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Sample records for two-channel filter banks

  1. Implementation of a Two-Channel Maximally Decimated Filter Bank using Switched Capacitor Circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Nahlik, J.; Hospodka, J.; P. Sovka; B. Psenicka

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the implementation of a two-channel filter bank (FB) using the switched capacitor (SC) technique considering real properties of operational amplifiers (OpAmps). The design procedure is presented and key recommendations for the implementation are given. The implementation procedure describes the design of two-channel filter bank using an IIR Cauer filter, conversion of IIR into the SC filters and the final implementation of the SC filters. The whole design ...

  2. Implementation of a Two-Channel Maximally Decimated Filter Bank using Switched Capacitor Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nahlik

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to describe the implementation of a two-channel filter bank (FB using the switched capacitor (SC technique considering real properties of operational amplifiers (OpAmps. The design procedure is presented and key recommendations for the implementation are given. The implementation procedure describes the design of two-channel filter bank using an IIR Cauer filter, conversion of IIR into the SC filters and the final implementation of the SC filters. The whole design and an SC circuit implementation is performed by a PraCAn package in Maple. To verify the whole filter bank, resulting real property circuit structures are completely simulated by WinSpice and ELDO simulators. The results confirm that perfect reconstruction conditions can be almost accepted for the filter bank implemented by the SC circuits. The phase response of the SC filter bank is not strictly linear due to the IIR filters. However, the final ripple of a magnitude frequency response in the passband is almost constant, app. 0.5 dB for a real circuit analysis.

  3. Polyphase Structure Based Eigen Design of Two-Channel Quadrature Mirror Filter Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Agrawal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method for the design of two-channel quadrature mirror filter (QMF banks with linear phase in frequency domain. Low-pass prototype filter of the QMF bank is implemented using polyphase decomposition. Prototype filter coefficients are optimized to minimize an objective function using eigenvalue-eigenvector approach without matrix inversion. The objective function is formulated as a weighted sum of four terms, pass-band error and stop-band residual energy of low-pass analysis filter, the square error of the overall transfer function at the quadrature frequency and amplitude distortion of the filter bank. The simulation results clearly show that the proposed method requires less computational efforts in comparison to the other state-of-art existing design methods.

  4. Design of two-channel filter bank using nature inspired optimization based fractional derivative constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuldeep, B; Singh, V K; Kumar, A; Singh, G K

    2015-01-01

    In this article, a novel approach for 2-channel linear phase quadrature mirror filter (QMF) bank design based on a hybrid of gradient based optimization and optimization of fractional derivative constraints is introduced. For the purpose of this work, recently proposed nature inspired optimization techniques such as cuckoo search (CS), modified cuckoo search (MCS) and wind driven optimization (WDO) are explored for the design of QMF bank. 2-Channel QMF is also designed with particle swarm optimization (PSO) and artificial bee colony (ABC) nature inspired optimization techniques. The design problem is formulated in frequency domain as sum of L2 norm of error in passband, stopband and transition band at quadrature frequency. The contribution of this work is the novel hybrid combination of gradient based optimization (Lagrange multiplier method) and nature inspired optimization (CS, MCS, WDO, PSO and ABC) and its usage for optimizing the design problem. Performance of the proposed method is evaluated by passband error (ϕp), stopband error (ϕs), transition band error (ϕt), peak reconstruction error (PRE), stopband attenuation (As) and computational time. The design examples illustrate the ingenuity of the proposed method. Results are also compared with the other existing algorithms, and it was found that the proposed method gives best result in terms of peak reconstruction error and transition band error while it is comparable in terms of passband and stopband error. Results show that the proposed method is successful for both lower and higher order 2-channel QMF bank design. A comparative study of various nature inspired optimization techniques is also presented, and the study singles out CS as a best QMF optimization technique. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Gain scaling for multirate filter banks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brislawn, Christopher M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Eliminating two trivial degrees of freedom corresponding to the lowpass DC response and the highpass Nyquist response in a two-channel multirate filter bank seems simple enough. Nonetheless, the ISO/IEC JPEG 2000 image coding standard manages to make this mundane task look totally mysterious. We reveal the true meaning behind JPEG 2000's arcane specifications for filter bank normalization and point out how the seemingly trivial matter of gain scaling leads to highly nontrivial issues concerning uniqueness of lifting factorizations.

  6. Group Lifting Structures For Multirate Filter Banks, II: Linear Phase Filter Banks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brislawn, Christopher M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    The theory of group lifting structures is applied to linear phase lifting factorizations for the two nontrivial classes of two-channel linear phase perfect reconstruction filter banks, the whole-and half-sample symmetric classes. Group lifting structures defined for the reversible and irreversible classes of whole-and half-sample symmetric filter banks are shown to satisfy the hypotheses of the uniqueness theorem for group lifting structures. It follows that linear phase lifting factorizations of whole-and half-sample symmetric filter banks are therefore independent of the factorization methods used to compute them. These results cover the specification of user-defined whole-sample symmetric filter banks in Part 2 of the ISO JPEG 2000 standard.

  7. Design of Two—Channel Linear—Phase Filter Banks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGZijing; JLAOLicheng; YANGYun

    2003-01-01

    An efficient iterative Lagrange multiplier approcach is developed in this paper to design two-channel perfect reconstruction linear-phase fllter banks.This approach has high design efflciency and can be used to design both equal-length and unequal-length filter banks.A design example is presented and compared with other methods.It can be shown that two-channel perfect reconstruction linear-phase filter banks with higher stopband attenuation can be obtained using the nwe method.

  8. Approximately liner phase IIR digital filter banks

    OpenAIRE

    J. D. Ćertić; M. D. Lutovac; L. D. Milić

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, uniform and nonuniform digital filter banks based on approximately linear phase IIR filters and frequency response masking technique (FRM) are presented. Both filter banks are realized as a connection of an interpolated half-band approximately linear phase IIR filter as a first stage of the FRM design and an appropriate number of masking filters. The masking filters are half-band IIR filters with an approximately linear phase. The resulting IIR filter banks are compared with li...

  9. Application of DFT Filter Banks and Cosine Modulated Filter Banks in Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan-Pei; Vaidyanathan, P. P.

    1994-01-01

    None given. This is a proposal for a paper to be presented at APCCAS '94 in Taipei, Taiwan. (From outline): This work is organized as follows: Sec. II is devoted to the construction of the new 2m channel under-decimated DFT filter bank. Implementation and complexity of this DFT filter bank are discussed therein. IN a similar manner, the new 2m channel cosine modulated filter bank is discussed in Sec. III. Design examples are given in Sec. IV.

  10. Application of DFT Filter Banks and Cosine Modulated Filter Banks in Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan-Pei; Vaidyanathan, P. P.

    1994-01-01

    None given. This is a proposal for a paper to be presented at APCCAS '94 in Taipei, Taiwan. (From outline): This work is organized as follows: Sec. II is devoted to the construction of the new 2m channel under-decimated DFT filter bank. Implementation and complexity of this DFT filter bank are discussed therein. IN a similar manner, the new 2m channel cosine modulated filter bank is discussed in Sec. III. Design examples are given in Sec. IV.

  11. Group Lifting Structures For Multirate Filter Banks, I: Uniqueness Of Lifting Factorizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brislawn, Christopher M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies two-channel finite impulse response (FIR) perfect reconstruction filter banks. The connection between filter banks and wavelet transforms is well-known and will not be treated here. Figure 1 depicts the polyphase-with-advance representation of a filter bank [6]. A lifting factorization, is a factorization of polyphase matrices into upper and lower triangular lifting matrices. The existence of such decompositions via the Euclidean algorithm was shown for general FIR perfect reconstruction filter banks in [9] and was subsequently refined for linear phase filter banks in [10], [6]. These latter works were motivated by the ISO JPEG 2000 image coding standard [11], [12], [10], which specifies whole-sample symmetric (WS, or FIR type 1 linear phase) filter banks, as in Figure 2(a), in terms of half-sample symmetric (RS, or FIR type 2) lifting filters.

  12. Efficient Implementation of Complex Modulated Filter Banks Using Cosine and Sine Modulated Filter Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viholainen Ari

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The recently introduced exponentially modulated filter bank (EMFB is a -channel uniform, orthogonal, critically sampled, and frequency-selective complex modulated filter bank that satisfies the perfect reconstruction (PR property if the prototype filter of an -channel PR cosine modulated filter bank (CMFB is used. The purpose of this paper is to present various implementation structures for the EMFBs in a unified framework. The key idea is to use cosine and sine modulated filter banks as building blocks and, therefore, polyphase, lattice, and extended lapped transform (ELT type of implementation solutions are studied. The ELT-based EMFBs are observed to be very competitive with the existing modified discrete Fourier transform filter banks (MDFT-FBs when comparing the number of multiplications/additions and the structural simplicity. In addition, EMFB provides an alternative channel stacking arrangement that could be more natural in certain subband processing applications and data transmission systems.

  13. The Rao-Blackwellized Particle Filter: A Filter Bank Implementation

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    Karlsson Rickard

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available For computational efficiency, it is important to utilize model structure in particle filtering. One of the most important cases occurs when there exists a linear Gaussian substructure, which can be efficiently handled by Kalman filters. This is the standard formulation of the Rao-Blackwellized particle filter (RBPF. This contribution suggests an alternative formulation of this well-known result that facilitates reuse of standard filtering components and which is also suitable for object-oriented programming. Our RBPF formulation can be seen as a Kalman filter bank with stochastic branching and pruning.

  14. Design of quadrature mirror filter bank using Lagrange multiplier method based on fractional derivative constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kuldeep

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fractional calculus has recently been identified as a very important mathematical tool in the field of signal processing. Digital filters designed by fractional derivatives give more accurate frequency response in the prescribed frequency region. Digital filters are most important part of multi-rate filter bank systems. In this paper, an improved method based on fractional derivative constraints is presented for the design of two-channel quadrature mirror filter (QMF bank. The design problem is formulated as minimization of L2 error of filter bank transfer function in passband, stopband interval and at quadrature frequency, and then Lagrange multiplier method with fractional derivative constraints is applied to solve it. The proposed method is then successfully applied for the design of two-channel QMF bank with higher order filter taps. Performance of the QMF bank design is then examined through study of various parameters such as passband error, stopband error, transition band error, peak reconstruction error (PRE, stopband attenuation (As. It is found that, the good design can be obtained with the change of number and value of fractional derivative constraint coefficients.

  15. On the application of under-decimated filter banks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y.-P.; Vaidyanathan, P. P.

    1994-01-01

    Maximally decimated filter banks have been extensively studied in the past. A filter bank is said to be under-decimated if the number of channels is more than the decimation ratio in the subbands. A maximally decimated filter bank is well known for its application in subband coding. Another application of maximally decimated filter banks is in block filtering. Convolution through block filtering has the advantages that parallelism is increased and data are processed at a lower rate. However, the computational complexity is comparable to that of direct convolution. More recently, another type of filter bank convolver has been developed. In this scheme, the convolution is performed in the subbands. Quantization and bit allocation of subband signals are based on signal variance, as in subband coding. Consequently, for a fixed rate, the result of convolution is more accurate than is direct convolution. This type of filter bank convolver also enjoys the advantages of block filtering, parallelism, and a lower working rate. Nevertheless, like block filtering, there is no computational saving. In this article, under-decimated systems are introduced to solve the problem. The new system is decimated only by half the number of channels. Two types of filter banks can be used in the under-decimated system: the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) filter banks and the cosine modulated filter banks. They are well known for their low complexity. In both cases, the system is approximately alias free, and the overall response is equivalent to a tunable multilevel filter. Properties of the DFT filter banks and the cosine modulated filter banks can be exploited to simultaneously achieve parallelism, computational saving, and a lower working rate. Furthermore, for both systems, the implementation cost of the analysis or synthesis bank is comparable to that of one prototype filter plus some low-complexity modulation matrices. The individual analysis and synthesis filters have complex

  16. Design Techniques for Uniform-DFT, Linear Phase Filter Banks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Honglin; DeLeon, Phillip

    1999-01-01

    Uniform-DFT filter banks are an important class of filter banks and their theory is well known. One notable characteristic is their very efficient implementation when using polyphase filters and the FFT. Separately, linear phase filter banks, i.e. filter banks in which the analysis filters have a linear phase are also an important class of filter banks and desired in many applications. Unfortunately, it has been proved that one cannot design critically-sampled, uniform-DFT, linear phase filter banks and achieve perfect reconstruction. In this paper, we present a least-squares solution to this problem and in addition prove that oversampled, uniform-DFT, linear phase filter banks (which are also useful in many applications) can be constructed for perfect reconstruction. Design examples are included illustrate the methods.

  17. Spatially-varying IIR filter banks for image coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Wilson C.; Smith, Mark J. T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on the application of spatially variant infinite impulse response (IIR) filter banks to subband image coding. The new filter bank is based on computationally efficient recursive polyphase decompositions that dynamically change in response to the input signal. In the absence of quantization, reconstruction can be made exact. However, by proper choice of an adaptation scheme, we show that subband image coding based on time varying filter banks can yield improvement over the use of conventional filter banks.

  18. Analysis of ECG Using Filter Bank Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Thulasi Prasad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years scientists and engineers are facing several problems in the biomedical field. However Digital Signal Processing is solving many of those problems easily and effectively. The signal processing of ECG is very useful in detecting selected arrhythmia conditions from a patient’s electrocardiograph (ECG signals. In this paper we performed analysis of noisy ECG by filtering of 50 Hz power line interference using an adaptive LMS notch filter. This is very meaningful in the measurement of biomedical events, particularly when the recorded ECG signal is very weak. The basic ECG has the frequency range from 5 Hz to 100 Hz. It becomes difficult for the Specialist to diagnose the diseases if the artifacts are present in the ECG signal. Methods of noise reduction have decisive influence on performance of all electro-cardio-graphic (ECG signal processing systems. After removing 50/60 Hz powerline interference, the ECG is lowpass filtered in a digital FIR filter. We designed a Filter Bank to separate frequency ranges of ECG signal to enhance the occurrences QRS complexes. Later the positions of R-peaks are identified and shown plotted. The result shows the ECG signal before filtering and after filtering with their frequency spectrums which clearly indicates the reduction of the power line interference in the ECG signal and a filtered ECG with identified R-peaks.

  19. Efficient Implementation of Complex Modulated Filter Banks Using Cosine and Sine Modulated Filter Banks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viholainen, Ari; Alhava, Juuso; Renfors, Markku

    2006-12-01

    The recently introduced exponentially modulated filter bank (EMFB) is a[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]-channel uniform, orthogonal, critically sampled, and frequency-selective complex modulated filter bank that satisfies the perfect reconstruction (PR) property if the prototype filter of an[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]-channel PR cosine modulated filter bank (CMFB) is used. The purpose of this paper is to present various implementation structures for the EMFBs in a unified framework. The key idea is to use cosine and sine modulated filter banks as building blocks and, therefore, polyphase, lattice, and extended lapped transform (ELT) type of implementation solutions are studied. The ELT-based EMFBs are observed to be very competitive with the existing modified discrete Fourier transform filter banks (MDFT-FBs) when comparing the number of multiplications/additions and the structural simplicity. In addition, EMFB provides an alternative channel stacking arrangement that could be more natural in certain subband processing applications and data transmission systems.

  20. Filter Bank Multicarrier for Massive MIMO

    OpenAIRE

    Farhang, Arman,; Marchetti, Nicola; Doyle, Linda E.; Farhang-Boroujeny, Behrouz

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces filter bank multicarrier (FBMC) as a potential candidate in the application of massive MIMO communication. It also points out the advantages of FBMC over OFDM (orthogonal frequency division multiplexing) in the application of massive MIMO. The absence of cyclic prefix in FBMC increases the bandwidth efficiency. In addition, FBMC allows carrier aggregation straightforwardly. Self-equalization, a property of FBMC in massive MIMO that is introduced in this paper, has the im...

  1. FPGA Implementations of Bireciprocal Lattice Wave Discrete Wavelet Filter Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jassim M. Abdul-Jabbar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a special type of IIR filter banks; that is the bireciprocal lattice wave digital filter (BLWDF bank, is presented to simulate scaling and wavelet functions of six-level wavelet transform. 1st order all-pass sections are utilized for the realization of such filter banks in wave lattice structures. The resulting structures are a bireciprocal lattice wave discrete wavelet filter banks (BLW-DWFBs. Implementation of these BLW-DWFBs are accomplished on Spartan-3E FPGA kit. Implementation complexity and operating frequency characteristics of such discrete wavelet 5th order filter bank is proved to be comparable to the corresponding characteristics of the lifting scheme implementation of Bio. 5/3 wavelet filter bank. On the other hand, such IIR filter banks possess superior band discriminations and perfect roll-off frequency characteristics when compared to their Bio. 5/3 wavelet FIR counterparts.

  2. Research progress in SAW filter banks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Shi-tang

    2005-01-01

    SAW (Surface Acoustic Wave) filter bank is a single input, single or multi-output device consisting of multi-SAW-filters with input interconnection network or switch circuits, and can be divided into two categories: channelizer (multi-output) and switchable (programmable, single output). The former is mainly used in military channelized receiver for spectrum analysis;the latter has wide application in frequency synthesizer and frequency-hopping radar and communication system receiver as anti-jamming filter, and has been widely used in various military electronic equipments ever since the 1970s.Research abroad was done mainly by Americans, few documents on related work done by Japan and Russia are available. Domestic research started in the 1980s, mainly by No. 26 Research Institute, China Electronics Technology Group Co., Institute of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 23 and No. 25 Research Institute, China Spaceflight Tech. Group Co. This paper first briefly introduces Chinese and foreign research on SAW filter banks;then discusses research progress in device design, the input interconnection network or switch circuit and miniaturization;and ends in a brief perspective of developing trends in future.

  3. Radar Image Texture Classification based on Gabor Filter Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbainaibeye Jérôme

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to design and develop a filter bank for the detection and classification of radar image texture with 4.6m resolution obtained by airborne synthetic Aperture Radar. The textures of this kind of images are more correlated and contain forms with random disposition. The design and the developing of the filter bank is based on Gabor filter. We have elaborated a set of filters applied to each set of feature texture allowing its identification and enhancement in comparison with other textures. The filter bank which we have elaborated is represented by a combination of different texture filters. After processing, the selected filter bank is the filter bank which allows the identification of all the textures of an image with a significant identification rate. This developed filter is applied to radar image and the obtained results are compared with those obtained by using filter banks issue from the generalized Gaussian models (GGM. We have shown that Gabor filter developed in this work gives the classification rate greater than the results obtained by Generalized Gaussian model. The main contribution of this work is the generation of the filter banks able to give an optimal filter bank for a given texture and in particular for radar image textures

  4. Lifted linear phase filter banks and the polyphase-with-advance representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brislawn, C. M. (Christopher M.); Wohlberg, B. E. (Brendt E.)

    2004-01-01

    A matrix theory is developed for the noncausal polyphase-with-advance representation that underlies the theory of lifted perfect reconstruction filter banks and wavelet transforms as developed by Sweldens and Daubechies. This theory provides the fundamental lifting methodology employed in the ISO/IEC JPEG-2000 still image coding standard, which the authors helped to develop. Lifting structures for polyphase-with-advance filter banks are depicted in Figure 1. In the analysis bank of Figure 1(a), the first lifting step updates x{sub 0} with a filtered version of x{sub 1} and the second step updates x{sub 1} with a filtered version of x{sub 0}; gain factors 1/K and K normalize the lowpass- and highpass-filtered output subbands. Each of these steps is inverted by the corresponding operations in the synthesis bank shown in Figure 1(b). Lifting steps correspond to upper- or lower-triangular matrices, S{sub i}(z), in a cascade-form decomposition of the polyphase analysis matrix, H{sub a}(z). Lifting structures can also be implemented reversibly (i.e., losslessly in fixed-precision arithmetic) by rounding the lifting updates to integer values. Our treatment of the polyphase-with-advance representation develops an extensive matrix algebra framework that goes far beyond the results of. Specifically, we focus on analyzing and implementing linear phase two-channel filter banks via linear phase lifting cascade schemes. Whole-sample symmetric (WS) and half-sample symmetric (HS) linear phase filter banks are characterized completely in terms of the polyphase-with-advance representation. The theory benefits significantly from a number of new group-theoretic structures arising in the polyphase-with-advance matrix algebra from the lifting factorization of linear phase filter banks.

  5. WSPEC: A Waveguide Filter Bank Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Che, George; Underhill, Matthew; Mauskopf, Philip; Groppi, Christopher; Jones, Glenn; Johnson, Bradley; McCarrick, Heather; Flanigan, Daniel; Day, Peter

    2015-01-01

    We have designed, fabricated, and measured a 5-channel prototype spectrometer pixel operating in the WR10 band to demonstrate a novel moderate-resolution (R=f/{\\Delta}f~100), multi-pixel, broadband, spectrometer concept for mm and submm-wave astronomy. Our design implements a transmission line filter bank using waveguide resonant cavities as a series of narrow-band filters, each coupled to an aluminum kinetic inductance detector (KID). This technology has the potential to perform the next generation of spectroscopic observations needed to drastically improve our understanding of the epoch of reionization (EoR), star formation, and large-scale structure of the universe. We present our design concept, results from measurements on our prototype device, and the latest progress on our efforts to develop a 4-pixel demonstrator instrument operating in the 130-250 GHz band.

  6. Some properties on multivariate filter banks with a matrix factorization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAN Qiaofang; XIAO Hongying; CHEN Qiuhui

    2005-01-01

    A class of multivariate filter banks with a matrix factorization has been developed by Chen et al. The main purpose of this paper is to discuss some further properties of this kind of filter bank, such as the completeness, accuracy of the corresponding scaling functions and the relationships with Daubechies' wavelets and the multi-wavelets provided by Chui and Lian. Moreover, some examples are given to show that this kind of filter bank has a higher accuracy for the scaling functions.

  7. Preconditioning Filter Bank Decomposition Using Structured Normalized Tight Frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Ehler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We turn a given filter bank into a filtering scheme that provides perfect reconstruction, synthesis is the adjoint of the analysis part (so-called unitary filter banks, all filters have equal norm, and the essential features of the original filter bank are preserved. Unitary filter banks providing perfect reconstruction are induced by tight generalized frames, which enable signal decomposition using a set of linear operators. If, in addition, frame elements have equal norm, then the signal energy is spread through the various filter bank channels in some uniform fashion, which is often more suitable for further signal processing. We start with a given generalized frame whose elements allow for fast matrix vector multiplication, as, for instance, convolution operators, and compute a normalized tight frame, for which signal analysis and synthesis still preserve those fast algorithmic schemes.

  8. Application of uniform DFT filter bank in radar jamming system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dai Le; Gao Meiguo

    2006-01-01

    The principle of Uniform DFT filter bank is presented. Exploiting poly-phase structure, radar jamming system samples the intercepted wideband radar signals through analysis filter bank by different channels and linearly modulates the intercepted radar signal according to the theory of signal and system, then synthesizes the jamming signal through the synthesis filter bank. The method merely requires lower sample frequency, reduces the computational complexity and the data quantity to be processed. The un-ideal filter's influence to the result of signals processing is analyzed by simulating the match filter in radar jamming system.

  9. Multirate Filter Bank Representations of RS and BCH Codes

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    Marc Moonen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the use of multirate filter banks in the context of error-correction coding. An in-depth study of these filter banks is presented, motivated by earlier results and applications based on the filter bank representation of Reed-Solomon (RS codes, such as Soft-In Soft-Out RS-decoding or RS-OFDM. The specific structure of the filter banks (critical subsampling is an important aspect in these applications. The goal of the paper is twofold. First, the filter bank representation of RS codes is now explained based on polynomial descriptions. This approach allows us to gain new insight in the correspondence between RS codes and filter banks. More specifically, it allows us to show that the inherent periodically time-varying character of a critically subsampled filter bank matches remarkably well with the cyclic properties of RS codes. Secondly, an extension of these techniques toward the more general class of BCH codes is presented. It is demonstrated that a BCH code can be decomposed into a sum of critically subsampled filter banks.

  10. Multirate Filter Bank Representations of RS and BCH Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Meerbergen Geert

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper addresses the use of multirate filter banks in the context of error-correction coding. An in-depth study of these filter banks is presented, motivated by earlier results and applications based on the filter bank representation of Reed-Solomon (RS codes, such as Soft-In Soft-Out RS-decoding or RS-OFDM. The specific structure of the filter banks (critical subsampling is an important aspect in these applications. The goal of the paper is twofold. First, the filter bank representation of RS codes is now explained based on polynomial descriptions. This approach allows us to gain new insight in the correspondence between RS codes and filter banks. More specifically, it allows us to show that the inherent periodically time-varying character of a critically subsampled filter bank matches remarkably well with the cyclic properties of RS codes. Secondly, an extension of these techniques toward the more general class of BCH codes is presented. It is demonstrated that a BCH code can be decomposed into a sum of critically subsampled filter banks.

  11. Multidimensional filter banks and wavelets research developments and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Levy, Bernard

    1997-01-01

    Multidimensional Filter Banks and Wavelets: Reserach Developments and Applications brings together in one place important contributions and up-to-date research results in this important area. Multidimensional Filter Banks and Wavelets: Research Developments and Applications serves as an excellent reference, providing insight into some of the most important research issues in the field.

  12. Estimation of Upper Bound for Order of Filters used in Perfect Reconstruction Filter Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. R. Nagendra

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Filter banks are widely used in variety of applications such as signal compression, multi-channel transmission, conditioning of power supply, coding and decoding of signals, etc. Perfect reconstruction filter banks are used in the applications where it is essential to reconstruct the original signal with minimum errors. Compression of satellite vibration test data is one such application where perfect reconstruction filter banks can be used to design wavelets. These wavelets are used in transform coding stage of compression algorithm. It is required to have higher order for filters used in perfect reconstruction filter banks, to ensure better filter characteristics. The study carried out in this work, estimates the upper bound for order that can be assigned to filters used in perfect reconstruction filter banks

  13. Channel Estimation for Filter Bank Multicarrier Systems in Low SNR Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driggs, Jonathan; Sibbett, Taylor; Moradiy, Hussein; Farhang-Boroujeny, Behrouz

    2017-05-01

    Channel estimation techniques are crucial for reliable communications. This paper is concerned with channel estimation in a filter bank multicarrier spread spectrum (FBMCSS) system. We explore two channel estimator options: (i) a method that makes use of a periodic preamble and mimics the channel estimation techniques that are widely used in OFDM-based systems; and (ii) a method that stays within the traditional realm of filter bank signal processing. For the case where the channel noise is white, both methods are analyzed in detail and their performance is compared against their respective Cramer-Rao Lower Bounds (CRLB). Advantages and disadvantages of the two methods under different channel conditions are given to provide insight to the reader as to when one will outperform the other.

  14. Design of perfect reconstruction rational sampling filter banks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The design of rational sampling filter banks based on a recombination structure can be formulated as a problem with two objective functions to be optimized. A new hybrid optimization method for designing perfectreconstruction rational sampling filter banks is presented, which can be used to solve a class of problems with two objective functions. This method is of good convergence and mezzo calculation cost. Satisfactory results free of aliasing in analysis and synthesis filters can be obtained by the proposed method.

  15. Radar Image Texture Classification based on Gabor Filter Bank

    OpenAIRE

    Mbainaibeye Jérôme; Olfa Marrakchi Charfi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to design and develop a filter bank for the detection and classification of radar image texture with 4.6m resolution obtained by airborne synthetic Aperture Radar. The textures of this kind of images are more correlated and contain forms with random disposition. The design and the developing of the filter bank is based on Gabor filter. We have elaborated a set of filters applied to each set of feature texture allowing its identification and enhancement in comparison w...

  16. Paraunitary Oversampled Filter Bank Design for Channel Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper Tom

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Oversampled filter banks (OSFBs have been considered for channel coding, since their redundancy can be utilised to permit the detection and correction of channel errors. In this paper, we propose an OSFB-based channel coder for a correlated additive Gaussian noise channel, of which the noise covariance matrix is assumed to be known. Based on a suitable factorisation of this matrix, we develop a design for the decoder's synthesis filter bank in order to minimise the noise power in the decoded signal, subject to admitting perfect reconstruction through paraunitarity of the filter bank. We demonstrate that this approach can lead to a significant reduction of the noise interference by exploiting both the correlation of the channel and the redundancy of the filter banks. Simulation results providing some insight into these mechanisms are provided.

  17. A Review of Polyphase Filter Banks and Their Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    publication. APPROVED: /s/ GERALD C. NETHERCOTT Chief, Multi-Sensor Exploitation Branch FOR THE DIRECTOR...4] N.J. Fliege, Multirate Digital Signal Processing, Chichester, U.K.: Wiley, 1994. [5] T. Karp and N.J. Fliege, “Modified DFT Filter Banks with...6] T. Karp and N. J. Fliege, “Computational efficiency realization of MDFT filter banks,” in Proc. EURASIP European Signal Processing Conf

  18. Optimized multichannel decomposition for texture segmentation using Gabor filter bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezamoddini-Kachouie, Nezamoddin; Alirezaie, Javad

    2004-05-01

    Texture segmentation and analysis is an important aspect of pattern recognition and digital image processing. Previous approaches to texture analysis and segmentation perform multi-channel filtering by applying a set of filters to the image. In this paper we describe a texture segmentation algorithm based on multi-channel filtering that is optimized using diagonal high frequency residual. Gabor band pass filters with different radial spatial frequencies and different orientations have optimum resolution in time and frequency domain. The image is decomposed by a set of Gabor filters into a number of filtered images; each one contains variation of intensity on a sub-band frequency and orientation. The features extracted by Gabor filters have been applied for image segmentation and analysis. There are some important considerations about filter parameters and filter bank coverage in frequency domain. This filter bank does not completely cover the corners of the frequency domain along the diagonals. In our method we optimize the spatial implementation for the Gabor filter bank considering the diagonal high frequency residual. Segmentation is accomplished by a feedforward backpropagation multi-layer perceptron that is trained by optimized extracted features. After MLP is trained the input image is segmented and each pixel is assigned to the proper class.

  19. Subband image coding using filter banks with non-uniform passband distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Xiqun; Chen, Li; Chan, KwokPing

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, subband filter banks with non-uniform passband distribution in frequency domain are studied. Several design examples are presented and compared with conventional uniform bandwidth filter banks. Image coding results show that filter banks with non-uniform bandwidth outperform filter banks with uniform bandwidth, especially in low bit rate coding.

  20. Filter and Filter Bank Design for Image Texture Recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randen, Trygve

    1997-12-31

    The relevance of this thesis to energy and environment lies in its application to remote sensing such as for instance sea floor mapping and seismic pattern recognition. The focus is on the design of two-dimensional filters for feature extraction, segmentation, and classification of digital images with textural content. The features are extracted by filtering with a linear filter and estimating the local energy in the filter response. The thesis gives a review covering broadly most previous approaches to texture feature extraction and continues with proposals of some new techniques. 143 refs., 59 figs., 7 tabs.

  1. Design of Optimal Quincunx Filter Banks for Image Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu-Sheng Lu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Two new optimization-based methods are proposed for the design of high-performance quincunx filter banks for the application of image coding. These new techniques are used to build linear-phase finite-length-impulse-response (FIR perfect-reconstruction (PR systems with high coding gain, good frequency selectivity, and certain prescribed vanishing-moment properties. A parametrization of quincunx filter banks based on the lifting framework is employed to structurally impose the PR and linear-phase conditions. Then, the coding gain is maximized subject to a set of constraints on vanishing moments and frequency selectivity. Examples of filter banks designed using the newly proposed methods are presented and shown to be highly effective for image coding. In particular, our new optimal designs are shown to outperform three previously proposed quincunx filter banks in 72% to 95% of our experimental test cases. Moreover, in some limited cases, our optimal designs are even able to outperform the well-known (separable 9/7 filter bank (from the JPEG-2000 standard.

  2. Maximum SINR Synchronization Strategies in Multiuser Filter Bank Schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pecile Francesco

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider synchronization in a multiuser filter bank uplink system with single-user detection. Perfect user synchronization is not the optimal choice as the intuition would suggest. To maximize performance the synchronization parameters have to be chosen to maximize the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR at each equalizer subchannel output. However, the resulting filter bank receiver structure becomes complex. Therefore, we consider two simplified synchronization metrics that are based on the maximization of the average SINR of a given user or the aggregate SINR of all users. Furthermore, a relaxation of the aggregate SINR metric allows implementing an efficient multiuser analysis filter bank. This receiver deploys two fractionally spaced analysis stages. Each analysis stage is efficiently implemented via a polyphase filter bank, followed by an extended discrete Fourier transform that allows the user frequency offsets to be partly compensated. Then, sub-channel maximum SINR equalization is used. We discuss the application of the proposed solution to Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA and multiuser Filtered Multitone (FMT systems.

  3. An Applied Method for Designing Maximally Decimating Non-uniform Filter Banks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Assembling individual line phase filters to form a multi-channel filter bank allows the synthesis filter to be similar to corresponding analysis filters, and the design calculation can be simple. The appropriate relations between synthesis filters and analysis filters eliminate most aliasing resulting from decimation in non-uniform maximally decimating filter banks, and LS algorithm and Remez algorithm are used to optimize the composite character. This design method can achieve approximate Perfect-Reconstruction. An example is given in which the general parameter filters with approximate line phase are used as units of a filter bank.

  4. Optimized Paraunitary Filter Banks for Time-Frequency Channel Diagonalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Ziyang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We adopt the concept of channel diagonalization to time-frequency signal expansions obtained by DFT filter banks. As a generalization of the frequency domain channel representation used by conventional orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing receivers, the time-frequency domain channel diagonalization can be applied to time-variant channels and aperiodic signals. An inherent error in the case of doubly dispersive channels can be limited by choosing adequate windows underlying the filter banks. We derive a formula for the mean-squared sample error in the case of wide-sense stationary uncorrelated scattering (WSSUS channels, which serves as objective function in the window optimization. Furthermore, an enhanced scheme for the parameterization of tight Gabor frames enables us to constrain the window in order to define paraunitary filter banks. We show that the design of windows optimized for WSSUS channels with known statistical properties can be formulated as a convex optimization problem. The performance of the resulting windows is investigated under different channel conditions, for different oversampling factors, and compared against the performance of alternative windows. Finally, a generic matched filter receiver incorporating the proposed channel diagonalization is discussed which may be essential for future reconfigurable radio systems.

  5. Optimized Paraunitary Filter Banks for Time-Frequency Channel Diagonalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Ziyang; Hunziker, Thomas; Dahlhaus, Dirk

    2010-12-01

    We adopt the concept of channel diagonalization to time-frequency signal expansions obtained by DFT filter banks. As a generalization of the frequency domain channel representation used by conventional orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing receivers, the time-frequency domain channel diagonalization can be applied to time-variant channels and aperiodic signals. An inherent error in the case of doubly dispersive channels can be limited by choosing adequate windows underlying the filter banks. We derive a formula for the mean-squared sample error in the case of wide-sense stationary uncorrelated scattering (WSSUS) channels, which serves as objective function in the window optimization. Furthermore, an enhanced scheme for the parameterization of tight Gabor frames enables us to constrain the window in order to define paraunitary filter banks. We show that the design of windows optimized for WSSUS channels with known statistical properties can be formulated as a convex optimization problem. The performance of the resulting windows is investigated under different channel conditions, for different oversampling factors, and compared against the performance of alternative windows. Finally, a generic matched filter receiver incorporating the proposed channel diagonalization is discussed which may be essential for future reconfigurable radio systems.

  6. Design of Digital Synthesis Filters for Hybrid Filter Bank A/D Converters Using Semidefinite Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid filter bank (HFB analog-to-digital systems permit wideband, high frequency conversion. This paper presents mixed norm optimal design of digital synthesis filters of a HFB. The mixed norm is a convex combination of the 2-norm and the Chebyshev norm with a weighting parameter. Robust HFB design method based on worst-case ellipsoidal uncertainty in analog filters errors is also proposed. Both the problems can be solved using semidefinite programming. The proposed mixed norm method allows designers to select the best suitable filters among a family of synthesis filters for specific applications, and the robust design method is more insensitive to analog filters errors than the nominal minimax design

  7. Design and Efficiency Analysis of one Class of Uniform Linear Phase FIR Filter Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Pantić

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available One class of uniform linear phase filter banks with different numbers of band-pass channels will be considered in this study, concentrating on 5, 9 and 17-band filter banks and their mutual comparison concerning delay and implementation complexity. Designed banks are based on the FIR filters and frequency response masking technique and are also compared to the banks with direct realization considering complementarity and delay.

  8. Dependencies Between Coding Gain and Filter Length in PARAUNITARY Filter Banks Designed Using QUATERNIONIC Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-24

    J. Liang, T. D. Tran, and R. L. De Queiroz , “DCT-based gen- eral structure for linear phase paraunitary filter banks,” IEEE Trans. Signal Processing, vol. 51, no. 6, pp. 1572–1580, 2003. ©2007 EURASIP 1331

  9. A Class of Multi-Channel Cosine Modulated IIR Filter Banks

    CERN Document Server

    Vanka, Sundaram; Prabhu, K M M; Aravind, R

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a class of multi-channel cosine-modulated filter banks satisfying the perfect reconstruction (PR) property using an IIR prototype filter. By imposing a suitable structure on the polyphase filter coefficients, we show that it is possible to greatly simplify the PR condition, while preserving the causality and stability of the system. We derive closed-form expressions for the synthesis filters and also study the numerical stability of the filter bank using frame theoretic bounds. Further, we show that it is possible to implement this filter bank with much lower number of arithmetic operations when compared to FIR filter banks with comparable performance. The filter bank's modular structure also lends itself to efficient VLSI implementation.

  10. Signal-adapted FIR Filter Banks Without Perfect-reconstruction Property

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHUIPenglang; ZHANGAihua

    2005-01-01

    A time-domain approach is proposed to design signal-adapted FIR (Finite impulse response) filter banks without the perfect reconstruction property. For a given Wide sense stationary (WSS) input process and a total bit budget, it is a highly nonlinear and large size optimization problem to design the optimal FIR filter bank that minimizes the sum of the quantization distortion and systematic distortion. Thus, the design algorithm is crucial, in particular, selection of the initial filter bank. Here, the FIR approximation of the optimal IIR biorthogonal filter bank is used as the initial filter bank and an ad hoc three-stage algorithm is developed to solve the optimization problem. The numerical results show: the design achieves large subband coding gains (GSBC) that are close to or exceed the GSBC's of the optimal IIR biorthogonal filter banks.

  11. CMB Science: Opportunities for a Cryogenic Filter-Bank Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartari, A.; Battistelli, E. S.; Piat, M.; Prêle, D.

    2016-08-01

    Cosmic microwave background (CMB) spectral science is experiencing a renewed interest after the impressive result of COBE-FIRAS in the early Nineties. In 2011, the PIXIE proposal contributed to reopen the prospect of measuring deviations from a perfect 2.725 K planckian spectrum. Both COBE-FIRAS and PIXIE are differential Fourier transform spectrometers (FTSes) capable to operate in the null condition across ˜ 2 frequency decades (in the case of PIXIE, the frequency span is 30 GHz-6 THz). We discuss a complementary strategy to observe CMB spectral distortions at frequencies lower than 250 GHz, down to the Rayleigh-Jeans tail of the spectrum. The throughput advantage that makes the FTS capable of achieving exquisite sensitivity via multimode operation becomes limited at lower frequencies. We demonstrate that an array of 100 cryogenic planar filter-bank spectrometers coupled to single mode antennas, on a purely statistical ground, can perform better than an FTS between tens of GHz and 200 GHz (a relevant frequency window for cosmology) in the hypothesis that (1) both instruments have the same frequency resolution and (2) both instruments are operated at the photon noise limit (with the FTS frequency band extending from ˜ tens of GHz up to 1 THz). We discuss possible limitations of these hypotheses, and the constraints that have to be fulfilled (mainly in terms of efficiency) in order to operate a cryogenic filter-bank spectrometer close to its ultimate sensitivity limit.

  12. Optimized Multichannel Filter Bank with Flat Frequency Response for Texture Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachouie, Nezamoddin N.; Alirezaie, Javad

    2005-12-01

    Previous approaches to texture analysis and segmentation use multichannel filtering by applying a set of filters in the frequency domain or a set of masks in the spatial domain. This paper presents two new texture segmentation algorithms based on multichannel filtering in conjunction with neural networks for feature extraction and segmentation. The features extracted by Gabor filters have been applied for image segmentation and analysis. Suitable choices of filter parameters and filter bank coverage in the frequency domain to optimize the filters are discussed. Here we introduce two methods to optimize Gabor filter bank. First, a Gabor filter bank with a flat response is implemented and the optimal feature dimension is extracted by competitive networks. Second, a subset of Gabor filter bank is selected to compose the best discriminative filters, so that each filter in this small set can discriminate a pair of textures in a given image. In both approaches, multilayer perceptrons are employed to segment the extracted features. The comparisons of segmentation results generated using the proposed methods and previous research using Gabor, discrete cosine transform (DCT), and Laws filters are presented. Finally, the segmentation results generated by applying the optimized filter banks to textured images are presented and discussed.

  13. Optimized Multichannel Filter Bank with Flat Frequency Response for Texture Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kachouie Nezamoddin N

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous approaches to texture analysis and segmentation use multichannel filtering by applying a set of filters in the frequency domain or a set of masks in the spatial domain. This paper presents two new texture segmentation algorithms based on multichannel filtering in conjunction with neural networks for feature extraction and segmentation. The features extracted by Gabor filters have been applied for image segmentation and analysis. Suitable choices of filter parameters and filter bank coverage in the frequency domain to optimize the filters are discussed. Here we introduce two methods to optimize Gabor filter bank. First, a Gabor filter bank with a flat response is implemented and the optimal feature dimension is extracted by competitive networks. Second, a subset of Gabor filter bank is selected to compose the best discriminative filters, so that each filter in this small set can discriminate a pair of textures in a given image. In both approaches, multilayer perceptrons are employed to segment the extracted features. The comparisons of segmentation results generated using the proposed methods and previous research using Gabor, discrete cosine transform (DCT, and Laws filters are presented. Finally, the segmentation results generated by applying the optimized filter banks to textured images are presented and discussed.

  14. Implementational Aspects of the Contourlet Filter Bank and Application in Image Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truong T. Nguyen

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzed the implementational aspects of the contourlet filter bank (or the pyramidal directional filter bank (PDFB, and considered its application in image coding. First, details of the binary tree-structured directional filter bank (DFB are presented, including a modification to minimize the phase delay factor and necessary steps for handling rectangular images. The PDFB is viewed as an overcomplete filter bank, and the directional filters are expressed in terms of polyphase components of the pyramidal filter bank and the conventional DFB. The aliasing effect of the conventional DFB and the Laplacian pyramid to the directional filters is then considered, and the conditions for reducing this effect are presented. The new filters obtained by redesigning the PDFBs satisfying these requirements have much better frequency responses. A hybrid multiscale filter bank consisting of the PDFB at higher scales and the traditional maximally decimated wavelet filter bank at lower scales is constructed to provide a sparse image representation. A novel embedded image coding system based on the image decomposition and a morphological dilation algorithm is then presented. The coding algorithm efficiently clusters the significant coefficients using progressive morphological operations. Context models for arithmetic coding are designed to exploit the intraband dependency and the correlation existing among the neighboring directional subbands. Experimental results show that the proposed coding algorithm outperforms the current state-of-the-art wavelet-based coders, such as JPEG2000, for images with directional features.

  15. A filter bank for rotationally invariant image recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rodtook

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We present new rotation moment invariants based on multiresolution filter bank techniques. The multiresolution pyramid motivates our simple but efficient feature selection procedure based on the fuzzy C-mean clustering methodology combined with the Mahalanobis distance measure. The proposed procedure verifies an impact of random noise as well as an interesting, less known impact of noise due to spatial transformations. The recognition accuracy of the proposed technique has been tested with the Zernike moments, the Fourier-Mellin moments as well as with wavelet based schemes. The numerical experiments, with more than 30 000 images, demonstrate a tangible accuracy increase of about 3% for low level noise, 8% for the average level noise and 15% for high level noise.

  16. MSK modulated filter bank multicarrier system with mitigated subcarrier interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Zhang, Lijia; Xin, Xiangjun

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel minimum shift keying (MSK) modulated filter bank multi-carrier (FBMC) system. It can improve the signal performance by suppressing the interference among subcarriers. The spectral efficiency can be improved due to the absence of cyclic prefix in the system. In the experiment, a 15.67 Gb/s MSK-FBMC signal is transmitted over 80 km single mode fiber successfully. The performance of FBMC based multicarrier system outperforms that of fast Fourier transforms (FFT) based multicarrier system by 0.9 dB. Compared with QPSK mapping, 1 dB optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR) improvement is obtained with MSK mapping under a normalized residual frequency offset of 0.2.

  17. Lattice Structure for Paraunitary Linear-phase Filter Banks with Accuracy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Ying XIAO

    2006-01-01

    Multivariate filter banks with a polyphase matrix built by matrix factorization (lattice structure) were proposed to obtain orthonormal wavelet basis. On the basis of that, we propose a general method of constructing filter banks which ensure second and third accuracy of its corresponding scaling function. In the last part, examples with second and third accuracy are given.

  18. Are the Wavelet Transforms the Best Filter Banks for Image Compression?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tor A. Ramstad

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Maximum regular wavelet filter banks have received much attention in the literature, and it is a general conception that they enjoy some type of optimality for image coding purposes. To investigate this claim, this article focuses on one particular biorthogonal wavelet filter bank, namely, the 2-channel 9/7. As a comparison, we generate all possible 9/7 filter banks with perfect reconstruction and linear phase while having a different number of zeros at z=−1 for both analysis and synthesis lowpass filters. The best performance is obtained when the filter bank has 2/2 zeros at z=−1 for the analysis and synthesis lowpass filters, respectively. The competing wavelet 9/7 filter bank, which has 4/4 zeros at z=−1, is thus judged inferior both in terms of objective error measurements and informal visual inspections. It is further shown that the 9/7 wavelet filter bank can be obtained using gain-optimized 9/7 filter bank.

  19. Are the Wavelet Transforms the Best Filter Banks for Image Compression?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramstad TorA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Maximum regular wavelet filter banks have received much attention in the literature, and it is a general conception that they enjoy some type of optimality for image coding purposes. To investigate this claim, this article focuses on one particular biorthogonal wavelet filter bank, namely, the 2-channel 9/7. As a comparison, we generate all possible 9/7 filter banks with perfect reconstruction and linear phase while having a different number of zeros at for both analysis and synthesis lowpass filters. The best performance is obtained when the filter bank has 2/2 zeros at for the analysis and synthesis lowpass filters, respectively. The competing wavelet 9/7 filter bank, which has 4/4 zeros at , is thus judged inferior both in terms of objective error measurements and informal visual inspections. It is further shown that the 9/7 wavelet filter bank can be obtained using gain-optimized 9/7 filter bank.

  20. Filter-Bank-Based Narrowband Interference Detection and Suppression in Spread Spectrum Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Hidalgo Stitz

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available A filter-bank-based narrowband interference detection and suppression method is developed and its performance is studied in a spread spectrum system. The use of an efficient, complex, critically decimated perfect reconstruction filter bank with a highly selective subband filter prototype, in combination with a newly developed excision algorithm, offers a solution with efficient implementation and performance close to the theoretical limit derived as a function of the filter bank stopband attenuation. Also methods to cope with the transient effects in case of frequency hopping interference are developed and the resulting performance shows only minor degradation in comparison to the stationary case.

  1. Deep Filter Banks for Texture Recognition, Description, and Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimpoi, Mircea; Maji, Subhransu; Kokkinos, Iasonas; Vedaldi, Andrea

    Visual textures have played a key role in image understanding because they convey important semantics of images, and because texture representations that pool local image descriptors in an orderless manner have had a tremendous impact in diverse applications. In this paper we make several contributions to texture understanding. First, instead of focusing on texture instance and material category recognition, we propose a human-interpretable vocabulary of texture attributes to describe common texture patterns, complemented by a new describable texture dataset for benchmarking. Second, we look at the problem of recognizing materials and texture attributes in realistic imaging conditions, including when textures appear in clutter, developing corresponding benchmarks on top of the recently proposed OpenSurfaces dataset. Third, we revisit classic texture represenations, including bag-of-visual-words and the Fisher vectors, in the context of deep learning and show that these have excellent efficiency and generalization properties if the convolutional layers of a deep model are used as filter banks. We obtain in this manner state-of-the-art performance in numerous datasets well beyond textures, an efficient method to apply deep features to image regions, as well as benefit in transferring features from one domain to another.

  2. Parallel digital modem using multirate digital filter banks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadr, Ramin; Vaidyanathan, P. P.; Raphaeli, Dan; Hinedi, Sami

    1994-01-01

    A new class of architectures for an all-digital modem is presented in this report. This architecture, referred to as the parallel receiver (PRX), is based on employing multirate digital filter banks (DFB's) to demodulate, track, and detect the received symbol stream. The resulting architecture is derived, and specifications are outlined for designing the DFB for the PRX. The key feature of this approach is a lower processing rate then either the Nyquist rate or the symbol rate, without any degradation in the symbol error rate. Due to the freedom in choosing the processing rate, the designer is able to arbitrarily select and use digital components, independent of the speed of the integrated circuit technology. PRX architecture is particularly suited for high data rate applications, and due to the modular structure of the parallel signal path, expansion to even higher data rates is accommodated with each. Applications of the PRX would include gigabit satellite channels, multiple spacecraft, optical links, interactive cable-TV, telemedicine, code division multiple access (CDMA) communications, and others.

  3. Link performance model for filter bank based multicarrier systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Dmitry; Oborina, Alexandra; Giupponi, Lorenza; Stitz, Tobias Hidalgo

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a complete link level abstraction model for link quality estimation on the system level of filter bank multicarrier (FBMC)-based networks. The application of mean mutual information per coded bit (MMIB) approach is validated for the FBMC systems. The considered quality measure of the resource element for the FBMC transmission is the received signal-to-noise-plus-distortion ratio (SNDR). Simulation results of the proposed link abstraction model show that the proposed approach is capable of estimating the block error rate (BLER) accurately, even when the signal is propagated through the channels with deep and frequent fades, as it is the case for the 3GPP Hilly Terrain (3GPP-HT) and Enhanced Typical Urban (ETU) models. The FBMC-related results of link level simulations are compared with cyclic prefix orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (CP-OFDM) analogs. Simulation results are also validated through the comparison to reference publicly available results. Finally, the steps of link level abstraction algorithm for FBMC are formulated and its application for system level simulation of a professional mobile radio (PMR) network is discussed.

  4. Methods and apparatuses using filter banks for multi-carrier spread-spectrum signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Hussein; Farhang, Behrouz; Kutsche, Carl A

    2014-05-20

    A transmitter includes a synthesis filter bank to spread a data symbol to a plurality of frequencies by encoding the data symbol on each frequency, apply a common pulse-shaping filter, and apply gains to the frequencies such that a power level of each frequency is less than a noise level of other communication signals within the spectrum. Each frequency is modulated onto a different evenly spaced subcarrier. A demodulator in a receiver converts a radio frequency input to a spread-spectrum signal in a baseband. A matched filter filters the spread-spectrum signal with a common filter having characteristics matched to the synthesis filter bank in the transmitter by filtering each frequency to generate a sequence of narrow pulses. A carrier recovery unit generates control signals responsive to the sequence of narrow pulses suitable for generating a phase-locked loop between the demodulator, the matched filter, and the carrier recovery unit.

  5. Methods and apparatuses using filter banks for multi-carrier spread spectrum signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moradi, Hussein; Farhang, Behrouz; Kutsche, Carl A.

    2016-06-14

    A transmitter includes a synthesis filter bank to spread a data symbol to a plurality of frequencies by encoding the data symbol on each frequency, apply a common pulse-shaping filter, and apply gains to the frequencies such that a power level of each frequency is less than a noise level of other communication signals within the spectrum. Each frequency is modulated onto a different evenly spaced subcarrier. A demodulator in a receiver converts a radio frequency input to a spread-spectrum signal in a baseband. A matched filter filters the spread-spectrum signal with a common filter having characteristics matched to the synthesis filter bank in the transmitter by filtering each frequency to generate a sequence of narrow pulses. A carrier recovery unit generates control signals responsive to the sequence of narrow pulses suitable for generating a phase-locked loop between the demodulator, the matched filter, and the carrier recovery unit.

  6. Methods and apparatuses using filter banks for multi-carrier spread-spectrum signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Hussein; Farhang, Behrouz; Kutsche, Carl A

    2014-10-14

    A transmitter includes a synthesis filter bank to spread a data symbol to a plurality of frequencies by encoding the data symbol on each frequency, apply a common pulse-shaping filter, and apply gains to the frequencies such that a power level of each frequency is less than a noise level of other communication signals within the spectrum. Each frequency is modulated onto a different evenly spaced subcarrier. A demodulator in a receiver converts a radio frequency input to a spread-spectrum signal in a baseband. A matched filter filters the spread-spectrum signal with a common filter having characteristics matched to the synthesis filter bank in the transmitter by filtering each frequency to generate a sequence of narrow pulses. A carrier recovery unit generates control signals responsive to the sequence of narrow pulses suitable for generating a phase-locked loop between the demodulator, the matched filter, and the carrier recovery unit.

  7. Methods and apparatuses using filter banks for multi-carrier spread spectrum signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moradi, Hussein; Farhang, Behrouz; Kutsche, Carl A

    2017-01-31

    A transmitter includes a synthesis filter bank to spread a data symbol to a plurality of frequencies by encoding the data symbol on each frequency, apply a common pulse-shaping filter, and apply gains to the frequencies such that a power level of each frequency is less than a noise level of other communication signals within the spectrum. Each frequency is modulated onto a different evenly spaced subcarrier. A demodulator in a receiver converts a radio frequency input to a spread-spectrum signal in a baseband. A matched filter filters the spread-spectrum signal with a common filter having characteristics matched to the synthesis filter bank in the transmitter by filtering each frequency to generate a sequence of narrow pulses. A carrier recovery unit generates control signals responsive to the sequence of narrow pulses suitable for generating a phase-locked loop between the demodulator, the matched filter, and the carrier recovery unit.

  8. Iris image recognition wavelet filter-banks based iris feature extraction schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Rahulkar, Amol D

    2014-01-01

    This book provides the new results in wavelet filter banks based feature extraction, and the classifier in the field of iris image recognition. It provides the broad treatment on the design of separable, non-separable wavelets filter banks, and the classifier. The design techniques presented in the book are applied on iris image analysis for person authentication. This book also brings together the three strands of research (wavelets, iris image analysis, and classifier). It compares the performance of the presented techniques with state-of-the-art available schemes. This book contains the compilation of basic material on the design of wavelets that avoids reading many different books. Therefore, it provide an easier path for the new-comers, researchers to master the contents. In addition, the designed filter banks and classifier can also be effectively used than existing filter-banks in many signal processing applications like pattern classification, data-compression, watermarking, denoising etc.  that will...

  9. Non-orthogonal optical multicarrier access based on filter bank and SCMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Zhang, Lijia; Xin, Xiangjun

    2015-10-19

    This paper proposes a novel non-orthogonal optical multicarrier access system based on filter bank and sparse code multiple access (SCMA). It offers released frequency offset and better spectral efficiency for multicarrier access. An experiment of 73.68 Gb/s filter bank-based multicarrier (FBMC) SCMA system with 60 km single mode fiber link is performed to demonstrate the feasibility. The comparison between fast Fourier transform (FFT) based multicarrier and the proposed scheme is also investigated in the experiment.

  10. On the construction of invertible filter banks on the 2-sphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Boon Thye Thomas; Ou, Wanmei; Golland, Polina

    2008-03-01

    The theories of signal sampling, filter banks, wavelets, and "overcomplete wavelets" are well established for the Euclidean spaces and are widely used in the processing and analysis of images. While recent advances have extended some filtering methods to spherical images, many key challenges remain. In this paper, we develop theoretical conditions for the invertibility of filter banks under continuous spherical convolution. Furthermore, we present an analogue of the Papoulis generalized sampling theorem on the 2-Sphere. We use the theoretical results to establish a general framework for the design of invertible filter banks on the sphere and demonstrate the approach with examples of self-invertible spherical wavelets and steerable pyramids. We conclude by examining the use of a self-invertible spherical steerable pyramid in a denoising experiment and discussing the computational complexity of the filtering framework.

  11. Method for signal decomposition and denoising based on nonuniform cosine-modulated filter banks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuemei Xie; Li Li; Guangming Shi; Bin Peng

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,a novel method for signal decomposition and denoising is proposed based on a nonuniform filter bank (NUFB),which is derived from a uniform filter bank.With this method,the signal is firstly decomposed into M subbands using a uniform filter bank.Then according to their energy distribution,the corresponding consecutive filters are merged to compose the nonuniform filters.With the resulting NUFB,the signal can be readily matched and flexibly decomposed according to its power spectrum distribution.As another advantage,this method can be used to detect and remove the narrow-band noise from the corrupted signal.To verify the proposed method,a simulation of extracting the main information of an audio signal and removing its glitch is given.

  12. A Novel 9/7 Wavelet Filter banks For Texture Image Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songjun Zhang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel 9/7 wavelet filter bank for texture image coding applications based on lifting a 5/3 filter to a 7/5 filter, and then to a 9/7 filter. Moreover, a one-dimensional optimization problem for the above 9/7 filter family is carried out according to the perfect reconstruction (PR condition of wavelet transforms and wavelet properties. Finally, the optimal control parameter of the 9/7 filter family for image coding applications is determined by statistical analysis of compressibility tests applied on all the images in the Brodatz standard texture image database. Thus, a new 9/7 filter with only rational coefficients is determined. Compared to the design method of Cohen, Daubechies, and Feauveau, the design approach proposed in this paper is simpler and easier to implement. The experimental results show that the overall coding performances of the new 9/7 filter are superior to those of the CDF 9/7 filter banks in the JPEG2000 standard, with a maximum increase of 0.185315 dB at compression ratio 32:1. Therefore, this new 9/7 filter bank can be applied in image coding for texture images as the transform coding kernel.

  13. A Design of 2L-Channel FIR Paraunitary Filter Banks with Complex Coefficients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    An algorithm is proposed for the design of 2L-channel FIR paraunitary filter banks with complex coefficients to meet the requirement of processing complex signals. The filter designed with the algorithm has the property of near linear-phase. Thus, there is no more phase distortions introduced to the phase spectrum.

  14. Design and Implementation of Digital Filter Bank to Reduce Noise and Reconstruct the Input Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawser Ahammed

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The main theme of this paper is to reduce noise from the noisy composite signal and reconstruct the input signals from the composite signal by designing FIR digital filter bank. In this work, three sinusoidal signals of different frequencies and amplitudes are combined to get composite signal and a low frequency noise signal is added with the composite signal to get noisy composite signal. Finally noisy composite signal is filtered by using FIR digital filter bank to reduce noise and reconstruct the input signals.

  15. Polyphase Filter Banks for Embedded Sample Rate Changes in Digital Radio Front-Ends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awan, Mehmood-Ur-Rehman; Le Moullec, Yannick; Koch, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents efficient processing engines for software-defined radio (SDR) front-ends. These engines, based on a polyphase channelizer, perform arbitrary sample-rate changes, frequency selection, and bandwidth control. This paper presents an M-path polyphase filter bank based on a modified N......-path polyphase filter. Such a system allows resampling by arbitrary ratios while performing baseband aliasing from center frequencies at Nyquist zones that are not multiples of the output sample rate. This resampling technique is based on sliding cyclic data load interacting with cyclic-shifted coefficients....... A non-maximally-decimated polyphase filter bank (where the number of data loads is not equal to the number of M subfilters) processes M subfilters in a time period that is less than or greater than the M data loads. A polyphase filter bank with five different resampling modes is used as a case study...

  16. Cosine Modulated and Offset QAM Filter Bank Multicarrier Techniques: A Continuous-Time Prospect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhang-Boroujeny Behrouz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Prior to the discovery of the celebrated orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM, multicarrier techniques that use analog filter banks were introduced in the 1960s. Moreover, advancements in the design of perfect reconstruction filter banks have led to a number developments in the design of prototype digital filters and polyphase structures for efficient implementations of the filter bank multicarrier (FBMC systems. The main thrust of this paper is to present a tutorial review of the classical works on FBMC systems and show that some of the more recent developments are, in fact, reinventions of multicarrier techniques that have been developed prior of the era of OFDM. We also review the recent novel developments in the design of FBMC systems that are tuned to cope with fast fading wireless channels.

  17. Cosine Modulated and Offset QAM Filter Bank Multicarrier Techniques: A Continuous-Time Prospect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrouz Farhang-Boroujeny

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Prior to the discovery of the celebrated orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM, multicarrier techniques that use analog filter banks were introduced in the 1960s. Moreover, advancements in the design of perfect reconstruction filter banks have led to a number developments in the design of prototype digital filters and polyphase structures for efficient implementations of the filter bank multicarrier (FBMC systems. The main thrust of this paper is to present a tutorial review of the classical works on FBMC systems and show that some of the more recent developments are, in fact, reinventions of multicarrier techniques that have been developed prior of the era of OFDM. We also review the recent novel developments in the design of FBMC systems that are tuned to cope with fast fading wireless channels.

  18. Cosine Modulated and Offset QAM Filter Bank Multicarrier Techniques: A Continuous-Time Prospect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhang-Boroujeny, Behrouz; (George) Yuen, ChungHim

    2010-12-01

    Prior to the discovery of the celebrated orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), multicarrier techniques that use analog filter banks were introduced in the 1960s. Moreover, advancements in the design of perfect reconstruction filter banks have led to a number developments in the design of prototype digital filters and polyphase structures for efficient implementations of the filter bank multicarrier (FBMC) systems. The main thrust of this paper is to present a tutorial review of the classical works on FBMC systems and show that some of the more recent developments are, in fact, reinventions of multicarrier techniques that have been developed prior of the era of OFDM. We also review the recent novel developments in the design of FBMC systems that are tuned to cope with fast fading wireless channels.

  19. Wavelet Kernels on a DSP: A Comparison between Lifting and Filter Banks for Image Coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnavi, Stefano; Penna, Barbara; Grangetto, Marco; Magli, Enrico; Olmo, Gabriella

    2002-12-01

    We develop wavelet engines on a digital signal processors (DSP) platform, the target application being image and intraframe video compression by means of the forthcoming JPEG2000 and Motion-JPEG2000 standards. We describe two implementations, based on the lifting scheme and the filter bank scheme, respectively, and we present experimental results on code profiling. In particular, we address the following problems: (1) evaluating the execution speed of a wavelet engine on a modern DSP; (2) comparing the actual execution speed of the lifting scheme and the filter bank scheme with the theoretical results; (3) using the on-board direct memory access (DMA) to possibly optimize the execution speed. The results allow to assess the performance of a modern DSP in the image coding task, as well as to compare the lifting and filter bank performance in a realistic application scenario. Finally, guidelines for optimizing the code efficiency are provided by investigating the possible use of the on-board DMA.

  20. Steganalysis of content-adaptive JPEG steganography based on Gauss partial derivative filter bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Liu, Fenlin; Yang, Chunfang; Luo, Xiangyang; Song, Xiaofeng; Lu, Jicang

    2017-01-01

    A steganalysis feature extraction method based on Gauss partial derivative filter bank is proposed in this paper to improve the detection performance for content-adaptive JPEG steganography. Considering that the embedding changes of content-adaptive steganographic schemes are performed in the texture and edge regions, the proposed method generates filtered images comprising rich texture and edge information using Gauss partial derivative filter bank, and histograms of absolute values of filtered subimages are extracted as steganalysis features. Gauss partial derivative filter bank can represent texture and edge information in multiple orientations with less computation load than conventional methods and prevent redundancy in different filtered images. These two properties are beneficial in the extraction of low-complexity sensitive features. The results of experiments conducted on three selected modern JPEG steganographic schemes-uniform embedding distortion, JPEG universal wavelet relative distortion, and side-informed UNIWARD-indicate that the proposed feature set is superior to the prior art feature sets-discrete cosine transform residual, phase aware rich model, and Gabor filter residual.

  1. An Efficient Filter Banks Based Multicarrier System in Cognitive Radio Networks (invited paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Zhang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In cognitive radio techniques, OFDM is usually regarded as the physical layer candidate. However, the weaknesses of the OFDM technique, i.e., using plain FFT for spectral analysis , decreased bandwidth efficiency due to CP (cyclic prefix, high out-of-band emission, have been pointed out and the introduction of filter banks based multicarrier (FBMC system has been advocated by a number of authors. In this paper, we propose an efficient FBMC system for cognitive radio network. At the transmitter, we propose a decimation transform decomposition method to eliminate the unnecessary zero operations. At the receiver, we utilize the analysis filter banks to sense the spectrum bands. In order to conquer the shortages of the traditional filter banks, we propose a multistage analysis filter banks, which can reduce the computational complexity while improve the detection precision when used to sense the spectrum bands. And with an adaptive threshold scheme in the power estimator, the threshold can be kept very close to the noise power, which can increase the detection probability especially in the condition of low SNR.

  2. 2D Non-Separable Block-Lifting Structure and Its Application to M-Channel Perfect Reconstruction Filter Banks for Lossy-to-Lossless Image Coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Taizo; Kudo, Hiroyuki

    2015-12-01

    We propose a 2D non-separable block-lifting structure (2D-NSBL) that is easily formulated from the 1D separable block-lifting structure (1D-SBL) and 2D non-separable lifting structure (2D-NSL). The 2D-NSBL can be regarded as an extension of the 2D-NSL, because a two-channel 2D-NSBL is completely equivalent to a 2D-NSL. We apply the 2D-NSBL to M-channel ( M=2(n), n ∈ N) perfect reconstruction filter banks (PRFBs). The 2D-NSBL-based PRFBs outperform 1D-SBL-based PRFBs at lossy-to-lossless coding, whose image quality is scalable from lossless data to high compressed lossy data, because their rounding errors are reduced by merging many rounding operations.

  3. Channel Equalization in Filter Bank Based Multicarrier Modulation for Wireless Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markku Renfors

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Channel equalization in filter bank based multicarrier (FBMC modulation is addressed. We utilize an efficient oversampled filter bank concept with 2x-oversampled subcarrier signals that can be equalized independently of each other. Due to Nyquist pulse shaping, consecutive symbol waveforms overlap in time, which calls for special means for equalization. Two alternative linear low-complexity subcarrier equalizer structures are developed together with straightforward channel estimation-based methods to calculate the equalizer coefficients using pointwise equalization within each subband (in a frequency-sampled manner. A novel structure, consisting of a linear-phase FIR amplitude equalizer and an allpass filter as phase equalizer, is found to provide enhanced robustness to timing estimation errors. This allows the receiver to be operated without time synchronization before the filter bank. The coded error-rate performance of FBMC with the studied equalization scheme is compared to a cyclic prefix OFDM reference in wireless mobile channel conditions, taking into account issues like spectral regrowth with practical nonlinear transmitters and sensitivity to frequency offsets. It is further emphasized that FBMC provides flexible means for high-quality frequency selective filtering in the receiver to suppress strong interfering spectral components within or close to the used frequency band.

  4. Channel Equalization in Filter Bank Based Multicarrier Modulation for Wireless Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihalainen, Tero; Hidalgo Stitz, Tobias; Rinne, Mika; Renfors, Markku

    2006-12-01

    Channel equalization in filter bank based multicarrier (FBMC) modulation is addressed. We utilize an efficient oversampled filter bank concept with 2x-oversampled subcarrier signals that can be equalized independently of each other. Due to Nyquist pulse shaping, consecutive symbol waveforms overlap in time, which calls for special means for equalization. Two alternative linear low-complexity subcarrier equalizer structures are developed together with straightforward channel estimation-based methods to calculate the equalizer coefficients using pointwise equalization within each subband (in a frequency-sampled manner). A novel structure, consisting of a linear-phase FIR amplitude equalizer and an allpass filter as phase equalizer, is found to provide enhanced robustness to timing estimation errors. This allows the receiver to be operated without time synchronization before the filter bank. The coded error-rate performance of FBMC with the studied equalization scheme is compared to a cyclic prefix OFDM reference in wireless mobile channel conditions, taking into account issues like spectral regrowth with practical nonlinear transmitters and sensitivity to frequency offsets. It is further emphasized that FBMC provides flexible means for high-quality frequency selective filtering in the receiver to suppress strong interfering spectral components within or close to the used frequency band.

  5. Multi-spectral image fusion method based on two channels non-separable wavelets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bin; PENG JiaXiong

    2008-01-01

    A construction method of two channels non-separable wavelets filter bank which dilation matrix is [1, 1; 1, -1] and its application in the fusion of multi-spectral image are presented. Many 4x4 filter banks are designed. The multi-spectral image fusion algorithm based on this kind of wavelet is proposed. Using this filter bank, multi-resolution wavelet decomposition of the intensity of multi-spectral image and panchromatic image is performed, and the two low-frequency components of the intensity and the panchromatic image are merged by using a tradeoff parameter. The experiment results show that this method is good in the preservation of spectral quality and high spatial resolution information. Its performance in preserving spectral quality and high spatial information is better than the fusion method based on DWFT and IHS. When the parameter t is closed to 1, the fused image can obtain rich spectral information from the original MS image. The amount of computation reduced to only half of the fusion method based on four channels wavelet transform.

  6. Filter banks and the "Intensity Analysis" of EMG

    CERN Document Server

    Borg, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Vinzenz von Tscharner (2000) has presented an interesting mathematical method for analyzing EMG-data called "intensity analysis" (EMG = electromyography). Basically the method is a sort of bandpassing of the signal. The central idea of the method is to describe the "power" (or "intensity") of a non-stationary EMG signal as a function both of time and of frequency. The connection with wavelet theory is that the filter is constructed by rescaling a given mother wavelet using a special array of scales (center frequencies) with non-constant relative bandwidth. Some aspects of the method may seem a bit ad hoc and we have therefore undertaken a closer mathematical investigation, showing the connection with the conventional wavelet analysis and giving a somewhat simplified formulation of the method using Morlet wavelets. It is pointed out that the "intensity analysis" method is related to the concept of an equalizer. In order to illustrate the method we apply it to nonstationary EMG-signals of a dynamic leg-extensio...

  7. Design of low complexity sharp MDFT filter banks with perfect reconstruction using hybrid harmony-gravitational search algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sakthivel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The design of low complexity sharp transition width Modified Discrete Fourier Transform (MDFT filter bank with perfect reconstruction (PR is proposed in this work. The current trends in technology require high data rates and speedy processing along with reduced power consumption, implementation complexity and chip area. Filters with sharp transition width are required for various applications in wireless communication. Frequency response masking (FRM technique is used to reduce the implementation complexity of sharp MDFT filter banks with PR. Further, to reduce the implementation complexity, the continuous coefficients of the filters in the MDFT filter banks are represented in discrete space using canonic signed digit (CSD. The multipliers in the filters are replaced by shifters and adders. The number of non-zero bits is reduced in the conversion process to minimize the number of adders and shifters required for the filter implementation. Hence the performances of the MDFT filter bank with PR may degrade. In this work, the performances of the MDFT filter banks with PR are improved using a hybrid Harmony-Gravitational search algorithm.

  8. Packet Format Design and Decision Directed Tracking Methods for Filter Bank Multicarrier Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Peiman; Farhang-Boroujeny, Behrouz

    2010-12-01

    Packetized data transmission is commonly used in wireless communication systems. Each packet starts with a preamble which is used to synchronize the receiver with carrier frequency of the incoming signal, to find a good timing phase, and to identify the channel impulse response or to adjust a set of channel equalizer parameters. In this paper, following the same philosophy, we develop a packet format for multicarrier systems that operate based on filter banks, filter bank multicarrier (FBMC) systems. The related algorithms for carrier frequency and timing recovery as well as channel identification/equalizer adjustment and methods for carrier and timing tracking loops are proposed. The proposed ideas are evaluated and their satisfactory performance are presented through computer simulations.

  9. Packet Format Design and Decision Directed Tracking Methods for Filter Bank Multicarrier Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amini Peiman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Packetized data transmission is commonly used in wireless communication systems. Each packet starts with a preamble which is used to synchronize the receiver with carrier frequency of the incoming signal, to find a good timing phase, and to identify the channel impulse response or to adjust a set of channel equalizer parameters. In this paper, following the same philosophy, we develop a packet format for multicarrier systems that operate based on filter banks, filter bank multicarrier (FBMC systems. The related algorithms for carrier frequency and timing recovery as well as channel identification/equalizer adjustment and methods for carrier and timing tracking loops are proposed. The proposed ideas are evaluated and their satisfactory performance are presented through computer simulations.

  10. Pilot-Based Synchronization and Equalization in Filter Bank Multicarrier Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stitz TobiasHidalgo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a detailed analysis of synchronization methods based on scattered pilots for filter bank based multicarrier (FBMC communications, taking into account the interplay of the synchronization, channel estimation, and equalization methods. We show that by applying pilots designed specifically for filter banks, the carrier frequency offset (CFO, fractional time delay (FTD, and channel response can be accurately estimated. Further, a novel joint FTD and channel estimation scheme, based on iterative interference cancelation, permits extending the FTD estimation range well beyond the limit imposed by the pilot separation. The channel parameter estimation and compensation are successfully performed totally in the frequency domain, in a subchannel-wise fashion, which is appealing in spectrally agile and cognitive radio scenarios. The performance evaluation is done in a hypothetical WiMAX scenario in which an FBMC system would substitute OFDM maintaining as much physical layer compatibility as possible.

  11. Pilot-Based Synchronization and Equalization in Filter Bank Multicarrier Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stitz, TobiasHidalgo; Ihalainen, Tero; Viholainen, Ari; Renfors, Markku

    2010-12-01

    This paper presents a detailed analysis of synchronization methods based on scattered pilots for filter bank based multicarrier (FBMC) communications, taking into account the interplay of the synchronization, channel estimation, and equalization methods. We show that by applying pilots designed specifically for filter banks, the carrier frequency offset (CFO), fractional time delay (FTD), and channel response can be accurately estimated. Further, a novel joint FTD and channel estimation scheme, based on iterative interference cancelation, permits extending the FTD estimation range well beyond the limit imposed by the pilot separation. The channel parameter estimation and compensation are successfully performed totally in the frequency domain, in a subchannel-wise fashion, which is appealing in spectrally agile and cognitive radio scenarios. The performance evaluation is done in a hypothetical WiMAX scenario in which an FBMC system would substitute OFDM maintaining as much physical layer compatibility as possible.

  12. Polyphase Filter Banks for Embedded Sample Rate Changes in Digital Radio Front-Ends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awan, Mehmood-Ur-Rehman; Le Moullec, Yannick; Koch, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents efficient processing engines for software-defined radio (SDR) front-ends. These engines, based on a polyphase channelizer, perform arbitrary sample-rate changes, frequency selection, and bandwidth control. This paper presents an M-path polyphase filter bank based on a modified N...... in an SDR front-end based on a polyphase channelizer. They can also be used for translation to and from arbitrary center frequencies that are unrelated to the output sample rates....

  13. Wavelet Kernels on a DSP: A Comparison between Lifting and Filter Banks for Image Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gnavi Stefano

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We develop wavelet engines on a digital signal processors (DSP platform, the target application being image and intraframe video compression by means of the forthcoming JPEG2000 and Motion-JPEG2000 standards. We describe two implementations, based on the lifting scheme and the filter bank scheme, respectively, and we present experimental results on code profiling. In particular, we address the following problems: (1 evaluating the execution speed of a wavelet engine on a modern DSP; (2 comparing the actual execution speed of the lifting scheme and the filter bank scheme with the theoretical results; (3 using the on-board direct memory access (DMA to possibly optimize the execution speed. The results allow to assess the performance of a modern DSP in the image coding task, as well as to compare the lifting and filter bank performance in a realistic application scenario. Finally, guidelines for optimizing the code efficiency are provided by investigating the possible use of the on-board DMA.

  14. A blind watermarking scheme using new nontensor product wavelet filter banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Xinge; Du, Liang; Cheung, Yiu-Ming; Chen, Qiuhui

    2010-12-01

    As an effective method for copyright protection of digital products against illegal usage, watermarking in wavelet domain has recently received considerable attention due to the desirable multiresolution property of wavelet transform. In general, images can be represented with different resolutions by the wavelet decomposition, analogous to the human visual system (HVS). Usually, human eyes are insensitive to image singularities revealed by different high frequency subbands of wavelet decomposed images. Hence, adding watermarks into these singularities will improve the imperceptibility that is a desired property of a watermarking scheme. That is, the capability for revealing singularities of images plays a key role in designing wavelet-based watermarking algorithms. Unfortunately, the existing wavelets have a limited ability in revealing singularities in different directions. This motivates us to construct new wavelet filter banks that can reveal singularities in all directions. In this paper, we utilize special symmetric matrices to construct the new nontensor product wavelet filter banks, which can capture the singularities in all directions. Empirical studies will show their advantages of revealing singularities in comparison with the existing wavelets. Based upon these new wavelet filter banks, we, therefore, propose a modified significant difference watermarking algorithm. Experimental results show its promising results.

  15. Real-Time Diagnosis of Faults Using a Bank of Kalman Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.

    2006-01-01

    A new robust method of automated real-time diagnosis of faults in an aircraft engine or a similar complex system involves the use of a bank of Kalman filters. In order to be highly reliable, a diagnostic system must be designed to account for the numerous failure conditions that an aircraft engine may encounter in operation. The method achieves this objective though the utilization of multiple Kalman filters, each of which is uniquely designed based on a specific failure hypothesis. A fault-detection-and-isolation (FDI) system, developed based on this method, is able to isolate faults in sensors and actuators while detecting component faults (abrupt degradation in engine component performance). By affording a capability for real-time identification of minor faults before they grow into major ones, the method promises to enhance safety and reduce operating costs. The robustness of this method is further enhanced by incorporating information regarding the aging condition of an engine. In general, real-time fault diagnostic methods use the nominal performance of a "healthy" new engine as a reference condition in the diagnostic process. Such an approach does not account for gradual changes in performance associated with aging of an otherwise healthy engine. By incorporating information on gradual, aging-related changes, the new method makes it possible to retain at least some of the sensitivity and accuracy needed to detect incipient faults while preventing false alarms that could result from erroneous interpretation of symptoms of aging as symptoms of failures. The figure schematically depicts an FDI system according to the new method. The FDI system is integrated with an engine, from which it accepts two sets of input signals: sensor readings and actuator commands. Two main parts of the FDI system are a bank of Kalman filters and a subsystem that implements FDI decision rules. Each Kalman filter is designed to detect a specific sensor or actuator fault. When a sensor

  16. Machine Fault Detection Based on Filter Bank Similarity Features Using Acoustic and Vibration Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Holguín-Londoño

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibration and acoustic analysis actively support the nondestructive and noninvasive fault diagnostics of rotating machines at early stages. Nonetheless, the acoustic signal is less used because of its vulnerability to external interferences, hindering an efficient and robust analysis for condition monitoring (CM. This paper presents a novel methodology to characterize different failure signatures from rotating machines using either acoustic or vibration signals. Firstly, the signal is decomposed into several narrow-band spectral components applying different filter bank methods such as empirical mode decomposition, wavelet packet transform, and Fourier-based filtering. Secondly, a feature set is built using a proposed similarity measure termed cumulative spectral density index and used to estimate the mutual statistical dependence between each bandwidth-limited component and the raw signal. Finally, a classification scheme is carried out to distinguish the different types of faults. The methodology is tested in two laboratory experiments, including turbine blade degradation and rolling element bearing faults. The robustness of our approach is validated contaminating the signal with several levels of additive white Gaussian noise, obtaining high-performance outcomes that make the usage of vibration, acoustic, and vibroacoustic measurements in different applications comparable. As a result, the proposed fault detection based on filter bank similarity features is a promising methodology to implement in CM of rotating machinery, even using measurements with low signal-to-noise ratio.

  17. Hardware Architecture of Polyphase Filter Banks Performing Embedded Resampling for Software-Defined Radio Front-Ends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awan, Mehmood-Ur-Rehman; Le Moullec, Yannick; Koch, Peter;

    2012-01-01

    , and power optimization for field programmable gate array (FPGA) based architectures in an M -path polyphase filter bank with modified N -path polyphase filter. Such systems allow resampling by arbitrary ratios while simultaneously performing baseband aliasing from center frequencies at Nyquist zones...... that are not multiples of the output sample rate. A non-maximally decimated polyphase filter bank, where the number of data loads is not equal to the number of M subfilters, processes M subfilters in a time period that is either less than or greater than the M data-load’s time period. We present a load...... of the down-sampled data. In RA, M subfilters processes are efficiently scheduled within N data-load time while simultaneously loading N subfilters. This requires reduced clock rates compared with LPA, and potentially less power is consumed. A polyphase filter bank that uses different resampling factors...

  18. A low-power asynchronous data-path for a FIR filter bank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Skovby; Sparsø, Jens

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a number of design issues relating to the implementation of low-power asynchronous signal processing circuits. Specifically, the paper addresses the design of a dedicated processor structure that implements an audio FIR filter bank which is part of an industrial application. ...... the implications it has on the choice of architecture, handshake-protocol, data-encoding, and circuit design. This includes a tagging scheme that divides the data-path into slices, and an asynchronous ripple carry adder that avoids a completion tree....

  19. A NEW DESIGN METHOD OF CDMA SPREADING CODES BASED ON MULTI-RATE UNITARY FILTER BANK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bi Jianxin; Wang Yingmin; Yi Kechu

    2001-01-01

    It is well-known that the multi-valued CDMA spreading codes can be designed by means of a pair of mirror multi-rate filter banks based on some optimizing criterion. This paper indicates that there exists a theoretical bound in the performance of its circulating correlation property, which is given by an explicit expression. Based on this analysis, a criterion of maximizing entropy is proposed to design such codes. Computer simulation result suggests that the resulted codes outperform the conventional binary balanced Gold codes for an asynchronous CDMA system.

  20. A Modulated Hybrid Filter Bank for Wide-Band Analog-to-Digital Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyan Yuan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available It is difficult to use a single analog-to-digital conversion (ADC to satisfy the requirements for conversion of an ultra-wideband signal. A parallel architecture for high bandwidth ADC, named cosine modulated hybrid filter bank, is presented to address this problem. First, the proposed architecture shifts the input signal spectrum by means of mixers. The modulated signal is channelized into smaller frequency subband signals using identical lowpass analog filters. Then the subband signals are digitized through identical narrowband ADCs, respectively. Finally, the digitized signals are up-sampled, then filtered and combined to reconstruct the digital representation of the original wide-band input signal. The digital filters are designed to use the eigenfilter method based on total least squares error criterion. Since the sample-and-hold circuits needed are only identical narrowband baseband circuits, the simplicity of the system makes the design easier and cheaper. Several design examples are used to illustrate the performance of the proposed system.

  1. Multiscale image fusion using the undecimated wavelet transform with spectral factorization and nonorthogonal filter banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellmauthaler, Andreas; Pagliari, Carla L; da Silva, Eduardo A B

    2013-03-01

    Multiscale transforms are among the most popular techniques in the field of pixel-level image fusion. However, the fusion performance of these methods often deteriorates for images derived from different sensor modalities. In this paper, we demonstrate that for such images, results can be improved using a novel undecimated wavelet transform (UWT)-based fusion scheme, which splits the image decomposition process into two successive filtering operations using spectral factorization of the analysis filters. The actual fusion takes place after convolution with the first filter pair. Its significantly smaller support size leads to the minimization of the unwanted spreading of coefficient values around overlapping image singularities. This usually complicates the feature selection process and may lead to the introduction of reconstruction errors in the fused image. Moreover, we will show that the nonsubsampled nature of the UWT allows the design of nonorthogonal filter banks, which are more robust to artifacts introduced during fusion, additionally improving the obtained results. The combination of these techniques leads to a fusion framework, which provides clear advantages over traditional multiscale fusion approaches, independent of the underlying fusion rule, and reduces unwanted side effects such as ringing artifacts in the fused reconstruction.

  2. On-chip filter bank spectroscopy at 600-700 GHz using NbTiN superconducting resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Endo, A; Yates, S J C; Baselmans, J J A; Thoen, D J; Javadzadeh, S M H; van der Werf, P P; Baryshev, A M; Klapwijk, T M

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the principle of an on-chip submillimeter wave filter bank spectrometer, using superconducting microresonators as narrow band-separation filters. The filters are made of NbTiN/SiNx/NbTiN microstrip line resonators, which have a resonance frequency in the range of 614-685 GHz---two orders of magnitude higher in frequency than what is currently studied for use in circuit quantum electrodynamics and photodetectors. The frequency resolution of the filters decreases from 350 to 140 with increasing frequency, most likely limited by dissipation of the resonators.

  3. Filter Bank Multicarrier Modulation: A Waveform Candidate for 5G and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrouz Farhang-Boroujeny

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent discussions on viable technologies for 5G emphasize on the need for waveforms with better spectral containment per subcarrier than the celebrated orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM. Filter bank multicarrier (FBMC is an alternative technology that can serve this need. Subcarrier waveforms are built based on a prototype filter that is designed with this emphasis in mind. This paper presents a broad review of the research work done in the wireless laboratory of the University of Utah in the past 15 years. It also relates this research to the works done by other researchers. The theoretical basis based on which FBMC waveforms are constructed is discussed. Also, various methods of designing effective prototype filters are presented. For completeness, polyphase structures that are used for computationally efficient implementation of FBMC systems are introduced and their complexity is contrasted with that of OFDM. The problems of channel equalization as well as synchronization and tracking methods in FBMC systems are given a special consideration and a few outstanding research problems are identified. Moreover, this paper brings up a number of appealing features of FBMC waveforms that make them an ideal choice in the emerging areas of multiuser and massive MIMO networks.

  4. Fast multiscale directional filter bank-based speckle mitigation in gallstone ultrasound images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavline, Epiphany Jebamalar; Sutha, Shunmugam; Singh, Danasingh Asir Antony Gnana

    2014-02-01

    Speckle noise is a multiplicative type of noise commonly seen in medical and remote sensing images. It gives a granular appearance that degrades the quality of the recorded images. These speckle noise components need to be mitigated before the image is used for further processing and analysis. This paper presents a novel approach for removing granular speckle noise in gray scale images. We used an efficient multiscale image representation scheme named fast multiscale directional filter bank (FMDFB) along with simple threshold methods such as Vishushrink for image processing. It is a perfect reconstruction framework that can be used for a wide range of image processing applications because of its directionality and reduced computational complexity. The FMDFB-based speckle mitigation is appealing over other traditional multiscale approaches such as wavelets and Contourlets. Our experimental results show that the despeckling performance of the proposed method outperforms the wavelet and Contourlet-based despeckling methods.

  5. The Research of Affine Bivariate Dual Frames Associated with a Generalized Multiresolution Analysis and Filter Banks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke-zhong, Han

    The rise of frame theory in applied mathematics is due to the flexibility and redundancy of frames. In the work, the notion of bivariate affine pseudoframes is introduced and the no-tion of a bivariate generalized multiresolution analysis (GMRA) is introduced. A novel approach for designing one GMRA of Paley Wiener subspaces of L2(R2) is proposed. The sufficient condition for the existence of a sort of affine pseudoframes with fi-filter banks is obtained by virtue of a generalized multiresolution analysis. The pyramid decomposition scheme is established based on such a generalized multiresolution analysis. An approach for designing a sort of affine biariate dual frames in two-dimensional space is presented.

  6. Application of multirate digital filter banks to wideband all-digital phase-locked loops design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadr, Ramin; Shah, Biren; Hinedi, Sami

    1993-01-01

    A new class of architecture for all-digital phase-locked loops (DPLL's) is presented in this article. These architectures, referred to as parallel DPLL (PDPLL), employ multirate digital filter banks (DFB's) to track signals with a lower processing rate than the Nyquist rate, without reducing the input (Nyquist) bandwidth. The PDPLL basically trades complexity for hardware-processing speed by introducing parallel processing in the receiver. It is demonstrated here that the DPLL performance is identical to that of a PDPLL for both steady-state and transient behavior. A test signal with a time-varying Doppler characteristic is used to compare the performance of both the DPLL and the PDPLL.

  7. ENHANCEMENT CITRA PANORAMIK GIGI DENGAN PEMBAGIAN CITRA ARAH MENGGUNAKAN DECIMATION-FREE DIRECTIONAL FILTER BANK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Jawas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Citra radiograf panoramik gigi dapat digunakan untuk mendeteksi penyakit osteoporosis. Sistem deteksi osteoporosis secara digital digunakan untuk meningkatkan ketelitian dan mempermudah pengukuran. Proses enhancement citra digital radiograf panoramik gigi diperlukan untuk membantu memperbaiki atau memperjelas bagian-bagian yang penting di citra tersebut seperti bagian cortical. Bagian cortical yang memanjang secara horizontal sering memiliki bagian dengan iluminasi tidak merata di bagian tengah dengan arah vertikal yang menyulitkan proses pengukuran. Pemerataan iluminasi dengan metode filterisasi homomorfik cenderung mengalami over-enhancement. Oleh karena itu, Pada penelitian ini diusulkan metode enhancement citra radiograf panoramik gigi dengan menggunakan pemecahan citra ke dalam citra arah horizontal dan citra arah vertikal. Pemecahan citra ke dalam citra arah dilakukan dengan menggunakan Decimation-Free Directional Filter Bank. Pemerataan iluminasi dilakukan di masing-masing citra arah. Hasilnya menunjukkan proses filterisasi homomorfik yang dilakukan di citra arah ini efektif membantu menghindari over-enhancement.

  8. Filter-bank based efficient transmission of reduced-guard-interval OFDM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolmachev, Alex; Nazarathy, Moshe

    2011-12-12

    We propose a new way to structure the digital signal processing for reduced guard-interval (RGI) OFDM optical receivers. The idea is to digitally parallelize the processing over multiple parallel virtual sub-channels, occupying disjoint spectral sub-bands. This concept is well known in the optical or analog sub-carrier domains, but it turns out that it can also be performed efficiently in the digital domain. Here we apply critically sampled uniform analysis and synthesis DFT filter bank signal processing techniques in order to realize a novel hardware efficient variant of RGI OFDM, referred to as Multi-Sub-Band OFDM (MSB-OFDM), reducing by 10% receiver computational complexity, relative to a single-polarization version of the CD pre-equalizer. In addition to being more computationally efficient than a conventional RGI OFDM system, the signal flow architecture of our scheme is amenable to being more readily realized over multiple FPGAs, for experimental demonstrations or flexible prototyping.

  9. Filter Bank Multicarrier (FBMC) for long-reach intensity modulated optical access networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saljoghei, Arsalan; Gutiérrez, Fernando A.; Perry, Philip; Barry, Liam P.

    2017-04-01

    Filter Bank Multi Carrier (FBMC) is a modulation scheme which has recently attracted significant interest in both wireless and optical communications. The interest in optical communications arises due to FBMC's capability to operate without a Cyclic Prefix (CP) and its high resilience to synchronisation errors. However, the operation of FBMC in optical access networks has not been extensively studied either in downstream or upstream. In this work we use experimental work to investigate the operation of FBMC in intensity modulated Passive Optical Networks (PONs) employing direct detection in conjunction with both direct and external modulation schemes. The data rates and propagation lengths employed here vary from 8.4 to 14.8 Gb/s and 0-75 km. The results suggest that by using FBMC it is possible to accomplish CP-Less transmission up to 75 km of SSMF in passive links using cost effective intensity modulation and detection schemes.

  10. Spatial resolution enhancement residual coding using hybrid wavelets and directional filter banks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ankit Ashokrao Bhurane; Prateek Chaplot; Dushyanth Nutulapati; Vikram M Gadre

    2015-10-01

    Traditional video coding uses classical predictive coding techniques, where a signal is initially approximated by taking advantage of the various redundancies present. Most of the video coding standards, including the latest HEVC, use the well-accepted procedure of applying transform coding on self-contained (intra) and inter-predicted frame residuals. Nevertheless, it has been shown in the literature that, a normal video frames possess distinct characteristics compared to a residual frame. In this paper, we have made use of hybrid wavelet transforms and directional filter banks (HWD) to encode resolution enhancement residuals in the context of scalable video coding. The results are presented for the use of HWD in the framework of the Dirac video codec. The experiments are carried out on a variety of test frames. Our experiments on residue coding using HWD show better performance compared to the conventional DWT, when tested on the same platform of the well-known SPIHT algorithm.

  11. SISTEM VERIFIKASI SIDIK JARI DENGAN METODE PENCOCOKAN BERBASIS BANK GABOR FILTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. K. Oka Sudana

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Many cases of fraud are exposed where someone, claiming to be someone else attempts to accesssomething. This situation challenges us to create a system that is both reliable and trustworthy to verify someone’sidentity. A biometric system represent an automatic recognition system based on the physiological characteristicsand/or behaviors of the human being. One of these biometric system is fingerprint recognition. Fingerprint verification system is a system to verify a human fingerprint according to the identity which has been claimed. Thusfingerprint image input is compared with the reference fingerprint image which has been kept in a database,according to the given identity. On this research, the Gabor Filter Bank-based Fingerprint Matching Method is used to extract the image features.On application, one of sample image will be matched with one of the database reference image. First, before matching, the sample image features need to be calculate using the aforementioned method. The resulting matchingprocess will find a reference image which has the shortest Euclidean distance with the sample image. This matchingprocess will only succeed if the sample image and the reference image are from the same person. Images used inthis research are fingerprint images with dimension 191 x 191 pixels. This research is looking for the successful rateand the burst time on the verification process. Result of the system testing show that Gabor Filter Bank Method canprovide high enough success level i.e. 95%. The items influence success level are subject to quality of fingerprint image and accuracy to find a reference point/core point, Similarity between query image and reference image is determined by projection distance both of images, and also threshold value is used to decide whether this image isvalid or not.

  12. Dual-tree cosine-modulated filter bank with linear-phase individual filters: an alternative shift-invariant and directional-selective transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Lili; Liu, Han

    2013-12-01

    Dual-tree transforms have recently received much attention for the properties of shift-invariance and directional-selectivity. However, their designs generally encounter fractional-delay constraints, and become more complicated for providing linear-phase (LP) individual filters and flexible directional-selectivity, two important properties in image processing. In this paper, we propose an alternative shift-invariant and directional-selective transform-the dual-tree cosine-modulated filter bank (DTCMFB). In the proposed DTCMFB, its primal and dual filter banks are derived by cosine-modulating one LP prototype filter, and thus its design involves no fractional-delay constraints. Meanwhile, the derived modulation technique guarantees each individual filter to be LP and the LP condition is satisfied without any constraint on the prototype filter. By separable operations, the DTCMFB is extended to two-dimensions. The resulting 2D DTCMFB can provide much more flexible directional-selectivity. Finally, several simulations are given to verify the proposed DTCMFB, and the experiments on nonlinear approximation and image denoising are presented to demonstrate its potential in image processing.

  13. Analysis of Filter-Bank-Based Methods for Fast Serial Acquisition of BOC-Modulated Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Simona Lohan

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Binary-offset-carrier (BOC signals, selected for Galileo and modernized GPS systems, pose significant challenges for the code acquisition, due to the ambiguities (deep fades which are present in the envelope of the correlation function (CF. This is different from the BPSK-modulated CDMA signals, where the main correlation lobe spans over 2-chip interval, without any ambiguities or deep fades. To deal with the ambiguities due to BOC modulation, one solution is to use lower steps of scanning the code phases (i.e., lower than the traditional step of 0.5 chips used for BPSK-modulated CDMA signals. Lowering the time-bin steps entails an increase in the number of timing hypotheses, and, thus, in the acquisition times. An alternative solution is to transform the ambiguous CF into an “unambiguous” CF, via adequate filtering of the signal. A generalized class of frequency-based unambiguous acquisition methods is proposed here, namely the filter-bank-based (FBB approaches. The detailed theoretical analysis of FBB methods is given for serial-search single-dwell acquisition in single path static channels and a comparison is made with other ambiguous and unambiguous BOC acquisition methods existing in the literature.

  14. Analysis of Filter-Bank-Based Methods for Fast Serial Acquisition of BOC-Modulated Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lohan ElenaSimona

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Binary-offset-carrier (BOC signals, selected for Galileo and modernized GPS systems, pose significant challenges for the code acquisition, due to the ambiguities (deep fades which are present in the envelope of the correlation function (CF. This is different from the BPSK-modulated CDMA signals, where the main correlation lobe spans over 2-chip interval, without any ambiguities or deep fades. To deal with the ambiguities due to BOC modulation, one solution is to use lower steps of scanning the code phases (i.e., lower than the traditional step of 0.5 chips used for BPSK-modulated CDMA signals. Lowering the time-bin steps entails an increase in the number of timing hypotheses, and, thus, in the acquisition times. An alternative solution is to transform the ambiguous CF into an "unambiguous" CF, via adequate filtering of the signal. A generalized class of frequency-based unambiguous acquisition methods is proposed here, namely the filter-bank-based (FBB approaches. The detailed theoretical analysis of FBB methods is given for serial-search single-dwell acquisition in single path static channels and a comparison is made with other ambiguous and unambiguous BOC acquisition methods existing in the literature.

  15. A high-throughput two channel discrete wavelet transform architecture for the JPEG2000 standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badakhshannoory, Hossein; Hashemi, Mahmoud R.; Aminlou, Alireza; Fatemi, Omid

    2005-07-01

    The Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) is increasingly recognized in image and video compression standards, as indicated by its use in JPEG2000. The lifting scheme algorithm is an alternative DWT implementation that has a lower computational complexity and reduced resource requirement. In the JPEG2000 standard two lifting scheme based filter banks are introduced: the 5/3 and 9/7. In this paper a high throughput, two channel DWT architecture for both of the JPEG2000 DWT filters is presented. The proposed pipelined architecture has two separate input channels that process the incoming samples simultaneously with minimum memory requirement for each channel. The architecture had been implemented in VHDL and synthesized on a Xilinx Virtex2 XCV1000. The proposed architecture applies DWT on a 2K by 1K image at 33 fps with a 75 MHZ clock frequency. This performance is achieved with 70% less resources than two independent single channel modules. The high throughput and reduced resource requirement has made this architecture the proper choice for real time applications such as Digital Cinema.

  16. Online Speech/Music Segmentation Based on the Variance Mean of Filter Bank Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kos, Marko; Grašič, Matej; Kačič, Zdravko

    2009-12-01

    This paper presents a novel feature for online speech/music segmentation based on the variance mean of filter bank energy (VMFBE). The idea that encouraged the feature's construction is energy variation in a narrow frequency sub-band. The energy varies more rapidly, and to a greater extent for speech than for music. Therefore, an energy variance in such a sub-band is greater for speech than for music. The radio broadcast database and the BNSI broadcast news database were used for feature discrimination and segmentation ability evaluation. The calculation procedure of the VMFBE feature has 4 out of 6 steps in common with the MFCC feature calculation procedure. Therefore, it is a very convenient speech/music discriminator for use in real-time automatic speech recognition systems based on MFCC features, because valuable processing time can be saved, and computation load is only slightly increased. Analysis of the feature's speech/music discriminative ability shows an average error rate below 10% for radio broadcast material and it outperforms other features used for comparison, by more than 8%. The proposed feature as a stand-alone speech/music discriminator in a segmentation system achieves an overall accuracy of over 94% on radio broadcast material.

  17. Joint Source-Channel Coding by Means of an Oversampled Filter Bank Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinkovic Slavica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantized frame expansions based on block transforms and oversampled filter banks (OFBs have been considered recently as joint source-channel codes (JSCCs for erasure and error-resilient signal transmission over noisy channels. In this paper, we consider a coding chain involving an OFB-based signal decomposition followed by scalar quantization and a variable-length code (VLC or a fixed-length code (FLC. This paper first examines the problem of channel error localization and correction in quantized OFB signal expansions. The error localization problem is treated as an -ary hypothesis testing problem. The likelihood values are derived from the joint pdf of the syndrome vectors under various hypotheses of impulse noise positions, and in a number of consecutive windows of the received samples. The error amplitudes are then estimated by solving the syndrome equations in the least-square sense. The message signal is reconstructed from the corrected received signal by a pseudoinverse receiver. We then improve the error localization procedure by introducing a per-symbol reliability information in the hypothesis testing procedure of the OFB syndrome decoder. The per-symbol reliability information is produced by the soft-input soft-output (SISO VLC/FLC decoders. This leads to the design of an iterative algorithm for joint decoding of an FLC and an OFB code. The performance of the algorithms developed is evaluated in a wavelet-based image coding system.

  18. Online Speech/Music Segmentation Based on the Variance Mean of Filter Bank Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravko Kačič

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel feature for online speech/music segmentation based on the variance mean of filter bank energy (VMFBE. The idea that encouraged the feature's construction is energy variation in a narrow frequency sub-band. The energy varies more rapidly, and to a greater extent for speech than for music. Therefore, an energy variance in such a sub-band is greater for speech than for music. The radio broadcast database and the BNSI broadcast news database were used for feature discrimination and segmentation ability evaluation. The calculation procedure of the VMFBE feature has 4 out of 6 steps in common with the MFCC feature calculation procedure. Therefore, it is a very convenient speech/music discriminator for use in real-time automatic speech recognition systems based on MFCC features, because valuable processing time can be saved, and computation load is only slightly increased. Analysis of the feature's speech/music discriminative ability shows an average error rate below 10% for radio broadcast material and it outperforms other features used for comparison, by more than 8%. The proposed feature as a stand-alone speech/music discriminator in a segmentation system achieves an overall accuracy of over 94% on radio broadcast material.

  19. Spectral estimation for long-term evolution transceivers using low-complex filter banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Schlechter

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available For mobile user equipments (UEs, a careful power management is essential. Despite this fact, quite an amount of energy is wasted in today's UEs’ analogue (AFEs and digital frontends (DFEs. These are engineered for extracting the wanted signal from a spectral environment defined in the corresponding communication standards with their extremely tough requirements. These requirements define a worst-case scenario still ensuring reliable communication. In a typical receiving process the actual requirements can be considered as less critical. Knowledge about the actual environmental spectral conditions allows to reconfigure both frontends to the actual needs and to save energy. In this paper, the authors present a highly efficient generic spectrum sensing approach, which allows to collect information about the actual spectral environment of an UE. This information can be used to reconfigure both the AFE and DFE, thus endowing them with increased intelligence. A low-complex multiplier free filter bank extended by an efficient power calculation unit will be introduced. They also present simulation results, which illustrate the performance of the spectrum sensing approach and a complexity comparison with different well-known implementations is given. Furthermore, estimates on the chip area and power consumption based on a 65 nm CMOS technology database are provided, considering the Smarti4G chip as a reference.

  20. Enhanced Bank of Kalman Filters Developed and Demonstrated for In-Flight Aircraft Engine Sensor Fault Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.

    2005-01-01

    In-flight sensor fault detection and isolation (FDI) is critical to maintaining reliable engine operation during flight. The aircraft engine control system, which computes control commands on the basis of sensor measurements, operates the propulsion systems at the demanded conditions. Any undetected sensor faults, therefore, may cause the control system to drive the engine into an undesirable operating condition. It is critical to detect and isolate failed sensors as soon as possible so that such scenarios can be avoided. A challenging issue in developing reliable sensor FDI systems is to make them robust to changes in engine operating characteristics due to degradation with usage and other faults that can occur during flight. A sensor FDI system that cannot appropriately account for such scenarios may result in false alarms, missed detections, or misclassifications when such faults do occur. To address this issue, an enhanced bank of Kalman filters was developed, and its performance and robustness were demonstrated in a simulation environment. The bank of filters is composed of m + 1 Kalman filters, where m is the number of sensors being used by the control system and, thus, in need of monitoring. Each Kalman filter is designed on the basis of a unique fault hypothesis so that it will be able to maintain its performance if a particular fault scenario, hypothesized by that particular filter, takes place.

  1. Two-Channel Transparency-Optimized Control Architectures in Bilateral Teleoperation With Time Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jonghyun; Chang, Pyung Hun; Park, Hyung-Soon

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces transparency-optimized control architectures (TOCAs) using two communication channels. Two classes of two-channel TOCAs are found, thereby showing that two channels are sufficient to achieve transparency. These TOCAs achieve a greater level of transparency but poorer stability than three-channel TOCAs and four-channel TOCAs. Stability of the two-channel TOCAs has been enhanced while minimizing transparency degradation by adding a filter; and a combined use of the two classes of two-channel TOCAs is proposed for both free space and constrained motion, which involve switching between two TOCAs for transition between free space and constrained motions. The stability condition of the switched teleoperation system is derived for practical applications. Through the one degree-of-freedom (DOF) experiment, the proposed two-channel TOCAs were shown to operate stably, while achieving better transparency under time delay than the other TOCAs. PMID:23833548

  2. HEAPA Filter Bank In-Place Leak Test for ACUs of Advanced Fuel Science Building in 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Chul Goo; Bae, Sang Oh [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    Air cleaning units installed in the Advanced Fuel Science Building were performed visual inspection, airflow capacity test, and HEAPA filter bank in-place leak test in accordance with ASME N-510-1989. All the above inspections was acceptable. Visual inspection was satisfied to AUC-556 and AUC-557. Airflow capacity was 96%(30,240 m{sup 3}/h) of design airflow capacity(31,500 m{sup 3}/h) for AUC-556 and was 97%(22,800 m{sup 3}/h) of design airflow capacity(22,800 m{sup 3}/h) for AUC-557, and was maintained within {+-}10% of the specified value. Penetration of HEAPA filter bank in-place leak test was 0.009% for AUC-556 and was 0.013% for AUC-557 and these values were maintained less than the acceptance criteria(0.05%)

  3. Major Depression Detection from EEG Signals Using Kernel Eigen-Filter-Bank Common Spatial Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Cheng Liao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Major depressive disorder (MDD has become a leading contributor to the global burden of disease; however, there are currently no reliable biological markers or physiological measurements for efficiently and effectively dissecting the heterogeneity of MDD. Here we propose a novel method based on scalp electroencephalography (EEG signals and a robust spectral-spatial EEG feature extractor called kernel eigen-filter-bank common spatial pattern (KEFB-CSP. The KEFB-CSP first filters the multi-channel raw EEG signals into a set of frequency sub-bands covering the range from theta to gamma bands, then spatially transforms the EEG signals of each sub-band from the original sensor space to a new space where the new signals (i.e., CSPs are optimal for the classification between MDD and healthy controls, and finally applies the kernel principal component analysis (kernel PCA to transform the vector containing the CSPs from all frequency sub-bands to a lower-dimensional feature vector called KEFB-CSP. Twelve patients with MDD and twelve healthy controls participated in this study, and from each participant we collected 54 resting-state EEGs of 6 s length (5 min and 24 s in total. Our results show that the proposed KEFB-CSP outperforms other EEG features including the powers of EEG frequency bands, and fractal dimension, which had been widely applied in previous EEG-based depression detection studies. The results also reveal that the 8 electrodes from the temporal areas gave higher accuracies than other scalp areas. The KEFB-CSP was able to achieve an average EEG classification accuracy of 81.23% in single-trial analysis when only the 8-electrode EEGs of the temporal area and a support vector machine (SVM classifier were used. We also designed a voting-based leave-one-participant-out procedure to test the participant-independent individual classification accuracy. The voting-based results show that the mean classification accuracy of about 80% can be

  4. Systematic design of transmitter and receiver architectures for flexible filter bank multi-carrier signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Esteban; López-Salcedo, José A.; Seco-Granados, Gonzalo

    2014-12-01

    Multi-carrier (MC) signaling is currently in the forefront of a myriad of systems, either wired or wireless, due to its high spectral efficiency, simple equalization, and robustness in front of multipath and narrowband interference sources. Despite its widespread deployment, the design of efficient architectures for MC systems becomes a challenging task when adopting filter bank multi-carrier (FBMC) modulation due to the inclusion of band-limited shaping pulses into the signal model. The reason to employ these pulses is the numerous improvements they offer in terms of performance, such as providing higher spectral confinement and no frequency overlap between adjacent subcarriers. These attributes lead to a reduced out-of-band power emission and a higher effective throughput. The latter is indeed possible by removing the need of cyclic prefix, which is in charge of preserving orthogonality among subcarriers in conventional MC systems. Nevertheless, the potential benefits of FBMC modulations are often obscured when it comes to an implementation point of view. In order to circumvent this limitation, the present paper provides a unified framework to describe all FBMC signals in which both signal design and implementation criteria are explicitly combined. In addition to this, we introduce the concept of flexible FBMC signals that, unlike their traditional MC counterparts, do not impose restrictions on the signal parameters (i.e., symbol rate, carrier spacing, or sampling frequency). Moreover, our framework also proposes a methodology that overcomes the implementation issues that characterize FBMC systems and allows us to derive simple, efficient, and time-invariant transmitter and receiver architectures.

  5. Filter Bank Common Spatial Pattern algorithm on BCI Competition IV Datasets 2a and 2b

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Keng eAng

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Common Spatial Pattern (CSP algorithm is an effective and popular method for classifying 2-class motor imagery electroencephalogram (EEG data, but its effectiveness depends on the subject-specific frequency band. This paper presents the Filter Bank Common Spatial Pattern (FBCSP algorithm to optimize the subject-specific frequency band for CSP on Datasets 2a and 2b of the Brain-Computer Interface (BCI Competition IV. Dataset 2a comprised 4 classes of 22 channels EEG data from 9 subjects, and Dataset 2b comprised 2 classes of 3 bipolar channels EEG data from 9 subjects. Multi-class extensions to FBCSP are also presented to handle the 4-class EEG data in Dataset 2a, namely, Divide-and-Conquer (DC, Pair-Wise (PW, and One-Versus-Rest (OVR approaches. Two feature selection algorithms are also presented to select discriminative CSP features on Dataset 2b, namely, the Mutual Information-based Best Individual Feature (MIBIF algorithm, and the Mutual Information-based Rough Set Reduction (MIRSR algorithm. The single-trial classification accuracies were presented using 10x10-fold cross-validations on the training data and session-to-session transfer on the evaluation data from both datasets. Disclosure of the test data labels after the BCI Competition IV showed that the FBCSP algorithm performed relatively the best among the other submitted algorithms and yielded a mean kappa value of 0.569 and 0.600 across all subjects in Datasets 2a and 2b respectively.

  6. Filter Bank Common Spatial Pattern Algorithm on BCI Competition IV Datasets 2a and 2b.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Kai Keng; Chin, Zheng Yang; Wang, Chuanchu; Guan, Cuntai; Zhang, Haihong

    2012-01-01

    The Common Spatial Pattern (CSP) algorithm is an effective and popular method for classifying 2-class motor imagery electroencephalogram (EEG) data, but its effectiveness depends on the subject-specific frequency band. This paper presents the Filter Bank Common Spatial Pattern (FBCSP) algorithm to optimize the subject-specific frequency band for CSP on Datasets 2a and 2b of the Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) Competition IV. Dataset 2a comprised 4 classes of 22 channels EEG data from 9 subjects, and Dataset 2b comprised 2 classes of 3 bipolar channels EEG data from 9 subjects. Multi-class extensions to FBCSP are also presented to handle the 4-class EEG data in Dataset 2a, namely, Divide-and-Conquer (DC), Pair-Wise (PW), and One-Versus-Rest (OVR) approaches. Two feature selection algorithms are also presented to select discriminative CSP features on Dataset 2b, namely, the Mutual Information-based Best Individual Feature (MIBIF) algorithm, and the Mutual Information-based Rough Set Reduction (MIRSR) algorithm. The single-trial classification accuracies were presented using 10 × 10-fold cross-validations on the training data and session-to-session transfer on the evaluation data from both datasets. Disclosure of the test data labels after the BCI Competition IV showed that the FBCSP algorithm performed relatively the best among the other submitted algorithms and yielded a mean kappa value of 0.569 and 0.600 across all subjects in Datasets 2a and 2b respectively.

  7. banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2017-01-01

    The thaw period was a kind of bank from which our country set sail towards unexplored horizons. The series on the Moscow Palace of Young Pioneers is continued by the article by Felix Novikov (144-151, who writes about the history of the design of this wonderful building, today’s monument of architecture of Soviet modernism.

  8. Two-channel X-ray reflectometer

    CERN Document Server

    Touryanski, A G; Pirshin, I V

    2000-01-01

    The two-channel X-ray reflectometer is proposed providing an increase in accuracy and sensitivity especially to nanoscale oxide layers. The reflectometer has two independent measuring channels controlled by a processor and the beam-splitting and spectral selection device based on a row of semitransparent plates of pyrolitic graphite. Results of reflection curve measurements in a relative mode are presented for an Ni film and GaAs monocrystal.

  9. Hardware Architecture of Polyphase Filter Banks Performing Embedded Resampling for SoftwareDefined Radio FrontEnds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we describe resourceefficient hardware architectures for softwaredefined radio (SDR) frontends. These architectures are made efficient by using a polyphase channelizer that performs arbitrary sample rate changes, frequency selection, and bandwidth control. We discuss area, time, and power optimization for field programmable gate array (FPGA) based architectures in an Mpath polyphase filter bank with modified Npath polyphase filter. Such systems allow resampling by arbitrary ratios while simultaneously performing baseband aliasing from center frequencies at Nyquist zones that are not multiples of the output sample rate. A nonmaximally decimated polyphase filter bank, where the number of data loads is not equal to the number of M subfilters, processes M subfilters in a time period that is either less than or greater than the Mdataload ' s time period. We present a loadprocess architecture (LPA) and a runtime architecture (RA) (based on serial polyphase structure) which have different scheduling. In LPA, Nsubfilters are loaded, and then M subfilters are processed at a clock rate that is a multiple of the input data rate. This is necessary to meet the output time constraint of the down-sampled data. In RA, Msubfilters processes are efficiently scheduled within Ndataload time while simultaneously loading N subfilters. This requires reduced clock rates compared with LPA, and potentially less power is consumed. A polyphase filter bank that uses different resampling factors for maximally decimated, underdecimated, overdecimated, and combined upand downsampled scenarios is used as a case study, and an analysis of area, time, and power for their FPGA architectures is given. For resourceoptimized SDR frontends, RA is superior for reducing operating clock rates and dynamic power consumption. RA is also superior for reducing area resources, except when indices are prestored in LUTs.

  10. Optimized filtering of regional and teleseismic seismograms: results of maximizing SNR measurements from the wavelet transform and filter banks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, R.R.; Schultz, C.; Dowla, F.

    1997-07-15

    Development of a worldwide network to monitor seismic activity requires deployment of seismic sensors in areas which have not been well studied or may have from available recordings. Development and testing of detection and discrimination algorithms requires a robust representative set of calibrated seismic events for a given region. Utilizing events with poor signal-to-noise (SNR) can add significant numbers to usable data sets, but these events must first be adequately filtered. Source and path effects can make this a difficult task as filtering demands are highly varied as a function of distance, event magnitude, bearing, depth etc. For a given region, conventional methods of filter selection can be quite subjective and may require intensive analysis of many events. In addition, filter parameters are often overly generalized or contain complicated switching. We have developed a method to provide an optimized filter for any regional or teleseismically recorded event. Recorded seismic signals contain arrival energy which is localized in frequency and time. Localized temporal signals whose frequency content is different from the frequency content of the pre-arrival record are identified using rms power measurements. The method is based on the decomposition of a time series into a set of time series signals or scales. Each scale represents a time-frequency band with a constant Q. SNR is calculated for a pre-event noise window and for a window estimated to contain the arrival. Scales with high SNR are used to indicate the band pass limits for the optimized filter.The results offer a significant improvement in SNR particularly for low SNR events. Our method provides a straightforward, optimized filter which can be immediately applied to unknown regions as knowledge of the geophysical characteristics is not required. The filtered signals can be used to map the seismic frequency response of a region and may provide improvements in travel-time picking, bearing estimation

  11. Absorbent Analysis of Anniston Chemical Agent Disposal Facility Munition Demilitarization Building (MDB) Banks 1 and 2 Filter Samples Following Completion of The GB Agent and VX Rocket Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    relationships to determine the residual life of these filters. The ANCDF design included a MDB air-ventilation system, which consisted of nine carbon... ghost peaks between successive injections that were caused by chemical entrapment in this tubing. The connection between the end of the collection tube... residual adsorption capacity. In this study, carbon samples were examined from MDB Filter Banks 1 and 2 and the PFS Filter, along with a control

  12. TWO-CHANNEL DIELECTRIC WAKE FIELD ACCELERATOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2012-05-30

    Experimental results are reported for test beam acceleration and deflection in a two-channel, cm-scale, rectangular dielectric-lined wakefield accelerator structure energized by a 14-MeV drive beam. The dominant waveguide mode of the structure is at {approx}30 GHz, and the structure is configured to exhibit a high transformer ratio ({approx}12:1). Accelerated bunches in the narrow secondary channel of the structure are continuously energized via Cherenkov radiation that is emitted by a drive bunch moving in the wider primary channel. Observed energy gains and losses, transverse deflections, and changes in the test bunch charge distribution compare favorably with predictions of theory.

  13. Hardware Architecture of Polyphase Filter Banks Performing Embedded Resampling for Software-Defined Radio Front-Ends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awan, Mehmood-Ur-Rehman; Le Moullec, Yannick; Koch, Peter

    2012-01-01

    , and power optimization for field programmable gate array (FPGA) based architectures in an M -path polyphase filter bank with modified N -path polyphase filter. Such systems allow resampling by arbitrary ratios while simultaneously performing baseband aliasing from center frequencies at Nyquist zones...... for maximally decimated, under-decimated, over-decimated, and combined up- and down-sampled scenarios is used as a case study, and an analysis of area, time, and power for their FPGA architectures is given. For resource-optimized SDR front-ends, RA is superior for reducing operating clock rates and dynamic......In this paper, we describe resource-efficient hardware architectures for software-defined radio (SDR) front-ends. These architectures are made efficient by using a polyphase channelizer that performs arbitrary sample rate changes, frequency selection, and bandwidth control. We discuss area, time...

  14. An Approach for Synthesis of Modulated -Channel FIR Filter Banks Utilizing the Frequency-Response Masking Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenbaum Linnéa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The frequency-response masking (FRM technique was introduced as a means of generating linear-phase FIR filters with narrow transition band and low arithmetic complexity. This paper proposes an approach for synthesizing modulated maximally decimated FIR filter banks (FBs utilizing the FRM technique. A new tailored class of FRM filters is introduced and used for synthesizing nonlinear-phase analysis and synthesis filters. Each of the analysis and synthesis FBs is realized with the aid of only three subfilters, one cosine-modulation block, and one sine-modulation block. The overall FB is a near-perfect reconstruction (NPR FB which in this case means that the distortion function has a linear-phase response but small magnitude errors. Small aliasing errors are also introduced by the FB. However, by allowing these small errors (that can be made arbitrarily small, the arithmetic complexity can be reduced. Compared to conventional cosine-modulated FBs, the proposed ones lower significantly the overall arithmetic complexity at the expense of a slightly increased overall FB delay in applications requiring narrow transition bands. Compared to other proposals that also combine cosine-modulated FBs with the FRM technique, the arithmetic complexity can typically be reduced by in specifications with narrow transition bands. Finally, a general design procedure is given for the proposed FBs and examples are included to illustrate their benefits.

  15. An Approach for Synthesis of Modulated M-Channel FIR Filter Banks Utilizing the Frequency-Response Masking Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Håkan Johansson

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The frequency-response masking (FRM technique was introduced as a means of generating linear-phase FIR filters with narrow transition band and low arithmetic complexity. This paper proposes an approach for synthesizing modulated maximally decimated FIR filter banks (FBs utilizing the FRM technique. A new tailored class of FRM filters is introduced and used for synthesizing nonlinear-phase analysis and synthesis filters. Each of the analysis and synthesis FBs is realized with the aid of only three subfilters, one cosine-modulation block, and one sine-modulation block. The overall FB is a near-perfect reconstruction (NPR FB which in this case means that the distortion function has a linear-phase response but small magnitude errors. Small aliasing errors are also introduced by the FB. However, by allowing these small errors (that can be made arbitrarily small, the arithmetic complexity can be reduced. Compared to conventional cosine-modulated FBs, the proposed ones lower significantly the overall arithmetic complexity at the expense of a slightly increased overall FB delay in applications requiring narrow transition bands. Compared to other proposals that also combine cosine-modulated FBs with the FRM technique, the arithmetic complexity can typically be reduced by 40% in specifications with narrow transition bands. Finally, a general design procedure is given for the proposed FBs and examples are included to illustrate their benefits.

  16. Design of Two-Channel PR Filter Banks Based on Genetic Algorithm%基于遗传算法的两通道完全重构滤波器组的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐华楠; 刘哲

    2008-01-01

    介绍了两通道滤波器组的完全重构条件,利用Euclidean分解算法,将两通道滤波器组的设计问题简化为寻找给定特性的低通滤波器的最佳Euclidean互补滤波器的单变量非线性优化问题,并探讨了采用遗传算法设计此类高度非线性优化问题.最后通过设计例子说明将遗传算法应用到滤波器组的设计中是可行的.

  17. Offline Performance of the Filter Bank EEW Algorithm in the 2014 M6.0 South Napa Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, M. A.; Heaton, T. H.; Clinton, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    Medium size events like the M6.0 South Napa earthquake are very challenging for EEW: the damage such events produce can be severe, but it is generally confined to relatively small zones around the epicenter and the shaking duration is short. This leaves a very short window for timely EEW alerts. Algorithms that wait for several stations to trigger before sending out EEW alerts are typically not fast enough for these kind of events because their blind zone (the zone where strong ground motions start before the warnings arrive) typically covers all or most of the area that experiences strong ground motions. At the same time, single station algorithms are often too unreliable to provide useful alerts. The filter bank EEW algorithm is a new algorithm that is designed to provide maximally accurate and precise earthquake parameter estimates with minimum data input, with the goal of producing reliable EEW alerts when only a very small number of stations have been reached by the p-wave. It combines the strengths of single station and network based algorithms in that it starts parameter estimates as soon as 0.5 seconds of data are available from the first station, but then perpetually incorporates additional data from the same or from any number of other stations. The algorithm analyzes the time dependent frequency content of real time waveforms with a filter bank. It then uses an extensive training data set to find earthquake records from the past that have had similar frequency content at a given time since the p-wave onset. The source parameters of the most similar events are used to parameterize a likelihood function for the source parameters of the ongoing event, which can then be maximized to find the most likely parameter estimates. Our preliminary results show that the filter bank EEW algorithm correctly estimated the magnitude of the South Napa earthquake to be ~M6 with only 1 second worth of data at the nearest station to the epicenter. This estimate is then

  18. On the theory and design of a class of PR uniform and recombination nonuniform causal-Stable IIR cosine modulated filter banks

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, SS; Chan, SC; Tsui, KM; Xie, XM

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the theory and design of a class of perfect reconstruction (PR) uniform causal-stable infinite-impulse response (IIR) cosine modulated filter banks (CMFBs). The design approach is also applicable to the design of PR recombination nonuniform (RN) IIR CMFBs. The polyphase components of the prototype filters of these IIR CMFBs are assumed to have the same denominator so as to simplify the PR condition. In designing the proposed IIR CMFB, a PR FIR CMFB with similar specificatio...

  19. Generalized block-lifting factorization of M-channel biorthogonal filter banks for lossy-to-lossless image coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Taizo; Ikehara, Masaaki; Nguyen, Truong Q

    2012-07-01

    Generalized block-lifting factorization of M-channel (M > 2) biorthogonal filter banks (BOFBs) for lossy-to-lossless image coding is presented in this paper. Since the proposed block-lifting structure is more general than the conventional lifting factorizations and does NOT require many restrictions such as paraunitary, number of channels, and McMillan degree in each building block unlike the conventional lifting factorizations, its coding gain is higher than that of the previous methods. Several proposed BOFBs are designed and applied to image coding. Comparing the results with conventional lossy-to-lossless image coding structures, including the 5/3- and 9/7-tap discrete wavelet transforms in JPEG 2000 and a 4 × 8 hierarchical lapped biorthogonal transform in JPEG XR, the proposed BOFBs achieve better result in both objective measure and perceptual visual quality for the images with a lot of high-frequency components.

  20. Systolic implementation of a bidimensional lattice filter bank for multiresolution image coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desneux, P.; Legat, Jean-Didier; Macq, Benoit M. M.; Mertes, J. Y.

    1993-10-01

    In this paper, we present systolic architecture based on the lattice structure of filters. The main characteristic of this architecture is the systolism: computations are pipelined in many identical locally interconnected processing elements (PEs). These PEs are simple and can reach high frequency clock while working at any time of the process. So, the speed of the circuit can be increased. The implementation of the filters, through VLSI techniques, is facilitated by the repetitive nature of the elements. In section 2, we describe the multiresolution scheme and the lattice structures. If the lattice structure appears as an efficient remedy for the finite length of the multipliers, special attention has to be kept on the computation noise which appears when the datapath is limited to some finite width. The goal of the so-related study consists in keeping this computation noise below the quantization noise (coming from the quantizers) at a reasonable cost. In section 3, we present the basic processing element and its use among the different stages of the filter. Section 4 deals with the finite representation of the data throughout the datapath.

  1. Fabric Defect Detection Algorithm Based on Log-Gabor Filter Bank%基于Log-Gabor滤波器组的织物疵点检测算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔月平; 韩润萍

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a scheme using Log-Gabor filter bank for fabric defect detection was proposed. First, a method of constructing Log-Gabor filter bank was presented. Then, fabric defect image was processed using this filter bank, and filtered images were obtained. These images were fused in order to reconstruct the defect binary image that segmented the defect from the texture background. Experiment results had confirmed the effectiveness of this scheme.%利用Log-Gabor滤波器组实现了对织物图像的疵点检测首先给出了构建L.g-Gabor滤波器组的方法,然后利用滤波器组对织物图像进行滤波处理,并对滤波后的图像进行分割和融合,最后将疵点从织物图像的背景纹理中分割出来实验结果证明该方法能够有效地检测出织物疵点.

  2. Filter bank multicarrier technique simulation performance analysis%滤波器组多载波技术仿真性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙欣丽; 王萍

    2016-01-01

    Filter bank based multicarrier technique is one of pivotal techniques of 5G. Compare to traditional modulation,Filter bank based multicarrier technique has some advantages including performing without CP and lower sidelobe.This technique is still developing.There are twoclasses of modulated filter banks,FBMC filter the signal at the level of frame on the basis of IFFT.So the important thing is reasonable design of processing fame signal by filter banks.%基于滤波器组的多载波调制技术是第5代移动通信系统(5 G)研究的关键技术之一。与传统的调制技术相比滤波器组多载波技术具有不需要插入循环前缀、较低旁瓣等优点,其技术发展尚处于探索阶段。使用滤波器组多载波技术调制方式实现信号调制主要有两种方式,其中之一的 FBMC是在 IFFT的基础上使用原型滤波器在帧结构水平上对信号进行滤波,因此重点是设计出滤波器组对帧信号的合理处理方式。

  3. The subband pulse compression method based on quadratture mirror filter (QMF) banks%基于正交镜像滤波器组的子带脉冲压缩方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高翠翠; 林明; 钱春雷

    2015-01-01

    针对超宽带雷达频带分割滤波器不理想、导致子带脉冲压缩和直接脉冲压缩结果相差较大的问题,本文提出了基于正交镜像滤波器组的子带脉冲压缩方法。首先设计了近似完全重建的正交镜像滤波器组,定义目标函数为通带误差、阻带能量和失真转移函数平方误差的加权和,通过无约束的变尺度方法将其最小化,然后用设计的正交镜像滤波器作为频带分割滤波器,实现子带脉冲压缩。仿真结果表明,本文设计的正交镜像滤波器组,相比现有的设计,具有更小的峰值重建误差、通带和阻带误差。提出的子带脉冲压缩方法,与传统方法相比,主副瓣比和主瓣宽度等脉压性能也明显提高。%For the problem that ultra-wideband (UWB)radar channel dropping filter isn′t ideal, which causes big error between subband pulse compression and direct pulse compression, a new method of subband pulse compression of UWB radar is presented. In the new method, nearly perfect-reconstruction two-channel quadrature mirror filter banks is designed at first. The objective function is formulated as a weighted sum of pass-band error and stop-band residual energy of low-pass prototype filter , and the square error of the distortion transfer function, which is minimized by unconstrained indirect update optimization method. The QMF replaces channel dropping filter. Compared with traditional subband pulse pressure method, simulation results show that the mainlobe to sidelobe and mainlobe width in proposed method are improved obviously.

  4. Quantifying image distortion based on Gabor filter bank and multiple regression analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Jaramillo, B.; Garcia-Alvarez, J. C.; Führ, H.; Castellanos-Dominguez, G.; Philips, W.

    2012-01-01

    Image quality assessment is indispensable for image-based applications. The approaches towards image quality assessment fall into two main categories: subjective and objective methods. Subjective assessment has been widely used. However, careful subjective assessments are experimentally difficult and lengthy, and the results obtained may vary depending on the test conditions. On the other hand, objective image quality assessment would not only alleviate the difficulties described above but would also help to expand the application field. Therefore, several works have been developed for quantifying the distortion presented on a image achieving goodness of fit between subjective and objective scores up to 92%. Nevertheless, current methodologies are designed assuming that the nature of the distortion is known. Generally, this is a limiting assumption for practical applications, since in a majority of cases the distortions in the image are unknown. Therefore, we believe that the current methods of image quality assessment should be adapted in order to identify and quantify the distortion of images at the same time. That combination can improve processes such as enhancement, restoration, compression, transmission, among others. We present an approach based on the power of the experimental design and the joint localization of the Gabor filters for studying the influence of the spatial/frequencies on image quality assessment. Therefore, we achieve a correct identification and quantification of the distortion affecting images. This method provides accurate scores and differentiability between distortions.

  5. An optimal noise reduction linear phase filter banks based on FPGA%一种最优去噪线性相位滤波器组的FPGA实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张辉

    2011-01-01

    To desip an oversampled linear phase perfect reconstruction filter banks with lattice structure is an efficient implementation. Once the analysis filter banks are ensured, the structure of synthesis filter banks is determined, but there is still lots of synthesis filter banks for the parameters are flexible, in which choose a synthesis filter banks for optimal noise reduction. This paper implements the design in FPGA with DSP Builder, and simulate the design on function with Modelsim.%格型结构是一种可以快速高效设计过采样线性相位完全重建滤波器组的方法.一旦分析滤波器组设定后,对应的综合滤波器结构也就确定,但综合滤波器组参数却有很大的灵活性,从中可以找出具有最优去噪效果的综合滤波器组,构成一个完整的滤波器组.对于求解出的具有最优去噪效果的过采样线性相位完全重构滤波器组,文中用DSP Builder在FPGA上予以实现,并用modelsim进行功能仿真.

  6. 实时的 Gammatone听感知滤波器组的 FPGA实现%Real-time Implementation of Auditory Gammatone Filter Bank with FPGA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾瑞; 李冬梅

    2015-01-01

    Gammatone Filter Bank (GTFB) is perfectly suitable for speech processing systems like digital hearing aids ,speech enhancement and speech recognition system .However ,the high computational complexity and non‐real‐time characteristic in the hardware synthesis restrict its practical application .In this paper ,an efficient core computation unit structure is proposed .Besides ,a low complexity synthesis algorithm is proposed and the real‐time characteristic is achieved by compensating the filter delay .The measurement results verified show that a 128‐band high‐efficient real‐time reconfigurable Gammatone Filter Bank is realized in FPGA .The design has only 20 ms delay and improve the dual‐microphone CASA speech enhancement system performance .%Gammatone听感知滤波器组能大幅度的提高数字助听器、语音增强和语音识别等语音处理系统的性能,但因其庞大复杂的计算量以及不可实时的综合方式限制了其实际应用。设计了一种高效的运算单元结构和复用架构,提出了一种通过延时补偿的方法简化其综合的方式,并在FPGA上实现了128通道的便于综合的可实时处理语音信号的Gammatone滤波器组。通过测试验证,该设计延时为20 ms ,满足实时性要求,能很好地重构语音信号,并提高语音增强系统的性能。

  7. 基于Gabor滤波器族的地震图像增强算法%Seismic image enhancement algorithm based on Gabor filter bank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘天时; 杨雪; 李湘眷

    2015-01-01

    为在增强地震剖面图像时获取纹线的构造及层序信息,提出一种基于地震剖面图像纹线方向的地震图像增强算法。根据地震剖面纹线的方向性,设计一个Gabor滤波器族,用其对低频分量图进行滤波去噪。利用小波变换与Gabor滤波器族各自的优点,实现地震剖面图像纹线的增强,提高整体运算效率。仿真结果表明,该算法对地震剖面图像处理后,均方误差与峰值信噪比均有明显的改善。%To obtain the structure and sequence information of stripe lines accurately while enhancing the seismic profile image ,a seismic image enhancement algorithm was proposed based on the directions of stripe lines on seismic profile image .Based on the directionality of stripe lines on seismic profile image ,a Gabor filter bank was designed ,by which low frequency component figure was filtered and denoised .With the advantages of wavelet transform and Gabor filter bank ,the enhancement of stripe lines on seismic profile was realized ,which improved overall operational efficiency .The simulation results show that the mean square er‐ror and peak signal to noise ratio are improved obviously after the seismic profile image being processed using this algorithm .

  8. First passage time statistics for two-channel diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Godec, Aljaz

    2016-01-01

    We present rigorous results for the mean first passage time and first passage time statistics for two-channel Markov additive diffusion in a 3-dimensional spherical domain. Inspired by biophysical examples we assume that the particle can only recognise the target in one of the modes, which is shown to effect a non-trivial first passage behaviour. We also address the scenario of intermittent immobilisation. In both cases we prove that despite the perfectly non-recurrent motion of two-channel Markov additive diffusion in 3 dimensions the first passage statistics at long times do not display Poisson-like behaviour if none of the phases has a vanishing diffusion coefficient. This stands in stark contrast to the standard (one-channel) Markov diffusion counterpart. We also discuss the relevance of our results in the context of cellular signalling.

  9. Reversible symmetric nonexpansive convolution: an effective image boundary processing for M-channel lifting-based linear-phase filter banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Taizo; Ikehara, Masaaki

    2014-06-01

    We present an effective image boundary processing for M-channel (M ∈ IN, M ≥ 2) lifting-based linear-phase filter banks that are applied to unified lossy and lossless image compression (coding), i.e., lossy-to-lossless image coding. The reversible symmetric extension we propose is achieved by manipulating building blocks on the image boundary and reawakening the symmetry of each building block that has been lost due to rounding error on each lifting step. In addition, complexity is reduced by extending nonexpansive convolution, called reversible symmetric nonexpansive convolution, because the number of input signals does not even temporarily increase. Our method not only achieves reversible boundary processing, but also is comparable with irreversible symmetric extension in lossy image coding and outperformed periodic extension in lossy-to-lossless image coding.

  10. Design on AC Filter Sub-bank Maintenance Function in UHVDC System%特高压直流输电交流滤波器小组检修功能的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗磊; 盛琰; 黄金海; 周玉勇; 崔佳佳

    2016-01-01

    The development of AC filter protection system in ultra⁃high voltage direct current ( UHVDC ) is described in this paper based on the characteristics of UHVDC transmission AC filter and actual requirement of project field. For the AC filter sub⁃bank hard⁃ware features of optical current transformer, by applying the Xuji self⁃developed software platform, AC filter sub⁃bank maintenance function is designed. When the AC filter bank of centralized configuration, sub⁃bank of optical current transformer fault, the realization method of the maintenance function are expounded. AC filter sub⁃bank maintenance function is very necessary for large load operation of UHVDC system, it enhances the reliability of the system.%介绍了特高压直流输电工程交流滤波器保护系统的发展,结合溪浙工程特高压直流输电交流滤波器的特点及工程现场实际运行需求,针对交流滤波器小组光电流互感器的硬件特性,通过许继自主开发的软件平台,设计交流滤波器小组检修功能。阐述交流滤波器大组集中化配置中小组光电流互感器故障时,检修功能的实现方法。交流滤波器小组检修功能,对于大负荷运行的特高压直流系统十分必要,可增强系统的可靠性。

  11. Longitudinal enhancement of the hyperechoic regions in ultrasonography of muscles using a Gabor filter bank approach: a preparation for semi-automatic muscle fiber orientation estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yongjin; Zheng, Yong-Ping

    2011-04-01

    In this study, to complement our previously proposed method for estimating muscle fiber orientation, the Gabor filter bank (GF) technique was applied to sonograms of the biceps and forearm muscles to longitudinally enhance the coherently oriented and hyperechoic perimysiums regions. The method involved three steps: orientation field estimation, frequency map computation and Gabor filtering. The method was evaluated using a simulated image distorted with multiplicative speckle noises where the "muscles" were arranged in a bipennate fashion with an "aponeurosis" located in the middle. After enhancement using the GF approach, most of the original hyperechoic bands in the simulated image could be recovered. The proposed method was also tested using a group of biceps and forearm muscle sonograms collected from healthy adult subjects. Compared with the sonograms without enhancement, the enhanced images led to the detection of more linear patterns including muscle fascicles and smaller angle differences compared with the mean of manual results from two operators, therefore, were better prepared for the automatic estimation of muscle fiber orientation. The proposed method has the potential of assisting in the visualization of strongly oriented patterns in skeletal muscle sonograms as well as in the semi-automatic estimation of muscle fiber orientations.

  12. Two-Channel Satellite Retrievals of Aerosol Properties: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishchenko, Michael I.

    1999-01-01

    In order to reduce current uncertainties in the evaluation of the direct and indirect effects of tropospheric aerosols on climate on the global scale, it has been suggested to apply multi-channel retrieval algorithms to the full period of existing satellite data. This talk will outline the methodology of interpreting two-channel satellite radiance data over the ocean and describe a detailed analysis of the sensitivity of retrieved aerosol parameters to the assumptions made in different retrieval algorithms. We will specifically address the calibration and cloud screening issues, consider the suitability of existing satellite data sets to detecting short- and long-term regional and global changes, compare preliminary results obtained by several research groups, and discuss the prospects of creating an advanced retroactive climatology of aerosol optical thickness and size over the oceans.

  13. COAXIAL TWO-CHANNEL DIELECTRIC WAKE FIELD ACCELERATOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirshfield, Jay L. [Omega-P, Inc.

    2013-04-30

    Theory, computations, and experimental apparatus are presented that describe and are intended to confirm novel properties of a coaxial two-channel dielectric wake field accelerator. In this configuration, an annular drive beam in the outer coaxial channel excites multimode wakefields which, in the inner channel, can accelerate a test beam to an energy much higher than the energy of the drive beam. This high transformer ratio is the result of judicious choice of the dielectric structure parameters, and of the phase separation between drive bunches and test bunches. A structure with cm-scale wakefields has been build for tests at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator Laboratory, and a structure with mm-scale wakefields has been built for tests at the SLAC FACET facility. Both tests await scheduling by the respective facilities.

  14. Efficient Implementation of a Demultiplexer Based on a Multirate Filter Bank for the Skyplex Satellites DVB System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Re

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an extensive comparison among alternative algorithms for the implementation of a digital demultiplexer has been carried out. The computational complexity, the performances and the accuracy with respect to the quantization effects (quantization noise and coefficient quantization have been evaluated for the different algorithms. The selected digital architecture has been designed to be compliant with the Eutelsat specifications for the Skyplex Digital Video Broadcast (DVB television system (Re, M., Cardarilli, G.C., Del Re, A. and Lojacono R. (2000 “FPGA Implementation of a Demux based on a multirate filter bank”. International Symposium on Circuits and Systems 2000, 5 (May, 353–356. At present, a more expensive and complex analog structure, based on six Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW filters, is used. The new digital architecture has been mapped on six Altera Flex 10K-100 devices. The final test bed, that includes a complete interface to the demodulator, has been implemented on a four-layers PCB.

  15. MAGMA: analysis of two-channel microarrays made easy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehrauer, Hubert; Zoller, Stefan; Schlapbach, Ralph

    2007-07-01

    The web application MAGMA provides a simple and intuitive interface to identify differentially expressed genes from two-channel microarray data. While the underlying algorithms are not superior to those of similar web applications, MAGMA is particularly user friendly and can be used without prior training. The user interface guides the novice user through the most typical microarray analysis workflow consisting of data upload, annotation, normalization and statistical analysis. It automatically generates R-scripts that document MAGMA's entire data processing steps, thereby allowing the user to regenerate all results in his local R installation. The implementation of MAGMA follows the model-view-controller design pattern that strictly separates the R-based statistical data processing, the web-representation and the application logic. This modular design makes the application flexible and easily extendible by experts in one of the fields: statistical microarray analysis, web design or software development. State-of-the-art Java Server Faces technology was used to generate the web interface and to perform user input processing. MAGMA's object-oriented modular framework makes it easily extendible and applicable to other fields and demonstrates that modern Java technology is also suitable for rather small and concise academic projects. MAGMA is freely available at www.magma-fgcz.uzh.ch.

  16. Two-Channel Metal Detector Using Two Perpendicular Antennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoo Nam Choi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-channel metal detector, having two sets of perpendicularly oriented sensor antennas, is proposed to expand detectable size, ranging from mm through cm scale, of metal sensor, while conventional metal sensor is dedicated for detection only in mm or cm scale. The characteristics of the two metal detection sensor channels were investigated, respectively, and the interference effect, while in simultaneous operation, between two sensor channels was discussed. Metal detection channel, having sensitivity in mm scale, showed detectable sensitivity to moving ferrous sphere, with diameter down to 0.7 mm, at 50 kHz exciting frequency and enhanced sensitivity distribution. And metal detection channel having sensitivity in cm scale showed more uniform sensitivity distribution with the flexibility for future modular construction. The effect of interference, while in simultaneous operation of two sensors, resulted in reduced output response, but still within usable detection range. Thus it was feasible to operate two sensors, having different sensitivity range, simultaneously and to extend detection range from mm to cm scale, within practically acceptable interference.

  17. 一种高阻带余弦调制滤波器组的子带有源噪声控制%Subband active noise control using cosine-modulated filter banks with high-stopband attenuation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海燕; 邓洪高; 刘庆华

    2012-01-01

    For wide band active noise control (ANC) system, as a result of the non-ideal characteristic and downsam-pling of the analysis filter banks, the aliasing problem between subband signals in the subband adaptive filter structure is introduced. An interpolated finite impulse response filter (IFIR) is employed to indirectly design the cosine-modulated filter banks prototype filter with high-stopband attenuation to achieve stopband energy minimization, in order to directly eliminate the aliasing problem between subband signals. It has low computational complexity. And compensation the error path delay avoids the delay of cosine-modulated filter banks. Simulation results show that this algorithm has good performance in the broadband gauss white noise and broadband color signal, especially for broadband color signal.%针对宽带有源噪声控制(ANC)系统,在采用子带自适应滤波结构时,由分析滤波器组的非理想特性及下采样原因引起的子带信号混叠问题,采用内插脉冲响应技术问接设计了一种高阻带衰减的低通原型滤波器,使得阻带能量最小化来直接消除子带信号间的混叠问题,具有较低的计算复杂度.同时,通过采用补偿误差通道延迟的方法来消除由分析滤波器组产生的延迟.仿真实验结果表明,该算法在宽带高斯白噪声和宽带有色信号下都具有较好的收敛性能,尤其对宽带有色信号.

  18. Compression of seismic data: filter banks and extended transforms, synthesis and adaptation; Compression de donnees sismiques: bancs de filtres et transformees etendues, synthese et adaptation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duval, L.

    2000-11-01

    Wavelet and wavelet packet transforms are the most commonly used algorithms for seismic data compression. Wavelet coefficients are generally quantized and encoded by classical entropy coding techniques. We first propose in this work a compression algorithm based on the wavelet transform. The wavelet transform is used together with a zero-tree type coding, with first use in seismic applications. Classical wavelet transforms nevertheless yield a quite rigid approach, since it is often desirable to adapt the transform stage to the properties of each type of signal. We thus propose a second algorithm using, instead of wavelets, a set of so called 'extended transforms'. These transforms, originating from the filter bank theory, are parameterized. Classical examples are Malvar's Lapped Orthogonal Transforms (LOT) or de Queiroz et al. Generalized Lapped Orthogonal Transforms (GenLOT). We propose several optimization criteria to build 'extended transforms' which are adapted the properties of seismic signals. We further show that these transforms can be used with the same zero-tree type coding technique as used with wavelets. Both proposed algorithms provide exact compression rate choice, block-wise compression (in the case of extended transforms) and partial decompression for quality control or visualization. Performances are tested on a set of actual seismic data. They are evaluated for several quality measures. We also compare them to other seismic compression algorithms. (author)

  19. Application of filter bank on signal processing of coherent wind lidar%滤波器组在相干激光测风雷达信号处理中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹文勇; 马明; 赵彬; 何幸锴; 侯天晋; 周鼎富; 邓华荣

    2013-01-01

      首先简要介绍了相干激光测风雷达和数字滤波器组的工作原理,然后重点分析了余弦调制滤波器组。余弦调制滤波器组具有实现简单、占用资源少等特点。信号通过滤波器组后可分解成若干个窄带子信号,目标的多普勒频率将落入其中一个子带信号中,针对这一子信号进行处理可获得较高的信噪比。利用Matlab设计出了8通道余弦调制滤波器组,然后对回波信号进行处理,从仿真结果和实测信号处理结果可以看出:该方法可以判断并抽取出多普勒频率所在的子带信号。%  The principle of coherent wind lidar and digital filter banks were introduced briefly at first, and then the theory of cosine modulated filter banks was analyzed. Cosine modulated filter banks have excellent characteristics such as simple realization and less resources occupying. Signal can be decomposed into several narrow sub-band by using cosine modulated filter banks. The Doppler frequency of the target will fall into one of sub-band and the higher SNR can be obtained by processing each sub-band. Based on this method, a 8-channel cosine modulated filter banks were designed with Matlab, which was used in coherent wind lidar signal processing simulations. The results of the simulation and measured signal prove the correctness of the method.

  20. Sensitivity of a Hybrid Filters Banks ADC to Jitter%一种混合滤波器组 ADC 对时序误差的敏感度研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡雅洁

    2016-01-01

    Under the background that Hybrid filters bank ADC is widely used in the field of communication today. A hybrid filter bank model based on the bandpass charge sampling filter was proposed. The modeling of this model was achieved in two methods and the sensitivity of the model to the jitters was studied. The consistency of this two methods shows the low sensitivity to jitters and verifies the reliability of this model.%在混合滤波器组 ADC 系统广泛用于通信领域的背景下,提出一种基于带通电荷取样滤波器的混合滤波器组模型。采用两种方法对模型进行建模,分析模型对采样时序误差的敏感度。通过两种方法得出的一致结果表明:该模型对时序误差敏感度低,验证了其可靠性。

  1. FRACTIONAL BANKING

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Klimikova

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the reasons of the present financial problems lies In understanding the substance of fractional reserve banking. The substance of fractional banking is in lending more money than the bankers have. Banking of partial reserves is an alternative form which links deposit banking and credit banking. Fractional banking is causing many unfavorable economic impacts in the worldwide system, specifically an inflation.

  2. FRACTIONAL BANKING

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Klimikova

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the reasons of the present financial problems lies In understanding the substance of fractional reserve banking. The substance of fractional banking is in lending more money than the bankers have. Banking of partial reserves is an alternative form which links deposit banking and credit banking. Fractional banking is causing many unfavorable economic impacts in the worldwide system, specifically an inflation.

  3. Research on Channel Estimation of Filter Bank UMTS System%滤波器组UMTS系统的信道估计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何信旺; 芮赟; 王宗杰; 宋荣方

    2015-01-01

    3G UMTS system,compared with 4G LTE system,has the main disadvantage of the presence in the bandwidth and data rates, but better than the latter in the voice services and system coverage. In order to maintain the continued competitiveness of the evolution of UMTS systems,3GPP-LTE International Standardization Organization recently launches the S-UMTS research projects for 2G spectrum scattered over the age of migration. In the spectrum polymerization conditions,the wireless communication system using multiple access technology must be flexible to allocate resources to support non-contiguous occupied spectrum,and also maintain a good anti-jamming capability. The use of filtered multitone ( FMT) modulation to achieve polymeric transmission for narrow band UMTS signal becomes one of candidates in 3GPP. In the proposed CDMA-FMT system,the channel estimation scheme in the traditional WCDMA system can’ t be applied directly. Therefore,according to the transmission characteristics of the UMTS system and FMT system,propose a channel es-timation of narrow band CDMA multicarrier system based on the transmission of filter bank. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show it has a low computational complexity of the program and a good channel estimation performance.%3G的UMTS系统相比4G LTE系统,主要在系统带宽和数据速率上存在劣势,而在语音业务和系统覆盖上优于后者。为了保持UMTS演进系统的持续竞争力,3GPP-LTE国际标准化组织针对2G时代迁移过来的零散频谱,近期启动了S-UMTS的研究项目。在频谱聚合条件下,无线通信系统采用的多址技术必须能灵活支持非连续占用的频谱资源分配,同时保持较好的抗干扰能力。而采用滤波多音调制技术(FMT)实现窄带UMTS信号的聚合传输成为3GPP中的候选方案之一。在所提出CDMA-FMT系统中,传统WCDMA系统中的信道估计方案无法直接适用。因此,文中根据UMTS系统和FMT系统各自的传输

  4. H型接线高压滤波电容器组不平衡电流保护判据及定值%Criterion and settings of unbalanced current protection for filter capacitor bank of H configuration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖遥; 张晋寅; 黎建平; 楚金伟; 杨晓峰

    2015-01-01

    着重介绍H接线方式下高压滤波电容器组不平衡保护的定值的整定原则.提出滤波器组的失谐度,完好电容器单元的过电压水平及其允许值是滤波电容器组不平衡保护整定的基本原则.对H型电容器组的元件失效或者短路故障分别结合失谐度和过电压进行数理分析.结合内熔丝型电容器单元和无熔丝型电容器单元的不同故障性质,给出了电容器组不平衡保护的整定值计算分析方法和最终的整定计算公式.形成H型电容器组不平衡电流保护计算的理论基础.%The paper mainly introduces the principles to calculate the settings of unbalanced current protection for H-configured capacitor banks. The basic principles of the permitted detuning of the filter banks and the withstand voltages on remaining perfect capacitor units after some units' failures are proposed. Mathematical analysis of elements failures or short circuit of H capacitor banks is made together with detuning and overvoltage respectively. Combining with different fault property of both the internal fused and fuseless capacitors, the setting calculation analysis method of capacitor bank unbalanced protection and final formulations of setting calculation are given. The paper constitutes the basis for the unbalanced protection of H-configured capacitor banks.

  5. Retail Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Szafarczyk

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The retail banking plays more and more important role in polish banking sector. There are several targets of this article. First of all is retail banking identification, both in Euroland and Poland. The next one trends, especially household deposits and credits and last retail banking in particular banks.

  6. On perturbation of eigenvalues embedded at thresholds in a two channel model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Arne

    2002-01-01

    We present some results on the perturbation of eigenvalues embedded at thresholds in a two channel model Hamiltonian with a small off-diagonal perturbation. Examples are given of the various types of behavior of the eigenvalue under perturbation....

  7. On Perturbation of Eigenvalues Embedded at Thresholds in a Two Channel Model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arne Jensen

    2002-02-01

    We present some results on the perturbation of eigenvalues embedded at thresholds in a two channel model Hamiltonian with a small off-diagonal perturbation. Examples are given of the various types of behavior of the eigenvalue under perturbation.

  8. Internet Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felician ALECU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet Banking (known also as online banking allows performing transactions and payments over the internet through a bank's secure website. This can be very useful, especially for banking outside bank hours (which tend to be very short and banking from anywhere where internet access is available. In most cases a web browser such as Internet Explorer or Mozilla Firefox is utilized and any normal internet connection is suitable. No special software or hardware is usually needed.

  9. The impacting filter bank design for MCP-EBPSK multicarrier demodulation%用于多路MCP-EBPSK信号解调的冲击滤波器组设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志敏; 吴乐南; 陈贤卿

    2012-01-01

    修正的随机极性连续相位扩展的二元相移键控调制(MCP-EBPSK)通过随机化调制指数的符号,并加入功率谱调节系数,进一步降低了连续相位扩展的二元相移键控(CP-EBPSK)调制信号功率谱中的线谱分量,使得功率谱占用带宽更窄,信息传输更加的高效高速.多载波作为高频谱利用率的复用调制方式,与MCP-EBPSK结合势必会带来更高的系统性能,因此本文对用于解调单路MCP-EBPSK信号的冲击滤波器进行初步改进,通过添加陷波零点来抑制旁路干扰,设计出带陷波的冲击滤波器组.引入量子粒子群优化算法对加入陷波的冲击滤波器组进行优化得到滤波器组系数,仿真显示即使时频混叠的子载波间不满足正交关系,利用各冲击滤波器中心频率处极陡峭的陷波选频特性依然可以实现各子载波的正确解调.因此,设计的冲击滤波器组可以用于子载波无保护间隔的多路MCP-EBPSK信号解调.%The modified pseudo-random extended binary phase shift keying with continous phase ( MCP-EBPSK) could effectively reduce the spectral line compared with the continuous phase extended BPSK( CP-EBPSK) , which could narrow the power spectrum by adding the modified coefficients and randomizing the sign of the modulation index of CP-EBPSK, finally realized the efficient and high data rate transmission. Multiplexing as a high spectral efficiency technique, combined with the MCP-EBPSK would certainly bring better performance. In this paper we improved the impacting filter and designed the filter bank by adding zeros to the impacting filters at the notch frequencies to depress the inter-channel interference (ICI). Use the QPSO (Quantum-behaved Particle Swarm Optimization) algorithm to obtain the filter bank's parameters, the simulation shown that though the subcarriers were time-frequency aliasing and nonorthogonal, the impacting filter bank could separate the composite signal and demodulated properly

  10. An Amplitude Spectral Capon Estimator with a Variable Filter Length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Kjær; Smaragdis, Paris; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll;

    2012-01-01

    The filter bank methods have been a popular non-parametric way of computing the complex amplitude spectrum. So far, the length of the filters in these filter banks has been set to some constant value independently of the data. In this paper, we take the first step towards considering the filter...

  11. Universality and scaling in a charge two-channel Kondo device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitchell, Andrew K.; Landau, L. A.; Fritz, L.; Sela, E.

    2016-01-01

    We study a charge two-channel Kondo model, demonstrating that recent experiments [Iftikhar et al, Nature 526, 233 (2015)] realize an essentially perfect quantum simulation -- not just of its universal physics, but also nonuniversal effects away from the scaling limit. Numerical renormalization group

  12. A Two-Channel Training Algorithm for Hidden Markov Model and Its Application to Lip Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Lian

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Hidden Markov model (HMM has been a popular mathematical approach for sequence classification such as speech recognition since 1980s. In this paper, a novel two-channel training strategy is proposed for discriminative training of HMM. For the proposed training strategy, a novel separable-distance function that measures the difference between a pair of training samples is adopted as the criterion function. The symbol emission matrix of an HMM is split into two channels: a static channel to maintain the validity of the HMM and a dynamic channel that is modified to maximize the separable distance. The parameters of the two-channel HMM are estimated by iterative application of expectation-maximization (EM operations. As an example of the application of the novel approach, a hierarchical speaker-dependent visual speech recognition system is trained using the two-channel HMMs. Results of experiments on identifying a group of confusable visemes indicate that the proposed approach is able to increase the recognition accuracy by an average of 20% compared with the conventional HMMs that are trained with the Baum-Welch estimation.

  13. An experimental evaluation of a loop versus a reference design for two-channel microarrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinciotti, V.; Khanin, R.; Alimonte, D. D’; Liu, X.; Cattini, N.; Hotchkiss, G.; Bucca, G.; Jesus, O. de; Rasaiyaah, J.; Kellam, P.; Wit, Ernst

    2005-01-01

    Motivation: Despite theoretical arguments that so-called ‘loop designs’ for two-channel DNA microarray experiments are more efficient, biologists continue to use ‘reference designs’. We describe two sets of microarray experiments with RNA from two different biological systems (TPA-stimulated mammali

  14. Assessment of a two-channel implantable peroneal nerve stimulator post-stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kottink, A.I.R.

    2010-01-01

    Thesis outline and aims: to progress towards evidence based application of PNS to improve lower extremity function, the aim of the present thesis is to evaluate an implantable two-channel peroneal nerve stimulator versus conventional splinting as a treatment option for chronic stroke patients with a

  15. Effect of two-channel gastric electrical stimulation with trains of pulses on gastric motility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Yang; Xiao-Hua Hou; Geng-Qing Song; Jin-Song Liu; Jiande DZ Chen

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of two-channel gastric electrical stimulation (GES) with trains of pulses on gastric emptying and slow waves. METHODS: Seven dogs implanted with four pairs of electrodes and equipped with a duodenal cannula were involved in this study. Two experiments were performed. The first experiment included a series of sessions in the fasting state with trains of short or long pulses, each lasted 10 min. A 5-min recording without pacing was made between two sessions. The second experiment was performed in three sessions (control, single-channel GES, and two-channel GES). The stimulus was applied via the 1st pair of electrodes for single-channel GES (GES via one pair of electrodes located at 14 cm above the pylorus), and simultaneously via the 1st and 3rd channels for two-channel GES (GES via two pairs of electrodes located at 6 and 14 cm above the pylorus). Gastric liquid emptying was collected every 15 min via the cannula for 90 min. RESULTS: GES with trains of pulses at a pulse width of 4 ms or higher was able to entrain gastric slow waves. Two-channel GES was about 50% more efficient than single-channel GES in entraining gastric slow waves. Two channel but not single-channel GES with trains of pulses was capable of accelerating gastric emptying in healthy dogs. Compared with the control session, two-channel GES significantly increased gastric emptying of liquids at 15 min (79.0% ± 6.4% vs 61.3% ± 6.1%, P < 0.01), 30 min (83.2% ± 6.3 % vs 68.2% ± 6.9%, P < 0.01),60 min (86.9% ± 5.5 % vs 74.1% ± 5.9%, P < 0.01),and 90 min (91.0% ± 3.4% vs 76.5% ± 5.9%, P < 0.01).CONCLUSION: Two-channel GES with trains of pulses accelerates gastric emptying in healthy dogs and may have a therapeutic potential for the treatment of gastric motility disorders.

  16. Ozone Removal by Filters Containing Activated Carbon: A Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William; Spears, Mike; Sullivan, Douglas; Mendell, Mark

    2009-09-01

    This study evaluated the ozone removal performance of moderate-cost particle filters containing activated carbon when installed in a commercial building heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) system. Filters containing 300 g of activated carbon per 0.09 m2 of filter face area were installed in two 'experimental' filter banks within an office building located in Sacramento, CA. The ozone removal performance of the filters was assessed through periodic measurements of ozone concentrations in the air upstream and downstream of the filters. Ozone concentrations were also measured upstream and downstream of a 'reference' filter bank containing filters without any activated carbon. The filter banks with prefilters containing activated carbon were removing 60percent to 70percent of the ozone 67 and 81 days after filter installation. In contrast, there was negligible ozone removal by the reference filter bank without activated carbon.

  17. Banking Bank Charge Debates Continue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG PEI

    2006-01-01

    @@ The saying, "There's no such thing as a free lunch" is one that can be applied to the charges increasingly being imposed on savers by Chinese banks.Ranging from managementfees for small deposit accounts to charges for withdrawals of large amounts of cash, from ATM cross-bank withdrawal charges to annual fees for bank payment cards, charges by banks are becoming a unstoppable trend. But it is not a trend the general public is so keen to accept.

  18. Is shadow banking really banking?

    OpenAIRE

    Bryan J. Noeth; Rajdeep Sengupta

    2011-01-01

    To those who don't know, the term "shadow banking" probably has a negative connotation. This primer draws parallels between what has been termed the shadow banking sector and the traditional banking sector—showing that they are similar in many ways.

  19. Bank regulation and banking stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.; Thakor, A.V.

    2014-01-01

    This note discusses some issues in bank closure policy from a financial stability standpoint and how these issues have evolved since we first raised the question of how a reputation-driven divergence of interests between bank regulators and taxpayers may distort bank closure policy in our 1993 paper

  20. Instability of Non-Fermi Liquid Behavior in the Two-Channel Kondo Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Qing-Shan; CHEN Hong; ZHANG Yu-Mei

    2001-01-01

    The effects of interchannel scattering of conduction electrons by the impu rity and repulsion of conduction electrons at the impurity site on the two-channel Kondo model are simultaneously considered in this paper.It is shown that these two perturbations will substantially modify the usual local non-Fermi liquid behavior of the two-channel Kondo model.With bosonization and unitary transformations we find that the system can be transformed into a single channel Kondo model with anisotropy between longitudinal and transverse exchange couplings.Whatever for originally antiferromagnetic or ferromagnetic isotropic coupling,the system always flows to strong-coupling limit,which exhibits local Fermi liquid behavior at low temperatures.

  1. Superconductivity of composite particles in a two-channel Kondo lattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, Shintaro; Kuramoto, Yoshio

    2014-04-25

    Emergence of odd-frequency s-wave superconductivity is demonstrated in the two-channel Kondo lattice by means of the dynamical mean-field theory combined with the continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo method. Around half filling of the conduction bands, divergence of an odd-frequency pairing susceptibility is found, which signals instability toward the superconductivity. The corresponding order parameter is equivalent to a staggered composite-pair amplitude with even frequencies, which involves both localized spins and conduction electrons. A model wave function is constructed for the composite order with the use of symmetry operations such as charge conjugation and channel rotations. Given a certain asymmetry of the conduction bands, another s-wave superconductivity is found that has a uniform order parameter. The Kondo effect in the presence of two channels is essential for both types of unconventional superconductivity.

  2. An experimental evaluation of a loop versus a reference design for two-channel microarrays

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    http://bioinformatics.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/21/4/492 Motivation: Despite theoretical arguments that socalled \\loop designs" of two-channel DNA microarray experiments are more e cient, biologists keep on using \\reference designs". We describe two sets of microarray experiments with RNA from two di erent biological systems (TPA-stimulated mammalian cells and Streptomyces coelicor). In each case, both a loop and a reference design were performed using the same RNA preparatio...

  3. Majorana bound states in two-channel time-reversal-symmetric nanowire systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaidamauskas, Erikas; Paaske, Jens; Flensberg, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    must be negative, 2) inversion symmetry must be broken, and 3) the two channels must have different spin-orbit couplings. For the case of collinear spin-orbit directions, we find a general expression for the topological invariant by block diagonalization into two blocks with chiral symmetry only....... By projection to the low-energy sector we solve for the zero modes explicitly and study the details of the gap closing, which in the general case happens at finite momenta....

  4. Banks Sparkle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    There is no doubt that China’s banking system is a calm port in the global financial storm. Moreover, a great regulatory firewall and an easing monetary environment have enabled Chinese banks to increase lending and help shrug off the economic downturn. Yi Xianrong, a researcher at the Institute of Finance and Banking under the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, discussed this topic in a recent article in the Shanghai Securities Journal. Edited excerpts follow:

  5. 模拟/数字混合滤波器组的局部子带重构算法设计%Design of Hybrid Filter Banks Using Chebyshev Norm Performance Measure in Reduced Frequency Band

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玮; 王钊; 杜冰馨

    2016-01-01

    模拟/数字混合滤波器组( HFB)系统可以用于实现超宽带模拟信号的高速高精度采样。针对许多应用场合仅需用HFB系统重构特定频带范围内信号的问题,提出通过最小化系统Chebyshev范数设计有限长脉冲响应数字综合滤波器的优化方法。该方法将HFB误差系统转化为一个等价的有限维多输入多输出线性时不变数字系统;在期望重构的频率范围内,利用广义KYP引理,给出数字系统在Chebyshev范数性能指标下基于线性矩阵不等式描述的凸优化问题。该算法可以重构期望的频率范围内的信号。仿真实验表明,新方法设计的HFB重构信号误差小于传统算法设计系统的重构信号误差。%Hybrid filter bank (HFB) analog-to-digital systems permit wideband,high frequency analog-to-digital conversion.To reconstruct the signal of interest in reduced frequency band using HFB,Chebyshev norm performance measure is presented to design finite impulse response (FIR) digital synthesis filters of HFB.The FIR filters are designed to minimize performance measure of a hybrid error system.This hybrid and multirate problem is cast as a norm optimization problem involving only linear time-invariant,discrete-time system.Using the generalized Kalman-Yakubovich-Popov (KYP) lemma,the problem is reduced to an optimization problem with a linear matrix inequality.Numerical experiments show the proposed approach yields better performance compared to existing techniques.

  6. From four- to two-channel Kondo effect in junctions of XY spin chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Giuliano

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We consider the Kondo effect in Y-junctions of anisotropic XY models in an applied magnetic field along the critical lines characterized by a gapless excitation spectrum. We find that, while the boundary interaction Hamiltonian describing the junction can be recasted in the form of a four-channel, spin-1/2 antiferromagnetic Kondo Hamiltonian, the number of channels effectively participating in the Kondo effect depends on the chain parameters, as well as on the boundary couplings at the junction. The system evolves from an effective four-channel topological Kondo effect for a junction of XX-chains with symmetric boundary couplings into a two-channel one at a junction of three quantum critical Ising chains. The effective number of Kondo channels depends on the properties of the boundary and of the bulk. The XX-line is a “critical” line, where a four-channel topological Kondo effect can be recovered by fine-tuning the boundary parameter, while along the line in parameter space connecting the XX-line and the critical Ising point the junction is effectively equivalent to a two-channel topological Kondo Hamiltonian. Using a renormalization group approach, we determine the flow of the boundary couplings, which allows us to define and estimate the critical couplings and Kondo temperatures of the different Kondo (pair channels. Finally, we study the local transverse magnetization in the center of the Y-junction, eventually arguing that it provides an effective tool to monitor the onset of the two-channel Kondo effect.

  7. From four- to two-channel Kondo effect in junctions of XY spin chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giuliano, Domenico, E-mail: domenico.giuliano@fis.unical.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università della Calabria, Arcavacata di Rende I-87036, Cosenza (Italy); INFN, Gruppo collegato di Cosenza, Arcavacata di Rende I-87036, Cosenza (Italy); Sodano, Pasquale, E-mail: pasquale.sodano02@gmail.com [International Institute of Physics, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59078-400 Natal, RN (Brazil); Departemento de Física Teorica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970 Natal, RN (Brazil); Tagliacozzo, Arturo, E-mail: arturo.tagliacozzo@na.infn.it [INFN, Gruppo collegato di Cosenza, Arcavacata di Rende I-87036, Cosenza (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Napoli “Federico II”, Monte S. Angelo-Via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); CNR-SPIN, Monte S. Angelo-Via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Trombettoni, Andrea, E-mail: andreatr@sissa.it [CNR-IOM DEMOCRITOS Simulation Center, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste (Italy); SISSA and INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste (Italy)

    2016-08-15

    We consider the Kondo effect in Y-junctions of anisotropic XY models in an applied magnetic field along the critical lines characterized by a gapless excitation spectrum. We find that, while the boundary interaction Hamiltonian describing the junction can be recasted in the form of a four-channel, spin-1/2 antiferromagnetic Kondo Hamiltonian, the number of channels effectively participating in the Kondo effect depends on the chain parameters, as well as on the boundary couplings at the junction. The system evolves from an effective four-channel topological Kondo effect for a junction of XX-chains with symmetric boundary couplings into a two-channel one at a junction of three quantum critical Ising chains. The effective number of Kondo channels depends on the properties of the boundary and of the bulk. The XX-line is a “critical” line, where a four-channel topological Kondo effect can be recovered by fine-tuning the boundary parameter, while along the line in parameter space connecting the XX-line and the critical Ising point the junction is effectively equivalent to a two-channel topological Kondo Hamiltonian. Using a renormalization group approach, we determine the flow of the boundary couplings, which allows us to define and estimate the critical couplings and Kondo temperatures of the different Kondo (pair) channels. Finally, we study the local transverse magnetization in the center of the Y-junction, eventually arguing that it provides an effective tool to monitor the onset of the two-channel Kondo effect.

  8. Highly sensitive size discrimination of sub-micron objects using optical Fourier processing based on two-dimensional Gabor filters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robert M. Pasternack; Zhen Qian; Jing-Yi Zheng; Dimitris N. Metaxas; Nada N. Boustany

    2009-01-01

    .... The method consists of applying an optical Fourier filter bank consisting of Gabor-like filters of varying periods and extracting the optimum filter period that maximizes the filtered object signal...

  9. Two-channel Kondo effect and the low-temperature crossover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Andrew; Peeters, Lucas; Weymann, Ireneusz; Moca, Cătălin Paşcu; Mahalu, Diana; Umansky, Vladimir; Zaránd, Gergely; Goldhaber-Gordon, David

    2015-03-01

    The two-channel Kondo (2CK) state, where a spin-1/2 impurity is equally exchange-coupled to two independent reservoirs, is a canonical non-Fermi liquid state. Experimental observations are rare because of its sensitivity to common and hard-to-control perturbations. We implement experimentally a 2CK state in a coupled dot-grain system (Potok, et al., doi:10.1038/nature05556), and explore the physics of the low-temperature crossover: how magnetic field and gate voltage drive the system towards a Fermi liquid ground state. Our experimental findings are corroborated by detailed numerical renormalization group modeling of our device.

  10. Frequency Domain Errors in Variables Approach for Two Channel SIMO System Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-24

    Signal et Image, ENSEIRB/UMR CNRS 5218 IMS Dpt. LAPS, Université Bordeaux 1, France william.bobillet@etu.u-bordeaux1.fr Dipartimento di Fisica e...without loss of generality . - - - ? h1(k) y1(k) b1(k), (σ21 ) x1(k) - - - ? h2(k) y2(k) b2(k), (σ22 ) x2(k) s(k) Figure 1: two-channel...developed in the fields of statistics and identification, assume that the available data are disturbed by additive error terms. Given a generic process

  11. Switching of transmission resonances in a two-channels coupler: A Boundary Wall Method scattering study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, A.; Zanetti, F. M.; Lyra, M. L.

    2016-10-01

    In this work, we study the transmission characteristics of a two-channels coupler model system using the Boundary Wall Method (BWM) to determine the solution of the corresponding scattering problem of an incident plane wave. We show that the BWM provides detailed information regarding the transmission resonances. In particular, we focus on the case of single channel input aiming to explore the energy switching performance of the coupler. We show that the coupler geometry can be tailored to allow for the first transmission resonances to be predominantly transmitted on specific output channels, an important characteristic for the realization of logical operations.

  12. Unmanned airborne vehicle (UAV): Flight testing and evaluation of two-channel E-field very low frequency (VLF) instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Using VLF frequencies, transmitted by the Navy`s network, for airborne remote sensing of the earth`s electrical, magnetic characteristics was first considered by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) around the mid 1970s. The first VLF system was designed and developed by the USGS for installation and operation on a single engine, fixed wing aircraft used by the Branch of Geophysics for geophysical surveying. The system consisted of five channels. Two E-field channels with sensors consisting of a fixed vertical loaded dipole antenna with pre-amp mounted on top of the fuselage and a gyro stabilized horizontal loaded dipole antenna with pre-amp mounted on a tail boom. The three channel magnetic sensor consisted of three orthogonal coils mounted on the same gyro stabilized platform as the horizontal E-field antenna. The main features of the VLF receiver were: narrow band-width frequency selection using crystal filters, phase shifters for zeroing out system phase variances, phase-lock loops for generating real and quadrature gates, and synchronous detectors for generating real and quadrature outputs. In the mid 1990s the Branch of Geophysics designed and developed a two-channel E-field ground portable VLF system. The system was built using state-of-the-art circuit components and new concepts in circuit architecture. Small size, light weight, low power, durability, and reliability were key considerations in the design of the instrument. The primary purpose of the instrument was for collecting VLF data during ground surveys over small grid areas. Later the system was modified for installation on a Unmanned Airborne Vehicle (UAV). A series of three field trips were made to Easton, Maryland for testing and evaluating the system performance.

  13. Majorana bound states in two-channel time-reversal-symmetric nanowire systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaidamauskas, Erikas; Paaske, Jens; Flensberg, Karsten

    2014-03-28

    We consider time-reversal-symmetric two-channel semiconducting quantum wires proximity coupled to a conventional s-wave superconductor. We analyze the requirements for a nontrivial topological phase and find that the necessary conditions are (1) the determinant of the pairing matrix in channel space must be negative, (2) inversion symmetry must be broken, and (3) the two channels must have different spin-orbit couplings. The first condition can be implemented in semiconducting nanowire systems where interactions suppress intra-channel pairing, while the inversion symmetry can be broken by tuning the chemical potentials of the channels. For the case of collinear spin-orbit directions, we find a general expression for the topological invariant by block diagonalization into two blocks with chiral symmetry only. By projection to the low-energy sector, we solve for the zero modes explicitly and study the details of the gap closing, which in the general case happens at finite momenta.

  14. 多孔小波和非下采样滤波器组去除遥感图像的多种噪声%Remote Sensing Image Denoising by àtrous Wavelet and Nonsubsampled Directional Filter Bank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐华楠; 刘哲; 刘灿

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposed a method of denoising the remote sensing image based on àtrous-nonsubsampled contourlet transform.The method uses the àtrous wavelet—an undecimated discrete wavelet transform algorithm to decompose the image into two parts possessing approximate part and detail parts,which are the same size as the original image.Then the nonsubsampled directional filter bank is employed to decompose the detail parts into directional subbands.The different kinds of noises of the remote sensing image can be decomposed into the wavelet coefficients in different scale and directions,with which the best method can be chosen based on the characteristics of the different noises.It is more scientific and more effective than just using one method for all kinds of noises in the past.It is proved that the method proposed in the paper is more useful in removing the noise of the image,reserving richer fine textures and edge information than other traditional filtering methods.%结合àtrous小波变换和非下采样轮廓波变换的优点,提出一种基于àtrous-非下采样轮廓波变换的遥感图像去噪方法.该方法用非抽取离散小波变换的àtrous算法对图像进行多尺度分解,然后用非下采样的多方向滤波器组对得到的细节分量进行多方向分解.对含有多种噪声的遥感图像,àtrous-非下采样轮廓波变换将图像中不同种类的噪声分解到不同的小波系数分量中,使得可以根据噪声特性选择最合适的去噪方法,比用一种方法去除所有类型的噪声更科学且去噪效果更好.

  15. Alternating-Current Conductivity for a Two-Channel Interacting Quantum Wire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG De-Jun; CHENG Fang; ZHOU Guang-Hui

    2007-01-01

    We investigate theoretically the ac conductivity of a clean two-channel spinless quantum wire in the presence of both short-ranged intra- and inter-channel electron-electron interactions. In the Luttinger-liquid regime, we formulize the action functional of the system with an external time-varying electric field. The obtained expression of ac conductivity for the system within linear response theory is generally an oscillation function of the interaction strength, the driving frequency as well as the measured position in the wire. The numerical examples demonstrate that the amplitude of ac conductivity is renormalized by the both interactions, and the dc conductivity of the system with inter-channel interaction is smaller than that without inter-channel interaction.

  16. Study of ultra-wideband radar signals-generated technology using two-channel signal generator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan Yonglun; Lu Youxin; Si Qiang; Wang Xuegang; Cao Guangping

    2007-01-01

    Synthesis of ultra-wideband (UWB) linear frequency modulation radar signals is a very important technology for microwave imaging, target identification and detection of low radar-cross-section (RCS) targets. A new method of UWB radar signals generation with two-channel signal generator is presented. The realization structure is given; the principle and errors of signal synthesis are analyzed. At the same time, an automatic adjustment measure of signal phase is proposed because of phase discontinuity of waveform in this method. The simulation experiment and analysis results indicate that radar signals with large instantaneous bandwidth can be generated by means of this method on the condition that the high-speed digital devices are limited.

  17. Universal low-temperature crossover in two-channel Kondo models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Andrew K.; Sela, Eran

    2012-06-01

    An exact expression is derived for the electron Green function in two-channel Kondo models with one and two impurities, describing the crossover from non-Fermi liquid (NFL) behavior at intermediate temperatures to standard Fermi liquid (FL) physics at low temperatures. Symmetry-breaking perturbations generically present in experiment ensure the standard low-energy FL description, but the full crossover is wholly characteristic of the unstable NFL state. Distinctive conductance lineshapes in quantum dot devices should result. We exploit a connection between this crossover and one occurring in a classical boundary Ising model to calculate real-space electron densities at finite temperature. The single universal finite-temperature Green function is then extracted by inverting the integral transformation relating these Friedel oscillations to the t matrix. Excellent agreement is demonstrated between exact results and full numerical renormalization group calculations.

  18. CGC/saturation approach for soft interactions at high energy: a two channel model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gotsman, E.; Maor, U. [Tel Aviv University, Department of Particle Physics, School of Physics and Astronomy, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Science, Tel Aviv (Israel); Levin, E. [Tel Aviv University, Department of Particle Physics, School of Physics and Astronomy, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Science, Tel Aviv (Israel); Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Departemento de Fisica, Centro Cientifico-Tecnologico de Valparaiso, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2015-05-15

    In this paper we continue the development of a model for strong interactions at high energy, based on two ingredients: the CGC/saturation approach and the BFKL Pomeron. In our approach, the unknown mechanism of confinement of quarks and gluons is characterized by several numerical parameters, which are extracted from the experimental data. We demonstrate that the two channel model successfully describes the experimental data, including both the value of the elastic slope and the energy behavior of the single diffraction cross section. We show that the disagreement with the experimental data of our previous single channel eikonal model (Gotsman et al., Eur Phys J C 75:1-18, 2015) stems from the simplified approach used for the hadron structure and is not related to our principal theoretical input, based on the CGC/saturation approach. (orig.)

  19. Collective dynamics of an inhomogeneous two-channel exclusion process: Theory and Monte Carlo simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Dhiman, Isha

    2015-01-01

    This work is devoted to the development of a novel theoretical approach, named hybrid approach, to handle a localized bottleneck in a symmetrically coupled two-channel totally asymmetric simple exclusion process with Langmuir kinetics. The hybrid approach is combined with singular perturbation technique to get steady-state phase diagrams and density profiles. We have thoroughly examined the role played by the strength of bottleneck, binding constant and lane-changing rate in the system dynamics. The appearances of bottleneck-induced shock, a bottleneck phase and Meissner phase are explained. Further, the critical values of bottleneck rate are identified, which signify the changes in the topology of phase diagram. It is also found that increase in lane-changing rate as well as unequal attachment, detachment rates weaken the bottleneck effect. Our theoretical arguments are in good agreement with extensively performed Monte Carlo simulations.

  20. CGC/saturation approach for soft interactions at high energy: a two channel model

    CERN Document Server

    Gotsman, E; Maor, U

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we continue the development of a model for strong interactions at high energy, based on two ingredients: CGC/saturation approach and the BFKL Pomeron. In our approach, the unknown mechanism of confinement of quarks and gluons, is characterized by several numerical parameters, which are extracted from the experimental data. We demonstrate that the two channel model, successfully describes the experimental data, including both the value of the elastic slope and the energy behavior of the single diffraction cross section. We show that the disagreement with experimental data of our previous single channel eikonal model [6] stems from the simplified approach used for the hadron structure, and is not related to our principal theoretical input, based on the CGC/saturation approach.

  1. DETECCIÓN DE PÉRDIDAS EN TUBERÍAS DE AGUA: PROPUESTA BASADA EN UN BANCO DE FILTROS LEAK DETECTION IN WATER PIPELINES: PROPOSAL BASED ON A BANK OF FILTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Castro Burgos

    2009-12-01

    efficient algorithms that allow to tackle generally the LD. To achieve this, a bank of filters including Kalman Filters (KF and Particle Filter (PF is proposed and evaluated. Thus a conceptual contribution to the formulation of the LD problem is proposed in a modular way so that future studies of other techniques can solve the problem. In addition, efficient and reliable algorithms are developed, based on a state estimator capable of responding to industrial standards such as the delivery, from input and output measures available, of a reliable estimate of the state of the process and that is independent of the linear or non-linear dynamics and easy to handle and configure. The computer simulation and the experimental results show the effectiveness of combining KF with PF for the simple case of two sequential leaks in a pipe, presenting advantages such as rapid convergence and reducing the estimation error which are important factors in LD in water pipeline.

  2. Two-channel imaging system for the White light Active Region Monitor (WARM) telescope at Kodaikanal Observatory: design, development, and first images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruthvi, Hemanth; Ramesh, K. B.

    2015-06-01

    One of the three planned back-end systems for the proposed National Large Solar Telescope (NLST) is the Solar Dynamics Imaging System (SDIS) which is intended to obtain near simultaneous images in multiple wavelengths. As a first step, a prototype system with two channel imaging has been developed and installed at the back-end of the White light Active Region Monitor (WARM) telescope at Kodaikanal Observatory. A two-mirror Coelostat serves as a light feeding system to a refracting objective while an optical breadboard serves as a platform for the back-end instruments. A re-imaging system is used before the prime focus to get two light channels for the observations in two wavelengths. The re-imaging system is designed using ZEMAX and the alignment of the system is done using a laser. Full disk images are obtained using a red filter (674.2nm/10nm) and a G-band filter (430.5nm/0.84nm). Design aspects of the re-imaging system, preliminary observations and image reduction methods are described in this paper.

  3. Bank development; bank development efficiency; bank management; bank.

    OpenAIRE

    Самородов, Б. В.

    2014-01-01

    In the paper the theoretical research of determination of the essence of “management of bank financial development” is realized. The analysis is performed on the basis of substantial considering and comparing the philosophy and economical definitions of the components of its definition.

  4. Applying two channels to vector space secret sharing based multi-signature scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Qing-hua; PING Ling-di; CHEN Xiao-ping; PAN Xue-zeng

    2005-01-01

    Secret sharing and digital signature is an important research area in information security and has wide applications in such fields as safeguarding and legal use of confidential information, secure multiparty computation and electronic commerce. But up to now, study of signature based on general vector space secret sharing is very weak. Aiming at this drawback, the authors did some research on vector space secret sharing against cheaters, and proposed an efficient but secure vector space secret sharing based multi-signature scheme, which is implemented in two channels. In this scheme, the group signature can be easily produced if an authorized subset of participants pool their secret shadows and it is impossible for them to generate a group signature if an unauthorized subset of participants pool their secret shadows. The validity of the group signature can be verified by means of verification equations. A group signature of authorized subset of participants cannot be impersonated by any other set of participants. Moreover, the suspected forgery can be traced, and the malicious participants can be detected in the scheme. None of several possible attacks can successfully break this scheme.

  5. Two-channel Kondo effect and renormalization flow with macroscopic quantum charge states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iftikhar, Z; Jezouin, S; Anthore, A; Gennser, U; Parmentier, F D; Cavanna, A; Pierre, F

    2015-10-08

    Many-body correlations and macroscopic quantum behaviours are fascinating condensed matter problems. A powerful test-bed for the many-body concepts and methods is the Kondo effect, which entails the coupling of a quantum impurity to a continuum of states. It is central in highly correlated systems and can be explored with tunable nanostructures. Although Kondo physics is usually associated with the hybridization of itinerant electrons with microscopic magnetic moments, theory predicts that it can arise whenever degenerate quantum states are coupled to a continuum. Here we demonstrate the previously elusive 'charge' Kondo effect in a hybrid metal-semiconductor implementation of a single-electron transistor, with a quantum pseudospin of 1/2 constituted by two degenerate macroscopic charge states of a metallic island. In contrast to other Kondo nanostructures, each conduction channel connecting the island to an electrode constitutes a distinct and fully tunable Kondo channel, thereby providing unprecedented access to the two-channel Kondo effect and a clear path to multi-channel Kondo physics. Using a weakly coupled probe, we find the renormalization flow, as temperature is reduced, of two Kondo channels competing to screen the charge pseudospin. This provides a direct view of how the predicted quantum phase transition develops across the symmetric quantum critical point. Detuning the pseudospin away from degeneracy, we demonstrate, on a fully characterized device, quantitative agreement with the predictions for the finite-temperature crossover from quantum criticality.

  6. Detection of Ground Moving Targets for Two-Channel Spaceborne SAR-ATI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diannong Liang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many present spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR systems are constrained to only two channels for ground moving target indication (GMTI. Along-track interferometry (ATI technique is currently exploited to detect slowly moving targets and measure their radial velocity and azimuth real position. In this paper, based on the joint probability density function (PDF of interferogram's phase and amplitude and the two hypotheses “clutter” and “clutter plus signal”, several constant false alarm rate (CFAR detection criteria are analyzed for their capabilities and limitations under low signal-to-clutter ratio (SCR and low clutter-to-noise ratio (CNR conditions. The CFAR detectors include one-step CFAR detector with interferometric phase, two-step CFAR detectors, and two-dimensional (2D CFAR detector. The likelihood ratio test (LRT based on the Neyman-Pearson (NP criterion is exploited as an upper bound for the performance of the other CFAR detectors. Performance analyses demonstrate the superiority of the 2D CFAR techniques to detect dim slowly moving targets for spaceborne system.

  7. Machinery Fault Diagnosis Using Two-Channel Analysis Method Based on Fictitious System Frequency Response Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kihong Shin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Most existing techniques for machinery health monitoring that utilize measured vibration signals usually require measurement points to be as close as possible to the expected fault components of interest. This is particularly important for implementing condition-based maintenance since the incipient fault signal power may be too small to be detected if a sensor is located further away from the fault source. However, a measurement sensor is often not attached to the ideal point due to geometric or environmental restrictions. In such a case, many of the conventional diagnostic techniques may not be successfully applicable. In this paper, a two-channel analysis method is proposed to overcome such difficulty. It uses two vibration signals simultaneously measured at arbitrary points in a machine. The proposed method is described theoretically by introducing a fictitious system frequency response function. It is then verified experimentally for bearing fault detection. The results show that the suggested method may be a good alternative when ideal points for measurement sensors are not readily available.

  8. Cord-Blood Banking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Be Smart About Social Media Cord-Blood Banking KidsHealth > For Parents > Cord-Blood Banking Print A ... for you and your family. About Cord-Blood Banking Cord-blood banking basically means collecting and storing ...

  9. 12 CFR 619.9140 - Farm Credit bank(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farm Credit bank(s). 619.9140 Section 619.9140 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9140 Farm Credit bank(s). Except as otherwise defined, the term Farm Credit bank(s) includes Farm Credit...

  10. Breakthrough of cyanobacteria in bank filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazouki, Pirooz; Prévost, Michèle; McQuaid, Natasha; Barbeau, Benoit; de Boutray, Marie-Laure; Zamyadi, Arash; Dorner, Sarah

    2016-10-01

    The removal of cyanobacteria cells in well water following bank filtration was investigated from a source water consisting of two artificial lakes (A and B). Phycocyanin probes used to monitor cyanobacteria in the source and in filtered well water showed an increase of fluorescence values demonstrating a progressive seasonal growth of cyanobacteria in the source water that were correlated with cyanobacterial biovolumes from taxonomic counts (r = 0.59, p cyanobacteria. Of cyanobacteria that passed through bank filtration, smaller cells were significantly more frequent in well water samples (p cyanobacteria to wells. Winter samples demonstrated that cyanobacteria accumulate within bank filters, leading to continued passage of cells beyond the bloom season. Although no concentrations of total microcystin-LR were above detection limits in filtered well water, there is concern that cyanobacterial cells that reach the wells have the potential to contain intracellular toxins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Filter arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, Ralph H.; Doty, Patrick F.

    2017-08-01

    The various technologies presented herein relate to a tiled filter array that can be used in connection with performance of spatial sampling of optical signals. The filter array comprises filter tiles, wherein a first plurality of filter tiles are formed from a first material, the first material being configured such that only photons having wavelengths in a first wavelength band pass therethrough. A second plurality of filter tiles is formed from a second material, the second material being configured such that only photons having wavelengths in a second wavelength band pass therethrough. The first plurality of filter tiles and the second plurality of filter tiles can be interspersed to form the filter array comprising an alternating arrangement of first filter tiles and second filter tiles.

  12. Facial landmark detection in real-time with correlation filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Viridiana; Díaz-Ramírez, Víctor H.

    2016-09-01

    An algorithm for facial landmark detection based on template matched filtering is presented. The algorithm is able to detect and estimate the position of a set of prespecified landmarks by employing a bank of linear filters. Each filter in the bank is trained to detect a single landmark that is located in a small region of the input face image. The filter bank is implemented in parallel on a graphics processing unit to perform facial landmark detection in real-time. Computer simulation results obtained with the proposed algorithm are presented and discussed in terms of detection rate, accuracy of landmark location estimation, and real-time efficiency.

  13. Investment Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Oana Mihaela Vãsioiu

    2008-01-01

    The economic, financial and monetary changes had serious consequences not only on the level of providing the finance necessary for the development process but also on the level of providing the finance required for importing the basic food needs and rendering necessary production inputs. All these problems show the importance of “Banks” generally and “Investment Banks” particularly in the emerging and underdeveloped countries. Banks as financial institution or intermediary mobilize either nat...

  14. A note on general parallel QMF banks

    OpenAIRE

    Vaidyanathan, P.P.

    1987-01-01

    Two issues concerning alias-free, parallel, quadrature mirror filter (QMF) banks are addressed in this correspondence. First, a property concerning alias-free analysis/synthesis systems is established; second, a scheme is proposed, by which a synthesis bank can be modified in order to take care of aliasing errors caused by linear channel-distortion in a simple manner. Applications of the stated results are outlined.

  15. Optical properties of the direct-coupled Y-branch filters by using photonic crystal slabs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Jie; Ren Cheng; Feng Shuai; Liu Ya-Zhao; Tao Hai-Hua; Li Zhi-Yuan; Cheng Bing-Ying; Zhang Dao-Zhong; Jin Ai-Zi

    2006-01-01

    We fabricated a new type of two-dimensional photonic crystal slab filter. The resonant cavities were directly put into the waveguide arms. The optical transmissions of the filters were measured and the results show that the optimized two-channel filters give good intensity distribution at the output ports of the waveguide. A minimum wavelength spacing of 5 nm of the filter outputs is realized by accurately controlling the size of the resonant cavities.

  16. Simulating Retail Banking for Banking Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supramaniam, Mahadevan; Shanmugam, Bala

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the implementation flow and development of retail bank management simulation based training system which could provide a comprehensive knowledge about the operations and management of banks for the banking students. The prototype of a Retail banking simulation based training system was developed based on…

  17. Additional value of two-channel amplitude integrated EEG recording in full-term infants with unilateral brain injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooij, Linda G. M.; de Vries, Linda S.; van Huffelen, Alexander C.; Toet, Mona C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Amplitude integrated electroencephalography (aEEG) is a valuable tool for evaluating neonatal encephalopathy and identifying electrographic seizures. Objective To compare seizure activity and background pattern (BGP) between one-channel and two-channel aEEG recordings in full-term neonate

  18. Validation of two-channel sequencing-by-synthesis for noninvasive prenatal testing of fetal whole and partial chromosome aberrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neveling, K.; Thung, G.W.D.T.; Beulen, L.; Rens-Buijsman, W. van; Gomes, I.; Heuvel, S. van den; Mieloo, H.; Derks-Prinsen, I.; Kater-Baats, E.; Faas, B.H.W.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To validate Illumina's two-channel NextSeq 500 sequencing system for noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) of fetal whole chromosome and partial aberrations. METHODS: A total of 162 plasma samples, previously sequenced for NIPT on a SOLiD 5500xl platform, were sequenced on the NextSeq 500 u

  19. Additional value of two-channel amplitude integrated EEG recording in full-term infants with unilateral brain injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooij, Linda G. M.; de Vries, Linda S.; van Huffelen, Alexander C.; Toet, Mona C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Amplitude integrated electroencephalography (aEEG) is a valuable tool for evaluating neonatal encephalopathy and identifying electrographic seizures. Objective To compare seizure activity and background pattern (BGP) between one-channel and two-channel aEEG recordings in full-term neonate

  20. Research on Two-channel Interleaved Two-stage Paralleled Buck DC-DC Converter for Plasma Cutting Power Supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Xi-jun; Qu, Hao; Yao, Chen

    2014-01-01

    As for high power plasma power supply, due to high efficiency and flexibility, multi-channel interleaved multi-stage paralleled Buck DC-DC Converter becomes the first choice. In the paper, two-channel interleaved two- stage paralleled Buck DC-DC Converter powered by three-phase AC power supply...

  1. Fast 2-D Complex Gabor Filter with Kernel Decomposition

    OpenAIRE

    Um, Suhyuk; Kim, Jaeyoon; Min, Dongbo

    2017-01-01

    2-D complex Gabor filtering has found numerous applications in the fields of computer vision and image processing. Especially, in some applications, it is often needed to compute 2-D complex Gabor filter bank consisting of the 2-D complex Gabor filtering outputs at multiple orientations and frequencies. Although several approaches for fast 2-D complex Gabor filtering have been proposed, they primarily focus on reducing the runtime of performing the 2-D complex Gabor filtering once at specific...

  2. Comparative dynamics of the two channels of the reaction of D + MuH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoiz, F J; Aldegunde, J; Herrero, V J; Sáez-Rábanos, V

    2014-06-07

    thermal cumulative reaction probabilities of the two channels indicates that at the lowest energies/temperatures the reaction into the DH + Mu channel takes place via'leakage' from collisions proceeding along the DMu + H reaction path.

  3. Design of two-channel oscilloscope and basic circuit simulations in LabView

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzhiev, Plamen; Makal, Jaroslaw

    2008-01-01

    The project is realized as a diploma thesis in Bialystok Technical University, Poland). The main aim is to develop a useful educational tool which presents the time and frequency characteristics in basic electrical circuits. It is designed as a helpful instrument for lectures and laboratory classes. The predominant audience will be students of electrical engineering from first semester of the higher education. Therefore the level of knowledge at this stage of education is not high enough and different techniques are necessary to increase the students' interest and the efficiency of teaching process. This educational instrument provides the needed knowledge concerning the basic circuits and its parameters. Graphics and animations of the general processes in the electrical circuits make the problems more interesting, comprehensive and easier to understand. For designing such an instrument the National Instruments' programming environment LabView is used. It is preferred to the other simulation software because of its simplicity flexibility and also availability (the free demo version is sufficient to make a simple virtual instrument). LabView uses graphical programming language and has powerful mathematical functions for analysis and simulations. The useful visualization tools for presenting different diagrams are worth recommending, too. It is also specialized in measurement and control and it supports a wide variety of hardware. Therefore this software is suitable for laboratory classes to present the dependencies between the simulated characteristics in basic electrical circuits and the real one measured with the hardware device. For this purpose a two-channel oscilloscope is designed as part of the described project. The main purpose of this instrument as part of the educational process is to present the desired characteristics of the electrical circuits and to become familiar with the general functions of the oscilloscope. This project combines several important

  4. Banking system trust, bank trust, and bank loyalty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Esterik-Plasmeijer, P.; van Raaij, W.F.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to test a model of banking system trust as an antecedent of bank trust and bank loyalty. Six determinants of trust and loyalty are included: competence, stability, integrity, customer orientation, transparency, and value congruence. The study provides insights

  5. Filter selection using genetic algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Devesh

    1996-03-01

    Convolution operators act as matched filters for certain types of variations found in images and have been extensively used in the analysis of images. However, filtering through a bank of N filters generates N filtered images, consequently increasing the amount of data considerably. Moreover, not all these filters have the same discriminatory capabilities for the individual images, thus making the task of any classifier difficult. In this paper, we use genetic algorithms to select a subset of relevant filters. Genetic algorithms represent a class of adaptive search techniques where the processes are similar to natural selection of biological evolution. The steady state model (GENITOR) has been used in this paper. The reduction of filters improves the performance of the classifier (which in this paper is the multi-layer perceptron neural network) and furthermore reduces the computational requirement. In this study we use the Laws filters which were proposed for the analysis of texture images. Our aim is to recognize the different textures on the images using the reduced filter set.

  6. Optimal filtering

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Brian D O

    2005-01-01

    This graduate-level text augments and extends beyond undergraduate studies of signal processing, particularly in regard to communication systems and digital filtering theory. Vital for students in the fields of control and communications, its contents are also relevant to students in such diverse areas as statistics, economics, bioengineering, and operations research.Topics include filtering, linear systems, and estimation; the discrete-time Kalman filter; time-invariant filters; properties of Kalman filters; computational aspects; and smoothing of discrete-time signals. Additional subjects e

  7. Green banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Drobnjaković

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need to march towards “low - carbon economy”. Global challenges of diminishing fossil fuel reserves, climate change, environmental management and finite natural resources serving an expanding world population - these reasons mean that urgent action is required to transition to solutions which minimize environmental impact and are sustainable. We are at the start of the low - carbon revolution and those that have started on their low - carbon journey already are seeing benefits such as new markets and customers, improved economic, social and environmental performance, and reduced bills and risks. Green investment banks offer alternative financial services: green car loans, energy efficiency mortgages, alternative energy venture capital, eco - savings deposits and green credit cards. These items represent innovative financial products.

  8. Banking Reform in Georgia

    OpenAIRE

    Mercan, Metin

    2006-01-01

    Georgia's banking system restructure began in 1991 when Soviet Union collopsed.This paper tries to compare and constract the performance of banks and banking system between 1999 and 2004 with banks in other transition countries. Although Georgia banking system showed a long processing in banking sector, it is still lags behind other transition countries Central and Eastern Europe. Neverthless.An efficient financial institution and performance will not come without further economic development...

  9. Banking governance: New Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Mihăiţă Duţă

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Banks are companies like any other. However, banks are distinguished by certain intrinsic characteristics of companies that have a different impact on the motivation of stakeholders. Among these features, we mention:partnership and shareholders governance agreements; banks are heavily regulated companies; banking assets is the main source of haze banking and information asymmetry; between the bank and depositors there is a problem of moral hazard.

  10. ROMANIAN BANKS LIQUIDITY MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BATRANCEA MARIA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Most transactions or financial commitments have implications for a bank liquidity. Transactions are particularly vulnerable to liquidity problems at a specific institution. Therefore, one can deduce the importance of the correct calculation and liquidity indicator, not only for the bank concerned, but especially for NBR uses that bank risk management tool. That is why the authors took into consideration a sample of banks in Romania to show to what extent the banking crisis has influenced the development banks.

  11. Electronic Banking And Bank Performance In Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... However, the revolution in the banking industry in Nigeria started .... with the banks overall strategic and business plans, and adequate expertise should be employed to operate and ..... 2010 from http://www.bis./pub/bcbs/pdf.

  12. Internet Banking System Prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Alnaqeib, Rami; Jalab, Hamid A; Zaidan, M A; Hmood, Ali K

    2010-01-01

    Internet Banking System refers to systems that enable bank customers to access accounts and general information on bank products and services through a personal computer or other intelligent device. Internet banking products and services can include detailed account information for corporate customers as well as account summery and transfer money. Ultimately, the products and services obtained through Internet Banking may mirror products and services offered through other bank delivery channels. In this paper, Internet Banking System Prototype has been proposed in order to illustrate the services which is provided by the Bank online services.

  13. E-BANKING- MODERN BANKING SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRANDA PETRONELLA VLAD

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available E-banking is the first of those banking services that really economize time, because it allows to the user to accomplish from behind the computer many operations in the bank account, represents the computational solution that allows to the holder to have

  14. CSR REPORTING IN BANKS - THE ROMANIAN EVIDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgiana-Loredana FRECEA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of the financial markets and the significant interrelationships with broader concepts as globalization or sustainable development, have led in recent years to the development of a multidimensional approach of CSR. The credibility of the financial system is based on the financial institutions image given by representative stakeholders. They filter in an objective way the ethical responsibilities of the banks and the legal ones and give them the legitimacy to operate on the market. In order to obtain a realistic framework of CSR in Romanian banks, the article will focus on the transparency of CSR information. The confidence crisis manifested in the banking institutions can best be overcome through an authentic reporting system, which is able to fulfill a set of requirements, from credibility to completeness. This paper highlights the main characteristics of the CSR reports provided by the Romanian banking institutions, based on the stakeholder theory and using international reporting frameworks as Global Reporting Initiative.

  15. Generic Feasibility of Perfect Reconstruction with Short FIR Filters in Multi-channel Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sharif, Behzad

    2011-01-01

    We study the feasibility of short finite impulse response (FIR) synthesis for perfect reconstruction (PR) in generic FIR filter banks. Among all PR synthesis banks, we focus on the one with the minimum filter length. For filter banks with oversampling factors of at least two, we provide prescriptions for the shortest filter length of the synthesis bank that would guarantee PR almost surely. The prescribed length is as short or shorter than the analysis filters and has an approximate inverse relationship with the oversampling factor. Our results are in form of necessary and sufficient statements that hold generically, hence only fail for elaborately-designed nongeneric examples. We provide extensive numerical verification of the theoretical results and demonstrate that the gap between the derived filter length prescriptions and the true minimum is small. The results have potential applications in synthesis FB design problems, where the analysis bank is given, and for analysis of fundamental limitations in blin...

  16. Settings Calculation and Comparison of Unbalanced Current Protection of High Voltage Filter Capacitor Banks Connected as H and∏Circuits%H和Π接线高压滤波电容器组不平衡电流保护的定值计算及比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖遥; 夏谷林; 张楠

    2014-01-01

    提出了高压滤波电容器组不平衡电流保护的整定原则,从两方面通过数学逻辑分析了H型和∏型接线高压电容器组及其不平衡电流保护的优缺点:其一是部分电容器单元失效后滤波器所允许的失谐度,其二是余下完好电容器单元所承受的端电压。文中给出了不同电容器单元短路方式下的不平衡保护定值计算公式和整定值,得出了∏型接线优于H型接线的结论。为改进∏型接线电容器组的差电流检测精度,给出了差值电流检测电路的改进方案。%The paper proposed principles for calculating the settings of unbalanced current protection of high voltage filter capacitor banks, and analyzed the merits and demerits of“H-type” and “∏-type” connections of capacitor banks from perspective of mathematic logic in two ways. Of which one involved the permitted detuning of the filters after failure of some units, the other involved the withstand voltages on remaining perfect capacitor units. The formulations were deducted to calculate the settings of unbalanced current protection in cases when short circuit of some capacitor units occurred. It is concluded that ∏-type connection is better than the H-type connection. To improve the accuracy for detecting differential currents of ∏-type connection, a new unbalanced current transformer and its application are suggested.

  17. The Chinese Banking System

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The Chinese banking system is critical to the functioning of the Chinese economy, being the main conduit through which savings are allocated to investment opportunities. Banking activity in China has grown rapidly over the past decade in association with the expansion of the Chinese economy, and the Chinese banking system now includes some of the world’s largest banks. Chinese banks have become more commercially orientated over this period, although the Chinese Government retains considerable...

  18. Predicting Small Bank Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Heyliger, Wilton E.; Don P. Holdren

    1991-01-01

    There are many studies of bank performance and bank failure in the literature. Most of these studies used banking ratios as variables in their models without giving consideration to their appropriateness, nor was much consideration given to the stability of those ratios through time and across asset size. Many studies also failed to recognize that bank structure may differ by asset size. This study evaluates a large number of banking variables in order to identify stable ratios. These ratios ...

  19. Banking Around the World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Chinese banks expands its "going out" strategy but faces challenges in establishing a presence in foreign markets The world’s biggest lender by market value, the Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (ICBC), and the Hong Kong-based Bank of East Asia signed an agreement in which ICBC would pay $140.23 million to buy an 80-percent inter- est in Bank of East Asia USA, the Hong Kong bank said on January 23.

  20. Central bank Financial Independence

    OpenAIRE

    J.Ramon Martinez-Resano

    2004-01-01

    Central bank independence is a multifaceted institutional design. The financial component has been seldom analysed. This paper intends to set a comprehensive conceptual background for central bank financial independence. Quite often central banks are modelled as robot like maximizers of some goal. This perspective neglects the fact that central bank functions are inevitably deployed on its balance sheet and have effects on its income statement. A financially independent central bank exhibits ...

  1. Banking service in Germany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余璐

    2014-01-01

    <正>Germany is the prototypical economy country.Banks in Germany’s economic life plays a very important role.Germany has a large number of Banks and very dense network of bank branches.Deutsche Bank is by far the biggest German bank and Commerzbank is the second biggest.But with all the economic turmoil in the world these days,such rankings can change within

  2. Outsourcing central banking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoury, Sarkis Joseph; Wihlborg, Clas

    2005-01-01

    The literature on Currency Boards (CB) stops at the water edge in terms of dealing with the totality of the functions of a central bank. Monetary policy, and banking supervisioncan be "outsourced" in an open economy with substantial foreign direct investment (FDI)in the banking sector if political...... the feasibility of, and constraints on, outsourcing of central bank functions. A brief discussion of the Argentinian experience is used for contrast.Key words: Currency Board, Foreign Banks, Supervision, Regional Integration,outsourcing....

  3. Outsourcing central banking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoury, Sarkis Joseph; Wihlborg, Clas

    2005-01-01

    The literature on Currency Boards (CB) stops at the water edge in terms of dealing with the totality of the functions of a central bank. Monetary policy, and banking supervisioncan be "outsourced" in an open economy with substantial foreign direct investment (FDI)in the banking sector if political...... the feasibility of, and constraints on, outsourcing of central bank functions. A brief discussion of the Argentinian experience is used for contrast.Key words: Currency Board, Foreign Banks, Supervision, Regional Integration,outsourcing....

  4. Ultraviolet filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaath, Nadim A

    2010-04-01

    The chemistry, photostability and mechanism of action of ultraviolet filters are reviewed. The worldwide regulatory status of the 55 approved ultraviolet filters and their optical properties are documented. The photostabilty of butyl methoxydibenzoyl methane (avobenzone) is considered and methods to stabilize it in cosmetic formulations are presented.

  5. "Shadow Banking: Policy Challenges for Central Banks"

    OpenAIRE

    Moe, Thorvald Grung

    2014-01-01

    Central banks responded with exceptional liquidity support during the financial crisis to prevent a systemic meltdown. They broadened their tool kit and extended liquidity support to nonbanks and key financial markets. Many want central banks to embrace this expanded role as "market maker of last resort" going forward. This would provide a liquidity backstop for systemically important markets and the shadow banking system that is deeply integrated with these markets. But how much liquidity su...

  6. Pengelolaan Likuiditas Bank Syariah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Ichsan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Islamic Banking Liquidity Management. This article is about management of liquidity which discuss about the position of cash money in the company and its ability to fulfill the obligation (pay the debt on time. Management of liquidity is one of the essential function which is done by banking institution and inside its efficient management, is needed instrument and finance market which is taking not only short term but also long term, and not only conventional banking but also syariat. Through that natural necessity (placement and fulfillment of short term need, for Islamic banking in Indonesia has been availabled some instruments such as (IMA certificate of Mudhorobah Investment between bank, (PUAS market banking regulations between syariat bank, (SWBI Bank of Indonesia Wadiah certificate, (FPJPS provision about short term cost facility for Islamic banks  DOI:10.15408/aiq.v6i1.1371

  7. Probing of high-frequency coherent fluctuations by using a two-channel microwave reflectometer with antenna switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikezoe, R.; Ichimura, M.; Itagaki, J.; Hirata, M.; Sumida, S.; Jang, S.; Izumi, K.; Tanaka, A.; Yoshikawa, M.; Kohagura, J.; Sakamoto, M.; Nakashima, Y.

    2016-10-01

    A two-channel microwave reflectometer with capability of fast switching of microwave antennas in array was developed and applied to a hot linear plasma produced in GAMMA 10 to study the behavior of Alfvén waves in a collisionless bounded plasma. High-frequency fluctuations associated with Alfvén-ion-cyclotron (AIC) waves were successfully measured at multi points using this system. It is found that coherent phase fluctuations are obtainable at wide radial and axial region for the AIC waves. In addition, measured phase-difference profile clearly shows standing wave structures. Signature of movement of these nodes is also obtained. These results demonstrate applicability of the developed two-channel reflectometer for assessment of spatial structure of high-frequency waves and also verifies globally expanded coherent structure of the AIC waves in GAMMA 10. Two-point correlation analysis in conjunction with multi-point measurements using antenna switching turns out to be a powerful tool for investigating spatial structure of waves in a hot plasma where traditional solid probes are inadequate. This work was in part supported by Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists (B) (15K17797) and Scientific Research (C) (25400531), and by Bidirectional Collaborative Research Program of NIFS (NIFS15KUGM101).

  8. Finding differentially expressed genes in two-channel DNA microarray datasets: how to increase reliability of data preprocessing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotter, Ana; Hren, Matjaz; Baebler, Spela; Blejec, Andrej; Gruden, Kristina

    2008-09-01

    Due to the great variety of preprocessing tools in two-channel expression microarray data analysis it is difficult to choose the most appropriate one for a given experimental setup. In our study, two independent two-channel inhouse microarray experiments as well as a publicly available dataset were used to investigate the influence of the selection of preprocessing methods (background correction, normalization, and duplicate spots correlation calculation) on the discovery of differentially expressed genes. Here we are showing that both the list of differentially expressed genes and the expression values of selected genes depend significantly on the preprocessing approach applied. The choice of normalization method to be used had the highest impact on the results. We propose a simple but efficient approach to increase the reliability of obtained results, where two normalization methods which are theoretically distinct from one another are used on the same dataset. Then the intersection of results, that is, the lists of differentially expressed genes, is used in order to get a more accurate estimation of the genes that were de facto differentially expressed.

  9. Bank Syariah Sebagai Alternatif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adang Sudjana

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The principle of not allowing interest practices (riba has saved the Syariah Bank and their customers from the effects of monetary crisis. In view of Islamic Principles, interest is forbidden. Therefore, all transactions of syariah banking are based on sale-purchase pattern. Besides, all good banking aspects as applied in conventional banking such as, 5 Cs (capital, collateral, capacity, character, and condition are also applied properly in the line of ukhrawi aspects in managing fund of syariah banking.  The practice of “mark-up” in project funded by syariah bank seems to be very difficult.

  10. Food Filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    履之

    1995-01-01

    A typical food-processing plant produces about 500,000 gallons of waste water daily. Laden with organic compounds, this water usually is evaporated or discharged into sewers.A better solution is to filter the water through

  11. Clinical assessment of 252Californium neutron intracavitary brachytherapy using a two-channel Y applicator combined with external beam radiotherapy for endometrial cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhou, Qian; Tang, Cheng; Zhao, Ke-Wei; Xiong, Yan-Li; Chen, Shu; Xu, Wen-Jing; Lei, Xin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of 252Californium neutron intracavitary brachytherapy using a two-channel Y applicator combined with external beam radiotherapy for the treatment of endometrial cancer...

  12. Banking Postal Savings Bank in Sight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG PEI

    2006-01-01

    @@ Nine years of controversy regarding a national postal savings bank is expected to finally conclude this year. In April, the China Banking Regulatory Commission (CBRC)announced the establishment of a new department, one of the main functions of which will be to supervise postal savings.

  13. Kewenangan Bank Indonesia Dalam Likuiditas Bank Umum

    OpenAIRE

    Silvana R

    2008-01-01

    Perbankan merupakan pokok dari sistem keuangan setiap negara, karena perbankan merupakan salah satu motor penggerak pembangunan seluruh bangsa. Krisis perbankan berdampak pada turunnya kepercayaan masyarakat terhadap industri perbankan. Berbagai masalah di sektor perbankan yang tidak terdeteksi secara dini akan mengakibatkan runtuhnya kepercayaan masyarakat terhadap industri perbankan, Skripsi mi mengemukakan bagaimana penilaian kesehatan bank umum yang dilakukan oleh Bank Indonesia, bagai...

  14. Systemic banking crises

    OpenAIRE

    O. Emre Ergungor; James B. Thomson

    2005-01-01

    Systemic banking crises can have devastating effects on the economies of developing or industrialized countries. This Policy Discussion Paper reviews the factors that weaken banking systems and make them more susceptible to crises.

  15. FOREIGN BANKS WELCOMED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Honoring its WTO commitments, China has begun to allow local incorporation by foreign banks, endowing them with the same status as their Chinese counterparts in an attempt to encourage diversified development in the Chinese banking sector On March 18, Wi

  16. GenBank

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — GenBank is the NIH genetic sequence database, an annotated collection of all publicly available DNA sequences. GenBank is designed to provide and encourage access...

  17. Bank Resolution in the European Banking Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, Jeffrey N.; Ringe, Georg

    2015-01-01

    mechanism deployable at the discretion of the resolution authority must be available to supply liquidity to a reorganizing bank. On these conditions, a viable and realistic Banking Union would be within reach--and the resolution of global financial institutions would be greatly facilitated, not least......The project of creating a Banking Union is designed to overcome the fatal link between sovereigns and their banks in the Eurozone. As part of this project, political agreement for a common supervision framework and a common resolution scheme has been reached with difficulty. However, the resolution...... framework is weak, underfunded and exhibits some serious flaws. Further, Member States' disagreements appear to rule out a federalized deposit insurance scheme, commonly regarded as the necessary third pillar of a successful Banking Union. This paper argues for an organizational and capital structure...

  18. Bank Resolution in the European Banking Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, Jeffrey N.; Ringe, Wolf-Georg

    at the discretion of the resolution authority must be available to supply liquidity to a reorganizing bank. On these conditions, a viable and realistic Banking Union would be within reach — and the resolution of global financial institutions would be greatly facilitated, not least in a transatlantic perspective.......The project of creating a Banking Union is designed to overcome the fatal link between sovereigns and their banks in the Eurozone. As part of this project, political agreement for a common supervision framework and a common resolution scheme has been reached with difficulty. However, the resolution...... framework is weak, underfunded and exhibits some serious flaws. Further, Member States’ disagreements appear to rule out a federalized deposit insurance scheme, commonly regarded as the necessary third pillar of a successful Banking Union. This paper argues for an organizational and capital structure...

  19. Finessing filter scarcity problem in face recognition via multi-fold filter convolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Cheng-Yaw; Teoh, Andrew Beng-Jin

    2017-06-01

    The deep convolutional neural networks for face recognition, from DeepFace to the recent FaceNet, demand a sufficiently large volume of filters for feature extraction, in addition to being deep. The shallow filter-bank approaches, e.g., principal component analysis network (PCANet), binarized statistical image features (BSIF), and other analogous variants, endure the filter scarcity problem that not all PCA and ICA filters available are discriminative to abstract noise-free features. This paper extends our previous work on multi-fold filter convolution (ℳ-FFC), where the pre-learned PCA and ICA filter sets are exponentially diversified by ℳ folds to instantiate PCA, ICA, and PCA-ICA offspring. The experimental results unveil that the 2-FFC operation solves the filter scarcity state. The 2-FFC descriptors are also evidenced to be superior to that of PCANet, BSIF, and other face descriptors, in terms of rank-1 identification rate (%).

  20. Audit of a bank

    OpenAIRE

    Ambros, Lukáš

    2012-01-01

    The goal of my thesis "Audit of a bank" is to identify and describe the area of external and internal audit in banking and to focus on specifics of bank audit in comparison to external audit of commercial enterprise. The first part is focused on audit of financial statements. In the second part are described the specifics of banking segment. Third part describes internal audit and cooperation between external and internal audit. In the last part there are described methods applied during the ...

  1. Time banking som ledelsesteknologi

    OpenAIRE

    Steensberg, Maja; Nielsen, Nadia Holm; Thomsen, Søren Tolshave

    2014-01-01

    This project examines how the English time banks Timber Wharf, Echo and Fair Shares affect their members and local environments. Based on Nikolas Rose’s theory on governmentality it is discussed, whether the time banks, understood as political actors, are challenging or reproducing neo-liberal governance. It is concluded that the way the time banks facilitates the concept of timebanking differs greatly. These different conducts are shaping the way in which the time banks are used by their mem...

  2. Audit of a bank

    OpenAIRE

    Ambros, Lukáš

    2012-01-01

    The goal of my thesis "Audit of a bank" is to identify and describe the area of external and internal audit in banking and to focus on specifics of bank audit in comparison to external audit of commercial enterprise. The first part is focused on audit of financial statements. In the second part are described the specifics of banking segment. Third part describes internal audit and cooperation between external and internal audit. In the last part there are described methods applied during the ...

  3. Essays on banking

    OpenAIRE

    Mosk, T.C.

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation studies how banks collect and process information. The first chapter studies how the organizational structure of banks affects the processing of information. The second chapter studies how banks use private information collected over the lending relationship in credit negotiations. The last chapter is joint work with Hans Degryse, Jose Liberti and Steven Ongena and studies how banks use ‘soft information’ to monitor small firms. This dissertation uses hand collected internal...

  4. Observation of orbital two-channel Kondo effect in a ferromagnetic L10-MnGa film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lijun; Woltersdorf, Georg; Zhao, Jianhua

    2016-09-01

    The experimental existence and stability of the fixed point of the two-channel Kondo (2CK) effect displaying exotic non-Fermi liquid physics have been buried in persistent confusion despite the intensive theoretical and experimental efforts in past three decades. Here we report an experimental realization of the two-level system resonant scattering-induced orbital 2CK effect in a ferromagnetic L10-MnGa film, which is signified by a magnetic field-independent resistivity upturn that has a logarithmic and a square-root temperature dependence beyond and below the Kondo temperature of ~14.5 K, respectively. Our results not only evidence the robust existence of orbital 2CK effect even in the presence of strong magnetic fields and long-range ferromagnetic ordering, but also extend the scope of 2CK host materials from nonmagnetic nanoscale point contacts to diffusive conductors of disordered alloys.

  5. Anomalous Hall effect in L 10-MnAl films with controllable orbital two-channel Kondo effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, L. J.; Nie, S. H.; Zhao, J. H.

    2016-05-01

    The anomalous Hall effect (AHE) in strongly disordered magnetic systems has been buried in persistent confusion despite its long history. We report the AHE in perpendicularly magnetized L 10-MnAl epitaxial films with a variable orbital two-channel Kondo (2CK) effect arising from the strong coupling of conduction electrons and the structural disorders of two-level systems. The AHE is observed to excellently scale with ρAH/f =a0ρx x 0+b ρxx 2 at high temperatures where phonon scattering prevails. In contrast, significant deviation occurs at low temperatures where the orbital 2CK effect becomes important, suggesting a negative AHE contribution. The deviation of the scaling agrees with the orbital 2CK effect in the breakdown temperatures and deviation magnitudes.

  6. Easier Bank Access

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jun

    2015-01-01

    Loosened banking regulations may spur an increase of foreign banks in China Foreign banks will soon have a much easier time setting up outlets in China.According to regulations recently amended by the State Council,as of January 1,foreign

  7. A BANK MANAGER SPEAKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    My name is Jane Carson and I'm the manager of savings bank in Portland,Oregon,My bank is open every day from8:30 in the moming until 4:00 in the aftermoon.On Fridays the bank remains oper until 6:30 in the evening.

  8. Banks on Notice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Regulators issue policies to guide China’s banks as massive loans compromise the banking sector’s ability to contain future risks R egulatory departments are strengthening their supervision over financial institutions to prevent an incomprehensible financial scenario from unfolding: the failure of the Chinese banking

  9. Banking on Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The opening up of China’s banking sector took another giant step forward on March 20 when the first four foreign banks gained approval to incorporate locally. After going through commercial registration formalities, the banks will be able to con- duc

  10. Banking and Trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Ratnovski, L.

    2016-01-01

    We study the interaction between relationship banking and short-term arm’s length activities of banks, called trading. We show that a bank can use the franchise value of its relationships to expand the scale of trading, but may allocate too much capital to trading ex post , compromising its ability

  11. Essays on banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosk, T.C.

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation studies how banks collect and process information. The first chapter studies how the organizational structure of banks affects the processing of information. The second chapter studies how banks use private information collected over the lending relationship in credit negotiations.

  12. Banking and Trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Ratnovski, L.

    2016-01-01

    We study the interaction between relationship banking and short-term arm’s length activities of banks, called trading. We show that a bank can use the franchise value of its relationships to expand the scale of trading, but may allocate too much capital to trading ex post , compromising its ability

  13. z-transform DFT filters and FFT's

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, G.

    1978-01-01

    of DFT filter banks which utilize a minimum of complex coefficients. These implementations lead to new forms of FFT's, among which is acos/sinFFT for a real signal which only employs real coefficients. The new FFT algorithms use only half as many real multiplications as does the classical FFT....

  14. Linear Phase Perfect Reconstruction Filters and Wavelets with Even Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Monzon, Lucas

    2011-01-01

    Perfect reconstruction filter banks can be used to generate a variety of wavelet bases. Using IIR linear phase filters one can obtain symmetry properties for the wavelet and scaling functions. In this paper we describe all possible IIR linear phase filters generating symmetric wavelets with any prescribed number of vanishing moments. In analogy with the well known FIR case, we construct and study a new family of wavelets obtained by considering maximal number of vanishing moments for each fixed order of the IIR filter. Explicit expressions for the coefficients of numerator, denominator, zeroes, and poles are presented. This new parameterization allows one to design linear phase quadrature mirror filters with many other properties of interest such as filters that have any preassigned set of zeroes in the stopband or that satisfy an almost interpolating property. Using Beylkin's approach, it is indicated how to implement these IIR filters not as recursive filters but as FIR filters.

  15. BANKING WITHOUT INTEREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Ilieva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been increased global awareness of Islamic finance. This topic is mainly opened with respect to the great financial crisis that mostly hit the banking system and the financial markets and caused many bank bankruptcies and state interventions. This paper analyzes the basic principles of Islamic banking. The absolute prohibition of receiving and giving interest (Riba and profit-and-loss sharing (PLS paradigms are elaborated in detail; they are primarily based on mudarabah (profit-sharing and musyarakah (joint venture concepts which nowadays are becoming an accepted way of doing business in several Western multinational banks. An overall comparison of the advantages of Islamic vs. conventional banking is also given. Islamic finance technology solutions have matured and they will face various challenges in the following decades, due to conventional banks offering, increasingly, Islamic products. The need for a more comprehensive environment and regulatory framework is emphasized, so that Islamic banking development can be ensured.

  16. Field test of radioactive high efficiency filter and filter exchange techniques of fuel cycle examination facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Yong Hwa; Lee, Hyung Kwon; Chun, Young Bum; Park, Dae Gyu; Ahn, Sang Bok; Chu, Yong Sun; Kim, Eun Ka

    1997-12-01

    The development of high efficiency filter was started to protect human beings from the contamination of radioactive particles, toxic gases and bacillus, and its gradual performance increment led to the fabrication of Ultra Low Penetration Air Filter (ULPA) today. The application field of ULPA has been spread not only to the air conditioning of nuclear power facilities, semiconductor industries, life science, optics, medical care and general facilities but also to the core of ultra-precision facilities. Periodic performance test on the filters is essential to extend its life-time through effective maintenance. Especially, the bank test on HEPA filter of nuclear facilities handling radioactive materials is required for environmental safety. Nowadays, the bank test technology has been reached to the utilization of a minimized portable detecting instruments and the evaluation techniques can provide high confidence in the area of particle distribution and leakage test efficiency. (author). 16 refs., 13 tabs., 14 figs.

  17. Bank Resolution in the European Banking Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, Jeffrey N.; Ringe, Georg

    2015-01-01

    The project of creating a Banking Union is designed to overcome the fatal link between sovereigns and their banks in the Eurozone. As part of this project, political agreement for a common supervision framework and a common resolution scheme has been reached with difficulty. However, the resolution...... framework is weak, underfunded and exhibits some serious flaws. Further, Member States' disagreements appear to rule out a federalized deposit insurance scheme, commonly regarded as the necessary third pillar of a successful Banking Union. This paper argues for an organizational and capital structure....... The FDIC's experience teaches us three important lessons: First, systemically important financial institutions need to have in their liability structure sufficient unsecured (or otherwise subordinated) term debt so that in the event of bank failure, the conversion of debt into equity will be sufficient...

  18. Generalised Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Friston

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a Bayesian filtering scheme for nonlinear state-space models in continuous time. This scheme is called Generalised Filtering and furnishes posterior (conditional densities on hidden states and unknown parameters generating observed data. Crucially, the scheme operates online, assimilating data to optimize the conditional density on time-varying states and time-invariant parameters. In contrast to Kalman and Particle smoothing, Generalised Filtering does not require a backwards pass. In contrast to variational schemes, it does not assume conditional independence between the states and parameters. Generalised Filtering optimises the conditional density with respect to a free-energy bound on the model's log-evidence. This optimisation uses the generalised motion of hidden states and parameters, under the prior assumption that the motion of the parameters is small. We describe the scheme, present comparative evaluations with a fixed-form variational version, and conclude with an illustrative application to a nonlinear state-space model of brain imaging time-series.

  19. Notch filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, G. B. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A notch filter for the selective attenuation of a narrow band of frequencies out of a larger band was developed. A helical resonator is connected to an input circuit and an output circuit through discrete and equal capacitors, and a resistor is connected between the input and the output circuits.

  20. Central bank capital, financial strength, and the Bank of Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas F. Cargill

    2006-01-01

    This Economic Letter addresses central bank capital and financial strength in the context of Bank of Japan policy (Cargill 2005). Specifically, it reviews general considerations about central bank capital and financial strength, discusses recent Bank of Japan policy in the context of capital structure, evaluates the Bank of Japan's concern in the context of the broader issue of central bank independence, and draws some lessons from recent Bank of Japan policy.

  1. Directional Filters for Cartoon + Texture Image Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Buades

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We present in this article a detailed analysis and implementation of the cartoon+texture decomposition algorithm proposed in [A. Buades, J.L. Lisani, 'Directional filters for color cartoon + texture image and video decomposition', Journal of Mathematical Imaging and Vision, 2015]. This method follows the approach proposed by [A. Buades, T. Le, J-M. Morel, L. Vese, 'Cartoon+Texture Image Decomposition', IPOL 2011], based on low/high-pass filtering, but replaces the isotropic filters by a bank of low-pass directional filters. The cartoon image is obtained by filtering in the direction that leads to the largest local total variation rate reduction. This permits to improve the performance of the decomposition near image discontinuities, where an halo effect was produced by the previous method.

  2. Banking System in Kyrgyz Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Sagbansu, Lutfu

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the overall banking system and the basic banking system development factors such as internet banking and deposit insurance in the world and particularly in Kyrgyzstan. The analyses show that progress in banking reform, introduction of deposit insurance and internet banking concepts are essential for avoiding harmful problems, development stable and solvent banking system. These developments include the more effective regulation of the entry and exit of banks, removal of ob...

  3. Banks, regions and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Alessandrini

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available From the 1980s onwards the banking sectors in all the industrialised countries have been experiencing intense restructuring, aggregation and consolidation, radically changing their ownership structures and geography. Whatever the reasons behind such restructuring processes, the globalisation of the credit markets, the consolidation of banking structures, the removal of barriers to the free location of banks and their penetration of peripheral markets pose two main questions. Will integration of the banking systems lead to a narrowing or a widening of the development gap between regions? What relations will there be between financial centres and the periphery, and how will financial labour be divided between national (international banks and local (regional banks? The aim of this paper is to address such questions in the light of recent developments in the theoretical and empirical literature on financial integration.

  4. Tissue banking in australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Lynette; McKelvie, Helen

    2003-01-01

    The legal structure for the regulation of tissue banking has existed for many years. In Australia, the donation of human tissue is regulated by legislation in each of the eight States and Territories. These substantially uniform Acts were passed in the late 1970's and early 1980's, based on model legislation and underpinned by the concept of consensual giving. However, it was not until the early 1990's that tissue banking came under the notice of regulatory authorities. Since then the Australian Government has moved quickly to oversee the tissue banking sector in Australia. Banked human tissue has been deemed to be a therapeutic good under the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989, and tissue banks are required to be licensed by the Therapeutic Goods Administration and are audited for compliance with the Code of Good Manufacturing Practice- Human Blood and Tissues. In addition, tissue banks must comply with a myriad of other standards, guidelines and recommendations.

  5. COMMERCIAL BANK LIQUIDITY MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    KOREKOV A.V.

    2015-01-01

    Bank liquidity management and optimal resource allocation of commercial bank Nostro accounts balances receive much less attention from the scientists compared to the questions on capital structure, funding, credit risk analysis and stress testing. Optimal liquidity management is a way to lower bank costs and risks, which are going to increase over time, especially when money markets are dry of free funds. There are two sides of the issue to be analyzed. The optimal resource allocation and cor...

  6. Bank Record Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Barnett Banks of Florida, Inc. operates 150 banking offices in 80 Florida cities. Banking offices have computerized systems for processing deposits or withdrawals in checking/savings accounts, and for handling commercial and installment loan transactions. In developing a network engineering design for the terminals used in record processing, an affiliate, Barnett Computing Company, used COSMIC's STATCOM program. This program provided a reliable network design tool and avoided the cost of developing new software.

  7. Simultaneous observation of collagen and elastin based on the combined nonlinear optical imaging technique coupled with two-channel synchronized detection method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianxin; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Luo, Tianshu; Liu, Dingzhong; Zhao, Jingjun

    2008-08-01

    Collagen and elastin are the most important proteins of the connective tissues in higher vertebrates. In this paper, we present a combined nonlinear optical imaging technique of second-harmonic generation and two-photon excited fluorescence to simultaneously observe the collagen and elastic fiber of dermis in a freshly excised human skin and rabbit aorta using a two-channel synchronized detection method. The obtained two-channel overlay image in the backward direction can clearly distinguish the morphological structure and distribution of collagen and elastic fibers. Tissue spectrum further confirms the obtained structural information. These results suggest that the combined nonlinear optical imaging technique coupled with two-channel synchronized detection method can be an effective tool for detecting collage and elastic fibers without any invasive tissue procedure of slicing, embedding, fixation and staining when two structural proteins are simultaneously present in the biological tissue.

  8. Do wavelet filters provide more accurate estimates of reverberation times at low frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobreira Seoane, Manuel A.; Pérez Cabo, David; Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2016-01-01

    the continuous wavelet transform (CTW) has been implemented using a Morlet mother function. Although in general, the wavelet filter bank performs better than the usual filters, the influence of decaying modes outside the filter bandwidth on the measurements has been detected, leading to a biased estimation...

  9. Bank Resolution in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    N. Gordon, Jeffery; Ringe, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Bank resolution is a key pillar of the European Banking Union. This column argues that the current structure of large EU banks is not conducive to an effective and unbiased resolution procedure. The authors would require systemically important banks to reorganise into a ‘holding company’ structure......, where the parent company holds unsecured term debt sufficient to cover losses at its operating financial subsidiaries. This would facilitate a ‘single point of entry’ resolution procedure, minimising the risk of creditor runs and destructive ring-fencing by national regulators....

  10. Essays on banking and regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Todorov, R.I.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis consists of three chapters that explore issues related to bank capital, multinational bank supervision, and bank lending in a developing country. The first chapter explores the impact of peer banks on bank capital adjustments. The second chapter evaluates the extent to which distortions

  11. Factors Determining Mergers of Banks in Malaysia's Banking Sector Reform

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rubi Ahmad; Mohamed Ariff; Michael Skully

    2007-01-01

    What was termed government-guided merger was a unique banking sector reform implemented in 2002 by the central bank of Malaysia guiding a larger number of depository institutions to form 10 large banks...

  12. CRYSTAL FILTER TEST SET

    Science.gov (United States)

    CRYSTAL FILTERS, *HIGH FREQUENCY, *RADIOFREQUENCY FILTERS, AMPLIFIERS, ELECTRIC POTENTIAL, FREQUENCY, IMPEDANCE MATCHING , INSTRUMENTATION, RADIOFREQUENCY, RADIOFREQUENCY AMPLIFIERS, TEST EQUIPMENT, TEST METHODS

  13. Islamic banks and profitability: an empirical analysis of Indonesian banking

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an empirical analysis of the factors that determine the profitability of Indonesian banks between the years 2006-2012. In particular, it investigates whether there are any significant differences in terms of profitability between Islamic banks and commercial banks. The results, obtained by applying the system-GMM estimator to the panel of 54 banks, indicate that the high bank profitability during these years were determined mainly by the size of the banks, the market share...

  14. Removing bank subsidies leads inexorably to full reserve banking

    OpenAIRE

    Musgrave, Ralph S.

    2013-01-01

    The recent banking crisis laid bare a long standing and inherent defect in fractional reserve banking: the fact that fractional reserve is unlikely to work for long without taxpayer backing. Changing bank regulations in such a way that banks are never a burden on taxpayers leads inexorably to full reserve banking. Full reserve involves splitting the banking industry into two halves. A safe half where depositors earn no interest, but they do have instant access to their money, and a second...

  15. Removing bank subsidies leads inexorably to full reserve banking

    OpenAIRE

    Musgrave, Ralph S.

    2013-01-01

    The recent banking crisis laid bare a long standing and inherent defect in fractional reserve banking: the fact that fractional reserve is unlikely to work for long without taxpayer backing. Changing bank regulations in such a way that banks are never a burden on taxpayers leads inexorably to full reserve banking. Full reserve involves splitting the banking industry into two halves. A safe half where depositors earn no interest, but they do have instant access to their money, and a second...

  16. Bank Lending and Relationship Banking: Evidence from Chilean Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Repetto; Sergio Rodríguez; Rodrigo O. Valdés

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we empirically study bank-client relationships using a sample of manufacturing Chilean firms. We examine whether concentration and the duration of bank-firm relationships affect the terms of bank financing, evaluating both the volume of bank lending and bank loan costs. Our results indicate that lower concentration, measured by the number of banks a firm borrows from, is associated with lower costs of loans and with a large and positive non-lincar effect on borrowing. The length...

  17. Dual Banking Systems and Interest Rate Risk for Islamic Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Bacha, Obiyathulla I.

    2004-01-01

    In introducing Islamic banking in Malaysia, the basic strategy was to replicate the products/ services offered by conventional banks. The successful implementation of such a strategy has meant that Malaysia today has a truly dual banking system. Islamic banks in Malaysia not only have product similarity with conventional banks but share the same overall economic environment and a common customer base. The ability of non Muslim customers/depositors to switch between the two banking syste...

  18. Methods of Payment to Banks: e-Banking. Comparative Study on Three Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Petronella VLAD

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available E-banking website, majority offers the banks. At first it was electronic-banking, Internet-banking followed, followed by mobile-banking service. These services offer the same facilities, Customer Bank just that varies the channel used for communication with the Bank. The services offered by banks through E-banking, approves: compilation of orders; scheduled payments; orders for payment of wages; internal transfers; pay rates on internal or external; currency exchanges; view balances of accounts at any time; information about foreign exchange rates; view and print account statements; the definition of beneficiaries of direct payments by the client.

  19. Missing channels in two-colour microarray experiments: Combining single-channel and two-channel data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burtt Glyn J

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are mechanisms, notably ozone degradation, that can damage a single channel of two-channel microarray experiments. Resulting analyses therefore often choose between the unacceptable inclusion of poor quality data or the unpalatable exclusion of some (possibly a lot of good quality data along with the bad. Two such approaches would be a single channel analysis using some of the data from all of the arrays, and an analysis of all of the data, but only from unaffected arrays. In this paper we examine a 'combined' approach to the analysis of such affected experiments that uses all of the unaffected data. Results A simulation experiment shows that while a single channel analysis performs relatively well when the majority of arrays are affected, and excluding affected arrays performs relatively well when few arrays are affected (as would be expected in both cases, the combined approach out-performs both. There are benefits to actively estimating the key-parameter of the approach, but whether these compensate for the increased computational cost and complexity over just setting that parameter to take a fixed value is not clear. Inclusion of ozone-affected data results in poor performance, with a clear spatial effect in the damage being apparent. Conclusion There is no need to exclude unaffected data in order to remove those which are damaged. The combined approach discussed here is shown to out-perform more usual approaches, although it seems that if the damage is limited to very few arrays, or extends to very nearly all, then the benefits will be limited. In other circumstances though, large improvements in performance can be achieved by adopting such an approach.

  20. Improved ramped bunch train to increase the transformer ratio of a two-channel multimode dielectric wakefield accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Sotnikov

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Here we show a possibility of applying the ramped drive bunch train (RBT technique to a two-channel coaxial dielectric wakefield accelerator (CDWA. For numerical research we study a 28 GHz structure with two nested alumina cylindrical shells having these diameters: outer shell, OD=28.1  mm, ID=27  mm; inner shell, OD=6.35  mm, ID=4.0  mm. The structure is to be excited by a train of four annular bunches having energy 14 MeV and axial rms length 1 mm; the total charge of bunches is 200 nC. In the case of equally charged drive bunches, spaced apart by the principal wakefield wavelength 10.67 mm, we obtained transformer ratio T=3.4. If the bunch charge is increasing as the ratio 1∶3∶5∶7 and the bunches are spaced by one and one-half wavelengths, we obtained T=3.8. We found that if the charge ratios are 1.0∶2.4∶3.5∶5.0 and the spaces between the bunches are 2.5, 2.5, and 4.5 wakefield periods, then T increases strongly, T∼20. The RBT also can be used successfully in a high gradient THz CDWA structure. A particle-in-cell simulation shows that the four drive bunches can move without appreciable distortion.

  1. 78 FR 12360 - PNC Bank, National Association, Retail Bank Franklin, PA; PNC Bank, National Association, Retail...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... Employment and Training Administration PNC Bank, National Association, Retail Bank Franklin, PA; PNC Bank, National Association, Retail Bank West Chester, IL; Notice of Negative Determination Regarding Application... Assistance (TAA) applicable to workers and former workers of PNC Bank, National Association, Retail...

  2. Bank profitability: Insights from the rural banking industry in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Adusei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the profitability of 112 rural banks (special unit banks created to promote rural financial intermediation in Ghana. The results generally show that bank size, funding risk, diversification, liquidity risk, and bank stability are significant predictors of rural bank profitability. Whereas an improvement in the funding risk of a rural bank in a particular period portends a drop in its profitability in the future, an improvement in the size, diversification, liquidity risk, and stability of a rural bank signifies an improvement in the future profitability of the bank.

  3. The macroeconomics of banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kwaak, C.G.F.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis studies the macroeconomic effectiveness of monetary and fiscal policy in an environment where commercial banks are undercapitalized after a financial crisis and have large holdings of (risky) government bonds on their balance sheets. An undercapitalized banking system cannot perfectly el

  4. Destroy The Bank! (case)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Star, G.J. Van der; Maas, A.

    2016-01-01

    DZ Bank faces some significant challenges for the near future. One of them is the way payments are being made. This case is about Stefan, the Strategic Management Consultant of DZ Bank. He struggles with innovations and new technologies, such as Bitcoins. What does this mean for the future of the ba

  5. Optimal central bank transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Cruijsen, C.A.B.; Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Hoogduin, L.

    2008-01-01

    Should central banks increase their degree of transparency any further? We show that there is likely to be an optimal intermediate degree of central bank transparency. Up to this optimum more transparency is desirable: it improves the quality of private sector inflation forecasts. But beyond the opt

  6. Optimal central bank transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Cruijsen, C.A.B.; Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Hoogduin, L.H.

    2010-01-01

    Should central banks increase their degree of transparency any further? We show that there is likely to be an optimal intermediate degree of central bank transparency. Up to this optimum more transparency is desirable: it improves the quality of private sector inflation forecasts. But beyond the opt

  7. Innovative strategies of bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A Peresadko

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the specifics of banking innovations, the global trends of innovative strategies in the banking sector was described, analyzed the necessary methodology for their implementation, proposed plan of innovative activities and its possible application in Ukraine.

  8. Banking and trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Ratnovski, L.

    2013-01-01

    We study the interaction between relationship banking and short-term, scalable arm’s length finance which we call trading. Relationship banking is not scalable, has high franchise value, is long-term oriented and low risk. Trading is transaction-based: scalable, with lower margins (capital constrain

  9. Banking and trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Ratnovski, L.

    2013-01-01

    We study the interaction between relationship banking and short-term, scalable arm’s length finance which we call trading. Relationship banking is not scalable, has high franchise value, is long-term oriented and low risk. Trading is transaction-based: scalable, with lower margins (capital

  10. Essays in empirical banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bai, Y.

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three essays on empirical banking. They study how do information and political activeness affect banks’ lending behavior, as well as the effect of lending relationship with banks on firms’ stock performance during interbank liquidity crunch. The first essay looks at a t

  11. Destroy The Bank! (case)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. A. Maas; G.J. Van der Star

    2016-01-01

    DZ Bank faces some significant challenges for the near future. One of them is the way payments are being made. This case is about Stefan, the Strategic Management Consultant of DZ Bank. He struggles with innovations and new technologies, such as Bitcoins. What does this mean for the future of the

  12. Digital filters

    CERN Document Server

    Hamming, Richard W

    1997-01-01

    Digital signals occur in an increasing number of applications: in telephone communications; in radio, television, and stereo sound systems; and in spacecraft transmissions, to name just a few. This introductory text examines digital filtering, the processes of smoothing, predicting, differentiating, integrating, and separating signals, as well as the removal of noise from a signal. The processes bear particular relevance to computer applications, one of the focuses of this book.Readers will find Hamming's analysis accessible and engaging, in recognition of the fact that many people with the s

  13. Foreign Funds for City Banks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGPEI

    2005-01-01

    The rather straightforward restructuring of the Bank of Beijing became more arresting in January after Deutsche Bank was reported to be competing with its Dutch rival ING to purchase a stake in the local city commercial bank.

  14. Competition in investment banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina Ellis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We construct a comprehensive measure of overall investment banking competitiveness for follow-on offerings that aggregates the various dimensions of competition such as fees, pricing accuracy, analyst recommendations, distributional abilities, market making prowess, debt offering capabilities, and overall reputation. The measure allows us to incorporate trade-offs that investment banks may use in competing for new or established clients. We find that firms who switch to similar-quality underwriters enjoy more intense competition among investment banks which manifests in lower fees and more optimistic recommendations. Investment banks do compete vigorously for some clients, with the level of competition related to the likelihood of gaining or losing clients. Finally, investment banks not performing up to market norms are more likely to be dropped in the follow-on offering. In contrast, firms who seek a higher reputation underwriter face relatively non-competitive markets.

  15. Clinical assessment of 252Californium neutron intracavitary brachytherapy using a two-channel Y applicator combined with external beam radiotherapy for endometrial cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of 252Californium neutron intracavitary brachytherapy using a two-channel Y applicator combined with external beam radiotherapy for the treatment of endometrial cancer. METHODS: Thirty-one patients with stage I-III endometrial cancer were recruited for this study. The stage I patients received only 252Californium neutron intracavitary brachytherapy with a two-channel applicator. The stage II and III patients received both 252Californium neutron intracavitary brachytherapy using a two-channel applicator and parallel-opposed whole pelvic radiotherapy. RESULTS: The five-year local control rate was 80.6% (25/31, the overall survival rate was 51.6% (16/31, and the disease-free survival rate was 54.8% (17/31. The incidence of serious late complications was 12.9% (4/31. CONCLUSIONS: 252Californium neutron intracavitary brachytherapy using a two-channel applicator combined with external beam radiotherapy was effective for treating endometrial cancer and the incidence of serious late complications related to this combination was within an acceptable range.

  16. Clinical assessment of 252Californium neutron intracavitary brachytherapy using a two-channel Y applicator combined with external beam radiotherapy for endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qian; Tang, Cheng; Zhao, Ke-Wei; Xiong, Yan-Li; Chen, Shu; Xu, Wen-Jing; Lei, Xin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of 252Californium neutron intracavitary brachytherapy using a two-channel Y applicator combined with external beam radiotherapy for the treatment of endometrial cancer. Thirty-one patients with stage I-III endometrial cancer were recruited for this study. The stage I patients received only 252Californium neutron intracavitary brachytherapy with a two-channel applicator. The stage II and III patients received both 252Californium neutron intracavitary brachytherapy using a two-channel applicator and parallel-opposed whole pelvic radiotherapy. The five-year local control rate was 80.6% (25/31), the overall survival rate was 51.6% (16/31), and the disease-free survival rate was 54.8% (17/31). The incidence of serious late complications was 12.9% (4/31). 252Californium neutron intracavitary brachytherapy using a two-channel applicator combined with external beam radiotherapy was effective for treating endometrial cancer and the incidence of serious late complications related to this combination was within an acceptable range.

  17. Ultrasound speckle reduction using modified Gabor filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, Ricardo G; Costa, Eduardo T

    2007-03-01

    B-mode ultrasound images are characterized by speckle artifact, which may make the interpretation of images difficult. One widely used method for ultrasound speckle reduction is the split spectrum processing (SSP), but the use of one-dimensional (1-D), narrow-band filters makes the resultant image experience a significant resolution loss. In order to overcome this critical drawback, we propose a novel method for speckle reduction in ultrasound medical imaging, which uses a bank of wideband 2-D directive filters, based on modified Gabor functions. Each filter is applied to the 2-D radio-frequency (RF) data, resulting in a B-mode image filtered in a given direction. The compounding of the filters outputs give rise to a final image in which speckle is reduced and the structure is enhanced. We have denoted this method as directive filtering (DF). Because the proposed filters have effectively the same bandwidth as the original image, it is possible to avoid the resolution loss caused by the use of narrow-band filters, as with SSP. The tests were carried out with both simulated and real clinical data. Using the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) to quantify the amount of speckle of the ultrasound images, we have achieved an average SNR enhancement of 2.26 times with simulated data and 1.18 times with real clinical data.

  18. Programmable SC biquad using one single capacitor bank

    OpenAIRE

    Torralba Silgado, Antonio Jesús; Pérez Vega-Leal, Alfredo; García Franquelo, Leopoldo

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a new technique for programming SC circuits using a single time-multiplexed capacitor bank, achieving a significant reduction in capacitance area. Simulation results of a programmable biquad low pass filter show the validity of the proposed method.

  19. Low-power implementation of polyphase filters in Quadratic Residue Number System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardarilli, Gian Carlo; Re, Andrea Del; Nannarelli, Alberto

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this work is the reduction of the power dissipated in digital filters, while maintaining the timing unchanged. A polyphase filter bank in the Quadratic Residue Number System (QRNS) has been implemented and then compared, in terms of performance, area, and power dissipation to the imple......The aim of this work is the reduction of the power dissipated in digital filters, while maintaining the timing unchanged. A polyphase filter bank in the Quadratic Residue Number System (QRNS) has been implemented and then compared, in terms of performance, area, and power dissipation...... to the implementation of a polyphase filter bank in the traditional two's complement system (TCS). The resulting implementations, designed to have the same clock rates, show that the QRNS filter is smaller and consumes less power than the TCS one....

  20. Bank Specific and Macroeconomics Dynamic Determinants of Credit Risk in Islamic Banks and Conventional Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Waeibrorheem Waemustafa; Suriani Sukri

    2015-01-01

    The study analyzes macroeconomic and bank specific determinants of credit risk in Islamic and Conventional Banks. Multivariate Regression analysis is applied on the sample of 15 conventional banks and 13 Islamic Banks in Malaysia over the period between 2000 and 2010. The finding shows that the banks specific determinants of credit risk are uniquely influenced the credit risk formation of Islamic and Conventional banks. The study found that risky sector financing; regulatory capital (REGCAP) ...

  1. Aircraft Engine Sensor Fault Diagnostics Through Dual-Channel Sensor Measurements Based on a Bank of Hybrid Kalman Filters%基于混合卡尔曼滤波器组的航空发动机双通道传感器故障检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张书刚; 郭迎清; 陆军

    2012-01-01

    Based on a bank of hybrid Kalman filters which are hybrids of a nonlinear on-board engine model (NOBEM) and piecewise linear Kalman fillers, a civil aircraft engine sensor fault diagnostics system which utilizes dual -channel sensor measurements is developed. Principles and algorithms of sensor fault detection, isolation and accommodation are given. By this system applied to some typical civil turbo-fan engine sensor faults, simulation results show that the diagnostic effectiveness of the system is maintained to avoid false alarms as the health of the engine degrades over time through a simple process: by feeding the health degradation values into the NUBEM and not changing the parameters of the linear Kalman filters. The update process, which can be completed automatically online to save time and effort, is feasible in the real application environment.%基于机载非线性模型与分段线性卡尔曼滤波器混合组成的混合卡尔曼滤波器组,结合双通道传感器的特点,建立了民用航空发动机传感器故障诊断系统;给出故障诊断原理及算法的同时,将该系统应用于民用涡扇发动机传感器常见典型故障进行了仿真;仿真结果表明,诊断系统可以在发动机发生健康蜕化后,通过只简单更新机载模型的蜕化因子,而保持线性卡尔曼滤波器的参数不变,便能准确地检测和隔离各类传感器故障而不发生误报;该更新过程可以在线自动完成,省时省力,易于工程实现.

  2. GenBank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Dennis A.; Cavanaugh, Mark; Clark, Karen; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Lipman, David J.; Ostell, James; Sayers, Eric W.

    2017-01-01

    GenBank® (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genbank/) is a comprehensive database that contains publicly available nucleotide sequences for 370 000 formally described species. These sequences are obtained primarily through submissions from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects, including whole genome shotgun (WGS) and environmental sampling projects. Most submissions are made using the web-based BankIt or the NCBI Submission Portal. GenBank staff assign accession numbers upon data receipt. Daily data exchange with the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA) and the DNA Data Bank of Japan (DDBJ) ensures worldwide coverage. GenBank is accessible through the NCBI Nucleotide database, which links to related information such as taxonomy, genomes, protein sequences and structures, and biomedical journal literature in PubMed. BLAST provides sequence similarity searches of GenBank and other sequence databases. Complete bimonthly releases and daily updates of the GenBank database are available by FTP. Recent updates include changes to policies regarding sequence identifiers, an improved 16S submission wizard, targeted loci studies, the ability to submit methylation and BioNano mapping files, and a database of anti-microbial resistance genes. PMID:27899564

  3. Soundness of Ethiopian Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdu Kedir Mohammed

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A well-functioning financial institution will sustain a countries economic development and play a great role in reduction of poverty. One of the major participants in the financial institution is the banking industry. However, the mal-functioning of the banking system can be extremely costly to the real economy. As Bank is one of the participants and major key player in the financial institutions, it needs a continuous assessment by its supervisory and management. Mere ratio analyses are commonly used Performance measurement among the banking industry in Ethiopia. Nonetheless, these financial ratios are more of traditional as well as partial measurements. As such this study conducted using CAMEL framework set by bank for international settlement. The study takes secondary data which are gathered from audited annual reports of all banks. The result shows CAMEL framework is the best fit measurement for Ethiopian Banks and it give a comprehensive result which is very helpful for the governor to set a well determined policy and procedure.

  4. PERBANDINGAN PENGHASILAN TABUNGAN MUDHARABAH NASABAH BANK SYARIAH (Studi Kasus pada Bank Syariah Mandiri, Bank Negara Indonesia Syariah, dan Bank Muamalat Indonesia di Makassar)

    OpenAIRE

    ALIMULA, YULIANA

    2014-01-01

    2014 Perbandingan Penghasilan Tabungan Mudharabah Nasabah Bank Syariah (Studi Kasus pada Bank Syariah Mandiri, Bank Negara Indonesia Syariah, dan Bank Muamalat Indonesia di Makassar) Profit Sharing Comparison of Mudharabah Saving of Islamic Banking (A Case Study at Bank Syariah Mandiri, Bank Negara Indonesia Syariah, and Bank Muamalat Indonesia in Makassar) Yuliana Alimula Alimuddin Muhammad Ashari Penelitian ini bertujuan un...

  5. Determining Gabor-filter parameters for texture segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Dennis F.; Higgins, William E.; Wakeley, Joseph

    1992-11-01

    The ability to segment a textured image into separate regions (texture segmentation) continues to be a challenging problem in computer vision. Many texture-segmentation schemes are based on a filter-bank model, where the filters (henceforth referred to as Gabor Filters) are derived from Gabor elementary functions. The goal of these methods is to transform texture differences into detectable filter-output discontinuities at texture boundaries. Then, one can segment the image into differently textured regions. Distinct discontinuities occur, however, only if the parameters defining the Gabor filters are suitably chosen. Some previous analysis has shown how to design appropriate filters for discriminating simple textures. Designing filters for more general textures, though, has largely been done ad hoc. We have devised a new, more effective, more rigorously based method for determining Gabor-filter parameters. The method is based on an exhaustive, but efficient, search of Gabor-filter parameter space and on a detection-theory formulation of a Gabor filter''s output. We provide qualitative arguments and experimental results indicating that our new method is more effective than other methods in producing suitable filter parameters. We demonstrate that our model also gives good filter designs for a variety of texture types.

  6. Bank selection and customers’ perception of banks in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Norhazlin Ismail; Zarehan Selamat; Ong Hway Boon

    2004-01-01

    The process customers go through in choosing a bank has been studied for several decades using different approaches. Understanding the needs and analyzing how the customers select their banks are crucial steps towards the improvement of customer satisfaction. In this study, an attempt is made to identify the determinants of bank selection and customers’ perception of banks in Malaysia.

  7. Metamorphosis of Banking Products - A Perception of Bank Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshita B

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Banking products are undergoing major changes due to extensive use of it and changing demands of the customers in current scenario. This study basically focuses on the changes came into banking industry and its impact on customers base and bank profits. Data is collected from 50 employees of both private and public sector banks with the help of questionnaire. Hence we can conclude that all banks are providing almost similar products and services to satisfy their customers fully. The continous metamorphsis of banking products not only results in improvement of customer base but also has positive impact on the profits of the bank. Private sector banks are earning more profits as a result of metamorphosis of traditional banking products in comparison to public sector bank.

  8. Sensitivity of Czech Commercial Banks to a Run on Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klepková Vodová Pavla

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to thoroughly evaluate the sensitivity of Czech commercial banks to a run on banks. Our sample includes a significant part of the Czech banking sector in the period 2006-2013. We use three liquidity ratios that we stress via a stress scenario simulating a run on banks accompanied by a 20% withdrawal rate of deposits.We measure the impact of the scenario by the relative changes of these ratios. The results show that, in spite of a decrease in liquidity, most Czech banks would be able to finance such a scenario. The financial crisis influenced bank sensitivity to a run, but with a significant time lag. The severity of the impact of the bank run increases with the size of the bank; large banks are the most vulnerable. The resilience of banks is also determined by their strategy for liquidity risk management.

  9. Mitigation Banking Factsheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    A mitigation bank is an aquatic resource area that has been restored, established, enhanced, or preserved for the purpose of providing compensation for unavoidable impacts to aquatic resources permitted under Section 404

  10. Assessing efficiency in banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Snežana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is an attempt to assess the productivity and efficiency on the basis of the information found in financial statements and operating evidence, as well as implementation of the DEA method. The definition of both input and output in banking is absolutely clear, however, an adequate analysis of efficiency in banking requires that the right combinations of input and output be selected Every company has its own principles to implement in its operations. One of the most important is surely the efficiency principle. Relevant academic literature offers various combinations of input and output in testing bank efficiency. The developing countries will find it highly important to monitor bank efficiency and compare it to the countries in the region.

  11. Protein Data Bank (PDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Protein Data Bank (PDB) archive is the single worldwide repository of information about the 3D structures of large biological molecules, including proteins and...

  12. Environmental Data Bank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ,

    1962-06-01

    In an effort to determine the environment to which the equipment designed by Sandia Corporation will be exposed, a "Data Bank" of environmental information was compiled. Measured quantities resulting from actual uses were continually being summarized.

  13. Cord-Blood Banking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood banks may capitalize on the fears of vulnerable new parents by providing misleading information about the statistics of stem cell transplants. Parents of children of ethnic or racial minorities, adopted children, or ...

  14. nigeria's banking sector reforms

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NESG PUBLICATIONS

    sector reforms to enthrone sound financial practices and good corporate governance ... April - June 2009 . 9. NIGERIA'S BANKING SECTOR REFORMS: THE JOURNEY SO FAR ..... implementation of a code of sound corporate governance in ...

  15. Varying Impacts of Electronic Banking on the Banking Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Sali Bakare

    2015-01-01

    The banking industry has undergone tremendous changes with the introduction of information technology (IT). Electronic banking (EB) is a new paradigm in banks’ product and service delivery. Electronic banking products and services have become increasingly popular in the past three decades as the banking industry operating in a complex and competitive environment has experienced the awareness to serve its customers electronically. Online banking has become the preferred way for many Americans ...

  16. Convergent Filter Bases

    OpenAIRE

    Coghetto Roland

    2015-01-01

    We are inspired by the work of Henri Cartan [16], Bourbaki [10] (TG. I Filtres) and Claude Wagschal [34]. We define the base of filter, image filter, convergent filter bases, limit filter and the filter base of tails (fr: filtre des sections).

  17. Convergent Filter Bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coghetto Roland

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We are inspired by the work of Henri Cartan [16], Bourbaki [10] (TG. I Filtres and Claude Wagschal [34]. We define the base of filter, image filter, convergent filter bases, limit filter and the filter base of tails (fr: filtre des sections.

  18. Efficiency of Commercial Banks in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd. Azmi Omar; Abdul Rahim Abdul Rahman; Rosylin Mohd. Yusof; M Shabri Abd Majid; Mohd. Eskandar Shah Mohd. Rasid

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the change in the productivity of banking industry during the period of 2000 to 2004. The data consists of a panel of 11 commercial banks in Malaysia namely Malayan Banking, Bumiputra-Commerce, Public Bank, RHB Bank, Hong Leong Berhad, EON Bank, Affin Bank, Southern Bank Berhad, Bank Islam Malaysia Berhad (BIMB), Ambank and Bank Muamalat. Productivity is measured by the Malmquist index, using a Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) technique. The Malmquist productivity measu...

  19. Filtered-X Affine Projection Algorithms for Active Noise Control Using Volterra Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sicuranza Giovanni L

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the use of adaptive Volterra filters, implemented in the form of multichannel filter banks, as nonlinear active noise controllers. In particular, we discuss the derivation of filtered-X affine projection algorithms for homogeneous quadratic filters. According to the multichannel approach, it is then easy to pass from these algorithms to those of a generic Volterra filter. It is shown in the paper that the AP technique offers better convergence and tracking capabilities than the classical LMS and NLMS algorithms usually applied in nonlinear active noise controllers, with a limited complexity increase. This paper extends in two ways the content of a previous contribution published in Proc. IEEE-EURASIP Workshop on Nonlinear Signal and Image Processing (NSIP '03, Grado, Italy, June 2003. First of all, a general adaptation algorithm valid for any order of affine projections is presented. Secondly, a more complete set of experiments is reported. In particular, the effects of using multichannel filter banks with a reduced number of channels are investigated and relevant results are shown.

  20. Banking on the Nation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn Sørensen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I analyse the narratives of four Danish central bank governors from the late nineteenth century until the mid-1990s. By conducting a historical analysis informed by neo-institutional theory, I show how these central bank governors were continuously involved in public debates over...... claims and that the central bank and its governors gradually became embedded in national identity. Thus, the article highlights the historical development of the co-configuring relationship between Danish national identity and the legitimacy of monetary organization.......In this article, I analyse the narratives of four Danish central bank governors from the late nineteenth century until the mid-1990s. By conducting a historical analysis informed by neo-institutional theory, I show how these central bank governors were continuously involved in public debates over...... the appropriateness and desirability of their decisions and policies. In these debates, interpretations and reproductions of Danish national identity were central to the governors' claims to legitimacy. I argue that past narratives of the Danish central bank and its governors enabled and framed future legitimacy...

  1. Opaqueness and Bank Risk Taking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Behr

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the relationship between opaqueness and bank risk taking. Using a sample of 199 banks from 38 countries over the period January 1996 to December 2006, I analyze whether more opaque banks are riskier than less opaque banks. I find suggestive evidence that commonly used proxies for bank opaqueness are significantly related to bank risk taking as measured by the Merton PD and the bank-individual Z-score, even after accounting for potential simultaneity between risk taking and opaqueness. More opaque banks seem to engage more in risk taking than less opaque banks. This result provides support to the common view that bank opaqueness is problematic and that transparency among financial institutions should be increased.

  2. BANK RATING. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batrancea Ioan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Banks in Romania offers its customers a wide range of products but which involves both risk taking. Therefore researchers seek to build rating models to help managers of banks to risk of non-recovery of loans and interest. In the following we highlight rating Raiffeisen Bank, BCR-ERSTE Bank and Transilvania Bank, based on the models CAAMPL and Stickney making a comparative analysis of the two rating models.

  3. Cost leadership and bank internationalization

    OpenAIRE

    Galema, Rients; Koetter, Michael; Liesegang, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    We adapt a theoretical model from the goods trade literature to test whether banks with a comparative cost advantage are more likely to enter foreign markets by means of foreign direct investment. We combine detailed proprietary bank-level data on the international activities of all German banks with publicly available bank micro data from possible destination markets to show that the decision to go abroad is driven by relative cost differences. Banks enter markets where they are cost leaders...

  4. The Ethical Stance in Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Villa, Jesus Simeon Villa

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Banks have a central role and importance in all commerce and hence in all societies. This thesis investigates the ethical basis of banking practice with the aim of developing an account of the virtues appropriate to bankers and banking. One central issue concerns a conflict between the interests of banks and their customers, and how this conflict plays out in relation to the lending policies and fee structure of banks. Such lending policies can have a significant effect on ban...

  5. NOVEL MICROWAVE FILTER DESIGN TECHNIQUES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE FILTERS, MICROWAVE FREQUENCY, PHASE SHIFT CIRCUITS, BANDPASS FILTERS, TUNED CIRCUITS, NETWORKS, IMPEDANCE MATCHING , LOW PASS FILTERS, MULTIPLEXING, MICROWAVE EQUIPMENT, WAVEGUIDE FILTERS, WAVEGUIDE COUPLERS.

  6. OPTIMAL WAVELET FILTER DESIGN FOR REMOTE SENSING IMAGE COMPRESSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Guoan; Zheng Nanning; Guo Shugang

    2007-01-01

    A new approach for designing the Biorthogonal Wavelet Filter Bank (BWFB) for the purpose of image compression is presented in this letter. The approach is decomposed into two steps.First, an optimal filter bank is designed in theoretical sense based on Vaidyanathan's coding gain criterion in SubBand Coding (SBC) system. Then the above filter bank is optimized based on the criterion of Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR) in JPEG2000 image compression system, resulting in a BWFB in practical application sense. With the approach, a series of BWFB for a specific class of applications related to image compression, such as remote sensing images, can be fast designed. Here,new 5/3 BWFB and 9/7 BWFB are presented based on the above approach for the remote sensing image compression applications. Experiments show that the two filter banks are equally performed with respect to CDF 9/7 and LT 5/3 filter in JPEG2000 standard; at the same time, the coefficients and the lifting parameters of the lifting scheme are all rational, which bring the computational advantage, and the ease for VLSI implementation.

  7. Reconstructing the Poynting vector skew angle and wave-front of optical vortex beams via two-channel moir\\'e deflectometery

    CERN Document Server

    Yeganeh, Mohammad; Dashti, Mohsen; Slussarenko, Sergei; Santamato, Enrico; Karimi, Ebrahim

    2013-01-01

    A novel approach based on the two-channel moir\\'e deflectometry has been used to measure both wave-front and transverse component of the Poynting vector of an optical vortex beam. Generated vortex beam by the q-plate, an inhomogeneous liquid crystal cell, has been analyzed with such technique. The measured topological charge of generated beams are in an excellent agreement with theoretical prediction.

  8. Miniaturized dielectric waveguide filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Muhammad Y.; Hunter, Ian C.

    2016-10-01

    Design techniques for a new class of integrated monolithic high-permittivity ceramic waveguide filters are presented. These filters enable a size reduction of 50% compared to air-filled transverse electromagnetic filters with the same unloaded Q-factor. Designs for Chebyshev and asymmetric generalised Chebyshev filter and a diplexer are presented with experimental results for an 1800 MHz Chebyshev filter and a 1700 MHz generalised Chebyshev filter showing excellent agreement with theory.

  9. Bank Diversification Effects on Bank Performance and Risk Profile of Bank in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Lukmawijaya

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the relationship of Indonesian bank diversification towards its long term performance and risk profile with Indonesian bank data from 2009 to 2013. Non-interest income to total operating income of the bank measures its bank diversification level. Bank value is measured by the adjusted Tobin's Q and risk profile which is broken down into total risk, idiosyncratic risk, and systematic risk. The result shows that bank non-interest income diversification has a positive influence on its franchise value. There is, however, no strong evidence that diversification can lower a bank's risk profile.

  10. A digital filtering scheme for SQUID based magnetocardiography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Xue-Min; Ren Yu-Feng; Yu Hong-Wei; Zhao Shi-Ping; Chen Geng-Hua; Zhang Li-Hua; Yang Qian-Sheng

    2006-01-01

    Considering the properties of slow change and quasi-periodicity of magnetocardiography (MCG) signal, we use an integrated technique of adaptive and low-pass filtering in dealing with two-channel MCG data measured by high Tc SQUIDs, The adaptive filter in the time domain is based on a noise feedback normalized least-mean-square (NLMS) algorithm, and the low-pass filter with a cutoff at 100Hz in the frequency domain characterized by Gaussian functions is combined with a notch at the power line frequency. In this way, both relevant and irrelevant noises in original MCG data are largely eliminated. The method may also be useful for other slowly varying quasi-periodical signals.

  11. A filter bank for rotationally invariant image recognition

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-07-18

    Jul 18, 2005 ... where ψ(r) is the mother wavelet, m the dilation parameter (the .... Clearly, some values of ψm,n produce poor results, since the rotation ..... [1] Deer PJ, Eklund PW & Norman BD, 1996, A Mahalanobis distance fuzzy classi-.

  12. Filter Bank Common Spatial Patterns in Mental Workload Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    EEG-based workload estimation technology provides a real time means of assessing mental workload. Such technology can effectively enhance the performance of the human-machine interaction and the learning process. When designing workload estimation algorithms, a crucial signal processing component is the feature extraction step. Despite several studies on this field, the spatial properties of the EEG signals were mostly neglected. Since EEG inherently has a poor spacial resolution, features ex...

  13. Banking in southern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Žarko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The nations discussed here (Italy, Spain, Portugal and Greece have in common - with the exception of Italy, that is - that they used to be on the margins of European economic and social developments. Only Italy succeeded in industrialising itself already prior to World War I. This fundamental trait also determined the developmental path of modern-era banking. Hereby, two important points in the course of development of banking in the Southern European countries need to be emphasised. To begin with, if the lands of the North-Western Europe were large capital exporters, then the South European nations were the importers of this capital. The role of foreign capital, i.e., foreign banks, was great and irreplaceable in the development of banking. The second element in common was a large role of state in the economy in general. Under the circumstances of underdeveloped entrepreneurial environment, the state, through its economic activities, would become the driving force of overall economic and social development. This was also or especially the case with banking. Role played by the state only began to diminish towards the end of the 1980s, in the course of the processes of deregulation and liberalisation both at the international level as well as within the then European Economic Community or subsequent European Union. Already during the preparatory processes prior to the admission into the European Economic Community, Spain, Greece and Portugal, and, however, Italy as well, but due to European Directives it had to abide by, began comprehensive processes of restructuring their national banking systems. Since the second half of the 1980s, banking systems were subjected to liberalisation, deregulation and privatisation.

  14. Cost and profit efficiency of banks in Haiti: do domestic banks perform better than foreign banks?

    OpenAIRE

    Cadet, Raulin Lincifort

    2008-01-01

    I use the stochastic frontier methodology to estimate a cost and a profit frontier functions. The Fourier-flexible form is used in this paper because of its flexibility. Results show that, although foreign banks are more cost efficient than domestic banks, domestic banks are more profit efficient than foreign banks, in Haiti. The paper reveals also that, although treasury bills constitute an alternative source of profit for banks in Haiti, a growth of interest rate on treasury bills incre...

  15. An innovative color LCD using three color bank scrolling backlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia-Chang; Lin, Jui-Lung

    2009-02-01

    In order to improve the approach of the conventional LCD colored image display that has been using color filter, this research is to lead a unique innovative design by using three colors bank scrolling backlight. The backlight scrolling uses Light-Emitting-Diodes (LEDs) to replace the conventional cold cathode fluorescent lamp for fleetly light alternating between Red, Green, and Blue. Images with bank segments can be displayed in terms of RGB colors in time series. According to the human persistence of vision effect, a colorful image can be demonstrated. The advantages of this three color bank scrolling can provide a cost saving because there is no color-filter of the display, resolution tripling with RGB on the same pixel, and abundant in color saturation for the selection of dedicating wavelength LEDs color mixture. Practically, this research contents the experiments of three color bank scrolling, a building up of the prototype for backlight system, optics adjustment for a proper color mixture. The results of this research show the system not only could displace the color filter but also triple the resolution. Consequently, the system is practicable and can be proposed as a new innovation to LCD industry.

  16. Pengaruh Kualitas Layanan Mobile Banking (M-Banking Terhadap Kepuasan Nasabah di Indonesia [Effect of Mobile Banking (M-Banking Service Quality on Customer Satisfaction in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Wardhana

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The research aim was to assess the influence of the service quality of mobile banking (m-banking against customer satisfaction at the greatest banks in Indonesia. Elements of the quality of mobile banking services (m-banking were speed, security, accuracy, and trust. The population of this study was bank customers from eight of the greatest bank in Indonesia -- Bank Mandiri, Bank BRI, Bank BCA, Bank BNI, Bank CIMB Niaga, Bank Danamon, Bank Permata, and Bank Panin -- who used mobile banking which totaled 19.9 million customers with the size of the sample being 400 respondents. The sampling method used nonprobability sampling by incidental sampling. The results by using a structural equation modeling (SEM found significant influences between service quality of mobile banking (m-banking partially and simultaneously to customer satisfaction.

  17. Alternative banking: theory and evidence from Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Von Mettenheim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Since financial liberalization in the 1980s, non-profit maximizing, stakeholder-oriented banks have outperformed private banks in Europe. This article draws on empirical research, banking theory and theories of the firm to explain this apparent anomaly for neo-liberal policy and contemporary market-based banking theory. The realization of competitive advantages by alternative banks (savings banks, cooperative banks and development banks has significant implications for conceptions of bank change, regulation and political economy.

  18. Impact of Electronic Banking Innovations on Bank Deposit Market Share

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashmari A

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Development and diversity of electronic banking services is one of the aspects of financial innovation of banks. In Iran’s banking system, the development of multiple channels representing electronic banking services such as SWIFT system, ATM, POS, PIN pads, internet banking, mobile banking and telephone banking are made for more facility in paying money, so today, the development of this channels is one of the most competitive areas between banks for attracting resources. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate this innovation, which needs a heavy cost in terms of money and time, on the share of each bank in attracting deposit as one of the most important goals and competitive tools of a bank. By using Panel Data Vector Autoregressive methods (Panel-VAR and Granger causality test, data of 23 Iranian banks in the 7 years (2007-2013 has been studied. The results show that based on the Granger Causality Test, the number of ATM machines, POS, PIN pad, SWIFT system and amount of banking facilities provided by each bank, has causal relation in explaining the increase of the bank’s share in attracting deposits; but the Market Share was recognized as the cause of the innovation. Also, the causality direction of deposits’ share and the amount of facilities were noticed to be bilateral.

  19. Profitability Identification of National Banking Through Credit, Capital, Capital Structure, Efficiency, and Risk Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugeng Haryanto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the influence of credit, bank capital, capital structure, efficiency and risk toward the profitability in banking industry. Bank has an important role in the economy in Indonesia in 2014. The purposive sampling technique was used in this study to filter the samples according to several criteria such as being public at least in 2008, and publicly released the financial statement from 2008-2013. The total sample of 25 banks. Multiple regression technique was used in this study to analyze the data. The results show that credit, bank capital, and capital structure positively influence the profitability. This result supported by the previous research. The other finding shows that efficiency and risk have significantly negative effect on profitability. Bangking has an 80 percent market share in the financing of intermediation function of the entire financial system.Penelitian bertujuan menganalisis pengaruh antara kredit, permodalan bank, struktur modal, efisiensi dan risiko terhadap profitabilitas pada industri perbankan. Bank mempunyai peran penting dalam ekonomi Indonesia 2014. Teknik sampling penelitian ini adalah purposive sampling, dengan kriteria bank bank telah go public sebelum tahun 2008, mempublikasikan laporan keuangan tahun 2008-2013. Jumlah sampel sebanyak 25 bank. Teknik analisis yang digunakan regresi linier berganda. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kredit, permodalan bank dan struktur modal berpengaruh terhadap profitabilitas dengan arah positif. Hasil lainnya adalah variabel efisiensi dan risiko berpengaruh signifikan dengan arah negatif terhadap profitabilitas. Perbankan memiliki market share 80 persen dalam sistem keuangan.JEL Classification: G3, G32

  20. Filter quality of pleated filter cartridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Wan; Huang, Sheng-Hsiu; Chiang, Che-Ming; Hsiao, Ta-Chih; Chen, Chih-Chieh

    2008-04-01

    The performance of dust cartridge filters commonly used in dust masks and in room ventilation depends both on the collection efficiency of the filter material and the pressure drop across the filter. Currently, the optimization of filter design is based only on minimizing the pressure drop at a set velocity chosen by the manufacturer. The collection efficiency, an equally important factor, is rarely considered in the optimization process. In this work, a filter quality factor, which combines the collection efficiency and the pressure drop, is used as the optimization criterion for filter evaluation. Most respirator manufacturers pleat the filter to various extents to increase the filtration area in the limit space within the dust cartridge. Six sizes of filter holders were fabricated to hold just one pleat of filter, simulating six different pleat counts, ranging from 0.5 to 3.33 pleats cm(-1). The possible electrostatic charges on the filter were removed by dipping in isopropyl alcohol, and the air velocity is fixed at 100 cm s(-1). Liquid dicotylphthalate particles generated by a constant output atomizer were used as challenge aerosols to minimize particle loading effects. A scanning mobility particle sizer was used to measure the challenge aerosol number concentrations and size distributions upstream and downstream of the pleated filter. The pressure drop across the filter was monitored by using a calibrated pressure transducer. The results showed that the performance of pleated filters depend not only on the size of the particle but also on the pleat count of the pleated filter. Based on filter quality factor, the optimal pleat count (OPC) is always higher than that based on pressure drop by about 0.3-0.5 pleats cm(-1). For example, the OPC is 2.15 pleats cm(-1) from the standpoint of pressure drop, but for the highest filter quality factor, the pleated filter needed to have a pleat count of 2.65 pleats cm(-1) at particle diameter of 122 nm. From the aspect of

  1. Bank Customers Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebubeogu Amarachukwu Felix

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The purpose of this project is in partial fulfilment of the requirements of Bachelor of Science Hon in Information Technology. The Design and development of this Bank customers Management system provides a more secured approach in managing bank customers information which strengthens the relationships between banks and their customers by providing the right solutions that uses a multi-level security to improve customer satisfaction. The technology used in developing this project is ASP.NET and the programming language used to develop this project is C and the IDE used is Microsoft Visual Studio 2013 professional in designing the front end while the back end uses Microsoft SQL Server 2012.

  2. Human Milk Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiden, Nadja; Ziegler, Ekhard E

    2016-01-01

    Human milk banks play an essential role by providing human milk to infants who would otherwise not be able to receive human milk. The largest group of recipients are premature infants who derive very substantial benefits from it. Human milk protects premature infants from necrotizing enterocolitis and from sepsis, two devastating medical conditions. Milk banks collect, screen, store, process, and distribute human milk. Donating women usually nurse their own infants and have a milk supply that exceeds their own infants' needs. Donor women are carefully selected and are screened for HIV-1, HIV-2, human T-cell leukemia virus 1 and 2, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and syphilis. In the milk bank, handling, storing, processing, pooling, and bacterial screening follow standardized algorithms. Heat treatment of human milk diminishes anti-infective properties, cellular components, growth factors, and nutrients. However, the beneficial effects of donor milk remain significant and donor milk is still highly preferable in comparison to formula.

  3. The balancing act of template bank construction: inspiral waveform template banks for gravitational-wave detectors and optimizations at fixed computational cost

    CERN Document Server

    Keppel, Drew

    2013-01-01

    Gravitational-wave searches for signals from inspiralling compact binaries have relied on matched filtering banks of waveforms (called template banks) to try to extract the signal waveforms from the detector data. These template banks have been constructed using four main considerations, the region of parameter space of interest, the sensitivity of the detector, the matched filtering bandwidth, and the sensitivity one is willing to lose due to the granularity of template placement, the latter of which is governed by the minimal match. In this work we describe how the choice of the lower frequency cutoff, the lower end of the matched filter frequency band, can be optimized for detection. We also show how the minimal match can be optimally chosen in the case of limited computational resources. These techniques are applied to searches for binary neutron star signals that have been previously performed when analyzing Initial LIGO and Virgo data and will be performed analyzing Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo data...

  4. Can taxes tame the banks?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devereux, Michael P.; Johannesen, Niels; Vella, John

    In the wake of the financial crisis, a number of countries have introduced levies on bank borrowing with the aim of reducing risk in the financial sector. This paper studies the behavioral responses to the bank levies and evaluates the policy. We find that the levies induced banks to borrow less...... but also to hold more risky assets. The reduction in funding risk clearly dominates for banks with high capital ratios but is exactly offset by the increase in portfolio risk for banks with low capital ratios. This suggests that while the levies have reduced the total risk of relatively safe banks...

  5. Bank Insolvency Procedures and Market Discipline in European Banking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angkinand, Apanard; Wihlborg, Clas

    2005-01-01

    Predetermined, operational procedures for dealing with banks in distress are conspicuously absent across the world with very few exceptions. Instead governments and regulatory authorities intervene when banks approach failure. Bail-outs of important creditors, sometimes including shareholders...

  6. Issues in Transformation from Conventional Banking to Islamic Banking

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Muhammad Usman Arshad; Mohammed Effandi Yusoff; Muhammad Sohail Tahir

    2016-01-01

    .... Islamic banking is the major constituent of the Islamic finance. In line with these transformations, Islamic banks and financial institutions are facing several problems due to non-existence of comprehensive framework...

  7. Central Bank independence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile DEDU

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the key aspects regarding central bank’s independence. Most economists consider that the factor which positively influences the efficiency of monetary policy measures is the high independence of the central bank. We determined that the National Bank of Romania (NBR has a high degree of independence. NBR has both goal and instrument independence. We also consider that the hike of NBR’s independence played an important role in the significant disinflation process, as headline inflation dropped inside the targeted band of 3% ± 1 percentage point recently.

  8. Composing morphological filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J.A.M. Heijmans (Henk)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractA morphological filter is an operator on a complete lattice which is increasing and idempotent. Two well-known classes of morphological filters are openings and closings. Furthermore, an interesting class of filters, the alternating sequential filters, is obtained if one composes openin

  9. Composing morphological filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijmans, H.J.A.M.

    1995-01-01

    A morphological filter is an operator on a complete lattice which is increasing and idempotent. Two well-known classes of morphological filters are openings and closings. Furthermore, an interesting class of filters, the alternating sequential filters, is obtained if one composes openings and closi

  10. 12 CFR 211.22 - Interstate banking operations of foreign banking organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interstate banking operations of foreign banking organizations. 211.22 Section 211.22 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM INTERNATIONAL BANKING OPERATIONS (REGULATION K) Foreign Banking...

  11. 12 CFR 209.2 - Banks desiring to become member banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Banks desiring to become member banks. 209.2 Section 209.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM ISSUE AND CANCELLATION OF FEDERAL RESERVE BANK CAPITAL STOCK (REGULATION I) § 209.2 Banks desiring...

  12. PENGARUH DIMENSI BANKING SERVICE QUALITY (BSQ) TERHADAP KEPUASAN NASABAH BANK

    OpenAIRE

    Sri Sumardiningsih; Wawan Sundawan; Lies Endarwati; Arif Wibowo; Yulia Ayriza

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Effect of Banking Service Quality (BSQ) Dimensions towards Bank Customer Satisfaction. This study aims to determine the effect of Banking Service Quality (BSQ) to the customer satisfaction of BPD Bank in DIY. This research is a survey research with a sample of 1.536 respondents. The sample was taken by purposive sampling technique. Data collection instrument was questionnaires and analyzed using multiple regression. The results showed that six dimensions of BSQ simultaneously gave p...

  13. The influence of bank employees on bank customer relationship management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Rootman

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Despite extensive research in services marketing, much is still unknown to specific service providers on the influence of their employees on their services. This paper attempts to address this limitation and investigates the influence of employees on the customer relationship management (CRM of banks. The primary objective of this paper is to investigate the influence of selected independent variables, namely attitude and knowledgeability, on the CRM of banks.Design/Methodology/Approach: An empirical investigation was conducted with a structured questionnaire with items that related to banks' CRM in terms of attitude and knowledgeability. The sample consisted of 290 banking clients in the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan area and the response rate was 91.03%. Findings: Significant positive relationships exist between both the knowledgeability, and attitude of bank employees and a bank's CRM. These relationships imply that more extensive knowledgeability and more positive attitudes of bank employees lead to improved, maintained relationships between a bank and its clients. Employees play an important role in banks’ client relationships. Implications: Banks should focus on increasing their employees' knowledgeability and improving their attitude to ensure higher levels of CRM. This paper provides strategies for banks and could create greater awareness among South African banks of the advantages of CRM, how their employees influence their CRM, and ways to adapt to these influences. Originality/Value: No study has focused exclusively on CRM within banks in South Africa. Prior research focused on customer service and service quality; both possible results of superior CRM. However, this research differs, as it identifies the variables influencing CRM in banks in South Africa. It is proposed that this paper will be beneficial for South African banks, as the recommendations may be used to ensure higher levels of CRM in banks.

  14. Passive Power Filters

    CERN Document Server

    Künzi, R

    2015-01-01

    Power converters require passive low-pass filters which are capable of reducing voltage ripples effectively. In contrast to signal filters, the components of power filters must carry large currents or withstand large voltages, respectively. In this paper, three different suitable filter struc tures for d.c./d.c. power converters with inductive load are introduced. The formulas needed to calculate the filter components are derived step by step and practical examples are given. The behaviour of the three discussed filters is compared by means of the examples. P ractical aspects for the realization of power filters are also discussed.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF OPTIMAL FILTERS OBTAINED THROUGH CONVOLUTION METHODS, USED FOR FINGERPRINT IMAGE ENHANCEMENT AND RESTORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin LUPU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the development of optimal filters through covolution methods, necessary for restoring, correcting and improving fingerprints acquired from a sensor, able to provide the most ideal image in the output. After the image was binarized and equalized, Canny filter is applied in order to: eliminate the noise (filtering the image with a Gaussian filter, non-maxima suppression, module gradient adaptive binarization and extension edge points edges by hysteresis. The resulting image after applying Canny filter is not ideal. It is possible that the result will be an image with very fragmented edges and many pores in ridge. For the resulting image, a bank of convolution filters are applied one after another (Kirsch, Laplace, Roberts, Prewitt, Sobel, Frei-Chen, averaging convolution filter, circular convolution filter, lapacian convolution filter, gaussian convolution filter, LoG convolution filter, DoG, inverted filters, Wiener, the filter of ”equalization of the power spectrum” (intermediary filter between the Wiener filter and the inverted filter, the geometrical average filter , etc. with different features.

  16. PATHWAYS TO SUSTAINABLE BANKING MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan (Santamarian Oana Raluca

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes one of the major challenges of the future: the sustainable development of the society. Sustainability is now increasingly recognized as central to the growth of emerging market economies. For the banking sector, this represents both a demand for greater social and environmental responsibility as well as a new landscape of business opportunity. Several years ago, the main part of the banks did not consider the social and environmental problems relevant for their operations. Recently, the banks began to realize the major impact of the sustainable development over the way of ulterior development of the society and, implicitly over the way of creating of the banking value in the future. In this context, the development of a banking management system, based on sustainable principles represents one of the provocations of these days.Starting from literature in the sustainable banking management field in this paper are presented several relevant issues related to risk management in the context of sustainable banking financing: the need to implement the sustainable management principles in financial and banking industry; the role of banks in sustainable development of society; social and environmental risk management policies, events that have shaped the role of the banking sector in sustainable development; international standards regarding sustainable banking management such us: Equator Principles for sustainable investment projects’ financing or GRI principles for sustainable reporting. Furthermore, we developed a practical case study related to the implementation of sustainable banking management at Bank of America.

  17. Computer processing sleep data of two-channel electroencephalogram and one-channel electrooculogram by aperiodic waveform analysis%计算机处理睡眠数据中2导脑电和1导眼电的非周期波形分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国锋; 彭小虎

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The sleep data are very large, and it is not satisfied with practice demand if the data cannot process by computer However, the methods which are using at present have a disadvantage that the accuracy is comparatively low OBJECTIVE: To investigate a new method for sleep stage classification only using electroencephalogram (EEG) and electrooculogram (EOG) based on aperiodic waveform analysis and genetic neural network of radial basis function (RBF) METHODS: Raw data including two-channel EEG and one-channel EOG recorded from eight subjects were obtained from Sleep-EDF database of PhysioBank, MIT After digital filter with zero phase, raw data were analyzed by aperiodic waveform analysis to extract several parameters that were necessary for sleep stage classification Then, preprocessed data as input for genetic neural network of RBF accepted training Finally, test data were sent to trained neural network to validate RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The results obtained, on average 95 6% of agreement between the expert and the GA-ANN for six stages of vigilance, going beyond results of known literature (70%-90%), which possess high value in practice and maybe satisfy with research and clinical application%背景:睡眠中记录的数据量很大,不用计算机自动处理不能满足实用需要,而现有的对睡眠数据进行分期的方法准确率都不高.目的:考察仅依据脑电与眼电,基于非周期波形分析和径向基函数遗传神经网络的睡眠数据分期新方法.方法:实验数据来自MIT的PhysioBank中的S1eep-EDF数据库,共8名被试,各记录2导脑电和1导眼电.原始数据经零相位数字滤波后,进行非周期波形分析,得出每个Epoch的特征向量,经预处理后送遗传径向基函数.神经网络配合专家手工分类结果进行训练,训练好的神经网络再对测试数据进行分析.结果与结论:总的分期符合率为95.6%,超出已知文献研究结果(70%~90%),具有很高的实用价值,

  18. Macroeconomic fluctuations and bank behavior in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E. Restrepo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze bank behavior in Chile over time, looking at how their balance sheets and performance move both in the short and long run, and how they react to macroeconomic shocks. The evolution of banking aggregates over an 18 year period (1989-2006, using quarterly data is examined. Techniques common in the real business cycle literature are applied to establish empirical patterns. Robustness tests using several filters are performed. The effects of macro shocks on banking variables are analyzed, both by means of an event study, and by estimating impulse responses with VARs. The results show that credit lags the cycle, demand deposits lead it, both being procyclical, while the capital adequacy ratio (CAR is countercyclical. In addition, a shock to interest rates reduces loans (total, commercial, consumption, and increases non performing loans (NPL and the capital adequacy ratio (CAR. A shock to GDP growth has a positive effect on loans, return over equity (ROE, and a negative impact on NPL and CAR.

  19. 75 FR 20848 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ... voting shares of Bank of Anderson, National Association, Anderson, South Carolina, Seneca National Bank, Seneca, South Carolina, and The Peoples National Bank, Easley, South Carolina. B. Federal Reserve Bank...

  20. Evolution of central banking? De Nederlandsche Bank 1814-1852

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uittenbogaard, R.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/237904470

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays the role of central bank is unquestioned and nearly ubiquitous. But was this always the case? This thesis analyses how De Nederlandsche Bank (DNB) developed into a central bank during the first four decades of its existence. Its establishment in 1814 was the result of a combination of both

  1. QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN BANKING SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Quality management banking perspective is extremely interesting, from the point of view of the activities specific, and of the permanent area competition improvement. Banks being aware of the quality problems also lead to the appearance and requirement of

  2. NRAO Green Bank Telescope (GBT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The largest fully steerable telescope in the world - the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope, began observations in Green Bank, West Virginia in 2000and is a wonder...

  3. Bank service management in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John; Narteh, Bedman

    2011-01-01

    This article reports a study of the determinants of effective management of of retail banking services in Ghana......This article reports a study of the determinants of effective management of of retail banking services in Ghana...

  4. A Banking System in Transition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; ZHIPENG

    2002-01-01

    THE four large state-owned commercial banks - the Industrial and Commercial Bank of China, the Bank of China, the Construction Bank of China, and the Agricultural Bank of China, constitute the backbone of the Chinese banking system. Owing to low efficiency, lack of capital, and a high rate of bad debts over time, however, the system was weak and ineffective. In order to redress the situation, late last century the Chinese government launched reforms to streamline these four commercial banks and their operations. The banks subsequently set up asset management companies to buy back and resolve non-performing assets. Their operational structure was also upgraded and optimized so as to improve management efficiency and economic performance.

  5. Bank service management in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John; Narteh, Bedman

    2011-01-01

    This article reports a study of the determinants of effective management of of retail banking services in Ghana......This article reports a study of the determinants of effective management of of retail banking services in Ghana...

  6. Banking Scandals Force Governance Issue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The spate of recent scandals in the banking sector again raises the question of whether corporate governance in banks has been improved to a degree whereby ESOP is a correct and timely consideration.

  7. Banking On People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower, 1970

    1970-01-01

    In July 1968, the First National City Bank in New York (Citibank) received a government contract to train the disadvantaged by providing orientation, counseling, job related education, supervisor training, child care, transportation, and some medical and dental care. The Job Opportunities in the Business Sector Program (JOBS) stipulated pay of $70…

  8. Trilogy of China's Banking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Banks of China will face declining profit rate and slightly increasing non-performing loans ratio in a short term during 2009, but government policies will reduce the negative impact of financial crisis, and China's financial environment is still relatively safe in a global comparison.

  9. Banking on Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Few organizations have as racially and culturally diverse a work force as the organizations that make up the World Bank Group. Of its 13,000 employees, nearly 60 percent of whom are located in downtown Washington, D.C., and the rest scattered across 160 offices around the globe, nearly every nation in the world is represented in the World Bank…

  10. Replacing America's Job Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollman, Jim

    2009-01-01

    The Job Central National Labor Exchange (www.jobcentral.com) has become the effective replacement for America's Job Bank with state workforce agencies and, increasingly, with community colleges throughout the country. The American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) has formed a partnership with Job Central to promote its use throughout the…

  11. Kosovo Banking Paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Aliu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Kosovo does not have a bond market, which would enable companies, people and other economic agents to have access to it, that would have been a substitute for the companies to get other sources of funds beside banking sector. The Kosovo economy has only one source of institutional money injected into the economy and that is the banking industry. Bringing back the money of Kosovo Pension and Saving Trust (KPST to Kosovo would have been a huge injection for the economy to raise GDP and lower unemployment. Since the companies in Kosovo contain a lot of asymmetric information within their financial statements, clearing the way for KPST how to allocate their investments in Kosovo would be through alleviating asymmetric information. The paper stands on the general concepts of the asymmetric information and how to alleviate it within the financial market and particularly within the bond market. The other part of the paper concentrates on theoretical framework how to eliminate asymmetricbinformation for the companies who want to get funding from KPST. Therefore, it is necessary to have healthy banks and a better environment to have a sound bond market. On the other hand, the bond market may increase the health of banks by enhancing market competition.

  12. Banking on Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Few organizations have as racially and culturally diverse a work force as the organizations that make up the World Bank Group. Of its 13,000 employees, nearly 60 percent of whom are located in downtown Washington, D.C., and the rest scattered across 160 offices around the globe, nearly every nation in the world is represented in the World Bank…

  13. Replacing America's Job Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollman, Jim

    2009-01-01

    The Job Central National Labor Exchange (www.jobcentral.com) has become the effective replacement for America's Job Bank with state workforce agencies and, increasingly, with community colleges throughout the country. The American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) has formed a partnership with Job Central to promote its use throughout the…

  14. Wetlands Mitigation Banking Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-07-01

    the financial risk associated with are normally established in advance, mitigation permitted activities. banks eliminate the lag time between loss and...management natural state or to an enhanced condition and techniques. None of the traditional wetlands begin to amass bankable credits has also been management

  15. Four Women Bank Directors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    FOUR of the five directors of state banks in Beihai City in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region are women. These women show that women are no longer only able to manage family finance, but they are able to take charge of the important responsibility for state finance. The mayor of Beihai City calls them the city’s outstanding financial affairs managers.

  16. UBS BANK INFORMATION

    CERN Multimedia

    UBS, CERN branch

    2002-01-01

    UBS SA, formerly Société de Banque Suisse (Swiss Bank Corporation), which has been providing banking services on the CERN site since 1954, is delighted to continue its financial partnership with the CERN personnel. Recent trends in payment methods - a decline in the use of cash combined with an increase in the use of 'virtual money', credit or payment cards and e-banking - have led UBS SA to place greater emphasis on customer services compared with conventional, over-the-counter transactions. Since our customers' banking habits have also changed, we will be implementing the following changes at our CERN offices: Building 500: conversion work will shortly be commencing to provide a comfortable and well-appointed customer services area offering, in particular, greater privacy, as well as two counters. Throughout the work, every measure will be taken to minimise inconvenience to our customers. Building 504: owing to the improvements to be made to our Building 500 premises, we will hencef...

  17. The Educational Opportunity Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellema, William W.

    The Educational Opportunity Bank (EOB) has received short shrift among educators and many objections have been raised to establishing it. Among these are the workability of the plan, the problem for women borrowers, and the creation of a new force--student financial power - in opposition to the influence of the Federal Government. Though…

  18. Comparison of texture features based on Gabor filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigorescu, Simona E.; Petkov, Nicolai; Kruizinga, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Texture features that are based on the local power spectrum obtained by a bank of Gabor filters are compared. The features differ in the type of nonlinear post-processing which is applied to the local power spectrum. The following features are considered: Gabor energy, complex moments, and grating c

  19. Do Central Banks Need Capital?

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Stella

    1997-01-01

    Central banks may operate perfectly well without capital as conventionally defined. A large negative net worth, however, is likely to compromise central bank independence and interfere with its ability to attain policy objectives. If society values an independent central bank capable of effectively implementing monetary policy, recapitalization may become essential. Proper accounting practice in determining central bank profit or loss and rules governing the transfer of the central bank’s ope...

  20. Innovative Secure Mobile Banking Services

    OpenAIRE

    Mousa T AL-Akhras; Rizik Al-Sayyed; Marwah Alian; Doaa Qwasmi

    2011-01-01

    Due to the widespread use of computer technologies in almost all aspects of life, organisations that are connected to the Internet started extending their services to their customers to include new applications and services that satisfy their customers’ desires to make better businesses. One of these emerging applications is mobile banking. The term mobile banking (or m-banking) describes the banking services that the user can perform via a mobile device ubiquitously at anytime and from anywh...

  1. ANALISIS PENYALURAN DANA BANK SYARIAH

    OpenAIRE

    Siswati -

    2013-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan karakteristik Dana Pihak Ketiga (DPK), Non Performing Financing (NPF), Sertifikat Wadiah Bank Indonesia (SWBI), dan penyaluran dana Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia. Serta untuk menganalisis pengaruh DPK, NPF, dan bonus SWBI secara simultan maupun parsial terhadap penyaluran dana yang diberikan oleh Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia. Sampel dalam penelitian ini adalah laporan keuangan bulanan Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia tahun 2005-2007. Hasil penelitan ini ...

  2. One Bank,Two Markets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Agricultural Bank of China (ABC),the only non-listed bank among China’s"big four"state-owned commercial banks,is currently un- der the glare of the reform spotlight.This follows on the heals of Premier Wen Jiabao’s announcement during his government work report in March, that a shareholding system will be introduced in the bank and its role in serving agriculture,farmers and rural areas will remain unchanged.

  3. Scrum methodology in banking environment

    OpenAIRE

    Strihová, Barbora

    2015-01-01

    Bachelor thesis "Scrum methodology in banking environment" is focused on one of agile methodologies called Scrum and description of the methodology used in banking environment. Its main goal is to introduce the Scrum methodology and outline a real project placed in a bank focused on software development through a case study, address problems of the project, propose solutions of the addressed problems and identify anomalies of Scrum in software development constrained by the banking environmen...

  4. Adaptive Line Enhancers filters for Gravitational Waves Detection from coalescing binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Acernese, F; De Rosa, R; Eleuteri, A; Milano, L

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose a new strategy for gravitational waves detection from coalescing binaries, using IIR Adaptive Line Enhancer (ALE) filters. This strategy is a classical hierarchical strategy in which the ALE filters have the role of triggers, used to select data chunks which may contain gravitational events, to be further analyzed with more refined optimal techniques, like the the classical Matched Filter Technique. After a direct comparison of the performances of ALE filters with the Wiener-Komolgoroff optimum filters (matched filters), necessary to discuss their performance and to evaluate the statistical limitation in their use as triggers, we performed a series of tests, demonstrating that these filters are quite promising both for the relatively small computational power needed and for the robustness of the algorithms used. The performed tests have shown a weak point of ALE filters, that we fixed by introducing a further strategy, based on a dynamic bank of ALE filters, running simultaneously, bu...

  5. Chinese Commercial Banks Risk Management Practices: A Research in China Banking Risk Management

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiaoling

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation uses a qualitative research approach, and examines the importance and its current situation of banks risk management in China banking. The commercial banking analysis covers China state-own commercial banks and joint-stock commercial banks as well as local city commercial banks, but mainly analysis stems from state-owned and joint-stock commercial banks, excluding foreign banks in China. In addition, this dissertation reveals that China Center Bank and China Bank Regulatory ...

  6. Banking on women's spirit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, M

    1993-11-01

    An interview with Professor Mummadad Yunus, Managing Director of the Grameen Bank, revealed that he has provided loans to poor women in Bangladesh since 1976 and that the Grameen Bank has continued his work since 1983. The idea behind the banking system is that poor people without traditionally accepted collateral are good credit risks. In 1993, the Grameen Bank had operations in 33,000 out of a possible 68,000 villages in Bangladesh. The operations include 1030 branches and a staff of 12,000 people. 1.6 million people are recipients of loans, of whom 94% are women. The population served is the poorest and has no experience in income generation. Conclusions drawn from this experience are that women are better managers of resources and are more serious entrepreneurs than men and that the benefits of loan programs for the poor go directly to children and households. Women's self-image suffers from negative social conceptions, and one task is to convince women of their value, skills, and possibility of advancement. The bank philosophy rests with the belief that all human beings are a "treasure of potential possibilities." Women are advised to protect their money and marriage and not to sacrifice one for the other. Husbands initially are against money going to wives, but eventually they understand that the family benefits. Over 200,000 loans have been made for the provision of housing. The loan requirement is that the woman must own the land on which the house is built. Husband's have the opportunity to transfer title of the land to the wife. Ownership of land provides security for the wife.

  7. Readiness for banking technologies in developing countries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    banking, internet banking and automated teller machine (ATM) banking to ... businesses in developing countries are building unique ways to market products ... characteristics such as technology readiness, it is therefore important for banks in.

  8. 12 CFR 614.4070 - Loans and chartered territory-Farm Credit Banks, agricultural credit banks, Federal land bank...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loans and chartered territory-Farm Credit Banks... ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Chartered Territories § 614.4070 Loans and chartered territory—Farm Credit Banks, agricultural credit banks, Federal land bank associations,...

  9. 78 FR 20643 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... Central Bank and Trust, Lander, Wyoming; CenBank, Buffalo Lake, Minnesota; and VH Bancorporation, Inc... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the...

  10. Bank risk, bailouts and ambiguity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijskens, R.G.M.

    2012-01-01

    The theoretical analysis in the second part investigates the effect of liquidity assistance and bailouts on bank risk taking and liquidity choice. Furthermore, it explores the possibilities for central banks to create ambiguity about liquidity assistance, thereby influencing bank choices. The result

  11. Foreign Banks: Trends and Impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessens, S.; van Horen, N.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past two decades, foreign banks have become much more important in domestic financial intermediation, heightening the need to understand their behavior. We introduce a new, comprehensive database, made publicly available, on bank ownership (including the home country of foreign banks) for 5

  12. Can taxes tame the banks?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devereux, Michael P.; Johannesen, Niels; Vella, John

    In the wake of the financial crisis, a number of countries have introduced levies on bank borrowing with the aim of reducing risk in the financial sector. This paper studies the behavioral responses to the bank levies and evaluates the policy. We find that the levies induced banks to borrow less ...

  13. Determinants of bank profitability: Evidence from the Greek banking sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexiou Constantinos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effects of bank-specific and macroeconomic determinants of bank profitability, using an empirical framework that incorporates the traditional Structure-Conduct- Performance (SCP hypothesis. A panel data approach has been adopted and effectively applied to six Greek banks. The evidence generated suggests that for any consistent or systematic size the profitability relationship is relatively weak. Most of the bank-specific determinants were found to significantly affect bank profitability. A more ambiguous picture emerged when the macroeconomic factors were considered.

  14. THE EPISTEMOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE OF FRACTIONAL RESERVE BANKING AND FULL RESERVE BANKING: WHERE ISLAMIC BANKING SHOULD STAND?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yaser Taufik Syamlan

    2017-01-01

    Objectives – this research is aimed to compare those epistemological bases to the mindset of Islamic Bank and try to drive the philosophy in practical operation whether based on the Fractional Reserve Banking Sytem (RBS) or 100...

  15. Bank Insolvency Procedures and Market Discipline in European Banking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angkinand, Apanard; Wihlborg, Clas

    2005-01-01

    Predetermined, operational procedures for dealing with banks in distress are conspicuously absent across the world with very few exceptions. Instead governments and regulatory authorities intervene when banks approach failure. Bail-outs of important creditors, sometimes including shareholders......, and blanket guarantees for creditors become the norm. We argue that efficient incentives of banks' creditors, as well as of shareholders and managers, require predetermined rules for dealing with banks in distress, and a group of creditors that are credibly non-insured. Cross-border banking increases the need...... for pre-determined bank insolvency procedures that could enable banks to expand cross-border in branches. In the empirical part we show that credibility of non-insurance is maximized with a partial deposit insurance scheme, and that the coverage can be decreased if effective rule-based distress resolution...

  16. Factors Affecting Bank Switching Intentions in E-Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyla ÖZER

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to identify and examine the factors that contribute to bank switching intentions of e-banking customers and whether these intentions differ according to demographic characteristics (age, gender, education, marital status and income levels of customers. Regression results suggested that customer dissatisfaction, low service quality, high price, unfavorable bank reputation, limited product variety and involuntary switching factors were positively related to customers’ bank switching intentions in e-banking. On the other hand, promotion efforts were negatively related to customers’ switching intentions. In addition to this, bank switching intentions were revealed to be differing according to education levels. Bank switching intentions of well-educated customers were tend to be higher, while age, gender, marital status and income level didn’t make a difference on intentions. Based on the empirical results of current study, we will provide several theoretical and managerial implications in the area of service industry.

  17. Method of securing filter elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Erik P.; Haslam, Jeffery L.; Mitchell, Mark A.

    2016-10-04

    A filter securing system including a filter unit body housing; at least one tubular filter element positioned in the filter unit body housing, the tubular filter element having a closed top and an open bottom; a dimple in either the filter unit body housing or the top of the tubular filter element; and a socket in either the filter unit body housing or the top of the tubular filter element that receives the dimple in either the filter unit body housing or the top of the tubular filter element to secure the tubular filter element to the filter unit body housing.

  18. 12 CFR 2.5 - Bank compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the bank's loan customers. (b) Income derived from credit life insurance sales to loan customers may... seq., or to a trust for the benefit of all shareholders, provided that the bank receives reasonable... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank compensation. 2.5 Section 2.5 Banks...

  19. 12 CFR 204.121 - Bankers' banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Federal Home Loan Bank, or in the National Credit Union Administration Central Liquidity Facility if the... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bankers' banks. 204.121 Section 204.121 Banks... REQUIREMENTS OF DEPOSITORY INSTITUTIONS (REGULATION D) Interpretations § 204.121 Bankers' banks. (a)(1)...

  20. Are Chinese Banks Ready for Foreigners?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Banking reform is crucial to China, as banks dominate the country's financial system. The banking sector is dominated by four state-owned commercial banks-the ICBC, the CCB, the BOC, and the Agricultural Bank of China (ABC). The listing of the Bank of Communications (BOCOM), China's fifth

  1. Comparative Study on the Banking Performances at BCR ERSTE BANK, BRD – GSG and Raiffeisen Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia MITITELU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to make a comparison between the performances of three banks in the banking system in Romania, considered the most representative but also to achieve their classifications and identify correlations between a number of used indicators and indicators expressing banking performance.

  2. Sharing China's Bank Restructuring Bill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guonan Ma

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the questions related to the cost of China's bank restructuring and how it has been financed. We first propose a framework for recognizing losses. Then, we examine the recent major moves by the Chinese Government to repair the country's bank balance sheets. Finally, we explore the implications of the Chinese Government's methods of funding bank restructuring. We find that the Chinese Government has been decisive in confronting the costly task of bank restructuring. So far, Chinese taxpayers have paid most of the bill for bank restructuring.

  3. B-Plant D-Filter detector system qualification test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, G.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-23

    This report summarizes the results of qualification testing of the B Plant D-Filter Detector System. The purpose of this test was to verify that the system meets the performance requirements and that the unit is ready for field deployment. Testing was performed in the test pit in the 306E Facility. This detector system will be deployed in the B Plant D-Filter to measure beta/gamma dose rates from the filter bank.

  4. Generalized Hampel Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Ronald K.; Neuvo, Yrjö; Astola, Jaakko; Gabbouj, Moncef

    2016-12-01

    The standard median filter based on a symmetric moving window has only one tuning parameter: the window width. Despite this limitation, this filter has proven extremely useful and has motivated a number of extensions: weighted median filters, recursive median filters, and various cascade structures. The Hampel filter is a member of the class of decsion filters that replaces the central value in the data window with the median if it lies far enough from the median to be deemed an outlier. This filter depends on both the window width and an additional tuning parameter t, reducing to the median filter when t=0, so it may be regarded as another median filter extension. This paper adopts this view, defining and exploring the class of generalized Hampel filters obtained by applying the median filter extensions listed above: weighted Hampel filters, recursive Hampel filters, and their cascades. An important concept introduced here is that of an implosion sequence, a signal for which generalized Hampel filter performance is independent of the threshold parameter t. These sequences are important because the added flexibility of the generalized Hampel filters offers no practical advantage for implosion sequences. Partial characterization results are presented for these sequences, as are useful relationships between root sequences for generalized Hampel filters and their median-based counterparts. To illustrate the performance of this filter class, two examples are considered: one is simulation-based, providing a basis for quantitative evaluation of signal recovery performance as a function of t, while the other is a sequence of monthly Italian industrial production index values that exhibits glaring outliers.

  5. ANALISIS PENYALURAN DANA BANK SYARIAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siswati

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to describe the characteristics of Third Party Funds (TPF, Non-Performing Financing (NPF, Bank Indonesia Certificates Wadiah (SWBI, and funds Islamic Bank Mega Indonesia. Moreover to analyze the influence of DPK, NPF, and the bonus SWBI simultaneously or partially on the distribution of funds provided by the Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia. The sample in this study is the monthly financial report of Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia in 2005-2007. The results of this research showed that DPK, NPF, and Bonus SWBI simultaneous effect on the distribution of funds committed by Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia at 99.2% and the remaining 0.8% influenced by other factors that are not revealed in this study. DPK is partially positive and significant effect on the distribution of funds Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia at 98.65%, while the NPF and Bonus SWBI insignificant effect on the partial distribution of funds committed by Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia.

  6. INFORMATION FROM THE BANK

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-01-01

    The UBS will be integrating its two computer platforms during the weekend of 24 April.This operation involves changing your account card and Eurocheque card, which will be sent to you by post.Those who receive their bank correspondence at CERN may obtain their codes from the branch there.The security and rapidity of this procedure will be helped by the presentation of an identity document.Despite the precautions taken, problems may be experienced with the operation of the cash-points during that weekend.The bank's staff would like to offer apologies in advance for any difficulties and are at your disposal for any information you may need.UBS

  7. Danske Bank vildleder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    2014-01-01

    EN VIDEO på Danske Banks hjemmeside fremstiller banker som neutrale formidlere af penge. Den giver et misvisende indtryk af passivitet og harmløshed og strider stærkt mod de fleste menneskers oplevelse af banker som særdeles aktive, næsten aggressive I årene op til finanskrisen 2008, og stærktmed......EN VIDEO på Danske Banks hjemmeside fremstiller banker som neutrale formidlere af penge. Den giver et misvisende indtryk af passivitet og harmløshed og strider stærkt mod de fleste menneskers oplevelse af banker som særdeles aktive, næsten aggressive I årene op til finanskrisen 2008, og...

  8. ANALISIS PENYALURAN DANA BANK SYARIAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siswati -

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan karakteristik Dana Pihak Ketiga (DPK, Non Performing Financing (NPF, Sertifikat Wadiah Bank Indonesia (SWBI, dan penyaluran dana Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia. Serta untuk menganalisis pengaruh DPK, NPF, dan bonus SWBI secara simultan maupun parsial terhadap penyaluran dana yang diberikan oleh Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia. Sampel dalam penelitian ini adalah laporan keuangan bulanan Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia tahun 2005-2007. Hasil penelitan ini menunjukkan bahwa DPK, NPF, dan Bonus SWBI berpengaruh secara simultan terhadap penyaluran dana yang dilakukan oleh Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia sebesar 99,2% dan sisanya 0,8%  dipengaruhi oleh faktor lain yang tidak diungkap dalam penelitian ini. Secara parsial DPK berpengaruh positif dan signifikan terhadap penyaluran dana Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia sebesar 98,65%, sedangkan NPF dan Bonus SWBI tidak signifikan berpengaruh secara parsial terhadap penyaluran dana yang dilakukan oleh Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia.This study aims to describe the characteristics of Third Party Funds (TPF, Non-Performing Financing (NPF, Bank Indonesia Certificates Wadiah (SWBI, and funds Islamic Bank Mega Indonesia. Moreover to analyze the influence of DPK, NPF, and the bonus SWBI simultaneously or partially on the distribution of funds provided by the Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia. The sample in this study is the monthly financial report of Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia in 2005-2007. The results of this research showed that DPK, NPF, and Bonus SWBI simultaneous effect on the distribution of funds committed by Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia at 99.2% and the remaining 0.8% influenced by other factors that are not revealed in this study. DPK is partially positive and significant effect on the distribution of funds Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia at 98.65%, while the NPF and Bonus SWBI insignificant effect on the partial distribution of funds committed by Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia.

  9. Banking on Corporate Social Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Rice

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This exploratory study set out to understand the true value of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR in the banking sector. Businesses, including banks, actively participate in CSR but the question of value still persists. What does the bank receive in return for participating in CSR? Do banks get more customers as a result of their CSR programmes? Do banks have a better customer retention rate because of their CSR programme? Will customers change banks purely because they disagree with their banks CSR programme? These were some of the issues addressed but due to the small sample size, the findings cannot be generalised. The study did not find any significant, positive nor negative relationship, between CSR and the bank customers; meaning the tests could not provide evidence that for instance CSR programmes should be targeted towards female customers or customers of a certain age or income bracket. More importantly 80% of the respondents did not consider CSR an issue that was important enough to affect their choice of banks. They will not switch banks purely based on a bank’s CSR programme. Understandably they were more interested in bank fees and interest rates. These issues directly affected their reason for choosing a particular bank. So the question of why banks, and presumably other businesses, still participate and spend a lot of money on CSR when their customers do not seem to place much value on it, still persists. The findings suggest that a much larger study on the topic is warranted. It will aid banks and other businesses decide on their role in corporate social responsibility. Whose needs are being satisfied by participating in CSR?

  10. Virtual blood bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kit Fai

    2011-01-24

    Virtual blood bank is the computer-controlled, electronically linked information management system that allows online ordering and real-time, remote delivery of blood for transfusion. It connects the site of testing to the point of care at a remote site in a real-time fashion with networked computers thus maintaining the integrity of immunohematology test results. It has taken the advantages of information and communication technologies to ensure the accuracy of patient, specimen and blood component identification and to enhance personnel traceability and system security. The built-in logics and process constraints in the design of the virtual blood bank can guide the selection of appropriate blood and minimize transfusion risk. The quality of blood inventory is ascertained and monitored, and an audit trail for critical procedures in the transfusion process is provided by the paperless system. Thus, the virtual blood bank can help ensure that the right patient receives the right amount of the right blood component at the right time.

  11. Virtual blood bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kit Fai Wong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtual blood bank is the computer-controlled, electronically linked information management system that allows online ordering and real-time, remote delivery of blood for transfusion. It connects the site of testing to the point of care at a remote site in a real-time fashion with networked computers thus maintaining the integrity of immunohematology test results. It has taken the advantages of information and communication technologies to ensure the accuracy of patient, specimen and blood component identification and to enhance personnel traceability and system security. The built-in logics and process constraints in the design of the virtual blood bank can guide the selection of appropriate blood and minimize transfusion risk. The quality of blood inventory is ascertained and monitored, and an audit trail for critical procedures in the transfusion process is provided by the paperless system. Thus, the virtual blood bank can help ensure that the right patient receives the right amount of the right blood component at the right time.

  12. 12 CFR 614.4352 - Farm Credit Banks and agricultural credit banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farm Credit Banks and agricultural credit banks. 614.4352 Section 614.4352 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Lending and Leasing Limits § 614.4352 Farm Credit Banks and agricultural...

  13. MST Filterability Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Duignan, M. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-03-12

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently treating radioactive liquid waste with the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). The low filter flux through the ARP has limited the rate at which radioactive liquid waste can be treated. Recent filter flux has averaged approximately 5 gallons per minute (gpm). Salt Batch 6 has had a lower processing rate and required frequent filter cleaning. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has a desire to understand the causes of the low filter flux and to increase ARP/MCU throughput. In addition, at the time the testing started, SRR was assessing the impact of replacing the 0.1 micron filter with a 0.5 micron filter. This report describes testing of MST filterability to investigate the impact of filter pore size and MST particle size on filter flux and testing of filter enhancers to attempt to increase filter flux. The authors constructed a laboratory-scale crossflow filter apparatus with two crossflow filters operating in parallel. One filter was a 0.1 micron Mott sintered SS filter and the other was a 0.5 micron Mott sintered SS filter. The authors also constructed a dead-end filtration apparatus to conduct screening tests with potential filter aids and body feeds, referred to as filter enhancers. The original baseline for ARP was 5.6 M sodium salt solution with a free hydroxide concentration of approximately 1.7 M.3 ARP has been operating with a sodium concentration of approximately 6.4 M and a free hydroxide concentration of approximately 2.5 M. SRNL conducted tests varying the concentration of sodium and free hydroxide to determine whether those changes had a significant effect on filter flux. The feed slurries for the MST filterability tests were composed of simple salts (NaOH, NaNO2, and NaNO3) and MST (0.2 – 4.8 g/L). The feed slurry for the filter enhancer tests contained simulated salt batch 6 supernate, MST, and filter enhancers.

  14. Transmission Properties of W3 Y-Branch Filters in Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Slabs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Cheng; CHENG Bing-Ying; ZHANG Dao-Zhong; REN Kun; LIU Rong-Juan; TAO Hai-Hua; FENG Shuai; XIONG Zhi-Gang; LIU Ya-Zhao; TIAN Jie; LI Zhi-Yuan

    2007-01-01

    A highly efficient W3 Y-branch filter in a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab with triangular lattice of air holes is designed and fabricated, and its transmission properties are measured. By accurately adjusting the size of the resonant cavities, the minimum wavelength spacing of 7nm between two channels is realized. The corresponding resonant wavelengths of the two cavities agree well with the calculated ones. This implies that this kind of filter may be promising in integrated wavelength division multiplexing system.

  15. Guided image filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Kaiming; Sun, Jian; Tang, Xiaoou

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel explicit image filter called guided filter. Derived from a local linear model, the guided filter computes the filtering output by considering the content of a guidance image, which can be the input image itself or another different image. The guided filter can be used as an edge-preserving smoothing operator like the popular bilateral filter [1], but it has better behaviors near edges. The guided filter is also a more generic concept beyond smoothing: It can transfer the structures of the guidance image to the filtering output, enabling new filtering applications like dehazing and guided feathering. Moreover, the guided filter naturally has a fast and nonapproximate linear time algorithm, regardless of the kernel size and the intensity range. Currently, it is one of the fastest edge-preserving filters. Experiments show that the guided filter is both effective and efficient in a great variety of computer vision and computer graphics applications, including edge-aware smoothing, detail enhancement, HDR compression, image matting/feathering, dehazing, joint upsampling, etc.

  16. CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR FROM ONLINE BANKING TO MOBILE BANKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chian-Son Yu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Through investigating factors that influence consumers to make a transition from online to mobile banking, this empirical study shows that relative attitude and relative subjective norm positively motivated respondents to switch from Internet to mobile banking while relative perceived behavior control deterred respondents from transitioning. Empirical results also demonstrated that Internet banking is superior to mobile banking in terms of consumer relative compatibility, self-efficacy, resource facilitating conditions, and technology facilitating conditions. Meanwhile, mobile banking emerged as superior to Internet banking for other constructs. By adding a comparative concept into an extended decomposed theory of planned behavior (DTPB model, this study may expand the applicable domain of current social psychology theories from the adoption of single products or services to the choice between competing products or services that achieve similar purposes and functions.

  17. BANKING SYSTEM STABILITY: COMMERCIAL AND CO-OPERATIVE BANKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru-Cristian OANEA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Commercial banks and co-operative banks are credit institutions, but there are some differences between the main operations proceeded by each of them. Based on these specific characteristics, we want to identify the manner in which financial crisis affected their activity. As we all know, the financial crisis had a major impact in the United States, the “natal” country of the crisis, because great banks such as Lehman Brothers or Merrill Lynch have bankrupted. Even if the Romanian banking system was not affected by such catastrophic situations, surely the financial crisis had a significant impact on it. This topic is worth to be analysed, because we would be able to identify the risk differences between these two types of business: commercial banks versus co-operative banks.

  18. RASIONALITAS KONVERSI BANK KONVENSIONAL KE BANK SYARI’AH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aji Damanuri

    2016-02-01

    Aji Damanuri   Abstract: Shari>’ah banking, for the last ten years, has increased in prosperity not only at the quantity of conventional banks but also at the count of assets and customers. This economical opportunity drives amount of conventional banks both to convert their institutions to be shari>’ah banks and to open officially shari>’ah platform units with their own assets. This system takes a significant question, is the conversion effected by both banker ideological factor and capitalists or pure economical rational calculation? Is a religious consideration linked to economical rationality? This paper is to elaborate the conversion using not only ‘choice theory’ (teori pilihan but also ‘rational action’ (tindakan rasional to seek religious action possibility in a reasonable way of shari>’ah banking.   Keywords: shari>’ah bank, conversion, rational action, religiosity.

  19. PENERAPAN KETENTUAN KEPAILITAN PADA BANK YANG BERMASALAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Purwadi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Legal research is motivated that the Bank is a business entity that has special characteristics that revocation of business licenses, corporate dissolution, and liquidation of the bank can not be equated with generally accepted procedures. In this situation the bank can not resolve the difficulty or the circumstances of the bank concerned endanger the national banking system will require the role of BankIndonesia. Is bankruptcy can be applied to troubled banks? By using the normative approach, based on the provisions of the Banking Law, BankIndonesiais authorized to revoke the business licenses of problem banks. Bankruptcy law also authorizes the Bank Indonesia to file bankruptcy for troubled banks. So far, BankIndonesiain dealing with troubled banks after a failed rescue attempt using the process of liquidation, bankruptcy efforts have not used.

  20. MOBILE BANKING AND SUSTAINABLE GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Srivastava

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses about awareness of mobile banking services and their possible contribution towards sustainable growth. This study attempts to look into the issues regarding mobile banking services and their possible contribution in financial inclusion in India. With the help of this study author tries to focus those areas where banks can provide these mobile banking services. If this service is adopted in a positive manner it can drastically change the scenario of Financial Inclusion. For a successful financial inclusion i.e., inclusive growth, in this era, combination of both the services i.e., banking as well as mobile is very much required. Mobile banking which can be termed as virtual banking can do wonders for the economy, because these days growth in economy is possible with the help of financial inclusion and in current scenario, statistics reveals that it is very easy with the help of mobile banking. This study has been done in two phases. First phase discusses about awareness of M-banking services and Second phase discusses about possible contribution of mobile banking towards financial inclusion. M-banking in India, as assessed by the govt. can work as a potent tool for financial inclusion, is yet to clear many hurdles before it can fulfill its objective of reaching the unbanked population. In fact including rural subscribers in the banking net can help in inclusive growth, as it not very difficult to go for a mobile phone rather than going for a computer in rural areas. This service can do wonders if implemented effectively and sincerely. If any service is provided, there are always two sides, supply side and demand side. M-banking in India, as assessed by the govt. can work as a potent tool for financial inclusion, is yet to clear many hurdles before it can fulfill its objective of reaching the unbanked population. If this service is adopted in a positive manner it can drastically change the scenario of Financial Inclusion.

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION, TEST REPORT OF CONTROL OF BIOAEROSOLS IN HVAC SYSTEMS, FILTRATION GROUP, AEROSTAR FP-98 MINIPLEAT V-BLANK FILTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the AeroStar FP-98 Minipleat V-Bank Filter air filter for dust and bioaerosol filtration manufactured by Filtration Group. The pressure drop across the filter was 137 Pa clean and 348 Pa ...

  2. Umbilical cord blood banks. Ethical aspects. Public versus private banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar Lucea, Justo

    2012-01-01

    The creation of umbilical cord blood (UCB) banks raises interesting medical, social, economic and ethical issues. This paper reviews the ethical problems specifically. In this respect, it evaluates: a) whether there are advantages to the use of UCB compared to bone marrow, b) whether or not it is ethical to create UCB banks, c) whether their creation is ethically acceptable in terms of their clinical usefulness or d) the use made of them for therapeutic purposes, and finally e) whether their creation is ethically justified from a cost/profitability point of view. We focus primarily on evaluating the ethical controversy between public and private banks, particularly on whether it is ethical to bank autologous blood in private UCB banks, on the basis of its limited possibilities for use by the cord blood donor. We can conclude that, from an ethical point of view, autologous blood banks have limited acceptance among specialised researchers, scientific societies and other public institutions. Therefore, we believe that it is ethically more acceptable to support the creation of public UCB banks for medical and social reasons and, above all, based on the principle of justice and human solidarity. Nevertheless, there is no definitive ethical argument why a couple, according to their autonomy and freedom, cannot bank their child's UCB in a private bank. An equally acceptable solution could be the creation of mixed banks, such as that proposed by the Virgin Health Bank or like the Spanish system where autologous samples can be stored in public banks but with the proviso that if at any time the stored sample is required by any person other than the donor, it would have to be given to them.

  3. MANAGING DISRUPTIVE TECHNOLOGY — INTERNET BANKING VENTURES FOR TRADITIONAL BANKS

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen K. Callaway; Hamilton, Robert D.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the perception of the nature of technological change for Internet Banking by proposing and testing a model of the strategic management of online banking by traditional banks. Specifically, this empirical study uses a stratified sample of the FDIC database to address how perception of the technology and the environmental context (knowledge of cause-effect relations and crystallized outcome standards) impact internal and external constituency relationships (including social ...

  4. Greece and the Missing Banking Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    N. Gordon, Jeffery; Ringe, Georg

    2015-01-01

    The Greek Crisis is a crisis rather than a problem due to the vulnerability of Greek banks. While the banks have deep problems, this column argues that these would have been mitigated if a fully operational banking union were in place. A full banking union requires joint banking supervision, joint...... bank resolution, and joint deposit insurance. The EZ only has the first so far. Completing the banking union must be part of any long-term solution....

  5. Greece and the Missing Banking Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    N. Gordon, Jeffery; Ringe, Georg

    2015-01-01

    The Greek Crisis is a crisis rather than a problem due to the vulnerability of Greek banks. While the banks have deep problems, this column argues that these would have been mitigated if a fully operational banking union were in place. A full banking union requires joint banking supervision, joint...... bank resolution, and joint deposit insurance. The EZ only has the first so far. Completing the banking union must be part of any long-term solution....

  6. Customer perceptions on Internet banking information protection

    OpenAIRE

    André Redlinghuis; Chris Rensleigh

    2010-01-01

    Background: South Africa has a well-developed and established banking system which compares favourably with those in many developed countries (e.g. USA), but also sets South Africa apart from many other emerging market countries like Egypt and Brazil. Four dominant banks, namely the Amalgamated Banks of South Africa (ABSA), Standard Bank, Nedcor and First National Bank (FNB) influence the South African banking environment. Internet banking has slowly been taking off in South Africa since 1996...

  7. Computer Aided Filter Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    FIR filter can be described in the following. [Ref. 2] 1. FIR filters with exact linear phase can be easily designed. Linear phase filters are important...response for the four cases of linear phase filter , i.e., even or odd symmetry with an even or odd number of terms, can be written in the form: H (eJ ) = e...Ansari, The Design and Application of Optimal FIR Fractional Phase Filters , IEEE on Acoutics, Speech and Signal Processing, Vol. 2, 1987, pp.896-899. 77 14

  8. A unified Kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubberud, Allen R.

    2017-01-01

    When considering problems of linear sequential estimation, two versions of the Kalman filter, the continuous-time version and the discrete-time version, are often used. (A hybrid filter also exists.) In many applications in which the Kalman filter is used, the system to which the filter is applied is a linear continuous-time system, but the Kalman filter is implemented on a digital computer, a discrete-time device. The two general approaches for developing a discrete-time filter for implementation on a digital computer are: (1) approximate the continuous-time system by a discrete-time system (called discretization of the continuous-time system) and develop a filter for the discrete-time approximation; and (2) develop a continuous-time filter for the system and then discretize the continuous-time filter. Generally, the two discrete-time filters will be different, that is, it can be said that discretization and filter generation are not, in general, commutative operations. As a result, any relationship between the discrete-time and continuous-time versions of the filter for the same continuous-time system is often obfuscated. This is particularly true when an attempt is made to generate the continuous-time version of the Kalman filter through a simple limiting process (the sample period going to zero) applied to the discrete-time version. The correct result is, generally, not obtained. In a 1961 research report, Kalman showed that the continuous-time Kalman filter can be obtained from the discrete-time Kalman filter by taking limits as the sample period goes to zero if the white noise process for the continuous-time version is appropriately defined. Using this basic concept, a discrete-time Kalman filter can be developed for a continuous-time system as follows: (1) discretize the continuous-time system using Kalman's technique; and (2) develop a discrete-time Kalman filter for that discrete-time system. Kalman's results show that the discrete-time filter generated in

  9. Bias aware Kalman filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drecourt, J.-P.; Madsen, H.; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2006-01-01

    . The colored noise filter formulation is extended to correct both time correlated and uncorrelated model error components. A more stable version of the separate filter without feedback is presented. The filters are implemented in an ensemble framework using Latin hypercube sampling. The techniques...... are illustrated on a simple one-dimensional groundwater problem. The results show that the presented filters outperform the standard Kalman filter and that the implementations with bias feedback work in more general conditions than the implementations without feedback. 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  10. Multimodal biometric fusion using multiple-input correlation filter classifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennings, Pablo; Savvides, Marios; Vijaya Kumar, B. V. K.

    2005-03-01

    In this work we apply a computationally efficient, closed form design of a jointly optimized filter bank of correlation filter classifiers for biometric verification with the use of multiple biometrics from individuals. Advanced correlation filters have been used successfully for biometric classification, and have shown robustness in verifying faces, palmprints and fingerprints. In this study we address the issues of performing robust biometric verification when multiple biometrics from the same person are available at the moment of authentication; we implement biometric fusion by using a filter bank of correlation filter classifiers which are jointly optimized with each biometric, instead of designing separate independent correlation filter classifiers for each biometric and then fuse the resulting match scores. We present results using fingerprint and palmprint images from a data set of 40 people, showing a considerable advantage in verification performance producing a large margin of separation between the impostor and authentic match scores. The method proposed in this paper is a robust and secure method for authenticating an individual.

  11. Ceramic fiber filter technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, B.L.; Janney, M.A.

    1996-06-01

    Fibrous filters have been used for centuries to protect individuals from dust, disease, smoke, and other gases or particulates. In the 1970s and 1980s ceramic filters were developed for filtration of hot exhaust gases from diesel engines. Tubular, or candle, filters have been made to remove particles from gases in pressurized fluidized-bed combustion and gasification-combined-cycle power plants. Very efficient filtration is necessary in power plants to protect the turbine blades. The limited lifespan of ceramic candle filters has been a major obstacle in their development. The present work is focused on forming fibrous ceramic filters using a papermaking technique. These filters are highly porous and therefore very lightweight. The papermaking process consists of filtering a slurry of ceramic fibers through a steel screen to form paper. Papermaking and the selection of materials will be discussed, as well as preliminary results describing the geometry of papers and relative strengths.

  12. Payments and Central Bank Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Søren

    This thesis consists of three chapters. The rst, "Paying for Payments", examines the role of interchange fees in payment card networks. The second, "Bank Liquidity and the Interbank Market" (co-authored with Mikael Reimer Jensen), investigates how banks' liquidity holdings at the central bank a ect...... outcomes in the money market. The third, "Collateralized Lending and Central Bank Collateral Policy", considers the emergence of credit constraints under collateralized lending, and how central banks use collateral policy to mitigate these constraints. While the chapters can be read independently......, they share common themes. Each chapter is concerned with payments in one way or another, each is concerned with the e ciency of market outcomes, and, to the extent that there is scope for improving these outcomes, each discusses the appropriate role for policy, in particular central bank policy....

  13. Payments and Central Bank Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Søren

    This thesis consists of three chapters. The rst, "Paying for Payments", examines the role of interchange fees in payment card networks. The second, "Bank Liquidity and the Interbank Market" (co-authored with Mikael Reimer Jensen), investigates how banks' liquidity holdings at the central bank a ect...... outcomes in the money market. The third, "Collateralized Lending and Central Bank Collateral Policy", considers the emergence of credit constraints under collateralized lending, and how central banks use collateral policy to mitigate these constraints. While the chapters can be read independently......, they share common themes. Each chapter is concerned with payments in one way or another, each is concerned with the e ciency of market outcomes, and, to the extent that there is scope for improving these outcomes, each discusses the appropriate role for policy, in particular central bank policy....

  14. Integrated Analogic Filter Tuning System Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolis Kiela

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Parameters of integrated analog filters can vary due to temperatu-re change, IC process variation and therefore they should have dedicated tuning circuits that compensate these imperfections. A method is proposed that speeds up switched resistor bank design while taking into account the required tuning range and step size. A novel counter structure is used in the tuning circuit that is ba-sed on successive approximation approach. The proposed swit-ched resistor design method and tuning circuit are designed in 0.18 μm CMOS technology and verified. Results are compared to existing tuning circuit designs.

  15. Development of two-channel prototype ITER vacuum ultraviolet spectrometer with back-illuminated charge-coupled device and microchannel plate detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seon, C R; Choi, S H; Cheon, M S; Pak, S; Lee, H G; Biel, W; Barnsley, R

    2010-10-01

    A vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectrometer of a five-channel spectral system is designed for ITER main plasma impurity measurement. To develop and verify the system design, a two-channel prototype system is fabricated with No. 3 (14.4-31.8 nm) and No. 4 (29.0-60.0 nm) among the five channels. The optical system consists of a collimating mirror to collect the light from source to slit, two holographic diffraction gratings with toroidal geometry, and two different electronic detectors. For the test of the prototype system, a hollow cathode lamp is used as a light source. To find the appropriate detector for ITER VUV system, two kinds of detectors of the back-illuminated charge-coupled device and the microchannel plate electron multiplier are tested, and their performance has been investigated.

  16. Network-Based Robust H₂/H∞ Control for Linear Systems With Two-Channel Random Packet Dropouts and Time Delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Li; Shi, Yang; Yao, Fengqi; Xu, Gang; Xu, Bugong

    2015-08-01

    This paper focuses on the robust output feedback H₂/H∞ control issue for a class of discrete-time networked control systems with uncertain parameters and external disturbance. Sensor-to-controller and controller-to-actuator packet dropouts and time delays are considered simultaneously. According to the stochastic characteristic of the packet dropouts and time delays, a model based on a Markov jump system framework is proposed to randomly compensate for the adverse effect of the two-channel packet dropouts and time delays. To analyze the robust stability of the resulting closed-loop system, a Lyapunov function is proposed, based on which sufficient conditions for the existence of the H₂/H∞ controller are derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities, ensuring robust stochastic stability as well as the prescribed H₂ and H∞ performance. Finally, an angular positioning system is exploited to demonstrate the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed design strategy.

  17. Stable two-channel Kondo fixed point of an SU(3) quantum defect in a metal: renormalization-group analysis and conductance spikes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Michael; Langenbruch, Tobias; Kroha, Johann

    2007-11-02

    We propose a physical realization of the two-channel Kondo (2CK) effect, where a dynamical defect in a metal has a unique ground state and twofold degenerate excited states. In a wide range of parameters the interactions with the electrons renormalize the excited doublet downward below the bare defect ground state, thus stabilizing the 2CK fixed point. In addition to the Kondo temperature T(K) the three-state defect exhibits another low-energy scale, associated with ground-to-excited-state transitions, which can be exponentially smaller than T(K). Using the perturbative nonequilibrium renormalization group we demonstrate that this can provide the long-sought explanation of the sharp conductance spikes observed by Ralph and Buhrman in ultrasmall metallic point contacts.

  18. 76 FR 2383 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants... Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors...: 1. SG-BBC, LLC, and The Stephens Group, LLC, both of Little Rock, Arkansas; to acquire voting...

  19. 77 FR 64115 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants... Banking Corporation, and thereby indirectly acquire voting shares of Security State Bank, both in...

  20. 76 FR 16776 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants... Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors... Apple Valley, Minnesota; to acquire voting shares of Bridgewater Bancshares, Inc., and thereby...

  1. BEATING BANKS THROUGH KNOWLEDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica CALU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, in the last decade, a significant number of solutions favorable to consumers with foreign currency denominated loans were obtained in courts against the banks or non-bank financial institutions. The judges noted the unfairness of the contractual terms inserted in the loans agreement and absolute nullity of these clauses. Also, in the context of the global economic and financial crisis triggered by the collapse of the banking system with the consequence of depreciation and/or sudden and high fluctuation of domestic currencies against the “safe-heaven currencies”, the theory of unpredictability becomes a particularly important institution. This paper deals with the concepts of „abusive clauses”, „unfair commercial practices” and „providing untruthful information to consumers to influence their choices”. It is also presenting a view of good faith and equity on the performance of contract and the “distribution of the risk” of the contract in the conditions of applying to the “unpredictability theory” in the context of terms of law doctrine and the relevant case law. The objective of this study is to demonstrate that by applying the theory of unpredictability to the occurrence of currency risk associated with loans in foreign currency and by subjecting to examination by court to the clauses whereby the consumer must assume the risk given by the changing of the circumstances of the execution of the contract can be obtain by the consumer or a rebalancing of the understanding of the parties or the cancellation clause which significantly unbalanced the consumer's obligation to bear any risk.

  2. Multi-point measurement using two-channel reflectometer with antenna switching for study of high-frequency fluctuations in GAMMA 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikezoe, R.; Ichimura, M.; Okada, T.; Itagaki, J.; Hirata, M.; Sumida, S.; Jang, S.; Izumi, K.; Tanaka, A.; Yoshikawa, M.; Kohagura, J.; Sakamoto, M.; Nakashima, Y.

    2017-03-01

    A two-channel microwave reflectometer system with fast microwave antenna switching capability was developed and applied to the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror device to study high-frequency small-amplitude fluctuations in a hot mirror plasma. The fast switching of the antennas is controlled using PIN diode switches, which offers the significant advantage of reducing the number of high-cost microwave components and digitizers with high bandwidths and large memory that are required to measure the spatiotemporal behavior of the high-frequency fluctuations. The use of two channels rather than one adds the important function of a simultaneous two-point measurement in either the radial direction or the direction of the antenna array to measure the phase profile of the fluctuations along with the normal amplitude profile. The density fluctuations measured using this system clearly showed the high-frequency coherent fluctuations that are associated with Alfvén-ion-cyclotron (AIC) waves in GAMMA 10. A correlation analysis applied to simultaneously measured density fluctuations showed that the phase component that was included in a reflected microwave provided both high coherence and a clear phase difference for the AIC waves, while the amplitude component showed neither significant coherence nor clear phase difference. The axial phase differences of the AIC waves measured inside the hot plasma confirmed the formation of a standing wave structure. The axial variation of the radial profiles was evaluated and a clear difference was found among the AIC waves for the first time, which would be a key to clarify the unknown boundary conditions of the AIC waves.

  3. "Credit Markets and Narrow Banking"

    OpenAIRE

    Ronnie Phillips

    1992-01-01

    Maurice Allais's view that the credit created by fractional reserve banking is equivalent to counterfeiting has led him to recommend the separation of the depository and lending functions of banks. This proposal has recently been reintroduced by James Tobin and others under the term "narrow banking." Proponents cite the potential for enhanced safety of the payments mechanism and the elimination of costs associated with the preses system of Federal deposit insurance. This plan resembles the "1...

  4. The Promotion of Banking Services

    OpenAIRE

    IVAN Rica

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the scientific approach is to demonstrate the usefulness of the adoption of modern promotion techniques in the actual financialbanking sector, in addition to the classical techniques. To achieve this end, the investigation of the Romanianfinancial-banking sector has been deeply conducted, by evaluating the market relations existing between the financial and banking institutions and individuals, as well as promotional techniques adopted by banks, during the communication process...

  5. Credit risk management in banks

    OpenAIRE

    Pětníková, Tereza

    2014-01-01

    The subject of this diploma thesis is managing credit risk in banks, as the most significant risk faced by banks. The aim of this work is to define the basic techniques, tools and methods that are used by banks to manage credit risk. The first part of this work focuses on defining these procedures and describes the entire process of credit risk management, from the definition of credit risk, describing credit strategy and policy, organizational structure, defining the most used credit risk mi...

  6. Improving public disclosure in banking

    OpenAIRE

    anonymous

    2000-01-01

    The use of market discipline as a complement to bank supervision and regulation has gained greater acceptance in the United States and abroad. It is also widely recognized that effective market discipline depends on market participants' having information about the risks and financial condition of banking organizations. Therefore, attention is being focused increasingly on ways to improve transparency in banking. Staff of the Federal Reserve System undertook a staff study, Improving Public Di...

  7. GenBank

    OpenAIRE

    Burks, Christian; Cassidy, Maxxwell; Cinkosky, Michael J.; Cumella, Karen E.; Gilna, Paul; Hayden, Jamie E.-D.; Keen, Gifford M.; Kelley, Tom A.; Kelly, Michael; Kristofferson, David; Ryals, Julie

    1991-01-01

    The GenBank nucleotide sequence database now contains sequence data and associated annotation corresponding to 56,000,000 nucleotides in 45,000 entries. The input stream of data coming into the database has largely been shifted to direct submissions from the scientific community on electronic media. The data have been installed in a relational database management system and are made available in this form through on-line access, and through various network and off-line computer-readable media...

  8. Fractional Reserve Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Andreasen, Niels; Bjerregaard, Mads; Lund, Jonas; Olsen, Ove Bitsch; Rasmussen, Andreas Dalgas

    2012-01-01

    Projektet er bygget op omkring kritisk realisme, som er det gennemgående videnskabelige fundament til undersøgelsen af hvilke strukturelle grunde der er til finansiel ustabilitet i Danmark. Projektet går i dybden med Fractional Reserve Banking og incitamentsstrukturen i banksystemet. Vi bevæger os både på det makro- og mikroøkonomiske niveau i analysen. På makro niveau bruger vi den østrigske skole om konjunktur teori (The Positive Theory of the Cycle). På mikro niveau arbejder vi med princip...

  9. Fractional Reserve Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Andreasen, Niels; Bjerregaard, Mads; Lund, Jonas; Olsen, Ove Bitsch; Rasmussen, Andreas Dalgas

    2012-01-01

    Projektet er bygget op omkring kritisk realisme, som er det gennemgående videnskabelige fundament til undersøgelsen af hvilke strukturelle grunde der er til finansiel ustabilitet i Danmark. Projektet går i dybden med Fractional Reserve Banking og incitamentsstrukturen i banksystemet. Vi bevæger os både på det makro- og mikroøkonomiske niveau i analysen. På makro niveau bruger vi den østrigske skole om konjunktur teori (The Positive Theory of the Cycle). På mikro niveau arbejder vi med princip...

  10. Jordan Banks Financial Soundness Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imad Kutum

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research paper is to examine the Jordanian banks using financial soundness indicators. This is to establish if Jordanian banks were affected because of the 2007/2008 financial crisis and determine the underlying reasons. The research paper was conducted on 25 banks in Jordan listed in the countries securities exchange. The research methodology used consisted of examining the banks financial records in order to derive four crucial Basel III ratio such as the capital adequacy ratio, the leverage ratio, the liquidity ratio and finally the Total Provisions (As % Of Non-Performing Loans %. The results revealed that out of the four hypotheses under examination Jordan Banks do not meet Basel financial Indicators for Capital Adequacy Ratio, Jordan Banks does not meet Basel financial Indicators for Liquidity Ratio , Jordan Banks do not meet Basel financial Indicators for Leverage Ratio and Jordan Banks do not meet Basel financial Indicators for Total Provisions (As % Of Non-Performing Loans ratio. Only one hypothesis was accepted based on the research outcomes. The rest of the hypothesis was rejected since the average trend line did not go below the Basel III required ratio level. The general outcome of the research revealed that Jordanian banks were not affected significantly by the financial crisis.

  11. Halcyon Days of the Banks?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    With limited exposure to the global financial crisis, Chinese banks have remained profitable for the past three quarters while the rest of the world has groaned under the spreading global financial turmoil, China’s banking industry reported another season of good harvest when 14 listed banks all managed to secure high net profit growth in the first three quarters of this year. According to their quarterly reports, the 14 banks reaped a total of 334.1 billion yuan ($49 billion) in net profit during the period,

  12. Breaking e-Banking CAPTCHAs

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Shujun; Shah, Syed Amier Haider; Khan, Muhammad Asad Usman; Khayam, Syed Ali; Sadeghi, Ahmad-Reza; Schmitz, Roland

    2010-01-01

    Many financial institutions have deployed CAPTCHAs to protect their services (e.g., e-banking) from automated attacks. In addition to CAPTCHAs for login, CAPTCHAs are also used to prevent malicious manipulation of e-banking transactions by automated Man-in-the-Middle (MitM) attackers. Despite serious financial risks, security of e-banking CAPTCHAs is largely unexplored. In this paper, we report the first comprehensive study on e-banking CAPTCHAs deployed around the world. A new set of image p...

  13. Three-zone pupil filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Colin J. R.; Campos, Juan; Escalera, Juan C.; Ledesma, Silvia

    2008-07-01

    The performance of pupil filters consisting of three zones each of constant complex amplitude transmittance is investigated. For filters where the transmittance is real, different classes of potentially useful filter are identified. These include leaky filters with an inner zone of low amplitude transmittance, pure phase filters with phase change of π, and equal area filters.

  14. Perbandingan Penawaran Investasi Depostio Bank Syariah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hery Harjono Muljo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available From the beginning, the sharia banks operation is always supporting mosleem expectations. Economic recovery, fairness, security, and comfortness aspects are became ultimate goals of sharia bank in Indonesia. This research is comparing the investment deposits from 3 sharia banks, and 4 business units of sharia, by using comparative descriptive analysis. The comparative variables were devided into 3 categories; there are Nisbah (profit sharing, investment conditions, and bank fascilities. The results indicates that BNI has the highest nisbah between all sharia banks at the first category. Bank Muamalat Indonesia, BNI Sharia, Bank Sharia Mega Indonesia has the lowest openning balance of time-deposits at second category . The product fascility as the third category, indicates that Bank Sharia Mandiri, BNI Sharia, Bank Sharia Mega Indonesia, and Bank Muamalat can using multi currency. BTN Sharia, Bank Sharia Mega Indonesia, Bank Muamalat Indonesia, and Bank Danamon Sharia were also offer joint account in their sharia investment. 

  15. Perbandingan Penawaran Investasi Depostio Bank Syariah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hery Harjono Muljo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available From the beginning, the sharia banks operation is always supporting mosleem expectations. Economic recovery, fairness, security, and comfortness aspects are became ultimate goals of sharia bank in Indonesia. This research is comparing the investment deposits from 3 sharia banks, and 4 business units of sharia, by using comparative descriptive analysis. The comparative variables were devided into 3 categories; there are Nisbah (profit sharing, investment conditions, and bank fascilities. The results indicates that BNI has the highest nisbah between all sharia banks at the first category. Bank Muamalat Indonesia, BNI Sharia, Bank Sharia Mega Indonesia has the lowest openning balance of time-deposits at second category . The product fascility as the third category, indicates that Bank Sharia Mandiri, BNI Sharia, Bank Sharia Mega Indonesia, and Bank Muamalat can using multi currency. BTN Sharia, Bank Sharia Mega Indonesia, Bank Muamalat Indonesia, and Bank Danamon Sharia were also offer joint account in their sharia investment.

  16. 12 CFR 811.1 - Authority of Reserve Banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authority of Reserve Banks. 811.1 Section 811.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL FINANCING BANK BOOK-ENTRY PROCEDURE FOR FEDERAL FINANCING BANK SECURITIES § 811.1 Authority of Reserve Banks. Each Reserve Bank is hereby authorized, in accordance with...

  17. Mobile Banking Supervising System- Issues, Challenges and Suggestions to improve Mobile Banking Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.K.Kavitha

    Full Text Available Banking is one of the Largest Financial Institution which constantly provides better Customer Services. To improve the Service Quality, Banking Services are expanded to Mobile Technology. Recently Mobile Banking plays a vital role in Banking Sector. This ...

  18. BEST BANKS TO BUY IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ CEOs of international banks face their toughest challenge in China. Citibank and HSBC already moved aggressively by taking stakes in the remaining large and well-known banks, such as the Shanghai Pudong Development Bank and the Bank of Communications. Such tie-ups offer opportunities to market credit cards and other banking products through local networks.

  19. Online Banking Customers: Insights from Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Christian Berger

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Online banking is wide spread among German banking customers. But what really characterizes those customers? Using data from a nation-wide survey of about 20,000 retail banking customers, the authors analyze the profile of online banking customers and their banking behavior.

  20. Should the 'Outs' Join the Banking Union?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Hüttl (Pia); D. Schoenmaker (Dirk)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe Single Market stimulates cross-border banking throughout the European Union. This paper documents the banking linkages between the 9 ‘outs’ and 19 ‘ins’ of the Banking Union. We find that some of the major banks, based in Sweden and Denmark, have substantial banking claims across the

  1. 40 CFR 91.205 - Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banking. 91.205 Section 91.205... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Averaging, Banking, and Trading Provisions § 91.205 Banking. (a... banking. (i) For outboard engines in model year (MY) 1997, a manufacturer may bank positive emission...

  2. Recent trends in cross-border banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haas, Ralph; van Horen, Neeltje; Beck, Thorsten; Casu, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    This chapter identifies a number of recent trends in European cross-border banking. The authors first distinguish between two main modes of international banking: cross-border versus multinational banking. Cross-border banking occurs when a bank in country A lends directly to a borrower in country

  3. 32 CFR 643.113 - Banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Banks. 643.113 Section 643.113 National Defense... Authority of Commanders § 643.113 Banks. (a) The establishment of banks, branch banks, and banking... fair market value, and reimbursement will be required for utilities and services furnished. (e) A...

  4. Banking efficiency under corporate social responsibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohene-Asare, Kwaku; Asmild, Mette

    2012-01-01

    This paper expands the banking efficiency literature by developing a banking intermediation model that captures both profit-maximizing and Corporate Social Responsibilities (CSR) of banks. Using a data set of 21 banks for each year 2006-2008, we evaluate the relative efficiency of Ghanaian banks...

  5. Australian Item Bank Program: Social Science Item Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Council for Educational Research, Hawthorn.

    After vigorous review, editing, and trial testing, this item bank was compiled to help secondary school teachers construct objective tests in the social sciences. Anthropology, economics, ethnic and cultural studies, geography, history, legal studies, politics, and sociology are among the topics represented. The bank consists of multiple choice…

  6. Central Bank Focuses on Money Supply and Commercial Bank Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Money supply index will continue to be the main topic of the annual meeting of Central Bank, this has actually refuted the rumor that the intermediate goal of Central Bank's monetary policy,which has been implementing for 8 years, will be demolished.

  7. Contagious bank failures in a free banking system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aghion, P.; Bolton, P.; Dewatripont, M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper develops a model of an unregulated banking system based around a private clearing house arrangement. Whilst such a system may dominate one with a public safety net in reducing moral hazard in lending and therefore the scope for individual bank insolvency, it also increases the likelihood

  8. Liquidity Risk on Banking Industry: Comparative Study Between Islamic Bank and Conventional Bank in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Harjum Muharam; Hasna Penta Kurnia

    2015-01-01

    Conventional and Islamic banks approximately are similar in risk summary. Therefore it needs further observations to control their liquidity risk. This study investigates the influence of CAR, profitability rasios, NIM, liquidity gaps, and RLA belongs to liquidity risk on banking industry. The statistical analysis concluded that there are negative and significant influence of CAR and ROE to liquidity risk on conventional banks, while ROA and RLA have positive and significant effect. In Islami...

  9. Determinents of profitability – a comparative analysis of islamic banks and conventional banks in ASEAN countries

    OpenAIRE

    Wahidudin, AHMAD Nazri; Subramaniam, ULAGANATHAN; Pg. Kamaluddin, PENGIRAN. Abd Mutalib

    2012-01-01

    The profit and loss sharing system allows bank to share risk with client in Islamic banks. Moreover Islamic banks are required to operate as per Islamic Rules and principles. Unlike Islamic banks, conventional banks operate based on interest. The income of conventional banks is the difference between interest paid to depositors and interest paid by borrowers. This is the common banking system around the world. This study will analyze determinants of profitability in Islamic banks will be co...

  10. Information Technology Role in Reducing E-Banking Services Risk in Jordanian Banking Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Y. Areiqat; Aymen M. Abu-Errub; Badi S. AL-Rawashdeh; Mohammad Dbbaghieh

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: This study aims to highlight the role of information technology in reducing risk of electronic banking services in the Jordanian banking sector. The study was conducted on three banks as a sample representative of the Jordanian banking sector. Approach: Data collection was through conducting personal interviews with the operations managers in the three banks (HBTF, JC Bank and Audi Bank). Results: The results showed that Jordanian banks showed highest attention toward risk ...

  11. Liquidity Risk on Banking Industry: Comparative Study Between Islamic Bank and Conventional Bank in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harjum Muharam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Conventional and Islamic banks approximately are similar in risk summary. Therefore it needs further observations to control their liquidity risk. This study investigates the influence of CAR, profitability rasios, NIM, liquidity gaps, and RLA belongs to liquidity risk on banking industry. The statistical analysis concluded that there are negative and significant influence of CAR and ROE to liquidity risk on conventional banks, while ROA and RLA have positive and significant effect. In Islamic banks, a positive and significant impact of NIM and ROE to dependent variable, whereas liquidity gaps and RLA have significat effect.DOI: 10.15408/aiq.v5i2.2118

  12. Generic Kalman Filter Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisano, Michael E., II; Crues, Edwin Z.

    2005-01-01

    The Generic Kalman Filter (GKF) software provides a standard basis for the development of application-specific Kalman-filter programs. Historically, Kalman filters have been implemented by customized programs that must be written, coded, and debugged anew for each unique application, then tested and tuned with simulated or actual measurement data. Total development times for typical Kalman-filter application programs have ranged from months to weeks. The GKF software can simplify the development process and reduce the development time by eliminating the need to re-create the fundamental implementation of the Kalman filter for each new application. The GKF software is written in the ANSI C programming language. It contains a generic Kalman-filter-development directory that, in turn, contains a code for a generic Kalman filter function; more specifically, it contains a generically designed and generically coded implementation of linear, linearized, and extended Kalman filtering algorithms, including algorithms for state- and covariance-update and -propagation functions. The mathematical theory that underlies the algorithms is well known and has been reported extensively in the open technical literature. Also contained in the directory are a header file that defines generic Kalman-filter data structures and prototype functions and template versions of application-specific subfunction and calling navigation/estimation routine code and headers. Once the user has provided a calling routine and the required application-specific subfunctions, the application-specific Kalman-filter software can be compiled and executed immediately. During execution, the generic Kalman-filter function is called from a higher-level navigation or estimation routine that preprocesses measurement data and post-processes output data. The generic Kalman-filter function uses the aforementioned data structures and five implementation- specific subfunctions, which have been developed by the user on

  13. Concentric Split Flow Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A concentric split flow filter may be configured to remove odor and/or bacteria from pumped air used to collect urine and fecal waste products. For instance, filter may be designed to effectively fill the volume that was previously considered wasted surrounding the transport tube of a waste management system. The concentric split flow filter may be configured to split the air flow, with substantially half of the air flow to be treated traveling through a first bed of filter media and substantially the other half of the air flow to be treated traveling through the second bed of filter media. This split flow design reduces the air velocity by 50%. In this way, the pressure drop of filter may be reduced by as much as a factor of 4 as compare to the conventional design.

  14. Crux vena cava filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Erin H; Johnson, Eric D; Kopchok, George E; Fogarty, Thomas J; Arko, Frank R

    2009-09-01

    Inferior vena cava filters are widely accepted for pulmonary embolic prophylaxis in high-risk patients with contraindications to anticoagulation. While long-term complications have been associated with permanent filters, retrievable filters are now available and have resulted in the rapid expansion of this technology. Nonetheless, complications are still reported with optional filters. Furthermore, device tilting and thrombus load may prevent retrieval in up to 30% of patients, thereby eliminating the benefits of this technology. The Crux vena cava filter is a novel, self-centering, low-profile filter that is designed for ease of delivery, retrievability and improved efficacy while limiting fatigue-related device complications. This device has been proven safe and user-friendly in an ovine model and has recently been implanted in human subjects.

  15. CrowdFilter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Michael Lind; Wallace, Byron C.; Kraska, Tim

    for complex multi-criteria search problems through crowdsourcing. The CrowdFilter system is capable of supporting both criteria-level labels and n-gram rationales, capturing the human decision making process behind each filtering choice. Using the data provided through CrowdFilter we also introduce a novel......Multi-criteria filtering of mixed open/closed-world data is a time-consuming task, requiring significant manual effort when latent open-world attributes are present. In this work we introduce a novel open-world filtering framework CrowdFilter, enabling automatic UI generation and label elicitation...... multi-criteria active learning method; capable of incorporating labels and n-gram rationales per inclusion criteria, and thus capable of determining both clear includes/excludes, as well as complex borderline cases. By incorporating the active learning approach into the elicitation process of Crowd...

  16. Conservative Noise Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona M.Jamjoom

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Noisy training data have a huge negative impact on machine learning algorithms. Noise-filtering algorithms have been proposed to eliminate such noisy instances. In this work, we empirically show that the most popular noise-filtering algorithms have a large False Positive (FP error rate. In other words, these noise filters mistakenly identify genuine instances as outliers and eliminate them. Therefore, we propose more conservative outlier identification criteria that improve the FP error rate and, thus, the performance of the noise filters. With the new filter, an instance is eliminated if and only if it is misclassified by a mutual decision of Naïve Bayesian (NB classifier and the original filtering criteria being used. The number of genuine instances that are incorrectly eliminated is reduced as a result, thereby improving the classification accuracy.

  17. Causal Relationship between Liquidity and Profitability of Nigerian Deposit Money Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Odunayo M. Olarewaju; Oluwafeyisayo K. Adeyemi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the existence and direction of causality between liquidity and profitability of deposit money banks in Nigeria. Fifteen quoted banks out of the existing nineteen banks were selected for the study. They are; Guarantee Trust bank, Zenith bank, Skye bank, Wema bank, Sterling bank, First City Monument bank, United Bank for Africa, Eco bank, First bank, Access bank, Diamond bank, Unity bank, Fidelity bank, Union bank and IBTC bank. Pairwise Granga Causality test...

  18. Elements of banking intermediation in the Algerian Banking system and the means to activate it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habbar Abderezak, Dr.

    2014-06-01

    Banking intermediation raises several interrelated issues for banks, the central bank and the Treasury. It is linked to the gross domestic product, money supply and bank liquidity, etc. These elements will be examined in this article to learn the elements of bank intermediation in the Algerian banking system and ways of strengthening it.

  19. 5 CFR 630.1003 - Establishing leave banks and leave bank boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishing leave banks and leave bank... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program § 630.1003 Establishing leave banks and leave bank boards. (a) Each agency that participates in the voluntary leave bank program shall, in accordance...

  20. 12 CFR 615.5144 - Banks for cooperatives and agricultural credit banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Banks for cooperatives and agricultural credit banks. 615.5144 Section 615.5144 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS, LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Investment Management §...