate unequivocally that adult laying hens kept in small groups, under environmental conditions more consistent with those in which sensory capacities evolved, can discriminate group members: however, appropriate methods to demonstrate discrimination are crucial.

  17. Perceived weight discrimination and obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelina R Sutin

    Full Text Available Weight discrimination is prevalent in American society. Although associated consistently with psychological and economic outcomes, less is known about whether weight discrimination is associated with longitudinal changes in obesity. The objectives of this research are (1 to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk of becoming obese (Body Mass Index≥30; BMI by follow-up among those not obese at baseline, and (2 to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk of remaining obese at follow-up among those already obese at baseline. Participants were drawn from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative longitudinal survey of community-dwelling US residents. A total of 6,157 participants (58.6% female completed the discrimination measure and had weight and height available from the 2006 and 2010 assessments. Participants who experienced weight discrimination were approximately 2.5 times more likely to become obese by follow-up (OR = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.58-4.08 and participants who were obese at baseline were three times more likely to remain obese at follow up (OR = 3.20, 95% CI = 2.06-4.97 than those who had not experienced such discrimination. These effects held when controlling for demographic factors (age, sex, ethnicity, education and when baseline BMI was included as a covariate. These effects were also specific to weight discrimination; other forms of discrimination (e.g., sex, race were unrelated to risk of obesity at follow-up. The present research demonstrates that, in addition to poorer mental health outcomes, weight discrimination has implications for obesity. Rather than motivating individuals to lose weight, weight discrimination increases risk for obesity.

  18. Perceived weight discrimination and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutin, Angelina R; Terracciano, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Weight discrimination is prevalent in American society. Although associated consistently with psychological and economic outcomes, less is known about whether weight discrimination is associated with longitudinal changes in obesity. The objectives of this research are (1) to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk of becoming obese (Body Mass Index≥30; BMI) by follow-up among those not obese at baseline, and (2) to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk of remaining obese at follow-up among those already obese at baseline. Participants were drawn from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative longitudinal survey of community-dwelling US residents. A total of 6,157 participants (58.6% female) completed the discrimination measure and had weight and height available from the 2006 and 2010 assessments. Participants who experienced weight discrimination were approximately 2.5 times more likely to become obese by follow-up (OR = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.58-4.08) and participants who were obese at baseline were three times more likely to remain obese at follow up (OR = 3.20, 95% CI = 2.06-4.97) than those who had not experienced such discrimination. These effects held when controlling for demographic factors (age, sex, ethnicity, education) and when baseline BMI was included as a covariate. These effects were also specific to weight discrimination; other forms of discrimination (e.g., sex, race) were unrelated to risk of obesity at follow-up. The present research demonstrates that, in addition to poorer mental health outcomes, weight discrimination has implications for obesity. Rather than motivating individuals to lose weight, weight discrimination increases risk for obesity.

  19. Relational responding by eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina) in a series of color discrimination tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighty, Katherine A; Grand, Alison P; Pittman Courte, Victoria L; Maloney, Margaret A; Bettinger, Tamara L

    2013-08-01

    Prior work with chelonians has demonstrated their capacity for successful performance in cognitive tasks, including those requiring color discrimination. Here, we sought to expand on historical research and determine whether eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina) are capable of not only making simple color discriminations but also whether they can demonstrate abstract concept formation evidenced by using a relational response rule in their discrimination performance. Two eastern box turtles were rapidly and successfully trained on a black-and-white two-choice discrimination task using painted paddles and food reinforcement. After mastery, a medium gray paddle was added as a choice stimulus and turtle "Flippy" was reinforced for selecting the darker of the 2 stimuli presented in each trial, and turtle "Mario" was reinforced for selecting the lighter of the paddles presented. Nonreinforced probe trials incorporating light and dark gray stimuli paired with all other color options were then added to each session to test the turtles' ability to use the relationship between choice stimuli to guide responding. The turtles successfully selected the paddles corresponding to their assigned relational response rule of "darker" or "lighter" at a level significantly above that predicted by chance. The turtles then demonstrated immediate generalization of their relational rule in testing with a novel array of blue paddles. Finally, the turtles continued to use their relational rule when presented with a novel array of green paddles in a traditional transposition task. Together, these findings support the capacity for higher order cognitive functioning in chelonians beyond that previously described.

  20. Direct Neighborhood Discriminant Analysis for Face Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Cheng

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Face recognition is a challenging problem in computer vision and pattern recognition. Recently, many local geometrical structure-based techiniques are presented to obtain the low-dimensional representation of face images with enhanced discriminatory power. However, these methods suffer from the small simple size (SSS problem or the high computation complexity of high-dimensional data. To overcome these problems, we propose a novel local manifold structure learning method for face recognition, named direct neighborhood discriminant analysis (DNDA, which separates the nearby samples of interclass and preserves the local within-class geometry in two steps, respectively. In addition, the PCA preprocessing to reduce dimension to a large extent is not needed in DNDA avoiding loss of discriminative information. Experiments conducted on ORL, Yale, and UMIST face databases show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  1. Imbalanced Learning Based on Logistic Discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaping Guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, imbalanced learning problem has attracted more and more attentions from both academia and industry, and the problem is concerned with the performance of learning algorithms in the presence of data with severe class distribution skews. In this paper, we apply the well-known statistical model logistic discrimination to this problem and propose a novel method to improve its performance. To fully consider the class imbalance, we design a new cost function which takes into account the accuracies of both positive class and negative class as well as the precision of positive class. Unlike traditional logistic discrimination, the proposed method learns its parameters by maximizing the proposed cost function. Experimental results show that, compared with other state-of-the-art methods, the proposed one shows significantly better performance on measures of recall, g-mean, f-measure, AUC, and accuracy.

  2. Comparison of X-ray powder diffraction and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance in estimating crystalline fraction of tacrolimus in sustained-release amorphous solid dispersion and development of discriminating dissolution method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Ziyaur; Bykadi, Srikant; Siddiqui, Akhtar; Khan, Mansoor A

    2015-05-01

    The focus of present investigation was to explore X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (ssNMR) techniques for amorphous and crystalline tacrolimus quantification in the sustained-release amorphous solid dispersion (ASD), and to propose discriminating dissolution method that can detect crystalline drug. The ASD and crystalline physical mixture was mixed in various proportions to make sample matrices containing 0%-100% crystalline-amorphous tacrolimus. Partial-least-square regression and principle component regression were applied to the spectral data. Dissolution of the ASD in the US FDA recommended dissolution medium with and without surfactant was performed. R(2) > 0.99 and slope was close to one for all the models. Root-mean-square of prediction, standard error of prediction, and bias were higher in ssNMR-based models when compared with XRPD data models. Dissolution of the ASD decreased with an increase in the crystalline tacrolimus in the formulations. Furthermore, detection of crystalline tacrolimus in the ASD was progressively masked with an increase in the surfactant level in the dissolution medium. XRPD and ssNMR can be used equally to quantitate the crystalline and amorphous fraction of tacrolimus in the ASD with good accuracy; however, ssNMR data collection time is excessively long, and minimum surfactant level in the dissolution medium maximizes detection of crystalline reversion in the formulation.

  3. Discrimination against Muslim American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroian, Karen J.

    2012-01-01

    Although there is ample evidence of discrimination toward Muslim Americans in general, there is limited information specific to Muslim American adolescents. The few existing studies specific to this age group suggest that Muslim American adolescents encounter much discrimination from teachers, school administrators, and classmates. This…

  4. Price Discrimination in Academic Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Patrick; Merz, Thomas E.

    1985-01-01

    Analysis of price discrimination (charging different prices to different customers for same product) for 89 academic journals in 6 disciplines reveals: incidence of price discrimination rose between 1974 and 1984, increase in mean institutional (library) subscription price exceeded increase in mean individual subscription price. Journal list…

  5. MEANING DISCRIMINATION IN BILINGUAL DICTIONARIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    IANNUCCI, JAMES E.

    SEMANTIC DISCRIMINATION OF POLYSEMOUS ENTRY WORDS IN BILINGUAL DICTIONARIES WAS DISCUSSED IN THE PAPER. HANDICAPS OF PRESENT BILINGUAL DICTIONARIES AND BARRIERS TO THEIR FULL UTILIZATION WERE ENUMERATED. THE AUTHOR CONCLUDED THAT (1) A BILINGUAL DICTIONARY SHOULD HAVE A DISCRIMINATION FOR EVERY TRANSLATION OF AN ENTRY WORD WHICH HAS SEVERAL…

  6. Children's Perceptions of Gender Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christia Spears; Bigler, Rebecca S.

    2004-01-01

    Children (N = 76; ages 5-10 years) participated in a study designed to examine perceptions of gender discrimination. Children were read scenarios in which a teacher determined outcomes for 2 students (1 boy and 1 girl). Contextual information (i.e., teacher's past behavior), the gender of the target of discrimination (i.e., student), and the…

  7. Addressing Discrimination in School Matters!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Amanda L.

    2009-01-01

    Every student has the right to an education free from discrimination that provides high-quality, equitable opportunities to learn. Unfortunately, sometimes individuals or systems may act in ways that violate this right. Discrimination occurs when people are treated unequally or less favorably than others because of some real or perceived…

  8. Invidious Discrimination: Second Generation Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Robert J.; Dee, Paul

    1976-01-01

    Discusses school law issues dealing with various forms of invidious discrimination. Considers discrimination based on forms of involuntary association (ethnicity, economic status, primary language, and maturity) and forms of voluntary association (sexual proclivity, marital status, pregnancy and parenthood, self-expression and appearance, religion…

  9. Perceptions of Discrimination during Downsizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkey, Linda Kathryn

    1993-01-01

    Demonstrates that perceptions of ethnic discrimination during layoffs are moderately correlated with perceptions of selection fairness and information access during the layoff process. Shows that, in the company studied, both minority and majority ethnic group members felt equally discriminated against. (SR)

  10. Vibrotactile Discrimination of Musical Timbre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Frank A.; Ammirante, Paolo; Fels, Deborah I.

    2012-01-01

    Five experiments investigated the ability to discriminate between musical timbres based on vibrotactile stimulation alone. Participants made same/different judgments on pairs of complex waveforms presented sequentially to the back through voice coils embedded in a conforming chair. Discrimination between cello, piano, and trombone tones matched…

  11. Perceived discrimination in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iris Andriessen; Henk Fernee; Karin Wittebrood

    2014-01-01

    Only available in electronic version There is no systematic structure in the Netherlands for mapping out the discrimination experiences of different groups in different areas of society. As in many other countries, discrimination studies in the Netherlands mostly focus on the experiences

  12. Discrimination against Muslim American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroian, Karen J.

    2012-01-01

    Although there is ample evidence of discrimination toward Muslim Americans in general, there is limited information specific to Muslim American adolescents. The few existing studies specific to this age group suggest that Muslim American adolescents encounter much discrimination from teachers, school administrators, and classmates. This…

  13. Estimating the mental health costs of racial discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Amanuel; Paradies, Yin

    2016-11-29

    Racial discrimination is a pervasive social problem in several advanced countries such as the U.S., U.K., and Australia. Public health research also indicates a range of associations between exposure to racial discrimination and negative health, particularly, mental health including depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the direct negative health impact of racial discrimination has not been costed so far although economists have previously estimated indirect non-health related productivity costs. In this study, we estimate the burden of disease due to exposure to racial discrimination and measure the cost of this exposure. Using prevalence surveys and data on the association of racial discrimination with health outcomes from a global meta-analysis, we apply a cost of illness method to measure the impact of racial discrimination. This estimate indicates the direct health cost attributable to racial discrimination and we convert the estimates to monetary values based on conventional parameters. Racial discrimination costs the Australian economy 235,452 in disability adjusted life years lost, equivalent to $37.9 billion per annum, roughly 3.02% of annual gross domestic product (GDP) over 2001-11, indicating a sizeable loss for the economy. Substantial cost is incurred due to increased prevalence of racial discrimination as a result of its association with negative health outcomes (e.g. depression, anxiety and PTSD). This implies that potentially significant cost savings can be made through measures that target racial discrimination. Our research contributes to the debate on the social impact of racial discrimination, with implications for policies and efforts addressing it.

  14. Children's perceptions of gender discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears Brown, Christia; Bigler, Rebecca S

    2004-09-01

    Children (N = 76; ages 5-10 years) participated in a study designed to examine perceptions of gender discrimination. Children were read scenarios in which a teacher determined outcomes for 2 students (1 boy and 1 girl). Contextual information (i.e., teacher's past behavior), the gender of the target of discrimination (i.e., student), and the gender of the perpetrator (i.e., teacher) were manipulated. Results indicated that older children were more likely than younger children to make attributions to discrimination when contextual information suggested that it was likely. Girls (but not boys) were more likely to view girls than boys as victims of discrimination, and children with egalitarian gender attitudes were more likely to perceive discrimination than were their peers.

  15. Study on Dim Target Detection and Discrimination from Sea Clutter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wen-guang; SUN Zuo-wei; LI Chen-ming; WANG Jun

    2013-01-01

    Dim target detection from sea clutter is one of the difficult topics in ocean remote sensing application.By aiming at the shortcoming of false alarms when using track before detect (TBD) based on dynamic programming,a new discrimination method called statistics of direction histogram (SDH) is proposed,which is based on different features of trajectories between the true target and false one.Moreover,a new series of discrimination schemes of SDH and Local Extreme Value method (LEV) are studied and applied to simulate the actually measured radar data.The results show that the given discrimination is effective to reduce false alarms during dim targets detection.

  16. Small visible energy scalar top iterative discriminant analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Sopczak; A Finch; A Freitas; C Milsténe; M Schimtt

    2007-12-01

    Light scalar top quarks with a small mass difference with respect to the neutralino mass are of particular cosmological interest. This study uses an iterative discriminant analysis method to optimize the expected selection efficiency at the international linear collider (ILC).

  17. Obstacles and foliage discrimination using lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Daniel D.

    2016-05-01

    A central challenge to autonomous off-road navigation is discriminating between obstacles that are safe to drive over and those that pose a hazard to navigation and so must be circumnavigated. Foliage, which can often be safely driven over, presents two important perception problems. First, foliage can appear as a large impenetrable obstacle, and so must be discriminated from other objects. Second, real obstacles are much harder to detect when adjacent to or occluded by foliage and many detection methods fail to detect them due to additional clutter and partial occlusions from foliage. This paper addresses both the discrimination of foliage, and the detection of obstacles in and near foliage using Lidar. Our approach uses neighboring pixels in a depth image to construct features at each pixel that provide local surface properites. A generative model for obstacles is used to accumulate probabilistic evidence for obstacles and foliage in the vicinity of a moving platform. Detection of obstacles is then based on evidence within overlapping cells of a map without the need to segment segment obstacles and foliage. High accuracy obstacle and foliage discrimination is obtained and compared with the use of a point scatter measure.

  18. Discriminative power of visual attributes in dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giotis, Ioannis; Visser, Margaretha; Jonkman, Marcel; Petkov, Nicolai

    2013-02-01

    Visual characteristics such as color and shape of skin lesions play an important role in the diagnostic process. In this contribution, we quantify the discriminative power of such attributes using an information theoretical approach. We estimate the probability of occurrence of each attribute as a function of the skin diseases. We use the distribution of this probability across the studied diseases and its entropy to define the discriminative power of the attribute. The discriminative power has a maximum value for attributes that occur (or do not occur) for only one disease and a minimum value for those which are equally likely to be observed among all diseases. Verrucous surface, red and brown colors, and the presence of more than 10 lesions are among the most informative attributes. A ranking of attributes is also carried out and used together with a naive Bayesian classifier, yielding results that confirm the soundness of the proposed method. proposed measure is proven to be a reliable way of assessing the discriminative power of dermatological attributes, and it also helps generate a condensed dermatological lexicon. Therefore, it can be of added value to the manual or computer-aided diagnostic process. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. Discriminative learning for dynamic state prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minyoung; Pavlovic, Vladimir

    2009-10-01

    We consider the problem of predicting a sequence of real-valued multivariate states that are correlated by some unknown dynamics, from a given measurement sequence. Although dynamic systems such as the State-Space Models are popular probabilistic models for the problem, their joint modeling of states and observations, as well as the traditional generative learning by maximizing a joint likelihood may not be optimal for the ultimate prediction goal. In this paper, we suggest two novel discriminative approaches to the dynamic state prediction: 1) learning generative state-space models with discriminative objectives and 2) developing an undirected conditional model. These approaches are motivated by the success of recent discriminative approaches to the structured output classification in discrete-state domains, namely, discriminative training of Hidden Markov Models and Conditional Random Fields (CRFs). Extending CRFs to real multivariate state domains generally entails imposing density integrability constraints on the CRF parameter space, which can make the parameter learning difficult. We introduce an efficient convex learning algorithm to handle this task. Experiments on several problem domains, including human motion and robot-arm state estimation, indicate that the proposed approaches yield high prediction accuracy comparable to or better than state-of-the-art methods.

  20. JUSTIFICATION FOR INDIRECT DISCRIMINATION IN EU

    OpenAIRE

    Catalina-Adriana IVANUS

    2014-01-01

    The right to non-discrimination is very important for a civilized society. EU legislation establishes direct and indirect discrimination, harassment, sexual harassment, instruction to discriminate and any less favourable treatment of a woman related to pregnancy or maternity leave as forms of discrimination. The law and the Court of Justice permit the justification of indirect discrimination.

  1. Studies in genetic discrimination. Final progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    We have screened 1006 respondents in a study of genetic discrimination. Analysis of these responses has produced evidence of the range of institutions engaged in genetic discrimination and demonstrates the impact of this discrimination on the respondents to the study. We have found that both ignorance and policy underlie genetic discrimination and that anti-discrimination laws are being violated.

  2. Discrimination of motile bacteria from filamentous fungi using dynamic speckle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murialdo, Silvia E.; Passoni, Lucía I.; Guzman, Marcelo N.; Sendra, G. Hernán; Rabal, Héctor; Trivi, Marcelo; Gonzalez, J. Froilán

    2012-05-01

    We present a dynamic laser speckle method to easily discriminate filamentous fungi from motile bacteria in soft surfaces, such as agar plate. The method allows the detection and discrimination between fungi and bacteria faster than with conventional techniques. The new procedure could be straightforwardly extended to different micro-organisms, as well as applied to biological and biomedical research, infected tissues analysis, and hospital water and wastewaters studies.

  3. Discrete Discriminant analysis based on tree-structured graphical models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez de la Cruz, Gonzalo; Eslava, Guillermina

    The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the potential use of discriminant analysis based on tree{structured graphical models for discrete variables. This is done by comparing its empirical performance using estimated error rates for real and simulated data. The results show that discriminant...... analysis based on tree{structured graphical models is a simple nonlinear method competitive with, and sometimes superior to, other well{known linear methods like those assuming mutual independence between variables and linear logistic regression....

  4. Discrete Discriminant analysis based on tree-structured graphical models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez de la Cruz, Gonzalo; Eslava, Guillermina

    The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the potential use of discriminant analysis based on tree{structured graphical models for discrete variables. This is done by comparing its empirical performance using estimated error rates for real and simulated data. The results show that discriminant a...... analysis based on tree{structured graphical models is a simple nonlinear method competitive with, and sometimes superior to, other well{known linear methods like those assuming mutual independence between variables and linear logistic regression....

  5. Perceived discrimination and self-rated health in Canada: an exploratory study

    OpenAIRE

    Du Mont, Janice; Forte, Tonia

    2016-01-01

    Background Our objective was to explore whether the link between discrimination and self-rated health status differed as a function of discrimination type, including discrimination based on ethnicity/culture, race, physical appearance (other than skin colour), religion, age, and disability. Methods A sample of 19,422 men and women aged 15 and older was included in this study. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to measure the association between perceived discrimination types...

  6. Action Recognition Using Discriminative Structured Trajectory Groups

    KAUST Repository

    Atmosukarto, Indriyati

    2015-01-06

    In this paper, we develop a novel framework for action recognition in videos. The framework is based on automatically learning the discriminative trajectory groups that are relevant to an action. Different from previous approaches, our method does not require complex computation for graph matching or complex latent models to localize the parts. We model a video as a structured bag of trajectory groups with latent class variables. We model action recognition problem in a weakly supervised setting and learn discriminative trajectory groups by employing multiple instance learning (MIL) based Support Vector Machine (SVM) using pre-computed kernels. The kernels depend on the spatio-temporal relationship between the extracted trajectory groups and their associated features. We demonstrate both quantitatively and qualitatively that the classification performance of our proposed method is superior to baselines and several state-of-the-art approaches on three challenging standard benchmark datasets.

  7. Discrimination of roast and ground coffee aroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisk Ian

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Four analytical approaches were used to evaluate the aroma profile at key stages in roast and ground coffee brew preparation (concentration within the roast and ground coffee and respective coffee brew; concentration in the headspace of the roast and ground coffee and respective brew. Each method was evaluated by the analysis of 15 diverse key aroma compounds that were predefined by odour port analysis. Results Different methods offered complimentary results for the discrimination of products; the concentration in the coffee brew was found to be the least discriminatory and concentration in the headspace above the roast and ground coffee was shown to be most discriminatory. Conclusions All approaches should be taken into consideration when classifying roast and ground coffee especially for alignment to sensory perception and consumer insight data as all offer markedly different discrimination abilities due to the variation in volatility, hydrophobicity, air-water partition coefficient and other physicochemical parameters of the key aroma compounds present.

  8. 一种基于PSO辨别树的P2P网络入侵检测方法%P2P Network Intrusion Detection Method Based on PSO Discrimination Tree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程源; 楚春颖

    2013-01-01

      P2P网络入侵数据具有高维性、随机性以及复杂性等特征,会降低对其进行入侵检测的效率和稳定性。因此,本文提出一种基于PSO辨别树的P2P网络入侵检测方法,对P2P网络连接数据的主成分进行信息拟合,按照入侵数据特征的主成分构建PSO辨别树,获取同目标信息特征最为相似的估计关联特征;运用改进的BP神经网络对关联特征进行分析,最终可得到P2P网络入侵数据的特征信息,并通过无约束聚类关联方法优化获取的入侵数据特征,更好地完成对P2P网络信息安全的检测。实验结果表明,本文方法与其它网络入侵检测方法相比,具有较高的检测效率和准确率,取得了令人满意的效果,具有较大的发展前景和应用价值。%  Due to the P2P network intrusion data with high resistance, randomness and complexity characteristics, can re-duce the intrusion detection efficiency and stability. Therefore, this paper proPSOes a tree based on PSO discrimination of P2P network intrusion detection method, first to P2P network connection data of principal component information fit-ting, according to the data characteristics of the invasion of principal component build PSO discrimination tree, get with the target information features the most similar estimate correlation characteristic; Then using the improved BP neural network to correlation characteristics were analyzed, and finally can get P2P network intrusion data feature information, and through the unconstrained cluster correlation method for optimization of the invasion of the data characteristics, bet-ter complete the P2P network information security testing. The experimental results show that the method proPSOed in this paper and other network intrusion detection algorithm, has higher detection efficiency and accuracy, and achieved satisfactory effect, and it has great development prospects and application value.

  9. Application of the antibiotic disk diffusion method to multivariate profiling of soil bacterial community: comparing the power to discriminate different soils and dimension of the discrimination with that of the Biolog method Aplicação do método de difusão de disco de antibiótico para traçar o perfil da comunidade bacteriana no solo: comparação de seu poder discriminatório e dimensão da discriminação em relação ao método Biolog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryoichi Doi

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The antibiotic disk diffution (ADD method was compared with the Biolog method in terms of power to discriminate soils and dimension of the discrimination. Soils from a forest and a citrus field in Thailand were profiled with these methods. These methods differentiated the soils in the principal component score plots. Then, Wilk's lambda statistic was determined to estimate power of these methods to discriminate the soils. The ADD method scored Wilk's lambda of 0.003 (p = 0.144 and 0.000 (p=0.020, for direct and ratio-transformed calculation, respectively. The Biolog method recorded Wilk's lambda of 0.001 (p=0.067, 0.003 (p=0.144 and 0.035 (p=0.440, at 0.25, 0.50 and 0.75 average well color developments (AWCDs, respectively. The ADD method showed high discrimination power, or at least comparable to that of the Biolog method. Redundancy analysis (RDA resulted in ordination diagrams, which revealed a difference in dimension of the soil discrimination among the methods and the AWCDs. The soil environmental factors significantly related to the bacterial profiles at p=0.05 were: available phosphorus (ADD method and Biolog 0.25 AWCD, and pH (Biolog 0.50 and 0.75 AWCD. These results indicated that the profiling methods and the AWCDs revealed the multidimensionality of the discrimination. The possibility of the application of the ADD method to extraction of such pieces of information for effective land management was suggested.O método de Difusão de Disco de Antibiótico (ADD foi comparado ao método Biolog quanto ao seu poder de discriminar solos e quanto à dimensão da discriminação, analisando-se os solos de uma floresta e de um campo de cítricos na Tailândia. A diferenciação dos solos por esses métodos foi feita de acordo com o score plot do componente principal.Em seguida, determinou-se o valor de lambda de Wilk para estimar o poder discriminatório desses métodos. O método ADD resultou em lambda de Wilk de 0,003 (p=0,144 e 0,035 (p=0

  10. Discriminative Parameter Estimation for Random Walks Segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Baudin, Pierre-Yves; Goodman, Danny; Kumar, Puneet; Azzabou, Noura; Carlier, Pierre G.; Paragios, Nikos; Pawan Kumar, M.

    2013-01-01

    International audience; The Random Walks (RW) algorithm is one of the most e - cient and easy-to-use probabilistic segmentation methods. By combining contrast terms with prior terms, it provides accurate segmentations of medical images in a fully automated manner. However, one of the main drawbacks of using the RW algorithm is that its parameters have to be hand-tuned. we propose a novel discriminative learning framework that estimates the parameters using a training dataset. The main challen...

  11. Kernel-based fisher discriminant analysis for hyperspectral target detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Yan-feng; ZHANG Ye; YOU Di

    2007-01-01

    A new method based on kernel Fisher discriminant analysis (KFDA) is proposed for target detection of hyperspectral images. The KFDA combines kernel mapping derived from support vector machine and the classical linear Fisher discriminant analysis (LFDA), and it possesses good ability to process nonlinear data such as hyperspectral images. According to the Fisher rule that the ratio of the between-class and within-class scatters is maximized, the KFDA is used to obtain a set of optimal discriminant basis vectors in high dimensional feature space. All pixels in the hyperspectral images are projected onto the discriminant basis vectors and the target detection is performed according to the projection result. The numerical experiments are performed on hyperspectral data with 126 bands collected by Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS). The experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed detection method and prove that this method has good ability to overcome small sample size and spectral variability in the hyperspectral target detection.

  12. Principal Component-Discrimination Model and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩天锡; 魏雪丽; 蒋淳; 张玉琍

    2004-01-01

    Having researched for many years, seismologists in China presented about 80 earthquake prediction factors which reflected omen information of earthquake. How to concentrate the information that the 80 earthquake prediction factors have and how to choose the main factors to predict earthquakes precisely have become one of the topics in seismology. The model of principal component-discrimination consists of principal component analysis, correlation analysis, weighted method of principal factor coefficients and Mahalanobis distance discrimination analysis. This model combines the method of maximization earthquake prediction factor information with the weighted method of principal factor coefficients and correlation analysis to choose earthquake prediction variables, applying Mahalanobis distance discrimination to establishing earthquake prediction discrimination model. This model was applied to analyzing the earthquake data of Northern China area and obtained good prediction results.

  13. Face Recognition Using Double Sparse Local Fisher Discriminant Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Local Fisher discriminant analysis (LFDA was proposed for dealing with the multimodal problem. It not only combines the idea of locality preserving projections (LPP for preserving the local structure of the high-dimensional data but also combines the idea of Fisher discriminant analysis (FDA for obtaining the discriminant power. However, LFDA also suffers from the undersampled problem as well as many dimensionality reduction methods. Meanwhile, the projection matrix is not sparse. In this paper, we propose double sparse local Fisher discriminant analysis (DSLFDA for face recognition. The proposed method firstly constructs a sparse and data-adaptive graph with nonnegative constraint. Then, DSLFDA reformulates the objective function as a regression-type optimization problem. The undersampled problem is avoided naturally and the sparse solution can be obtained by adding the regression-type problem to a l1 penalty. Experiments on Yale, ORL, and CMU PIE face databases are implemented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  14. Lesbians still face job discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryniker, Margaret R

    2008-01-01

    This article examines continued discrimination against lesbians in the workplace. A number of cases from various jurisdictions in the United States are highlighted. The paper studies two common forms of discrimination: denial of employment benefits to same sex partners, and sexual harassment. On the first front, the case law suggests that health insurance coverage for one's partner is becoming the norm. On the question of sexual harassment in the workplace, the case law did not provide protection for lesbians. Finally, U.S. employment policies related to sexual orientation are contrasted with those in Israel, which provides much greater protection from discrimination.

  15. Quantum process discrimination with information from environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan-Mei; Li, Jun-Gang; Zou, Jian; Xu, Bao-Ming

    2016-12-01

    In quantum metrology we usually extract information from the reduced probe system but ignore the information lost inevitably into the environment. However, K. Mølmer [Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 040401 (2015)] showed that the information lost into the environment has an important effect on improving the successful probability of quantum process discrimination. Here we reconsider the model of a driven atom coupled to an environment and distinguish which of two candidate Hamiltonians governs the dynamics of the whole system. We mainly discuss two measurement methods, one of which obtains only the information from the reduced atom state and the other obtains the information from both the atom and its environment. Interestingly, for the two methods the optimal initial states of the atom, used to improve the successful probability of the process discrimination, are different. By comparing the two methods we find that the partial information from the environment is very useful for the discriminations. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11274043, 11375025, and 11005008).

  16. Discrimination analysis of mass spectrometry proteomics for ovarian cancer detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-jun HONG; Xiao-dan WANG; David SHEN; Su ZENG

    2008-01-01

    Aim:A discrimination analysis has been explored for the probabilistic classifica-tion of healthy versus ovarian cancer serum samples using proteomics data from mass spectrometry (MS).Methods:The method employs data normalization,clustering,and a linear discriminant analysis on surface-enhanced laser desorp-tion ionization (SELDI) time-of-flight MS data.The probabilistic classification method computes the optimal linear discriminant using the complex human blood serum SELDI spectra.Cross-validation and training/testing data-split experi-ments are conducted to verify the optimal discriminant and demonstrate the accu-racy and robustness of the method.Results:The cluster discrimination method achieves excellent performance.The sensitivity,specificity,and positive predic-tive values are above 97% on ovarian cancer.The protein fraction peaks,which significantly contribute to the classification,can be available from the analysis process.Conclusion:The discrimination analysis helps the molecular identities of differentially expressed proteins and peptides between the healthy and ovarian patients.

  17. Visual discrimination learning with an iPad-equipped apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leising, Kenneth J; Wolf, Joshua E; Ruprecht, Chad M

    2013-02-01

    Visual discrimination tasks are commonly used to assess visual learning and memory in non-human animals. The current experiments explored the suitability of an iPad (Apple, Cupertino, California), as a low-cost alternative touchscreen for visual discrimination tasks. In Experiment 1, rats were trained with patterned black-and-white stimuli in a successive non-match to sample procedure. Rats successfully interacted with the iPad but failed to learn to withhold responding on trials in which the sample matched the comparison. Experiment 2 used the same patterned stimuli, but the procedure was simplified to a successive discrimination procedure and we explored the use of procedures known to facilitate discrimination learning. Rats that received training with differential outcomes and a differential reinforcement of other behavior schedule successfully acquired the task. In Experiment 3, the same rats were tested in a simultaneous discrimination task and we explored the use of a correction and non-correction method during acquisition. Rats that failed to learn the discrimination in the previous experiment, improved while trained with the correction method. These experiments support the use of the iPad in visual discrimination tasks and inform future studies investigating learning and memory within a touchscreen-equipped (iPad or other) apparatus.

  18. Fast discriminative latent Dirichlet allocation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the code for fast discriminative latent Dirichlet allocation, which is an algorithm for topic modeling and text classification. The related paper is at...

  19. Face adaptation improves gender discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hua; Shen, Jianhong; Chen, Juan; Fang, Fang

    2011-01-01

    Adaptation to a visual pattern can alter the sensitivities of neuronal populations encoding the pattern. However, the functional roles of adaptation, especially in high-level vision, are still equivocal. In the present study, we performed three experiments to investigate if face gender adaptation could affect gender discrimination. Experiments 1 and 2 revealed that adapting to a male/female face could selectively enhance discrimination for male/female faces. Experiment 3 showed that the discrimination enhancement induced by face adaptation could transfer across a substantial change in three-dimensional face viewpoint. These results provide further evidence suggesting that, similar to low-level vision, adaptation in high-level vision could calibrate the visual system to current inputs of complex shapes (i.e. face) and improve discrimination at the adapted characteristic.

  20. EU Law and Multiple Discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ruth

    2006-01-01

    In EU law, nationality and gender were the only equality issues on the legal agenda from the outset in 1958 and for about 40 years. Multiple discrimination was not addressed until the 1990's. The intersectionality approach which has been widely discussed outside Europe has mainly been used...... with a view to gendermainstreaming the fight against other kinds of discrimination (on grounds of ethnic origin, age, etc)....

  1. Quantity discrimination in female mosquitofish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrillo, Christian; Dadda, Marco; Bisazza, Angelo

    2007-01-01

    The ability in animals to count and represent different numbers of objects has received a great deal of attention in the past few decades. Cumulative evidence from comparative studies on number discriminations report obvious analogies among human babies, non-human primates and birds and are consistent with the hypothesis of two distinct and widespread mechanisms, one for counting small numbers (verbal creatures studied; results are in agreement with the hypothesis of the existence of two distinct systems for quantity discrimination in vertebrates.

  2. [Discrimination of Rice Syrup Adulterant of Acacia Honey Based Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-nan; Chen, Lan-zhen; Xue, Xiao-feng; Wu, Li-ming; Li, Yi; Yang, Juan

    2015-09-01

    At present, the rice syrup as a low price of the sweeteners was often adulterated into acacia honey and the adulterated honeys were sold in honey markets, while there is no suitable and fast method to identify honey adulterated with rice syrup. In this study, Near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) combined with chemometric methods were used to discriminate authenticity of honey. 20 unprocessed acacia honey samples from the different honey producing areas, mixed? with different proportion of rice syrup, were prepared of seven different concentration gradient? including 121 samples. The near infrared spectrum (NIR) instrument and spectrum processing software have been applied in the? spectrum? scanning and data conversion on adulterant samples, respectively. Then it was analyzed by Principal component analysis (PCA) and canonical discriminant analysis methods in order to discriminating adulterated honey. The results showed that after principal components analysis, the first two principal components accounted for 97.23% of total variation, but the regionalism of the score plot of the first two PCs was not obvious, so the canonical discriminant analysis was used to make the further discrimination, all samples had been discriminated correctly, the first two discriminant functions accounted for 91.6% among the six canonical discriminant functions, Then the different concentration of adulterant samples can be discriminated correctly, it illustrate that canonical discriminant analysis method combined with NIR spectroscopy is not only feasible but also practical for rapid and effective discriminate of the rice syrup adulterant of acacia honey.

  3. Unambiguous discrimination among oracle operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chefles, Anthony; Kitagawa, Akira; Takeoka, Masahiro; Sasaki, Masahide; Twamley, Jason

    2007-08-01

    We address the problem of unambiguous discrimination among oracle operators. The general theory of unambiguous discrimination among unitary operators is extended with this application in mind. We prove that entanglement with an ancilla cannot assist any discrimination strategy for commuting unitary operators. We also obtain a simple, practical test for the unambiguous distinguishability of an arbitrary set of unitary operators on a given system. Using this result, we prove that the unambiguous distinguishability criterion is the same for both standard and minimal oracle operators. We then show that, except in certain trivial cases, unambiguous discrimination among all standard oracle operators corresponding to integer functions with fixed domain and range is impossible. However, we find that it is possible to unambiguously discriminate among the Grover oracle operators corresponding to an arbitrarily large unsorted database. The unambiguous distinguishability of standard oracle operators corresponding to totally indistinguishable functions, which possess a strong form of classical indistinguishability, is analysed. We prove that these operators are not unambiguously distinguishable for any finite set of totally indistinguishable functions on a Boolean domain and with arbitrary fixed range. Sets of such functions on a larger domain can have unambiguously distinguishable standard oracle operators, and we provide a complete analysis of the simplest case, that of four functions. We also examine the possibility of unambiguous oracle operator discrimination with multiple parallel calls and investigate an intriguing unitary superoperator transformation between standard and entanglement-assisted minimal oracle operators.

  4. Learning discriminative dictionary for group sparse representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yubao; Liu, Qingshan; Tang, Jinhui; Tao, Dacheng

    2014-09-01

    In recent years, sparse representation has been widely used in object recognition applications. How to learn the dictionary is a key issue to sparse representation. A popular method is to use l1 norm as the sparsity measurement of representation coefficients for dictionary learning. However, the l1 norm treats each atom in the dictionary independently, so the learned dictionary cannot well capture the multisubspaces structural information of the data. In addition, the learned subdictionary for each class usually shares some common atoms, which weakens the discriminative ability of the reconstruction error of each subdictionary. This paper presents a new dictionary learning model to improve sparse representation for image classification, which targets at learning a class-specific subdictionary for each class and a common subdictionary shared by all classes. The model is composed of a discriminative fidelity, a weighted group sparse constraint, and a subdictionary incoherence term. The discriminative fidelity encourages each class-specific subdictionary to sparsely represent the samples in the corresponding class. The weighted group sparse constraint term aims at capturing the structural information of the data. The subdictionary incoherence term is to make all subdictionaries independent as much as possible. Because the common subdictionary represents features shared by all classes, we only use the reconstruction error of each class-specific subdictionary for classification. Extensive experiments are conducted on several public image databases, and the experimental results demonstrate the power of the proposed method, compared with the state-of-the-arts.

  5. Discriminative Elastic-Net Regularized Linear Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zheng; Lai, Zhihui; Xu, Yong; Shao, Ling; Wu, Jian; Xie, Guo-Sen

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we aim at learning compact and discriminative linear regression models. Linear regression has been widely used in different problems. However, most of the existing linear regression methods exploit the conventional zero-one matrix as the regression targets, which greatly narrows the flexibility of the regression model. Another major limitation of these methods is that the learned projection matrix fails to precisely project the image features to the target space due to their weak discriminative capability. To this end, we present an elastic-net regularized linear regression (ENLR) framework, and develop two robust linear regression models which possess the following special characteristics. First, our methods exploit two particular strategies to enlarge the margins of different classes by relaxing the strict binary targets into a more feasible variable matrix. Second, a robust elastic-net regularization of singular values is introduced to enhance the compactness and effectiveness of the learned projection matrix. Third, the resulting optimization problem of ENLR has a closed-form solution in each iteration, which can be solved efficiently. Finally, rather than directly exploiting the projection matrix for recognition, our methods employ the transformed features as the new discriminate representations to make final image classification. Compared with the traditional linear regression model and some of its variants, our method is much more accurate in image classification. Extensive experiments conducted on publicly available data sets well demonstrate that the proposed framework can outperform the state-of-the-art methods. The MATLAB codes of our methods can be available at http://www.yongxu.org/lunwen.html.

  6. Novel, whisker-dependent texture discrimination task for mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsia-Pai Patrick; Ioffe, Julie C; Iverson, Michaela M; Boon, Jacqueline M; Dyck, Richard H

    2013-01-15

    Many mammals use their mystacial vibrissae to palpate objects in their environment and encode information such as size, shape and texture. We have developed a novel method to assess the sensitivity with which mice can discriminate textures using their mystacial vibrissae. Our texture discrimination task can be performed within 3 days, requiring approximately 1 h of handling time, per subject, over the entire testing period. No appetitive or aversive training is required. We have demonstrated that this novel texture discrimination task is dependent on intact mystacial vibrissae and can be performed by both young (2-month old) and older (6-month old) C57BL/6 mice. The parameters of the task can be adjusted to assess the sensitivity of mice using a gradient of textures with different roughness. We have developed a novel, efficient method to assess whisker-mediated texture discrimination in mice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Motion discrimination of throwing a baseball using forearm electrical impedance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Takao; Kusuhara, Toshimasa; Yamamoto, Yoshitake

    2013-04-01

    The extroversion or hyperextension of elbow joint cause disorders of elbow joint in throwing a baseball. A method, which is easy handling and to measure motion objectively, can be useful for evaluation of throwing motion. We investigated a possibility of motion discrimination of throwing a baseball using electrical impedance method. The parameters of frequency characteristics (Cole-Cole arc) of forearm electrical impedance were measured during four types of throwing a baseball. Multiple discriminant analysis was used and the independent variables were change ratios of 11 parameters of forearm electrical impedance. As results of 120 data with four types of throwing motion in three subjects, hitting ratio was very high and 95.8%. We can expect to discriminate throwing a baseball using multiple discriminant analysis of impedance parameters.

  8. Unsupervised Spike Sorting Based on Discriminative Subspace Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Keshtkaran, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    Spike sorting is a fundamental preprocessing step for many neuroscience studies which rely on the analysis of spike trains. In this paper, we present two unsupervised spike sorting algorithms based on discriminative subspace learning. The first algorithm simultaneously learns the discriminative feature subspace and performs clustering. It uses histogram of features in the most discriminative projection to detect the number of neurons. The second algorithm performs hierarchical divisive clustering that learns a discriminative 1-dimensional subspace for clustering in each level of the hierarchy until achieving almost unimodal distribution in the subspace. The algorithms are tested on synthetic and in-vivo data, and are compared against two widely used spike sorting methods. The comparative results demonstrate that our spike sorting methods can achieve substantially higher accuracy in lower dimensional feature space, and they are highly robust to noise. Moreover, they provide significantly better cluster separab...

  9. A complete discrimination system for polynomials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨路; 侯晓荣; 曾振柄

    1996-01-01

    Given a polynomial with symbolic/literal coefficients,a complete discrimination system is a set of explicit expressions in terms of the coefficients,which is sufficient for determining the numbers and multiplicities of the real and imaginary roots.Though it is of great significance,such a criterion for root-classification has never been given for polynomials with degrees greater than 4.The lack of efficient tools in this aspect extremely prevents computer implementations for Tarski’s and other methods in automated theorem proving.To remedy this defect,a generic algorithm is proposed to produce a complete discrimination system for a polynomial with any degrees.This result has extensive applications in various fields,and its efficiency was demonstrated by computer implementations.

  10. A Bayesian Predictive Discriminant Analysis with Screened Data

    OpenAIRE

    Hea-Jung Kim

    2015-01-01

    In the application of discriminant analysis, a situation sometimes arises where individual measurements are screened by a multidimensional screening scheme. For this situation, a discriminant analysis with screened populations is considered from a Bayesian viewpoint, and an optimal predictive rule for the analysis is proposed. In order to establish a flexible method to incorporate the prior information of the screening mechanism, we propose a hierarchical screened scale mixture of normal (HSS...

  11. On discriminant analysis techniques and correlation structures in high dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder

    This paper compares several recently proposed techniques for performing discriminant analysis in high dimensions, and illustrates that the various sparse methods dier in prediction abilities depending on their underlying assumptions about the correlation structures in the data. The techniques...... generally focus on two things: Obtaining sparsity (variable selection) and regularizing the estimate of the within-class covariance matrix. For high-dimensional data, this gives rise to increased interpretability and generalization ability over standard linear discriminant analysis. Here, we group...

  12. Discrimination Report: ESTCP UXO Discrimination Study, ESTCPProject #MM-0437

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasperikova, Erika; Smith, J. Torquil; Morrison, H. Frank; Becker, Alex

    2007-12-21

    The FY06 Defense Appropriation contains funding for the 'Development of Advanced, Sophisticated, Discrimination Technologies for UXO Cleanup' in the Environmental Security Technology Certification Program. In 2003, the Defense Science Board observed: 'The problem is that instruments that can detect the buried UXOs also detect numerous scrap metal objects and other artifacts, which leads to an enormous amount of expensive digging. Typically 100 holes may be dug before a real UXO is unearthed! The Task Force assessment is that much of this wasteful digging can be eliminated by the use of more advanced technology instruments that exploit modern digital processing and advanced multi-mode sensors to achieve an improved level of discrimination of scrap from UXOs.' Significant progress has been made in discrimination technology. To date, testing of these approaches has been primarily limited to test sites with only limited application at live sites. Acceptance of discrimination technologies requires demonstration of system capabilities at real UXO sites under real world conditions. Any attempt to declare detected anomalies to be harmless and requiring no further investigation require demonstration to regulators of not only individual technologies, but of an entire decision making process. This discrimination study was be the first phase in what is expected to be a continuing effort that will span several years.

  13. Exploiting Reject Option in Classification for Social Discrimination Control

    KAUST Repository

    Kamiran, Faisal

    2017-09-29

    Social discrimination is said to occur when an unfavorable decision for an individual is influenced by her membership to certain protected groups such as females and minority ethnic groups. Such discriminatory decisions often exist in historical data. Despite recent works in discrimination-aware data mining, there remains the need for robust, yet easily usable, methods for discrimination control. In this paper, we utilize reject option in classification, a general decision theoretic framework for handling instances whose labels are uncertain, for modeling and controlling discriminatory decisions. Specifically, this framework permits a formal treatment of the intuition that instances close to the decision boundary are more likely to be discriminated in a dataset. Based on this framework, we present three different solutions for discrimination-aware classification. The first solution invokes probabilistic rejection in single or multiple probabilistic classifiers while the second solution relies upon ensemble rejection in classifier ensembles. The third solution integrates one of the first two solutions with situation testing which is a procedure commonly used in the court of law. All solutions are easy to use and provide strong justifications for the decisions. We evaluate our solutions extensively on four real-world datasets and compare their performances with previously proposed discrimination-aware classifiers. The results demonstrate the superiority of our solutions in terms of both performance and flexibility of applicability. In particular, our solutions are effective at removing illegal discrimination from the predictions.

  14. Ethical thinking and discrimination in health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Mlinšek

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available RQ: Personal excellence of nursing focusing on self-transcendence and achievements is crucial for achieving excellence in health care. The question is whether there is unequal treatment of patients despite high ethical standards placed in health care.Purpose: Professional nurses code is a guide in assessing their ethical performance. People are different amongst each other, but have the same rights in the health system, which should be provided by health care services. The need to overcome inequalities has become a cornerstone of excellence in health care.Method: A small quantitative survey of nurses was conducted in one of the departments in a Slovenian hospital. To analyse the results, we used frequency statistics, Spearman's rank correlation test and chi-square test. Results: Providers of health care services are aware of the importance of ethics in its formation. Professional Code is relatively well known; 8.4 % of the respondents were not sure if they clearly define the principles of respect for equality. Discrimination, caused by providers of health care, is of a less extent. Ethical awareness among health care providers does not affect identification with the profession. The education level ofnursing personnel and the perception of discrimination based on religious affiliation influenced one another. Education has no influence on the perception of discrimination based on other circumstances.Organization: Health care organizations should integrate hygieneethical thinking among its strategic goals. Quality is not only quantifying the data. Personal excellence of health care providers, which is difficult to measure, is the basic building block of organizational excellence and patient satisfaction.Originality: There are not many research studies on perceptionsof discrimination in health care. The article raises the sensitive issue that we should talk more about.Limitations: The survey was conducted on a small sample size. Further research

  15. Discriminative object tracking via sparse representation and online dictionary learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yuan; Zhang, Wensheng; Li, Cuihua; Lin, Shuyang; Qu, Yanyun; Zhang, Yinghua

    2014-04-01

    We propose a robust tracking algorithm based on local sparse coding with discriminative dictionary learning and new keypoint matching schema. This algorithm consists of two parts: the local sparse coding with online updated discriminative dictionary for tracking (SOD part), and the keypoint matching refinement for enhancing the tracking performance (KP part). In the SOD part, the local image patches of the target object and background are represented by their sparse codes using an over-complete discriminative dictionary. Such discriminative dictionary, which encodes the information of both the foreground and the background, may provide more discriminative power. Furthermore, in order to adapt the dictionary to the variation of the foreground and background during the tracking, an online learning method is employed to update the dictionary. The KP part utilizes refined keypoint matching schema to improve the performance of the SOD. With the help of sparse representation and online updated discriminative dictionary, the KP part are more robust than the traditional method to reject the incorrect matches and eliminate the outliers. The proposed method is embedded into a Bayesian inference framework for visual tracking. Experimental results on several challenging video sequences demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of our approach.

  16. Radioactive anomaly discrimination from spectral ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniscalco, James; Sjoden, Glenn; Chapman, Mac Clements

    2013-08-20

    A method for discriminating a radioactive anomaly from naturally occurring radioactive materials includes detecting a first number of gamma photons having energies in a first range of energy values within a predetermined period of time and detecting a second number of gamma photons having energies in a second range of energy values within the predetermined period of time. The method further includes determining, in a controller, a ratio of the first number of gamma photons having energies in the first range and the second number of gamma photons having energies in the second range, and determining that a radioactive anomaly is present when the ratio exceeds a threshold value.

  17. Optical results with Rayleigh quotient discrimination filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juday, Richard D.; Rollins, John M.; Monroe, Stanley E., Jr.; Morelli, Michael V.

    1999-03-01

    We report experimental laboratory results using filters that optimize the Rayleigh quotient [Richard D. Juday, 'Generalized Rayleigh quotient approach to filter optimization,' JOSA-A 15(4), 777-790 (April 1998)] for discriminating between two similar objects. That quotient is the ratio of the correlation responses to two differing objects. In distinction from previous optical processing methods it includes the phase of both objects -- not the phase of only the 'accept' object -- in the computation of the filter. In distinction from digital methods it is explicitly constrained to optically realizable filter values throughout the optimization process.

  18. Discrimination of neutrons and {\\gamma}-rays in liquid scintillator based on Elman neural network

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Cai-Xun; Zhao, Jian-Ling; Wang, Li; Yu, Xun-Zhen; Zhu, Jing-Jun; Xing, Hao-Yang

    2015-01-01

    A new neutron and {\\gamma} (n/{\\gamma}) discrimination method based on Elman Neural Network (ENN) was put forward to improve the n/{\\gamma} discrimination performance of liquid scintillator (LS). In this study, neutron and {\\gamma} data acquired from EJ-335 which was exposed in Am-Be radiation field was discriminated using ENN. The difference of n/{\\gamma} discrimination performance between using ENN and Back Propagation Neural Network (BPNN) is that ENN gave a improvement over BPNN in n/{\\gamma} discrimination with the increasing increasing of the Figure of Merit (FOM) from 0.907 to 0.953.

  19. 20 CFR 405.30 - Discrimination complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination complaints. 405.30 Section 405... INITIAL DISABILITY CLAIMS Introduction, General Description, and Definitions § 405.30 Discrimination... that an adjudicator has improperly discriminated against you, you may file a discrimination complaint...

  20. 45 CFR 1624.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1624.4 Section 1624.4... AGAINST DISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY § 1624.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) No qualified... the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination by any legal services program, directly...

  1. Sensory Discrimination as Related to General Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, G. Scott; Schroeder, David H.

    2001-01-01

    Attempted to replicate the pitch discrimination findings of previous research and expand them to the modality of color discrimination in a sample of 899 teenagers and adults by correlating 2 sensory discrimination measures with the general factor from a battery of 13 cognitive ability tests. Results suggest that sensory discrimination is…

  2. 14 CFR 399.36 - Unreasonable discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unreasonable discrimination. 399.36 Section... Unreasonable discrimination. (a) As used in this section: (1) Unreasonable discrimination means unjust discrimination or unreasonable preference or prejudice; and (2) Rate means rate, fare, or charge. (b) Except in...

  3. Discriminative feature selection for visual tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junkai; Luo, Haibo; Zhou, Wei; Song, Yingchao; Hui, Bin; Chang, Zheng

    2017-06-01

    Visual tracking is an important role in computer vision tasks. The robustness of tracking algorithm is a challenge. Especially in complex scenarios such as clutter background, illumination variation and appearance changes etc. As an important component in tracking algorithm, the appropriateness of feature is closed related to the tracking precision. In this paper, an online discriminative feature selection is proposed to provide the tracker the most discriminative feature. Firstly, a feature pool which contains different information of the image such as gradient, gray value and edge is built. And when every frame is processed during tracking, all of these features will be extracted. Secondly, these features are ranked depend on their discrimination between target and background and the highest scored feature is chosen to represent the candidate image patch. Then, after obtaining the tracking result, the target model will be update to adapt the appearance variation. The experiment show that our method is robust when compared with other state-of-the-art algorithms.

  4. Study on the Essence of Optimal Statistically Uncorrelated Discriminant Vectors and Its Application to Face Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WuXiaojun; YangJingyu; JosefKittler; WangShitong; LiuTongming; KieronMesser

    2004-01-01

    A study has been made on the essence of optimal uncorrelated discriminant vectors. A whitening transform has been constructed by means of the eigen decomposition of the population scatter matrix, which makes the population scatter matrix be an identity matrix in the transformed sample space no matter whether the population scatter matrix is singular or not. Thus, the optimal discriminant vectors solved by the conventional linear discriminant analysis (LDA) methods are statistically uncorrelated. The research indicates that the essence of the statistically uncorrelated discriminant transform is the whitening transform plus conventional linear discriminant transform. The distinguished characteristics of the proposed method is that the obtained optimal discriminant vectors are not only orthogonal but also statistically uneorrelated. The proposed method is applicable to all the problems of algebraic feature extraction. The numerical experiments on several facial databases show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  5. A geographical discrimination of Shanxi extra aged vinegars using polyalcohols as the discriminators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Meizhong; Zheng, Yanjie; Xiong, Cen; Li, Bifang; Chen, Sujuan; Bai, Wenliang; Zeng, Yongting; Li, Yongle; Zhang, Xieguang

    2013-01-01

    A discrimination method based on polyalcohol determination was developed for authenticity of protected geographical indication (PGI) vinegars-Shanxi extra aged vinegar (SVs) in China. Six polyalcohols in vinegars including erythritol, arabitol, xylitol, inositol, mannitol, and sorbitol were selected as the PGI discriminators. GC/MS was used to analyze the polyalcohols in the SVs, Zhenjiang vinegars (ZVs), Kazuo aged vinegars (KVs), and other non-geographical indication protected vinegars (NVs). SVs can be distinguished from KVs by the chemical markers mannitol and sorbitol, although the production processes for both types of vinegars are similar. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to distinguish SVs from ZVs and NVs. The differences among the three kinds of vinegars shown by PCA results may be due to the higher erythritol content in SVs, and the inositol and mannitol in ZVs. This study also found that the amount of polyalcohols in Chinese vinegars increases with the acidity value only, regardless of the aging time. The overall results indicated that the polyalcohols can be practicable discriminators for SV discrimination.

  6. Measuring Discrimination in Education: Are Methodologies from Labor and Markets Useful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, Harry J.; Ludwig, Jens

    2003-01-01

    Reviews the methodologies most frequently used by social scientists when measuring discrimination in housing and labor markets, assessing their usefulness for analyzing discrimination in education. The paper focuses on standard statistical methods, methods using more complete data, experimental/audit methods, and natural experiments based on…

  7. Forms, Frequency, and Correlates of Perceived Anti-Atheist Discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph H. Hammer

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The nationally representative 2008 American Religious Identification Survey found that 41% of self-identified atheists reported experiencing discrimination in the last 5 years due to their lack of religious identification.  This mixed-method study explored the forms and frequency of discrimination reported by 796 self-identified atheists living in the United States.  Participants reported experiencing different types of discrimination to varying degrees, including slander; coercion; social ostracism; denial of opportunities, goods, and services; and hate crime.  Similar to other minority groups with concealable stigmatized identities, atheists who more strongly identified with their atheism, who were “out” about their atheism to more people, and who grew up with stricter familial religious expectations reported experiencing more frequent discrimination.  Implications for future research tied to the ongoing religion/spirituality-health debate are discussed.

  8. Fast Discrimination of Bamboo Species Using VIS/NIR Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y. Z.; Dong, W. Y.; Kouba, A. J.

    2016-11-01

    The potential of visible/near-infrared (Vis/NIR) spectroscopy to discriminate different bamboo species was investigated. Vis/NIR spectra were collected on three bamboo species, Bashania fargesii, Fargesia qinlingensis, and Phyllostachys glauca, in the wavelength range of 350-2500 nm. The range of 425-2400 nm was chosen for the spectra modeling. Multiplicative signal correction, standard normal variate with detrending, and 1st and 2nd derivatives were used to preprocess the raw spectral data, and the results were compared. Soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) methods were applied for building discriminant models. The recognition ratio of 30 samples in the validation set was 100% by both SIMCA and PLSDA models. These results indicate that Vis/NIR spectroscopy may provide a fast and nondestructive technique to discriminate different bamboo species in the field.

  9. MR PROSTATE SEGMENTATION VIA DISTRIBUTED DISCRIMINATIVE DICTIONARY (DDD) LEARNING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yanrong; Zhan, Yiqiang; Gao, Yaozong; Jiang, Jianguo; Shen, Dinggang

    2013-01-01

    Segmenting prostate from MR images is important yet challenging. Due to non-Gaussian distribution of prostate appearances in MR images, the popular active appearance model (AAM) has its limited performance. Although the newly developed sparse dictionary learning method[1, 2] can model the image appearance in a non-parametric fashion, the learned dictionaries still lack the discriminative power between prostate and non-prostate tissues, which is critical for accurate prostate segmentation. In this paper, we propose to integrate deformable model with a novel learning scheme, namely the Distributed Discriminative Dictionary (DDD) learning, which can capture image appearance in a non-parametric and discriminative fashion. In particular, three strategies are designed to boost the tissue discriminative power of DDD. First, minimum Redundancy Maximum Relevance (mRMR) feature selection is performed to constrain the dictionary learning in a discriminative feature space. Second, linear discriminant analysis (LDA) is employed to assemble residuals from different dictionaries for optimal separation between prostate and non-prostate tissues. Third, instead of learning the global dictionaries, we learn a set of local dictionaries for the local regions (each with small appearance variations) along prostate boundary, thus achieving better tissue differentiation locally. In the application stage, DDDs will provide the appearance cues to robustly drive the deformable model onto the prostate boundary. Experiments on 50 MR prostate images show that our method can yield a Dice Ratio of 88% compared to the manual segmentations, and have 7% improvement over the conventional AAM.

  10. Local uncorrelated local discriminant embedding for face recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-hu MA; Meng YANG; Zhao ZHANG

    2016-01-01

    The feature extraction algorithm plays an important role in face recognition. However, the extracted features also have overlapping discriminant information. A property of the statistical uncorrelated criterion is that it eliminates the redundancy among the extracted discriminant features, while many algorithms generally ignore this property. In this paper, we introduce a novel feature extraction method called local uncorrelated local discriminant embedding (LULDE). The proposed approach can be seen as an extension of a local discriminant embedding (LDE) framework in three ways. First, a new local statistical uncorrelated criterion is proposed, which effectively captures the local information of interclass and intraclass. Second, we reconstruct the affinity matrices of an intrinsic graph and a penalty graph, which are mentioned in LDE to enhance the discriminant property. Finally, it overcomes the small-sample-size problem without using principal component analysis to preprocess the original data, which avoids losing some discriminant information. Experimental results on Yale, ORL, Extended Yale B, and FERET databases demonstrate that LULDE outperforms LDE and other representative uncorrelated feature extraction methods.

  11. Monocular and binocular depth discrimination thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, S B; Siddiqui, A; Ward, A; Noonan, C; Fisher, A C; Green, J R; Brown, M C; Wareing, P A; Watt, P

    1999-11-01

    Measurement of stereoacuity at varying distances, by real or simulated depth stereoacuity tests, is helpful in the evaluation of patients with binocular imbalance or strabismus. Although the cue of binocular disparity underpins stereoacuity tests, there may be variable amounts of other binocular and monocular cues inherent in a stereoacuity test. In such circumstances, a combined monocular and binocular threshold of depth discrimination may be measured--stereoacuity conventionally referring to the situation where binocular disparity giving rise to retinal disparity is the only cue present. A child-friendly variable distance stereoacuity test (VDS) was developed, with a method for determining the binocular depth threshold from the combined monocular and binocular threshold of depth of discrimination (CT). Subjects with normal binocular function, reduced binocular function, and apparently absent binocularity were included. To measure the threshold of depth discrimination, subjects were required by means of a hand control to align two electronically controlled spheres at viewing distances of 1, 3, and 6m. Stereoacuity was also measured using the TNO, Frisby, and Titmus stereoacuity tests. BTs were calculated according to the function BT= arctan (1/tan alphaC - 1/tan alphaM)(-1), where alphaC and alphaM are the angles subtended at the nodal points by objects situated at the monocular threshold (alphaM) and the combined monocular-binocular threshold (alphaC) of discrimination. In subjects with good binocularity, BTs were similar to their combined thresholds, whereas subjects with reduced and apparently absent binocularity had binocular thresholds 4 and 10 times higher than their combined thresholds (CT). The VDS binocular thresholds showed significantly higher correlation and agreement with the TNO test and the binocular thresholds of the Frisby and Titmus tests, than the corresponding combined thresholds (p = 0.0019). The VDS was found to be an easy to use real depth

  12. Discrimination of Wild Tea Germplasm Resources (Camellia sp.) Using RAPD Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Liang; WANG Ping-sheng; Yamaguchi Satoshi

    2002-01-01

    Discrimination of 24 wild tea germplasm resources ( Camellia sp. ) using RAPD markers was conducted. The result showed that RAPD markers were very effective tool and method in wild tea germplasm discrimination. There were 3 independent ways to discriminate tea germplasms, a) unique RAPD markers, b)specific band patterns and c) a combination of the band patterns or DNA fingerprinting provided by different primers. The presence of 16 unique RAPD markers and the absence of 3 unique markers obtained from 12 primers made it possible to discriminate 14 germplasms. Using the unique band patterns of primer OPO-13 could discriminate 10 tea germplasms. It was of much importance using minimum primers to obtain maximum discrimination capacity. All the 24 wild tea germplasms could be discriminated easily and entirely by the band patterns combination or DNA fingerprinting obtained from OPO-13, OPO-18, OPG-12 and OPA-13, including two wild tea trees of very similar morphological characteristics and chemical components.

  13. Discriminating orthogonal single-photon images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, Curtis J.; Zerom, Petros; Shin, Heedeuk; Howell, John C.; Boyd, Robert W.

    2009-03-01

    We can encode an image from an orthogonal basis set onto a single photon from a downconverted pair via the use of an amplitude mask. We can then discriminate the image imprinted on the photon from other images in the set using holographic-matched filtering techniques. We demonstrate this procedure experimentally for an image space of two objects, and we discuss the possibility of applying this method to a much larger image space. This process could have important implications for the manipulation of images at the quantum level.

  14. Haptic Visual Discrimination and Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarron, Lawrence; Horn, Paul W.

    1979-01-01

    The Haptic Visual Discrimination Test of tactual-visual information processing was administered to 39 first-graders, along with standard intelligence, academic potential, and spatial integration tests. Results revealed consistently significant associations between the importance of parieto-occipital areas for organizing sensory data as well as for…

  15. Structural Discrimination and Autonomous Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hin-Yan

    2016-01-01

    discrimination looms with the possibility of crash optimisation impulses in which a protective shield is cast over those individuals in which society may have a vested interest in prioritising or safeguarding. A stark dystopian scenario is introduced to sketch the contours whereby personal beacons signal...

  16. Don't demotivate, discriminate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J.A. Kamphorst (Jurjen); O.H. Swank (Otto)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This paper offers a new theory of discrimination in the workplace. We consider a manager who has to assign two tasks to two employees. The manager has superior information about the employees' abilities. We show that besides an equilibrium where the manager does not dis

  17. Structural Discrimination and Autonomous Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hin-Yan

    2016-01-01

    discrimination looms with the possibility of crash optimisation impulses in which a protective shield is cast over those individuals in which society may have a vested interest in prioritising or safeguarding. A stark dystopian scenario is introduced to sketch the contours whereby personal beacons signal...

  18. Experiencing discrimination increases risk taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Jeremy P; Koslov, Katrina; Nock, Matthew K; Mendes, Wendy Berry

    2013-02-01

    Prior research has revealed racial disparities in health outcomes and health-compromising behaviors, such as smoking and drug abuse. It has been suggested that discrimination contributes to such disparities, but the mechanisms through which this might occur are not well understood. In the research reported here, we examined whether the experience of discrimination affects acute physiological stress responses and increases risk-taking behavior. Black and White participants each received rejecting feedback from partners who were either of their own race (in-group rejection) or of a different race (out-group rejection, which could be interpreted as discrimination). Physiological (cardiovascular and neuroendocrine) changes, cognition (memory and attentional bias), affect, and risk-taking behavior were assessed. Significant participant race × partner race interactions were observed. Cross-race rejection, compared with same-race rejection, was associated with lower levels of cortisol, increased cardiac output, decreased vascular resistance, greater anger, increased attentional bias, and more risk-taking behavior. These data suggest that perceived discrimination is associated with distinct profiles of physiological reactivity, affect, cognitive processing, and risk taking, implicating direct and indirect pathways to health disparities.

  19. Locally Linear Discriminate Embedding for Face Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eimad E. Abusham

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel method based on the local nonlinear mapping is presented in this research. The method is called Locally Linear Discriminate Embedding (LLDE. LLDE preserves a local linear structure of a high-dimensional space and obtains a compact data representation as accurately as possible in embedding space (low dimensional before recognition. For computational simplicity and fast processing, Radial Basis Function (RBF classifier is integrated with the LLDE. RBF classifier is carried out onto low-dimensional embedding with reference to the variance of the data. To validate the proposed method, CMU-PIE database has been used and experiments conducted in this research revealed the efficiency of the proposed methods in face recognition, as compared to the linear and non-linear approaches.

  20. Direct discriminant locality preserving projection with Hammerstein polynomial expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Zhang, Jiashu; Li, Defang

    2012-12-01

    Discriminant locality preserving projection (DLPP) is a linear approach that encodes discriminant information into the objective of locality preserving projection and improves its classification ability. To enhance the nonlinear description ability of DLPP, we can optimize the objective function of DLPP in reproducing kernel Hilbert space to form a kernel-based discriminant locality preserving projection (KDLPP). However, KDLPP suffers the following problems: 1) larger computational burden; 2) no explicit mapping functions in KDLPP, which results in more computational burden when projecting a new sample into the low-dimensional subspace; and 3) KDLPP cannot obtain optimal discriminant vectors, which exceedingly optimize the objective of DLPP. To overcome the weaknesses of KDLPP, in this paper, a direct discriminant locality preserving projection with Hammerstein polynomial expansion (HPDDLPP) is proposed. The proposed HPDDLPP directly implements the objective of DLPP in high-dimensional second-order Hammerstein polynomial space without matrix inverse, which extracts the optimal discriminant vectors for DLPP without larger computational burden. Compared with some other related classical methods, experimental results for face and palmprint recognition problems indicate the effectiveness of the proposed HPDDLPP.

  1. Finger dexterity and visual discrimination following two yoga breathing practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Telles

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Practicing yoga has been shown to improve motor functions and attention. Though attention is required for fine motor and discrimination tasks, the effect of yoga breathing techniques on fine motor skills and visual discrimination has not been assessed. Aim: To study the effect of yoga breathing techniques on finger dexterity and visual discrimination. Materials and Methods: The present study consisted of one hundred and forty subjects who had enrolled for stress management. They were randomly divided into two groups, one group practiced high frequency yoga breathing while the other group practiced breath awareness. High frequency yoga breathing (kapalabhati, breath rate 1.0 Hz and breath awareness are two yoga practices which improve attention. The immediate effect of high frequency yoga breathing and breath awareness (i were assessed on the performance on the O′Connor finger dexterity task and (ii (in a shape and size discrimination task. Results: There was a significant improvement in the finger dexterity task by 19% after kapalabhati and 9% after breath awareness (P<0.001 in both cases, repeated measures ANOVA and post-hoc analyses. There was a significant reduction (P<0.001 in error (41% after kapalabhati and 21% after breath awareness as well as time taken to complete the shape and size discrimination test (15% after kapalabhati and 15% after breath awareness; P<0.001 was also observed. Conclusion: Both kapalabahati and breath awareness can improve fine motor skills and visual discrimination, with a greater magnitude of change after kapalabhati.

  2. Digital neutron-gamma discrimination with scintillators: An innovative approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamili, S.; Bayat, E.; Ghal-Eh, N.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, a digital neutron-gamma discrimination (DNGD) method with an NE213 scintillator has been proposed in which the anode pulse is divided into two different pulses, one representing the amplitude and the other characterizes the DNGD. Then the two pulses are summed up after travelling through delay and mixer circuits to form an input pulse for sampling in analog-to-digital converter (ADC). The discrimination tests have been performed with an 8-bit digital storage oscilloscope (DSO) as ADC and 241Am-Be neutron source, whereas the Fourier method has been used to derive the discrimination characteristic. The results confirm the fast performance and efficiency of proposed method.

  3. Discrimination of genetically modified sugar beets based on terahertz spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Li, Zhi; Yin, Xianhua; Hu, Fangrong; Hu, Cong

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to apply terahertz (THz) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics techniques for discrimination of genetically modified (GM) and non-GM sugar beets. In this paper, the THz spectra of 84 sugar beet samples (36 GM sugar beets and 48 non-GM ones) were obtained by using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) system in the frequency range from 0.2 to 1.2 THz. Three chemometrics methods, principal component analysis (PCA), discriminant analysis (DA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS), were employed to classify sugar beet samples into two groups: genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and non-GMOs. The DPLS method yielded the best classification result, and the percentages of successful classification for GM and non-GM sugar beets were both 100%. Results of the present study demonstrate the usefulness of THz spectroscopy together with chemometrics methods as a powerful tool to distinguish GM and non-GM sugar beets.

  4. Weighted Discriminative Dictionary Learning based on Low-rank Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Heyou; Zheng, Hao

    2017-01-01

    Low-rank representation has been widely used in the field of pattern classification, especially when both training and testing images are corrupted with large noise. Dictionary plays an important role in low-rank representation. With respect to the semantic dictionary, the optimal representation matrix should be block-diagonal. However, traditional low-rank representation based dictionary learning methods cannot effectively exploit the discriminative information between data and dictionary. To address this problem, this paper proposed weighted discriminative dictionary learning based on low-rank representation, where a weighted representation regularization term is constructed. The regularization associates label information of both training samples and dictionary atoms, and encourages to generate a discriminative representation with class-wise block-diagonal structure, which can further improve the classification performance where both training and testing images are corrupted with large noise. Experimental results demonstrate advantages of the proposed method over the state-of-the-art methods.

  5. 蜜瓜品质光谱检测中异常建模样品的综合评判%Outlier Sample Discriminating Methods for Building Calibration Model in Melons Quality Detecting Using NIR Spectra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田海清; 王春光; 张海军; 郁志宏; 李建康

    2012-01-01

    Outlier samples strongly influence the precision of the calibration model in soluble solids content measurement of melons using NIR Spectra. According to the possible sources of outlier samples, three methods (predicted concentration residual test; Chauvenet test; leverage and studentized residual test) were used to discriminate these outliers respectively. Nine suspicious outliers were detected from calibration set which including 85 fruit samples. Considering the 9 suspicious outlier samples maybe contain some no-outlier samples, they were reclaimed to the model one by one to see whether they influence the model and prediction precision or not. In this way, 5 samples which were helpful to the model joined in calibration set again, and a new model was developed with the correlation coefficient (r) 0. 889 and root mean square errors for calibration (RMSEC) 0. 601° Brix. For 35 unknown samples, the root mean square errors prediction (RMSEP) was 0. 854°Brix. The performance of this model was more better than that developed with non outlier was eliminated from calibration set(r = 0. 797, RMSEC = 0. 849° Brix, RMSEP=1. 19°Brix), and more representative and stable with all 9 samples were eliminated from calibration set(r = 0.892, RMSEC=0. 605°Brix, RMSEP=0. 862°Brix).%针对蜜瓜可溶性固形物含量透射光谱检测中,异常建模样品对模型精度的影响及多种可能来源,提出异常样品的综合评判方法.为防止漏判,分别针对不同来源,采用基于预测浓度残差、Chauvenet检验法及杠杆值与学生残差T检验准则对85个建模样品(偏最小二乘法建模)进行初步判别,共判别出9个疑似异常样品.为防止误判,对疑似样品逐一回收,考察其对建模与预测精度的影响.先后回收5个样品后,所建校正模型相关系数r为0.889,均方根校正偏差RMSEC为0.601°Brix,对35个未知样品的均方根预测偏差RMSEP为0.854°Brix,比未剔除异常样品前所建模型(r=0.797,RMSEC=0

  6. Strain Discrimination of Staphylococcus aureus Using Superantigen Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsen, Hau-Yang; Li, Sheng-Chih; Chiang, Yu-Cheng; Tsai, Shuo-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major bacterial species that may cause clinical infection and food-poisoning cases. Strains of this species may produce a series of superantigens (SAgs). Due to the importance of staphylococcal infections, reliable methods for the discrimination of strains of this species are important. Such data may allow us to trace the infection origins and be used for epidemiological study. For strain discrimination, genotyping methods, such as pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), etc., could be used. Recently, toxin gene profiles, which can be used for the elucidation of the genetic and pathogenic relatedness between strains, also have been used to improve the strain discrimination. For S. aureus, as more SAg genes were discovered, the SAg profiles become more useful for the strain discrimination of S. aureus. In this chapter, a method for the discrimination of S. aureus strains using superantigen profiles will be described in detail.

  7. Combining binary classifiers to improve tree species discrimination at leaf level

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dastile, X

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available variability which makes discrimination between the tree species (hereafter referred to as classes) challenging. We focus on two classification methods: K-nearest neighbour and feed-forward neural networks for the discrimination of the classes. For both methods...

  8. Facies discrimination in a mixed fluvio-eolian setting using elemental whole rock geochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Johan; Friis, Henrik; Stollhofen, Harald

    2007-01-01

    performed on the geochemical data has enabled discrimination of seven of the eight facies types. Furthermore, the facies discrimination method allowed a quantitative estimate of the degree of fluvial reworking of eolian sand. We believe that the method presented here, when calibrated to a reference well...

  9. The Monte Carlo validation framework for the discriminant partial least squares model extended with variable selection methods applied to authenticity studies of Viagra® based on chromatographic impurity profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakowska, B; Custers, D; Deconinck, E; Daszykowski, M

    2016-02-07

    The aim of this work was to develop a general framework for the validation of discriminant models based on the Monte Carlo approach that is used in the context of authenticity studies based on chromatographic impurity profiles. The performance of the validation approach was applied to evaluate the usefulness of the diagnostic logic rule obtained from the partial least squares discriminant model (PLS-DA) that was built to discriminate authentic Viagra® samples from counterfeits (a two-class problem). The major advantage of the proposed validation framework stems from the possibility of obtaining distributions for different figures of merit that describe the PLS-DA model such as, e.g., sensitivity, specificity, correct classification rate and area under the curve in a function of model complexity. Therefore, one can quickly evaluate their uncertainty estimates. Moreover, the Monte Carlo model validation allows balanced sets of training samples to be designed, which is required at the stage of the construction of PLS-DA and is recommended in order to obtain fair estimates that are based on an independent set of samples. In this study, as an illustrative example, 46 authentic Viagra® samples and 97 counterfeit samples were analyzed and described by their impurity profiles that were determined using high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection and further discriminated using the PLS-DA approach. In addition, we demonstrated how to extend the Monte Carlo validation framework with four different variable selection schemes: the elimination of uninformative variables, the importance of a variable in projections, selectivity ratio and significance multivariate correlation. The best PLS-DA model was based on a subset of variables that were selected using the variable importance in the projection approach. For an independent test set, average estimates with the corresponding standard deviation (based on 1000 Monte Carlo runs) of the correct

  10. Rainbow trout can discriminate between feeds with different oil sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurden, I; Cuvier, A; Gondouin, E; Olsen, R E; Ruohonen, K; Kaushik, S; Boujard, T

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of present two-choice trials was to examine the capacity of groups of juvenile rainbow trout to differentiate between two isolipidic diets containing distinct oils and to detect an eventual preference. The choice was offered by means of two self-feeders per tank. One feeder distributed a standard diet with fish oil (FO), the other a diet containing vegetable oil, either rich in linolenic acid (linseed oil, LO), linoleic acid (sunflower oil, SO), or oleic acid (rapeseed oil, RO). Each 15-day preference test was preceded by a 15-day adaptation period during which both feeders distributed the same diet. The tests were followed by a 10- to 15-day validation period in order to confirm that feeder solicitations were steered by the characteristics of the diets. Preferences were expressed as relative changes in feed demands for a specific feeder. Averaged over all groups, the preference tests demonstrated the capacity of rainbow trout to discriminate between a diet with FO and a diet containing vegetable oil, and indicated a general preference for the diet with FO over the other diets irrespective of whether they received the diet with fish oil (Experiment 1) or with vegetable oil (Experiment 2) prior to the preference test. The tests also indicated a difference in the extent of relative avoidance of each of the three vegetable oil diets. Diet LO was the most avoided, as indicated by the 37-39% decrease in demands for the feeder with diet LO (P0.05). The avoidance of diet SO at the end of the preference test was 30% (P>0.05) after an initially higher avoidance of 43% (Poil diets were compensated by increased demands for diet FO. Hence, changes in diet selection had no effect on total feed or energy intakes, measured as the sum of both selections.

  11. Discrimination of red and white rice bran from Indonesia using HPLC fingerprint analysis combined with chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabir, Aryani; Rafi, Mohamad; Darusman, Latifah K

    2017-04-15

    HPLC fingerprint analysis combined with chemometrics was developed to discriminate between the red and the white rice bran grown in Indonesia. The major component in rice bran is γ-oryzanol which consisted of 4 main compounds, namely cycloartenol ferulate, cyclobranol ferulate, campesterol ferulate and β-sitosterol ferulate. Separation of these four compounds along with other compounds was performed using C18 and methanol-acetonitrile with gradient elution system. By using these intensity variations, principal component and discriminant analysis were performed to discriminate the two samples. Discriminant analysis was successfully discriminated the red from the white rice bran with predictive ability of the model showed a satisfactory classification for the test samples. The results of this study indicated that the developed method was suitable as quality control method for rice bran in terms of identification and discrimination of the red and the white rice bran.

  12. Racial Discrimination in the British Labor Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, Michael

    1981-01-01

    Contains results of a study of racial discrimination in the British job market for accountants and financial executives. Results show that considerable discrimination remains several years after the adoption of the Race Relations Act of 1968. (CT)

  13. DISCRIMINANT ANALYSIS OF BANK PROFITABILITY LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ante Rozga

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Discriminant analysis has been employed in this paper in order to identify and explain key features of bank profitability levels. Bank profitability is set up in the form of two categorical variables: profit or loss recorded and above or below average return on equity. Predictor variables are selected from various groups of financial indicators usually included in the empirical work on microeconomic determinants of bank profitability. The data from the Croatian banking sector is analyzed using the Enter method. General recommendations for a more profitable business of banking found in the bank management literature and existing empirical framework such as rationalization of overhead costs, asset growth, increase of non-interest income by expanding scale and scope of financial products proved to be important for classification of banks in different profitability levels. A higher market share may bring additional advantages. Classification results, canonical correlation and Wilks’ Lambda test confirm statistical significance of research results. Altogether, discriminant analysis turns out to be a suitable statistical method for solving presented research problem and moving forward from the bankruptcy, credit rating or default issues in finance.

  14. Detection and discrimination of nonmetallic land mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donskoy, Dmitri M.

    1999-08-01

    This paper is further development of the nonlinear vibro- acoustic technique, first presented at the previous SPIE conference on Detection and Remediation Technologies for Mines and Mineline Targets, Orlando '98. The present paper discusses the physical/mathematical model and experimental result of detection and discrimination of buried land mines. The mathematical model based on simplified 'mass-spring' approach. The effective spring has a nonlinear stiffness due to a nonlinear boundary condition at the soil-mine interface. Resulting nonlinear equation of motion and its solution in a good agreement with experimental observations. It has been demonstrated numerically and experimentally, that dynamically compliant mine cases exhibit strong nonlinear acoustic response, while less compliant false targets, such as rocks, solid pieces of wood and steel, and etc., behave as dynamically linear systems. The discovered nonlinear phenomenon has been used to develop the nonlinear vibro-acoustic method for land mine detection and discrimination. The experimental studies were performed with real inert plastic and wooden mines under laboratory and field conditions. First, the detection was performed with a contact sensor. Later, the method was tested using remote senors, such as a laser-doppler vibrometer and specially developed microwave vibrometers. These remote sensor demonstrated applicability for the developed nonlinear technique.

  15. Discriminative sparse coding on multi-manifolds

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, J.J.-Y.

    2013-09-26

    Sparse coding has been popularly used as an effective data representation method in various applications, such as computer vision, medical imaging and bioinformatics. However, the conventional sparse coding algorithms and their manifold-regularized variants (graph sparse coding and Laplacian sparse coding), learn codebooks and codes in an unsupervised manner and neglect class information that is available in the training set. To address this problem, we propose a novel discriminative sparse coding method based on multi-manifolds, that learns discriminative class-conditioned codebooks and sparse codes from both data feature spaces and class labels. First, the entire training set is partitioned into multiple manifolds according to the class labels. Then, we formulate the sparse coding as a manifold-manifold matching problem and learn class-conditioned codebooks and codes to maximize the manifold margins of different classes. Lastly, we present a data sample-manifold matching-based strategy to classify the unlabeled data samples. Experimental results on somatic mutations identification and breast tumor classification based on ultrasonic images demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed data representation and classification approach. 2013 The Authors. All rights reserved.

  16. Illustrations of Price Discrimination in Baseball

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel, Rascher; Andrew, Schwarz

    2010-01-01

    Price discrimination of this nature, focused on differing degrees of quality, bundled goods, volume discounts, and other forms of second-degree price discrimination, is commonplace in MLB. Indeed, it is safe to say that every single MLB ticket is sold under some form of price discrimination. As teams grow increasingly sophisticated in their pricing strategies, price discrimination is becoming more precise, more wide-spread, and more profitable, while at the same time providing for more oppo...

  17. STARTING BLOCK PERFORMANCE IN SPRINTERS: A STATISTICAL METHOD FOR IDENTIFYING DISCRIMINATIVE PARAMETERS OF THE PERFORMANCE AND AN ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECT OF PROVIDING FEEDBACK OVER A 6-WEEK PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Fortier

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was twofold: (a to examine if kinetic and kinematic parameters of the sprint start could differentiate elite from sub-elite sprinters and, (b to investigate whether providing feedback (FB about selected parameters could improve starting block performance of intermediate sprinters over a 6-week training period. Twelve male sprinters, assigned to an elite or a sub-elite group, participated in Experiment 1. Eight intermediate sprinters participated in Experiment 2. All athletes were required to perform three sprint starts at maximum intensity followed by a 10-m run. To detect differences between elite and sub-elite groups, comparisons were made using t-tests for independent samples. Parameters reaching a significant group difference were retained for the linear discriminant analysis (LDA. The LDA yielded four discriminative kinetic parameters. Feedback about these selected parameters was given to sprinters in Experiment 2. For this experiment, data acquisition was divided into three periods. The first six sessions were without specific FB, whereas the following six sessions were enriched by kinetic FB. Finally, athletes underwent a retention session (without FB 4 weeks after the twelfth session. Even though differences were found in the time to front peak force, the time to rear peak force, and the front peak force in the retention session, the results of the present study showed that providing FB about selected kinetic parameters differentiating elite from sub-elite sprinters did not improve the starting block performance of intermediate sprinters

  18. The effect of perceived discrimination on the health of immigrant workers in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Gil-González Diana; Ronda-Pérez Elena; Agudelo-Suárez Andrés A; Vives-Cases Carmen; García Ana M; Ruiz-Frutos Carlos; Felt Emily; Benavides Fernando G

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Discrimination is an important determinant of health inequalities, and immigrants may be more vulnerable to certain types of discrimination than the native-born. This study analyses the relationship between immigrants' perceived discrimination and various self-reported health indicators. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted (2008) amongst a non-random sample of 2434 immigrants from Ecuador, Morocco, Romania and Colombia in four Spanish cities: Barcelona, Huelva, ...

  19. 18 CFR 1302.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination... § 1302.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the United States shall, on the ground of... otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance...

  20. 28 CFR 42.510 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 42.510 Section...-Implementation of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 Employment § 42.510 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall on the basis of handicap be subjected to discrimination...

  1. 22 CFR 142.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 142.11 Section 142... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 142.11 Discrimination... discrimination in employment under any program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance. (2) A...

  2. 5 CFR 900.704 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 900.704... Federally Assisted Programs of the Office of Personnel Management § 900.704 Discrimination prohibited. (a..., be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity...

  3. 45 CFR 1110.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1110.3 Section 1110.3... HUMANITIES GENERAL NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS § 1110.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a... from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected, to discrimination under...

  4. 38 CFR 18.411 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited... Practices § 18.411 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or activity to which...

  5. 22 CFR 217.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 217.11 Section 217... Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or activity to which this part applies. (2) A...

  6. 28 CFR 42.203 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 42.203 Section...) of the Justice System Improvement Act of 1979 § 42.203 Discrimination prohibited. (a) No person in... participation in, be denied the benefits of, be subjected to discrimination under, or denied employment in...

  7. 45 CFR 605.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 605.11 Section 605.11... Employment Practices § 605.11 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or...

  8. 45 CFR 605.21 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 605.21 Section 605.21... Accessibility § 605.21 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall, because a recipient's... from participation in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity to...

  9. 5 CFR 900.404 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 900.404... § 900.404 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. A person in the United States shall not, on the ground... be otherwise subjected to discrimination under, a program to which this subpart applies. (b) Specific...

  10. 43 CFR 17.203 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 17.203 Section... Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination...

  11. 38 CFR 18.404 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited... Provisions § 18.404 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the... subjected to discrimination under any program or activity which receives Federal financial assistance. (b...

  12. 38 CFR 18.421 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited... Accessibility § 18.421 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall, because a recipient's... from participation in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity to...

  13. 28 CFR 35.149 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 35.149 Section... STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERVICES Program Accessibility § 35.149 Discrimination prohibited. Except as... subjected to discrimination by any public entity. ...

  14. 45 CFR 1203.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1203.4 Section 1203.4... OF 1964 § 1203.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. A person in the United States shall not, on... benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under, a program to which this part applies. (b...

  15. 22 CFR 217.21 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 217.21 Section 217... Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall, because a recipient's facilities within the... excluded from participation in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity...

  16. 28 CFR 42.520 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 42.520 Section...-Implementation of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 Accessibility § 42.520 Discrimination prohibited... participation in, or otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving Federal...

  17. 22 CFR 142.15 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 142.15 Section 142... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 142.15 Discrimination... be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity to which the part applies. ...

  18. 34 CFR 104.21 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 104.21 Section 104.21... ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 104.21 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall, because a... excluded from participation in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity...

  19. 28 CFR 42.104 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 42.104 Section... Civil Rights Act of 1964 1 § 42.104 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the United... denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to which this...

  20. 18 CFR 1307.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination... NONDISCRIMINATION WITH RESPECT TO HANDICAP § 1307.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped... otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity to which this part applies. (b...

  1. 28 CFR 42.503 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 42.503 Section...-Implementation of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 General Provisions § 42.503 Discrimination... from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any...

  2. 29 CFR 1630.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1630.4 Section 1630.4 Labor... EQUAL EMPLOYMENT PROVISIONS OF THE AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT § 1630.4 Discrimination prohibited..., or privilege of employment. The term discrimination includes, but is not limited to, the acts...

  3. 34 CFR 104.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 104.11 Section 104.11... ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 104.11 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or...

  4. Experienced discrimination amongst European old citizens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, Wim J. A.; van Santvoort, Marc M.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyses the experienced age discrimination of old European citizens and the factors related to this discrimination. Differences in experienced discrimination between old citizens of different European countries are explored. Data from the 2008 ESS survey are used. Old age is defined as b

  5. 34 CFR 100.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 100.3 Section 100.3... EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 100.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No... participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program...

  6. 45 CFR 80.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 80.3 Section 80.3... TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 80.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the..., be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to...

  7. Third-Degree Price Discrimination Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Youngsun

    2006-01-01

    The author derives the probability that price discrimination improves social welfare, using a simple model of third-degree price discrimination assuming two independent linear demands. The probability that price discrimination raises social welfare increases as the preferences or incomes of consumer groups become more heterogeneous. He derives the…

  8. Experienced discrimination amongst European old citizens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, Wim J. A.; van Santvoort, Marc M.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyses the experienced age discrimination of old European citizens and the factors related to this discrimination. Differences in experienced discrimination between old citizens of different European countries are explored. Data from the 2008 ESS survey are used. Old age is defined as b

  9. Sex Discrimination and Women's Labor Market Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumark, David; McLennan, Michele

    1995-01-01

    Using self-reported sex discrimination data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Young Women, a study found that working women who report discrimination are more likely to change employers or interrupt their labor force participation. However, women who report discrimination do not accrue less experience or have lower wage growth. (SK)

  10. Simultaneous Visual Discrimination in Asian Elephants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissani, Moti; Hoefler-Nissani, Donna; Lay, U. Tin; Htun, U. Wan

    2005-01-01

    Two experiments explored the behavior of 20 Asian elephants ("Elephas aximus") in simultaneous visual discrimination tasks. In Experiment 1, 7 Burmese logging elephants acquired a white+/black- discrimination, reaching criterion in a mean of 2.6 sessions and 117 discrete trials, whereas 4 elephants acquired a black+/white- discrimination in 5.3…

  11. Non-discrimination and equality of women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostland, Rolanda Carina

    2006-01-01

    Non-discrimination is considered to be a cornerstone of the human rights framework of the United Nations. Already in the UN Charter of 1945 it is stated that human rights should be promoted without discrimination as to, amongst other things, sex. This principle of non-discrimination on the ground of

  12. Discrimination in Recruitment: An Empirical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Jerry M.

    1978-01-01

    To investigate whether recruitment practices of companies with affirmative action programs discriminated against Blacks or resulted in reverse discrimination, qualifications and race of fictitious job applicants were manipulated on resumes sent to a sample of employers. Responses strongly indicate discrimination, with Black applicants favored…

  13. 7 CFR 15d.2 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 15d.2 Section 15d.2... THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE § 15d.2 Discrimination prohibited. (a) No agency, officer... participation in, deny the benefits of, or subject to discrimination any person in the United States under any...

  14. 34 CFR 104.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 104.4 Section 104.4... ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 104.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person... otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activitiy which receives Federal financial...

  15. 38 CFR 18.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited... THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 General § 18.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the..., be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to which...

  16. Experienced discrimination amongst European old citizens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, Wim J. A.; van Santvoort, Marc M.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyses the experienced age discrimination of old European citizens and the factors related to this discrimination. Differences in experienced discrimination between old citizens of different European countries are explored. Data from the 2008 ESS survey are used. Old age is defined as

  17. 45 CFR 605.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 605.4 Section 605.4... Provisions § 605.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the... subjected to discrimination under any program or activity which receives Federal financial assistance. (b...

  18. 13 CFR 112.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 112.3... ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF SBA-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 112.3 Discrimination... be otherwise subjected to discrimination by any business or other activity. (b) Specific...

  19. 13 CFR 113.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 113.3... Provisions § 113.3 Discrimination prohibited. To the extent not covered or prohibited by part 112 of this... employment decisions shall be made in a manner which ensures that discrimination on the basis of handicap...

  20. 18 CFR 1307.5 - Employment discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... discrimination. 1307.5 Section 1307.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY NONDISCRIMINATION WITH RESPECT TO HANDICAP § 1307.5 Employment discrimination. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or...

  1. 15 CFR 8b.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8b.11 Section 8b.11 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION... Practices § 8b.11 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped individual shall, on...

  2. 45 CFR 611.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 611.3 Section 611.3... CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 611.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the United States... benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to which this part applies. (b...

  3. 29 CFR 500.9 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 500.9 Section 500.9 Labor... SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION General Provisions § 500.9 Discrimination prohibited. (a) It is a... Secretary alleging such discrimination. ...

  4. 29 CFR 34.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Discrimination prohibited. 34.3 Section 34.3 Labor Office of... THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT OF 1982, AS AMENDED (JTPA) General Provisions § 34.3 Discrimination... participation in JTPA, be excluded from participation in, denied the benefits of, subjected to discrimination...

  5. 29 CFR 502.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 502.3 Section 502.3 Labor... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT (SUSPENDED 6-29-2009) General Provisions § 502.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a... Department regulation promulgated pursuant to sec. 218 of the INA. (b) Allegations of discrimination against...

  6. 22 CFR 142.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 142.4 Section 142.4... OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 142.4 Discrimination... participation in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or...

  7. 49 CFR 27.7 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 27.7 Section 27.7... OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General § 27.7 Discrimination prohibited. (a... participation in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or...

  8. 15 CFR 8b.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8b.4 Section 8b.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION... Provisions § 8b.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped individual shall, on the...

  9. 29 CFR 501.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 501.4 Section 501.4 Labor... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT General Provisions § 501.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) A person may not... discrimination against any person under paragraph (a) of this section will be investigated by the WHD. Where the...

  10. 14 CFR 372.22 - Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination. 372.22 Section 372.22... REGULATIONS OVERSEAS MILITARY PERSONNEL CHARTERS Conditions and Limitations § 372.22 Discrimination. No... any unjust discrimination or any undue or unreasonable prejudice or disadvantage in any respect...

  11. 14 CFR 271.9 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 271.9 Section... TRANSPORTATION § 271.9 Discrimination prohibited. (a) All air carriers receiving subsidy under this part shall comply with the following: (1) The Age Discrimination Act of 1975; (2) The Civil Rights Act of 1964 and...

  12. 7 CFR 15b.17 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 15b.17 Section 15b.17... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 15b.17 Discrimination prohibited. No... to discrimination under any program or activity receiving assistance from this Department. ...

  13. 24 CFR 1.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1.4... DEVELOPMENT-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 1.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a... excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination...

  14. 45 CFR 84.21 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 84.21 Section 84.21... Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall, because a recipient's facilities are... in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity to which this part...

  15. 45 CFR 84.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 84.11 Section 84.11... § 84.11 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or activity to which this...

  16. 29 CFR 32.12 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Discrimination prohibited. 32.12 Section 32.12 Labor Office... § 32.12 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped individual shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or activity to which...

  17. 7 CFR 15b.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 15b.4 Section 15b.4... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 15b.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a... in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or...

  18. 15 CFR 8.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8.4 Section... General Provisions; Prohibitions: Nondiscrimination Clause; Applicability to Programs § 8.4 Discrimination... discrimination under, any program to which this part applies. (b) Specific discriminatory acts prohibited. (1) A...

  19. 45 CFR 84.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 84.4 Section 84.4... § 84.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of... discrimination under any program or activity which receives Federal financial assistance. (b) Discriminatory...

  20. 29 CFR 32.26 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Discrimination prohibited. 32.26 Section 32.26 Labor Office... RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 32.26 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified... discrimination under any program or activity to which this part applies. ...

  1. 22 CFR 141.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 141.3 Section 141.3... DEPARTMENT OF STATE-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 141.3 Discrimination... discrimination under any program to which this part applies. (b) Specific discriminatory actions prohibited. (1...

  2. 50 CFR 3.1 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 3.1 Section 3.1... PROVISIONS NONDISCRIMINATION-CONTRACTS, PERMITS, AND USE OF FACILITIES § 3.1 Discrimination prohibited. No..., be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to any form of discrimination or segregation...

  3. 43 CFR 27.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 27.3 Section 27... ISSUED UNDER TITLE II OF PUBLIC LAW 93-153 § 27.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person shall... through contractual or other arrangements, subject an individual to discrimination on the grounds of race...

  4. Discrimination ability of the Energy score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinson, Pierre; Tastu, Julija

    as appealing since being proper, we show that its discrimination ability may be limited when focusing on the dependence structure of multivariate probabilistic forecasts. For the case of multivariate Gaussian process, a theoretical upper for such discrimination ability is derived and discussed. This limited...... discrimination ability may eventually get compromised by computational and sampling issues, as dimension increases....

  5. 24 CFR 8.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8.4... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT General Provisions § 8.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) No... in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or...

  6. 15 CFR 8b.16 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8b.16 Section 8b.16 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION... Accessibility § 8b.16 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped individual shall, because a recipient...

  7. 5 CFR 950.110 - Prohibited discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibited discrimination. 950.110 Section 950.110 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE... PRIVATE VOLUNTARY ORGANIZATIONS General Provisions § 950.110 Prohibited discrimination. Discrimination for...

  8. 22 CFR 217.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 217.4 Section 217.4... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 217.4 Discrimination... participation in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or...

  9. 49 CFR 21.5 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 21.5 Section 21.5... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 21.5 Discrimination... discrimination under, any program to which this part applies. (b) Specific discriminatory actions prohibited: (1...

  10. 43 CFR 17.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 17.3 Section 17... National Origin § 17.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the United States shall, on the..., or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to which this part applies. (b...

  11. 29 CFR 32.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Discrimination prohibited. 32.4 Section 32.4 Labor Office of... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 32.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No... denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity which...

  12. 6 CFR 21.5 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 21.5 Section 21.5... FROM THE DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY § 21.5 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in... participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under, any program to...

  13. 43 CFR 34.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 34.4 Section 34... DURING CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF THE ALASKA NATURAL GAS TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM § 34.4 Discrimination... part applies. (b) Specific actions in which discrimination is prohibited. No person shall directly or...

  14. 10 CFR 19.32 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 19.32 Section 19.32 Energy... § 19.32 Discrimination prohibited. No person shall on the grounds of sex be excluded from participation in, be denied a license, be denied the benefit of, or be subjected to discrimination under any...

  15. 24 CFR 6.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 6.4... COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT ACT OF 1974 General Provisions § 6.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) Section 109... benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity funded in whole or in part...

  16. 14 CFR 380.26 - Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination. 380.26 Section 380.26... REGULATIONS PUBLIC CHARTERS Requirements Applicable to Charter Operators § 380.26 Discrimination. No charter... unjust discrimination or any undue or unreasonable prejudice or disadvantage in any respect whatsoever. ...

  17. 22 CFR 209.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 209.4 Section 209.4 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT NON-DISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS... § 209.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the United States shall, on the grounds of...

  18. 18 CFR 705.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination... Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the United States shall, on the grounds of race, color, or... discrimination under, any program to which this part applies. (b) Specific discriminatory actions prohibited. (1...

  19. 7 CFR 15b.12 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 15b.12 Section 15b.12... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 15b.12 Discrimination prohibited. (a... discrimination in employment under any program or activity receiving assistance from this Department. (2) A...

  20. A Bayesian Predictive Discriminant Analysis with Screened Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hea-Jung Kim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the application of discriminant analysis, a situation sometimes arises where individual measurements are screened by a multidimensional screening scheme. For this situation, a discriminant analysis with screened populations is considered from a Bayesian viewpoint, and an optimal predictive rule for the analysis is proposed. In order to establish a flexible method to incorporate the prior information of the screening mechanism, we propose a hierarchical screened scale mixture of normal (HSSMN model, which makes provision for flexible modeling of the screened observations. An Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC method using the Gibbs sampler and the Metropolis–Hastings algorithm within the Gibbs sampler is used to perform a Bayesian inference on the HSSMN models and to approximate the optimal predictive rule. A simulation study is given to demonstrate the performance of the proposed predictive discrimination procedure.