WorldWideScience

Sample records for two-chambered assembly addition

  1. DNA addition using linear self-assembly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jian; QIAN LuLu; LIU Qiang; ZHANG ZhiZhou; HE Lin

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a DNA algorithm which adds two nonnegative binary integers using self-assembly in constant steps. The approach has the benefit of greater experimental simplicity when compared with previous DNA addition algorithms. For the addition of two binary n-bit integers, O(n) is different from DNA strands and only O(1) biochemical experimental procedures are required.

  2. Additive-driven assembly of block copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ying; Daga, Vikram; Anderson, Eric; Watkins, James

    2011-03-01

    One challenge to the formation of well ordered hybrid materials is the incorporation of nanoscale additives including metal, semiconductor and dielectric nanoparticles at high loadings while maintaining strong segregation. Here we describe the molecular and functional design of small molecule and nanoparticle additives that enhance phase segregation in their block copolymer host and enable high additive loadings. Our approach includes the use of hydrogen bond interactions between the functional groups on the additive or particle that serve as hydrogen bond donors and one segment of the block copolymer containing hydrogen bond acceptors. Further, the additives show strong selectively towards the targeted domains, leading to enhancements in contrast between properties of the phases. In addition to structural changes, we explore how large changes in the thermal and mechanical properties occur upon incorporation of the additives. Generalization of this additive-induced ordering strategy to various block copolymers will be discussed.

  3. Design for Additive Manufacturing, to produce assembled products, by SLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bâlc Nicolae

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a new methodology on how to design a product, which could be produced directly as an assembly, instead of manufacturing all individual parts, to be assembled after words, in a classical manner. A detailed case study is presented, on how the product’s structure could be simplified, the number of the components being drastically reduced. The theoretical Design for Assembly (DFA methodology was tested and validated, by manufacturing the physical products, using the Selective Laser Sintering (SLS machine.

  4. Model for Assembly Line Re-Balancing Considering Additional Capacity and Outsourcing to Face Demand Fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadhi, TMAA; Sumihartati, Atin

    2016-02-01

    The most critical stage in a garment industry is sewing process, because generally, it consists of a number of operations and a large number of sewing machines for each operation. Therefore, it requires a balancing method that can assign task to work station with balance workloads. Many studies on assembly line balancing assume a new assembly line, but in reality, due to demand fluctuation and demand increased a re-balancing is needed. To cope with those fluctuating demand changes, additional capacity can be carried out by investing in spare sewing machine and paying for sewing service through outsourcing. This study develops an assembly line balancing (ALB) model on existing line to cope with fluctuating demand change. Capacity redesign is decided if the fluctuation demand exceeds the available capacity through a combination of making investment on new machines and outsourcing while considering for minimizing the cost of idle capacity in the future. The objective of the model is to minimize the total cost of the line assembly that consists of operating costs, machine cost, adding capacity cost, losses cost due to idle capacity and outsourcing costs. The model develop is based on an integer programming model. The model is tested for a set of data of one year demand with the existing number of sewing machines of 41 units. The result shows that additional maximum capacity up to 76 units of machine required when there is an increase of 60% of the average demand, at the equal cost parameters..

  5. Self-assembly, Condensation, and Order in Aqueous Lyotropic Chromonic Liquid Crystals Crowded with Additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tortora, L.; Park, H; Kang, S; Savaryn, V; Hong, S; Kaznatcheev, K; Finotello, D; Sprunt, S; Kumar, S; Lavrentovich, O

    2010-01-01

    Dense multicomponent systems with macromolecules and small solutes attract a broad research interest as they mimic the molecularly crowded cellular interiors. The additives can condense and align the macromolecules, but they do not change the degree of covalent polymerization. We chose a lyotropic chromonic liquid crystal with reversibly and non-covalently assembled aggregates as a much softer system, reminiscent of 'living polymers', to demonstrate that small neutral and charged additives cause condensation of aggregates with ensuing orientational and positional ordering and nontrivial morphologies of phase separation, such as tactoids and toroids of the nematic and hexagonal columnar phase coexisting with the isotropic melt. Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) with near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) analysis as well as fluorescent microscopy demonstrates segregation of the components. The observations suggest that self-assembly of chromonic aggregates in the presence of additives is controlled by both entropy effects and by specific molecular interactions and provide a new route to the regulated reversible assembly of soft materials formed by low-molecular weight components.

  6. Self-assembly, condensation, and order in aqueous lyotropic chromonic liquid crystals crowded with additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tortora, Luana; Park, Heung-Shik; Kang, Shin-Woong; Savaryn, Victoria; Hong, Seung-Ho; Kaznatcheev, Konstantine; Finotello, Daniele; Sprunt, Samuel; Kumar, Satyendra; Lavrentovich, Oleg D. (Chonbuk); (Kent); (BNL)

    2012-09-06

    Dense multicomponent systems with macromolecules and small solutes attract a broad research interest as they mimic the molecularly crowded cellular interiors. The additives can condense and align the macromolecules, but they do not change the degree of covalent polymerization. We chose a lyotropic chromonic liquid crystal with reversibly and non-covalently assembled aggregates as a much softer system, reminiscent of 'living polymers', to demonstrate that small neutral and charged additives cause condensation of aggregates with ensuing orientational and positional ordering and nontrivial morphologies of phase separation, such as tactoids and toroids of the nematic and hexagonal columnar phase coexisting with the isotropic melt. Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) with near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) analysis as well as fluorescent microscopy demonstrates segregation of the components. The observations suggest that self-assembly of chromonic aggregates in the presence of additives is controlled by both entropy effects and by specific molecular interactions and provide a new route to the regulated reversible assembly of soft materials formed by low-molecular weight components.

  7. Self-assembly of cellulose nanoparticles as electrolyte additive for capillary electrophoresis separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dihui; Yang, Qin; Jin, Shanxia; Deng, Qianchun; Zhou, Ping

    2014-11-07

    In this work, a new cellulose derivative, octadecyl modified quaternized cellulose (ODMQC), was synthesized and used as additive in the background electrolyte for capillary electrophoresis. The derivative bearing hydrophobic groups and hydrophilic groups can self-assemble into a stable nano-scaled micelle structure in aqueous solution. When ODMQC was added in running buffer, the capillaries were shown to generate applicable anodal EOF over the investigated range of pH 3.0-12.0. Due to the lack of UV active groups, the ODMQC did not disturb the UV detection. It is shown that ODMQC-added capillaries allow the separation of basic proteins by reducing their adsorption onto the capillary wall. Also, the addition of ODMQC provides adequate separation of aromatic acids with low pKa values and improved separation of sulfa drugs. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the addition of ODMQC can incorporate an additional reversed-phase mechanism that improves the separation of neutral analytes.

  8. Carbonylative Heck Reactions Using CO Generated ex Situ in a Two-Chamber System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermange, Philippe; Gøgsig, Thomas; Lindhardt, Anders Thyboe;

    2011-01-01

    A carbonylative Heck reaction of aryl iodides and styrene derivatives employing a two-chamber system using a stable, crystalline, and nontransition metal based carbon monoxide source is reported. By applying near-stoichiometric amounts of the carbon monoxide precursor, an effective exploitation o...... of the hazardous CO gas is obtained affording chalcone derivatives in good yields. Application to isotope labeling, incorporating 13CO, was further established....

  9. Self-Assembly of Lyotropic Chromonic Liquid Crystal Sunset Yellow and Effects of Ionic Additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Heung-Shik; Kang, Shin-Woong; Tortora, Luana; Nastishin, Yuriy; Finotello, Daniele; Kumar, Satyendra; Lavrentovich, Oleg D. (NSF); (Institute of Physical Optics, Ukraine); (Kent)

    2008-12-22

    Lyotropic chromonic liquid crystals (LCLCs) are formed by molecules with ionic groups at the periphery that associate into stacks through noncovalent self-assembly while in water. The very existence of the nematic (N) phase in the typical LCLC, the dye Sunset Yellow (SSY) is a puzzle, as the correlation length associated with the stacking, as measured in the X-ray experiments, is too short to explain the orientational order by the Onsager model. We propose that the aggregates can be more complex than simple rods and contain 'stacking faults' such as junctions with a shift of neighboring molecules, 3-fold junctions, etc. We study how ionic additives, such as salts of different valency and pH-altering agents, alter the N phase of SSY purified by recrystallization. The additives induce two general trends: (a) stabilization of the N phase, caused by the mono and divalent salts (such as NaCl), and evidenced by the increase of the N-to-I transition temperature and the correlation length; (b) suppression of the N phase manifested in the decrease of the N-to-I transition temperature and in separation of the N phase into a more densely packed N phase or the columnar (C) phase, coexisting with a less condensed I phase. The scenario (b) can be triggered by simply increasing pH (adding NaOH). The effects produced by tetravalent spermine fall mostly into the category (b), but the detail depends on whether this additive is in its salt form or a free base form. The base form causes changes through changes in pH and possible excluded volume effects whereas the salt form might disrupt the structure of SSY aggregates.

  10. Two-chambered right ventricle resulting from aberrant muscle bundles: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, T. H.; Ko, K. H.; Im, C. K.; Han, M. C.; Chi, J. G [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-12-15

    The 'Two-chambered right ventricle' is a rare, but unique congenital cardiac anomaly characterized by subdivision of the right ventricle into proximal high pressure chamber and distal low pressure chamber by hypertrophied aberrant muscle bundles. The aberrant muscle bundles traverse the right ventricle from the region of crista supraventricular is to the lower part of the anterior wall of the right ventricle. The ' Two-chambered right ventricle' is usually associated with other congenital cardiac anomalies such as ventricular septal defect, pulmonary valvular stenosis, etc. Therefore this anomaly could be mistakenly diagnosed as Tetralogy of Fallot or isolated interventricular septal defect. The need to separate this entity from other types of infundibular stenosis is emphasized because of the important surgical implications. Authors recently experienced a case of the {sup T}wo-chambered right ventricle' resulting from aberrant muscle bundles, that are associated with other cardiac anomalies i.e., pulmonary valvular stenosis, aysplastic tricuspid valve with regurgitation and partial anomalous pulmonary venous return to the right atrium. Here we present the findings of E.K.G., cardiac catheterization, simple chest pa, cine-right ventriculography, and autopsy together with a review of related articles.

  11. Additive fabrication of microstructures using self-assembled organic thin-film templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Noo Li

    A novel approach to thin film patterning is described in this thesis: printed self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) were used as a template for the selective deposition of metal and ceramic thin films. In contrast to the conventional subtractive patterning processes involving photolithography and reactive ion etching, thin films were patterned in an additive manner with two or three maskless (photolithography-free) steps. First, SAMs of octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) were patterned by microcontact printing (muCP) with sub-micron to centimeter resolution on a variety of substrates such as SiOsb2/Si, TiN, indium tin oxide, plasma modified polyimide, and sapphire. The patterned SAMs allow manipulation of such surface properties as adsorption, wetting, and adhesion which are used for the selective deposition of thin films via a chemical route. The microcontact printed OTS SAMs were characterized with reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was found that after 30s of microcontact printing (using 10 mM OTS solution in hexane), well oriented and fully covered SAMs are formed. These monolayers are chemically and thermally robust enough to withstand the CVD and sol-gel processing conditions. Effects of such processing variables as concentration of OTS, substrate, moisture, and duration of contact on the structure of the OTS films were also studied. Thin films of metals such as copper, palladium, and platinum (by chemical vapor deposition, CVD) and of ceramics such as LiNbOsb3, Pb(Zr,Ti)Osb3 (PZT), Tasb2Osb5 and (Pb,La)TiOsb3 (PLT) (from corresponding sol-gel precursors) were selectively deposited on surfaces modified with OTS SAMs by microcontact printing. This thesis discusses several examples of microstructures of copper, palladium, and platinum fabricated by selective CVD, including the fabrication of thin-film interconnects (with line widths of 0

  12. A stackable, two-chambered, paper-based microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraiwan, Arwa; Choi, Seokheun

    2016-09-15

    We developed a stackable and integrable paper-based microbial fuel cell (MFC) for potentially powering on-chip paper-based devices. Four MFCs were prepared on a T-shaped filter paper which was eventually folded three times to connect these MFCs in series. Each MFC was fabricated by sandwiching multifunctional paper layers for two-chambered fuel cell configuration. One drop of bacteria-containing anolyte into the anodic inlet and another drop of potassium ferricyanide for cathodic reaction flowed through patterned fluidic pathways within the paper matrix, both vertically and horizontally, reaching each of the four MFCs and filling the reservoir of each device. Bacterial respiration then transferred electrons to the anode, which traveled across an external load to the cathode where they combined with protons. The MFC stack connected in series generated a high power density (1.2μW/cm(2)), which is two orders of magnitude higher than the previous report on the paper-based MFC stack. This work will represent the fusion of the art of origami and paper-based MFC technology, which could provide a paradigm shift for the architecture and design of paper-based batteries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Enhanced hydrogen generation using a saline catholyte in a two chamber microbial electrolysis cell

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Joo-Youn

    2011-11-01

    High rates of hydrogen gas production were achieved in a two chamber microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) without a catholyte phosphate buffer by using a saline catholyte solution and a cathode constructed around a stainless steel mesh current collector. Using the non-buffered salt solution (68 mM NaCl) produced the highest current density of 131 ± 12 A/m3, hydrogen yield of 3.2 ± 0.3 mol H2/mol acetate, and gas production rate of 1.6 ± 0.2 m3 H2/m 3·d, compared to MECs with catholytes externally sparged with CO2 or containing a phosphate buffer. The salinity of the catholyte achieved a high solution conductivity, and therefore the electrode spacing did not appreciably affect performance. The coulombic efficiency with the cathode placed near the membrane separating the chambers was 83 ± 4%, similar to that obtained with the cathode placed more distant from the membrane (84 ± 4%). Using a carbon cloth cathode instead of the stainless steel mesh cathode did not significantly affect performance, with all reactor configurations producing similar performance in terms of total gas volume, COD removal, rcat and overall energy recovery. These results show MEC performance can be improved by using a saline catholyte without pH control. © 2011, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of electricity production from alkaline pretreated sludge using two-chamber microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Benyi; Yang, Fang; Liu, Junxin

    2013-06-15

    Electricity production from alkaline pretreated sludge was evaluated using a two-chamber microbial fuel cell (MFC). The electricity production was found to be stable over a long period of time (approximately 17 d) with voltage outputs and power densities of 0.47-0.52 V and 46.80-55.88 mW/m(2), respectively. The anode resistance was the main internal resistance (73.2%) of MFC in the stable stage. Most soluble organic matters (proteins and carbohydrates) in the anode chamber were first degraded and converted into volatile fatty acids (0-15 d), which were then degraded and converted into electricity and methane (15-29 d). The insoluble organics were solubilized thereby decreasing the sludge concentration and reducing the sludge mass. Methane was produced in the anode chamber owing to the growth of methanogens, which did not obviously affect the electricity production. The change in humic-like substances displayed a positive correlation with the electricity production of the MFC. Microbial analysis showed that methanogens and electricity-producing bacteria co-existed mostly on the surface as well as inside the anode. Decreasing the anode resistance and increasing the anode utilization could enhance the electricity production. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Optimization of catholyte concentration and anolyte pHs in two chamber microbial electrolysis cells

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Joo-Youn

    2012-12-01

    The hydrogen production rate in a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) using a non-buffered saline catholyte (NaCl) can be optimized through proper control of the initial anolyte pH and catholyte NaCl concentration. The highest hydrogen yield of 3.3 ± 0.4 mol H2/mole acetate and gas production rate of 2.2 ± 0.2 m3 H2/m3/d were achieved here with an initial anolyte pH = 9 and catholyte NaCl concentration of 98 mM. Further increases in the salt concentration substantially reduced the anolyte pH to as low as 4.6, resulting in reduced MEC performance due to pH inhibition of exoelectrogens. Cathodic hydrogen recovery was high (rcat > 90%) as hydrogen consumption by hydrogenotrophic methanogens was prevented by separating the anode and cathode chambers using a membrane. These results show that the MEC can be optimized for hydrogen production through proper choices in the concentration of a non-buffered saline catholyte and initial anolyte pH in two chamber MECs. Copyright © 2012, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Directed self-assembly of PS-b-PMMA with ionic liquid addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuanxuan; Seo, Takehito; Rincon-Delgadillo, Paulina; Matsumiya, Tasuku; Kawaue, Akiya; Maehashi, Takaya; Gronheid, Roel; Nealey, Paul F.

    2016-03-01

    Directed self-assembly of block copolymers is a promising candidate to address grand challenges towards new generations of low-cost, high-resolution nanopatterning technology. Over the past decade, poly(styrene-b-methyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA) has been the most popular block copolymer applied in this area. However, further scaling towards pitches below 20 nm is hindered by its relatively low segregation strength between constituent blocks, characterized by a low Flory-Huggins interaction parameter, χ (~ 0.038 at r.t). To reach sub-10 nm feature dimensions, many high- χ block copolymer materials and processes are currently being studied. Here we investigate the DSA of PSb- PMMA with blended ionic liquid (IL) on chemically-patterned substrates via thermal annealing with a free surface. In this materials system, by adding low volume fraction of IL, a substantially higher χ than the pure block copolymer is achieved with manageable change in surface and interfacial properties so that poly(styrene-random-methyl methacrylate) brushes may be used to control substrate wetting behavior, and the blend could be assembled using thermal annealing with a free surface. In other words, PS-b-PMMA/IL may serve as a high- χ drop-in replacement for PS-b-PMMA. In this work, we provide key DSA results to determine if PS-b-PMMA/IL blends would offer a solution for sub-10 nm lithography.

  17. Genetic algorithm-guided discovery of additive combinations that direct quantum dot assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawazer, Lukmaan A; Ihli, Johannes; Comyn, Timothy P; Critchley, Kevin; Empson, Christopher J; Meldrum, Fiona C

    2015-01-14

    The use of combinations of organic additives to control crystallization, as occurs in biomineralization, is rarely investigated due to the vast potential reaction space. It is demonstrated here that combinatorial approaches led by genetic algorithm heuristics can enable identification of active additive combinations, and four key organic molecules are rapidly identified, which generate highly fluorescent CdS quantum dot superstructures.

  18. Hierarchical and Heterogeneous Bioinspired Composites-Merging Molecular Self-Assembly with Additive Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekharan, Anand K; Bordes, Romain; Sandström, Carl; Ekh, Magnus; Andersson, Martin

    2017-07-01

    Biological composites display exceptional mechanical properties owing to a highly organized, heterogeneous architecture spanning several length scales. It is challenging to translate this ordered and multiscale structural organization in synthetic, bulk composites. Herein, a combination of top-down and bottom-up approach is demonstrated, to form a polymer-ceramic composite by macroscopically aligning the self-assembled nanostructure of polymerizable lyotropic liquid crystals via 3D printing. The polymer matrix is then uniformly reinforced with bone-like apatite via in situ biomimetic mineralization. The combinatorial method enables the formation of macrosized, heterogeneous composites where the nanostructure and chemical composition is locally tuned over microscopic distances. This enables precise control over the mechanics in specific directions and regions, with a unique intrinsic-extrinsic toughening mechanism. As a proof-of-concept, the method is used to form large-scale composites mimicking the local nanostructure, compositional gradients and directional mechanical properties of heterogeneous tissues like the bone-cartilage interface, for mechanically stable osteochondral plugs. This work demonstrates the possibility to create hierarchical and complex structured composites using weak starting components, thus opening new routes for efficient synthesis of high-performance materials ranging from biomaterials to structural nanocomposites. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Additive Manufacture (3D Printing) of Plasma Diagnostic Components and Assemblies for Fusion Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinley, Morgan; Chun, Katherine; Melnik, Paul; Sieck, Paul; Smith, Trevor; Stuber, James; Woodruff, Simon; Romero-Talamas, Carlos; Rivera, William; Card, Alexander

    2016-10-01

    We are investigating the potential impact of additive manufacturing (3D printing) on the cost and complexity of plasma diagnostics. We present a survey of the current state-of-the-art in additive manufacture of metals, as well as the design of diagnostic components that have been optimized for and take advantage of these processes. Included among these is a set of retarding field analyzer probe heads that have been printed in tungsten with internal heat sinks and cooling channels. Finite element analysis of these probe heads shows the potential for a 750K reduction in peak temperature, allowing the probe to take data twice as often without melting. Results of the evaluation of these probe heads for mechanical strength and outgassing, as well as their use on Alcator C-Mod will be presented. Supported by DOE SBIR Grant DE-SC0011858.

  20. The Development and Application of Two-Chamber Reactors and Carbon Monoxide Precursors for Safe Carbonylation Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friis, Stig D; Lindhardt, Anders T; Skrydstrup, Troels

    2016-04-19

    Low molecular weight gases (e.g., carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and ethylene) represent vital building blocks for the construction of a wide array of organic molecules. Whereas experimental organic chemists routinely handle solid and liquid reagents, the same is not the case for gaseous reagents. Synthetic transformations employing such reagents are commonly conducted under pressure in autoclaves or under atmospheric pressure with a balloon setup, which necessitates either specialized equipment or potentially hazardous and nonrecommended installations. Other safety concerns associated with gaseous reagents may include their toxicity and flammability and, with certain gases, their inability to be detected by human senses. Despite these significant drawbacks, industrial processes apply gaseous building blocks regularly due to their low cost and ready availability but nevertheless under a strictly controlled manner. Carbon monoxide (CO) fits with all the parameters for being a gas of immense industrial importance but with severe handling restrictions due to its inherent toxicity and flammability. In academia, as well as research and development laboratories, CO is often avoided because of these safety issues, which is a limitation for the development of new carbonylation reactions. With our desire to address the handling of CO in a laboratory setting, we designed and developed a two-chamber reactor (COware) for the controlled delivery and utilization of stoichiometric amounts of CO for Pd-catalyzed carbonylation reactions. In addition to COware, two stable and solid CO-releasing molecules (COgen and SilaCOgen) were developed, both of which release CO upon activation by either Pd catalysis or fluoride addition, respectively. The unique combination of COware with either COgen or SilaCOgen provides a simple reactor setup enabling synthetic chemists to easily perform safe carbonylation chemistry without the need for directly handling the gaseous reagent. With this technology

  1. Additive manufacture (3d printing) of plasma diagnostic components and assemblies for fusion experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieck, Paul; Woodruff, Simon; Stuber, James; Romero-Talamas, Carlos; Rivera, William; You, Setthivoine; Card, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    Additive manufacturing (or 3D printing) is now becoming sufficiently accurate with a large range of materials for use in printing sensors needed universally in fusion energy research. Decreasing production cost and significantly lowering design time of energy subsystems would realize significant cost reduction for standard diagnostics commonly obtained through research grants. There is now a well-established set of plasma diagnostics, but these expensive since they are often highly complex and require customization, sometimes pace the project. Additive manufacturing (3D printing) is developing rapidly, including open source designs. Basic components can be printed for (in some cases) less than 1/100th costs of conventional manufacturing. We have examined the impact that AM can have on plasma diagnostic cost by taking 15 separate diagnostics through an engineering design using Conventional Manufacturing (CM) techniques to determine costs of components and labor costs associated with getting the diagnostic to work as intended. With that information in hand, we set about optimizing the design to exploit the benefits of AM. Work performed under DOE Contract DE-SC0011858.

  2. The addition of ketone bodies alleviates mitochondrial dysfunction by restoring complex I assembly in a MELAS cellular model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Samuel; Geffroy, Guillaume; Desquiret-Dumas, Valerie; Gueguen, Naig; Bris, Celine; Belal, Sophie; Amati-Bonneau, Patrizia; Chevrollier, Arnaud; Barth, Magalie; Henrion, Daniel; Lenaers, Guy; Bonneau, Dominique; Reynier, Pascal; Procaccio, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    Ketogenic Diet used to treat refractory epilepsy for almost a century may represent a treatment option for mitochondrial disorders for which effective treatments are still lacking. Mitochondrial complex I deficiencies are involved in a broad spectrum of inherited diseases including Mitochondrial Encephalomyopathy, Lactic Acidosis and Stroke-like episodes syndrome leading to recurrent cerebral insults resembling strokes and associated with a severe complex I deficiency caused by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations. The analysis of MELAS neuronal cybrid cells carrying the almost homoplasmic m.3243A>G mutation revealed a metabolic switch towards glycolysis with the production of lactic acid, severe defects in respiratory chain activity and complex I disassembly with an accumulation of assembly intermediates. Metabolites, NADH/NAD(+) ratio, mitochondrial enzyme activities, oxygen consumption and BN-PAGE analysis were evaluated in mutant compared to control cells. A severe complex I enzymatic deficiency was identified associated with a major complex I disassembly with an accumulation of assembly intermediates of 400kDa. We showed that Ketone Bodies (KB) exposure for 4weeks associated with glucose deprivation significantly restored complex I stability and activity, increased ATP synthesis and reduced the NADH/NAD+ ratio, a key component of mitochondrial metabolism. In addition, without changing the mutant load, mtDNA copy number was significantly increased with KB, indicating that the absolute amount of wild type mtDNA copy number was higher in treated mutant cells. Therefore KB may constitute an alternative and promising therapy for MELAS syndrome, and could be beneficial for other mitochondrial diseases caused by complex I deficiency.

  3. Comparison of Two Chamber Methods for Measuring Soil Trace-gas Fluxes in Bioenergy Cropping Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, B. E.; Kucharik, C. J.

    2013-12-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions from soils are often measured using trace-gas flux chamber techniques without a standardized protocol, raising concerns about measurement accuracy and consistency. To address this, we compared measurements from non-steady-state non-through-flow (NTF) chambers with a non-steady-state through-flow (TF) chamber system in three bioenergy cropping systems located in Wisconsin. Additionally, we investigated the effects of NTF flux calculation method and deployment time on flux measurements. In all cropping systems, when NTF chambers were deployed for 60 min and a linear (LR) flux calculation was used, soil CO2 and N2O fluxes were, on average, 18% and 12% lower, respectively, than fluxes measured with a 15 min deployment. Fluxes calculated with the HMR method, a hybrid of non-linear and linear approaches, showed no deployment time effects for CO2 and N2O and produced 27-32% higher CO2 fluxes and 28-33% higher N2O fluxes in all crops than the LR approach with 60 min deployment. Across all crops, CO2 fluxes measured with the TF chamber system were higher by 24.4 to 84.9 mg CO2-C m-2 h-1, than fluxes measured with NTF chambers using either flux calculation method. These results suggest NTF chamber deployment time should be shortened if the LR approach is used though detection limits should be considered, and the HMR approach may be more appropriate when long deployment times are necessary. Significant differences in absolute flux values with different chamber types highlight the need for significant effort in determining the accuracy of methods or alternative flux measurement technologies. N2O fluxes with chamber deployment time for (a) all crops (switchgrass, corn, hybrid poplar) using both linear (LR) and HMR flux calculation methods, (b) each crop individually using LR approach, and (c) each crop individually using HMR approach. Given are seasonal (May-August) means + standard error. Letters indicate significant differences among deployment times

  4. Organic chemistry on surfaces: Direct cyclopropanation by dihalocarbene addition to vinyl terminated self-assembled monolayers (SAMs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malgorzata Adamkiewicz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available C11-Vinyl-terminated self-assembled monolayers (SAMs on silica surfaces are successfully modified in C–C bond forming reactions with dihalocarbenes to generate SAMs, terminated with dihalo- (fluoro, chloro, bromo cyclopropane motifs with about 30% surface coverage.

  5. Organic chemistry on surfaces: Direct cyclopropanation by dihalocarbene addition to vinyl terminated self-assembled monolayers (SAMs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamkiewicz, Malgorzata; O'Hagan, David; Hähner, Georg

    2014-01-01

    C11-Vinyl-terminated self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on silica surfaces are successfully modified in C-C bond forming reactions with dihalocarbenes to generate SAMs, terminated with dihalo- (fluoro, chloro, bromo) cyclopropane motifs with about 30% surface coverage.

  6. Organic chemistry on surfaces: Direct cyclopropanation by dihalocarbene addition to vinyl terminated self-assembled monolayers (SAMs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamkiewicz, Malgorzata

    2014-01-01

    Summary C11-Vinyl-terminated self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on silica surfaces are successfully modified in C–C bond forming reactions with dihalocarbenes to generate SAMs, terminated with dihalo- (fluoro, chloro, bromo) cyclopropane motifs with about 30% surface coverage. PMID:25550756

  7. Nitrification and denitrification in two-chamber microbial fuel cells for treatment of wastewater containing high concentrations of ammonia nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Haixia; Li, Fusheng; Yu, Zaiji; Feng, Chunhua; Li, Wenhan

    2016-01-01

    Simultaneous nitrification and denitrification in the aerated cathode chamber of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) inoculated with nitrifying bacteria were investigated using two-chamber MFCs. Based on the variations of [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] in the cathode chamber of four MFCs added with different concentrations of [Formula: see text] (50, 65, 130 and 230 mg/L), the occurrence of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification leading to effective removal of nitrogen was confirmed. Electrochemical reaction with electrons transferred from the anode chamber was found to be the major mechanism responsible for the removal of [Formula: see text] in the cathode chamber. The estimated values of the first-order rate constant for nitrification and denitrification varied in the range of 0.3-1.7 day(-1) and 0.2-0.9 day(-1), revealing a decreasing trend with increases in the initial [Formula: see text] concentrations and the detected maximum concentration of the nitrification product of [Formula: see text] in the cathode chamber, respectively.

  8. Simultaneous selection of soil electroactive bacterial communities associated to anode and cathode in a two-chamber Microbial Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiellini, Carolina; Bacci, Giovanni; Fani, Renato; Mocali, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    Different bacteria have evolved strategies to transfer electrons over their cell surface to (or from) their extracellular environment. This electron transfer enables the use of these bacteria in bioelectrochemical systems (BES) such as Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs). In MFC research the biological reactions at the cathode have long been a secondary point of interest. However, bacterial biocathodes in MFCs represent a potential advantage compared to traditional cathodes, for both their low costs and their low impact on the environment. The main challenge in biocathode set-up is represented by the selection of a bacterial community able to efficiently accept electrons from the electrode, starting from an environmental matrix. In this work, a constant voltage was supplied on a two-chamber MFC filled up with soil over three weeks in order to simultaneously select an electron donor bacterial biomass on the anode and an electron acceptor biomass on the cathode, starting from the same soil. Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) analysis was performed to characterize the bacterial community of the initial soil, in the anode, in the cathode and in the control chamber not supplied with any voltage. Results highlighted that both the MFC conditions and the voltage supply affected the soil bacterial communities, providing a selection of different bacterial groups preferentially associated to the anode (Betaproteobacteria, Bacilli and Clostridia) and to the cathode (Actinobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria). These results confirmed that several electroactive bacteria are naturally present within a top soil and, moreover, different soil bacterial genera could provide different electrical properties.

  9. Response to rhinovirus infection by human airway epithelial cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells in an in vitro two-chamber tissue culture system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Rajan

    Full Text Available Human rhinovirus (HRV infections are associated with the common cold, occasionally with more serious lower respiratory tract illnesses, and frequently with asthma exacerbations. The clinical features of HRV infection and its association with asthma exacerbation suggest that some HRV disease results from virus-induced host immune responses to infection. To study the HRV-infection-induced host responses and the contribution of these responses to disease, we have developed an in vitro model of HRV infection of human airway epithelial cells (Calu-3 cells and subsequent exposure of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs to these infected cells in a two-chamber trans-well tissue culture system. Using this model, we studied HRV 14 (species B and HRV 16 (species A induced cytokine and chemokine responses with PBMCs from four healthy adults. Infection of Calu-3 cells with either virus induced HRV-associated increases in FGF-Basic, IL-15, IL-6, IL-28A, ENA-78 and IP-10. The addition of PBMCs to HRV 14-infected cells gave significant increases in MIP-1β, IL-28A, MCP-2, and IFN-α as compared with mock-infected cells. Interestingly, ENA-78 levels were reduced in HRV 14 infected cells that were exposed to PBMCs. Addition of PBMCs to HRV 16-infected cells did not induce MIP-1β, IL-28A and IFN-α efficiently nor did it decrease ENA-78 levels. Our results demonstrate a clear difference between HRV 14 and HRV 16 and the source of PBMCs, in up or down regulation of several cytokines including those that are linked to airway inflammation. Such differences might be one of the reasons for variation in disease associated with different HRV species including variation in their link to asthma exacerbations as suggested by other studies. Further study of immune responses associated with different HRVs and PBMCs from different patient groups, and the mechanisms leading to these differences, should help characterize pathogenesis of HRV disease and generate

  10. Additive, modular functionalization of reactive self-assembled monolayers: toward the fabrication of multilevel optical storage media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentili, Denis; Barbalinardo, Marianna; Manet, Ilse; Durso, Margherita; Brucale, Marco; Mezzi, Alessio; Melucci, Manuela; Cavallini, Massimiliano

    2015-04-28

    We report a novel strategy based on iterative microcontact printing, which provides additive, modular functionalization of reactive SAMs by different functional molecules. We demonstrate that after printing the molecules form an interpenetrating network at the SAM surface preserving their individual properties. We exploited the process by fabricating new optical storage media that consist of a multilevel TAG.

  11. Can ionic liquid additives be used to extend the scope of poly(styrene)-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) for directed self-assembly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Thomas M.; Pei, Kevin; Cheng, Han-Hao; Thurecht, Kristofer J.; Jack, Kevin S.; Blakey, Idriss

    2014-07-01

    Directed self-assembly (DSA) is a promising approach for extending conventional lithographic techniques by being able to print features with critical dimensions under 10 nm. The most widely studied block copolymer system is polystyrene-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA). This system is well understood in terms of its synthesis, properties, and performance in DSA. However, PS-b-PMMA also has a number of limitations that impact on its performance and hence scope of application. The primary limitation is the low Flory-Huggins polymer-polymer interaction parameter (χ), which limits the size of features that can be printed. Another issue with block copolymers in general is that specific molecular weights need to be synthesized to achieve desired morphologies and feature sizes. Here we explore blending ionic liquid (IL) additives with PS-b-PMMA to increase the χ parameter. ILs have a number of useful properties that include negligible vapor pressure, tunable solvent strength, thermal stability, and chemical stability. The blends of PS-b-PMMA with an IL selective for the PMMA block allowed the resolution of the block copolymer to be improved. Depending on the amount of additive, it is also possible to tune the domain size and the morphology of the systems. These findings may expand the scope of PS-b-PMMA for DSA.

  12. Electrochemistry of Ferrocenyl Dendrimer−β-Cyclodextrin Assemblies at the Interface of an Aqueous Solution and a Molecular Printboard: Addition/correction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, C.A.; Boukamp, Bernard A.; Ravoo, B.J.; Huskens, Jurriaan; Reinhoudt, David

    2007-01-01

    Water-soluble supramolecular assemblies of redox-active ferrocenyl-decorated (Fc) poly(propylene imine) (PPI) dendrimers and β-cyclodextrin (βCD) were adsorbed at self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of βCD (“molecular printboards”). The dendrimers form a stable monolayer at the βCD SAM owing to

  13. Effect of formation of biofilms and chemical scale on the cathode electrode on the performance of a continuous two-chamber microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kyungmi; Fujiki, Itto; Okabe, Satoshi

    2011-01-01

    A two-chamber MFC system was operated continuously for more than 500 days to evaluate effects of biofilm and chemical scale formation on the cathode electrode on power generation. A stable power density of 0.57 W/m(2) was attained after 200 days operation. However, the power density decreased drastically to 0.2 W/m(2) after the cathodic biofilm and chemical scale were removed. As the cathodic biofilm and chemical scale partially accumulated on the cathode, the power density gradually recovered with time. Microbial community structure of the cathodic biofilm was analyzed based on 16S rRNA clone libraries. The clones closely related to Xanthomonadaceae bacterium and Xanthomonas sp. in the Gammaproteobacteria subdivision were most frequently retrieved from the cathodic biofilm. Results of the SEM-EDX analysis revealed that the cation species (Na(+) and Ca(2+)) were main constituents of chemical scale, indicating that these cations diffused from the anode chamber through the Nafion membrane. However, an excess accumulation of the biofilm and chemical scale on the cathode exhibited adverse effects on the power generation due to a decrease in the active cathode surface area and an increase in diffusion resistance for oxygen. Thus, it is important to properly control the formation of chemical scale and biofilm on the cathode during long-term operation.

  14. Additional file 3: Figure S2. of Transcriptome analysis of the white pine blister rust pathogen Cronartium ribicola: de novo assembly, expression profiling, and identification of candidate effectors

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jun-Jun; Sturrock, Rona; Sniezko, Richard; Williams, Holly; Benton, Ross; Zamany, Arezoo

    2015-01-01

    Functional classification of the Cronartium ribicola reference transcriptome assembled de novo from RNA-seq data based on gene ontology (GO). Subcategories of biological process, molecular function, and cellular component are indicated as: GO:0008152, metabolic process; GO:0009987, cellular process; GO:0044699, single-organism process; GO:0050896, response to stimulus; GO:0051179, localization; GO:0065007, biological regulation; GO:0071840, cellular component organization or biogenesis; GO:00...

  15. 双室型和单室型无质子膜MFCs协同去污能力的比较%Comparison of Pollutant Synergistic Removal Between Single- chamber and Two -chamber Membrane -less Microbial Fuel Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冉春秋; 赵不凋; 任辰; 高思佳; 元金东; 孙佳楠

    2012-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion bacteria and denitrifying bacteria were cultured, respectively. The units of wastewater treatment were constructed for single - chamber and two - chamber membrane - less microbial fuel cells (MFCs) with the stainless steel meshes of an interval 180μm as the electrodes. Microbial films composed of anaerobic digestion bacteria and denitrifying bacteria attached to the surfaces of anode electrode and cathode electrode were designed as bio - anode and bio - cathode, respectively. The capacity of pollutant synergistic removal between two - chamber and single - chamber membrane - less MFCs was researched. The maximum removal rates of COD, NH4 +^ - N and NO3^ - - N were 89.2% , 96.4% and 98.5% for two - chamber unit, and those of the system about single - chamber unit were 96.5% , 99.7% and 99.7%. The content of NO2 ^- - N in the effluent was lower than 1.08 mg/L and 0. 072 mg/L, respec- tively. These facts indicated that the capacity of pollutant collaborative removal for single - chamber unit was better than that of two - chamber unit.%分别驯化、培养厌氧消化菌和反硝化菌,以间距180tam的不锈钢网为电极,厌氧消化菌在阳极附着成膜组成生物阳极氧化去除有机污染物,反硝化菌在阴极附着成膜组成生物阴极反硝化去除含氮污染物,进而构建双室型和单室型无质子膜微生物燃料电池污水处理系统。双室型和单室型系统的COD、NH4+^-N和NO3^--N最大去除率分别为89.2%、96.5%,96.4%、99.7%和98.5%、99.7%,出水中NO2^--N的质量浓度分别低于1.08mg·L^-1和0.072mg·L^-1。这表明单室型结构比双室型结构具有更好的污染物协同去除能力。

  16. Growth of Thin, Anisotropic, π-Conjugated Molecular Films by Step-Wise `Click' Assembly of Molecular Building Blocks: Characterizing Reaction Yield, Surface Coverage, and Film Thickness vs. Addition Step Number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demissie, Abel; Haugstad, Greg; Frisbie, C. Daniel

    2015-03-01

    Molecular electronics is an active field of nanotechnology that has gained much interest due to the advent of modern microscopy techniques, and thin film synthesis using click chemistry - an approach which has enabled scientists to achieve a sub-angstrom control of monolayer length. Among the major challenges to grow oriented, surface-confined wires by click chemistry is development of synthetic routes that yield monodisperse wires, and lack of systematic way to measure the surface coverage of molecules. In this work, we report a comprehensive characterization of π-conjugated oligophenylene imine (OPI) wires synthesized step-wise by imine condensation click chemistry. OPI wire synthesis began with a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of 4-formylthiophenol or 4-aminothiophenol on Au, followed by alternate addition of terepthaldehyde or phenylenediamine. OPI wires were characterized after each monomer addition via Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, reflection-absorption infra-red spectroscopy, and nuclear reaction analysis. We have determined an average extent of reaction greater than 98% completion for each growth step using five different techniques. Overall, these nanoscale scale surface characterization techniques proved to be an extremely sufficient method for monitoring wire growth and surface coverage.

  17. 两种双腔串联压电泵结构设计与性能比较%Structural design and performance comparison of two kinds of piezoelectric pump with two chambers in series

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓锋; 杨志刚; 姜德龙

    2011-01-01

    In order to research structure effect on output performance of piezoelectric pump with two chambers in series, two structural forms of piezoelectric pump with two chambers in series with a diversion and no diversion slot were designed according to its working principle. The experimental samplers were manufactured and output performance experiments were carried out with water and air as the medium, respectively. The experimental results show that output flow rate of piezoelectric pump with two chambers in series with a diversion slot is better by powered 110 V sinusoidal AC drive voltage. The maximum output of liquid and gas flow rate are 1 100 mL/min and 650 mL/min, respectively, but residual bubble in the diversion slot is its disadvantage. Both the overall output pressure are closer and maximum output pressure reaches to 100 kPa. The self-priming performance of pump with no diversion slot is better and the largest self-priming water column height is 45 cm.%为研究结构形式对双腔串联压电泵输出性能的影响,根据其工作原理,设计了有导流槽和无导流槽两种结构形式的双腔串联有阀压电泵,并加工制造了试验样机,分别以水和空气为介质进行输出性能比较试验.试验结果表明,在110 V正弦交流电驱动下,有导流槽结构的双腔串联压电泵流量输出性能更好,输出的最大液体和气体流量分别为1100和650 mL/min,但容易在导流槽内残留气泡;两者压力输出性能整体上比较接近,最大输出压力可达100 kPa;无导流槽的双腔串联压电泵整体自吸性能更好,最大自吸高度为45 cm水柱.

  18. Sequence assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheibye-Alsing, Karsten; Hoffmann, S.; Frankel, Annett Maria

    2009-01-01

    Despite the rapidly increasing number of sequenced and re-sequenced genomes, many issues regarding the computational assembly of large-scale sequencing data have remain unresolved. Computational assembly is crucial in large genome projects as well for the evolving high-throughput technologies...

  19. Spatially confined assembly of nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lin; Chen, Xiaodong; Lu, Nan; Chi, Lifeng

    2014-10-21

    The ability to assemble NPs into ordered structures that are expected to yield collective physical or chemical properties has afforded new and exciting opportunities in the field of nanotechnology. Among the various configurations of nanoparticle assemblies, two-dimensional (2D) NP patterns and one-dimensional (1D) NP arrays on surfaces are regarded as the ideal assembly configurations for many technological devices, for example, solar cells, magnetic memory, switching devices, and sensing devices, due to their unique transport phenomena and the cooperative properties of NPs in assemblies. To realize the potential applications of NP assemblies, especially in nanodevice-related applications, certain key issues must still be resolved, for example, ordering and alignment, manipulating and positioning in nanodevices, and multicomponent or hierarchical structures of NP assemblies for device integration. Additionally, the assembly of NPs with high precision and high levels of integration and uniformity for devices with scaled-down dimensions has become a key and challenging issue. Two-dimensional NP patterns and 1D NP arrays are obtained using traditional lithography techniques (top-down strategies) or interfacial assembly techniques (bottom-up strategies). However, a formidable challenge that persists is the controllable assembly of NPs in desired locations over large areas with high precision and high levels of integration. The difficulty of this assembly is due to the low efficiency of small features over large areas in lithography techniques or the inevitable structural defects that occur during the assembly process. The combination of self-assembly strategies with existing nanofabrication techniques could potentially provide effective and distinctive solutions for fabricating NPs with precise position control and high resolution. Furthermore, the synergistic combination of spatially mediated interactions between nanoparticles and prestructures on surfaces may play

  20. Sabot assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bzorgi, Fariborz

    2016-11-08

    A sabot assembly includes a projectile and a housing dimensioned and configured for receiving the projectile. An air pressure cavity having a cavity diameter is disposed between a front end and a rear end of the housing. Air intake nozzles are in fluid communication with the air pressure cavity and each has a nozzle diameter less than the cavity diameter. In operation, air flows through the plurality of air intake nozzles and into the air pressure cavity upon firing of the projectile from a gun barrel to pressurize the air pressure cavity for assisting in separation of the housing from the projectile upon the sabot assembly exiting the gun barrel.

  1. Assembling consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assembling Consumption marks a definitive step in the institutionalisation of qualitative business research. By gathering leading scholars and educators who study markets, marketing and consumption through the lenses of philosophy, sociology and anthropology, this book clarifies and applies...... societies. This is an essential reading for both seasoned scholars and advanced students of markets, economies and social forms of consumption....

  2. Photovoltaic self-assembly.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavin, Judith; Kemp, Richard Alan; Stewart, Constantine A.

    2010-10-01

    This late-start LDRD was focused on the application of chemical principles of self-assembly on the ordering and placement of photovoltaic cells in a module. The drive for this chemical-based self-assembly stems from the escalating prices in the 'pick-and-place' technology currently used in the MEMS industries as the size of chips decreases. The chemical self-assembly principles are well-known on a molecular scale in other material science systems but to date had not been applied to the assembly of cells in a photovoltaic array or module. We explored several types of chemical-based self-assembly techniques, including gold-thiol interactions, liquid polymer binding, and hydrophobic-hydrophilic interactions designed to array both Si and GaAs PV chips onto a substrate. Additional research was focused on the modification of PV cells in an effort to gain control over the facial directionality of the cells in a solvent-based environment. Despite being a small footprint research project worked on for only a short time, the technical results and scientific accomplishments were significant and could prove to be enabling technology in the disruptive advancement of the microelectronic photovoltaics industry.

  3. Dump assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldmann, Louis H.

    1986-01-01

    A dump assembly having a fixed conduit and a rotatable conduit provided with overlapping plates, respectively, at their adjacent ends. The plates are formed with openings, respectively, normally offset from each other to block flow. The other end of the rotatable conduit is provided with means for securing the open end of a filled container thereto. Rotation of the rotatable conduit raises and inverts the container to empty the contents while concurrently aligning the conduit openings to permit flow of material therethrough.

  4. Geometric reasoning about assembly tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    Planning for assembly requires reasoning about various tools used by humans, robots, or other automation to manipulate, attach, and test parts and subassemblies. This paper presents a general framework to represent and reason about geometric accessibility issues for a wide variety of such assembly tools. Central to the framework is a use volume encoding a minimum space that must be free in an assembly state to apply a given tool, and placement constraints on where that volume must be placed relative to the parts on which the tool acts. Determining whether a tool can be applied in a given assembly state is then reduced to an instance of the FINDPLACE problem. In addition, the author presents more efficient methods to integrate the framework into assembly planning. For tools that are applied either before or after their target parts are mated, one method pre-processes a single tool application for all possible states of assembly of a product in polynomial time, reducing all later state-tool queries to evaluations of a simple expression. For tools applied after their target parts are mated, a complementary method guarantees polynomial-time assembly planning. The author presents a wide variety of tools that can be described adequately using the approach, and surveys tool catalogs to determine coverage of standard tools. Finally, the author describes an implementation of the approach in an assembly planning system and experiments with a library of over one hundred manual and robotic tools and several complex assemblies.

  5. General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    5th April, 2016 – Ordinary General Assembly of the Staff Association! In the first semester of each year, the Staff Association (SA) invites its members to attend and participate in the Ordinary General Assembly (OGA). This year the OGA will be held on Tuesday, April 5th 2016 from 11:00 to 12:00 in BE Auditorium, Meyrin (6-2-024). During the Ordinary General Assembly, the activity and financial reports of the SA are presented and submitted for approval to the members. This is the occasion to get a global view on the activities of the SA, its financial management, and an opportunity to express one’s opinion, including taking part in the votes. Other points are listed on the agenda, as proposed by the Staff Council. Who can vote? Only “ordinary” members (MPE) of the SA can vote. Associated members (MPA) of the SA and/or affiliated pensioners have a right to vote on those topics that are of direct interest to them. Who can give his/her opinion? The Ordinary General Asse...

  6. United assembly algorithm for optical burst switching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinhui Yu(于金辉); Yijun Yang(杨教军); Yuehua Chen(陈月华); Ge Fan(范戈)

    2003-01-01

    Optical burst switching (OBS) is a promising optical switching technology. The burst assembly algorithm controls burst assembly, which significantly impacts performance of OBS network. This paper provides a new assembly algorithm, united assembly algorithm, which has more practicability than conventional algorithms. In addition, some factors impacting selections of parameters of this algorithm are discussed and the performance of this algorithm is studied by computer simulation.

  7. General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    Mardi 5 mai à 11 h 00 Salle 13-2-005 Conformément aux statuts de l’Association du personnel, une Assemblée générale ordinaire est organisée une fois par année (article IV.2.1). Projet d’ordre du jour : 1- Adoption de l’ordre du jour. 2- Approbation du procès-verbal de l’Assemblée générale ordinaire du 22 mai 2014. 3- Présentation et approbation du rapport d’activités 2014. 4- Présentation et approbation du rapport financier 2014. 5- Présentation et approbation du rapport des vérificateurs aux comptes pour 2014. 6- Programme 2015. 7- Présentation et approbation du projet de budget 2015 et taux de cotisation pour 2015. 8- Pas de modifications aux Statuts de l'Association du personnel proposée. 9- Élections des membres de la Commission é...

  8. General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Mardi 5 avril à 11 h 00 BE Auditorium Meyrin (6-2-024) Conformément aux statuts de l’Association du personnel, une Assemblée générale ordinaire est organisée une fois par année (article IV.2.1). Projet d’ordre du jour : Adoption de l’ordre du jour. Approbation du procès-verbal de l’Assemblée générale ordinaire du 5 mai 2015. Présentation et approbation du rapport d’activités 2015. Présentation et approbation du rapport financier 2015. Présentation et approbation du rapport des vérificateurs aux comptes pour 2015. Programme de travail 2016. Présentation et approbation du projet de budget 2016 Approbation du taux de cotisation pour 2017. Modifications aux Statuts de l'Association du personnel proposée. Élections des membres de la Commissio...

  9. General assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    Mardi 5 mai à 11 h 00 Salle 13-2-005 Conformément aux statuts de l’Association du personnel, une Assemblée générale ordinaire est organisée une fois par année (article IV.2.1). Projet d’ordre du jour : Adoption de l’ordre du jour. Approbation du procès-verbal de l’Assemblée générale ordinaire du 22 mai 2014. Présentation et approbation du rapport d’activités 2014. Présentation et approbation du rapport financier 2014. Présentation et approbation du rapport des vérificateurs aux comptes pour 2014. Programme 2015. Présentation et approbation du projet de budget 2015 et taux de cotisation pour 2015. Pas de modifications aux Statuts de l'Association du personnel proposée. Élections des membres de la Commission électorale. &am...

  10. General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Conformément aux statuts de l’Association du personnel, une Assemblée générale ordinaire est organisée une fois par année (article IV.2.1). Projet d’ordre du jour : Adoption de l’ordre du jour. Approbation du procès-verbal de l’Assemblée générale ordinaire du 5 avril 2016. Présentation et approbation du rapport d’activités 2016. Présentation et approbation du rapport financier 2016. Présentation et approbation du rapport des vérificateurs aux comptes pour 2016. Programme de travail 2017. Présentation et approbation du projet de budget 2017 Approbation du taux de cotisation pour 2018. Modifications aux Statuts de l'Association du personnel proposées. Élections des membres de la Commission électorale. Élections des vérifica...

  11. Additivity dominance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Rozin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Judgments of naturalness of foods tend to be more influenced by the process history of a food, rather than its actual constituents. Two types of processing of a ``natural'' food are to add something or to remove something. We report in this study, based on a large random sample of individuals from six countries (France, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, UK and USA that additives are considered defining features of what makes a food not natural, whereas ``subtractives'' are almost never mentioned. In support of this, skim milk (with major subtraction of fat is rated as more natural than whole milk with a small amount of natural vitamin D added. It is also noted that ``additives'' is a common word, with a synonym reported by a native speaker in 17 of 18 languages, whereas ``subtractive'' is lexicalized in only 1 of the 18 languages. We consider reasons for additivity dominance, relating it to omission bias, feature positive bias, and notions of purity.

  12. Minimus: a fast, lightweight genome assembler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salzberg Steven L

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome assemblers have grown very large and complex in response to the need for algorithms to handle the challenges of large whole-genome sequencing projects. Many of the most common uses of assemblers, however, are best served by a simpler type of assembler that requires fewer software components, uses less memory, and is far easier to install and run. Results We have developed the Minimus assembler to address these issues, and tested it on a range of assembly problems. We show that Minimus performs well on several small assembly tasks, including the assembly of viral genomes, individual genes, and BAC clones. In addition, we evaluate Minimus' performance in assembling bacterial genomes in order to assess its suitability as a component of a larger assembly pipeline. We show that, unlike other software currently used for these tasks, Minimus produces significantly fewer assembly errors, at the cost of generating a more fragmented assembly. Conclusion We find that for small genomes and other small assembly tasks, Minimus is faster and far more flexible than existing tools. Due to its small size and modular design Minimus is perfectly suited to be a component of complex assembly pipelines. Minimus is released as an open-source software project and the code is available as part of the AMOS project at Sourceforge.

  13. Potlining Additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  14. Additivity dominance

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Judgments of naturalness of foods tend to be more influenced by the process history of a food, rather than its actual constituents. Two types of processing of a ``natural'' food are to add something or to remove something. We report in this study, based on a large random sample of individuals from six countries (France, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, UK and USA) that additives are considered defining features of what makes a food not natural, whereas ``subtractives'' are almost never mentioned....

  15. Sulfite Additives

    OpenAIRE

    1988-01-01

    The CMA recommends that sulfites be banned as food preservatives when satisfactory and safe alternatives are available. When there is no suitable substitute strict labelling requirements on foods should be imposed for sulfite additives. The association supports the efforts of the Health Protection Branch of the Department of National Health and Welfare to regulate sulfites in the food and drug industry to prevent adverse reactions in people sensitive to sulfites. The CMA recommends that the D...

  16. SCT Barrel Assembly Complete

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Batchelor

    As reported in the April 2005 issue of the ATLAS eNews, the first of the four Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) barrels, complete with modules and services, arrived safely at CERN in January of 2005. In the months since January, the other three completed barrels arrived as well, and integration of the four barrels into the entire barrel assembly commenced at CERN, in the SR1 building on the ATLAS experimental site, in July. Assembly was completed on schedule in September, with the addition of the innermost layer to the 4-barrel assembly. Work is now underway to seal the barrel thermal enclosure. This is necessary in order to enclose the silicon tracker in a nitrogen atmosphere and provide it with faraday-cage protection, and is a delicate and complicated task: 352 silicon module powertapes, 352 readout-fibre bundles, and over 400 Detector Control System sensors must be carefully sealed into the thermal enclosure bulkhead. The team is currently verifying the integrity of the low mass cooling system, which must be d...

  17. AGORA: Assembly Guided by Optical Restriction Alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Henry C

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome assembly is difficult due to repeated sequences within the genome, which create ambiguities and cause the final assembly to be broken up into many separate sequences (contigs. Long range linking information, such as mate-pairs or mapping data, is necessary to help assembly software resolve repeats, thereby leading to a more complete reconstruction of genomes. Prior work has used optical maps for validating assemblies and scaffolding contigs, after an initial assembly has been produced. However, optical maps have not previously been used within the genome assembly process. Here, we use optical map information within the popular de Bruijn graph assembly paradigm to eliminate paths in the de Bruijn graph which are not consistent with the optical map and help determine the correct reconstruction of the genome. Results We developed a new algorithm called AGORA: Assembly Guided by Optical Restriction Alignment. AGORA is the first algorithm to use optical map information directly within the de Bruijn graph framework to help produce an accurate assembly of a genome that is consistent with the optical map information provided. Our simulations on bacterial genomes show that AGORA is effective at producing assemblies closely matching the reference sequences. Additionally, we show that noise in the optical map can have a strong impact on the final assembly quality for some complex genomes, and we also measure how various characteristics of the starting de Bruijn graph may impact the quality of the final assembly. Lastly, we show that a proper choice of restriction enzyme for the optical map may substantially improve the quality of the final assembly. Conclusions Our work shows that optical maps can be used effectively to assemble genomes within the de Bruijn graph assembly framework. Our experiments also provide insights into the characteristics of the mapping data that most affect the performance of our algorithm, indicating the

  18. RF/Optical Demonstration: Focal Plane Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, D. J.; Chung, S.; Kovalik, J.; Gama, E.; Fernandez, M. M.

    2016-11-01

    In this article, we describe the second-generation focal plane optical assembly employed in the RF/optical demonstration at DSS-13. This assembly receives reflected light from the two mirror segments mounted on the RF primary. The focal plane assembly contains a fast steering mirror (FSM) to stabilize the focal plane spot, a pupil camera to aid in aligning the two segments, and several additional cameras for receiving the optical signal prior to as well as after the FSM loop.

  19. Genome Sequence Databases (Overview): Sequencing and Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapidus, Alla L.

    2009-01-01

    From the date its role in heredity was discovered, DNA has been generating interest among scientists from different fields of knowledge: physicists have studied the three dimensional structure of the DNA molecule, biologists tried to decode the secrets of life hidden within these long molecules, and technologists invent and improve methods of DNA analysis. The analysis of the nucleotide sequence of DNA occupies a special place among the methods developed. Thanks to the variety of sequencing technologies available, the process of decoding the sequence of genomic DNA (or whole genome sequencing) has become robust and inexpensive. Meanwhile the assembly of whole genome sequences remains a challenging task. In addition to the need to assemble millions of DNA fragments of different length (from 35 bp (Solexa) to 800 bp (Sanger)), great interest in analysis of microbial communities (metagenomes) of different complexities raises new problems and pushes some new requirements for sequence assembly tools to the forefront. The genome assembly process can be divided into two steps: draft assembly and assembly improvement (finishing). Despite the fact that automatically performed assembly (or draft assembly) is capable of covering up to 98% of the genome, in most cases, it still contains incorrectly assembled reads. The error rate of the consensus sequence produced at this stage is about 1/2000 bp. A finished genome represents the genome assembly of much higher accuracy (with no gaps or incorrectly assembled areas) and quality ({approx}1 error/10,000 bp), validated through a number of computer and laboratory experiments.

  20. Probe tip heating assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Roger William; Oh, Yunje

    2016-10-25

    A heating assembly configured for use in mechanical testing at a scale of microns or less. The heating assembly includes a probe tip assembly configured for coupling with a transducer of the mechanical testing system. The probe tip assembly includes a probe tip heater system having a heating element, a probe tip coupled with the probe tip heater system, and a heater socket assembly. The heater socket assembly, in one example, includes a yoke and a heater interface that form a socket within the heater socket assembly. The probe tip heater system, coupled with the probe tip, is slidably received and clamped within the socket.

  1. Newnes electronics assembly handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Brindley, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Newnes Electronics Assembly Handbook: Techniques, Standards and Quality Assurance focuses on the aspects of electronic assembling. The handbook first looks at the printed circuit board (PCB). Base materials, basic mechanical properties, cleaning of assemblies, design, and PCB manufacturing processes are then explained. The text also discusses surface mounted assemblies and packaging of electromechanical assemblies, as well as the soldering process. Requirements for the soldering process; solderability and protective coatings; cleaning of PCBs; and mass solder/component reflow soldering are des

  2. Autonomous electrochromic assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berland, Brian Spencer; Lanning, Bruce Roy; Stowell, Jr., Michael Wayne

    2015-03-10

    This disclosure describes system and methods for creating an autonomous electrochromic assembly, and systems and methods for use of the autonomous electrochromic assembly in combination with a window. Embodiments described herein include an electrochromic assembly that has an electrochromic device, an energy storage device, an energy collection device, and an electrochromic controller device. These devices may be combined into a unitary electrochromic insert assembly. The electrochromic assembly may have the capability of generating power sufficient to operate and control an electrochromic device. This control may occur through the application of a voltage to an electrochromic device to change its opacity state. The electrochromic assembly may be used in combination with a window.

  3. Self-assembly of polar functionalities using noncovalent platforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerckhoffs, Jessica M.C.A.; Crego-Calama, Mercedes; Luyten, Ingrid; Timmerman, Peter; Reinhoudt, David N.

    2000-01-01

    Small peptide fragments functionalized with dimelamine units spontaneously form well-defined assemblies. The hydrogen-bond donating and accepting sites in the peptide units are perfectly compatible with the hydrogen-bond assembly motif and slightly stabilize the assembly via additional hydrogen-bond

  4. Polymer Directed Protein Assemblies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Protein aggregation and protein self-assembly is an important occurrence in natural systems, and is in some form or other dictated by biopolymers. Very obvious influences of biopolymers on protein assemblies are, e. g., virus particles. Viruses are a multi-protein assembly of which the morphology is

  5. Polymer Directed Protein Assemblies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, Patrick

    Protein aggregation and protein self-assembly is an important occurrence in natural systems, and is in some form or other dictated by biopolymers. Very obvious influences of biopolymers on protein assemblies are, e. g., virus particles. Viruses are a multi-protein assembly of which the morphology is

  6. Sensor mount assemblies and sensor assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David H [Redondo Beach, CA

    2012-04-10

    Sensor mount assemblies and sensor assemblies are provided. In an embodiment, by way of example only, a sensor mount assembly includes a busbar, a main body, a backing surface, and a first finger. The busbar has a first end and a second end. The main body is overmolded onto the busbar. The backing surface extends radially outwardly relative to the main body. The first finger extends axially from the backing surface, and the first finger has a first end, a second end, and a tooth. The first end of the first finger is disposed on the backing surface, and the tooth is formed on the second end of the first finger.

  7. Soldering in electronics assembly

    CERN Document Server

    Judd, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Soldering in Electronics Assembly discusses several concerns in soldering of electronic assemblies. The book is comprised of nine chapters that tackle different areas in electronic assembly soldering. Chapter 1 discusses the soldering process itself, while Chapter 2 covers the electronic assemblies. Chapter 3 talks about solders and Chapter 4 deals with flux. The text also tackles the CS and SC soldering process. The cleaning of soldered assemblies, solder quality, and standards and specifications are also discussed. The book will be of great use to professionals who deal with electronic assem

  8. Composite fan stator assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donges, G.L.

    1993-07-13

    A composite fan stator assembly is described for a gas turbine engine having at least two fan rotor stages, the composite stator assembly comprising: an annular composite fan case assembly including an access port, the fan case assembly circumferentially disposed around first and second fan rotor stage locations, a composite fan stator stage supported by and extending radially inward of the fan case assembly and axially disposed between the two fan rotor stage locations, the fan stator stage includes at least one removable vane segment accessible for removal through the access port for assembly and reassembly, the composite fan case assembly including a separable composite forward fan case assembly and a separable composite aft fan case assembly spaced axially aft of the forward fan case assembly, the forward fan case assembly being bolted to the aft fan case assembly, wherein the composite fan stator stage is axially and radially trapped and supported by the forward and aft fan case assemblies. A composite stator vane assembly comprising: a composite inner shroud, a composite outer shroud disposed radially outward of the inner shroud, a plurality of vanes disposed between the shrouds, the vanes including a suction side and a pressure side and radially inner and outer roots, the roots extending through platforms of corresponding ones of the inner and outer shrouds, four box-type attachment elements corresponding to curved suction and pressure sides of the inner and outer roots, the box-type attachment elements having two connected legs angled with respect to each other, a first one of the legs extending along, conforming to the curve of, and bonded to a corresponding one of the airfoil root sides, and a second one of the legs extending along and bonded to a composite shroud surface.

  9. Preliminary High-Throughput Metagenome Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dusheyko, Serge; Furman, Craig; Pangilinan, Jasmyn; Shapiro, Harris; Tu, Hank

    2007-03-26

    Metagenome data sets present a qualitatively different assembly problem than traditional single-organism whole-genome shotgun (WGS) assembly. The unique aspects of such projects include the presence of a potentially large number of distinct organisms and their representation in the data set at widely different fractions. In addition, multiple closely related strains could be present, which would be difficult to assemble separately. Failure to take these issues into account can result in poor assemblies that either jumble together different strains or which fail to yield useful results. The DOE Joint Genome Institute has sequenced a number of metagenomic projects and plans to considerably increase this number in the coming year. As a result, the JGI has a need for high-throughput tools and techniques for handling metagenome projects. We present the techniques developed to handle metagenome assemblies in a high-throughput environment. This includes a streamlined assembly wrapper, based on the JGI?s in-house WGS assembler, Jazz. It also includes the selection of sensible defaults targeted for metagenome data sets, as well as quality control automation for cleaning up the raw results. While analysis is ongoing, we will discuss preliminary assessments of the quality of the assembly results (http://fames.jgi-psf.org).

  10. ex vivo DNA assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam B Fisher

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Even with decreasing DNA synthesis costs there remains a need for inexpensive, rapid and reliable methods for assembling synthetic DNA into larger constructs or combinatorial libraries. Advances in cloning techniques have resulted in powerful in vitro and in vivo assembly of DNA. However, monetary and time costs have limited these approaches. Here, we report an ex vivo DNA assembly method that uses cellular lysates derived from a commonly used laboratory strain of Escherichia coli for joining double-stranded DNA with short end homologies embedded within inexpensive primers. This method concurrently shortens the time and decreases costs associated with current DNA assembly methods.

  11. Composite turbine bucket assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liotta, Gary Charles; Garcia-Crespo, Andres

    2014-05-20

    A composite turbine blade assembly includes a ceramic blade including an airfoil portion, a shank portion and an attachment portion; and a transition assembly adapted to attach the ceramic blade to a turbine disk or rotor, the transition assembly including first and second transition components clamped together, trapping said ceramic airfoil therebetween. Interior surfaces of the first and second transition portions are formed to mate with the shank portion and the attachment portion of the ceramic blade, and exterior surfaces of said first and second transition components are formed to include an attachment feature enabling the transition assembly to be attached to the turbine rotor or disk.

  12. Target Assembly Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Target Assembly Facility integrates new armor concepts into actual armored vehicles. Featuring the capability ofmachining and cutting radioactive materials, it...

  13. Probabilistic Analysis of Pattern Formation in Monotonic Self-Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Tyler G; Garzon, Max H; Deaton, Russell J

    2015-01-01

    Inspired by biological systems, self-assembly aims to construct complex structures. It functions through piece-wise, local interactions among component parts and has the potential to produce novel materials and devices at the nanoscale. Algorithmic self-assembly models the product of self-assembly as the output of some computational process, and attempts to control the process of assembly algorithmically. Though providing fundamental insights, these computational models have yet to fully account for the randomness that is inherent in experimental realizations, which tend to be based on trial and error methods. In order to develop a method of analysis that addresses experimental parameters, such as error and yield, this work focuses on the capability of assembly systems to produce a pre-determined set of target patterns, either accurately or perhaps only approximately. Self-assembly systems that assemble patterns that are similar to the targets in a significant percentage are "strong" assemblers. In addition, assemblers should predominantly produce target patterns, with a small percentage of errors or junk. These definitions approximate notions of yield and purity in chemistry and manufacturing. By combining these definitions, a criterion for efficient assembly is developed that can be used to compare the ability of different assembly systems to produce a given target set. Efficiency is a composite measure of the accuracy and purity of an assembler. Typical examples in algorithmic assembly are assessed in the context of these metrics. In addition to validating the method, they also provide some insight that might be used to guide experimentation. Finally, some general results are established that, for efficient assembly, imply that every target pattern is guaranteed to be assembled with a minimum common positive probability, regardless of its size, and that a trichotomy exists to characterize the global behavior of typical efficient, monotonic self-assembly systems

  14. Probabilistic Analysis of Pattern Formation in Monotonic Self-Assembly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler G Moore

    Full Text Available Inspired by biological systems, self-assembly aims to construct complex structures. It functions through piece-wise, local interactions among component parts and has the potential to produce novel materials and devices at the nanoscale. Algorithmic self-assembly models the product of self-assembly as the output of some computational process, and attempts to control the process of assembly algorithmically. Though providing fundamental insights, these computational models have yet to fully account for the randomness that is inherent in experimental realizations, which tend to be based on trial and error methods. In order to develop a method of analysis that addresses experimental parameters, such as error and yield, this work focuses on the capability of assembly systems to produce a pre-determined set of target patterns, either accurately or perhaps only approximately. Self-assembly systems that assemble patterns that are similar to the targets in a significant percentage are "strong" assemblers. In addition, assemblers should predominantly produce target patterns, with a small percentage of errors or junk. These definitions approximate notions of yield and purity in chemistry and manufacturing. By combining these definitions, a criterion for efficient assembly is developed that can be used to compare the ability of different assembly systems to produce a given target set. Efficiency is a composite measure of the accuracy and purity of an assembler. Typical examples in algorithmic assembly are assessed in the context of these metrics. In addition to validating the method, they also provide some insight that might be used to guide experimentation. Finally, some general results are established that, for efficient assembly, imply that every target pattern is guaranteed to be assembled with a minimum common positive probability, regardless of its size, and that a trichotomy exists to characterize the global behavior of typical efficient, monotonic

  15. Differential self-assembly behaviors of cyclic and linear peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung-ju; Jeong, Woo-jin; Kang, Seong-Kyun; Lee, Myongsoo; Kim, Eunhye; Ryu, Du Yeol; Lim, Yong-beom

    2012-07-01

    Here we ask the fundamental questions about the effect of peptide topology on self-assembly. The study revealed that the self-assembling behaviors of cyclic and linear peptides are significantly different in several respects, in addition to sharing several similarities. Their clear differences included the morphological dissimilarities of the self-assembled nanostructures and their thermal stability. The similarities include their analogous critical aggregation concentration values and cytotoxicity profiles, which are in fact closely related. We believe that understanding topology-dependent self-assembly behavior of peptides is important for developing tailor-made self-assembled peptide nanostructures.

  16. Extending reference assembly models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Church, Deanna M.; Schneider, Valerie A.; Steinberg, Karyn Meltz

    2015-01-01

    The human genome reference assembly is crucial for aligning and analyzing sequence data, and for genome annotation, among other roles. However, the models and analysis assumptions that underlie the current assembly need revising to fully represent human sequence diversity. Improved analysis tools...

  17. Assembly of primary cilia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lotte B; Veland, Iben R; Schrøder, Jacob M

    2008-01-01

    in primary cilia assembly or function have been associated with a panoply of disorders and diseases, including polycystic kidney disease, left-right asymmetry defects, hydrocephalus, and Bardet Biedl Syndrome. Here we provide an up-to-date review focused on the molecular mechanisms involved in the assembly...

  18. Extending reference assembly models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Church, Deanna M.; Schneider, Valerie A.; Steinberg, Karyn Meltz;

    2015-01-01

    The human genome reference assembly is crucial for aligning and analyzing sequence data, and for genome annotation, among other roles. However, the models and analysis assumptions that underlie the current assembly need revising to fully represent human sequence diversity. Improved analysis tools...

  19. Perspective: Geometrically frustrated assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grason, Gregory M.

    2016-09-01

    This perspective will overview an emerging paradigm for self-organized soft materials, geometrically frustrated assemblies, where interactions between self-assembling elements (e.g., particles, macromolecules, proteins) favor local packing motifs that are incompatible with uniform global order in the assembly. This classification applies to a broad range of material assemblies including self-twisting protein filament bundles, amyloid fibers, chiral smectics and membranes, particle-coated droplets, curved protein shells, and phase-separated lipid vesicles. In assemblies, geometric frustration leads to a host of anomalous structural and thermodynamic properties, including heterogeneous and internally stressed equilibrium structures, self-limiting assembly, and topological defects in the equilibrium assembly structures. The purpose of this perspective is to (1) highlight the unifying principles and consequences of geometric frustration in soft matter assemblies; (2) classify the known distinct modes of frustration and review corresponding experimental examples; and (3) describe outstanding questions not yet addressed about the unique properties and behaviors of this broad class of systems.

  20. Laser bottom hole assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Lance D; Norton, Ryan J; McKay, Ryan P; Mesnard, David R; Fraze, Jason D; Zediker, Mark S; Faircloth, Brian O

    2014-01-14

    There is provided for laser bottom hole assembly for providing a high power laser beam having greater than 5 kW of power for a laser mechanical drilling process to advance a borehole. This assembly utilizes a reverse Moineau motor type power section and provides a self-regulating system that addresses fluid flows relating to motive force, cooling and removal of cuttings.

  1. Assembly: a resource for assembled genomes at NCBI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitts, Paul A; Church, Deanna M; Thibaud-Nissen, Françoise; Choi, Jinna; Hem, Vichet; Sapojnikov, Victor; Smith, Robert G; Tatusova, Tatiana; Xiang, Charlie; Zherikov, Andrey; DiCuccio, Michael; Murphy, Terence D; Pruitt, Kim D; Kimchi, Avi

    2016-01-04

    The NCBI Assembly database (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/assembly/) provides stable accessioning and data tracking for genome assembly data. The model underlying the database can accommodate a range of assembly structures, including sets of unordered contig or scaffold sequences, bacterial genomes consisting of a single complete chromosome, or complex structures such as a human genome with modeled allelic variation. The database provides an assembly accession and version to unambiguously identify the set of sequences that make up a particular version of an assembly, and tracks changes to updated genome assemblies. The Assembly database reports metadata such as assembly names, simple statistical reports of the assembly (number of contigs and scaffolds, contiguity metrics such as contig N50, total sequence length and total gap length) as well as the assembly update history. The Assembly database also tracks the relationship between an assembly submitted to the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Consortium (INSDC) and the assembly represented in the NCBI RefSeq project. Users can find assemblies of interest by querying the Assembly Resource directly or by browsing available assemblies for a particular organism. Links in the Assembly Resource allow users to easily download sequence and annotations for current versions of genome assemblies from the NCBI genomes FTP site.

  2. Self-assembled nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jin Z; Liu, Jun; Chen, Shaowei; Liu, Gang-yu

    2003-01-01

    Nanostructures refer to materials that have relevant dimensions on the nanometer length scales and reside in the mesoscopic regime between isolated atoms and molecules in bulk matter. These materials have unique physical properties that are distinctly different from bulk materials. Self-Assembled Nanostructures provides systematic coverage of basic nanomaterials science including materials assembly and synthesis, characterization, and application. Suitable for both beginners and experts, it balances the chemistry aspects of nanomaterials with physical principles. It also highlights nanomaterial-based architectures including assembled or self-assembled systems. Filled with in-depth discussion of important applications of nano-architectures as well as potential applications ranging from physical to chemical and biological systems, Self-Assembled Nanostructures is the essential reference or text for scientists involved with nanostructures.

  3. Constrained space camera assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckendorn, Frank M.; Anderson, Erin K.; Robinson, Casandra W.; Haynes, Harriet B.

    1999-01-01

    A constrained space camera assembly which is intended to be lowered through a hole into a tank, a borehole or another cavity. The assembly includes a generally cylindrical chamber comprising a head and a body and a wiring-carrying conduit extending from the chamber. Means are included in the chamber for rotating the body about the head without breaking an airtight seal formed therebetween. The assembly may be pressurized and accompanied with a pressure sensing means for sensing if a breach has occurred in the assembly. In one embodiment, two cameras, separated from their respective lenses, are installed on a mounting apparatus disposed in the chamber. The mounting apparatus includes means allowing both longitudinal and lateral movement of the cameras. Moving the cameras longitudinally focuses the cameras, and moving the cameras laterally away from one another effectively converges the cameras so that close objects can be viewed. The assembly further includes means for moving lenses of different magnification forward of the cameras.

  4. Redox-promoted associative assembly of metal–organic materials† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental procedures, compound characterization data, and X-ray crystallographic data for compounds 3–7 and 9–11. CCDC 1405641–1405645, 1429643, 1405647 and 1405648. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c5sc02214b Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavinović, Martin; Qi, Feng; Katsenis, Athanassios D.

    2016-01-01

    We develop an associative synthesis of metal–organic materials that combines solid-state metal oxidation and coordination-driven self-assembly into a one-step, waste-free transformation. The methodology hinges on the unique reactivity of ortho-quinones, which we introduce as versatile oxidants for mechanochemical synthesis. Our strategy opens a previously unexplored route to paramagnetic metal–organic materials from elementary metals. PMID:28791114

  5. Assembly design system based on engineering connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wensheng

    2016-12-01

    An assembly design system is an important part of computer-aided design systems, which are important tools for realizing product concept design. The traditional assembly design system does not record the connection information of production on the engineering layer; consequently, the upstream design idea cannot be fully used in the downstream design. An assembly design model based on the relationship of engineering connection is presented. In this model, all nodes are divided into two categories: The component and the connection. Moreover, the product is constructed on the basis of the connection relationship of the components. The model is an And/Or graph and has the ability to record all assembly schemes. This model records only the connection information that has engineering application value in the product design. In addition, this model can significantly reduce the number of combinations, and is very favorable for the assembly sequence planning in the downstream. The system contains a connection knowledge system that can be mapped to the connection node, and the connection knowledge obtained in practice can be returned to the knowledge system. Finally, VC++ 6.0 is used to develop a prototype system called Connect-based Assembly Planning (CAP). The relationship between the CAP system and the commercial assembly design system is also established.

  6. Dynamic nanoparticle assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Libing; Xu, Liguang; Kuang, Hua; Xu, Chuanlai; Kotov, Nicholas A

    2012-11-20

    Although nanoparticle (NP) assemblies are at the beginning of their development, their unique geometrical shapes and media-responsive optical, electronic, and magnetic properties have attracted significant interest. Nanoscale assembly bridges multiple levels of hierarchy of materials: individual nanoparticles, discrete molecule-like or virus-like nanoscale agglomerates, microscale devices, and macroscale materials. The capacity to self-assemble can greatly facilitate the integration of nanotechnology with other technologies and, in particular, with microscale fabrication. In this Account, we describe developments in the emerging field of dynamic NP assemblies, which are spontaneously form superstructures containing more than two inorganic nanoscale particles that display the ability to change their geometrical, physical, chemical, and other attributes. In many ways, dynamic assemblies can represent a bottleneck in the "bottom-up" fabrication of NP-based devices because they can produce a much greater variety of assemblies, but they also provide a convenient tool for variation of geometries and dimensions of nanoparticle assemblies. Superstructures of NPs (and those held together by similar intrinsic forces)are classified into two groups: Class 1 where media and external fields can alter shape, conformation, and order of stable super structures with a nearly constant number of NPs or Class 2 where the total number of NPs changes, while the organizational motif in the final superstructure remains the same. The future development of successful dynamic assemblies requires understanding the equilibrium in dynamic NP systems. The dynamic nature of Class 1 assemblies is associated with the equilibrium between different conformations of a superstructure and is comparable to the isomerization in classical chemistry. Class 2 assemblies involve the formation or breakage of linkages between the NPs, which is analogous to the classical chemical equilibrium for the formation of

  7. SolidWorks 2011 Assemblies Bible

    CERN Document Server

    Lombard, Matt

    2011-01-01

    A fan of the SolidWorks Bible, but want more detail on assemblies? Here you go. SolidWorks fans have long sought more detail on SolidWorks topics, and now you have it. We took our popular SolidWorks Bible, divided it into two books (SolidWorks 2011 Assemblies Bible and SolidWorks 2011 Parts Bible) and packed each new book with a host of items from your wish lists, such as more extensive coverage of the basics, additional tutorials, and expanded coverage of topics largely ignored by other books. This SolidWorks 2011 Assemblies Bible shows you how to organize parts data to create assemblies or s

  8. DC source assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jeremy B; Newson, Steve

    2013-02-26

    Embodiments of DC source assemblies of power inverter systems of the type suitable for deployment in a vehicle having an electrically grounded chassis are provided. An embodiment of a DC source assembly comprises a housing, a DC source disposed within the housing, a first terminal, and a second terminal. The DC source also comprises a first capacitor having a first electrode electrically coupled to the housing, and a second electrode electrically coupled to the first terminal. The DC source assembly further comprises a second capacitor having a first electrode electrically coupled to the housing, and a second electrode electrically coupled to the second terminal.

  9. Modular assembled space telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Lee D.; Budinoff, Jason; MacEwen, Howard; Matthews, Gary; Postman, Marc

    2013-09-01

    We present a new approach to building a modular segmented space telescope that greatly leverages the heritage of the Hubble Space Telescope and the James Webb Space Telescope. The modular design in which mirror segments are assembled into identical panels allows for economies of scale and for efficient space assembly that make a 20-m aperture approach cost effective. This assembly approach can leverage NASA's future capabilities and has the power to excite the public's imagination. We discuss the science drivers, basic architecture, technology, and leveraged NASA infrastructure, concluding with a proposed plan for going forward.

  10. Designing Assemblies Of Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, F. W.; Kennedy, D.; Butler, R.; Aston, G.; Anderson, M. S.

    1992-01-01

    VICONOPT calculates vibrations and instabilities of assemblies of prismatic plates. Designed for efficient, accurate analysis of buckling and vibration, and for optimum design of panels of composite materials. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  11. Visualisation in Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Štefan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at visualisation types in assembly. Broad usage of artificial visualisation in assembly is held down mainly for economic reasons. One of the possible solutions is usage of the presented light visualisation method. This simple method of light visualisation is convenient when vibration orientation is not working properly and artificial visualisation is economically ineffective. Described principle of orientation is a technical solution of the author.

  12. VIRUS instrument collimator assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jennifer L.; DePoy, Darren L.; Prochaska, Travis; Allen, Richard D.; Williams, Patrick; Rheault, Jean-Philippe; Li, Ting; Nagasawa, Daniel Q.; Akers, Christopher; Baker, David; Boster, Emily; Campbell, Caitlin; Cook, Erika; Elder, Alison; Gary, Alex; Glover, Joseph; James, Michael; Martin, Emily; Meador, Will; Mondrik, Nicholas; Rodriguez-Patino, Marisela; Villanueva, Steven; Hill, Gary J.; Tuttle, Sarah; Vattiat, Brian; Lee, Hanshin; Chonis, Taylor S.; Dalton, Gavin B.; Tacon, Mike

    2014-07-01

    The Visual Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument is a baseline array 150 identical fiber fed optical spectrographs designed to support observations for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX). The collimator subassemblies of the instrument have been assembled in a production line and are now complete. Here we review the design choices and assembly practices used to produce a suite of identical low-cost spectrographs in a timely fashion using primarily unskilled labor.

  13. Fuel assembly reconstitution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgado, Mario M.; Oliveira, Monica G.N.; Ferreira Junior, Decio B.M.; Santos, Barbara O. dos; Santos, Jorge E. dos, E-mail: mongeor@eletronuclear.gov.b [ELETROBRAS Termonuclear S.A. - ELETRONUCLEAR, Angra dos Reis, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Fuel failures have been happened in Nuclear Power Plants worldwide, without lost of integrity and safety, mainly for the public, environment and power plants workers. The most common causes of these events are corrosion (CRUD), fretting and pellet cladding interaction. These failures are identified by increasing the activity of fission products, verified by chemical analyses of reactor coolant. Through these analyses, during the fourth operation cycle of Angra 2 Nuclear Power Plant, was possible to observe fuel failure indication. This indication was confirmed in the end of the cycle during the unloading of reactor core through leakage tests of fuel assembly, using the equipment called 'In Mast Sipping' and 'Box Sipping'. After confirmed, the fuel assembly reconstitution was scheduled, and happened in April, 2007, where was identified the cause and the fuel rod failure, which was substitute by dummy rods (zircaloy). The cause was fretting by 'debris'. The actions to avoid and prevent fuel assemblies failures are important. The goals of this work are to describe the methodology of fuel assembly reconstitution using the FARE (Fuel Assembly Reconstitution Equipment) system, to describe the results of this task in economic and security factors of the company and show how the fuel assembly failures are identified during operation and during the outage. (author)

  14. Polymer Directed Protein Assemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick van Rijn

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Protein aggregation and protein self-assembly is an important occurrence in natural systems, and is in some form or other dictated by biopolymers. Very obvious influences of biopolymers on protein assemblies are, e.g., virus particles. Viruses are a multi-protein assembly of which the morphology is dictated by poly-nucleotides namely RNA or DNA. This “biopolymer” directs the proteins and imposes limitations on the structure like the length or diameter of the particle. Not only do these bionanoparticles use polymer-directed self-assembly, also processes like amyloid formation are in a way a result of directed protein assembly by partial unfolded/misfolded biopolymers namely, polypeptides. The combination of proteins and synthetic polymers, inspired by the natural processes, are therefore regarded as a highly promising area of research. Directed protein assembly is versatile with respect to the possible interactions which brings together the protein and polymer, e.g., electrostatic, v.d. Waals forces or covalent conjugation, and possible combinations are numerous due to the large amounts of different polymers and proteins available. The protein-polymer interacting behavior and overall morphology is envisioned to aid in clarifying protein-protein interactions and are thought to entail some interesting new functions and properties which will ultimately lead to novel bio-hybrid materials.

  15. Human Assisted Assembly Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CALTON,TERRI L.; PETERS,RALPH R.

    2000-01-01

    Automatic assembly sequencing and visualization tools are valuable in determining the best assembly sequences, but without Human Factors and Figure Models (HFFMs) it is difficult to evaluate or visualize human interaction. In industry, accelerating technological advances and shorter market windows have forced companies to turn to an agile manufacturing paradigm. This trend has promoted computerized automation of product design and manufacturing processes, such as automated assembly planning. However, all automated assembly planning software tools assume that the individual components fly into their assembled configuration and generate what appear to be a perfectly valid operations, but in reality the operations cannot physically be carried out by a human. Similarly, human figure modeling algorithms may indicate that assembly operations are not feasible and consequently force design modifications; however, if they had the capability to quickly generate alternative assembly sequences, they might have identified a feasible solution. To solve this problem HFFMs must be integrated with automated assembly planning to allow engineers to verify that assembly operations are possible and to see ways to make the designs even better. Factories will very likely put humans and robots together in cooperative environments to meet the demands for customized products, for purposes including robotic and automated assembly. For robots to work harmoniously within an integrated environment with humans the robots must have cooperative operational skills. For example, in a human only environment, humans may tolerate collisions with one another if they did not cause much pain. This level of tolerance may or may not apply to robot-human environments. Humans expect that robots will be able to operate and navigate in their environments without collisions or interference. The ability to accomplish this is linked to the sensing capabilities available. Current work in the field of cooperative

  16. EVALUATION OF A MULTIFUNCTIONAL VALVE ASSEMBLY IN A DIRECT EXPANSION REFRIGERATION SYSTEM REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report describes the performance, including energy consumption, of a refrigeration system incorporating a multifunctional valve (MXV assembly). The MXV assembly (consisting of additional liquid line, an XTC valve, and a larger thermostatic expansion valve) was installed on al...

  17. Comparative study of de novo assembly and genome-guided assembly strategies for transcriptome reconstruction based on RNA-Seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bingxin; Zeng, Zhenbing; Shi, Tieliu

    2013-02-01

    Transcriptome reconstruction is an important application of RNA-Seq, providing critical information for further analysis of transcriptome. Although RNA-Seq offers the potential to identify the whole picture of transcriptome, it still presents special challenges. To handle these difficulties and reconstruct transcriptome as completely as possible, current computational approaches mainly employ two strategies: de novo assembly and genome-guided assembly. In order to find the similarities and differences between them, we firstly chose five representative assemblers belonging to the two classes respectively, and then investigated and compared their algorithm features in theory and real performances in practice. We found that all the methods can be reduced to graph reduction problems, yet they have different conceptual and practical implementations, thus each assembly method has its specific advantages and disadvantages, performing worse than others in certain aspects while outperforming others in anther aspects at the same time. Finally we merged assemblies of the five assemblers and obtained a much better assembly. Additionally we evaluated an assembler using genome-guided de novo assembly approach, and achieved good performance. Based on these results, we suggest that to obtain a comprehensive set of recovered transcripts, it is better to use a combination of de novo assembly and genome-guided assembly.

  18. Automated analysis for lifecycle assembly processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calton, T.L.; Brown, R.G.; Peters, R.R.

    1998-05-01

    Many manufacturing companies today expend more effort on upgrade and disposal projects than on clean-slate design, and this trend is expected to become more prevalent in coming years. However, commercial CAD tools are better suited to initial product design than to the product`s full life cycle. Computer-aided analysis, optimization, and visualization of life cycle assembly processes based on the product CAD data can help ensure accuracy and reduce effort expended in planning these processes for existing products, as well as provide design-for-lifecycle analysis for new designs. To be effective, computer aided assembly planning systems must allow users to express the plan selection criteria that apply to their companies and products as well as to the life cycles of their products. Designing products for easy assembly and disassembly during its entire life cycle for purposes including service, field repair, upgrade, and disposal is a process that involves many disciplines. In addition, finding the best solution often involves considering the design as a whole and by considering its intended life cycle. Different goals and constraints (compared to initial assembly) require one to re-visit the significant fundamental assumptions and methods that underlie current assembly planning techniques. Previous work in this area has been limited to either academic studies of issues in assembly planning or applied studies of life cycle assembly processes, which give no attention to automatic planning. It is believed that merging these two areas will result in a much greater ability to design for; optimize, and analyze life cycle assembly processes.

  19. In vitro kinetochore assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miell, Matthew D D; Straight, Aaron F

    2016-01-01

    The kinetochore is the primary site of interaction between chromosomes and microtubules of the mitotic spindle during chromosome segregation. The kinetochore is a complex of more than 100 proteins that transiently assemble during mitosis at a single defined region on each chromosome, known as the centromere. Kinetochore assembly and activity must be tightly regulated to ensure proper microtubule interaction and faithful chromosome segregation because perturbation of kinetochores often results in aneuploidy and cell lethality. As such, cell free and reconstituted systems to analyze kinetochore formation and function are invaluable in probing the biochemical activities of kinetochores. In vitro approaches to studying kinetochores have enabled the manipulation of kinetochore protein structure, function, interactions and regulation that are not possible in cells. Here we outline a cell-free approach for the assembly of centromeres and recruitment of functional kinetochores that enables their manipulation and analysis. PMID:27193846

  20. Assembling Sustainable Territories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandergeest, Peter; Ponte, Stefano; Bush, Simon

    2015-01-01

    The authors show how certification assembles ‘sustainable’ territories through a complex layering of regulatory authority in which both government and nongovernment entities claim rule-making authority, sometimes working together, sometimes in parallel, sometimes competitively. It is argued...... that territorialisation is accomplished not just through (re)defining bounded space, but more broadly through the assembling of four elements: space, subjects, objects, and expertise. Four case studies of sustainability certification in seafood are analyzed to show that ‘green gabbing’ is not necessarily the central...... dynamic in assembling sustainable territories, and that certification always involves state agencies in determining how the key elements that comprise it are defined. Whereas some state agencies have been suspicious of sustainability certification, others have embraced it or even used it to extend...

  1. Power module assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jeremy B [Torrance, CA; Newson, Steve [Redondo Beach, CA

    2011-11-15

    A power module assembly of the type suitable for deployment in a vehicular power inverter, wherein the power inverter has a grounded chassis, is provided. The power module assembly comprises a conductive base layer electrically coupled to the chassis, an insulating layer disposed on the conductive base layer, a first conductive node disposed on the insulating layer, a second conductive node disposed on the insulating layer, wherein the first and second conductive nodes are electrically isolated from each other. The power module assembly also comprises a first capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the conductive base layer, and a second electrode electrically connected to the first conductive node, and further comprises a second capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the conductive base layer, and a second electrode electrically connected to the second conductive node.

  2. Blade attachment assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose; Delvaux, John McConnell; Miller, Diane Patricia

    2016-05-03

    An assembly and method for affixing a turbomachine rotor blade to a rotor wheel are disclosed. In an embodiment, an adaptor member is provided disposed between the blade and the rotor wheel, the adaptor member including an adaptor attachment slot that is complementary to the blade attachment member, and an adaptor attachment member that is complementary to the rotor wheel attachment slot. A coverplate is provided, having a coverplate attachment member that is complementary to the rotor wheel attachment slot, and a hook for engaging the adaptor member. When assembled, the coverplate member matingly engages with the adaptor member, and retains the blade in the adaptor member, and the assembly in the rotor wheel.

  3. Integrated magnetic transformer assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to an integrated magnetics transformer assembly comprising a first magnetically permeable core forming a first substantially closed magnetic flux path and a second magnetically permeable core forming a second substantially closed magnetic flux path. A first input...... inductor winding is wound around a first predetermined segment of the first magnetically permeable core and a second input inductor winding is wound around a first predetermined segment of the second magnetically permeable core. The integrated magnetics transformer assembly further comprises a first output......-winding of the first output inductor winding and the first half-winding of the second output inductor winding are configured to produce aligned, i.e. in the same direction, magnetic fluxes through the first substantially closed magnetic flux path. The integrated magnetics transformer assembly is well- suited for use...

  4. Low inductance connector assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Meghan Ann; Carlson, Douglas S

    2013-07-09

    A busbar connector assembly for coupling first and second terminals on a two-terminal device to first and second contacts on a power module is provided. The first terminal resides proximate the first contact and the second terminal resides proximate the second contact. The assembly comprises a first bridge having a first end configured to be electrically coupled to the first terminal, and a second end configured to be electrically coupled to the second contact, and a second bridge substantially overlapping the first bridge and having a first end electrically coupled to the first contact, and a second end electrically coupled to the second terminal.

  5. Self assembling proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeates, Todd O.; Padilla, Jennifer; Colovos, Chris

    2004-06-29

    Novel fusion proteins capable of self-assembling into regular structures, as well as nucleic acids encoding the same, are provided. The subject fusion proteins comprise at least two oligomerization domains rigidly linked together, e.g. through an alpha helical linking group. Also provided are regular structures comprising a plurality of self-assembled fusion proteins of the subject invention, and methods for producing the same. The subject fusion proteins find use in the preparation of a variety of nanostructures, where such structures include: cages, shells, double-layer rings, two-dimensional layers, three-dimensional crystals, filaments, and tubes.

  6. Assembling an aesthetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, Emily

    2012-12-01

    Recent research informing and related to the study of three-dimensional scientific models is assembled here in a way that explores an aesthetic, specifically, of touch. I concentrate on the materiality of models, drawing on insights from the history and philosophy of science, design and metaphysics. This article chronicles the ways in which touch, or material interactions, operate in the world of 3D models, and its role in what models mean and do. I end with a call for greater attention to scientific process, described as assembly of and within science, which is revealed by this focus on touch. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. An Interactive Assembly Process Planner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖华飞; 张林鍹; 肖田元; 曾理; 古月

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation and performance of the virtual assembly support system (VASS), a new system that can provide designers and assembly process engineers with a simulation and visualization environment where they can evaluate the assemblability/disassemblability of products, and thereby use a computer to intuitively create assembly plans and interactively generate assembly process charts. Subassembly planning and assembly priority reasoning techniques were utilized to find heuristic information to improve the efficiency of assembly process planning. Tool planning was implemented to consider tool requirements in the product design stage. New methods were developed to reduce the computation amount involved in interference checking. As an important feature of the VASS, human interaction was integrated into the whole process of assembly process planning, extending the power of computer reasoning by including human expertise, resulting in better assembly plans and better designs.

  8. Fire resistant PV shingle assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenox, Carl J.

    2012-10-02

    A fire resistant PV shingle assembly includes a PV assembly, including PV body, a fire shield and a connection member connecting the fire shield below the PV body, and a support and inter-engagement assembly. The support and inter-engagement assembly is mounted to the PV assembly and comprises a vertical support element, supporting the PV assembly above a support surface, an upper interlock element, positioned towards the upper PV edge, and a lower interlock element, positioned towards the lower PV edge. The upper interlock element of one PV shingle assembly is inter-engageable with the lower interlock element of an adjacent PV shingle assembly. In some embodiments the PV shingle assembly may comprise a ventilation path below the PV body. The PV body may be slidably mounted to the connection member to facilitate removal of the PV body.

  9. Self-assembly of colloidal surfactants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegel, Willem

    2012-02-01

    We developed colloidal dumbbells with a rough and a smooth part, based on a method reported in Ref. [1]. Specific attraction between the smooth parts occurs upon addition of non-adsorbing polymers of appropriate size. We present the first results in terms of the assemblies that emerge in these systems. [4pt] [1] D.J. Kraft, W.S. Vlug, C.M. van Kats, A. van Blaaderen, A. Imhof and W.K. Kegel, Self-assembly of colloids with liquid protrusions, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 1182, (2009)

  10. Hierarchical silica particles by dynamic multicomponent assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Z. W.; Hu, Q. Y.; Pang, J. B.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract: Aerosol-assisted assembly of mesoporous silica particles with hierarchically controllable pore structure has been prepared using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and poly(propylene oxide) (PPO, H[OCH(CH3)CH2],OH) as co-templates. Addition of the hydrophobic PPO significantly influe......-silicate assembling system was discussed. The mesostructure of these particles was characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and N-2 sorption. (c) 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved....

  11. A Method for Designing Assembly Tolerance Networks of Mechanical Assemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available When designing mechanical assemblies, assembly tolerance design is an important issue which must be seriously considered by designers. Assembly tolerances reflect functional requirements of assembling, which can be used to control assembling qualities and production costs. This paper proposes a new method for designing assembly tolerance networks of mechanical assemblies. The method establishes the assembly structure tree model of an assembly based on its product structure tree model. On this basis, assembly information model and assembly relation model are set up based on polychromatic sets (PS theory. According to the two models, the systems of location relation equations and interference relation equations are established. Then, using methods of topologically related surfaces (TTRS theory and variational geometric constraints (VGC theory, three VGC reasoning matrices are constructed. According to corresponding relations between VGCs and assembly tolerance types, the reasoning matrices of tolerance types are also established by using contour matrices of PS. Finally, an exemplary product is used to construct its assembly tolerance networks and meanwhile to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  12. Industrial Assembly Cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellekilde, Lars-Peter; Buch, Jacob Pørksen; Iversen, Thorbjørn Mosekjær;

    This technical report presents 13 different industrial assembly tasks, which are composed of 70 different operations. The report is written to provide an overview and do as such not contain product specific information such as object weights, dimensions etc. The operations are classified into a set...

  13. Assembling Sustainable Territories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandergeest, Peter; Ponte, Stefano; Bush, Simon

    2015-01-01

    that territorialisation is accomplished not just through (re)defining bounded space, but more broadly through the assembling of four elements: space, subjects, objects, and expertise. Four case studies of sustainability certification in seafood are analyzed to show that ‘green gabbing’ is not necessarily the central...

  14. Turbomachine blade assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Crespo, Andres Jose

    2016-11-01

    Embodiments of the present disclosure include a system comprising a turbomachine blade assembly having a blade portion, a shank portion, and a mounting portion, wherein the blade portion, the shank portion, and the mounting portion comprise a first plurality of plies extending from a tip of the airfoil to a base of the dovetail.

  15. Assemblies of Polyoxometalates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, S.J.

    2009-01-01

    Assemblies of Polyoxometalates Polyoxometalates, or POMs for short, come in a variety of shapes and sizes. Some of them are among the largest inorganic molecules known today. These molecules can be highly symmetrical and, as the name already implies, consist of (mainly) metal (molybdenum, tungsten,

  16. Ordinary General Assembly

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    Tuesday 12 April at 14.00 Council Chamber, Bldg 503 In conformity with the Statutes of the Staff Association, an ordinary General Assembly is organized once a year (article IV.2.1). Agenda   Adoption of the Agenda Approval of the Draft Minutes of the Ordinary General Assembly of 20 April 2010 Presentation and approval of the Activity Report 2010 Presentation and approval of the Financial Report 2010 Presentation and approval of the Auditors Report 2010 Programme for 2011 Presentation and approval of the draft budget and subscription rate 2012 Election of the Election Committee Election of the Board of Auditors Miscellaneous We remind members of article IV.3.4 in the Statutes of the Association which reads: “After having dealt with all the items on the agenda, the members may, with the consent of the Assembly, have other matters discussed, but decisions may be taken only on the items listed on the agenda. Nevertheless, the Assembly may r...

  17. Ordinary General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    Tuesday 12 April at 14.00 Council Chamber, Bldg 503 In conformity with the Statutes of the Staff Association, an ordinary General Assembly is organized once a year (article IV.2.1). Agenda   Adoption of the Agenda Approval of the Draft Minutes of the Ordinary General Assembly of 20 April 2010 Presentation and approval of the Activity Report 2010 Presentation and approval of the Financial Report 2010 Presentation and approval of the Auditors Report 2010 Programme for 2011 Presentation et and approval of the draft budget and subscription rate 2012 Election of the Election Committee Election of the Board of Auditors Miscellaneous We remind members of article IV.3.4 in the Statutes of the Association which reads: “After having dealt with all the items on the agenda, the members may, with the consent of the Assembly, have other matters discussed, but decisions may be taken only on the items listed on the agenda. Nevertheless, the Assembly ma...

  18. Ordinary General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2010-01-01

    Tuesday 20 April at 10.00 Council Chamber, Bldg 503 In conformity with the Statutes of the Staff Association, an ordinary General Assembly is organized once a year (article IV.2.1). Agenda   Adoption of the Agenda Approval of the Draft Minutes of the Ordinary General Assembly of 12 May 2009 Presentation and approval of the Activity Report 2009 Presentation and approval of the Financial Report 2009 Presentation and approval of the Auditors Report 2009 Programme for 2010 Presentation et and approval of the draft budget and subscription rate 2010 Election of the Election Committee Election of the Board of Auditors Miscellaneous We remind members of article IV.3.4 in the Statutes of the Association which reads: “After having dealt with all the items on the agenda, the members may, with the consent of the Assembly, have other matters discussed, but decisions may be taken only on the items listed on the agenda. Nevertheless, the Assembly may require t...

  19. Industrial Assembly Cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellekilde, Lars-Peter; Buch, Jacob Pørksen; Iversen, Thorbjørn Mosekjær

    This technical report presents 13 different industrial assembly tasks, which are composed of 70 different operations. The report is written to provide an overview and do as such not contain product specific information such as object weights, dimensions etc. The operations are classified into a set...

  20. Metaphase Spindle Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun M. Kapoor

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A microtubule-based bipolar spindle is required for error-free chromosome segregation during cell division. In this review I discuss the molecular mechanisms required for the assembly of this dynamic micrometer-scale structure in animal cells.

  1. Dump valve assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    A dump valve assembly comprising a body having a bore defined by a tapered wall and a truncated spherical valve member adapted to seat along a spherical surface portion thereof against said tapered wall. Means are provided for pivoting said valve member between a closed position engagable with said tapered wall and an open position disengaged therefrom.

  2. Supramolecular Assemblies in Photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrachtrup, J.; Tietz, C.; Jelezko, F.; Gerken, U.; Schuler, S.; Götze, B.; Volkmer, A.

    2002-10-01

    The photosynthetic apparatus contains a wealth of supramolecular assemblies that are optimized for charge and energy transfer. Various techniques have been applied to investigate these functions that rely on the electronic interaction among pigment molecules. In this contribution we will present single-molecule studies of pigment protein complexes. They reveal new information about electronic interactions between chlorophyll molecules in light harvesting complexes.

  3. Beyond the Assembly Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitz, Rebecca; Guild, Todd

    1985-01-01

    Describes how Hughes Aircraft trainers followed four steps in meeting the challenges of a flexible manufacturing environment: needs assessment, design strategy, pilot evaluation, and follow-through. Within this environment, 50 self-paced training products were developed for one of the company's wire and back plane harness assembly departments. (CT)

  4. America's Assembly Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nye, David Edwin

    A social history of the assembly line, invented in 1913. Both praised as a boon to consumers and as a curse for workers, it has been satirized, imitated, and celebrated for 100 years. It has inspired fiction, comedy, cafeteria layouts, and suburban housing. It transformed industrial labor...

  5. America's Assembly Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nye, David Edwin

    A social history of the assembly line, invented in 1913. Both praised as a boon to consumers and as a curse for workers, it has been satirized, imitated, and celebrated for 100 years. It has inspired fiction, comedy, cafeteria layouts, and suburban housing. It transformed industrial labor and pro...

  6. Microcomponent assembly for efficient contacting of fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drost, Monte K.; Wegeng, Robert S.; Friedrich, Michele; Hanna, William T.; Call, Charles J.; Kurath, Dean E.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is a fundamental method and apparatus of a microcomponent assembly that overcomes the inherent limitations of state of the art chemical separations. The fundamental element enabling miniaturization is the porous contactor contained within a microcomponent assembly for mass transfer of a working compound from a first medium to a second medium. The porous contactor has a thickness, and a plurality of pores extending through the thickness. The pores are of a geometry cooperating with a boundary tension of one or the other or both of the media thereby preventing migration of one, other or both through the microporous contactor while permitting passage of the working compound. In the microcomponent assembly, the porous contactor is placed between a first laminate such that a first space or first microplenum is formed between the microporous contactor and the first laminate. Additionally, a cover sheet provides a second space or second plenum between the porous contactor and the cover sheet.

  7. Surface modification using interfacial assembly of the Streptomyces chaplin proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ekkers, David Matthias; Claessen, Dennis; Galli, Federica; Stamhuis, Eize

    The chaplin proteins are instrumental in the formation of reproductive aerial structures by the filamentous bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor. They lower the water surface tension thereby enabling aerial growth. In addition, chaplins provide surface hydrophobicity to the aerial hyphae by assembling

  8. Top-down assembly design using assembly features

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石万凯; DENEUX; Dominique; 等

    2002-01-01

    The primary task of top-down assembly desig is to define a product's detailed physical description satisfying its functional requirements identified during the functional design phase.The implementation of this design process requires two things,that is ,product functional representation and a general assembly model.Product functions are not only the formulation of a customer's needs,but also the input data of assembly design.A general assembly model is to support the evolving process of the elaboration of a product structure.The assembly feature of extended concept is taken as a functional carrier,which is a generic relation among assembly-modeled entities.The model of assembly features describes the link between product functions and form features of parts.On the basis of this link,the propagation of design modifications is discussed so as to preserve the functionality and the coherence of the assembly model.The formal model of assembly design process describes the top-down process of creating an assembly model.This formal model is represented by the combination of assembly feature operations,the assembly model and the evaluation process.A design case study is conducted to verify the applicability of the presented approaches.

  9. X-Ray Assembler Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Federal regulations require that an assembler who installs one or more certified components of a diagnostic x-ray system submit a report of assembly. This database...

  10. Optical Space Telescope Assembly Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Optical Space Telescope Assembly (OSTA) task is to demonstrate the technology readiness of assembling large space telescopes on orbit in 2015. This task is an...

  11. Reconfigurable optical assembly of nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montelongo, Yunuen; Yetisen, Ali K.; Butt, Haider; Yun, Seok-Hyun

    2016-06-01

    Arrangements of nanostructures in well-defined patterns are the basis of photonic crystals, metamaterials and holograms. Furthermore, rewritable optical materials can be achieved by dynamically manipulating nanoassemblies. Here we demonstrate a mechanism to configure plasmonic nanoparticles (NPs) in polymer media using nanosecond laser pulses. The mechanism relies on optical forces produced by the interference of laser beams, which allow NPs to migrate to lower-energy configurations. The resulting NP arrangements are stable without any external energy source, but erasable and rewritable by additional recording pulses. We demonstrate reconfigurable optical elements including multilayer Bragg diffraction gratings, volumetric photonic crystals and lenses, as well as dynamic holograms of three-dimensional virtual objects. We aim to expand the applications of optical forces, which have been mostly restricted to optical tweezers. Holographic assemblies of nanoparticles will allow a new generation of programmable composites for tunable metamaterials, data storage devices, sensors and displays.

  12. Laminins in basement membrane assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenester, Erhard; Yurchenco, Peter D

    2013-01-01

    The heterotrimeric laminins are a defining component of all basement membranes and self-assemble into a cell-associated network. The three short arms of the cross-shaped laminin molecule form the network nodes, with a strict requirement for one α, one β and one γ arm. The globular domain at the end of the long arm binds to cellular receptors, including integrins, α-dystroglycan, heparan sulfates and sulfated glycolipids. Collateral anchorage of the laminin network is provided by the proteoglycans perlecan and agrin. A second network is then formed by type IV collagen, which interacts with the laminin network through the heparan sulfate chains of perlecan and agrin and additional linkage by nidogen. This maturation of basement membranes becomes essential at later stages of embryo development.

  13. Low inductance busbar assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Meghan Ann

    2010-09-21

    A busbar assembly for electrically coupling first and second busbars to first and second contacts, respectively, on a power module is provided. The assembly comprises a first terminal integrally formed with the first busbar, a second terminal integrally formed with the second busbar and overlapping the first terminal, a first bridge electrode having a first tab electrically coupled to the first terminal and overlapping the first and second terminals, and a second tab electrically coupled to the first contact, a second bridge electrode having a third tab electrically coupled to the second terminal, and overlapping the first and second terminals and the first tab, and a fourth tab electrically coupled to the second contact, and a fastener configured to couple the first tab to the first terminal, and the third tab to the second terminal.

  14. Composite airfoil assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose

    2015-03-03

    A composite blade assembly for mounting on a turbine wheel includes a ceramic airfoil and an airfoil platform. The ceramic airfoil is formed with an airfoil portion, a blade shank portion and a blade dovetail tang. The metal platform includes a platform shank and a radially inner platform dovetail. The ceramic airfoil is captured within the metal platform, such that in use, the ceramic airfoil is held within the turbine wheel independent of the metal platform.

  15. Ordinary General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2010-01-01

    Tuesday 20 April at 10.00 Council Chamber, Bldg 503 In conformity with the Statutes of the Staff Association, an ordinary General Assembly is organized once a year (article IV.2.1). Agenda Adoption of the Agenda Approval of the Draft Minutes of the Ordinary General Assembly of 12 May 2009 Presentation and approval of the Activity Report 2009 Presentation and approval of the Financial Report 2009 Presentation and approval of the Auditors Report 2009 Programme for 2010 Presentation et and approval of the draft budget and subscription rate 2010 Modifications to the statutes of the association Election of the Election Committee Election of the Board of Auditors Miscellaneous We remind members of article IV.3.4 in the Statutes of the Association which reads: “After having dealt with all the items on the agenda, the members may, with the consent of the Assembly, have other matters discussed, but decisions may be taken only on the items listed on the agenda...

  16. OH Module Assembly Stand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolan, P.J.; /Fermilab

    1990-10-16

    There is an OR module assembly stand in use at IB4. This design has been approved by safety, as presented by Mike Foley, and has been successfully used. Another one is needed at the D-zero assembly building, but some modifications need to be made. This report will show that the new modified design is at least as strong, if not stronger, than the older IB4 design in every aspect. Since the weight distribution of the OR modules on the sling is indeterminate, this report compares three cases of support for the entire assembly: the lowest two beams only, the lowest four beams only, and all six beams. In each of these cases, the new design is stronger than the old design in maximum allowable weight. The ability of the the cradle to support the weight is also shown. For all of the failure conditions except for two, the cradle is stronger than the beams that it supports. In the two excepted situations, the calculated limit of the cradle is less than the beams it supports. This is because no credit is taken for the sling and strongback, which in reality will relieve much of the horizontal load.

  17. IAHS Third Scientific Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    The International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS) convened its Third Scientific Assembly in Baltimore, Md., May 10-19, 1989. The Assembly was attended by about 450 scientists and engineers. The attendance was highest from the U.S., as could be expected; 37 were from Canada; 22 each, Netherlands and United Kingdom; 14, Italy; 12, China; 10, Federal Republic of Germany; 8 each from France, the Republic of South Africa, and Switzerland; 7, Austria; 6 each, Finland and Japan; others were scattered among the remainder of 48 countries total.one of the cosponsors and also handled business matters for the Assembly. Other cosponsors included the International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics (IAMAP), United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP), United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), World Meteorological Organization (WMO), and U.K. Overseas Development Authority (ODA). U.S. federal agencies serving as cosponsors included the Environmental Protection Agency, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, National Science Foundation, National Weather Service, Department of Agriculture, Department of State, and U.S. Geological Survey.

  18. Fourth Doctoral Student Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Ingrid Haug

    2016-01-01

    On 10 May, over 130 PhD students and their supervisors, from both CERN and partner universities, gathered for the 4th Doctoral Student Assembly in the Council Chamber.   The assembly was followed by a poster session, at which eighteen doctoral students presented the outcome of their scientific work. The CERN Doctoral Student Programme currently hosts just over 200 students in applied physics, engineering, computing and science communication/education. The programme has been in place since 1985. It enables students to do their research at CERN for a maximum of three years and to work on a PhD thesis, which they defend at their University. The programme is steered by the TSC committee, which holds two selection committees per year, in June and December. The Doctoral Student Assembly was opened by the Director-General, Fabiola Gianotti, who stressed the importance of the programme in the scientific environment at CERN, emphasising that there is no more rewarding activity than lear...

  19. [Food additives and healthiness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  20. Effect of sequence features on assembly of spider silk block copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokareva, Olena S; Lin, Shangchao; Jacobsen, Matthew M; Huang, Wenwen; Rizzo, Daniel; Li, David; Simon, Marc; Staii, Cristian; Cebe, Peggy; Wong, Joyce Y; Buehler, Markus J; Kaplan, David L

    2014-06-01

    Bioengineered spider silk block copolymers were studied to understand the effect of protein chain length and sequence chemistry on the formation of secondary structure and materials assembly. Using a combination of in vitro protein design and assembly studies, we demonstrate that silk block copolymers possessing multiple repetitive units self-assemble into lamellar microstructures. Additionally, the study provides insights into the assembly behavior of spider silk block copolymers in concentrated salt solutions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Twin chamber sample assembly in DAC and HPHT studies on GaN nano-particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Balmukund; Shekar, N. V. Chandra; Kumar, N. R. Sanjay; Ravindran, T. R.; Sahoo, P.; Dhara, S.; Sahu, P. Ch

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, we have suggested a novel idea of twin chamber sample assembly for separating ruby from the sample to overcome certain problems during high pressure-high temperature experiments using diamond anvil cell. Two holes of diameter 70μm were drilled symmetrically about the centre of the preindented area (500 μm diameter) in a stainless steel gasket using EDM. Using ruby pressure calibration, good pressure correlation between these two holes was established up to about 15GPa. Also, high pressure - high temperature (HPHT) experiments on the III-V compound semiconductor GaN were performed up to ~ 3GPa and 2000K using the two chamber sample assembly and a laser heated diamond anvil cell facility. NaCl, both hydrous and anhydrous, were used as the pressure transmitting media in two separate experiments. Micro-Raman spectroscopy was used to characterise the HPHT treated samples. While GaN remained stable in its wurtzite phase when heated in anhydrous NaCl medium, it transformed to Ga2O3 with rocksalt structure in the hydrous NaCl medium.

  2. Additives in yoghurt production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milna Tudor

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In yoghurt production, mainly because of sensory characteristics, different types of additives are used. Each group, and also each substance from the same group has different characteristics and properties. For that reason, for improvement of yoghurt sensory characteristics apart from addition selection, the quantity of the additive is very important. The same substance added in optimal amount improves yoghurt sensory attributes, but too small or too big addition can reduce yoghurt sensory attributes. In this paper, characteristics and properties of mostly used additives in yoghurt production are described; skimmed milk powder, whey powder, concentrated whey powder, sugars and artificial sweeteners, fruits, stabilizers, casein powder, inulin and vitamins. Also the impact of each additive on sensory and physical properties of yoghurt, syneresis and viscosity, are described, depending on used amount added in yoghurt production.

  3. Wire + Arc Additive Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Stewart W.; Martina, Filomeno; Addison, Adrian C.; Ding, Jialuo; Pardal, Goncalo; Colegrove, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Depositing large components (>10 kg) in titanium, aluminium, steel and other metals is possible using Wire + Arc Additive Manufacturing. This technology adopts arc welding tools and wire as feedstock for additive manufacturing purposes. High deposition rates, low material and equipment costs, and good structural integrity make Wire+Arc Additive Manufacturing a suitable candidate for replacing the current method of manufacturing from solid billets or large forgings, especially with regards to ...

  4. Space Station assembly sequence planning - An engineering and operational challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaidy, James T.; Bastedo, William G.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the Space Station assembly sequence planning and development process. It presents the planning methodologies from both historial and current perspectives. It is shown that planning the assembly sequence is a new and unique challenge and its solution requires the simultaneous satisfaction of many diverse variables and constants. The considerations which influence the development of the assembly sequence include launch vehicle integration and lift capabilities, on-orbit assembly flight operations, vehicle flight dynamics, spacecraft system capabilities and resource availability. Many of these considerations are described in this paper. In addition, the examples presented demonstrate the current process for assembly sequence planning and show many of the complex trade-offs that must be performed.

  5. Failure of granular assemblies

    OpenAIRE

    Welker, Philipp

    2011-01-01

    This work investigates granular assemblies subjected to increasing external forces in the quasi-static limit. In this limit, the system’s evolution depends on static properties of the system, but is independent of the particles’ inertia. At the failure, which occurs at a certain value of the external forces, the particles’ motions increase quickly. In this thesis, the properties of granular systems during the weakening process and at the failure are investigated with the Discrete Element Meth...

  6. Composite nuclear fuel assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dollard, W.J.; Ferrari, H.M.

    1982-04-27

    An open lattice elongated nuclear fuel assembly including small diameter fuel rods disposed in an array spaced a selected distance above an array of larger diameter fuel rods for use in a nuclear reactor having liquid coolant flowing in an upward direction. Plenums are preferably provided in the upper portion of the upper smaller diameter fuel rods and in the lower portion of the lower larger diameter fuel rods. Lattice grid structures provide lateral support for the fuel rods and preferably the lowest grid about the upper rods is directly and rigidly affixed to the highest grid about the lower rods.

  7. Multivalent Protein Assembly Using Monovalent Self-Assembling Building Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Petkau-Milroy

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Discotic molecules, which self-assemble in water into columnar supramolecular polymers, emerged as an alternative platform for the organization of proteins. Here, a monovalent discotic decorated with one single biotin was synthesized to study the self-assembling multivalency of this system in regard to streptavidin. Next to tetravalent streptavidin, monovalent streptavidin was used to study the protein assembly along the supramolecular polymer in detail without the interference of cross-linking. Upon self-assembly of the monovalent biotinylated discotics, multivalent proteins can be assembled along the supramolecular polymer. The concentration of discotics, which influences the length of the final polymers at the same time dictates the amount of assembled proteins.

  8. High temperature control rod assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollman, Russell E. (Solana Beach, CA)

    1991-01-01

    A high temperature nuclear control rod assembly comprises a plurality of substantially cylindrical segments flexibly joined together in succession by ball joints. The segments are made of a high temperature graphite or carbon-carbon composite. The segment includes a hollow cylindrical sleeve which has an opening for receiving neutron-absorbing material in the form of pellets or compacted rings. The sleeve has a threaded sleeve bore and outer threaded surface. A cylindrical support post has a threaded shaft at one end which is threadably engaged with the sleeve bore to rigidly couple the support post to the sleeve. The other end of the post is formed with a ball portion. A hollow cylindrical collar has an inner threaded surface engageable with the outer threaded surface of the sleeve to rigidly couple the collar to the sleeve. the collar also has a socket portion which cooperates with the ball portion to flexibly connect segments together to form a ball and socket-type joint. In another embodiment, the segment comprises a support member which has a threaded shaft portion and a ball surface portion. The threaded shaft portion is engageable with an inner threaded surface of a ring for rigidly coupling the support member to the ring. The ring in turn has an outer surface at one end which is threadably engageably with a hollow cylindrical sleeve. The other end of the sleeve is formed with a socket portion for engagement with a ball portion of the support member. In yet another embodiment, a secondary rod is slidably inserted in a hollow channel through the center of the segment to provide additional strength. A method for controlling a nuclear reactor utilizing the control rod assembly is also included.

  9. Additive Manufactured Product Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Jess; Wells, Doug; James, Steve; Nichols, Charles

    2017-01-01

    NASA is providing key leadership in an international effort linking NASA and non-NASA resources to speed adoption of additive manufacturing (AM) to meet NASA's mission goals. Participants include industry, NASA's space partners, other government agencies, standards organizations and academia. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) is identified as a universal need for all aspects of additive manufacturing.

  10. Polylactides in additive biomanufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poh, Patrina S P; Chhaya, Mohit P; Wunner, Felix M; De-Juan-Pardo, Elena M; Schilling, Arndt F; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten; van Griensven, Martijn; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2016-12-15

    New advanced manufacturing technologies under the alias of additive biomanufacturing allow the design and fabrication of a range of products from pre-operative models, cutting guides and medical devices to scaffolds. The process of printing in 3 dimensions of cells, extracellular matrix (ECM) and biomaterials (bioinks, powders, etc.) to generate in vitro and/or in vivo tissue analogue structures has been termed bioprinting. To further advance in additive biomanufacturing, there are many aspects that we can learn from the wider additive manufacturing (AM) industry, which have progressed tremendously since its introduction into the manufacturing sector. First, this review gives an overview of additive manufacturing and both industry and academia efforts in addressing specific challenges in the AM technologies to drive toward AM-enabled industrial revolution. After which, considerations of poly(lactides) as a biomaterial in additive biomanufacturing are discussed. Challenges in wider additive biomanufacturing field are discussed in terms of (a) biomaterials; (b) computer-aided design, engineering and manufacturing; (c) AM and additive biomanufacturing printers hardware; and (d) system integration. Finally, the outlook for additive biomanufacturing was discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. On Constraints in Assembly Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calton, T.L.; Jones, R.E.; Wilson, R.H.

    1998-12-17

    Constraints on assembly plans vary depending on product, assembly facility, assembly volume, and many other factors. Assembly costs and other measures to optimize vary just as widely. To be effective, computer-aided assembly planning systems must allow users to express the plan selection criteria that appIy to their products and production environments. We begin this article by surveying the types of user criteria, both constraints and quality measures, that have been accepted by assembly planning systems to date. The survey is organized along several dimensions, including strategic vs. tactical criteria; manufacturing requirements VS. requirements of the automated planning process itself and the information needed to assess compliance with each criterion. The latter strongly influences the efficiency of planning. We then focus on constraints. We describe a framework to support a wide variety of user constraints for intuitive and efficient assembly planning. Our framework expresses all constraints on a sequencing level, specifying orders and conditions on part mating operations in a number of ways. Constraints are implemented as simple procedures that either accept or reject assembly operations proposed by the planner. For efficiency, some constraints are supplemented with special-purpose modifications to the planner's algorithms. Fast replanning enables an interactive plan-view-constrain-replan cycle that aids in constraint discovery and documentation. We describe an implementation of the framework in a computer-aided assembly planning system and experiments applying the system to a number of complex assemblies, including one with 472 parts.

  12. Additive Gaussian Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Duvenaud, David; Rasmussen, Carl Edward

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a Gaussian process model of functions which are additive. An additive function is one which decomposes into a sum of low-dimensional functions, each depending on only a subset of the input variables. Additive GPs generalize both Generalized Additive Models, and the standard GP models which use squared-exponential kernels. Hyperparameter learning in this model can be seen as Bayesian Hierarchical Kernel Learning (HKL). We introduce an expressive but tractable parameterization of the kernel function, which allows efficient evaluation of all input interaction terms, whose number is exponential in the input dimension. The additional structure discoverable by this model results in increased interpretability, as well as state-of-the-art predictive power in regression tasks.

  13. Assembly interruptability robustness model with applications to Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, James William

    1991-02-01

    Interruptability robustness of a construction project together with its assembly sequence may be measured by calculating the probability of its survival and successful completion in the face of unplanned interruptions of the assembly process. Such an interruption may jeopardize the survival of the structure being assembled, the survival of the support equipment, and/or the safety of the members of the construction crew, depending upon the stage in the assembly sequence when the interruption occurs. The interruption may be due to a number of actors such as: machinery break-downs, environmental damage, worker emergency illness or injury, etc. Each source of interruption has a probability of occurring, and adds an associated probability of loss, schedule delay, and cost to the project. Several options may exist for reducing the consequences of an interruption at a given point in the assembly sequence, including altering the assembly sequence, adding extra components or equipment as interruptability 'insurance', increasing the capability of support facilities, etc. Each option may provide a different overall performance of the project as it relates to success, assembly time, and project cost. The Interruptability Robustness Model was devised and provides a method which allows the overall interruptability robustness of construction of a project design and its assembly sequence to be quantified. In addition, it identifies the susceptibility to interruptions for the assembly sequence at all points within the assembly sequence. The model is applied to the present problem of quantifying and improving interruptability robustness during the construction of Space Station Freedom. This application was used as a touchstone for devising the Interruptability Robustness Model. However, the model may be utilized to assist in the analysis of interruptability robustness for other space-related construction projects such as the lunar base and orbital assembly of the manned Mars

  14. Dynamics of ultrasonic additive manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehr, Adam; Dapino, Marcelo J

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) is a solid-state technology for joining similar and dissimilar metal foils near room temperature by scrubbing them together with ultrasonic vibrations under pressure. Structural dynamics of the welding assembly and work piece influence how energy is transferred during the process and ultimately, part quality. To understand the effect of structural dynamics during UAM, a linear time-invariant model is proposed to relate the inputs of shear force and electric current to resultant welder velocity and voltage. Measured frequency response and operating performance of the welder under no load is used to identify model parameters. Using this model and in-situ measurements, shear force and welder efficiency are estimated to be near 2000N and 80% when welding Al 6061-H18 weld foil, respectively. Shear force and welder efficiency have never been estimated before in UAM. The influence of processing conditions, i.e., welder amplitude, normal force, and weld speed, on shear force and welder efficiency are investigated. Welder velocity was found to strongly influence the shear force magnitude and efficiency while normal force and weld speed showed little to no influence. The proposed model is used to describe high frequency harmonic content in the velocity response of the welder during welding operations and coupling of the UAM build with the welder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Heterogeneous MEMS device assembly and integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topart, Patrice; Picard, Francis; Ilias, Samir; Alain, Christine; Chevalier, Claude; Fisette, Bruno; Paultre, Jacques E.; Généreux, Francis; Legros, Mathieu; Lepage, Jean-François; Laverdière, Christian; Ngo Phong, Linh; Caron, Jean-Sol; Desroches, Yan

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, smart phone applications have both raised the pressure for cost and time to market reduction, and the need for high performance MEMS devices. This trend has led the MEMS community to develop multi-die packaging of different functionalities or multi-technology (i.e. wafer) approaches to fabricate and assemble devices respectively. This paper reports on the fabrication, assembly and packaging at INO of various MEMS devices using heterogeneous assembly at chip and package-level. First, the performance of a giant (e.g. about 3 mm in diameter), electrostatically actuated beam steering mirror is presented. It can be rotated about two perpendicular axes to steer an optical beam within an angular cone of up to 60° in vector scan mode with an angular resolution of 1 mrad and a response time of 300 ms. To achieve such angular performance relative to mirror size, the microassembly was performed from sub-components fabricated from 4 different wafers. To combine infrared detection with inertial sensing, an electroplated proof mass was flip-chipped onto a 256×1 pixel uncooled bolometric FPA and released using laser ablation. In addition to the microassembly technology, performance results of packaged devices are presented. Finally, to simulate a 3072×3 pixel uncooled detector for cloud and fire imaging in mid and long-wave IR, the staggered assembly of six 512×3 pixel FPAs with a less than 50 micron pixel co-registration is reported.

  16. Progress of EMBarrel assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Chalifour, M

    2002-01-01

    The assembly of the sixteen "M" modules into a vertical axis cylinder has been achieved last Friday, completing the first wheel of the Electromagnetic Barrel Calorimeter (see picture). With this, an important milestone in the construction of the ATLAS detector has been reached. Future steps are the rotation of the cylinder axis into horizontal position, in order to integrate the presamplers and heat exchangers by the end of October. The transportation of the wheel and its insertion into the cryostat is the next major milestone, and is planned for the beginning of 2003. The construction of the modules (the so-called "P" modules) of the second wheel is ongoing at Saclay, Annecy and CERN, and will be completed in the coming months. The assembly of the second wheel should start at CERN in February, and its insertion in the cryostat is scheduled for June 2003. This achievement is the result of a successful collaboration of all institutes involved in the construction of the EM Barrel, namely Annecy, Saclay and CE...

  17. Microchannel heat sink assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonde, Wayne L.; Contolini, Robert J.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention provides a microchannel heat sink with a thermal range from cryogenic temperatures to several hundred degrees centigrade. The heat sink can be used with a variety of fluids, such as cryogenic or corrosive fluids, and can be operated at a high pressure. The heat sink comprises a microchannel layer preferably formed of silicon, and a manifold layer preferably formed of glass. The manifold layer comprises an inlet groove and outlet groove which define an inlet manifold and an outlet manifold. The inlet manifold delivers coolant to the inlet section of the microchannels, and the outlet manifold receives coolant from the outlet section of the microchannels. In one embodiment, the manifold layer comprises an inlet hole extending through the manifold layer to the inlet manifold, and an outlet hole extending through the manifold layer to the outlet manifold. Coolant is supplied to the heat sink through a conduit assembly connected to the heat sink. A resilient seal, such as a gasket or an O-ring, is disposed between the conduit and the hole in the heat sink in order to provide a watetight seal. In other embodiments, the conduit assembly may comprise a metal tube which is connected to the heat sink by a soft solder. In still other embodiments, the heat sink may comprise inlet and outlet nipples. The present invention has application in supercomputers, integrated circuits and other electronic devices, and is suitable for cooling materials to superconducting temperatures.

  18. ULTRASONIC ASSEMBLY [REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PORAV Viorica

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper exposes the possibility of machine producesers to optimize the costs of clothes assembling. Ultrasonic systems being frequently utilized have many advantages on semi products of synthetic textile and technical textile. First of all, sewing – cutting process can be accomplished under high speeds and rate of losses can be minimized. Cutting seal applications are frequently used for underwear and sportswear. Slicing and unit cutting machines, as well as portable sealing machines are available for labeling sector. Products such as bag, pocket and cover can be sewed in a seamless manner for promotion purposes. All objects in terms of accessories are obtained in same standard. Our quilting machines are preferred in worldwide due to its threadless, high quality sealing. An alternative to the classic sewing assembly, with thread and needles is ultrasonic seaming. In ultrasonic welding, there are no connective bolts, nails, soldering materials, or adhesives necessary to bind the materials together. Ultrasonic is defined as acoustic frequencies above the range audible to the human ear. Ultrasonic frequencies are administered to the fabric from the sonotrode of bonding machine. The high frequency and powerful energy produced, when is release in one special environment, the ultrasound heating this environment. The ability to ultrasonic weld textiles and films depend on their thermoplastic contents and the desired end results. The paper defines the weld ability of more common textiles and films. The welding refers to all types of bonding and sealing, as in point bonding of fabric, or continuous sealing of film.

  19. ANNUAL GENERAL ASSEMBLY

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    All members and beneficiaries of the Pension Fund are invited to attend the Annual General Asssembly to be held in the CERN Auditorium on Wednesday 3 October 2001 at 14.30 hrs The Agenda comprises:   Opening Remarks (P. Levaux) Some aspects of risk in a pension fund (C. Cuénoud) Annual Report 2000: Presentation and results (C. Cuénoud) Copies of the Report are available from divisional secretariats. Results of the actuarial reviews (G. Maurin) Questions from members and beneficiaries Persons wishing to ask questions are encouraged to submit them, where possible, in writing in advance, addressed to Mr C. Cuénoud, Administrator of the Fund. Conclusions (P. Levaux) As usual, participants are invited to drinks after the assembly. NB The minutes of the 2000 General Assembly are available from the Administration of the Fund (tel. + 41 22 767 91 94; e-mail Graziella.Praire@cern.ch) The English version will be published next week.

  20. Plant mitochondrial Complex I composition and assembly: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subrahmanian, Nitya; Remacle, Claire; Hamel, Patrice Paul

    2016-07-01

    In the mitochondrial inner membrane, oxidative phosphorylation generates ATP via the operation of several multimeric enzymes. The proton-pumping Complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) is the first and most complicated enzyme required in this process. Complex I is an L-shaped enzyme consisting of more than 40 subunits, one FMN molecule and eight Fe-S clusters. In recent years, genetic and proteomic analyses of Complex I mutants in various model systems, including plants, have provided valuable insights into the assembly of this multimeric enzyme. Assisted by a number of key players, referred to as "assembly factors", the assembly of Complex I takes place in a sequential and modular manner. Although a number of factors have been identified, their precise function in mediating Complex I assembly still remains to be elucidated. This review summarizes our current knowledge of plant Complex I composition and assembly derived from studies in plant model systems such as Arabidopsis thaliana and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Plant Complex I is highly conserved and comprises a significant number of subunits also present in mammalian and fungal Complexes I. Plant Complex I also contains additional subunits absent from the mammalian and fungal counterpart, whose function in enzyme activity and assembly is not clearly understood. While 14 assembly factors have been identified for human Complex I, only two proteins, namely GLDH and INDH, have been established as bona fide assembly factors for plant Complex I. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Respiratory complex I, edited by Volker Zickermann and Ulrich Brandt.

  1. SSME component assembly and life management expert system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M.; Dietz, W. E.; Ferber, H. J.

    1989-01-01

    The space shuttle utilizes several rocket engine systems, all of which must function with a high degree of reliability for successful mission completion. The space shuttle main engine (SSME) is by far the most complex of the rocket engine systems and is designed to be reusable. The reusability of spacecraft systems introduces many problems related to testing, reliability, and logistics. Components must be assembled from parts inventories in a manner which will most effectively utilize the available parts. Assembly must be scheduled to efficiently utilize available assembly benches while still maintaining flight schedules. Assembled components must be assigned to as many contiguous flights as possible, to minimize component changes. Each component must undergo a rigorous testing program prior to flight. In addition, testing and assembly of flight engines and components must be done in conjunction with the assembly and testing of developmental engines and components. The development, testing, manufacture, and flight assignments of the engine fleet involves the satisfaction of many logistical and operational requirements, subject to many constraints. The purpose of the SSME Component Assembly and Life Management Expert System (CALMES) is to assist the engine assembly and scheduling process, and to insure that these activities utilize available resources as efficiently as possible.

  2. Diverse functions of spindle assembly checkpoint genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Jewel A; Keyes, Brice E; Ng, Yvonne P Y; Freeman, C Onyi; Burke, Daniel J

    2006-01-01

    The spindle assembly checkpoint regulates the metaphase-to-anaphase transition from yeast to humans. We examined the genetic interactions with four spindle assembly checkpoint genes to identify nonessential genes involved in chromosome segregation, to identify the individual roles of the spindle assembly checkpoint genes within the checkpoint, and to reveal potential complexity that may exist. We used synthetic genetic array (SGA) analysis using spindle assembly checkpoint mutants mad1, mad2, mad3, and bub3. We found 228 synthetic interactions with the four spindle assembly checkpoint mutants with substantial overlap in the spectrum of interactions between mad1, mad2, and bub3. In contrast, there were many synthetic interactions that were common to mad1, mad2, and bub3 that were not shared by mad3. We found shared interactions between pairs of spindle assembly checkpoint mutants, suggesting additional complexity within the checkpoint and unique interactions for all of the spindle assembly checkpoint genes. We show that most genes in the interaction network, including ones with unique interactions, affect chromosome transmission or microtubule function, suggesting that the complexity of interactions reflects diverse roles for the checkpoint genes within the checkpoint. Our analysis expands our understanding of the spindle assembly checkpoint and identifies new candidate genes with possible roles in chromosome transmission and mitotic spindle function.

  3. Optimization Of Assembly Line Of Printed Circuit Board Using Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Alzameli

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of an assembly line would not stop at a specific research even if that research contains very detailed sectors of one assembly line or starting from customer order to product delivery. Therefore continuous improvement needs to be vigorous for continuous productivity improvement and innovation. The optimization process of printed circuit board assembly line includes hard and soft optimization. The hard optimization includes hardware changes via design and the soft optimization is figured via simulation of the current assembly line and analysis. The aim of the research is to determine the bottlenecks find a solution and develop improvement method via changing the configuration of the setup on the assembly line until the feasible optimal configuration is definite. The software that will be used for this simulation is Arena software. The data of the research is collected from real assembly line. The best engineering assumption for the area is used for no permanent data that could be available such as the data that might be collected from the manual stations. In addition to the aim of the research is to get a better yield via improving the time of the PCB assembly process. Hence the outcome to all of these attempts of optimizing the assembly line of PCB for continuous improvement is to deliver good quality products reduce cost and minimize the time to delivery and meet the customer expectations.

  4. Accurate length control of supramolecular oligomerization: Vernier assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Christopher A; Tomas, Salvador

    2006-07-12

    Linear oligomeric supramolecular assemblies of defined length have been generated using the Vernier principle. Two molecules, containing a different number (n and m) of mutually complementary binding sites, separated by the same distance, interact with each other to form an assembly of length (n x m). The assembly grows in the same way as simple supramolecular polymers, but at a molecular stop signal, when the binding sites come into register, the assembly terminates giving an oligomer of defined length. This strategy has been realized using tin and zinc porphyrin oligomers as the molecular building blocks. In the presence of isonicotinic acid, a zinc porphyrin trimer and a tin porphyrin dimer form a 3:4 triple stranded Vernier assembly six porphyrins long. The triple strand Vernier architecture introduced here adds an additional level of cooperativity, yielding a stability and selectivity that cannot be achieved via a simple Vernier approach. The assembly properties of the system were characterized using fluorescence titrations and size-exclusion chromatography (SEC). Assembly of the Vernier complex is efficient at micromolar concentrations in nonpolar solvents, and under more competitive conditions, a variety of fragmentation assemblies can be detected, allowing determination of the stability constants for this system and detailed speciation profiles to be constructed.

  5. Additive and polynomial representations

    CERN Document Server

    Krantz, David H; Suppes, Patrick

    1971-01-01

    Additive and Polynomial Representations deals with major representation theorems in which the qualitative structure is reflected as some polynomial function of one or more numerical functions defined on the basic entities. Examples are additive expressions of a single measure (such as the probability of disjoint events being the sum of their probabilities), and additive expressions of two measures (such as the logarithm of momentum being the sum of log mass and log velocity terms). The book describes the three basic procedures of fundamental measurement as the mathematical pivot, as the utiliz

  6. Diagnosis of the downward displacement of the posterior leaflet of tricuspid valve from apical right heart two chamber view by echocardiography%心尖右心两腔观诊断小儿三尖瓣后瓣下移的方法探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋国平; 叶菁菁; 何瑾; 彭学慧; 赵镭; 何或; 杨秀珍

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the value of echocardiography method for diagnosis of the downward displacement of the posterior leaflet of tricuspid valve with apical right heart two chamber view (AP-RH-2CV). Methods Rotating the probe clockwise from apical four chamber view(AP-4CV) to AP-RH-2CV at the septial and posterior leaflet of tricuspid valve, the shape, moving and position of the posterior leaflet of the tricuspid valve were observed by displaying the degree of downward displacement of the septial and posterior leaflet of tricuspid valve. The location of the orifice of tricuspid regurgitation was examined by color Doppler flow imaging(CDFI). Results In 15 patients with Ebstein's anomaly from the AP-RH-2CV, the downward displacement of posterior leaflet of tricuspid valve was clearly observed at the AP-RH-2CV. These results of echocardiography were confirmed by surgery except one ease missing out mild downward displacement of the anterior leaflet of tricuspid valve. Moreover, all 15 patients showed the obvious downward displacement of the location of the orifice of tricuspid regurgitation from AP-RH-2CV by CDFI. Conclusions The AP-RH-2CV is an ideal view in diagnosis of the downward displacement of the posterior leaflet of tricuspid valve by echocardiography. The downward displacement of the location of the orifice of tricuspid regurgitation is a critical character for diagnosis of the downward displacement of the posterior leaflet of tricuspid valve by CDFI.%目的 探讨超声心尖右心两腔观诊断小儿三尖瓣后瓣下移的方法.方法 超声在心尖四腔观以隔瓣为中心,探头顺时针方向旋转至心尖右心两腔观,在旋转中动态显示三尖瓣隔瓣和后瓣的下移程度,观察三尖瓣后瓣的形态、活动和位置.彩色多普勒超声显示三尖瓣反流口位置.结果 15例三尖瓣后瓣和隔瓣下移患儿,超声在心尖右心两腔观均可清晰显示三尖瓣后瓣下移的特征.除1例超声诊断三尖瓣隔瓣和

  7. Ribosome Assembly as Antimicrobial Target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Nikolay

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Many antibiotics target the ribosome and interfere with its translation cycle. Since translation is the source of all cellular proteins including ribosomal proteins, protein synthesis and ribosome assembly are interdependent. As a consequence, the activity of translation inhibitors might indirectly cause defective ribosome assembly. Due to the difficulty in distinguishing between direct and indirect effects, and because assembly is probably a target in its own right, concepts are needed to identify small molecules that directly inhibit ribosome assembly. Here, we summarize the basic facts of ribosome targeting antibiotics. Furthermore, we present an in vivo screening strategy that focuses on ribosome assembly by a direct fluorescence based read-out that aims to identify and characterize small molecules acting as primary assembly inhibitors.

  8. Selecting Operations for Assembler Encoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Praczyk

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Assembler Encoding is a neuro-evolutionary method in which a neural network is represented in the form of a simple program called Assembler Encoding Program. The task of the program is to create the so-called Network Definition Matrix which maintains all the information necessary to construct the network. To generate Assembler Encoding Programs and the subsequent neural networks evolutionary techniques are used.
    The performance of Assembler Encoding strongly depends on operations used in Assembler Encoding Programs. To select the most effective operations, experiments in the optimization and the predator-prey problem were carried out. In the experiments, Assembler Encoding Programs equipped with different types of operations were tested. The results of the tests are presented at the end of the paper.

  9. Food additives data book

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Jim; Hong-Shum, Lily

    2011-01-01

    .... Compiled by food industry experts with a proven track record of producing high quality reference work, this volume is the definitive resource for technologists using food additives"-- "The use...

  10. Groups – Additive Notation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coghetto Roland

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We translate the articles covering group theory already available in the Mizar Mathematical Library from multiplicative into additive notation. We adapt the works of Wojciech A. Trybulec [41, 42, 43] and Artur Korniłowicz [25].

  11. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  12. Coded nanoscale self-assembly

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prathyush Samineni; Debabrata Goswami

    2008-12-01

    We demonstrate coded self-assembly in nanostructures using the code seeded at the component level through computer simulations. Defects or cavities occur in all natural assembly processes including crystallization and our simulations capture this essential aspect under surface minimization constraints for self-assembly. Our bottom-up approach to nanostructures would provide a new dimension towards nanofabrication and better understanding of defects and crystallization process.

  13. Additively Manufactured Propulsion System

    OpenAIRE

    Dushku, Matthew; Mueller, Paul

    2012-01-01

    New high-performance, carbon-fiber reinforced polymer material allows additive manufacturing to produce pressure vessels capable of high pressures (thousands of pounds per square inch). This advancement in turn allows integral hybrid propulsion which is revolutionary for both CubeSats and additively-manufactured spacecraft. Hybrid propulsion offers simplicity as compared to bipropellant liquid propulsion, significantly better safety compared to solid or monopropellant hydrazine propulsion, an...

  14. In vitro assembly of plant tubulin in the absence of microtubule-stabilizing reagents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The assembly of microtubules is essential for physiological functions of microtubules. Addition of microtubule-stabilizing reagents or microtubule "seeds" is usually necessary for plant tubulin assembly in vitro, which hinders the investigation of plant microtubule dynamics. In the present note, highly purified plant tubulins have been obtained from lily pollen, a non-microtubule-stabilizing reagent or microtubule "seed" system for plant tubulin assembly has been established and the analysis of plant tubulin assembly performed. Experiment results showed that purified tubulin polymerized in vitro, and a typical microtubule structure was observed with electron microscopy. The kinetics curve of tubulin assembly exhibited typical "parabola". The presence of taxol significantly altered the character of plant tubulin assembly, including that abnormal microtubules were assembled and the critical concentration for plant tubulin assembly was decreased exceedingly from 3 mg/mL in the absence of taxol to 0.043 mg/mL in the presence of taxol.

  15. Assembly of the 30S ribosomal subunit: positioning ribosomal protein S13 in the S7 assembly branch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grondek, Joel F; Culver, Gloria M

    2004-12-01

    Studies of Escherichia coli 30S ribosomal subunit assembly have revealed a hierarchical and cooperative association of ribosomal proteins with 16S ribosomal RNA; these results have been used to compile an in vitro 30S subunit assembly map. In single protein addition and omission studies, ribosomal protein S13 was shown to be dependent on the prior association of ribosomal protein S20 for binding to the ribonucleoprotein particle. While the overwhelming majority of interactions revealed in the assembly map are consistent with additional data, the dependency of S13 on S20 is not. Structural studies position S13 in the head of the 30S subunit > 100 A away from S20, which resides near the bottom of the body of the 30S subunit. All of the proteins that reside in the head of the 30S subunit, except S13, have been shown to be part of the S7 assembly branch, that is, they all depend on S7 for association with the assembling 30S subunit. Given these observations, the assembly requirements for S13 were investigated using base-specific chemical footprinting and primer extension analysis. These studies reveal that S13 can bind to 16S rRNA in the presence of S7, but not S20. Additionally, interaction between S13 and other members of the S7 assembly branch have been observed. These results link S13 to the 3' major domain family of proteins, and the S7 assembly branch, placing S13 in a new location in the 30S subunit assembly map where its position is in accordance with much biochemical and structural data.

  16. Rocket Assembly and Checkout Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Integrates, tests, and calibrates scientific instruments flown on sounding rocket payloads. The scientific instruments are assembled on an optical bench;...

  17. Seismic behaviour of fuel assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Heuy Gap; Jhung, Myung Jo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-11-01

    A general approach for the dynamic time-history analysis of the reactor core is presented in this paper as a part of the fuel assembly qualification program. Several detailed core models are set up to reflect the placement of the fuel assemblies within the core shroud. Peak horizontal responses are obtained for each model for the motions induced from earthquake. The dynamic responses such as fuel assembly shear force, bending moment and displacement, and spacer grid impact loads are carefully investigated. Also, the sensitivity responses are obtained for the earthquake motions and the fuel assembly non-linear response characteristics are discussed. (Author) 9 refs., 24 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Assembly line performance and modeling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rane, Arun B; Sunnapwar, Vivek K

    2017-01-01

    Automobile sector forms the backbone of manufacturing sector. Vehicle assembly line is important section in automobile plant where repetitive tasks are performed one after another at different workstations...

  19. Multi-position photovoltaic assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinwoodie, Thomas L.

    2003-03-18

    The invention is directed to a PV assembly, for use on a support surface, comprising a base, a PV module, a multi-position module support assembly, securing the module to the base at shipping and inclined-use angles, a deflector, a multi-position deflector support securing the deflector to the base at deflector shipping and deflector inclined-use angles, the module and deflector having opposed edges defining a gap therebetween. The invention permits transport of the PV assemblies in a relatively compact form, thus lowering shipping costs, while facilitating installation of the PV assemblies with the PV module at the proper inclination.

  20. Moisture Research - Optimizing Wall Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, Lois [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Mantha, Pallavi [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2013-05-01

    In this project, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) team evaluated several different configurations of wall assemblies to determine the accuracy of moisture modeling and make recommendations to ensure durable, efficient assemblies. WUFI and THERM were used to model the hygrothermal and heat transfer characteristics of these walls. Wall assemblies evaluated included code minimum walls using spray foam insulation and fiberglass batts, high R-value walls at least 12 in. thick (R-40 and R-60 assemblies), and brick walls with interior insulation.

  1. Next-generation transcriptome assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Jeffrey A.; Wang, Zhong

    2011-09-01

    Transcriptomics studies often rely on partial reference transcriptomes that fail to capture the full catalog of transcripts and their variations. Recent advances in sequencing technologies and assembly algorithms have facilitated the reconstruction of the entire transcriptome by deep RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), even without a reference genome. However, transcriptome assembly from billions of RNA-seq reads, which are often very short, poses a significant informatics challenge. This Review summarizes the recent developments in transcriptome assembly approaches - reference-based, de novo and combined strategies-along with some perspectives on transcriptome assembly in the near future.

  2. Fluid cooled electrical assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, Lawrence E.; Romero, Guillermo L.

    2007-02-06

    A heat producing, fluid cooled assembly that includes a housing made of liquid-impermeable material, which defines a fluid inlet and a fluid outlet and an opening. Also included is an electrical package having a set of semiconductor electrical devices supported on a substrate and the second major surface is a heat sink adapted to express heat generated from the electrical apparatus and wherein the second major surface defines a rim that is fit to the opening. Further, the housing is constructed so that as fluid travels from the fluid inlet to the fluid outlet it is constrained to flow past the opening thereby placing the fluid in contact with the heat sink.

  3. Cilium assembly and disassembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The primary cilium is an antenna-like, immotile organelle present on most types of mammalian cells, which interprets extracellular signals that regulate growth and development. Although once considered a vestigial organelle, the primary cilium is now the focus of considerable interest. We now know that ciliary defects lead to a panoply of human diseases, termed ciliopathies, and the loss of this organelle may be an early signature event during oncogenic transformation. Ciliopathies include numerous seemingly unrelated developmental syndromes, with involvement of the retina, kidney, liver, pancreas, skeletal system and brain. Recent studies have begun to clarify the key mechanisms that link cilium assembly and disassembly to the cell cycle, and suggest new possibilities for therapeutic intervention. PMID:27350441

  4. Photovoltaic cell assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beavis, Leonard C.; Panitz, Janda K. G.; Sharp, Donald J.

    1990-01-01

    A photovoltaic assembly for converting high intensity solar radiation into lectrical energy in which a solar cell is separated from a heat sink by a thin layer of a composite material which has excellent dielectric properties and good thermal conductivity. This composite material is a thin film of porous Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 in which the pores have been substantially filled with an electrophoretically-deposited layer of a styrene-acrylate resin. This composite provides electrical breakdown strengths greater than that of a layer consisting essentially of Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 and has a higher thermal conductivity than a layer of styrene-acrylate alone.

  5. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  6. GABenchToB: a genome assembly benchmark tuned on bacteria and benchtop sequencers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Jünemann

    Full Text Available De novo genome assembly is the process of reconstructing a complete genomic sequence from countless small sequencing reads. Due to the complexity of this task, numerous genome assemblers have been developed to cope with different requirements and the different kinds of data provided by sequencers within the fast evolving field of next-generation sequencing technologies. In particular, the recently introduced generation of benchtop sequencers, like Illumina's MiSeq and Ion Torrent's Personal Genome Machine (PGM, popularized the easy, fast, and cheap sequencing of bacterial organisms to a broad range of academic and clinical institutions. With a strong pragmatic focus, here, we give a novel insight into the line of assembly evaluation surveys as we benchmark popular de novo genome assemblers based on bacterial data generated by benchtop sequencers. Therefore, single-library assemblies were generated, assembled, and compared to each other by metrics describing assembly contiguity and accuracy, and also by practice-oriented criteria as for instance computing time. In addition, we extensively analyzed the effect of the depth of coverage on the genome assemblies within reasonable ranges and the k-mer optimization problem of de Bruijn Graph assemblers. Our results show that, although both MiSeq and PGM allow for good genome assemblies, they require different approaches. They not only pair with different assembler types, but also affect assemblies differently regarding the depth of coverage where oversampling can become problematic. Assemblies vary greatly with respect to contiguity and accuracy but also by the requirement on the computing power. Consequently, no assembler can be rated best for all preconditions. Instead, the given kind of data, the demands on assembly quality, and the available computing infrastructure determines which assembler suits best. The data sets, scripts and all additional information needed to replicate our results are freely

  7. Perylenetetracarboxylic-metal assemblies and anisotropic charge transport in a CuII assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Linyi; Xia, Youyi; Jana, Avijit; Ang, Chung Yen; Zhao, Lingzhi; Fan, Zhi; Zhao, Yanli

    2016-04-01

    characteristics of photoconduction and conductivity. Here, we present a synergetic self-assembly driven by coordination and intermolecular interactions for the construction of organic-inorganic hybrids with multi-morphologies and tunable physical properties. 3,4,9,10-Perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride was treated with base to produce various assemblies by coordination with metal ions, showing morphologies of nanowires, nanosheets, nanoribbons and nanorods. The organic π-spacer affords an extension in different directions through the suitable incorporation of metal ions with different coordination modes for the formation of metal-ligand complexes. Interestingly, the obtained nanorods were twisted rods with obvious screw threads on the rod wall, supporting the synergetic self-assembly. Then, anisotropic mobility measurements of the obtained Cu2+-ligand assembly were carried out to show the importance of the size- and shape-confined synthesis of the hybrids. By presenting a series of ordered metal-ligand complex superstructures driven by synergetic self-assembly, this work is expected to pave the way for future anisotropic measurements of complex assemblies. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional synthesis and characterization data. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr01120a

  8. Alternative additives; Alternative additiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-08-15

    In this project a number of industrial and agricultural waste products have been characterised and evaluated in terms of alkali-getter performance. The intended use is for biomass-fired power stations aiming at reducing corrosion or slagging related problems. The following products have been obtained, characterised and evaluated: 1) Brewery draff 2) Danish de-gassed manure 3) Paper sludge 4) Moulding sand 5) Spent bleaching earth 6) Anorthosite 7) Sand 8) Clay-sludge. Most of the above alternative additive candidates are deemed unsuitable due to insufficient chemical effect and/or expensive requirements for pre-treatment (such as drying and transportation). 3 products were selected for full-scale testing: de-gassed manure, spent bleaching earth and clay slugde. The full scale tests were undertaken at the biomass-fired power stations in Koege, Slagelse and Ensted. Spent bleaching earth (SBE) and clay sludge were the only tested additive candidates that had a proven ability to react with KCl, to thereby reduce Cl-concentrations in deposits, and reduce the deposit flux to superheater tubes. Their performance was shown to nearly as good as commercial additives. De-gassed manure, however, did not evaluate positively due to inhibiting effects of Ca in the manure. Furthermore, de-gassed manure has a high concentration of heavy metals, which imposes a financial burden with regard to proper disposal of the ash by-products. Clay-sludge is a wet clay slurring, and drying and transportation of this product entails substantial costs. Spent bleaching does not require much pre-treatment and is therefore the most promising alternative additive. On the other hand, bleaching earth contains residual plant oil which means that a range of legislation relating to waste combustion comes into play. Not least a waste combustion fee of 330 DKK/tonne. For all alternative (and commercial) additives disposal costs of the increase ash by-products represents a significant cost. This is

  9. From additivity to synergism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritz, Christian; Streibig, Jens Carl

    2014-01-01

    Interest in synergistic or antagonistic effects through mixture experiments has grown immensely over the past two decades, not the least within in pharmacology and toxicology. Several definitions of reference models exist; one commonly used reference model is concentration or dose addition, which...... assumes compounds, when administrated simultaneously, do not interfere with each other at the site of action. We focus on statistical modelling that allows evaluation of dose addition. We will describe several statistical approaches that are suitable for analysis mixture data where synergistic...... or antagonistic effects may be present. The statistical models are defined and explained and some of the approaches exemplified. Code in open-source software is provided....

  10. Additives for the Axe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On May 1,China will begin to ban the production and use of two food additives commonly used to "bleach" flour,benzoyl peroxide and calcium peroxide.The decision was made after 10 years of wrangling between the policy makers,manufacturers,scientists and consumers.The Ministry of Health said in a statement it was applying the ban in response to consumers’ concerns about chemical substances in food,and technical improvements that had made the two additives unnecessary in flour processing.Minister of Health Chen Zhu has also said

  11. Alcohols as gasoline additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jawetz, P.

    1982-12-01

    This paper showed that, when using alcohol octane-boosting additives to gasoline, one attains several goals at the same time: (a) there is an increased saving in petroleum crude, since the alcohol is not merely a substitute for gasoline but rather a substitute for the octane-boosting additives used in the manufacture of unleaded gasoline; and (b) the production of fermentation ethanol for a fuel purpose can help revitalize the agricultural sector in different economics systems, thus becoming a road to economic development.

  12. Self-assembled nanolaminate coatings (SV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, H.

    2012-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) and Lockheed Martin Aeronautics (LM Aero) are collaborating to develop affordable, self-assembled, nanocomposite coatings and associated fabrication processes that will be tailored to Lockheed Martin product requirements. The purpose of this project is to develop a family of self-assembled coatings with properties tailored to specific performance requirements, such as antireflective (AR) optics, using Sandia-developed self-assembled techniques. The project met its objectives by development of a simple and economic self-assembly processes to fabricate multifunctional coatings. Specifically, materials, functionalization methods, and associated coating processes for single layer and multiple layers coatings have been developed to accomplish high reflective coatings, hydrophobic coatings, and anti-reflective coatings. Associated modeling and simulations have been developed to guide the coating designs for optimum optical performance. The accomplishments result in significant advantages of reduced costs, increased manufacturing freedom/producibility, improved logistics, and the incorporation of new technology solutions not possible with conventional technologies. These self-assembled coatings with tailored properties will significantly address LMC's needs and give LMC a significant competitive lead in new engineered materials. This work complements SNL's LDRD and BES programs aimed at developing multifunctional nanomaterials for microelectronics and optics as well as structure/property investigations of self-assembled nanomaterials. In addition, this project will provide SNL with new opportunities to develop and apply self-assembled nanocomposite optical coatings for use in the wavelength ranges of 3-5 and 8-12 micrometers, ranges of vital importance to military-based sensors and weapons. The SANC technologies will be applied to multiple programs within the LM Company including the F-35, F-22, ADP (Future Strike Bomber

  13. Self-Assembly of Large Amyloid Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgley, Devin M.

    Functional amyloids found throughout nature have demonstrated that amyloid fibers are potential industrial biomaterials. This work introduces a new "template plus adder" cooperative mechanism for the spontaneous self-assembly of micrometer sized amyloid fibers. A short hydrophobic template peptide induces a conformation change within a highly alpha-helical adder protein to form beta-sheets that continue to assemble into micrometer sized amyloid fibers. This study utilizes a variety of proteins that have template or adder characteristics which suggests that this mechanism may be employed throughout nature. Depending on the amino acid composition of the proteins used the mixtures form amyloid fibers of a cylindrical ( 10 mum diameter, 2 GPa Young's modulus) or tape (5- 10 mum height, 10-20 mum width and 100-200 MPa Young's modulus) morphology. Processing conditions are altered to manipulate the morphology and structural characteristics of the fibers. Spectroscopy is utilized to identify certain amino acid groups that contribute to the self-assembly process. Aliphatic amino acids (A, I, V and L) are responsible for initiating conformation change of the adder proteins to assemble into amyloid tapes. Additional polyglutamine segments (Q-blocks) within the protein mixtures will form Q hydrogen bonds to reinforce the amyloid structure and form a cylindrical fiber of higher modulus. Atomic force microscopy is utilized to delineate the self-assembly of amyloid tapes and cylindrical fibers from protofibrils (15-30 nm width) to fibers (10-20 mum width) spanning three orders of magnitude. The aliphatic amino acid content of the adder proteins' alpha-helices is a good predictor of high density beta-sheet formation within the protein mixture. Thus, it is possible to predict the propensity of a protein to undergo conformation change into amyloid structures. Finally, Escherichia coli is genetically engineered to express a template protein which self-assembles into large amyloid

  14. Spatio-temporal Dynamics and Mechanisms of Stress Granule Assembly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Ohshima

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Stress granules (SGs are non-membranous cytoplasmic aggregates of mRNAs and related proteins, assembled in response to environmental stresses such as heat shock, hypoxia, endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress, chemicals (e.g. arsenite, and viral infections. SGs are hypothesized as a loci of mRNA triage and/or maintenance of proper translation capacity ratio to the pool of mRNAs. In brain ischemia, hippocampal CA3 neurons, which are resilient to ischemia, assemble SGs. In contrast, CA1 neurons, which are vulnerable to ischemia, do not assemble SGs. These results suggest a critical role SG plays in regards to cell fate decisions. Thus SG assembly along with its dynamics should determine the cell fate. However, the process that exactly determines the SG assembly dynamics is largely unknown. In this paper, analyses of experimental data and computer simulations were used to approach this problem. SGs were assembled as a result of applying arsenite to HeLa cells. The number of SGs increased after a short latent period, reached a maximum, then decreased during the application of arsenite. At the same time, the size of SGs grew larger and became localized at the perinuclear region. A minimal mathematical model was constructed, and stochastic simulations were run to test the modeling. Since SGs are discrete entities as there are only several tens of them in a cell, commonly used deterministic simulations could not be employed. The stochastic simulations replicated observed dynamics of SG assembly. In addition, these stochastic simulations predicted a gamma distribution relative to the size of SGs. This same distribution was also found in our experimental data suggesting the existence of multiple fusion steps in the SG assembly. Furthermore, we found that the initial steps in the SG assembly process and microtubules were critical to the dynamics. Thus our experiments and stochastic simulations presented a possible mechanism regulating SG assembly.

  15. The Robust Assembly of Small Symmetric Nanoshells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Jef; Zandi, Roya

    2015-09-01

    Highly symmetric nanoshells are found in many biological systems, such as clathrin cages and viral shells. Many studies have shown that symmetric shells appear in nature as a result of the free-energy minimization of a generic interaction between their constituent subunits. We examine the physical basis for the formation of symmetric shells, and by using a minimal model, demonstrate that these structures can readily grow from the irreversible addition of identical subunits. Our model of nanoshell assembly shows that the spontaneous curvature regulates the size of the shell while the mechanical properties of the subunit determine the symmetry of the assembled structure. Understanding the minimum requirements for the formation of closed nanoshells is a necessary step toward engineering of nanocontainers, which will have far-reaching impact in both material science and medicine.

  16. Biobased lubricant additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  17. Chaperoning 5S RNA assembly

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Madru, Clément; Lebaron, Simon; Blaud, Magali; Delbos, Lila; Pipoli, Juliana; Pasmant, Eric; Réty, Stéphane; Leulliot, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    ...—are processed from a single pre-rRNA transcript and assembled into ribosomes. The fourth rRNA, the 5S rRNA, is transcribed by RNA polymerase III and is assembled into the 5S ribonucleoprotein particle (RNP...

  18. The Bicycle Assembly Line Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, Dorothy

    2011-01-01

    "The Bicycle Assembly Line Game" is a team-based, in-class activity that helps students develop a basic understanding of continuously operating processes. Each team of 7-10 students selects one of seven prefigured bicycle assembly lines to operate. The lines are run in real-time, and the team that operates the line that yields the…

  19. Newnes electronics assembly pocket book

    CERN Document Server

    Brindley, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Produced in association with the Engineering Training Authority with contributions from dozens of people in the electronics industry. The material covers common skills in electrical and electronic engineering and concentrates mainly on wiring and assembly. 'Newnes Electronics Assembly Pocket Book' is for electronics technicians, students and apprentices.

  20. Assembly sequencing with toleranced parts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latombe, J.C. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Robotics Lab.; Wilson, R.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center

    1995-02-21

    The goal of assembly sequencing is to plan a feasible series of operations to construct a product from its individual parts. Previous research has thoroughly investigated assembly sequencing under the assumption that parts have nominal geometry. This paper considers the case where parts have toleranced geometry. Its main contribution is an efficient procedure that decides if a product admits an assembly sequence with infinite translations that is feasible for all possible instances of the components within the specified tolerances. If the product admits one such sequence, the procedure can also generate it. For the cases where there exists no such assembly sequence, another procedure is proposed which generates assembly sequences that are feasible only for some values of the toleranced dimensions. If this procedure produces no such sequence, then no instance of the product is assemblable. Finally, this paper analyzes the relation between assembly and disassembly sequences in the presence of toleranced parts. This work assumes a simple, but non-trivial tolerance language that falls short of capturing all imperfections of a manufacturing process. Hence, it is only one step toward assembly sequencing with toleranced parts.

  1. Fuel cell sub-assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Chang V.

    1983-01-01

    A fuel cell sub-assembly comprising a plurality of fuel cells, a first section of a cooling means disposed at an end of the assembly and means for connecting the fuel cells and first section together to form a unitary structure.

  2. Integrating genome assemblies with MAIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkamp, J.F.; Winterbach, W.; Van den Broek, M.; Daran, J.M.; Reinders, M.J.T.; De Ridder, D.

    2010-01-01

    De novo assembly of a eukaryotic genome with next-generation sequencing data is still a challenging task. Over the past few years several assemblers have been developed, often suitable for one specific type of sequencing data. The number of known genomes is expanding rapidly, therefore it becomes po

  3. What was the Assembly Line?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nye, David

    2010-01-01

    The assembly line is still evolving a century after its invention, and it was not a distinct historical stage, nor was it part of an inevitable sequence that followed "Taylorism."......The assembly line is still evolving a century after its invention, and it was not a distinct historical stage, nor was it part of an inevitable sequence that followed "Taylorism."...

  4. The Bicycle Assembly Line Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, Dorothy

    2011-01-01

    "The Bicycle Assembly Line Game" is a team-based, in-class activity that helps students develop a basic understanding of continuously operating processes. Each team of 7-10 students selects one of seven prefigured bicycle assembly lines to operate. The lines are run in real-time, and the team that operates the line that yields the…

  5. Moisture Research - Optimizing Wall Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, L.; Mantha, P.

    2013-05-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) evaluated several different configurations of wall assemblies to determine the accuracy of moisture modeling and make recommendations to ensure durable, efficient assemblies. WUFI and THERM were used to model the hygrothermal and heat transfer characteristics of these walls.

  6. Advanced gray rod control assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drudy, Keith J; Carlson, William R; Conner, Michael E; Goldenfield, Mark; Hone, Michael J; Long, Jr., Carroll J; Parkinson, Jerod; Pomirleanu, Radu O

    2013-09-17

    An advanced gray rod control assembly (GRCA) for a nuclear reactor. The GRCA provides controlled insertion of gray rod assemblies into the reactor, thereby controlling the rate of power produced by the reactor and providing reactivity control at full power. Each gray rod assembly includes an elongated tubular member, a primary neutron-absorber disposed within the tubular member said neutron-absorber comprising an absorber material, preferably tungsten, having a 2200 m/s neutron absorption microscopic capture cross-section of from 10 to 30 barns. An internal support tube can be positioned between the primary absorber and the tubular member as a secondary absorber to enhance neutron absorption, absorber depletion, assembly weight, and assembly heat transfer characteristics.

  7. Halliburton Composite Bridge Plug Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starbuck, J.M.; Luttrell, C.R.; Aramayo, G.

    2005-01-15

    The overall objectives of this CRADA were to assist Halliburton in analyzing a composite bridge plug and to determine why their original design was failing in the field. In Phase 1, finite element analyses were done on the original composite slip design and several alternative designs. The composite slip was the component in the bridge plug that was failing. The finite element code ABAQUS was used for these calculations and I-DEAS was used as the pre- and post-processor in the analyses. Several different designs and materials were analyzed and recommendations were made towards improving the design. In Phase 2, the objective was to develop finite element models that would accurately represent the deformations in the entire all-composite 4-1/2' diameter bridge plug assembly. The finite element code LS-DYNA was used and the results from this effort were intended to expand Halliburton's composite design and analysis capabilities with regard to developing future composite components for downhole tools. In addition to the finite element modeling, this effort involved the utilization of micromechanics to determine the necessary composite material properties that were needed as input for finite element codes.

  8. ASSEMBLY TRANSFER SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Gorpani

    2000-06-26

    The Assembly Transfer System (ATS) receives, cools, and opens rail and truck transportation casks from the Carrier/Cask Handling System (CCHS). The system unloads transportation casks consisting of bare Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) assemblies, single element canisters, and Dual Purpose Canisters (DPCs). For casks containing DPCs, the system opens the DPCs and unloads the SNF. The system stages the assemblies, transfer assemblies to and from fuel-blending inventory pools, loads them into Disposal Containers (DCs), temporarily seals and inerts the DC, decontaminates the DC and transfers it to the Disposal Container Handling System. The system also prepares empty casks and DPCs for off-site shipment. Two identical Assembly Transfer System lines are provided in the Waste Handling Building (WHB). Each line operates independently to handle the waste transfer throughput and to support maintenance operations. Each system line primarily consists of wet and dry handling areas. The wet handling area includes a cask transport system, cask and DPC preparation system, and a wet assembly handling system. The basket transport system forms the transition between the wet and dry handling areas. The dry handling area includes the dry assembly handling system, assembly drying system, DC preparation system, and DC transport system. Both the wet and dry handling areas are controlled by the control and tracking system. The system operating sequence begins with moving transportation casks to the cask preparation area. The cask preparation operations consist of cask cavity gas sampling, cask venting, cask cool-down, outer lid removal, and inner shield plug lifting fixture attachment. Casks containing bare SNF (no DPC) are filled with water and placed in the cask unloading pool. The inner shield plugs are removed underwater. For casks containing a DPC, the cask lid(s) is removed, and the DPC is penetrated, sampled, vented, and cooled. A DPC lifting fixture is attached and the cask is placed

  9. An Improved Genome Assembly of Azadirachta indica A. Juss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraja M. Krishnan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss., an evergreen tree of the Meliaceae family, is known for its medicinal, cosmetic, pesticidal and insecticidal properties. We had previously sequenced and published the draft genome of a neem plant, using mainly short read sequencing data. In this report, we present an improved genome assembly generated using additional short reads from Illumina and long reads from Pacific Biosciences SMRT sequencer. We assembled short reads and error-corrected long reads using Platanus, an assembler designed to perform well for heterozygous genomes. The updated genome assembly (v2.0 yielded 3- and 3.5-fold increase in N50 and N75, respectively; 2.6-fold decrease in the total number of scaffolds; 1.25-fold increase in the number of valid transcriptome alignments; 13.4-fold less misassembly and 1.85-fold increase in the percentage repeat, over the earlier assembly (v1.0. The current assembly also maps better to the genes known to be involved in the terpenoid biosynthesis pathway. Together, the data represent an improved assembly of the A. indica genome.

  10. A framework for geometric reasoning about tools in assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, R.H.

    1995-12-31

    When assembling a product, humans, robots, and other automation employ a variety of tools to manipulate, attach, and test parts and subassemblies. This paper proposes a framework lo represent and reason about geometric accessibility constraints for a wide variety of assembly tools. Central to the framework is a use volume encoding a minimum space that must be free in an assembly state to apply a given tool, and placement constraints on where that volume must be placed relative to the parts on which the tool acts. Determining whether a tool can be applied in a given assembly state is an instance of the FINDPLACE problem. In addition, we present more efficient methods lo integrate the framework into assembly planning. For tools that are applied either before or after their target parts are mated, one method preprocesses a single tool application for all possible states of assembly of a product. For tools applied after their target parts are mated, a complementary method guarantees polynomial-time assembly planning. We describe experiments with an initial implementation of the framework and a library of seven tools.

  11. DIME: a novel framework for de novo metagenomic sequence assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xuan; Yu, Ning; Ding, Xiaojun; Wang, Jianxin; Pan, Yi

    2015-02-01

    The recently developed next generation sequencing platforms not only decrease the cost for metagenomics data analysis, but also greatly enlarge the size of metagenomic sequence datasets. A common bottleneck of available assemblers is that the trade-off between the noise of the resulting contigs and the gain in sequence length for better annotation has not been attended enough for large-scale sequencing projects, especially for the datasets with low coverage and a large number of nonoverlapping contigs. To address this limitation and promote both accuracy and efficiency, we develop a novel metagenomic sequence assembly framework, DIME, by taking the DIvide, conquer, and MErge strategies. In addition, we give two MapReduce implementations of DIME, DIME-cap3 and DIME-genovo, on Apache Hadoop platform. For a systematic comparison of the performance of the assembly tasks, we tested DIME and five other popular short read assembly programs, Cap3, Genovo, MetaVelvet, SOAPdenovo, and SPAdes on four synthetic and three real metagenomic sequence datasets with various reads from fifty thousand to a couple million in size. The experimental results demonstrate that our method not only partitions the sequence reads with an extremely high accuracy, but also reconstructs more bases, generates higher quality assembled consensus, and yields higher assembly scores, including corrected N50 and BLAST-score-per-base, than other tools with a nearly theoretical speed-up. Results indicate that DIME offers great improvement in assembly across a range of sequence abundances and thus is robust to decreasing coverage.

  12. Tile Calorimete Pre-Assembly Summary and Barrel Assembly Plan

    CERN Document Server

    Proudfoot, J; Liablin, M V; Topilin, N D

    2004-01-01

    The barrel survey results from the pre-assembly in Building 185 are reviewed. From these and the models developed to calculate the cylinder geometry we propose a minimal modification to the shimming plan for the barrel calorimeter assembly in the Atlas cavern. At the precision of this calculation, we expect the tile calorimeter to be almost entirely within it design envelope. The focus of this note is the radial envelope. Based on the pre-assembly experience the tile calorimeter will fit comfortably within its envelope along the beam line.

  13. Subcritical nuclear assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega C, H. R., E-mail: fermineutron@yahoo.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2014-08-15

    A Subcritical Nuclear Assembly is a device where the nuclear-fission chain reaction is initiated and maintained using an external neutron source. It is a valuable educational and research tool where in a safe way many reactor parameters can be measured. Here, we have used the Wigner-Seitz method in the six-factor formula to calculate the effective multiplication factor of a subcritical nuclear reactor Nuclear Chicago model 9000. This reactor has approximately 2500 kg of natural uranium heterogeneously distributed in slugs. The reactor uses a {sup 239}PuBe neutron source that is located in the center of an hexagonal array. Using Monte Carlo methods, with the MCNP5 code, a three-dimensional model of the subcritical reactor was designed to estimate the effective multiplication factor, the neutron spectra, the total and thermal neutron fluences along the radial and axial axis. With the neutron spectra in two locations outside the reactor the ambient dose equivalent were estimated. (Author)

  14. Electrode assemblies, plasma apparatuses and systems including electrode assemblies, and methods for generating plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Peter C; Grandy, Jon D; Detering, Brent A; Zuck, Larry D

    2013-09-17

    Electrode assemblies for plasma reactors include a structure or device for constraining an arc endpoint to a selected area or region on an electrode. In some embodiments, the structure or device may comprise one or more insulating members covering a portion of an electrode. In additional embodiments, the structure or device may provide a magnetic field configured to control a location of an arc endpoint on the electrode. Plasma generating modules, apparatus, and systems include such electrode assemblies. Methods for generating a plasma include covering at least a portion of a surface of an electrode with an electrically insulating member to constrain a location of an arc endpoint on the electrode. Additional methods for generating a plasma include generating a magnetic field to constrain a location of an arc endpoint on an electrode.

  15. Physical mechanisms and biological significance of supramolecular protein self-assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentsis, Alex; Borden, Katherine L B

    2004-04-01

    In living cells, chemical reactions of metabolism, information processing, growth and development are organized in a complex network of interactions. At least in part, the organization of this network is accomplished as a result of physical assembly by supramolecular scaffolds. Indeed, most proteins function in cells within the context of multimeric or supramolecular assemblies. With the increasing availability of atomic structures and molecular thermodynamics, it is possible to recast the problem of non-covalent molecular self-assembly from a unified perspective of structural thermodynamics and kinetics. Here, we present a generalized theory of self-assembly based on Wegner's kinetic model and use it to delineate three physical mechanisms of self-assembly: as limited by association of assembly units (nucleation), by association of monomers (isodesmic), and by conformational reorganization of monomers that is coupled to assembly (conformational). Thus, we discuss actin, tubulin, clathrin, and the capsid of icosahedral cowpea chlorotic mottle virus with respect to assembly of architectural scaffolds that perform largely mechanical functions, and pyruvate dehydrogenase, and RING domain proteins PML, arenaviral Z, and BRCA1:BARD1 with regard to assembly of supramolecular enzymes with metabolic and chemically directive functions. In addition to the biological functions made possible by supramolecular self-assembly, such as mesoscale mechanics of architectural scaffolds and metabolic coupling of supramolecular enzymes, we show that the physical mechanisms of self-assembly and their structural bases are biologically significant as well, having regulatory roles in both formation and function of the assembled structures in health and disease.

  16. Superlattices assembled through shape-induced directional binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Fang; Yager, Kevin G; Zhang, Yugang; Xin, Huolin; Gang, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    Organization of spherical particles into lattices is typically driven by packing considerations. Although the addition of directional binding can significantly broaden structural diversity, nanoscale implementation remains challenging. Here we investigate the assembly of clusters and lattices in which anisotropic polyhedral blocks coordinate isotropic spherical nanoparticles via shape-induced directional interactions facilitated by DNA recognition. We show that these polyhedral blocks--cubes and octahedrons--when mixed with spheres, promote the assembly of clusters with architecture determined by polyhedron symmetry. Moreover, three-dimensional binary superlattices are formed when DNA shells accommodate the shape disparity between nanoparticle interfaces. The crystallographic symmetry of assembled lattices is determined by the spatial symmetry of the block's facets, while structural order depends on DNA-tuned interactions and particle size ratio. The presented lattice assembly strategy, exploiting shape for defining the global structure and DNA-mediation locally, opens novel possibilities for by-design fabrication of binary lattices.

  17. Drive piston assembly for a valve actuator assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Zongxuan (Troy, MI)

    2010-02-23

    A drive piston assembly is provided that is operable to selectively open a poppet valve. The drive piston assembly includes a cartridge defining a generally stepped bore. A drive piston is movable within the generally stepped bore and a boost sleeve is coaxially disposed with respect to the drive piston. A main fluid chamber is at least partially defined by the generally stepped bore, drive piston, and boost sleeve. First and second feedback chambers are at least partially defined by the drive piston and each are disposed at opposite ends of the drive piston. At least one of the drive piston and the boost sleeve is sufficiently configured to move within the generally stepped bore in response to fluid pressure within the main fluid chamber to selectively open the poppet valve. A valve actuator assembly and engine are also provided incorporating the disclosed drive piston assembly.

  18. Illustrating how mechanical assemblies work

    KAUST Repository

    Mitra, Niloy J.

    2010-07-26

    How things work visualizations use a variety of visual techniques to depict the operation of complex mechanical assemblies. We present an automated approach for generating such visualizations. Starting with a 3D CAD model of an assembly, we first infer the motions of individual parts and the interactions between parts based on their geometry and a few user specified constraints. We then use this information to generate visualizations that incorporate motion arrows, frame sequences and animation to convey the causal chain of motions and mechanical interactions between parts. We present results for a wide variety of assemblies. © 2010 ACM.

  19. Illustrating how mechanical assemblies work

    KAUST Repository

    Mitra, Niloy J.

    2013-01-01

    How-things-work visualizations use a variety of visual techniques to depict the operation of complex mechanical assemblies. We present an automated approach for generating such visualizations. Starting with a 3D CAD model of an assembly, we first infer the motions of the individual parts and the interactions across the parts based on their geometry and a few user-specified constraints. We then use this information to generate visualizations that incorporate motion arrows, frame sequences, and animation to convey the causal chain of motions and mechanical interactions across parts. We demonstrate our system on a wide variety of assemblies. © 2013 ACM 0001-0782/13/01.

  20. Assembly line performance and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rane, Arun B.; Sunnapwar, Vivek K.

    2017-03-01

    Automobile sector forms the backbone of manufacturing sector. Vehicle assembly line is important section in automobile plant where repetitive tasks are performed one after another at different workstations. In this thesis, a methodology is proposed to reduce cycle time and time loss due to important factors like equipment failure, shortage of inventory, absenteeism, set-up, material handling, rejection and fatigue to improve output within given cost constraints. Various relationships between these factors, corresponding cost and output are established by scientific approach. This methodology is validated in three different vehicle assembly plants. Proposed methodology may help practitioners to optimize the assembly line using lean techniques.

  1. Directed Assembly of Gold Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerlund, Axel Rune Fredrik; Bjørnholm, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    As a complement to common "top-down" lithography techniques, "bottom-up" assembly techniques are emerging as promising tools to build nanoscale structures in a predictable way. Gold nanoparticles that are stable and relatively easy to synthesize are important building blocks in many such structures...... due to their useful optical and electronic properties. Programmed assembly of gold nanoparticles in one, two, and three dimensions is therefore of large interest. This review focuses on the progress from the last three years in the field of directed gold nanoparticle and nanorod assembly using...

  2. Assembly bias and splashback in galaxy clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Philipp; White, Simon D. M.

    2017-10-01

    We use publicly available data for the Millennium Simulation to explore the implications of the recent detection of assembly bias and splashback signatures in a large sample of galaxy clusters. These were identified in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey/Data Release 8 (SDSS/DR8) photometric data by the redMaPPer algorithm and split into high- and low-concentration subsamples based on the projected positions of cluster members. We use simplified versions of these procedures to build cluster samples of similar size from the simulation data. These match the observed samples quite well and show similar assembly bias and splashback signals. Previous theoretical work has found the logarithmic slope of halo density profiles to have a well-defined minimum whose depth decreases and whose radius increases with halo concentration. Projected profiles for the observed and simulated cluster samples show trends with concentration which are opposite to these predictions. In addition, for high-concentration clusters the minimum slope occurs at significantly smaller radius than predicted. We show that these discrepancies all reflect confusion between splashback features and features imposed on the profiles by the cluster identification and concentration estimation procedures. The strong apparent assembly bias is not reflected in the three-dimensional distribution of matter around clusters. Rather it is a consequence of the preferential contamination of low-concentration clusters by foreground or background groups.

  3. Histone chaperone-mediated nucleosome assembly process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hsiu-Fang; Liu, Zi-Ning; Chow, Sih-Yao; Lu, Yi-Han; Li, Hsin

    2015-01-01

    A huge amount of information is stored in genomic DNA and this stored information resides inside the nucleus with the aid of chromosomal condensation factors. It has been reported that the repeat nucleosome core particle (NCP) consists of 147-bp of DNA and two copies of H2A, H2B, H3 and H4. Regulation of chromosomal structure is important to many processes inside the cell. In vivo, a group of histone chaperones facilitate and regulate nucleosome assembly. How NCPs are constructed with the aid of histone chaperones remains unclear. In this study, the histone chaperone-mediated nucleosome assembly process was investigated using single-molecule tethered particle motion (TPM) experiments. It was found that Asf1 is able to exert more influence than Nap1 and poly glutamate acid (PGA) on the nucleosome formation process, which highlights Asf1's specific role in tetrasome formation. Thermodynamic parameters supported a model whereby energetically favored nucleosomal complexes compete with non-nucleosomal complexes. In addition, our kinetic findings propose the model that histone chaperones mediate nucleosome assembly along a path that leads to enthalpy-favored products with free histones as reaction substrates.

  4. Hear Exchange Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstein, Andrew; Sibilia, Marc; Miller, Jeffrey; Tonon, Thomas S.

    2003-05-27

    A heat exchange assembly comprises a plurality of plates disposed in a spaced-apart arrangement, each of the plurality of plates includes a plurality of passages extending internally from a first end to a second end for directing flow of a heat transfer fluid in a first plane, a plurality of first end-piece members equaling the number of plates and a plurality of second end-piece members also equaling the number of plates, each of the first and second end-piece members including a recessed region adapted to fluidly connect and couple with the first and second ends of the plate, respectively, and further adapted to be affixed to respective adjacent first and second end-piece members in a stacked formation, and each of the first and second end-piece members further including at least one cavity for enabling entry of the heat transfer fluid into the plate, exit of the heat transfer fluid from the plate, or 180.degree. turning of the fluid within the plate to create a serpentine-like fluid flow path between points of entry and exit of the fluid, and at least two fluid conduits extending through the stacked plurality of first and second end-piece members for providing first fluid connections between the parallel fluid entry points of adjacent plates and a fluid supply inlet, and second fluid connections between the parallel fluid exit points of adjacent plates and a fluid discharge outlet so that the heat transfer fluid travels in parallel paths through each respective plate.

  5. Sarks as additional fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Jyoti; Frampton, Paul H.; Jack Ng, Y.; Nishino, Hitoshi; Yasuda, Osamu

    1991-03-01

    An extension of the standard model is proposed. The gauge group is SU(2) X ⊗ SU(3) C ⊗ SU(2) S ⊗ U(1) Q, where all gauge symmetries are unbroken. The colour and electric charge are combined with SU(2) S which becomes strongly coupled at approximately 500 GeV and binds preons to form fermionic and vector bound states. The usual quarks and leptons are singlets under SU(2) X but additional fermions, called sarks. transform under it and the electroweak group. The present model explains why no more than three light quark-lepton families can exist. Neutral sark baryons, called narks, are candidates for the cosmological dark matter having the characteristics designed for WIMPS. Further phenomenological implications of sarks are analyzed i including electron-positron annihilation. Z 0 decay, flavor-changing neutral currents. baryon-number non-conservation, sarkonium and the neutron electric dipole moment.

  6. Perspectives on Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourell, David L.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has skyrocketed in visibility commercially and in the public sector. This article describes the development of this field from early layered manufacturing approaches of photosculpture, topography, and material deposition. Certain precursors to modern AM processes are also briefly described. The growth of the field over the last 30 years is presented. Included is the standard delineation of AM technologies into seven broad categories. The economics of AM part generation is considered, and the impacts of the economics on application sectors are described. On the basis of current trends, the future outlook will include a convergence of AM fabricators, mass-produced AM fabricators, enabling of topology optimization designs, and specialization in the AM legal arena. Long-term developments with huge impact are organ printing and volume-based printing.

  7. Robotically Assembled Aerospace Structures: Digital Material Assembly using a Gantry-Type Assembler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Greenfield; Copplestone, Grace; O'Connor, Molly; Hu, Steven; Nowak, Sebastian; Cheung, Kenneth; Jenett, Benjamin; Cellucci, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    This paper evaluates the development of automated assembly techniques for discrete lattice structures using a multi-axis gantry type CNC machine. These lattices are made of discrete components called digital materials. We present the development of a specialized end effector that works in conjunction with the CNC machine to assemble these lattices. With this configuration we are able to place voxels at a rate of 1.5 per minute. The scalability of digital material structures due to the incremental modular assembly is one of its key traits and an important metric of interest. We investigate the build times of a 5x5 beam structure on the scale of 1 meter (325 parts), 10 meters (3,250 parts), and 30 meters (9,750 parts). Utilizing the current configuration with a single end effector, performing serial assembly with a globally fixed feed station at the edge of the build volume, the build time increases according to a scaling law of n4, where n is the build scale. Build times can be reduced significantly by integrating feed systems into the gantry itself, resulting in a scaling law of n3. A completely serial assembly process will encounter time limitations as build scale increases. Automated assembly for digital materials can assemble high performance structures from discrete parts, and techniques such as built in feed systems, parallelization, and optimization of the fastening process will yield much higher throughput.

  8. Robotically Assembled Aerospace Structures: Digital Material Assembly using a Gantry-Type Assembler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Greenfield; Copplestone, Grace; O'Connor, Molly; Hu, Steven; Nowak, Sebastian; Cheung, Kenneth; Jenett, Benjamin; Cellucci, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    This paper evaluates the development of automated assembly techniques for discrete lattice structures using a multi-axis gantry type CNC machine. These lattices are made of discrete components called "digital materials." We present the development of a specialized end effector that works in conjunction with the CNC machine to assemble these lattices. With this configuration we are able to place voxels at a rate of 1.5 per minute. The scalability of digital material structures due to the incremental modular assembly is one of its key traits and an important metric of interest. We investigate the build times of a 5x5 beam structure on the scale of 1 meter (325 parts), 10 meters (3,250 parts), and 30 meters (9,750 parts). Utilizing the current configuration with a single end effector, performing serial assembly with a globally fixed feed station at the edge of the build volume, the build time increases according to a scaling law of n4, where n is the build scale. Build times can be reduced significantly by integrating feed systems into the gantry itself, resulting in a scaling law of n3. A completely serial assembly process will encounter time limitations as build scale increases. Automated assembly for digital materials can assemble high performance structures from discrete parts, and techniques such as built in feed systems, parallelization, and optimization of the fastening process will yield much higher throughput.

  9. Rework of multilayer printed wiring board assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clement, D.W.

    1976-08-01

    Processes of reworking printed wiring assemblies (PWA) built with multilayer printed wiring boards (MLPWB) were investigated. Because of the MLPWBs added thickness and increased heat absorption potential, assemblies built with these boards are suspected of being more susceptible to damage during component removal than assemblies built with single-layer double-sided boards. There also have been questions raised about the effect that rework has on the internal connections of the MLPWBs. A review and limited evaluation of all known rework methods resulted in selecting ''solder wick'' and ''vacuum extraction'' as the two main rework methods for use in the evaluations. The Appendix defines and describes these rework techniques. Two different groups of units, intended to be representative of a wide range of proposed and presently used MLPWB-component configurations, were fabricated and then reworked by variations of these two techniques. Approximately 16,000 internal connections of MLPWBs were subjected to rework. No internal connections became open or degraded. In addition, 80 PTHs with internal connections were subjected to 10 cycles of rework to examine the effect of rework on MLPWB internal connections. Continuity of the internal connections was measured before and after all rework. Even though the rework did cause extensive external damage to the MLPWBs (blisters, measles, and land damage, for example), there was no indication of internal connection degradation. The information received thus far leads to the conclusion that internal connections of MLPWBs are not likely to be degraded as a result of assembly rework.

  10. Direct hierarchical assembly of nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ting; Zhao, Yue; Thorkelsson, Kari

    2014-07-22

    The present invention provides hierarchical assemblies of a block copolymer, a bifunctional linking compound and a nanoparticle. The block copolymers form one micro-domain and the nanoparticles another micro-domain.

  11. Analysis of Illumina Microbial Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clum, Alicia; Foster, Brian; Froula, Jeff; LaButti, Kurt; Sczyrba, Alex; Lapidus, Alla; Woyke, Tanja

    2010-05-28

    Since the emerging of second generation sequencing technologies, the evaluation of different sequencing approaches and their assembly strategies for different types of genomes has become an important undertaken. Next generation sequencing technologies dramatically increase sequence throughput while decreasing cost, making them an attractive tool for whole genome shotgun sequencing. To compare different approaches for de-novo whole genome assembly, appropriate tools and a solid understanding of both quantity and quality of the underlying sequence data are crucial. Here, we performed an in-depth analysis of short-read Illumina sequence assembly strategies for bacterial and archaeal genomes. Different types of Illumina libraries as well as different trim parameters and assemblers were evaluated. Results of the comparative analysis and sequencing platforms will be presented. The goal of this analysis is to develop a cost-effective approach for the increased throughput of the generation of high quality microbial genomes.

  12. Multiple complementary gas distribution assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Tuoh-Bin; Melnik, Yuriy; Pang, Lily L; Tuncel, Eda; Nguyen, Son T; Chen, Lu

    2016-04-05

    In one embodiment, an apparatus includes a first gas distribution assembly that includes a first gas passage for introducing a first process gas into a second gas passage that introduces the first process gas into a processing chamber and a second gas distribution assembly that includes a third gas passage for introducing a second process gas into a fourth gas passage that introduces the second process gas into the processing chamber. The first and second gas distribution assemblies are each adapted to be coupled to at least one chamber wall of the processing chamber. The first gas passage is shaped as a first ring positioned within the processing chamber above the second gas passage that is shaped as a second ring positioned within the processing chamber. The gas distribution assemblies may be designed to have complementary characteristic radial film growth rate profiles.

  13. Optimising Magnetostatic Assemblies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Insinga, Andrea Roberto; Smith, Anders

    the optimal remanence distribution with respect to a linear objective functional. Additionally, it is shown here that the same formalism can be applied to the optimisation of the geometry of magnetic systems. Specifically, the border separating the permanent magnet from regions occupied by air or soft...

  14. Chromatin assembly using Drosophila systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyodorov, Dmitry V; Levenstein, Mark E

    2002-05-01

    To successfully study chromatin structure and activity in vitro, it is essential to have a chromatin assembly system that will prepare extended nucleosome arrays with highly defined protein content that resemble bulk chromatin isolated from living cell nuclei in terms of periodicity and nucleosome positioning. The Drosophila ATP-dependent chromatin assembly system described in this unit meets these requirements. The end product of the reaction described here has highly periodic extended arrays with physiologic spacing and positioning of the nucleosomes.

  15. Assembly delay line pulse generators

    CERN Document Server

    1971-01-01

    Assembly of six of the ten delay line pulse generators that will power the ten kicker magnet modules. One modulator part contains two pulse generators. Capacitors, inductances, and voltage dividers are in the oil tank on the left. Triggered high-pressure spark gap switches are on the platforms on the right. High voltage pulse cables to the kicker magnet emerge under the spark gaps. In the centre background are the assembled master gaps.

  16. DNA controlled assembly of liposomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Stefan; Jakobsen, Ulla; Simonsen, Adam Cohen

    2009-01-01

    DNA-encoding of solid nanoparticles requires surfacechemistry, which is often tedious and not generally applicable. In the present study non-covalently attached DNA are used to assemble soft nanoparticles (liposomes) in solution. This process displays remarkably sharp thermal transitions from...... assembled to disassembled state for which reason this method allows easy and fast detection of polynucleotides (e.g. DNA or RNA), including single nucleotide polymorphisms as well as insertions and deletions....

  17. Another successful Doctoral Student Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    On Wednesday 2 April, CERN hosted its third Doctoral Student Assembly in the Council Chamber.   CERN PhD students show off their posters in CERN's Main Building. Speaking to a packed house, Director-General Rolf Heuer gave the assembly's opening speech and introduced the poster session that followed. Seventeen CERN PhD students presented posters on their work, and were greeted by their CERN and University supervisors. It was a very successful event!

  18. CAPRG: sequence assembling pipeline for next generation sequencing of non-model organisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Rawat

    Full Text Available Our goal is to introduce and describe the utility of a new pipeline "Contigs Assembly Pipeline using Reference Genome" (CAPRG, which has been developed to assemble "long sequence reads" for non-model organisms by leveraging a reference genome of a closely related phylogenetic relative. To facilitate this effort, we utilized two avian transcriptomic datasets generated using ROCHE/454 technology as test cases for CAPRG assembly. We compared the results of CAPRG assembly using a reference genome with the results of existing methods that utilize de novo strategies such as VELVET, PAVE, and MIRA by employing parameter space comparisons (intra-assembling comparison. CAPRG performed as well or better than the existing assembly methods based on various benchmarks for "gene-hunting." Further, CAPRG completed the assemblies in a fraction of the time required by the existing assembly algorithms. Additional advantages of CAPRG included reduced contig inflation resulting in lower computational resources for annotation, and functional identification for contigs that may be categorized as "unknowns" by de novo methods. In addition to providing evaluation of CAPRG performance, we observed that the different assembly (inter-assembly results could be integrated to enhance the putative gene coverage for any transcriptomics study.

  19. CAPRG: sequence assembling pipeline for next generation sequencing of non-model organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Arun; Elasri, Mohamed O; Gust, Kurt A; George, Glover; Pham, Don; Scanlan, Leona D; Vulpe, Chris; Perkins, Edward J

    2012-01-01

    Our goal is to introduce and describe the utility of a new pipeline "Contigs Assembly Pipeline using Reference Genome" (CAPRG), which has been developed to assemble "long sequence reads" for non-model organisms by leveraging a reference genome of a closely related phylogenetic relative. To facilitate this effort, we utilized two avian transcriptomic datasets generated using ROCHE/454 technology as test cases for CAPRG assembly. We compared the results of CAPRG assembly using a reference genome with the results of existing methods that utilize de novo strategies such as VELVET, PAVE, and MIRA by employing parameter space comparisons (intra-assembling comparison). CAPRG performed as well or better than the existing assembly methods based on various benchmarks for "gene-hunting." Further, CAPRG completed the assemblies in a fraction of the time required by the existing assembly algorithms. Additional advantages of CAPRG included reduced contig inflation resulting in lower computational resources for annotation, and functional identification for contigs that may be categorized as "unknowns" by de novo methods. In addition to providing evaluation of CAPRG performance, we observed that the different assembly (inter-assembly) results could be integrated to enhance the putative gene coverage for any transcriptomics study.

  20. AN APPROACH THAT AUTOMATICALLY DETERMINES PART CONTACT RELATIONS IN COMPUTER AIDED ASSEMBLY MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem SİNANOĞLU

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available This study describes an approach for modeling of an assembly system which is, one of the main problems encountered during assembly. In this approach the wire-frame modeling of the assembly system is used. In addition, each part is drawn in a different color. Assembly drawing and its various approaches are scanned along three different (-x, -y, -z axis. Scanning is done automatically the software developed. The color codes obtained by scanning and representing different assembly parts are assessed by the software along the six axes of Cartesian coordinate. Then contact matrices are formed to represent the relations among the assembly parts. These matrices are complete enough to represent an assembly modeling. This approach was applied for various assembly systems. These assembly systems are as follows; pincer, hinge and clutch systems. One of the basic advantages of this approach is that the wire-frame modeling of the assembly system can be formed through various CAD programs; and it can be applied to assembly systems contain many parts.

  1. Development of Tools for Treating an Irradiated Fuel Rod Assembly in the Pool of HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, J. T.; Ahn, S. H.; Kim, K. H.; Joung, C. Y. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    To inspect a fuel rod during irradiation testing at the test loop of a research reactor, the test rig should be disassembled from the IPS (In-pile test section), and the targeted fuel rod assembly should be disassembled from the test rig and encapsulated in a cask to deliver the assembly to the hot cell. In addition, the fuel rod assembly under inspection in the hot cell should be delivered to the reactor pool and reassembled into the test rig to resume the irradiation test. Because the irradiated fuel rod is highly radioactive, all of the assembly and disassembly operations should be carried out in the reactor pool. Therefore, special tools need to be developed to treat the test rig in the pool of a research reactor. In this study, a new mechanically detachable fuel rod assembly has been developed for intermediate inspection during irradiation test at HANARO. A fuel rod assembly can be divided into two parts, such as an instrumented fuel rod assembly and a non-instrumented fuel rod assembly. In particular, an instrumented fuel rod assembly is assembled at the lower part of the test rig, and a non-instrumented fuel rod assembly is assembled at the bottom of the instrumented fuel rod assembly. The non-instrumented fuel rod assembly is locked in the test rig during irradiation test, and is easily disassembled from the instrumented fuel rod assembly by pushing the anchor button and twisting the non-instrumented fuel rod assembly. In addition, because a test rig is 5.4 meters long and the disassembling operation should be carried out at 6 meters deep in the pool of HANARO, tools to help disassemble and assemble the non-instrumented fuel rod assembly have also been developed. All components were designed to operate mechanically and are made of stainless steel and Al 6061 to minimize the effects from the radioactivity. The performance of the developed fuel rod assembly and tools have been verified through an out pile test.

  2. Optimization of assembly line balancing using genetic algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N Barathwaj; P Raja; S Gokulraj

    2015-01-01

    In a manufacturing industry, mixed model assembly line (MMAL) is preferred in order to meet the variety in product demand. MMAL balancing helps in assembling products with similar characteristics in a random fashion. The objective of this work aims in reducing the number of workstations, work load index between stations and within each station. As manual contribution of workers in final assembly line is more, ergonomics is taken as an additional objective function. Ergonomic risk level of a workstation is evaluated using a parameter called accumulated risk posture (ARP), which is calculated using rapid upper limb assessment (RULA) check sheet. This work is based on the case study of an MMAL problem in Rane (Madras) Ltd. (India), in which a problem based genetic algorithm (GA) has been proposed to minimize the mentioned objectives. The working of the genetic operators such as selection, crossover and mutation has been modified with respect to the addressed MMAL problem. The results show that there is a significant impact over productivity and the process time of the final assembled product, i.e., the rate of production is increased by 39.5% and the assembly time for one particular model is reduced to 13 min from existing 18 min. Also, the space required using the proposed assembly line is only 200 m2 against existing 350 m2. Further, the algorithm helps in reducing workers fatigue (i.e., ergonomic friendly).

  3. The Distributed Assembly Parallel Machine Scheduling Problem with eligibility constraints.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Hatami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we jointly consider realistic scheduling extensions: First we study the distributed unrelated parallel machines problems by which there is a set of identical factories with parallel machines in a production stage. Jobs have to be assigned to factories and to machines. Additionally, there is an assembly stage with a single assembly machine. Finished jobs at the manufacturing stage are assembled into final products in this second assembly stage. These two joint features are referred to as the distributed assembly parallel machine scheduling problem or DAPMSP. The objective is to minimize the makespan in the assembly stage. Due to technological constraints, machines cannot be left empty and some jobs might be processed on certain factories only. We propose a mathematical model and two high performing heuristics. The model is tested with two state-of-the-art solvers and, together with the heuristics, 2220 instances are solved in a comprehensive computational experiments. Results show that the proposed model is able to solve moderately-sized instances and one of the heuristics is fast, giving close to optimal solutions in less than half a second in the worst case.

  4. Self-Assembly of Supramolecular Composites under Cylindrical Confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Peter; Thorkelsson, Kari; Ercius, Peter; Xu, Ting

    2014-03-01

    Block copolymer (BCP) or BCP-based supramolecules are useful platforms to direct nanoparticle (NP) assemblies. However, the variety of NP assemblies is rather limited in comparison to those shown by DNA-guided approach. By subjecting supramolecular nanocomposites to 2-D cylindrical confinement afforded by anodic aluminum oxide membranes, a range of new NP assemblies such as stacked rings, and single and double helices can be readily obtained, as confirmed by TEM and TEM tomography. At low NP loadings (3 v%), the nanostructure conforms to the supramolecule morphology. However, at higher NP loadings (6-9 v%), the nanostructure deviates significantly from the morphology of supramolecular nanocomposites in bulk or in thin film, suggesting that frustrated NP packing, in addition to simple supramolecule templating, may play a significant role in the self-assembly process. The present studies demonstrate that 2-D confinement can be an effective means to tailor self-assembled NP structures and may open further opportunities to manipulate the macroscopic properties of NP assemblies.

  5. BWR ASSEMBLY SOURCE TERMS FOR WASTE PACKAGE DESIGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T.L. Lotz

    1997-02-15

    This analysis is prepared by the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Waste Package Development Department (WPDD) to provide boiling water reactor (BWR) assembly radiation source term data for use during Waste Package (WP) design. The BWR assembly radiation source terms are to be used for evaluation of radiolysis effects at the WP surface, and for personnel shielding requirements during assembly or WP handling operations. The objectives of this evaluation are to generate BWR assembly radiation source terms that bound selected groupings of BWR assemblies, with regard to assembly average burnup and cooling time, which comprise the anticipated MGDS BWR commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) waste stream. The source term data is to be provided in a form which can easily be utilized in subsequent shielding/radiation dose calculations. Since these calculations may also be used for Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA), with appropriate justification provided by TSPA, or radionuclide release rate analysis, the grams of each element and additional cooling times out to 25 years will also be calculated and the data included in the output files.

  6. 49 CFR 572.186 - Abdomen assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Abdomen assembly. 572.186 Section 572.186... Dummy, 50th Percentile Adult Male § 572.186 Abdomen assembly. (a) The abdomen assembly (175-5000) is...). When subjected to tests procedures specified in paragraph (b) of this section, the abdomen assembly...

  7. Precision Assembly of Systems on Surfaces (PASS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-06

    Precision Assembly of Systems on Surfaces ( PASS ) This program was directed at generating functionalized surfaces and assemblies for electronic and...journals: Number of Papers published in non peer-reviewed journals: Final Report: Precision Assembly of Systems on Surfaces ( PASS ) Report Title This...PRECISION ASSEMBLY OF SYSTEMS ON SURFACES ( PASS ) PI: Timothy M. Swager Massachusetts Institute of Technology Final Report: DARPA, Defense

  8. Molecular self-assembly advances and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dequan, Alex Li

    2012-01-01

    In the past several decades, molecular self-assembly has emerged as one of the main themes in chemistry, biology, and materials science. This book compiles and details cutting-edge research in molecular assemblies ranging from self-organized peptide nanostructures and DNA-chromophore foldamers to supramolecular systems and metal-directed assemblies, even to nanocrystal superparticles and self-assembled microdevices

  9. Symmetry in Sphere-Based Assembly Configuration Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meera Sitharam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many remarkably robust, rapid and spontaneous self-assembly phenomena occurring in nature can be modeled geometrically, starting from a collection of rigid bunches of spheres. This paper highlights the role of symmetry in sphere-based assembly processes. Since spheres within bunches could be identical and bunches could be identical, as well, the underlying symmetry groups could be of large order that grows with the number of participating spheres and bunches. Thus, understanding symmetries and associated isomorphism classes of microstates that correspond to various types of macrostates can significantly increase efficiency and accuracy, i.e., reduce the notorious complexity of computing entropy and free energy, as well as paths and kinetics, in high dimensional configuration spaces. In addition, a precise understanding of symmetries is crucial for giving provable guarantees of algorithmic accuracy and efficiency, as well as accuracy vs. efficiency trade-offs in such computations. In particular, this may aid in predicting crucial assembly-driving interactions. This is a primarily expository paper that develops a novel, original framework for dealing with symmetries in configuration spaces of assembling spheres, with the following goals. (1 We give new, formal definitions of various concepts relevant to the sphere-based assembly setting that occur in previous work and, in turn, formal definitions of their relevant symmetry groups leading to the main theorem concerning their symmetries. These previously-developed concepts include, for example: (i assembly configuration spaces; (ii stratification of assembly configuration space into configurational regions defined by active constraint graphs; (iii paths through the configurational regions; and (iv coarse assembly pathways. (2 We then demonstrate the new symmetry concepts to compute the sizes and numbers of orbits in two example settings appearing in previous work. (3 Finally, we give formal

  10. Assembly and actuation of nanomaterials using active biomolecules.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spoerke, Erik David; Thayer, Gayle Echo; de Boer, Maarten Pieter; Bunker, Bruce Conrad; Liu, Jun; Corwin, Alex David; Gaudioso, Jennifer Marie; Sasaki, Darryl Yoshio; Boal, Andrew Kiskadden; Bachand, George David; Trent, Amanda M.; Bachand, Marlene; Rivera, Susan B.; Koch, Steven John

    2005-11-01

    The formation and functions of living materials and organisms are fundamentally different from those of synthetic materials and devices. Synthetic materials tend to have static structures, and are not capable of adapting to the functional needs of changing environments. In contrast, living systems utilize energy to create, heal, reconfigure, and dismantle materials in a dynamic, non-equilibrium fashion. The overall goal of the project was to organize and reconfigure functional assemblies of nanoparticles using strategies that mimic those found in living systems. Active assembly of nanostructures was studied using active biomolecules to drive the organization and assembly of nanocomposite materials. In this system, kinesin motor proteins and microtubules were used to direct the transport and interactions of nanoparticles at synthetic interfaces. In addition, the kinesin/microtubule transport system was used to actively assemble nanocomposite materials capable of storing significant elastic energy. Novel biophysical measurement tools were also developed for measuring the collective force generated by kinesin motor proteins, which will provide insight on the mechanical constraints of active assembly processes. Responsive reconfiguration of nanostructures was studied in terms of using active biomolecules to mediate the optical properties of quantum dot (QD) arrays through modulation of inter-particle spacing and associated energy transfer interaction. Design rules for kinesin-based transport of a wide range of nanoscale cargo (e.g., nanocrystal quantum dots, micron-sized polymer spheres) were developed. Three-dimensional microtubule organizing centers were assembled in which the polar orientation of the microtubules was controlled by a multi-staged assembly process. Overall, a number of enabling technologies were developed over the course of this project, and will drive the exploitation of energy-driven processes to regulate the assembly, disassembly, and dynamic

  11. Product lifecycle-oriented virtual assembly technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jian-hua; NING Ru-xin; YAO Jun; WAN Bi-le

    2006-01-01

    VA (virtual assembly) provides a more efficient,intuitive and convenient method for assembly process modeling,simulation and analysis.Previous researches about VA are almost isolated and dispersive,and have not established the understanding and definition of VA from a macroscopical and integrated view.Based on the analysis of the connotations of VA,a PLO-VATA (product lifecycle-oriented virtual assembly technology architecture) is proposed,in this architecture,VA is decomposed into four basic elements:principles and methodology of DFA (design for assembly),assembly analysis and evaluation,virtual assembly model and virtual assembly toolkits.Immersion,concurrence,integration and collaboration are the four main characteristics of VA being put forward.The key techniques of VA including virtual assembly model,virtual assembly analysis and evaluation,and virtual assembly process planning are discussed.Finally,a prototype system is built to validate the feasibility of the proposed method.

  12. Assembly of lamins in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MINGUNGWEI; XIANGJUNTONG; 等

    1996-01-01

    After lamins A,B and C were isolated and purified from rat liver,their assembly properties were examined by electron microscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy by electron microscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy using negative staining and the glycerol coating method,respectively.By varying the assembly time or the ionic conditions under which polymerization takes place,we have observed different stages of lamin assembly,which may provide clues on the structure of the 10 nm lamin filaments.At the first level of structural organization,two lamin polypeptides associate laterally into dimers with the two domains being parallel and in register.At the second level of structural organization,two dimers associate in a half-staggered and antiparallel fashion to form a tetramer 75 nm in length.At the third level of structural organization,4-10 lamin tetramers associate laterally in register to form 75 nm long 10nm filaments,which in turn combine head to head into long,fully assembled lamin filaments.The assembled lamin filaments are nonpolar.

  13. Dynamic pathways for viral capsid assembly

    OpenAIRE

    Hagan, Michael F.; Chandler, David

    2006-01-01

    We develop a class of models with which we simulate the assembly of particles into T1 capsid-like objects using Newtonian dynamics. By simulating assembly for many different values of system parameters, we vary the forces that drive assembly. For some ranges of parameters, assembly is facile, while for others, assembly is dynamically frustrated by kinetic traps corresponding to malformed or incompletely formed capsids. Our simulations sample many independent trajectories at various capsomer c...

  14. Dynamics of assembly production flow

    CERN Document Server

    Ezaki, Takahiro; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Despite recent developments in management theory, maintaining a manufacturing schedule remains difficult because of production delays and fluctuations in demand and supply of materials. The response of manufacturing systems to such disruptions to dynamic behavior has been rarely studied. To capture these responses, we investigate a process that models the assembly of parts into end products. The complete assembly process is represented by a directed tree, where the smallest parts are injected at leaves and the end products are removed at the root. A discrete assembly process, represented by a node on the network, integrates parts, which are then sent to the next downstream node as a single part. The model exhibits some intriguing phenomena, including overstock cascade, phase transition in terms of demand and supply fluctuations, nonmonotonic distribution of stockout in the network, and the formation of a stockout path and stockout chains. Surprisingly, these rich phenomena result from only the nature of distr...

  15. Workload analyse of assembling process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghenghea, L. D.

    2015-11-01

    The workload is the most important indicator for managers responsible of industrial technological processes no matter if these are automated, mechanized or simply manual in each case, machines or workers will be in the focus of workload measurements. The paper deals with workload analyses made to a most part manual assembling technology for roller bearings assembling process, executed in a big company, with integrated bearings manufacturing processes. In this analyses the delay sample technique have been used to identify and divide all bearing assemblers activities, to get information about time parts from 480 minutes day work time that workers allow to each activity. The developed study shows some ways to increase the process productivity without supplementary investments and also indicated the process automation could be the solution to gain maximum productivity.

  16. Nitrogenase Assembly: Strategies and Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sickerman, Nathaniel S; Hu, Yilin; Ribbe, Markus W

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogenase is a metalloenzyme system that plays a critical role in biological nitrogen fixation, and the study of how its metallocenters are assembled into functional entities to facilitate the catalytic reduction of dinitrogen to ammonia is an active area of interest. The diazotroph Azotobacter vinelandii is especially amenable to culturing and genetic manipulation, and this organism has provided the basis for many insights into the assembly of nitrogenase proteins and their respective metallocofactors. This chapter will cover the basic procedures necessary for growing A. vinelandii cultures and subsequent recombinant transformation and protein expression techniques. Furthermore, protocols for nitrogenase protein purification and substrate reduction activity assays are described. These methods provide a solid framework for the assessment of nitrogenase assembly and catalysis. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Assembling of hydrogenated aluminum clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duque, F.; Mananes, A. [Dept. de Fisica Moderna, Universidad de Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Molina, L.M.; Lopez, M.J.; Alonso, J.A. [Dept. de Fisica Teorica, Universidad de Valladolid (Spain)

    2001-09-01

    The electronic and atomic structure of Al{sub 13}H has been studied using Density Functional Theory. Al{sub 13}H has closed electronic shells. This makes the cluster very stable and suggests that it could be a candidate to form cluster assembled solids. The interaction between two Al{sub 13}H clusters was analyzed and we found that the two units preserve their identities in the dimer. A cubic-like solid phase assembled from Al{sub 13}H units was then modeled. In that solid the clusters retain much of their identity. Molecular dynamics runs show that the structure of the assembled solid is stable at least up to 150 K. A favorable relative orientation of the clusters with respect to their neighbors is critical for the stability of that solid. (orig.)

  18. FUEL ASSEMBLY SHAKER TEST SIMULATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klymyshyn, Nicholas A.; Sanborn, Scott E.; Adkins, Harold E.; Hanson, Brady D.

    2013-05-30

    This report describes the modeling of a PWR fuel assembly under dynamic shock loading in support of the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) shaker test campaign. The focus of the test campaign is on evaluating the response of used fuel to shock and vibration loads that a can occur during highway transport. Modeling began in 2012 using an LS-DYNA fuel assembly model that was first created for modeling impact scenarios. SNL’s proposed test scenario was simulated through analysis and the calculated results helped guide the instrumentation and other aspects of the testing. During FY 2013, the fuel assembly model was refined to better represent the test surrogate. Analysis of the proposed loads suggested the frequency band needed to be lowered to attempt to excite the lower natural frequencies of the fuel assembly. Despite SNL’s expansion of lower frequency components in their five shock realizations, pretest predictions suggested a very mild dynamic response to the test loading. After testing was completed, one specific shock case was modeled, using recorded accelerometer data to excite the model. Direct comparison of predicted strain in the cladding was made to the recorded strain gauge data. The magnitude of both sets of strain (calculated and recorded) are very low, compared to the expected yield strength of the Zircaloy-4 material. The model was accurate enough to predict that no yielding of the cladding was expected, but its precision at predicting micro strains is questionable. The SNL test data offers some opportunity for validation of the finite element model, but the specific loading conditions of the testing only excite the fuel assembly to respond in a limited manner. For example, the test accelerations were not strong enough to substantially drive the fuel assembly out of contact with the basket. Under this test scenario, the fuel assembly model does a reasonable job of approximating actual fuel assembly response, a claim that can be verified through

  19. Self-assembly of cyclodextrins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fülöp, Z.; Kurkov, S.V.; Nielsen, T.T.;

    2012-01-01

    The design of functional cyclodextrin (CD) nanoparticles is a developing area in the field of nanomedicine. CDs can not only help in the formation of drug carriers but also increase the local concentration of drugs at the site of action. CD monomers form aggregates by self-assembly, a tendency...... that increases upon formation of inclusion complexes with lipophilic drugs. However, the stability of such aggregates is not sufficient for parenteral administration. In this review CD polymers and CD containing nanoparticles are categorized, with focus on self-assembled CD nanoparticles. It is described how...... the nanoparticles can be stabilized and tuned to have specific properties....

  20. Apollo Telescope Mount Spar Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM), designed and developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center, served as the primary scientific instrument unit aboard the Skylab. The ATM contained eight complex astronomical instruments designed to observe the Sun over a wide spectrum from visible light to x-rays. This image shows the ATM spar assembly. All solar telescopes, the fine Sun sensors, and some auxiliary systems are mounted on the spar, a cruciform lightweight perforated metal mounting panel that divides the 10-foot long canister lengthwise into four equal compartments. The spar assembly was nested inside a cylindrical canister that fit into the rack, a complex frame, and was protected by the solar shield.

  1. Automated solar panel assembly line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somberg, H.

    1981-01-01

    The initial stage of the automated solar panel assembly line program was devoted to concept development and proof of approach through simple experimental verification. In this phase, laboratory bench models were built to demonstrate and verify concepts. Following this phase was machine design and integration of the various machine elements. The third phase was machine assembly and debugging. In this phase, the various elements were operated as a unit and modifications were made as required. The final stage of development was the demonstration of the equipment in a pilot production operation.

  2. Ultrasonic Assembly of Thermoplastic Parts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schurman, W. R.

    1970-03-31

    Four ultrasonic methods were evaluated for assembly of experimental plastic parts for detonators: (1) welding, (2) crimping and staking, (3) insertion, and (4) reactivation of adhesives. For welding, staking and insertion, plastics with low elastic moduli, such as acrylics and polycarbonate, produced the best results. Thermosetting, hot-melt, and solution adhesives could all be activated ultrasonically to form good bonds on plastics and other materials. This evaluation indicated that thermoplastic detonator parts could be assembled ultrasonically in shorter times than by present production techniques with high bond strengths and high product acceptance rates.

  3. STAR: a simple TAL effector assembly reaction using isothermal assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogolok, Sabine; Garcia-Diaz, Claudia; Pollard, Steven M

    2016-09-12

    Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) contain modular programmable DNA binding domains. Fusing TALEs with effector domains creates synthetic transcription factors (TALE-TFs) or nucleases (TALENs), enabling precise gene manipulations. The construction of TALEs remains challenging due to their repetitive sequences. Here we report a simple TALE assembly reaction (STAR) that enables individual laboratories to generate multiple TALEs in a facile manner. STAR uses an isothermal assembly ('Gibson assembly') that is labour- and cost-effective, accessible, rapid and scalable. A small 68-part fragment library is employed, and the specific TALE repeat sequence is generated within ~8 hours. Sequence-verified TALENs or TALE-TF plasmids targeting 17 bp target sequences can be produced within three days, without the need for stepwise intermediate plasmid production. We demonstrate the utility of STAR through production of functional TALE-TFs capable of activating human SOX2 expression. STAR addresses some of the shortcomings of existing Golden Gate or solid-phase assembly protocols and enables routine production of TALE-TFs that will complement emerging CRISPR/Cas9-based reagents across diverse applications in mammalian stem cell and synthetic biology.

  4. "Assembling" the Ideal Learner: The School Assembly as Regulatory Ritual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbert, Patti; Jacklin, Heather

    2015-01-01

    "School assemblies" are rituals that celebrate and mark the school community. They carry messages of allegiance and belonging that are disseminated both verbally and nonverbally. Although verbal messages are explicitly stated, nonverbal messages are conveyed through subjection to habits, rules, and orders (Foucault 1977) and are…

  5. iAssembler: a package for de novo assembly of Roche-454/Sanger transcriptome sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Yi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs have played significant roles in gene discovery and gene functional analysis, especially for non-model organisms. For organisms with no full genome sequences available, ESTs are normally assembled into longer consensus sequences for further downstream analysis. However current de novo EST assembly programs often generate large number of assembly errors that will negatively affect the downstream analysis. In order to generate more accurate consensus sequences from ESTs, tools are needed to reduce or eliminate errors from de novo assemblies. Results We present iAssembler, a pipeline that can assemble large-scale ESTs into consensus sequences with significantly higher accuracy than current existing assemblers. iAssembler employs MIRA and CAP3 assemblers to generate initial assemblies, followed by identifying and correcting two common types of transcriptome assembly errors: 1 ESTs from different transcripts (mainly alternatively spliced transcripts or paralogs are incorrectly assembled into same contigs; and 2 ESTs from same transcripts fail to be assembled together. iAssembler can be used to assemble ESTs generated using the traditional Sanger method and/or the Roche-454 massive parallel pyrosequencing technology. Conclusion We compared performances of iAssembler and several other de novo EST assembly programs using both Roche-454 and Sanger EST datasets. It demonstrated that iAssembler generated significantly more accurate consensus sequences than other assembly programs.

  6. Oms1 associates with cytochrome c oxidase assembly intermediates to stabilize newly synthesized Cox1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bareth, Bettina; Nikolov, Miroslav; Lorenzi, Isotta; Hildenbeutel, Markus; Mick, David U; Helbig, Christin; Urlaub, Henning; Ott, Martin; Rehling, Peter; Dennerlein, Sven

    2016-05-15

    The mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase assembles in the inner membrane from subunits of dual genetic origin. The assembly process of the enzyme is initiated by membrane insertion of the mitochondria-encoded Cox1 subunit. During complex maturation, transient assembly intermediates, consisting of structural subunits and specialized chaperone-like assembly factors, are formed. In addition, cofactors such as heme and copper have to be inserted into the nascent complex. To regulate the assembly process, the availability of Cox1 is under control of a regulatory feedback cycle in which translation of COX1 mRNA is stalled when assembly intermediates of Cox1 accumulate through inactivation of the translational activator Mss51. Here we isolate a cytochrome c oxidase assembly intermediate in preparatory scale from coa1Δ mutant cells, using Mss51 as bait. We demonstrate that at this stage of assembly, the complex has not yet incorporated the heme a cofactors. Using quantitative mass spectrometry, we define the protein composition of the assembly intermediate and unexpectedly identify the putative methyltransferase Oms1 as a constituent. Our analyses show that Oms1 participates in cytochrome c oxidase assembly by stabilizing newly synthesized Cox1.

  7. Focal Plane Image Assembly of Subpixel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the scanning assembly principle and construction of scanning assembly sample.The factors that affect assembly accuracy are analyzed.There are two steps in CCD focal plane scanning assembly.The first is rough assembly,and the second is accurate assembly.In this paper,the moiré fringe is introduced in judging assembly accuracy directly and accurately.The equation for optical transmission characteristics of CCD Moiré fringes is presented.The measurement of Moiré fringes can be completed when some conditions are satisfied.2D-assembly error can be obtained by using digital correlation filtering technique.Finally,the result of focal plane scanning assembly is presented.The result is in good accordance with theory.

  8. Improvability of assembly systems II: Improvability indicators and case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.-Y. Chiang

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the performance analysis technique developed in Part I, this paper presents improvability indicators for assembly lines with unreliable machines. In particular, it shows that assembly lines are unimprovable with respect to workforce re-distribution if each buffer is, on the average, close to being half full. These lines are unimprovable with respect to buffer capacity re-distribution if each machine is starved and blocked with almost equal frequency. In addition, the paper provides indicators for identification of bottleneck machines and bottleneck buffers. Finally, the paper reports on an application of these improvability indicators in a case study at an automotive components plant.

  9. Heat Transfer Calculation on Plate-Type Fuel Assembly of High Flux Research Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daxin Gong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat transfer characteristics of fuel assemblies for a high flux research reactor with a neutron trap are numerically investigated in this study. Single-phase turbulence flow is calculated by a commercial code, FLUENT, where the computational objective covers standard and control fuel assemblies. The simulation is carried out with an inlet coolant velocity varying from 4.5 m/s to 7.5 m/s in hot assemblies. The results indicate that the cladding temperature is always lower than the saturation temperature in the calculated ranges. The temperature rise in the control fuel assembly is smaller than that of the standard fuel assembly. Additionally, the assembly with a hot spot is specially studied, and the safety of the research reactor is also approved.

  10. Assembly Sequence Planning for Mechanical Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    A method for assembly sequence planning is proposed in this paper. First, two methods for assembly sequence planning are compared, which are indirect method and direct method. Then, the limits of the previous assembly planning system are pointed out. On the basis of indirect method, an improved method for assembly sequence planning is put forward. This method is composed of four parts, which are assembly modeling for products, assembly sequence representing, assembly sequence planning, and evaluation and optimization. The assembly model is established by human machine interaction, and the assembly model contains components' information and the assembly relation among the components. The assembly sequence planning is based on the breaking up of the assembly model. And/or graph is used to represent assembly sequence set. Every component which satisfies the disassembly condition is recorded as a node of an and/or graph. After the disassembly sequence and/or graph is generated, heuristic algorithm - AO* algorithm is used to search the disassembly sequence and/or graph, and the optimum assembly sequence planning is realized. This method is proved to be effective in a prototype system which is a sub-project of a state 863/CIMS research project of China - ‘Concurrent Engineering’.

  11. Quantum magnetism through atomic assembly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spinelli, A.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis presents an experimental study of magnetic structures, composed of only a few atoms. Those structures are first built atom-by-atom and then locally probed, both with a low-temperature STM. The technique that we use to assemble them is vertical atom manipulation, while to study their phy

  12. DNA controlled assembly of liposomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Stefan; Jakobsen, Ulla; Simonsen, Adam Cohen

    2009-01-01

    DNA-encoding of solid nanoparticles requires surfacechemistry, which is often tedious and not generally applicable. In the present study non-covalently attached DNA are used to assemble soft nanoparticles (liposomes) in solution. This process displays remarkably sharp thermal transitions from...

  13. Construction of YBS Critical Assembly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU; Qi; LIANG; Shu-hong; ZHU; Qing-fu; ZHANG; Wei; YANG; Li-jun; QUAN; Yan-hui

    2015-01-01

    Supported by the XDA program of CAS,the YBS critical assembly has been constructed for the experimental research of the coupling and influence characteristics of spallation target and reactor in ADS system.This work consists of two parts:one is the conversion of the reactor hall and control room,and the other manufacture,installation and commissioning of the critical

  14. TWOWS Assembly Convenes in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Jianlan

    2010-01-01

    @@ "Women are still under-represented in the fields of science and technology,"remarked HE Naledi Pandor,minister of science and technology of South Africa,at her invited speech heralding the opening of the Fourth General Assembly and International Conference of the Third World Organization for Women in Science(TWOWS)on the morning of June 27 in Beijing.

  15. Fellows Celebrated at Joint Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    The 2007 AGU Fellows were presented at the recent Joint Assembly in Acapulco, Mexico. A formal ceremony was held on 25 May 2007, where President Tim Killeen introduced each Fellow and read a brief statement of the achievements for which each had been selected. The presentations were followed by an honors fiesta at which family members and close colleagues further feted the honorees.

  16. Dynamics of assembly production flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezaki, Takahiro; Yanagisawa, Daichi; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2015-06-01

    Despite recent developments in management theory, maintaining a manufacturing schedule remains difficult because of production delays and fluctuations in demand and supply of materials. The response of manufacturing systems to such disruptions to dynamic behavior has been rarely studied. To capture these responses, we investigate a process that models the assembly of parts into end products. The complete assembly process is represented by a directed tree, where the smallest parts are injected at leaves and the end products are removed at the root. A discrete assembly process, represented by a node on the network, integrates parts, which are then sent to the next downstream node as a single part. The model exhibits some intriguing phenomena, including overstock cascade, phase transition in terms of demand and supply fluctuations, nonmonotonic distribution of stockout in the network, and the formation of a stockout path and stockout chains. Surprisingly, these rich phenomena result from only the nature of distributed assembly processes. From a physical perspective, these phenomena provide insight into delay dynamics and inventory distributions in large-scale manufacturing systems.

  17. In vitro assembly of catalase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baureder, Michael; Barane, Elisabeth; Hederstedt, Lars

    2014-10-10

    Most aerobic organisms contain catalase, which functions to decompose hydrogen peroxide. Typical catalases are structurally complex homo-tetrameric enzymes with one heme prosthetic group buried in each subunit. It is not known how catalase in the cell is assembled from its constituents. The bacterium Enterococcus faecalis cannot synthesize heme but can acquire it from the environment to form a cytoplasmic catalase. We have in E. faecalis monitored production of the enzyme polypeptide (KatA) depending on the availability of heme and used our findings to devise a procedure for the purification of preparative amounts of in vivo-synthesized apocatalase. We show that fully active catalase can be obtained in vitro by incubating isolated apoprotein with hemin. We have characterized features of the assembly process and describe a temperature-trapped hemylated intermediate of the enzyme maturation process. Hemylation of apocatalase does not require auxiliary cell components, but rapid assembly of active enzyme seemingly is assisted in the cell. Our findings provide insight about catalase assembly and offer new experimental possibilities for detailed studies of this process.

  18. Automated Solar-Array Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffa, A.; Bycer, M.

    1982-01-01

    Large arrays are rapidly assembled from individual solar cells by automated production line developed for NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Apparatus positions cells within array, attaches interconnection tabs, applies solder flux, and solders interconnections. Cells are placed in either straight or staggered configurations and may be connected either in series or in parallel. Are attached at rate of one every 5 seconds.

  19. J-2 Engine Assembly Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-01-01

    J-2 engines for the Saturn IB/Saturn V launch vehicles are lined up in the assembly area at Rocketdyne's manufacturing plant in Canoga Park, California. Five J-2 engines provided more than 1,000,000 pounds of thrust to accelerate the second stage toward a Moon trajectory.

  20. A composite solar power assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bairamov, R.B.; Khodzhiev, A.I.; Korneev, N.R.; Kuladova, N.A.; Ushakova, A.D.

    1981-08-23

    An assembly is described which contains heat and cooling sections; the first of these contains a solar collector built in the form of a frame with a light transparent cover and an internal boiler and battery. The second section contains an aborber and an evaporator; the battery and the evaporator are connected to the customer through a heat exchanger.

  1. DNA-guided nanoparticle assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gang, Oleg; Nykypanchuk, Dmytro; Maye, Mathew; van der Lelie, Daniel

    2013-07-16

    In some embodiments, DNA-capped nanoparticles are used to define a degree of crystalline order in assemblies thereof. In some embodiments, thermodynamically reversible and stable body-centered cubic (bcc) structures, with particles occupying nanoparticles linked by nucleic acid sequences and forming an open crystal structure with catalytically active agents attached to the crystal on its surface or in interstices.

  2. ATLAS Assembly Hall Open Day

    CERN Document Server

    Patrice Loiez

    2004-01-01

    To mark the 50th Anniversary of the founding of CERN, a day of tours, displays and presentations was held in October 2004. The assembly halls for the experiments that were waiting to be installed on the LHC, such as ATLAS shown here, were transformed into display areas and cafés.

  3. HIV-1 assembly in macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benaroch Philippe

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The molecular mechanisms involved in the assembly of newly synthesized Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV particles are poorly understood. Most of the work on HIV-1 assembly has been performed in T cells in which viral particle budding and assembly take place at the plasma membrane. In contrast, few studies have been performed on macrophages, the other major target of HIV-1. Infected macrophages represent a viral reservoir and probably play a key role in HIV-1 physiopathology. Indeed macrophages retain infectious particles for long periods of time, keeping them protected from anti-viral immune response or drug treatments. Here, we present an overview of what is known about HIV-1 assembly in macrophages as compared to T lymphocytes or cell lines. Early electron microscopy studies suggested that viral assembly takes place at the limiting membrane of an intracellular compartment in macrophages and not at the plasma membrane as in T cells. This was first considered as a late endosomal compartment in which viral budding seems to be similar to the process of vesicle release into multi-vesicular bodies. This view was notably supported by a large body of evidence involving the ESCRT (Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport machinery in HIV-1 budding, the observation of viral budding profiles in such compartments by immuno-electron microscopy, and the presence of late endosomal markers associated with macrophage-derived virions. However, this model needs to be revisited as recent data indicate that the viral compartment has a neutral pH and can be connected to the plasma membrane via very thin micro-channels. To date, the exact nature and biogenesis of the HIV assembly compartment in macrophages remains elusive. Many cellular proteins potentially involved in the late phases of HIV-1 cycle have been identified; and, recently, the list has grown rapidly with the publication of four independent genome-wide screens. However, their respective

  4. Self-assembly of DNA-functionalized colloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.E. Theodorakis

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Colloidal particles grafted with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA chains can self-assemble into a number of different crystalline structures, where hybridization of the ssDNA chains creates links between colloids stabilizing their structure. Depending on the geometry and the size of the particles, the grafting density of the ssDNA chains, and the length and choice of DNA sequences, a number of different crystalline structures can be fabricated. However, understanding how these factors contribute synergistically to the self-assembly process of DNA-functionalized nano- or micro-sized particles remains an intensive field of research. Moreover, the fabrication of long-range structures due to kinetic bottlenecks in the self-assembly are additional challenges. Here, we discuss the most recent advances from theory and experiment with particular focus put on recent simulation studies.

  5. Chiral DNA packaging in DNA-cationic liposome assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuidam, N J; Barenholz, Y; Minsky, A

    1999-09-03

    Recent studies have indicated that the structural features of DNA-lipid assemblies, dictated by the lipid composition and cationic lipid-to-DNA ratio, critically affect the efficiency of these complexes in acting as vehicles for cellular delivery of genetic material. Using circular dichroism we find that upon binding DNA, positively-charged liposomes induce a secondary conformational transition of the DNA molecules from the native B form to the C motif. Liposomes composed of positively-charged and neutral 'helper' lipids, found to be particularly effective as transfecting agents, induce - in addition to secondary conformational changes - DNA condensation into a left-handed cholesteric-like phase. A structural model is presented according to which two distinct, yet inter-related modes of DNA packaging coexist within such assemblies. The results underline the notion that subtle changes in the components of a supramolecular assembly may substantially modulate the interplay of interactions which dictate its structure and functional properties.

  6. Final data report for the instrumented fuel assembly (IFA)-432

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, E.R.; Cunningham, M.E.; Lanning, D.D.

    1982-06-01

    This report presents the in-reactor data collected during the irradiation of the six-rod instrumented fuel assembly (IFA)-432 in the Halden Boiling Water Reactor (HBWR) from June 1980 through June 1981. This Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL)-designed assembly was one of a series of US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-sponsored tests to obtain data for the development and verification of steady-state fuel performance computer codes. IFA-432 operated from December 1975 until June 1981, when it was removed from the reactor. Two of the rods were removed for examination, and the assembly was reinserted in December 1981 to obtain additional data. Fuel centerline temperatures, cladding elongations, internal fuel rod pressures, and local powers at thermocouple positions were monitored during the irradiation of IFA-432; and the resulting data are presented in this report.

  7. Genomes correction and assembling: present methods and tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcieszek, Michał; Pawełkowicz, Magdalena; Nowak, Robert; Przybecki, Zbigniew

    2014-11-01

    Recent rapid development of next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies provided significant impact into genomics field of study enabling implementation of many de novo sequencing projects of new species which was previously confined by technological costs. Along with advancement of NGS there was need for adjustment in assembly programs. New algorithms must cope with massive amounts of data computation in reasonable time limits and processing power and hardware is also an important factor. In this paper, we address the issue of assembly pipeline for de novo genome assembly provided by programs presently available for scientist both as commercial and as open - source software. The implementation of four different approaches - Greedy, Overlap - Layout - Consensus (OLC), De Bruijn and Integrated resulting in variation of performance is the main focus of our discussion with additional insight into issue of short and long reads correction.

  8. Self-assembling holographic biosensors and biocomputers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Light, Yooli Kim; Bachand, George David (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Schoeniger, Joseph S.; Trent, Amanda M. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-05-01

    We present concepts for self-assembly of diffractive optics with potential uses in biosensors and biocomputers. The simplest such optics, diffraction gratings, can potentially be made from chemically-stabilized microtubules migrating on nanopatterned tracks of the motor protein kinesin. We discuss the fabrication challenges involved in patterning sub-micron-scale structures with proteins that must be maintained in aqueous buffers to preserve their activity. A novel strategy is presented that employs dry contact printing onto glass-supported amino-silane monolayers of heterobifunctional crosslinkers, followed by solid-state reactions of these cross-linkers, to graft patterns of reactive groups onto the surface. Successive solution-phase addition of cysteine-mutant proteins and amine-reactive polyethylene glycol allows assembly of features onto the printed patterns. We present data from initial experiments showing successful micro- and nanopatterning of lines of single-cysteine mutants of kinesin interleaved with lines of polyethylene, indicating that this strategy can be employed to arrays of features with resolutions suitable for gratings.

  9. Anisotropic nanomaterials: structure, growth, assembly, and functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajanlal, Panikkanvalappil R; Sreeprasad, Theruvakkattil S; Samal, Akshaya K; Pradeep, Thalappil

    2011-01-01

    Comprehensive knowledge over the shape of nanomaterials is a critical factor in designing devices with desired functions. Due to this reason, systematic efforts have been made to synthesize materials of diverse shape in the nanoscale regime. Anisotropic nanomaterials are a class of materials in which their properties are direction-dependent and more than one structural parameter is needed to describe them. Their unique and fine-tuned physical and chemical properties make them ideal candidates for devising new applications. In addition, the assembly of ordered one-dimensional (1D), two-dimensional (2D), and three-dimensional (3D) arrays of anisotropic nanoparticles brings novel properties into the resulting system, which would be entirely different from the properties of individual nanoparticles. This review presents an overview of current research in the area of anisotropic nanomaterials in general and noble metal nanoparticles in particular. We begin with an introduction to the advancements in this area followed by general aspects of the growth of anisotropic nanoparticles. Then we describe several important synthetic protocols for making anisotropic nanomaterials, followed by a summary of their assemblies, and conclude with major applications.

  10. Anisotropic nanomaterials: structure, growth, assembly, and functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panikkanvalappil R. Sajanlal

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive knowledge over the shape of nanomaterials is a critical factor in designing devices with desired functions. Due to this reason, systematic efforts have been made to synthesize materials of diverse shape in the nanoscale regime. Anisotropic nanomaterials are a class of materials in which their properties are direction-dependent and more than one structural parameter is needed to describe them. Their unique and fine-tuned physical and chemical properties make them ideal candidates for devising new applications. In addition, the assembly of ordered one-dimensional (1D, two-dimensional (2D, and three-dimensional (3D arrays of anisotropic nanoparticles brings novel properties into the resulting system, which would be entirely different from the properties of individual nanoparticles. This review presents an overview of current research in the area of anisotropic nanomaterials in general and noble metal nanoparticles in particular. We begin with an introduction to the advancements in this area followed by general aspects of the growth of anisotropic nanoparticles. Then we describe several important synthetic protocols for making anisotropic nanomaterials, followed by a summary of their assemblies, and conclude with major applications.

  11. DESIGN REUSE METHOD FOR ASSEMBLIES IN CONCEPT DESIGN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Yan; Tan Jianrong; Xu Jing

    2005-01-01

    Aiming at difficult sorting and retrieving complicated structure assemblies in assembly lib,a method for compartmentalizing assembly design resource by conceptual product structure model is presented. The similar assembly retrieval mechanisms of symbol assembly relation graph matching and symbol assembly relation graph similarity are discussed. The method is validated by taking valve rod assemblies as example.

  12. RNA self-assembly and RNA nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabow, Wade W; Jaeger, Luc

    2014-06-17

    CONSPECTUS: Nanotechnology's central goal involves the direct control of matter at the molecular nanometer scale to build nanofactories, nanomachines, and other devices for potential applications including electronics, alternative fuels, and medicine. In this regard, the nascent use of nucleic acids as a material to coordinate the precise arrangements of specific molecules marked an important milestone in the relatively recent history of nanotechnology. While DNA served as the pioneer building material in nucleic acid nanotechnology, RNA continues to emerge as viable alternative material with its own distinct advantages for nanoconstruction. Several complementary assembly strategies have been used to build a diverse set of RNA nanostructures having unique structural attributes and the ability to self-assemble in a highly programmable and controlled manner. Of the different strategies, the architectonics approach uniquely endeavors to understand integrated structural RNA architectures through the arrangement of their characteristic structural building blocks. Viewed through this lens, it becomes apparent that nature routinely uses thermodynamically stable, recurrent modular motifs from natural RNA molecules to generate unique and more complex programmable structures. With the design principles found in natural structures, a number of synthetic RNAs have been constructed. The synthetic nanostructures constructed to date have provided, in addition to affording essential insights into RNA design, important platforms to characterize and validate the structural self-folding and assembly properties of RNA modules or building blocks. Furthermore, RNA nanoparticles have shown great promise for applications in nanomedicine and RNA-based therapeutics. Nevertheless, the synthetic RNA architectures achieved thus far consist largely of static, rigid particles that are still far from matching the structural and functional complexity of natural responsive structural elements such

  13. Flow-assisted assembly of nanostructured protein microfibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamada, Ayaka; Mittal, Nitesh; Söderberg, L Daniel; Ingverud, Tobias; Ohm, Wiebke; Roth, Stephan V; Lundell, Fredrik; Lendel, Christofer

    2017-02-07

    Some of the most remarkable materials in nature are made from proteins. The properties of these materials are closely connected to the hierarchical assembly of the protein building blocks. In this perspective, amyloid-like protein nanofibrils (PNFs) have emerged as a promising foundation for the synthesis of novel bio-based materials for a variety of applications. Whereas recent advances have revealed the molecular structure of PNFs, the mechanisms associated with fibril-fibril interactions and their assembly into macroscale structures remain largely unexplored. Here, we show that whey PNFs can be assembled into microfibers using a flow-focusing approach and without the addition of plasticizers or cross-linkers. Microfocus small-angle X-ray scattering allows us to monitor the fibril orientation in the microchannel and compare the assembly processes of PNFs of distinct morphologies. We find that the strongest fiber is obtained with a sufficient balance between ordered nanostructure and fibril entanglement. The results provide insights in the behavior of protein nanostructures under laminar flow conditions and their assembly mechanism into hierarchical macroscopic structures.

  14. Plasmonic coupling in single flower-like gold nanoparticle assemblies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Luo; Lacie Dube; Yadong Zhou; Shengli Zou; Jing Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) arises when light interacts with metallic nanoparticles (NPs). When nanoparticles (NPs) assemble together, the plasmon coupling effect between the NPs often leads to new features in the LSPR of the assembled structure. Understanding the plasmon coupling in the complex assemblies will greatly benefit the development of new plasmonic devices. Here we demonstrate the fabrication of a 3D structure using two different sized Au NPs as building blocks. This 3D structure was achieved by manipulating the binding efficiency of ligands linking the NPs, and proper choice of the NP size. The assembled structure is flower-like structure, with one 130 nm Au NP in the center, and several 40 nm Au NPs attaching as“petals”. Single particle dark-field scattering measurements of the individual assemblies were performed, together with electrodynamics simulations. The experimental and theoretical studies show that, the plasmonic coupling lead to broadening of the LSPR and additional peaks, depending on the number and 3D arrangement of the 40 nm NPs around the center 130 nm NP.

  15. Plasmonic coupling in single flower-like gold nanoparticle assemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Luo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR arises when light interacts with metallic nanoparticles (NPs. When nanoparticles (NPs assemble together, the plasmon coupling effect between the NPs often leads to new features in the LSPR of the assembled structure. Understanding the plasmon coupling in the complex assemblies will greatly benefit the development of new plasmonic devices. Here we demonstrate the fabrication of a 3D structure using two different sized Au NPs as building blocks. This 3D structure was achieved by manipulating the binding efficiency of ligands linking the NPs, and proper choice of the NP size. The assembled structure is flower-like structure, with one 130 nm Au NP in the center, and several 40 nm Au NPs attaching as “petals”. Single particle dark-field scattering measurements of the individual assemblies were performed, together with electrodynamics simulations. The experimental and theoretical studies show that, the plasmonic coupling lead to broadening of the LSPR and additional peaks, depending on the number and 3D arrangement of the 40 nm NPs around the center 130 nm NP.

  16. Allophycocyanin and phycocyanin crystal structures reveal facets of phycobilisome assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Ailie; Adir, Noam

    2013-03-01

    X-ray crystal structures of the isolated phycobiliprotein components of the phycobilisome have provided high resolution details to the description of this light harvesting complex at different levels of complexity and detail. The linker-independent assembly of trimers into hexamers in crystal lattices of previously determined structures has been observed in almost all of the phycocyanin (PC) and allophycocyanin (APC) structures available in the Protein Data Bank. In this paper we describe the X-ray crystal structures of PC and APC from Synechococcus elongatus sp. PCC 7942, PC from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and PC from Thermosynechococcus vulcanus crystallized in the presence of urea. All five structures are highly similar to other PC and APC structures on the levels of subunits, monomers and trimers. The Synechococcus APC forms a unique loose hexamer that may show the structural requirements for core assembly and rod attachment. While the Synechococcus PC assembles into the canonical hexamer, it does not further assemble into rods. Unlike most PC structures, the Synechocystis PC fails to form hexamers. Addition of low concentrations of urea to T. vulcanus PC inhibits this proteins propensity to form hexamers, resulting in a crystal lattice composed of trimers. The molecular source of these differences in assembly and their relevance to the phycobilisome structure is discussed.

  17. -Aminoacetanilide mediated formation of assembly of Au nanoparticles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subhojit Das; A Murugadoss; Santu Sarkar; Arun Chattopadhyay

    2008-11-01

    In this article, we report the formation of assembly of Au nanoparticles (NPs) of different sizes in the presence of -aminoacetanilide. Citrate stabilized spherical Au NPs assembled into a linear array, the extent of which depended on the concentration of -aminoacetanilide in the medium. Higher concentrations led not only to the formation of longer assemblies but also branched ones. In addition, substantial fusion of NPs was observed at higher concentrations. UV-Vis spectra showed the appearance of a second peak at higher wavelength - the position of which shifted to the red with increasing concentration of -aminoacetanilide. Interestingly, the second peak could not only be influenced by the concentration of -aminoacetanilide but also by choosing different sizes of the spherical NPs at the initial stages. For example, when the particles were larger the shift could be observed at higher wavelengths than those starting with smaller particles. The present method allows organization of NPs into linear arrays based on the molecular properties of the `assembler’ i.e. -aminoacetanilide. Also, the optical properties of the assembled NPs could be tuned with the choice of suitable sizes of the assembling NPs.

  18. Self-assembly of self-assembled molecular triangles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mili C Naranthatta; V Ramkumar; Dillip Kumar Chand

    2014-09-01

    A rare variety of self-assembledmolecular triangle [Pd3(bpy)3(imidazolate)3](NO3)3, 1 is prepared by the combination of Pd(bpy)(NO3)2 with imidazole, at 1:1 ratio, in acetonitrile-water. Deprotonation of imidazole happened during the course of the complexation reaction where upon the metallomacrocycle is formed. The bowl-shaped trinuclear architecture of 1 is crafted with three peripheral bpy units capable of - stacking interactions. While the solution state structure of 1 can be best described as a trinuclear complex, in the solidstate well-fashioned intermolecular - and CH- interactions are observed. Thus, in the solid-state further self-assembly of already self-assembled molecular triangle is witnessed. The triangular panels are arranged in a linear manner utilizing intermolecular - interactions where upon two out of three bpy units of each molecule participated in the chain formation.

  19. Hydraulic Experiment for Simulative Assemblies of Blanket Assembly and Np Transmutation Assembly of China Experimental Fast Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG; Dao-xi; QI; Xiao-guang; ZHAI; Wei-ming; YANG; Bing; ZHOU; Ping

    2013-01-01

    The out-of reactor hydraulic experiment of fast reactor assembly is one of the important experiments in the process of the development of the fast reactor assembly.In this experiment,the size of the throttling element in the foot of the assembly is decided which is fit for the flow division in the reactor and the

  20. Compact MCP assemblies for mass spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuura, S. [Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., Shizuoka (Japan). Electron Tube Div.; Umebayashi, S. [Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., Shizuoka (Japan). Electron Tube Div.; Kusuyama, Y. [Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., Shizuoka (Japan). Electron Tube Div.; Natsume, Y. [Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., Shizuoka (Japan). Electron Tube Div.; Oba, K. [Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., Shizuoka (Japan). Electron Tube Div.

    1995-09-01

    We have developed compact microchannel plate (MCP) assemblies which have a high gain, good pulse height resolution and a fast response for MS applications. In this paper, these new assemblies are described referring to their structures, functions and characteristics. (orig.).

  1. Detonator assembly for oil well perforating gun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regalbuto, J.A.

    1981-02-18

    A safe/arm detonator assembly for use with an oil well perforating gun assembly has 2 housing members isolated from well-bore fluid which are rotatable from a safe position wherein a detonator and a booster are held out of alignment, to an armed position wherein the detonator and booster are moved into alignment. The detonator assembly is further arranged to be installed in a well perforating gun assembly such that the gun assembly may be transported with the detonator assembly in the safe position, and rotated to the armed position at the well site without disassembling the gun assembly. A safety pin may protrude from one of the housing members across a cavity between the members to cover and protect the booster from accidental detonation when the detonator assembly is in the safe position. The detonator and booster cavities may be held aligned by a detent ball. 16 claims.

  2. STAR: a simple TAL effector assembly reaction using isothermal assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogolok, Sabine; Garcia-Diaz, Claudia; Pollard, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) contain modular programmable DNA binding domains. Fusing TALEs with effector domains creates synthetic transcription factors (TALE-TFs) or nucleases (TALENs), enabling precise gene manipulations. The construction of TALEs remains challenging due to their repetitive sequences. Here we report a simple TALE assembly reaction (STAR) that enables individual laboratories to generate multiple TALEs in a facile manner. STAR uses an isothermal assembly (‘Gibson assembly’) that is labour- and cost-effective, accessible, rapid and scalable. A small 68-part fragment library is employed, and the specific TALE repeat sequence is generated within ~8 hours. Sequence-verified TALENs or TALE-TF plasmids targeting 17 bp target sequences can be produced within three days, without the need for stepwise intermediate plasmid production. We demonstrate the utility of STAR through production of functional TALE-TFs capable of activating human SOX2 expression. STAR addresses some of the shortcomings of existing Golden Gate or solid-phase assembly protocols and enables routine production of TALE-TFs that will complement emerging CRISPR/Cas9-based reagents across diverse applications in mammalian stem cell and synthetic biology. PMID:27615025

  3. Virtual Reality and Haptics for Product Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Restivo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Haptics can significantly enhance the user's sense of immersion and interactivity. An industrial application of virtual reality and haptics for product assembly is described in this paper, which provides a new and low-cost approach for product assembly design, assembly task planning and assembly operation training. A demonstration of the system with haptics device interaction was available at the session of exp.at'11.

  4. Uracil Excision for Assembly of Complex Pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaleiro, Mafalda; Nielsen, Morten Thrane; Kim, Se Hyeuk

    2015-01-01

    inexpensive technologies available. Here, we describe four different protocols for uracil excision-based DNA editing: one for simple manipulations such as site-directed mutagenesis, one for plasmid-based multigene assembly in Escherichia coli, one for one-step assembly and integration of single or multiple...... genes into the genome, and a standardized assembly pipeline using benchmarked oligonucleotides for pathway assembly and multigene expression optimization....

  5. Snowball: Strain aware gene assembly of Metagenomes

    OpenAIRE

    Gregor, I.; Schönhuth, A.; McHardy, A. C.

    2015-01-01

    Gene assembly is an important step in functional analysis of shotgun metagenomic data. Nonetheless, strain aware assembly remains a challenging task, as current assembly tools often fail to distinguish among strain variants or require closely related reference genomes of the studied species to be available. We have developed Snowball, a novel strain aware and reference-free gene assembler for shotgun metagenomic data. It uses profile hidden Markov models (HMMs) of gene domains of interest to ...

  6. Self Assembly and Elasticity of Nuclear Pasta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Matthew; Horowitz, Chuck; Berry, Don; da Silva Schneider, Andre

    2015-10-01

    While the outer crust of a neutron star is likely a solid ion lattice, the core consists of uniform nuclear matter at or above saturation density. In between, nuclei adopt exotic non-spherical geometries called ``nuclear pasta'' in order to minimize the nuclear attraction and Coulomb repulsion between protons. These structures have been well studied with both classical and quantum molecular dynamics, and their geometry can be predicted from the density, temperature, and proton fraction. Recent classical molecular dynamics simulations find evidence for a phase transition at T ~ 0 . 5 MeV, where simulations with low proton fractions undergo a solid-liquid phase transition, while simulations with high proton fractions under a glass-rubber phase transition. This is expected to have nontrivial consequences for the elastic properties of the pasta. Additionally, recent observations indicate that the structure of nuclear pasta may be related to structures observed in biophysics, specifically self assembling lipid membranes.

  7. Photoelectrochemically driven self-assembly method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Okandan, Murat

    2017-01-17

    Various technologies described herein pertain to assembling electronic devices into a microsystem. The electronic devices are disposed in a solution. Light can be applied to the electronic devices in the solution. The electronic devices can generate currents responsive to the light applied to the electronic devices in the solution, and the currents can cause electrochemical reactions that functionalize regions on surfaces of the electronic devices. Additionally or alternatively, the light applied to the electronic devices in the solution can cause the electronic devices to generate electric fields, which can orient the electronic devices and/or induce movement of the electronic devices with respect to a receiving substrate. Further, electrodes on a receiving substrate can be biased to attract and form connections with the electronic devices having the functionalized regions on the surfaces. The microsystem can include the receiving substrate and the electronic devices connected to the receiving substrate.

  8. An improved algorithm for MFR fragment assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kontaxis, Georg, E-mail: georg.kontaxis@univie.ac.at [University of Vienna, Max F. Perutz Laboratories, Department of Structural and Computational Biology, Centre for Molecular Biology (Austria)

    2012-06-15

    A method for generating protein backbone models from backbone only NMR data is presented, which is based on molecular fragment replacement (MFR). In a first step, the PDB database is mined for homologous peptide fragments using experimental backbone-only data i.e. backbone chemical shifts (CS) and residual dipolar couplings (RDC). Second, this fragment library is refined against the experimental restraints. Finally, the fragments are assembled into a protein backbone fold using a rigid body docking algorithm using the RDCs as restraints. For improved performance, backbone nuclear Overhauser effects (NOEs) may be included at that stage. Compared to previous implementations of MFR-derived structure determination protocols this model-building algorithm offers improved stability and reliability. Furthermore, relative to CS-ROSETTA based methods, it provides faster performance and straightforward implementation with the option to easily include further types of restraints and additional energy terms.

  9. Supramolecular assemblies based on glycoconjugated dyes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    Supramolecular assemblies of glycoconjugated dyes can be tailored with properties that make them attractive for use in biomedical applications. For example, when assemblies of glycoconjugated dyes are displaying carbohydrates on their periphery in a polyvalent manner, these assemblies can be used to

  10. LHC Magnet Assembly Facility in building 181

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Video Productions

    2005-01-01

    Hall 181 activities for the LHC machine * Reception of the American magnets : quadrupoles and separation dipoles * Assembly of the string Low-Beta Triplet -Q2-Q3-DFBX-D1 * Insertion quadrupoles cold masses assembly * Magnets reception type MQM, MQY, MCBC et MCBY * Assembly in the shell * Longitudinal welding under the press * Equipment with end covers in the finishing area

  11. Radiation Effects Simulation of Fuel Assemblies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI; Yao

    2015-01-01

    Due to a large number of photons irradiated by the fuel assemblies after radiation in the reactor,the data acquisition and image reconstruction will be interfered seriously for the nuclear fuel assembly non-destructive testing system.Therefore,in process of the fuel assembly NDT system

  12. Snowball: Strain aware gene assembly of Metagenomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gregor, I.; Schönhuth, A.; McHardy, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    Gene assembly is an important step in functional analysis of shotgun metagenomic data. Nonetheless, strain aware assembly remains a challenging task, as current assembly tools often fail to distinguish among strain variants or require closely related reference genomes of the studied species to be av

  13. Linear Logic for Meaning Assembly

    CERN Document Server

    Dalrymple, M; Pereira, F C N; Saraswat, V; Dalrymple, Mary; Lamping, John; Pereira, Fernando; Saraswat, Vijay

    1995-01-01

    Semantic theories of natural language associate meanings with utterances by providing meanings for lexical items and rules for determining the meaning of larger units given the meanings of their parts. Meanings are often assumed to combine via function application, which works well when constituent structure trees are used to guide semantic composition. However, we believe that the functional structure of Lexical-Functional Grammar is best used to provide the syntactic information necessary for constraining derivations of meaning in a cross-linguistically uniform format. It has been difficult, however, to reconcile this approach with the combination of meanings by function application. In contrast to compositional approaches, we present a deductive approach to assembling meanings, based on reasoning with constraints, which meshes well with the unordered nature of information in the functional structure. Our use of linear logic as a `glue' for assembling meanings allows for a coherent treatment of the LFG requ...

  14. Regenerator cross arm seal assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Anthony V.

    1988-01-01

    A seal assembly for disposition between a cross arm on a gas turbine engine block and a regenerator disc, the seal assembly including a platform coextensive with the cross arm, a seal and wear layer sealingly and slidingly engaging the regenerator disc, a porous and compliant support layer between the platform and the seal and wear layer porous enough to permit flow of cooling air therethrough and compliant to accommodate relative thermal growth and distortion, a dike between the seal and wear layer and the platform for preventing cross flow through the support layer between engine exhaust and pressurized air passages, and air diversion passages for directing unregenerated pressurized air through the support layer to cool the seal and wear layer and then back into the flow of regenerated pressurized air.

  15. Nuclear reactor composite fuel assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, Donn M. (Richland, WA); Marr, Duane R. (West Richland, WA); Cappiello, Michael W. (Richland, WA); Omberg, Ronald P. (Richland, WA)

    1980-01-01

    A core and composite fuel assembly for a liquid-cooled breeder nuclear reactor including a plurality of elongated coextending driver and breeder fuel elements arranged to form a generally polygonal bundle within a thin-walled duct. The breeder elements are larger in cross section than the driver elements, and each breeder element is laterally bounded by a number of the driver elements. Each driver element further includes structure for spacing the driver elements from adjacent fuel elements and, where adjacent, the thin-walled duct. A core made up of the fuel elements can advantageously include fissile fuel of only one enrichment, while varying the effective enrichment of any given assembly or core region, merely by varying the relative number and size of the driver and breeder elements.

  16. Interfacial Assembly of Graphene Oxide Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cote, Laura J.

    Scientific interest in graphene oxide (GO) sheets, the product of chemical oxidation and exfoliation of graphite powder, has resurged in recent years because GO is considered a promising precursor for the bulk production of graphene-based sheets for a variety of applications. In addition, GO can be viewed as an unconventional type of soft material as it is characterized by two abruptly different length scales. Its thickness is of typical molecular dimensions, measured to be about 1 nm by atomic force microscopy, but its lateral dimensions are that of common colloidal particles, ranging from nanometers to tens of microns. This high anisotropy leads to interesting fundamental colloidal interactions between the soft sheets which have practical implications in the solution processing and assembly of the material. This research therefore aims to use a variety of techniques to control these inter-sheet interactions to gain an understanding of the processing-structure relationships which ultimately determine the overall properties of the bulk GO assembly. GO is identified as a two-dimensional amphiphile with a unique edge-to-center arrangement of hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups, which has led to the demonstration of its pH- and size-dependent surface activity. The water surface is then utilized, as in the Langmuir-Blodgett technique, as an ideal substrate to tile up the GO sheets and study the interactions between them. Sheet-sheet interaction morphologies were successfully altered between wrinkled and overlapped states by pH tuning of sheet charge density, and the resulting structure-property relationships are explored. In addition, a novel flash-reduction and assembly process is described in which a simple photographic camera flash can rapidly and cleanly turn an insulating, well-stacked GO paper to a more open and fluffy conducting film. Lastly, the use of these research results as educational outreach platforms is highlighted. A variety of outlets, such as You

  17. Chaperoning 5S RNA assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madru, Clément; Lebaron, Simon; Blaud, Magali; Delbos, Lila; Pipoli, Juliana; Pasmant, Eric; Réty, Stéphane; Leulliot, Nicolas

    2015-07-01

    In eukaryotes, three of the four ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs)—the 5.8S, 18S, and 25S/28S rRNAs—are processed from a single pre-rRNA transcript and assembled into ribosomes. The fourth rRNA, the 5S rRNA, is transcribed by RNA polymerase III and is assembled into the 5S ribonucleoprotein particle (RNP), containing ribosomal proteins Rpl5/uL18 and Rpl11/uL5, prior to its incorporation into preribosomes. In mammals, the 5S RNP is also a central regulator of the homeostasis of the tumor suppressor p53. The nucleolar localization of the 5S RNP and its assembly into preribosomes are performed by a specialized complex composed of Rpf2 and Rrs1 in yeast or Bxdc1 and hRrs1 in humans. Here we report the structural and functional characterization of the Rpf2-Rrs1 complex alone, in complex with the 5S RNA, and within pre-60S ribosomes. We show that the Rpf2-Rrs1 complex contains a specialized 5S RNA E-loop-binding module, contacts the Rpl5 protein, and also contacts the ribosome assembly factor Rsa4 and the 25S RNA. We propose that the Rpf2-Rrs1 complex establishes a network of interactions that guide the incorporation of the 5S RNP in preribosomes in the initial conformation prior to its rotation to form the central protuberance found in the mature large ribosomal subunit. © 2015 Madru et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  18. Structural Assembly Demonstration Experiment (SADE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, David L.; Mills, Raymond A.; Bowden, Mary L.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of the Structural Assembly Demonstration Experiment (SADE) was to create a near-term Shuttle flight experiment focusing on the deployment and erection of structural truss elements. The activities of the MIT Space Systems Laboratory consist of three major areas: preparing and conducting neutral buoyancy simulation test series; producing a formal SADE Experiment plan; and studying the structural dynamics issues of the truss structure. Each of these areas is summarized.

  19. Lipid nanoparticle interactions and assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preiss, Matthew Ryan

    Novel liposome-nanoparticle assemblies (LNAs) provide a biologically inspired route for designing multifunctional bionanotheranostics. LNAs combine the benefits of lipids and liposomes to encapsulate, transport, and protect hydrophilic and hydrophobic therapeutics with functional nanoparticles. Functional nanoparticles endow LNAs with additional capabilities, including the ability to target diseases, triggered drug release, controlled therapeutic output, and diagnostic capabilities to produce a drug delivery system that can effectively and efficiently deliver therapeutics while reducing side effects. Not only could LNAs make existing drugs better, they could also provide an avenue to allow once promising non-approved drugs (rejected due to harmful side effects, inadequate pharmacokinetics, and poor efficacy) to be safely used through targeted and controlled delivery directly to the diseased site. LNAs have the potential to be stimuli responsive, delivering drugs on command by external (ultrasound, RF heating, etc.) or internal (pH, blood sugar, heart rate, etc.) stimuli. Individually, lipids and nanoparticles have been clinically approved for therapy, such as Doxil (a liposomal doxorubicin for cancer treatment), and diagnosis, such as Feridex (an iron oxide nanoparticle an MRI contrast enhancement agent for liver tumors). In order to engineer these multifunctional LNAs for theranostic applications, the interactions between nanoparticles and lipids must be better understood. This research sought to explore the formation, design, structures, characteristics, and functions of LNAs. To achieve this goal, different types of LNAs were formed, specifically magnetoliposomes, bilayer decorated LNAs (DLNAs), and lipid-coated magnetic nanoparticles (LMNPs). A fluorescent probe was embedded in the lipid bilayer of magnetoliposomes allowing the local temperature and membrane fluidity to be observed. When subjected to an electromagnetic field that heated the encapsulated iron

  20. Detection of Intermediates And Kinetic Control During Assembly of Bacteriophage P22 Procapsid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuma, R.; Tsuruta, H.; French, K.H.; Prevelige, P.

    2009-05-26

    Bacteriophage P22 serves as a model for the assembly and maturation of other icosahedral double-stranded DNA viruses. P22 coat and scaffolding proteins assemble in vitro into an icosahedral procapsid, which then expands during DNA packaging (maturation). Efficient in vitro assembly makes this system suitable for design and production of monodisperse spherical nanoparticles (diameter {approx} 50 nm). In this work, we explore the possibility of controlling the outcome of assembly by scaffolding protein engineering. The scaffolding protein exists in monomer-dimer-tetramer equilibrium. We address the role of monomers and dimers in assembly by using three different scaffolding proteins with altered monomer-dimer equilibrium (weak dimer, covalent dimer, monomer). The progress and outcome of assembly was monitored by time-resolved X-ray scattering, which allowed us to distinguish between closed shells and incomplete assembly intermediates. Binding of scaffolding monomer activates the coat protein for assembly. Excess dimeric scaffolding protein resulted in rapid nucleation and kinetic trapping yielding incomplete shells. Addition of monomeric wild-type scaffold with excess coat protein completed these metastable shells. Thus, the monomeric scaffolding protein plays an essential role in the elongation phase by activating the coat and effectively lowering its critical concentration for assembly.

  1. Mechanical Design Concept of Fuel Assembly for Prototype GEN-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, K. H.; Lee, C. B. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The prototype GEN-IV sodium-cooled fast reactor (PGSFR) is an advanced fast reactor plant design that utilizes compact modular pool-type reactors sized to enable factory fabrication and an affordable prototype test for design certification at minimum cost and risk. The design concepts of the fuel assembly (FA) were introduced for a PGSFR. Unlike that for the pressurized water reactor, there is a neutron shielding concept in the FA and recycling metal fuel. The PGSFR core is a heterogeneous, uranium-10% zirconium (U-10Zr) metal alloy fuel design with 112 assemblies: 52 inner core fuel assemblies, 60 outer core fuel assemblies, 6 primary control assemblies, 3 secondary control assemblies, 90 reflector assemblies and 102 B4C shield assemblies. This configuration is shown in Fig. 1. The core is designed to produce 150 MWe with an average temperature rise of 155 .deg. C. The inlet temperature is 390 .deg. C and the bulk outlet temperature is 545 .deg. C. The core height is 900 mm and the gas plenum length is 1,250 mm. A mechanical design of a fuel assembly for a PGSFR was established. The mechanical design concepts are well realized in the design. In addition to this, the analytical and experimental works will be carries out for verifying the design soundness.

  2. 49 CFR 393.93 - Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt... § 393.93 Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages. (a) Buses—(1) Buses... the driver's seat and seat belt assembly anchorages that conform to the location and...

  3. Self-assembled plasmonic metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlig, Stefan; Cunningham, Alastair; Dintinger, José; Scharf, Toralf; Bürgi, Thomas; Lederer, Falk; Rockstuhl, Carsten

    2013-07-01

    Nowadays for the sake of convenience most plasmonic nanostructures are fabricated by top-down nanofabrication technologies. This offers great degrees of freedom to tailor the geometry with unprecedented precision. However, it often causes disadvantages as well. The structures available are usually planar and periodically arranged. Therefore, bulk plasmonic structures are difficult to fabricate and the periodic arrangement causes undesired effects, e.g., strong spatial dispersion is observed in metamaterials. These limitations can be mitigated by relying on bottom-up nanofabrication technologies. There, self-assembly methods and techniques from the field of colloidal nanochemistry are used to build complex functional unit cells in solution from an ensemble of simple building blocks, i.e., in most cases plasmonic nanoparticles. Achievable structures are characterized by a high degree of nominal order only on a short-range scale. The precise spatial arrangement across larger dimensions is not possible in most cases; leading essentially to amorphous structures. Such self-assembled nanostructures require novel analytical means to describe their properties, innovative designs of functional elements that possess a desired near- and far-field response, and entail genuine nanofabrication and characterization techniques. Eventually, novel applications have to be perceived that are adapted to the specifics of the self-assembled nanostructures. This review shall document recent progress in this field of research. Emphasis is put on bottom-up amorphous metamaterials. We document the state-of-the-art but also critically assess the problems that have to be overcome.

  4. Automated solar module assembly line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bycer, M.

    1980-01-01

    The solar module assembly machine which Kulicke and Soffa delivered under this contract is a cell tabbing and stringing machine, and capable of handling a variety of cells and assembling strings up to 4 feet long which then can be placed into a module array up to 2 feet by 4 feet in a series of parallel arrangement, and in a straight or interdigitated array format. The machine cycle is 5 seconds per solar cell. This machine is primarily adapted to 3 inch diameter round cells with two tabs between cells. Pulsed heat is used as the bond technique for solar cell interconnects. The solar module assembly machine unloads solar cells from a cassette, automatically orients them, applies flux and solders interconnect ribbons onto the cells. It then inverts the tabbed cells, connects them into cell strings, and delivers them into a module array format using a track mounted vacuum lance, from which they are taken to test and cleaning benches prior to final encapsulation into finished solar modules. Throughout the machine the solar cell is handled very carefully, and any contact with the collector side of the cell is avoided or minimized.

  5. Automated solar module assembly line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bycer, M.

    1980-08-01

    The solar module assembly machine which Kulicke and Soffa delivered under this contract is a cell tabbing and stringing machine, and capable of handling a variety of cells and assembling strings up to 4 feet long which then can be placed into a module array up to 2 feet by 4 feet in a series of parallel arrangement, and in a straight or interdigitated array format. The machine cycle is 5 seconds per solar cell. This machine is primarily adapted to 3 inch diameter round cells with two tabs between cells. Pulsed heat is used as the bond technique for solar cell interconnects. The solar module assembly machine unloads solar cells from a cassette, automatically orients them, applies flux and solders interconnect ribbons onto the cells. It then inverts the tabbed cells, connects them into cell strings, and delivers them into a module array format using a track mounted vacuum lance, from which they are taken to test and cleaning benches prior to final encapsulation into finished solar modules. Throughout the machine the solar cell is handled very carefully, and any contact with the collector side of the cell is avoided or minimized.

  6. Assembly modes of dragonfly wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hong-Xiao; Yin, Ya-Jun; Zhong, Zheng

    2011-12-01

    The assembly modes of dragonfly wings are observed through FEG-ESEM. Different from airplane wings, dragonfly wings are found to be assembled through smooth transition mode and global package mode. First, at the vein/membrane conjunctive site, the membrane is divided into upper and lower portions from the center layer and transited smoothly to the vein. Then the two portions pack the vein around and form the outer surface of the vein. Second, at the vein/spike conjunctive site, the vein and spike are connected smoothly into a triplet. Last, at the vein/membrane/spike conjunctive site, the membrane (i.e., the outer layer of the vein) transits smoothly to the spike, packs it around, and forms its outer layer. In short, the membrane looks like a closed coat packing the wing as a whole. The smooth transition mode and the global package mode are universal assembly modes in dragonfly wings. They provide us the references for better understanding of the functions of dragonfly wings and the bionic manufactures of the wings of flights with mini sizes.

  7. DNA hybridization and ligation for directed colloidal assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyr, Margaret

    to the glass surface and the other to the colloids surface. To demonstrate that the DNA ligase can permanently link DNA-tethered surfaces, fluorescent colloids were hybridized into aggregated and ligated: in the control sample, unligated particles were easily redispersed, whereas ligated particles remained aggregated. Since the ligation occurs only in the presence of the hybridizing linker and the ligase cofactors, conventional colloidal assembly via vertical deposition could be used to assemble the DNA-functionalized colloids prior to hybridization and ligation. Using vertical deposition, hybridization, and ligation, a number of DNA functionalized colloid structures were assembled layer-by-layer on DNA functionalized glass substrates. First, we demonstrated that DNA-functionalized polystyrene colloids could be assembled on to DNA tethered glass surfaces under non-hybridizing conditions using vertical deposition. Then the linker DNA and ligase were introduced to ligate the DNA on the colloids to the DNA on the glass surface: post-ligation, the unligated multilayers were removed, leaving behind well-ordered hexagonally close-packed monolayers. Since the unligated side of the colloids was available for assembly and hybridization of another layer of colloids, we assembled a polystyrene colloid multilayer (FCC) of alternating fluorescent dyed ligated colloidal monolayers. We demonstrated that a binary colloidal crystal could be assembled from polystyrene colloids of two diameters to form an AB2-like crystal. Finally, silica and polystyrene colloids were assembled and ligated to form silica-polystyrene binary crystals, which may prove a useful route to open structures by using one set of particles as place holders and etching them away after assembly. Another conventional method of colloidal assembly we pursued was sedimentation via slow centrifugation. The salt requirement for DNA hybridization and ligation made it necessary to use slow salt addition through a dialysis

  8. The Additive Hazard Mixing Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping LI; Xiao-liang LING

    2012-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the aging and dependence properties in the additive hazard mixing models including some stochastic comparisons.Further,some useful bounds of reliability functions in additive hazard mixing models are obtained.

  9. On the Automatic Generation of Plans for Life Cycle Assembly Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CALTON,TERRI L.

    2000-01-01

    Designing products for easy assembly and disassembly during their entire life cycles for purposes including product assembly, product upgrade, product servicing and repair, and product disposal is a process that involves many disciplines. In addition, finding the best solution often involves considering the design as a whole and by considering its intended life cycle. Different goals and manufacturing plan selection criteria, as compared to initial assembly, require re-visiting significant fundamental assumptions and methods that underlie current assembly planning techniques. Previous work in this area has been limited to either academic studies of issues in assembly planning or to applied studies of life cycle assembly processes that give no attention to automatic planning. It is believed that merging these two areas will result in a much greater ability to design for, optimize, and analyze the cycle assembly processes. The study of assembly planning is at the very heart of manufacturing research facilities and academic engineering institutions; and, in recent years a number of significant advances in the field of assembly planning have been made. These advances have ranged from the development of automated assembly planning systems, such as Sandia's Automated Assembly Analysis System Archimedes 3.0{copyright}, to the startling revolution in microprocessors and computer-controlled production tools such as computer-aided design (CAD), computer-aided manufacturing (CAM), flexible manufacturing systems (EMS), and computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM). These results have kindled considerable interest in the study of algorithms for life cycle related assembly processes and have blossomed into a field of intense interest. The intent of this manuscript is to bring together the fundamental results in this area, so that the unifying principles and underlying concepts of algorithm design may more easily be implemented in practice.

  10. ADDITIVES USED TO OBTAIN FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Ardelean

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of food additives in food is determined by the growth of contemporary food needs of the world population. Additives used in food, both natural and artificial ones, contribute to: improving the organoleptic characteristics and to preserve the food longer, but we must not forget that all these additives should not be found naturally in food products. Some of these additives are not harmful and human pests in small quantities, but others may have harmful effects on health.

  11. Detergent Additive for Lubricating Oils,

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Russian patent pertains to a method of producing additives for lubricating oils . A method is known for producing an antiwear additive for... lubricating oils by processing phenols with phosphorus oxychloride, phosphoric acid esters are obtained. In order to give the additive detergent properties

  12. Robust, directed assembly of fluorescent nanodiamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kianinia, Mehran; Shimoni, Olga; Bendavid, Avi; Schell, Andreas W; Randolph, Steven J; Toth, Milos; Aharonovich, Igor; Lobo, Charlene J

    2016-10-27

    Arrays of fluorescent nanoparticles are highly sought after for applications in sensing, nanophotonics and quantum communications. Here we present a simple and robust method of assembling fluorescent nanodiamonds into macroscopic arrays. Remarkably, the yield of this directed assembly process is greater than 90% and the assembled patterns withstand ultra-sonication for more than three hours. The assembly process is based on covalent bonding of carboxyl to amine functional carbon seeds and is applicable to any material, and to non-planar surfaces. Our results pave the way to directed assembly of sensors and nanophotonics devices.

  13. Robust, directed assembly of fluorescent nanodiamonds

    CERN Document Server

    Kianinia, Mehran; Shimoni, Olga; Randolph, Steven J; Toth, Milos; Aharonovich, Igor; Lobo, Charlene J

    2016-01-01

    Arrays of fluorescent nanoparticles are highly sought after for applications in sensing and nanophotonics. Here we present a simple and robust method of assembling fluorescent nanodiamonds into macroscopic arrays. Remarkably, the yield of this directed assembly process is greater than 90% and the assembled patterns withstand ultra-sonication for more than three hours. The assembly process is based on covalent bonding of carboxyl to amine functional carbon seeds and is applicable to any material, and to non-planar surfaces. Our results pave the way to directed assembly of sensing and nanophotonics devices.

  14. Observations and Models of Galaxy Assembly Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Duncan A.

    2017-01-01

    The assembly history of dark matter haloes imparts various correlations between a halo’s physical properties and its large scale environment, i.e. assembly bias. It is common for models of the galaxy-halo connection to assume that galaxy properties are only a function of halo mass, implicitly ignoring how assembly bias may affect galaxies. Recently, programs to model and constrain the degree to which galaxy properties are influenced by assembly bias have been undertaken; however, the extent and character of galaxy assembly bias remains a mystery. Nevertheless, characterizing and modeling galaxy assembly bias is an important step in understanding galaxy evolution and limiting any systematic effects assembly bias may pose in cosmological measurements using galaxy surveys.I will present work on modeling and constraining the effect of assembly bias in two galaxy properties: stellar mass and star-formation rate. Conditional abundance matching allows for these galaxy properties to be tied to halo formation history to a variable degree, making studies of the relative strength of assembly bias possible. Galaxy-galaxy clustering and galactic conformity, the degree to which galaxy color is correlated between neighbors, are sensitive observational measures of galaxy assembly bias. I will show how these measurements can be used to constrain galaxy assembly bias and the peril of ignoring it.

  15. Dynamic pathways for viral capsid assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagan, Michael F.; Chandler, David

    2006-02-09

    We develop a class of models with which we simulate the assembly of particles into T1 capsid-like objects using Newtonian dynamics. By simulating assembly for many different values of system parameters, we vary the forces that drive assembly. For some ranges of parameters, assembly is facile, while for others, assembly is dynamically frustrated by kinetic traps corresponding to malformed or incompletely formed capsids. Our simulations sample many independent trajectories at various capsomer concentrations, allowing for statistically meaningful conclusions. Depending on subunit (i.e., capsomer) geometries, successful assembly proceeds by several mechanisms involving binding of intermediates of various sizes. We discuss the relationship between these mechanisms and experimental evaluations of capsid assembly processes.

  16. Emerin self-assembly mechanism: role of the LEM domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Camille; Celli, Florian; Hendriks, Kitty; Zinke, Maximilian; Essawy, Nada; Herrada, Isaline; Arteni, Ana-Andreea; Theillet, François-Xavier; Alpha-Bazin, Béatrice; Armengaud, Jean; Coirault, Catherine; Lange, Adam; Zinn-Justin, Sophie

    2017-01-01

    At the nuclear envelope, the inner nuclear membrane protein emerin contributes to the interface between the nucleoskeleton and the chromatin. Emerin is an essential actor of the nuclear response to a mechanical signal. Genetic defects in emerin cause Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy. It was proposed that emerin oligomerization regulates nucleoskeleton binding, and impaired oligomerization contributes to the loss of function of emerin disease-causing mutants. We here report the first structural characterization of emerin oligomers. We identified an N-terminal emerin region from amino acid 1 to amino acid 132 that is necessary and sufficient for formation of long curvilinear filaments. In emerin monomer, this region contains a globular LEM domain and a fragment that is intrinsically disordered. Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance analysis identifies the LEM β-fragment as part of the oligomeric structural core. However, the LEM domain alone does not self-assemble into filaments. Additional residues forming a β-structure are observed within the filaments that could correspond to the unstructured region in emerin monomer. We show that the delK37 mutation causing muscular dystrophy triggers LEM domain unfolding and increases emerin self-assembly rate. Similarly, inserting a disulfide bridge that stabilizes the LEM folded state impairs emerin N-terminal region self-assembly, whereas reducing this disulfide bridge triggers self-assembly. We conclude that the LEM domain, responsible for binding to the chromatin protein BAF, undergoes a conformational change during self-assembly of emerin N-terminal region. The consequences of these structural rearrangement and self-assembly events on emerin binding properties are discussed. © 2016 The Authors Journal compilation © 2016 FEBS.

  17. Integrated Virtual Assembly Process Planning System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jianhua; HOU Weiwei; HOU Weiwei; SHANG Wei; SHANG Wei; NING Ruxin; NING Ruxin

    2009-01-01

    Assembly process planning(APP) for complicated products is a time-consuming and difficult work with conventional method. Virtual assembly process planning(VAPP) provides engineers a new and efficiency way. Previous studies in VAPP are almost isolated and dispersive, and have not established a whole understanding and discussed key realization techniques of VAPP from a systemic and integrated view. The integrated virtual assembly process planning(IVAPP) system is a new virtual reality based engineering application, which offers engineers an efficient, intuitive, immersive and integrated method for assembly process planning in a virtual environment. Based on analysis the information integration requirement of VAPP, the architecture of IVAPP is proposed. Through the integrated structure, IVAPP system can realize information integration and workflow controlling. In order to model the assembly process in IVAPP, a hierarchical assembly task list(HATL) is presented, in which different assembly tasks for assembling different components are organized into a hierarchical list. A process-oriented automatic geometrical constraint recognition algorithm(AGCR) is proposed, so that geometrical constraints between components can be automatically recognized during the process of interactive assembling. At the same time, a progressive hierarchical reasoning(PHR) model is discussed. AGCR and PHR will greatly reduce the interactive workload. A discrete control node model(DCNM) for cable harness assembly planning in IVAPP is detailed. DCNM converts a cable harness into continuous flexed line segments connected by a series of section center points, and designs can realize cable harness planning through controlling those control nodes. Mechanical assemblies (such as transmission case and engine of automobile) are used to illustrate the feasibility of the proposed method and algorithms. The application of IVAPP system reveals advantages over the traditional assembly process planning method

  18. Model of operating and balancing assembly line in a mass customization environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Dong; Jin Ye; Wang Rong; Wang Zheng

    2003-01-01

    The successful implementation of mass customization lies on reengineering technology and management methods to organize the production. Especially in assembly phase, various product con figurations, due-time penalties and order-driven strategy challenge the traditional operation and man agement of assembly lines. The business features and the operation pattern of assembly line based on mass customization are analyzed. And the research emphatically studies various technologic factors to improve customer satisfaction and their corresponding implement methods in operating assembly line.In addition, the models are proposed for operating assembly line under dynamic process environment in mass customization. A genetic approach is developed to provide the optimal solution to the models.The effectiveness of the proposed approach is evaluated with an industrial application.

  19. Augmenting transcriptome assembly by combining de novo and genome-guided tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Prachi; Krishnan, Neeraja M; Panda, Binay

    2013-01-01

    Researchers interested in studying and constructing transcriptomes, especially for non-model species, face the conundrum of choosing from a number of available de novo and genome-guided assemblers. None of the popular assembly tools in use today achieve requisite sensitivity, specificity or recovery of full-length transcripts on their own. Here, we present a comprehensive comparative study of the performance of various assemblers. Additionally, we present an approach to combinatorially augment transciptome assembly by using both de novo and genome-guided tools. In our study, we obtained the best recovery and most full-length transcripts with Trinity and TopHat1-Cufflinks, respectively. The sensitivity of the assembly and isoform recovery was superior, without compromising much on the specificity, when transcripts from Trinity were augmented with those from TopHat1-Cufflinks.

  20. Development and verification testing of automation and robotics for assembly of space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Marvin D.; Will, Ralph W.; Quach, Cuong C.

    1993-01-01

    A program was initiated within the past several years to develop operational procedures for automated assembly of truss structures suitable for large-aperture antennas. The assembly operations require the use of a robotic manipulator and are based on the principle of supervised autonomy to minimize crew resources. A hardware testbed was established to support development and evaluation testing. A brute-force automation approach was used to develop the baseline assembly hardware and software techniques. As the system matured and an operation was proven, upgrades were incorprated and assessed against the baseline test results. This paper summarizes the developmental phases of the program, the results of several assembly tests, the current status, and a series of proposed developments for additional hardware and software control capability. No problems that would preclude automated in-space assembly of truss structures have been encountered. The current system was developed at a breadboard level and continued development at an enhanced level is warranted.

  1. Coherence and dephasing in self-assembled quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Leosson, K.; Birkedal, Dan

    2003-01-01

    We measured dephasing times in InGaAl/As self-assembled quantum dots at low temperature using degenerate four-wave mixing. At 0K, the coherence time of the quantum dots is lifetime limited, whereas at finite temperatures pure dephasing by exciton-phonon interactions governs the quantum dot...... coherence. The inferred homogeneous line widths are significantly smaller than the line widths usually observed in the photoluminescence from single quantum dots indicating an additional inhomogeneours broadening mechanism in the latter....

  2. The BAGEL assembler generation library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Peter A.

    2009-12-01

    This paper presents two coupled software packages which receive widespread use in the field of numerical simulations of Quantum Chromo-Dynamics. These consist of the BAGEL library and the BAGEL fermion sparse-matrix library, BFM. The Bagel library can generate assembly code for a number of architectures and is configurable - supporting several precision and memory pattern options to allow architecture specific optimisation. It provides high performance on the QCDOC, BlueGene/L and BlueGene/P parallel computer architectures that are popular in the field of lattice QCD. The code includes a complete conjugate gradient implementation for the Wilson and domain wall fermion actions, making it easy to use for third party codes including the Jefferson Laboratory's CHROMA, UKQCD's UKhadron, and the Riken-Brookhaven-Columbia Collaboration's CPS packages. Program summaryProgram title: Bagel Catalogue identifier: AEFE_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEFE_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU Public License V2 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 109 576 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 892 841 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++, assembler Computer: Massively parallel message passing. BlueGene/QCDOC/others. Operating system: POSIX, Linux and compatible. Has the code been vectorised or parallelized?: Yes. 16 384 processors used. Classification: 11.5 External routines: QMP, QDP++ Nature of problem: Quantum Chromo-Dynamics sparse matrix inversion for Wilson and domain wall fermion formulations. Solution method: Optimised Krylov linear solver. Unusual features: Domain specific compiler generates optimised assembly code. Running time: 1 h per matrix inversion; multi-year simulations.

  3. Nanostructured photovoltaic materials using block polymer assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroianni, Sarah Elizabeth

    (MMA-co-HEMA)] blocks onto which fullerenes were grafted using post-polymerization coupling reactions. P3AT BP synthetic techniques also were explored but largely were limited by P3AT purity and end-functionalization. Nevertheless, reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) polymerization offered a viable method to incorporate all three of the examined electroactive materials into BPs. The approaches presented in this dissertation provide the tools to design, synthesize, and characterize new BPs for OPVs that can reproducibly self-assemble into well-defined nanostructures.

  4. Types for DSP Assembler Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ken

    2006-01-01

    for reuse, and a procedure that computes point-wise vector multiplication. The latter uses a common idiom of prefetching memory resulting in out-of-bounds reading from memory. I present two extensions to the baseline type system: The first extension is a simple modification of some type rules to allow out...... the requirements of a procedure. I implement a proof-of-concept type checker for both the baseline type system and the extensions. I get good performance results on a small benchmark suite of programs representative of handwritten DSP assembler code. These empirical results are encouraging and strongly suggest...

  5. Nanoengineered membrane electrode assembly interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yujiang; Shelnutt, John A

    2013-08-06

    A membrane electrode structure suitable for use in a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) that comprises membrane-affixed metal nanoparticles whose formation is controlled by a photochemical process that controls deposition of the metal nanoparticles using a photocatalyst integrated with a polymer electrolyte membrane, such as an ionomer membrane. Impregnation of the polymer membrane with the photocatalyst prior to metal deposition greatly reduces the required amount of metal precursor in the deposition reaction solution by restricting metal reduction substantially to the formation of metal nanoparticles affixed on or near the surface of the polymer membrane with minimal formation of metallic particles not directly associated with the membrane.

  6. Algorithms for Automated DNA Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Published online 23 March 2010 Nucleic Acids Research , 2010, Vol. 38, No. 8 2607–2616 doi:10.1093/nar/gkq165 The Author(s) 2010. Published by Oxford...composite part Pcon.RFP is also called an ‘intermediate part’ since it is constructed as an intermediate step in assembling the 2608 Nucleic Acids Research , 2010...in A–C. We assume part cd is already present in the part library. Nucleic Acids Research , 2010, Vol. 38, No. 8 2609 at M edical Library on S eptem ber

  7. Parallel Assembly of LIGA Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christenson, T.R.; Feddema, J.T.

    1999-03-04

    In this paper, a prototype robotic workcell for the parallel assembly of LIGA components is described. A Cartesian robot is used to press 386 and 485 micron diameter pins into a LIGA substrate and then place a 3-inch diameter wafer with LIGA gears onto the pins. Upward and downward looking microscopes are used to locate holes in the LIGA substrate, pins to be pressed in the holes, and gears to be placed on the pins. This vision system can locate parts within 3 microns, while the Cartesian manipulator can place the parts within 0.4 microns.

  8. Stereocontrol within polyketide assembly lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keatinge-Clay, Adrian T

    2016-02-01

    Most of the stereocenters of polyketide natural products are established during assembly line biosynthesis. The body of knowledge for how stereocenters are set is now large enough to begin constructing physical models of key reactions. Interactions between stereocenter-forming enzymes and polyketide intermediates are examined here at atomic resolution, drawing from the most current structural and functional information of ketosynthases (KSs), ketoreductases (KRs), dehydratases (DHs), enoylreductases (ERs), and related enzymes. While many details remain to be experimentally determined, our understanding of the chemical and physical mechanisms utilized by the chirality-molding enzymes of modular PKSs is rapidly advancing.

  9. Assembly-line Simulation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Robert G.; Zendejas, Silvino; Malhotra, Shan

    1987-01-01

    Costs and profits estimated for models based on user inputs. Standard Assembly-line Manufacturing Industry Simulation (SAMIS) program generalized so useful for production-line manufacturing companies. Provides accurate and reliable means of comparing alternative manufacturing processes. Used to assess impact of changes in financial parameters as cost of resources and services, inflation rates, interest rates, tax policies, and required rate of return of equity. Most important capability is ability to estimate prices manufacturer would have to receive for its products to recover all of costs of production and make specified profit. Written in TURBO PASCAL.

  10. Self-Assembled Pyridine-Dipyrrolate Cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huacheng; Lee, Juhoon; Lammer, Aaron D; Chi, Xiaodong; Brewster, James T; Lynch, Vincent M; Li, Hao; Zhang, Zhan; Sessler, Jonathan L

    2016-04-06

    An inherently nonlinear pyridine dipyrrolate ligand, namely 2,6-bis(3,4-diethyl-5-carboxy-1H-pyrrol-2yl)pyridine (compound 1), is able to distinguish between different zinc(II) cation sources, namely Zn(acac)2 and Zn(OAc)2, respectively. This differentiation is manifest both in terms of the observed fluorescent behavior in mixed organic media and the reaction chemistry. Treatment of 1 with Zn(acac)2 gives rise to a cage dimer, cage-1, wherein two molecules of compound 1 act as double bridging units to connect two individual cage subunits. As inferred from X-ray crystallographic studies, this cage system consists of discrete zinc dimers with hydroxide bridges that, with the assistance of bound DMF solvent molecules, serve to fix the geometry and orientation of the pyridine dipyrrolate building blocks. When a different zinc source, Zn(OAc)2, is used to carry out an ostensibly similar complexation reaction with compound 1, an acetate-bridged 1D abacus-like cage polymer is obtained as inferred from X-ray diffraction analysis. This extended solid state structure, cage-2, contains individual zinc dimer cage submits and appears stabilized by solvent molecules (DMF) and the counteranion (acetate). Rod-like assemblies are also observed by DLS and SEM. This construct, in contrast to cage-1, proved fluorescent in mixed organic media. The structure of the ligand itself (i.e., in the absence of Zn(II)) was confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis and was found to assemble into a supramolecular polymer. Conversion to a dimer form was seen upon the addition of TBAOAc. On the basis of the metric parameters, the structures seen in the solid state are stabilized via hydrogen bonding interactions involving solvent molecules.

  11. Efficient de novo assembly of highly heterozygous genomes from whole-genome shotgun short reads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajitani, Rei; Toshimoto, Kouta; Noguchi, Hideki; Toyoda, Atsushi; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Okuno, Miki; Yabana, Mitsuru; Harada, Masayuki; Nagayasu, Eiji; Maruyama, Haruhiko; Kohara, Yuji; Fujiyama, Asao; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Itoh, Takehiko

    2014-08-01

    Although many de novo genome assembly projects have recently been conducted using high-throughput sequencers, assembling highly heterozygous diploid genomes is a substantial challenge due to the increased complexity of the de Bruijn graph structure predominantly used. To address the increasing demand for sequencing of nonmodel and/or wild-type samples, in most cases inbred lines or fosmid-based hierarchical sequencing methods are used to overcome such problems. However, these methods are costly and time consuming, forfeiting the advantages of massive parallel sequencing. Here, we describe a novel de novo assembler, Platanus, that can effectively manage high-throughput data from heterozygous samples. Platanus assembles DNA fragments (reads) into contigs by constructing de Bruijn graphs with automatically optimized k-mer sizes followed by the scaffolding of contigs based on paired-end information. The complicated graph structures that result from the heterozygosity are simplified during not only the contig assembly step but also the scaffolding step. We evaluated the assembly results on eukaryotic samples with various levels of heterozygosity. Compared with other assemblers, Platanus yields assembly results that have a larger scaffold NG50 length without any accompanying loss of accuracy in both simulated and real data. In addition, Platanus recorded the largest scaffold NG50 values for two of the three low-heterozygosity species used in the de novo assembly contest, Assemblathon 2. Platanus therefore provides a novel and efficient approach for the assembly of gigabase-sized highly heterozygous genomes and is an attractive alternative to the existing assemblers designed for genomes of lower heterozygosity.

  12. Identifying assembly-inhibiting and assembly-tolerant sites in the SbsB S-layer protein from Geobacillus stearothermophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinns, Helen; Badelt-Lichtblau, Helga; Egelseer, Eva Maria; Sleytr, Uwe B; Howorka, Stefan

    2010-01-29

    Surface layer (S-layer) proteins self-assemble into two-dimensional crystalline lattices that cover the cell wall of all archaea and many bacteria. We have generated assembly-negative protein variants of high solubility that will facilitate high-resolution structure determination. Assembly-negative versions of the S-layer protein SbsB from Geobacillus stearothermophilus PV72/p2 were obtained using an insertion mutagenesis screen. The haemagglutinin epitope tag was inserted at 23 amino acid positions known to be located on the monomer protein surface from a previous cysteine accessibility screen. Limited proteolysis, circular dichroism, and fluorescence were used to probe whether the epitope insertion affected the secondary and tertiary structures of the monomer, while electron microscopy and size-exclusion chromatography were employed to examine proteins' ability to self-assemble. The screen not only identified assembly-compromised mutants with native fold but also yielded correctly folded, self-assembling mutants suitable for displaying epitopes for biomedical and biophysical applications, as well as cryo-electron microscopy imaging. Our study marks an important step in the analysis of the S-layer structure. In addition, the approach of concerted insertion and cysteine mutagenesis can likely be applied for other supramolecular assemblies.

  13. Additive interaction in survival analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Lange, Theis; Andersen, Ingelise

    2012-01-01

    It is a widely held belief in public health and clinical decision-making that interventions or preventive strategies should be aimed at patients or population subgroups where most cases could potentially be prevented. To identify such subgroups, deviation from additivity of absolute effects...... implementation guide of the additive hazards model is provided in the appendix....

  14. Additive Effects on Asymmetric Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Liang; Sun, Wangsheng; Yang, Dongxu; Li, Guofeng; Wang, Rui

    2016-03-23

    This review highlights a number of additives that can be used to make asymmetric reactions perfect. Without changing other reaction conditions, simply adding additives can lead to improved asymmetric catalysis, such as reduced reaction time, improved yield, or/and increased selectivity.

  15. Density measures and additive property

    OpenAIRE

    Kunisada, Ryoichi

    2015-01-01

    We deal with finitely additive measures defined on all subsets of natural numbers which extend the asymptotic density (density measures). We consider a class of density measures which are constructed from free ultrafilters on natural numbers and study a certain additivity property of such density measures.

  16. Enantioselective Michael Addition of Water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, B.S.; Resch, V.; Otten, L.G.; Hanefeld, U.

    2014-01-01

    The enantioselective Michael addition using water as both nucleophile and solvent has to date proved beyond the ability of synthetic chemists. Herein, the direct, enantioselective Michael addition of water in water to prepare important β-hydroxy carbonyl compounds using whole cells of Rhodococcus st

  17. Density measures and additive property

    OpenAIRE

    Kunisada, Ryoichi

    2015-01-01

    We deal with finitely additive measures defined on all subsets of natural numbers which extend the asymptotic density (density measures). We consider a class of density measures which are constructed from free ultrafilters on natural numbers and study a certain additivity property of such density measures.

  18. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step…

  19. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step…

  20. Calcium addition in straw gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risnes, H.; Fjellerup, Jan Søren; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    2003-01-01

    The present work focuses on the influence of calcium addition in gasification. The inorganic¿organic element interaction as well as the detailed inorganic¿inorganic elements interaction has been studied. The effect of calcium addition as calcium sugar/molasses solutions to straw significantly...

  1. Design of a miniaturized solid state laser for automated assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funck, Max C.; Dolkemeyer, Jan; Morasch, Valentin; Loosen, Peter

    2010-05-01

    A miniaturized solid state laser for marking applications has been developed featuring novel assembly strategies to reduce size, cost and assembly effort. Design and setup have been laid out with future automation of the assembly in mind. Using a high precision robot the optical components composing the laser system are directly placed on a planar substrate providing accurate positioning and alignment within a few microns. No adjustable mounts for mirrors and lenses are necessary, greatly simplifying the setup. Consisting of either a ND:YAG or a Nd:YVO4 crystal pumped with a fiber coupled diode laser, a q-switch for pulse generation and a beam expander the entire assembly is confined in a 100ml space and delivers 4 W of continuous output power at 1.064 μm with an efficiency greater than 40%. Pulse lengths of 10-20 ns and repetition rates of up to 150 kHz have been obtained with an acousto-optic modulator. In addition, a custom designed electro-optic modulator with integrated high voltage switch has been realized. A supply unit for the entire system, including scanner and water cooling, is integrated in a 19" industrial chassis and can be operated via a graphical user interface on a standard personal computer.

  2. The assembly of C. elegans lamins into macroscopic fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zingerman-Koladko, Irena; Khayat, Maayan; Harapin, Jan; Shoseyov, Oded; Gruenbaum, Yosef; Salman, Ahmad; Medalia, Ohad; Ben-Harush, Kfir

    2016-10-01

    Intermediate filament (IF) proteins are known mainly by their propensity to form viscoelastic filamentous networks within cells. In addition, IF-proteins are essential parts of various biological materials, such as horn and hagfish slime threads, which exhibit a range of mechanical properties from hard to elastic. These properties and their self-assembly nature made IF-proteins attractive building blocks for biomimetic and biological materials in diverse applications. Here we show that a type V IF-protein, the Caenorhabditis elegans nuclear lamin (Ce-lamin), is a promising building block for protein-based fibers. Electron cryo-tomography of vitrified sections enabled us to depict the higher ordered assembly of the Ce-lamin into macroscopic fibers through the creation of paracrystalline fibers, which are prominent in vitro structures of lamins. The lamin fibers respond to tensile force as other IF-protein-based fibers, i.e., hagfish slime threads, and possess unique mechanical properties that may potentially be used in certain applications. The self-assembly nature of lamin proteins into a filamentous structure, which is further assembled into a complex network, can be easily modulated. This knowledge may lead to a better understanding of the relationship in IF-proteins-based fibers and materials, between their hierarchical structures and their mechanical properties.

  3. In silico assembly and nanomechanical characterization of carbon nanotube buckypaper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranford, Steven W; Buehler, Markus J

    2010-07-01

    Carbon nanotube sheets or films, also known as 'buckypaper', have been proposed for use in actuating, structural and filtration systems, based in part on their unique and robust mechanical properties. Computational modeling of such a fibrous nanostructure is hindered by both the random arrangement of the constituent elements as well as the time- and length-scales accessible to atomistic level molecular dynamics modeling. Here we present a novel in silico assembly procedure based on a coarse-grain model of carbon nanotubes, used to attain a representative mesoscopic buckypaper model that circumvents the need for probabilistic approaches. By variation in assembly parameters, including the initial nanotube density and ratio of nanotube type (single- and double-walled), the porosity of the resulting buckypaper can be varied threefold, from approximately 0.3 to 0.9. Further, through simulation of nanoindentation, the Young's modulus is shown to be tunable through manipulation of nanotube type and density over a range of approximately 0.2-3.1 GPa, in good agreement with experimental findings of the modulus of assembled carbon nanotube films. In addition to carbon nanotubes, the coarse-grain model and assembly process can be adapted for other fibrous nanostructures such as electrospun polymeric composites, high performance nonwoven ballistic materials, or fibrous protein aggregates, facilitating the development and characterization of novel nanomaterials and composites as well as the analysis of biological materials such as protein fiber films and bulk structures.

  4. Electrostatic Force Microscopy of Self Assembled Peptide Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Casper Hyttel; Dimaki, Maria; Pantagos, Spyros P.;

    2011-01-01

    In this report electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) is used to study different peptide self-assembled structures, such as tubes and particles. It is shown that not only geometrical information can be obtained using EFM, but also information about the composition of different structures. In partic......In this report electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) is used to study different peptide self-assembled structures, such as tubes and particles. It is shown that not only geometrical information can be obtained using EFM, but also information about the composition of different structures....... In particular we use EFM to investigate the structures of diphenylalanine peptide tubes, particles, and CSGAITIG peptide particles placed on pre-fabricated SiO2 surfaces with a backgate. We show that the cavity in the peptide tubes could be to the presence of water residues. Additionally we show that self......-assembled amyloid peptides form spherical solid structures containing the same self-assembled peptide in its interior. In both cases transmission electron microscopy is used to verify these structures. Further, the limitations of the EFM technique are discussed, especially when the observed structures become small...

  5. Chaperone-assisted assembly of the proteasome core particle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias, Ana C; Ramos, Paula C; Dohmen, R Jürgen

    2010-02-01

    The 26S proteasome is a non-lysosomal protease in the cytosol and nucleus of eukaryotic cells. Its main function is to mediate ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis. The 26S proteasome is a multimeric complex composed by the 20S proteasome CP (core particle) and the 19S RPs (regulatory particles). Although the atomic structure of the 26S proteasome has not yet been determined, high-resolution structures are available for its CP. Studies on the complicated assembly pathway of the proteasome have revealed that it involves an unprecedented number of dedicated chaperones. Assembly of the CP alone involves three conserved proteasome-assembly chaperones [PAC1-PAC2, PAC3-PAC4 and UMP1 (ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis 1)]. Whereas the two heterodimeric PACs have been implicated in the formation of rings of the seven distinct alpha subunits, UMP1 is important for the formation and dimerization of proteasome precursor complexes containing beta subunits. Dimerization coincides with the incorporation of the last beta subunit (beta7). Additional modules important for the assembly of precursor complexes and their dimerization reside in the beta subunits themselves, either as transient or as permanent extensions. Particularly important domains are the propeptide of beta5 and the C-terminal extensions of beta2 and beta7. Upon maturation of the active sites by autocatalytic processing, UMP1 is degraded by the native proteasome.

  6. Interfacial assembly of dendritic microcapsules with host-guest chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yu; Yu, Ziyi; Parker, Richard M.; Wu, Yuchao; Abell, Chris; Scherman, Oren A.

    2014-12-01

    The self-assembly of nanoscale materials to form hierarchically ordered structures promises new opportunities in drug delivery, as well as magnetic materials and devices. Herein, we report a simple means to promote the self-assembly of two polymers with functional groups at a water-chloroform interface using microfluidic technology. Two polymeric layers can be assembled and disassembled at the droplet interface using the efficiency of cucurbit[8]uril (CB[8]) host-guest supramolecular chemistry. The microcapsules produced are extremely monodisperse in size and can encapsulate target molecules in a robust, well-defined manner. In addition, we exploit a dendritic copolymer architecture to trap a small hydrophilic molecule in the microcapsule skin as cargo. This demonstrates not only the ability to encapsulate small molecules but also the ability to orthogonally store both hydrophilic and hydrophobic cargos within a single microcapsule. The interfacially assembled supramolecular microcapsules can benefit from the diversity of polymeric materials, allowing for fine control over the microcapsule properties.

  7. Nanoparticle Assemblies at Fluid Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Thomas P. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States). Dept. of Polymer Science and Engineering

    2015-03-10

    A systematic study of the structure and dynamics of nanoparticles (NP) and NP-surfactants was performed. The ligands attached to both the NPs and NP-surfactants dictate the manner in which the nanoscopic materials assemble at fluid interfaces. Studies have shown that a single layer of the nanoscpic materials form at the interface to reduce the interactions between the two immiscible fluids. The shape of the NP is, also, important, where for spherical particles, a disordered, liquid-like monolayer forms, and, for nanorods, ordered domains at the interface is found and, if the monolayers are compressed, the orientation of the nanorods with respect to the interface can change. By associating end-functionalized polymers to the NPs assembled at the interface, NP-surfactants are formed that increase the energetic gain in segregating each NP at the interface which allows the NP-surfactants to jam at the interface when compressed. This has opened the possibility of structuring the two liquids by freezing in shape changes of the liquids.

  8. Self-assembled nanostructured metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsinet, Virginie; Baron, Alexandre; Pouget, Emilie; Okazaki, Yutaka; Oda, Reiko; Barois, Philippe

    2017-07-01

    The concept of metamaterials emerged in the years 2000 with the achievement of artificial structures enabling nonconventional propagation of electromagnetic waves, such as negative phase velocity or negative refraction. The electromagnetic response of metamaterials is generally based on the presence of optically resonant elements —or meta-atoms— of sub-wavelength size and well-designed morphology so as to provide the desired electric and magnetic optical properties. Top-down technologies based on lithography techniques have been intensively used to fabricate a variety of efficient electric and magnetic resonators operating from microwave to visible light frequencies. However, the technological limits of the top-down approach are reached in visible light where a huge number of nanometre-sized elements is required. We show here that the bottom-up fabrication route based on the combination of nanochemistry and the self-assembly methods of colloidal physics provide an excellent alternative for the large-scale synthesis of complex meta-atoms, as well as for the fabrication of 2D and 3D samples exhibiting meta-properties in visible light. Contribution to the Focus Issue Self-assemblies of Inorganic and Organic Nanomaterials edited by Marie-Paule Pileni.

  9. Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly Regeneration Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medlen, Amber; Abney, Morgan B.; Miller, Lee A.

    2011-01-01

    In April 2010 the Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) was delivered to the International Space Station (ISS). This technology requires hydrogen to recover oxygen from carbon dioxide. This results in the production of water and methane. Water is electrolyzed to provide oxygen to the crew. Methane is vented to space resulting in a loss of valuable hydrogen and unreduced carbon dioxide. This is not critical for ISS because of the water resupply from Earth. However, in order to have enough oxygen for long-term missions, it will be necessary to recover the hydrogen to maximize oxygen recovery. Thus, the Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) was designed to recover hydrogen from methane. During operation, the PPA produces small amounts of carbon that can ultimately reduce performance by forming on the walls and windows of the reactor chamber. The carbon must be removed, although mechanical methods are highly inefficient, thus chemical methods are of greater interest. The purpose of this effort was to determine the feasibility of chemically removing the carbon from the walls and windows of a PPA reactor using a pure carbon dioxide stream.

  10. Valve stem and packing assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wordin, J.J.

    1990-12-31

    A valve stem and packing assembly is provided in which a rotatable valve stem includes a first tractrix surface for sliding contact with a stem packing and also includes a second tractrix surface for sliding contact with a bonnet. Force is applied by means of a spring, gland flange, and gland on the stem packing so the stem packing seals to the valve stem and bonnet. This configuration serves to create and maintain a reliable seal between the stem packing and the valve stem. The bonnet includes a second complementary tractrix surface for contacting the second sliding tractrix surface, the combination serving as a journal bearing for the entire valve stem and packing assembly. The journal bearing so configured is known as a Schiele`s pivot. The Schiele`s pivot also serves to maintain proper alignment of the valve stem with respect to the bonnet. Vertical wear between the surfaces of the Schiele`s pivot is uniform at all points of contact between the second sliding tractrix surface and the second complementary tractrix surface of a bonnet. The valve stem is connected to a valve plug by means of a slip joint. The valve is opened and closed by rotating the valve stem. The slip joint compensates for wear on the Schiele`s pivot and on the valve plug. A ledge is provided on the valve bonnet for the retaining nut to bear against. The ledge prevents overtightening of the retaining nut and the resulting excessive friction between stem and stem packing.

  11. Anisotropic assembly and pattern formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Brecht, James H.; Uminsky, David T.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the role of anisotropy in two classes of individual-based models for self-organization, collective behavior and self-assembly. We accomplish this via first-order dynamical systems of pairwise interacting particles that incorporate anisotropic interactions. At a continuum level, these models represent the natural anisotropic variants of the well-known aggregation equation. We leverage this framework to analyze the impact of anisotropic effects upon the self-assembly of co-dimension one equilibrium structures, such as micelles and vesicles. Our analytical results reveal the regularizing effect of anisotropy, and isolate the contexts in which anisotropic effects are necessary to achieve dynamical stability of co-dimension one structures. Our results therefore place theoretical limits on when anisotropic effects can be safely neglected. We also explore whether anisotropic effects suffice to induce pattern formation in such particle systems. We conclude with brief numerical studies that highlight various aspects of the models we introduce, elucidate their phase structure and partially validate the analysis we provide.

  12. Unique nucleotide sequence-guided assembly of repetitive DNA parts for synthetic biology applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torella, JP; Lienert, F; Boehm, CR; Chen, JH; Way, JC; Silver, PA

    2014-08-07

    Recombination-based DNA construction methods, such as Gibson assembly, have made it possible to easily and simultaneously assemble multiple DNA parts, and they hold promise for the development and optimization of metabolic pathways and functional genetic circuits. Over time, however, these pathways and circuits have become more complex, and the increasing need for standardization and insulation of genetic parts has resulted in sequence redundancies-for example, repeated terminator and insulator sequences-that complicate recombination-based assembly. We and others have recently developed DNA assembly methods, which we refer to collectively as unique nucleotide sequence (UNS)-guided assembly, in which individual DNA parts are flanked with UNSs to facilitate the ordered, recombination-based assembly of repetitive sequences. Here we present a detailed protocol for UNS-guided assembly that enables researchers to convert multiple DNA parts into sequenced, correctly assembled constructs, or into high-quality combinatorial libraries in only 2-3 d. If the DNA parts must be generated from scratch, an additional 2-5 d are necessary. This protocol requires no specialized equipment and can easily be implemented by a student with experience in basic cloning techniques.

  13. Elucidating dominant pathways of the nano-particle self-assembly process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiangze; Li, Bin; Qiao, Qin; Zhu, Lizhe; Lu, Zhong-Yuan; Huang, Xuhui

    2016-09-14

    Self-assembly processes play a key role in the fabrication of functional nano-structures with widespread application in drug delivery and micro-reactors. In addition to the thermodynamics, the kinetics of the self-assembled nano-structures also play an important role in determining the formed structures. However, as the self-assembly process is often highly heterogeneous, systematic elucidation of the dominant kinetic pathways of self-assembly is challenging. Here, based on mass flow, we developed a new method for the construction of kinetic network models and applied it to identify the dominant kinetic pathways for the self-assembly of star-like block copolymers. We found that the dominant pathways are controlled by two competing kinetic parameters: the encounter time Te, characterizing the frequency of collision and the transition time Tt for the aggregate morphology change from rod to sphere. Interestingly, two distinct self-assembly mechanisms, diffusion of an individual copolymer into the aggregate core and membrane closure, both appear at different stages (with different values of Tt) of a single self-assembly process. In particular, the diffusion mechanism dominates the middle-sized semi-vesicle formation stage (with large Tt), while the membrane closure mechanism dominates the large-sized vesicle formation stage (with small Tt). Through the rational design of the hydrophibicity of the copolymer, we successfully tuned the transition time Tt and altered the dominant self-assembly pathways.

  14. Chemical reactions directed Peptide self-assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasale, Dnyaneshwar B; Das, Apurba K

    2015-05-13

    Fabrication of self-assembled nanostructures is one of the important aspects in nanoscience and nanotechnology. The study of self-assembled soft materials remains an area of interest due to their potential applications in biomedicine. The versatile properties of soft materials can be tuned using a bottom up approach of small molecules. Peptide based self-assembly has significant impact in biology because of its unique features such as biocompatibility, straight peptide chain and the presence of different side chain functionality. These unique features explore peptides in various self-assembly process. In this review, we briefly introduce chemical reaction-mediated peptide self-assembly. Herein, we have emphasised enzymes, native chemical ligation and photochemical reactions in the exploration of peptide self-assembly.

  15. The MARVEL assembly for neutron multiplication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David L. Chichester; Mathew T. Kinlaw

    2013-10-01

    A new multiplying test assembly is under development at Idaho National Laboratory to support research, validation, evaluation, and learning. The item is comprised of three stacked, highly-enriched uranium (HEU) cylinders, each 11.4 cm in diameter and having a combined height of up to 11.7 cm. The combined mass of all three cylinders is 20.3 kg of HEU. Calculations for the bare configuration of the assembly indicate a multiplication level of >3.5 (keff=0.72). Reflected configurations of the assembly, using either polyethylene or tungsten, are possible and have the capability of raising the assembly's multiplication level to greater than 10. This paper describes simulations performed to assess the assembly's multiplication level under different conditions and describes the resources available at INL to support the use of these materials. We also describe some preliminary calculations and test activities using the assembly to study neutron multiplication.

  16. Algorithm for a Microfluidic Assembly Line

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Tobias M.; Mandre, Shreyas; Brenner, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Microfluidic technology has revolutionized the control of flows at small scales giving rise to new possibilities for assembling complex structures on the microscale. We analyze different possible algorithms for assembling arbitrary structures, and demonstrate that a sequential assembly algorithm can manufacture arbitrary 3D structures from identical constituents. We illustrate the algorithm by showing that a modified Hele-Shaw cell with 7 controlled flowrates can be designed to construct the ...

  17. Balancing parallel assembly lines with disabled workers

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo, Felipe F. B.; Costa,Alysson M.; Miralles, Cristóbal

    2013-01-01

    We study an assembly line balancing problem that occurs in sheltered worker centers for the disabled, where workers with very different characteristics are present. We are interested in the situation in which parallel assembly lines are allowed and name the resulting problem as parallel assembly line worker assignment and balancing problem. We present a linear mixed-integer formulation and a four-stage heuristic algorithm. Computational results with a large set of instances recently proposed ...

  18. Henry Ford vs. assembly line balancing

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, J M

    2014-01-01

    Ford’s Assembly Line at Highland Park is one of the most influential conceptualizations of a production system. New data reveal Ford’s operations were adaptable to strongly increasing and highly variable demand. These analyses show Ford’s assembly line was used differently than modern ones and their production systems were more flexible than previously recognized. Assembly line balancing theory largely ignores earlier practice. It will be shown that Ford used multiple lines flexibly to cope w...

  19. Optics assembly for high power laser tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraze, Jason D.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.

    2016-06-07

    There is provided a high power laser rotational optical assembly for use with, or in high power laser tools for performing high power laser operations. In particular, the optical assembly finds applications in performing high power laser operations on, and in, remote and difficult to access locations. The optical assembly has rotational seals and bearing configurations to avoid contamination of the laser beam path and optics.

  20. Design for Un-heterogeneous Critical Assembly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Fan; ZHOU; Qi

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the nuclear criticality issues in the dissolving process,a new critical assembly is designed by theoretical calculation to satisfy the heterogeneous critical experimental demands based on the existed YSR assembly(Fig.1).The experiment plans,geometry structure of the assembly,solution contents and fuel rods arrangements are determined.The parameters for each scheme are listed in Table 1.

  1. Control model for reconfigurable assembly systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Jianfeng; Yin Yuehong; Chen Zhaoneng

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes knowledge based object-oriented timed colored Petri net, a modeling method for reconfigurable assembly systems. Combining knowledge and object-oriented method into timed colored Petri net, a comprehensive and powerful representation model for control of RAS is obtained. With object-oriented method the whole system can be decomposed into concrete objects explicitly, and their relationships are constructed according to the system assembly requirements. Finally, a simple assembly system modeled by the KTCOPN is presented.

  2. Optics assembly for high power laser tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraze, Jason D.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.

    2016-06-07

    There is provided a high power laser rotational optical assembly for use with, or in high power laser tools for performing high power laser operations. In particular, the optical assembly finds applications in performing high power laser operations on, and in, remote and difficult to access locations. The optical assembly has rotational seals and bearing configurations to avoid contamination of the laser beam path and optics.

  3. Tablet—next generation sequence assembly visualization

    OpenAIRE

    Milne, Iain; Bayer, Micha; Cardle, Linda; Shaw, Paul; Stephen, Gordon; Wright, Frank; Marshall, David

    2009-01-01

    Summary: Tablet is a lightweight, high-performance graphical viewer for next-generation sequence assemblies and alignments. Supporting a range of input assembly formats, Tablet provides high-quality visualizations showing data in packed or stacked views, allowing instant access and navigation to any region of interest, and whole contig overviews and data summaries. Tablet is both multi-core aware and memory efficient, allowing it to handle assemblies containing millions of reads, even on a 32...

  4. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-10-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step in understanding mathematical representations of RGB color. Finally, color addition and subtraction are presented for the X11 colors from web design to illustrate yet another real-life application of color mixing.

  5. Particle and substrate charge effects on colloidal self-assembly in a sessile drop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qingfeng; Gao, Li; Sharma, Vyom; Chiang, Yet-Ming; Wong, C C

    2008-10-21

    By direct video monitoring of dynamic colloidal self-assembly during solvent evaporation in a sessile drop, we investigated the effect of surface charge on the ordering of colloidal spheres. The in situ observations revealed that the interaction between charged colloidal spheres and substrates affects the mobility of colloidal spheres during convective self-assembly, playing an important role in the colloidal crystal growth process. Both ordered and disordered growth was observed depending on different chemical conditions mediated by surface charge and surfactant additions to the sessile drop system. These different self-assembly behaviors were explained by the Coulombic and hydrophobic interactions between surface-charged colloidal spheres and substrates.

  6. Two-chamber configuration of Bio-Nano electron cyclotron resonance ion source for fullerene modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, T., E-mail: uchida-t@toyo.jp [Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Toyo University, Kawagoe 350-8585 (Japan); Graduate School of Interdisciplinary New Science, Toyo University, Kawagoe 350-8585 (Japan); Rácz, R.; Biri, S. [Institute for Nuclear Research (Atomki), Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Bem tér 18/C, H-4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Muramatsu, M.; Kitagawa, A. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Kato, Y. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Suita 565-0871 (Japan); Yoshida, Y. [Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Toyo University, Kawagoe 350-8585 (Japan); Faculty of Science and Engineering, Toyo University, Kawagoe 350-8585 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    We report on the modification of fullerenes with iron and chlorine using two individually controllable plasmas in the Bio-Nano electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). One of the plasmas is composed of fullerene and the other one is composed of iron and chlorine. The online ion beam analysis allows one to investigate the rate of the vapor-phase collisional modification process in the ECRIS, while the offline analyses (e.g., liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry) of the materials deposited on the plasma chamber can give information on the surface-type process. Both analytical methods show the presence of modified fullerenes such as fullerene-chlorine, fullerene-iron, and fullerene-chlorine-iron.

  7. Two-chamber configuration of Bio-Nano electron cyclotron resonance ion source for fullerene modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, T.; Rácz, R.; Muramatsu, M.; Kato, Y.; Kitagawa, A.; Biri, S.; Yoshida, Y.

    2016-02-01

    We report on the modification of fullerenes with iron and chlorine using two individually controllable plasmas in the Bio-Nano electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). One of the plasmas is composed of fullerene and the other one is composed of iron and chlorine. The online ion beam analysis allows one to investigate the rate of the vapor-phase collisional modification process in the ECRIS, while the offline analyses (e.g., liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry) of the materials deposited on the plasma chamber can give information on the surface-type process. Both analytical methods show the presence of modified fullerenes such as fullerene-chlorine, fullerene-iron, and fullerene-chlorine-iron.

  8. Air-based coal gasification in a two-chamber gas reactor with circulating fluidized bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubinin, A. M.; Tuponogov, V. G.; Kagramanov, Y. A.

    2017-01-01

    During the bed gasification of solid fuels, the process temperature in the reaction zone is not high enough for reaching the maximum rate of the chemical efficiency factor of the gasification process. In order to increase the chemical efficiency factor, it is necessary to supply extra heat to the reaction zone to increase the reaction temperature. In this article, coal gasification in a chamber with forced fluidized bed is considered and it is proposed to supply extra heat with a circulating flow of an inert particulate heat transfer agent. Circulating inert particulate material is successively heated by coal combustion in a cone chamber with bubbling fluidized bed and in a combustion chamber with a spherical nozzle that inhibits the forced fluidized bed. After that, the heat transfer agent heated to 930-950°C enters first in a gasification chamber with bubbling bed and then in a chamber with forced fluidized bed, where it transfers the physical heat to the air fuel mixture. The experiments conducted with crushed Borodinsky coal and inert particulate heat transfer agent (electrocorundum) showed the temperature rise in a gasification chamber with from 760 to 870°C and the increase in the combustible component (CO) concentration in the gasification products by 5.5%. Based on the kinetic equations of the fuel combustion reactions and the CO2 reduction to CO and on the thermal balance equations of combustion and gasification chambers, the simulation model for the gas composition and the temperature rate calculated by the height of reaction chambers was developed. The experimental temperature rates and product gas compositions are in good agreement with the simulation results based on the proposed kinetic gasification model.

  9. Bioelectricity generation using two chamber microbial fuel cell treating wastewater from food processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoorian, Hossein Jafari; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Jafari, Ahmad Jonidi; Amin, Mohammad Mehdi; Rajabizadeh, Ahmad; Khanjani, Narges

    2013-05-10

    Electricity generation from microbial fuel cells which treat food processing wastewater was investigated in this study. Anaerobic anode and aerobic cathode chambers were separated by a proton exchange membrane in a two-compartment MFC reactor. Buffer solutions and food industry wastewater were used as electrolytes in the anode and cathode chambers, respectively. The produced voltage and current intensity were measured using a digital multimeter. Effluents from the anode compartment were tested for COD, BOD5, NH3, P, TSS, VSS, SO4 and alkalinity. The maximum current density and power production were measured 527mA/m(2) and 230mW/m(2) in the anode area, respectively, at operation organic loading (OLR) of 0.364g COD/l.d. At OLR of 0.182g COD/l.d, maximum voltage and columbic efficiency production were recorded 0.475V and 21%, respectively. Maximum removal efficiency of COD, BOD5, NH3, P, TSS, VSS, SO4 and alkalinity were 86, 79, 73, 18, 68, 62, 30 and 58%, respectively. The results indicated that catalysts and mediator-less microbial fuel cells (CAML-MFC) can be considered as a better choice for simple and complete energy conversion from the wastewater of such industries and also this could be considered as a new method to offset wastewater treatment plant operating costs.

  10. Self-assembled nanomaterials for photoacoustic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Yang, Pei-Pei; Zhao, Xiao-Xiao; Wang, Hao

    2016-02-07

    In recent years, extensive endeavors have been paid to construct functional self-assembled nanomaterials for various applications such as catalysis, separation, energy and biomedicines. To date, different strategies have been developed for preparing nanomaterials with diversified structures and functionalities via fine tuning of self-assembled building blocks. In terms of biomedical applications, bioimaging technologies are urgently calling for high-efficient probes/contrast agents for high-performance bioimaging. Photoacoustic (PA) imaging is an emerging whole-body imaging modality offering high spatial resolution, deep penetration and high contrast in vivo. The self-assembled nanomaterials show high stability in vivo, specific tolerance to sterilization and prolonged half-life stability and desirable targeting properties, which is a kind of promising PA contrast agents for biomedical imaging. Herein, we focus on summarizing recent advances in smart self-assembled nanomaterials with NIR absorption as PA contrast agents for biomedical imaging. According to the preparation strategy of the contrast agents, the self-assembled nanomaterials are categorized into two groups, i.e., the ex situ and in situ self-assembled nanomaterials. The driving forces, assembly modes and regulation of PA properties of self-assembled nanomaterials and their applications for long-term imaging, enzyme activity detection and aggregation-induced retention (AIR) effect for diagnosis and therapy are emphasized. Finally, we conclude with an outlook towards future developments of self-assembled nanomaterials for PA imaging.

  11. Metagenomic Assembly: Overview, Challenges and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghurye, Jay S.; Cepeda-Espinoza, Victoria; Pop, Mihai

    2016-01-01

    Advances in sequencing technologies have led to the increased use of high throughput sequencing in characterizing the microbial communities associated with our bodies and our environment. Critical to the analysis of the resulting data are sequence assembly algorithms able to reconstruct genes and organisms from complex mixtures. Metagenomic assembly involves new computational challenges due to the specific characteristics of the metagenomic data. In this survey, we focus on major algorithmic approaches for genome and metagenome assembly, and discuss the new challenges and opportunities afforded by this new field. We also review several applications of metagenome assembly in addressing interesting biological problems. PMID:27698619

  12. Directed Formation of DNA Nanoarrays through Orthogonal Self-Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Stulz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe the synthesis of terpyridine modified DNA strands which selectively form DNA nanotubes through orthogonal hydrogen bonding and metal complexation interactions. The short DNA strands are designed to self-assemble into long duplexes through a sticky-end approach. Addition of weakly binding metals such as Zn(II and Ni(II induces the formation of tubular arrays consisting of DNA bundles which are 50-200 nm wide and 2-50 nm high. TEM shows additional long distance ordering of the terpy-DNA complexes into fibers.

  13. Prevalence of Food Additive Intolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    1994-01-01

    estimates are questionable but may be less than 0.15%. In adults and children with reproducible, and with more subjective symptoms, such as headache and behavioural/mood change the prevalence is even lower (0.026%). Food additive intolerance is primarily found in atopic children with cutaneous symptoms.......026%. The challenged population is 81 children and adults with a history of reproducible clinical symptoms after ingestion of food additives. 4 In the Danish population study a prevalence of 1-2% is found in children age 5-16. In this study a total of 606 children mainly with atopic disease have been challenged. 5...... where the additive is aggravating an existing disease. The prevalence of food additive intolerance in children age 5-16 is 1-2%....

  14. Adverse reactions to drug additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, R A

    1984-10-01

    There is a long list of additives used by the pharmaceutical industry. Most of the agents used have not been implicated in hypersensitivity reactions. Among those that have, only reactions to parabens and sulfites have been well established. Parabens have been shown to be responsible for rare immunoglobulin E-mediated reactions that occur after the use of local anesthetics. Sulfites, which are present in many drugs, including agents commonly used to treat asthma, have been shown to provoke severe asthmatic attacks in sensitive individuals. Recent studies indicate that additives do not play a significant role in "hyperactivity." The role of additives in urticaria is not well established and therefore the incidence of adverse reactions in this patient population is simply not known. In double-blind, placebo-controlled studies, reactions to tartrazine or additives other than sulfites, if they occur at all, are indeed quite rare for the asthmatic population, even for the aspirin-sensitive subpopulation.

  15. Wide and High Additive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, Brian K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Roschli, Alex C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The goal of this project is to develop and demonstrate the enabling technologies for Wide and High Additive Manufacturing (WHAM). WHAM will open up new areas of U.S. manufacturing for very large tooling in support of the transportation and energy industries, significantly reducing cost and lead time. As with Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM), the initial focus is on the deposition of composite materials.

  16. Addition on a Quantum Computer

    CERN Document Server

    Draper, Thomas G

    2000-01-01

    A new method for computing sums on a quantum computer is introduced. This technique uses the quantum Fourier transform and reduces the number of qubits necessary for addition by removing the need for temporary carry bits. This approach also allows the addition of a classical number to a quantum superposition without encoding the classical number in the quantum register. This method also allows for massive parallelization in its execution.

  17. Food additives and preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyn, Danika M; McNulty, Breige A; Nugent, Anne P; Gibney, Michael J

    2013-02-01

    Food additives have been used throughout history to perform specific functions in foods. A comprehensive framework of legislation is in place within Europe to control the use of additives in the food supply and ensure they pose no risk to human health. Further to this, exposure assessments are regularly carried out to monitor population intakes and verify that intakes are not above acceptable levels (acceptable daily intakes). Young children may have a higher dietary exposure to chemicals than adults due to a combination of rapid growth rates and distinct food intake patterns. For this reason, exposure assessments are particularly important in this age group. The paper will review the use of additives and exposure assessment methods and examine factors that affect dietary exposure by young children. One of the most widely investigated unfavourable health effects associated with food additive intake in preschool-aged children are suggested adverse behavioural effects. Research that has examined this relationship has reported a variety of responses, with many noting an increase in hyperactivity as reported by parents but not when assessed using objective examiners. This review has examined the experimental approaches used in such studies and suggests that efforts are needed to standardise objective methods of measuring behaviour in preschool children. Further to this, a more holistic approach to examining food additive intakes by preschool children is advisable, where overall exposure is considered rather than focusing solely on behavioural effects and possibly examining intakes of food additives other than food colours.

  18. Dimensionality of carbon nanomaterial impacting on the modulation of amyloid peptide assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Zhu, Z.; Bortolini, C.; Hoffmann, S. V.; Amari, A.; Zhang, H. X.; Liu, L.; Dong, M. D.

    2016-07-01

    A wide variety of inorganic nanomaterials have been exploited so far for their great potential for biological applications. Some of these materials could be valid candidates to modulate the assembly of amyloid peptides, which is relevant to amyloid-related diseases. In this work, we reveal that a carbon nanomaterial can indeed modulate the assembly of amyloid peptides and, additionally, we show that this modulating effect is closely related to the dimensionality of the nanomaterials.

  19. Dimensionality of carbon nanomaterial impacting on the modulation of amyloid peptide assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, J.; Zhu, Z.; Bortolini, C.;

    2016-01-01

    A wide variety of inorganic nanomaterials have been exploited so far for their great potential for biological applications. Some of these materials could be valid candidates to modulate the assembly of amyloid peptides, which is relevant to amyloid-related diseases. In this work, we reveal...... that a carbon nanomaterial can indeed modulate the assembly of amyloid peptides and, additionally, we show that this modulating effect is closely related to the dimensionality of the nanomaterials....

  20. AutoAssemblyD: a graphical user interface system for several genome assemblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veras, Adonney Allan de Oliveira; de Sá, Pablo Henrique Caracciolo Gomes; Azevedo, Vasco; Silva, Artur; Ramos, Rommel Thiago Jucá

    2013-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing technologies have increased the amount of biological data generated. Thus, bioinformatics has become important because new methods and algorithms are necessary to manipulate and process such data. However, certain challenges have emerged, such as genome assembly using short reads and high-throughput platforms. In this context, several algorithms have been developed, such as Velvet, Abyss, Euler-SR, Mira, Edna, Maq, SHRiMP, Newbler, ALLPATHS, Bowtie and BWA. However, most such assemblers do not have a graphical interface, which makes their use difficult for users without computing experience given the complexity of the assembler syntax. Thus, to make the operation of such assemblers accessible to users without a computing background, we developed AutoAssemblyD, which is a graphical tool for genome assembly submission and remote management by multiple assemblers through XML templates. AssemblyD is freely available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/autoassemblyd. It requires Sun jdk 6 or higher.

  1. Ultrasound transducer assembly and method for manufacturing an ultrasound transducer assembly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, R.; Henneken, V.A.; Louwerse, M.C.; Raganato, M.F.

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to an ultrasound transducer assembly (10), in particular for intravascular ultrasound systems. The ultrasound transducer assembly comprises at least one silicon substrate element (30) including an ultrasound transducer element (14) for emitting and receiving ultrasound

  2. Ultrasound transducer assembly and method for manufacturing an ultrasound transducer assembly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, R.; Henneken, V.A.; Louwerse, M.C.; Raganato, M.F.

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to an ultrasound transducer assembly (10), in particular for intravascular ultrasound systems. The ultrasound transducer assembly comprises at least one silicon substrate element (30) including an ultrasound transducer element (14) for emitting and receiving ultrasound

  3. Low inductance power electronics assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herron, Nicholas Hayden; Mann, Brooks S.; Korich, Mark D.; Chou, Cindy; Tang, David; Carlson, Douglas S.; Barry, Alan L.

    2012-10-02

    A power electronics assembly is provided. A first support member includes a first plurality of conductors. A first plurality of power switching devices are coupled to the first support member. A first capacitor is coupled to the first support member. A second support member includes a second plurality of conductors. A second plurality of power switching devices are coupled to the second support member. A second capacitor is coupled to the second support member. The first and second pluralities of conductors, the first and second pluralities of power switching devices, and the first and second capacitors are electrically connected such that the first plurality of power switching devices is connected in parallel with the first capacitor and the second capacitor and the second plurality of power switching devices is connected in parallel with the second capacitor and the first capacitor.

  4. Directed actin assembly and motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boujemaa-Paterski, Rajaa; Galland, Rémi; Suarez, Cristian; Guérin, Christophe; Théry, Manuel; Blanchoin, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is a key component of the cellular architecture. However, understanding actin organization and dynamics in vivo is a complex challenge. Reconstitution of actin structures in vitro, in simplified media, allows one to pinpoint the cellular biochemical components and their molecular interactions underlying the architecture and dynamics of the actin network. Previously, little was known about the extent to which geometrical constraints influence the dynamic ultrastructure of these networks. Therefore, in order to study the balance between biochemical and geometrical control of complex actin organization, we used the innovative methodologies of UV and laser patterning to design a wide repertoire of nucleation geometries from which we assembled branched actin networks. Using these methods, we were able to reconstitute complex actin network organizations, closely related to cellular architecture, to precisely direct and control their 3D connections. This methodology mimics the actin networks encountered in cells and can serve in the fabrication of innovative bioinspired systems.

  5. Nanocrystal assembly for tandem catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peidong; Somorjai, Gabor; Yamada, Yusuke; Tsung, Chia-Kuang; Huang, Wenyu

    2014-10-14

    The present invention provides a nanocrystal tandem catalyst comprising at least two metal-metal oxide interfaces for the catalysis of sequential reactions. One embodiment utilizes a nanocrystal bilayer structure formed by assembling sub-10 nm platinum and cerium oxide nanocube monolayers on a silica substrate. The two distinct metal-metal oxide interfaces, CeO.sub.2--Pt and Pt--SiO.sub.2, can be used to catalyze two distinct sequential reactions. The CeO.sub.2--Pt interface catalyzed methanol decomposition to produce CO and H.sub.2, which were then subsequently used for ethylene hydroformylation catalyzed by the nearby Pt--SiO.sub.2 interface. Consequently, propanal was selectively produced on this nanocrystal bilayer tandem catalyst.

  6. Fellows Celebrated at Joint Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    The 2009 AGU Fellows were presented at the recent Joint Assembly in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. At a formal ceremony on 26 May 2009, AGU President Timothy L. Grove introduced each Fellow and read a brief statement of the achievements for which each had been selected. The presentations were followed by a reception for meeting attendees and a banquet at which family members and close colleagues further feted the honorees. AGU Fellows are scientists who have attained “acknowledged eminence in the geophysical sciences.” Election to AGU Fellowship is a very high recognition by one's peers. The number of Fellows elected may not exceed 0.1% of the membership in any given year.

  7. Self assembly of interlocked architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Schergna, S

    2002-01-01

    An area of great interest is the synthesis and characterisation of molecules possessing moving parts, with the goal that they can act as 'molecular machine' carrying out tasks that molecules with fixed conventional architectures cannot do. Rotaxanes and catenanes (mechanically interlocked architectures) represent one approach toward achieving these aims as their component wheels and / or threads are connected together but can still move, in certain, controlled directions. This thesis focused on the study of structural rigidity and the preorganisation of thread binding sites as factors of major influence on template efficiency in the synthesis of hydrogen bond assembled supramolecular structures (rotaxanes and catenanes). Chapter One gives a brief outline of the common synthetic approaches to interlocked architectures (catenanes and rotaxanes) that are now being developed to address the problems outlined above. Chapter Two and Chapter Three concerns the synthesis of novel amide-based rotaxanes containing vario...

  8. Dual contact pogo pin assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatch, Stephen McGarry

    2016-06-21

    A contact assembly includes a base and a pair of electrical contacts supported by the base. A first end of the first electrical contact corresponds to a first end of the base and is configured to engage a first external conductive circuit element. A first end of the second electrical contact also corresponds to the first end of the base and is configured to engage a second external conductive circuit element. The first contact and the second contact are electrically isolated from one another and configured to compress when engaging an external connector element. The base includes an aperture positioned on a second end of the base outboard of a second end of the first and second electrical contacts. The aperture presents a narrowing shape with a wide mouth distal the electrical contacts and a narrow internal through-hole proximate the electrical contacts.

  9. Photonic-powered cable assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Stephen N.; Appel, Titus James; Wrye, IV, Walter C.

    2013-01-22

    A photonic-cable assembly includes a power source cable connector ("PSCC") coupled to a power receive cable connector ("PRCC") via a fiber cable. The PSCC electrically connects to a first electronic device and houses a photonic power source and an optical data transmitter. The fiber cable includes an optical transmit data path coupled to the optical data transmitter, an optical power path coupled to the photonic power source, and an optical feedback path coupled to provide feedback control to the photonic power source. The PRCC electrically connects to a second electronic device and houses an optical data receiver coupled to the optical transmit data path, a feedback controller coupled to the optical feedback path to control the photonic power source, and a photonic power converter coupled to the optical power path to convert photonic energy received over the optical power path to electrical energy to power components of the PRCC.

  10. Virome Assembly and Annotation: A Surprise in the Namib Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Uljana; van Heusden, Peter; Kirby, Bronwyn M.; Olonade, Israel; van Zyl, Leonardo J.; Trindade, Marla

    2017-01-01

    Sequencing, assembly, and annotation of environmental virome samples is challenging. Methodological biases and differences in species abundance result in fragmentary read coverage; sequence reconstruction is further complicated by the mosaic nature of viral genomes. In this paper, we focus on biocomputational aspects of virome analysis, emphasizing latent pitfalls in sequence annotation. Using simulated viromes that mimic environmental data challenges we assessed the performance of five assemblers (CLC-Workbench, IDBA-UD, SPAdes, RayMeta, ABySS). Individual analyses of relevant scaffold length fractions revealed shortcomings of some programs in reconstruction of viral genomes with excessive read coverage (IDBA-UD, RayMeta), and in accurate assembly of scaffolds ≥50 kb (SPAdes, RayMeta, ABySS). The CLC-Workbench assembler performed best in terms of genome recovery (including highly covered genomes) and correct reconstruction of large scaffolds; and was used to assemble a virome from a copper rich site in the Namib Desert. We found that scaffold network analysis and cluster-specific read reassembly improved reconstruction of sequences with excessive read coverage, and that strict data filtering for non-viral sequences prior to downstream analyses was essential. In this study we describe novel viral genomes identified in the Namib Desert copper site virome. Taxonomic affiliations of diverse proteins in the dataset and phylogenetic analyses of circovirus-like proteins indicated links to the marine habitat. Considering additional evidence from this dataset we hypothesize that viruses may have been carried from the Atlantic Ocean into the Namib Desert by fog and wind, highlighting the impact of the extended environment on an investigated niche in metagenome studies. PMID:28167933

  11. Virome Assembly and Annotation: A Surprise in the Namib Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Uljana; van Heusden, Peter; Kirby, Bronwyn M; Olonade, Israel; van Zyl, Leonardo J; Trindade, Marla

    2017-01-01

    Sequencing, assembly, and annotation of environmental virome samples is challenging. Methodological biases and differences in species abundance result in fragmentary read coverage; sequence reconstruction is further complicated by the mosaic nature of viral genomes. In this paper, we focus on biocomputational aspects of virome analysis, emphasizing latent pitfalls in sequence annotation. Using simulated viromes that mimic environmental data challenges we assessed the performance of five assemblers (CLC-Workbench, IDBA-UD, SPAdes, RayMeta, ABySS). Individual analyses of relevant scaffold length fractions revealed shortcomings of some programs in reconstruction of viral genomes with excessive read coverage (IDBA-UD, RayMeta), and in accurate assembly of scaffolds ≥50 kb (SPAdes, RayMeta, ABySS). The CLC-Workbench assembler performed best in terms of genome recovery (including highly covered genomes) and correct reconstruction of large scaffolds; and was used to assemble a virome from a copper rich site in the Namib Desert. We found that scaffold network analysis and cluster-specific read reassembly improved reconstruction of sequences with excessive read coverage, and that strict data filtering for non-viral sequences prior to downstream analyses was essential. In this study we describe novel viral genomes identified in the Namib Desert copper site virome. Taxonomic affiliations of diverse proteins in the dataset and phylogenetic analyses of circovirus-like proteins indicated links to the marine habitat. Considering additional evidence from this dataset we hypothesize that viruses may have been carried from the Atlantic Ocean into the Namib Desert by fog and wind, highlighting the impact of the extended environment on an investigated niche in metagenome studies.

  12. Valve stem and packing assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wordin, J.J.

    1991-09-03

    A valve stem and packing assembly is provided in which a rotatable valve stem includes a first tractrix surface for sliding contact with a stem packing and also includes a second tractrix surface for sliding contact with a bonnet. Force is applied by means of a spring, gland flange, and gland on the stem packing so the stem packing seals to the valve stem and bonnet. This configuration serves to create and maintain a reliable seal between the stem packing and the valve stem. The bonnet includes a second complementary tractrix surface for contacting the second sliding tractrix surface, the combination serving as a journal bearing for the entire valve stem and packing assembly. The journal bearing so configured is known as a Schiele's pivot. The Schiele's pivot also serves to maintain proper alignment of the valve stem with respect to the bonnet. Vertical wear between the surfaces of the Schiele's pivot is uniform at all points of contact between the second sliding tractrix surface and the second complementary tractrix surface of a bonnet. The valve stem is connected to a valve plug by means of a slip joint. The valve is opened and closed by rotating the valve stem. The slip joint compensates for wear on the Schiele's pivot and on the valve plug. A ledge is provided on the valve bonnet for the retaining nut to bear against. The ledge prevents over tightening of the retaining nut and the resulting excessive friction between stem and stem packing. 2 figures.

  13. Valve stem and packing assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wordin, John J. (Bingham County, ID)

    1991-01-01

    A valve stem and packing assembly is provided in which a rotatable valve stem includes a first tractrix surface for sliding contact with a stem packing and also includes a second tractrix surface for sliding contact with a bonnet. Force is applied by means of a spring, gland flange, and gland on the stem packing so the stem packing seals to the valve stem and bonnet. This configuration serves to create and maintain a reliable seal between the stem packing and the valve stem. The bonnet includes a second complementary tractrix surface for contacting the second sliding tractrix surface, the combination serving as a journal bearing for the entire valve stem and packing assembly. The journal bearing so configured is known as a Schiele's pivot. The Schiele's pivot also serves to maintain proper alignment of the valve stem with respect to the bonnet. Vertical wear between the surfaces of the Schiele's pivot is uniform at all points of contact between the second sliding tractrix surface and the second complementary tractrix surface of a bonnet. The valve stem is connected to a valve plug by means of a slip joint. The valve is opened and closed by rotating the valve stem. The slip joint compensates for wear on the Schiele's pivot and on the valve plug. A ledge is provided on the valve bonnet for the retaining nut to bear against. The ledge prevents overtightening of the retaining nut and the resulting excessive friction between stem and stem packing.

  14. Valve stem and packing assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wordin, J.J.

    1990-01-01

    A valve stem and packing assembly is provided in which a rotatable valve stem includes a first tractrix surface for sliding contact with a stem packing and also includes a second tractrix surface for sliding contact with a bonnet. Force is applied by means of a spring, gland flange, and gland on the stem packing so the stem packing seals to the valve stem and bonnet. This configuration serves to create and maintain a reliable seal between the stem packing and the valve stem. The bonnet includes a second complementary tractrix surface for contacting the second sliding tractrix surface, the combination serving as a journal bearing for the entire valve stem and packing assembly. The journal bearing so configured is known as a Schiele's pivot. The Schiele's pivot also serves to maintain proper alignment of the valve stem with respect to the bonnet. Vertical wear between the surfaces of the Schiele's pivot is uniform at all points of contact between the second sliding tractrix surface and the second complementary tractrix surface of a bonnet. The valve stem is connected to a valve plug by means of a slip joint. The valve is opened and closed by rotating the valve stem. The slip joint compensates for wear on the Schiele's pivot and on the valve plug. A ledge is provided on the valve bonnet for the retaining nut to bear against. The ledge prevents overtightening of the retaining nut and the resulting excessive friction between stem and stem packing.

  15. Enhancement of RecA-mediated self-assembly in DNA nanostructures through basepair mismatches and single-strand nicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Sybilla Louise; Sharma, Rajan; Davies, Alexander Giles; Wälti, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    The use of DNA as a structural material for nanometre-scale construction has grown extensively over the last decades. The development of more advanced DNA-based materials would benefit from a modular approach enabling the direct assembly of additional elements onto nanostructures after fabrication. RecA-based nucleoprotein filaments encapsulating short ssDNA have been demonstrated as a tool for highly efficient and fully programmable post-hoc patterning of duplex DNA scaffold. However, the underlying assembly process is not fully understood, in particular when patterning complex DNA topologies. Here, we report the effect of basepair-mismatched regions and single-strand nicks in the double-stranded DNA scaffold on the yield of RecA-based assembly. Significant increases in assembly yield are observed upon the introduction of unpaired basepairs directly adjacent to the assembly region. However, when the unpaired regions were introduced further from the assembly site the assembly yield initially decreased as the length of the unpaired region was increased. These results suggest that an unpaired region acts as a kinetic trap for RecA-based nucleoprotein filaments, impeding the assembly mechanism. Conversely, when the unpaired region is located directly adjacent to the assembly site, it leads to an increase in efficiency of RecA patterning owing to increased breathing of the assembly site.

  16. Additive manufacturing of tunable lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichting, Katja; Novak, Tobias; Heinrich, Andreas

    2017-02-01

    Individual additive manufacturing of optical systems based on 3D Printing offers varied possibilities in design and usage. In addition to the additive manufacturing procedure, the usage of tunable lenses allows further advantages for intelligent optical systems. Our goal is to bring the advantages of additive manufacturing together with the huge potential of tunable lenses. We produced tunable lenses as a bundle without any further processing steps, like polishing. The lenses were designed and directly printed with a 3D Printer as a package. The design contains the membrane as an optical part as well as the mechanical parts of the lens, like the attachments for the sleeves which contain the oil. The dynamic optical lenses were filled with an oil. The focal length of the lenses changes due to a change of the radius of curvature. This change is caused by changing the pressure in the inside of the lens. In addition to that, we designed lenses with special structures to obtain different areas with an individual optical power. We want to discuss the huge potential of this technology for several applications. Further, an appropriate controlling system is needed. Wéll show the possibilities to control and regulate the optical power of the lenses. The lenses could be used for illumination tasks, and in the future, for individual measurement tasks. The main advantage is the individuality and the possibility to create an individual design which completely fulfills the requirements for any specific application.

  17. Clinical effects of sulphite additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vally, H; Misso, N L A; Madan, V

    2009-11-01

    Sulphites are widely used as preservative and antioxidant additives in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Topical, oral or parenteral exposure to sulphites has been reported to induce a range of adverse clinical effects in sensitive individuals, ranging from dermatitis, urticaria, flushing, hypotension, abdominal pain and diarrhoea to life-threatening anaphylactic and asthmatic reactions. Exposure to the sulphites arises mainly from the consumption of foods and drinks that contain these additives; however, exposure may also occur through the use of pharmaceutical products, as well as in occupational settings. While contact sensitivity to sulphite additives in topical medications is increasingly being recognized, skin reactions also occur after ingestion of or parenteral exposure to sulphites. Most studies report a 3-10% prevalence of sulphite sensitivity among asthmatic subjects following ingestion of these additives. However, the severity of these reactions varies, and steroid-dependent asthmatics, those with marked airway hyperresponsiveness, and children with chronic asthma, appear to be at greater risk. In addition to episodic and acute symptoms, sulphites may also contribute to chronic skin and respiratory symptoms. To date, the mechanisms underlying sulphite sensitivity remain unclear, although a number of potential mechanisms have been proposed. Physicians should be aware of the range of clinical manifestations of sulphite sensitivity, as well as the potential sources of exposure. Minor modifications to diet or behaviour lead to excellent clinical outcomes for sulphite-sensitive individuals.

  18. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, and to prepare specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for eight food additives (Benzoe tonkinensis; carrageenan; citric and fatty acid esters of glycerol; gardenia yellow; lutein esters from Tagetes erecta; octenyl succinic acid-modified gum arabic; octenyl succinic acid-modified starch; paprika extract; and pectin) and eight groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbons; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; ionones and structurally related substances; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; phenol and phenol derivatives; phenyl-substituted aliphatic alcohols and related aldehydes and esters; and sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: citric acid; gellan gum; polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monostearate; potassium aluminium silicate; and Quillaia extract (Type 2). Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for dietary exposures to and toxicological evaluations of all of the food additives and flavouring agents considered at this meeting.

  19. [INVITED] Lasers in additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkerton, Andrew J.

    2016-04-01

    Additive manufacturing is a topic of considerable ongoing interest, with forecasts predicting it to have major impact on industry in the future. This paper focusses on the current status and potential future development of the technology, with particular reference to the role of lasers within it. It begins by making clear the types and roles of lasers in the different categories of additive manufacturing. This is followed by concise reviews of the economic benefits and disadvantages of the technology, current state of the market and use of additive manufacturing in different industries. Details of these fields are referenced rather than expanded in detail. The paper continues, focusing on current indicators to the future of additive manufacturing. Barriers to its development, trends and opportunities in major industrial sectors, and wider opportunities for its development are covered. Evidence indicates that additive manufacturing may not become the dominant manufacturing technology in all industries, but represents an excellent opportunity for lasers to increase their influence in manufacturing as a whole.

  20. Research of Deviation of Axes of Assembled Details at Assembly with Vibration

    OpenAIRE

    Mozga, N; Griņevičs, I

    2016-01-01

    Typical process of automatic assembly consists of many steps, such as loading of components, their feeding, orientation, fitting, control, transportation etc. But the most difficult and responsible step in the all-assembling processes is to make sure of interaction between components relative to each other on the assembling position with demanded accuracy.

  1. Assessing pooled BAC and whole genome shotgun strategies for assembly of complex genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feltus F

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigate if pooling BAC clones and sequencing the pools can provide for more accurate assembly of genome sequences than the "whole genome shotgun" (WGS approach. Furthermore, we quantify this accuracy increase. We compare the pooled BAC and WGS approaches using in silico simulations. Standard measures of assembly quality focus on assembly size and fragmentation, which are desirable for large whole genome assemblies. We propose additional measures enabling easy and visual comparison of assembly quality, such as rearrangements and redundant sequence content, relative to the known target sequence. Results The best assembly quality scores were obtained using 454 coverage of 15× linear and 5× paired (3kb insert size reads (15L-5P on Arabidopsis. This regime gave similarly good results on four additional plant genomes of very different GC and repeat contents. BAC pooling improved assembly scores over WGS assembly, coverage and redundancy scores improving the most. Conclusions BAC pooling works better than WGS, however, both require a physical map to order the scaffolds. Pool sizes up to 12Mbp work well, suggesting this pooling density to be effective in medium-scale re-sequencing applications such as targeted sequencing of QTL intervals for candidate gene discovery. Assuming the current Roche/454 Titanium sequencing limitations, a 12 Mbp region could be re-sequenced with a full plate of linear reads and a half plate of paired-end reads, yielding 15L-5P coverage after read pre-processing. Our simulation suggests that massively over-sequencing may not improve accuracy. Our scoring measures can be used generally to evaluate and compare results of simulated genome assemblies.

  2. Topology Optimization for Additive Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Anders

    This PhD thesis deals with the combination of topology optimization and additive man-ufacturing (AM, also known as 3D-printing). In addition to my own works, the thesis contains a broader review and assessment of the literature within the field. The thesis first presents a classification...... of the various AM technologies, a review of relevant manufacturing materials, the properties of these materials in the additively manufactured part, as well as manufacturing constraints with a potential for design optimization. Subsequently, specific topology optimization formulations relevant for the most im......-portant AM-related manufacturing constraints are presented. These constraints are di-vided into directional and non-directional constraints. Non-directional constraints include minimum/uniform length scale and a cavity constraint. It is shown that modified filter boundary conditions are required in order...

  3. Ruzsa's Constant on Additive Functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Hui FANG; Yong Gao CHEN

    2013-01-01

    A function f:N → R is called additive if f(mn) =f(m)+f(n) for all m,n with (m,n) =1.Let μ(x) =maxn≤x(f(n)-f(n + 1)) and v(x) =maxn≤x(f(n + 1)-f(n)).In 1979,Ruzsa proved that there exists a constant c such that for any additive function f,μ(x) ≤ cv(x2) + cf,where cf is a constant depending only on f.Denote by Raf the least such constant c.We call Raf Ruzsa's constant on additive functions.In this paper,we prove that Raf ≤ 20.

  4. Additive Manufacturing of Hybrid Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; Clem, Paul G.; Keicher, David; Hirschfeld, Deidre; Hall, Aaron C.; Bell, Nelson S.

    2016-07-01

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects. Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. Finally, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.

  5. Search for additional Higgs bosons

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Jochen; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Standard Model of particle physics is one of the most well-established theories in physics. However, it has some flaws which cannot be explained without physics beyond the Standard Model. Most of the theoretically explored extensions which provide potential solutions include further Higgs bosons in addition to the discovered resonance with the mass of about 125 GeV. This talk summarizes current efforts carried out by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations targeting at the discovery of further resonances. A variety of observables in multiple final states is studied and interpreted in terms of additional Higgs bosons predicted by selected models. Those additional bosons are not necessarily neutral, but could also be charged.

  6. Additional disulfide bonds in insulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Tine N; Pettersson, Ingrid; Huus, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    The structure of insulin, a glucose homeostasis-controlling hormone, is highly conserved in all vertebrates and stabilized by three disulfide bonds. Recently, we designed a novel insulin analogue containing a fourth disulfide bond located between positions A10-B4. The N-terminus of insulin's B......-chain is flexible and can adapt multiple conformations. We examined how well disulfide bond predictions algorithms could identify disulfide bonds in this region of insulin. In order to identify stable insulin analogues with additional disulfide bonds, which could be expressed, the Cβ cut-off distance had...... in comparison to analogues with additional disulfide bonds that were more difficult to predict. In contrast, addition of the fourth disulfide bond rendered all analogues resistant to fibrillation under stress conditions and all stable analogues bound to the insulin receptor with picomolar affinities. Thus...

  7. Portable Fan Assembly for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Arthur A.; Roman, Monsi C.

    1999-01-01

    NASA/ Marshall Space Flight Center (NASA/MSFC) is responsible for the design and fabrication of a Portable Fan Assembly (PFA) for the International Space Station (ISS). The PFA will be used to enhance ventilation inside the ISS modules as needed for crew comfort and for rack rotation. The PFA consists of the fan on-orbit replaceable unit (ORU) and two noise suppression packages (silencers). The fan ORU will have a mechanical interface with the Seat Track Equipment Anchor Assembly, in addition to the power supply module which includes a DC-DC converter, on/standby switch, speed control, power cable and connector. This paper provides a brief development history, including the criteria used for the fan, and a detailed description of the PFA operational configurations. Space Station requirements as well as fan performance characteristics are also discussed.

  8. Porous TiO2 Assembled from Monodispersed Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Duan, Weijie; Chen, Yan; Jiao, Shihui; Zhao, Yue; Kang, Yutang; Li, Lu; Fang, Zhenxing; Xu, Wei; Pang, Guangsheng

    2016-12-01

    Porous TiO2 were assembled by evaporating or refluxing TiO2 colloid, which was obtained by dispersing the TiO2 nanoparticles with a crystallite size (d XRD) of 3.2 nm into water or ethanol without any additives. Porous transparent bulk TiO2 was obtained by evaporating the TiO2-C2H5OH colloid at room temperature for 2 weeks, while porous TiO2 nanospheres were assembled by refluxing the TiO2-H2O colloid at 80 °C for 36 h. Both of the porous TiO2 architectures were pore-size-adjustable depending on the further treating temperature. Porous TiO2 nanospheres exhibited enhanced photocatalysis activity compared to the nanoparticles.

  9. CMS Silicon Tracker Module Assembly and Testing at FNAL

    CERN Document Server

    Coppage, Don; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Kahl, William E; Medel, E; Ronzhin, Anatoly; Sogut, Kenan; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Spiegel, Leonard; Ten, Timour Borisovich

    2005-01-01

    This note is intended to provide details on a recent activity at FNAL in which CMS Tracker Outer Barrel modules were assembled and tested as part of a qualification of some of the sensor fabrication lines. At the same time the note serves to document the assembly and testing operations at FNAL for CMS silicon tracker modules. Of the 88 modules produced fo the qualification study at FNAL, one module was outside the mechanical alignment specification. For module bonding an introduced failure rate of 4.0x10^-4 faults per channel was observed. Eighty-five of the modules passed the full set of electrical tests. Two of the failures could be attributed to the sensors and one to a problem with the front-end hybrid. Additionally, a couple of the passed modules drew unusually high leakage currents. The high current modules are discussed in some detail.

  10. CMS Silicon Tracker Module Assembly and Testing at FNAL

    CERN Document Server

    Coppage, Don; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Kahl, William E; Medel, E; Ronzhin, Anatoly; Sogut, Kenan; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Spiegel, Leonard; Ten, Timour Borisovich

    2005-01-01

    This note is intended to provide details on a recent activity at FNAL in which CMS Tracker Outer Barrel modules were assembled and tested as part of a qualification of some of the sensor fabrication lines. At the same time the note serves to document the assembly and testing operations at FNAL for CMS silicon tracker modules. Of the 88 modules produced fo the qualification study at FNAL, one module was outside the mechanical alignment specification. For module bonding an introduced failure rate of 4.0x10^-4 faults per channel was observed. Eighty-five of the modules passed the full set of electrical tests. Two of the failures could be attributed to the sensors and one to a problem with the front-end hybrid. Additionally, a couple of the passed modules drew unusually high leakage currents. The high current modules are discussed in some detail.

  11. Sequence dependent proton conduction in self-assembled peptide nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner Yardeni, Jenny; Amit, Moran; Ashkenasy, Gonen; Ashkenasy, Nurit

    2016-01-01

    The advancement of diverse electrochemistry technologies depends on the development of novel proton conducting polymers. Inspired by the efficacy of proton transport through proteins, we show in this work that self-assembling peptide nanostructures may be a promising alternative for such organic proton conducting materials. We demonstrate that aromatic amino acids, which participate in charge transport in nature, unprecedentedly promote proton conduction under both high and low relative humidity conditions for d,l α-cyclic peptide nanotubes. For dehydrated networks long-range order of the assemblies, induced by the aromatic side chains, is shown to be a dominating factor for promoting conductivity. However, for hydrated networks this order of effect is less significant and conductivity can be improved by the introduction of proton donating carboxylic acid peptide side chains in addition to the aromatic side chains despite the lower order of the assemblies. Based on these observations, a novel cyclic peptide that incorporates non-natural naphthyl side chains was designed. Self-assembled nanotubes of this peptide show greatly improved dehydrated conductivity, while maintaining high conductivity under hydrated conditions. We envision that the demonstrated modularity and versatility of these bio inspired nanostructures will make them extremely attractive building blocks for the fabrication of devices for energy conversion and storage applications, as well as other applications that involve proton transport, whether dry or wet conductivity is desired.The advancement of diverse electrochemistry technologies depends on the development of novel proton conducting polymers. Inspired by the efficacy of proton transport through proteins, we show in this work that self-assembling peptide nanostructures may be a promising alternative for such organic proton conducting materials. We demonstrate that aromatic amino acids, which participate in charge transport in nature

  12. Porous TiO2 Assembled from Monodispersed Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xu; Duan, Weijie; Chen, Yan; Jiao, Shihui; Zhao, Yue; Kang, Yutang; Li, Lu; Fang, Zhenxing; Xu, Wei; Pang, Guangsheng

    2016-01-01

    Porous TiO2 were assembled by evaporating or refluxing TiO2 colloid, which was obtained by dispersing the TiO2 nanoparticles with a crystallite size (d XRD) of 3.2 nm into water or ethanol without any additives. Porous transparent bulk TiO2 was obtained by evaporating the TiO2-C2H5OH colloid at room temperature for 2 weeks, while porous TiO2 nanospheres were assembled by refluxing the TiO2-H2O colloid at 80 °C for 36 h. Both of the porous TiO2 architectures were pore-size-adjustable depending...

  13. Opto-thermophoretic assembly of colloidal matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Linhan; Zhang, Jianli; Peng, Xiaolei; Wu, Zilong; Coughlan, Anna C H; Mao, Zhangming; Bevan, Michael A; Zheng, Yuebing

    2017-09-01

    Colloidal matter exhibits unique collective behaviors beyond what occurs at single-nanoparticle and atomic scales. Treating colloidal particles as building blocks, researchers are exploiting new strategies to rationally organize colloidal particles into complex structures for new functions and devices. Despite tremendous progress in directed assembly and self-assembly, a truly versatile assembly technique without specific functionalization of the colloidal particles remains elusive. We develop a new strategy to assemble colloidal matter under a light-controlled temperature field, which can solve challenges in the existing assembly techniques. By adding an anionic surfactant (that is, cetyltrimethylammonium chloride), which serves as a surface charge source, a macro ion, and a micellar depletant, we generate a light-controlled thermoelectric field to manipulate colloidal atoms and a depletion attraction force to assemble the colloidal atoms into two-dimensional (2D) colloidal matter. The general applicability of this opto-thermophoretic assembly (OTA) strategy allows us to build colloidal matter of diverse colloidal sizes (from subwavelength scale to micrometer scale) and materials (polymeric, dielectric, and metallic colloids) with versatile configurations and tunable bonding strengths and lengths. We further demonstrate that the incorporation of the thermoelectric field into the optical radiation force can achieve 3D reconfiguration of the colloidal matter. The OTA strategy releases the rigorous design rules required in the existing assembly techniques and enriches the structural complexity in colloidal matter, which will open a new window of opportunities for basic research on matter organization, advanced material design, and applications.

  14. Self-assembled nanogaps for molecular electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Qingxin; Tong, Yanhong; Jain, Titoo

    2009-01-01

    A nanogap for molecular devices was realized using solution-based self-assembly. Gold nanorods were assembled to gold nanoparticle-coated conducting SnO2:Sb nanowires via thiol end-capped oligo(phenylenevinylene)s (OPVs). The molecular gap was easily created by the rigid molecule itself during se...

  15. ATLAS: End-cap Toroid assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    In building 191 and building 180- assembly of this massive piece.To reach the top of the end-cap the cranes has to be used and during the assembly you can see welding and hear many tools running background.

  16. Assembly of the CMS hadronic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    The hadronic calorimeter is assembled on the end-cap of the CMS detector in the assembly hall. Hadronic calorimeters measure the energy of particles that interact via the strong force, called hadrons. The detectors are made in a sandwich-like structure where these scintillator tiles are placed between metal sheets.

  17. Research on Self-Assembling Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-10-30

    0K. in a second phase of this contract we turned our efforts to the fabrication and studies of self assembled quantum dots . We first demonstrated a...method for producing InAs-GasAs self assembled quantum dots (SAD) using MBE. (AN)

  18. CT Performance Evaluation Using Multi Material Assemblies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolfi, Alessandro; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    This paper concerns an investigation of the accuracy of Computed Tomography measurements using multi-material assemblies. In this study, assemblies involving similar densities for elementary parts were considered. The investigation includes dimensional and geometrical measurements of two 10 mm high...

  19. MTI Focal Plane Assembly Design and Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballard, M.; Rienstra, J.L.

    1999-06-17

    The focal plane assembly for the Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) consists of sensor chip assemblies, optical filters, and a vacuum enclosure. Sensor chip assemblies, composed of linear detector arrays and readout integrated circuits, provide spatial resolution in the cross-track direction for the pushbroom imager. Optical filters define 15 spectral bands in a range from 0.45 {micro}m to 10.7 {micro}m. All the detector arrays are mounted on a single focal plane and are designed to operate at 75 K. Three pairs of sensor chip assemblies (SCAs) are required to provide cross-track coverage in all 15 spectral bands. Each pair of SCAs includes detector arrays made from silicon, iridium antimonide, and mercury cadmium telluride. Read out integrated circuits multiplex the signals from the detectors to 18 separate video channels. Optical filter assemblies defining the spectral bands are mounted over the linear detector arrays. Each filter assembly consists of several filter strips bonded together side-by-side. The MTI focal plane assembly has been integrated with the rest of the payload and has undergone detailed testing and calibration. This paper includes representative test data for the various spectral bands and the overall performance of the focal plane assembly.

  20. Aerodynamic seal assemblies for turbo-machinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bidkar, Rahul Anil; Wolfe, Christopher; Fang, Biao

    2015-09-29

    The present application provides an aerodynamic seal assembly for use with a turbo-machine. The aerodynamic seal assembly may include a number of springs, a shoe connected to the springs, and a secondary seal positioned about the springs and the shoe.

  1. Uracil Excision for Assembly of Complex Pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaleiro, Mafalda; Nielsen, Morten Thrane; Kim, Se Hyeuk

    2015-01-01

    Despite decreasing prices on synthetic DNA constructs, higher-order assembly of PCR-generated DNA continues to be an important exercise in molecular and synthetic biology. Simplicity and robustness are attractive features met by the uracil excision DNA assembly method, which is one of the most in...

  2. Fibril assembly in whey protein mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolder, S.G.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to study fibril assembly in mixtures of whey proteins. The effect of the composition of the protein mixture on the structures and the resulting phase behaviour was investigated. The current work has shown that beta-lactoglobulin is responsible for the fibril assembly

  3. Hydrodynamically driven colloidal assembly in dip coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colosqui, Carlos E; Morris, Jeffrey F; Stone, Howard A

    2013-05-01

    We study the hydrodynamics of dip coating from a suspension and report a mechanism for colloidal assembly and pattern formation on smooth substrates. Below a critical withdrawal speed where the coating film is thinner than the particle diameter, capillary forces induced by deformation of the free surface prevent the convective transport of single particles through the meniscus beneath the film. Capillary-induced forces are balanced by hydrodynamic drag only after a minimum number of particles assemble within the meniscus. The particle assembly can thus enter the thin film where it moves at nearly the withdrawal speed and rapidly separates from the next assembly. The interplay between hydrodynamic and capillary forces produces periodic and regular structures below a critical ratio Ca(2/3)/sqrt[Bo] particles in suspension. The hydrodynamically driven assembly documented here is consistent with stripe pattern formations observed experimentally in dip coating.

  4. Structural Assembly Demonstration Experiment (SADE) experiment design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, D. L.; Bowden, M. L.

    1982-03-01

    The Structural Assembly Demonstration Experiment concept is to erect a hybrid deployed/assembled structure as an early space experiment in large space structures technology. The basic objectives can be broken down into three generic areas: (1) by performing assembly tasks both in space and in neutral buoyancy simulation, a mathematical basis will be found for the validity conditions of neutral buoyancy, thus enhancing the utility of water as a medium for simulation of weightlessness; (2) a data base will be established describing the capabilities and limitations of EVA crewmembers, including effects of such things as hardware size and crew restraints; and (3) experience of the M.I.T. Space Systems Lab in neutral buoyancy simulation of large space structures assembly indicates that the assembly procedure may create the largest loads that a structure will experience during its lifetime. Data obtained from the experiment will help establish an accurate loading model to aid designers of future space structures.

  5. Cable Harness Assembly Planning in Virtual Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jianhua; NING Ruxin; BAI Shuqing; WANG Bile

    2006-01-01

    Based on the analysis of characteristic of cable harness planning in virtual environment, a discrete control node modeling (DCNM) method of cable harness in virtual environment and the cable harness assembly routing technique based on it are proposed. DCNM converts a cable harness into continuous flexed line segments connected by a series of section center points, and the design can realize cable harness planning through controlling those control nodes. This method of cable harness routing in the virtual environment breaks the status that virtual assembly process planning is just suitable for the rigid components at present, and impulse the virtual assembly process planning to be more practical. Relation algorithms have been verified in a self-developed system named virtual cable harness assembly planning (VCHAP) system, and this VCHAP system has been applied in assembly process planning of aerospace-related products.

  6. Clean Industrial Room for Drift Tube Assembling

    CERN Document Server

    Glonti, GL; Evtoukhovitch, P G; Kroa, G; Manz, A; Potrap, I N; Rihter, P; Stoletov, G D; Tskhadadze, E G; Chepurnov, V F; Chirkov, A V; Shelkov, G A

    2001-01-01

    Description of a clean industrial room for assembly of drift tubes for the muon spectrometer of the ATLAS experiment is presented. High quality specifications on the detectors to be produced demanded creation of a workplace with stable temperature and humidity, as well as minimum quantity of dust in the room. Checking of parameters of intra-room air during long period of continuous work has been confirmed correctness of the designed characteristics of the climatic system installed in the clean room. The room large volum (\\sim 190 m^3), the powerful and flexible climatic system, and simplicity of service allow assembling of detectors with length up to 5 m. Subsequent checking of functionality of the assembled detectors has shown high quality of assembling (the amount of rejected tubes does not exceed 2 %). It demonstrates conformity to the assembling quality requirements for mass production of drift chambers for the muon spectrometer.

  7. Specific genomic cues regulate Cajal body assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Iain A; Hager, Gordon L; Dundr, Miroslav

    2016-10-07

    The assembly of specialized sub-nuclear microenvironments known as nuclear bodies (NBs) is important for promoting efficient nuclear function. In particular, the Cajal body (CB), a prominent NB that facilitates spliceosomal snRNP biogenesis, assembles in response to genomic cues. Here, we detail the factors that regulate CB assembly and structural maintenance. These include the importance of transcription at nucleating gene loci, the grouping of these genes on human chromosomes 1, 6 and 17, as well as cell cycle and biochemical regulation of CB protein function. We also speculate on the correlation between CB formation and RNA splicing levels in neurons and cancer. The timing and location of these specific molecular events is critical to CB assembly and its contribution to genome function. However, further work is required to explore the emerging biophysical characteristics of CB assembly and the impact upon subsequent genome reorganization.

  8. Quality Assessment of Domesticated Animal Genome Assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seemann, Stefan E; Anthon, Christian; Palasca, Oana; Gorodkin, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The era of high-throughput sequencing has made it relatively simple to sequence genomes and transcriptomes of individuals from many species. In order to analyze the resulting sequencing data, high-quality reference genome assemblies are required. However, this is still a major challenge, and many domesticated animal genomes still need to be sequenced deeper in order to produce high-quality assemblies. In the meanwhile, ironically, the extent to which RNAseq and other next-generation data is produced frequently far exceeds that of the genomic sequence. Furthermore, basic comparative analysis is often affected by the lack of genomic sequence. Herein, we quantify the quality of the genome assemblies of 20 domesticated animals and related species by assessing a range of measurable parameters, and we show that there is a positive correlation between the fraction of mappable reads from RNAseq data and genome assembly quality. We rank the genomes by their assembly quality and discuss the implications for genotype analyses.

  9. Liquid-liquid interfacial nanoparticle assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emrick, Todd S.; Russell, Thomas P.; Dinsmore, Anthony; Skaff, Habib; Lin, Yao

    2008-12-30

    Self-assembly of nanoparticles at the interface between two fluids, and methods to control such self-assembly process, e.g., the surface density of particles assembling at the interface; to utilize the assembled nanoparticles and their ligands in fabrication of capsules, where the elastic properties of the capsules can be varied from soft to tough; to develop capsules with well-defined porosities for ultimate use as delivery systems; and to develop chemistries whereby multiple ligands or ligands with multiple functionalities can be attached to the nanoparticles to promote the interfacial segregation and assembly of the nanoparticles. Certain embodiments use cadmium selenide (CdSe) nanoparticles, since the photoluminescence of the particles provides a convenient means by which the spatial location and organization of the particles can be probed. However, the systems and methodologies presented here are general and can, with suitable modification of the chemistries, be adapted to any type of nanoparticle.

  10. Vector assembly of colloids on monolayer substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lingxiang; Yang, Shenyu; Tsang, Boyce; Tu, Mei; Granick, Steve

    2017-06-01

    The key to spontaneous and directed assembly is to encode the desired assembly information to building blocks in a programmable and efficient way. In computer graphics, raster graphics encodes images on a single-pixel level, conferring fine details at the expense of large file sizes, whereas vector graphics encrypts shape information into vectors that allow small file sizes and operational transformations. Here, we adapt this raster/vector concept to a 2D colloidal system and realize `vector assembly' by manipulating particles on a colloidal monolayer substrate with optical tweezers. In contrast to raster assembly that assigns optical tweezers to each particle, vector assembly requires a minimal number of optical tweezers that allow operations like chain elongation and shortening. This vector approach enables simple uniform particles to form a vast collection of colloidal arenes and colloidenes, the spontaneous dissociation of which is achieved with precision and stage-by-stage complexity by simply removing the optical tweezers.

  11. Rotor blade assembly having internal loading features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soloway, Daniel David

    2017-05-16

    Rotor blade assemblies and wind turbines are provided. A rotor blade assembly includes a rotor blade having exterior surfaces defining a pressure side, a suction side, a leading edge and a trailing edge each extending between a tip and a root, the rotor blade defining a span and a chord, the exterior surfaces defining an interior of the rotor blade. The rotor blade assembly further includes a loading assembly, the loading assembly including a weight disposed within the interior and movable generally along the span of the rotor blade, the weight connected to a rotor blade component such that movement of the weight towards the tip causes application of a force to the rotor blade component by the weight. Centrifugal force due to rotation of the rotor blade biases the weight towards the tip.

  12. The selective addition of water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Resch, V.; Hanefeld, U.

    2014-01-01

    Water is omnipresent and essential. Yet at the same time it is a rather unreactive molecule. The direct addition of water to C[double bond, length as m-dash]C double bonds is therefore a challenge not answered convincingly. In this perspective we critically evaluate the selectivity and the applicabi

  13. Pragmatics in Court Interpreting: Additions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Bente

    2003-01-01

    Danish court interpreters are expected to follow ethical guidelines, which instruct them to deliver exact verbatim versions of source texts. However, this requirement often clashes with the reality of the interpreting situation in the courtroom. This paper presents and discusses the findings of a...... of an investigation regarding one kind of interpreter modification in particular: additions. The investigation was undertaken for a doctoral thesis....

  14. Additively manufactured porous tantalum implants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wauthle, Ruben; Van Der Stok, Johan; Yavari, Saber Amin; Van Humbeeck, Jan; Kruth, Jean Pierre; Zadpoor, Amir Abbas; Weinans, Harrie; Mulier, Michiel; Schrooten, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The medical device industry's interest in open porous, metallic biomaterials has increased in response to additive manufacturing techniques enabling the production of complex shapes that cannot be produced with conventional techniques. Tantalum is an important metal for medical devices because of it

  15. Nanobump assembly for plasmonic organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyung-Jun; Jung, Kinam; Lee, Gunhee; Ko, Youngjun; Lee, Jong-Kwon; Choi, Mansoo; Lee, Changhee

    2014-10-01

    We demonstrate novel plasmonic organic solar cells (OSCs) by embedding an easy processible nanobump assembly (NBA) for harnessing more light. The NBA is consisted of precisely size-controlled Ag nanoparticles (NPs) generated by an aerosol process at atmospheric pressure and thermally deposited molybdenum oxide (MoO3) layer which follows the underlying nano structure of NPs. The active layer, spin-casted polymer blend solution, has an undulated structure conformably covering the NBA structure. To find the optimal condition of the NBA structure for enhancing light harvest as well as carrier transfer, we systematically investigate the effect of the size of Ag NPs and the MoO3 coverage on the device performance. It is observed that the photocurrent of device increases as the size of Ag NP increases owing to enhanced plasmonic and scattering effect. In addition, the increased light absorption is effectively transferred to the photocurrent with small carrier losses, when the Ag NPs are fully covered by the MoO3 layer. As a result, the NBA structure consisted of 40 nm Ag NPs enclosed by 20 nm MoO3 layer leads to 18% improvement in the power conversion efficiency compared to the device without the NBA structure. Therefore, the NBA plasmonic structure provides a reliable and efficient light harvesting in a broad range of wavelength, which consequently enhances the performance of organic solar cells.

  16. Semaphorin signaling in vertebrate neural circuit assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka eYoshida

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Neural circuit formation requires the coordination of many complex developmental processes. First, neurons project axons over long distances to find their final targets and then establish appropriate connectivity essential for the formation of neuronal circuitry. Growth cones, the leading edges of axons, navigate by interacting with a variety of attractive and repulsive axon guidance cues along their trajectories and at final target regions. In addition to guidance of axons, neuronal polarization, neuronal migration and dendrite development must be precisely regulated during development to establish proper neural circuitry. Semaphorins consist of a large protein family, which includes secreted and cell surface proteins, and they play important roles in many steps of neural circuit formation. The major semaphorin receptors are plexins and neuropilins, however other receptors and co-receptors also mediate signaling by semaphorins. Upon semaphorin binding to their receptors, downstream signaling molecules transduce this event within cells to mediate further events, including alteration of microtubule and actin cytoskeletal dynamics. Here, I review recent studies on semaphorin signaling in vertebrate neural circuit assembly, with the goal of highlighting how this diverse family of cues and receptors imparts exquisite specificity to neural complex connectivity.

  17. Innovation in Layer-by-Layer Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Joseph J; Cui, Jiwei; Björnmalm, Mattias; Braunger, Julia A; Ejima, Hirotaka; Caruso, Frank

    2016-12-14

    Methods for depositing thin films are important in generating functional materials for diverse applications in a wide variety of fields. Over the last half-century, the layer-by-layer assembly of nanoscale films has received intense and growing interest. This has been fueled by innovation in the available materials and assembly technologies, as well as the film-characterization techniques. In this Review, we explore, discuss, and detail innovation in layer-by-layer assembly in terms of past and present developments, and we highlight how these might guide future advances. A particular focus is on conventional and early developments that have only recently regained interest in the layer-by-layer assembly field. We then review unconventional assemblies and approaches that have been gaining popularity, which include inorganic/organic hybrid materials, cells and tissues, and the use of stereocomplexation, patterning, and dip-pen lithography, to name a few. A relatively recent development is the use of layer-by-layer assembly materials and techniques to assemble films in a single continuous step. We name this "quasi"-layer-by-layer assembly and discuss the impacts and innovations surrounding this approach. Finally, the application of characterization methods to monitor and evaluate layer-by-layer assembly is discussed, as innovation in this area is often overlooked but is essential for development of the field. While we intend for this Review to be easily accessible and act as a guide to researchers new to layer-by-layer assembly, we also believe it will provide insight to current researchers in the field and help guide future developments and innovation.

  18. Multifunctional hybrid networks based on self assembling peptide sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathaye, Sameer

    loose packing can be attributed to the designed wedge and trough shapes of the peptides disturbing formation of a uniform bilayer type structure proposed in the case of MAX1 with each hairpin having a flat hydrophobic surface. Although designed changes in hydrophobic shape of the peptide nanofibril core in the new peptides were found to significantly influence the self-assembled nanostructure and network rheological behavior, a lack of direct morphological and rheological evidence to prove shape specific hydrophobic interactions between wedge and trough shaped beta-hairpins was encountered. In the second approach, peptides with established differences in assembly kinetics and bulk mechanical properties of assembled peptide hydrogels were used to develop composite materials with diverse morphological and mechanical properties by blending with the biopolymer hyaluronic acid. The diverse properties of the composites have been correlated to the specific peptide hydrogels used to develop the composite and the different stages of peptide assembly at which blending with hyaluronic acid was carried out. Finally along with overall conclusions, the new area of co-assembly of peptides in solution has been explored and discussed as potential future work following the research discussed in this dissertation. Strategies such as construction of composite hydrogels from blends of MAX1/MAX8 peptide hydrogels and biologically important anionic species such as heparin biopolymer and DNA have been discussed. Another area of future work discussed is the design and study of peptides that can incorporate chemically crosslinkable functional groups in their hydrophobic amino acid side chains that can be covalently crosslinked after peptide assembly into fibrils. Such covalent crosslinking can potentially lead to stiffer individual peptide fibrils due to additional bond formation at the fibrillar core and therefore much stiffer hydrogels due to a synergistic effect. These enhanced stiffness

  19. Optical Tweezer Assembly and Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Timothy M.

    2004-01-01

    An Optical Tweezer, as the name implies, is a useful tool for precision manipulation of micro and nano scale objects. Using the principle of electromagnetic radiation pressure, an optical tweezer employs a tightly focused laser beam to trap and position objects of various shapes and sizes. These devices can trap micrometer and nanometer sized objects. An exciting possibility for optical tweezers is its future potential to manipulate and assemble micro and nano sized sensors. A typical optical tweezer makes use of the following components: laser, mirrors, lenses, a high quality microscope, stage, Charge Coupled Device (CCD) camera, TV monitor and Position Sensitive Detectors (PSDs). The laser wavelength employed is typically in the visible or infrared spectrum. The laser beam is directed via mirrors and lenses into the microscope. It is then tightly focused by a high magnification, high numerical aperture microscope objective into the sample slide, which is mounted on a translating stage. The sample slide contains a sealed, small volume of fluid that the objects are suspended in. The most common objects trapped by optical tweezers are dielectric spheres. When trapped, a sphere will literally snap into and center itself in the laser beam. The PSD s are mounted in such a way to receive the backscatter after the beam has passed through the trap. PSD s used with the Differential Interference Contrast (DIC) technique provide highly precise data. Most optical tweezers employ lasers with power levels ranging from 10 to 100 miliwatts. Typical forces exerted on trapped objects are in the pico-newton range. When PSDs are employed, object movement can be resolved on a nanometer scale in a time range of milliseconds. Such accuracy, however, can only by utilized by calibrating the optical tweezer. Fortunately, an optical tweezer can be modeled accurately as a simple spring. This allows Hook s Law to be used. My goal this summer at NASA Glenn Research Center is the assembly and

  20. Unconventional assembly of bimetallic Au-Ni janus nanoparticles on chemically modified silica spheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Lei; Pei, Xiaowei; Zhou, Feng; Liu, Weimin

    2014-02-10

    This paper reports that Janus Au-Ni nanoparticles (JANNPs) can self-assemble onto silica spheres in a novel way, which is different from that of single-component isotropic nanoparticles. JANNPs modified with octadecylamine (ODA) assemble onto catechol-modified silica spheres (SiO2-OH) to form a very special core-loop complex structure and finally the core-loop assemblies link each other to form large assemblies through capillary force and the hydrophobic interaction of the alkyl chains of ODA. The nanocomposites disassemble in the presence of vanillin and oleic acid because of the breakage of the catechol-metal link. Vanillin-induced disassembly enables the JANNPs to reassemble into a core-loop structure upon ODA addition. The assembly of SiO2-OH and isotropic Ni or Fe3O4 particles generates traditional core-satellite structures. This unconventional self-assembly can be attributed to the synergistic effect of Janus specificity and capillary force, which is also confirmed by the assembly of thiol-terminated silica spheres (SH-SiO2) with anisotropic JANNPs, isotropic Au, and Ni nanoparticles. These results can guide the development of novel composite materials using Janus nanoparticles as the primary building blocks. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Ordered assembly of the V(D)J synaptic complex ensures accurate recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jessica M; Gellert, Martin

    2002-08-01

    Recombination of gene segments at the immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor loci requires that the RAG1 and RAG2 proteins bring together DNA signal sequences (RSSs) with 12- and 23-bp spacers into a synaptic complex and cleave the DNA. A RAG1/2 multimer that can cleave both signals is shown to assemble on an isolated RSS, and the complementary RSS enters this complex as naked DNA. When RAG1/2 is allowed to bind 12 and 23 RSSs separately prior to their mixing, synaptic complex assembly and cleavage activity are greatly reduced, indicating that only a complex initially assembled on a single RSS leads to productive cleavage. RAG1/2 complexes assembled on 12 RSSs will only incorporate 23 partners, while complexes assembled on 23 RSSs show a 5- to 6-fold preference for 12 partners. Thus, initial assembly on a 12 RSS most accurately reflects the strict 12/23 coupled cleavage observed in the cell. Additional cellular factors such as chromatin may ensure that RAG1/2 first assembles on a 12 RSS, and then a free 23 RSS enters to activate cleavage.

  2. Critical role of conserved hydrophobic residues within the major homology region in mature retroviral capsid assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, John G; Flanagan, John M; Ropson, Ira J; Rennoll-Bankert, Kristen E; Craven, Rebecca C

    2008-06-01

    During retroviral maturation, the CA protein undergoes dramatic structural changes and establishes unique intermolecular interfaces in the mature capsid shell that are different from those that existed in the immature precursor. The most conserved region of CA, the major homology region (MHR), has been implicated in both immature and mature assembly, although the precise contribution of the MHR residues to each event has been largely undefined. To test the roles of specific MHR residues in mature capsid assembly, an in vitro system was developed that allowed for the first-time formation of Rous sarcoma virus CA into structures resembling authentic capsids. The ability of CA to assemble organized structures was destroyed by substitutions of two conserved hydrophobic MHR residues and restored by second-site suppressors, demonstrating that these MHR residues are required for the proper assembly of mature capsids in addition to any role that these amino acids may play in immature particle assembly. The defect caused by the MHR mutations was identified as an early step in the capsid assembly process. The results provide strong evidence for a model in which the hydrophobic residues of the MHR control a conformational reorganization of CA that is needed to initiate capsid assembly and suggest that the formation of an interdomain interaction occurs early during maturation.

  3. Protocol for ADDITION-PRO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Nanna Borup; Hansen, Anne-Louise Smidt; Jensen, Troels M

    2012-01-01

    disease and microvascular diabetic complications. We also require a better understanding of the mechanisms that underlie and drive early changes in cardiometabolic physiology. The ADDITION-PRO study was designed to address these issues among individuals at different levels of diabetes risk recruited from...... Danish primary care. METHODS/DESIGN: ADDITION-PRO is a population-based, longitudinal cohort study of individuals at high risk for diabetes. 16,136 eligible individuals were identified at high risk following participation in a stepwise screening programme in Danish general practice between 2001 and 2006...... at high risk for diabetes. The detailed phenotyping of this cohort will also allow a number of research questions concerning early changes in cardiometabolic physiology to be addressed....

  4. The Frontiers of Additive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grote, Christopher John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-03

    Additive manufacturing, more commonly known as 3-D printing, has become a ubiquitous tool in science for its precise control over mechanical design. For additive manufacturing to work, a 3-D structure is split into thin 2D slices, and then different physical properties, such as photo-polymerization or melting, are used to grow the sequential layers. The level of control allows not only for devices to be made with a variety of materials: e.g. plastics, metals, and quantum dots, but to also have finely controlled structures leading to other novel properties. While 3-D printing is widely used by hobbyists for making models, it also has industrial applications in structural engineering, biological tissue scaffolding, customized electric circuitry, fuel cells, security, and more.

  5. Ice cream with additional value

    OpenAIRE

    Melicharová, Barbora

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor thesis is to summarise current knowledge about production and properties of ice cream with an additional value. Nowadays, incorporation of probiotics is considered as the most intensively studied possibility for functional ice cream manufacture. Their viability depends on the kind of a microorganism, for example bifidobacteria are mostly less stable than lactobacilli in ice cream matrix. Lactobacillus acidophilus AB518, AK414, Lactobacillus agilis AA1773, AC1888 and L...

  6. ADDITIONAL STREET BERBASIS APP INVENTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Adib Adhi Prabowo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Seiring dengan perkembangan sistem operasi android, telah banyak aplikasi yang memanfaatkan fasilitas GPS dan Google Map, seperti untuk mencari rute, mendapatkan peta, mencari lokasi tertentu pada sebuah tempat. Akan tetapi seringkali pengguna perangkat bergerak kesulitan ketika ingin mengetahui beberapa tempat dan lokasi tertentu karena belum ada fasilitas yang menyediakan informasi lokasi suatu tempat. Walaupun ada informasi lokasi pada peta biasanya informasi yang diberikan lokasi tempat berskala besar, misalnya lokasi tempat wisata atau stasiun kereta api. Pengembangan aplikasi untuk skala kecil ini akan memberikan informasi yang dipresentasikan pada google map. Selama ini belum ada yang memberikan sebuah informasi lokasi tempat penting yang berskala kecil. Misalnya informasi lokasi  tambal ban, lokasi warung makan, lokasi laundry, dan lokasi bengkel motor. Oleh karena itu kami mencoba untuk mengembangkan aplikasi additional street berbasis android via App Inventor dengan bantuan google maps. Aplikasi additional street ini dapat memberikan informasi letak objek pada peta serta memberikan informasi jalan menuju lokasi tersebut dan detail informasi lokasi tersebut serta lokasi dari pengguna aplikasi tersebut. Kata Kunci: additional street, android, google maps, app inventor, GPS

  7. Tweaking Synchronisation by Link Addition

    CERN Document Server

    Schultz, Paul; Eroglu, Deniz; Stemler, Thomas; Ávila, G Marcelo Ramírez; Rodrigues, Francisco A; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Natural and man-made networks often possess locally tree-like sub-structures. Taking such tree networks as our starting point, we show how the addition of links changes the synchronization properties of the network. We focus on two different methods of link addition. The first method adds single links that create cycles of a well-defined length. Following a topological approach we introduce cycles of varying length and analyze how this feature, as well as the position in the network, alters the synchronous behaviour. We show that in particular short cycles can lead to a maximum change of the Laplacian's eigenvalue spectrum, dictating the synchronization properties of such networks. The second method connects a certain proportion of the initially unconnected nodes. We simulate dynamical systems on these network topologies, with the nodes' local dynamics being either a discrete or continuous. Here our main result is that a certain amount of additional links, with the relative position in the network being cruci...

  8. Reversible Oxidative Addition at Carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, Antonius F; Fuchs, Sonja; Flock, Marco; Marder, Todd B; Radius, Udo

    2017-04-07

    The reactivity of N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) and cyclic alkyl amino carbenes (cAACs) with arylboronate esters is reported. The reaction with NHCs leads to the reversible formation of thermally stable Lewis acid/base adducts Ar-B(OR)2 ⋅NHC (Add1-Add6). Addition of cAAC(Me) to the catecholboronate esters 4-R-C6 H4 -Bcat (R=Me, OMe) also afforded the adducts 4-R-C6 H4 Bcat⋅cAAC(Me) (Add7, R=Me and Add8, R=OMe), which react further at room temperature to give the cAAC(Me) ring-expanded products RER1 and RER2. The boronate esters Ar-B(OR)2 of pinacol, neopentylglycol, and ethyleneglycol react with cAAC at RT via reversible B-C oxidative addition to the carbene carbon atom to afford cAAC(Me) (B{OR}2 )(Ar) (BCA1-BCA6). NMR studies of cAAC(Me) (Bneop)(4-Me-C6 H4 ) (BCA4) demonstrate the reversible nature of this oxidative addition process.

  9. Light-structured colloidal assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubret, Antoine; Mena, Youssef; Ramananarivo, Sophie; Sacanna, Stefano; Palacci, Jeremie; Palacci lab Team; Sacanna lab Team

    2016-11-01

    Self-propelled particles (SPP) are a key tool since they are of relative simplicity as compared to biological micro-entities and provide a higher level of control. They can convert an energy source into motion and work, and exhibit surprising non-equilibrium behavior. In our work, we focus on the manipulation of colloids using light. We exploit osmotic and phoretic effects to act on single and ensemble of colloids. The key mechanism relies on the photocatalytic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide using hematite, which triggers the motion of colloids around it when illuminated. We use hematite particles and particles with photocatalytic inclusions (i.e. SPP). We first show that the interactions between hematite and colloidal tracers can be tuned by adjusting the chemical environment. Furthermore, we report a phototaxic behavior (migration in light gradient) of the particles. From this, we explore the effect of spatio-temporal modulation of the light to control the motion of colloids at the single particle level, and to generate self-assembled colloidal structures through time and space. The so-formed structures are maintained by phoretic and hydrodynamic forces resulting from the motion of each particles. Ultimately, a dynamic light modulation may be a route for the creation of active colloidal motion on a collective scale through the synchronization of the individual motions of SPP. This work is supported by NSF CAREER DMR 1554724.

  10. High temperature control rod assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollman, R.E.

    1991-12-24

    This patent describes a control rod assembly for use in nuclear reactor control. It comprises segments, each the segment being made of a graphite composite material, each the segment having a chamber for containing neutron-absorbing material, wherein the chamber compromises a hollow cylindrical sleeve having a first end formed with an opening for receiving the neutron-absorbing material, and having a second end formed with a sleeve bore and an outer sleeve surface; a cylindrical weight-bearing support post positioned substantially centrally of the sleeve, the support post having a first end formed as a ball surface portion and a second end formed as a ball surface portion and a second end formed as a shaft, the shaft being engageable with the sleeve bore for rigidly coupling the support post axially within the hollow sleeve, a hollow cylindrical collar having a socket lip portion correspondingly shaped to receive the ball surface portion of an adjacent support post, and having an inner surface for engaging the outer sleeve surface on the second end of the sleeve to rigidly couple the collar to the sleeve.

  11. Theory of meiotic spindle assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furthauer, Sebastian; Foster, Peter; Needleman, Daniel; Shelley, Michael

    2016-11-01

    The meiotic spindle is a biological structure that self assembles from the intracellular medium to separate chromosomes during meiosis. It consists of filamentous microtubule (MT) proteins that interact through the fluid in which they are suspended and via the associated molecules that orchestrate their behavior. We aim to understand how the interplay between fluid medium, MTs, and regulatory proteins allows this material to self-organize into the spindle's highly stereotyped shape. To this end we develop a continuum model that treats the spindle as an active liquid crystal with MT turnover. In this active material, molecular motors, such as dyneins which collect MT minus ends and kinesins which slide MTs past each other, generate active fluid and material stresses. Moreover nucleator proteins that are advected with and transported along MTs control the nucleation and depolymerization of MTs. This theory captures the growth process of meiotic spindles, their shapes, and the essential features of many perturbation experiments. It thus provides a framework to think about the physics of this complex biological suspension.

  12. Morphological Studies on Sn-O Coordination Driving Self-assembly of Well-defined Organotin-containing Block Copolymers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Jiang; Wei Yan; Ling-yan Liu; Wei-xing Chang; Jing Li

    2014-01-01

    A tin-oxygen coordination driving self-assembly was developed in the block copolymers containing organotin,which were prepared by the radical addition-fraction transfer (RAFT) method and characterized by the gel-permeation chromatography (GPC) and 1H-NMR.And the self-assemblies of these block copolymers with various chain length ratios in the different concenaations in CHCl3 were stable according to the results of DLS and TEM.Additionally,it was also given an insight investigation on the regulation of self-assembly of the block copolymers by adding dibutyltin dichloride and a possible mechanism was proposed.

  13. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to recommending acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation and assessment of intake of food additives (in particular, flavouring agents). A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and intake data for certain food additives (asparaginase from Aspergillus niger expressed in A. niger, calcium lignosulfonate (40-65), ethyl lauroyl arginate, paprika extract, phospholipase C expressed in Pichia pastoris, phytosterols, phytostanols and their esters, polydimethylsiloxane, steviol glycosides and sulfites [assessment of dietary exposure]) and 10 groups of related flavouring agents (aliphatic branched-chain saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; alkoxy-substituted allylbenzenes present in foods and essential oils and used as flavouring agents; esters of aliphatic acyclic primary alcohols with aliphatic linear saturated carboxylic acids; furan-substituted aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; hydroxy- and alkoxy-substituted benzyl derivatives; and substances structurally related to menthol). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: canthaxanthin; carob bean gum and carob bean gum (clarified); chlorophyllin copper complexes, sodium and potassium salts; Fast Green FCF; guar gum and guar gum (clarified

  14. Fire-Retardant Polymeric Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martha K.; Smith, Trent M.

    2011-01-01

    Polyhydroxyamide (PHA) and polymethoxyamide (PMeOA) are fire-retardant (FR) thermoplastic polymers and have been found to be useful as an additive for imparting fire retardant properties to other compatible, thermoplastic polymers (including some elastomers). Examples of compatible flammable polymers include nylons, polyesters, and acrylics. Unlike most prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not appreciably degrade the mechanical properties of the matrix polymer; indeed, in some cases, mechanical properties are enhanced. Also, unlike some prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not decompose into large amounts of corrosive or toxic compounds during combustion and can be processed at elevated temperatures. PMeOA derivative formulations were synthesized and used as an FR additive in the fabrication of polyamide (PA) and polystyrene (PS) composites with notable reduction (>30 percent for PS) in peak heat release rates compared to the neat polymer as measured by a Cone Calorimeter (ASTM E1354). Synergistic effects were noted with nanosilica composites. These nanosilica composites had more than 50-percent reduction in peak heat release rates. In a typical application, a flammable thermoplastic, thermoplastic blend, or elastomer that one seeks to render flame-retardant is first dry-mixed with PHA or PMeOA or derivative thereof. The proportion of PHA or PMeOA or derivative in the mixture is typically chosen to lie between 1 and 20 weight percent. The dry blend can then be melt-extruded. The extruded polymer blend can further be extruded and/or molded into fibers, pipes, or any other of a variety of objects that may be required to be fire-retardant. The physical and chemical mechanisms which impart flame retardancy of the additive include inhibiting free-radical oxidation in the vapor phase, preventing vaporization of fuel (the polymer), and cooling through the formation of chemical bonds in either the vapor or the condensed phase. Under thermal stress, the cyclic hydroxyl/ methoxy

  15. Assembly of the Escherichia coli NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (respiratory complex I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Thorsten; Dekovic, Doris Kreuzer; Burschel, Sabrina

    2016-03-01

    Energy-converting NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase, respiratory complex I, couples the electron transfer from NADH to ubiquinone with the translocation of four protons across the membrane. The Escherichia coli complex I is made up of 13 different subunits encoded by the so-called nuo-genes. The electron transfer is catalyzed by nine cofactors, a flavin mononucleotide and eight iron-sulfur (Fe/S)-clusters. The individual subunits and the cofactors have to be assembled together in a coordinated way to guarantee the biogenesis of the active holoenzyme. Only little is known about the assembly of the bacterial complex compared to the mitochondrial one. Due to the presence of so many Fe/S-clusters the assembly of complex I is intimately connected with the systems responsible for the biogenesis of these clusters. In addition, a few other proteins have been reported to be required for an effective assembly of the complex in other bacteria. The proposed role of known bacterial assembly factors is discussed and the information from other bacterial species is used in this review to draw an as complete as possible model of bacterial complex I assembly. In addition, the supramolecular organization of the complex in E. coli is briefly described. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Organization and dynamics of bioenergetic systems in bacteria, edited by Prof. Conrad Mullineaux.

  16. The assembly dynamics of the cytolytic pore toxin ClyA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benke, Stephan; Roderer, Daniel; Wunderlich, Bengt; Nettels, Daniel; Glockshuber, Rudi; Schuler, Benjamin

    2015-02-01

    Pore-forming toxins are protein assemblies used by many organisms to disrupt the membranes of target cells. They are expressed as soluble monomers that assemble spontaneously into multimeric pores. However, owing to their complexity, the assembly processes have not been resolved in detail for any pore-forming toxin. To determine the assembly mechanism for the ring-shaped, homododecameric pore of the bacterial cytolytic toxin ClyA, we collected a diverse set of kinetic data using single-molecule spectroscopy and complementary techniques on timescales from milliseconds to hours, and from picomolar to micromolar ClyA concentrations. The entire range of experimental results can be explained quantitatively by a surprisingly simple mechanism. First, addition of the detergent n-dodecyl-β-D-maltopyranoside to the soluble monomers triggers the formation of assembly-competent toxin subunits, accompanied by the transient formation of a molten-globule-like intermediate. Then, all sterically compatible oligomers contribute to assembly, which greatly enhances the efficiency of pore formation compared with simple monomer addition.

  17. The tile assembly model is intrinsically universal

    CERN Document Server

    Doty, David; Patitz, Matthew J; Schweller, Robert T; Summers, Scott M; Woods, Damien

    2011-01-01

    We prove that the abstract Tile Assembly Model (aTAM) of nanoscale self-assembly is intrinsically universal. This means that there is a single tile assembly system U that, with proper initialization, simulates any tile assembly system T. The simulation is "intrinsic" in the sense that the self-assembly process carried out by U is exactly that carried out by T, with each tile of T represented by an m x m "supertile" of U. Our construction works for the full aTAM at any temperature, and it faithfully simulates the deterministic or nondeterministic behavior of each T. Our construction succeeds by solving an analog of the cell differentiation problem in developmental biology: Each supertile of U, starting with those in the seed assembly, carries the "genome" of the simulated system T. At each location of a potential supertile in the self-assembly of U, a decision is made whether and how to express this genome, i.e., whether to generate a supertile and, if so, which tile of T it will represent. This decision must ...

  18. Constraints on Assembly Bias from Galaxy Clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Zentner, Andrew R; Bosch, Frank C van den; Lange, Johannes U; Villarreal, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    We constrain the newly-introduced decorated Halo Occupation Distribution (HOD) model using SDSS DR7 measurements of projected galaxy clustering or r-band luminosity threshold samples. The decorated HOD is a model for the galaxy-halo connection that augments the HOD by allowing for the possibility of galaxy assembly bias: galaxy luminosity may be correlated with dark matter halo properties besides mass, Mvir. We demonstrate that it is not possible to rule out galaxy assembly bias using DR7 measurements of galaxy clustering alone. Moreover, galaxy samples with Mr < -20 and Mr < -20.5 favor strong central galaxy assembly bias. These samples prefer scenarios in which high-concentration are more likely to host a central galaxy relative to low-concentration halos of the same mass. We exclude zero assembly bias with high significance for these samples. Satellite galaxy assembly bias is significant for the faintest sample, Mr < -19. We find no evidence for assembly bias in the Mr < -21 sample. Assembly bi...

  19. Mechanical Self-Assembly Science and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical Self-Assembly: Science and Applications introduces a novel category of self-assembly driven by mechanical forces. This book discusses self-assembly in various types of small material structures including thin films, surfaces, and micro- and nano-wires, as well as the practice's potential application in micro and nanoelectronics, MEMS/NEMS, and biomedical engineering. The mechanical self-assembly process is inherently quick, simple, and cost-effective, as well as accessible to a large number of materials, such as curved surfaces for forming three-dimensional small structures. Mechanical self-assembly is complementary to, and sometimes offer advantages over, the traditional micro- and nano-fabrication. This book also: Presents a highly original aspect of the science of self-assembly Describes the novel methods of mechanical assembly used to fabricate a variety of new three-dimensional material structures in simple and cost-effective ways Provides simple insights to a number of biological systems and ...

  20. Composite panel, wall assembly and components therefor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, P.J.

    1988-12-20

    This invention is concerned with improvements in wall assemblies made of a plurality of composite wall panels, such as concrete wall panels, and components and connectors for such assemblies. The invention is also concerned with a method of making such composite wall panels by molding concrete to form a concrete panel. It is particularly applicable for the provision of upstanding walls around oil tanks and hydrocarbon storage facilities, thereby to form part of a containment structure that can satisfy safety regulations for spills around such facilities. In accordance with another aspect of the invention, there is provided a composite building product comprising a concrete panel, said panel being obtained by molding a respective concrete composition. The panel has at least one metal hinge element integrally secured at a respective peripheral edge, with said metal hinge element being secured at the panel to project sufficiently therefrom so as to present a first hinge element. Several of the panels can be connected in a corral-type wall assembly in a variety of configuration. Another aspect of the invention provides, for use in a wall assembly, a portable composite panel comprising a concrete panel body, which is obtained by molding a respective concrete composition; and a frame assembly for reinforcing the peripheral edges of said concrete panel body. The frame assembly includes at least one metal member for provision of a first hing element for connecting a plurality of said panels in a corral-type wall assembly. 7 figs.

  1. Self and directed assembly: people and molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony D. James

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Self-assembly and directed-assembly are two very important aspects of supramolecular chemistry. As a young postgraduate student working in Canada with Tom Fyles my introduction to Supramolecular Chemistry was through the self-assembly of phospholipid membranes to form vesicles for which we were developing unimolecular and self-assembling transporter molecules. The next stage of my development as a scientist was in Japan with Seiji Shinkai where in a “Eureka” moment, the boronic acid templating unit (directed-assembly of Wulff was combined with photoinduced electron transfer systems pioneered by De Silva. The result was a turn-on fluorescence sensor for saccharides; this simple result has continued to fuel my research to the present day. Throughout my career as well as assembling molecules, I have enjoyed bringing together researchers in order to develop collaborative networks. This is where molecules meet people resulting in assemblies worth more than the individual “molecule” or “researcher”. My role in developing networks with Japan was rewarded by the award of a Daiwa-Adrian Prize in 2013 and I was recently rewarded for developing networks with China with an Inaugural CASE Prize in 2015.

  2. Design improvement for fretting-wear reduction of HANARO fuel assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Yeong Garp; Chae, H. T.; Ryu, J. S.; Kim, H. R

    2000-06-01

    In the course of the visual inspection of the fuel assemblies un-loaded from the reactor core in December 1996, it was observed that many of fuel assemblies had mechanical damages on some components. The major damage was the freting-wear on spacer plates and endplates due to the flow induced vibration of the fuel assembly in the flow tube. Since the reactor is activated and the system modification for complete removal of the driving factors of the vibration of fuel assemblies is practically very difficult, the focus has been on the design change of the fuel assemblies. Consequently, various design changes were proposed to strengthen the wear resistance of the components based on the evaluation of the visual inspection results. The validity of the proposals was verified through the performance tests for the modified components, and the vibration test and endurance test for the fuel assemblies using the single-channel test rig(SCTR) in AECL.The subsequent design changes were additionally proposed based on the visual inspections for the fuel assemblies that had been fabricated according to the first design change and loaded in the core. As the effects of the first design change, the fretting-wear of spacer plates was remarkably reduced and the period until fretting-wear damage was extended by 60% for the first modified 36-rod fuel assembly. It is too early to say the endurance life time for the first modified 18-rod fuel assembly because of insufficient statistical data of only two bundles damaged, but the fretting-wear at the bottom endplate slot was reduced to about 50%. The second modified fuel assemblies, that were not loaded into the core yet, are expected to meet the design requirements for the core residence time due to strengthening the weak parts from the fretting-wear point of view. This report describes design changes and tests for fuel assemblies of HANARO to reduce the fretting-wear, and estimates the effects of design improvement quantitatively compared

  3. Self-Assembly in Micro- and Nanofluidic Devices: A Review of Recent Efforts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwa Seng Khoo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Self-assembly in micro- and nanofluidic devices has been the focus of much attention in recent years. This is not only due to their advantages of self-assembling with fine temporal and spatial control in addition to continuous processing that is not easily accessible in conventional batch procedures, but they have evolved to become indispensable tools to localize and assimilate micro- and nanocomponents into numerous applications, such as bioelectronics, drug delivery, photonics, novel microelectronic architectures, building blocks for tissue engineering and metamaterials, and nanomedicine. This review aims to focus on the most recent advancements and characteristic investigations on the self-assembly of micro- and nanoscopic objects in micro- and nanofluidic devices. Emphasis is placed on the salient aspects of this technology in terms of the types of micro- and nanomaterials being assembled, the principles and methodologies, as well as their novel applications.

  4. Spherical assemblies formed from π-conjugated alternating copolymers having fluorene and thiophene components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yohei; Tong, Liang

    2014-03-01

    Self-assembly of conducting polymers were comprehensively studied by means of slow precipitation from polymer solutions upon addition of a vapor of nonsolvents. Polymers such as polyfluorene and polythiophene hardly formed defined and discrete objects but only gave ill-defined aggregates. In contrast, some alternating copolymers having both fluorene and thiophene components in their repeating unit self-assembled into well-shaped spheres with sub-micrometer to several micrometer in the diameters. The differences in the assembling geometries derive from the crystallinity of the polymers, where the copolymers possess large steric hindrance on their backbone that reduces planarity of the polymers and inhibits anisotropic crystal growth. Changing the assembling parameters can systematically control diameter and deviation of the spheres.

  5. NxRepair: error correction in de novo sequence assembly using Nextera mate pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Rebecca R; O'Connell, Jared; Cox, Anthony J; Schulz-Trieglaff, Ole

    2015-01-01

    Scaffolding errors and incorrect repeat disambiguation during de novo assembly can result in large scale misassemblies in draft genomes. Nextera mate pair sequencing data provide additional information to resolve assembly ambiguities during scaffolding. Here, we introduce NxRepair, an open source toolkit for error correction in de novo assemblies that uses Nextera mate pair libraries to identify and correct large-scale errors. We show that NxRepair can identify and correct large scaffolding errors, without use of a reference sequence, resulting in quantitative improvements in the assembly quality. NxRepair can be downloaded from GitHub or PyPI, the Python Package Index; a tutorial and user documentation are also available.

  6. Assemblies of pore-forming toxins visualized by atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Neval; Kobayashi, Toshihide

    2016-03-01

    A number of pore-forming toxins (PFTs) can assemble on lipid membranes through their specific interactions with lipids. The oligomeric assemblies of some PFTs have been successfully revealed either by electron microscopy (EM) and/or atomic force microscopy (AFM). Unlike EM, AFM imaging can be performed under physiological conditions, enabling the real-time visualization of PFT assembly and the transition from the prepore state, in which the toxin does not span the membrane, to the pore state. In addition to characterizing PFT oligomers, AFM has also been used to examine toxin-induced alterations in membrane organization. In this review, we summarize the contributions of AFM to the understanding of both PFT assembly and PFT-induced membrane reorganization. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Pore-Forming Toxins edited by Mauro Dalla Serra and Franco Gambale.

  7. NxRepair: error correction in de novo sequence assembly using Nextera mate pairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca R. Murphy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Scaffolding errors and incorrect repeat disambiguation during de novo assembly can result in large scale misassemblies in draft genomes. Nextera mate pair sequencing data provide additional information to resolve assembly ambiguities during scaffolding. Here, we introduce NxRepair, an open source toolkit for error correction in de novo assemblies that uses Nextera mate pair libraries to identify and correct large-scale errors. We show that NxRepair can identify and correct large scaffolding errors, without use of a reference sequence, resulting in quantitative improvements in the assembly quality. NxRepair can be downloaded from GitHub or PyPI, the Python Package Index; a tutorial and user documentation are also available.

  8. Directed Self-Assembly of Nanodispersions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furst, Eric M [University of Delaware

    2013-11-15

    Directed self-assembly promises to be the technologically and economically optimal approach to industrial-scale nanotechnology, and will enable the realization of inexpensive, reproducible and active nanostructured materials with tailored photonic, transport and mechanical properties. These new nanomaterials will play a critical role in meeting the 21st century grand challenges of the US, including energy diversity and sustainability, national security and economic competitiveness. The goal of this work was to develop and fundamentally validate methods of directed selfassembly of nanomaterials and nanodispersion processing. The specific aims were: 1. Nanocolloid self-assembly and interactions in AC electric fields. In an effort to reduce the particle sizes used in AC electric field self-assembly to lengthscales, we propose detailed characterizations of field-driven structures and studies of the fundamental underlying particle interactions. We will utilize microscopy and light scattering to assess order-disorder transitions and self-assembled structures under a variety of field and physicochemical conditions. Optical trapping will be used to measure particle interactions. These experiments will be synergetic with calculations of the particle polarizability, enabling us to both validate interactions and predict the order-disorder transition for nanocolloids. 2. Assembly of anisotropic nanocolloids. Particle shape has profound effects on structure and flow behavior of dispersions, and greatly complicates their processing and self-assembly. The methods developed to study the self-assembled structures and underlying particle interactions for dispersions of isotropic nanocolloids will be extended to systems composed of anisotropic particles. This report reviews several key advances that have been made during this project, including, (1) advances in the measurement of particle polarization mechanisms underlying field-directed self-assembly, and (2) progress in the

  9. Object-Oriented Modeling of Virtual Assembly Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhengTaixiong; HeYulin; 等

    2002-01-01

    Virtual assembly is a Virtual Reality(VR) based engineering application which allows engineers to evaluate,analyze,and plan the assembly of mechanical systems,To model the virtual assembly process,new methodology must be applied.Based on the idea that the virtual assembly system is an event driven system,the interactive behavior and information model is proposed to describe the dynamic process of virtual assembly.Definition of the objectoriented model of virtual assembly is put forward.

  10. Seismic response of nuclear fuel assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hlaváč Z.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with mathematical modelling and computer simulation of the seismic response of fuel assembly components. The seismic response is investigated by numerical integration method in time domain. The seismic excitation is given by two horizontal and one vertical synthetic accelerograms at the level of the pressure vessel seating. Dynamic response of the hexagonal type nuclear fuel assembly is caused by spatial motion of the support plates in the reactor core investigated on the reactor global model. The modal synthesis method with condensation is used for calculation of the fuel assembly component displacements and speeds on the level of the spacer grid cells.

  11. MAS NMR of HIV-1 protein assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suiter, Christopher L.; Quinn, Caitlin M.; Lu, Manman; Hou, Guangjin; Zhang, Huilan; Polenova, Tatyana

    2015-04-01

    The negative global impact of the AIDS pandemic is well known. In this perspective article, the utility of magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy to answer pressing questions related to the structure and dynamics of HIV-1 protein assemblies is examined. In recent years, MAS NMR has undergone major technological developments enabling studies of large viral assemblies. We discuss some of these evolving methods and technologies and provide a perspective on the current state of MAS NMR as applied to the investigations into structure and dynamics of HIV-1 assemblies of CA capsid protein and of Gag maturation intermediates.

  12. System and method for conveying an assembly

    KAUST Repository

    Eitelhuber, Georg

    2015-01-15

    An apparatus, system, and method for conveying an assembly along a track. A rail can include a first planar side, a second planar side, and a third planar side. The first, second, and third planar sides can be arranged to form at least two acute angles. A carriage assembly can include a drive wheel and at least two roller sets. The drive wheel can be configured to contact the first planar side and is configured to translate the carriage assembly along the rail. The at least two roller sets can be configured to contact the two other sides to maintain the carriage in contact with the rail.

  13. Thermal battery automated assembly station conceptual design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, D

    1988-08-01

    Thermal battery assembly involves many operations which are labor- intense. In August 1986, a project team was formed at GE Neutron Devices to investigate and evaluate more efficient and productive battery assembly techniques through the use of automation. The result of this study was the acceptance of a plan to automate the piece part pellet fabrication and battery stacking operations by using computerized pellet presses and robots which would be integrated by a main computer. This report details the conceptual design and development plan to be followed in the fabrication, development, and implementation of a thermal battery automated assembly station. 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  14. Mudular Product Families and Assembly Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jesper

    of modular product families and the interacting assembly system.   The thesis reviews extant theory and provides various classifications and discussions guided by the overall theme of product modularity and assembly systems. The empirical system analysis, based upon a longitudinal single case study......, articulates a system model incorporating both structural and performance elements. The extensive and detailed case analysis provides the necessary insight into the specific variables associated with the complex configuration of modular products and assembly systems.   Based upon the system model a number...

  15. Classification of assembly techniques for micro products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Tosello, Guido; Gegeckaite, Asta

    2005-01-01

    Industrial production of micro products to be introduced in the market has to be reliable, fast, carried out at a reasonable price and in an acceptable quantity. One of the crucial steps in the process chain related to micro product manufacture is the assembly phase. Here components are handled...... of components and level of integration are made. This paper describes a systematic characterization of micro assembly methods. This methodology offers the opportunity of a cross comparison among different techniques to gain a choosing principle of the favourable micro assembly technology in a specific case...

  16. Analysis of Human Communication during Assembly Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    AD-A7l 43 ANALYSIS OF HUMAN COMMUNICATION DURING ASSEMBLY TASKS in1(U) CRNEGIE-MELLO UNIY PITTSBURGH PA ROBOTICS INST UNCLSSIIEDK S BARBER ET AL...ao I Dur~~~~IngAbcbyTs; 7c .S:in i lSAo .0. Analysis of Human Communication During Assembly Tasks K. Suzanne Barber and Gerald J. Agin CMU-RI-TR-86-1...TYPE or REPORT & PE-Rioo CevCZaz Analysis of Human Communication During Assembly Inlterim Tasks I . PERFORMING 00RG. REPORT NUMBER 1. £UT~oOR~e) IL

  17. Aerobrake assembly with minimum Space Station accommodation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzberg, Steven J.; Butler, David H.; Doggett, William R.; Russell, James W.; Hurban, Theresa

    1991-01-01

    The minimum Space Station Freedom accommodations required for initial assembly, repair, and refurbishment of the Lunar aerobrake were investigated. Baseline Space Station Freedom support services were assumed, as well as reasonable earth-to-orbit possibilities. A set of three aerobrake configurations representative of the major themes in aerobraking were developed. Structural assembly concepts, along with on-orbit assembly and refurbishment scenarios were created. The scenarios were exercised to identify required Space Station Freedom accommodations. Finally, important areas for follow-on study were also identified.

  18. Irradiated MTR fuel assemblies sipping test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrotta, J.A.; Terremoto, Luis A.A.; Zeituni, Carlos A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Div. de Engenharia do Nucleo

    1997-10-01

    This paper describes the procedure and methodology used to perform sipping test with the IEA-R1 fuel assemblies at the storage pool, and presents the results obtained for Cs-137 sipping water activity for each fuel assembly analyzed. Discussion is made correlating corrosion pits to the activity values measured. A Cs-137 leaking rate is determined which can be compared to the criteria established for canning spent fuel assemblies inside the pool of for shipment abroad. 3 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Fullerene assemblies toward photo-energy conversions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yanfei; Nakanishi, Takashi

    2014-04-28

    Manipulating molecular interaction and assembly for developing various functional nanostructures with controlled dimensionality, morphology and tailored properties is currently a research focus in molecular science and materials chemistry. Particularly, the self-organization of fullerenes (i.e. C60) to form various functional assemblies has received intense interest since it can provide excellent optoelectronic properties for photo-energy conversion-induced applications such as solar cells and field effect transistors (FET). In this perspective, we describe our recent efforts toward the development in the area of fullerene molecular design and assemblies aimed at improving the photoconductivity and photo-energy (electric and thermal) conversion systems.

  20. Lightweight IMM PV Flexible Blanket Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Deployable Space Systems (DSS) has developed an inverted metamorphic multijunction (IMM) photovoltaic (PV) integrated modular blanket assembly (IMBA) that can be rolled or z-folded. This IMM PV IMBA technology enables a revolutionary flexible PV blanket assembly that provides high specific power, exceptional stowed packaging efficiency, and high-voltage operation capability. DSS's technology also accommodates standard third-generation triple junction (ZTJ) PV device technologies to provide significantly improved performance over the current state of the art. This SBIR project demonstrated prototype, flight-like IMM PV IMBA panel assemblies specifically developed, designed, and optimized for NASA's high-voltage solar array missions.