WorldWideScience

Sample records for two-branch microfluidic network

  1. Spontaneous oscillations in microfluidic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Daniel; Angilella, Jean-Regis; Motter, Adilson

    2017-11-01

    Precisely controlling flows within microfluidic systems is often difficult which typically results in systems being heavily reliant on numerous external pumps and computers. Here, I present a simple microfluidic network that exhibits flow rate switching, bistablity, and spontaneous oscillations controlled by a single pressure. That is, by solely changing the driving pressure, it is possible to switch between an oscillating and steady flow state. Such functionality does not rely on external hardware and may even serve as an on-chip memory or timing mechanism. I use an analytic model and rigorous fluid dynamics simulations to show these results.

  2. Reversible Control of Anisotropic Electrical Conductivity using Colloidal Microfluidic Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beskok, Ali; Bevan, Michael; Lagoudas, Dimitris; Ounaies, Zoubeida; Bahukudumbi, Pradipkumar; Everett, William

    2007-01-01

    This research addresses the tunable assembly of reversible colloidal structures within microfluidic networks to engineer multifunctional materials that exhibit a wide range of electrical properties...

  3. Fabrication and Operation of Microfluidic Hanging-Drop Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misun, Patrick M; Birchler, Axel K; Lang, Moritz; Hierlemann, Andreas; Frey, Olivier

    2018-01-01

    The hanging-drop network (HDN) is a technology platform based on a completely open microfluidic network at the bottom of an inverted, surface-patterned substrate. The platform is predominantly used for the formation, culturing, and interaction of self-assembled spherical microtissues (spheroids) under precisely controlled flow conditions. Here, we describe design, fabrication, and operation of microfluidic hanging-drop networks.

  4. Coding/decoding and reversibility of droplet trains in microfluidic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuerstman, Michael J; Garstecki, Piotr; Whitesides, George M

    2007-02-09

    Droplets of one liquid suspended in a second, immiscible liquid move through a microfluidic device in which a channel splits into two branches that reconnect downstream. The droplets choose a path based on the number of droplets that occupy each branch. The interaction among droplets in the channels results in complex sequences of path selection. The linearity of the flow through the microchannels, however, ensures that the behavior of the system can be reversed. This reversibility makes it possible to encrypt and decrypt signals coded in the intervals between droplets. The encoding/decoding device is a functional microfluidic system that requires droplets to navigate a network in a precise manner without the use of valves, switches, or other means of external control.

  5. Construction of programmable interconnected 3D microfluidic networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunziker, Patrick R; Wolf, Marc P; Wang, Xueya; Zhang, Bei; Marsch, Stephan; Salieb-Beugelaar, Georgette B

    2015-01-01

    Microfluidic systems represent a key-enabling platform for novel diagnostic tools for use at the point-of-care in clinical contexts as well as for evolving single cell diagnostics. The design of 3D microfluidic systems is an active field of development, but construction of true interconnected 3D microfluidic networks is still a challenge, in particular when the goal is rapid prototyping, accurate design and flexibility. We report a novel approach for the construction of programmable 3D microfluidic systems consisting of modular 3D template casting of interconnected threads to allow user-programmable flow paths and examine its structural characteristics and its modular function. To overcome problems with thread template casting reported in the literature, low-surface-energy polymer threads were used, that allow solvent-free production. Connected circular channels with excellent roundness and low diameter variability were created. Variable channel termination allowed programming a flow path on-the-fly, thus rendering the resulting 3D microfluidic systems highly customizable even after production. Thus, construction of programmable/reprogrammable fully 3D microfluidic systems by template casting of a network of interconnecting threads is feasible, leads to high-quality and highly reproducible, complex 3D geometries. (paper)

  6. Formation of actin networks in microfluidic concentration gradients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalja eStrelnikova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The physical properties of cytoskeletal networks are contributors in a number of mechanical responses of cells including cellular deformation and locomotion, and are crucial for the proper action of living cells. Local chemical gradients modulate cytoskeletal functionality including the interactions of the cytoskeleton with other cellular components. Actin is a major constituent of the cytoskeleton. Introducing a microfluidic-based platform, we explored the impact of concentration gradients on the formation and structural properties of actin networks. Microfluidics-controlled flow-free steady state experimental conditions allow for the generation of chemical gradients of different profiles, such as linear or step-like. We discovered specific features of actin networks emerging in defined gradients. In particular, we analyzed the effects of spatial conditions on network properties, bending rigidities of network links, and the network elasticity.

  7. Evaporative Lithography in Open Microfluidic Channel Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Lone, Saifullah

    2017-02-24

    We demonstrate a direct capillary-driven method based on wetting and evaporation of various suspensions to fabricate regular two-dimensional wires in an open microfluidic channel through continuous deposition of micro- or nanoparticles under evaporative lithography, akin to the coffee-ring effect. The suspension is gently placed in a loading reservoir connected to the main open microchannel groove on a PDMS substrate. Hydrophilic conditions ensure rapid spreading of the suspension from the loading reservoir to fill the entire channel length. Evaporation during the spreading and after the channel is full increases the particle concentration toward the end of the channel. This evaporation-induced convective transport brings particles from the loading reservoir toward the channel end where this flow deposits a continuous multilayered particle structure. The particle deposition front propagates backward over the entire channel length. The final dry deposit of the particles is thereby much thicker than the initial volume fraction of the suspension. The deposition depth is characterized using a 3D imaging profiler, whereas the deposition topography is revealed using a scanning electron microscope. The patterning technology described here is robust and passive and hence operates without an external field. This work may well become a launching pad to construct low-cost and large-scale thin optoelectronic films with variable thicknesses and interspacing distances.

  8. Accelerated Biofluid Filling in Complex Microfluidic Networks by Vacuum-Pressure Accelerated Movement (V-PAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zeta Tak For; Cheung, Mei Ki; Liu, Shirley Xiaosu; Fu, Jianping

    2016-09-01

    Rapid fluid transport and exchange are critical operations involved in many microfluidic applications. However, conventional mechanisms used for driving fluid transport in microfluidics, such as micropumping and high pressure, can be inaccurate and difficult for implementation for integrated microfluidics containing control components and closed compartments. Here, a technology has been developed termed Vacuum-Pressure Accelerated Movement (V-PAM) capable of significantly enhancing biofluid transport in complex microfluidic environments containing dead-end channels and closed chambers. Operation of the V-PAM entails a pressurized fluid loading into microfluidic channels where gas confined inside can rapidly be dissipated through permeation through a thin, gas-permeable membrane sandwiched between microfluidic channels and a network of vacuum channels. Effects of different structural and operational parameters of the V-PAM for promoting fluid filling in microfluidic environments have been studied systematically. This work further demonstrates the applicability of V-PAM for rapid filling of temperature-sensitive hydrogels and unprocessed whole blood into complex irregular microfluidic networks such as microfluidic leaf venation patterns and blood circulatory systems. Together, the V-PAM technology provides a promising generic microfluidic tool for advanced fluid control and transport in integrated microfluidics for different microfluidic diagnosis, organs-on-chips, and biomimetic studies. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Field effect control of electro-osmotic flow in microfluidic networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wouden, E.J.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of a Field Effect Flow Control (FEFC) system for the control of Electro Osmotic Flow (EOF) in microfluidic networks. For this several aspects of FEFC have been reviewed and a process to fabricate microfluidic channels with integrated electrodes has been

  10. Design of pressure-driven microfluidic networks using electric circuit analogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Kwang W; Lee, Kangsun; Ahn, Byungwook; Furlani, Edward P

    2012-02-07

    This article reviews the application of electric circuit methods for the analysis of pressure-driven microfluidic networks with an emphasis on concentration- and flow-dependent systems. The application of circuit methods to microfluidics is based on the analogous behaviour of hydraulic and electric circuits with correlations of pressure to voltage, volumetric flow rate to current, and hydraulic to electric resistance. Circuit analysis enables rapid predictions of pressure-driven laminar flow in microchannels and is very useful for designing complex microfluidic networks in advance of fabrication. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the physics of pressure-driven laminar flow, the formal analogy between electric and hydraulic circuits, applications of circuit theory to microfluidic network-based devices, recent development and applications of concentration- and flow-dependent microfluidic networks, and promising future applications. The lab-on-a-chip (LOC) and microfluidics community will gain insightful ideas and practical design strategies for developing unique microfluidic network-based devices to address a broad range of biological, chemical, pharmaceutical, and other scientific and technical challenges.

  11. Image-guided, Laser-based Fabrication of Vascular-derived Microfluidic Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Heintz, Keely A.; Mayerich, David; Slater, John H.

    2017-01-01

    This detailed protocol outlines the implementation of image-guided, laser-based hydrogel degradation for the fabrication of vascular-derived microfluidic networks embedded in PEGDA hydrogels. Here, we describe the creation of virtual masks that allow for image-guided laser control; the photopolymerization of a micromolded PEGDA hydrogel, suitable for microfluidic network fabrication and pressure head-driven flow; the setup and use of a commercially available laser scanning confocal microscope...

  12. Generation of tunable and pulsatile concentration gradients via microfluidic network

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Bingpu; Xu, Wei; Wang, Cong; Chau, Yeungyeung; Zeng, Xiping; Zhang, Xixiang; Shen, Rong; Wen, Weijia

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate a compact Polydimethylsiloxane microfluidic chip which can quickly generate ten different chemical concentrations simultaneously. The concentration magnitude of each branch can be flexibly regulated based on the flow rate ratios

  13. Fabrication of circular microfluidic network in enzymatically-crosslinked gelatin hydrogel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Jiankang, E-mail: jiankanghe@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Chen, Ruomeng; Lu, Yongjie; Zhan, Li; Liu, Yaxiong; Li, Dichen; Jin, Zhongmin

    2016-02-01

    It is a huge challenge to engineer vascular networks in vital organ tissue engineering. Although the incorporation of artificial microfluidic network into thick tissue-engineered constructs has shown great promise, most of the existing microfluidic strategies are limited to generate rectangle cross-sectional channels rather than circular vessels in soft hydrogels. Here we present a facile approach to fabricate branched microfluidic network with circular cross-sections in gelatin hydrogels by combining micromolding and enzymatically-crosslinking mechanism. Partially crosslinked hydrogel slides with predefined semi-circular channels were molded, assembled and in situ fully crosslinked to form a seamless and circular microfluidic network. The bonding strength of the resultant gelatin hydrogels was investigated. The morphology and the dimension of the resultant circular channels were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and micro-computerized tomography (μCT). Computational fluid dynamic simulation shows that the fabrication error had little effect on the distribution of flow field but affected the maximum velocity in comparison with designed models. The microfluidic gelatin hydrogel facilitates the attachment and spreading of human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVECs) to form a uniform endothelialized layer around the circular channel surface, which successfully exhibited barrier functions. The presented method might provide a simple way to fabricate circular microfluidic networks in biologically-relevant hydrogels to advance various applications of in vitro tissue models, organ-on-a-chip systems and tissue engineering. - Highlights: • A facile method was proposed to build a circular fluidic network in gelatin hydrogel. • The fluidic network is mechanically robust and supports physiological flow. • HUVECs formed endothelialized layer around the channel to express barrier function.

  14. Low cost fabrication and assembly process for re-usable 3D polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Land, K

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available and assembly process for re-usable 3D polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic networks Kevin J. Land, Mesuli B. Mbanjwa, Klariska Govindasamy, and Jan G. Korvink Citation: Biomicrofluidics 5, 036502 (2011); doi: 10.1063/1.3641859 View online: http... polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic networks Kevin J. Land,1,2,a) Mesuli B. Mbanjwa,1,3 Klariska Govindasamy,1 and Jan G. Korvink2,4 1Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Pretoria, South Africa 2University of Freiburg, Department...

  15. Role of Structural Asymmetry in Controlling Drop Spacing in Microfluidic Ladder Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, William; Maddala, Jeevan; Vanapalli, Siva; Rengasamy, Raghunathan

    2012-02-01

    Manipulation of drop spacing is crucial to many processes in microfluidic devices including drop coalescence, detection and storage. Microfluidic ladder networks ---where two droplet-carrying parallel channels are connected by narrow bypass channels through which the motion of drops is forbidden---have been proposed as a means to control relative separation between pairs of drops. Prior studies in microfluidic ladder networks with vertical bypasses, which possess fore-aft structural symmetry, have revealed that pairs of drops can only undergo reduction in drop spacing at the ladder exit. We investigate the dynamics of drops in microfluidic ladder networks with both vertical and slanted bypasses. Our analytical results indicate that unlike symmetric ladder networks, structural asymmetry introduced by a single slanted bypass can be used to modulate the relative spacing between drops, enabling them to contract, synchronize, expand or even flip at the ladder exit. Our experiments confirm all the behaviors predicted by theory. Numerical analysis further shows that ladders containing several identical bypasses can only linearly transform the input drop spacing. Finally, we find that ladders with specific combinations of vertical and slanted bypasses can generate non-linear transformation of input drop spacing, despite the absence of drop decision-making events at the bypass junctions.

  16. Construction of microscale structures in enclosed microfluidic networks by using a magnetic beads based method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenyu; Zhang, Xiaojuan; Yang, Jun; Yang, Zhong; Wan, Xiaoping; Hu, Ning; Zheng, Xiaolin

    2013-08-20

    A large number of microscale structures have been used to elaborate flowing control or complex biological and chemical reaction on microfluidic chips. However, it is still inconvenient to fabricate microstructures with different heights (or depths) on the same substrate. These kinds of microstructures can be fabricated by using the photolithography and wet-etching method step by step, but involves time-consuming design and fabrication process, as well as complicated alignment of different masters. In addition, few existing methods can be used to perform fabrication within enclosed microfluidic networks. It is also difficult to change or remove existing microstructures within these networks. In this study, a magnetic-beads-based approach is presented to build microstructures in enclosed microfluidic networks. Electromagnetic field generated by microfabricated conducting wires (coils) is used to manipulate and trap magnetic beads on the bottom surface of a microchannel. These trapped beads are accumulated to form a microscale pile with desired shape, which can adjust liquid flow, dock cells, modify surface, and do some other things as those fabricated microstructures. Once the electromagnetic field is changed, trapped beads may form new shapes or be removed by a liquid flow. Besides being used in microfabrication, this magnetic-beads-based method can be used for novel microfluidic manipulation. It has been validated by forming microscale dam structure for cell docking and modified surface for cell patterning, as well as guiding the growth of neurons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Using chemistry and microfluidics to understand the spatial dynamics of complex biological networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastrup, Christian J; Runyon, Matthew K; Lucchetta, Elena M; Price, Jessica M; Ismagilov, Rustem F

    2008-04-01

    Understanding the spatial dynamics of biochemical networks is both fundamentally important for understanding life at the systems level and also has practical implications for medicine, engineering, biology, and chemistry. Studies at the level of individual reactions provide essential information about the function, interactions, and localization of individual molecular species and reactions in a network. However, analyzing the spatial dynamics of complex biochemical networks at this level is difficult. Biochemical networks are nonequilibrium systems containing dozens to hundreds of reactions with nonlinear and time-dependent interactions, and these interactions are influenced by diffusion, flow, and the relative values of state-dependent kinetic parameters. To achieve an overall understanding of the spatial dynamics of a network and the global mechanisms that drive its function, networks must be analyzed as a whole, where all of the components and influential parameters of a network are simultaneously considered. Here, we describe chemical concepts and microfluidic tools developed for network-level investigations of the spatial dynamics of these networks. Modular approaches can be used to simplify these networks by separating them into modules, and simple experimental or computational models can be created by replacing each module with a single reaction. Microfluidics can be used to implement these models as well as to analyze and perturb the complex network itself with spatial control on the micrometer scale. We also describe the application of these network-level approaches to elucidate the mechanisms governing the spatial dynamics of two networkshemostasis (blood clotting) and early patterning of the Drosophila embryo. To investigate the dynamics of the complex network of hemostasis, we simplified the network by using a modular mechanism and created a chemical model based on this mechanism by using microfluidics. Then, we used the mechanism and the model to

  18. Development of a general method for obtaining the geometry of microfluidic networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razavi, Mohammad Sayed; Salimpour, M. R.; Shirani, Ebrahim

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, a general method for geometry of fluidic networks is developed with emphasis on pressure-driven flows in the microfluidic applications. The design method is based on general features of network's geometry such as cross-sectional area and length of channels. Also, the method is applicable to various cross-sectional shapes such as circular, rectangular, triangular, and trapezoidal cross sections. Using constructal theory, the flow resistance, energy loss and performance of the network are optimized. Also, by this method, practical design strategies for the fabrication of microfluidic networks can be improved. The design method enables rapid prediction of fluid flow in the complex network of channels and is very useful for improving proper miniaturization and integration of microfluidic networks. Minimization of flow resistance of the network of channels leads to universal constants for consecutive cross-sectional areas and lengths. For a Y-shaped network, the optimal ratios of consecutive cross-section areas (A i+1 /A i ) and lengths (L i+1 /L i ) are obtained as A i+1 /A i = 2 −2/3 and L i+1 /L i = 2 −1/3 , respectively. It is shown that energy loss in the network is proportional to the volume of network. It is also seen when the number of channels is increased both the hydraulic resistance and the volume occupied by the network are increased in a similar manner. Furthermore, the method offers that fabrication of multi-depth and multi-width microchannels should be considered as an integral part of designing procedures. Finally, numerical simulations for the fluid flow in the network have been performed and results show very good agreement with analytic results

  19. Generation of tunable and pulsatile concentration gradients via microfluidic network

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Bingpu

    2014-06-04

    We demonstrate a compact Polydimethylsiloxane microfluidic chip which can quickly generate ten different chemical concentrations simultaneously. The concentration magnitude of each branch can be flexibly regulated based on the flow rate ratios of the two injecting streams. The temporal/pulsatile concentration gradients are achieved by integrating on-chip pneumatic actuated valves controlled by the external signals. The temporal concentration gradients can also be tuned precisely by varying applied frequency and duty cycle of the trigger signal. It is believed that such microdevice will be potentially used for some application areas of producing stable chemical gradients as well as allowing fast, pulsatile gradient transformation in seconds.

  20. Competition between Local Collisions and Collective Hydrodynamic Feedback Controls Traffic Flows in Microfluidic Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belloul, M.; Engl, W.; Colin, A.; Panizza, P.; Ajdari, A.

    2009-05-01

    By studying the repartition of monodisperse droplets at a simple T junction, we show that the traffic of discrete fluid systems in microfluidic networks results from two competing mechanisms, whose significance is driven by confinement. Traffic is dominated by collisions occurring at the junction for small droplets and by collective hydrodynamic feedback for large ones. For each mechanism, we present simple models in terms of the pertinent dimensionless parameters of the problem.

  1. Reconfigurable microfluidic hanging drop network for multi-tissue interaction and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Olivier; Misun, Patrick M; Fluri, David A; Hengstler, Jan G; Hierlemann, Andreas

    2014-06-30

    Integration of multiple three-dimensional microtissues into microfluidic networks enables new insights in how different organs or tissues of an organism interact. Here, we present a platform that extends the hanging-drop technology, used for multi-cellular spheroid formation, to multifunctional complex microfluidic networks. Engineered as completely open, 'hanging' microfluidic system at the bottom of a substrate, the platform features high flexibility in microtissue arrangements and interconnections, while fabrication is simple and operation robust. Multiple spheroids of different cell types are formed in parallel on the same platform; the different tissues are then connected in physiological order for multi-tissue experiments through reconfiguration of the fluidic network. Liquid flow is precisely controlled through the hanging drops, which enable nutrient supply, substance dosage and inter-organ metabolic communication. The possibility to perform parallelized microtissue formation on the same chip that is subsequently used for complex multi-tissue experiments renders the developed platform a promising technology for 'body-on-a-chip'-related research.

  2. Microfluidic Dye Lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Anders; Balslev, Søren; Gersborg-Hansen, Morten

    2006-01-01

    A technology for miniaturized, polymer based lasers, suitable for integration with planar waveguides and microfluidic networks is presented. The microfluidic dye laser device consists of a microfluidic channel with an embedded optical resonator. The devices are fabricated in a thin polymer film...

  3. Droplet motion in microfluidic networks: Hydrodynamic interactions and pressure-drop measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessoms, D. A.; Belloul, M.; Engl, W.; Roche, M.; Courbin, L.; Panizza, P.

    2009-07-01

    We present experimental, numerical, and theoretical studies of droplet flows in hydrodynamic networks. Using both millifluidic and microfluidic devices, we study the partitioning of monodisperse droplets in an asymmetric loop. In both cases, we show that droplet traffic results from the hydrodynamic feedback due to the presence of droplets in the outlet channels. We develop a recently-introduced phenomenological model [W. Engl , Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 208304 (2005)] and successfully confront its predictions to our experimental results. This approach offers a simple way to measure the excess hydrodynamic resistance of a channel filled with droplets. We discuss the traffic behavior and the variations in the corresponding hydrodynamic resistance length Ld and of the droplet mobility β , as a function of droplet interdistance and confinement for channels having circular or rectangular cross sections.

  4. Isotachophoresis of proteins in a networked microfluidic chip: experiment and 2-D simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Huanchun; Dutta, Prashanta; Ivory, Cornelius F

    2007-04-01

    This paper reports both the experimental application and 2-D simulation of ITP of proteins in a networked microfluidic chip. Experiments demonstrate that a mixture of three fluorescent proteins can be concentrated and stacked into adjacent zones of pure protein under a constant voltage of 100 V over a 2 cm long microchannel. Measurements of the isotachophoretic velocity of the moving zones demonstrates that, during ITP under a constant voltage, the zone velocity decreases as more of the channel is occupied by the terminating electrolyte. A 2-D ITP model based on the Nernst-Planck equations illustrates the stacking and separation features of ITP using simulations of three virtual proteins. The self-sharpening behavior of ITP zones dispersed by a T-junction is clearly demonstrated both by experiment and by simulation. Comparison of 2-D simulations of ITP and zone electrophoresis (ZE) confirms that ZE lacks the ability to resharpen protein zones after they pass through a T-junction.

  5. Dynamics of blood flow and thrombus formation in a multi-bypass microfluidic ladder network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilberman-Rudenko, Jevgenia; Sylman, Joanna L; Lakshmanan, Hari H S; McCarty, Owen J T; Maddala, Jeevan

    2017-02-01

    The reaction dynamics of a complex mixture of cells and proteins, such as blood, in branched circulatory networks within the human microvasculature or extravascular therapeutic devices such as extracorporeal oxygenation machine (ECMO) remains ill-defined. In this report we utilize a multi-bypass microfluidics ladder network design with dimensions mimicking venules to study patterns of blood platelet aggregation and fibrin formation under complex shear. Complex blood fluid dynamics within multi-bypass networks under flow were modeled using COMSOL. Red blood cells and platelets were assumed to be non-interacting spherical particles transported by the bulk fluid flow, and convection of the activated coagulation factor II, thrombin, was assumed to be governed by mass transfer. This model served as the basis for predicting formation of local shear rate gradients, stagnation points and recirculation zones as dictated by the bypass geometry. Based on the insights from these models, we were able to predict the patterns of blood clot formation at specific locations in the device. Our experimental data was then used to adjust the model to account for the dynamical presence of thrombus formation in the biorheology of blood flow. The model predictions were then compared to results from experiments using recalcified whole human blood. Microfluidic devices were coated with the extracellular matrix protein, fibrillar collagen, and the initiator of the extrinsic pathway of coagulation, tissue factor. Blood was perfused through the devices at a flow rate of 2 µL/min, translating to physiologically relevant initial shear rates of 300 and 700 s -1 for main channels and bypasses, respectively. Using fluorescent and light microscopy, we observed distinct flow and thrombus formation patterns near channel intersections at bypass points, within recirculation zones and at stagnation points. Findings from this proof-of-principle ladder network model suggest a specific correlation between

  6. Frequency tuning allows flow direction control in microfluidic networks with passive features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rahil; Lutz, Barry

    2017-05-02

    Frequency tuning has emerged as an attractive alternative to conventional pumping techniques in microfluidics. Oscillating (AC) flow driven through a passive valve can be rectified to create steady (DC) flow, and tuning the excitation frequency to the characteristic (resonance) frequency of the underlying microfluidic network allows control of flow magnitude using simple hardware, such as an on-chip piezo buzzer. In this paper, we report that frequency tuning can also be used to control the direction (forward or backward) of the rectified DC flow in a single device. Initially, we observed that certain devices provided DC flow in the "forward" direction expected from previous work with a similar valve geometry, and the maximum DC flow occurred at the same frequency as a prominent peak in the AC flow magnitude, as expected. However, devices of a slightly different geometry provided the DC flow in the opposite direction and at a frequency well below the peak AC flow. Using an equivalent electrical circuit model, we found that the "forward" DC flow occurred at the series resonance frequency (with large AC flow peak), while the "backward" DC flow occurred at a less obvious parallel resonance (a valley in AC flow magnitude). We also observed that the DC flow occurred only when there was a measurable differential in the AC flow magnitude across the valve, and the DC flow direction was from the channel with large AC flow magnitude to that with small AC flow magnitude. Using these observations and the AC flow predictions from the equivalent circuit model, we designed a device with an AC flowrate frequency profile that was expected to allow the DC flow in opposite directions at two distinct frequencies. The fabricated device showed the expected flow reversal at the expected frequencies. This approach expands the flow control toolkit to include both magnitude and direction control in frequency-tuned microfluidic pumps. The work also raises interesting questions about the

  7. A microfluidic investigation of gas exsolution in glass and shale fracture networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, M. L.; Jimenez-Martinez, J.; Harrison, A.; Currier, R.; Viswanathan, H. S.

    2016-12-01

    Microfluidic investigations of pore-scale fluid flow and transport phenomena has steadily increased in recent years. In these investigations fluid flow is restricted to two-dimensions allowing for real-time visualization and quantification of complex flow and reactive transport behavior, which is difficult to obtain in other experimental systems. In this work, we describe a unique high pressure (up to 10.3 MPa) and temperature (up to 80 °C) microfluidics experimental system that allows us to investigate fluid flow and transport in geo-material (e.g., shale, Portland cement, etc.) micromodels. The use of geo-material micromodels allows us to better represent fluid-rock interactions including wettability, chemical reactivity, and nano-scale porosity at conditions representative of natural subsurface environments. Here, we present experimental results in fracture systems with applications to hydrocarbon mobility in fractured rocks. Complex fracture network patterns are derived from 3D x-ray tomography images of actual fractures created in shale rock cores. We use both shale and glass micromodels, allowing for a detailed comparison between flow phenomena in the different materials. We discuss results from two-phase gas (CO2 and N2) injection experiments designed to enhance oil recovery. In these experiments gas was injected into micromodels saturated with oil and allowed to soak for approximately 12 hours at elevated pressures. The pressure in the system was then decreased to atmospheric, causing the gas to expand and/or dissolve out of solution, subsequently mobilizing the oil. In addition to the experimental results, we present a relatively simple model designed to quantify the amount of oil mobilized as a function of decreasing system pressure. We will show comparisons between the experiments and model, and discuss the potential use of the model in field-scale reservoir simulations.

  8. Path selection rules for droplet trains in single-lane microfluidic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amon, A.; Schmit, A.; Salkin, L.; Courbin, L.; Panizza, P.

    2013-07-01

    We investigate the transport of periodic trains of droplets through microfluidic networks having one inlet, one outlet, and nodes consisting of T junctions. Variations of the dilution of the trains, i.e., the distance between drops, reveal the existence of various hydrodynamic regimes characterized by the number of preferential paths taken by the drops. As the dilution increases, this number continuously decreases until only one path remains explored. Building on a continuous approach used to treat droplet traffic through a single asymmetric loop, we determine selection rules for the paths taken by the drops and we predict the variations of the fraction of droplets taking these paths with the parameters at play including the dilution. Our results show that as dilution decreases, the paths are selected according to the ascending order of their hydrodynamic resistance in the absence of droplets. The dynamics of these systems controlled by time-delayed feedback is complex: We observe a succession of periodic regimes separated by a wealth of bifurcations as the dilution is varied. In contrast to droplet traffic in single asymmetric loops, the dynamical behavior in networks of loops is sensitive to initial conditions because of extra degrees of freedom.

  9. A microfluidic device for simultaneous measurement of viscosity and flow rate of blood in a complex fluidic network

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Kang, Yang; Yeom, Eunseop; Lee, Sang-Joon

    2013-01-01

    Blood viscosity has been considered as one of important biophysical parameters for effectively monitoring variations in physiological and pathological conditions of circulatory disorders. Standard previous methods make it difficult to evaluate variations of blood viscosity under cardiopulmonary bypass procedures or hemodialysis. In this study, we proposed a unique microfluidic device for simultaneously measuring viscosity and flow rate of whole blood circulating in a complex fluidic network i...

  10. Microsphere-based immunoassay integrated with a microfluidic network to perform logic operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabhachandani, Pooja; Cohen, Noa; Sarkar, Saheli; Konry, Tania

    2015-01-01

    Lab on a chip (LOC) intelligent diagnostics can be described by molecular logic-based circuits. We report on the development of an LOC approach with logic capability for screening combinations of antigen and antibody in the same sample. A microsphere-based immunoassay was integrated with a microfluidic network device to perform the logic operations AND and INHIBIT. Using the clinically relevant biomarkers TNF-α cytokine and anti-TNF-α antibody, we obtained a fluorescent output in the presence of both inputs. This results in an AND operation, while the presence of only one specific input results in a different fluorescent signal, thereby indicating the INHIBIT operation. This approach demonstrates the effective use of molecular logic computation for developing portable, point-of-care technologies for diagnostic purposes due to fast detection times, minimal reagent consumption and low costs. This model system may be further expanded to screening of multiple disease markers, combinatorial logic applications, and developing “smart” sensors and therapeutic technologies. (author)

  11. Automated electric valve for electrokinetic separation in a networked microfluidic chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Huanchun; Huang, Zheng; Dutta, Prashanta; Ivory, Cornelius F

    2007-02-15

    This paper describes an automated electric valve system designed to reduce dispersion and sample loss into a side channel when an electrokinetically mobilized concentration zone passes a T-junction in a networked microfluidic chip. One way to reduce dispersion is to control current streamlines since charged species are driven along them in the absence of electroosmotic flow. Computer simulations demonstrate that dispersion and sample loss can be reduced by applying a constant additional electric field in the side channel to straighten current streamlines in linear electrokinetic flow (zone electrophoresis). This additional electric field was provided by a pair of platinum microelectrodes integrated into the chip in the vicinity of the T-junction. Both simulations and experiments of this electric valve with constant valve voltages were shown to provide unsatisfactory valve performance during nonlinear electrophoresis (isotachophoresis). On the basis of these results, however, an automated electric valve system was developed with improved valve performance. Experiments conducted with this system showed decreased dispersion and increased reproducibility as protein zones isotachophoretically passed the T-junction. Simulations of the automated electric valve offer further support that the desired shape of current streamlines was maintained at the T-junction during isotachophoresis. Valve performance was evaluated at different valve currents based on statistical variance due to dispersion. With the automated control system, two integrated microelectrodes provide an effective way to manipulate current streamlines, thus acting as an electric valve for charged species in electrokinetic separations.

  12. A network-flow based valve-switching aware binding algorithm for flow-based microfluidic biochips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tseng, Kai-Han; You, Sheng-Chi; Minhass, Wajid Hassan

    2013-01-01

    -flow based resource binding algorithm based on breadth-first search (BFS) and minimum cost maximum flow (MCMF) in architectural-level synthesis. The experimental results show that our methodology not only makes significant reduction of valve-switching activities but also diminishes the application completion......Designs of flow-based microfluidic biochips are receiving much attention recently because they replace conventional biological automation paradigm and are able to integrate different biochemical analysis functions on a chip. However, as the design complexity increases, a flow-based microfluidic...... biochip needs more chip-integrated micro-valves, i.e., the basic unit of fluid-handling functionality, to manipulate the fluid flow for biochemical applications. Moreover, frequent switching of micro-valves results in decreased reliability. To minimize the valve-switching activities, we develop a network...

  13. A microfluidic device for simultaneous measurement of viscosity and flow rate of blood in a complex fluidic network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun Kang, Yang; Yeom, Eunseop; Lee, Sang-Joon

    2013-01-01

    Blood viscosity has been considered as one of important biophysical parameters for effectively monitoring variations in physiological and pathological conditions of circulatory disorders. Standard previous methods make it difficult to evaluate variations of blood viscosity under cardiopulmonary bypass procedures or hemodialysis. In this study, we proposed a unique microfluidic device for simultaneously measuring viscosity and flow rate of whole blood circulating in a complex fluidic network including a rat, a reservoir, a pinch valve, and a peristaltic pump. To demonstrate the proposed method, a twin-shaped microfluidic device, which is composed of two half-circular chambers, two side channels with multiple indicating channels, and one bridge channel, was carefully designed. Based on the microfluidic device, three sequential flow controls were applied to identify viscosity and flow rate of blood, with label-free and sensorless detection. The half-circular chamber was employed to achieve mechanical membrane compliance for flow stabilization in the microfluidic device. To quantify the effect of flow stabilization on flow fluctuations, a formula of pulsation index (PI) was analytically derived using a discrete fluidic circuit model. Using the PI formula, the time constant contributed by the half-circular chamber is estimated to be 8 s. Furthermore, flow fluctuations resulting from the peristaltic pumps are completely removed, especially under periodic flow conditions within short periods (T viscosity with respect to varying flow rate conditions [(a) known blood flow rate via a syringe pump, (b) unknown blood flow rate via a peristaltic pump]. As a result, the flow rate and viscosity of blood can be simultaneously measured with satisfactory accuracy. In addition, the proposed method was successfully applied to identify the viscosity of rat blood, which circulates in a complex fluidic network. These observations confirm that the proposed method can be used for

  14. Between giant oscillations and uniform distribution of droplets: The role of varying lumen of channels in microfluidic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cybulski, Olgierd; Jakiela, Slawomir; Garstecki, Piotr

    2015-12-01

    The simplest microfluidic network (a loop) comprises two parallel channels with a common inlet and a common outlet. Recent studies that assumed a constant cross section of the channels along their length have shown that the sequence of droplets entering the left (L) or right (R) arm of the loop can present either a uniform distribution of choices (e.g., RLRLRL...) or long sequences of repeated choices (RRR...LLL), with all the intermediate permutations being dynamically equivalent and virtually equally probable to be observed. We use experiments and computer simulations to show that even small variation of the cross section along channels completely shifts the dynamics either into the strong preference for highly grouped patterns (RRR...LLL) that generate system-size oscillations in flow or just the opposite-to patterns that distribute the droplets homogeneously between the arms of the loop. We also show the importance of noise in the process of self-organization of the spatiotemporal patterns of droplets. Our results provide guidelines for rational design of systems that reproducibly produce either grouped or homogeneous sequences of droplets flowing in microfluidic networks.

  15. Microfluidic electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shi; Wu, Zhigang

    2012-08-21

    Microfluidics, a field that has been well-established for several decades, has seen extensive applications in the areas of biology, chemistry, and medicine. However, it might be very hard to imagine how such soft microfluidic devices would be used in other areas, such as electronics, in which stiff, solid metals, insulators, and semiconductors have previously dominated. Very recently, things have radically changed. Taking advantage of native properties of microfluidics, advances in microfluidics-based electronics have shown great potential in numerous new appealing applications, e.g. bio-inspired devices, body-worn healthcare and medical sensing systems, and ergonomic units, in which conventional rigid, bulky electronics are facing insurmountable obstacles to fulfil the demand on comfortable user experience. Not only would the birth of microfluidic electronics contribute to both the microfluidics and electronics fields, but it may also shape the future of our daily life. Nevertheless, microfluidic electronics are still at a very early stage, and significant efforts in research and development are needed to advance this emerging field. The intention of this article is to review recent research outcomes in the field of microfluidic electronics, and address current technical challenges and issues. The outlook of future development in microfluidic electronic devices and systems, as well as new fabrication techniques, is also discussed. Moreover, the authors would like to inspire both the microfluidics and electronics communities to further exploit this newly-established field.

  16. Mapping vortex-like hydrodynamic flow in microfluidic networks using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ke Liu; Yu Tian; Burrows, Sean M.; Reif, Randall D. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409-1061 (United States); Pappas, Dimitri, E-mail: d.pappas@ttu.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409-1061 (United States)

    2009-09-28

    The ability to quickly measure flow parameters in microfluidic devices is critical for micro total analysis system ({mu}TAS) applications. Macrofluidic methods to assess flow suffer from limitations that have made conventional methods unsuitable for the flow behavior profiling. Single molecule fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) has been employed in our study to characterize the fluidic vortex generating at a T-shape junction of microscale channels. Due to its high spatial and temporal resolution, the corresponding magnitudes relative to different flow rates in the main channel can be quantitatively differentiated using flow time ({tau}{sub F}) measurements of dye molecules traversing the detection volume in buffer solution. Despite the parabolic flow in the channel upstream, a heterogeneous distribution of flow has been detected across the channel intersection. In addition, our current observations also confirmed the aspect of vortex-shaped flow in low-shear design that was developed previously for cell culture. This approach not only overcomes many technical barriers for examining hydrodynamic vortices and movements in miniature structures without physically integrating any probes, but it is also especially useful for the hydrodynamic studies in polymer-glass based micro -reactor and -mixer.

  17. Bridging Flows: Microfluidic End‐User Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabourin, David

    Microfluidic applications hold promise for many different end‐users both within and outside, and across many different research communities. Despite the benefits of microfluidic approaches, adoption and implementation thereof is often hindered by practical issues. Microfluidic components which......‐integrated interconnection and miniaturized peristaltic pump solutions were then combined into modular microfluidic systems. One system provides high interconnection numbers/density and allows many possible configurations. Additionally, and apart from many other accounts of modular microfluidic solutions, methods...... for control and actuation of microfluidic networks built from the modular components is described. Prototypes of the microfluidic system have begun to be distributed to external collaborators and researcher parties. These end‐users will assist in the validation of the approach and ultimately fulfil the key...

  18. Axon diodes for the reconstruction of oriented neuronal networks in microfluidic chambers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peyrin, Jean Michel; Deleglise, Bérangère; Saias, Laure

    2011-01-01

    Various experimental models are used to study brain development and degeneration. They range from whole animal models, which preserve anatomical structures but strongly limit investigations at the cellular level, to dissociated cell culture systems that allow detailed observation of cell phenotypes...... and neurodegenerative disorder such as Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases at the sub-cellular, cellular and network levels....

  19. Two-branch Gas Experiments for Hot Gas Mixing of HTR-PM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yangping; Hao Pengefei; He Heng; Li Fu; Shi Lei

    2014-01-01

    A model experiment is proposed to investigate the hot gas mixing efficiency of HTR-PM reactor outlet. The test facility is introduced which is set at a scale of 1:2.5 comparing with the design of thermal mixing structure at HTR-PM reactor outlet. The test facility using air as its flow media includes inlet pipe system, electric heaters, main body of test facility, hot gas duct, exhaust pipe system and I&C system. Two-branch gas experiments are conducted on the test facility and the values of thermal-fluid parameters are collected and analyzed which include the temperature, pressure and velocity of the flow as well as the temperature of the tube wall. The analysis result shows the mixing efficiency is higher than the requirement of thermal mixing by steam generator even with conservative assumption which indicates that the design of hog gas mixing structure of HTR-PM fulfills the requirement for thermal mixing at two-branch working conditions. (author)

  20. Design of Dual-Band Two-Branch-Line Couplers with Arbitrary Coupling Coefficients in Bands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Prudyus

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A new approach to design dual-band two-branch couplers with arbitrary coupling coefficients at two operating frequency bands is proposed in this article. The method is based on the usage of equivalent subcircuits input reactances of the even-mode and odd-mode excitations. The exact design formulas for three options of the dual-band coupler with different location and number of stubs are received. These formulas permit to obtain the different variants for each structure in order to select the physically realizable solution and can be used in broad range of frequency ratio and power division ratio. For verification, three different dual-band couplers, which are operating at 2.4/3.9 GHz with different coupling coefficients (one with 3/6 dB, and 10/3 dB two others are designed, simulated, fabricated and tested. The measured results are in good agreement with the simulated ones.

  1. Numerical Simulation of Two-branch Hot Gas Mixing at Reactor Outlet of HTR-PM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Pengefei; Zhou Yangping; Li Fu; Shi Lei; He Heng

    2014-01-01

    A series of two-branch model experiment has been finished to investigate the thermal mixing efficiency of the HTR-PM reactor outlet. This paper introduces the numerical simulation on the design of thermal mixing structure of HTR-PM and the test facility with Fluent software. The profiles of temperature, pressure and velocity in the mixing structure design and the test facility are discussed by comparing with the model experiment results. The numerical simulation results of the test facility have good agreement to the experiment results. In addition, the thermal-fluid characters obtained by numerical simulation show the thermal mixing structure of HTR-PM has similarity with the test facility. Finally, it is concluded that the thermal mixing design at HTR-PM reactor outlet can fulfilled the requirements for high thermal mixing efficiency and appropriate pressure drop. (author)

  2. Flow Batteries for Microfluidic Networks – Configuring An Electroosmotic Pump for Non-Terminal Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chiyang; Lu, Joann J.; Jia, Zhijian; Wang, Wei; Wang, Xiayan; Dasgupta, Purnendu K.; Liu, Shaorong

    2011-01-01

    A micropump provides flow and pressure for a lab-on-chip device, just as a battery supplies current and voltage for an electronic system. Numerous micropumps have been developed, but none is as versatile as a battery. One cannot easily insert a micropump into a nonterminal position of a fluidic line without affecting the rest of the fluidic system, one cannot simply connect several micropumps in series to enhance the pressure output, etc. In this work we develop a flow battery (or pressure power supply) to address this issue. A flow battery consists of a +EOP (in which the liquid flows in the same direction as the field gradient) and a −EOP (in which the liquid flows opposite to the electric field gradient), and the outlet of the +EOP is directly connected to the inlet of the −EOP. An external high voltage is applied to this outlet-inlet joint via a short gel-filled capillary that allows ions but not bulk liquid flow, while the +EOP’s inlet and the −EOP’s outlet (the flow battery’s inlet and outlet) are grounded. This flow battery can be deployed anywhere in a fluidic network without electrically affecting the rest of the system. Several flow batteries can be connected in series to enhance the pressure output to drive HPLC separations. In a fluidic system powered by flow batteries, a hydraulic Ohm’s law can be applied to analyze system pressures and flow rates. PMID:21375230

  3. Theoretical microfluidics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruus, Henrik

    Microfluidics is a young and rapidly expanding scientific discipline, which deals with fluids and solutions in miniaturized systems, the so-called lab-on-a-chip systems. It has applications in chemical engineering, pharmaceutics, biotechnology and medicine. As the lab-on-a-chip systems grow...

  4. Microfluidic Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Zheng, Siyang (Inventor); Lin, Jeffrey Chun-Hui (Inventor); Kasdan, Harvey L. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Described herein are particular embodiments relating to a microfluidic device that may be utilized for cell sensing, counting, and/or sorting. Particular aspects relate to a microfabricated device that is capable of differentiating single cell types from dense cell populations. One particular embodiment relates a device and methods of using the same for sensing, counting, and/or sorting leukocytes from whole, undiluted blood samples.

  5. Microfluidic interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benett, William J.; Krulevitch, Peter A.

    2001-01-01

    A miniature connector for introducing microliter quantities of solutions into microfabricated fluidic devices. The fluidic connector, for example, joins standard high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) tubing to 1 mm diameter holes in silicon or glass, enabling ml-sized volumes of sample solutions to be merged with .mu.l-sized devices. The connector has many features, including ease of connect and disconnect; a small footprint which enables numerous connectors to be located in a small area; low dead volume; helium leak-tight; and tubing does not twist during connection. Thus the connector enables easy and effective change of microfluidic devices and introduction of different solutions in the devices.

  6. Microfluidic sieve valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quake, Stephen R; Marcus, Joshua S; Hansen, Carl L

    2015-01-13

    Sieve valves for use in microfluidic device are provided. The valves are useful for impeding the flow of particles, such as chromatography beads or cells, in a microfluidic channel while allowing liquid solution to pass through the valve. The valves find particular use in making microfluidic chromatography modules.

  7. Polymer-based platform for microfluidic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benett, William [Livermore, CA; Krulevitch, Peter [Pleasanton, CA; Maghribi, Mariam [Livermore, CA; Hamilton, Julie [Tracy, CA; Rose, Klint [Boston, MA; Wang, Amy W [Oakland, CA

    2009-10-13

    A method of forming a polymer-based microfluidic system platform using network building blocks selected from a set of interconnectable network building blocks, such as wire, pins, blocks, and interconnects. The selected building blocks are interconnectably assembled and fixedly positioned in precise positions in a mold cavity of a mold frame to construct a three-dimensional model construction of a microfluidic flow path network preferably having meso-scale dimensions. A hardenable liquid, such as poly (dimethylsiloxane) is then introduced into the mold cavity and hardened to form a platform structure as well as to mold the microfluidic flow path network having channels, reservoirs and ports. Pre-fabricated elbows, T's and other joints are used to interconnect various building block elements together. After hardening the liquid the building blocks are removed from the platform structure to make available the channels, cavities and ports within the platform structure. Microdevices may be embedded within the cast polymer-based platform, or bonded to the platform structure subsequent to molding, to create an integrated microfluidic system. In this manner, the new microfluidic platform is versatile and capable of quickly generating prototype systems, and could easily be adapted to a manufacturing setting.

  8. Multichannel Mars Organic Analyzer (McMOA): Microfluidic Networks for the Automated In Situ Microchip Electrophoretic Analysis of Organic Biomarkers on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiesl, T. N.; Benhabib, M.; Stockton, A. M.; Mathies, R. A.

    2010-04-01

    We present the Multichannel Mars Organic Analyzer (McMOA) for the analysis of Amino Acids, PAHs, and Oxidized Carbon. Microfluidic architecures integrating automated metering, mixing, on chip reactions, and serial dilutions are also discussed.

  9. Microfluidic CODES: a scalable multiplexed electronic sensor for orthogonal detection of particles in microfluidic channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruxiu; Wang, Ningquan; Kamili, Farhan; Sarioglu, A Fatih

    2016-04-21

    Numerous biophysical and biochemical assays rely on spatial manipulation of particles/cells as they are processed on lab-on-a-chip devices. Analysis of spatially distributed particles on these devices typically requires microscopy negating the cost and size advantages of microfluidic assays. In this paper, we introduce a scalable electronic sensor technology, called microfluidic CODES, that utilizes resistive pulse sensing to orthogonally detect particles in multiple microfluidic channels from a single electrical output. Combining the techniques from telecommunications and microfluidics, we route three coplanar electrodes on a glass substrate to create multiple Coulter counters producing distinct orthogonal digital codes when they detect particles. We specifically design a digital code set using the mathematical principles of Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) telecommunication networks and can decode signals from different microfluidic channels with >90% accuracy through computation even if these signals overlap. As a proof of principle, we use this technology to detect human ovarian cancer cells in four different microfluidic channels fabricated using soft lithography. Microfluidic CODES offers a simple, all-electronic interface that is well suited to create integrated, low-cost lab-on-a-chip devices for cell- or particle-based assays in resource-limited settings.

  10. Parallel imaging microfluidic cytometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Daniel J; McKenna, Brian K; Evans, James G; Belkina, Anna C; Denis, Gerald V; Sherr, David H; Cheung, Man Ching

    2011-01-01

    By adding an additional degree of freedom from multichannel flow, the parallel microfluidic cytometer (PMC) combines some of the best features of fluorescence-activated flow cytometry (FCM) and microscope-based high-content screening (HCS). The PMC (i) lends itself to fast processing of large numbers of samples, (ii) adds a 1D imaging capability for intracellular localization assays (HCS), (iii) has a high rare-cell sensitivity, and (iv) has an unusual capability for time-synchronized sampling. An inability to practically handle large sample numbers has restricted applications of conventional flow cytometers and microscopes in combinatorial cell assays, network biology, and drug discovery. The PMC promises to relieve a bottleneck in these previously constrained applications. The PMC may also be a powerful tool for finding rare primary cells in the clinic. The multichannel architecture of current PMC prototypes allows 384 unique samples for a cell-based screen to be read out in ∼6-10 min, about 30 times the speed of most current FCM systems. In 1D intracellular imaging, the PMC can obtain protein localization using HCS marker strategies at many times for the sample throughput of charge-coupled device (CCD)-based microscopes or CCD-based single-channel flow cytometers. The PMC also permits the signal integration time to be varied over a larger range than is practical in conventional flow cytometers. The signal-to-noise advantages are useful, for example, in counting rare positive cells in the most difficult early stages of genome-wide screening. We review the status of parallel microfluidic cytometry and discuss some of the directions the new technology may take. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Development & Characterization of Multifunctional Microfluidic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucar, Ahmet Burak

    The field of microfluidics has been mostly investigated for miniaturized lab on a chip devices for analytical and clinical applications. However, there is an emerging class of "smart" microfluidic materials, combining microfluidics with soft polymers to yield new functionalities. The best inspiration for such materials found in nature is skin, whose functions are maintained and controlled by a vascular "microfluidic" network. We report here the development and characterization of a few new classes of microfluidic materials. First, we introduced microfluidic materials that can change their stiffness on demand. These materials were based on an engineered microchannel network embedded into a matrix of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), whose channels were filled with a liquid photoresist (SU- 8). The elastomer filled with the photoresist was initially soft. The materials were shaped into a desired geometry and then exposed to UV-light. Once photocured, the material preserved the defined shape and it could be bent, twisted or stretched with a very high recoverable strain. As soon as the external force was removed the material returned back to its predefined shape. Thus, the polymerized SU-8 acted as the 'endoskeleton' of the microfluidic network, which drastically increased the composite's elastic and bending moduli. Second, we demonstrated a class of simple and versatile soft microfluidic materials that can be turned optically transparent or colored on demand. These materials were made in the form of flexible sheets containing a microchannel network embedded in PDMS, similar to the photocurable materials. However, this time the channels were filled with a glycerolwater mixture, whose refractive index was matched with that of the PDMS matrix. By pumping such dye solutions into the channel network and consecutively replacing the medium, we showed that we can control the material's color and light transmittance in the visible and near-infrared regions, which can be used for

  12. Rapid manufacturing for microfluidics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Land, K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available for microfluidics K. LAND, S. HUGO, M MBANJWA, L FOURIE CSIR Materials Science and Manufacturing P O Box 395, Pretoria 0001, SOUTH AFRICA Email: kland@csir.co.za INTRODUCTION Microfluidics refers to the manipulation of very small volumes of fluid.... Microfluidics is at the forefront of developing solutions for drug discovery, diagnostics (from glucose tests to malaria and TB testing) and environmental diagnostics (E-coli monitoring of drinking water). In order to quickly implement new designs, a rapid...

  13. Commercialization of microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpatti, Lisa R; Yetisen, Ali K

    2014-07-01

    Microfluidic devices offer automation and high-throughput screening, and operate at low volumes of consumables. Although microfluidics has the potential to reduce turnaround times and costs for analytical devices, particularly in medical, veterinary, and environmental sciences, this enabling technology has had limited diffusion into consumer products. This article analyzes the microfluidics market, identifies issues, and highlights successful commercialization strategies. Addressing niche markets and establishing compatibility with existing workflows will accelerate market penetration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Valve Concepts for Microfluidic Cell Handling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Grabowski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present various pneumatically actuated microfluidic valves to enable user-defined fluid management within a microfluidic chip. To identify a feasible valve design, certain valve concepts are simulated in ANSYS to investigate the pressure dependent opening and closing characteristics of each design. The results are verified in a series of tests. Both the microfluidic layer and the pneumatic layer are realized by means of soft-lithographic techniques. In this way, a network of channels is fabricated in photoresist as a molding master. By casting these masters with PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane we get polymeric replicas containing the channel network. After a plasma-enhanced bonding process, the two layers are irreversibly bonded to each other. The bonding is tight for pressures up to 2 bar. The valves are integrated into a microfluidic cell handling system that is designed to manipulate cells in the presence of a liquid reagent (e.g. PEG – polyethylene glycol, for cell fusion. For this purpose a user-defined fluid management system is developed. The first test series with human cell lines show that the microfluidic chip is suitable for accumulating cells within a reaction chamber, where they can be flushed by a liquid medium.

  15. Tunable Microfluidic Dye Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Brian Bilenberg; Helbo, Bjarne; Kutter, Jörg Peter

    2003-01-01

    We present a tunable microfluidic dye laser fabricated in SU-8. The tunability is enabled by integrating a microfluidic diffusion mixer with an existing microfluidic dye laser design by Helbo et al. By controlling the relative flows in the mixer between a dye solution and a solvent......, the concentration of dye in the laser cavity can be adjusted, allowing the wavelength to be tuned. Wavelength tuning controlled by the dye concentration was demonstrated with macroscopic dye lasers already in 1971, but this principle only becomes practically applicable by the use of microfluidic mixing...

  16. Porous Microfluidic Devices - Fabrication adn Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, J.; Geerken, M.J.; Lammertink, Rob G.H.; Wessling, Matthias

    2007-01-01

    The major part of microfluidic devices nowadays consists of a dense material that defines the fluidic structure. A generic fabrication method enabling the production of completely porous micro devices with user-defined channel networks is developed. The channel walls can be used as a (selective)

  17. Microfluidics for chemical processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.

    2006-01-01

    Microfluidic systems, and more specifically, microfluidic chips, have a number of features that make them particularly useful for the study of chemical reactions on-line. The present paper will discuss two examples, the study of fluidic behaviour at high pressures and the excitation and detection of

  18. Cell manipulation in microfluidics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Hoyoung; Kim, Kisoo; Lee, Won Gu

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in the lab-on-a-chip field in association with nano/microfluidics have been made for new applications and functionalities to the fields of molecular biology, genetic analysis and proteomics, enabling the expansion of the cell biology field. Specifically, microfluidics has provided promising tools for enhancing cell biological research, since it has the ability to precisely control the cellular environment, to easily mimic heterogeneous cellular environment by multiplexing, and to analyze sub-cellular information by high-contents screening assays at the single-cell level. Various cell manipulation techniques in microfluidics have been developed in accordance with specific objectives and applications. In this review, we examine the latest achievements of cell manipulation techniques in microfluidics by categorizing externally applied forces for manipulation: (i) optical, (ii) magnetic, (iii) electrical, (iv) mechanical and (v) other manipulations. We furthermore focus on history where the manipulation techniques originate and also discuss future perspectives with key examples where available. (topical review)

  19. Microfluidic chemical reaction circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chung-cheng [Irvine, CA; Sui, Guodong [Los Angeles, CA; Elizarov, Arkadij [Valley Village, CA; Kolb, Hartmuth C [Playa del Rey, CA; Huang, Jiang [San Jose, CA; Heath, James R [South Pasadena, CA; Phelps, Michael E [Los Angeles, CA; Quake, Stephen R [Stanford, CA; Tseng, Hsian-rong [Los Angeles, CA; Wyatt, Paul [Tipperary, IE; Daridon, Antoine [Mont-Sur-Rolle, CH

    2012-06-26

    New microfluidic devices, useful for carrying out chemical reactions, are provided. The devices are adapted for on-chip solvent exchange, chemical processes requiring multiple chemical reactions, and rapid concentration of reagents.

  20. Monolayer-functionalized microfluidics devices for optical sensing of acidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mela, P.; Onclin, S.; Goedbloed, M.H.; Levi, S.; Garcia Parajo, M.F.; van Hulst, N.F.; Ravoo, B.J.; Reinhoudt, David; van den Berg, Albert

    This paper describes the integration of opto-chemosensors in microfluidics networks. Our technique exploits the internal surface of the network as a platform to build a sensing system by coating the surface with a self-assembled monolayer and subsequently binding a fluorescent sensing molecule to

  1. Review of Recent Metamaterial Microfluidic Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, Ahmed; Lim, Sungjoon

    2018-01-15

    Metamaterial elements/arrays exhibit a sensitive response to fluids yet with a small footprint, therefore, they have been an attractive choice to realize various sensing devices when integrated with microfluidic technology. Micro-channels made from inexpensive biocompatible materials avoid any contamination from environment and require only microliter-nanoliter sample for sensing. Simple design, easy fabrication process, light weight prototype, and instant measurements are advantages as compared to conventional (optical, electrochemical and biological) sensing systems. Inkjet-printed flexible sensors find their utilization in rapidly growing wearable electronics and health-monitoring flexible devices. Adequate sensitivity and repeatability of these low profile microfluidic sensors make them a potential candidate for point-of-care testing which novice patients can use reliably. Aside from degraded sensitivity and lack of selectivity in all practical microwave chemical sensors, they require an instrument, such as vector network analyzer for measurements and not readily available as a self-sustained portable sensor. This review article presents state-of-the-art metamaterial inspired microfluidic bio/chemical sensors (passive devices ranging from gigahertz to terahertz range) with an emphasis on metamaterial sensing circuit and microfluidic detection. We also highlight challenges and strategies to cope these issues which set future directions.

  2. Review of Recent Metamaterial Microfluidic Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Salim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Metamaterial elements/arrays exhibit a sensitive response to fluids yet with a small footprint, therefore, they have been an attractive choice to realize various sensing devices when integrated with microfluidic technology. Micro-channels made from inexpensive biocompatible materials avoid any contamination from environment and require only microliter–nanoliter sample for sensing. Simple design, easy fabrication process, light weight prototype, and instant measurements are advantages as compared to conventional (optical, electrochemical and biological sensing systems. Inkjet-printed flexible sensors find their utilization in rapidly growing wearable electronics and health-monitoring flexible devices. Adequate sensitivity and repeatability of these low profile microfluidic sensors make them a potential candidate for point-of-care testing which novice patients can use reliably. Aside from degraded sensitivity and lack of selectivity in all practical microwave chemical sensors, they require an instrument, such as vector network analyzer for measurements and not readily available as a self-sustained portable sensor. This review article presents state-of-the-art metamaterial inspired microfluidic bio/chemical sensors (passive devices ranging from gigahertz to terahertz range with an emphasis on metamaterial sensing circuit and microfluidic detection. We also highlight challenges and strategies to cope these issues which set future directions.

  3. A truly Lego®-like modular microfluidics platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittayarukskul, Kevin; Lee, Abraham Phillip

    2017-03-01

    Ideally, a modular microfluidics platform should be simple to assemble and support 3D configurations for increased versatility. The modular building blocks should also be mass producible like electrical components. These are fundamental features of world-renowned Legos® and why Legos® inspire many existing modular microfluidics platforms. In this paper, a truly Lego®-like microfluidics platform is introduced, and its basic feasibility is demonstrated. Here, PDMS building blocks resembling 2  ×  2 Lego® bricks are cast from 3D-printed master molds. The blocks are pegged and stacked on a traditional Lego® plate to create simple, 3D microfluidic networks, such as a single basket weave. Characteristics of the platform, including reversible sealing and automatic alignment of channels, are also analyzed and discussed in detail.

  4. A truly Lego®-like modular microfluidics platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vittayarukskul, Kevin; Lee, Abraham Phillip

    2017-01-01

    Ideally, a modular microfluidics platform should be simple to assemble and support 3D configurations for increased versatility. The modular building blocks should also be mass producible like electrical components. These are fundamental features of world-renowned Legos ® and why Legos ® inspire many existing modular microfluidics platforms. In this paper, a truly Lego ® -like microfluidics platform is introduced, and its basic feasibility is demonstrated. Here, PDMS building blocks resembling 2  ×  2 Lego ® bricks are cast from 3D-printed master molds. The blocks are pegged and stacked on a traditional Lego ® plate to create simple, 3D microfluidic networks, such as a single basket weave. Characteristics of the platform, including reversible sealing and automatic alignment of channels, are also analyzed and discussed in detail. (paper)

  5. Computational Fluid Dynamics at work - Design and Optimization of Microfluidic Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krühne, Ulrich; Bodla, Vijaya Krishna; Møllenbach, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    and a simple biological model. The result is a suggestion of an improved geometry design. In the second case study a microfluidic cartridge of a novel automated in vitro fertilization device is presented, where the CFD model has supported the fluidic design of the microfluidic network in which the stem cells...

  6. Microfluidic Flame Barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungas, Gregory S. (Inventor); Fisher, David J. (Inventor); Mungas, Christopher (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Propellants flow through specialized mechanical hardware that is designed for effective and safe ignition and sustained combustion of the propellants. By integrating a micro-fluidic porous media element between a propellant feed source and the combustion chamber, an effective and reliable propellant injector head may be implemented that is capable of withstanding transient combustion and detonation waves that commonly occur during an ignition event. The micro-fluidic porous media element is of specified porosity or porosity gradient selected to be appropriate for a given propellant. Additionally the propellant injector head design integrates a spark ignition mechanism that withstands extremely hot running conditions without noticeable spark mechanism degradation.

  7. Numerical Optimization in Microfluidics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian Ejlebjærg

    2017-01-01

    Numerical modelling can illuminate the working mechanism and limitations of microfluidic devices. Such insights are useful in their own right, but one can take advantage of numerical modelling in a systematic way using numerical optimization. In this chapter we will discuss when and how numerical...... optimization is best used....

  8. Enzyme detection by microfluidics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Microfluidic-implemented methods of detecting an enzyme, in particular a DNA-modifying enzyme, are provided, as well as methods for detecting a cell, or a microorganism expressing said enzyme. The enzyme is detected by providing a nucleic acid substrate, which is specifically targeted...... by that enzyme...

  9. Microfluidics for medical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Albert; van den Berg, A.; Segerink, L.I.; Segerink, Loes Irene; Unknown, [Unknown

    2015-01-01

    Lab-on-a-chip devices for point of care diagnostics have been present in clinics for several years now. Alongside their continual development, research is underway to bring the organs and tissue on-a-chip to the patient, amongst other medical applications of microfluidics. This book provides the

  10. Chemistry in Microfluidic Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Matthew C.; Sweeney, Christina M.; Odom, Teri W.

    2011-01-01

    General chemistry introduces principles such as acid-base chemistry, mixing, and precipitation that are usually demonstrated in bulk solutions. In this laboratory experiment, we describe how chemical reactions can be performed in a microfluidic channel to show advanced concepts such as laminar fluid flow and controlled precipitation. Three sets of…

  11. Microfluidic isotachophoresis: A review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smejkal, P.; Bottenus, D.; Breadmore, M. C.; Guijt, R. M.; Ivory, C. F.; Foret, František; Macka, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 11 (2013), s. 1493-1509 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/11/2055 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : chip * isotachophoresis * microfluidics * miniaturization Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.161, year: 2013

  12. Microfluidics: an enabling screening technology for enhanced oil recovery (EOR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifton, Victor A

    2016-05-21

    Oil production is a critical industrial process that affects the entire world population and any improvements in its efficiency while reducing its environmental impact are of utmost societal importance. The paper reviews recent applications of microfluidics and microtechnology to study processes of oil extraction and recovery. It shows that microfluidic devices can be useful tools in investigation and visualization of such processes used in the oil & gas industry as fluid propagation, flooding, fracturing, emulsification and many others. Critical macro-scale processes that define oil extraction and recovery are controlled by the micro-scale processes based on wetting, adhesion, surface tension, colloids and other concepts of microfluidics. A growing number of research efforts demonstrates that microfluidics is becoming, albeit slowly, an accepted methodology in this area. We propose several areas of development where implementation of microfluidics may bring about deeper understanding and hence better control over the processes of oil recovery based on fluid propagation, droplet generation, wettability control. Studies of processes such as hydraulic fracturing, sand particle propagation in porous networks, high throughput screening of chemicals (for example, emulsifiers and surfactants) in microfluidic devices that simulate oil reservoirs are proposed to improve our understanding of these complicated physico-chemical systems. We also discuss why methods of additive manufacturing (3D printing) should be evaluated for quick prototyping and modification of the three-dimensional structures replicating natural oil-bearing rock formations for studies accessible to a wider audience of researchers.

  13. PREFACE: Nano- and microfluidics Nano- and microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Karin

    2011-05-01

    The field of nano- and microfluidics emerged at the end of the 1990s parallel to the demand for smaller and smaller containers and channels for chemical, biochemical and medical applications such as blood and DNS analysis [1], gene sequencing or proteomics [2, 3]. Since then, new journals and conferences have been launched and meanwhile, about two decades later, a variety of microfluidic applications are on the market. Briefly, 'the small flow becomes mainstream' [4]. Nevertheless, research in nano- and microfluidics is more than downsizing the spatial dimensions. For liquids on the nanoscale, surface and interface phenomena grow in importance and may even dominate the behavior in some systems. The studies collected in this special issue all concentrate on these type of systems and were part ot the priority programme SPP1164 'Nano- and Microfluidics' of the German Science Foundation (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, DFG). The priority programme was initiated in 2002 by Hendrik Kuhlmann and myself and was launched in 2004. Friction between a moving liquid and a solid wall may, for instance, play an important role so that the usual assumption of a no-slip boundary condition is no longer valid. Likewise, the dynamic deformations of soft objects like polymers, vesicles or capsules in flow arise from the subtle interplay between the (visco-)elasticity of the object and the viscous stresses in the surrounding fluid and, potentially, the presence of structures confining the flow like channels. Consequently, new theories were developed ( see articles in this issue by Münch and Wagner, Falk and Mecke, Bonthuis et al, Finken et al, Almenar and Rauscher, Straube) and experiments were set up to unambiguously demonstrate deviations from bulk, or 'macro', behavior (see articles in this issue by Wolff et al, Vinogradova and Belyaev, Hahn et al, Seemann et al, Grüner and Huber, Müller-Buschbaum et al, Gutsche et al, Braunmüller et al, Laube et al, Brücker, Nottebrock et al

  14. Three-dimensional micro structured nanocomposite beams by microfluidic infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebel, L L; Paez, O A; Therriault, D; Aïssa, B; El Khakani, M A

    2009-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) micro structured beams reinforced with a single-walled carbon nanotube (C-SWNT)/polymer nanocomposite were fabricated using an approach based on the infiltration of 3D microfluidic networks. The 3D microfluidic network was first fabricated by the direct-write assembly method, which consists of the robotized deposition of fugitive ink filaments on an epoxy substrate, forming thereby a 3D micro structured scaffold. After encapsulating the 3D micro-scaffold structure with an epoxy resin, the fugitive ink was liquefied and removed, resulting in a 3D network of interconnected microchannels. This microfluidic network was then infiltrated by a polymer loaded with C-SWNTs and subsequently cured. Prior to their incorporation in the polymer matrix, the UV-laser synthesized C-SWNTs were purified, functionalized and dispersed into the matrix using a three-roll mixing mill. The final samples consist of rectangular beams having a complex 3D skeleton structure of C-SWNT/polymer nanocomposite fibers, adapted to offer better performance under flexural solicitation. Dynamic mechanical analysis in flexion showed an increase of 12.5% in the storage modulus compared to the resin infiltrated beams. The nanocomposite infiltration of microfluidic networks demonstrated here opens new prospects for the achievement of 3D reinforced micro structures

  15. Highly Stretchable and Transparent Microfluidic Strain Sensors for Monitoring Human Body Motions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sun Geun; Koo, Hyung-Jun; Chang, Suk Tai

    2015-12-16

    We report a new class of simple microfluidic strain sensors with high stretchability, transparency, sensitivity, and long-term stability with no considerable hysteresis and a fast response to various deformations by combining the merits of microfluidic techniques and ionic liquids. The high optical transparency of the strain sensors was achieved by introducing refractive-index matched ionic liquids into microfluidic networks or channels embedded in an elastomeric matrix. The microfluidic strain sensors offer the outstanding sensor performance under a variety of deformations induced by stretching, bending, pressing, and twisting of the microfluidic strain sensors. The principle of our microfluidic strain sensor is explained by a theoretical model based on the elastic channel deformation. In order to demonstrate its capability of practical usage, the simple-structured microfluidic strain sensors were performed onto a finger, wrist, and arm. The highly stretchable and transparent microfluidic strain sensors were successfully applied as potential platforms for distinctively monitoring a wide range of human body motions in real time. Our novel microfluidic strain sensors show great promise for making future stretchable electronic devices.

  16. Microfluidic device, and related methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Eric W. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method of making a microfluidic device is provided. The method features patterning a permeable wall on a substrate, and surrounding the permeable wall with a solid, non-permeable boundary structure to establish a microfluidic channel having a cross-sectional dimension less than 5,000 microns and a cross-sectional area at least partially filled with the permeable wall so that fluid flowing through the microfluidic channel at least partially passes through the permeable wall.

  17. Methods of making microfluidic devices

    KAUST Repository

    Buttner, Ulrich

    2017-06-01

    Microfluidics has advanced in terms of designs and structures, however, fabrication methods are either time consuming or expensive to produce, in terms of the facilities and equipment needed. A fast and economically viable method is provided to allow, for example, research groups to have access to microfluidic fabrication. Unlike most fabrication methods, a method is provided to fabricate a microfluidic device in one step. In an embodiment, a resolution of 50 micrometers was achieved by using maskless high-resolution digital light projection (MDLP). Bonding and channel fabrication of complex or simple structures can be rapidly incorporated to fabricate the microfluidic devices.

  18. The Microfluidic Jukebox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Say Hwa; Maes, Florine; Semin, Benoît; Vrignon, Jérémy; Baret, Jean-Christophe

    2014-04-01

    Music is a form of art interweaving people of all walks of life. Through subtle changes in frequencies, a succession of musical notes forms a melody which is capable of mesmerizing the minds of people. With the advances in technology, we are now able to generate music electronically without relying solely on physical instruments. Here, we demonstrate a musical interpretation of droplet-based microfluidics as a form of novel electronic musical instruments. Using the interplay of electric field and hydrodynamics in microfluidic devices, well controlled frequency patterns corresponding to musical tracks are generated in real time. This high-speed modulation of droplet frequency (and therefore of droplet sizes) may also provide solutions that reconciles high-throughput droplet production and the control of individual droplet at production which is needed for many biochemical or material synthesis applications.

  19. Microfluidic redox battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Wook; Goulet, Marc-Antoni; Kjeang, Erik

    2013-07-07

    A miniaturized microfluidic battery is proposed, which is the first membraneless redox battery demonstrated to date. This unique concept capitalizes on dual-pass flow-through porous electrodes combined with stratified, co-laminar flow to generate electrical power on-chip. The fluidic design is symmetric to allow for both charging and discharging operations in forward, reverse, and recirculation modes. The proof-of-concept device fabricated using low-cost materials integrated in a microfluidic chip is shown to produce competitive power levels when operated on a vanadium redox electrolyte. A complete charge/discharge cycle is performed to demonstrate its operation as a rechargeable battery, which is an important step towards providing sustainable power to lab-on-a-chip and microelectronic applications.

  20. Microfluidic Biochip Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzarella, Charles

    2004-01-01

    As humans prepare for the exploration of our solar system, there is a growing need for miniaturized medical and environmental diagnostic devices for use on spacecrafts, especially during long-duration space missions where size and power requirements are critical. In recent years, the biochip (or Lab-on-a- Chip) has emerged as a technology that might be able to satisfy this need. In generic terms, a biochip is a miniaturized microfluidic device analogous to the electronic microchip that ushered in the digital age. It consists of tiny microfluidic channels, pumps and valves that transport small amounts of sample fluids to biosensors that can perform a variety of tests on those fluids in near real time. It has the obvious advantages of being small, lightweight, requiring less sample fluids and reagents and being more sensitive and efficient than larger devices currently in use. Some of the desired space-based applications would be to provide smaller, more robust devices for analyzing blood, saliva and urine and for testing water and food supplies for the presence of harmful contaminants and microorganisms. Our group has undertaken the goal of adapting as well as improving upon current biochip technology for use in long-duration microgravity environments. In addition to developing computational models of the microfluidic channels, valves and pumps that form the basis of every biochip, we are also trying to identify potential problems that could arise in reduced gravity and develop solutions to these problems. One such problem is due to the prevalence of bubbly sample fluids in microgravity. A bubble trapped in a microfluidic channel could be detrimental to the operation of a biochip. Therefore, the process of bubble formation in microgravity needs to be studied, and a model of this process has been developed and used to understand how bubbles develop and move through biochip components. It is clear that some type of bubble filter would be necessary in Space, and

  1. Droplet based microfluidics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seemann, Ralf; Brinkmann, Martin; Pfohl, Thomas; Herminghaus, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    Droplet based microfluidics is a rapidly growing interdisciplinary field of research combining soft matter physics, biochemistry and microsystems engineering. Its applications range from fast analytical systems or the synthesis of advanced materials to protein crystallization and biological assays for living cells. Precise control of droplet volumes and reliable manipulation of individual droplets such as coalescence, mixing of their contents, and sorting in combination with fast analysis tools allow us to perform chemical reactions inside the droplets under defined conditions. In this paper, we will review available drop generation and manipulation techniques. The main focus of this review is not to be comprehensive and explain all techniques in great detail but to identify and shed light on similarities and underlying physical principles. Since geometry and wetting properties of the microfluidic channels are crucial factors for droplet generation, we also briefly describe typical device fabrication methods in droplet based microfluidics. Examples of applications and reaction schemes which rely on the discussed manipulation techniques are also presented, such as the fabrication of special materials and biophysical experiments.

  2. A Microfluidic Cell Concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrick, Jay; Casavant, Ben; Frisk, Megan; Beebe, David

    2010-01-01

    Cell concentration via centrifugation is a ubiquitous step in many cell culture procedures. At the macroscale, centrifugation suffers from a number of limitations particularly when dealing with small numbers of cells (e.g., less than 50,000). On the other hand, typical microscale methods for cell concentration can affect cell physiology and bias readouts of cell behavior and function. In this paper, we present a microfluidic concentrator device that utilizes the effects of gravity to allow cells to gently settle out of a suspension into a collection region without the use of specific adhesion ligands. Dimensional analysis was performed to compare different device designs and was verified with flow modeling to optimize operational parameters. We are able to concentrate low-density cell suspensions in a microfluidic chamber, achieving a cell loss of only 1.1 ± 0.6% (SD, n=7) with no observed loss during a subsequent cell staining protocol which incorporates ~36 complete device volume replacements. This method provides a much needed interface between rare cell samples and microfluidic culture assays. PMID:20843010

  3. Microfluidics with fluid walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Edmond J; Feuerborn, Alexander; Wheeler, James H R; Tan, Ann Na; Durham, William M; Foster, Kevin R; Cook, Peter R

    2017-10-10

    Microfluidics has great potential, but the complexity of fabricating and operating devices has limited its use. Here we describe a method - Freestyle Fluidics - that overcomes many key limitations. In this method, liquids are confined by fluid (not solid) walls. Aqueous circuits with any 2D shape are printed in seconds on plastic or glass Petri dishes; then, interfacial forces pin liquids to substrates, and overlaying an immiscible liquid prevents evaporation. Confining fluid walls are pliant and resilient; they self-heal when liquids are pipetted through them. We drive flow through a wide range of circuits passively by manipulating surface tension and hydrostatic pressure, and actively using external pumps. Finally, we validate the technology with two challenging applications - triggering an inflammatory response in human cells and chemotaxis in bacterial biofilms. This approach provides a powerful and versatile alternative to traditional microfluidics.The complexity of fabricating and operating microfluidic devices limits their use. Walsh et al. describe a method in which circuits are printed as quickly and simply as writing with a pen, and liquids in them are confined by fluid instead of solid walls.

  4. Microfluidic desalination : capacitive deionization on chip for microfluidic sample preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, Susan Helena

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of the work described in this thesis is to implement the desalination technique capacitive deionization (CDI) on a microfluidic chip to improve the reproducibility in the analysis of biological samples for drug development. Secondly, microfluidic CDI allows for the in situ study of ion

  5. Separate structure of two branches of sheared slab ηi mode and effects of plasma rotation shear in weak magnetic shear region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiquan Li; Kishimoto, Y.; Tuda, T.

    2000-01-01

    The separate structure of two branches of the sheared slab η i mode near the minimum-q magnetic surface is analysed and the effects of plasma rotation shears are considered in the weak magnetic shear region. Results show that the separation condition depends on the non-monotonous q profile and the deviation of rational surface from the minimum-q surface. Furthermore, it is found that the diamagnetic rotation shear may suppress the perturbation of the sheared slab η i mode at one side of the minimum-q surface, the poloidal rotation shear from the sheared E-vector x B-vector flow has a similar role to the slab mode structure when it possesses a direction same as the diamagnetic shear. A plausible interrelation between the separate structures of the two branches of the sheared slab mode and the discontinuity or gap of the radially global structure of the drift wave near the minimum-q surface observed in the toroidal particle simulation (Kishimoto Y et al 1998 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 40 A663) is discussed. It seems to support such a viewpoint: the double or/and global branches of the sheared slab η i mode near the minimum-q surface may become a bridge to connect the radially global structures of the drift wave at two sides of the minimum-q surface and the discontinuity may originate from the separate structures of these slab modes for a flatter q profile. (author)

  6. MICROFLUIDIC COMPONENT CAPABLE OF SELF-SEALING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    A microfluidic component (100) for building a microfluidic system is provided. The microfluidic component (100) can be mounted on a microf luidic breadboard (202) in a manner that allows it to be connected to other microfluidic components (204, 206) without the requirement of additional devices....... The microfluidic component (100) comprises at least one flexible tube piece (102) for transporting a fluid. The microfluidic component (100) also comprises means for applying and maintaining pressure (104) between the flexible tube piece (102) and a tube piece (208, 210) housed in another microfluidic component...

  7. Predicting the behavior of microfluidic circuits made from discrete elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Krisna C.; Thompson, Bryant; Iqbal, Danish; Malmstadt, Noah

    2015-10-01

    Microfluidic devices can be used to execute a variety of continuous flow analytical and synthetic chemistry protocols with a great degree of precision. The growing availability of additive manufacturing has enabled the design of microfluidic devices with new functionality and complexity. However, these devices are prone to larger manufacturing variation than is typical of those made with micromachining or soft lithography. In this report, we demonstrate a design-for-manufacturing workflow that addresses performance variation at the microfluidic element and circuit level, in context of mass-manufacturing and additive manufacturing. Our approach relies on discrete microfluidic elements that are characterized by their terminal hydraulic resistance and associated tolerance. Network analysis is employed to construct simple analytical design rules for model microfluidic circuits. Monte Carlo analysis is employed at both the individual element and circuit level to establish expected performance metrics for several specific circuit configurations. A protocol based on osmometry is used to experimentally probe mixing behavior in circuits in order to validate these approaches. The overall workflow is applied to two application circuits with immediate use at on the bench-top: series and parallel mixing circuits that are modularly programmable, virtually predictable, highly precise, and operable by hand.

  8. Predicting the behavior of microfluidic circuits made from discrete elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Krisna C; Thompson, Bryant; Iqbal, Danish; Malmstadt, Noah

    2015-10-30

    Microfluidic devices can be used to execute a variety of continuous flow analytical and synthetic chemistry protocols with a great degree of precision. The growing availability of additive manufacturing has enabled the design of microfluidic devices with new functionality and complexity. However, these devices are prone to larger manufacturing variation than is typical of those made with micromachining or soft lithography. In this report, we demonstrate a design-for-manufacturing workflow that addresses performance variation at the microfluidic element and circuit level, in context of mass-manufacturing and additive manufacturing. Our approach relies on discrete microfluidic elements that are characterized by their terminal hydraulic resistance and associated tolerance. Network analysis is employed to construct simple analytical design rules for model microfluidic circuits. Monte Carlo analysis is employed at both the individual element and circuit level to establish expected performance metrics for several specific circuit configurations. A protocol based on osmometry is used to experimentally probe mixing behavior in circuits in order to validate these approaches. The overall workflow is applied to two application circuits with immediate use at on the bench-top: series and parallel mixing circuits that are modularly programmable, virtually predictable, highly precise, and operable by hand.

  9. Active matter logic for autonomous microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, Francis G.; Dunkel, Jörn

    2017-04-01

    Chemically or optically powered active matter plays an increasingly important role in materials design, but its computational potential has yet to be explored systematically. The competition between energy consumption and dissipation imposes stringent physical constraints on the information transport in active flow networks, facilitating global optimization strategies that are not well understood. Here, we combine insights from recent microbial experiments with concepts from lattice-field theory and non-equilibrium statistical mechanics to introduce a generic theoretical framework for active matter logic. Highlighting conceptual differences with classical and quantum computation, we demonstrate how the inherent non-locality of incompressible active flow networks can be utilized to construct universal logical operations, Fredkin gates and memory storage in set-reset latches through the synchronized self-organization of many individual network components. Our work lays the conceptual foundation for developing autonomous microfluidic transport devices driven by bacterial fluids, active liquid crystals or chemically engineered motile colloids.

  10. Microfluidic Cell Culture Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Shuichi (Inventor); Cabrera, Lourdes Marcella (Inventor); Heo, Yun Seok (Inventor); Smith, Gary Daniel (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Microfluidic devices for cell culturing and methods for using the same are disclosed. One device includes a substrate and membrane. The substrate includes a reservoir in fluid communication with a passage. A bio-compatible fluid may be added to the reservoir and passage. The reservoir is configured to receive and retain at least a portion of a cell mass. The membrane acts as a barrier to evaporation of the bio-compatible fluid from the passage. A cover fluid may be added to cover the bio-compatible fluid to prevent evaporation of the bio-compatible fluid.

  11. Microfluidic Scintillation Detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    Microfluidic scintillation detectors are devices of recent introduction for the detection of high energy particles, developed within the EP-DT group at CERN. Most of the interest for such technology comes from the use of liquid scintillators, which entails the possibility of changing the active material in the detector, leading to an increased radiation resistance. This feature, together with the high spatial resolution and low thickness deriving from the microfabrication techniques used to manufacture such devices, is desirable not only in instrumentation for high energy physics experiments but also in medical detectors such as beam monitors for hadron therapy.

  12. Spatial manipulation with microfluidics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eLin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical gradients convey information through space, time, and concentration, and are ultimately capable of spatially resolving distinct cellular phenotypes, such as differentiation, proliferation, and migration. How these gradients develop, evolve, and function during development, homeostasis, and various disease states is a subject of intense interest across a variety of disciplines. Microfluidic technologies have become essential tools for investigating gradient sensing in vitro due to their ability to precisely manipulate fluids on demand in well controlled environments at cellular length scales. This minireview will highlight their utility for studying gradient sensing along with relevant applications to biology.

  13. Microfluidic fuel cells and batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Kjeang, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Microfluidic fuel cells and batteries represent a special type of electrochemical power generators that can be miniaturized and integrated in a microfluidic chip. Summarizing the initial ten years of research and development in this emerging field, this SpringerBrief is the first book dedicated to microfluidic fuel cell and battery technology for electrochemical energy conversion and storage. Written at a critical juncture, where strategically applied research is urgently required to seize impending technology opportunities for commercial, analytical, and educational utility, the intention is

  14. Microfluidic Radiometal Labeling Systems for Biomolecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichert, D E; Kenis, P J. A.

    2011-12-29

    In a typical labeling procedure with radiometals, such as Cu-64 and Ga-68; a very large (~ 100-fold) excess of the non-radioactive reactant (precursor) is used to promote rapid and efficient incorporation of the radioisotope into the PET imaging agent. In order to achieve high specific activities, careful control of reaction conditions and extensive chromatographic purifications are required in order to separate the labeled compounds from the cold precursors. Here we propose a microfluidic approach to overcome these problems, and achieve high specific activities in a more convenient, semi-automated fashion and faster time frame. Microfluidic reactors, consisting of a network of micron-sized channels (typical dimensions in the range 10 - 300¼m), filters, separation columns, electrodes and reaction loops/chambers etched onto a solid substrate, are now emerging as an extremely useful technology for the intensification and miniaturization of chemical processes. The ability to manipulate, process and analyze reagent concentrations and reaction interfaces in both space and time within the channel network of a microreactor provides the fine level of reaction control that is desirable in PET radiochemistry practice. These factors can bring radiometal labeling, specifically the preparation of radio-labeled biomolecules such as antibodies, much closer to their theoretical maximum specific activities.

  15. Methods of making microfluidic devices

    KAUST Repository

    Buttner, Ulrich; Mashraei, Yousof; Agambayev, Sumeyra; Salama, Khaled N.

    2017-01-01

    Microfluidics has advanced in terms of designs and structures, however, fabrication methods are either time consuming or expensive to produce, in terms of the facilities and equipment needed. A fast and economically viable method is provided

  16. Microfluidic technology for molecular diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Tom; Dittrich, Petra S

    2013-01-01

    Molecular diagnostics have helped to improve the lives of millions of patients worldwide by allowing clinicians to diagnose patients earlier as well as providing better ongoing therapies. Point-of-care (POC) testing can bring these laboratory-based techniques to the patient in a home setting or to remote settings in the developing world. However, despite substantial progress in the field, there still remain many challenges. Progress in molecular diagnostics has benefitted greatly from microfluidic technology. This chapter aims to summarise the more recent advances in microfluidic-based molecular diagnostics. Sections include an introduction to microfluidic technology, the challenges of molecular diagnostics, how microfluidic advances are working to solve these issues, some alternative design approaches, and detection within these systems.

  17. Rapid mask prototyping for microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisonneuve, B G C; Honegger, T; Cordeiro, J; Lecarme, O; Thiry, T; Fuard, D; Berton, K; Picard, E; Zelsmann, M; Peyrade, D

    2016-03-01

    With the rise of microfluidics for the past decade, there has come an ever more pressing need for a low-cost and rapid prototyping technology, especially for research and education purposes. In this article, we report a rapid prototyping process of chromed masks for various microfluidic applications. The process takes place out of a clean room, uses a commercially available video-projector, and can be completed in less than half an hour. We quantify the ranges of fields of view and of resolutions accessible through this video-projection system and report the fabrication of critical microfluidic components (junctions, straight channels, and curved channels). To exemplify the process, three common devices are produced using this method: a droplet generation device, a gradient generation device, and a neuro-engineering oriented device. The neuro-engineering oriented device is a compartmentalized microfluidic chip, and therefore, required the production and the precise alignment of two different masks.

  18. Passive microfluidic array card and reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Lawrence Christopher [Modesto, CA; Coleman, Matthew A [Oakland, CA

    2011-08-09

    A microfluidic array card and reader system for analyzing a sample. The microfluidic array card includes a sample loading section for loading the sample onto the microfluidic array card, a multiplicity of array windows, and a transport section or sections for transporting the sample from the sample loading section to the array windows. The microfluidic array card reader includes a housing, a receiving section for receiving the microfluidic array card, a viewing section, and a light source that directs light to the array window of the microfluidic array card and to the viewing section.

  19. Reconfigurable microfluidic platform in ice

    OpenAIRE

    Varejka, M.

    2008-01-01

    Microfluidic devices are popular tools in the biotechnology industry where they provide smaller reagent requirements, high speed of analysis and the possibility for automation. The aim of the project is to make a flexible biocompatible microfluidic platform adapted to different specific applications, mainly analytical and separations which parameters and configuration can be changed multiple times by changing corresponding computer programme. The current project has been sup...

  20. Enhanced Microfluidic Electromagnetic Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovangrandi, Laurent (Inventor); Ricco, Antonio J. (Inventor); Kovacs, Gregory (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Techniques for enhanced microfluidic impedance spectroscopy include causing a core fluid to flow into a channel between two sheath flows of one or more sheath fluids different from the core fluid. Flow in the channel is laminar. A dielectric constant of a fluid constituting either sheath flow is much less than a dielectric constant of the core fluid. Electrical impedance is measured in the channel between at least a first pair of electrodes. In some embodiments, enhanced optical measurements include causing a core fluid to flow into a channel between two sheath flows of one or more sheath fluids different from the core fluid. An optical index of refraction of a fluid constituting either sheath flow is much less than an optical index of refraction of the core fluid. An optical property is measured in the channel.

  1. Bioanalysis in microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandurina, Julia; Guttman, András

    2002-01-18

    Microfabricated bioanalytical devices (also referred to as laboratory-on-a-chip or micro-TAS) offer highly efficient platforms for simultaneous analysis of a large number of biologically important molecules, possessing great potential for genome, proteome and metabolome studies. Development and implementation of microfluidic-based bioanalytical tools involves both established and evolving technologies, including microlithography, micromachining, micro-electromechanical systems technology and nanotechnology. This article provides an overview of the latest developments in the key device subject areas and the basic interdisciplinary technologies. Important aspects of DNA and protein analysis, interfacing issues and system integration are all thoroughly discussed, along with applications for this novel "synergized" technology in high-throughput separations of biologically important molecules. This review also gives a better understanding of how to utilize these technologies as well as to provide appropriate technical solutions to problems perceived as being more fundamental.

  2. Digital Microfluidics Sample Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Michael G.; Srinivasan, Vijay; Eckhardt, Allen; Paik, Philip Y.; Sudarsan, Arjun; Shenderov, Alex; Hua, Zhishan; Pamula, Vamsee K.

    2010-01-01

    Three innovations address the needs of the medical world with regard to microfluidic manipulation and testing of physiological samples in ways that can benefit point-of-care needs for patients such as premature infants, for which drawing of blood for continuous tests can be life-threatening in their own right, and for expedited results. A chip with sample injection elements, reservoirs (and waste), droplet formation structures, fluidic pathways, mixing areas, and optical detection sites, was fabricated to test the various components of the microfluidic platform, both individually and in integrated fashion. The droplet control system permits a user to control droplet microactuator system functions, such as droplet operations and detector operations. Also, the programming system allows a user to develop software routines for controlling droplet microactuator system functions, such as droplet operations and detector operations. A chip is incorporated into the system with a controller, a detector, input and output devices, and software. A novel filler fluid formulation is used for the transport of droplets with high protein concentrations. Novel assemblies for detection of photons from an on-chip droplet are present, as well as novel systems for conducting various assays, such as immunoassays and PCR (polymerase chain reaction). The lab-on-a-chip (a.k.a., lab-on-a-printed-circuit board) processes physiological samples and comprises a system for automated, multi-analyte measurements using sub-microliter samples of human serum. The invention also relates to a diagnostic chip and system including the chip that performs many of the routine operations of a central labbased chemistry analyzer, integrating, for example, colorimetric assays (e.g., for proteins), chemiluminescence/fluorescence assays (e.g., for enzymes, electrolytes, and gases), and/or conductometric assays (e.g., for hematocrit on plasma and whole blood) on a single chip platform.

  3. Integrated lenses in polystyrene microfluidic devices

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Yiqiang; Li, Huawei; Foulds, Ian G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports a new method for integrating microlenses into microfluidic devices for improved observation. Two demonstration microfluidic devices were provided which were fabricated using this new technique. The integrated microlenses were

  4. Manipulation of microfluidic droplets by electrorheological fluid

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Menying; Gong, Xiuqing; Wen, Weijia

    2009-01-01

    Microfluidics, especially droplet microfluidics, attracts more and more researchers from diverse fields, because it requires fewer materials and less time, produces less waste and has the potential of highly integrated and computer

  5. Microfluidic standardization: Past, present and future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heeren, H. van; Atkins, T.; Blom, M.; Bullema, J.E.; Tantra, R.; Verhoeven, D.; Verplanck, N.

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of standardization in microfluidics. It contains the main points of an industry wide agreement about microfluidic port pitches and port nomenclature. It also addresses device classification and future steps.

  6. Microfluidic stretchable RF electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shi; Wu, Zhigang

    2010-12-07

    Stretchable electronics is a revolutionary technology that will potentially create a world of radically different electronic devices and systems that open up an entirely new spectrum of possibilities. This article proposes a microfluidic based solution for stretchable radio frequency (RF) electronics, using hybrid integration of active circuits assembled on flex foils and liquid alloy passive structures embedded in elastic substrates, e.g. polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). This concept was employed to implement a 900 MHz stretchable RF radiation sensor, consisting of a large area elastic antenna and a cluster of conventional rigid components for RF power detection. The integrated radiation sensor except the power supply was fully embedded in a thin elastomeric substrate. Good electrical performance of the standalone stretchable antenna as well as the RF power detection sub-module was verified by experiments. The sensor successfully detected the RF radiation over 5 m distance in the system demonstration. Experiments on two-dimensional (2D) stretching up to 15%, folding and twisting of the demonstrated sensor were also carried out. Despite the integrated device was severely deformed, no failure in RF radiation sensing was observed in the tests. This technique illuminates a promising route of realizing stretchable and foldable large area integrated RF electronics that are of great interest to a variety of applications like wearable computing, health monitoring, medical diagnostics, and curvilinear electronics.

  7. The singular behavior of a β-type semi-synthetic two branched polypeptide: three-dimensional structure and mode of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Giorgia; Serra, Ilaria; Pira, Alessandro; Pintus, Manuela; Ceccarelli, Matteo; Casu, Mariano; Rinaldi, Andrea C; Scorciapino, Mariano Andrea

    2016-11-16

    Dendrimeric peptides make a versatile group of bioactive peptidomimetics and a potential new class of antimicrobial agents to tackle the pressing threat of multi-drug resistant pathogens. These are branched supramolecular assemblies where multiple copies of the bioactive unit are linked to a central core. Beyond their antimicrobial activity, dendrimeric peptides could also be designed to functionalize the surface of nanoparticles or materials for other medical uses. Despite these properties, however, little is known about the structure-function relationship of such compounds, which is key to unveil the fundamental physico-chemical parameters and design analogues with desired attributes. To close this gap, we focused on a semi-synthetic, two-branched peptide, SB056, endowed with remarkable activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and limited cytotoxicity. SB056 can be considered the smallest prototypical dendrimeric peptide, with the core restricted to a single lysine residue and only two copies of the same highly cationic 10-mer polypeptide; an octanamide tail is present at the C-terminus. Combining NMR and Molecular Dynamics simulations, we have determined the 3D structure of two analogues. Fluorescence spectroscopy was applied to investigate the water-bilayer partition in the presence of vesicles of variable charge. Vesicle leakage assays were also performed and the experimental data were analyzed by applying an iterative Monte Carlo scheme to estimate the minimum number of bound peptides needed to achieve the release. We unveiled a singular beta hairpin-type structure determined by the peptide chains only, with the octanamide tail available for further functionalization to add new potential properties without affecting the structure.

  8. Microfluidic Technologies for Synthetic Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Kuk Lee

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Microfluidic technologies have shown powerful abilities for reducing cost, time, and labor, and at the same time, for increasing accuracy, throughput, and performance in the analysis of biological and biochemical samples compared with the conventional, macroscale instruments. Synthetic biology is an emerging field of biology and has drawn much attraction due to its potential to create novel, functional biological parts and systems for special purposes. Since it is believed that the development of synthetic biology can be accelerated through the use of microfluidic technology, in this review work we focus our discussion on the latest microfluidic technologies that can provide unprecedented means in synthetic biology for dynamic profiling of gene expression/regulation with high resolution, highly sensitive on-chip and off-chip detection of metabolites, and whole-cell analysis.

  9. Microfluidic device for drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, David J. (Inventor); MacDonald, Michael J. (Inventor); Eddington, David T. (Inventor); Mensing, Glennys A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A microfluidic device is provided for delivering a drug to an individual. The microfluidic device includes a body that defines a reservoir for receiving the drug therein. A valve interconnects the reservoir to an output needle that is insertable into the skin of an individual. A pressure source urges the drug from the reservoir toward the needle. The valve is movable between a closed position preventing the flow of the drug from the reservoir to the output needle and an open position allowing for the flow of the drug from the reservoir to the output needle in response to a predetermined condition in the physiological fluids of the individual.

  10. Dual-nozzle microfluidic droplet generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Wook; Lee, Jong Min; Kim, Tae Hyun; Ha, Jang Ho; Ahrberg, Christian D.; Chung, Bong Geun

    2018-05-01

    The droplet-generating microfluidics has become an important technique for a variety of applications ranging from single cell analysis to nanoparticle synthesis. Although there are a large number of methods for generating and experimenting with droplets on microfluidic devices, the dispensing of droplets from these microfluidic devices is a challenge due to aggregation and merging of droplets at the interface of microfluidic devices. Here, we present a microfluidic dual-nozzle device for the generation and dispensing of uniform-sized droplets. The first nozzle of the microfluidic device is used for the generation of the droplets, while the second nozzle can accelerate the droplets and increase the spacing between them, allowing for facile dispensing of droplets. Computational fluid dynamic simulations were conducted to optimize the design parameters of the microfluidic device.

  11. Integrated microfluidic probe station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrault, C M; Qasaimeh, M A; Brastaviceanu, T; Anderson, K; Kabakibo, Y; Juncker, D

    2010-11-01

    The microfluidic probe (MFP) consists of a flat, blunt tip with two apertures for the injection and reaspiration of a microjet into a solution--thus hydrodynamically confining the microjet--and is operated atop an inverted microscope that enables live imaging. By scanning across a surface, the microjet can be used for surface processing with the capability of both depositing and removing material; as it operates under immersed conditions, sensitive biological materials and living cells can be processed. During scanning, the MFP is kept immobile and centered over the objective of the inverted microscope, a few micrometers above a substrate that is displaced by moving the microscope stage and that is flushed continuously with the microjet. For consistent and reproducible surface processing, the gap between the MFP and the substrate, the MFP's alignment, the scanning speed, the injection and aspiration flow rates, and the image capture need all to be controlled and synchronized. Here, we present an automated MFP station that integrates all of these functionalities and automates the key operational parameters. A custom software program is used to control an independent motorized Z stage for adjusting the gap, a motorized microscope stage for scanning the substrate, up to 16 syringe pumps for injecting and aspirating fluids, and an inverted fluorescence microscope equipped with a charge-coupled device camera. The parallelism between the MFP and the substrate is adjusted using manual goniometer at the beginning of the experiment. The alignment of the injection and aspiration apertures along the scanning axis is performed using a newly designed MFP screw holder. We illustrate the integrated MFP station by the programmed, automated patterning of fluorescently labeled biotin on a streptavidin-coated surface.

  12. Reversible thermo-pneumatic valves on centrifugal microfluidic platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeinehvand, Mohammad Mahdi; Ibrahim, Fatimah; Harun, Sulaiman Wadi; Kazemzadeh, Amin; Rothan, Hussin A; Yusof, Rohana; Madou, Marc

    2015-08-21

    microfluidic networks are validated on a microfluidic disk designed for performing liquid circulation. Finally, an array of RTPVs is integrated into a microfluidic cartridge to enable sequential aliquoting for the conversion of dengue virus RNA to cDNA and the preparation of PCR reaction mixtures.

  13. Topology optimization of microfluidic mixers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Casper Schousboe; Gersborg, Allan Roulund; Sigmund, Ole

    2009-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the application of the topology optimization method as a general and systematic approach for microfluidic mixer design. The mixing process is modeled as convection dominated transport in low Reynolds number incompressible flow. The mixer performance is maximized by altering...

  14. A microfluidic device with pillars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The invention provides a microfluidic device for mixing liquid reagents, the device comprises, a chip forming at least one reaction chamber between a bottom and a top and extending between an inlet and an outlet. To enable manufacturing from less rigid materials, the device comprises pillars...

  15. Microfluidic technology for PET radiochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillies, J.M.; Prenant, C.; Chimon, G.N.; Smethurst, G.J.; Dekker, B.A.; Zweit, J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the first application of a microfabricated reaction system to positron emission tomography (PET) radiochemistry. We have applied microfluidic technology to synthesise PET radiopharmaceuticals using 18 F and 124 I as labels for fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and Annexin-V, respectively. These reactions involved established methods of nucleophilic substitution on a mannose triflate precursor and direct iodination of the protein using iodogen as an oxidant. This has demonstrated a proof of principle of using microfluidic technology to radiochemical reactions involving low and high molecular weight compounds. Using microfluidic reactions, [ 18 F]FDG was synthesised with a 50% incorporation of the available F-18 radioactivity in a very short time of 4 s. The radiolabelling efficiency of 124 I Annexin-V was 40% after 1 min reaction time. Chromatographic analysis showed that such reaction yields are comparable to conventional methods, but in a much shorter time. The yields can be further improved with more optimisation of the microfluidic device itself and its fluid mixing profiles. This demonstrates the potential for this technology to have an impact on rapid and simpler radiopharmaceutical synthesis using short and medium half-life radionuclides

  16. Microfluidic Liquid-Liquid Contactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mcculloch, Quinn [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-07-25

    This report describes progress made on the microfluidic contactor. A model was developed to predict its failure, a surrogate chemical system was selected to demonstrate mass transfer, and an all-optical system has been invented and implemented to monitor carryover and flowrates.

  17. Microfluidic devices for biological applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Potgieter, S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Microfluidics is a multi-disciplinary field that deals with the behaviour, control and manipulation of fluids constrained to sub-millilitre volumes. It is proving to be a useful tool for biological studies, affording advantages such as reduced cost...

  18. Mixing in a Microfluid Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.; Deryabin, Mikhail

    Mixing of fluids in microchannels cannot rely on turbulence since the flow takes place at extremly low Reynolds numbers. Various active and passive devices have been developed to induce mixing in microfluid flow devices. We describe here a model of an active mixer where a transverse periodic flow...

  19. Controlling the trajectories of bubble trains at a microfluidic junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthiban, Pravien; Khan, Saif

    2011-11-01

    The increasing number of applications facilitated by digital microfluidic flows has resulted in a sustained interest in not only understanding the diverse, interesting and often complex dynamics associated with such flows in microchannel networks but also in developing facile strategies to control them. We find that there are readily accessible flow speeds wherein resistance to flow in microchannels decreases with an increase in the number of confined bubbles present, and exploit this intriguing phenomenon to sort all bubble of a train exclusively into one of the arms of a nominally symmetric microfluidic loop. We also demonstrate how the arm into which the train filters into can be chosen by applying a temporary external stimulus by means of an additional flow of the continuous liquid into one the arms of the loop. Furthermore, we show how by tuning the magnitude and period of this temporary stimulus we can switch controllably, the traffic of bubbles between both arms of the loop even when the loop is asymmetric. The results of this work should aid in developing viable methods to regulate traffic of digital flows in microfluidic networks.

  20. Evaporative Lithography in Open Microfluidic Channel Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Lone, Saifullah; Zhang, Jiaming; Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev; Li, Erqiang; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2017-01-01

    the initial volume fraction of the suspension. The deposition depth is characterized using a 3D imaging profiler, whereas the deposition topography is revealed using a scanning electron microscope. The patterning technology described here is robust and passive

  1. Digital microfluidics: A promising technique for biochemical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, He; Chen, Liguo; Sun, Lining

    2017-12-01

    Digital microfluidics (DMF) is a versatile microfluidics technology that has significant application potential in the areas of automation and miniaturization. In DMF, discrete droplets containing samples and reagents are controlled to implement a series of operations via electrowetting-on-dielectric. This process works by applying electrical potentials to an array of electrodes coated with a hydrophobic dielectric layer. Unlike microchannels, DMF facilitates precise control over multiple reaction processes without using complex pump, microvalve, and tubing networks. DMF also presents other distinct features, such as portability, less sample consumption, shorter chemical reaction time, flexibility, and easier combination with other technology types. Due to its unique advantages, DMF has been applied to a broad range of fields (e.g., chemistry, biology, medicine, and environment). This study reviews the basic principles of droplet actuation, configuration design, and fabrication of the DMF device, as well as discusses the latest progress in DMF from the biochemistry perspective.

  2. Radio frequency feedback method for parallelized droplet microfluidics

    KAUST Repository

    Conchouso Gonzalez, David

    2016-12-19

    This paper reports on a radio frequency micro-strip T-resonator that is integrated to a parallel droplet microfluidic system. The T-resonator works as a feedback system to monitor uniform droplet production and to detect, in real-time, any malfunctions due to channel fouling or clogging. Emulsions at different W/O flow-rate ratios are generated in a microfluidic device containing 8 parallelized generators. These emulsions are then guided towards the RF sensor, which is then read using a Network Analyzer to obtain the frequency response of the system. The proposed T-resonator shows frequency shifts of 45MHz for only 5% change in the emulsion\\'s water in oil content. These shifts can then be used as a feedback system to trigger alarms and notify production and quality control engineers about problems in the droplet generation process.

  3. Radio frequency feedback method for parallelized droplet microfluidics

    KAUST Repository

    Conchouso Gonzalez, David; Carreno, Armando Arpys Arevalo; McKerricher, Garret; Castro, David; Foulds, Ian G.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on a radio frequency micro-strip T-resonator that is integrated to a parallel droplet microfluidic system. The T-resonator works as a feedback system to monitor uniform droplet production and to detect, in real-time, any malfunctions due to channel fouling or clogging. Emulsions at different W/O flow-rate ratios are generated in a microfluidic device containing 8 parallelized generators. These emulsions are then guided towards the RF sensor, which is then read using a Network Analyzer to obtain the frequency response of the system. The proposed T-resonator shows frequency shifts of 45MHz for only 5% change in the emulsion's water in oil content. These shifts can then be used as a feedback system to trigger alarms and notify production and quality control engineers about problems in the droplet generation process.

  4. Brain slice on a chip: opportunities and challenges of applying microfluidic technology to intact tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu; Williams, Justin C; Johnson, Stephen M

    2012-06-21

    Isolated brain tissue, especially brain slices, are valuable experimental tools for studying neuronal function at the network, cellular, synaptic, and single channel levels. Neuroscientists have refined the methods for preserving brain slice viability and function and converged on principles that strongly resemble the approach taken by engineers in developing microfluidic devices. With respect to brain slices, microfluidic technology may 1) overcome the traditional limitations of conventional interface and submerged slice chambers and improve oxygen/nutrient penetration into slices, 2) provide better spatiotemporal control over solution flow/drug delivery to specific slice regions, and 3) permit successful integration with modern optical and electrophysiological techniques. In this review, we highlight the unique advantages of microfluidic devices for in vitro brain slice research, describe recent advances in the integration of microfluidic devices with optical and electrophysiological instrumentation, and discuss clinical applications of microfluidic technology as applied to brain slices and other non-neuronal tissues. We hope that this review will serve as an interdisciplinary guide for both neuroscientists studying brain tissue in vitro and engineers as they further develop microfluidic chamber technology for neuroscience research.

  5. Comparison of static and microfluidic protease assays using modified bioluminescence resonance energy transfer chemistry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fluorescence and bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (F/BRET are two forms of Förster resonance energy transfer, which can be used for optical transduction of biosensors. BRET has several advantages over fluorescence-based technologies because it does not require an external light source. There would be benefits in combining BRET transduction with microfluidics but the low luminance of BRET has made this challenging until now. METHODOLOGY: We used a thrombin bioprobe based on a form of BRET (BRET(H, which uses the BRET(1 substrate, native coelenterazine, with the typical BRET(2 donor and acceptor proteins linked by a thrombin target peptide. The microfluidic assay was carried out in a Y-shaped microfluidic network. The dependence of the BRET(H ratio on the measurement location, flow rate and bioprobe concentration was quantified. Results were compared with the same bioprobe in a static microwell plate assay. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The BRET(H thrombin bioprobe has a lower limit of detection (LOD than previously reported for the equivalent BRET(1-based version but it is substantially brighter than the BRET(2 version. The normalised BRET(H ratio of the bioprobe changed 32% following complete cleavage by thrombin and 31% in the microfluidic format. The LOD for thrombin in the microfluidic format was 27 pM, compared with an LOD of 310 pM, using the same bioprobe in a static microwell assay, and two orders of magnitude lower than reported for other microfluidic chip-based protease assays. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that BRET based microfluidic assays are feasible and that BRET(H provides a useful test bed for optimising BRET-based microfluidics. This approach may be convenient for a wide range of applications requiring sensitive detection and/or quantification of chemical or biological analytes.

  6. Ice matrix in reconfigurable microfluidic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossi, A M [Department of Biotechnology, University of Verona, Strada Le Grazie 15, I-37134, Verona (Italy); Vareijka, M; Piletska, E V; Turner, A P F; Piletsky, S A [Cranfield Health, Cranfield University, Vincent Building B52, Cranfield, Bedfordshire, MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Meglinski, I [Department of Physics, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin, 9054 (New Zealand)

    2013-07-01

    Microfluidic devices find many applications in biotechnologies. Here, we introduce a flexible and biocompatible microfluidic ice-based platform with tunable parameters and configuration of microfluidic patterns that can be changed multiple times during experiments. Freezing and melting of cavities, channels and complex relief structures created and maintained in the bulk of ice by continuous scanning of an infrared laser beam are used as a valve action in microfluidic systems. We demonstrate that pre-concentration of samples and transport of ions and dyes through the open channels created can be achieved in ice microfluidic patterns by IR laser-assisted zone melting. The proposed approach can be useful for performing separation and sensing processes in flexible reconfigurable microfluidic devices. (paper)

  7. Ice matrix in reconfigurable microfluidic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossi, A M; Vareijka, M; Piletska, E V; Turner, A P F; Piletsky, S A; Meglinski, I

    2013-01-01

    Microfluidic devices find many applications in biotechnologies. Here, we introduce a flexible and biocompatible microfluidic ice-based platform with tunable parameters and configuration of microfluidic patterns that can be changed multiple times during experiments. Freezing and melting of cavities, channels and complex relief structures created and maintained in the bulk of ice by continuous scanning of an infrared laser beam are used as a valve action in microfluidic systems. We demonstrate that pre-concentration of samples and transport of ions and dyes through the open channels created can be achieved in ice microfluidic patterns by IR laser-assisted zone melting. The proposed approach can be useful for performing separation and sensing processes in flexible reconfigurable microfluidic devices. (paper)

  8. Ice matrix in reconfigurable microfluidic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossi, A. M.; Vareijka, M.; Piletska, E. V.; Turner, A. P. F.; Meglinski, I.; Piletsky, S. A.

    2013-07-01

    Microfluidic devices find many applications in biotechnologies. Here, we introduce a flexible and biocompatible microfluidic ice-based platform with tunable parameters and configuration of microfluidic patterns that can be changed multiple times during experiments. Freezing and melting of cavities, channels and complex relief structures created and maintained in the bulk of ice by continuous scanning of an infrared laser beam are used as a valve action in microfluidic systems. We demonstrate that pre-concentration of samples and transport of ions and dyes through the open channels created can be achieved in ice microfluidic patterns by IR laser-assisted zone melting. The proposed approach can be useful for performing separation and sensing processes in flexible reconfigurable microfluidic devices.

  9. Nanostructures for all-polymer microfluidic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matschuk, Maria; Bruus, Henrik; Larsen, Niels Bent

    2010-01-01

    antistiction coating was found to improve the replication fidelity (shape and depth) of nanoscale features substantially. Arrays of holes of 50 nm diameter/35 nm depth and 100 nm/100 nm diameter, respectively, were mass-produced in cyclic olefin copolymer (Topas 5013) by injection molding. Polymer microfluidic...... channel chip parts resulted from a separate injection molding process. The microfluidic chip part and the nanostructured chip part were successfully bonded to form a sealed microfluidic system using air plasma assisted thermal bonding....

  10. Microfluidic high gradient magnetic cell separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, David W.; Riehn, Robert; Sturm, James C.; Austin, Robert H.

    2006-04-01

    Separation of blood cells by native susceptibility and by the selective attachment of magnetic beads has recently been demonstrated on microfluidic devices. We discuss the basic principles of how forces are generated via the magnetic susceptibility of an object and how microfluidics can be combined with micron-scale magnetic field gradients to greatly enhance in principle the fractionating power of magnetic fields. We discuss our efforts and those of others to build practical microfluidic devices for the magnetic separation of blood cells. We also discuss our attempts to integrate magnetic separation with other microfluidic features for developing handheld medical diagnostic tools.

  11. Integrated lenses in polystyrene microfluidic devices

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Yiqiang

    2013-04-01

    This paper reports a new method for integrating microlenses into microfluidic devices for improved observation. Two demonstration microfluidic devices were provided which were fabricated using this new technique. The integrated microlenses were fabricated using a free-surface thermo-compression molding method on a polystyrene (PS) sheet which was then bonded on top of microfluidic channels as a cover plate, with the convex microlenses providing a magnified image of the channel for the easier observation of the flow in the microchannels. This approach for fabricating the integrated microlens in microfluidic devices is rapid, low cost and without the requirement of cleanroom facilities. © 2013 IEEE.

  12. Optical detection in microfluidic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Kutter, Jörg Peter

    2009-01-01

    Optical detection schemes continue to be favoured for measurements in microfluidic systems. A selection of the latest progress mainly within the last two years is critically reviewed. Emphasis is on integrated solutions, such as planar waveguides, coupling schemes to the outside world, evanescent...... to ease commercialisation of the devices. This work will hopefully result in more commercial products that benefit from integrated optics, because the impact on commercial devices so far has been modest....

  13. Microfluidic Devices for Blood Fractionation

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Han Wei; Bhagat, Ali Asgar S.; Lee, Wong Cheng J.; Huang, Sha; Han, Jongyoon; Lim, Chwee Teck

    2011-01-01

    Blood, a complex biological fluid, comprises 45% cellular components suspended in protein rich plasma. These different hematologic components perform distinct functions in vivo and thus the ability to efficiently fractionate blood into its individual components has innumerable applications in both clinical diagnosis and biological research. Yet, processing blood is not trivial. In the past decade, a flurry of new microfluidic based technologies has emerged to address this compelling problem. ...

  14. Bistable diverter valve in microfluidics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tesař, Václav; Bandulasena, H.C.H.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 5 (2011), s. 1225-1233 ISSN 0723-4864 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/07/1499; GA AV ČR IAA200760705 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : fluidics * bistable diverter valves * pressure-driven microfluidics Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.735, year: 2011 http://www.springerlink.com/content/x4907p1908151522/

  15. Microfluidic Devices for Blood Fractionation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chwee Teck Lim

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Blood, a complex biological fluid, comprises 45% cellular components suspended in protein rich plasma. These different hematologic components perform distinct functions in vivo and thus the ability to efficiently fractionate blood into its individual components has innumerable applications in both clinical diagnosis and biological research. Yet, processing blood is not trivial. In the past decade, a flurry of new microfluidic based technologies has emerged to address this compelling problem. Microfluidics is an attractive solution for this application leveraging its numerous advantages to process clinical blood samples. This paper reviews the various microfluidic approaches realized to successfully fractionate one or more blood components. Techniques to separate plasma from hematologic cellular components as well as isolating blood cells of interest including certain rare cells are discussed. Comparisons based on common separation metrics including efficiency (sensitivity, purity (selectivity, and throughput will be presented. Finally, we will provide insights into the challenges associated with blood-based separation systems towards realizing true point-of-care (POC devices and provide future perspectives.

  16. Silk-microfluidics for advanced biotechnological applications: A progressive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konwarh, Rocktotpal; Gupta, Prerak; Mandal, Biman B

    2016-01-01

    Silk based biomaterials have not only carved a unique niche in the domain of regenerative medicine but new avenues are also being explored for lab-on-a-chip applications. It is pertinent to note that biospinning of silk represents nature's signature microfluidic-maneuver. Elucidation of non-Newtonian flow of silk in the glands of spiders and silkworms has inspired researchers to fabricate devices for continuous extrusion and concentration of silk. Microfluidic channel networks within porous silk scaffolds ensure optimal nutrient and oxygen supply apart from serving as precursors for vascularization in tissue engineering applications. On the other hand, unique topographical features and surface wettability of natural silk fibers have inspired development of a number of simple and cost-effective devices for applications like blood typing and chemical sensing. This review mirrors the recent progress and challenges in the domain of silk-microfluidics for prospective avant-garde applications in the realm of biotechnology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Materials for microfluidic chip fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Kangning; Zhou, Jianhua; Wu, Hongkai

    2013-11-19

    Through manipulating fluids using microfabricated channel and chamber structures, microfluidics is a powerful tool to realize high sensitive, high speed, high throughput, and low cost analysis. In addition, the method can establish a well-controlled microenivroment for manipulating fluids and particles. It also has rapid growing implementations in both sophisticated chemical/biological analysis and low-cost point-of-care assays. Some unique phenomena emerge at the micrometer scale. For example, reactions are completed in a shorter amount of time as the travel distances of mass and heat are relatively small; the flows are usually laminar; and the capillary effect becomes dominant owing to large surface-to-volume ratios. In the meantime, the surface properties of the device material are greatly amplified, which can lead to either unique functions or problems that we would not encounter at the macroscale. Also, each material inherently corresponds with specific microfabrication strategies and certain native properties of the device. Therefore, the material for making the device plays a dominating role in microfluidic technologies. In this Account, we address the evolution of materials used for fabricating microfluidic chips, and discuss the application-oriented pros and cons of different materials. This Account generally follows the order of the materials introduced to microfluidics. Glass and silicon, the first generation microfluidic device materials, are perfect for capillary electrophoresis and solvent-involved applications but expensive for microfabriaction. Elastomers enable low-cost rapid prototyping and high density integration of valves on chip, allowing complicated and parallel fluid manipulation and in-channel cell culture. Plastics, as competitive alternatives to elastomers, are also rapid and inexpensive to microfabricate. Their broad variety provides flexible choices for different needs. For example, some thermosets support in-situ fabrication of

  18. Ionic current devices-Recent progress in the merging of electronic, microfluidic, and biomimetic structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Hyung-Jun; Velev, Orlin D

    2013-05-09

    We review the recent progress in the emerging area of devices and circuits operating on the basis of ionic currents. These devices operate at the intersection of electrochemistry, electronics, and microfluidics, and their potential applications are inspired by essential biological processes such as neural transmission. Ionic current rectification has been demonstrated in diode-like devices containing electrolyte solutions, hydrogel, or hydrated nanofilms. More complex functions have been realized in ionic current based transistors, solar cells, and switching memory devices. Microfluidic channels and networks-an intrinsic component of the ionic devices-could play the role of wires and circuits in conventional electronics.

  19. Detection methods for centrifugal microfluidic platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burger, Robert; Amato, Letizia; Boisen, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Centrifugal microfluidics has attracted much interest from academia as well as industry, since it potentially offers solutions for affordable, user-friendly and portable biosensing. A wide range of so-called fluidic unit operations, e.g. mixing, metering, liquid routing, and particle separation...... for the centrifugal microfluidics platform and cover optical as well as mechanical and electrical detection principles....

  20. Preface book Microfluidics for medical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Albert; Segerink, Loes Irene

    2015-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the major microfluidics techniques and platforms used for medicine and medical applications, providing the reader with an overview of the recent developments in this field. It is divided in three parts: (1) tissue and organs on-chip, (2) microfluidics for medicine

  1. Cell Culture Microfluidic Biochips: Experimental Throughput Maximization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minhass, Wajid Hassan; Pop, Paul; Madsen, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Microfluidic biochips offer a promising alternative to a conventional biochemical laboratory, integrating all necessary functionalities on-chip in order to perform biochemical applications. Researchers have started to propose computer-aided design tools for the synthesis of such biochips. Our focus...... metaheuristic for experimental design generation for the cell culture microfluidic biochips, and we have evaluated our approach using multiple experimental setups....

  2. Modular microfluidic system for biological sample preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Klint A.; Mariella, Jr., Raymond P.; Bailey, Christopher G.; Ness, Kevin Dean

    2015-09-29

    A reconfigurable modular microfluidic system for preparation of a biological sample including a series of reconfigurable modules for automated sample preparation adapted to selectively include a) a microfluidic acoustic focusing filter module, b) a dielectrophoresis bacteria filter module, c) a dielectrophoresis virus filter module, d) an isotachophoresis nucleic acid filter module, e) a lyses module, and f) an isotachophoresis-based nucleic acid filter.

  3. Principles, Techniques, and Applications of Tissue Microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Lawrence A.; Kartalov, Emil P.; Shibata, Darryl; Taylor, Clive

    2011-01-01

    The principle of tissue microfluidics and its resultant techniques has been applied to cell analysis. Building microfluidics to suit a particular tissue sample would allow the rapid, reliable, inexpensive, highly parallelized, selective extraction of chosen regions of tissue for purposes of further biochemical analysis. Furthermore, the applicability of the techniques ranges beyond the described pathology application. For example, they would also allow the posing and successful answering of new sets of questions in many areas of fundamental research. The proposed integration of microfluidic techniques and tissue slice samples is called "tissue microfluidics" because it molds the microfluidic architectures in accordance with each particular structure of each specific tissue sample. Thus, microfluidics can be built around the tissues, following the tissue structure, or alternatively, the microfluidics can be adapted to the specific geometry of particular tissues. By contrast, the traditional approach is that microfluidic devices are structured in accordance with engineering considerations, while the biological components in applied devices are forced to comply with these engineering presets.

  4. Opportunities for microfluidic technologies in synthetic biology

    OpenAIRE

    Gulati, Shelly; Rouilly, Vincent; Niu, Xize; Chappell, James; Kitney, Richard I.; Edel, Joshua B.; Freemont, Paul S.; deMello, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce microfluidics technologies as a key foundational technology for synthetic biology experimentation. Recent advances in the field of microfluidics are reviewed and the potential of such a technological platform to support the rapid development of synthetic biology solutions is discussed.

  5. Applications of Microfluidics in Quantitative Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yang; Gao, Meng; Wen, Lingling; He, Caiyun; Chen, Yuan; Liu, Chenli; Fu, Xiongfei; Huang, Shuqiang

    2018-05-01

    Quantitative biology is dedicated to taking advantage of quantitative reasoning and advanced engineering technologies to make biology more predictable. Microfluidics, as an emerging technique, provides new approaches to precisely control fluidic conditions on small scales and collect data in high-throughput and quantitative manners. In this review, the authors present the relevant applications of microfluidics to quantitative biology based on two major categories (channel-based microfluidics and droplet-based microfluidics), and their typical features. We also envision some other microfluidic techniques that may not be employed in quantitative biology right now, but have great potential in the near future. © 2017 Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Biotechnology Journal Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  6. Development of an Integrated Polymer Microfluidic Stack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, Proyag; Hammacher, Jens; Pease, Mark; Gurung, Sitanshu; Goettert, Jost

    2006-01-01

    Microfluidic is a field of considerable interest. While significant research has been carried out to develop microfluidic components, very little has been done to integrate the components into a complete working system. We present a flexible modular system platform that addresses the requirements of a complete microfluidic system. A microfluidic stack system is demonstrated with the layers of the stack being modular for specific functions. The stack and accompanying infrastructure provides an attractive platform for users to transition their design concepts into a working microfluidic system quickly with very little effort. The concept is demonstrated by using the system to carry out a chemilumiscence experiment. Details regarding the fabrication, assembly and experimental methods are presented

  7. Practical Packaging Technology for Microfluidic Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hwan Yong; Han, Song I; Han, Ki Ho

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the technology for the design, fabrication, and characterization of a microfluidic system interface (MSI): the purpose of this technology is to enable the integration of complex microfluidic systems. The MSI technology can be applied in a simple manner for realizing complex arrangements of microfluidic interconnects, integrated microvalves for fluid control, and optical windows for on-chip optical processes. A microfluidic system for the preparation of genetic samples was used as the test vehicle to prove the effectiveness of the MSI technology for packaging complex microfluidic systems with multiple functionalities. The miniaturized genetic sample preparation system comprised several functional compartments, including compartments for cell purification, cell separation, cell lysis, solid-phase DNA extraction, polymerase chain reaction, and capillary electrophoresis. Additionally, the functional operation of the solid-phase extraction and PCR thermocycling compartments was demonstrated by using the MSI

  8. Manipulation of microfluidic droplets by electrorheological fluid

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Menying

    2009-09-01

    Microfluidics, especially droplet microfluidics, attracts more and more researchers from diverse fields, because it requires fewer materials and less time, produces less waste and has the potential of highly integrated and computer-controlled reaction processes for chemistry and biology. Electrorheological fluid, especially giant electrorheological fluid (GERF), which is considered as a kind of smart material, has been applied to the microfluidic systems to achieve active and precise control of fluid by electrical signal. In this review article, we will introduce recent results of microfluidic droplet manipulation, GERF and some pertinent achievements by introducing GERF into microfluidic system: digital generation, manipulation of "smart droplets" and droplet manipulation by GERF. Once it is combined with real-time detection, integrated chip with multiple functions can be realized. © 2009 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  9. Research Progress of Microfluidic Chips Preparation and its Optical Element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng WANG

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Microfluidic technology is the emerging technologies in researching fluid channel and related applications in the micro and nano-scale space. Microfluidic chip is a new miniaturized rapid analysis platform by microfluidic technology, it has many characteristics such as liquid flow control, minimal reagent consumption, rapid analysis, which is widely used in physics, chemistry, biology, and engineering science and other fields, it has strong interdisciplinary. This paper mainly discusses research progress of materials used for microfluidic chips and the devices based on microfluidic technology, including microfluidic chip, microfluidic optical devices, microfluidic laser preparation, microfluidic chip applications, focusing on the quasi-molecular laser processing technology and femtosecond laser processing technology in the microfluidic devices preparation, and make development prospects for it.

  10. Magnetically-guided assembly of microfluidic fibers for ordered construction of diverse netlike modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingfu; Shi, Qing; Wang, Huaping; Sun, Tao; Huang, Qiang; Fukuda, Toshio

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, a magnetically-guided assembly method is proposed to methodically construct diverse modules with a microfiber-based network for promoting nutrient circulation and waste excretion of cell culture. The microfiber is smoothly spun from the microfluidic device via precise control of the volumetric flow rate, and superparamagnetic nanoparticles within the alginate solution of the microfluidic fiber enable its magnetic response. The magnetized device is used to effectively capture the microfiber using its powerful magnetic flux density and high magnetic field gradient. Subsequently, the dot-matrix magnetic flux density is used to distribute the microfibers in an orderly fashion that depends on the array structure of the magnetized device. Furthermore, the magnetic microfluidic fibers are spatially organized into desired locations and are cross-aligned to form highly interconnected netlike modules in a liquid environment. Therefore, the experimental results herein demonstrate the structural controllability and stability of various modules and establish the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  11. Multilayer microfluidic systems with indium-tin-oxide microelectrodes for studying biological cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Hsiang-Chiu; Chen, Hsin; Lyau, Jia-Bo; Lin, Min-Hsuan; Chuang, Yung-Jen

    2017-01-01

    Contemporary semiconductor and micromachining technologies have been exploited to develop lab-on-a-chip microsystems, which enable parallel and efficient experiments in molecular and cellular biology. In these microlab systems, microfluidics play an important role for automatic transportation or immobilization of cells and bio-molecules, as well as for separation or mixing of different chemical reagents. However, seldom microlab systems allow both morphology and electrophysiology of biological cells to be studied in situ . This kind of study is important, for example, for understanding how neuronal networks grow in response to environmental stimuli. To fulfill this application need, this paper investigates the possibility of fabricating multi-layer photoresists as microfluidic systems directly above a glass substrate with indium-tin-oxide (ITO) electrodes. The microfluidic channels are designed to guide and trap biological cells on top of ITO electrodes, through which the electrical activities of cells can be recorded or elicited. As both the microfluidic system and ITO electrodes are transparent, the cellular morphology is observable easily during electrophysiological studies. Two fabrication processes are proposed and compared. One defines the structure and curing depth of each photoresist layer simply by controlling the exposure time in lithography, while the other further utilizes a sacrificial layer to defines the structure of the bottom layer. The fabricated microfluidic system is proved bio-compatible and able to trap blood cells or neurons. Therefore, the proposed microsystem will be useful for studying cultured cells efficiently in applications such as drug-screening. (paper)

  12. Automated Microfluidic Platform for Serial Polymerase Chain Reaction and High-Resolution Melting Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Weidong; Bean, Brian; Corey, Scott; Coursey, Johnathan S; Hasson, Kenton C; Inoue, Hiroshi; Isano, Taisuke; Kanderian, Sami; Lane, Ben; Liang, Hongye; Murphy, Brian; Owen, Greg; Shinoda, Nobuhiko; Zeng, Shulin; Knight, Ivor T

    2016-06-01

    We report the development of an automated genetic analyzer for human sample testing based on microfluidic rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with high-resolution melting analysis (HRMA). The integrated DNA microfluidic cartridge was used on a platform designed with a robotic pipettor system that works by sequentially picking up different test solutions from a 384-well plate, mixing them in the tips, and delivering mixed fluids to the DNA cartridge. A novel image feedback flow control system based on a Canon 5D Mark II digital camera was developed for controlling fluid movement through a complex microfluidic branching network without the use of valves. The same camera was used for measuring the high-resolution melt curve of DNA amplicons that were generated in the microfluidic chip. Owing to fast heating and cooling as well as sensitive temperature measurement in the microfluidic channels, the time frame for PCR and HRMA was dramatically reduced from hours to minutes. Preliminary testing results demonstrated that rapid serial PCR and HRMA are possible while still achieving high data quality that is suitable for human sample testing. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  13. Optical calorimetry in microfluidic droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamoun, Jacob; Pattekar, Ashish; Afshinmanesh, Farzaneh; Martini, Joerg; Recht, Michael I

    2018-05-29

    A novel microfluidic calorimeter that measures the enthalpy change of reactions occurring in 100 μm diameter aqueous droplets in fluoropolymer oil has been developed. The aqueous reactants flow into a microfluidic droplet generation chip in separate fluidic channels, limiting contact between the streams until immediately before they form the droplet. The diffusion-driven mixing of reactants is predominantly restricted to within the droplet. The temperature change in droplets due to the heat of reaction is measured optically by recording the reflectance spectra of encapsulated thermochromic liquid crystals (TLC) that are added to one of the reactant streams. As the droplets travel through the channel, the spectral characteristics of the TLC represent the internal temperature, allowing optical measurement with a precision of ≈6 mK. The microfluidic chip and all fluids are temperature controlled, and the reaction heat within droplets raises their temperature until thermal diffusion dissipates the heat into the surrounding oil and chip walls. Position resolved optical temperature measurement of the droplets allows calculation of the heat of reaction by analyzing the droplet temperature profile over time. Channel dimensions, droplet generation rate, droplet size, reactant stream flows and oil flow rate are carefully balanced to provide rapid diffusional mixing of reactants compared to thermal diffusion, while avoiding thermal "quenching" due to contact between the droplets and the chip walls. Compared to conventional microcalorimetry, which has been used in this work to provide reference measurements, this new continuous flow droplet calorimeter has the potential to perform titrations ≈1000-fold faster while using ≈400-fold less reactants per titration.

  14. Magnetic separation in microfluidic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smistrup, Kristian

    2007-01-01

    to facilitate real-time monitoring of the experiments. The set-up and experimental protocol are described in detail. Results are presented for ’active’ magnetic bead separators, where on-chip microfabricated electromagnets supply the magnetic field and field gradients necessary for magnetic bead separation....... It is shown conceptually how such a system can be applied for parallel biochemical processing in a microfluidic system. ’Passive’ magnetic separators are presented, where on-chip soft magnetic elements are magnetized by an external magnetic field and create strong magnetic fields and gradients inside...

  15. Microfluidics and microscale transport processes

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Suman

    2012-01-01

    With an intense focus on micro- and nanotechnology from a fluidic perspective, this book details the research activities in key directions on both the theoretical and experimental fronts. As part of the IIT Kharagpur Research Monograph series, the text discusses topics such as capillary transport in microchannels, fluid friction and heat transfer in microchannels, electrokinetics, and interfacial transport in nanochannels. It also covers nanoparticle transport in colloidal suspensions, bubble generation in microfluidic channels, micro-heat pipe, the lattice Boltzmann method for phase changing

  16. Microfluidic Approach to Cell Microencapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Varna; Hunckler, Michael; Ramasubramanian, Melur K; Opara, Emmanuel C; Katuri, Kalyan C

    2017-01-01

    Bioartificial pancreas made of insulin-secreting islets cells holds great promise in the treatment of individuals with Type-1 diabetes. Successful islet cell microencapsulation in biopolymers is a key step for providing immunoisolation of transplanted islet cells. Because of the variability in the size and shape of pancreatic islets, one of the main obstacles in their microencapsulation is the inability to consistently control shape, size, and microstructure of the encapsulating biopolymer capsule. In this chapter, we provide a detailed description of a microfluidic approach to islet cell encapsulation in alginate that might address the microencapsulation challenges.

  17. Self-contained microfluidic systems: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd-Moss, Mitchell; Baratchi, Sara; Di Venere, Martina; Khoshmanesh, Khashayar

    2016-08-16

    Microfluidic systems enable rapid diagnosis, screening and monitoring of diseases and health conditions using small amounts of biological samples and reagents. Despite these remarkable features, conventional microfluidic systems rely on bulky expensive external equipment, which hinders their utility as powerful analysis tools outside of research laboratories. 'Self-contained' microfluidic systems, which contain all necessary components to facilitate a complete assay, have been developed to address this limitation. In this review, we provide an in-depth overview of self-contained microfluidic systems. We categorise these systems based on their operating mechanisms into three major groups: passive, hand-powered and active. Several examples are provided to discuss the structure, capabilities and shortcomings of each group. In particular, we discuss the self-contained microfluidic systems enabled by active mechanisms, due to their unique capability for running multi-step and highly controllable diagnostic assays. Integration of self-contained microfluidic systems with the image acquisition and processing capabilities of smartphones, especially those equipped with accessory optical components, enables highly sensitive and quantitative assays, which are discussed. Finally, the future trends and possible solutions to expand the versatility of self-contained, stand-alone microfluidic platforms are outlined.

  18. Microfluidic cell culture systems for drug research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Min-Hsien; Huang, Song-Bin; Lee, Gwo-Bin

    2010-04-21

    In pharmaceutical research, an adequate cell-based assay scheme to efficiently screen and to validate potential drug candidates in the initial stage of drug discovery is crucial. In order to better predict the clinical response to drug compounds, a cell culture model that is faithful to in vivo behavior is required. With the recent advances in microfluidic technology, the utilization of a microfluidic-based cell culture has several advantages, making it a promising alternative to the conventional cell culture methods. This review starts with a comprehensive discussion on the general process for drug discovery and development, the role of cell culture in drug research, and the characteristics of the cell culture formats commonly used in current microfluidic-based, cell-culture practices. Due to the significant differences in several physical phenomena between microscale and macroscale devices, microfluidic technology provides unique functionality, which is not previously possible by using traditional techniques. In a subsequent section, the niches for using microfluidic-based cell culture systems for drug research are discussed. Moreover, some critical issues such as cell immobilization, medium pumping or gradient generation in microfluidic-based, cell-culture systems are also reviewed. Finally, some practical applications of microfluidic-based, cell-culture systems in drug research particularly those pertaining to drug toxicity testing and those with a high-throughput capability are highlighted.

  19. Fluorescence detection system for microfluidic droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Binyu; Han, Xiaoming; Su, Zhen; Liu, Quanjun

    2018-05-01

    In microfluidic detection technology, because of the universality of optical methods in laboratory, optical detection is an attractive solution for microfluidic chip laboratory equipment. In addition, the equipment with high stability and low cost can be realized by integrating appropriate optical detection technology on the chip. This paper reports a detection system for microfluidic droplets. Photomultiplier tubes (PMT) is used as a detection device to improve the sensitivity of detection. This system improves the signal to noise ratio by software filtering and spatial filter. The fluorescence intensity is proportional to the concentration of the fluorescence and intensity of the laser. The fluorescence micro droplets of different concentrations can be distinguished by this system.

  20. A microfluidic platform for the investigation of elongation growth in pollen tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agudelo, C G; Sanati, A; Ghanbari, M; Packirisamy, M; Geitmann, A

    2012-01-01

    Pollen tubes are an excellent model for the investigation of plant cell growth: they elongate at very high rates and are easily cultured in vitro. One major constraint in the study of pollen tube growth has been the difficulty in providing an in vitro testing environment that physically resembles the in vivo conditions. This work presents the development of a microfluidic platform for the study and manipulation of individual pollen tubes. The platform is fabricated from polydimethylsiloxane using a Silicon/SU-8 mold and makes use of microfluidics to distribute pollen grains to serially arranged microchannels into which the tubes grow to allow for individual testing. A 2D finite element fluid analysis is done to assist optimization of the architectural design. Validation of the device is carried out by growing Camellia japonica pollen. Results show that pollen tube germination and growth rate within the microfluidic network are similar to those obtained in conventional plate or batch assays. The microfluidic network allows for specific testing of a variety of structural features as demonstrated with a simple collision test, and it permits the straightforward integration of further single-cell test assays. (paper)

  1. Microfluidic biolector-microfluidic bioprocess control in microtiter plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funke, Matthias; Buchenauer, Andreas; Schnakenberg, Uwe; Mokwa, Wilfried; Diederichs, Sylvia; Mertens, Alan; Müller, Carsten; Kensy, Frank; Büchs, Jochen

    2010-10-15

    In industrial-scale biotechnological processes, the active control of the pH-value combined with the controlled feeding of substrate solutions (fed-batch) is the standard strategy to cultivate both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. On the contrary, for small-scale cultivations, much simpler batch experiments with no process control are performed. This lack of process control often hinders researchers to scale-up and scale-down fermentation experiments, because the microbial metabolism and thereby the growth and production kinetics drastically changes depending on the cultivation strategy applied. While small-scale batches are typically performed highly parallel and in high throughput, large-scale cultivations demand sophisticated equipment for process control which is in most cases costly and difficult to handle. Currently, there is no technical system on the market that realizes simple process control in high throughput. The novel concept of a microfermentation system described in this work combines a fiber-optic online-monitoring device for microtiter plates (MTPs)--the BioLector technology--together with microfluidic control of cultivation processes in volumes below 1 mL. In the microfluidic chip, a micropump is integrated to realize distinct substrate flow rates during fed-batch cultivation in microscale. Hence, a cultivation system with several distinct advantages could be established: (1) high information output on a microscale; (2) many experiments can be performed in parallel and be automated using MTPs; (3) this system is user-friendly and can easily be transferred to a disposable single-use system. This article elucidates this new concept and illustrates applications in fermentations of Escherichia coli under pH-controlled and fed-batch conditions in shaken MTPs. Copyright 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Particle Manipulation Methods in Droplet Microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenje, Maria; Fornell, Anna; Ohlin, Mathias; Nilsson, Johan

    2018-02-06

    This Feature describes the different particle manipulation techniques available in the droplet microfluidics toolbox to handle particles encapsulated inside droplets and to manipulate whole droplets. We address the advantages and disadvantages of the different techniques to guide new users.

  3. Microfluidic Analytical Separator for Proteomics, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is a microfluidic device designed to effect a 2-dimensional resolution of a mixture of proteins based on isoelectric point (pI) and molecular...

  4. Microfluidic Multichannel Flow Cytometer, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is a "Microfluidic Multichannel Flow Cytometer." Several novel concepts are integrated to produce the final design, which is compatible with...

  5. Optical bio-sensors in microfluidic chips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollnau, Markus; Dongre, C.; Pham Van So, P.V.S.; Bernhardi, Edward; Worhoff, Kerstin; de Ridder, R.M.; Hoekstra, Hugo

    2012-01-01

    Direct femtosecond laser writing is used to integrate optical waveguides that intersect the microfluidic channels in a commercial optofluidic chip. With laser excitation, fluorescently labeled DNA molecules of different sizes are separated by capillary electrophoresis with high operating speed and

  6. Microfluidic Analytical Separator for Proteomics, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SHOT proposes an innovative microfluidic device designed to effect a 2-dimensional resolution of a mixture of proteins based on isoelectric point (pI) and molecular...

  7. A Microfluidic Approach for Studying Piezo Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneshi, M M; Gottlieb, P A; Hua, S Z

    2017-01-01

    Microfluidics is an interdisciplinary field intersecting many areas in engineering. Utilizing a combination of physics, chemistry, biology, and biotechnology, along with practical applications for designing devices that use low volumes of fluids to achieve high-throughput screening, is a major goal in microfluidics. Microfluidic approaches allow the study of cells growth and differentiation using a variety of conditions including control of fluid flow that generates shear stress. Recently, Piezo1 channels were shown to respond to fluid shear stress and are crucial for vascular development. This channel is ideal for studying fluid shear stress applied to cells using microfluidic devices. We have developed an approach that allows us to analyze the role of Piezo channels on any given cell and serves as a high-throughput screen for drug discovery. We show that this approach can provide detailed information about the inhibitors of Piezo channels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A microfluidic device for studying cell signaling with multiple inputs and adjustable amplitudes and frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ningsih, Zubaidah; Chon, James W. M.; Clayton, Andrew H. A.

    2013-12-01

    Cell function is largely controlled by an intricate web of macromolecular interactions called signaling networks. It is known that the type and the intensity (concentration) of stimulus affect cell behavior. However, the temporal aspect of the stimulus is not yet fully understood. Moreover, the process of distinguishing between two stimuli by a cell is still not clear. A microfluidic device enables the delivery of a precise and exact stimulus to the cell due to the laminar flow established inside its micro-channel. The slow stream delivers a constant stimulus which is adjustable according to the experiment set up. Moreover, with controllable inputs, microfluidic facilitates the stimuli delivery according to a certain pattern with adjustable amplitude, frequency and phase. Several designs of PDMS microfluidic device has been produced in this project via photolithography and soft lithography processes. To characterize the microfluidic performance, two experiments has been conducted. First, by comparing the fluorescence intensity and the lifetime of fluorescein in the present of KI, mixing extent between two inputs was observed using Frequency Lifetime Imaging Microscopy (FLIM). Furthermore, the input-output relationship of fluorescein concentration delivered was also drawn to characterize the amplitude, frequency and phase of the inputs. Second experiment involved the cell culturing inside microfluidic. Using NG108-15 cells, proliferation and differentiation were observed based on the cell number and cell physiological changes. Our results demonstrate that hurdle design gives 86% mixing of fluorescein and buffer. Relationship between inputoutput fluorescein concentrations delivered has also been demonstrated and cells were successfully cultured inside the microfluidic.

  9. A small-scale, rolled-membrane microfluidic artificial lung designed towards future large area manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, A J; Marks, L H; Goudie, M J; Rojas-Pena, A; Handa, H; Potkay, J A

    2017-03-01

    Artificial lungs have been used in the clinic for multiple decades to supplement patient pulmonary function. Recently, small-scale microfluidic artificial lungs (μAL) have been demonstrated with large surface area to blood volume ratios, biomimetic blood flow paths, and pressure drops compatible with pumpless operation. Initial small-scale microfluidic devices with blood flow rates in the μ l/min to ml/min range have exhibited excellent gas transfer efficiencies; however, current manufacturing techniques may not be suitable for scaling up to human applications. Here, we present a new manufacturing technology for a microfluidic artificial lung in which the structure is assembled via a continuous "rolling" and bonding procedure from a single, patterned layer of polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS). This method is demonstrated in a small-scale four-layer device, but is expected to easily scale to larger area devices. The presented devices have a biomimetic branching blood flow network, 10  μ m tall artificial capillaries, and a 66  μ m thick gas transfer membrane. Gas transfer efficiency in blood was evaluated over a range of blood flow rates (0.1-1.25 ml/min) for two different sweep gases (pure O 2 , atmospheric air). The achieved gas transfer data closely follow predicted theoretical values for oxygenation and CO 2 removal, while pressure drop is marginally higher than predicted. This work is the first step in developing a scalable method for creating large area microfluidic artificial lungs. Although designed for microfluidic artificial lungs, the presented technique is expected to result in the first manufacturing method capable of simply and easily creating large area microfluidic devices from PDMS.

  10. A 3D printed microfluidic perfusion device for multicellular spheroid cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Louis Jun Ye; Islam, Anik; DasGupta, Ramanuj; Iyer, Narayanan Gopalakkrishna; Leo, Hwa Liang; Toh, Yi-Chin

    2017-09-11

    The advent of 3D printing technologies promises to make microfluidic organ-on-chip technologies more accessible for the biological research community. To date, hydrogel-encapsulated cells have been successfully incorporated into 3D printed microfluidic devices. However, there is currently no 3D printed microfluidic device that can support multicellular spheroid culture, which facilitates extensive cell-cell contacts important for recapitulating many multicellular functional biological structures. Here, we report a first instance of fabricating a 3D printed microfluidic cell culture device capable of directly immobilizing and maintaining the viability and functionality of 3D multicellular spheroids. We evaluated the feasibility of two common 3D printing technologies i.e. stereolithography (SLA) and PolyJet printing, and found that SLA could prototype a device comprising of cell immobilizing micro-structures that were housed within a microfluidic network with higher fidelity. We have also implemented a pump-free perfusion system, relying on gravity-driven flow to perform medium perfusion in order to reduce the complexity and footprint of the device setup, thereby improving its adaptability into a standard biological laboratory. Finally, we demonstrated the biological performance of the 3D printed device by performing pump-free perfusion cultures of patient-derived parental and metastatic oral squamous cell carcinoma tumor and liver cell (HepG2) spheroids with good cell viability and functionality. This paper presents a proof-of-concept in simplifying and integrating the prototyping and operation of a microfluidic spheroid culture device, which will facilitate its applications in various drug efficacy, metabolism and toxicity studies.

  11. Microfluidic System Simulation Including the Electro-Viscous Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Eileen; Chen, C. P.; Majumdar, Alok

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a practical approach using a general purpose lumped-parameter computer program, GFSSP (Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program) for calculating flow distribution in a network of micro-channels including electro-viscous effects due to the existence of electrical double layer (EDL). In this study, an empirical formulation for calculating an effective viscosity of ionic solutions based on dimensional analysis is described to account for surface charge and bulk fluid conductivity, which give rise to electro-viscous effect in microfluidics network. Two dimensional slit micro flow data was used to determine the model coefficients. Geometry effect is then included through a Poiseuille number correlation in GFSSP. The bi-power model was used to calculate flow distribution of isotropically etched straight channel and T-junction microflows involving ionic solutions. Performance of the proposed model is assessed against experimental test data.

  12. Materials for Microfluidic Immunoassays: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Lei; Jiang, Xingyu

    2017-08-01

    Conventional immunoassays suffer from at least one of these following limitations: long processing time, high costs, poor user-friendliness, technical complexity, poor sensitivity and specificity. Microfluidics, a technology characterized by the engineered manipulation of fluids in channels with characteristic lengthscale of tens of micrometers, has shown considerable promise for improving immunoassays that could overcome these limitations in medical diagnostics and biology research. The combination of microfluidics and immunoassay can detect biomarkers with faster assay time, reduced volumes of reagents, lower power requirements, and higher levels of integration and automation compared to traditional approaches. This review focuses on the materials-related aspects of the recent advances in microfluidics-based immunoassays for point-of-care (POC) diagnostics of biomarkers. We compare the materials for microfluidic chips fabrication in five aspects: fabrication, integration, function, modification and cost, and describe their advantages and drawbacks. In addition, we review materials for modifying antibodies to improve the performance of the reaction of immunoassay. We also review the state of the art in microfluidic immunoassays POC platforms, from the laboratory to routine clinical practice, and also commercial products in the market. Finally, we discuss the current challenges and future developments in microfluidic immunoassays. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Micro-optics for microfluidic analytical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Gijs, Martin A M

    2018-02-19

    This critical review summarizes the developments in the integration of micro-optical elements with microfluidic platforms for facilitating detection and automation of bio-analytical applications. Micro-optical elements, made by a variety of microfabrication techniques, advantageously contribute to the performance of an analytical system, especially when the latter has microfluidic features. Indeed the easy integration of optical control and detection modules with microfluidic technology helps to bridge the gap between the macroscopic world and chip-based analysis, paving the way for automated and high-throughput applications. In our review, we start the discussion with an introduction of microfluidic systems and micro-optical components, as well as aspects of their integration. We continue with a detailed description of different microfluidic and micro-optics technologies and their applications, with an emphasis on the realization of optical waveguides and microlenses. The review continues with specific sections highlighting the advantages of integrated micro-optical components in microfluidic systems for tackling a variety of analytical problems, like cytometry, nucleic acid and protein detection, cell biology, and chemical analysis applications.

  14. Microfluidic Devices in Advanced Caenorhabditis elegans Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muniesh Muthaiyan Shanmugam

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The study of model organisms is very important in view of their potential for application to human therapeutic uses. One such model organism is the nematode worm, Caenorhabditis elegans. As a nematode, C. elegans have ~65% similarity with human disease genes and, therefore, studies on C. elegans can be translated to human, as well as, C. elegans can be used in the study of different types of parasitic worms that infect other living organisms. In the past decade, many efforts have been undertaken to establish interdisciplinary research collaborations between biologists, physicists and engineers in order to develop microfluidic devices to study the biology of C. elegans. Microfluidic devices with the power to manipulate and detect bio-samples, regents or biomolecules in micro-scale environments can well fulfill the requirement to handle worms under proper laboratory conditions, thereby significantly increasing research productivity and knowledge. The recent development of different kinds of microfluidic devices with ultra-high throughput platforms has enabled researchers to carry out worm population studies. Microfluidic devices primarily comprises of chambers, channels and valves, wherein worms can be cultured, immobilized, imaged, etc. Microfluidic devices have been adapted to study various worm behaviors, including that deepen our understanding of neuromuscular connectivity and functions. This review will provide a clear account of the vital involvement of microfluidic devices in worm biology.

  15. Microfluidics for single cell analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Marie Pødenphant

    Isolation and manipulation of single cells have gained an increasing interest from researchers because of the heterogeneity of cells from the same cell culture. Single cell analysis can ensure a better understanding of differences between individual cells and potentially solve a variety of clinical...... problems. In this thesis lab on a chip systems for rare single cell analysis are investigated. The focus was to develop a commercial, disposable device for circulating tumour cell (CTC) analysis. Such a device must be able to separate rare cells from blood samples and subsequently capture the specific...... cells, and simultaneously be fabricated and operated at low costs and be user-friendly. These challenges were addressed through development of two microfluidic devices, one for rare cell isolation based on pinched flow fractionation (PFF) and one for single cell capture based on hydrodynamic trapping...

  16. Capture of DNA in microfluidic channel using magnetic beads: increasing capture efficiency with integrated microfluidic mixer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Olesen, Torsten; Dufva, Hans Martin; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    2007-01-01

    We have studied the hybridization of target DNA in solution with probe DNA on magnetic beads immobilized on the channel sidewalls in a magnetic bead separator. The hybridization is carried out under a liquid flow and is diffusion limited. Two systems are compared: one with a straight microfluidic...... place on the surface in a microfluidic system....

  17. Inhibitory effect of common microfluidic materials on PCR outcome

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas; Xiao, Kang; Wu, Jinbo; Yi, Xin; Gong, Xiuqing; Foulds, Ian G.; Wen, Weijia

    2012-01-01

    Microfluidic chips have a variety of applications in the biological sciences and medicine. In contrast with traditional experimental approaches, microfluidics entails lower sample and reagent consumption, allows faster reactions and enables

  18. Plastic-Based Structurally Programmable Microfluidic Biochips for Clinical Diagnostics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ahn, Chong H; Nevin, Joseph H; Beaucage, Gregory

    2005-01-01

    ... and reliable measurements of metabolic parameters from a human body with minimum invasion. The fully integrated disposable biochip is capable of precise volume control with smart microfluidic manipulation without costly on-chip microfluidic components...

  19. Rapid microfluidic thermal cycler for nucleic acid amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Vafai, Kambiz

    2015-10-27

    A system for thermal cycling a material to be thermal cycled including a microfluidic heat exchanger; a porous medium in the microfluidic heat exchanger; a microfluidic thermal cycling chamber containing the material to be thermal cycled, the microfluidic thermal cycling chamber operatively connected to the microfluidic heat exchanger; a working fluid at first temperature; a first system for transmitting the working fluid at first temperature to the microfluidic heat exchanger; a working fluid at a second temperature, a second system for transmitting the working fluid at second temperature to the microfluidic heat exchanger; a pump for flowing the working fluid at the first temperature from the first system to the microfluidic heat exchanger and through the porous medium; and flowing the working fluid at the second temperature from the second system to the heat exchanger and through the porous medium.

  20. A microfluidic dialysis device for complex biological mixture SERS analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Perozziello, Gerardo; Candeloro, Patrizio; Gentile, Francesco T.; Coluccio, Maria Laura; Tallerico, Marco; De Grazia, Antonio; Nicastri, Annalisa; Perri, Angela Mena; Parrotta, Elvira; Pardeo, Francesca; Catalano, Rossella; Cuda, Giovanni; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a microfluidic device fabricated with a simple and inexpensive process allowing rapid filtering of peptides from a complex mixture. The polymer microfluidic device can be used for sample preparation in biological

  1. New microfluidic platform for life sciences in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hugo, S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available is also offered as numerous devices can be implemented on one disc. A variety of components from sample preparation through to detection can be implemented simply and effectively into an integrated microfluidic solution for life sciences. The lab... in the field of centrifugal microfluidics. New microfluidic platform for life sciences in South Africa S. HUGO, K. LAND CSIR Materials Science and Manufacturing P O Box 395, Pretoria 0001, SOUTH AFRICA Email: kland@csir.co.za INTRODUCTION Microfluidic...

  2. Computerized microfluidic cell culture using elastomeric channels and Braille displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Wei; Zhu, Xiaoyue; Futai, Nobuyuki; Cho, Brenda S; Takayama, Shuichi

    2004-11-09

    Computer-controlled microfluidics would advance many types of cellular assays and microscale tissue engineering studies wherever spatiotemporal changes in fluidics need to be defined. However, this goal has been elusive because of the limited availability of integrated, programmable pumps and valves. This paper demonstrates how a refreshable Braille display, with its grid of 320 vertically moving pins, can power integrated pumps and valves through localized deformations of channel networks within elastic silicone rubber. The resulting computerized fluidic control is able to switch among: (i) rapid and efficient mixing between streams, (ii) multiple laminar flows with minimal mixing between streams, and (iii) segmented plug-flow of immiscible fluids within the same channel architecture. The same control method is used to precisely seed cells, compartmentalize them into distinct subpopulations through channel reconfiguration, and culture each cell subpopulation for up to 3 weeks under perfusion. These reliable microscale cell cultures showed gradients of cellular behavior from C2C12 myoblasts along channel lengths, as well as differences in cell density of undifferentiated myoblasts and differentiation patterns, both programmable through different flow rates of serum-containing media. This technology will allow future microscale tissue or cell studies to be more accessible, especially for high-throughput, complex, and long-term experiments. The microfluidic actuation method described is versatile and computer programmable, yet simple, well packaged, and portable enough for personal use.

  3. Tissue Equivalents Based on Cell-Seeded Biodegradable Microfluidic Constructs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L. Tao

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the principal challenges in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine is the formation of functional microvascular networks capable of sustaining tissue constructs. Complex tissues and vital organs require a means to support oxygen and nutrient transport during the development of constructs both prior to and after host integration, and current approaches have not demonstrated robust solutions to this challenge. Here, we present a technology platform encompassing the design, construction, cell seeding and functional evaluation of tissue equivalents for wound healing and other clinical applications. These tissue equivalents are comprised of biodegradable microfluidic scaffolds lined with microvascular cells and designed to replicate microenvironmental cues necessary to generate and sustain cell populations to replace dermal and/or epidermal tissues lost due to trauma or disease. Initial results demonstrate that these biodegradable microfluidic devices promote cell adherence and support basic cell functions. These systems represent a promising pathway towards highly integrated three-dimensional engineered tissue constructs for a wide range of clinical applications.

  4. Microfluidic passive permeability assay using nanoliter droplet interface lipid bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisisako, Takasi; Portonovo, Shiva A; Schmidt, Jacob J

    2013-11-21

    Membrane permeability assays play an important role in assessing drug transport activities across biological membranes. However, in conventional parallel artificial membrane permeability assays (PAMPA), the membrane model used is dissimilar to biological membranes physically and chemically. Here, we describe a microfluidic passive permeability assay using droplet interface bilayers (DIBs). In a microfluidic network, nanoliter-sized donor and acceptor aqueous droplets are alternately formed in cross-flowing oil containing phospholipids. Subsequently, selective removal of oil through hydrophobic pseudo-porous sidewalls induces the contact of the lipid monolayers, creating arrayed planar DIBs between the donor and acceptor droplets. Permeation of fluorescein from the donor to the acceptor droplets was fluorometrically measured. From the measured data and a simple diffusion model we calculated the effective permeabilities of 5.1 × 10(-6) cm s(-1), 60.0 × 10(-6) cm s(-1), and 87.6 × 10(-6) cm s(-1) with donor droplets at pH values of 7.5, 6.4 and 5.4, respectively. The intrinsic permeabilities of specific monoanionic and neutral fluorescein species were obtained similarly. We also measured the permeation of caffeine in 10 min using UV microspectroscopy, obtaining a permeability of 20.8 × 10(-6) cm s(-1). With the small solution volumes, short measurement time, and ability to measure a wide range of compounds, this device has considerable potential as a platform for high-throughput drug permeability assays.

  5. Quantum toboggans with two branch points

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Znojil, Miloslav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 372, č. 5 (2008), s. 584-590 ISSN 0375-9601 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/07/1307 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : anharmonic-oscillators * mechanics * potentials Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 2.174, year: 2008

  6. Fabrication of an Open Microfluidic Device for Immunoblotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Sayed, Philippe; Yamauchi, Kevin A; Gerver, Rachel E; Herr, Amy E

    2017-09-19

    Given the wide adoption of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) for the rapid fabrication of microfluidic networks and the utility of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), we develop a technique for fabrication of PAGE molecular sieving gels in PDMS microchannel networks. In developing the fabrication protocol, we trade-off constraints on materials properties of these two polymer materials: PDMS is permeable to O 2 and the presence of O 2 inhibits the polymerization of polyacrylamide. We present a fabrication method compatible with performing PAGE protein separations in a composite PDMS-glass microdevice, that toggles from an "enclosed" microchannel for PAGE and blotting to an "open" PA gel lane for immunoprobing and readout. To overcome the inhibitory effects of O 2 , we coat the PDMS channel with a 10% benzophenone solution, which quenches the inhibiting effect of O 2 when exposed to UV, resulting in a PAGE-in-PDMS device. We then characterize the PAGE separation performance. Using a ladder of small-to-mid mass proteins (Trypsin Inhibitor (TI); Ovalbumin (OVA); Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA)), we observe resolution of the markers in TI, with comparable reproducibility to glass microdevice PAGE. We show that benzophenone groups incorporated into the gel through methacrylamide can be UV-activated multiple times to photocapture protein. PDMS microchannel network is reversibly bonded to a glass slide allowing direct access to separated proteins and subsequent in situ diffusion-driven immunoprobing and total protein Sypro red staining. We see this PAGE-in-PDMS fabrication technique as expanding the application and use of microfluidic PAGE without the need for a glass microfabrication infrastructure.

  7. Isolation of cancer cells by "in situ" microfluidic biofunctionalization protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Vitis, Stefania; Matarise, Giuseppina; Pardeo, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is the development of a microfluidic immunosensor for the immobilization of cancer cells and their separation from healthy cells by using "in situ" microfluidic biofunctionalization protocols. These protocols allow to link antibodies on microfluidic device surfaces and can be...

  8. Controlling two-phase flow in microfluidic systems using electrowetting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, H.

    2011-01-01

    Electrowetting (EW)-based digital microfluidic systems (DMF) and droplet-based two-phase flow microfluidic systems (TPF) with closed channels are the most widely used microfluidic platforms. In general, these two approaches have been considered independently. However, integrating the two

  9. The application of microfluidic-based technologies in the cycle of metabolic engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Ma

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The process of metabolic engineering consists of multiple cycles of design, build, test and learn, which is typically laborious and time-consuming. To increase the efficiency and the rate of success of strain engineering, novel instrumentation must be applied. Microfluidics, the control of liquid flow in microstructures, has enabled flexible, accurate, automatic, and high-throughput manipulation of cells in liquid at picoliter to nanoliter scale. These attributes hold great promise in advancing metabolic engineering in terms of the phases of design, build, test and learn. To promote the application of microfluidic-based technologies in strain improvement, this review addressed the potentials of microfluidics and the related approaches in DNA assembly, transformation, strain screening, genotyping and phenotyping, and highlighted their adaptations for single-cell analysis. As a result, this facilitates in-depth understanding of the metabolic network, which in turn promote efficient optimization in the following cycles of strain engineering. Taken together, microfluidic-based technologies enable on-chip workflow, and could greatly accelerate the turnaround of metabolic engineering.

  10. Electrochemical characteristics of vanadium redox reactions on porous carbon electrodes for microfluidic fuel cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jin Wook; Hong, Jun Ki; Kjeang, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Microfluidic vanadium redox fuel cells are membraneless and catalyst-free fuel cells comprising a microfluidic channel network with two porous carbon electrodes. The anolyte and catholyte for fuel cell operation are V(II) and V(V) in sulfuric acid based aqueous solution. In the present work, the electrochemical characteristics of the vanadium redox reactions are investigated on commonly used porous carbon paper electrodes and compared to a standard solid graphite electrode as baseline. Half-cell electrochemical impedance spectroscopy is applied to measure the overall ohmic resistance and resistivity of the electrodes. Kinetic parameters for both V(II) and V(V) discharging reactions are extracted from Tafel plots and compared for the different electrodes. Cyclic voltammetry techniques reveal that the redox reactions are irreversible and that the magnitudes of peak current density vary significantly for each electrode. The obtained kinetic parameters for the carbon paper are implemented into a numerical simulation and the results show a good agreement with measured polarization curves from operation of a microfluidic vanadium redox fuel cell employing the same material as flow-through porous electrodes. Recommendations for microfluidic fuel cell design and operation are provided based on the measured trends.

  11. Graphene nano-ink biosensor arrays on a microfluidic paper for multiplexed detection of metabolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labroo, Pratima; Cui, Yue, E-mail: yue.cui@usu.edu

    2014-02-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We report graphene-ink biosensor arrays on a microfluidic paper for metabolites. • The device is able to detect multiple metabolites sensitively and rapidly. • The device fabrication process is simple and inexpensive. - Abstract: The development of a miniaturized and low-cost platform for the highly sensitive, selective and rapid detection of multiplexed metabolites is of great interest for healthcare, pharmaceuticals, food science, and environmental monitoring. Graphene is a delicate single-layer, two-dimensional network of carbon atoms with extraordinary electrical sensing capability. Microfluidic paper with printing technique is a low cost matrix. Here, we demonstrated the development of graphene-ink based biosensor arrays on a microfluidic paper for the multiplexed detection of different metabolites, such as glucose, lactate, xanthine and cholesterol. Our results show that the graphene biosensor arrays can detect multiple metabolites on a microfluidic paper sensitively, rapidly and simultaneously. The device exhibits a fast measuring time of less than 2 min, a low detection limit of 0.3 μM, and a dynamic detection range of 0.3–15 μM. The process is simple and inexpensive to operate and requires a low consumption of sample volume. We anticipate that these results could open exciting opportunities for a variety of applications.

  12. Characterization of printable cellular micro-fluidic channels for tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yahui; Chen, Howard; Ozbolat, Ibrahim T; Yu, Yin

    2013-01-01

    Tissue engineering has been a promising field of research, offering hope of bridging the gap between organ shortage and transplantation needs. However, building three-dimensional (3D) vascularized organs remains the main technological barrier to be overcome. One of the major challenges is the inclusion of a vascular network to support cell viability in terms of nutrients and oxygen perfusion. This paper introduces a new approach to the fabrication of vessel-like microfluidic channels that has the potential to be used in thick tissue or organ fabrication in the future. In this research, we investigate the manufacturability of printable micro-fluidic channels, where micro-fluidic channels support mechanical integrity as well as enable fluid transport in 3D. A pressure-assisted solid freeform fabrication platform is developed with a coaxial needle dispenser unit to print hollow hydrogel filaments. The dispensing rheology is studied, and effects of material properties on structural formation of hollow filaments are analyzed. Sample structures are printed through the developed computer-controlled system. In addition, cell viability and gene expression studies are presented in this paper. Cell viability shows that cartilage progenitor cells (CPCs) maintained their viability right after bioprinting and during prolonged in vitro culture. Real-time PCR analysis yielded a relatively higher expression of cartilage-specific genes in alginate hollow filament encapsulating CPCs, compared with monolayer cultured CPCs, which revealed that printable semi-permeable micro-fluidic channels provided an ideal environment for cell growth and function. (paper)

  13. Manually operatable on-chip bistable pneumatic microstructures for microfluidic manipulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Arnold; Pan, Tingrui

    2014-09-07

    Bistable microvalves are of particular interest because of their distinct nature of requiring energy consumption only during the transition between the open and closed states. This characteristic can be highly advantageous in reducing the number of external inputs and the complexity of control circuitries since microfluidic devices as contemporary lab-on-a-chip platforms are transferring from research settings to low-resource environments with high integrability and a small form factor. In this paper, we first present manually operatable, on-chip bistable pneumatic microstructures (BPMs) for microfluidic manipulation. The structural design and operation of the BPM devices can be readily integrated into any pneumatically powered microfluidic network consisting of pneumatic and fluidic channels. It is mainly composed of a vacuum activation chamber (VAC) and a pressure release chamber (PRC), of which users have direct control through finger pressing to switch either to the bistable vacuum state (VS) or the atmospheric state (AS). We have integrated multiple BPM devices into a 4-to-1 microfluidic multiplexor to demonstrate on-chip digital flow switching from different sources. Furthermore, we have shown its clinical relevance in a point-of-care diagnostic chip that processes blood samples to identify the distinct blood types (A/B/O) on-chip.

  14. Material Biocompatibility for PCR Microfluidic Chips

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas; Chang, Donald Choy; Gong, Xiuqing; Wen, Weijia; Wu, Jinbo; Xiao, Kang; Yi, Xin

    2010-01-01

    As part of the current miniaturization trend, biological reactions and processes are being adapted to microfluidics devices. PCR is the primary method employed in DNA amplification, its miniaturization is central to efforts to develop portable devices for diagnostics and testing purposes. A problem is the PCR-inhibitory effect due to interaction between PCR reagents and the surrounding environment, which effect is increased in high-surface-are-to-volume ration microfluidics. In this study, we evaluated the biocompatibility of various common materials employed in the fabrication of microfluidic chips, including silicon, several kinds of silicon oxide, glasses, plastics, wax, and adhesives. Two-temperature PCR was performed with these materials to determine their PCR-inhibitory effect. In most of the cases, addition of bovine serum albumin effectively improved the reaction yield. We also studied the individual PCR components from the standpoint of adsorption. Most of the materials did not inhibit the DNA, whereas they did show noticeable interaction with the DNA polymerase. Our test, instead of using microfluidic devices, can be easily conducted in common PCR tubes using a standard bench thermocycler. Our data supports an overview of the means by which the materials most bio-friendly to microfluidics can be selected.

  15. Material Biocompatibility for PCR Microfluidic Chips

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2010-04-23

    As part of the current miniaturization trend, biological reactions and processes are being adapted to microfluidics devices. PCR is the primary method employed in DNA amplification, its miniaturization is central to efforts to develop portable devices for diagnostics and testing purposes. A problem is the PCR-inhibitory effect due to interaction between PCR reagents and the surrounding environment, which effect is increased in high-surface-are-to-volume ration microfluidics. In this study, we evaluated the biocompatibility of various common materials employed in the fabrication of microfluidic chips, including silicon, several kinds of silicon oxide, glasses, plastics, wax, and adhesives. Two-temperature PCR was performed with these materials to determine their PCR-inhibitory effect. In most of the cases, addition of bovine serum albumin effectively improved the reaction yield. We also studied the individual PCR components from the standpoint of adsorption. Most of the materials did not inhibit the DNA, whereas they did show noticeable interaction with the DNA polymerase. Our test, instead of using microfluidic devices, can be easily conducted in common PCR tubes using a standard bench thermocycler. Our data supports an overview of the means by which the materials most bio-friendly to microfluidics can be selected.

  16. Rapid wasted-free microfluidic fabrication based on ink-jet approach for microfluidic sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarujareet, Ungkarn; Amarit, Rattasart; Sumriddetchkajorn, Sarun

    2016-11-01

    Realizing that current microfluidic chip fabrication techniques are time consuming and labor intensive as well as always have material leftover after chip fabrication, this research work proposes an innovative approach for rapid microfluidic chip production. The key idea relies on a combination of a widely-used inkjet printing method and a heat-based polymer curing technique with an electronic-mechanical control, thus eliminating the need of masking and molds compared to typical microfluidic fabrication processes. In addition, as the appropriate amount of polymer is utilized during printing, there is much less amount of material wasted. Our inkjet-based microfluidic printer can print out the desired microfluidic chip pattern directly onto a heated glass surface, where the printed polymer is suddenly cured. Our proof-of-concept demonstration for widely-used single-flow channel, Y-junction, and T-junction microfluidic chips shows that the whole microfluidic chip fabrication process requires only 3 steps with a fabrication time of 6 minutes.

  17. Microfluidics of soft granular gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Ryan; Bhattacharjee, Tapomoy; Sawyer, W. Gregory; Angelini, Thomas E.

    Microfluidic methods for encapsulating cells and particles typically involve drop making with two immiscible fluids. The main materials constraint in this approach is surface tension, creating inherent instability between the two fluids. We can eliminate this instability by using miscible inner and outer phases. This is achieved by using granular micro gels which are chemically miscible but physically do not mix. These microgels are yield stress materials, so they flow as solid plugs far from shear gradients, and fluidize where gradients are generated - near an injection nozzle for example. We have found that tuning the yield stress of the material by varying polymer concentration, device performance can be controlled. The solid like behavior of the gel allows us to produces infinitely stable jets that maintain their integrity and configuration over long distances and times. These properties can be combined and manipulated to produce discrete particulate bunches of an inner phase, flowing inside of an outer phase, well enough even to print a Morse code message suspended within flow chambers about a millimeter in diameter moving at millimeters a second.

  18. Design and Testing of Digital Microfluidic Biochips

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Yang

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive methodology for automated design, test and diagnosis, and use of robust, low-cost, and manufacturable digital microfluidic systems. It focuses on the development of a comprehensive CAD optimization framework for digital microfluidic biochips that unifies different design problems. With the increase in system complexity and integration levels, biochip designers can utilize the design methods described in this book to evaluate different design alternatives, and carry out design-space exploration to obtain the best design point. Describes practical design automation tools that address different design problems (e.g., synthesis, droplet routing, control-pin mapping, testing and diagnosis, and error recovery) in a unified manner; Applies test pattern generation and error-recovery techniques for digital microfluidics-based biochips; Uses real bioassays as evaluation examples, e.g., multiplexed in vitro human physiological fluids diagnostics, PCR, protein crystallization.  

  19. Temperature Sensing in Modular Microfluidic Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisna C. Bhargava

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A discrete microfluidic element with integrated thermal sensor was fabricated and demonstrated as an effective probe for process monitoring and prototyping. Elements were constructed using stereolithography and market-available glass-bodied thermistors within the modular, standardized framework of previous discrete microfluidic elements demonstrated in the literature. Flow rate-dependent response due to sensor self-heating and microchannel heating and cooling was characterized and shown to be linear in typical laboratory conditions. An acid-base neutralization reaction was performed in a continuous flow setting to demonstrate applicability in process management: the ratio of solution flow rates was varied to locate the equivalence point in a titration, closely matching expected results. This element potentially enables complex, three-dimensional microfluidic architectures with real-time temperature feedback and flow rate sensing, without application specificity or restriction to planar channel routing formats.

  20. Downstream bioprocess characterisation within microfluidic devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marques, Marco; Krühne, Ulrich; Szita, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    developed which has, to some extent, hindered their implementation as early process development tools. Microfluidic devices are particularly attractive for using fewer resources, for having the possibility of parallelisation and for requiring fewer mechanical manipulations. The expectation...... is that these devices will facilitate the rapid definition of critical process parameters, and thus ultimately reduce production costs. We have developed several microfluidic mDUOs and combined them with advanced and novel analytical approaches, resulting in devices that can potentially be employed for both analytical...... for the liquid–liquid extraction of pharmaceuticals, for the purification and concentration of drug delivery vehicles, and for the flocculation of yeast cells in microfluidic devices. For the latter, we will present for the first time the capability to study flocculation-growth independent from the floc breakage...

  1. Microfluidic Pumps Containing Teflon [Trademark] AF Diaphragms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Peter; White, Victor; Grunthaner, Frank; Ikeda, Mike; Mathies, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    Microfluidic pumps and valves based on pneumatically actuated diaphragms made of Teflon AF polymers are being developed for incorporation into laboratory-on-a-chip devices that must perform well over temperature ranges wider than those of prior diaphragm-based microfluidic pumps and valves. Other potential applications include implanted biomedical microfluidic devices, wherein the biocompatability of Teflon AF polymers would be highly advantageous. These pumps and valves have been demonstrated to function stably after cycling through temperatures from -125 to 120 C. These pumps and valves are intended to be successors to similar prior pumps and valves containing diaphragms made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) [commonly known as silicone rubber]. The PDMS-containing valves ae designed to function stably only within the temperature range from 5 to 80 C. Undesirably, PDMS membranes are somwehat porous and retain water. PDMS is especially unsuitable for use at temperatures below 0 C because the formation of ice crystals increases porosity and introduces microshear.

  2. Designing Polymeric Microfluidic Platforms for Biomedical Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedarethinam, Indumathi

    Micro- and Nanotechnology have the potential to offer a smart solution for diagnostics and academia research with rapid, low cost, robust analysis systems to facilitate biological analyses. New, high throughput microfluidic platforms have the potential to surpass in performance the conventional...... analyses systems in use today. The overall goal of this PhD project is to address two different areas using microfluidics : i) Chromosome analysis by metaphase FISH such a platform, if successful, can immediately substitute the routine, labor-intensive, glass slide-based FISH analyses in Clinical...... Cytogenetics laboratories. During the course of this project, initially the suitability of the polymeric chip substrate was tested and a microfluidic device was developed for performing interphase FISH analysis. With this device, the key factors involved in chromosome spreading crucial to FISH analysis were...

  3. Molecular Imaging Probe Development using Microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kan; Wang, Ming-Wei; Lin, Wei-Yu; Phung, Duy Linh; Girgis, Mark D.; Wu, Anna M.; Tomlinson, James S.; Shen, Clifton K.-F.

    2012-01-01

    In this manuscript, we review the latest advancement of microfluidics in molecular imaging probe development. Due to increasing needs for medical imaging, high demand for many types of molecular imaging probes will have to be met by exploiting novel chemistry/radiochemistry and engineering technologies to improve the production and development of suitable probes. The microfluidic-based probe synthesis is currently attracting a great deal of interest because of their potential to deliver many advantages over conventional systems. Numerous chemical reactions have been successfully performed in micro-reactors and the results convincingly demonstrate with great benefits to aid synthetic procedures, such as purer products, higher yields, shorter reaction times compared to the corresponding batch/macroscale reactions, and more benign reaction conditions. Several ‘proof-of-principle’ examples of molecular imaging probe syntheses using microfluidics, along with basics of device architecture and operation, and their potential limitations are discussed here. PMID:22977436

  4. Preparation of nanoparticles by continuous-flow microfluidics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahn, Andreas; Reiner, Joseph E.; Vreeland, Wyatt N.; DeVoe, Don L.; Locascio, Laurie E.; Gaitan, Michael

    2008-01-01

    We review a variety of micro- and nanoparticle formulations produced with microfluidic methods. A diverse variety of approaches to generate microscale and nanoscale particles has been reported. Here we emphasize the use of microfluidics, specifically microfluidic systems that operate in a continuous flow mode, thereby allowing continuous generation of desired particle formulations. The generation of semiconductor quantum dots, metal colloids, emulsions, and liposomes is considered. To emphasize the potential benefits of the continuous-flow microfluidic methodology for nanoparticle generation, preliminary data on the size distribution of liposomes formed using the microfluidic approach is compared to the traditional bulk alcohol injection method.

  5. Operation placement for application-specific digital microfluidic biochips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alistar, Mirela; Pop, Paul; Madsen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Microfluidic-based biochips are replacing the conventional biochemical analyzers, and are able to integrate onchip all the necessary functions for biochemical analysis using microfluidics. The digital microfluidic biochips are based on the manipulation of liquids not as a continuous flow......, but as discrete droplets on an array of electrodes. Microfluidic operations, such as transport, mixing, split, are performed on this array by routing the corresponding droplets on a series of electrodes. Researchers have proposed several approaches for the synthesis of digital microfluidic biochips. All previous...

  6. Microfluidic Bioprinting of Heterogeneous 3D Tissue Constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colosi, Cristina; Costantini, Marco; Barbetta, Andrea; Dentini, Mariella

    2017-01-01

    3D bioprinting is an emerging field that can be described as a robotic additive biofabrication technology that has the potential to build tissues or organs. In general, bioprinting uses a computer-controlled printing device to accurately deposit cells and biomaterials into precise architectures with the goal of creating on demand organized multicellular tissue structures and eventually intra-organ vascular networks. The latter, in turn, will promote the host integration of the engineered tissue/organ in situ once implanted. Existing biofabrication techniques still lay behind this goal. Here, we describe a novel microfluidic printing head-integrated within a custom 3D bioprinter-that allows for the deposition of multimaterial and/or multicellular within a single scaffold by extruding simultaneously different bioinks or by rapidly switching between one bioink and another. The designed bioprinting method effectively moves toward the direction of creating viable tissues and organs for implantation in clinic and research in lab environments.

  7. Pulsed laser triggered high speed microfluidic switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ting-Hsiang; Gao, Lanyu; Chen, Yue; Wei, Kenneth; Chiou, Pei-Yu

    2008-10-01

    We report a high-speed microfluidic switch capable of achieving a switching time of 10 μs. The switching mechanism is realized by exciting dynamic vapor bubbles with focused laser pulses in a microfluidic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) channel. The bubble expansion deforms the elastic PDMS channel wall and squeezes the adjacent sample channel to control its fluid and particle flows as captured by the time-resolved imaging system. A switching of polystyrene microspheres in a Y-shaped channel has also been demonstrated. This ultrafast laser triggered switching mechanism has the potential to advance the sorting speed of state-of-the-art microscale fluorescence activated cell sorting devices.

  8. Integrated Microfluidic Sensor System with Magnetostrictive Resonators

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Cai; Kosel, Jü rgen; Gooneratne, Chinthaka

    2011-01-01

    The present embodiments describe a method that integrates a magnetostrictive sensor with driving and detecting elements into a microfluidic chip to detect a chemical, biochemical or biomedical species. These embodiments may also measure the properties of a fluid such as viscosity, pH values. The whole system can be referred to lab-on-a-chip (LOC) or micro-total-analysis-systems (.mu.TAS). In particular, this present embodiments include three units, including a microfluidics unit, a magnetostrictive sensor, and driving/detecting elements. An analyzer may also be provided to analyze an electrical signal associated with a feature of a target specimen.

  9. Microfluidic device for acoustic cell lysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch, Darren W.; Cooley, Erika Jane; Smith, Gennifer Tanabe; James, Conrad D.; McClain, Jaime L.

    2015-08-04

    A microfluidic acoustic-based cell lysing device that can be integrated with on-chip nucleic acid extraction. Using a bulk acoustic wave (BAW) transducer array, acoustic waves can be coupled into microfluidic cartridges resulting in the lysis of cells contained therein by localized acoustic pressure. Cellular materials can then be extracted from the lysed cells. For example, nucleic acids can be extracted from the lysate using silica-based sol-gel filled microchannels, nucleic acid binding magnetic beads, or Nafion-coated electrodes. Integration of cell lysis and nucleic acid extraction on-chip enables a small, portable system that allows for rapid analysis in the field.

  10. Integrated Microfluidic Gas Sensors for Water Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, L.; Sniadecki, N.; DeVoe, D. L.; Beamesderfer, M.; Semancik, S.; DeVoe, D. L.

    2003-01-01

    A silicon-based microhotplate tin oxide (SnO2) gas sensor integrated into a polymer-based microfluidic system for monitoring of contaminants in water systems is presented. This device is designed to sample a water source, control the sample vapor pressure within a microchannel using integrated resistive heaters, and direct the vapor past the integrated gas sensor for analysis. The sensor platform takes advantage of novel technology allowing direct integration of discrete silicon chips into a larger polymer microfluidic substrate, including seamless fluidic and electrical interconnects between the substrate and silicon chip.

  11. Integrated Microfluidic Sensor System with Magnetostrictive Resonators

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Cai

    2011-12-08

    The present embodiments describe a method that integrates a magnetostrictive sensor with driving and detecting elements into a microfluidic chip to detect a chemical, biochemical or biomedical species. These embodiments may also measure the properties of a fluid such as viscosity, pH values. The whole system can be referred to lab-on-a-chip (LOC) or micro-total-analysis-systems (.mu.TAS). In particular, this present embodiments include three units, including a microfluidics unit, a magnetostrictive sensor, and driving/detecting elements. An analyzer may also be provided to analyze an electrical signal associated with a feature of a target specimen.

  12. 3D Ceramic Microfluidic Device Manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natarajan, Govindarajan; Humenik, James N

    2006-01-01

    Today, semiconductor processing serves as the backbone for the bulk of micromachined devices. Precision lithography and etching technology used in the semiconductor industry are also leveraged by alternate techniques like electroforming and molding. The nature of such processing is complex, limited and expensive for any manufacturing foundry. This paper details the technology elements developed to manufacture cost effective and versatile microfluidic devices for applications ranging from medical diagnostics to characterization of bioassays. Two applications using multilayer ceramic technology to manufacture complex 3D microfluidic devices are discussed

  13. Micro-Fluidic Device for Drug Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, David J. (Inventor); MacDonald, Michael J. (Inventor); Eddington, David T. (Inventor); Mensing, Glennys A. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A microfluidic device is provided for delivering a drug to an individual. The microfluidic device includes a body that defines a reservoir for receiving the drug therein. A valve interconnects the reservoir to an output needle that is insertable into the skin of an individual. A pressure source urges the drug from the reservoir toward the needle. The valve is movable between a closed position preventing the flow of the drug from the reservoir to the output needle and an open position allowing for the flow of the drug from the reservoir to the output needle in response to a predetermined condition in the physiological fluids of the individual.

  14. Microfluidic Apps for off-the-shelf instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Daniel; von Stetten, Felix; Zengerle, Roland

    2012-07-21

    Within the last decade a huge increase in research activity in microfluidics could be observed. However, despite several commercial success stories, microfluidic chips are still not sold in high numbers in mass markets so far. Here we promote a new concept that could be an alternative approach to commercialization: designing microfluidic chips for existing off-the-shelf instruments. Such "Microfluidic Apps" could significantly lower market entry barriers and provide many advantages: developers of microfluidic chips make use of existing equipment or platforms and do not have to develop instruments from scratch; end-users can profit from microfluidics without the need to invest in new equipment; instrument manufacturers benefit from an expanded customer base due to the new applications that can be implemented in their instruments. Microfluidic Apps could be considered as low-cost disposables which can easily be distributed globally via web-shops. Therefore they could be a door-opener for high-volume mass markets.

  15. Microfluidics' great promise for Biology - Microfluidics as a new engine for the molecular sciences

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2010-06-04

    History of the Life Sciences Origins of life Discoveries and instrumentation The power of genetic variation Diagnostics based on DNA/ protein variation Genomic scanning providers DNA sequencing companies Microfluidics story Commercial products available P

  16. Networking

    OpenAIRE

    Rauno Lindholm, Daniel; Boisen Devantier, Lykke; Nyborg, Karoline Lykke; Høgsbro, Andreas; Fries, de; Skovlund, Louise

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to examine what influencing factor that has had an impact on the presumed increasement of the use of networking among academics on the labour market and how it is expressed. On the basis of the influence from globalization on the labour market it can be concluded that the globalization has transformed the labour market into a market based on the organization of networks. In this new organization there is a greater emphasis on employees having social qualificati...

  17. Microfluidics for Antibiotic Susceptibility and Toxicity Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Dai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The recent emergence of antimicrobial resistance has become a major concern for worldwide policy makers as very few new antibiotics have been developed in the last twenty-five years. To prevent the death of millions of people worldwide, there is an urgent need for a cheap, fast and accurate set of tools and techniques that can help to discover and develop new antimicrobial drugs. In the past decade, microfluidic platforms have emerged as potential systems for conducting pharmacological studies. Recent studies have demonstrated that microfluidic platforms can perform rapid antibiotic susceptibility tests to evaluate antimicrobial drugs’ efficacy. In addition, the development of cell-on-a-chip and organ-on-a-chip platforms have enabled the early drug testing, providing more accurate insights into conventional cell cultures on the drug pharmacokinetics and toxicity, at the early and cheaper stage of drug development, i.e., prior to animal and human testing. In this review, we focus on the recent developments of microfluidic platforms for rapid antibiotics susceptibility testing, investigating bacterial persistence and non-growing but metabolically active (NGMA bacteria, evaluating antibiotic effectiveness on biofilms and combinatorial effect of antibiotics, as well as microfluidic platforms that can be used for in vitro antibiotic toxicity testing.

  18. Droplet microfluidics in (bio) chemical analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Basova, E. Y.; Foret, František

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 140, č. 1 (2015), s. 22-38 ISSN 0003-2654 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP206/12/G014 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : droplet chemistry * bio analysis * microfluidics * protein Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.033, year: 2015

  19. Light-responsive polymers for microfluidic applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Schiphorst, J.; Saez, J.; Diamond, D.; Benito-Lopez, F.; Schenning, A.P.H.J.

    2018-01-01

    While the microfluidic device itself may be small, often the equipment required to control fluidics in the chip unit is large e.g. pumps, valves and mixing units, which can severely limit practical use and functional scalability. In addition, components associated with fluidic control of the device,

  20. Droplet microfluidics in (bio) chemical analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Basova, E. Y.; Foret, František

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 140, č. 1 (2015), s. 22-38 ISSN 0003-2654 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP206/12/G014 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : droplet chemistry * bioanalysis * microfluidics * protein Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.033, year: 2015

  1. A Centrifugal Microfluidic Platform Using SLM Extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Sune Zoëga; Burger, Robert; Emnéus, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Here we present a pump-less microfluidic pla>orm which performs sample clean-up and enrichment in a single step, by integraAng Supported Liquid Membrane (SLM) extracAon. Our pla>orm offers a simple, yet very efficient, method for achieving sample pre-treatment and enrichment of rare analytes, in ...

  2. Microfluidic desalination techniques and their potential applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, Susan Helena; van den Berg, Albert; Odijk, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    In this review we discuss recent developments in the emerging research field of miniaturized desalination. Traditionally desalination is performed to convert salt water into potable water and research is focused on improving performance of large-scale desalination plants. Microfluidic desalination

  3. Micromechanical photothermal analyser of microfluidic samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a micromechanical photothermal analyser of microfluidic samples comprising an oblong micro-channel extending longitudinally from a support element, the micro-channel is made from at least two materials with different thermal expansion coefficients, wherein...

  4. Design of microfluidic bioreactors using topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okkels, Fridolin; Bruus, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    We address the design of optimal reactors for supporting biological cultures using the method of topology optimization. For some years this method have been used to design various optimal microfluidic devices.1-4 We apply this method to distribute optimally biologic cultures within a flow...

  5. Microfluidic Sensing Platforms for Medicine and Diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilerich-Pedersen, Katrine

    the specialized laboratory. Microfluidic cell migration devices, imitating in vivo conditions were developed with success, improving the in vitro experimental setup for basic research and drug discovery. Polymer biosensors have reached a new level of maturity, and pathogen detection could benefit from...

  6. Biocatalytic process development using microfluidic miniaturized systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krühne, Ulrich; Heintz, Søren; Ringborg, Rolf Hoffmeyer

    2014-01-01

    The increasing interest in biocatalytic processes means there is a clear need for a new systematic development paradigm which encompasses both protein engineering and process engineering. This paper argues that through the use of a new microfluidic platform, data can be collected more rapidly...

  7. Droplet Manipulations in Two Phase Flow Microfluidics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pit, Arjen; Duits, Michael H.G.; Mugele, Friedrich Gunther

    2015-01-01

    Even though droplet microfluidics has been developed since the early 1980s, the number of applications that have resulted in commercial products is still relatively small. This is partly due to an ongoing maturation and integration of existing methods, but possibly also because of the emergence of

  8. Parallel single-cell analysis microfluidic platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brink, Floris Teunis Gerardus; Gool, Elmar; Frimat, Jean-Philippe; Bomer, Johan G.; van den Berg, Albert; le Gac, Severine

    2011-01-01

    We report a PDMS microfluidic platform for parallel single-cell analysis (PaSCAl) as a powerful tool to decipher the heterogeneity found in cell populations. Cells are trapped individually in dedicated pockets, and thereafter, a number of invasive or non-invasive analysis schemes are performed.

  9. Reaction and separation opportunities with microfluidic devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolfschoten, R.C.

    2011-01-01

    Microfluidic devices make precisely controlled processing of substances possible on a microliter level. The advantage is that, due to the small sizes, the driving forces for mass and heat transfer are high. The surface to volume ratios are also high, which can benefit many surface oriented

  10. High content screening in microfluidic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Raymond; Paliwal, Saurabh; Levchenko, Andre

    2011-01-01

    Importance of the field Miniaturization is key to advancing the state-of-the-art in high content screening (HCS), in order to enable dramatic cost savings through reduced usage of expensive biochemical reagents and to enable large-scale screening on primary cells. Microfluidic technology offers the potential to enable HCS to be performed with an unprecedented degree of miniaturization. Areas covered in this review This perspective highlights a real-world example from the authors’ work of HCS assays implemented in a highly miniaturized microfluidic format. Advantages of this technology are discussed, including cost savings, high throughput screening on primary cells, improved accuracy, the ability to study complex time-varying stimuli, and ease of automation, integration, and scaling. What the reader will gain The reader will understand the capabilities of a new microfluidics-based platform for HCS, and the advantages it provides over conventional plate-based HCS. Take home message Microfluidics technology will drive significant advancements and broader usage and applicability of HCS in drug discovery. PMID:21852997

  11. Wax-bonding 3D microfluidic chips

    KAUST Repository

    Gong, Xiuqing; Yi, Xin; Xiao, Kang; Li, Shunbo; Kodzius, Rimantas; Qin, Jianhua; Wen, Weijia

    2013-01-01

    We report a simple, low-cost and detachable microfluidic chip incorporating easily accessible paper, glass slides or other polymer films as the chip materials along with adhesive wax as the recycling bonding material. We use a laser to cut through the paper or film to form patterns and then sandwich the paper and film between glass sheets or polymer membranes . The hot-melt adhesive wax can realize bridge bonding between various materials, for example, paper, polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) film, glass sheets, or metal plate. The bonding process is reversible and the wax is reusable through a melting and cooling process. With this process, a three-dimensional (3D) microfluidic chip is achievable by vacuating and venting the chip in a hot-water bath. To study the biocompatibility and applicability of the wax-based microfluidic chip, we tested the PCR compatibility with the chip materials first. Then we applied the wax-paper based microfluidic chip to HeLa cell electroporation (EP ). Subsequently, a prototype of a 5-layer 3D chip was fabricated by multilayer wax bonding. To check the sealing ability and the durability of the chip, green fluorescence protein (GFP) recombinant Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria were cultured, with which the chemotaxis of E. coli was studied in order to determine the influence of antibiotic ciprofloxacin concentration on the E. coli migration.

  12. Wax-bonding 3D microfluidic chips

    KAUST Repository

    Gong, Xiuqing

    2013-10-10

    We report a simple, low-cost and detachable microfluidic chip incorporating easily accessible paper, glass slides or other polymer films as the chip materials along with adhesive wax as the recycling bonding material. We use a laser to cut through the paper or film to form patterns and then sandwich the paper and film between glass sheets or polymer membranes . The hot-melt adhesive wax can realize bridge bonding between various materials, for example, paper, polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) film, glass sheets, or metal plate. The bonding process is reversible and the wax is reusable through a melting and cooling process. With this process, a three-dimensional (3D) microfluidic chip is achievable by vacuating and venting the chip in a hot-water bath. To study the biocompatibility and applicability of the wax-based microfluidic chip, we tested the PCR compatibility with the chip materials first. Then we applied the wax-paper based microfluidic chip to HeLa cell electroporation (EP ). Subsequently, a prototype of a 5-layer 3D chip was fabricated by multilayer wax bonding. To check the sealing ability and the durability of the chip, green fluorescence protein (GFP) recombinant Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria were cultured, with which the chemotaxis of E. coli was studied in order to determine the influence of antibiotic ciprofloxacin concentration on the E. coli migration.

  13. Recent Advances in Magnetic Microfluidic Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioanna Giouroudi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of portable biosening devices for the detection of biological entities such as biomolecules, pathogens, and cells has become extremely significant over the past years. Scientific research, driven by the promise for miniaturization and integration of complex laboratory equipment on inexpensive, reliable, and accurate devices, has successfully shifted several analytical and diagnostic methods to the submillimeter scale. The miniaturization process was made possible with the birth of microfluidics, a technology that could confine, manipulate, and mix very small volumes of liquids on devices integrated on standard silicon technology chips. Such devices are then directly translating the presence of these entities into an electronic signal that can be read out with a portable instrumentation. For the aforementioned tasks, the use of magnetic markers (magnetic particles—MPs—functionalized with ligands in combination with the application of magnetic fields is being strongly investigated by research groups worldwide. The greatest merits of using magnetic fields are that they can be applied either externally or from integrated microconductors and they can be well-tuned by adjusting the applied current on the microconductors. Moreover, the magnetic markers can be manipulated inside microfluidic channels by high gradient magnetic fields that can in turn be detected by magnetic sensors. All the above make this technology an ideal candidate for the development of such microfluidic biosensors. In this review, focus is given only to very recent advances in biosensors that use microfluidics in combination with magnetic sensors and magnetic markers/nanoparticles.

  14. Differential white cell count by centrifugal microfluidics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, Gregory Jon; Tentori, Augusto M.; Schaff, Ulrich Y.

    2010-07-01

    We present a method for counting white blood cells that is uniquely compatible with centrifugation based microfluidics. Blood is deposited on top of one or more layers of density media within a microfluidic disk. Spinning the disk causes the cell populations within whole blood to settle through the media, reaching an equilibrium based on the density of each cell type. Separation and fluorescence measurement of cell types stained with a DNA dye is demonstrated using this technique. The integrated signal from bands of fluorescent microspheres is shown to be proportional to their initial concentration in suspension. Among the current generation of medical diagnostics are devices based on the principle of centrifuging a CD sized disk functionalized with microfluidics. These portable 'lab on a disk' devices are capable of conducting multiple assays directly from a blood sample, embodied by platforms developed by Gyros, Samsung, and Abaxis. [1,2] However, no centrifugal platform to date includes a differential white blood cell count, which is an important metric complimentary to diagnostic assays. Measuring the differential white blood cell count (the relative fraction of granulocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes) is a standard medical diagnostic technique useful for identifying sepsis, leukemia, AIDS, radiation exposure, and a host of other conditions that affect the immune system. Several methods exist for measuring the relative white blood cell count including flow cytometry, electrical impedance, and visual identification from a stained drop of blood under a microscope. However, none of these methods is easily incorporated into a centrifugal microfluidic diagnostic platform.

  15. Fabrication of a multiplexed microfluidic system for scaled up production of cross-linked biocatalytic microspheres

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mbanjwa, M

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available the design and fabrication of a multiplexed microfluidic system for producing biocatalytic microspheres. The microfluidic system consists of an array of 10 parallel microfluidic circuits, for simultaneous operation to demonstrate increased production...

  16. Microfluidic device for continuous single cells analysis via Raman spectroscopy enhanced by integrated plasmonic nanodimers

    KAUST Repository

    Perozziello, Gerardo; Candeloro, Patrizio; De Grazia, Antonio; Esposito, Francesco; Allione, Marco; Coluccio, Maria Laura; Tallerico, Rossana; Valpapuram, Immanuel; Tirinato, Luca; Das, Gobind; Giugni, Andrea; Torre, Bruno; Veltri, Pierangelo; Kruhne, Ulrich; Della Valle, Giuseppe; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.

    2015-01-01

    In this work a Raman flow cytometer is presented. It consists of a microfluidic device that takes advantages of the basic principles of Raman spectroscopy and flow cytometry. The microfluidic device integrates calibrated microfluidic channels- where

  17. Interconnection blocks: a method for providing reusable, rapid, multiple, aligned and planar microfluidic interconnections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabourin, David; Snakenborg, Detlef; Dufva, Hans Martin

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a method is presented for creating 'interconnection blocks' that are re-usable and provide multiple, aligned and planar microfluidic interconnections. Interconnection blocks made from polydimethylsiloxane allow rapid testing of microfluidic chips and unobstructed microfluidic observ...

  18. Microfluidics on liquid handling stations (μF-on-LHS): a new industry-compatible microfluidic platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittelmann, Jörg; Radtke, Carsten P.; Waldbaur, Ansgar; Neumann, Christiane; Hubbuch, Jürgen; Rapp, Bastian E.

    2014-03-01

    Since the early days microfluidics as a scientific discipline has been an interdisciplinary research field with a wide scope of potential applications. Besides tailored assays for point-of-care (PoC) diagnostics, microfluidics has been an important tool for large-scale screening of reagents and building blocks in organic chemistry, pharmaceutics and medical engineering. Furthermore, numerous potential marketable products have been described over the years. However, especially in industrial applications, microfluidics is often considered only an alternative technology for fluid handling, a field which is industrially mostly dominated by large-scale numerically controlled fluid and liquid handling stations. Numerous noteworthy products have dominated this field in the last decade and have been inhibited the widespread application of microfluidics technology. However, automated liquid handling stations and microfluidics do not have to be considered as mutually exclusive approached. We have recently introduced a hybrid fluidic platform combining an industrially established liquid handling station and a generic microfluidic interfacing module that allows probing a microfluidic system (such as an essay or a synthesis array) using the instrumentation provided by the liquid handling station. We term this technology "Microfluidic on Liquid Handling Stations (μF-on-LHS)" - a classical "best of both worlds"- approach that allows combining the highly evolved, automated and industry-proven LHS systems with any type of microfluidic assay. In this paper we show, to the best of our knowledge, the first droplet microfluidics application on an industrial LHS using the μF-on-LHS concept.

  19. Microfluidic Extraction of Biomarkers using Water as Solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amashukeli, Xenia; Manohara, Harish; Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Mehdi, Imran

    2009-01-01

    A proposed device, denoted a miniature microfluidic biomarker extractor (mu-EX), would extract trace amounts of chemicals of interest from samples, such as soils and rocks. Traditionally, such extractions are performed on a large scale with hazardous organic solvents; each solvent capable of dissolving only those molecules lying within narrow ranges of specific chemical and physical characteristics that notably include volatility, electric charge, and polarity. In contrast, in the mu-EX, extractions could be performed by use of small amounts (typically between 0.1 and 100 L) of water as a universal solvent. As a rule of thumb, in order to enable solvation and extraction of molecules, it is necessary to use solvents that have polarity sufficiently close to the polarity of the target molecules. The mu-EX would make selection of specific organic solvents unnecessary, because mu-EX would exploit a unique property of liquid water: the possibility of tuning its polarity to match the polarity of organic solvents appropriate for extraction of molecules of interest. The change of the permittivity of water would be achieved by exploiting interactions between the translational states of water molecules and an imposed electromagnetic field in the frequency range of 300 to 600 GHz. On a molecular level, these interactions would result in disruption of the three-dimensional hydrogen-bonding network among liquid-water molecules and subsequent solvation and hydrolysis of target molecules. The mu-EX is expected to be an efficient means of hydrolyzing chemical bonds in complex macromolecules as well and, thus, enabling analysis of the building blocks of these complex chemical systems. The mu-EX device would include a microfluidic channel, part of which would lie within a waveguide coupled to an electronically tuned source of broad-band electromagnetic radiation in the frequency range from 300 to 600 GHz (see figure). The part of the microfluidic channel lying in the waveguide would

  20. Microfluidic production of polymeric functional microparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Kunqiang

    This dissertation focuses on applying droplet-based microfluidics to fabricate new classes of polymeric microparticles with customized properties for various applications. The integration of microfluidic techniques with microparticle engineering allows for unprecedented control over particle size, shape, and functional properties. Specifically, three types of microparticles are discussed here: (1) Magnetic and fluorescent chitosan hydrogel microparticles and their in-situ assembly into higher-order microstructures; (2) Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microbeads with phosphorescent properties for oxygen sensing; (3) Macroporous microparticles as biological immunosensors. First, we describe a microfluidic approach to generate monodisperse chitosan hydrogel microparticles that can be further connected in-situ into higher-order microstructures. Microparticles of the biopolymer chitosan are created continuously by contacting an aqueous solution of chitosan at a microfluidic T-junction with a stream of hexadecane containing a nonionic detergent, followed by downstream crosslinking of the generated droplets by a ternary flow of glutaraldehyde. Functional properties of the microparticles can be easily varied by introducing payloads such as magnetic nanoparticles and/or fluorescent dyes into the chitosan solution. We then use these prepared microparticles as "building blocks" and assemble them into high ordered microstructures, i.e. microchains with controlled geometry and flexibility. Next, we describe a new approach to produce monodisperse microbeads of PDMS using microfluidics. Using a flow-focusing configuration, a PDMS precursor solution is dispersed into microdroplets within an aqueous continuous phase. These droplets are collected and thermally cured off-chip into soft, solid microbeads. In addition, our technique allows for direct integration of payloads, such as an oxygen-sensitive porphyrin dye, into the PDMS microbeads. We then show that the resulting dye

  1. Advanced combinational microfluidic multiplexer for fuel cell reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D W; Kim, Y; Cho, Y-H; Doh, I

    2013-01-01

    An advanced combinational microfluidic multiplexer capable to address multiple fluidic channels for fuel cell reactors is proposed. Using only 4 control lines and two different levels of control pressures, the proposed multiplexer addresses up to 19 fluidic channels, at least two times larger than the previous microfluidic multiplexers. The present multiplexer providing high control efficiency and simple structure for channel addressing would be used in the application areas of the integrated microfluidic systems such as fuel cell reactors and dynamic pressure generators

  2. Compilation and Synthesis for Fault-Tolerant Digital Microfluidic Biochips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alistar, Mirela

    Microfluidic-based biochips are replacing the conventional biochemical analyzers, by integrating all the necessary functions for biochemical analysis using microfluidics. The digital microfluidic biochips (DMBs) manipulate discrete amounts of fluids of nanoliter volume, named droplets, on an array...... of the operations in the application. During the execution of a bioassay, operations could experience transient faults, thus impacting negatively the correctness of the application. We have proposed both offline (design time) and online (runtime) recovery strategies. The online recovery strategy decides...

  3. Digital microfluidic processing of mammalian embryos for vitrification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek G Pyne

    Full Text Available Cryopreservation is a key technology in biology and clinical practice. This paper presents a digital microfluidic device that automates sample preparation for mammalian embryo vitrification. Individual micro droplets manipulated on the microfluidic device were used as micro-vessels to transport a single mouse embryo through a complete vitrification procedure. Advantages of this approach, compared to manual operation and channel-based microfluidic vitrification, include automated operation, cryoprotectant concentration gradient generation, and feasibility of loading and retrieval of embryos.

  4. "Connecting worlds - a view on microfluidics for a wider application".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Ana C; Gernaey, Krist V; Krühne, Ulrich

    From its birth, microfluidics has been referenced as a revolutionary technology and the solution to long standing technological and sociological issues, such as detection of dilute compounds and personalized healthcare. Microfluidics has for example been envisioned as: (1) being capable of miniaturizing industrial production plants, thereby increasing their automation and operational safety at low cost; (2) being able to identify rare diseases by running bioanalytics directly on the patient's skin; (3) allowing health diagnostics in point-of-care sites through cheap lab-on-a-chip devices. However, the current state of microfluidics, although technologically advanced, has so far failed to reach the originally promised widespread use. In this paper, some of the aspects are identified and discussed that have prevented microfluidics from reaching its full potential, especially in the chemical engineering and biotechnology fields, focusing mainly on the specialization on a single target of most microfluidic devices and offering a perspective on the alternate, multi-use, "plug and play" approach. Increasing the flexibility of microfluidic platforms, by increasing their compatibility with different substrates, reactions and operation conditions, and other microfluidic systems is indeed of surmount importance and current academic and industrial approaches to modular microfluidics are presented. Furthermore, two views on the commercialization of plug-and-play microfluidics systems, leading towards improved acceptance and more widespread use, are introduced. A brief review of the main materials and fabrication strategies used in these fields, is also presented. Finally, a step-wise guide towards the development of microfluidic systems is introduced with special focus on the integration of sensors in microfluidics. The proposed guidelines are then applied for the development of two different example platforms, and to three examples taken from literature. With this work, we

  5. Structural and magnetic properties of two branches of the tripod-kagome-lattice family A2R3Sb3O14 (A = Mg, Zn; R = Pr, Nd, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dun, Z. L.; Trinh, J.; Lee, M.; Choi, E. S.; Li, K.; Hu, Y. F.; Wang, Y. X.; Blanc, N.; Ramirez, A. P.; Zhou, H. D.

    2017-03-01

    We present a systematic study of the structural and magnetic properties of two branches of the rare-earth tripod-kagome-lattice (TKL) family A2R3Sb3O14 (A = Mg, Zn; R = Pr, Nd, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb; here, we use abbreviation A-R, as in MgPr for Mg2Pr3Sb3O14 ), which complements our previously reported work on MgDy, MgGd, and MgEr [Z. L. Dun et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 157201 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.157201]. The present susceptibility (χdc, χac) and specific-heat measurements reveal various magnetic ground states, including the nonmagnetic singlet state for MgPr, ZnPr; long-range orderings (LROs) for MgGd, ZnGd, MgNd, ZnNd, and MgYb; a long-range magnetic charge ordered state for MgDy, ZnDy, and potentially for MgHo; possible spin-glass states for ZnEr, ZnHo; the absence of spin ordering down to 80 mK for MgEr, MgTb, ZnTb, and ZnYb compounds. The ground states observed here bear both similarities as well as striking differences from the states found in the parent pyrochlore systems. In particular, while the TKLs display a greater tendency towards LRO, the lack of LRO in MgHo, MgTb, and ZnTb can be viewed from the standpoint of a balance among spin-spin interactions, anisotropies, and non-Kramers nature of single-ion state. While substituting Zn for Mg changes the chemical pressure, and subtly modifies the interaction energies for compounds with larger R ions, this substitution introduces structural disorder and modifies the ground states for compounds with smaller R ions (Ho, Er, Yb).

  6. Optical manipulation with two beam traps in microfluidic polymer systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoury Arvelo, Maria; Matteucci, Marco; Sørensen, Kristian Tølbøl

    2015-01-01

    An optical trapping system with two opposing laser beams, also known as the optical stretcher, are naturally constructed inside a microfluidic lab-on-chip system. We present and compare two approaches to combine a simple microfluidic system with either waveguides directly written in the microflui......An optical trapping system with two opposing laser beams, also known as the optical stretcher, are naturally constructed inside a microfluidic lab-on-chip system. We present and compare two approaches to combine a simple microfluidic system with either waveguides directly written...

  7. Microfabrication and Applications of Opto-Microfluidic Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Daiying; Men, Liqiu; Chen, Qiying

    2011-01-01

    A review of research activities on opto-microfluidic sensors carried out by the research groups in Canada is presented. After a brief introduction of this exciting research field, detailed discussion is focused on different techniques for the fabrication of opto-microfluidic sensors, and various applications of these devices for bioanalysis, chemical detection, and optical measurement. Our current research on femtosecond laser microfabrication of optofluidic devices is introduced and some experimental results are elaborated. The research on opto-microfluidics provides highly sensitive opto-microfluidic sensors for practical applications with significant advantages of portability, efficiency, sensitivity, versatility, and low cost. PMID:22163904

  8. Soft tubular microfluidics for 2D and 3D applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Wang; Kong, Fang; Yeo, Joo Chuan; Yu, Longteng; Sonam, Surabhi; Dao, Ming; Gong, Xiaobo; Teck Lim, Chwee

    2017-10-01

    Microfluidics has been the key component for many applications, including biomedical devices, chemical processors, microactuators, and even wearable devices. This technology relies on soft lithography fabrication which requires cleanroom facilities. Although popular, this method is expensive and labor-intensive. Furthermore, current conventional microfluidic chips precludes reconfiguration, making reiterations in design very time-consuming and costly. To address these intrinsic drawbacks of microfabrication, we present an alternative solution for the rapid prototyping of microfluidic elements such as microtubes, valves, and pumps. In addition, we demonstrate how microtubes with channels of various lengths and cross-sections can be attached modularly into 2D and 3D microfluidic systems for functional applications. We introduce a facile method of fabricating elastomeric microtubes as the basic building blocks for microfluidic devices. These microtubes are transparent, biocompatible, highly deformable, and customizable to various sizes and cross-sectional geometries. By configuring the microtubes into deterministic geometry, we enable rapid, low-cost formation of microfluidic assemblies without compromising their precision and functionality. We demonstrate configurable 2D and 3D microfluidic systems for applications in different domains. These include microparticle sorting, microdroplet generation, biocatalytic micromotor, triboelectric sensor, and even wearable sensing. Our approach, termed soft tubular microfluidics, provides a simple, cheaper, and faster solution for users lacking proficiency and access to cleanroom facilities to design and rapidly construct microfluidic devices for their various applications and needs.

  9. Nanoplasmonic and Microfluidic Devices for Biological Sensing

    KAUST Repository

    Perozziello, G.

    2017-02-16

    In this chapter we report about recent advances on the development and application of 2D and 3D plasmonic nanostructures used for sensing of biological samples by Raman spectroscopy at unprecedented resolution of analysis. Besides, we explain how the integration of these nanodevices in a microfluidic apparatus can simplify the analysis of biological samples. In the first part we introduce and motivate the convenience of using nanoplasmonic enhancers and Raman spectroscopy for biological sensing, describing the phenomena and the current approaches to fabricate nanoplasmonic structures. In the second part, we explain how specific multi-element devices produce the optimal enhancement of the Raman scattering. We report cases where biological sensing of DNA was performed at few molecules level with nanometer spatial resolutions. Finally, we show an example of microfluidic device integrating plasmonic nanodevices to sort and drive biological samples, like living cells, towards the optical probe in order to obtain optimal conditions of analysis.

  10. 3D Printed Multimaterial Microfluidic Valve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J Keating

    Full Text Available We present a novel 3D printed multimaterial microfluidic proportional valve. The microfluidic valve is a fundamental primitive that enables the development of programmable, automated devices for controlling fluids in a precise manner. We discuss valve characterization results, as well as exploratory design variations in channel width, membrane thickness, and membrane stiffness. Compared to previous single material 3D printed valves that are stiff, these printed valves constrain fluidic deformation spatially, through combinations of stiff and flexible materials, to enable intricate geometries in an actuated, functionally graded device. Research presented marks a shift towards 3D printing multi-property programmable fluidic devices in a single step, in which integrated multimaterial valves can be used to control complex fluidic reactions for a variety of applications, including DNA assembly and analysis, continuous sampling and sensing, and soft robotics.

  11. Microfluidics expanding the frontiers of microbial ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusconi, Roberto; Garren, Melissa; Stocker, Roman

    2014-01-01

    Microfluidics has significantly contributed to the expansion of the frontiers of microbial ecology over the past decade by allowing researchers to observe the behaviors of microbes in highly controlled microenvironments, across scales from a single cell to mixed communities. Spatially and temporally varying distributions of organisms and chemical cues that mimic natural microbial habitats can now be established by exploiting physics at the micrometer scale and by incorporating structures with specific geometries and materials. In this article, we review applications of microfluidics that have resulted in insightful discoveries on fundamental aspects of microbial life, ranging from growth and sensing to cell-cell interactions and population dynamics. We anticipate that this flexible multidisciplinary technology will continue to facilitate discoveries regarding the ecology of microorganisms and help uncover strategies to control microbial processes such as biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance.

  12. Nanoplasmonic and Microfluidic Devices for Biological Sensing

    KAUST Repository

    Perozziello, G.; Giugni, Andrea; Allione, Marco; Torre, Bruno; Das, Gobind; Coluccio, M. L.; Marini, Monica; Tirinato, Luca; Moretti, Manola; Limongi, Tania; Candeloro, P.; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter we report about recent advances on the development and application of 2D and 3D plasmonic nanostructures used for sensing of biological samples by Raman spectroscopy at unprecedented resolution of analysis. Besides, we explain how the integration of these nanodevices in a microfluidic apparatus can simplify the analysis of biological samples. In the first part we introduce and motivate the convenience of using nanoplasmonic enhancers and Raman spectroscopy for biological sensing, describing the phenomena and the current approaches to fabricate nanoplasmonic structures. In the second part, we explain how specific multi-element devices produce the optimal enhancement of the Raman scattering. We report cases where biological sensing of DNA was performed at few molecules level with nanometer spatial resolutions. Finally, we show an example of microfluidic device integrating plasmonic nanodevices to sort and drive biological samples, like living cells, towards the optical probe in order to obtain optimal conditions of analysis.

  13. Microfluidic PMMA interfaces for rectangular glass capillaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evander, Mikael; Tenje, Maria

    2014-01-01

    We present the design and fabrication of a polymeric capillary fluidic interface fabricated by micro-milling. The design enables the use of glass capillaries with any kind of cross-section in complex microfluidic setups. We demonstrate two different designs of the interface; a double-inlet interface for hydrodynamic focusing and a capillary interface with integrated pneumatic valves. Both capillary interfaces are presented together with examples of practical applications. This communication shows the design optimization and presents details of the fabrication process. The capillary interface opens up for the use of complex microfluidic systems in single-use glass capillaries. They also enable simple fabrication of glass/polymer hybrid devices that can be beneficial in many research fields where a pure polymer chip negatively affects the device's performance, e.g. acoustofluidics. (technical note)

  14. Research highlights: microfluidics meets big data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Peter; Weaver, Westbrook M; Masaeli, Mahdokht; Owsley, Keegan; Di Carlo, Dino

    2014-03-07

    In this issue we highlight a collection of recent work in which microfluidic parallelization and automation have been employed to address the increasing need for large amounts of quantitative data concerning cellular function--from correlating microRNA levels to protein expression, increasing the throughput and reducing the noise when studying protein dynamics in single-cells, and understanding how signal dynamics encodes information. The painstaking dissection of cellular pathways one protein at a time appears to be coming to an end, leading to more rapid discoveries which will inevitably translate to better cellular control--in producing useful gene products and treating disease at the individual cell level. From these studies it is also clear that development of large scale mutant or fusion libraries, automation of microscopy, image analysis, and data extraction will be key components as microfluidics contributes its strengths to aid systems biology moving forward.

  15. Microfluidic chip-capillary electrophoresis devices

    CERN Document Server

    Fung, Ying Sing; Du, Fuying; Guo, Wenpeng; Ma, Tongmei; Nie, Zhou; Sun, Hui; Wu, Ruige; Zhao, Wenfeng

    2015-01-01

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) and microfluidic chip (MC) devices are relatively mature technologies, but this book demonstrates how they can be integrated into a single, revolutionary device that can provide on-site analysis of samples when laboratory services are unavailable. By introducing the combination of CE and MC technology, Microfluidic Chip-Capillary Electrophoresis Devices broadens the scope of chemical analysis, particularly in the biomedical, food, and environmental sciences. The book gives an overview of the development of MC and CE technology as well as technology that now allows for the fabrication of MC-CE devices. It describes the operating principles that make integration possible and illustrates some achievements already made by the application of MC-CE devices in hospitals, clinics, food safety, and environmental research. The authors envision further applications for private and public use once the proof-of-concept stage has been passed and obstacles to increased commercialization are ad...

  16. Microfluidic Scintillation Detectors for High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Maoddi, Pietro; Mapelli, Alessandro

    This thesis deals with the development and study of microfluidic scintillation detectors, a technology of recent introduction for the detection of high energy particles. Most of the interest for such devices comes from the use of a liquid scintillator, which entails the possibility of changing the active material in the detector, leading to increased radiation resistance. A first part of the thesis focuses on the work performed in terms of design and modelling studies of novel prototype devices, hinting to new possibilities and applications. In this framework, the simulations performed to validate selected designs and the main technological choices made in view of their fabrication are addressed. The second part of this thesis deals with the microfabrication of several prototype devices. Two different materials were studied for the manufacturing of microfluidic scintillation detectors, namely the SU-8 photosensitive epoxy and monocrystalline silicon. For what concerns the former, an original fabrication appro...

  17. Fluid control structures in microfluidic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathies, Richard A.; Grover, William H.; Skelley, Alison; Lagally, Eric; Liu, Chung N.

    2017-05-09

    Methods and apparatus for implementing microfluidic analysis devices are provided. A monolithic elastomer membrane associated with an integrated pneumatic manifold allows the placement and actuation of a variety of fluid control structures, such as structures for pumping, isolating, mixing, routing, merging, splitting, preparing, and storing volumes of fluid. The fluid control structures can be used to implement a variety of sample introduction, preparation, processing, and storage techniques.

  18. Biofunctionalization of PDMS-based microfluidic systems

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Authors: Bergoi Ibarlucea, Cesar Fernández-Sánchez, Stefanie Demming, Stephanus Büttgenbach & Andreu Llobera ### Abstract Three simple approaches for the selective immobilization of biomolecules on the surface of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microfluidic systems that do not require any specific instrumentation, are described and compared. They are based in the introduction of hydroxyl groups on the PDMS surface by direct adsorption of either polyethylene glycol (PEG) or polyvinyl alc...

  19. Design of Microfluidic Biochips (Dagstuhl Seminar 15352)

    OpenAIRE

    Chakrabarty, Krishnendu; Ho, Tsung-Yi; Wille, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Advances in microfluidic technologies have led to the emergence of biochip devices for automating laboratory procedures in biochemistry and molecular biology. Corresponding systems are revolutionizing a diverse range of applications, e.g.~air quality studies, point-of-care clinical diagnostics, drug discovery, and DNA sequencing -- with an increasing market. However, this continued growth depends on advances in chip integration and design-automation tools. Thus, there is a need to deliver the...

  20. Simple Check Valves for Microfluidic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Peter A.; Greer, Harold F.; Smith, J. Anthony

    2010-01-01

    A simple design concept for check valves has been adopted for microfluidic devices that consist mostly of (1) deformable fluorocarbon polymer membranes sandwiched between (2) borosilicate float glass wafers into which channels, valve seats, and holes have been etched. The first microfluidic devices in which these check valves are intended to be used are micro-capillary electrophoresis (microCE) devices undergoing development for use on Mars in detecting compounds indicative of life. In this application, it will be necessary to store some liquid samples in reservoirs in the devices for subsequent laboratory analysis, and check valves are needed to prevent cross-contamination of the samples. The simple check-valve design concept is also applicable to other microfluidic devices and to fluidic devices in general. These check valves are simplified microscopic versions of conventional rubber- flap check valves that are parts of numerous industrial and consumer products. These check valves are fabricated, not as separate components, but as integral parts of microfluidic devices. A check valve according to this concept consists of suitably shaped portions of a deformable membrane and the two glass wafers between which the membrane is sandwiched (see figure). The valve flap is formed by making an approximately semicircular cut in the membrane. The flap is centered over a hole in the lower glass wafer, through which hole the liquid in question is intended to flow upward into a wider hole, channel, or reservoir in the upper glass wafer. The radius of the cut exceeds the radius of the hole by an amount large enough to prevent settling of the flap into the hole. As in a conventional rubber-flap check valve, back pressure in the liquid pushes the flap against the valve seat (in this case, the valve seat is the adjacent surface of the lower glass wafer), thereby forming a seal that prevents backflow.

  1. Multiplexed microfluidic approach for nucleic acid enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderNoot, Victoria A.; Langevin, Stanley Alan; Bent, Zachary; Renzi, Ronald F.; Ferko, Scott M.; Van De Vreugde, James L.; Lane, Todd; Patel, Kamlesh; Branda, Steven

    2016-04-26

    A system for enhancing a nucleic acid sample may include a one pump, a denaturing chamber; a microfluidic hydroxyapatite chromatography device configured for performing hydroxyapatite chromatography on the nucleic acid sample, a sample collector, and tubing connecting the pump with the denaturing chamber, the hydroxyapatite chromatography device and the sample collector such that the pump may be used to move the nucleic acid sample from the denaturing chamber to the hydroxyapatite chromatography device and then to the sample collector.

  2. Microfluidic immunomagnetic separation for enhanced bacterial detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoyland, James; Kunstmann-Olsen, Casper; Ahmed, Shakil

    A combined lab-on-a-chip approach combining immunomagnetic separation (IMS) and flow cytometry was developed for the enrichment and detection of salmonella contamination in food samples. Immunomagnetic beads were immobilized in chips consisting of long fractal meanders while contaminated samples...... to obtain maximum capturing efficiency. The effects of channel volume, path length and number of bends of microfluidic chip on IMS efficiency were also determined....

  3. Microfluidics apparatus and methods for use thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, John P.; Wiggins, Thomas; Ghosh, Madhushree; Bottomley, Lawrence A.; Seminara, Salvatore; Hu, Zhiyu; Seeley, Timothy; Kossek, Sebastian

    2005-08-09

    A microfluidics device includes a plurality of interaction cells and fluid control means including i) means for providing to the interaction cells a preparation fluid, and ii) means for providing to the interaction cells a sample fluid, wherein each interaction cell receives a different sample fluid. A plurality of microcantilevers may be disposed in each of the interaction cells, wherein each of the plurality of microcantilevers configured to deflect in response to an interaction involving a component of the sample fluid.

  4. From Single Microparticles to Microfluidic Emulsification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinoshita, K.; Ortiz, Elisa Parra; Hussein, Abdirazak

    2016-01-01

    The micropipette manipulation technique is capable of making fundamental single particle measurements and analyses. This information is critical for establishing processing parameters in systems such as microfluidics and homogenization. To demonstrate what can be achieved at the single particle l...... a very useful tool for understanding microsphere-processes and hence can help to establish process conditions without resorting to expensive and material-consuming bulk particle runs....

  5. Structural Optimization of non-Newtonian Microfluidics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian Ejlebjærg; Okkels, Fridolin

    2011-01-01

    We present results for topology optimization of a non-Newtonian rectifier described with a differential constitutive model. The results are novel in the sense that a differential constitutive model has not been combined with topology optimization previously. We find that it is necessary to apply...... optimization of fluids. We test the method on a microfluidic rectifier and find solutions topologically different from experimentally realized designs....

  6. Leveraging liquid dielectrophoresis for microfluidic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chugh, Dipankar; Kaler, Karan V I S

    2008-01-01

    Miniaturized fluidic systems have been developed in recent years and offer new and novel means of leveraging the domain of microfluidics for the development of micro-total analysis systems (μTAS). Initially, such systems employed closed microchannels in order to facilitate chip-based biochemical assays, requiring very small quantities of sample and/or reagents and furthermore providing rapid and low-cost analysis on a compact footprint. More recently, advancements in the domain of surface microfluidics have suggested that similar low volume sample handling and manipulation capabilities for bioassays can be attained by leveraging the phenomena of liquid dielectrophoresis and droplet dielectrophoresis (DEP), without the need for separate pumps or valves. Some of the key aspects of this surface microfluidic technology and its capabilities are discussed and highlighted in this paper. We, furthermore, examine the integration and utility of liquid DEP and droplet DEP in providing rapid and automated sample handling and manipulation capabilities on a compact chip-based platform

  7. Intensely oscillating cavitation bubble in microfluidics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siew-Wan, Ohl; Tandiono; Klaseboer, Evert; Dave, Ow; Choo, Andre; Claus-Dieter, Ohl

    2015-01-01

    This study reports the technical breakthrough in generating intense ultrasonic cavitation in the confinement of a microfluidics channel [1], and applications that has been developed on this platform for the past few years [2,3,4,5]. Our system consists of circular disc transducers (10-20 mm in diameter), the microfluidics channels on PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane), and a driving circuitry. The cavitation bubbles are created at the gas- water interface due to strong capillary waves which are generated when the system is driven at its natural frequency (around 100 kHz) [1]. These bubbles oscillate and collapse within the channel. The bubbles are useful for sonochemistry and the generation of sonoluminescence [2]. When we add bacteria (Escherichia coli), and yeast cells (Pichia pastoris) into the microfluidics channels, the oscillating and collapsing bubbles stretch and lyse these cells [3]. Furthermore, the system is effective (DNA of the harvested intracellular content remains largely intact), and efficient (yield reaches saturation in less than 1 second). In another application, human red blood cells are added to a microchamber. Cell stretching and rapture are observed when a laser generated cavitation bubble expands and collapses next to the cell [4]. A numerical model of a liquid pocket surrounded by a membrane with surface tension which was placed next to an oscillating bubble was developed using the Boundary Element Method. The simulation results showed that the stretching of the liquid pocket occurs only when the surface tension is within a certain range. (paper)

  8. Microfluidic pressure sensing using trapped air compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Nimisha; Burns, Mark A

    2007-05-01

    We have developed a microfluidic method for measuring the fluid pressure head experienced at any location inside a microchannel. The principal component is a microfabricated sealed chamber with a single inlet and no exit; the entrance to the single inlet is positioned at the location where pressure is to be measured. The pressure measurement is then based on monitoring the movement of a liquid-air interface as it compresses air trapped inside the microfabricated sealed chamber and calculating the pressure using the ideal gas law. The method has been used to measure the pressure of the air stream and continuous liquid flow inside microfluidic channels (d approximately 50 microm). Further, a pressure drop has also been measured using multiple microfabricated sealed chambers. For air pressure, a resolution of 700 Pa within a full-scale range of 700-100 kPa was obtained. For liquids, pressure drops as low as 70 Pa were obtained in an operating range from 70 Pa to 10 kPa. Since the method primarily uses a microfluidic sealed chamber, it does not require additional fabrication steps and may easily be incorporated in several lab-on-a-chip fluidic applications for laminar as well as turbulent flow conditions.

  9. Logic control of microfluidics with smart colloid

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Limu

    2010-01-01

    We report the successful realization of a microfluidic chip with switching and corresponding inverting functionalities. The chips are identical logic control components incorporating a type of smart colloid, giant electrorheological fluid (GERF), which possesses reversible characteristics via a liquid-solid phase transition under external electric field. Two pairs of electrodes embedded on the sides of two microfluidic channels serve as signal input and output, respectively. One, located in the GERF micro-channel is used to control the flow status of GERF, while another one in the ither micro-fluidic channel is used to detect the signal generated with a passing-by droplet (defined as a signal droplet). Switching of the GERF from the suspended state (off-state) to the flowing state (on-state) or vice versa in the micro-channel is controlled by the appearance of signal droplets whenever they pass through the detection electrode. The output on-off signals can be easily demonstrated, clearly matching with GERF flow status. Our results show that such a logic switch is also a logic IF gate, while its inverter functions as a NOT gate. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2010.

  10. Integrated Microfluidic Membrane Transistor Utilizing Chemical Information for On-Chip Flow Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Philipp; Schreiter, Joerg; Haefner, Sebastian; Paschew, Georgi; Voigt, Andreas; Richter, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Microfluidics is a great enabling technology for biology, biotechnology, chemistry and general life sciences. Despite many promising predictions of its progress, microfluidics has not reached its full potential yet. To unleash this potential, we propose the use of intrinsically active hydrogels, which work as sensors and actuators at the same time, in microfluidic channel networks. These materials transfer a chemical input signal such as a substance concentration into a mechanical output. This way chemical information is processed and analyzed on the spot without the need for an external control unit. Inspired by the development electronics, our approach focuses on the development of single transistor-like components, which have the potential to be used in an integrated circuit technology. Here, we present membrane isolated chemical volume phase transition transistor (MIS-CVPT). The device is characterized in terms of the flow rate from source to drain, depending on the chemical concentration in the control channel, the source-drain pressure drop and the operating temperature. PMID:27571209

  11. A Laminar Flow-Based Microfluidic Tesla Pump via Lithography Enabled 3D Printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habhab, Mohammed-Baker; Ismail, Tania; Lo, Joe Fujiou

    2016-11-23

    Tesla turbine and its applications in power generation and fluid flow were demonstrated by Nicholas Tesla in 1913. However, its real-world implementations were limited by the difficulty to maintain laminar flow between rotor disks, transient efficiencies during rotor acceleration, and the lack of other applications that fully utilize the continuous flow outputs. All of the aforementioned limits of Tesla turbines can be addressed by scaling to the microfluidic flow regime. Demonstrated here is a microscale Tesla pump designed and fabricated using a Digital Light Processing (DLP) based 3D printer with 43 µm lateral and 30 µm thickness resolutions. The miniaturized pump is characterized by low Reynolds number of 1000 and a flow rate of up to 12.6 mL/min at 1200 rpm, unloaded. It is capable of driving a mixer network to generate microfluidic gradient. The continuous, laminar flow from Tesla turbines is well-suited to the needs of flow-sensitive microfluidics, where the integrated pump will enable numerous compact lab-on-a-chip applications.

  12. A Laminar Flow-Based Microfluidic Tesla Pump via Lithography Enabled 3D Printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed-Baker Habhab

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Tesla turbine and its applications in power generation and fluid flow were demonstrated by Nicholas Tesla in 1913. However, its real-world implementations were limited by the difficulty to maintain laminar flow between rotor disks, transient efficiencies during rotor acceleration, and the lack of other applications that fully utilize the continuous flow outputs. All of the aforementioned limits of Tesla turbines can be addressed by scaling to the microfluidic flow regime. Demonstrated here is a microscale Tesla pump designed and fabricated using a Digital Light Processing (DLP based 3D printer with 43 µm lateral and 30 µm thickness resolutions. The miniaturized pump is characterized by low Reynolds number of 1000 and a flow rate of up to 12.6 mL/min at 1200 rpm, unloaded. It is capable of driving a mixer network to generate microfluidic gradient. The continuous, laminar flow from Tesla turbines is well-suited to the needs of flow-sensitive microfluidics, where the integrated pump will enable numerous compact lab-on-a-chip applications.

  13. Integrated Microfluidic Membrane Transistor Utilizing Chemical Information for On-Chip Flow Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Philipp; Schreiter, Joerg; Haefner, Sebastian; Paschew, Georgi; Voigt, Andreas; Richter, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Microfluidics is a great enabling technology for biology, biotechnology, chemistry and general life sciences. Despite many promising predictions of its progress, microfluidics has not reached its full potential yet. To unleash this potential, we propose the use of intrinsically active hydrogels, which work as sensors and actuators at the same time, in microfluidic channel networks. These materials transfer a chemical input signal such as a substance concentration into a mechanical output. This way chemical information is processed and analyzed on the spot without the need for an external control unit. Inspired by the development electronics, our approach focuses on the development of single transistor-like components, which have the potential to be used in an integrated circuit technology. Here, we present membrane isolated chemical volume phase transition transistor (MIS-CVPT). The device is characterized in terms of the flow rate from source to drain, depending on the chemical concentration in the control channel, the source-drain pressure drop and the operating temperature.

  14. Rapid, low-cost prototyping of centrifugal microfluidic devices for effective implementation of various microfluidic operations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hugo, S

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available can be achieved. This work provides a complete centrifugal microfluidic platform and the building blocks on which to develop a variety of microfluidic applications and potential products rapidly and at a low cost. ... stream_source_info Hugo_2015_ABSTRACT.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 1281 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Hugo_2015_ABSTRACT.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Rapid Product Development...

  15. Trends in the development of microfluidic cell biochips for in vitro hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudoin, Régis; Corlu, Anne; Griscom, Laurent; Legallais, Cécile; Leclerc, Eric

    2007-06-01

    Current developments in the technological fields of liver tissue engineering, bioengineering, biomechanics, microfabrication and microfluidics have lead to highly complex and pertinent new tools called "cell biochips" for in vitro toxicology. The purpose of "cell biochips" is to mimic organ tissues in vitro in order to partially reduce the amount of in vivo testing. These "cell biochips" consist of microchambers containing engineered tissue and living cell cultures interconnected by a microfluidic network, which allows the control of microfluidic flows for dynamic cultures, by continuous feeding of nutrients to cultured cells and waste removal. Cell biochips also allow the control of physiological contact times of diluted molecules with the tissues and cells, for rapid testing of sample preparations or specific addressing. Cell biochips can be situated between in vitro and in vivo testing. These types of systems can enhance functionality of cells by mimicking the tissue architecture complexities when compared to in vitro analysis but at the same time present a more rapid and simple process when compared to in vivo testing procedures. In this paper, we first introduce the concepts of microfluidic and biochip systems based on recent progress in microfabrication techniques used to mimic liver tissue in vitro. This includes progress and understanding in biomaterials science (cell culture substrate), biomechanics (dynamic cultures conditions) and biology (tissue engineering). The development of new "cell biochips" for chronic toxicology analysis of engineered tissues can be achieved through the combination of these research domains. Combining these advanced research domains, we then present "cell biochips" that allow liver chronic toxicity analysis in vitro on engineered tissues. An extension of the "cell biochip" idea has also allowed "organ interactions on chip", which can be considered as a first step towards the replacement of animal testing using a combined liver

  16. Optial sensing systems for microfluidic devices: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuswandi, Bambang; Nuriman, [Unknown; Huskens, Jurriaan; Verboom, Willem

    2007-01-01

    This review deals with the application of optical sensing systems for microfluidic devices. In the “off-chip approach” macro-scale optical infrastructure is coupled, while the “on-chip approach” comprises the integration of micro-optical functions into microfluidic devices. The current progress of

  17. Microfluidic devices and methods for integrated flow cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Nimisha [Goleta, CA; Singh, Anup K [Danville, CA

    2011-08-16

    Microfluidic devices and methods for flow cytometry are described. In described examples, various sample handling and preparation steps may be carried out within a same microfluidic device as flow cytometry steps. A combination of imaging and flow cytometry is described. In some examples, spiral microchannels serve as incubation chambers. Examples of automated sample handling and flow cytometry are described.

  18. Desktop aligner for fabrication of multilayer microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Yu, Zeta Tak For; Geraldo, Dalton; Weng, Shinuo; Alve, Nitesh; Dun, Wu; Kini, Akshay; Patel, Karan; Shu, Roberto; Zhang, Feng; Li, Gang; Jin, Qinghui; Fu, Jianping

    2015-07-01

    Multilayer assembly is a commonly used technique to construct multilayer polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based microfluidic devices with complex 3D architecture and connectivity for large-scale microfluidic integration. Accurate alignment of structure features on different PDMS layers before their permanent bonding is critical in determining the yield and quality of assembled multilayer microfluidic devices. Herein, we report a custom-built desktop aligner capable of both local and global alignments of PDMS layers covering a broad size range. Two digital microscopes were incorporated into the aligner design to allow accurate global alignment of PDMS structures up to 4 in. in diameter. Both local and global alignment accuracies of the desktop aligner were determined to be about 20 μm cm(-1). To demonstrate its utility for fabrication of integrated multilayer PDMS microfluidic devices, we applied the desktop aligner to achieve accurate alignment of different functional PDMS layers in multilayer microfluidics including an organs-on-chips device as well as a microfluidic device integrated with vertical passages connecting channels located in different PDMS layers. Owing to its convenient operation, high accuracy, low cost, light weight, and portability, the desktop aligner is useful for microfluidic researchers to achieve rapid and accurate alignment for generating multilayer PDMS microfluidic devices.

  19. Advantages and challenges of microfluidic cell culture in polydimethylsiloxane devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halldorsson, Skarphedinn; Lucumi, Edinson; Gómez-Sjöberg, Rafael; Fleming, Ronan M T

    2015-01-15

    Culture of cells using various microfluidic devices is becoming more common within experimental cell biology. At the same time, a technological radiation of microfluidic cell culture device designs is currently in progress. Ultimately, the utility of microfluidic cell culture will be determined by its capacity to permit new insights into cellular function. Especially insights that would otherwise be difficult or impossible to obtain with macroscopic cell culture in traditional polystyrene dishes, flasks or well-plates. Many decades of heuristic optimization have gone into perfecting conventional cell culture devices and protocols. In comparison, even for the most commonly used microfluidic cell culture devices, such as those fabricated from polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), collective understanding of the differences in cellular behavior between microfluidic and macroscopic culture is still developing. Moving in vitro culture from macroscopic culture to PDMS based devices can come with unforeseen challenges. Changes in device material, surface coating, cell number per unit surface area or per unit media volume may all affect the outcome of otherwise standard protocols. In this review, we outline some of the advantages and challenges that may accompany a transition from macroscopic to microfluidic cell culture. We focus on decisive factors that distinguish macroscopic from microfluidic cell culture to encourage a reconsideration of how macroscopic cell culture principles might apply to microfluidic cell culture. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Split and flow: reconfigurable capillary connection for digital microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapierre, Florian; Harnois, Maxime; Coffinier, Yannick; Boukherroub, Rabah; Thomy, Vincent

    2014-09-21

    Supplying liquid to droplet-based microfluidic microsystems remains a delicate task facing the problems of coupling continuous to digital or macro- to microfluidic systems. Here, we take advantage of superhydrophobic microgrids to address this problem. Insertion of a capillary tube inside a microgrid aperture leads to a simple and reconfigurable droplet generation setup.

  1. A microfluidic device based on an evaporation-driven micropump

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nie, C.; Frijns, A.J.H.; Mandamparambil, R.; Toonder, J.M.J. den

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a microfluidic device ultimately to be applied as a wearable sweat sensor. We show proof-of-principle of the microfluidic functions of the device, namely fluid collection and continuous fluid flow pumping. A filter-paper based layer, that eventually will form the interface

  2. Reagent-loaded plastic microfluidic chips for detecting homocysteine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suk, Ji Won; Jang, Jae-Young; Cho, Jun-Hyeong

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the preliminary study on plastic microfluidic chips with pre-loaded reagents for detecting homocysteine (Hcy). All reagents needed in an Hcy immunoassay were included in a microfluidic chip to remove tedious assay steps. A simple and cost-effective bonding method was developed to realize reagent-loaded microfluidic chips. This technique uses an intermediate layer between two plastic substrates by selectively patterning polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) on the embossed surface of microchannels and fixing the substrates under pressure. Using this bonding method, the competitive immunoassay for SAH, a converted form of Hcy, was performed without any damage to reagents in chips, and the results showed that the fluorescent signal from antibody antigen binding decreased as the SAH concentration increased. Based on the SAH immunoassay, whole immunoassay steps for Hcy detection were carried out in plastic microfluidic chips with all necessary reagents. These experiments demonstrated the feasibility of the Hcy immunoassay in microfluidic devices

  3. Microfluidic process monitor for industrial solvent extraction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelis, Artem; Pereira, Candido; Nichols, Kevin Paul Flood

    2016-01-12

    The present invention provides a system for solvent extraction utilizing a first electrode with a raised area formed on its surface, which defines a portion of a microfluidic channel; a second electrode with a flat surface, defining another portion of the microfluidic channel that opposes the raised area of the first electrode; a reversibly deformable substrate disposed between the first electrode and second electrode, adapted to accommodate the raised area of the first electrode and having a portion that extends beyond the raised area of the first electrode, that portion defining the remaining portions of the microfluidic channel; and an electrolyte of at least two immiscible liquids that flows through the microfluidic channel. Also provided is a system for performing multiple solvent extractions utilizing several microfluidic chips or unit operations connected in series.

  4. A microfluidic renal proximal tubule with active reabsorptive function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Else M Vedula

    Full Text Available In the kidney, the renal proximal tubule (PT reabsorbs solutes into the peritubular capillaries through active transport. Here, we replicate this reabsorptive function in vitro by engineering a microfluidic PT. The microfluidic PT architecture comprises a porous membrane with user-defined submicron surface topography separating two microchannels representing a PT filtrate lumen and a peritubular capillary lumen. Human PT epithelial cells and microvascular endothelial cells in respective microchannels created a PT-like reabsorptive barrier. Co-culturing epithelial and endothelial cells in the microfluidic architecture enhanced viability, metabolic activity, and compactness of the epithelial layer. The resulting tissue expressed tight junctions, kidney-specific morphology, and polarized expression of kidney markers. The microfluidic PT actively performed sodium-coupled glucose transport, which could be modulated by administration of a sodium-transport inhibiting drug. The microfluidic PT reproduces human physiology at the cellular and tissue levels, and measurable tissue function which can quantify kidney pharmaceutical efficacy and toxicity.

  5. Patterning of PMMA microfluidic parts using screen printing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahari Kaleibar, Aminreza; Rahbar, Mona; Haiducu, Marius; Parameswaran, Ash M.

    2010-02-01

    An inexpensive and rapid micro-fabrication process for producing PMMA microfluidic components has been presented. Our proposed technique takes advantages of commercially available economical technologies such as the silk screen printing and UV patterning of PMMA substrates to produce the microfluidic components. As a demonstration of our proposed technique, we had utilized a homemade deep-UV source, λ=254nm, a silk screen mask made using a local screen-printing shop and Isopropyl alcohol - water mixture (IPA-water) as developer to quickly define the microfluidic patterns. The prototyped devices were successfully bonded, sealed, and the device functionality tested and demonstrated. The screen printing based technique can produce microfluidic channels as small as 50 micrometers quite easily, making this technique the most cost-effective, fairly high precision and at the same time an ultra economical plastic microfluidic components fabrication process reported to date.

  6. Diffusion phenomena of cells and biomolecules in microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz-Ozturk, Ece; Yesil-Celiktas, Ozlem

    2015-09-01

    Biomicrofluidics is an emerging field at the cross roads of microfluidics and life sciences which requires intensive research efforts in terms of introducing appropriate designs, production techniques, and analysis. The ultimate goal is to deliver innovative and cost-effective microfluidic devices to biotech, biomedical, and pharmaceutical industries. Therefore, creating an in-depth understanding of the transport phenomena of cells and biomolecules becomes vital and concurrently poses significant challenges. The present article outlines the recent advancements in diffusion phenomena of cells and biomolecules by highlighting transport principles from an engineering perspective, cell responses in microfluidic devices with emphases on diffusion- and flow-based microfluidic gradient platforms, macroscopic and microscopic approaches for investigating the diffusion phenomena of biomolecules, microfluidic platforms for the delivery of these molecules, as well as the state of the art in biological applications of mammalian cell responses and diffusion of biomolecules.

  7. A microfluidic timer for timed valving and pumping in centrifugal microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwemmer, F; Zehnle, S; Mark, D; von Stetten, F; Zengerle, R; Paust, N

    2015-03-21

    Accurate timing of microfluidic operations is essential for the automation of complex laboratory workflows, in particular for the supply of sample and reagents. Here we present a new unit operation for timed valving and pumping in centrifugal microfluidics. It is based on temporary storage of pneumatic energy and time delayed sudden release of said energy. The timer is loaded at a relatively higher spinning frequency. The countdown is started by reducing to a relatively lower release frequency, at which the timer is released after a pre-defined delay time. We demonstrate timing for 1) the sequential release of 4 liquids at times of 2.7 s ± 0.2 s, 14.0 s ± 0.5 s, 43.4 s ± 1.0 s and 133.8 s ± 2.3 s, 2) timed valving of typical assay reagents (contact angles 36-78°, viscosities 0.9-5.6 mPa s) and 3) on demand valving of liquids from 4 inlet chambers in any user defined sequence controlled by the spinning protocol. The microfluidic timer is compatible to all wetting properties and viscosities of common assay reagents and does neither require assistive equipment, nor coatings. It can be monolithically integrated into a microfluidic test carrier and is compatible to scalable fabrication technologies such as thermoforming or injection molding.

  8. Nanostructured surfaces for microfluidics and sensing applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picraux, Samuel Thomas (Arizona State University); Piech, Marcin (United Technologies Corp.); Schneider, John F.; Vail, Sean (Arizona State University); Hayes, Mark A. (Arizona State University); Garcia, Anthony A.; Bell, Nelson Simmons; Gust, D (Arizona State University); Yang, Dongqing (Arizona State University)

    2007-01-01

    The present work demonstrates the use of light to move liquids on a photoresponsive monolayer, providing a new method for delivering analyses in lab-on-chip environments for microfluidic systems. The light-driven motion of liquids was achieved on photoresponsive azobenzene modified surfaces. The surface energy components of azobenzene modified surfaces were calculated by Van Oss theory. The motion of the liquid was achieved by generation of a surface tension gradient by isomerization of azobenzene monolayers using UV and Visible light, thereby establishing a surface energy heterogeneity on the edge of the droplet. Contact angle measurements of various solvents were used to demonstrate the requirement for fluid motion.

  9. Method for forming polymerized microfluidic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Gregory J.; Hatch, Anson V.; Wang, Ying-Chih; Singh, Anup K.; Renzi, Ronald F.; Claudnic, Mark R.

    2013-03-12

    Methods for making a microfluidic device according to embodiments of the present invention include defining.about.cavity. Polymer precursor solution is positioned in the cavity, and exposed to light to begin the polymerization process and define a microchannel. In some embodiments, after the polymerization process is partially complete, a solvent rinse is performed, or fresh polymer precursor introduced into the microchannel. This may promote removal of unpolymerized material from the microchannel and enable smaller feature sizes. The polymer precursor solution may contain an iniferter. Polymerized features therefore may be capped with the iniferter, which is photoactive. The iniferter may aid later binding of a polyacrylamide gel to the microchannel surface.

  10. Microfluidic system for enhanced cardiac tissue formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busek Mathias

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Hereby a microfluidic system for cell cultivation is presented in which human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes were cultivated under perfusion. Besides micro-perfusion this system is also capable to produce well-defined oxygen contents, apply defined forces and has excellent imaging characteristics. Cardiomyocytes attach to the surface, start spontaneous beating and stay functional for up to 14 days under perfusion. The cell motion was subsequently analysed using an adapted video analysis script to calculate beating rate, beating direction and contraction or relaxation speed.

  11. A "place n play" modular pump for portable microfluidic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Luo, Yahui; Chen, Qiang; Liao, Lingying; Zhao, Jianlong

    2012-03-01

    This paper presents an easy-to-use, power-free, and modular pump for portable microfluidic applications. The pump module is a degassed particle desorption polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) slab with an integrated mesh-shaped chamber, which can be attached on the outlet port of microfluidic device to absorb the air in the microfluidic system and then to create a negative pressure for driving fluid. Different from the existing monolithic degassed PDMS pumps that are generally restricted to limited pumping capacity and are only compatible with PDMS-based microfluidic devices, this pump can offer various possible configures of pumping power by varying the geometries of the pump or by combining different pump modules and can also be employed in any material microfluidic devices. The key advantage of this pump is that its operation only requires the user to place the degassed PDMS slab on the outlet ports of microfluidic devices. To help design pumps with a suitable pumping performance, the effect of pump module geometry on its pumping capacity is also investigated. The results indicate that the performance of the degassed PDMS pump is strongly dependent on the surface area of the pump chamber, the exposure area and the volume of the PDMS pump slab. In addition, the initial volume of air in the closed microfluidic system and the cross-linking degree of PDMS also affect the performance of the degassed PDMS pump. Finally, we demonstrated the utility of this modular pumping method by applying it to a glass-based microfluidic device and a PDMS-based protein crystallization microfluidic device.

  12. Macromolecular Crystal Growth by Means of Microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanderWoerd, Mark; Ferree, Darren; Spearing, Scott; Monaco, Lisa; Molho, Josh; Spaid, Michael; Brasseur, Mike; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We have performed a feasibility study in which we show that chip-based, microfluidic (LabChip(TM)) technology is suitable for protein crystal growth. This technology allows for accurate and reliable dispensing and mixing of very small volumes while minimizing bubble formation in the crystallization mixture. The amount of (protein) solution remaining after completion of an experiment is minimal, which makes this technique efficient and attractive for use with proteins, which are difficult or expensive to obtain. The nature of LabChip(TM) technology renders it highly amenable to automation. Protein crystals obtained in our initial feasibility studies were of excellent quality as determined by X-ray diffraction. Subsequent to the feasibility study, we designed and produced the first LabChip(TM) device specifically for protein crystallization in batch mode. It can reliably dispense and mix from a range of solution constituents into two independent growth wells. We are currently testing this design to prove its efficacy for protein crystallization optimization experiments. In the near future we will expand our design to incorporate up to 10 growth wells per LabChip(TM) device. Upon completion, additional crystallization techniques such as vapor diffusion and liquid-liquid diffusion will be accommodated. Macromolecular crystallization using microfluidic technology is envisioned as a fully automated system, which will use the 'tele-science' concept of remote operation and will be developed into a research facility for the International Space Station as well as on the ground.

  13. Digital Microfluidic System with Vertical Functionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian F. Bender

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Digital (droplet microfluidics (DµF is a powerful platform for automated lab-on-a-chip procedures, ranging from quantitative bioassays such as RT-qPCR to complete mammalian cell culturing. The simple MEMS processing protocols typically employed to fabricate DµF devices limit their functionality to two dimensions, and hence constrain the applications for which these devices can be used. This paper describes the integration of vertical functionality into a DµF platform by stacking two planar digital microfluidic devices, altering the electrode fabrication process, and incorporating channels for reversibly translating droplets between layers. Vertical droplet movement was modeled to advance the device design, and three applications that were previously unachievable using a conventional format are demonstrated: (1 solutions of calcium dichloride and sodium alginate were vertically mixed to produce a hydrogel with a radially symmetric gradient in crosslink density; (2 a calcium alginate hydrogel was formed within the through-well to create a particle sieve for filtering suspensions passed from one layer to the next; and (3 a cell spheroid formed using an on-chip hanging-drop was retrieved for use in downstream processing. The general capability of vertically delivering droplets between multiple stacked levels represents a processing innovation that increases DµF functionality and has many potential applications.

  14. A microfluidic device for precise pipetting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Chun-Wei; Huang, Song-Bin; Lee, Gwo-Bin

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a new microfluidic device capable of pipetting a small amount of fluid. This microfluidic device comprises a series of pneumatic microvalves and a multi-width microchannel. The pneumatic valves are designed with specific ratios to control the volumes of the channel. Ratios of 1×, 5× and 30× are used in this study to demonstrate the multi-volume dispensing capability of the proposed device. The corresponding volumes at these ratios are 0.06, 0.3 and 1.8 µl, respectively. By means of proper combinations of these ratios, liquids with volume ranging from 1× to 100× can be dispensed. In order to avoid bubble formation while the liquid is being loaded into the channel, an 'escape side-channel' is designed to allow the trapped gas to exhaust without liquid loss into the escape side-channel due to the hydrophobic effect. It is experimentally found that the capillary valve can sustain a pressure of 165 mm H 2 O (1.6 kPa). The performance of the microdispenser is investigated and is compared with a commercial pipette. Experimental results show that the accuracy of the developed microdevice is comparable or even superior to the commercial one. The development of this microdevice could be crucial for automating miniature biomedical and chemical analysis systems

  15. Microfluidic Fabrication of Conjugated Polymer Sensor Fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Imsung; Song, Simon [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    We propose a fabrication method for polydiacetylene (PDA)-embedded hydrogel microfibers on a microfluidic chip. These fibers can be applied to the detection of cyclodextrines (CDs), which are a family of sugar and aluminum ions. PDA, a family of conjugated polymers, has unique characteristics when used for a sensor, because it undergoes a blue-to-red color transition and nonfluorescence-to-fluorescence transition in response to environmental stimulation. PDAs have different sensing characteristics depending on the head group of PCDA. By taking advantage of ionic crosslinking-induced hydrogel formation and the 3D hydrodynamic focusing effect on a microfluidic chip, PCDA-EDEA-derived diacetylene (DA) monomer-embedded microfibers were successfully fabricated. UV irradiation of the fibers afforded blue-colored PDA, and the resulting blue PDA fibers underwent a phase transition to red and emitted red fluorescence upon exposure to CDs and aluminum ions. Their fluorescence intensity varied depending on the CDs and aluminum ion concentrations. This phase transition was also observed when the fibers were dried.

  16. Microfluidic-chip platform for cell sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Sarul; Balyan, Prerna; Akhtar, J.; Agarwal, Ajay

    2016-04-01

    Cell sorting and separation are considered to be very crucial preparatory steps for numerous clinical diagnostics and therapeutics applications in cell biology research arena. Label free cell separation techniques acceptance rate has been increased to multifold by various research groups. Size based cell separation method focuses on the intrinsic properties of the cell which not only avoids clogging issues associated with mechanical and centrifugation filtration methods but also reduces the overall cost for the process. Consequentially flow based cell separation method for continuous flow has attracted the attention of millions. Due to the realization of structures close to particle size in micro dimensions, the microfluidic devices offer precise and rapid particle manipulation which ultimately leads to an extraordinary cell separation results. The proposed microfluidic device is fabricated to separate polystyrene beads of size 1 µm, 5 µm, 10 µm and 20 µm. The actual dimensions of blood corpuscles were kept in mind while deciding the particle size of polystyrene beads which are used as a model particles for study.

  17. Dielectrophoretic Microfluidic Device for in Vitro Fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Yuan Huang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to create a microfluidic platform that uses in vitro fertilization (IVF and avoids unnecessary damage to oocytes due to the dielectrophoretic force manipulation of the sperms and oocytes that occurs in a traditional IVF operation. The device from this research can serve also to decrease medium volumes, as well as the cost of cell culture under evaporation, and to prevent unnecessary risk in intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI. To decrease the impact and destruction of the oocyte and the sperm, we adopted a positive dielectrophoretic force to manipulate both the sperms and the oocyte. The mouse oocytes were trapped with a positive dielectrophoretic (p-DEP force by using Indium Tin Oxide (ITO-glass electrodes; the ITO-glass electrode chip was fabricated by wet etching the ITO-glass. The polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS flow-focusing microfluidic device was used to generate microdroplets of micrometer size to contain the zygotes. The volume of the microdroplets was controlled by adjusting the flow rates of both inlets for oil and the DEP buffer. As a result, the rate of fertilization was increased by about 5% beyond that of the DEP treatment in traditional IVF, and more than 20% developed to the blastocyst stage with a low sperm-oocyte ratio.

  18. Printed microfluidic filter for heparinized blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilatto, Stanley E R; Adly, Nouran Y; Correa, Daniel S; Wolfrum, Bernhard; Offenhäusser, Andreas; Yakushenko, Alexey

    2017-05-01

    A simple lab-on-a-chip method for blood plasma separation was developed by combining stereolithographic 3D printing with inkjet printing, creating a completely sealed microfluidic device. In some approaches, one dilutes the blood sample before separation, reducing the concentration of a target analyte and increasing a contamination risk. In this work, a single drop (8  μ l) of heparinized whole blood could be efficiently filtered using a capillary effect without any external driving forces and without dilution. The blood storage in heparin tubes during 24 h at 4 °C initiated the formation of small crystals that formed auto-filtration structures in the sample upon entering the 3D-printed device, with pores smaller than the red blood cells, separating plasma from the cellular content. The total filtration process took less than 10 s. The presented printed plasma filtration microfluidics fabricated with a rapid prototyping approach is a miniaturized, fast and easy-to-operate device that can be integrated into healthcare/portable systems for point-of-care diagnostics.

  19. Accelerating Yeast Prion Biology using Droplet Microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ung, Lloyd; Rotem, Assaf; Jarosz, Daniel; Datta, Manoshi; Lindquist, Susan; Weitz, David

    2012-02-01

    Prions are infectious proteins in a misfolded form, that can induce normal proteins to take the misfolded state. Yeast prions are relevant, as a model of human prion diseases, and interesting from an evolutionary standpoint. Prions may also be a form of epigenetic inheritance, which allow yeast to adapt to stressful conditions at rates exceeding those of random mutations and propagate that adaptation to their offspring. Encapsulation of yeast in droplet microfluidic devices enables high-throughput measurements with single cell resolution, which would not be feasible using bulk methods. Millions of populations of yeast can be screened to obtain reliable measurements of prion induction and loss rates. The population dynamics of clonal yeast, when a fraction of the cells are prion expressing, can be elucidated. Furthermore, the mechanism by which certain strains of bacteria induce yeast to express prions in the wild can be deduced. Integrating the disparate fields of prion biology and droplet microfluidics reveals a more complete picture of how prions may be more than just diseases and play a functional role in yeast.

  20. Patent protection and licensing in microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetisen, Ali K; Volpatti, Lisa R

    2014-07-07

    Microfluidic devices offer control over low-volume samples in order to achieve high-throughput analysis, and reduce turnaround time and costs. Their efficient commercialisation has implications for biomedical sciences, veterinary medicine, environmental monitoring and industrial applications. In particular, market diffusion of microfluidic laboratory and point-of-care diagnostic devices can contribute to the improvement of global health. In their commercialisation, consultancy and patent protection are essential elements that complement academic publishing. The awareness of knowledge transfer strategies can help academics to create value for their research. The aim of this article is to provide a guidance to (1) overview the terminology in patent law, (2) elucidate the process of filing a patent in the US, EU, Japan and internationally, (3) discuss strategies to licence a patent, and (4) explain tactics to defend a patent in a potential infringement. Awareness of the patent law and rights allows obtaining optimised, valid and valuable patents, while accelerating implementation to market route. Striking a balance between academic publishing, consultancy to industry and patent protection can increase commercial potential, enhance economic growth and create social impact.

  1. Routing-based Synthesis of Digital Microfluidic Biochips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maftei, Elena; Pop, Paul; Madsen, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Microfluidic biochips are replacing the conventional biochemical analyzers, and are able to integrate on-chip all the basic functsions for biochemical analysis. The "digital" microfluidic biochips are manipulating liquids not as a continuous flow, but as discrete droplets on a two-dimensional array...... of electrodes. Basic microfluidic operations, such as mixing and dilution, are performed on the array, by routing the corresponding droplets on a series of electrodes. So far, researchers have assumed that these operations are executed on rectangular virtual devices, formed by grouping several adjacent...

  2. Electric field-decoupled electroosmotic pump for microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shaorong; Pu, Qiaosheng; Lu, Joann J

    2003-09-26

    An electric field-free electroosmotic pump has been constructed and its pumping rate has been measured under various experimental conditions. The key component of the pump is an ion-exchange membrane grounding joint that serves two major functions: (i) to maintain fluid continuity between pump channels and microfluidic conduit and (ii) to ground the solution in the microfluidic channel at the joint through an external electrode, and hence to decouple the electric field applied to the pump channels from the rest of the microfluidic system. A theoretical model has been developed to calculate the pumping rates and its validity has been demonstrated.

  3. A light writable microfluidic "flash memory": optically addressed actuator array with latched operation for microfluidic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Zhishan; Pal, Rohit; Srivannavit, Onnop; Burns, Mark A; Gulari, Erdogan

    2008-03-01

    This paper presents a novel optically addressed microactuator array (microfluidic "flash memory") with latched operation. Analogous to the address-data bus mediated memory address protocol in electronics, the microactuator array consists of individual phase-change based actuators addressed by localized heating through focused light patterns (address bus), which can be provided by a modified projector or high power laser pointer. A common pressure manifold (data bus) for the entire array is used to generate large deflections of the phase change actuators in the molten phase. The use of phase change material as the working media enables latched operation of the actuator array. After the initial light "writing" during which the phase is temporarily changed to molten, the actuated status is self-maintained by the solid phase of the actuator without power and pressure inputs. The microfluidic flash memory can be re-configured by a new light illumination pattern and common pressure signal. The proposed approach can achieve actuation of arbitrary units in a large-scale array without the need for complex external equipment such as solenoid valves and electrical modules, which leads to significantly simplified system implementation and compact system size. The proposed work therefore provides a flexible, energy-efficient, and low cost multiplexing solution for microfluidic applications based on physical displacements. As an example, the use of the latched microactuator array as "normally closed" or "normally open" microvalves is demonstrated. The phase-change wax is fully encapsulated and thus immune from contamination issues in fluidic environments.

  4. Interface of nanocatalysis and microfluidic reactors for green chemistry methods

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Makgwane, PR

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of green catalytic methods for chemical synthesis and energy generation based on nanocoated catalyst microfluidic systems is a growing area of innovative research. The interface between heterogeneous catalysis and microchannel...

  5. A Microfluidic Ion Pump for In Vivo Drug Delivery

    KAUST Repository

    Uguz, Ilke; Proctor, Christopher M.; Curto, Vincenzo F.; Pappa, Anna-Maria; Donahue, Mary J.; Ferro, Magali; Owens, Ró isí n M.; Khodagholy, Dion; Inal, Sahika; Malliaras, George G.

    2017-01-01

    Implantable devices offer an alternative to systemic delivery of drugs for the treatment of neurological disorders. A microfluidic ion pump (µFIP), capable of delivering a drug without the solvent through electrophoresis, is developed. The device

  6. CMOS Enabled Microfluidic Systems for Healthcare Based Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sherjeel M; Gumus, Abdurrahman; Nassar, Joanna M; Hussain, Muhammad M

    2018-04-01

    With the increased global population, it is more important than ever to expand accessibility to affordable personalized healthcare. In this context, a seamless integration of microfluidic technology for bioanalysis and drug delivery and complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology enabled data-management circuitry is critical. Therefore, here, the fundamentals, integration aspects, and applications of CMOS-enabled microfluidic systems for affordable personalized healthcare systems are presented. Critical components, like sensors, actuators, and their fabrication and packaging, are discussed and reviewed in detail. With the emergence of the Internet-of-Things and the upcoming Internet-of-Everything for a people-process-data-device connected world, now is the time to take CMOS-enabled microfluidics technology to as many people as possible. There is enormous potential for microfluidic technologies in affordable healthcare for everyone, and CMOS technology will play a major role in making that happen. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Routing-based synthesis of digital microfluidic biochips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maftei, Elena; Pop, Paul; Madsen, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Microfluidic biochips are replacing the conventional biochemical analyzers, and are able to integrate on-chip all the necessary functions for biochemical analysis. The “digital” biochips are manipulating liquids as discrete droplets on a two-dimensional array of electrodes. Basic microfluidic...... electrodes are considered occupied during the operation execution, although the droplet uses only one electrode at a time. Moreover, the operations can actually be performed by routing the droplets on any sequence of electrodes on the microfluidic array. Hence, in this paper, we eliminate the concept...... on the surface of the microfluidic array. We have extended the GRASP-based algorithm to consider contamination avoidance during routing-based synthesis. Several real-life examples and synthetic benchmarks are used to evaluate the proposed approaches....

  8. Experimental and numerical studies of two-phase microfluidic flows

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mbanjwa, MB

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Flow of immiscible fluids is important in microfluidics for applications such as generation of emulsions and vesicles, drug delivery capsules, cell encapsulation and chemical reactions. The behaviour of these flows differs from large scale flows...

  9. Isolation of cancer cells by "in situ" microfluidic biofunctionalization protocols

    KAUST Repository

    De Vitis, Stefania; Matarise, Giuseppina; Pardeo, Francesca; Catalano, Rossella; Malara, Natalia Maria; Trunzo, Valentina; Tallerico, Rossana; Gentile, Francesco T.; Candeloro, Patrizio; Coluccio, Maria Laura; Massaro, Alessandro S.; Viglietto, Giuseppe; Carbone, Ennio; Kutter, Jö rg Peter; Perozziello, Gerardo; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is the development of a microfluidic immunosensor for the immobilization of cancer cells and their separation from healthy cells by using "in situ" microfluidic biofunctionalization protocols. These protocols allow to link antibodies on microfluidic device surfaces and can be used to study the interaction between cell membrane and biomolecules. Moreover they allow to perform analysis with high processing speed, small quantity of reagents and samples, short reaction times and low production costs. In this work the developed protocols were used in microfluidic devices for the isolation of cancer cells in heterogeneous blood samples by exploiting the binding of specific antibody to an adhesion protein (EpCAM), overexpressed on the tumor cell membranes. The presented biofunctionalization protocols can be performed right before running the experiment: this allows to have a flexible platform where biomolecules of interest can be linked on the device surface according to the user's needs. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. CMOS Enabled Microfluidic Systems for Healthcare Based Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Sherjeel M.; Gumus, Abdurrahman; Nassar, Joanna M.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2018-01-01

    With the increased global population, it is more important than ever to expand accessibility to affordable personalized healthcare. In this context, a seamless integration of microfluidic technology for bioanalysis and drug delivery and complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology enabled data-management circuitry is critical. Therefore, here, the fundamentals, integration aspects, and applications of CMOS-enabled microfluidic systems for affordable personalized healthcare systems are presented. Critical components, like sensors, actuators, and their fabrication and packaging, are discussed and reviewed in detail. With the emergence of the Internet-of-Things and the upcoming Internet-of-Everything for a people-process-data-device connected world, now is the time to take CMOS-enabled microfluidics technology to as many people as possible. There is enormous potential for microfluidic technologies in affordable healthcare for everyone, and CMOS technology will play a major role in making that happen.

  11. Microfluidic Cytometer for Complete Blood Count Analysis, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — RMD proposes to develop a MEMS based complete blood count (CBC) instrument that can be used aboard a spacecraft. We will produce a microfluidic scale combination...

  12. Skin Diseases Modeling using Combined Tissue Engineering and Microfluidic Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Mohammad Hossein; Heidary Araghi, Behnaz; Beydaghi, Vahid; Geraili, Armin; Moradi, Farshid; Jafari, Parya; Janmaleki, Mohsen; Valente, Karolina Papera; Akbari, Mohsen; Sanati-Nezhad, Amir

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, both tissue engineering and microfluidics have significantly contributed in engineering of in vitro skin substitutes to test the penetration of chemicals or to replace damaged skins. Organ-on-chip platforms have been recently inspired by the integration of microfluidics and biomaterials in order to develop physiologically relevant disease models. However, the application of organ-on-chip on the development of skin disease models is still limited and needs to be further developed. The impact of tissue engineering, biomaterials and microfluidic platforms on the development of skin grafts and biomimetic in vitro skin models is reviewed. The integration of tissue engineering and microfluidics for the development of biomimetic skin-on-chip platforms is further discussed, not only to improve the performance of present skin models, but also for the development of novel skin disease platforms for drug screening processes. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Microfluidic Cytometer for Complete Blood Count Analysis, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We will fabricate and test microfluidic designs for a micro-electromechanical system based complete blood count (CBC) analysis in separate modules and integrate them...

  14. CMOS Enabled Microfluidic Systems for Healthcare Based Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Sherjeel M.

    2018-02-27

    With the increased global population, it is more important than ever to expand accessibility to affordable personalized healthcare. In this context, a seamless integration of microfluidic technology for bioanalysis and drug delivery and complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology enabled data-management circuitry is critical. Therefore, here, the fundamentals, integration aspects, and applications of CMOS-enabled microfluidic systems for affordable personalized healthcare systems are presented. Critical components, like sensors, actuators, and their fabrication and packaging, are discussed and reviewed in detail. With the emergence of the Internet-of-Things and the upcoming Internet-of-Everything for a people-process-data-device connected world, now is the time to take CMOS-enabled microfluidics technology to as many people as possible. There is enormous potential for microfluidic technologies in affordable healthcare for everyone, and CMOS technology will play a major role in making that happen.

  15. Integration of Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasound Transducers to Microfluidic Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Viržonis, Darius; Kodzius, Rimantas; Vanagas, Galius

    2013-01-01

    The design and manufacturing flexibility of capacitive micromachined ultrasound transducers (CMUT) makes them attractive option for integration with microfluidic devices both for sensing and fluid manipulation. CMUT concept is introduced here

  16. Effect of surface wettability on microfluidic EDGE emulsification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maan, A.A.; Sahin, S.; Mujawar, L.H.; Boom, R.M.; Schroen, C.G.P.H.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of wettability on microfluidic EDGE emulsification was investigated at dispersed phase contact angles between 90 and 160. The highest contact angle (160) produced monodispersed emulsions with droplet size 5.0 lm and coefficient of variation

  17. Integration of Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasound Transducers to Microfluidic Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Viržonis, Darius

    2013-10-22

    The design and manufacturing flexibility of capacitive micromachined ultrasound transducers (CMUT) makes them attractive option for integration with microfluidic devices both for sensing and fluid manipulation. CMUT concept is introduced here by presentin

  18. Modular microfluidic system as a model of cystic fibrosis airways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skolimowski, Maciej; Weiss Nielsen, Martin; Abeille, Fabien

    2012-01-01

    A modular microfluidic airways model system that can simulate the changes in oxygen tension in different compartments of the cystic fibrosis (CF) airways was designed, developed, and tested. The fully reconfigurable system composed of modules with different functionalities: multichannel peristalt...

  19. Upgrading well plates using open microfluidic patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Samuel B; Zhang, Tianzi; Day, John H; Su, Xiaojing; Wilson, Ilham Z; Berthier, Erwin; Theberge, Ashleigh B

    2017-12-05

    Cellular communication between multiple cell types is a ubiquitous process that is responsible for vital physiological responses observed in vivo (e.g., immune response, organ function). Many in vitro coculture strategies have been developed, both in traditional culture and microscale systems, and have shown the potential to recreate some of the physiological behaviors of organs or groups of cells. A fundamental limitation of current systems is the difficulty of reconciling the additional engineering requirements for creating soluble factor signaling systems (e.g., segregated cell culture) with the use of well-characterized materials and platforms that have demonstrated successful results and biocompatibility in assays. We present a new open-microfluidic platform, the Monorail Device, that is placed in any existing well plate or Petri dish and enables patterning of segregated coculture regions, thereby allowing the direct upgrade of monoculture experiments into multiculture assays. Our platform patterns biocompatible hydrogel walls via microfluidic spontaneous capillary flow (SCF) along a rail insert set inside commercially available cultureware, creating customized pipette-accessible cell culture chambers that require fewer cells than standard macroscale culture. Importantly, the device allows the use of native surfaces without additional modification or treatments, while creating permeable dividers for the diffusion of soluble factors. Additionally, the ease of patterning afforded by our platform makes reconfiguration of the culture region as simple as changing the rail insert. We demonstrate the ability of the device to pattern flows on a variety of cell culture surfaces and create hydrogel walls in complex and precise shapes. We characterize the physical parameters that enable a reproducible SCF-driven flow and highlight specialized design features that increase the ease of use of the device and control of the open microfluidic flow. Further, we present the

  20. Microfluidic Impedance Flow Cytometry Enabling High-Throughput Single-Cell Electrical Property Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Xue, Chengcheng; Zhao, Yang; Chen, Deyong; Wu, Min-Hsien; Wang, Junbo

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews recent developments in microfluidic impedance flow cytometry for high-throughput electrical property characterization of single cells. Four major perspectives of microfluidic impedance flow cytometry for single-cell characterization are included in this review: (1) early developments of microfluidic impedance flow cytometry for single-cell electrical property characterization; (2) microfluidic impedance flow cytometry with enhanced sensitivity; (3) microfluidic impedance and optical flow cytometry for single-cell analysis and (4) integrated point of care system based on microfluidic impedance flow cytometry. We examine the advantages and limitations of each technique and discuss future research opportunities from the perspectives of both technical innovation and clinical applications. PMID:25938973

  1. Clear Castable Polyurethane Elastomer for Fabrication of Microfluidic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domansky, Karel; Leslie, Daniel C.; McKinney, James; Fraser, Jacob P.; Sliz, Josiah D.; Hamkins-Indik, Tiama; Hamilton, Geraldine A.; Bahinski, Anthony; Ingber, Donald E.

    2013-01-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) has numerous desirable properties for fabricating microfluidic devices, including optical transparency, flexibility, biocompatibility, and fabrication by casting; however, partitioning of small hydrophobic molecules into the bulk of PDMS hinders industrial acceptance of PDMS microfluidic devices for chemical processing and drug development applications. Here we describe an attractive alternative material that is similar to PDMS in terms of optical transparency, flexibility and castability, but that is also resistant to absorption of small hydrophobic molecules. PMID:23954953

  2. Centrifugal microfluidic platforms: advanced unit operations and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmeier, O; Keller, M; Schwemmer, F; Zehnle, S; Mark, D; von Stetten, F; Zengerle, R; Paust, N

    2015-10-07

    Centrifugal microfluidics has evolved into a mature technology. Several major diagnostic companies either have products on the market or are currently evaluating centrifugal microfluidics for product development. The fields of application are widespread and include clinical chemistry, immunodiagnostics and protein analysis, cell handling, molecular diagnostics, as well as food, water, and soil analysis. Nevertheless, new fluidic functions and applications that expand the possibilities of centrifugal microfluidics are being introduced at a high pace. In this review, we first present an up-to-date comprehensive overview of centrifugal microfluidic unit operations. Then, we introduce the term "process chain" to review how these unit operations can be combined for the automation of laboratory workflows. Such aggregation of basic functionalities enables efficient fluidic design at a higher level of integration. Furthermore, we analyze how novel, ground-breaking unit operations may foster the integration of more complex applications. Among these are the storage of pneumatic energy to realize complex switching sequences or to pump liquids radially inward, as well as the complete pre-storage and release of reagents. In this context, centrifugal microfluidics provides major advantages over other microfluidic actuation principles: the pulse-free inertial liquid propulsion provided by centrifugal microfluidics allows for closed fluidic systems that are free of any interfaces to external pumps. Processed volumes are easily scalable from nanoliters to milliliters. Volume forces can be adjusted by rotation and thus, even for very small volumes, surface forces may easily be overcome in the centrifugal gravity field which enables the efficient separation of nanoliter volumes from channels, chambers or sensor matrixes as well as the removal of any disturbing bubbles. In summary, centrifugal microfluidics takes advantage of a comprehensive set of fluidic unit operations such as

  3. Microfluidics and Nanofluidics Handbook Fabrication, Implementation, and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mitra, Sushanta K

    2011-01-01

    The Microfluidics and Nanofluidics Handbook: Two-Volume Set comprehensively captures the cross-disciplinary breadth of the fields of micro- and nanofluidics, which encompass the biological sciences, chemistry, physics and engineering applications. To fill the knowledge gap between engineering and the basic sciences, the editors pulled together key individuals, well known in their respective areas, to author chapters that help graduate students, scientists, and practicing engineers understand the overall area of microfluidics and nanofluidics. Topics covered include Finite Volume Method for Num

  4. Optical two-beam traps in microfluidic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg-Sørensen, Kirstine

    2016-01-01

    An attractive solution for optical trapping and stretching by means of two counterpropagating laser beams is to embed waveguides or optical fibers in a microfluidic system. The microfluidic system can be constructed in different materials, ranging from soft polymers that may easily be cast...... written waveguides and in an injection molded polymer chip with grooves for optical fibers. (C) 2016 The Japan Society of Applied Physics....

  5. Microfluidics as a functional tool for cell mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanapalli, Siva A; Duits, Michel H G; Mugele, Frieder

    2009-01-05

    Living cells are a fascinating demonstration of nature's most intricate and well-coordinated micromechanical objects. They crawl, spread, contract, and relax-thus performing a multitude of complex mechanical functions. Alternatively, they also respond to physical and chemical cues that lead to remodeling of the cytoskeleton. To understand this intricate coupling between mechanical properties, mechanical function and force-induced biochemical signaling requires tools that are capable of both controlling and manipulating the cell microenvironment and measuring the resulting mechanical response. In this review, the power of microfluidics as a functional tool for research in cell mechanics is highlighted. In particular, current literature is discussed to show that microfluidics powered by soft lithographic techniques offers the following capabilities that are of significance for understanding the mechanical behavior of cells: (i) Microfluidics enables the creation of in vitro models of physiological environments in which cell mechanics can be probed. (ii) Microfluidics is an excellent means to deliver physical cues that affect cell mechanics, such as cell shape, fluid flow, substrate topography, and stiffness. (iii) Microfluidics can also expose cells to chemical cues, such as growth factors and drugs, which alter their mechanical behavior. Moreover, these chemical cues can be delivered either at the whole cell or subcellular level. (iv) Microfluidic devices offer the possibility of measuring the intrinsic mechanical properties of cells in a high throughput fashion. (v) Finally, microfluidic methods provide exquisite control over drop size, generation, and manipulation. As a result, droplets are being increasingly used to control the physicochemical environment of cells and as biomimetic analogs of living cells. These powerful attributes of microfluidics should further stimulate novel means of investigating the link between physicochemical cues and the biomechanical

  6. Disposable world-to-chip interface for digital microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dam, R. Michael; Shah, Gaurav; Keng, Pei-Yuin

    2017-05-16

    The present disclosure sets forth incorporating microfluidic chips interfaces for use with digital microfluidic processes. Methods and devices according to the present disclosure utilize compact, integrated platforms that interface with a chip upstream and downstream of the reaction, as well as between intermediate reaction steps if needed. In some embodiments these interfaces are automated, including automation of a multiple reagent process. Various reagent delivery systems and methods are also disclosed.

  7. Droplet-based microfluidic method for synthesis of microparticles

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mbanjwa, MB

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Droplet-based microfluidics has, in recent years, received increased attention as an important tool for performing numerous methods in modern day chemistry and biology such as the synthesis of hydrogel microparticles. Hydrogels have been used in many..., in recent years, received increased attention as an important tool for performing numerous methods in modern day chemistry and biology, such as synthesis of hydrogel microparticles. CONCLUSION AND OUTLOOK The droplet-based microfluidic method offers...

  8. Collective oscillations and coupled modes in confined microfluidic droplet arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Ulf D.; Fleury, Jean-Baptiste; Seemann, Ralf; Gompper, Gerhard

    Microfluidic droplets have a wide range of applications ranging from analytic assays in cellular biology to controlled mixing in chemical engineering. Ensembles of microfluidic droplets are interesting model systems for non-equilibrium many-body phenomena. When flowing in a microchannel, trains of droplets can form microfluidic crystals whose dynamics are governed by long-range hydrodynamic interactions and boundary effects. In this contribution, excitation mechanisms for collective waves in dense and confined microfluidic droplet arrays are investigated by experiments and computer simulations. We demonstrate that distinct modes can be excited by creating specific `defect' patterns in flowing droplet trains. While longitudinal modes exhibit a short-lived cascade of pairs of laterally displacing droplets, transversely excited modes form propagating waves that behave like microfluidic phonons. We show that the confinement induces a coupling between longitudinal and transverse modes. We also investigate the life time of the collective oscillations and discuss possible mechanisms for the onset of instabilities. Our results demonstrate that microfluidic phonons can exhibit effects beyond the linear theory, which can be studied particularly well in dense and confined systems. This work was supported by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft under Grant No. SE 1118/4.

  9. A microfluidic dialysis device for complex biological mixture SERS analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Perozziello, Gerardo

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we present a microfluidic device fabricated with a simple and inexpensive process allowing rapid filtering of peptides from a complex mixture. The polymer microfluidic device can be used for sample preparation in biological applications. The device is fabricated by micromilling and solvent assisted bonding, in which a microdialysis membrane (cut-off of 12-14 kDa) is sandwiched in between an upper and a bottom microfluidic chamber. An external frame connects the microfluidic device to external tubes, microvalves and syringe pumps. Bonding strength and interface sealing are pneumatically tested. Microfluidic protocols are also described by using the presented device to filter a sample composed of specific peptides (MW 1553.73 Da, at a concentration of 1.0 ng/μl) derived from the BRCA1 protein, a tumor-suppressor molecule which plays a pivotal role in the development of breast cancer, and albumin (MW 66.5 kDa, at a concentration of 35 μg/μl), the most represented protein in human plasma. The filtered samples coming out from the microfluidic device were subsequently deposited on a SERS (surface enhanced Raman scattering) substrate for further analysis by Raman spectroscopy. By using this approach, we were able to sort the small peptides from the bigger and highly concentrated protein albumin and to detect them by using a label-free technique at a resolution down to 1.0 ng/μl.

  10. Fabrication of Microfluidic Valves Using a Hydrogel Molding Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Yusuke; Hirama, Hirotada; Torii, Toru

    2015-08-24

    In this paper, a method for fabricating a microfluidic valve made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) using a rapid prototyping method for microchannels through hydrogel cast molding is discussed. Currently, the valves in microchannels play an important role in various microfluidic devices. The technology to prototype microfluidic valves rapidly is actively being developed. For the rapid prototyping of PDMS microchannels, a method that uses a hydrogel as the casting mold has been recently developed. This technique can be used to prepare a three-dimensional structure through simple and uncomplicated methods. In this study, we were able to fabricate microfluidic valves easily using this rapid prototyping method that utilizes hydrogel cast molding. In addition, we confirmed that the valve displacement could be predicted within a range of constant pressures. Moreover, because microfluidic valves fabricated using this method can be directly observed from a cross-sectional direction, we anticipate that this technology will significantly contribute to clarifying fluid behavior and other phenomena in microchannels and microfluidic valves with complex structures.

  11. Microfluidic method for measuring viscosity using images from smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sooyeong; Kim, Kyung Chun; Yeom, Eunseop

    2018-05-01

    The viscosity of a fluid is the most important characteristic in fluid rheology. Many microfluidic devices have been proposed for easily measuring the fluid viscosity of small samples. A hybrid system consisting of a smartphone and microfluidic device can offer a mobile laboratory for performing a wide range of detection and analysis functions related to healthcare. In this study, a new mobile sensing method based on a microfluidic device was proposed for fluid viscosity measurements. By separately delivering sample and reference fluids into the two inlets of a Y-shaped microfluidic device, an interfacial line is induced at downstream of the device. Because the interfacial width (W) between the sample and reference fluid flows was determined by their pressure ratio, the viscosity (μ) of the sample could be estimated by measuring the interfacial width. To distinguish the interfacial width of a sample, optical images of the flows at downstream of the Y-shaped microfluidic device were acquired using a smartphone. To check the measurement accuracy of the proposed method, the viscosities of glycerol mixtures were compared with those measured by a conventional viscometer. The proposed technique was applied to monitor the variations in blood and oil samples depending on storage or rancidity. We expect that this mobile sensing method based on a microfluidic device could be utilized as a viscometer with significant advantages in terms of mobility, ease-of-operation, and data management.

  12. Microfluidic Devices for Drug Delivery Systems and Drug Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kompella, Uday B.; Damiati, Safa A.

    2018-01-01

    Microfluidic devices present unique advantages for the development of efficient drug carrier particles, cell-free protein synthesis systems, and rapid techniques for direct drug screening. Compared to bulk methods, by efficiently controlling the geometries of the fabricated chip and the flow rates of multiphase fluids, microfluidic technology enables the generation of highly stable, uniform, monodispersed particles with higher encapsulation efficiency. Since the existing preclinical models are inefficient drug screens for predicting clinical outcomes, microfluidic platforms might offer a more rapid and cost-effective alternative. Compared to 2D cell culture systems and in vivo animal models, microfluidic 3D platforms mimic the in vivo cell systems in a simple, inexpensive manner, which allows high throughput and multiplexed drug screening at the cell, organ, and whole-body levels. In this review, the generation of appropriate drug or gene carriers including different particle types using different configurations of microfluidic devices is highlighted. Additionally, this paper discusses the emergence of fabricated microfluidic cell-free protein synthesis systems for potential use at point of care as well as cell-, organ-, and human-on-a-chip models as smart, sensitive, and reproducible platforms, allowing the investigation of the effects of drugs under conditions imitating the biological system. PMID:29462948

  13. Open-source, community-driven microfluidics with Metafluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, David S; Thorsen, Todd A; Babb, Jonathan; Wick, Scott T; Gam, Jeremy J; Weiss, Ron; Carr, Peter A

    2017-06-07

    Microfluidic devices have the potential to automate and miniaturize biological experiments, but open-source sharing of device designs has lagged behind sharing of other resources such as software. Synthetic biologists have used microfluidics for DNA assembly, cell-free expression, and cell culture, but a combination of expense, device complexity, and reliance on custom set-ups hampers their widespread adoption. We present Metafluidics, an open-source, community-driven repository that hosts digital design files, assembly specifications, and open-source software to enable users to build, configure, and operate a microfluidic device. We use Metafluidics to share designs and fabrication instructions for both a microfluidic ring-mixer device and a 32-channel tabletop microfluidic controller. This device and controller are applied to build genetic circuits using standard DNA assembly methods including ligation, Gateway, Gibson, and Golden Gate. Metafluidics is intended to enable a broad community of engineers, DIY enthusiasts, and other nontraditional participants with limited fabrication skills to contribute to microfluidic research.

  14. Digital Microfluidics for Nucleic Acid Amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Coelho

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Digital Microfluidics (DMF has emerged as a disruptive methodology for the control and manipulation of low volume droplets. In DMF, each droplet acts as a single reactor, which allows for extensive multiparallelization of biological and chemical reactions at a much smaller scale. DMF devices open entirely new and promising pathways for multiplex analysis and reaction occurring in a miniaturized format, thus allowing for healthcare decentralization from major laboratories to point-of-care with accurate, robust and inexpensive molecular diagnostics. Here, we shall focus on DMF platforms specifically designed for nucleic acid amplification, which is key for molecular diagnostics of several diseases and conditions, from pathogen identification to cancer mutations detection. Particular attention will be given to the device architecture, materials and nucleic acid amplification applications in validated settings.

  15. Sample preparation system for microfluidic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosier, Bruce P [San Francisco, CA; Crocker, Robert W [Fremont, CA; Patel, Kamlesh D [Dublin, CA; Harnett, Cindy K [Livermore, CA

    2007-05-08

    An apparatus that couples automated injection with flow feedback to provide nanoliter accuracy in controlling microliter volumes. The apparatus comprises generally a source of hydraulic fluid pressure, a fluid isolator joined to the outlet of the hydraulic pressure source and a flow sensor to provide pressure-driven analyte metering. For operation generally and particularly in microfluidic systems the hydraulic pressure source is typically an electrokinetic (EK) pump that incorporates gasless electrodes. The apparatus is capable of metering sub-microliter volumes at flowrates of 1 100 .mu.L/min into microsystem load pressures of up to 1000 50 psi, respectively. Flowrates can be specified within 0.5 .mu.L/min and volumes as small as 80 nL can be metered.

  16. Microfluidic mixing through oscillatory transverse perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J. W.; Xia, H. M.; Zhang, Y. Y.; Zhu, P.

    2018-05-01

    Fluid mixing in miniaturized fluidic devices is a challenging task. In this work, the mixing enhancement through oscillatory transverse perturbations coupling with divergent circular chambers is studied. To simplify the design, an autonomous microfluidic oscillator is used to produce the oscillatory flow. It is then applied to four side-channels that intersect with a central channel of constant flow. The mixing performance is tested at high fluid viscosities of up to 16 cP. Results show that the oscillatory flow can cause strong transverse perturbations which effectively enhance the mixing. The influence of a fluidic capacitor in the central channel is also examined, which at low viscosities can intensify the perturbations and further improve the mixing.

  17. Controllable picoliter pipetting using hydrophobic microfluidic valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M.; Huang, J.; Qian, X.; Mi, S.; Wang, X.

    2017-06-01

    A picoliter pipetting technique using the microfluidic method is presented. Utilizing the hydrophobic self-assembled monolayer films patterned in microchannels as pressure-controlled valves, a small volume of liquid can be separated by a designed channel trap and then ejected from the channel end at a higher pressure. The liquid trap section is composed of a T-shaped channel junction and a hydrophobic patch. The liquid volume can be precisely controlled by varying the distance of the hydrophobic patch from the T-junction. By this means, liquid less than 100 pl can be separated and pipetted. The developed device is potentially useful for sample dispensing in biological, medical, and chemical applications.

  18. Microfluidic systems with ion-selective membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slouka, Zdenek; Senapati, Satyajyoti; Chang, Hsueh-Chia

    2014-01-01

    When integrated into microfluidic chips, ion-selective nanoporous polymer and solid-state membranes can be used for on-chip pumping, pH actuation, analyte concentration, molecular separation, reactive mixing, and molecular sensing. They offer numerous functionalities and are hence superior to paper-based devices for point-of-care biochips, with only slightly more investment in fabrication and material costs required. In this review, we first discuss the fundamentals of several nonequilibrium ion current phenomena associated with ion-selective membranes, many of them revealed by studies with fabricated single nanochannels/nanopores. We then focus on how the plethora of phenomena has been applied for transport, separation, concentration, and detection of biomolecules on biochips.

  19. Microfluidic ultralow interfacial tensiometry with magnetic particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Scott S H; Wexler, Jason S; Wan, Jiandi; Stone, Howard A

    2013-01-07

    We describe a technique that measures ultralow interfacial tensions using paramagnetic spheres in a co-flow microfluidic device designed with a magnetic section. Our method involves tuning the distance between the co-flowing interface and the magnet's center, and observing the behavior of the spheres as they approach the liquid-liquid interface-the particles either pass through or are trapped by the interface. Using threshold values of the magnet-to-interface distance, we make estimates of the two-fluid interfacial tension. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this technique for measuring very low interfacial tensions, O(10(-6)-10(-5)) N m(-1), by testing solutions of different surfactant concentrations, and we show that our results are comparable with measurements made using a spinning drop tensiometer.

  20. A Transdermal Measurement Platform Based on Microfluidics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ying Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Franz diffusion cell is one of the most widely used devices to evaluate transdermal drug delivery. However, this static and nonflowing system has some limitations, such as a relatively large solution volume and skin area and the development of gas bubbles during sampling. To overcome these disadvantages, this study provides a proof of concept for miniaturizing models of transdermal delivery by using a microfluidic chip combined with a diffusion cell. The proposed diffusion microchip system requires only 80 μL of sample solution and provides flow circulation. Two model compounds, Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250 and potassium ferricyanide, were successfully tested for transdermal delivery experiments. The diffusion rate is high for a high sample concentration or a large membrane pore size. The developed diffusion microchip system, which is feasible, can be applied for transdermal measurement in the future.

  1. An easy-to-use microfluidic interconnection system to create quick and reversibly interfaced simple microfluidic devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfreundt, Andrea; Andersen, Karsten Brandt; Dimaki, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The presented microfluidic interconnection system provides an alternative for the individual interfacing of simple microfluidic devices fabricated in polymers such as polymethylmethacrylate, polycarbonate and cyclic olefin polymer. A modification of the device inlet enables the direct attachment...... pressures above 250 psi and therefore supports applications with high flow rates or highly viscous fluids. The ease of incorporation, configuration, fabrication and use make this interconnection system ideal for the rapid prototyping of simple microfluidic devices or other integrated systems that require...... microfluidic interfaces. It provides a valuable addition to the toolbox of individual and small arrays of connectors suitable for micromachined or template-based injection molded devices since it does not require protruding, threaded or glued modifications on the inlet and avoids bulky and expensive fittings....

  2. Probing cell mechanical properties with microfluidic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowat, Amy

    2012-02-01

    Exploiting flow on the micron-scale is emerging as a method to probe cell mechanical properties with 10-1000x advances in throughput over existing technologies. The mechanical properties of cells and the cell nucleus are implicated in a wide range of biological contexts: for example, the ability of white blood cells to deform is central to immune response; and malignant cells show decreased stiffness compared to benign cells. We recently developed a microfluidic device to probe cell and nucleus mechanical properties: cells are forced to deform through a narrow constrictions in response to an applied pressure; flowing cells through a series of constrictions enables us to probe the ability of hundreds of cells to deform and relax during flow. By tuning the constriction width so it is narrower than the width of the cell nucleus, we can specifically probe the effects of nuclear physical properties on whole cell deformability. We show that the nucleus is the rate-limiting step in cell passage: inducing a change in its shape to a multilobed structure results in cells that transit more quickly; increased levels of lamin A, a nuclear protein that is key for nuclear shape and mechanical stability, impairs the passage of cells through constrictions. We are currently developing a new class of microfluidic devices to simultaneously probe the deformability of hundreds of cell samples in parallel. Using the same soft lithography techniques, membranes are fabricated to have well-defined pore distribution, width, length, and tortuosity. We design the membranes to interface with a multiwell plate, enabling simultaneous measurement of hundreds of different samples. Given the wide spectrum of diseases where altered cell and nucleus mechanical properties are implicated, such a platform has great potential, for example, to screen cells based on their mechanical phenotype against a library of drugs.

  3. Fluid flow in a spiral microfluidic duct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Brendan; Stokes, Yvonne

    2018-04-01

    We consider the steady, pressure driven flow of a viscous fluid through a microfluidic device having the geometry of a planar spiral duct with a slowly varying curvature and height smaller than width. For this problem, it is convenient to express the Navier-Stokes equations in terms of a non-orthogonal coordinate system. Then, after applying appropriate scalings, the leading order equations admit a relatively simple solution in the central region of the duct cross section. First-order corrections with respect to the duct curvature and aspect ratio parameters are also obtained for this region. Additional correction terms are needed to ensure that no slip and no penetration conditions are satisfied on the side walls. Our solutions allow for a top wall shape that varies with respect to the radial coordinate which allows us to study the flow in a variety of cross-sectional shapes, including trapezoidal-shaped ducts that have been studied experimentally. At leading order, the flow is found to depend on the local height and slope of the top wall within the central region. The solutions are compared with numerical approximations of a classical Dean flow and are found to be in good agreement for a small duct aspect ratio and a slowly varying and small curvature. We conclude that the slowly varying curvature typical of spiral microfluidic devices has a negligible impact on the flow in the sense that locally the flow does not differ significantly from the classical Dean flow through a duct having the same curvature.

  4. Impact of Nutrient Restriction on the Structure of Listeria monocytogenes Biofilm Grown in a Microfluidic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherifi, Tamazight; Jacques, Mario; Quessy, Sylvain; Fravalo, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Biofilm formation by the pathogen Listeria monocytogenes is a major concern in food industries. The aim of this work was to elucidate the effect of nutrient limitation on both biofilm architecture and on the viability of the bacteria in microfluidic growth conditions. Biofilm formation by two L. monocytogenes strains was performed in a rich medium (BHI) and in a 10-fold diluted BHI (BHI/10) at 30°C for 24 h by using both static conditions and the microfluidic system Bioflux. In dynamic conditions, biofilms grown in rich and poor medium showed significant differences as well in structure and in the resulting biovolume. In BHI/10, biofilm was organized in a knitted network where cells formed long chains, whereas in the rich medium, the observed structure was homogeneous cellular multilayers. Biofilm biovolume production in BHI/10 was significantly higher than in BHI in these dynamic conditions. Interestingly, biovolume of dead cells in biofilms formed under limited nutrient conditions (BHI/10) was significantly higher than in biofilms formed in the BHI medium. In the other hand, in static conditions, biofilm is organized in a multilayer cells and dispersed cells in a rich medium BHI and poor medium BHI/10 respectively. There was significantly more biomass in the rich medium compared to BHI/10 but no difference was noted in the dead/damaged subpopulation showing how L. monocytogenes biofilm could be affected by the growth conditions. This work demonstrated that nutrient concentration affects biofilm structure and the proportion of dead cells in biofilms under microfluidic condition. Our study also showed that limited nutrients play an important role in the structural stability of L. monocytogenes biofilm by enhancing cell death and liberating extracellular DNA. PMID:28567031

  5. Impact of Nutrient Restriction on the Structure of Listeria monocytogenes Biofilm Grown in a Microfluidic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamazight Cherifi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Biofilm formation by the pathogen Listeria monocytogenes is a major concern in food industries. The aim of this work was to elucidate the effect of nutrient limitation on both biofilm architecture and on the viability of the bacteria in microfluidic growth conditions. Biofilm formation by two L. monocytogenes strains was performed in a rich medium (BHI and in a 10-fold diluted BHI (BHI/10 at 30°C for 24 h by using both static conditions and the microfluidic system Bioflux. In dynamic conditions, biofilms grown in rich and poor medium showed significant differences as well in structure and in the resulting biovolume. In BHI/10, biofilm was organized in a knitted network where cells formed long chains, whereas in the rich medium, the observed structure was homogeneous cellular multilayers. Biofilm biovolume production in BHI/10 was significantly higher than in BHI in these dynamic conditions. Interestingly, biovolume of dead cells in biofilms formed under limited nutrient conditions (BHI/10 was significantly higher than in biofilms formed in the BHI medium. In the other hand, in static conditions, biofilm is organized in a multilayer cells and dispersed cells in a rich medium BHI and poor medium BHI/10 respectively. There was significantly more biomass in the rich medium compared to BHI/10 but no difference was noted in the dead/damaged subpopulation showing how L. monocytogenes biofilm could be affected by the growth conditions. This work demonstrated that nutrient concentration affects biofilm structure and the proportion of dead cells in biofilms under microfluidic condition. Our study also showed that limited nutrients play an important role in the structural stability of L. monocytogenes biofilm by enhancing cell death and liberating extracellular DNA.

  6. Microfluidics on liquid handling stations (μF-on-LHS): an industry compatible chip interface between microfluidics and automated liquid handling stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldbaur, Ansgar; Kittelmann, Jörg; Radtke, Carsten P; Hubbuch, Jürgen; Rapp, Bastian E

    2013-06-21

    We describe a generic microfluidic interface design that allows the connection of microfluidic chips to established industrial liquid handling stations (LHS). A molding tool has been designed that allows fabrication of low-cost disposable polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) chips with interfaces that provide convenient and reversible connection of the microfluidic chip to industrial LHS. The concept allows complete freedom of design for the microfluidic chip itself. In this setup all peripheral fluidic components (such as valves and pumps) usually required for microfluidic experiments are provided by the LHS. Experiments (including readout) can be carried out fully automated using the hardware and software provided by LHS manufacturer. Our approach uses a chip interface that is compatible with widely used and industrially established LHS which is a significant advancement towards near-industrial experimental design in microfluidics and will greatly facilitate the acceptance and translation of microfluidics technology in industry.

  7. In search of low cost biological analysis: Wax or acrylic glue bonded paper microfluidic devices

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2011-11-04

    In this body of work we have been developing and characterizing paper based microfluidic fabrication technologies to produce low cost biological analysis. Specifically we investigated the performance of paper microfluidics that had been bonded using wax o

  8. In search of low cost biological analysis: Wax or acrylic glue bonded paper microfluidic devices

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2011-01-01

    In this body of work we have been developing and characterizing paper based microfluidic fabrication technologies to produce low cost biological analysis. Specifically we investigated the performance of paper microfluidics that had been bonded using wax o

  9. Optimized fabrication protocols of microfluidic devices for X-ray analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Catalano, Rossella; Perozziello, Gerardo; Simone, Giuseppina; Candeloro, Patrizio; Gentile, Francesco T.; Coluccio, Maria Laura; Pardeo, Francesca; Burghammer, Manfred C.; Cuda, Giovanni; Riekel, Christian; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.

    2014-01-01

    Microfluidics combined with X-ray scattering techniques allows probing conformational changes or assembly processes of biological materials. Our aim was to develop a highly X-ray transparent microfluidic cell for detecting small variations of X-ray

  10. A Microfluidics-HPLC/Differential Mobility Spectrometer Macromolecular Detection System for Human and Robotic Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coy, S. L.; Killeen, K.; Han, J.; Eiceman, G. A.; Kanik, I.; Kidd, R. D.

    2011-01-01

    Our goal is to develop a unique, miniaturized, solute analyzer based on microfluidics technology. The analyzer consists of an integrated microfluidics High Performance Liquid Chromatographic chip / Differential Mobility Spectrometer (?HPLCchip/ DMS) detection system

  11. Selection of Easily Accessible PCR- and Bio-Compatible Materials for Microfluidic Chips

    KAUST Repository

    Xiao, Kang

    2013-10-30

    Conventional fabrication of microfluidic chip is a complicated and time, effort and material consuming process. Consequently, due to high expenses, it has poor applicability for performing mass biological analysis by microfluidics. In this study, we repor

  12. Selection of Easily Accessible PCR- and Bio-Compatible Materials for Microfluidic Chips

    KAUST Repository

    Xiao, Kang; Kodzius, Rimantas; Wu, Jinbo

    2013-01-01

    Conventional fabrication of microfluidic chip is a complicated and time, effort and material consuming process. Consequently, due to high expenses, it has poor applicability for performing mass biological analysis by microfluidics. In this study, we

  13. Real rock-microfluidic flow cell: A test bed for real-time in situ analysis of flow, transport, and reaction in a subsurface reactive transport environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajveer; Sivaguru, Mayandi; Fried, Glenn A; Fouke, Bruce W; Sanford, Robert A; Carrera, Martin; Werth, Charles J

    2017-09-01

    Physical, chemical, and biological interactions between groundwater and sedimentary rock directly control the fundamental subsurface properties such as porosity, permeability, and flow. This is true for a variety of subsurface scenarios, ranging from shallow groundwater aquifers to deeply buried hydrocarbon reservoirs. Microfluidic flow cells are now commonly being used to study these processes at the pore scale in simplified pore structures meant to mimic subsurface reservoirs. However, these micromodels are typically fabricated from glass, silicon, or polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), and are therefore incapable of replicating the geochemical reactivity and complex three-dimensional pore networks present in subsurface lithologies. To address these limitations, we developed a new microfluidic experimental test bed, herein called the Real Rock-Microfluidic Flow Cell (RR-MFC). A porous 500μm-thick real rock sample of the Clair Group sandstone from a subsurface hydrocarbon reservoir of the North Sea was prepared and mounted inside a PDMS microfluidic channel, creating a dynamic flow-through experimental platform for real-time tracking of subsurface reactive transport. Transmitted and reflected microscopy, cathodoluminescence microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and confocal laser microscopy techniques were used to (1) determine the mineralogy, geochemistry, and pore networks within the sandstone inserted in the RR-MFC, (2) analyze non-reactive tracer breakthrough in two- and (depth-limited) three-dimensions, and (3) characterize multiphase flow. The RR-MFC is the first microfluidic experimental platform that allows direct visualization of flow and transport in the pore space of a real subsurface reservoir rock sample, and holds potential to advance our understandings of reactive transport and other subsurface processes relevant to pollutant transport and cleanup in groundwater, as well as energy recovery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Geometrical effect characterization of femtosecond-laser manufactured glass microfluidic chips based on optical manipulation of submicroparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsifaki, Domna G.; Mackenzie, Mark D.; Polydefki, Georgia; Kar, Ajoy K.; Makropoulou, Mersini; Serafetinides, Alexandros A.

    2017-12-01

    Microfluidic devices provide a platform with wide ranging applications from environmental monitoring to disease diagnosis. They offer substantive advantages but are often not optimized or designed to be used by nonexpert researchers. Microchannels of a microanalysis platform and their geometrical characterization are of eminent importance when designing such devices. We present a method that is used to optimize each microchannel within a device using high-throughput particle manipulation. For this purpose, glass-based microfluidic devices, with three-dimensional channel networks of several geometrical sizes, were fabricated by employing laser fabrication techniques. The effect of channel geometry was investigated by employing an optical tweezer. The optical trapping force depends on the flow velocity that is associated with the dimensions of the microchannel. We observe a linear dependence of the trapping efficiency and of the fluid flow velocity, with the channel dimensions. We determined that the highest trapping efficiency was achieved for microchannels with aspect ratio equal to one. Numerical simulation validated the impact of the device design dimensions on the trapping efficiency. This investigation indicates that the geometrical characteristics, the flow velocity, and trapping efficiency are crucial and should be considered when fabricating microfluidic devices for cell studies.

  15. Three-Dimensional Printing Based Hybrid Manufacturing of Microfluidic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alapan, Yunus; Hasan, Muhammad Noman; Shen, Richang; Gurkan, Umut A

    2015-05-01

    Microfluidic platforms offer revolutionary and practical solutions to challenging problems in biology and medicine. Even though traditional micro/nanofabrication technologies expedited the emergence of the microfluidics field, recent advances in advanced additive manufacturing hold significant potential for single-step, stand-alone microfluidic device fabrication. One such technology, which holds a significant promise for next generation microsystem fabrication is three-dimensional (3D) printing. Presently, building 3D printed stand-alone microfluidic devices with fully embedded microchannels for applications in biology and medicine has the following challenges: (i) limitations in achievable design complexity, (ii) need for a wider variety of transparent materials, (iii) limited z-resolution, (iv) absence of extremely smooth surface finish, and (v) limitations in precision fabrication of hollow and void sections with extremely high surface area to volume ratio. We developed a new way to fabricate stand-alone microfluidic devices with integrated manifolds and embedded microchannels by utilizing a 3D printing and laser micromachined lamination based hybrid manufacturing approach. In this new fabrication method, we exploit the minimized fabrication steps enabled by 3D printing, and reduced assembly complexities facilitated by laser micromachined lamination method. The new hybrid fabrication method enables key features for advanced microfluidic system architecture: (i) increased design complexity in 3D, (ii) improved control over microflow behavior in all three directions and in multiple layers, (iii) transverse multilayer flow and precisely integrated flow distribution, and (iv) enhanced transparency for high resolution imaging and analysis. Hybrid manufacturing approaches hold great potential in advancing microfluidic device fabrication in terms of standardization, fast production, and user-independent manufacturing.

  16. The microfluidic probe: operation and use for localized surface processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrault, Cecile M; Qasaimeh, Mohammad A; Juncker, David

    2009-06-04

    Microfluidic devices allow assays to be performed using minute amounts of sample and have recently been used to control the microenvironment of cells. Microfluidics is commonly associated with closed microchannels which limit their use to samples that can be introduced, and cultured in the case of cells, within a confined volume. On the other hand, micropipetting system have been used to locally perfuse cells and surfaces, notably using push-pull setups where one pipette acts as source and the other one as sink, but the confinement of the flow is difficult in three dimensions. Furthermore, pipettes are fragile and difficult to position and hence are used in static configuration only. The microfluidic probe (MFP) circumvents the constraints imposed by the construction of closed microfluidic channels and instead of enclosing the sample into the microfluidic system, the microfluidic flow can be directly delivered onto the sample, and scanned across the sample, using the MFP. . The injection and aspiration openings are located within a few tens of micrometers of one another so that a microjet injected into the gap is confined by the hydrodynamic forces of the surrounding liquid and entirely aspirated back into the other opening. The microjet can be flushed across the substrate surface and provides a precise tool for localized deposition/delivery of reagents which can be used over large areas by scanning the probe across the surface. In this video we present the microfluidic probe (MFP). We explain in detail how to assemble the MFP, mount it atop an inverted microscope, and align it relative to the substrate surface, and finally show how to use it to process a substrate surface immersed in a buffer.

  17. Development of Microfluidic Systems Enabling High-Throughput Single-Cell Protein Characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Beiyuan; Li, Xiufeng; Chen, Deyong; Peng, Hongshang; Wang, Junbo; Chen, Jian

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews recent developments in microfluidic systems enabling high-throughput characterization of single-cell proteins. Four key perspectives of microfluidic platforms are included in this review: (1) microfluidic fluorescent flow cytometry; (2) droplet based microfluidic flow cytometry; (3) large-array micro wells (microengraving); and (4) large-array micro chambers (barcode microchips). We examine the advantages and limitations of each technique and discuss future research oppor...

  18. Interconnection blocks: a method for providing reusable, rapid, multiple, aligned and planar microfluidic interconnections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabourin, D; Snakenborg, D; Dufva, M

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a method is presented for creating 'interconnection blocks' that are re-usable and provide multiple, aligned and planar microfluidic interconnections. Interconnection blocks made from polydimethylsiloxane allow rapid testing of microfluidic chips and unobstructed microfluidic observation. The interconnection block method is scalable, flexible and supports high interconnection density. The average pressure limit of the interconnection block was near 5.5 bar and all individual results were well above the 2 bar threshold considered applicable to most microfluidic applications

  19. Microfluidic-based Broadband Measurements of Fluid Permittivity and Permeability to 100 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Charles A. E.

    This dissertation concerns the development of unique microfluidic microwave devices and associated microwave calibrations to quantitatively extract the broadband permittivity and permeability of fluids between 100 kHz and 110 GHz. The devices presented here consist of SU-8- and PDMS-based microfluidic channels integrated lithographically with coplanar waveguides (CPWs), measured via an external vector network analyzer (VNA). By applying our hybrid set of microwave calibrations to the raw data we extract distributed circuit parameters, representative of the electromagnetic response of the microfluidic channel. We then correlate these parameters to the permittivity and permeability of the fluid within the channels. We are primarily focused on developing devices, calibrations, and analyses to characterize various chemical and biological systems. The small fluid volumes and overall scale of our devices lends the technique to point-of-care blood and cell analysis, as well as to the analysis of high-value chemicals. Broadband microwave microfluidics is sensitive to three primary categories of phenomena: Ionic, dipolar, and magnetic resonances. All three can occur in complex fluids such as blood, proteins and particle suspensions. In order to make quantitative measurements, we need to be able to model and separate all three types of responses. Here we first measure saline solutions (NaCl and water) as an ideal system to better understanding both the ionic and dipolar response. Specifically, we are targeting the electrical double-layer (EDL) response, an ionic effect, which dominates over the intrinsic fluid response at lower frequencies. We have found that the EDL response for saline obeys a strict Debye-type relaxation model, the frequency response of which is dependent solely on the conductivity of the solution. To develop a better understanding of the magnetic response, we first measure magnetic nanoparticles; showing it is possible to detect the magnetic resonances of

  20. Ultrahigh throughput microfluidic platform for in-air production of microscale droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirandazi, Pooyan; Healy, John; Hidrovo, Carlos H.

    2017-11-01

    In-air droplet formation inside microfluidic networks is an alternative technique to the conventional in-liquid systems for creating uniform, microscale droplets. Recent works have highlighted and quantified the use of a gaseous continuous phase for controlled generation of droplets in the Dripping regime in planar structures. Here we demonstrate a new class of non-planar droplet-based systems which rely on controlled breakup of a liquid microjet within a high speed flow of air inside a confined microfluidic flow-focusing PDMS channel. We investigate the physics of confined gas-liquid flows and the effect of geometry on the behavior of a liquid water jet in a gaseous flow. Droplet breakup in the Jetting regime is studied both numerically and experimentally and the results are compared. We show droplet production capability at rates higher than 100 KHz with droplets ranging from 15-30 μm in diameter and a polydispersity index of less than 15%. This work represents an important investigation into the Jetting regime in confined microchannels. The ability to control jet behavior, generation rate, and droplet size in gas-liquid microflows will further expand the potential applications of this system for high throughput operations in material synthesis and biochemical analysis. We acknowledge funding support from NSF CAREER Award Grant CBET-1522841.

  1. Integration of micro-optics and microfluidics in a glass chip by fs-laser for optofluidic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osellame, Roberto; Martinez, Rebeca; Laporta, Paolo; Ramponi, Roberta; Cerullo, Giulio

    2009-02-01

    A lab-on-a-chip (LOC) is a device that incorporates in a single substrate the functionalities of a biological laboratory, i.e. a network of fluidic channels, reservoirs, valves, pumps and sensors, all with micrometer dimensions. Its main advantages are the possibility of working with small samples quantities (from nano- to picoliters), high sensitivity, speed of analysis and the possibility of measurement automation and standardization. They are becoming the most powerful tools of analytical chemistry with a broad application in life sciences, biotechnology and drug development. The next technological challenge of LOCs is direct on-chip integration of photonic functionalities for sensing of biomolecules flowing in the microchannels. Ultrafast laser processing of the bulk of a dielectric material is a very flexible and simple method to produce photonic devices inside microfluidic chips for capillary electrophoresis (CE) or chemical microreactors. By taking advantage of the unique three-dimensional capabilities of this fabrication technique, more complex functionalities, such as splitters or Mach-Zehnder interferometers, can be implemented. In this work we report on the use of femtosecond laser pulses to fabricate photonic devices (as waveguides, splitters and interferometers) inside commercial CE chips, without affecting the manufacturing procedure of the microfluidic part of the device. The fabrication of single waveguides intersecting the channels allows one to perform absorption or Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) sensing of the molecules separated inside the microchannels. Waveguide splitters are used for multipoint excitation of the microfluidic channel for parallel or higher sensitivity measurements. Finally, Mach-Zehnder interferometers are used for label-free sensing of the samples flowing in the microfluidic channels by means of refractive index changes detection.

  2. Ligation-based mutation detection and RCA in surface un-modified OSTE+ polymer microfluidic chambers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saharil, Farizah; Ahlford, Annika; Kuhnemund, Malte

    2013-01-01

    For the first time, we demonstrate DNA mutation detection in surface un-modified polymeric microfluidic chambers without suffering from bubble trapping or bubble formation. Microfluidic devices were manufactured in off-stoichiometry thiol-ene epoxy (OSTE+) polymer using an uncomplicated and rapid...... during bio-operation at elevated temperatures. In contrast, PMMA, PDMS and COP microfluidic devices required specific surface treatment....

  3. Synthesis of Application-Specific Fault-Tolerant Digital Microfluidic Biochip Architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alistar, Mirela; Pop, Paul; Madsen, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Digital microfluidic biochips (DMBs) are microfluidic devices that manipulate droplets on an array of electrodes. Microfluidic operations, such as transport, mixing, and split, are performed on the electrode array to perform a biochemical application. All previous work assumes that the DMB...

  4. Lab-on-chip system combining a microfluidic-ELISA with an array of amorphous silicon photosensors for the detection of celiac disease epitopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Costantini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a lab-on-chip system, which combines a glass-polydimethilsiloxane microfluidic network and an array of amorphous silicon photosensors for the diagnosis and follow-up of Celiac disease. The microfluidic chip implements an on-chip enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, relying on a sandwich immunoassay between antibodies against gliadin peptides (GPs and a secondary antibody marked with horseradish peroxidase (Ig-HRP. This enzyme catalyzes a chemiluminescent reaction, whose light intensity is detected by the amorphous silicon photosensors and transduced into an electrical signal that can be processed to recognize the presence of antibodies against GPs in the serum of people affected by Celiac syndrome.The correct operation of the developed lab-on-chip has been demonstrated using rabbit serum in the microfluidic ELISA. In particular, optimizing the dilution factors of both sera and Ig-HRP samples in the flowing solutions, the specific and non-specific antibodies against GPs can be successfully distinguished, showing the suitability of the presented device to effectively screen celiac disease epitopes. Keywords: Lab-on-chip, Celiac disease, Microfluidics, On-chip detection, ELISA, Amorphous silicon photosensors

  5. Engineering and evaluating drug delivery particles in microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björnmalm, Mattias; Yan, Yan; Caruso, Frank

    2014-09-28

    The development of new and improved particle-based drug delivery is underpinned by an enhanced ability to engineer particles with high fidelity and integrity, as well as increased knowledge of their biological performance. Microfluidics can facilitate these processes through the engineering of spatiotemporally highly controlled environments using designed microstructures in combination with physical phenomena present at the microscale. In this review, we discuss microfluidics in the context of addressing key challenges in particle-based drug delivery. We provide an overview of how microfluidic devices can: (i) be employed to engineer particles, by providing highly controlled interfaces, and (ii) be used to establish dynamic in vitro models that mimic in vivo environments for studying the biological behavior of engineered particles. Finally, we discuss how the flexible and modular nature of microfluidic devices provides opportunities to create increasingly realistic models of the in vivo milieu (including multi-cell, multi-tissue and even multi-organ devices), and how ongoing developments toward commercialization of microfluidic tools are opening up new opportunities for the engineering and evaluation of drug delivery particles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Microfluidic systems for stem cell-based neural tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mahdi; Bahrami, Sajad; Mirshekari, Hamed; Basri, Seyed Masoud Moosavi; Nik, Amirala Bakhshian; Aref, Amir R; Akbari, Mohsen; Hamblin, Michael R

    2016-07-05

    Neural tissue engineering aims at developing novel approaches for the treatment of diseases of the nervous system, by providing a permissive environment for the growth and differentiation of neural cells. Three-dimensional (3D) cell culture systems provide a closer biomimetic environment, and promote better cell differentiation and improved cell function, than could be achieved by conventional two-dimensional (2D) culture systems. With the recent advances in the discovery and introduction of different types of stem cells for tissue engineering, microfluidic platforms have provided an improved microenvironment for the 3D-culture of stem cells. Microfluidic systems can provide more precise control over the spatiotemporal distribution of chemical and physical cues at the cellular level compared to traditional systems. Various microsystems have been designed and fabricated for the purpose of neural tissue engineering. Enhanced neural migration and differentiation, and monitoring of these processes, as well as understanding the behavior of stem cells and their microenvironment have been obtained through application of different microfluidic-based stem cell culture and tissue engineering techniques. As the technology advances it may be possible to construct a "brain-on-a-chip". In this review, we describe the basics of stem cells and tissue engineering as well as microfluidics-based tissue engineering approaches. We review recent testing of various microfluidic approaches for stem cell-based neural tissue engineering.

  7. A PEG-DA microfluidic device for chemotaxis studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traore, Mahama Aziz; Behkam, Bahareh

    2013-01-01

    The study of cells in a well-defined and chemically programmable microenvironment is essential for a complete and fundamental understanding of the cell behaviors with respect to specific chemical compounds. Flow-free microfluidic devices that generate quasi-steady chemical gradients (spatially varying but temporally constant) have been demonstrated as effective chemotaxis assay platforms due to dissociating the effect of chemical cues from mechanical shear forces caused by fluid flow. In this work, we demonstrate the fabrication and characterization of a flow-free microfluidic platform made of polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEG-DA) hydrogel. We have demonstrated that the mass transport properties of these devices can be customized by fabricating them from PEG-DA gels of four distinct molecular weights. In contrast to microfluidic devices developed using soft lithography; this class of devices can be realized using a more cost-effective approach of direct photopolymerization with fewer microfabrication steps. This microfluidic platform was tested by conducting a quantitative study of the chemotactic behavior of Escherichia coli (E. coli) RP437, a model microorganism, in presence of the chemo-effector, casamino-acids. Using the microfabrication and characterization methodology presented in this work, microfluidic platforms with well-defined and customizable diffusive properties can be developed to accommodate the study of a wide range of cell types. (paper)

  8. Microfluidic Devices for Forensic DNA Analysis: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruijns, Brigitte; van Asten, Arian; Tiggelaar, Roald; Gardeniers, Han

    2016-08-05

    Microfluidic devices may offer various advantages for forensic DNA analysis, such as reduced risk of contamination, shorter analysis time and direct application at the crime scene. Microfluidic chip technology has already proven to be functional and effective within medical applications, such as for point-of-care use. In the forensic field, one may expect microfluidic technology to become particularly relevant for the analysis of biological traces containing human DNA. This would require a number of consecutive steps, including sample work up, DNA amplification and detection, as well as secure storage of the sample. This article provides an extensive overview of microfluidic devices for cell lysis, DNA extraction and purification, DNA amplification and detection and analysis techniques for DNA. Topics to be discussed are polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on-chip, digital PCR (dPCR), isothermal amplification on-chip, chip materials, integrated devices and commercially available techniques. A critical overview of the opportunities and challenges of the use of chips is discussed, and developments made in forensic DNA analysis over the past 10-20 years with microfluidic systems are described. Areas in which further research is needed are indicated in a future outlook.

  9. Pneumatic oscillator circuits for timing and control of integrated microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Philip N; Nguyen, Transon V; Hui, Elliot E

    2013-11-05

    Frequency references are fundamental to most digital systems, providing the basis for process synchronization, timing of outputs, and waveform synthesis. Recently, there has been growing interest in digital logic systems that are constructed out of microfluidics rather than electronics, as a possible means toward fully integrated laboratory-on-a-chip systems that do not require any external control apparatus. However, the full realization of this goal has not been possible due to the lack of on-chip frequency references, thus requiring timing signals to be provided from off-chip. Although microfluidic oscillators have been demonstrated, there have been no reported efforts to characterize, model, or optimize timing accuracy, which is the fundamental metric of a clock. Here, we report pneumatic ring oscillator circuits built from microfluidic valves and channels. Further, we present a compressible-flow analysis that differs fundamentally from conventional circuit theory, and we show the utility of this physically based model for the optimization of oscillator stability. Finally, we leverage microfluidic clocks to demonstrate circuits for the generation of phase-shifted waveforms, self-driving peristaltic pumps, and frequency division. Thus, pneumatic oscillators can serve as on-chip frequency references for microfluidic digital logic circuits. On-chip clocks and pumps both constitute critical building blocks on the path toward achieving autonomous laboratory-on-a-chip devices.

  10. Redundancy Optimization for Error Recovery in Digital Microfluidic Biochips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alistar, Mirela; Pop, Paul; Madsen, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Microfluidic-based biochips are replacing the conventional biochemical analyzers, and are able to integrate all the necessary functions for biochemical analysis. The digital microfluidic biochips are based on the manipulation of liquids not as a continuous flow, but as discrete droplets. Research......Microfluidic-based biochips are replacing the conventional biochemical analyzers, and are able to integrate all the necessary functions for biochemical analysis. The digital microfluidic biochips are based on the manipulation of liquids not as a continuous flow, but as discrete droplets....... Researchers have proposed approaches for the synthesis of digital microfluidic biochips, which, starting from a biochemical application and a given biochip architecture, determine the allocation, resource binding, scheduling, placement and routing of the operations in the application. During the execution...... propose an online recovery strategy, which decides during the execution of the biochemical application the introduction of the redundancy required for fault-tolerance. We consider both time redundancy, i.e., re-executing erroneous operations, and space redundancy, i.e., creating redundant droplets...

  11. Towards rapid prototyped convective microfluidic DNA amplification platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajit, Smrithi; Praveen, Hemanth Mithun; Puneeth, S. B.; Dave, Abhishek; Sesham, Bharat; Mohan, K. N.; Goel, Sanket

    2017-02-01

    Today, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) based DNA amplification plays an indispensable role in the field of biomedical research. Its inherent ability to exponentially amplify sample DNA has proven useful for the identification of virulent pathogens like those causing Multiple Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB). The intervention of Microfluidics technology has revolutionized the concept of PCR from being a laborious and time consuming process into one that is faster, easily portable and capable of being multifunctional. The Microfluidics based PCR outweighs its traditional counterpart in terms of flexibility of varying reaction rate, operation simplicity, need of a fraction of volume and capability of being integrated with other functional elements. The scope of the present work involves the development of a real-time continuous flow microfluidic device, fabricated by 3D printing-governed rapid prototyping method, eventually leading to an automated and robust platform to process multiple DNA samples for detection of MDRTB-associated mutations. The thermal gradient characteristic to the PCR process is produced using peltier units appropriate to the microfluidic environment fully monitored and controlled by a low cost controller driven by a Data Acquisition System. The process efficiency achieved in the microfluidic environment in terms of output per cycle is expected to be on par with the traditional PCR and capable of earning the additional advantages of being faster and minimizing the handling.

  12. Parameter Screening in Microfluidics Based Hydrodynamic Single-Cell Trapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Deng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Microfluidic cell-based arraying technology is widely used in the field of single-cell analysis. However, among developed devices, there is a compromise between cellular loading efficiencies and trapped cell densities, which deserves further analysis and optimization. To address this issue, the cell trapping efficiency of a microfluidic device with two parallel micro channels interconnected with cellular trapping sites was studied in this paper. By regulating channel inlet and outlet status, the microfluidic trapping structure can mimic key functioning units of previously reported devices. Numerical simulations were used to model this cellular trapping structure, quantifying the effects of channel on/off status and trapping structure geometries on the cellular trapping efficiency. Furthermore, the microfluidic device was fabricated based on conventional microfabrication and the cellular trapping efficiency was quantified in experiments. Experimental results showed that, besides geometry parameters, cellular travelling velocities and sizes also affected the single-cell trapping efficiency. By fine tuning parameters, more than 95% of trapping sites were taken by individual cells. This study may lay foundation in further studies of single-cell positioning in microfluidics and push forward the study of single-cell analysis.

  13. Fabrication of polyimide based microfluidic channels for biosensor devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulfiqar, Azeem; Pfreundt, Andrea; Svendsen, Winnie Edith; Dimaki, Maria

    2015-03-01

    The ever-increasing complexity of the fabrication process of Point-of-care (POC) devices, due to high demand of functional versatility, compact size and ease-of-use, emphasizes the need of multifunctional materials that can be used to simplify this process. Polymers, currently in use for the fabrication of the often needed microfluidic channels, have limitations in terms of their physicochemical properties. Therefore, the use of a multipurpose biocompatible material with better resistance to the chemical, thermal and electrical environment, along with capability of forming closed channel microfluidics is inevitable. This paper demonstrates a novel technique of fabricating microfluidic devices using polyimide (PI) which fulfills the aforementioned properties criteria. A fabrication process to pattern microfluidic channels, using partially cured PI, has been developed by using a dry etching method. The etching parameters are optimized and compared to those used for fully cured PI. Moreover, the formation of closed microfluidic channel on wafer level by bonding two partially cured PI layers or a partially cured PI to glass with high bond strength has been demonstrated. The reproducibility in uniformity of PI is also compared to the most commonly used SU8 polymer, which is a near UV sensitive epoxy resin. The potential applications of PI processing are POC and biosensor devices integrated with microelectronics.

  14. A microfluidic approach for hemoglobin detection in whole blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taparia, Nikita; Platten, Kimsey C.; Anderson, Kristin B.; Sniadecki, Nathan J.

    2017-10-01

    Diagnosis of anemia relies on the detection of hemoglobin levels in a blood sample. Conventional blood analyzers are not readily available in most low-resource regions where anemia is prevalent, so detection methods that are low-cost and point-of-care are needed. Here, we present a microfluidic approach to measure hemoglobin concentration in a sample of whole blood. Unlike conventional approaches, our microfluidic approach does not require hemolysis. We detect the level of hemoglobin in a blood sample optically by illuminating the blood in a microfluidic channel at a peak wavelength of 540 nm and measuring its absorbance using a CMOS sensor coupled with a lens to magnify the image onto the detector. We compare measurements in microchannels with channel heights of 50 and 115 μm and found the channel with the 50 μm height provided a better range of detection. Since we use whole blood and not lysed blood, we fit our data to an absorption model that includes optical scattering in order to obtain a calibration curve for our system. Based on this calibration curve and data collected, we can measure hemoglobin concentration within 1 g/dL for severe cases of anemia. In addition, we measured optical density for blood flowing at a shear rate of 500 s-1 and observed it did not affect the nonlinear model. With this method, we provide an approach that uses microfluidic detection of hemoglobin levels that can be integrated with other microfluidic approaches for blood analysis.

  15. A microfluidic microprocessor: controlling biomimetic containers and cells using hybrid integrated circuit/microfluidic chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issadore, David; Franke, Thomas; Brown, Keith A; Westervelt, Robert M

    2010-11-07

    We present an integrated platform for performing biological and chemical experiments on a chip based on standard CMOS technology. We have developed a hybrid integrated circuit (IC)/microfluidic chip that can simultaneously control thousands of living cells and pL volumes of fluid, enabling a wide variety of chemical and biological tasks. Taking inspiration from cellular biology, phospholipid bilayer vesicles are used as robust picolitre containers for reagents on the chip. The hybrid chip can be programmed to trap, move, and porate individual living cells and vesicles and fuse and deform vesicles using electric fields. The IC spatially patterns electric fields in a microfluidic chamber using 128 × 256 (32,768) 11 × 11 μm(2) metal pixels, each of which can be individually driven with a radio frequency (RF) voltage. The chip's basic functions can be combined in series to perform complex biological and chemical tasks and can be performed in parallel on the chip's many pixels for high-throughput operations. The hybrid chip operates in two distinct modes, defined by the frequency of the RF voltage applied to the pixels: Voltages at MHz frequencies are used to trap, move, and deform objects using dielectrophoresis and voltages at frequencies below 1 kHz are used for electroporation and electrofusion. This work represents an important step towards miniaturizing the complex chemical and biological experiments used for diagnostics and research onto automated and inexpensive chips.

  16. Microfluidic Sample Preparation for Diagnostic Cytopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mach, Albert J.; Adeyiga, Oladunni B.; Di Carlo, Dino

    2014-01-01

    The cellular components of body fluids are routinely analyzed to identify disease and treatment approaches. While significant focus has been placed on developing cell analysis technologies, tools to automate the preparation of cellular specimens have been more limited, especially for body fluids beyond blood. Preparation steps include separating, concentrating, and exposing cells to reagents. Sample preparation continues to be routinely performed off-chip by technicians, preventing cell-based point-of-care diagnostics, increasing the cost of tests, and reducing the consistency of the final analysis following multiple manually-performed steps. Here, we review the assortment of biofluids for which suspended cells are analyzed, along with their characteristics and diagnostic value. We present an overview of the conventional sample preparation processes for cytological diagnosis. We finally discuss the challenges and opportunities in developing microfluidic devices for the purpose of automating or miniaturizing these processes, with particular emphases on preparing large or small volume samples, working with samples of high cellularity, automating multi-step processes, and obtaining high purity subpopulations of cells. We hope to convey the importance of and help identify new research directions addressing the vast biological and clinical applications in preparing and analyzing the array of available biological fluids. Successfully addressing the challenges described in this review can lead to inexpensive systems to improve diagnostic accuracy while simultaneously reducing overall systemic healthcare costs. PMID:23380972

  17. Directed evolution of enzymes using microfluidic chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilát, Zdeněk.; Ježek, Jan; Šmatlo, Filip; Kaůka, Jan; Zemánek, Pavel

    2016-12-01

    Enzymes are highly versatile and ubiquitous biological catalysts. They can greatly accelerate large variety of reactions, while ensuring appropriate catalytic activity and high selectivity. These properties make enzymes attractive biocatalysts for a wide range of industrial and biomedical applications. Over the last two decades, directed evolution of enzymes has transformed the field of protein engineering. We have devised microfluidic systems for directed evolution of haloalkane dehalogenases in emulsion droplets. In such a device, individual bacterial cells producing mutated variants of the same enzyme are encapsulated in microdroplets and supplied with a substrate. The conversion of a substrate by the enzyme produced by a single bacterium changes the pH in the droplet which is signalized by pH dependent fluorescence probe. The droplets with the highest enzymatic activity can be separated directly on the chip by dielectrophoresis and the resultant cell lineage can be used for enzyme production or for further rounds of directed evolution. This platform is applicable for fast screening of large libraries in directed evolution experiments requiring mutagenesis at multiple sites of a protein structure.

  18. Liquid Therapy Delivery Models Using Microfluidic Airways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Molly K.; Grotberg, James B.; Waisman, Dan; Filoche, Marcel; Sznitman, Josué

    2013-11-01

    The propagation and break-up of viscous and surfactant-laden liquid plugs in the lungs is an active area of research in view of liquid plug installation in the lungs to treat a host of different pulmonary conditions. This includes Infant Respiratory Distress Syndrome (IRDS) the primary cause of neonatal death and disability. Until present, experimental studies of liquid plugs have generally been restricted to low-viscosity Newtonian fluids along a single bifurcation. However, these fluids reflect poorly the actual liquid medication therapies used to treat pulmonary conditions. The present work attempts to uncover the propagation, rupture and break-up of liquid plugs in the airway tree using microfluidic models spanning three or more generations of the bronchiole tree. Our approach allows the dynamics of plug propagation and break-up to be studied in real-time, in a one-to-one scale in vitro model, as a function of fluid rheology, trailing film dynamics and bronchial tree geometry. Understanding these dynamics are a first and necessary step to deliver more effectively boluses of liquid medication to the lungs while minimizing the injury caused to epithelial cells lining the lungs from the rupture of such liquid plugs.

  19. Electrowetting Using a Microfluidic Kelvin Water Dropper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Yazdanshenas

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Kelvin water dropper is an electrostatic generator that can generate high voltage electricity through water dripping. A conventional Kelvin water dropper converts the gravitational potential energy of water into electricity. Due to its low current output, Kelvin water droppers can only be used in limited cases that demand high voltage. In the present study, microfluidic Kelvin water droppers (MKWDs were built in house to demonstrate a low-cost but accurately controlled miniature device for high voltage generation. The performance of the MKWDs was characterized using different channel diameters and flow rates. The best performed MKWD was then used to conduct experiments of the electrowetting of liquid on dielectric surfaces. Electrowetting is a process that has been widely used in manipulating the wetting properties of a surface using an external electric field. Usually electrowetting requires an expensive DC power supply that outputs high voltage. However, in this research, it was demonstrated that electrowetting can be conducted by simply using an MKWD. Additionally, an analytic model was developed to simulate the electrowetting process. Finally, the model’s ability to well predict the liquid deformation during electrowetting using MKWDs was validated.

  20. Polymeric microbead arrays for microfluidic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Jason A; Du, Xiaoguang; Grogan, Joseph M; Schrlau, Michael G; Bau, Haim H

    2010-01-01

    Microbeads offer a convenient and efficient means of immobilizing biomolecules and capturing target molecules of interest in microfluidic immunoassay devices. In this study, hot embossing is used to form wells enabling the direct incorporation of a microbead array in a plastic substrate. We demonstrate two techniques to populate the well array with beads. In the first case, encoded beads with various functionalizations are distributed randomly among the wells and their position is registered by reading their encoding. Alternatively, beads are controllably placed at predetermined positions and decoding is not required. The random placement technique is demonstrated with two functionalized bead types that are distributed among the wells and then decoded to register their locations. The alternative, deliberate placement technique is demonstrated by controllably placing magnetic beads at selected locations in the array using a magnetic probe. As a proof of concept to illustrate the biosensing capability of the randomly assembled array, an on-chip, bead-based immunoassay is employed to detect the inflammatory protein Interleukin-8. The principle of the assay, however, can be extended to detect multiple targets simultaneously. Our method eliminates the need to interface silicon components with plastic devices to form microarrays containing individually addressable beads. This has the potential to reduce the cost and complexity of lab-on-chip devices for medical diagnosis, food and water quality inspection, and environmental monitoring

  1. Microfluidic Platform for Circulating Tumor Cells Isolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueras-Mari, I.; Rodriguez-Trujillo, L.; Samitier-Marti, J.

    2016-07-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are released from primary tumors into the bloodstream and transported to distant organs, promoting metastasis, which is known to be responsible for most cancer‐related deaths. Currently tumors are not found until symptoms appear or by chance when the patient undergoes a medical test, which in both situations can be too late. Once a tumor is found it is studied from tissue samples obtained directly from the patient in an invasive way. This invasive procedure is known as biopsy and apart from being invasive, it is costly, time consuming and can sometimes be painful and even risky for the patients’ health condition. Therefore, CTCs detection in blood also addressed as “liquid biopsy” would be very useful because by running routine blood analysis CTCs could be detected and collected suggesting tumor presence. However, due to the scarce presence in blood of these cells and to the huge amount of contamination from other cellular components a perfect method providing good capture and purity of CTCs has not been developed yet. In this project, a spiral size sorter microfluidic device has been manufactured and tested in order to determine its performance and limitations. Device performance was tested with different dilutions of healthy donor blood samples mixed with 30 micron particles simulating CTCs. The results obtained from these experiments show very good CTC recovery of up to 100% and the depletion of blood cellular components is around 99.9%. (Author)

  2. Microfluidics microFACS for Life Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Donald W.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2010-01-01

    A prototype micro-scale Fluorescent Activated Cell Sorter (microFACS) for life detection has been built and is undergoing testing. A functional miniature microfluidics instrument with the ability to remotely distinguish live or dead bacterial cells from abiotic particulates in ice or permafrost of icy bodies of the solar system would be of fundamental value to NASA. The use of molecular probes to obtain the bio-signature of living or dead cells could answer the most fundamental question of Astrobiology: Does life exist beyond Earth? The live-dead fluorescent stains to be used in the microFACS instrument function only with biological cell walls. The detection of the cell membranes of living or dead bacteria (unlike PAH's and many other Biomarkers) would provide convincing evidence of present or past life. This miniature device rapidly examine large numbers of particulates from a polar ice or permafrost sample and distinguish living from dead bacteria cells and biological cells from mineral grains and abiotic particulates and sort the cells and particulates based on a staining system. Any sample found to exhibit fluorescence consistent with living cells could then be used in conjunction with a chiral labeled release experiment or video microscopy system to seek addition evidence for cellular metabolism or motility. Results of preliminary testing and calibration of the microFACS prototype instrument system with pure cultures and enrichment assemblages of microbial extremophiles will be reported.

  3. Microdroplet evaporation in closed digital microfluidic biochips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadi, Ali; Buat, Matthew D; Hoorfar, Mina

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, microdroplet evaporation in the closed digital microfluidic systems is studied for hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces. The contact angle and contact radius are measured by an enhanced automated polynomial fitting approach. It is observed that the contact angle for both hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces remains constant during the evaporation process. However, a higher evaporation rate is observed for hydrophilic droplets compared to the hydrophobic droplets. Since no contact line pinning is observed, first, an analytical model based on the uniform vapor mass flux along the liquid–vapor interface is proposed. Interestingly, it is observed that in the hydrophobic case, the analytical model gives a higher evaporation rate, whereas for the hydrophilic case, the analytical model gives a lower evaporation rate. The discrepancy between the results of the analytical modeling and the experimental values is hypothesized to be due the constant flux assumption. To verify the hypothesis, a finite volume-based numerical model is developed to find the local flux along the liquid–vapor interface. The numerical modeling results confirm that for hydrophilic droplets, the evaporation flux increases very close to the three-phase contact line. In the case of the hydrophobic droplets, on the other hand, the flux decreases close to the contact line due to vapor saturation; as a result the uniform flux assumption overestimates the mass loss. (paper)

  4. Microfluidic approach of Sickled Cell Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abkarian, Manouk; Loiseau, Etienne; Massiera, Gladys

    2012-11-01

    Sickle Cell Anemia is a disorder of the microcirculation caused by a genetic point mutation that produces an altered hemoglobin protein called HbS. HbS self-assembles reversibly into long rope like fibers inside the red blood cells. The resulting distorded sickled red blood cells are believed to block the smallest capillaries of the tissues producing anemia. Despite the large amount of work that provided a thorough understanding of HbS polymerization in bulk as well as in intact red blood cells at rest, no consequent cellular scale approaches of the study of polymerization and its link to the capillary obstruction have been proposed in microflow, although the problem of obstruction is in essence a circulatory problem. Here, we use microfluidic channels, designed to mimic physiological conditions (flow velocity, oxygen concentration, hematocrit...) of the microcirculation to carry out a biomimetic study at the cellular scale of sickled cell vaso-occlusion. We show that flow geometry, oxygen concentration, white blood cells and free hemoglobin S are essential in the formation of original cell aggregates which could play a role in the vaso-occlusion events.

  5. Inkjet 3D printing of microfluidic structures—on the selection of the printer towards printing your own microfluidic chips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walczak, Rafał; Adamski, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    This article reports, for the first time, the results of detailed research on the application of inkjet 3D printing for the fabrication of microfluidic structures. CAD designed test structures were printed with four different printers. Dimensional fidelity, shape conformity, and surface roughness were studied for each printout. It was found that the minimum dimension (width or depth) for a properly printed microfluidic channel was approximately 200 μm. Although the nominal resolution of the printers was one order of magnitude better, smaller structures were significantly deformed or not printed at all. It was also found that a crucial step in one-step fabrication of embedded microchannels is the removal of the support material. We also discuss the source of print error and present a way to evaluate other printers. The printouts obtained from the four different printers were compared, and the optimal printing technique and printer were used to fabricate a microfluidic structure for the spectrophotometric characterisation of beverages. UV/VIS absorbance characteristics were collected using this microfluidic structure, demonstrating that the fabricated spectrophotometric chip operated properly. Thus, a proof-of-concept for using inkjet 3D printing for the fabrication of microfluidic structures was obtained. (paper)

  6. Enhancing Single Molecule Imaging in Optofluidics and Microfluidics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas E. Vasdekis

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Microfluidics and optofluidics have revolutionized high-throughput analysis and chemical synthesis over the past decade. Single molecule imaging has witnessed similar growth, due to its capacity to reveal heterogeneities at high spatial and temporal resolutions. However, both resolution types are dependent on the signal to noise ratio (SNR of the image. In this paper, we review how the SNR can be enhanced in optofluidics and microfluidics. Starting with optofluidics, we outline integrated photonic structures that increase the signal emitted by single chromophores and minimize the excitation volume. Turning then to microfluidics, we review the compatible functionalization strategies that reduce noise stemming from non-specific interactions and architectures that minimize bleaching and blinking.

  7. Macromolecular Crystallization in Microfluidics for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, Lisa A.; Spearing, Scott

    2003-01-01

    At NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, the Iterative Biological Crystallization (IBC) project has begun development on scientific hardware for macromolecular crystallization on the International Space Station (ISS). Currently ISS crystallization research is limited to solution recipes that were prepared on the ground prior to launch. The proposed hardware will conduct solution mixing and dispensing on board the ISS, be fully automated, and have imaging functions via remote commanding from the ground. Utilizing microfluidic technology, IBC will allow for on orbit iterations. The microfluidics LabChip(R) devices that have been developed, along with Caliper Technologies, will greatly benefit researchers by allowing for precise fluid handling of nano/pico liter sized volumes. IBC will maximize the amount of science return by utilizing the microfluidic approach and be a valuable tool to structural biologists investigating medically relevant projects.

  8. Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy Integrated Centrifugal Microfluidics Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durucan, Onur

    This PhD thesis demonstrates (i) centrifugal microfluidics disc platform integrated with Au capped nanopillar (NP) substrates for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) based sensing, and (ii) novel sample analysis concepts achieved by synergistical combination of sensing techniques and minia......This PhD thesis demonstrates (i) centrifugal microfluidics disc platform integrated with Au capped nanopillar (NP) substrates for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) based sensing, and (ii) novel sample analysis concepts achieved by synergistical combination of sensing techniques...... dense array of NP structures. Furthermore, the wicking assisted nanofiltration procedure was accomplished in centrifugal microfluidics platform and as a result additional sample purification was achieved through the centrifugation process. In this way, the Au coated NP substrate was utilized...

  9. Various on-chip sensors with microfluidics for biological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hun; Xu, Linfeng; Koh, Domin; Nyayapathi, Nikhila; Oh, Kwang W

    2014-09-12

    In this paper, we review recent advances in on-chip sensors integrated with microfluidics for biological applications. Since the 1990s, much research has concentrated on developing a sensing system using optical phenomena such as surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) to improve the sensitivity of the device. The sensing performance can be significantly enhanced with the use of microfluidic chips to provide effective liquid manipulation and greater flexibility. We describe an optical image sensor with a simpler platform for better performance over a larger field of view (FOV) and greater depth of field (DOF). As a new trend, we review consumer electronics such as smart phones, tablets, Google glasses, etc. which are being incorporated in point-of-care (POC) testing systems. In addition, we discuss in detail the current optical sensing system integrated with a microfluidic chip.

  10. Various On-Chip Sensors with Microfluidics for Biological Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hun Lee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we review recent advances in on-chip sensors integrated with microfluidics for biological applications. Since the 1990s, much research has concentrated on developing a sensing system using optical phenomena such as surface plasmon resonance (SPR and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS to improve the sensitivity of the device. The sensing performance can be significantly enhanced with the use of microfluidic chips to provide effective liquid manipulation and greater flexibility. We describe an optical image sensor with a simpler platform for better performance over a larger field of view (FOV and greater depth of field (DOF. As a new trend, we review consumer electronics such as smart phones, tablets, Google glasses, etc. which are being incorporated in point-of-care (POC testing systems. In addition, we discuss in detail the current optical sensing system integrated with a microfluidic chip.

  11. Synthesis of Digital Microfluidic Biochips with Reconfigurable Operation Execution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maftei, Elena

    several real-life case studies and synthetic benchmarks. The experiments show that by considering the dynamically reconfigurable nature of microfluidic operations, significant improvements can be obtained, decreasing the biochemical application completion times, reducing thus the biochip area...... of electrodes. The main objective of this thesis is to develop top-down synthesis techniques for digital microfluidic biochips. So far, researchers have assumed that operations are executing on virtual modules of rectangular shape, formed by grouping adjacent electrodes, and which have a fixed placement...... on the microfluidic array. However, operations can actually execute by routing the droplets on any sequence of electrodes on the biochip. Thus, we have proposed a routing-based model of operation execution, and we have developed several associated synthesis approaches, which progressively relax the assumption...

  12. Microfluidics to Mimic Blood Flow in Health and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Bernhard; Dittrich, Petra S.

    2018-01-01

    Throughout history, capillary systems have aided the establishment of the fundamental laws of blood flow and its non-Newtonian properties. The advent of microfluidics technology in the 1990s propelled the development of highly integrated lab-on-a-chip platforms that allow highly accurate replication of vascular systems' dimensions, mechanical properties, and biological complexity. Applications include the detection of pathological changes to red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets at unparalleled sensitivity and the efficacy assessment of drug treatment. Recent efforts have aimed at the development of microfluidics-based tests usable in a clinial environment or the replication of more complex diseases such as thrombosis. These microfluidic disease models enable the study of onset and progression of disease as well as the identification of key players and risk factors, which have led to a spectrum of clinically relevant findings.

  13. Applications of micro/nanoparticles in microfluidic sensors: a review.

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Yusheng

    2014-04-21

    This paper reviews the applications of micro/nanoparticles in microfluidics device fabrication and analytical processing. In general, researchers have focused on two properties of particles--electric behavior and magnetic behavior. The applications of micro/nanoparticles could be summarized on the chip fabrication level and on the processing level. In the fabrication of microfluidic chips (chip fabrication level), particles are good additives in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to prepare conductive or magnetic composites which have wide applications in sensors, valves and actuators. On the other hand, particles could be manipulated according to their electric and magnetic properties under external electric and magnetic fields when they are travelling in microchannels (processing level). Researchers have made a great progress in preparing modified PDMS and investigating the behaviors of particles in microchannels. This article attempts to present a discussion on the basis of particles applications in microfluidics.

  14. Microfluidic "Pouch" Chips for Immunoassays and Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauk, Michael G; Liu, Changchun; Qiu, Xianbo; Chen, Dafeng; Song, Jinzhao; Bau, Haim H

    2017-01-01

    Microfluidic cassettes ("chips") for processing and analysis of clinical specimens and other sample types facilitate point-of-care (POC) immunoassays and nucleic acid based amplification tests. These single-use test chips can be self-contained and made amenable to autonomous operation-reducing or eliminating supporting instrumentation-by incorporating laminated, pliable "pouch" and membrane structures for fluid storage, pumping, mixing, and flow control. Materials and methods for integrating flexible pouch compartments and diaphragm valves into hard plastic (e.g., acrylic and polycarbonate) microfluidic "chips" for reagent storage, fluid actuation, and flow control are described. We review several versions of these pouch chips for immunoassay and nucleic acid amplification tests, and describe related fabrication techniques. These protocols thus offer a "toolbox" of methods for storage, pumping, and flow control functions in microfluidic devices.

  15. Automated quantitative cytological analysis using portable microfluidic microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannadh, Veerendra Kalyan; Murthy, Rashmi Sreeramachandra; Srinivasan, Rajesh; Gorthi, Sai Siva

    2016-06-01

    In this article, a portable microfluidic microscopy based approach for automated cytological investigations is presented. Inexpensive optical and electronic components have been used to construct a simple microfluidic microscopy system. In contrast to the conventional slide-based methods, the presented method employs microfluidics to enable automated sample handling and image acquisition. The approach involves the use of simple in-suspension staining and automated image acquisition to enable quantitative cytological analysis of samples. The applicability of the presented approach to research in cellular biology is shown by performing an automated cell viability assessment on a given population of yeast cells. Further, the relevance of the presented approach to clinical diagnosis and prognosis has been demonstrated by performing detection and differential assessment of malaria infection in a given sample. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Evaluation of microfluidic channels with optical coherence tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Czajkowski, J.; Prykä ri, T.; Alarousu, E.; Lauri, J.; Myllylä , R.

    2010-01-01

    Application of time domain, ultra high resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR-OCT) in evaluation of microfluidic channels is demonstrated. Presented study was done using experimental UHR-OCT device based on a Kerr-lens mode locked Ti:sapphire femtosecond laser, a photonic crystal fibre and modified, free-space Michelson interferometer. To show potential of the technique, microfluidic chip fabricated by VTT Center for Printed Intelligence (Oulu, Finland) was measured. Ability for full volumetric reconstruction in non-contact manner enabled complete characterization of closed entity of a microfluidic channel without contamination and harm for the sample. Measurement, occurring problems, and methods of postprocessing for raw data are described. Results present completely resolved physical structure of the channel, its spatial dimensions, draft angles and evaluation of lamination quality.

  17. Selective distribution of enzymes in a microfluidic reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Anders Egede; Pereira Rosinha Grundtvig, Ines; Krühne, Ulrich

    Off stoichiometric thiol-ene mixtures are well suited for preparation of microfluidic devices with highly functional surfaces. Here a two stage process employing first thiol-ene chemistry (TEC) to prepare two opposite parts of a microfluidic system with a 30x30 mm reactor and subsequently a thiol......-epoxy bonding was used to prepare a fully sealed microfluidic system. The reactor was surface functionalized in-situ with allyl glycidyl ether in different patterns (half-reactor, full-reactor, checkerboard structures) on the surface to provide a controlled distribution of epoxides. The method additionally...... enables the selective immobilization on either top-side or bottom-side or both sides of the reactor. Thereafter horseradish peroxidase was immobilized on the surface and activity tests illustrated how this distribution of the enzyme on the surface could be used to optimize the activity of the enzyme...

  18. A microfluidic sub-critical water extraction instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Noell, Aaron C.; Fisher, Anita; Lee, Mike C.; Takano, Nobuyuki; Bao, Xiaoqi; Kutzer, Thomas C.; Grunthaner, Frank

    2017-11-01

    This article discusses a microfluidic subcritical water extraction (SCWE) chip for autonomous extraction of amino acids from astrobiologically interesting samples. The microfluidic instrument is composed of three major components. These include a mixing chamber where the soil sample is mixed and agitated with the solvent (water), a subcritical water extraction chamber where the sample is sealed with a freeze valve at the chip inlet after a vapor bubble is injected into the inlet channels to ensure the pressure in the chip is in equilibrium with the vapor pressure and the slurry is then heated to ≤200 °C in the SCWE chamber, and a filter or settling chamber where the slurry is pumped to after extraction. The extraction yield of the microfluidic SCWE chip process ranged from 50% compared to acid hydrolysis and 80%-100% compared to a benchtop microwave SCWE for low biomass samples.

  19. Evaluation of microfluidic channels with optical coherence tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Czajkowski, J.

    2010-06-25

    Application of time domain, ultra high resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR-OCT) in evaluation of microfluidic channels is demonstrated. Presented study was done using experimental UHR-OCT device based on a Kerr-lens mode locked Ti:sapphire femtosecond laser, a photonic crystal fibre and modified, free-space Michelson interferometer. To show potential of the technique, microfluidic chip fabricated by VTT Center for Printed Intelligence (Oulu, Finland) was measured. Ability for full volumetric reconstruction in non-contact manner enabled complete characterization of closed entity of a microfluidic channel without contamination and harm for the sample. Measurement, occurring problems, and methods of postprocessing for raw data are described. Results present completely resolved physical structure of the channel, its spatial dimensions, draft angles and evaluation of lamination quality.

  20. Hysteresis in multiphase microfluidics at a T-junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagnoni, Michele; Anderson, Jamie; Cooper, Jonathan M

    2010-06-15

    Multiphase microfluidics offer a wide range of functionalities in the fields of fluid dynamics, biology, particle synthesis, and, more recently, also in logical computation. In this article, we describe the hysteresis of immiscible, multiphase flow obtained in hydrophilic, microfluidic systems at a T-junction. Stable and unstable state behaviors, in the form of segmented and parallel flow patterns of oil and water, were reliably produced, depending upon the history of the flow rates applied to the phases. The transition mechanisms between the two states were analyzed both experimentally and using numerical simulations, describing how the physical and fluid dynamic parameters influenced the hysteretic behavior of the flow. The characteristics of these multiphase systems render them suitable to be used as pressure comparators and also for the implementation of microfluidic logic operations.

  1. Recent microfluidic devices for studying gamete and embryo biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, David; Takayama, Shuichi; Smith, Gary D

    2015-06-25

    The technical challenges of biomechanic research such as single cell analysis at a high monetary cost, labor, and time for just a small number of measurements is a good match to the strengths of microfluidic devices. New scientific discoveries in the fertilization and embryo development process, of which biomechanics is a major subset of interest, is crucial to fuel the continual improvement of clinical practice in assisted reproduction. The following review will highlight some recent microfluidic devices tailored for gamete and embryo biomechanics where biomimicry arises as a major theme of microfluidic device design and function, and the application of fundamental biomechanic principles are used to improve outcomes of cryopreservation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Transforming nanomedicine manufacturing toward Quality by Design and microfluidics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colombo, Stefano; Beck-Broichsitter, Moritz; Bøtker, Johan Peter

    2018-01-01

    -oriented manufacturing of pharmaceuticals has undergone an unprecedented change toward process and product development interaction. In this context, Quality by Design (QbD) aims to integrate product and process development resulting in an increased number of product applications to regulatory agencies and stronger...... proprietary defense strategies of process-based products. Although QbD can be applied to essentially any production approach, microfluidic production offers particular opportunities for QbD-based manufacturing of nanopharmaceuticals. Microfluidics provides unique design flexibility, process control...... and parameter predictability, and also offers ample opportunities for modular production setups, allowing process feedback for continuously operating production and process control. The present review aims at outlining emerging opportunities in the synergistic implementation of QbD strategies and microfluidic...

  3. Equilibrium and Nonequilibrium States in Microfluidic Double Emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pannacci, N.; Bruus, Henrik; Bartolo, D.

    2008-01-01

    We describe experimental and theoretical studies dedicated to establishing the physics of formation of double droplets in microfluidic systems. We show that the morphologies (complete engulfing, partial engulfing, and nonengulfing) obtained at late times minimize the interfacial energy of the sys......We describe experimental and theoretical studies dedicated to establishing the physics of formation of double droplets in microfluidic systems. We show that the morphologies (complete engulfing, partial engulfing, and nonengulfing) obtained at late times minimize the interfacial energy...... of the system. We explain that nonequilibrium morphologies generated in the system can have long lifetimes. Remarkably, the physics of formation of the double droplets with microfluidics allows the synthesis of particles with new morphologies....

  4. Evaluation of microfluidic channels with optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajkowski, J.; Prykäri, T.; Alarousu, E.; Lauri, J.; Myllylä, R.

    2010-11-01

    Application of time domain, ultra high resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR-OCT) in evaluation of microfluidic channels is demonstrated. Presented study was done using experimental UHR-OCT device based on a Kerr-lens mode locked Ti:sapphire femtosecond laser, a photonic crystal fibre and modified, free-space Michelson interferometer. To show potential of the technique, microfluidic chip fabricated by VTT Center for Printed Intelligence (Oulu, Finland) was measured. Ability for full volumetric reconstruction in non-contact manner enabled complete characterization of closed entity of a microfluidic channel without contamination and harm for the sample. Measurement, occurring problems, and methods of postprocessing for raw data are described. Results present completely resolved physical structure of the channel, its spatial dimensions, draft angles and evaluation of lamination quality.

  5. [Advances on enzymes and enzyme inhibitors research based on microfluidic devices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Feng-Hua; Ye, Jian-Qing; Chen, Zuan-Guang; Cheng, Zhi-Yi

    2010-06-01

    With the continuous development in microfluidic fabrication technology, microfluidic analysis has evolved from a concept to one of research frontiers in last twenty years. The research of enzymes and enzyme inhibitors based on microfluidic devices has also made great progress. Microfluidic technology improved greatly the analytical performance of the research of enzymes and enzyme inhibitors by reducing the consumption of reagents, decreasing the analysis time, and developing automation. This review focuses on the development and classification of enzymes and enzyme inhibitors research based on microfluidic devices.

  6. Integrated microchip incorporating atomic magnetometer and microfluidic channel for NMR and MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledbetter, Micah P [Oakland, CA; Savukov, Igor M [Los Alamos, NM; Budker, Dmitry [El Cerrito, CA; Shah, Vishal K [Plainsboro, NJ; Knappe, Svenja [Boulder, CO; Kitching, John [Boulder, CO; Michalak, David J [Berkeley, CA; Xu, Shoujun [Houston, TX; Pines, Alexander [Berkeley, CA

    2011-08-09

    An integral microfluidic device includes an alkali vapor cell and microfluidic channel, which can be used to detect magnetism for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Small magnetic fields in the vicinity of the vapor cell can be measured by optically polarizing and probing the spin precession in the small magnetic field. This can then be used to detect the magnetic field of in encoded analyte in the adjacent microfluidic channel. The magnetism in the microfluidic channel can be modulated by applying an appropriate series of radio or audio frequency pulses upstream from the microfluidic chip (the remote detection modality) to yield a sensitive means of detecting NMR and MRI.

  7. Visual Estimation of Bacterial Growth Level in Microfluidic Culture Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyukwang Kim

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Microfluidic devices are an emerging platform for a variety of experiments involving bacterial cell culture, and has advantages including cost and convenience. One inevitable step during bacterial cell culture is the measurement of cell concentration in the channel. The optical density measurement technique is generally used for bacterial growth estimation, but it is not applicable to microfluidic devices due to the small sample volumes in microfluidics. Alternately, cell counting or colony-forming unit methods may be applied, but these do not work in situ; nor do these methods show measurement results immediately. To this end, we present a new vision-based method to estimate the growth level of the bacteria in microfluidic channels. We use Fast Fourier transform (FFT to detect the frequency level change of the microscopic image, focusing on the fact that the microscopic image becomes rough as the number of cells in the field of view increases, adding high frequencies to the spectrum of the image. Two types of microfluidic devices are used to culture bacteria in liquid and agar gel medium, and time-lapsed images are captured. The images obtained are analyzed using FFT, resulting in an increase in high-frequency noise proportional to the time passed. Furthermore, we apply the developed method in the microfluidic antibiotics susceptibility test by recognizing the regional concentration change of the bacteria that are cultured in the antibiotics gradient. Finally, a deep learning-based data regression is performed on the data obtained by the proposed vision-based method for robust reporting of data.

  8. Visual Estimation of Bacterial Growth Level in Microfluidic Culture Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyukwang; Kim, Seunggyu; Jeon, Jessie S

    2018-02-03

    Microfluidic devices are an emerging platform for a variety of experiments involving bacterial cell culture, and has advantages including cost and convenience. One inevitable step during bacterial cell culture is the measurement of cell concentration in the channel. The optical density measurement technique is generally used for bacterial growth estimation, but it is not applicable to microfluidic devices due to the small sample volumes in microfluidics. Alternately, cell counting or colony-forming unit methods may be applied, but these do not work in situ; nor do these methods show measurement results immediately. To this end, we present a new vision-based method to estimate the growth level of the bacteria in microfluidic channels. We use Fast Fourier transform (FFT) to detect the frequency level change of the microscopic image, focusing on the fact that the microscopic image becomes rough as the number of cells in the field of view increases, adding high frequencies to the spectrum of the image. Two types of microfluidic devices are used to culture bacteria in liquid and agar gel medium, and time-lapsed images are captured. The images obtained are analyzed using FFT, resulting in an increase in high-frequency noise proportional to the time passed. Furthermore, we apply the developed method in the microfluidic antibiotics susceptibility test by recognizing the regional concentration change of the bacteria that are cultured in the antibiotics gradient. Finally, a deep learning-based data regression is performed on the data obtained by the proposed vision-based method for robust reporting of data.

  9. A low cost and hybrid technology for integrating silicon sensors or actuators in polymer microfluidic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlot, Samuel; Gué, Anne-Marie; Tasselli, Josiane; Marty, Antoine; Abgrall, Patrick; Estève, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a new technology permitting a hybrid integration of silicon chips in polymer (PDMS and SU8) microfluidic structures. This two-step technology starts with transferring the silicon device onto a rigid substrate (typically PCB) and planarizing it, and then it proceeds with stacking of the polymer-made fluidic network onto the device. The technology is low cost, based on screen printing and lamination, can be applied to treat large surface areas, and is compatible with standard photolithography and vacuum based approaches. We show, as an example, the integration of a thermal sensor inside channels made of PDMS or SU8. The developed structures had no fluid leaks at the Si/polymer interfaces and the electrical circuit was perfectly tightproof. (note)

  10. Connecting and disconnecting nematic disclination lines in microfluidic channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, Hakam; Bahr, Christian

    2016-05-14

    Disclination lines in nematic liquid crystals can be used as "soft rails" for the transport of colloids or droplets through microfluidic channels [A. Sengupta, C. Bahr and S. Herminghaus, Soft Matter, 2013, 9, 7251]. In the present study we report on a method to connect and disconnect disclination lines in microfluidic channels using the interplay between anchoring, flow, and electric field. We show that the application of an electric field establishes a continuous disclination that spans across a channel region in which a disclination usually would not exist (because of different anchoring conditions), demonstrating an interruptible and reconnectable soft rail for colloidal transport.

  11. Thermo-driven microcrawlers fabricated via a microfluidic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wei; Yao Chen; Zhang Maojie; Ju Xiaojie; Xie Rui; Chu Liangyin

    2013-01-01

    A novel thermo-driven microcrawler that can transform thermal stimuli into directional mechanical motion is developed by a simple microfluidic approach together with emulsion-template synthesis. The microcrawler is designed with a thermo-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) hydrogel body and a bell-like structure with an eccentric cavity. The asymmetric shrinking–swelling circulation of the microcrawlers enables a thermo-driven locomotion responding to repeated temperature changes, which provides a novel model with symmetry breaking principle for designing biomimetic soft microrobots. The microfluidic approach offers a novel and promising platform for design and fabrication of biomimetic soft microrobots. (paper)

  12. Simulation and fabrication of integrated polystyrene microlens in microfluidic system

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Yiqiang

    2013-05-17

    This paper presents a simple and quick method to integrate microlens with the microfluidics systems. The polystyrene (PS) based microlens is fabricated with the free surface thermal compression molding methods, a thin PS sheet with the microlens is bonded to a PMMA substrate which contains the laser ablated microchannels. The convex profiler of the microlens will give a magnified images of the microchannels for easier observation. Optical simulation software is being used for the design and simulation of the microlens to have optimal optical performance with the desired focal length. A microfluidic system with the integrated PS microlens is also fabricated for demonstration.

  13. Fabrication and Characterization of Polyvinylidene Fluoride Microfilms for Microfluidic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Yammani Venkat Subba; Raghavan, Aravinda Narayanan; Viswanathan, Meenakshi

    2016-10-01

    The ability to create patterns of piezo responsive material on smooth substrate is an important method to develop efficient microfluidic mixers. This paper reports the fabrication of Poly vinylidene fluoride microfilms using spin-coating on smooth glass surface. The suitable crystalline phases, surface morphology and microstructural properties of the PVDF films have been investigated. We found that films of average thickness 10μm, had average roughness of 0.13μm. These PVDF films are useful in microfluidic mixer applications.

  14. Fabricating PFPE Membranes for Microfluidic Valves and Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Frank; White, Victor E.; Lee, Michael C.; Willis, Peter A.; Grunthaner, Frank J.; Rolland, Jason; Rolland, Jason

    2009-01-01

    A process has been developed for fabricating membranes of a perfluoropolyether (PFPE) and integrating them into valves and pumps in laboratory-on-achip microfluidic devices. Membranes of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) [PTFE] and poly(dimethylsilane) [PDMS] have been considered for this purpose and found wanting. By making it possible to use PFPE instead of PTFE or PDMS, the present process expands the array of options for further development of microfluidic devices for diverse applications that could include detection of biochemicals of interest, detection of toxins and biowarfare agents, synthesis and analysis of proteins, medical diagnosis, and synthesis of fuels.

  15. Next generation digital microfluidic technology: Electrophoresis of charged droplets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Do Jin [Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Contact charging of a conducting droplet in a dielectric medium is introduced as a novel and useful digital microfluidic technology as well as an interesting scientific phenomenon. The history of this phenomenon, starting from original observations to its interpretations and applications, is presented. The basic principle of the droplet contact charging is also presented. Several fundamental aspects of the droplet contact charging from view points of electrochemistry, surface science, electrocoalescence, and electrohydrodynamics are mentioned. Some promising results for future applications and potential features as a next generation digital microfluidic technology are discussed, especially for 3D organ printing. Finally, implications and significance of the proposed technology for chemical engineering community are discussed.

  16. A Sensitive Chemotaxis Assay Using a Novel Microfluidic Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Existing chemotaxis assays do not generate stable chemotactic gradients and thus—over time—functionally measure only nonspecific random motion (chemokinesis. In comparison, microfluidic technology has the capacity to generate a tightly controlled microenvironment that can be stably maintained for extended periods of time and is, therefore, amenable to adaptation for assaying chemotaxis. We describe here a novel microfluidic device for sensitive assay of cellular migration and show its application for evaluating the chemotaxis of smooth muscle cells in a chemokine gradient.

  17. Convection with local thermal non-equilibrium and microfluidic effects

    CERN Document Server

    Straughan, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This book is one of the first devoted to an account of theories of thermal convection which involve local thermal non-equilibrium effects, including a concentration on microfluidic effects. The text introduces convection with local thermal non-equilibrium effects in extraordinary detail, making it easy for readers newer to the subject area to understand. This book is unique in the fact that it addresses a large number of convection theories and provides many new results which are not available elsewhere. This book will be useful to researchers from engineering, fluid mechanics, and applied mathematics, particularly those interested in microfluidics and porous media.

  18. Diffusion dynamics in micro-fluidic dye lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gersborg-Hansen, Morten; Balslev, Søren; Mortensen, Niels Asger

    2007-01-01

    We have investigated the bleaching dynamics that occur in opto-fluidic dye lasers, where the liquid laser dye in a channel is locally bleached due to optical pumping. Our studies suggest that for micro-fluidic devices, the dye bleaching may be compensated through diffusion of dye molecules alone....... By relying on diffusion rather than convection to generate the necessary dye replenishment, our observation potentially allows for a significant simplification of opto-fluidic dye laser device layouts, omitting the need for cumbersome and costly external fluidic handling or on-chip micro-fluidic pumping...

  19. Simulation and fabrication of integrated polystyrene microlens in microfluidic system

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Yiqiang; Li, Huawei; Conchouso Gonzalez, David; Foulds, Ian G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a simple and quick method to integrate microlens with the microfluidics systems. The polystyrene (PS) based microlens is fabricated with the free surface thermal compression molding methods, a thin PS sheet with the microlens is bonded to a PMMA substrate which contains the laser ablated microchannels. The convex profiler of the microlens will give a magnified images of the microchannels for easier observation. Optical simulation software is being used for the design and simulation of the microlens to have optimal optical performance with the desired focal length. A microfluidic system with the integrated PS microlens is also fabricated for demonstration.

  20. Electrochemistry, biosensors and microfluidics: a convergence of fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rackus, Darius G; Shamsi, Mohtashim H; Wheeler, Aaron R

    2015-08-07

    Electrochemistry, biosensors and microfluidics are popular research topics that have attracted widespread attention from chemists, biologists, physicists, and engineers. Here, we introduce the basic concepts and recent histories of electrochemistry, biosensors, and microfluidics, and describe how they are combining to form new application-areas, including so-called "point-of-care" systems in which measurements traditionally performed in a laboratory are moved into the field. We propose that this review can serve both as a useful starting-point for researchers who are new to these topics, as well as being a compendium of the current state-of-the art for experts in these evolving areas.

  1. Microfluidic Lab-on-a-Chip Platforms: Requirements, Characteristics and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, D.; Haeberle, S.; Roth, G.; von Stetten, F.; Zengerle, R.

    This review summarizes recent developments in microfluidic platform approaches. In contrast to isolated application-specific solutions, a microfluidic platform provides a set of fluidic unit operations, which are designed for easy combination within a well-defined fabrication technology. This allows the implementation of different application-specific (bio-) chemical processes, automated by microfluidic process integration [1]. A brief introduction into technical advances, major market segments and promising applications is followed by a detailed characterization of different microfluidic platforms, comprising a short definition, the functional principle, microfluidic unit operations, application examples as well as strengths and limitations. The microfluidic platforms in focus are lateral flow tests, linear actuated devices, pressure driven laminar flow, microfluidic large scale integration, segmented flow microfluidics, centrifugal microfluidics, electro-kinetics, electrowetting, surface acoustic waves, and systems for massively parallel analysis. The review concludes with the attempt to provide a selection scheme for microfluidic platforms which is based on their characteristics according to key requirements of different applications and market segments. Applied selection criteria comprise portability, costs of instrument and disposable, sample throughput, number of parameters per sample, reagent consumption, precision, diversity of microfluidic unit operations and the flexibility in programming different liquid handling protocols.

  2. Printing-based fabrication method using sacrificial paper substrates for flexible and wearable microfluidic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Daehan; Gray, Bonnie L.

    2017-11-01

    We present a simple, fast, and inexpensive new printing-based fabrication process for flexible and wearable microfluidic channels and devices. Microfluidic devices are fabricated on textiles (fabric) for applications in clothing-based wearable microfluidic sensors and systems. The wearable and flexible microfluidic devices are comprised of water-insoluable screen-printable plastisol polymer. Sheets of paper are used as sacrificial substrates for multiple layers of polymer on the fabric’s surface. Microfluidic devices can be made within a short time using simple processes and inexpensive equipment that includes a laser cutter and a thermal laminator. The fabrication process is characterized to demonstrate control of microfluidic channel thickness and width. Film thickness smaller than 100 micrometers and lateral dimensions smaller than 150 micrometers are demonstrated. A flexible microfluidic mixer is also developed on fabric and successfully tested on both flat and curved surfaces at volumetric flow rates ranging from 5.5-46 ml min-1.

  3. A microfluidic platform for generating large-scale nearly identical human microphysiological system arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yu-Hsiang; Moya, Monica L.; Hughes, Christopher C.W.; Georgea, Steven C.; Lee, Abraham P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports a polydimethylsiloxane microfluidic model system that can develop an array of nearly identical human microtissues with interconnected vascular networks. The microfluidic system design is based on an analogy with an electric circuit, applying resistive circuit concepts to design pressure dividers in serially-connected microtissue chambers. A long microchannel (550, 620 and 775 mm) creates a resistive circuit with a large hydraulic resistance. Two media reservoirs with a large cross-sectional area and of different heights are connected to the entrance and exit of the long microchannel to serve as a pressure source, and create a near constant pressure drop along the long microchannel. Microtissue chambers (0.12 μl) serve as a two-terminal resistive component with an input impedance > 50-fold larger than the long microchannel. Connecting each microtissue chamber to two different positions along the long microchannel creates a series of pressure dividers. Each microtissue chamber enables a controlled pressure drop of a segment of the microchannel without altering the hydrodynamic behaviour of the microchannel. The result is a controlled and predictable microphysiological environment within the microchamber. Interstitial flow, a mechanical cue for stimulating vasculogenesis, was verified by finite element simulation and experiments. The simplicity of this design enabled the development of multiple microtissue arrays (5, 12, and 30 microtissues) by co-culturing endothelial cells, stromal cells, and fibrin within the microchambers over two and three week periods. This methodology enables the culturing of a large array of microtissues with interconnected vascular networks for biological studies and applications such as drug development. PMID:23723013

  4. Microfluidics without channels: highly-flexible synthesis on a digital-microfluidic chip for production of diverse PET tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dam, Robert Michael [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging is used for fundamental studies of living biological organisms and microbial ecosystems in applications ranging from biofuel production to environmental remediation to the study, diagnosis, and treatment monitoring of human disease. Routine access to PET imaging, to monitor biochemical reactions in living organisms in real time, could accelerate a broad range of research programs of interest to DOE. Using PET requires access to short-lived radioactive-labeled compounds that specifically probe the desired living processes. The overall aims of this project were to develop a miniature liquid-handling technology platform (called “microfluidics”) that increases the availability of diverse PET probes by reducing the cost and complexity of their production. Based on preliminary experiments showing that microfluidic chips can synthesis such compounds, we aimed to advance this technology to improve its robustness, increase its flexibility for a broad range of probes, and increase its user-friendliness. Through the research activities of this project, numerous advances were made; Tools were developed to enable the visualization of radioactive materials within microfluidic chips; Fundamental advances were made in the microfluidic chip architecture and fabrication process to increase its robustness and reliability; The microfluidic chip technology was shown to produce useful quantities of an example PET probes, and methods to further increase the output were successfully pursued; A “universal” chip was developed that could produce multiple types of PET probes, enabling the possibility of “on demand” synthesis of different probes; and Operation of the chip was automated to ensure minimal radiation exposure to the operator Based on the demonstrations of promising technical feasibility and performance, the microfluidic chip technology is currently being commercialized. It is anticipated that costs of microfluidic chips can be

  5. Microfluidic Devices for Studying Biomolecular Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Wilbur W.; Garcia, Carlos d.; Henry, Charles S.

    2006-01-01

    Microfluidic devices for monitoring biomolecular interactions have been invented. These devices are basically highly miniaturized liquid-chromatography columns. They are intended to be prototypes of miniature analytical devices of the laboratory on a chip type that could be fabricated rapidly and inexpensively and that, because of their small sizes, would yield analytical results from very small amounts of expensive analytes (typically, proteins). Other advantages to be gained by this scaling down of liquid-chromatography columns may include increases in resolution and speed, decreases in the consumption of reagents, and the possibility of performing multiple simultaneous and highly integrated analyses by use of multiple devices of this type, each possibly containing multiple parallel analytical microchannels. The principle of operation is the same as that of a macroscopic liquid-chromatography column: The column is a channel packed with particles, upon which are immobilized molecules of the protein of interest (or one of the proteins of interest if there are more than one). Starting at a known time, a solution or suspension containing molecules of the protein or other substance of interest is pumped into the channel at its inlet. The liquid emerging from the outlet of the channel is monitored to detect the molecules of the dissolved or suspended substance(s). The time that it takes these molecules to flow from the inlet to the outlet is a measure of the degree of interaction between the immobilized and the dissolved or suspended molecules. Depending on the precise natures of the molecules, this measure can be used for diverse purposes: examples include screening for solution conditions that favor crystallization of proteins, screening for interactions between drugs and proteins, and determining the functions of biomolecules.

  6. Microfluidic step-emulsification in axisymmetric geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, I; Ricouvier, J; Yazhgur, P; Tabeling, P; Leshansky, A M

    2017-10-25

    Biphasic step-emulsification (Z. Li et al., Lab Chip, 2015, 15, 1023) is a promising microfluidic technique for high-throughput production of μm and sub-μm highly monodisperse droplets. The step-emulsifier consists of a shallow (Hele-Shaw) microchannel operating with two co-flowing immiscible liquids and an abrupt expansion (i.e., step) to a deep and wide reservoir. Under certain conditions the confined stream of the disperse phase, engulfed by the co-flowing continuous phase, breaks into small highly monodisperse droplets at the step. Theoretical investigation of the corresponding hydrodynamics is complicated due to the complex geometry of the planar device, calling for numerical approaches. However, direct numerical simulations of the three dimensional surface-tension-dominated biphasic flows in confined geometries are computationally expensive. In the present paper we study a model problem of axisymmetric step-emulsification. This setup consists of a stable core-annular biphasic flow in a cylindrical capillary tube connected co-axially to a reservoir tube of a larger diameter through a sudden expansion mimicking the edge of the planar step-emulsifier. We demonstrate that the axisymmetric setup exhibits similar regimes of droplet generation to the planar device. A detailed parametric study of the underlying hydrodynamics is feasible via inexpensive (two dimensional) simulations owing to the axial symmetry. The phase diagram quantifying the different regimes of droplet generation in terms of governing dimensionless parameters is presented. We show that in qualitative agreement with experiments in planar devices, the size of the droplets generated in the step-emulsification regime is independent of the capillary number and almost insensitive to the viscosity ratio. These findings confirm that the step-emulsification regime is solely controlled by surface tension. The numerical predictions are in excellent agreement with in-house experiments with the axisymmetric

  7. Microfluidic radiolabeling of biomolecules with PET radiometals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Dexing; Desai, Amit V.; Ranganathan, David; Wheeler, Tobias D.; Kenis, Paul J.A.; Reichert, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: A robust, versatile and compact microreactor has been designed, fabricated and tested for the labeling of bifunctional chelate conjugated biomolecules (BFC-BM) with PET radiometals. Methods: The developed microreactor was used to radiolabel a chelate, either 1,4,7,10-Tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) or 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (NOTA) that had been conjugated to cyclo(Arg-Gly-Asp-DPhe-Lys) peptide, with both 64 Cu and 68 Ga respectively. The microreactor radiolabeling conditions were optimized by varying temperature, concentration and residence time. Results: Direct comparisons between the microreactor approach and conventional methods showed improved labeling yields and increased reproducibility with the microreactor under identical labeling conditions, due to enhanced mass and heat transfer at the microscale. More importantly, over 90% radiolabeling yields (incorporation of radiometal) were achieved with a 1:1 stoichiometry of bifunctional chelate biomolecule conjugate (BFC-BM) to radiometal in the microreactor, which potentially obviates extensive chromatographic purification that is typically required to remove the large excess of unlabeled biomolecule in radioligands prepared using conventional methods. Moreover, higher yields for radiolabeling of DOTA-functionalized BSA protein (Bovine Serum Albumin) were observed with 64 Cu/ 68 Ga using the microreactor, which demonstrates the ability to label both small and large molecules. Conclusions: A robust, reliable, compact microreactor capable of chelating radiometals with common chelates has been developed and validated. Based on our radiolabeling results, the reported microfluidic approach overall outperforms conventional radiosynthetic methods, and is a promising technology for the radiometal labeling of commonly utilized BFC-BM in aqueous solutions.

  8. Microfluidic radiolabeling of biomolecules with PET radiometals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Dexing; Desai, Amit V; Ranganathan, David; Wheeler, Tobias D; Kenis, Paul J A; Reichert, David E

    2013-01-01

    A robust, versatile and compact microreactor has been designed, fabricated and tested for the labeling of bifunctional chelate conjugated biomolecules (BFC-BM) with PET radiometals. The developed microreactor was used to radiolabel a chelate, either 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) or 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (NOTA) that had been conjugated to cyclo(Arg-Gly-Asp-DPhe-Lys) peptide, with both ⁶⁴Cu and ⁶⁸Ga respectively. The microreactor radiolabeling conditions were optimized by varying temperature, concentration and residence time. Direct comparisons between the microreactor approach and conventional methods showed improved labeling yields and increased reproducibility with the microreactor under identical labeling conditions, due to enhanced mass and heat transfer at the microscale. More importantly, over 90% radiolabeling yields (incorporation of radiometal) were achieved with a 1:1 stoichiometry of bifunctional chelate biomolecule conjugate (BFC-BM) to radiometal in the microreactor, which potentially obviates extensive chromatographic purification that is typically required to remove the large excess of unlabeled biomolecule in radioligands prepared using conventional methods. Moreover, higher yields for radiolabeling of DOTA-functionalized BSA protein (Bovine Serum Albumin) were observed with ⁶⁴Cu/⁶⁸Ga using the microreactor, which demonstrates the ability to label both small and large molecules. A robust, reliable, compact microreactor capable of chelating radiometals with common chelates has been developed and validated. Based on our radiolabeling results, the reported microfluidic approach overall outperforms conventional radiosynthetic methods, and is a promising technology for the radiometal labeling of commonly utilized BFC-BM in aqueous solutions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Inhibitory effect of common microfluidic materials on PCR outcome

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2012-02-20

    Microfluidic chips have a variety of applications in the biological sciences and medicine. In contrast with traditional experimental approaches, microfluidics entails lower sample and reagent consumption, allows faster reactions and enables efficient separation. Additionally microfluidics offers other advantages accruing from the fluids’ various distinct behaviors, such as energy dissipation, fluidic resistance, laminar flow, and surface tension. Biological molecules suspended in fluid and transported through microfluidics channels interact with the channel-wall material. This interaction is even stronger in high surface-area-to-volume ratio (SAVR) microfluidic channels. Adsorption and inhibition of biomolecules occur when these materials come in contact with biomolecular reaction components. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a thermal cycling procedure for amplifying target DNA. The PCR compatibility of silicon, silicon dioxide (SiO2) and other surfaces have been studied; however the results are inconclusive. Usually for protein-surface interaction measurements, bulky and expensive equipment is used, such as Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Scanning or Transmission Electron Microscopy (SEM, TEM), spectrophotometric protein concentration measurement, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) or X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). \\tThe PCR reaction components include the DNA template, primers, DNA polymerase (the main component), dNTPs, a buffer, divalent ions (MgCl2), and KCl. \\tWe designed a simple, relatively quick measurement that only requires a PCR cycler; thus it mimics actual conditions in PCR cycling. In our study, we evaluated the inhibitory affect of different materials on PCR, which is one of the most frequently used enzymatic reactions in microfluidics. PCR reaction optimization through choice of surface materials is of the upmost importance, as it enables and improves enzymatic reaction in microfluidics. Our assessment of the PCR

  10. NeuroChip: a microfluidic electrophysiological device for genetic and chemical biology screening of Caenorhabditis elegans adult and larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxiao Hu

    Full Text Available Genetic and chemical biology screens of C. elegans have been of enormous benefit in providing fundamental insight into neural function and neuroactive drugs. Recently the exploitation of microfluidic devices has added greater power to this experimental approach providing more discrete and higher throughput phenotypic analysis of neural systems. Here we make a significant addition to this repertoire through the design of a semi-automated microfluidic device, NeuroChip, which has been optimised for selecting worms based on the electrophysiological features of the pharyngeal neural network. We demonstrate this device has the capability to sort mutant from wild-type worms based on high definition extracellular electrophysiological recordings. NeuroChip resolves discrete differences in excitatory, inhibitory and neuromodulatory components of the neural network from individual animals. Worms may be fed into the device consecutively from a reservoir and recovered unharmed. It combines microfluidics with integrated electrode recording for sequential trapping, restraining, recording, releasing and recovering of C. elegans. Thus mutant worms may be selected, recovered and propagated enabling mutagenesis screens based on an electrophysiological phenotype. Drugs may be rapidly applied during the recording thus permitting compound screening. For toxicology, this analysis can provide a precise description of sub-lethal effects on neural function. The chamber has been modified to accommodate L2 larval stages showing applicability for small size nematodes including parasitic species which otherwise are not tractable to this experimental approach. We also combine NeuroChip with optogenetics for targeted interrogation of the function of the neural circuit. NeuroChip thus adds a new tool for exploitation of C. elegans and has applications in neurogenetics, drug discovery and neurotoxicology.

  11. A Microfluidics Study to Quantify the Impact of Microfracture Properties on Two-Phase Flow in Tight Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmani, A.; Kelly, S. A.; Torres-Verdin, C.; Balhoff, M.

    2017-12-01

    Microfluidics provides the opportunity for controlled experiments of immiscible fluid dynamics in quasi two-dimensional permeable media and allows their direct observation. We leverage microfluidics to investigate the impact of microfracture properties on water imbibition and drainage in a porous matrix. In the context of this work, microfractures are defined as apertures or preferential flow paths formed along planes of weakness, such as between two different rock fabrics. Patterns of pseudo-microfractures with orientations from parallel and perpendicular to fluid flow as well as variations in their connectivity were fabricated in glass micromodels; surface roughness of the micromodels was also varied utilizing a new method. Light microscopy and image analysis were used to quantify transient front advancement and trapped non-wetting phase saturation during imbibition as well as residual wetting phase saturation and its spatial distribution following drainage. Our experiments enable the assessment of quantitative relationships between fluid invasion rate and residual phase distributions as functions of microfracture network properties. Ultimately, the wide variety of microfluidic experiments performed in this study provide valuable insight into two-phase fluid dynamics in microfracture/matrix networks, the extent of fracture fluid invasion, and the saturation of trapped phases. In reservoir description, the geometries of subsurface fractures are often difficult to ascertain, but the distribution of rock types in a zone, from highly laminated to homogenous, can be reliably assessed with core data and well logs. Assuming that microcracks are functions of lamination planes (thin beds), then a priori predictions of the effect of microcracks on two-phase fluid flow across various geological conditions can possibly be upscaled via effective lamination properties. Such upscaling can significantly reduce the uncertainties associated with subsurface operations, including

  12. Flow characterization and patch clamp dose responses using jet microfluidics in a tubeless microfluidic device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resto, Pedro J; Bhat, Abhishek; Stava, Eric; Lor, Chong; Merriam, Elliot; Diaz-Rivera, Ruben E; Pearce, Robert; Blick, Robert; Williams, Justin C

    2017-11-01

    Surface tension passive pumping is a way to actuate flow without the need for pumps, tubing or valves by using the pressure inside small drop to move liquid via a microfluidic channel. These types of tubeless devices have typically been used in cell biology. Herein we present the use of tubeless devices as a fluid exchange platform for patch clamp electrophysiology. Inertia from high-speed droplets and jets is used to create flow and perform on-the-fly mixing of solutions. These are then flowed over GABA transfected HEK cells under patch in order to perform a dose response analysis. TIRF imaging and electrical recordings are used to study the fluid exchange properties of the microfluidic device, resulting in 0-90% fluid exchange times of hundreds of milliseconds. COMSOL is used to model flow and fluid exchange within the device. Patch-clamping experiments show the ability to use high-speed passive pumping and its derivatives for studying peak dose responses, but not for studying ion channel kinetics. Our system results in fluid exchange times slower than when using a standard 12-barrel application system and is not as stable as traditional methods, but it offers a new platform with added functionality. Surface tension passive pumping and tubeless devices can be used in a limited fashion for electrophysiology. Users may obtain peak dose responses but the system, in its current form, is not capable of fluid exchange fast enough to study the kinetics of most ion channels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Topological microfluidic structures for rapid mixing of emulsions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Land, KJ

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A novel use for topological structures inside microfluidic channels is presented. These structures have been successfully utilised to aid in mixing of two water-in-oil emulsions in order to force coalescence, thereby introducing a cross linker...

  14. Label-free monitoring of diffusion in microfluidics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kristian Tølbøl; Kristensen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Label-free, real-time detection of concentration gradients is demonstrated in a microfluidic H-filter, using an integrated photonic crystal slab sensor to monitor sample refractive index with spatial resolution. The recorded diffusion profiles reveal root-mean-square diffusion lengths for non...

  15. Multi-depth valved microfluidics for biofilm segmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, M T; Bentley, W E; Ghodssi, R; Subramanian, S; Kim, Y W; Ben-Yoav, H; Gnerlich, M; Gerasopoulos, K

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms present a societal challenge, as they occur in the majority of infections but are highly resistant to both immune mechanisms and traditional antibiotics. In the pursuit of better understanding biofilm biology for developing new treatments, there is a need for streamlined, controlled platforms for biofilm growth and evaluation. We leverage advantages of microfluidics to develop a system in which biofilms are formed and sectioned, allowing parallel assays on multiple sections of one biofilm. A microfluidic testbed with multiple depth profiles was developed to accommodate biofilm growth and sectioning by hydraulically actuated valves. In realization of the platform, a novel fabrication technique was developed for creating multi-depth microfluidic molds using sequentially patterned photoresist separated and passivated by conformal coatings using atomic layer deposition. Biofilm thickness variation within three separately tested devices was less than 13% of the average thickness in each device, while variation between devices was 23% of the average thickness. In a demonstration of parallel experiments performed on one biofilm within one device, integrated valves were used to trisect the uniform biofilms with one section maintained as a control, and two sections exposed to different concentrations of sodium dodecyl sulfate. The technology presented here for multi-depth microchannel fabrication can be used to create a host of microfluidic devices with diverse architectures. While this work focuses on one application of such a device in biofilm sectioning for parallel experimentation, the tailored architectures enabled by the fabrication technology can be used to create devices that provide new biological information. (paper)

  16. All-polymer microfluidic systems for droplet based sample analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Carl Esben

    In this PhD project, I pursued to develop an all-polymer injection moulded microfluidic platform with integrated droplet based single cell interrogation. To allow for a proper ”one device - one experiment” methodology and to ensure a high relevancy to non-academic settings, the systems presented ...

  17. How microfluidic methods can lead to better emulsion products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijlwijk, Kelly; Berton-Carabin, Claire; Schroën, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Where production lines are judged on their throughput, which is in the order of m3 per hour, interestingly enough the scale at which a lot of phenomena relevant to food structure take place is much smaller: the micro- and nanometre scale. Microfluidics can be used to bridge these

  18. Digital microfluidics for automated hanging drop cell spheroid culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aijian, Andrew P; Garrell, Robin L

    2015-06-01

    Cell spheroids are multicellular aggregates, grown in vitro, that mimic the three-dimensional morphology of physiological tissues. Although there are numerous benefits to using spheroids in cell-based assays, the adoption of spheroids in routine biomedical research has been limited, in part, by the tedious workflow associated with spheroid formation and analysis. Here we describe a digital microfluidic platform that has been developed to automate liquid-handling protocols for the formation, maintenance, and analysis of multicellular spheroids in hanging drop culture. We show that droplets of liquid can be added to and extracted from through-holes, or "wells," and fabricated in the bottom plate of a digital microfluidic device, enabling the formation and assaying of hanging drops. Using this digital microfluidic platform, spheroids of mouse mesenchymal stem cells were formed and maintained in situ for 72 h, exhibiting good viability (>90%) and size uniformity (% coefficient of variation <10% intraexperiment, <20% interexperiment). A proof-of-principle drug screen was performed on human colorectal adenocarcinoma spheroids to demonstrate the ability to recapitulate physiologically relevant phenomena such as insulin-induced drug resistance. With automatable and flexible liquid handling, and a wide range of in situ sample preparation and analysis capabilities, the digital microfluidic platform provides a viable tool for automating cell spheroid culture and analysis. © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  19. Centrifugally driven microfluidic disc for detection of chromosomal translocations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøgger, Anna Line; Kwasny, Dorota; Bosco, Filippo G.

    2012-01-01

    and prognosis of patients. In this work we demonstrate a novel, centrifugally-driven microfluidic system for controlled manipulation of oligonucleotides and subsequent detection of chromosomal translocations. The device is fabricated in the form of a disc with capillary burst microvalves employed to control...

  20. A microfluidic chip for electrochemical conversions in drug metabolism studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Odijk, Mathieu; Baumann, A.; Lohmann, W.; van den Brink, Floris Teunis Gerardus; Olthuis, Wouter; Karst, U.; van den Berg, Albert

    2009-01-01

    We have designed a microfluidic microreactor chip for electrochemical conversion of analytes, containing a palladium reference electrode and platinum working and counter electrodes. The counter electrode is placed in a separate side-channel on chip to prevent unwanted side-products appearing in the

  1. Screening applications in drug discovery based on microfluidic technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eribol, P; Uguz, A K; Ulgen, K O

    2016-01-01

    Microfluidics has been the focus of interest for the last two decades for all the advantages such as low chemical consumption, reduced analysis time, high throughput, better control of mass and heat transfer, downsizing a bench-top laboratory to a chip, i.e., lab-on-a-chip, and many others it has offered. Microfluidic technology quickly found applications in the pharmaceutical industry, which demands working with leading edge scientific and technological breakthroughs, as drug screening and commercialization are very long and expensive processes and require many tests due to unpredictable results. This review paper is on drug candidate screening methods with microfluidic technology and focuses specifically on fabrication techniques and materials for the microchip, types of flow such as continuous or discrete and their advantages, determination of kinetic parameters and their comparison with conventional systems, assessment of toxicities and cytotoxicities, concentration generations for high throughput, and the computational methods that were employed. An important conclusion of this review is that even though microfluidic technology has been in this field for around 20 years there is still room for research and development, as this cutting edge technology requires ingenuity to design and find solutions for each individual case. Recent extensions of these microsystems are microengineered organs-on-chips and organ arrays.

  2. Towards a programmable magnetic bead microarray in a microfluidic channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smistrup, Kristian; Bruus, Henrik; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    2007-01-01

    to use larger currents and obtain forces of longer range than from thin current lines at a given power limit. Guiding of magnetic beads in the hybrid magnetic separator and the construction of a programmable microarray of magnetic beads in the microfluidic channel by hydrodynamic focusing is presented....

  3. Thermal effects in microfluidics with thermal conductivity spatially modulated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas Toro, Agustín.

    2014-05-01

    A heat transfer model on a microfluidic is resolved analytically. The model describes a fluid at rest between two parallel plates where each plate is maintained at a differentially specified temperature and the thermal conductivity of the microfluidic is spatially modulated. The heat transfer model in such micro-hydrostatic configuration is analytically resolved using the technique of the Laplace transform applying the Bromwich Integral and the Residue theorem. The temperature outline in the microfluidic is presented as an infinite series of Bessel functions. It is shown that the result for the thermal conductivity spatially modulated has as a particular case the solution when the thermal conductivity is spatially constant. All computations were performed using the computer algebra software Maple. It is claimed that the analytical obtained results are important for the design of nanoscale devices with applications in biotechnology. Furthermore, it is suggested some future research lines such as the study of the heat transfer model in a microfluidic resting between coaxial cylinders with radially modulated thermal conductivity in order to achieve future developments in this area.

  4. Synthesis of hexagonal gold nanoparticles using a microfluidic reaction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, Chen-Hsun; Lee, Gwo-Bin; Huang, Chih-Chia; Yeh, Chen-Sheng; Lei, Huan-Yao

    2008-01-01

    A new microfluidic reaction system capable of mixing, transporting and reacting is developed for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles. It allows for a rapid and a cost-effective approach to accelerate the synthesis of gold nanoparticles. The microfluidic reaction chip is made from micro-electro-mechanical-system technologies which integrate a micro-mixer, micro-pumps, a micro-valve, micro-heaters and a micro temperature sensor on a single chip. Successful synthesis of dispersed gold nanoparticles has been demonstrated within a shorter period of time, as compared to traditional methods. It is experimentally found that precise control of the mixing/heating time for gold salts and reducing agents plays an essential role in the synthesis of gold nanoparticles. The growth process of hexagonal gold nanoparticles by a thermal aqueous approach is also systematically studied by using the same microfluidic reaction system. The development of the microfluidic reaction system could be promising for the synthesis of functional nanoparticles for future biomedical applications

  5. The upcoming 3D-printing revolution in microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Nirveek; Urrios, Arturo; Kang, Shawn; Folch, Albert

    2016-01-01

    In the last two decades, the vast majority of microfluidic systems have been built in poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) by soft lithography, a technique based on PDMS micromolding. A long list of key PDMS properties have contributed to the success of soft lithography: PDMS is biocompatible, elastomeric, transparent, gas-permeable, water-impermeable, fairly inexpensive, copyright-free, and rapidly prototyped with high precision using simple procedures. However, the fabrication process typically involves substantial human labor, which tends to make PDMS devices difficult to disseminate outside of research labs, and the layered molding limits the 3D complexity of the devices that can be produced. 3D-printing has recently attracted attention as a way to fabricate microfluidic systems due to its automated, assembly-free 3D fabrication, rapidly decreasing costs, and fast-improving resolution and throughput. Resins with properties approaching those of PDMS are being developed. Here we review past and recent efforts in 3D-printing of microfluidic systems. We compare the salient features of PDMS molding with those of 3D-printing and we give an overview of the critical barriers that have prevented the adoption of 3D-printing by microfluidic developers, namely resolution, throughput, and resin biocompatibility. We also evaluate the various forces that are persuading researchers to abandon PDMS molding in favor of 3D-printing in growing numbers. PMID:27101171

  6. Superparamagnetic beads in rotating magnetic fields: microfluidic experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Toonder, J.M.J.; Bokdam, M.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of the Mason number, ratio of viscous and magnetic force, on suspended superparamagnetic micro sized beads was investigated experimentally. Microfluidic experiments were performed in a set-up that generates a rotating homogeneous magnetic field. In the presence of a magnetic field, the

  7. A microfluidic device with fluorimetric detection for intracellular components analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwapiszewski, Radosław; Skolimowski, Maciej; Ziółkowska, Karina

    2011-01-01

    An integrated microfluidic system that coupled lysis of two cell lines: L929 fibroblasts and A549 epithelial cells, with fluorescence-based enzyme assay was developed to determine β-glucocerebrosidase activity. The microdevice fabricated in poly(dimethylsiloxane) consists of three main parts...

  8. Screening applications in drug discovery based on microfluidic technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eribol, P.; Uguz, A. K.; Ulgen, K. O.

    2016-01-01

    Microfluidics has been the focus of interest for the last two decades for all the advantages such as low chemical consumption, reduced analysis time, high throughput, better control of mass and heat transfer, downsizing a bench-top laboratory to a chip, i.e., lab-on-a-chip, and many others it has offered. Microfluidic technology quickly found applications in the pharmaceutical industry, which demands working with leading edge scientific and technological breakthroughs, as drug screening and commercialization are very long and expensive processes and require many tests due to unpredictable results. This review paper is on drug candidate screening methods with microfluidic technology and focuses specifically on fabrication techniques and materials for the microchip, types of flow such as continuous or discrete and their advantages, determination of kinetic parameters and their comparison with conventional systems, assessment of toxicities and cytotoxicities, concentration generations for high throughput, and the computational methods that were employed. An important conclusion of this review is that even though microfluidic technology has been in this field for around 20 years there is still room for research and development, as this cutting edge technology requires ingenuity to design and find solutions for each individual case. Recent extensions of these microsystems are microengineered organs-on-chips and organ arrays. PMID:26865904

  9. Hybrid Integrated Silicon Microfluidic Platform for Fluorescence Based Biodetection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Darveau

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The desideratum to develop a fully integrated Lab-on-a-chip device capable ofrapid specimen detection for high throughput in-situ biomedical diagnoses and Point-of-Care testing applications has called for the integration of some of the novel technologiessuch as the microfluidics, microphotonics, immunoproteomics and Micro ElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS. In the present work, a silicon based microfluidic device hasbeen developed for carrying out fluorescence based immunoassay. By hybrid attachment ofthe microfluidic device with a Spectrometer-on-chip, the feasibility of synthesizing anintegrated Lab-on-a-chip type device for fluorescence based biosensing has beendemonstrated. Biodetection using the microfluidic device has been carried out usingantigen sheep IgG and Alexafluor-647 tagged antibody particles and the experimentalresults prove that silicon is a compatible material for the present application given thevarious advantages it offers such as cost-effectiveness, ease of bulk microfabrication,superior surface affinity to biomolecules, ease of disposability of the device etc., and is thussuitable for fabricating Lab-on-a-chip type devices.

  10. Microfluidic Mixing Technology for a Universal Health Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Eugene Y.; Bae, Candice

    2009-01-01

    A highly efficient means of microfluidic mixing has been created for use with the rHEALTH sensor an elliptical mixer and passive curvilinear mixing patterns. The rHEALTH sensor provides rapid, handheld, complete blood count, cell differential counts, electrolyte measurements, and other lab tests based on a reusable, flow-based microfluidic platform. These geometries allow for cleaning in a reusable manner, and also allow for complete mixing of fluid streams. The microfluidic mixing is performed by flowing two streams of fluid into an elliptical or curvilinear design that allows the combination of the flows into one channel. The mixing is accomplished by either chaotic advection around micro - fluidic loops. All components of the microfluidic chip are flow-through, meaning that cleaning solution can be introduced into the chip to flush out cells, plasma proteins, and dye. Tests were performed on multiple chip geometries to show that cleaning is efficient in any flowthrough design. The conclusion from these experiments is that the chip can indeed be flushed out with microliter volumes of solution and biological samples are cleaned readily from the chip with minimal effort. The technology can be applied in real-time health monitoring at patient s bedside or in a doctor s office, and real-time clinical intervention in acute situations. It also can be used for daily measurement of hematocrit for patients on anticoagulant drugs, or to detect acute myocardial damage outside a hospital.

  11. Microfluidic bioreactors for culture of non-adherent cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Pranjul Jaykumar; Vedarethinam, Indumathi; Kwasny, Dorota

    2011-01-01

    Microfluidic bioreactors (μBR) are becoming increasingly popular for cell culture, sample preparation and analysis in case of routine genetic and clinical diagnostics. We present a novel μBR for non-adherent cells designed to mimic in vivo perfusion of cells based on diffusion of media through...

  12. Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Anson V; Sommer, Gregory J; Singh, Anup K; Wang, Ying-Chih; Abhyankar, Vinay V

    2014-04-22

    Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths are described. Polymerization techniques may be used to generate porous polymer monoliths having pores defined by a liquid component of a fluid mixture. The fluid mixture may contain iniferters and the resulting porous polymer monolith may include surfaces terminated with iniferter species. Capture molecules may then be grafted to the monolith pores.

  13. A Droplet Microfluidic Platform for Automating Genetic Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gach, Philip C; Shih, Steve C C; Sustarich, Jess; Keasling, Jay D; Hillson, Nathan J; Adams, Paul D; Singh, Anup K

    2016-05-20

    We present a water-in-oil droplet microfluidic platform for transformation, culture and expression of recombinant proteins in multiple host organisms including bacteria, yeast and fungi. The platform consists of a hybrid digital microfluidic/channel-based droplet chip with integrated temperature control to allow complete automation and integration of plasmid addition, heat-shock transformation, addition of selection medium, culture, and protein expression. The microfluidic format permitted significant reduction in consumption (100-fold) of expensive reagents such as DNA and enzymes compared to the benchtop method. The chip contains a channel to continuously replenish oil to the culture chamber to provide a fresh supply of oxygen to the cells for long-term (∼5 days) cell culture. The flow channel also replenished oil lost to evaporation and increased the number of droplets that could be processed and cultured. The platform was validated by transforming several plasmids into Escherichia coli including plasmids containing genes for fluorescent proteins GFP, BFP and RFP; plasmids with selectable markers for ampicillin or kanamycin resistance; and a Golden Gate DNA assembly reaction. We also demonstrate the applicability of this platform for transformation in widely used eukaryotic organisms such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus niger. Duration and temperatures of the microfluidic heat-shock procedures were optimized to yield transformation efficiencies comparable to those obtained by benchtop methods with a throughput up to 6 droplets/min. The proposed platform offers potential for automation of molecular biology experiments significantly reducing cost, time and variability while improving throughput.

  14. Development of a microfluidic perfusion 3D cell culture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, D. H.; Jeon, H. J.; Kim, M. J.; Nguyen, X. D.; Morten, K.; Go, J. S.

    2018-04-01

    Recently, 3-dimensional in vitro cell cultures have gained much attention in biomedical sciences because of the closer relevance between in vitro cell cultures and in vivo environments. This paper presents a microfluidic perfusion 3D cell culture system with consistent control of long-term culture conditions to mimic an in vivo microenvironment. It consists of two sudden expansion reservoirs to trap incoming air bubbles, gradient generators to provide a linear concentration, and microchannel mixers. Specifically, the air bubbles disturb a flow in the microfluidic channel resulting in the instability of the perfusion cell culture conditions. For long-term stable operation, the sudden expansion reservoir is designed to trap air bubbles by using buoyancy before they enter the culture system. The performance of the developed microfluidic perfusion 3D cell culture system was examined experimentally and compared with analytical results. Finally, it was applied to test the cytotoxicity of cells infected with Ewing’s sarcoma. Cell death was observed for different concentrations of H2O2. For future work, the developed microfluidic perfusion 3D cell culture system can be used to examine the behavior of cells treated with various drugs and concentrations for high-throughput drug screening.

  15. Fast prototyping of injection molded polymer microfluidic chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Steen; Selmeczi, David; Larsen, Niels Bent

    2010-01-01

    We present fast prototyping of injection molding tools by the definition of microfluidic structures in a light-curable epoxy (SU-8) directly on planar nickel mold inserts. Optimized prototype mold structures could withstand injection molding of more than 300 replicas in cyclic olefin copolymer (COC...

  16. A smartphone controlled handheld microfluidic liquid handling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baichen; Li, Lin; Guan, Allan; Dong, Quan; Ruan, Kangcheng; Hu, Ronggui; Li, Zhenyu

    2014-10-21

    Microfluidics and lab-on-a-chip technologies have made it possible to manipulate small volume liquids with unprecedented resolution, automation and integration. However, most current microfluidic systems still rely on bulky off-chip infrastructures such as compressed pressure sources, syringe pumps and computers to achieve complex liquid manipulation functions. Here, we present a handheld automated microfluidic liquid handling system controlled by a smartphone, which is enabled by combining elastomeric on-chip valves and a compact pneumatic system. As a demonstration, we show that the system can automatically perform all the liquid handling steps of a bead-based HIV1 p24 sandwich immunoassay on a multi-layer PDMS chip without any human intervention. The footprint of the system is 6 × 10.5 × 16.5 cm, and the total weight is 829 g including battery. Powered by a 12.8 V 1500 mAh Li battery, the system consumed 2.2 W on average during the immunoassay and lasted for 8.7 h. This handheld microfluidic liquid handling platform is generally applicable to many biochemical and cell-based assays requiring complex liquid manipulation and sample preparation steps such as FISH, PCR, flow cytometry and nucleic acid sequencing. In particular, the integration of this technology with read-out biosensors may help enable the realization of the long-sought Tricorder-like handheld in vitro diagnostic (IVD) systems.

  17. Multi-functional micromotor: microfluidic fabrication and water treatment application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Anqi; Ge, Xue-Hui; Chen, Jian; Zhang, Liyuan; Xu, Jian-Hong

    2017-12-05

    Micromotors are important for a wide variety of applications. Here, we develop a microfluidic approach for one-step fabrication of a Janus self-propelled micromotor with multiple functions. By fine tuning the fabrication parameters and loading functional nanoparticles, our micromotor reaches a high speed and achieves an oriented function to promote the water purification efficiency and recycling process.

  18. Microfluidic production of multiple emulsions and functional microcapsules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Tae Yong; Choi, Tae Min; Shim, Tae Soup; Frijns, Raoul A.M.; Kim, Shin Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in microfluidics have enabled the controlled production of multiple-emulsion drops with onion-like topology. The multiple-emulsion drops possess an intrinsic core-shell geometry, which makes them useful as templates to create microcapsules with a solid membrane. High flexibility

  19. Multi-depth valved microfluidics for biofilm segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, M. T.; Subramanian, S.; Kim, Y. W.; Ben-Yoav, H.; Gnerlich, M.; Gerasopoulos, K.; Bentley, W. E.; Ghodssi, R.

    2015-09-01

    Bacterial biofilms present a societal challenge, as they occur in the majority of infections but are highly resistant to both immune mechanisms and traditional antibiotics. In the pursuit of better understanding biofilm biology for developing new treatments, there is a need for streamlined, controlled platforms for biofilm growth and evaluation. We leverage advantages of microfluidics to develop a system in which biofilms are formed and sectioned, allowing parallel assays on multiple sections of one biofilm. A microfluidic testbed with multiple depth profiles was developed to accommodate biofilm growth and sectioning by hydraulically actuated valves. In realization of the platform, a novel fabrication technique was developed for creating multi-depth microfluidic molds using sequentially patterned photoresist separated and passivated by conformal coatings using atomic layer deposition. Biofilm thickness variation within three separately tested devices was less than 13% of the average thickness in each device, while variation between devices was 23% of the average thickness. In a demonstration of parallel experiments performed on one biofilm within one device, integrated valves were used to trisect the uniform biofilms with one section maintained as a control, and two sections exposed to different concentrations of sodium dodecyl sulfate. The technology presented here for multi-depth microchannel fabrication can be used to create a host of microfluidic devices with diverse architectures. While this work focuses on one application of such a device in biofilm sectioning for parallel experimentation, the tailored architectures enabled by the fabrication technology can be used to create devices that provide new biological information.

  20. Isolation of cancer cells by "in situ" microfluidic biofunctionalization protocols

    KAUST Repository

    De Vitis, Stefania

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this work is the development of a microfluidic immunosensor for the immobilization of cancer cells and their separation from healthy cells by using "in situ" microfluidic biofunctionalization protocols. These protocols allow to link antibodies on microfluidic device surfaces and can be used to study the interaction between cell membrane and biomolecules. Moreover they allow to perform analysis with high processing speed, small quantity of reagents and samples, short reaction times and low production costs. In this work the developed protocols were used in microfluidic devices for the isolation of cancer cells in heterogeneous blood samples by exploiting the binding of specific antibody to an adhesion protein (EpCAM), overexpressed on the tumor cell membranes. The presented biofunctionalization protocols can be performed right before running the experiment: this allows to have a flexible platform where biomolecules of interest can be linked on the device surface according to the user\\'s needs. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Photonic crystal resonator integrated in a microfluidic system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues de Sousa Nunes, Pedro André; Mortensen, Niels Asger; Kutter, Jörg Peter

    2008-01-01

    We report on a novel optofluidic system consisting of a silica-based 1D photonic crystal, integrated planar waveguides, and electrically insulated fluidic channels. An array of pillars in a microfluidic channel designed for electrochromatography is used as a resonator for on-column label...

  2. Magnetic particle mixing with magnetic micro-convection for microfluidics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitenbergs, Guntars; Erglis, Kaspars; Perzynski, Régine; Cēbers, Andrejs

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the magnetic micro-convection phenomenon as a tool for mixing enhancement in microfluidics systems in cases when one of the miscible fluids is a magnetic particle colloid. A system of a water-based magnetic fluid and water is investigated experimentally under homogeneous magnetic field in a Hele–Shaw cell. Subsequent image analysis both qualitatively and quantitatively reveals the high enhancement of mixing efficiency provided by this method. The mixing efficiency dependence on the magnetic field and the physical limits is discussed. A suitable model for a continuous-flow microfluidics setup for mixing with magnetic micro-convection is also proposed and justified with an experiment. In addition, possible applications in improving the speed of ferrohydrodynamic sorting and magnetic label or selected tracer mixing in lab on a chip systems are noted. - Highlights: • We study the magnetic micro-convection as a mixing method in microfluidics. • We show that the method enhances mixing with magnetic field squared dependency. • We propose a flow cell setup for mixing and justify it with a sample experiment. • The mixing method can be easily implemented in an existing microfluidics setup

  3. Pin-count reduction for continuous flow microfluidic biochips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Alexander; Pop, Paul; Madsen, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Microfluidic biochips are replacing the conventional biochemical analyzers integrating the necessary functions on-chip. We are interested in flow-based biochips, where a continuous flow of liquid is manipulated using integrated microvalves, controlled from external pressure sources via off...

  4. Magnetic particle diverter in an integrated microfluidic format

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pekas, Nikola [Institute for Combinatorial Discovery, Departments of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, and Ames Laboratory-USDOE, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-3111 (United States); Granger, Michael [Institute for Combinatorial Discovery, Departments of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, and Ames Laboratory-USDOE, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-3111 (United States); Tondra, Mark [NVE Corporation, Eden Prairie, Minnesota 55344 (United States); Popple, Anthony [NVE Corporation, Eden Prairie, Minnesota 55344 (United States); Porter, Marc D. [Institute for Combinatorial Discovery, Departments of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, and Ames Laboratory-USDOE, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-3111 (United States)]. E-mail: mporter@porter1.ameslab.gov

    2005-05-15

    A fully integrated micromagnetic particle diverter and microfluidic system are described. Particles are diverted via an external uniform magnetic field perturbed at the microscale by underlying current straps. The resulting magnetic force deflects particles across a flow stream into one of the two channels at a Y-shaped junction. The basic theoretical framework, design, and operational demonstration of the device are presented.

  5. Magnetic particle diverter in an integrated microfluidic format

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pekas, Nikola; Granger, Michael; Tondra, Mark; Popple, Anthony; Porter, Marc D.

    2005-01-01

    A fully integrated micromagnetic particle diverter and microfluidic system are described. Particles are diverted via an external uniform magnetic field perturbed at the microscale by underlying current straps. The resulting magnetic force deflects particles across a flow stream into one of the two channels at a Y-shaped junction. The basic theoretical framework, design, and operational demonstration of the device are presented

  6. Long-term brain slice culturing in a microfluidic platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedarethinam, Indumathi; Avaliani, N.; Tønnesen, J.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we present the development of a transparent poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) based microfluidic culture system for handling long-term brain slice cultures independent of an incubator. The different stages of system development have been validated by culturing GFP producing brain sli...

  7. Synthetic microfluidic paper: high surface area and high porosity polymer micropillar arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Jonas; Yasuga, Hiroki; Haraldsson, Tommy; van der Wijngaart, Wouter

    2016-01-21

    We introduce Synthetic Microfluidic Paper, a novel porous material for microfluidic applications that consists of an OSTE polymer that is photostructured in a well-controlled geometry of slanted and interlocked micropillars. We demonstrate the distinct benefits of Synthetic Microfluidic Paper over other porous microfluidic materials, such as nitrocellulose, traditional paper and straight micropillar arrays: in contrast to straight micropillar arrays, the geometry of Synthetic Microfluidic Paper was miniaturized without suffering capillary collapse during manufacturing and fluidic operation, resulting in a six-fold increased internal surface area and a three-fold increased porous fraction. Compared to commercial nitrocellulose materials for capillary assays, Synthetic Microfluidic Paper shows a wider range of capillary pumping speed and four times lower device-to-device variation. Compared to the surfaces of the other porous microfluidic materials that are modified by adsorption, Synthetic Microfluidic Paper contains free thiol groups and has been shown to be suitable for covalent surface chemistry, demonstrated here for increasing the material hydrophilicity. These results illustrate the potential of Synthetic Microfluidic Paper as a porous microfluidic material with improved performance characteristics, especially for bioassay applications such as diagnostic tests.

  8. Cyclohexanone microfluidic extraction of radioactive perrhenate from acid solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalmázio, Ilza [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Oehlke, Elisabeth, E-mail: E.Oehlke@tudelft.nl [Section Radiation and Isotopes for Health, Department of Radiation Science and Technology, Delft University of Technology (Netherlands)

    2017-07-01

    Several studies have investigated the application of microfluidic devices in extraction processes. A potential use of microfluidic devices is in radionuclide generators based on solvent extraction, as the {sup 188}W/{sup 188}Re generator. The aim of this work is to present the initial results of microfluidic solvent extraction of radioactive perrhenate. Aqueous solutions of ammonium perrhenate at 0.1 mg/mL (in water, HCl or sodium tungstate) were used as feed solution and cyclohexanone as extractant. As a first step, the fluid behaviour inside the glass microchannel was evaluated to reach laminar flow. The second step was the determination of extraction efficiency using thermal neutron activated perrhenate to produce feed solutions. The extraction conditions permitted liquid-liquid contact times as short as 0.5 s. Increasing of the contact time, resulted in a higher extraction efficiency of perrhenate, e.g. 14 % for 0.5 s and 32 % for 1.1 s using a 0.1 mol/L HCl feed solution. The extraction of perrhenate improved also when applying a feed solution with higher acidity, e.g. 52% for 1 mol/L HCl with contact time of 1.1 s. The influence of adding sodium tungstate to the feed solution was also examined. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first results related to perrhenate solvent extraction using a microfluidic device. The usefulness of microfluidic devices to screen extraction conditions was demonstrated making it possible to evaluate the effect of electrolytes on the perrhenate extraction process in a short time-frame. (author)

  9. A microfluidic approach for hemoglobin detection in whole blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita Taparia

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of anemia relies on the detection of hemoglobin levels in a blood sample. Conventional blood analyzers are not readily available in most low-resource regions where anemia is prevalent, so detection methods that are low-cost and point-of-care are needed. Here, we present a microfluidic approach to measure hemoglobin concentration in a sample of whole blood. Unlike conventional approaches, our microfluidic approach does not require hemolysis. We detect the level of hemoglobin in a blood sample optically by illuminating the blood in a microfluidic channel at a peak wavelength of 540 nm and measuring its absorbance using a CMOS sensor coupled with a lens to magnify the image onto the detector. We compare measurements in microchannels with channel heights of 50 and 115 μm and found the channel with the 50 μm height provided a better range of detection. Since we use whole blood and not lysed blood, we fit our data to an absorption model that includes optical scattering in order to obtain a calibration curve for our system. Based on this calibration curve and data collected, we can measure hemoglobin concentration within 1 g/dL for severe cases of anemia. In addition, we measured optical density for blood flowing at a shear rate of 500 s-1 and observed it did not affect the nonlinear model. With this method, we provide an approach that uses microfluidic detection of hemoglobin levels that can be integrated with other microfluidic approaches for blood analysis.

  10. Slopes To Prevent Trapping of Bubbles in Microfluidic Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Harold E.; Lee, Michael C.; Smith, J. Anthony; Willis, Peter A.

    2010-01-01

    The idea of designing a microfluidic channel to slope upward along the direction of flow of the liquid in the channel has been conceived to help prevent trapping of gas bubbles in the channel. In the original application that gave rise to this idea, the microfluidic channels are parts of micro-capillary electrophoresis (microCE) devices undergoing development for use on Mars in detecting compounds indicative of life. It is necessary to prevent trapping of gas bubbles in these devices because uninterrupted liquid pathways are essential for sustaining the electrical conduction and flows that are essential for CE. The idea is also applicable to microfluidic devices that may be developed for similar terrestrial microCE biotechnological applications or other terrestrial applications in which trapping of bubbles in microfluidic channels cannot be tolerated. A typical microCE device in the original application includes, among other things, multiple layers of borosilicate float glass wafers. Microfluidic channels are formed in the wafers, typically by use of wet chemical etching. The figure presents a simplified cross section of part of such a device in which the CE channel is formed in the lowermost wafer (denoted the channel wafer) and, according to the present innovation, slopes upward into a via hole in another wafer (denoted the manifold wafer) lying immediately above the channel wafer. Another feature of the present innovation is that the via hole in the manifold wafer is made to taper to a wider opening at the top to further reduce the tendency to trap bubbles. At the time of reporting the information for this article, an effort to identify an optimum technique for forming the slope and the taper was in progress. Of the techniques considered thus far, the one considered to be most promising is precision milling by use of femtosecond laser pulses. Other similar techniques that may work equally well are precision milling using a focused ion beam, or a small diamond

  11. Self-powered Imbibing Microfluidic Pump by Liquid Encapsulation: SIMPLE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokalj, Tadej; Park, Younggeun; Vencelj, Matjaž; Jenko, Monika; Lee, Luke P

    2014-11-21

    Reliable, autonomous, internally self-powered microfluidic pumps are in critical demand for rapid point-of-care (POC) devices, integrated molecular-diagnostic platforms, and drug delivery systems. Here we report on a Self-powered Imbibing Microfluidic Pump by Liquid Encapsulation (SIMPLE), which is disposable, autonomous, easy to use and fabricate, robust, and cost efficient, as a solution for self-powered microfluidic POC devices. The imbibition pump introduces the working liquid which is sucked into a porous material (paper) upon activation. The suction of the working liquid creates a reduced pressure in the analytical channel and induces the sequential sample flow into the microfluidic circuits. It requires no external power or control and can be simply activated by a fingertip press. The flow rate can be programmed by defining the shape of utilized porous material: by using three different paper shapes with circular section angles 20°, 40° and 60°, three different volume flow rates of 0.07 μL s(-1), 0.12 μL s(-1) and 0.17 μL s(-1) are demonstrated at 200 μm × 600 μm channel cross-section. We established the SIMPLE pumping of 17 μL of sample; however, the sample volume can be increased to several hundreds of μL. To demonstrate the design, fabrication, and characterization of SIMPLE, we used a simple, robust and cheap foil-laminating fabrication technique. The SIMPLE can be integrated into hydrophilic or hydrophobic materials-based microfluidic POC devices. Since it is also applicable to large-scale manufacturing processes, we anticipate that a new chapter of a cost effective, disposable, autonomous POC diagnostic chip is addressed with this technical innovation.

  12. Cyclohexanone microfluidic extraction of radioactive perrhenate from acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalmázio, Ilza; Oehlke, Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    Several studies have investigated the application of microfluidic devices in extraction processes. A potential use of microfluidic devices is in radionuclide generators based on solvent extraction, as the 188 W/ 188 Re generator. The aim of this work is to present the initial results of microfluidic solvent extraction of radioactive perrhenate. Aqueous solutions of ammonium perrhenate at 0.1 mg/mL (in water, HCl or sodium tungstate) were used as feed solution and cyclohexanone as extractant. As a first step, the fluid behaviour inside the glass microchannel was evaluated to reach laminar flow. The second step was the determination of extraction efficiency using thermal neutron activated perrhenate to produce feed solutions. The extraction conditions permitted liquid-liquid contact times as short as 0.5 s. Increasing of the contact time, resulted in a higher extraction efficiency of perrhenate, e.g. 14 % for 0.5 s and 32 % for 1.1 s using a 0.1 mol/L HCl feed solution. The extraction of perrhenate improved also when applying a feed solution with higher acidity, e.g. 52% for 1 mol/L HCl with contact time of 1.1 s. The influence of adding sodium tungstate to the feed solution was also examined. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first results related to perrhenate solvent extraction using a microfluidic device. The usefulness of microfluidic devices to screen extraction conditions was demonstrated making it possible to evaluate the effect of electrolytes on the perrhenate extraction process in a short time-frame. (author)

  13. Superhydrophobic Surface Coatings for Microfluidics and MEMs.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branson, Eric D.; Singh, Seema [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA; Houston, Jack E.; van Swol, Frank B.; Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    2006-11-01

    Low solid interfacial energy and fractally rough surface topography confer to Lotus plants superhydrophobic (SH) properties like high contact angles, rolling and bouncing of liquid droplets, and self-cleaning of particle contaminants. This project exploits the porous fractal structure of a novel, synthetic SH surface for aerosol collection, its self-cleaning properties for particle concentration, and its slippery nature 3 to enhance the performance of fluidic and MEMS devices. We propose to understand fundamentally the conditions needed to cause liquid droplets to roll rather than flow/slide on a surface and how this %22rolling transition%22 influences the boundary condition describing fluid flow in a pipe or micro-channel. Rolling of droplets is important for aerosol collection strategies because it allows trapped particles to be concentrated and transported in liquid droplets with no need for a pre-defined/micromachined fluidic architecture. The fluid/solid boundary condition is important because it governs flow resistance and rheology and establishes the fluid velocity profile. Although many research groups are exploring SH surfaces, our team is the first to unambiguously determine their effects on fluid flow and rheology. SH surfaces could impact all future SNL designs of collectors, fluidic devices, MEMS, and NEMS. Interfaced with inertial focusing aerosol collectors, SH surfaces would allow size-specific particle populations to be collected, concentrated, and transported to a fluidic interface without loss. In microfluidic systems, we expect to reduce the energy/power required to pump fluids and actuate MEMS. Plug-like (rather than parabolic) velocity profiles can greatly improve resolution of chip-based separations and enable unprecedented control of concentration profiles and residence times in fluidic-based micro-reactors. Patterned SH/hydrophilic channels could induce mixing in microchannels and enable development of microflow control elements

  14. Rectifiable PT -symmetric Quantum Toboggans with Two Branch Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Znojil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Certain complex-contour (a.k.a. quantum-toboggan generalizations of Schroedinger’s bound-state problem are reviewed and studied in detail. Our key message is that the practical numerical solution of these atypical eigenvalue problems may perceivably be facilitated via an appropriate complex change of variables which maps their multi-sheeted complex domain of definition to a suitable single-sheeted complex plane.

  15. Developing optimal input design strategies in cancer systems biology with applications to microfluidic device engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menolascina, Filippo; Bellomo, Domenico; Maiwald, Thomas; Bevilacqua, Vitoantonio; Ciminelli, Caterina; Paradiso, Angelo; Tommasi, Stefania

    2009-10-15

    Mechanistic models are becoming more and more popular in Systems Biology; identification and control of models underlying biochemical pathways of interest in oncology is a primary goal in this field. Unfortunately the scarce availability of data still limits our understanding of the intrinsic characteristics of complex pathologies like cancer: acquiring information for a system understanding of complex reaction networks is time consuming and expensive. Stimulus response experiments (SRE) have been used to gain a deeper insight into the details of biochemical mechanisms underlying cell life and functioning. Optimisation of the input time-profile, however, still remains a major area of research due to the complexity of the problem and its relevance for the task of information retrieval in systems biology-related experiments. We have addressed the problem of quantifying the information associated to an experiment using the Fisher Information Matrix and we have proposed an optimal experimental design strategy based on evolutionary algorithm to cope with the problem of information gathering in Systems Biology. On the basis of the theoretical results obtained in the field of control systems theory, we have studied the dynamical properties of the signals to be used in cell stimulation. The results of this study have been used to develop a microfluidic device for the automation of the process of cell stimulation for system identification. We have applied the proposed approach to the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor pathway and we observed that it minimises the amount of parametric uncertainty associated to the identified model. A statistical framework based on Monte-Carlo estimations of the uncertainty ellipsoid confirmed the superiority of optimally designed experiments over canonical inputs. The proposed approach can be easily extended to multiobjective formulations that can also take advantage of identifiability analysis. Moreover, the availability of fully automated

  16. Fabrication of antibody-loaded microgels using microfluidics and thiol-ene photoclick chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoritza, Manuel; Abstiens, Kathrin; Graf, Moritz; Goepferich, Achim M

    2018-06-01

    Reducing burst effects, providing controlled release, and safeguarding biologics against degradation are a few of several highly attractive applications for microgels in the field of controlled release. However, the incorporation of proteins into microgels without impairing stability is highly challenging. In this proof of concept study, the combination of microfluidics and thiol-ene photoclick chemistry was evaluated for the fabrication of antibody-loaded microgels with narrow size distribution. Norbornene-modified eight-armed poly(ethylene glycol) with an average molecular mass of 10,000 Da, 20,000 Da, or 40,000 Da were prepared as macromonomers for microgel formation. For functionalization, either hydrolytically cleavable ester or stable amide bonds were used. A microfluidic system was employed to generate precursor solution droplets containing macromonomers, the cross-linker dithiothreitol and the initiator Eosin-Y. Irradiation with visible light was used to trigger thiol-ene reactions which covalently cross-linked the droplets. For all bond-types, molecular masses, and concentrations gelation was very rapid (<20 s) and a plateau for the complex shear modulus was reached after only 5 min. The generated microgels had a rod-like shape and did not show considerable cellular toxicity. Stress conditions during the fabrication process were simulated and it could be shown that fabrication did not impair the activity of the model proteins lysozyme and bevacizumab. It was confirmed that the average hydrogel network mesh size was similar or smaller than the hydrodynamic diameter of bevacizumab which is a crucial factor for restricting diffusion and delaying release. Finally, microgels were loaded with bevacizumab and a sustained release over a period of 30 ± 4 and 47 ± 7 days could be achieved in vitro. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Simple approach to study biomolecule adsorption in polymeric microfluidic channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubala, Vladimir; Siegrist, Jonathan; Monaghan, Ruairi; O’Reilly, Brian; Gandhiraman, Ram Prasad; Daniels, Stephen; Williams, David E.; Ducrée, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A simple tool to assess biomolecule adsorption onto the surfaces of microchannels. ► Development for dilution by surface-adsorption based depletion of protein samples. ► It can easily be done using a readily available apparatus like a spin-coater. ► The assessment tool is facile and quantitative. ► Straightforward comparison of different surface chemistries. - Abstract: Herein a simple analytical method is presented for the characterization of biomolecule adsorption on cyclo olefin polymer (COP, trade name: Zeonor ® ) substrates which are widely used in microfluidic lab-on-a-chip devices. These Zeonor ® substrates do not possess native functional groups for specific reactions with biomolecules. Therefore, depending on the application, such substrates must be functionalized by surface chemistry methods to either enhance or suppress biomolecular adsorption. This work demonstrates a microfluidic method for evaluating the adsorption of antibodies and oligonucleotides surfaces. The method uses centrifugal microfluidic flow-through chips and can easily be implemented using common equipment such as a spin coater. The working principle is very simple. The user adds 40 L of the solution containing the sample to the starting side of a microfluidic channel, where it is moved through by centrifugal force. Some molecules are adsorbed in the channel. The sample is then collected at the other end in a small reservoir and the biomolecule concentration is measured. As a pilot application, we characterized the adsorption of goat anti-human IgG and a 20-mer DNA on Zeonor ® , and on three types of functionalized Zeonor: 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) modified surface with mainly positive charge, negatively charged surface with immobilized bovine serum albumin (BSA), and neutral, hydrogel-like film with polyethylene glycol (PEG) characteristics. This simple analytical approach adds to the fundamental understanding of the interaction forces in real

  18. Simple approach to study biomolecule adsorption in polymeric microfluidic channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubala, Vladimir, E-mail: V.Gubala@kent.ac.uk [Biomedical Diagnostics Institute (BDI), National Centre for Sensor Research (NCSR), Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Medway School of Pharmacy, University of Kent, Central Avenue, Anson 120, Chatham Maritime, Kent ME4 4TB (United Kingdom); Siegrist, Jonathan; Monaghan, Ruairi; O' Reilly, Brian; Gandhiraman, Ram Prasad [Biomedical Diagnostics Institute (BDI), National Centre for Sensor Research (NCSR), Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Daniels, Stephen [Biomedical Diagnostics Institute (BDI), National Centre for Sensor Research (NCSR), Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); National Centre for Plasma Science and Technology (NCPST), Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Williams, David E. [Biomedical Diagnostics Institute (BDI), National Centre for Sensor Research (NCSR), Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, School of Chemical Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Ducree, Jens [Biomedical Diagnostics Institute (BDI), National Centre for Sensor Research (NCSR), Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland)

    2013-01-14

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A simple tool to assess biomolecule adsorption onto the surfaces of microchannels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Development for dilution by surface-adsorption based depletion of protein samples. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It can easily be done using a readily available apparatus like a spin-coater. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The assessment tool is facile and quantitative. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Straightforward comparison of different surface chemistries. - Abstract: Herein a simple analytical method is presented for the characterization of biomolecule adsorption on cyclo olefin polymer (COP, trade name: Zeonor{sup Registered-Sign }) substrates which are widely used in microfluidic lab-on-a-chip devices. These Zeonor{sup Registered-Sign} substrates do not possess native functional groups for specific reactions with biomolecules. Therefore, depending on the application, such substrates must be functionalized by surface chemistry methods to either enhance or suppress biomolecular adsorption. This work demonstrates a microfluidic method for evaluating the adsorption of antibodies and oligonucleotides surfaces. The method uses centrifugal microfluidic flow-through chips and can easily be implemented using common equipment such as a spin coater. The working principle is very simple. The user adds 40 L of the solution containing the sample to the starting side of a microfluidic channel, where it is moved through by centrifugal force. Some molecules are adsorbed in the channel. The sample is then collected at the other end in a small reservoir and the biomolecule concentration is measured. As a pilot application, we characterized the adsorption of goat anti-human IgG and a 20-mer DNA on Zeonor{sup Registered-Sign }, and on three types of functionalized Zeonor: 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) modified surface with mainly positive charge, negatively charged surface with immobilized bovine serum albumin (BSA), and

  19. Spintronic microfluidic platform for biomedical and environmental applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, F. A.; Martins, V. C.; Fonseca, L. P.; Germano, J.; Sousa, L. A.; Piedade, M. S.; Freitas, P. P.

    2010-09-01

    Faster, more sensitive and easy to operate biosensing devices still are a need at important areas such as biomedical diagnostics, food control and environmental monitoring. Recently, spintronic-devices have emerged as a promising alternative to the existent technologies [1-3]. A number of advantages, namely high sensitivity, easy integration, miniaturization, scalability, robustness and low cost make these devices potentially capable of responding to the existent technological need. In parallel, the field of microfluidics has shown great advances [4]. Microfluidic systems allow the analysis of small sample volumes (from micro- down to pico-liters), often by automate sample processing with the ability to integrate several steps into a single device (analyte amplification, concentration, separation and/or labeling), all in a reduced assay time (minutes to hours) and affordable cost. The merging of these two technologies, magnetoresistive biochips and microfluidics, will enable the development of highly competitive devices. This work reports the integration of a magnetoresistive biochip with a microfluidic system inside a portable and autonomous electronic platform aiming for a fully integrated device. A microfluidic structure fabricated in polydimethylsiloxane with dimensions of W: 0.5mm, H: 0.1mm, L: 10mm, associated to a mechanical system to align and seal the channel by pressure is presented (Fig. 1) [5]. The goal is to perform sample loading and transportation over the chip and simultaneously control the stringency and uniformity of the wash-out process. The biochip output is acquired by an electronic microsystem incorporating the circuitry to control, address and read-out the 30 spin-valve sensors sequentially (Fig. 1) [2]. This platform is being applied to the detection of water-borne microbial pathogens (e.g. Salmonella and Escherichia coli) and genetic diseases diagnosis (e.g. cystic fibrosis) through DNA hybridization assays. Open chamber measurements were

  20. Direct current insulator based dielectrophoresis (DC-iDEP) microfluidic chip for blood plasma separation

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) integrated microfluidics has been a powerful tool for new developments in analytical chemistry. These microfluidic systems enable the miniaturization, integration and automation of complex biochemical assays through the reduction of reagent use and enabling portability.Cell and particle separation in microfluidic systems has recently gained significant attention in many sample preparations for clinical procedures. Direct-current insulator-based dielectrophoresis (DC-iDEP) ...

  1. Development of a Microfluidic Platform to Analyze Evolution of Programmed Bacterial Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-20

    droplet-based microfluidic technology to generate population ‘bottleneck’. This platform will serve as a critical foundation for our long-term goal to...Final Report: Development of a Microfluidic Platform to Analyze Evolution of Programmed Bacterial Death The views, opinions and/or findings contained...Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 Microfluidics , systems biology REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM

  2. A chemical library to screen protein and protein-ligand crystallization using a versatile microfluidic platform

    OpenAIRE

    Gerard , Charline ,; Ferry , Gilles; Vuillard , Laurent ,; Boutin , Jean ,; Ferte , Nathalie ,; Grossier , Romain ,; Candoni , Nadine ,; Veesler , Stéphane ,

    2018-01-01

    Here, we describe a plug-and-play microfluidic platform, suitable for protein crystallization. The droplet factory is designed to generate hundreds of droplets as small as a few nanoliters (2 to 10nL) for screening and optimization of crystallization conditions. Commercially-available microfluidic junctions and tubing are combined to create the appropriate geometry. In addition, a " chemical library " is produced in tubing. The microfluidic geometry for a " crystallization agent-based chemica...

  3. Multiplexed detection of DNA sequences using a competitive displacement assay in a microfluidic SERRS-based device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdi, Soroush H; Giles, Kristen L; White, Ian M

    2013-11-05

    We demonstrate sensitive and multiplexed detection of DNA sequences through a surface enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy (SERRS)-based competitive displacement assay in an integrated microsystem. The use of the competitive displacement scheme, in which the target DNA sequence displaces a Raman-labeled reporter sequence that has lower affinity for the immobilized probe, enables detection of unlabeled target DNA sequences with a simple single-step procedure. In our implementation, the displacement reaction occurs in a microporous packed column of silica beads prefunctionalized with probe-reporter pairs. The use of a functionalized packed-bead column in a microfluidic channel provides two major advantages: (i) immobilization surface chemistry can be performed as a batch process instead of on a chip-by-chip basis, and (ii) the microporous network eliminates the diffusion limitations of a typical biological assay, which increases the sensitivity. Packed silica beads are also leveraged to improve the SERRS detection of the Raman-labeled reporter. Following displacement, the reporter adsorbs onto aggregated silver nanoparticles in a microfluidic mixer; the nanoparticle-reporter conjugates are then trapped and concentrated in the silica bead matrix, which leads to a significant increase in plasmonic nanoparticles and adsorbed Raman reporters within the detection volume as compared to an open microfluidic channel. The experimental results reported here demonstrate detection down to 100 pM of the target DNA sequence, and the experiments are shown to be specific, repeatable, and quantitative. Furthermore, we illustrate the advantage of using SERRS by demonstrating multiplexed detection. The sensitivity of the assay, combined with the advantages of multiplexed detection and single-step operation with unlabeled target sequences makes this method attractive for practical applications. Importantly, while we illustrate DNA sequence detection, the SERRS-based competitive

  4. System-level modeling and simulation of the cell culture microfluidic biochip ProCell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minhass, Wajid Hassan; Pop, Paul; Madsen, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Microfluidic biochips offer a promising alternative to a conventional biochemical laboratory. There are two technologies for the microfluidic biochips: droplet-based and flow-based. In this paper we are interested in flow-based microfluidic biochips, where the liquid flows continuously through pre......-defined micro-channels using valves and pumps. We present an approach to the system-level modeling and simulation of a cell culture microfluidic biochip called ProCell, Programmable Cell Culture Chip. ProCell contains a cell culture chamber, which is envisioned to run 256 simultaneous experiments (viewed...

  5. Facile fabrication of microfluidic surface-enhanced Raman scattering devices via lift-up lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuanzi; Jiang, Ye; Zheng, Xiaoshan; Jia, Shasha; Zhu, Zhi; Ren, Bin; Ma, Hongwei

    2018-04-01

    We describe a facile and low-cost approach for a flexibly integrated surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate in microfluidic chips. Briefly, a SERS substrate was fabricated by the electrostatic assembling of gold nanoparticles, and shaped into designed patterns by subsequent lift-up soft lithography. The SERS micro-pattern could be further integrated within microfluidic channels conveniently. The resulting microfluidic SERS chip allowed ultrasensitive in situ SERS monitoring from the transparent glass window. With its advantages in simplicity, functionality and cost-effectiveness, this method could be readily expanded into optical microfluidic fabrication for biochemical applications.

  6. Optimized fabrication protocols of microfluidic devices for X-ray analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Catalano, Rossella

    2014-07-01

    Microfluidics combined with X-ray scattering techniques allows probing conformational changes or assembly processes of biological materials. Our aim was to develop a highly X-ray transparent microfluidic cell for detecting small variations of X-ray scattering involved in such processes. We describe the fabrication of a polyimide microfluidic device based on a simple, reliable and inexpensive lamination process. The implemented microstructured features result in windows with optimized X-ray transmission. The microfluidic device was characterized by X-ray microbeam scattering at the ID13 beamline of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Microfluidic device for continuous single cells analysis via Raman spectroscopy enhanced by integrated plasmonic nanodimers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perozziello, Gerardo; Candeloro, Patrizio; De Grazia, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    In this work a Raman flow cytometer is presented. It consists of a microfluidic device that takes advantages of the basic principles of Raman spectroscopy and flow cytometry. The microfluidic device integrates calibrated microfluidic channels-where the cells can flow one-by-one -, allowing single...... cell Raman analysis. The microfluidic channel integrates plasmonic nanodimers in a fluidic trapping region. In this way it is possible to perform Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy on single cell. These allow a label-free analysis, providing information about the biochemical content of membrane and cytoplasm...

  8. Mosquitoes meet microfluidics: High-throughput microfluidic tools for insect-parasite ecology in field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Manu; Mukundarajan, Haripriya

    2013-11-01

    A simple bite from an insect is the transmission mechanism for many deadly diseases worldwide--including malaria, yellow fever, west nile and dengue. Very little is known about how populations of numerous insect species and disease-causing parasites interact in their natural habitats due to a lack of measurement techniques. At present, vector surveillance techniques involve manual capture by using humans as live bait, which is hard to justify on ethical grounds. Individual mosquitoes are manually dissected to isolate salivary glands to detect sporozites. With typical vector infection rates being very low even in endemic areas, it is almost impossible to get an accurate picture of disease distribution, in both space and time. Here we present novel high-throughput microfluidic tools for vector surveillance, specifically mosquitoes. A two-dimensional high density array with baits provide an integrated platform for multiplex PCR for detection of both vector and parasite species. Combining techniques from engineering and field ecology, methods and tools developed here will enable high-throughput measurement of infection rates for a number of diseases in mosquito populations in field conditions. Pew Foundation.

  9. From screen to structure with a harvestable microfluidic device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stojanoff, Vivian; Jakoncic, Jean; Oren, Deena A.; Nagarajan, V.; Navarro Poulsen, Jens-Christian; Adams-Cioaba, Melanie A.; Bergfors, Terese; Sommer, Morten O. A.

    2011-01-01

    Microfluidic crystallization using the Crystal Former improves the identification of initial crystallization conditions relative to screening via vapour diffusion. Advances in automation have facilitated the widespread adoption of high-throughput vapour-diffusion methods for initial crystallization screening. However, for many proteins, screening thousands of crystallization conditions fails to yield crystals of sufficient quality for structural characterization. Here, the rates of crystal identification for thaumatin, catalase and myoglobin using microfluidic Crystal Former devices and sitting-drop vapour-diffusion plates are compared. It is shown that the Crystal Former results in a greater number of identified initial crystallization conditions compared with vapour diffusion. Furthermore, crystals of thaumatin and lysozyme obtained in the Crystal Former were used directly for structure determination both in situ and upon harvesting and cryocooling. On the basis of these results, a crystallization strategy is proposed that uses multiple methods with distinct kinetic trajectories through the protein phase diagram to increase the output of crystallization pipelines

  10. The Use of Microfluidics in Cytotoxicity and Nanotoxicity Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott C. McCormick

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Many unique chemical compounds and nanomaterials are being developed, and each one requires a considerable range of in vitro and/or in vivo toxicity screening in order to evaluate their safety. The current methodology of in vitro toxicological screening on cells is based on well-plate assays that require time-consuming manual handling or expensive automation to gather enough meaningful toxicology data. Cost reduction; access to faster, more comprehensive toxicity data; and a robust platform capable of quantitative testing, will be essential in evaluating the safety of new chemicals and nanomaterials, and, at the same time, in securing the confidence of regulators and end-users. Microfluidic chips offer an alternative platform for toxicity screening that has the potential to transform both the rates and efficiency of nanomaterial testing, as reviewed here. The inherent advantages of microfluidic technologies offer high-throughput screening with small volumes of analytes, parallel analyses, and low-cost fabrication.

  11. A microfluidic galvanic cell on a single layer of paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purohit, Krutarth H.; Emrani, Saina; Rodriguez, Sandra; Liaw, Shi-Shen; Pham, Linda; Galvan, Vicente; Domalaon, Kryls; Gomez, Frank A.; Haan, John L.

    2016-06-01

    Paper microfluidics is used to produce single layer galvanic and hybrid cells to produce energy that could power paper-based analytical sensors. When two aqueous streams are absorbed onto paper to establish co-laminar flow, the streams stay in contact with each other with limited mixing. The interface at which mixing occurs acts as a charge-transfer region, eliminating the need for a salt bridge. We designed a Cusbnd Zn galvanic cell that powers an LED when two are placed in series. We also used more powerful redox couples (formate and silver, formate and permanganate) to produce higher power density (18 and 3.1 mW mg-1 Pd). These power densities are greater than previously reported paper microfluidic fuel cells using formate or methanol. The single layer design is much more simplified than previous reports of multi-layer galvanic cells on paper.

  12. Probing Embryonic Stem Cell Autocrine and Paracrine Signaling Using Microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybyla, Laralynne; Voldman, Joel

    2012-07-01

    Although stem cell fate is traditionally manipulated by exogenously altering the cells' extracellular signaling environment, the endogenous autocrine and paracrine signals produced by the cells also contribute to their two essential processes: self-renewal and differentiation. Autocrine and/or paracrine signals are fundamental to both embryonic stem cell self-renewal and early embryonic development, but the nature and contributions of these signals are often difficult to fully define using conventional methods. Microfluidic techniques have been used to explore the effects of cell-secreted signals by controlling cell organization or by providing precise control over the spatial and temporal cellular microenvironment. Here we review how such techniques have begun to be adapted for use with embryonic stem cells, and we illustrate how many remaining questions in embryonic stem cell biology could be addressed using microfluidic technologies.

  13. Modular microfluidics for point-of-care protein purifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, L J; Lucheon, J D; Standaert, R F; Retterer, S T; Doktycz, M J

    2015-04-21

    Biochemical separations are the heart of diagnostic assays and purification methods for biologics. On-chip miniaturization and modularization of separation procedures will enable the development of customized, portable devices for personalized health-care diagnostics and point-of-use production of treatments. In this report, we describe the design and fabrication of miniature ion exchange, size exclusion and affinity chromatography modules for on-chip clean-up of recombinantly-produced proteins. Our results demonstrate that these common separations techniques can be implemented in microfluidic modules with performance comparable to conventional approaches. We introduce embedded 3-D microfluidic interconnects for integrating micro-scale separation modules that can be arranged and reconfigured to suit a variety of fluidic operations or biochemical processes. We demonstrate the utility of the modular approach with a platform for the enrichment of enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) from Escherichia coli lysate through integrated affinity and size-exclusion chromatography modules.

  14. Energy Harvesting with a Liquid-Metal Microfluidic Influence Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Christopher; de Visser, Tim; Loessberg, Joshua; Sherman, Sam; Smith, Andrew; Ma, Shuo; Napoli, Maria Teresa; Pennathur, Sumita; Weld, David

    2018-04-01

    We describe and demonstrate an alternative energy-harvesting technology based on a microfluidic realization of a Wimshurst influence machine. The prototype device converts the mechanical energy of a pressure-driven flow into electrical energy, using a multiphase system composed of droplets of liquid mercury surrounded by insulating oil. Electrostatic induction between adjacent metal droplets drives charge through external electrode paths, resulting in continuous charge amplification and collection. We demonstrate a power output of 4 nW from the initial prototype and present calculations suggesting that straightforward device optimization could increase the power output by more than 3 orders of magnitude. At that level, the power efficiency of this energy-harvesting mechanism, limited by viscous dissipation, could exceed 90%. The microfluidic context enables straightforward scaling and parallelization, as well as hydraulic matching to a variety of ambient mechanical energy sources, such as human locomotion.

  15. Polymeric salt bridges for conducting electric current in microfluidic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepodd, Timothy J [Livermore, CA; Tichenor, Mark S [San Diego, CA; Artau, Alexander [Humacao, PR

    2009-11-17

    A "cast-in-place" monolithic microporous polymer salt bridge for conducting electrical current in microfluidic devices, and methods for manufacture thereof is disclosed. Polymeric salt bridges are formed in place in capillaries or microchannels. Formulations are prepared with monomer, suitable cross-linkers, solvent, and a thermal or radiation responsive initiator. The formulation is placed in a desired location and then suitable radiation such as UV light is used to polymerize the salt bridge within a desired structural location. Embodiments are provided wherein the polymeric salt bridges have sufficient porosity to allow ionic migration without bulk flow of solvents therethrough. The salt bridges form barriers that seal against fluid pressures in excess of 5000 pounds per square inch. The salt bridges can be formulated for carriage of suitable amperage at a desired voltage, and thus microfluidic devices using such salt bridges can be specifically constructed to meet selected analytical requirements.

  16. Droplet Microfluidic and Magnetic Particles Platform for Cancer Typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Davide; Champ, Jérôme; Teste, Bruno; Serra, M; Malaquin, Laurent; Descroix, Stéphanie; de Cremoux, Patricia; Viovy, Jean-Louis

    2017-01-01

    Analyses of nucleic acids are routinely performed in hospital laboratories to detect gene alterations for cancer diagnosis and treatment decision. Among the different possible investigations, mRNA analysis provides information on abnormal levels of genes expression. Standard laboratory methods are still not adapted to the isolation and quantitation of low mRNA amounts and new techniques needs to be developed in particular for rare subsets analysis. By reducing the volume involved, time process, and the contamination risks, droplet microfluidics provide numerous advantages to perform analysis down to the single cell level.We report on a droplet microfluidic platform based on the manipulation of magnetic particles that allows the clinical analysis of tumor tissues. In particular, it allows the extraction of mRNA from the total-RNA sample, Reverse Transcription, and cDNA amplification, all in droplets.

  17. pH-Sensitive Hydrogel for Micro-Fluidic Valve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengzhi Yang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The deformation behavior of a pH-sensitive hydrogel micro-fluidic valve system is investigated using inhomogeneous gel deformation theory, in which the fluid-structure interaction (FSI of the gel solid and fluid flow in the pipe is considered. We use a finite element method with a well adopted hydrogel constitutive equation, which is coded in commercial software, ABAQUS, to simulate the hydrogel valve swelling deformation, while FLUENT is adopted to model the fluid flow in the pipe of the hydrogel valve system. The study demonstrates that FSI significantly affects the gel swelling deformed shapes, fluid flow pressure and velocity patterns. FSI has to be considered in the study on fluid flow regulated by hydrogel microfluidic valve. The study provides a more accurate and adoptable model for future design of new pH-sensitive hydrogel valves, and also gives a useful guideline for further studies on hydrogel fluidic applications.

  18. Microfluidic hubs, systems, and methods for interface fluidic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Michael S; Claudnic, Mark R; Kim, Hanyoup; Patel, Kamlesh D; Renzi, Ronald F; Van De Vreugde, James L

    2015-01-27

    Embodiments of microfluidic hubs and systems are described that may be used to connect fluidic modules. A space between surfaces may be set by fixtures described herein. In some examples a fixture may set substrate-to-substrate spacing based on a distance between registration surfaces on which the respective substrates rest. Fluidic interfaces are described, including examples where fluid conduits (e.g. capillaries) extend into the fixture to the space between surfaces. Droplets of fluid may be introduced to and/or removed from microfluidic hubs described herein, and fluid actuators may be used to move droplets within the space between surfaces. Continuous flow modules may be integrated with the hubs in some examples.

  19. Usability and Applicability of Microfluidic Cell Culture Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmingsen, Mette

    possibilities for, for example, precise control of the chemical environment, 3D cultures, controlled co-culture of different cell types or automated, individual control of up to 96 cell culture chambers in one integrated system. Despite the great new opportunities to perform novel experimental designs......Microfluidic cell culture has been a research area with great attention the last decade due to its potential to mimic the in vivo cellular environment more closely compared to what is possible by conventional cell culture methods. Many exciting and complex devices have been presented providing......, these devices still lack general implementation into biological research laboratories. In this project, the usability and applicability of microfluidic cell culture systems have been investigated. The tested systems display good properties regarding optics and compatibility with standard laboratory equipment...

  20. Microfluidics and nanofluidics handbook chemistry, physics, and life science principles

    CERN Document Server

    Mitra, Sushanta K

    2011-01-01

    The Microfluidics and Nanofluidics Handbook: Two-Volume Set comprehensively captures the cross-disciplinary breadth of the fields of micro- and nanofluidics, which encompass the biological sciences, chemistry, physics and engineering applications. To fill the knowledge gap between engineering and the basic sciences, the editors pulled together key individuals, well known in their respective areas, to author chapters that help graduate students, scientists, and practicing engineers understand the overall area of microfluidics and nanofluidics. Topics covered include Cell Lysis Techniques in Lab-on-a-Chip Technology Electrodics in Electrochemical Energy Conversion Systems: Microstructure and Pore-Scale Transport Microscale Gas Flow Dynamics and Molecular Models for Gas Flow and Heat Transfer Microscopic Hemorheology and Hemodynamics Covering physics and transport phenomena along with life sciences and related applications, Volume One: Chemistry, Physics, and Life Science Principles provides readers with the fun...