WorldWideScience

Sample records for two-beam power production

  1. X-band rf power production and deceleration in the two-beam test stand of the Compact Linear Collider test facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Adli

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We discuss X-band rf power production and deceleration in the two-beam test stand of the CLIC test facility at CERN. The rf power is extracted from an electron drive beam by a specially designed power extraction structure. In order to test the structures at high-power levels, part of the generated power is recirculated to an input port, thus allowing for increased deceleration and power levels within the structure. The degree of recirculation is controlled by a splitter and phase shifter. We present a model that describes the system and validate it with measurements over a wide range of parameters. Moreover, by correlating rf power measurements with the energy lost by the electron beam, as measured in a spectrometer placed after the power extraction structure, we are able to identify system parameters, including the form factor of the electron beam. The quality of the agreement between model and reality gives us confidence to extrapolate the results found in the present test facility towards the parameter regime of CLIC.

  2. X-band rf power production and deceleration in the two-beam test stand of the Compact Linear Collider test facility

    CERN Document Server

    Adli, E; Dubrovskiy, A; Syratchev, I; Ruber, R; Ziemann, V

    2011-01-01

    We discuss X-band rf power production and deceleration in the two-beam test stand of the CLIC test facility at CERN. The rf power is extracted from an electron drive beam by a specially designed power extraction structure. In order to test the structures at high-power levels, part of the generated power is recirculated to an input port, thus allowing for increased deceleration and power levels within the structure. The degree of recirculation is controlled by a splitter and phase shifter. We present a model that describes the system and validate it with measurements over a wide range of parameters. Moreover, by correlating rf power measurements with the energy lost by the electron beam, as measured in a spectrometer placed after the power extraction structure, we are able to identify system parameters, including the form factor of the electron beam. The quality of the agreement between model and reality gives us confidence to extrapolate the results found in the present test facility towards the parameter reg...

  3. Numerical Verification of the Power Transfer and Wakefield Coupling in the CLIC Two-Beam Accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Candel, Arno; NG, C; Rawat, V; Schussman, G; Ko, K; Syratchev, I; Grudiev, A; Wuensch, W

    2011-01-01

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) provides a path to a multi-TeV accelerator to explore the energy frontier of High Energy Physics. Its two-beam accelerator (TBA) concept envisions complex 3D structures, which must be modeled to high accuracy so that simulation results can be directly used to prepare CAD drawings for machining. The required simulations include not only the fundamental mode properties of the accelerating structures but also the Power Extraction and Transfer Structure (PETS), as well as the coupling between the two systems. Time-domain simulations will be performed to understand pulse formation, wakefield damping, fundamental power transfer and wakefield coupling in these structures. Applying SLAC’s parallel finite element code suite, these large-scale problems will be solved on some of the largest supercomputers available. The results will help to identify potential issues and provide new insights on the design, leading to further improvements on the novel two-beam accelerator scheme.

  4. Relativistic-Klystron two-beam accelerator as a power source for future linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidia, S. M.; Anderson, D. E.; Eylon, S.; Henestroza, E.; Vanecek, D. L.; Yu, S. S.; Houck, T. L.; Westenskow, G. A.

    1999-01-01

    The technical challenge for making two-beam accelerators into realizable power sources for high-energy colliders lies in the creation of the drive beam and in its propagation over long distances through multiple extraction sections. This year we have been constructing a 1.2-kA, 1-MeV, induction gun for a prototype relativistic klystron two-beam accelerator (RK-TBA). The electron source will be a 8.9 cm diameter, thermionic, flat-surface cathode with a maximum shroud field stress of approximately 165 kV/cm. Additional design parameters for the injector include a pulse length of over 150-ns flat top (1% energy variation), and a normalized edge emittance of less than 300 pi-mm-mr. The prototype accelerator will be used to study, physics, engineering, and costing issues involved in the application of the RK-TBA concept to linear colliders. We have also been studying optimization parameters, such as frequency, for the application of the RK-TBA concept to multi-TeV linear colliders. As an rf power source the RK-TBA scales favorably up to frequencies around 35 GHz. An overview of this work with details of the design and performance of the prototype injector, beam line, and diagnostics will be presented

  5. Study of a microwave power source for a two-beam accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houck, T.L.

    1994-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental study of a microwave power source suitable for driving a linear e + e - collider is reported. The power source is based on the Relativistic Klystron Two-Beam Accelerator (RK-TBA) concept, is driven by a 5-MeV, 1-kA induction accelerator electron beam, and operates at X-band frequencies. The development of a computer code to simulate the transverse beam dynamics of an intense relativistic electron beam transiting a system of microwave resonant structures is presented. This code is time dependent with self-consistent beam-cavity interactions and uses realistic beam parameters. Simulations performed with this code are compared with analytical theory and experiments. The concept of spacing resonant structures at distances equal to the betatron wavelength of the focusing system to suppress the growth of transverse instabilities is discussed. Simulations include energy spread over the beam to demonstrate the effect of Landau damping and establish the sensitivity of the betatron wavelength spacing scheme to errors in the focusing system. The design of the Reacceleration Experiment is described in detail and includes essentially all the issues related to a full scale RK-TBA microwave source. A total combined power from three output structures in excess of 170 MW with an amplitude stability of ±4% over a 25 ns pulse was achieved. The results of the experiment are compared to simulations used during the design phase to validate the various codes and methods used. The primary issue for the RK-TBA concept is identified as transverse beam instability associated with the excitation of higher order modes in the resonant structures used for extracting microwave power from the modulated beam. This work represents the first successful experimental demonstration of repeated cycles of microwave energy extraction from and reacceleration of a modulated beam

  6. Relativistic-klystron two-beam-accelerator as a power source for a 1 TeV next linear collider: A systems study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, S.; Goffeney, N.; Deadrick, F.

    1994-10-01

    A physics, engineering, and costing study has been conducted to explore the feasibility of a relativistic-klystron two-beam-accelerator system as a power source candidate for a 1 TeV linear collider. We present a point design example which has acceptable transverse and longitudinal beam stability properties. Preliminary ''bottom-up'' cost estimate yields the full power source system at less than 1 billion dollars. The overall efficiency for rf production is estimated to be 36%

  7. The two-beam accelerator and the relativistic klystron power source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sessler, A.M.

    1988-04-01

    This paper discusses the concept of a two-beam accelerator. Two versions are discussed; one employing a free electron laser, the second employing a branched beam sent through ''transfer cavities'' as in a klystron. 14 refs., 26 figs., 1 tab

  8. Uncertainty of power curve measurement with a two-beam nacelle-mounted lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Rozenn; Courtney, Michael Stephen; Friis Pedersen, Troels

    2015-01-01

    Nacelle lidars are attractive for offshore measurements since they can provide measurements of the free wind speed in front of the turbine rotor without erecting a met mast, which significantly reduces the cost of the measurements. Nacelle-mounted pulsed lidars with two lines of sight (LOS) have...... lies between 1 and 2% for the wind speed range between cut-in and rated wind speed. Finally, the lidar was mounted on the nacelle of a wind turbine in order to perform a power curve measurement. The wind speed was simultaneously measured with a mast-top mounted cup anemometer placed two rotor diameters...... lidar was less than 10% larger on average than that obtained with the mast mounted cup anemometer. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  9. A systems study of an RF power source for a 1 TeV next linear collider based upon the relativistic-klystron two-beam accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, S.; Goffeney, N.; Deadrick, F.

    1994-11-01

    A systems study, including physics, engineering and costing, has been conducted to assess the feasibility of a relativistic-klystron two-beam-accelerator (RK-TBA) system as a RF power source candidate for a 1 TeV linear collider. Several key issues associated with a realizable RK-TBA system have been addressed, and corresponding schemes have been developed and examined quantitatively. A point design example has been constructed to present a concrete conceptual design which has acceptable transverse and longitudinal beam stability properties. The overall efficiency of RF production for such a power source is estimated to be 36%, and the cost of the full system is estimated to be less than 1 billion dollars

  10. Two-beam accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sessler, A.M.; Hopkins, D.B.

    1986-06-01

    The Two-Beam Accelerator (TBA) consists of a long high-gradient accelerator structure (HGS) adjacent to an equal-length Free Electron Laser (FEL). In the FEL, a beam propagates through a long series of undulators. At regular intervals, waveguides couple microwave power out of the FEL into the HGS. To replenish energy given up by the FEL beam to the microwave field, induction accelerator units are placed periodically along the length of the FEL. In this manner it is expected to achieve gradients of more than 250 MV/m and thus have a serious option for a 1 TeV x 1 TeV linear collider. The state of present theoretical understanding of the TBA is presented with particular emphasis upon operation of the ''steady-state'' FEL, phase and amplitude control of the rf wave, and suppression of sideband instabilities. Experimental work has focused upon the development of a suitable HGS and the testing of this structure using the Electron Laser Facility (ELF). Description is given of a first test at ELF with a seven-cell 2π/3 mode structure which without preconditioning and with a not-very-good vacuum nevertheless at 35 GHz yielded an average accelerating gradient of 180 MV/m

  11. Preliminary design report of a relativistic-Klystron two-beam-accelerator based power source for a 1 TeV center-of-mass next linear collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, S.; Goffeney, N.; Henestroza, E.

    1995-01-01

    A preliminary point design for an 11.4 GHz power source for a 1 TeV center-of-mass Next Linear Collider (NLC) based on the Relativistic-Klystron Two-Beam-Accelerator (RK-TBA) concept is presented. The present report is the result of a joint LBL-LLNL systems study. consisting of three major thrust areas: physics, engineering, and costing. The new RK-TBA point design, together with our findings in each of these areas, are reported

  12. Two-Beam Linear Colliders - Special Issues

    CERN Document Server

    Corsini, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    The path towards a multi-TeV e+e- linear collider proposed by the CLIC study is based on the Two-Beam Acceleration (TBA) scheme. Such a scheme is promising in term of efficiency, reliability and cost. The rationale behind the two-beam scheme is discussed in the paper, together with the special issues related to this technology and the R&D needed to demonstrate its feasibility.

  13. Power Producer Production Valuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kněžek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing developments in the electricity market, in particular the establishment of the Prague Energy Exchange (PXE and the associated transfer from campaign-driven sale to continuous trading, represent a significant change for power companies.  Power producing companies can now optimize the sale of their production capacities with the objective of maximizing profit from wholesale electricity and supporting services. The Trading Departments measure the success rate of trading activities by the gross margin (GM, calculated by subtracting the realized sales prices from the realized purchase prices and the production cost, and indicate the profit & loss (P&L to be subsequently calculated by the Control Department. The risk management process is set up on the basis of a business strategy defining the volumes of electricity that have to be sold one year and one month before the commencement of delivery. At the same time, this process defines the volume of electricity to remain available for spot trading (trading limits. 

  14. Thermal electric power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehmer, S.

    2001-01-01

    known as 'Coal combustion product' (CCP) are generated and cause enormous problems of disposal. This work gives an overlook of solid residues generation in a coal fired power plant. In dry bottom furnaces the major part of solid residues (up to 90 %) is retained as fly ash by particulate control devices, whereas in wet bottom furnaces the predominant waste fraction is bottom ash (up to 85 % of the total residue generation). (author)

  15. Small scale power production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muoniovaara, M [IVO International Ltd, Vantaa (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    IVO International is a major constructor of biomass power plants in Finland and abroad. As a subsidiary of Imatran Voima Oy, the largest power utility in Finland, it has designed and constructed ten power plants owned by IVO Group or others capable of burning biomasses. Sizes of the plants vary from the world`s largest condensing peat-fired power plant of 155 MWe to a 6 MWe combined heat and power producing unit. This article describes the biomass power plants designed and constructed by IVO Group 3 refs.

  16. Small scale power production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muoniovaara, M. [IVO International Ltd, Vantaa (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    IVO International is a major constructor of biomass power plants in Finland and abroad. As a subsidiary of Imatran Voima Oy, the largest power utility in Finland, it has designed and constructed ten power plants owned by IVO Group or others capable of burning biomasses. Sizes of the plants vary from the world`s largest condensing peat-fired power plant of 155 MWe to a 6 MWe combined heat and power producing unit. This article describes the biomass power plants designed and constructed by IVO Group 3 refs.

  17. On optimization of power production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feltenmark, S.

    1997-01-01

    Short-term optimization of power production is treated. It concerns the problem of determining a production schedule for a power system, which minimizes the total cost of production, while satisfying various constraints. The thesis consists of an introductory chapter, four chapters that each concerns a specific problem area (economic dispatch, unit commitment, hydro power planning and cogeneration optimization), plus a chapter with relevant theory. The emphasis of the thesis is on the mathematical structures that arise in problems in this field, and how to exploit them algorithmically. A recurring theme is convexification, either implicit, by dualization, or explicit, as in our approach to hydro power optimization. 134 refs

  18. Nuclear power production costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erramuspe, H.J.

    1988-01-01

    The economic competitiveness of nuclear power in different highly developed countries is shown, by reviewing various international studies made on the subject. Generation costs (historical values) of Atucha I and Embalse Nuclear Power Plants, which are of the type used in those countries, are also included. The results of an international study on the economic aspects of the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle are also reviewed. This study shows its relatively low incidence in the generation costs. The conclusion is that if in Argentina the same principles of economic racionality were followed, nuclear energy would be economically competitive in the future, as it is today. This is of great importance in view of its almost unavoidable character of alternative source of energy, and specially since we have to expect an important growth in the consumption of electricity, due to its low share in the total consumption of energy, and the low energy consumption per capita in Argentina. (Author) [es

  19. Demonstration of two-beam acceleration in CTF II

    CERN Document Server

    Bossart, Rudolf; Carron, G; Chanudet, M; Chautard, F; Delahaye, J P; Godot, J C; Hutchins, S; Kamber, I; Martínez, C; Suberlucq, Guy; Tenenbaum, P G; Thorndahl, L; Valentini, M; Wilson, Ian H; Wuensch, Walter

    1999-01-01

    The second phase of the Compact LInear Collider (CLIC) Test Facility (CTF II) at CERN has demon-strated the feasibility of two-beam acceleration at 30 GHz using a high-charge drive beam, running paral lel to the main beam, as the RF power source. To date accelerating gradients of 59 MV/m at 30 GHz have been achieved. In CTF II, the two beams are generated by 3 GHz RF photo-injectors and are acceler ated in 3 GHz linacs, before injection into the 30 GHz modules. The drive beam linac has to accelerate a 16 ns long train of 48 bunches, each with a nominal charge of 13.4 nC. To cope with the very su bstantial beam-loading special accelerating structures are used (running slightly off the bunch repetition frequency). A magnetic chicane compresses the bunches to less than 5 ps fwhm, this is needed for efficient 30 GHz power generation. The 30 GHz modules are fully-engineered representative sections of CLIC, they include a 30 GHz decelerator for the drive beam, a 30 GHz accelerator for the main beam, high resolution...

  20. Design of a relativistic klystron two-beam accelerator prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westenskow, G.; Caporaso, G.; Chen, Y.

    1995-01-01

    We are designing an experiment to study physics, engineering, and costing issues of an extended Relativistic Klystron Two-Beam Accelerator (RK-TBA). The experiment is a prototype for an RK-TBA based microwave power source suitable for driving a 1 TeV linear collider. Major components of the experiment include a 2.5-MV, 1.5-kA electron source, a 11.4-GHz modulator, a bunch compressor, and a 8-m extraction section. The extraction section will be comprised of 4 traveling-wave output structures, each generating about 360 MW of rf power. Induction cells will be used in the extraction section to maintain the average beam energy at 5 MeV. Status of the design is presented

  1. Experimental demonstration of dielectric structure based two beam acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gai, W.; Conde, M. E.; Konecny, R.; Power, J. G.; Schoessow, P.; Sun, X.; Zou, P.

    2000-01-01

    We report on the experimental results of the dielectric based two beam accelerator (step-up transformer). By using a single high charge beam, we have generated and extracted a high power RF pulse from a 7.8 GHz primary dielectric structure and then subsequently transferred to a second accelerating structure with higher dielectric constant and smaller transverse dimensions. We have measured the energy change of a second (witness) beam passing through the acceleration stage. The measured gradient is >4 times the deceleration gradient. The detailed experiment of set-up and results of the measurements are dimmed. Future plans for the development of a 100 MeV demonstration accelerator based on this technique is presented

  2. Experimental demonstration of dielectric structure based two beam acceleration.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gai, W.; Conde, M. E.; Konecny, R.; Power, J. G.; Schoessow, P.; Sun, X.; Zou, P.

    2000-11-28

    We report on the experimental results of the dielectric based two beam accelerator (step-up transformer). By using a single high charge beam, we have generated and extracted a high power RF pulse from a 7.8 GHz primary dielectric structure and then subsequently transferred to a second accelerating structure with higher dielectric constant and smaller transverse dimensions. We have measured the energy change of a second (witness) beam passing through the acceleration stage. The measured gradient is >4 times the deceleration gradient. The detailed experiment of set-up and results of the measurements are dimmed. Future plans for the development of a 100 MeV demonstration accelerator based on this technique is presented.

  3. Relativistic Klystron Two-Beam Accelerator studies at the RTA test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westenskow, G.A.; Houck, T.L.; Anderson, D.

    1996-01-01

    A prototype rf power source based on the Relativistic Klystron Two- Beam Accelerator (RK-TBA) concept is being constructed at LBNL to study physics, engineering, and costing issues. The prototype, called RTA, is described and compared to a full scale design appropriate for driving the Next Linear Collider. Specific details of the induction core test and pulsed power system are presented. Details of the 1-MeV, 1.2-kA induction gun currently under construction are described

  4. Study of the Thermo-Mechanical Behavior of the CLIC Two-Beam Modules

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, F; Riddone, G; Österberg, K; Kossyvakis, I; Gudkov, D; Samochkine, A

    2013-01-01

    The final luminosity target of the Compact LInear Collider (CLIC) imposes a micron-level stability requirement on the two-meter repetitive two-beam modules constituting the main linacs. Two-beam prototype modules are being assembled to extensively study their thermo-mechanical behaviour under different operation modes. The power dissipation occurring in the modules will be reproduced and the efficiency of the corresponding cooling systems validated. At the same time, the real environmental conditions present in the CLIC tunnel will be studied. Air conditioning and ventilation systems have been installed in the dedicated laboratory. The air temperature will be changed from 20 to 40°C, while the air flow rate will be varied up to 0.8 m/s. During all experimental tests, the alignment of the RF structures will be monitored to investigate the influence of power dissipation and air temperature on the overall thermo-mechanical behaviour. \

  5. Coal gasification and the power production market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howington, K.; Flandermeyer, G.

    1995-01-01

    The US electric power production market is experiencing significant changes sparking interest in the current and future alternatives for power production. Coal gasification technology is being marketed to satisfy the needs of the volatile power production industry. Coal gasification is a promising power production process in which solid coal is burned to produce a synthesis gas (syn gas). The syn gas may be used to fuel combustion integrated into a facility producing electric power. Advantages of this technology include efficient power production, low flue gas emissions, flexible fuel utilization, broad capability for facility integration, useful process byproducts, and decreased waste disposal. The primary disadvantages are relatively high capital costs and lack of proven long-term operating experience. Developers of coal gasification intend to improve on these disadvantages and lop a strong position in the power generation market. This paper is a marketing analysis of the partial oxidation coal gasification processes emerging in the US in response to the market factors of the power production industry. A brief history of these processes is presented, including the results of recent projects exploring the feasibility of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) as a power production alternative. The current power generation market factors are discussed, and the status of current projects is presented including projected performance

  6. Design Considerations of a Novel Two-Beam Accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luginsland, John William

    This thesis reports the design study of a new type of charged particle accelerator called the Twobetron. The accelerator consists of two beams of electrons traveling through a series of pillbox cavities. The power of a high current annular beam excites an electromagnetic mode in the cavities, which, in turn, drives a low current on-axis pencil beam to high energy. We focus on the design considerations that would make use of existing pulsed power systems, for a proof-of-principle experiment. Potential applications of this new device include radiotherapy, materials processing, and high energy accelerators. The first phase of the research involves analytic description of the accelerating process. This reveals the problem of phase slippage. Derbenev's proposed cure of beam radius modulation is analyzed. Further studies include the effect of initial phase and secondary beam loading. Scaling laws to characterize the Twobetron's performance are derived. Computer simulation is performed to produce a self-consistent analysis of the dynamics of the space charge and its interaction with the accelerator structure. Particle -in-cell simulations answer several questions concerning beam stability, cavity modes, and the nature of the structure. Specifically, current modulation on the primary beam is preserved in the simulations. However, these simulations also revealed that mode competition and significant cavity coupling are serious issues that need to be addressed. Also considered is non-axisymmetric instability on the driver beam of the Twobetron, in particular, the beam breakup instability (BBU), which is known to pose a serious threat to linear accelerators in general. We extend the classical analysis of BBU to annular beams. The effect of higher order non-axisymmetric modes is also examined. It is shown that annular beams are more stable than pencil beams to BBU in general. Our analysis also reveals that the rf magnetic field is more important than the rf electric field in

  7. Beam loading effects for two-beam ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lanfa; Lin Yuzheng; Tong Dechun

    1999-01-01

    An analytic treatment of multi-bunch potential well distortion for a two-beam storage ring is presented. The longitudinal wake effects are separated into: the mode loss, the synchrotron tune shift (both due to potential well distortion) and the coherent multi-bunch coupling. Here, only the first two effects are studied. Resulting simple analytic formulas describe the mode loss and the synchrotron tune shift experienced by a given bunch within the two-beam, as a function of the high order mode's parameters. One can get immediately a simple quantitative answer in term of the mode loss and the synchrotron tune shift experienced by each bunch from these formulas, so the authors can know how to modify the existing configuration of parasitic cavity resonance (via frequency tuning) so that the resulting potential well distortion effects are minimized. When the RF cavities are symmetrically distributed about the interaction points, the two beams will have same beam loading effects, so the authors can compensate the phase shift of the two beam using the same method as in one beam case

  8. Power production at minimum risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fremlin, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    A summary, including extensive quotations, is given of the main themes of a lecture by Prof. Fremlin in which he assessed the risks inherent in the use of various power systems. Considering only hazards which affect members of the public, the methods used to quantify such risks are examined. Both so-called inconspicuous hazards from radiation effects and conspicuous risks from accidents which could arise from nuclear power stations are compared to those from other types of power generation. The small risk arising from nuclear wastes is stressed. The lecturer concluded that he would not let 'tiny differences of risk' affect his decisions on energy planning. (U.K.)

  9. Reference costs of the electric power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-06-01

    This study periodically realized by the DGEMP aims to compare the competitiveness of the different channels of electric power production, for different utilization conditions. The first part ''reference costs of the 2003 electric power production'' examines the prices of the electric power produced by different channels in particular in the framework of the industrial implementing in 2015. The nuclear and thermal power plants are concerned. The second part is devoted to the decentralized production channels (wind energy, photovoltaic, cogeneration heat-electricity) is under construction and will be presented next year. (A.L.B.)

  10. Studies of beam dynamics in relativistic klystron two-beam accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lidia, Steven M.

    1999-11-01

    Two-beam accelerators (TBAs) based upon free-electron lasers (FELs) or relativistic klystrons (RK-TBAs) have been proposed as efficient power sources for next generation high-energy linear colliders. Studies have demonstrated the possibility of building TBAs from X-band (~8-12 GHz) through Ka band (~ 30-35 GHz) frequency regions. Provided that further prototyping shows stable beam propagation with minimal current loss and production of good quality, high-power rf fields, this technology is compatible with current schemes for electron-positron colliders in the multi-TeV center-of-mass scale. A new method of simulating the beam dynamics in accelerators of this type has been developed in this dissertation. There are three main components to this simulation. The first is a tracking algorithm to generate nonlinear transfer maps for pushing noninteracting particles through the external fields. The second component is a 3D Particle-In-Cell (PIC) algorithm that solves a set of Helmholtz equations for the self-fields, including the conducting boundary condition, and generates impulses that are interleaved with the nonlinear maps by means of a split-operation algorithm. The Helmholtz equations are solved by a multi-grid algorithm. The third component is an equivalent circuit equation solver that advances the modal rf cavity fields in time due to excitation by the modulated beam. The RTA project is described, and the simulation code is used to design the latter portions of the experiment. Detailed calculations of the beam dynamics and of the rf cavity output are presented and discussed. A beamline design is presented that will generate nearly 1.2 GW of power from 40 input, gain, and output rv cavities over a 10 m distance. The simulations show that beam current losses are acceptable, and that longitudinal and transverse focusing techniques are sufficient capable of maintaining a high degree of beam quality along the entire beamline. Additional experimental efforts are also

  11. The power of product integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, K B; Fujimoto, T

    1990-01-01

    In the dictionary, integrity means wholeness, completeness, soundness. In products, integrity is the source of sustainable competitive advantage. Products with integrity perform superbly, provide good value, and satisfy customers' expectations in every respect, including such intangibles as their look and feel. Consider this example from the auto industry. In 1987, Mazda put a racy four-wheel steering system in a five-door family hatchback. Honda introduced a comparable system in the Prelude, a sporty, two-door coupe. Most of Honda's customers installed the new technology; Mazda's system sold poorly. Potential customers felt the fit--or misfit--between the car and the new component, and they responded accordingly. Companies that consistently develop products with integrity are coherent, integrated organizations. This internal integrity is visible at the level of strategy and structure, in management and organization, and in the skills, attitudes, and behavior of individual designers, engineers, and operators. Moreover, these companies are integrated externally: customers become part of the development organization. Integrity starts with a product concept that describes the new product from the potential customer's perspective--"pocket rocket" for a sporty, subcompact car, for example. Whether the final product has integrity will depend on two things: how well the concept satisfies potential customers' wants and needs and how completely the concept has been embodied in the product's details. In the most successful development organizations, "heavyweight" product managers are responsible for leading both tasks, as well as for guiding the creation of a strong product concept.

  12. ACE3P Computations of Wakefield Coupling in the CLIC Two-Beam Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candel, Arno

    2010-01-01

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) provides a path to a multi-TeV accelerator to explore the energy frontier of High Energy Physics. Its novel two-beam accelerator concept envisions rf power transfer to the accelerating structures from a separate high-current decelerator beam line consisting of power extraction and transfer structures (PETS). It is critical to numerically verify the fundamental and higher-order mode properties in and between the two beam lines with high accuracy and confidence. To solve these large-scale problems, SLAC's parallel finite element electromagnetic code suite ACE3P is employed. Using curvilinear conformal meshes and higher-order finite element vector basis functions, unprecedented accuracy and computational efficiency are achieved, enabling high-fidelity modeling of complex detuned structures such as the CLIC TD24 accelerating structure. In this paper, time-domain simulations of wakefield coupling effects in the combined system of PETS and the TD24 structures are presented. The results will help to identify potential issues and provide new insights on the design, leading to further improvements on the novel CLIC two-beam accelerator scheme.

  13. Behaviors of ellipsoidal micro-particles within a two-beam optical levitator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petkov, T.; Yang, M.; Ren, K.F.; Pouligny, B.; Loudet, J.-C.

    2017-01-01

    The two-beam levitator (TBL) is a standard optical setup made of a couple of counter-propagating beams. Note worthily, TBLs allow the manipulation and trapping of particles at long working distances. While much experience has been accumulated in the trapping of single spherical particles in TBLs, the behaviors of asymmetrical particles turn out to be more complex, and even surprising. Here, we report observations with prolate ellipsoidal polystyrene particles, with varying aspect ratio and ratio of the two beam powers. Generalizing the earlier work by Mihiretie et al. in single beam geometries [JQSRT 126, 61 (2013)], we observe that particles may be either static, or permanently oscillating, and that the two-beam geometry produces new particle responses: some of them are static, but non-symmetrical, while others correspond to new types of oscillations. A two-dimensional model based on ray-optics qualitatively accounts for these configurations and for the “primary” oscillations of the particles. Furthermore, levitation powers measured in the experiments are in fair agreement with those computed from GLMT (Generalized Lorentz Mie Theory), MLFMA (Multilevel Fast Multipole Algorithm) and approximate ray-optics methods. - Highlights: • Spheroids in two-laser beam geometry may stabilize in asymmetric configurations. • Particles undergo different types of oscillations, in polar and azimuthal angles. • Polar angle oscillations and asymmetric equilibriums are predicted by ray-optics. • The basic levitation force decreases with particle aspect ratio. • Experiments, simple ray optics and MLFMA calculations show similar tendencies.

  14. Power to Production: Activity Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massachusetts Univ., Lowell. Tsongas Industrial History Center.

    This field trip program consists of a 90-minute interpretive tour and a 90-minute hands-on workshop. The tour and workshop explore the role of water power in the Industrial Revolution. On the tour, students discover firsthand the unique resources of Lowell, Massachusetts, and the Park, while the workshop brings these historic resources to life as…

  15. Technical Specification for the CLIC Two-Beam Module

    CERN Document Server

    Riddone, G; Nousiainen, R; Samoshkin, A; Schulte, D; Syratchev, I; Wuensch, W; Zennaro, R

    2008-01-01

    A high-energy (0.5-3 TeV centre-of-mass), highluminosity Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is being studied at CERN [1]. The CLIC main linacs, 21-km long each, are composed of 2-m long two beam modules. This paper presents their current layout, the main requirements for the different sub-systems (alignment, supporting, stabilization, cooling and vacuum) as well as the status of their integration.

  16. A new version of a free electron laser Two-Beam Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sessler, A.M.; Sternbach, E.; Wurtele, J.S.

    1988-09-01

    A new version of a Two-Beam Accelerator is proposed in which in each period of the drive structure a very small input microwave signal is amplified to a large power level and then completely removed and transferred to the accelerating structure. In this manner a number of difficulties with the original version are eliminated or greatly relieved; namely, rf phase and amplitude sensitivity, growth of sidebands, and rf manipulation (removal of the microwaves from the drive structure, and transmission of microwave power through the accelerating cavities). 11 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  17. A study of phase control in the FEL [free electron laser] two-beam accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sessler, A.M.; Whittum, D.H.; Wurtele, J.S.

    1989-08-01

    A formalism is developed for the analysis of a steady-state free electron laser (FEL) and is applied to the two-beam accelerator (TBA). Conditions are derived for the design of a FEL TBA with rf output power and phase insensitive to errors in both beam current and energy. An example is presented of a suitably phase insensitive TBA design with 100 reaccelerations employing untapered FEL sections and with low power rf input to each section. The theoretical analysis is confirmed by a single particle FEL simulations. 9 refs., 2 tabs

  18. Cost allocation. Combined heat and power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidzikauskas, V.

    2002-01-01

    The benefits of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) generation are discussed. The include improvement in energy intensity of 1% by 2010, 85-90% efficiency versus 40-50% of condensation power and others. Share of CHP electricity production in ERRA countries is presented.Solutions for a development CHP cost allocation are considered. Conclusion are presented for CHP production cost allocation. (R.P.)

  19. Nuclear energy products except the electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Technically the fission reactors, on service or under construction, can produce other products than the electric power. Meanwhile, these applications are known since the beginning of the reactors exploitation, they never have been developed industrially. This report examines the necessary technical characteristics for using the nuclear systems on non electric power applications with an economical efficiency. What are the markets for these products? What are the strategical challenges to favor the development of non electric power applications of the nuclear energy? (A.L.B.)

  20. Photovoltaic power production figures in 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Worldwide figures of photovoltaic power production (in Mw) along 1992 are presented. Worldwide production of modules per manufacturing technology and per manufacturing companies in Europe, USA and Japan are provided as well. The review has used the following sources: ''PV News'', ''PV insider's report'' and ''systems solars''. (Author)

  1. Atmospheric science and power production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randerson, D. (ed.)

    1984-07-01

    This is the third in a series of scientific publications sponsored by the US Atomic Energy Commission and the two later organizations, the US Energy Research and Development Adminstration, and the US Department of Energy. The first book, Meteorology and Atomic Energy, was published in 1955; the second, in 1968. The present volume is designed to update and to expand upon many of the important concepts presented previously. However, the present edition draws heavily on recent contributions made by atmospheric science to the analysis of air quality and on results originating from research conducted and completed in the 1970s. Special emphasis is placed on how atmospheric science can contribute to solving problems relating to the fate of combustion products released into the atmosphere. The framework of this book is built around the concept of air-quality modeling. Fundamentals are addressed first to equip the reader with basic background information and to focus on available meteorological instrumentation and to emphasize the importance of data management procedures. Atmospheric physics and field experiments are described in detail to provide an overview of atmospheric boundary layer processes, of how air flows around obstacles, and of the mechanism of plume rise. Atmospheric chemistry and removal processes are also detailed to provide fundamental knowledge on how gases and particulate matter can be transformed while in the atmosphere and how they can be removed from the atmosphere. The book closes with a review of how air-quality models are being applied to solve a wide variety of problems. Separate analytics have been prepared for each chapter.

  2. Evaluation of two-beam spectroscopy as a plasma diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billard, B.D.

    1980-04-01

    A two-beam spectroscopy (TBS) system is evaluated theoretically and experimentally. This new spectroscopic technique uses correlations between components of emitted light separated by a small difference in angle of propagation. It is thus a non-perturbing plasma diagnostic which is shown to provide local (as opposed to line-of-sight averaged) information about fluctuations in the density of light sources within a plasma - information not obtainable by the usual spectroscopic methods. The present design is an improvement on earlier systems proposed in a thesis by Rostler

  3. Transfer of temporal fluctuations in photorefractive two-beam coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Jensen, S.; Saffman, M.

    1997-01-01

    Transfer of temporal fluctuations between the signal and pump beams in diffusion dominated photorefractive two-beam coupling is studied experimentally. The dependence on the gain, beam intensity ratio, and frequency of the fluctuations is found to agree well with a linearized analysis, The transf...... of perturbations is frequency dependent at low frequencies, and becomes constant at frequencies large compared to the inverse material time constant. Vde discuss the possibility of pump noise suppression when amplifying weak signals. (C) 1997 American Institute of Physics....

  4. Electricity production by advanced biomass power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solantausta, Y [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies; Bridgwater, T [Aston Univ. Birmingham (United Kingdom); Beckman, D [Zeton Inc., Burlington, Ontario (Canada)

    1996-11-01

    This report gives the results of the Pyrolysis Collaborative Project organized by the International Energy Agency (IEA) under Biomass Agreement. The participating countries or organizations were Canada, European Community (EC), Finland, United States of America, and the United Kingdom. The overall objective of the project was to establish baseline assessments for the performance and economics of power production from biomass. Information concerning the performance of biomass-fuelled power plants based on gasification is rather limited, and even less data is available of on pyrolysis based power applications. In order to gain further insight into the potential for these technologies, this study undertook the following tasks: (1) Prepare process models to evaluate the cost and performance of new advanced biomass power production concepts, (2) Assess the technical and economic uncertainties of different biomass power concepts, (3) Compare the concepts in small scale and in medium scale production (5 - 50 MW{sub e}) to conventional alternatives. Processes considered for this assessment were biomass power production technologies based on gasification and pyrolysis. Direct combustion technologies were employed as a reference for comparison to the processes assessed in this study. Wood was used a feedstock, since the most data was available for wood conversion

  5. High-gradient two-beam electron accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirshfield, Jay L. [Omega-P, Inc., New Haven, CT (United States)

    2014-11-04

    The main goal for this project was to design, build, and evaluate a detuned-cavity, collinear, two-beam accelerator structure. Testing was to be at the Yale University Beam Physics Laboratory, under terms of a sub-grant from Omega-P to Yale. Facilities available at Yale for this project include a 6-MeV S-band RF gun and associated beam line for forming and transporting a ~1 A drive beam , a 300 kV beam source for use as a test beam, and a full panoply of laboratory infrastructure and test equipment. During the first year of this project, availability and functionality of the 6-MeV drive beam and 300 kV test beam were confirmed, and the beam line was restored to a layout to be used with the two-beam accelerator project. Major efforts during the first year were also focused on computational design and simulation of the accelerator structure itself, on beam dynamics, and on beam transport. Effort during the second year was focussed on building and preparing to test the structure, including extensive cold testing. Detailed results from work under this project have been published in twelve archival journal articles, listed in Section IV of the technical report.

  6. Production LHC HTS power lead test results

    CERN Document Server

    Tartaglia, M; Fehér, S; Huang, Y; Orris, D F; Pischalnikov, Y; Rabehl, Roger Jon; Sylvester, C D; Zbasnik, J

    2005-01-01

    The Fermilab Magnet test facility has built and operated a test stand to characterize the performance of HTS power leads. We report here the results of production tests of 20 pairs of 7.5 kA HTS power leads manufactured by industry for installation in feed boxes for the LHC Interaction Region quadrupole strings. Included are discussions of the thermal, electrical, and quench characteristics under "standard" and "extreme" operating conditions, and the stability of performance across thermal cycles.

  7. Production LHC HTS power lead test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tartaglia, M.A.; Carcagno, R.H.; Feher, S.; Huang, Y.; Orris, D.F.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Rabehl, R.J.; Sylvester, C.; Zbasnik, J.

    2004-01-01

    The Fermilab Magnet test facility has built and operated a test stand to characterize the performance of HTS power leads. We report here the results of production tests of 20 pairs of 7.5 kA HTS power leads manufactured by industry for installation in feed boxes for the LHC Interaction Region quadrupole strings. Included are discussions of the thermal, electrical, and quench characteristics under ''standard'' and ''extreme'' operating conditions, and the stability of performance across thermal cycles

  8. Cherenkov Fibers for Beam Loss Monitoring at the CLIC Two Beam Module

    CERN Document Server

    van Hoorne, Jacobus Willem; Holzer, E B

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) study is a feasibility study aiming at a nominal center of mass energy of 3TeV and is based on normal conducting travelling-wave accelerating structures, operating at very high field gradients of 100 MV/m. Such high fields require high peak power and hence a novel power source, the CLIC two beam system, has been developed, in which a high intensity, low energy drive beam (DB) supplies energy to a high energy, low intensity main beam (MB). At the Two Beam Modules (TBM), which compose the 2x21km long CLIC main linac, a protection against beam losses resulting from badly controlled beams is necessary and particularly challenging, since the beam power of both main beam (14 MW) and drive beam (70 MW) is impressive. To avoid operational downtimes and severe damages to machine components, a general Machine Protection System (MPS) scheme has been developed. The Beam Loss Monitoring (BLM) system is a key element of the CLIC machine protection system. Its main role will be to detect p...

  9. Ownership and efficiency in nuclear power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollitt, M.G.

    1995-01-01

    This paper aims to contribute to the relatively small amount of academic literature on the efficiency of nuclear power production. The author draws on world-wide comparisons to illustrate the situation in the United Kingdom, where the nuclear generating capacity, conceived of and constructed as a public concern, has recently been privatised. The theory and evidence for links between ownership and productive efficiency is received. Efficiency measures used are explained as are the linear programs required to generate them. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is used to analyse productive efficiency of nuclear power plants before and after privatisation. Results of the DEA are used to test the hypothesis that ownership has no effect on productive efficiency. (UK)

  10. Maintenance in nuclear production power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozano, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    This article highlights the importance and quality of maintenance in the complete phases of development, in a sector which has been often questioned by the public opinion, and that is always subject to national and international standards. The aim of maintenance is to guarantee the production of electric power in a reliable, safe, economic and friendly environmentally way, assuring a long-term production. (Author)

  11. Transverse wakefield effects in the two-beam accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selph, F.; Sessler, A.

    1986-01-01

    Transverse wakefield effects in the high-gradient accelerating structure of the two-beam accelerator (TBA) are analyzed theoretically using three different models. The first is a very simple two-particle model, the second is for a beam with uniform charge distribution, constant betatron wavelength, and a linear wake approximation. Both of these models give analytic scaling laws. The third model has a Gaussian beam (represented by 11 superparticles), energy variation across the bunch, acceleration, variation of betatron focusing with energy, and variation of the wakefield from linearity. The three models are compared, and the third model is used to explore the wakefield effects when accelerator parameters such as energy, energy spread, injection energy, accelerating gradient, and betatron wavelength are varied. Also explored are the sensitivity of the beam to the wakefield profile to the longitudinal charge distribution. Finally, in consideration of wakefield effects, possible parameters of a TBA are presented. (orig./HSI)

  12. Optimum Choice of RF Frequency for Two Beam Linear Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Braun, Hans Heinrich

    2003-01-01

    Recent experimental results on normal conducting RF structures indicate that the scaling of the gradient limit with frequency is less favourable than what was believed. We therefore reconsider the optimum choice of RF frequency and iris aperture for a normal conducting, two-beam linear collider with E_CMS=3 TeV, a loaded accelerating gradient of 150 MV/m and a luminosity of 8 10^34 cm-^2 s^-1. The optimisation criterion is minimizing overall RF costs for investment and operation with constraints put on peak surface electric fields and pulsed heating of accelerating structures. Analytical models are employed where applicable, while interpolation on simulation program results is used for the calculation of luminosity and RF structure properties.

  13. Turbulence measurement with a two-beam nacelle lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Rozenn; Sathe, Ameya; Mioullet, A.

    The analysis of the turbulence intensity measurement is performed for a lidar measuring horizontally with two beams. First the turbulence intensity measured by such a system was evaluated theoretically. The Mann model of turbulence was used to evaluate the true value of the turbulence intensity...... of the wind speed and the main effects of the lidar measurement principles on turbulence intensity measurement were modeled: - A lidar senses the wind speed over the probe volume acting as a low pass-filter and thus cannot resolve high frequency turbulence; - The horizontal wind speed is retrieved from...... the combination of the radial speeds measured along two line-of-sights with different orientations; this results in the contamination of the lidar turbulence intensity measurement from the transverse component of the wind field. Secondly, the theoretical results were compared to experimental measurements. A two...

  14. Optical two-beam trap in a polymer microfluidic chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palanco, Marta Espina; Catak, Darmin; Marie, Rodolphe

    2016-01-01

    An optical two-beam trap, composed from two counter propagating laser beams, is an interesting setup due to the ability of the system to trap, hold, and stretch soft biological objects like vesicles or single cells. Because of this functionality, the system was also named "the optical stretcher...... wish to trap, thereby preventing too many cells to flow below the line of focus of the two counter propagating laser beams that are positioned perpendicular to the direction of flow of the cells. Results will be compared to that from other designs from previous work in the group......." by Jochen Guck, Josep Käs and co-workers some 15 years ago. In a favorable setup, the two opposing laser beams meet with equal intensities in the middle of a fluidic channel in which cells may flow past, be trapped, stretched, and allowed to move on, giving the promise of a high throughput device. Yet...

  15. Power and LPG production with LNG import

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mak, J.Y.

    2004-01-01

    When used in power cogeneration, Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) is both energy efficient and can eliminate seawater or fuel gas consumption as well as the associated environmental impacts of conventional regasification processes. However, some liquefied natural gas (LNG) sources have heating values higher than current North American natural gas pipelines can allow for. LNG from these cannot be injected into gas pipelines without several heating control processing steps. This paper outlines two new technologies developed to address this issue. The first is a power cogeneration process using LNG as a heat sink. The second technology involves a fractionation process removing Liquid Propane Gas (LPG) components from imported LNG, thereby controlling heat value. Both technologies are applicable in grassroots installations as well as being suitable for retrofitting to existing LNG regasification for power generation and LPG production. It was concluded that power cogeneration with a mixed fluid power cycle recovered a significant portion of energy in LNG liquefaction plants. Additionally, it was also possible to fractionate high quality LPG from LNG at a low cost, with the residue being further re-condensed and re-utilized for power generation. It was also concluded that the LNG fractionation process would add flexibility to the LNG receiving terminals, allowing the import of lower quality LNG to North America, while also generating additional revenues from LPG production. 3 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs

  16. Synfuel (hydrogen) production from fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowski, R.A.; Cox, K.E.; Pendergrass, J.H.; Booth, L.A.

    1979-01-01

    A potential use of fusion energy for the production of synthetic fuel (hydrogen) is described. The hybrid-thermochemical bismuth-sulfate cycle is used as a vehicle to assess the technological and economic merits of this potential nonelectric application of fusion power

  17. Cobalt-60 production in CANDU power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malkoske, G.R.; Norton, J.L.; Slack, J.

    2002-01-01

    MDS Nordion has been supplying cobalt-60 sources to industry for industrial and medical purposes since 1946. These cobalt-60 sources are used in many market and product segments, but are primarily used to sterilize single-use medical products including; surgical kits, gloves, gowns, drapes, and cotton swabs. Other applications include sanitization of cosmetics, microbial reduction of pharmaceutical raw materials, and food irradiation. The technology for producing the cobalt-60 isotope was developed by MDS Nordion and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) almost 55 years ago using research reactors at the AECL Chalk River Laboratories in Ontario, Canada. The first cobalt-60 source produced for medical applications was manufactured by MDS Nordion and used in cancer therapy. The benefits of cobalt-60 as applied to medical product manufacturing, were quickly realized and the demand for this radioisotope quickly grew. The same technology for producing cobalt-60 in research reactors was then designed and packaged such that it could be conveniently transferred to a utility/power reactor. In the early 1970's, in co-operation with Ontario Power Generation (formerly Ontario Hydro), bulk cobalt-60 production for industrial irradiation applications was initiated in the four Pickering A CANDU reactors. As the demand and acceptance of sterilization of medical products grew, MDS Nordion expanded its bulk supply by installing the proprietary Canadian technology for producing cobalt-60 in additional CANDU reactors. CANDU is unique among the power reactors of the world, being heavy water moderated and fuelled with natural uranium. They are also designed and supplied with stainless steel adjusters, the primary function of which is to shape the neutron flux to optimize reactor power and fuel bum-up, and to provide excess reactivity needed to overcome xenon-135 poisoning following a reduction of power. The reactor is designed to develop full power output with all of the adjuster

  18. Short time ahead wind power production forecast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapronova, Alla; Meissner, Catherine; Mana, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    An accurate prediction of wind power output is crucial for efficient coordination of cooperative energy production from different sources. Long-time ahead prediction (from 6 to 24 hours) of wind power for onshore parks can be achieved by using a coupled model that would bridge the mesoscale weather prediction data and computational fluid dynamics. When a forecast for shorter time horizon (less than one hour ahead) is anticipated, an accuracy of a predictive model that utilizes hourly weather data is decreasing. That is because the higher frequency fluctuations of the wind speed are lost when data is averaged over an hour. Since the wind speed can vary up to 50% in magnitude over a period of 5 minutes, the higher frequency variations of wind speed and direction have to be taken into account for an accurate short-term ahead energy production forecast. In this work a new model for wind power production forecast 5- to 30-minutes ahead is presented. The model is based on machine learning techniques and categorization approach and using the historical park production time series and hourly numerical weather forecast. (paper)

  19. Short time ahead wind power production forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapronova, Alla; Meissner, Catherine; Mana, Matteo

    2016-09-01

    An accurate prediction of wind power output is crucial for efficient coordination of cooperative energy production from different sources. Long-time ahead prediction (from 6 to 24 hours) of wind power for onshore parks can be achieved by using a coupled model that would bridge the mesoscale weather prediction data and computational fluid dynamics. When a forecast for shorter time horizon (less than one hour ahead) is anticipated, an accuracy of a predictive model that utilizes hourly weather data is decreasing. That is because the higher frequency fluctuations of the wind speed are lost when data is averaged over an hour. Since the wind speed can vary up to 50% in magnitude over a period of 5 minutes, the higher frequency variations of wind speed and direction have to be taken into account for an accurate short-term ahead energy production forecast. In this work a new model for wind power production forecast 5- to 30-minutes ahead is presented. The model is based on machine learning techniques and categorization approach and using the historical park production time series and hourly numerical weather forecast.

  20. New production of electric power when accelerating nuclear power phaseout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    This investigation states that it is possible to eliminate nuclear power to the beginning of the year 2000. In this case the time for planning and construction of large coal power plants with condenser turbines should be set at seven years. The production cost excluding fuel will be 0.12 to 0.19 SEK per kWh. Investment cost is estimated to 5 500 to 8 200 SEK per kW. When using wood chips the cost will be 0.30 SEK and 11 300 SEK, respectively. A large part of the increased cost will include substantial flue gas purification. The existing plant of Karlshamn should be maintained with a minimum of charges and extensions

  1. Thermo-Mechanical tests for the CLIC two-beam module study

    CERN Document Server

    Xydou, A; Riddone, G; Daskalaki, E

    2014-01-01

    The luminosity goal of CLIC requires micron level precision with respect to the alignment of the components on its two-meter long modules, composing the two main linacs. The power dissipated inside the module components introduces mechanical deformations affecting their alignment and therefore the resulting machine performance. Several two-beam prototype modules must be assembled to extensively measure their thermo-mechanical behavior under different operation modes. In parallel, the real environmental conditions present in the CLIC tunnel should be studied. The air conditioning and ventilation system providing specified air temperature and flow has been installed in the dedicated laboratory. The power dissipation occurring in the modules is being reproduced by the electrical heaters inserted inside the RF structure mock-ups and the quadrupoles. The efficiency of the cooling systems is being verified and the alignment of module components is monitored. The measurement results will be compared to finite elemen...

  2. Design of inductively detuned RF extraction cavities for the Relativistic Klystron Two Beam Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henestroza, E.; Yu, S.S.; Li, H.

    1995-04-01

    An inductively detuned traveling wave cavity for the Relativistic Klystron Two Beam Accelerator expected to extract high RF power at 11. 424 GHz for the 1 TeV Center of Mass Next Linear Collider has been designed. Longitudinal beam dynamics studies led to the following requirements on cavity design: (a) Extraction of 360 MW of RF power with RF component of the current being 1.15 kAmps at 11.424 GHz, (b) Inductively detuned traveling wave cavity with wave phase velocity equal to 4/3 the speed of light, (c) Output cavity with appropriate Q ext and eigenfrequency for proper matching. Furthermore, transverse beam dynamics require low shunt impedances to avoid the beam break-up instability. We describe the design effort to meet these criteria based on frequency-domain and time-domain computations using 2D- and 3D- electromagnetic codes

  3. Scenarios of hydrogen production from wind power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaric, Mario

    2010-09-15

    Since almost total amount of hydrogen is currently being produced from natural gas, other ways of cleaner and 'more renewable' production should be made feasible in order to make benchmarks for total 'hydrogen economy'. Hydrogen production from wind power combined with electrolysis imposes as one possible framework for new economy development. In this paper various wind-to-hydrogen scenarios were calculated. Cash flows of asset based project financing were used as decision making tool. Most important parameters were identified and strategies for further research and development and resource allocation are suggested.

  4. Corrosion products in power generating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lister, D.H.

    1980-06-01

    The important mechanisms of corrosion and corrosion product movement and fouling in the heat transport systems of thermal electric generating stations are reviewed. Oil- and coal-fired boilers are considered, along with nuclear power systems - both direct and indirect cycle. Thus, the fireside and waterside in conventional plants, and the primary coolant and steam-raising circuits in water-cooled reactors, are discussed. Corrosion products in organic- and liquid-metal-cooled reactors also are shown to cause problems if not controlled, while their beneficial effects on the cooling water side of condensers are described. (auth)

  5. Power production and energy consumption in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-03-01

    The main electrical resource of Norway comes from its rivers: 99% of the electric power is produced by hydroelectric power plants. Other sources, like wind and natural gas, are envisaged for the enhancement of Norway's energy production capacity. In this document, the part devoted to power production presents the different electricity production sources and their impact on the Norwegian economy. The energy consumption is detailed in the third part with an historical review of its evolution and a description of the main sectors involved in this consumption. The forth part describes the main actors of the energy sector with their industrial structure, the research institutes and universities performing R and D in this domain, and the energy trades with surrounding countries. The fifth part stresses on the research projects, on the government promoting actions through the Norwegian Research Council, and gives some examples of todays research projects. The sixth part deals with international cooperation in the R and D domain with a particular attention given to the relations between Norway, France and Europe. (J.S.)

  6. Modelling of the Thermo-Mechanical Behavior of the Two-Beam Module for the Compact Linear Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Raatikainen, Riku; Österberg, K; Lehtovaara, A; Pajunen, S

    2011-01-01

    To fulfil the mechanical requirements set by the luminosity goals of the compact linear collider, the 2-m long two-beam modules, the shortest repetitive elements in the main linear accelerator, have to be controlled at micrometer level. At the same time these modules are exposed to high power dissipation that varies while the accelerator is ramped up to nominal power and when the mode of the accelerator operation is modified. These variations will give rise to inevitable temperature transients driving mechanical distortions in and between different module components. Therefore, the thermo-mechanical behaviour of the module is of a high importance. This thesis describes a finite element method model for the two-beam compact linear collider module. The components are described in detail compared to earlier models, which should result in a realistic description of the module. Due to the complexity of the modules, the modelling is divided into several phases from geometrical simplification and modification to the...

  7. Torrefaction of biomass for power production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleh, Suriyati Binti

    In order to increase the share of biomass for sustainable energy production, it will be an advantage to utilize fuels as straw, wood and waste on large suspension fired boilers. On a European scale, currently large straw resources are available that are not fully utilized for energy production...... rates, relatively low superheater temperatures have to be applied, which in turn lower the power efficiency. The idea for this Ph.D. project is to develop a biomass pretreatment method that could provide the heating value of the fuel for the boiler, but in a way such that the fuel is easily pulverized.......D. thesis focus on the following subjects: 1) the development of experimental procedures for a novel laboratory scale reactor (simultaneous torrefaction and grinding) and a study on the torrefaction of straw and wood; 2) study the influence of biomass chemical properties such as ash content, ash composition...

  8. Utilization of agricultural waste in power production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clausen, J.C. [ELSAMPROJEKT A/S, Fredericia (Denmark); Rasmussen, I. [MIDTKRAFT Power Co., Aarhus (Denmark)

    1993-12-31

    It is a goal of the Danish energy policy for the last decade to reduce energy consumption and to introduce fuels for power production with less CO{sub 2} emission than coal. This measure has caused a considerable effort by the Danish utilities to develop technologies that reduce CO{sub 2} emissions without causing heavy cost increases of power. Agricultural waste in the form of surplus straw is available in an amount equivalent to 20% of the annual coal imports to Denmark. Straw firing is difficult due to its significant contents of alkaline components. Consequently, its utilization presupposes the development of new technologies. The biomass development program is concentrated on two ways which are (1) co-firing of existing coal fired power station with a modest amount of straw and (2) development of CFB technology that allows a high share of biomass as well as coal only. These options were tested in a coal fired 70 MW spreader stoker unit and a 125 MW PF unit. Approx. 4000 t of straw were burned. Additional tests will be launched this autumn, burning 35,000 t of straw at rates up to 20% straw. The CFB option is pursued from the platform of a 80 MWth unit, operational early `92. This plant burns a mix of 50% straw and 50% coal and consumes annually 70.000 t of straw. Future development is aiming towards CFBs of 250 MW(e), burning in excess of 50% biomass.

  9. The sustainability indicators of power production systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onat, Nevzat [Vocational School of Technical Studies, Marmara University, Istanbul 34722 (Turkey); Bayar, Haydar [Technical Education Faculty, Marmara University, Istanbul 34722 (Turkey)

    2010-12-15

    One of the most important elements of economical and social development is to provide uninterrupted electric energy to consumers. The increasing world population and technological developments rapidly increase the demand on electric energy. In order to meet the increasing demand for sustainable development, it is necessary to use the consumable resources of the world in the most productive manner and minimum level and to keep its negative effects on human health and environment in the lowest level as much as possible. In this study, alignment of hydrogen fuel cells, hydroelectric, wind, solar and geothermal sourced electric energy systems, in addition to fossil fueled coal, natural gas and nuclear power plants, in respect to sustainability parameters such as CO{sub 2} emission, land use, energy output, fresh water consumption and environmental and social effects is researched. Consequently, it has been determined that the wind and nuclear energy power plants have the highest sustainability indicators. The fuel cells that use hydrogen obtained by using coal and natural gas are determined as the most disadvantageous transformation technologies in respect to sustainability. This study contains an alignment related to today's technologies. Using of renewable energy resources especially in production of hydrogen, output increases to be ensured with nanotechnology applications in photovoltaic systems may change this alignment. (author)

  10. DISTRIBUTED ELECTRICAL POWER PRODUCTION SYSTEM AND METHOD OF CONTROL THEREOF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a distributed electrical power production system wherein two or more electrical power units comprise respective sets of power supply attributes. Each set of power supply attributes is associated with a dynamic operating state of a particular electrical power unit....

  11. A theory of two-beam acceleration of charged particles in a plasma waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrovsky, A.O.

    1993-11-01

    The progress made in recent years in the field of high-current relativistic electron beam (REB) generation has aroused a considerable interest in studying REB potentialities for charged particle acceleration with a high acceleration rate T = 100MeV/m. It was proposed, in particular, to employ high-current REB in two-beam acceleration schemes (TBA). In these schemes high current REB (driving beam) excites intense electromagnetic waves in the electrodynamic structure which, in their turn, accelerate particles of the other beam (driven beam). The TBA schemes can be divided into two groups. The first group includes the schemes, where the two beams (driving and driven) propagate in different electrodynamic structures coupled with each other through the waveguides which ensure the microwave power transmission to accelerate driven beam particles. The second group includes the TBA schemes, where the driving and driven beams propagate in one electrodynamic structure. The main aim of this work is to demonstrate by theory the possibility of realizing effectively the TBA scheme in the plasma waveguide. The physical model of the TBA scheme under study is formulated. A set of equations describing the excitation of RF fields by a high-current REB and the acceleration of driven beam electrons is also derived. Results are presented on the the linear theory of plasma wave amplification by the driving beam. The range of system parameters, at which the plasma-beam instability develops, is defined. Results of numerical simulation of the TBA scheme under study are also presented. The same section gives the description of the dynamics of accelerated particle bunching in the high-current REB-excited field. Estimates are given for the accelerating field intensities in the plasma and electron acceleration rates

  12. Diffusion of green power products in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuestenhagen, Rolf; Markard, Jochen; Truffer, Bernhard

    2003-01-01

    As in many other European countries, green electricity is an emerging product in Switzerland as well. Although the market is yet to be liberalised, more than 100 of the 1200 Swiss electric utilities offer some sort of green electricity product to their customers. Successful companies like the municipal utilities of the cities of Zurich and Berne have reached customer response rates of up to 4%, while still maintaining cost-based pricing, i.e. charging their customers price premiums of 400-700% per kWh. While most of the products still rely on mainly photovoltaics, some utilities have started to introduce mixed green electricity products also including wind power. With a share of 60% in the Swiss generation mix, hydropower's role in the green electricity mix was also an issue to emerge causing controversial debate. While being renewable, hydropower is not considered environmentally benign by all the stakeholders, and unlike new renewables (solar, wind, biomass), there is little room for new hydropower generation facilities in Switzerland. The green electricity labelling scheme 'Naturemade' tackles that issue. The labelling organisation has evolved from a process with broad stakeholder involvement, which included environmental NGOs, scientific institutions, green electricity providers, renewable energy advocates, government bodies and consumer organisations. The analysis in this paper is based on a diffusion theory framework. It identifies and characterises different phases of (past and future) market development, and stresses the importance of eco-labelling as a tool to facilitate the transition from niche to mass market. Finally, we also discuss conclusions that can be drawn from the Swiss case towards market development and labelling on a European level

  13. Cobalt-60 production in CANDU power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slack, J.; Norton, J.L.; Malkoske, G.R.

    2003-01-01

    therapy machines. Today the majority of the cancer therapy cobalt-60 sources used in the world are manufactured using material from the NRU reactor in Chalk River. The same technology that was used for producing cobalt-60 in a research reactor was then adapted and transferred for use in a CANDU power reactor. In the early 1970s, in co-operation with Ontario Power Generation (formerly Ontario Hydro), bulk cobalt-60 production was initiated in the four Pickering A CANDU reactors located east of Toronto. This was the first full scale production of millions of curies of cobalt-60 per year. As the demand and acceptance of sterilization of medical products grew, MDS Nordion expanded its bulk supply by installing the proprietary Canadian technology in additional CANDUs. Over the years MDS Nordion has partnered with CANDU reactor owners to produce cobalt-60 at various sites. CANDU reactors that have, or are still producing cobalt-60, include Pickering A, Pickering B, Gentilly 2, Embalse in Argentina, and Bruce B. In conclusion, the technology for cobalt-60 production in CANDU reactors, designed and developed by MDS Nordion and Atomic Energy of Canada, has been safely, economically and successfully employed in CANDU reactors with over 195 reactor years of production. Today over forty percent of the world's disposable medical supplies are made safer through sterilization using cobalt-60 sources from MDS Nordion. Over the past 40 years, MDS Nordion with its CANDU reactor owner partners, has safely and reliably shipped more than 500 million curies of cobalt-60 sources to customers around the world. MDS Nordion is presently adding three more CANDU power reactors to its supply chain. These three additional cobalt producing CANDU's will help supplement the ability of the health care industry to provide safe, sterile, medical disposable products to people around the world. As new applications for cobalt-60 are identified, and the demand for bulk cobalt-60 increases, MDS Nordion and AECL

  14. Study of the scheme of two-beam accelerator driver with accompanying electromagnetic wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elzhov, A.V.; Kaminskij, A.K.; Kazacha, V.I.; Perel'shtejn, E.A.; Sedykh, S.N.; Sergeev, A.P.

    2000-01-01

    A novel scheme of two-beam accelerator (TBA) driver based on a linear induction accelerator is considered. In this scheme the bunched beam propagates in the accompanying enhanced microwave that provides the steady longitudinal beam bunching along the whole driver. A travelling wave tube (TWT) is used as the wave-slowing periodic structure. Major merits of the driver scheme in hand are the possibilities of providing the microwave phase and amplitude stability and the preliminary beam bunching at a rather low initial energy (∼ 1 MeV). The numerical simulation has shown that a steady state could be found when electron bunches accompanied by an amplified microwave are simultaneously accelerated in the external electric field. The total power, which is inserted into the beam by the accelerating field, transforms into the microwave power in the steady state. The first set of experiments was fulfilled with the buncher on the base of the JINR LIU-3000 linac (electron beam energy ∼ 600 keV, electron current ∼ 150 A). The considerable level of the amplified microwave power (∼ 5 MW) and high enough bunching parameter (∼ 0.4) were obtained. The electron beam bunching at the frequency of 36.4 GHz was registered by means of the Cherenkov radiation of the electron bunches that occurred at their passing through the special target. The beam keeps a high bunching level at the distance ∼ 10 cm from the TWT exit being accompanied by the amplified microwave

  15. The SPES High Power ISOL production target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrighetto, A.; Corradetti, S.; Ballan, M.; Borgna, F.; Manzolaro, M.; Scarpa, D.; Monetti, A.; Rossignoli, M.; Silingardi, R.; Mozzi, A.; Vivian, G.; Boratto, E.; De Ruvo, L.; Sattin, N.; Meneghetti, G.; Oboe, R.; Guerzoni, M.; Margotti, A.; Ferrari, M.; Zenoni, A.; Prete, G.

    2016-11-01

    SPES (Selective Production of Exotic Species) is a facility under construction at INFN-LNL (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro), aimed to produce intense neutron-rich radioactive ion beams (RIBs). These will be obtained using the ISOL (Isotope Separation On-Line) method, bombarding a uranium carbide target with a proton beam of 40MeV energy and currents up to 200μA. The target configuration was designed to obtain a high number of fissions, up to 1013 per second, low power deposition and fast release of the produced isotopes. The exotic isotopes generated in the target are ionized, mass separated and re-accelerated by the ALPI superconducting LINAC at energies of 10AMeV and higher, for masses in the region of A = 130 amu , with an expected rate on the secondary target up to 109 particles per second. In this work, recent results on the R&D activities regarding the SPES RIB production target-ion source system are reported.

  16. Strategic wind power trading considering rival wind power production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Exizidis, Lazaros; Kazempour, Jalal; Pinson, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    In an electricity market with high share of wind power, it is expected that wind power producers may exercise market power. However, wind producers have to cope with wind’s uncertain nature in order to optimally offer their generation, whereas in a market with more than one wind producers, uncert...... depending on the rival’s wind generation, given that its own expected generation is not high. Finally, as anticipated, expected system cost is higher when both wind power producers are expected to have low wind power generation......In an electricity market with high share of wind power, it is expected that wind power producers may exercise market power. However, wind producers have to cope with wind’s uncertain nature in order to optimally offer their generation, whereas in a market with more than one wind producers......, uncertainty of rival wind power generation should also be considered. Under this context, this paper addresses the impact of rival wind producers on the offering strategy and profits of a pricemaker wind producer. A stochastic day-ahead market setup is considered, which optimizes the day-ahead schedules...

  17. Neutron spectra in two beam ports of the TRIGA Mark III reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega C, H. R.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Aguilar, F.; Paredes, L.; Rivera M, T.

    2013-10-01

    The neutron spectra have been measured in two beam ports, radial and tangential, of the TRIGA Mark III nuclear reactor from the National Institute of Nuclear Research. Measurements were carried out with the core with mixed fuel (Leu 8.5/20 and Flip Heu 8.5/70). Two reactor powers, 5 and 10 W, were used during neutron spectra measurements using a Bonner sphere spectrometer with a 6 Lil(Eu) scintillator and 2, 3, 5, 8, 10 and 12 inches-diameter high density polyethylene spheres. The neutron spectra were unfolded using the NSDUAZ unfolding code; from each spectrum the total neutron flux, the neutron mean energy and the neutron ambient dose equivalent dose were determined. Measured spectra show fission (E≥ 0.1 MeV), epithermal (from 0.4 eV up to 0.1 MeV) and thermal neutrons (E≤ 0.4 eV). For both reactor powers the spectra in the radial beam port have similar features which are different to the neutron spectrum characteristics in the tangential beam port. (Author)

  18. Neutron spectra in two beam ports of the TRIGA Mark III reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega C, H. R.; Hernandez D, V. M. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98060 Zacatecas (Mexico); Aguilar, F.; Paredes, L. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Rivera M, T., E-mail: fermineutron@yahoo.com [IPN, Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Unidad Legaria, Av. Legaria 694, 11500 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    The neutron spectra have been measured in two beam ports, radial and tangential, of the TRIGA Mark III nuclear reactor from the National Institute of Nuclear Research. Measurements were carried out with the core with mixed fuel (Leu 8.5/20 and Flip Heu 8.5/70). Two reactor powers, 5 and 10 W, were used during neutron spectra measurements using a Bonner sphere spectrometer with a {sup 6}Lil(Eu) scintillator and 2, 3, 5, 8, 10 and 12 inches-diameter high density polyethylene spheres. The neutron spectra were unfolded using the NSDUAZ unfolding code; from each spectrum the total neutron flux, the neutron mean energy and the neutron ambient dose equivalent dose were determined. Measured spectra show fission (E≥ 0.1 MeV), epithermal (from 0.4 eV up to 0.1 MeV) and thermal neutrons (E≤ 0.4 eV). For both reactor powers the spectra in the radial beam port have similar features which are different to the neutron spectrum characteristics in the tangential beam port. (Author)

  19. Reacceleration experiment to demonstrate the concept of efficiency enhancement in a relativistic klystron two-beam accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westenskow, G.A.; Houck, T.L.

    1993-05-01

    High conversion efficiency of electro beam energy to rf energy can be achieved in two-beam accelerators using reacceleration of the bunched drive beam. To study issues with these designs we are planning a demonstration in which a modulated beam's energy is boosted as it passes through induction accelerator cells. For this experiment we will use the front end of the Choppertron to modulate a 5 MeV electron beam at 11.4 GHz. We have now tested the 5-MeV Choppertron and are reporting on the results. For the reacceleration experiment we plan to use three stages of rf power extraction interspersed with two stages of reacceleration

  20. High RF Power Production for CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Syratchev, I; Adli, E; Taborelli, M

    2007-01-01

    The CLIC Power Extraction and Transfer Structure (PETS) is a passive microwave device in which bunches of the drive beam interact with the impedance of the periodically loaded waveguide and excite preferentially the synchronous mode. The RF power produced (several hundred MW) is collected at the downstream end of the structure by means of the Power Extractor and delivered to the main linac structure. The PETS geometry is a result of multiple compromises between beam stability and main linac RF power needs. Another requirement is to provide local RF power termination in case of accelerating structure failure (ON/OFF capability). Surface electric and magnetic fields, power extraction method, HOM damping, ON/OFF capability and fabrication technology were all evaluated to provide a reliable design

  1. 30 GHz High Power Production for CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Syratchev, I V

    2006-01-01

    The CLIC Power Extraction and Transfer Structure (PETS) is a passive microwave device in which bunches of the drive beam interact with the impedance of the periodically loaded waveguide and excite preferentially the synchronous TM01 mode at 30 GHz. The RF power produced (several hundred MW) is collected at the downstream end of the structure by means of the Power Extractor and conveyed to the main linac structure. The PETS geometry is a result of multiple compromises between beam stability along a single decelerator sector (600 m) and the active length of the structure to match the main linac RF power needs and layout. Surface electric and magnetic fields, power extraction method, HOM damping, ON/OFF capability and fabrication technology were all evaluated to provide a reliable design.

  2. Design study of a microwave driver for a Relativistic Klystron Two-Beam Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houck, T.L.

    1993-05-01

    In two-beam accelerators, the reacceleration of a modulated drive beam can enable high conversion efficiency of electron beam energy to rf energy. However, the stability issues involved with the transport of high current electron beams through rf extraction structures and induction accelerator cells are critical. The author reports on theoretical studies and computer simulations of a two-beam accelerator design using traveling-wave extraction structures. Specific issues addressed include regenerative and cumulative transverse instabilities

  3. Status of hydrogen production by nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Jong Wa; Yoo, Kun Joong; Park, Chang Kue

    2001-07-01

    Hydrogen production methods, such as electrolysis, thermochemical method, biological method, and photochemical method, are introduced in this report. Also reviewed are current status of the development of High Temperatrue Gas Coooled Reactor, and it application for hydrogen production

  4. Towards a more efficient energy use in photovoltaic powered products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kan, S.Y.; Strijk, R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the energy saving and power management solutions necessary to improve the energy consumption efficiency in photovoltaic powered products. Important in the design of such products is not only the energy supply optimization required to deliver the actual energy to fulfil their

  5. Economic feasibility constraints for renewable energy source power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biondi, L.

    1992-01-01

    Suitable analysis criteria for use in economic feasibility studies of renewable energy source power plants are examined for various plant types, e.g., pumped storage hydroelectric, geothermal, wind, solar, refuse-fuelled, etc. The paper focusses on the impacts, on operating cost and rate structure, of the necessity, depending on demand characteristics, to integrate renewable energy source power production with conventional power production in order to effectively and economically meet peak power demand. The influence of commercialization and marketing trends on renewable energy source power plant economic feasibility are also taken into consideration

  6. Climatic impact of Norwegian gas power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aune, Finn Roar; Golombek, Rolf; Kittelsen, Sverre A.C.; Rosendal, Knut Einar

    2001-01-01

    This article discusses model calculations of the impact of a Norwegian gas power plant on the total carbon dioxide emission in Western Europe. The authors have set up a model that is based on the assumption that the European markets for electricity and gas be liberalized as defined in various EU directives. The model calculates all energy prices and the energy produced and consumed in Western Europe within a time horizon where all the capacities of the energy sector are given. If gas power plants are built in Norway after such liberalization, the model predicts a reduction of CO 2 emissions in Western Europe even if the gas power plant increases the local emission in Norway. This is primarily because of the phasing-out of the coal-fired power plants in other countries. Alternative calculations using different assumptions about taxes, transportation capacity, minimum run-off years in Norway give the same type of results. Thus, the principal result about the climatically beneficial effect of a Norwegian gas power plant is robust within the model. However, alternative assumptions about the extent of the liberalization and the time horizon may lead to other conclusions. In any case, the impact of a Norwegian gas power plant (6 TWh) is so small on the European scale as to be rather symbolic

  7. Production of high power microwaves for particle acceleration with an FEL bunched electron beam

    CERN Document Server

    Gardelle, J; Marchese, G; Padois, M; Rullier, J L; Donohue, J T

    1999-01-01

    Among the studies in the framework of high gradient linear electron-positron collider research, the Two-Beam Accelerator (TBA) is a very promising concept, and two projects are in progress, the Compact Linear Collider project at CERN (W. Schnell, Report no. CERN SL/92-51 and CLIC note 184; K. Huebner, CERN/PS 92-43, CLIC note 176; S. Van der Meer, CERN/PS 89-50, CLIC note 97.) and the Relativistic Klystron-TBA project at LBNL (Technical Review Committee, International Linear Collider Technical Review Committee Report 1995, SLAC-R-95-471, 1995). In a TBA an extremely intense low-energy electron beam, called the drive beam, is bunched at the desired operating frequency, and upon passing through resonant cavities generates radio-frequency power for accelerating the main beam. Among the different approaches to the production of a suitable drive beam, the use of an FEL has been proposed and is under active study at CEA/CESTA.

  8. Investigation of pressure retarded osmosis power production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taousanidis Nikolaos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A major source of energy exists where there is mixing between aqueous solutions of different salinities. This energy source is particularly concentrated where fresh water rivers flow on to the ocean. The power, represented by the osmotic pressure difference between fresh water and salt water, may be called salinity gradient power. In this study the pressure retarded osmosis method for the extraction of salinity gradients’ energy is investigated, main problems and difficulties are pointed out and finally the whole subject is justified with experimental results.

  9. Profitability of Qualified-Labour-Power Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldino, Roberto Ribeiro; Cabral, Tânia Cristina Baptista

    2015-01-01

    In Baldino and Cabral (2013) we introduced the concept of qualified labour-power as the commodity produced by the school system. In the present article we outline a quantitative model to evaluate the profit rate of educational programmes. We compare a medical school programme with a teacher education programme at a public university in Brazil,…

  10. External Costs Related to Power Production Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Liselotte Schleisner; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    1997-01-01

    of the Danish part of the project is to implement the framework for externality evaluation, for three different power plants located in Denmark. The paper will focus on the assessment of the impacts of the whole fuel cycles for wind, natural gas and biogas. Priority areas for environmental impact assessment...

  11. Export of electric power through industrial products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, J.B.L. de; David, J.M.S.; Campos, J.M.; Perecmanis, J.; Carneiro, N.S.

    1990-01-01

    We forecast the electrical energy incorporated to the exports of products of the industrial sectors of steel, aluminium, ferro-alloys, chlorine and caustic soda, pulp and paper and petrochemistry, accordingly to scenarios for these sectors consistent with a macro economic reference scenario, for the period 1990/2000. We also compare the electrical energy exported through those industrial products with the forecasted industrial and total markets of electrical energy. (author)

  12. An effective heuristic for combined heat-and-power production planning with power ramp constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rong, Aiying; Lahdelma, Risto

    2007-01-01

    Combined heat-and-power (CHP) production is an increasingly important technology for its efficient utilization of primary-energy resources and for reducing CO 2 emissions. In the CHP plant, the generation of heat-and-power follows a joint characteristic, which makes the determination of both the marginal power production cost (MPPC) and the feasible operating region for the plant more complicated than for the power-only generation plant. Due to the interdependence between heat and power production, the power-ramp constraints, which limit how much the power production of a CHP plant may increase or decrease between two successive periods, may also imply constraints on the heat production. In this paper, we investigate the impact of power-ramp constraints on CHP production planning and develop a robust heuristic for dealing with the power-ramp constraints based on the solution to the problem with relaxed ramp-constraints (RRC). Numerical results based on realistic production models show that the heuristic can generate high-quality solutions efficiently. (author)

  13. Development of wind power production in arctic climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltola, E.; Kaas, J.; Aarnio, E. [Kemijoki Oy (Finland)

    1998-10-01

    The project Development of wind power production in arctic climate is a direct continuation of Arctic wind energy research project, which started in 1989. The main topics in 1996-97 have been production development and commercialising the blade heating systems, development of operation and maintenance practices of arctic wind power plants, preparations for new wind farms and various network connection and energy system studies. Practical operations have taken place in Pyhaetunturi test power plant and in Paljasselkae and Lammashovi power plants, which are in commercial operation

  14. Inclined solar chimney for power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panse, S.V.; Jadhav, A.S.; Gudekar, A.S.; Joshi, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Solar energy harnessing using inclined face of high mountains as solar chimney. → Solar chimneys with structural stability, ease of construction and lower cost. → Mathematical model developed, using complete (mechanical and thermal) energy balance. → Can harness wind power also, as wind velocities at mountain top add to power output. → Air temperature and velocity increase, as air rises in inclined chimney. - Abstract: The present concept of solar chimney is a tall vertical chimney constructed at the center of a large area, which is the collector. This creates questions about stability and economic viability of the chimney and also demands elaborate engineering techniques for constructing a tall chimney. We suggest geometry of 'Inclined Solar Chimney' (ISC), which is constructed along the face of a high rising mountain, on which maximum solar insolation is incident throughout the year. The chimney and the collector get merged here. This makes the structure stable, cost effective and easy for construction. A mathematical model has been developed considering the total energy balance. It predicts the temperature and velocity and kinetic power of the emerging air draft for some chosen values of other parameters. The model also shows the proportion in which absorbed solar energy is divided into different forms, and hence predicts the dependence of kinetic of emerging air draft upon dimensions of the chimney and properties of materials used. Further, it is shown that external winds enhance the kinetic power of the emerging air. Thus ISC can also harness the wind energy, available at the top of the mountain.

  15. Electric power production contra electricity savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleisner, L.; Grohnheit, P.E.; Soerensen, H.

    1991-01-01

    The expansion of electricity-producing plants has, in Denmark until now, taken place in accordance with the demand for electricity. Recently, it has been suggested that the cost of the further development of such systems is greater than the cost of instigating and carrying out energy conservation efforts. The aim of the project was to evaluate the consequences for power producing plants of a reduction of the electricity consumption of end-users. A method for the analysis of the costs involved in the system and operation of power plants contra the costs that are involved in saving electricity is presented. In developing a model of this kind, consideration is given to the interplay of the individual saving project and the existing or future electricity supply. Thus it can be evaluated to what extent it would be advisable to substitute investments in the development of the capacity of the power plants with investments in the reduction of electricity consumption by the end users. This model is described in considerable detail. It will be tested in representative situations and locations throughout the Nordic countries. (AB) 17 refs

  16. Power Curve Measurements, quantify the production increase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Vesth, Allan

    The purpose of this report is to quantify the production increase on a given turbine with respect to another given turbine. The used methodology is the “side by side” comparison method, provided by the client. This method involves the use of two neighboring turbines and it is based...

  17. Power Production Management of Three Gorges Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Cheng

    2010-01-01

    @@ The Three Gorges Hydropower Plant is the one with the largest installed capacity in the world today and has a decisive and important influence upon the security of the national power grids. It has been operated stably and supplied the East China, Central China, South China,Sichuan and Chongqing with clean renewable energy. This paper presents the management of the project's dispatch, operation and maintenance and puts forward new ideas and new methods for the plant management, which may provide valuable references for the operation of oversized hydropower plants.

  18. Power Production Management of Three Gorges Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The Three Gorges Hydropower Plant is the one with the largest installed capacity in the world today and has a decisive and important influence upon the security of the national power grids. It has been operated stably and supplied the East China, Central China, South China, Sichuan and Chongqing with clean renewable energy. This paper presents the management of the project’s dispatch, operation and maintenance and puts forward new ideas and new methods for the plant management, which may provide valuable re...

  19. Safety of power transformers, power supplies, reactors and similar products - Part 1: General requirements and tests

    CERN Document Server

    International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva

    1998-01-01

    This International Standard deals with safety aspects of power transformers, power supplies, reactors and similar products such as electrical, thermal and mechanical safety. This standard covers the following types of dry-type transformers, power supplies, including switch mode power supplies, and reactors, the windings of which may be encapsulated or non-encapsulated. It has the status of a group safety publication in accordance with IEC Guide 104.

  20. Power Ultrasound to Process Dairy Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez-Aguirre, Daniela; Barbosa-Cánovas, Gustavo V.

    Conventional methods of pasteurizing milk involve the use of heat regardless of treatment (batch, high temperature short time - HTST or ultra high temperature - UHT sterilization), and the quality of the milk is affected because of the use of high temperatures. Consequences of thermal treatment are a decrease in nutritional properties through the destruction of vitamins or denaturation of proteins, and sometimes the flavor of milk is undesirably changed. These changes are produced at the same time that the goal of the pasteurization process is achieved, which is to have a microbiological safe product, free of pathogenic bacteria, and to reduce the load of deteriorative microorganisms and enzymes, resulting in a product with a longer storage life.

  1. PROMOTION OF PRODUCTS AND ANALYSIS OF MARKET OF POWER TOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey S. Rakhmanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the general situation of power tools on the market, both in Russia and in the world. A comparative analysis of competitors, market structure analysis of power tools, as well as assessment of competitiveness of some major product lines. Also the analysis methods of promotion used by companies selling tools, competitive analysis range Bosch, the leader in its segment, power tools available on the market in Russia.

  2. Natural gas for power production in Western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The third and last part of the Sub-Committee's study on natural gas for power generation is reprinted in this issue. This part addresses gas consumption in electricity production until the year 2010. The first part of the study dealing with combined cycle power plants was published in September and the 2nd part on regulatory and environmental issues in October 1992

  3. Original theatrical production will explore issues surrounding nuclear power

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, Jean

    2007-01-01

    A new, original theatrical production entitled "Nuclear Power Play" will explore the personal and public politics of nuclear power. Uniquely developed by a team of experts in science and technology working alongside theatre arts practitioners, the play will debut on Wednesday, Nov. 7 at 7:30 p.m. in the Haymarket Theatre at the Squires Student Center on the Virginia Tech campus.

  4. Experience in independent power production: Two projects that closed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kappaz, M.H.

    1994-12-31

    K and M Engineering and Consulting Corporation`s experience in independent power production is outlined. The following topics are discussed: the KMR Power Corporation, K and M strengths and strategy, key success factors, project experience, selected projects, and capital structure.

  5. Social power, product conspicuousness, and the demand for luxury brand counterfeit products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Xuemei; Haque, Sadia; Smith, Andrew

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this article is twofold: (1) to achieve a better understanding of the psychological determinants of the demand for luxury brand counterfeit products (LBCP) through exploring the effects of social power; (2) to extend power literature by identifying boundary conditions of the relationship between social power and compensatory consumption identified by Rucker and Galinsky (2008, J. Consum. Res., 35, 257-267) and Rucker and Galinsky (2009, J. Exp. Soc. Psychol., 45, 549-555). Findings from three experiments demonstrate that social power holds key insights into understanding consumers' purchase propensity for LBCP; product conspicuousness moderates the effects of social power on purchase propensity for status products; these moderation effects are only observed when the status products are LBCP but not genuine products. This article, therefore, contributes to the literature regarding the demand for counterfeits as well as the social power and compensatory consumption literature. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  6. Biomass power production in Amazonia: Environmentally sound, economically productive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waddle, D.B. [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Washington, DC (United States); Hollomon, J.B. [Winrock International Institute for Agricultural Development, Arlington, VA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    With the support of the US Agency for International Development, the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA) is assisting their utility counterparts in Bolivia to improve electric service in the country`s rural population. In remote areas, the cost of extending transmission lines to small communities is prohibitive, and diesel generators represent an expensive alternative, especially for baseload power. This has led to serious consideration of electric generating systems using locally available renewable resources, including biomass, hydro, wind, and solar energy. A project has recently been initiated in Riberalta, in the Amazonian region of Bolivia, to convert waste Brazil nut shells and sawmill residues to electricity. Working in tandem with diesel generators, the biomass-fired plant will produce base-load power in an integrated system that will be able to provide reliable and affordable electricity to the city. The project will allow the local rural electric cooperative to lower the price of electricity by nearly forty percent, enable the local Brazil nut industry to increase its level of mechanization, and reduce the environmental impacts of dumping waste shells around the city and in an adjacent river. The project is representative of others that will be funded in the future by NRECA/AID.

  7. Design study of beam dynamics issues for 1 TeV next linear collider based upon the relativistic-klystron two-beam accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, H.; Goffeney, N.; Henestroza, E.; Sessler, A.; Yu, S.; Houck, T.; Westenskow, G.

    1994-11-01

    A design study has recently been conducted for exploring the feasibility of a relativistic-klystron two-beam accelerator (RK-TBA) system as a rf power source for a 1 TeV linear collider. The author present, in this paper, the beam dynamics part of this study. They have achieved in their design study acceptable transverse and longitudinal beam stability properties for the resulting high efficiency and low cost RK-TBA

  8. Green certificates will lead to increased electric power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, Oddvar

    2004-01-01

    The implementation of green certificates will lead to increased electricity production from renewable energy sources and less risk of price crises. For the time being, a common market for green certificates will be established with Sweden from January 1, 2006. It is possible to realise a ''compulsory total quota'' of 20 TWh by 2016. Green certificates will imply a premium on the electricity bill. However, the quota system will imply increased power generation, which in turn tends to lower the price. Norway should in principle follow Sweden's definition of renewable energy: all new hydroelectric power, wind power, solar energy, wave and tidal power, biomass energy, and energy recovery. The certificate regime will apply to new investments in renewable power production. However, it would be natural to include the established renewable power production that is currently receiving support. Some critics fear that the consumers rather than the authorities will subsidize the production of green power. The point is being made that central EU countries may save great sums by investing in renewable energy in Norway

  9. Economic evaluation of private power production under uncertainties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiguo Xing; Wu, F.F. [University of Hong Kong (China). Centre for Electrical Energy Systems

    2003-02-01

    Private power production is becoming an increasingly important source of electricity generation. In developing countries, build-operate-transfer (BOT) arrangement has emerged as a dominant form of private investment. Pricing private power production at its avoided cost is the breakeven point for the utility in economic evaluation, and uncertainties must be taken into account. In this paper, an approach of calculating the breakeven cost to the utility of a BOT power plant whose contract lasts for 10-25 years is proposed. The proposed approach requires the computation of production costs from long-term generation expansion planning (GEP) under future uncertainties. To facilitate the inclusion of constraints introduced by BOT plants in GEP and uncertainties, a genetic algorithm method is utilized in GEP. The breakeven cost is a useful measure in the economic evaluation of BOT power plants. An example is presented to illustrate the economic evaluation of BOT plants using the concept of breakeven cost.(author)

  10. Optimization of wind farm power production using innovative control strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duc, Thomas

    Wind energy has experienced a very significant growth and cost reduction over the past decade, and is now able to compete with conventional power generation sources. New concepts are currently investigated to decrease costs of production of electricity even further. Wind farm coordinated control...... deficit caused by the wake downstream, or yawing the turbine to deflect the wake away from the downwind turbine. Simulation results found in the literature indicate that an increase in overall power production can be obtained. However they underline the high sensitivity of these gains to incoming wind...... aligned wind turbines. The experimental results show that the scenarios implemented during the first measurement campaign did not achieve an increase in overall power production, which confirms the difficulty to realize wind farm power optimization in real operating conditions. In the curtailment field...

  11. Estimating generation costs for wind power production in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benazet, J.F.; Probert, E.J.

    1997-01-01

    Wind power is being exploited in several European countries as one of a possible number of sources of renewable energy. However, in France there is a heavy reliance on nuclear and hydro-electric power and the potential of wind power as part of the energy mix has been virtually ignored. One of the reasons advanced for the under utilisation of this technology is that it is financially unattractive. In this paper the contribution which wind power could potentially make to overall power production levels in France is examined. A cost estimate model is developed which derives electricity generation costs and determines realistic levels of production for the future. The model automatically determines the associated number of wind turbines required and the geographical areas in which they should be located. (author)

  12. Wind farm electrical power production model for load flow analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segura-Heras, Isidoro; Escriva-Escriva, Guillermo; Alcazar-Ortega, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The importance of renewable energy increases in activities relating to new forms of managing and operating electrical power: especially wind power. Wind generation is increasing its share in the electricity generation portfolios of many countries. Wind power production in Spain has doubled over the past four years and has reached 20 GW. One of the greatest problems facing wind farms is that the electrical power generated depends on the variable characteristics of the wind. To become competitive in a liberalized market, the reliability of wind energy must be guaranteed. Good local wind forecasts are therefore essential for the accurate prediction of generation levels for each moment of the day. This paper proposes an electrical power production model for wind farms based on a new method that produces correlated wind speeds for various wind farms. This method enables a reliable evaluation of the impact of new wind farms on the high-voltage distribution grid. (author)

  13. Corpuscular Model of Two-Beam Interference and Double-Slit Experiments with Single Photons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, Fengping; Yuan, Shengjun; De Raedt, Hans; Michielsen, Kristel; Miyashita, Seiji

    We introduce an event-based corpuscular simulation model that reproduces the wave mechanical results of single-photon double-slit and two-beam interference experiments and (of a one-to-one copy of an experimental realization) of a single-photon interference experiment with a Fresnel biprism. The

  14. Consequences of reduced production of electricity in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Swedish Power Administration has assessed the possibilities of expanding electric power sources other than nuclear power plants for the years 1980 and 1985. Reports on costs in the form of loss of capital and increased operating costs involved in the dismantling of nuclear power plants are made in Supplement 1. The economics division of the Finance Department, starting with a long-range study model of the Swedish economy, has calculated the consequences of a cutback in electric power up to 1980 for Sweden's economy and employment in that year. The consequences of reduction of electricity supplies up to 1985 are summarized in Supplement 2 in this report. It is concluded that in order to be able to manage the problem of supplying electricity by 1985, it will be necessary to increase oil power above what was assumed in the energy policy program. There will have to be new oil-based power as well. According to the Power Administration, oil-power facilities can be expanded to varying degrees, depending upon when the decision is made. The Power Administration's calculations show that 125 TWh is possible in 1985 without nuclear power only if a decision for discontinuation is made in the fall of 1976. This is based on very optimistic assumptions about the time of execution of a program for oil-steam operation, and also on the assumption that extreme measures will be initiated to force expansion of both district-heating distribution and power + heat facilities. Oil consumption for production of electricity in such an electric power system would be about 9 million m 3 , which is about 5 times more than at present and about one-third of the present total consumption of petroleum products in Sweden

  15. State regulation and power plant productivity: background and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-09-01

    This report was prepared by representatives of several state regulatory agencies. It is a guide to some of the activities currently under way in state agencies to promote increased availability of electrical generating power plants. Standard measures of plant performance are defined and the nature of data bases that report such measures is discussed. It includes reviews of current state, federal, and industry programs to enhance power plant productivity and provides detailed outlines of programs in effect in California, Illinois, Michigan, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, and Texas. A number of actions are presented that could be adopted by state regulatory agencies, depending on local conditions. They include: develop a commission position or policy statement to encourage productivity improvements by utilities; coordinate state efforts with ongoing industry and government programs to improve the acquisition of power plant performance data and the maintenance of quality information systems; acquire the capability to perform independent analyses of power plant productivity; direct the establishment of productivity improvement programs, including explicit performance objectives for both existing and planned power plants, and a performance program; establish a program of incentives to motivate productivity improvement activities; and participate in ongoing efforts at all levels and initiate new actions to promote productivity improvements

  16. Selling green power in California: Product, industry, and market trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, R.H.; Pickle, S.J.

    1998-05-01

    As one of the first US stages to open its doors to retail electric competition, California offers an important opportunity to assess the effectiveness of green power marketing as a mechanism for supporting renewable energy. This report is an interim assessment of key green power product, industry, and market trends in California. The report identifies and analyzes: the potential size of the green power market in California; the companies participating in the green power market; the green power products being offered and their prices; the impact of the green market on renewable generators and the environment; and the influence of several public policies and non-governmental programs on the market for green power. Data used in this paper have been collected, in large part, from surveys and interviews with green power marketers that took place between December 1997 and April 1998. There remain legitimate concerns over the viability of green power marketing to support significant quantities of renewable energy and provide large environmental gains, and it is far too early to assess the overall strength of customer demand for renewable energy. A critical finding of this report is that, because of the high cost of acquiring and servicing residential customers and the low utility default service price, green power marketing affords new energy service providers one of the only viable entrees to California`s residential marketplace.

  17. Selling green power in California: Product, industry, and market trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiser, R.H.; Pickle, S.J.

    1998-05-01

    As one of the first US stages to open its doors to retail electric competition, California offers an important opportunity to assess the effectiveness of green power marketing as a mechanism for supporting renewable energy. This report is an interim assessment of key green power product, industry, and market trends in California. The report identifies and analyzes: the potential size of the green power market in California; the companies participating in the green power market; the green power products being offered and their prices; the impact of the green market on renewable generators and the environment; and the influence of several public policies and non-governmental programs on the market for green power. Data used in this paper have been collected, in large part, from surveys and interviews with green power marketers that took place between December 1997 and April 1998. There remain legitimate concerns over the viability of green power marketing to support significant quantities of renewable energy and provide large environmental gains, and it is far too early to assess the overall strength of customer demand for renewable energy. A critical finding of this report is that, because of the high cost of acquiring and servicing residential customers and the low utility default service price, green power marketing affords new energy service providers one of the only viable entrees to California's residential marketplace

  18. Reference costs of the electric power production; Couts de reference de la production electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-06-01

    This study periodically realized by the DGEMP aims to compare the competitiveness of the different channels of electric power production, for different utilization conditions. The first part ''reference costs of the 2003 electric power production'' examines the prices of the electric power produced by different channels in particular in the framework of the industrial implementing in 2015. The nuclear and thermal power plants are concerned. The second part is devoted to the decentralized production channels (wind energy, photovoltaic, cogeneration heat-electricity) is under construction and will be presented next year. (A.L.B.)

  19. Production of ozone using nanosecond short pulsed power

    OpenAIRE

    Shimomura, N.; Wakimoto, M.; Togo, H.; Namihira, Takao; Akiyama, Hidenori; ナミヒラ, タカオ; アキヤマ, ヒデノリ; 浪平, 隆男; 秋山, 秀典

    2003-01-01

    Production of ozone is one of the most typical industrial and commercial applications of electrical discharge. The demand of ozone will be increasing for wholesome and environment-friendly sterilizations. The production of ozone using the pulsed power discharge will apply electron accelerations around the head of streamer discharge. The breakdowns in reactor, however, often limit the efficient production. The pulse shape should be controlled for dimension of the reactor. On the other hand, th...

  20. Low-field permanent magnet quadrupoles in a new relativistic-klystron two-beam accelerator design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, S.; Sessler, A. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Permanent magnets play a central role in the new relativistic klystron two-beam-accelerator design. The two key goals of this new design, low cost and the suppression of beam break-up instability are both intimately tied to the permanent magnet quadrupole focusing system. A recently completed systems study by a joint LBL-LLNL team concludes that a power source for a 1 TeV center-of-mass Next Linear Collider based on the new TBA design can be as low as $1 billion, and the efficiency (wall plug to rf) is estimated to be 36%. End-to-end simulations of longitudinal and transverse beam dynamics show that the drive beam is stable over the entire TBA unit.

  1. Utilizing Solar Power Technologies for On-Orbit Propellant Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikes, John C.; Howell, Joe T.; Henley, Mark W.

    2006-01-01

    The cost of access to space beyond low Earth orbit may be reduced if vehicles can refuel in orbit. The cost of access to low Earth orbit may also be reduced by launching oxygen and hydrogen propellants in the form of water. To achieve this reduction in costs of access to low Earth orbit and beyond, a propellant depot is considered that electrolyzes water in orbit, then condenses and stores cryogenic oxygen and hydrogen. Power requirements for such a depot require Solar Power Satellite technologies. A propellant depot utilizing solar power technologies is discussed in this paper. The depot will be deployed in a 400 km circular equatorial orbit. It receives tanks of water launched into a lower orbit from Earth, converts the water to liquid hydrogen and oxygen, and stores up to 500 metric tons of cryogenic propellants. This requires a power system that is comparable to a large Solar Power Satellite capable of several 100 kW of energy. Power is supplied by a pair of solar arrays mounted perpendicular to the orbital plane, which rotates once per orbit to track the Sun. The majority of the power is used to run the electrolysis system. Thermal control is maintained by body-mounted radiators; these also provide some shielding against orbital debris. The propellant stored in the depot can support transportation from low Earth orbit to geostationary Earth orbit, the Moon, LaGrange points, Mars, etc. Emphasis is placed on the Water-Ice to Cryogen propellant production facility. A very high power system is required for cracking (electrolyzing) the water and condensing and refrigerating the resulting oxygen and hydrogen. For a propellant production rate of 500 metric tons (1,100,000 pounds) per year, an average electrical power supply of 100 s of kW is required. To make the most efficient use of space solar power, electrolysis is performed only during the portion of the orbit that the Depot is in sunlight, so roughly twice this power level is needed for operations in sunlight

  2. Developing maximal neuromuscular power: Part 1--biological basis of maximal power production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormie, Prue; McGuigan, Michael R; Newton, Robert U

    2011-01-01

    This series of reviews focuses on the most important neuromuscular function in many sport performances, the ability to generate maximal muscular power. Part 1 focuses on the factors that affect maximal power production, while part 2, which will follow in a forthcoming edition of Sports Medicine, explores the practical application of these findings by reviewing the scientific literature relevant to the development of training programmes that most effectively enhance maximal power production. The ability of the neuromuscular system to generate maximal power is affected by a range of interrelated factors. Maximal muscular power is defined and limited by the force-velocity relationship and affected by the length-tension relationship. The ability to generate maximal power is influenced by the type of muscle action involved and, in particular, the time available to develop force, storage and utilization of elastic energy, interactions of contractile and elastic elements, potentiation of contractile and elastic filaments as well as stretch reflexes. Furthermore, maximal power production is influenced by morphological factors including fibre type contribution to whole muscle area, muscle architectural features and tendon properties as well as neural factors including motor unit recruitment, firing frequency, synchronization and inter-muscular coordination. In addition, acute changes in the muscle environment (i.e. alterations resulting from fatigue, changes in hormone milieu and muscle temperature) impact the ability to generate maximal power. Resistance training has been shown to impact each of these neuromuscular factors in quite specific ways. Therefore, an understanding of the biological basis of maximal power production is essential for developing training programmes that effectively enhance maximal power production in the human.

  3. Study of Heating and Fusion Power Production in ITER Discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafiq, T.; Kritz, A. H.; Bateman, G.; Kessel, C.; McCune, D. C.; Budny, R. V.; Pankin, A. Y.

    2011-01-01

    ITER simulations, in which the temperatures, toroidal angular frequency and currents are evolved, are carried out using the PTRANSP code starting with initial profiles and boundary conditions obtained from TSC code studies. The dependence of heat deposition and current drive on ICRF frequency, number of poloidal modes, beam orientation, number of Monte Carlo particles and ECRH launch angles is studied in order to examine various possibilities and contingencies for ITER steady state and hybrid discharges. For the hybrid discharges, the fusion power production and fusion Q, computed using the Multi-Mode MMM v7.1 anomalous transport model, are compared with those predicted using the GLF23 model. The simulations of the hybrid scenario indicate that the fusion power production at 1000 sec will be approximately 500 MW corresponding to a fusion Q = 10.0. The discharge scenarios simulated aid in understanding the conditions for optimizing fusion power production and in examining measures of plasma performance.

  4. Wind power. Production in 2012; Vindkraft. Produksjon i 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weir, David Edward; Nybakke, Karen

    2013-02-01

    In 2012 it was installed more wind power in Norway than in any year before. There was also production record with a total power generation from wind energy at ca. 1.57 TWh, equivalent to 1.1% of Norway's electricity production. 2012 was a relatively good 'wind year', with a production index of 107% for Norwegian wind farms as a whole. The length of time for wind was also relatively high compared to previous years with a national average of 2734 full load hours, corresponding to a capacity factor of 31%. Turbine availability also reached a record value of 95.6% in 2012 indicating more efficient operation of wind power plants in Norway.(eb)

  5. Integrated approach to economical, reliable, safe nuclear power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-06-01

    An Integrated Approach to Economical, Reliable, Safe Nuclear Power Production is the latest evolution of a concept which originated with the Defense-in-Depth philosophy of the nuclear industry. As Defense-in-Depth provided a framework for viewing physical barriers and equipment redundancy, the Integrated Approach gives a framework for viewing nuclear power production in terms of functions and institutions. In the Integrated Approach, four plant Goals are defined (Normal Operation, Core and Plant Protection, Containment Integrity and Emergency Preparedness) with the attendant Functional and Institutional Classifications that support them. The Integrated Approach provides a systematic perspective that combines the economic objective of reliable power production with the safety objective of consistent, controlled plant operation

  6. Personalisation of power, neoliberalism and the production of corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Khair, Amal Hayati; Haniffa, Roszaini; Hudaib, Mohammad; Abd. Karim, Mohamad Nazri

    2015-01-01

    This paper utilises a political lens in considering the cause for the production of corruption and the role of political leadership. Specifically, the notion of personalisation of power as advocated by Slater (2003) is adopted to portray how the adoption of neoliberalism ideology by an aspiring autocratic leader results in the weakening of the infrastructural power through three strategies: packing, rigging and circumventing. We use Perwaja Steel as a case study to demonstrate the modus opera...

  7. A study of the optimum draft of multiple resonance power buoys for maximizing electric power production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyuck-Min Kweon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To maximize electric power production using wave energy extractions from resonance power buoys, the maximum motion displacement spectra of the buoys can primarily be obtained under a given wave condition. In this study, wave spectra observed in shoaling water were formulated. Target resonance frequencies were established from the arithmetic means of modal frequency bands and the peak frequencies. The motion characteristics of the circular cylindrical power buoys with corresponding drafts were then calculated using numerical models without considering PTO damping force. Results showed that the heave motions of the power buoys in shoaling waters with insufficient drafts produced greater amplification effects than those in deep seas with sufficient drafts.

  8. Power Production and Economical Feasibility of Tideng Tidal Stream Power Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parmeggiani, Stefano; Frigaard, Peter; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    This report is a product of the contract between Aalborg University and TIDENG (by Bent Hilleke) on the evaluation and development of the TIDENG Tidal Energy Conversion System (TECS). The work has focused on the evaluation of the yearly power production of the device and its economical feasibility...

  9. Optimum operation of a small power production facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capehart, B.L.; Mahoney, J.F.; Sivazlian, B.D.

    1983-09-01

    To help reduce the U.S.A.'s dependence on imported oil for electrical power generation, the 1978 National Energy Act established regulations to promote construction and operation of cogeneration and small power production facilities. Many of these facilities are presently under construction, with a great number planned. This paper examines the operation of a small power production facility with on-site generation and storage, on-site use, and connection to an electric utility grid system for the purpose of both selling excess power and buying power. It is assumed that the buying and selling price of electricity varies frequently during the day and that the relevant price and demand data may be accurately projected into the near future. With this system description, a mathematical model is formulated and solved by linear programming to obtain a series of periodic buy and sell decisions so as to maximize the profit from operating the small power production facility. Results are presented to illustrate the methodology for determining potential profits.

  10. Methods and Algorithms for Economic MPC in Power Production Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokoler, Leo Emil

    in real-time. A generator can represent a producer of electricity, a consumer of electricity, or possibly both. Examples of generators are heat pumps, electric vehicles, wind turbines, virtual power plants, solar cells, and conventional fuel-fired thermal power plants. Although this thesis is mainly...... concerned with EMPC for minutes-ahead production planning, we show that the proposed EMPC scheme can be extended to days-ahead planning (including unit commitment) as well. The power generation from renewable energy sources such as wind and solar power is inherently uncertain and variable. A portfolio...... design an algorithm based on the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) to solve input-constrained OCPs with convex objective functions. The OCPs that occur in EMPC of dynamically decoupled subsystems, e.g. power generators, have a block-angular structure. Subsystem decomposition algorithms...

  11. Electric plant cost and power production expenses 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    Electric Plant Cost and Power Production Expenses is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. This publication presents electric utility statistics on power production expenses and construction costs of electric generating plants. Data presented here are intended to provide information to the electric utility industry, educational institutions, Federal, State, and local governments, and the general public. These data are collected and published to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities of the Energy Information Administration (EIA), as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act (Public Law 93-275), as amended

  12. Electric plant cost and power production expenses 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Electric Plant Cost and Power Production Expenses is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels (CNEAF); Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. This publication presents electric utility statistics on power production expenses and construction costs of electric generating plants. Data presented here are intended to provide information to the electric utility industry, educational institutions, Federal, State, and local governments, and the general public. These data are collected and published to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities of the Energy Information Administration (EIA), as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act (Public Law 93-275), as amended

  13. Resource-based optimization of electric power production (in Iran)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghzadeh, Mohammad

    1999-01-01

    This paper is about electric power production optimization and chiefly discusses on the types of resources available in Iran. The modeling has been based on the marginal cost of different energy resources and types of technologies used. the computed costs are the basic standards for optimization of the production system of energy. the costs associated with environmental pollution and also pollution control are considered. the present paper also studied gas fossil fuel, hydro, nuclear, renewable and co-generation of heat and power. The results are discussed and reported at the last of the paper

  14. Aberration measurement of projection optics in lithographic tools based on two-beam interference theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Mingying; Wang Xiangzhao; Wang Fan

    2006-01-01

    The degradation of image quality caused by aberrations of projection optics in lithographic tools is a serious problem in optical lithography. We propose what we believe to be a novel technique for measuring aberrations of projection optics based on two-beam interference theory. By utilizing the partial coherent imaging theory, a novel model that accurately characterizes the relative image displacement of a fine grating pattern to a large pattern induced by aberrations is derived. Both even and odd aberrations are extracted independently from the relative image displacements of the printed patterns by two-beam interference imaging of the zeroth and positive first orders. The simulation results show that by using this technique we can measure the aberrations present in the lithographic tool with higher accuracy

  15. Aberration measurement of projection optics in lithographic tools based on two-beam interference theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Mingying; Wang, Xiangzhao; Wang, Fan

    2006-11-10

    The degradation of image quality caused by aberrations of projection optics in lithographic tools is a serious problem in optical lithography. We propose what we believe to be a novel technique for measuring aberrations of projection optics based on two-beam interference theory. By utilizing the partial coherent imaging theory, a novel model that accurately characterizes the relative image displacement of a fine grating pattern to a large pattern induced by aberrations is derived. Both even and odd aberrations are extracted independently from the relative image displacements of the printed patterns by two-beam interference imaging of the zeroth and positive first orders. The simulation results show that by using this technique we can measure the aberrations present in the lithographic tool with higher accuracy.

  16. RF-Breakdown kicks at the CTF3 two-beam test stand

    CERN Document Server

    Palaia, Andrea; Muranaka, Tomoko; Ruber, Roger; Ziemann, V; Farabolini, W

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of the effects of RF-breakdown on the beam in CLIC prototype accelerator structures is one of the key aspects of the CLIC two-beam acceleration scheme being addressed at the Two-beam Test Stand (TBTS) at CTF3. RF-breakdown can randomly cause energy loss and transverse kicks to the beam. Transverse kicks have been measured by means of a screen intercepting the beam after the accelerator structure. In correspondence of a RFbreakdown we detect a double beam spot which we interpret as a sudden change of the beam trajectory within a single beam pulse. To time-resolve such effect, the TBTS has been equipped with five inductive Beam Position Monitors (BPMs) and a spectrometer line to measure both relative changes of the beam trajectory and energy losses. Here we discuss the methodology used and we present the latest results of such measurements

  17. Production in Italian industry: Electric power demand indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajello, V.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of the recession in Italy were first evidenced during the period spanning 1990-1992 with a sharp drop in the international competitiveness of Italian products. This phase was then followed by a significant drop in internal demand, the devaluation of the Italian Lira and subsequent market uncertainty. This paper presents graphs of national and regional electric power production and consumption figures which reflect the downturn in the viability of the Italian economy, especially in the industrial sector

  18. Design consideration of relativistic klystron two-beam accelerator for suppression of beam-break-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, H.; Houck, T.L.; Yu, S.; Goffeney, N.

    1994-03-01

    It is demonstrated in this simulation study that by using the scheme of operating rf extraction structures on the betatron nodes of electron drive beam in conjunction with adequate de-Q-ing, appropriate choice of geometries for the rf structures (reducing transverse impedence) and/or staggered tuning we can suppress the overall growth of transverse instabilities to 4 e-folds in a relativistic klystron two-beam accelerator with 200 extraction cavities

  19. New Meta and Nanomaterials for Photorefractive Enhancement and Photorefractive Two-Beam Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    Centro de Investigacion de Quimica Aplicada Blvd. Enrique reyna, No. 140 Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico 25253 AFOSR FA9550-09-1-0023 12 March 2010...ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER CENTRO DE INVESTIGACION EN QUIMICA APLICADA BLVD ENRIQUE REYNA NO 140 SALTILLO 25253...Photorefractive Two-Beam Coupling Ronald F. Ziolo Centro de Investigacion de Quimica Aplicada Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico 25253 Grant

  20. The competitiveness of biofuels in heat and power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosunen, P.; Leino, P.

    1995-01-01

    The paper showed that natural gas is the most competitive fuel in all the energy production alternatives under review, ie both in separate heat production and electricity generation and in combined heat and power production. Even though the heavy fuel oil taxes have grown more rapidly than taxes on domestic fuels, oil continues to be cheaper than solid fuels in heating and steam plants. According to the feasibility calculations made, combined heat and power production is the least-cost production form of electricity, and the larger the plant unit, the lower the cost. Looking to the future, in respect of merely the development in fuel taxes the competitiveness of domestic fuels will improve markedly if the taxation structure remains unchanged. It seems that at smaller points of consumption, such as heating and steam plants and small-scale power plants, fuel chips would be the most competitive fuel. In larger units, such as heat and power production plants and condensing power plants, fuel peat, primarily milled peat, would be the most competitive. The competitiveness of fuel chips at larger plants will probably be limited by the supply of sufficient volumes from such an area where the delivery costs would not raise the price of fuel chips too high. Coal would remain competitive only if the real import price of coal rose clearly more slowly than the real prices of domestic fuels. It seems that heavy fuel oil will be used only as a start-up, support and back-up fuel. Evaluating the future competitiveness of natural gas is difficult, since the impact of new pipeline investments on the price of natural gas is not known

  1. Developing maximal neuromuscular power: part 2 - training considerations for improving maximal power production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormie, Prue; McGuigan, Michael R; Newton, Robert U

    2011-02-01

    This series of reviews focuses on the most important neuromuscular function in many sport performances: the ability to generate maximal muscular power. Part 1, published in an earlier issue of Sports Medicine, focused on the factors that affect maximal power production while part 2 explores the practical application of these findings by reviewing the scientific literature relevant to the development of training programmes that most effectively enhance maximal power production. The ability to generate maximal power during complex motor skills is of paramount importance to successful athletic performance across many sports. A crucial issue faced by scientists and coaches is the development of effective and efficient training programmes that improve maximal power production in dynamic, multi-joint movements. Such training is referred to as 'power training' for the purposes of this review. Although further research is required in order to gain a deeper understanding of the optimal training techniques for maximizing power in complex, sports-specific movements and the precise mechanisms underlying adaptation, several key conclusions can be drawn from this review. First, a fundamental relationship exists between strength and power, which dictates that an individual cannot possess a high level of power without first being relatively strong. Thus, enhancing and maintaining maximal strength is essential when considering the long-term development of power. Second, consideration of movement pattern, load and velocity specificity is essential when designing power training programmes. Ballistic, plyometric and weightlifting exercises can be used effectively as primary exercises within a power training programme that enhances maximal power. The loads applied to these exercises will depend on the specific requirements of each particular sport and the type of movement being trained. The use of ballistic exercises with loads ranging from 0% to 50% of one-repetition maximum (1RM) and

  2. Construction labor productivity during nuclear power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, W.B.

    1980-01-01

    This paper discusses the three different types of productivity programs used at the Wm. H. Zimmer Nuclear Power Station construction site. The Standard Cost Estimate as Productivity Measurement compares actual units installed to estimated units. The Manpower and Equipment Utilization Study measures the present utilization level of the construction work force, identifies opportunities for productivity improvement, and establishes a data base against which future improvements could be made. The special productivity program is a specialized and detailed study of first line supervision. Productivity is defined as the degree of efficiency attained in the use of labor, professional and management skills and knowledge, materials and equipment, and time and money to produce an end result. It is concluded that a more consistent system of productivity measurements needs to be developed and promoted for general use in the construction industry

  3. What about improving the productivity of electric power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawroski, H.; Knecht, P.D.; Prideaux, D.L.; Zahner, R.R.

    1976-01-01

    The FEA in April of 1974 established an Interagency Task Group on Power Plant Reliability, which was charged with the broad objective of improving the productivity of existing and planned large fossil-fueled and nuclear power plants. It took approximately 11 months for the task force to publish a report, ''Report on Improving the Productivity of Electrical Power Plants'' (FEA-263-G), a detailed analysis and comparison of successful and below-average-performance power plants. The Nuclear Service Corp. portion of this study examined four large central-station power plants: two fossil (coal) and two nuclear plants. Only plants with electrical generation capacities greater than 400 MWe were considered. The study included the following: staff technical skill, engineering support, QA program, plant/corporate coordination, operation philosophy, maintenance programs, federal/state regulations, network control, and equipment problems. Personnel were interviewed, and checklists providing input from some 21 or more plant and corporate personnel of each utility were utilized. Reports and other documentation were also reviewed. It was recognized early that productivity is closely allied to technical skills and positive motivation. For this reason, considerable attention was given to people in this study

  4. Novel pre-combustion power production : membrane Reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallucci, F.; Van Sint Annaland, M.

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that conversion of fossil fuels for power production leads to an enormous amount of greenhouse gas emissions widely accepted as responsible for climate change. As fossil fuels will remain the primary energy source for the next decades, different studies are ongoing to make the

  5. Power generation versus fuel production in light water hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, E.

    1977-06-01

    The economic potentials of fissile-fuel-producing light-water hybrid reactors (FFP-LWHR) and of fuel-self-sufficient (FSS) LWHR's are compared. A simple economic model is constructed that gives the capital investment allowed for the hybrid reactor so that the cost of electricity generated in the hybrid based energy system equals the cost of electricity generated in LWR's. The power systems considered are LWR, FSS-LWHR, and FFP-LWHR plus LWR, both with and without plutonium recycling. The economic potential of FFP-LWHR's is found superior to that of FSS-LWHR's. Moreover, LWHR's may compete, economically, with LWR's. Criteria for determining the more economical approach to hybrid fuel or power production are derived for blankets having a linear dependence between F and M. The examples considered favor the power generation rather than fuel production

  6. The power of design product innovation in sustainable energy technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Reinders, Angele H; Brezet, Han

    2012-01-01

    The Power of Design offers an introduction and a practical guide to product innovation, integrating the key topics that are necessary for the design of sustainable and energy-efficient products using sustainable energy technologies. Product innovation in sustainable energy technologies is an interdisciplinary field. In response to its growing importance and the need for an integrated view on the development of solutions, this text addresses the functional principles of various energy technologies next to the latest design processes and innovation methods. From the perspec

  7. Construction labor productivity during nuclear power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, W.B.

    1980-01-01

    There is no single satisfactory way to measure productivity in the construction industry. The industry is too varied, too specialized and too dependent upon vast numbers of interrelations between trades, contractors, designers and owners. Hence, no universally reliable indices for measuring construction productivity has been developed. There are problems that are generic to all large union-built nuclear power plants. The actions of any one owner cannot rectify the shortcomings of the construction industry. The generic problems are being identified, and many national organizations are attempting to make the construction industry more productive by recommending various changes

  8. Life Cycle Assessment of Coal-fired Power Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spath, P. L.; Mann, M. K.; Kerr, D. R.

    1999-09-01

    Coal has the largest share of utility power generation in the US, accounting for approximately 56% of all utility-produced electricity (US DOE, 1998). Therefore, understanding the environmental implications of producing electricity from coal is an important component of any plan to reduce total emissions and resource consumption. A life cycle assessment (LCA) on the production of electricity from coal was performed in order to examine the environmental aspects of current and future pulverized coal boiler systems. Three systems were examined: (1) a plant that represents the average emissions and efficiency of currently operating coal-fired power plants in the US (this tells us about the status quo), (2) a new coal-fired power plant that meets the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS), and (3) a highly advanced coal-fired power plant utilizing a low emission boiler system (LEBS).

  9. Forecast of wind energy production and ensuring required balancing power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkulov, M.

    2010-01-01

    The wind energy is gaining larger part of the energy mix around the world as well as in Bulgaria. Having in mind the irregularity of the wind, we are in front of a challenge for management of the power grid in new unknown conditions. The world's experience has proven that there could be no effective management of the grid without forecasting tools, even with small scale of wind power penetration. Application of such tools promotes simple management of large wind energy production and reduction of the quantities of required balancing powers. The share of the expenses and efforts for forecasting of the wind energy is incomparably small in comparison with expenses for keeping additional powers in readiness. The recent computers potential allow simple and rapid processing of large quantities of data from different sources, which provides required conditions for modeling the world's climate and producing sophisticated forecast. (author)

  10. The present power production system would meet only 60% of the power demand in 2025

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2012-01-01

    According to the head of EDF, H. Proglio, the power consumption in France would increase by 40% by 2025 because of the expected growth of the population (+9%) and of the economic growth and despite the efforts for energy sparing. The government's objective of only 50% of nuclear power in 2025 instead of today's 75% would be reached naturally without decommissioning other plant than Fessenheim. Nuclear power has shown its efficiency since electricity price in France is 40% less high than the European average price. EDF has launched a 50 billion euros investment program in order to replace main components of nuclear power plants by 2025. This program will generate 20.000 new jobs in addition to the 30.000 people hired to replace retired staff. For the head of EDF, the real question is more how to produce the future needed power than how to suppress existing means of production. (A.C.)

  11. Wind energy in electric power production. Preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lento, R; Peltola, E

    1984-01-15

    The wind speed conditions in Finland have been studied with the aid of the existing statistics of the Finnish Meteorological Institute. With the aid of the statistics also estimates on the available wind energy were made. 800 wind power plants, 1.5 MW each, on the windiest west coast would produce about 2 TWh energy per year. Far more information on the temporal, geographical and vertical distribution of the wind speed than the present statistics include is needed when the available wind energy is estimated, when wind power plants are dimensioned optimally, and when suitable locations are chosen for them. The investment costs of a wind power plant increase when the height of the tower or the diameter of the rotor is increased, but the energy production increases, too. Thus, overdimensioning the wind power plant in view of energy needs or the wind conditions causes extra costs. The cost of energy produced by wind power can not yet compete with conventional energy, but the situation changes to the advantage of wind energy, if the real price of the plants decreases (among other things due to large series production and increasing experience), or if the real price of fuels rises. The inconvinience on the environment caused by the wind power plants is considered insignificant. The noise caused by the plant attenuates rapidly with distance. No harmful effects birds and other animals caused by the wind power plants have been observed in the studies made abroad. Parts of a plant getting loose during an accident, or ice forming on the blades are estimated to fly even from a large plant only a few hundred meters.

  12. Power technology complex for production of motor fuel from brown coals with power supply from NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troyanov, M.F.; Poplavskij, V.M.; Sidorov, G.I.; Bondarenko, A.V.; Chebeskov, A.N.; Chushkin, V.N.; Karabash, A.A.; Krichko, A.A.; Maloletnev, A.S.

    1998-01-01

    With the present-day challenge of efficient use of low-grade coals and current restructuring of coal industry in the Russian Federation, it is urgent to organise the motor fuel production by the synthesis from low grade coals and heavy petroleum residues. With this objective in view, the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering of RF Minatom and Combustible Resources Institute of RF Mintopenergo proposed a project of a standard nuclear power technology complex for synthetic liquid fuel (SLF) production using fast neutron reactors for power supply. The proposed project has two main objectives: (1) Engineering and economical optimization of the nuclear power supply for SLF production; and (2) Engineering and economical optimization of the SLF production by hydrogenisation of brown coals and heavy petroleum residues with a complex development of advanced coal chemistry. As a first approach, a scheme is proposed with the use of existing reactor cooling equipment, in particular, steam generators of BN-600, limiting the effect on safety of reactor facility operation at minimum in case of deviations and abnormalities in the operation of technological complex. The possibility to exclude additional requirements to the equipment for nuclear facility cooling was also taken into account. It was proposed to use an intermediate steam-water circuit between the secondary circuit sodium and the coolant to heat the technological equipment. The only change required for the BN-600 equipment will be the replacement of sections of intermediate steam superheaters at the section of main steam superheaters. The economic aspects of synthetic motor fuel production proposed by the joint project depend on the evaluation of integral balances: thermal power engineering, chemical technology, the development of advanced large scale coal chemistry of high profitability; utilisation of ash and precious microelements in waste-free technology; production of valuable isotopes; radical solution of

  13. Design study of longitudinal dynamics of the drive beam in 1 TeV relativistic klystron two-beam accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, H.; Yu, S.S.; Sessler, A.M.

    1994-10-01

    In this paper the authors present a design study on the longitudinal dynamics of a relativistic klystron two-beam accelerator (RK-TBA) scheme which has been proposed as a power source candidate for a 1 TeV next linear collider (NLC). They address the issue of maintaining stable power output at desired level for a 300-m long TBA with 150 extraction cavities and present their simulation results to demonstrate that it can be achieved by inductively detuning the extraction cavities to counter the space charge debunching effect on the drive beam. They then carry out simulation study to show that the beam bunches desired by the RK-TBA can be efficiently obtained by first chopping an initially uniform beam of low energy into a train of beam bunches with modest longitudinal dimension and then using the open-quotes adiabatic captureclose quotes scheme to bunch and accelerate these beam bunches into tight bunches at the operating energy of the drive beam. The authors have also examined the open-quotes after burnerclose quotes scheme which is implemented in their RK-TBA design for efficiency enhancement

  14. Failures of knowledge production in nuclear power risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanne, Johan M.

    2008-09-01

    Risks are ascribed in processes of knowledge production, where risk objects are defined and measures taken. This knowledge is also the basis for regulatory action. Thus, uncertainties in knowledge production, based upon choices of assumptions, methods, calculations and evidence criteria for reliable data create vulnerabilities for risk management and risk regulation. A recent incident in Swedish nuclear power plant provides an opportunity to develop theories of knowledge production in complex organizations. Knowledge modes within nuclear power can be characterized as either calculated logics where evidence claims need numbers, real time logics based upon subtle signals and tacit knowledge or as policy logics, navigating between internal and external demands for safety, trustworthiness and profit. The plant had neither foreseen the triggering event nor designed the plant to withstand it. I analyze how the plant and the regulator have interpreted the event, its significance and the measures taken to prevent similar events. I also discuss alternative interpretations, lack of knowledge and the generic deficiencies in knowledge production that the event indicates. First, the plant was not as robustly designed as expected. Deficiencies in diversification may have been caused by overconfidence in the reliability of its design. Second, inadequate design was ascribed to various deficient knowledge production processes: original design of the plant, reconstruction or caused by inadequate learning from previous events. The failures in knowledge production were probably caused by insufficient integration of different knowledge processes and limitations in engineering analysis. Knowledge about risks from nuclear power operations is mainly based upon calculations and simulations, not upon real events. But knowledge and design could be improved also without accidents. Control room operators and maintenance staff can provide invaluable knowledge and methods; to improve causal

  15. Failures of knowledge production in nuclear power risk management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanne, Johan M.

    2008-09-15

    Risks are ascribed in processes of knowledge production, where risk objects are defined and measures taken. This knowledge is also the basis for regulatory action. Thus, uncertainties in knowledge production, based upon choices of assumptions, methods, calculations and evidence criteria for reliable data create vulnerabilities for risk management and risk regulation. A recent incident in Swedish nuclear power plant provides an opportunity to develop theories of knowledge production in complex organizations. Knowledge modes within nuclear power can be characterized as either calculated logics where evidence claims need numbers, real time logics based upon subtle signals and tacit knowledge or as policy logics, navigating between internal and external demands for safety, trustworthiness and profit. The plant had neither foreseen the triggering event nor designed the plant to withstand it. I analyze how the plant and the regulator have interpreted the event, its significance and the measures taken to prevent similar events. I also discuss alternative interpretations, lack of knowledge and the generic deficiencies in knowledge production that the event indicates. First, the plant was not as robustly designed as expected. Deficiencies in diversification may have been caused by overconfidence in the reliability of its design. Second, inadequate design was ascribed to various deficient knowledge production processes: original design of the plant, reconstruction or caused by inadequate learning from previous events. The failures in knowledge production were probably caused by insufficient integration of different knowledge processes and limitations in engineering analysis. Knowledge about risks from nuclear power operations is mainly based upon calculations and simulations, not upon real events. But knowledge and design could be improved also without accidents. Control room operators and maintenance staff can provide invaluable knowledge and methods; to improve causal

  16. A game-theoretical model of private power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing, W.; Wu, F.F.

    2001-01-01

    Private power production has sprung up all over the world. The build-operate-transfer (BOT) arrangement has emerged as one of the most important options for private power production, especially in developing countries with rapidly growing demand and financial shortages. Based on oligopoly theory, the paper proposes a Stackelberg game model between a BOT investor and an electric utility whereby they can negotiate a long-term energy contract. Asymmetric pricing schemes are taken into account such that a host utility purchases electricity from a BOT company at its ''avoided cost'', and sells its electricity to end users at its ''average cost''. Our Stackelberg game model is transferred into a two-level optimization problem, and then solved by an iterative algorithm. The game model is demonstrated by an illustrative example. (author)

  17. Major factors influencing craft productivity in nuclear power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borcherding, J.D.; Sebastian, S.J.

    1980-01-01

    This paper reports on a research study whose objective was to determine the most influential factors adversely affecting craft productivity in nuclear power plant construction from the perspective of the tradesmen employed at the sites. Data were collected through the use of a questionnaire survey and group interview sessions, predominantly with workmen, at six nuclear power plant construction projects. Craftsmen were chosen as the major data base because of their awareness of how their time would actually be spent on the project. Topics considered include the factors influencing craft productivity, material availability, redoing work, crew interfacing, overcrowded work areas, instruction time, inspection delays, craft turnover, craft absenteeism, foreman changes, foreman incompetence, engineering design lead time, comprehensive scheduling of the design function, the responsibility of the utility, value engineering, plant standardization, the effective utilization of the planning and scheduling system, and the labor-management committee

  18. A game-theoretical model of private power production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, W.; Wu, F.F. [University of Hong Kong (China). Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering

    2001-03-01

    Private power production has sprung up all over the world. The build-operate-transfer (BOT) arrangement has emerged as one of the most important options for private power production, especially in developing countries with rapidly growing demand and financial shortages. Based on oligopoly theory, the paper proposes a Stackelberg game model between a BOT investor and an electric utility whereby they can negotiate a long-term energy contract. Asymmetric pricing schemes are taken into account such that a host utility purchases electricity from a BOT company at its ''avoided cost'', and sells its electricity to end users at its ''average cost''. Our Stackelberg game model is transferred into a two-level optimization problem, and then solved by an iterative algorithm. The game model is demonstrated by an illustrative example. (author)

  19. Market potential of IGCC for domestic power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, D.; Tomlinson, G.; Hawk, E.; Maskew, J.

    1999-01-01

    Mitretek Systems and CONSOL Inc. have completed the first phase of a market potential study for Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) domestic power production. The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded this study. The objective of this study is to provide DOE with data to estimate the future domestic market potential of IGCC for electricity generation. Major drivers in this study are the state of technology development, feedstock costs, environmental control costs, demand growth, and dispatchability. This study examines IGCC potential for baseload power production in the Northeast U. S., an important market area by virtue of existing coal infrastructure and proximity to coal producing regions. IGCC market potential was examined for two levels of technology development as a function of natural gas price and carbon tax. This paper discusses the results of this study, including the levels of performance and cost necessary to insure competitiveness with natural gas combined cycle plants

  20. Enhanced Passive Cooling for Waterless-Power Production Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Salvador B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-06-14

    Recent advances in the literature and at SNL indicate the strong potential for passive, specialized surfaces to significantly enhance power production output. Our exploratory computational and experimental research indicates that fractal and swirl surfaces can help enable waterless-power production by increasing the amount of heat transfer and turbulence, when compared with conventional surfaces. Small modular reactors, advanced reactors, and non-nuclear plants (e.g., solar and coal) are ideally suited for sCO2 coolant loops. The sCO2 loop converts the thermal heat into electricity, while the specialized surfaces passively and securely reject the waste process heat in an environmentally benign manner. The resultant, integrated energy systems are highly suitable for small grids, rural areas, and arid regions.

  1. Monte Carlo simulation techniques for predicting annual power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, J.P.; Bulandr, P.J.

    1991-01-01

    As the owner and operator of a number of small to mid-sized hydroelectric sites, STS HydroPower has been faced with the need to accurately predict anticipated hydroelectric revenues over a period of years. The typical approach to this problem has been to look at each site from a mathematical deterministic perspective and evaluate the annual production from historic streamflows. Average annual production is simply taken to be the area under the flow duration curve defined by the operating and design characteristics of the selected turbines. Minimum annual production is taken to be a historic dry year scenario and maximum production is viewed as power generated under the most ideal of conditions. Such an approach creates two problems. First, in viewing the characteristics of a single site, it does not take into account the probability of such an event occurring. Second, in viewing all sites in a single organization's portfolio together, it does not reflect the varying flow conditions at the different sites. This paper attempts to address the first of these two concerns, that being the creation of a simulation model utilizing the Monte Carlo method at a single site. The result of the analysis is a picture of the production at the site that is both a better representation of anticipated conditions and defined probabilistically

  2. Cogeneration Power Plants: a Proposed Methodology for Unitary Production Cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metalli, E.

    2009-01-01

    A new methodology to evaluate unitary energetic production costs in the cogeneration power plants is proposed. This methodology exploits the energy conversion factors fixed by Italian Regulatory Authority for Electricity and Gas. So it allows to settle such unitary costs univocally for a given plant, without assigning them a priori subjective values when there are two or more energy productions at the same time. Moreover the proposed methodology always ensures positive values for these costs, complying with the total generation cost balance equation. [it

  3. Power plant project success through total productive generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaivola, R.; Tamminen, L.

    1996-11-01

    The Total Productive Generation concept (TPG) defines the lines of action adopted by IVO Generation Services Ltd (IGS) for the operation and maintenance of power plants. The TPG concept is based on procedures tested in practice. The main idea of TPG is continuous development of quality, which is a joint effort of the entire staff. Its objective is to benefit IGS`s own staff and, in particular, the company`s customers. (orig.)

  4. Chitin Lengthens Power Production in a Sedimentary Microbial Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    organic carbon sediments demonstrate that chitin enhances and lengthens power production. Keywords—chitin; MFC; microbiology ; iron-reducing bacteria...levels of organic content available as a food source for bacteria in the sediment. Dependent upon applications, there are scenarios where a SMFC...as ethanol, molasses, or vegetable oils. In the case of underwater marine sediment, options for carbon amendment are limited to solid carbon

  5. Overview of biomass and waste fuel resources for power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easterly, J.L.; Burnham, M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of issues and opportunities associated with the use of biomass for electric power generation. Important physical characteristics of biomass and waste fuels are summarized, including comparisons with conventional fossil fuels, primarily coal. The paper also provides an overview of the current use of biomass and waste fuels for electric power generation. Biomass and waste fuels are currently used for approximately 9,800 megawatts (MW) of electric generating capacity, including about 6,100 MW of capacity fueled by wood/wood waste and about 2,200 MW of capacity fueled with municipal solid waste. Perspectives on the future availability of biomass fuels (including energy crops) are addressed, as well as projected levels of market penetration for biomass power. By the year 2010, there is a potential for 22,000 MW, to as much as 70,000 MW of biomass-powered electric generating capacity in the U.S. Given the range of benefits offered by biomass, including reduced sulfur emissions, reduced greenhouse gas emissions, job creation, rural revitalization impacts, and new incentives under the Energy Policy Act of 1992, the potential use of biomass for power production could significantly expand in the future

  6. Operational costs induced by fluctuating wind power production in Germany and Scandinavia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meibom, P. [Risoe National Lab., DTU, System Analysis Dept., Roskilde (Denmark); Weber, C. [Univ. Duisburg-Essen, Chai og Energy Management (Germany); Barth, R.; Brand, H. [Univ. of Stuttgart, Inst. of Energy Economics and the Rational Use of Energy (Germany)

    2007-05-15

    Adding wind power generation in a power system changes the operational patterns of the existing units due to the variability and unpredictability of wind power production. For large amounts of wind power production the expectation is that the operational costs of the other power plants will increase due to more operation time in part-load and more start-ups. The change in operational costs induced by the wind power production can only be calculated by comparing the operational costs in two power system configurations: with wind power production and with alternative production having properties like conventional production, i.e. being predictable and less variable. The choice of the characteristics of the alternative production is not straight forward and will therefore influence the operational costs induced by wind power production. This paper presents a method for calculating the change in operational costs due to wind power production using a stochastic optimization model covering the power systems in Germany and the Nordic countries. Two cases of alternative production are used to calculate the change in operational costs namely perfectly predictable wind power production enabling calculation of the costs connected to unpredictability, and constant wind power production enabling calculation of the operational costs connected to variability of wind power production. A 2010 case with three different wind power production penetration levels is analysed in the paper. (au)

  7. The Conductive Silver Nanowires Fabricated by Two-beam Laser Direct Writing on the Flexible Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Gui-Cang; Zheng, Mei-Ling; Dong, Xian-Zi; Jin, Feng; Liu, Jie; Duan, Xuan-Ming; Zhao, Zhen-Sheng

    2017-02-01

    Flexible electrically conductive nanowires are now a key component in the fields of flexible devices. The achievement of metal nanowire with good flexibility, conductivity, compact and smooth morphology is recognized as one critical milestone for the flexible devices. In this study, a two-beam laser direct writing system is designed to fabricate AgNW on PET sheet. The minimum width of the AgNW fabricated by this method is 187 ± 34 nm with the height of 84 ± 4 nm. We have investigated the electrical resistance under different voltages and the applicable voltage per meter range is determined to be less than 7.5 × 103 V/m for the fabricated AgNW. The flexibility of the AgNW is very excellent, since the resistance only increases 6.63% even after the stretched bending of 2000 times at such a small bending radius of 1.0 mm. The proposed two-beam laser direct writing is an efficient method to fabricate AgNW on the flexible sheet, which could be applied in flexible micro/nano devices.

  8. Renewable power production in a Pan-Caribbean energy grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David

    The Small Island Developing States of the Caribbean are victims of geography and geopolitics. Lacking access to large fossil fuel reserves, they are forced to import fuel at prices they have no control over. Renewable energy resources, particularly wind, have the potential to help break the Caribbean dependency on fossil fuels and allow for increased development at the same time. Working from a sustainable development point of view, this project discusses the history of the area, the theoretical background for the idea of large scale renewable power production, the regional initiatives already in place that address both the cost of fossil fuels and the policy hurdles that need to be overcome to assist the region in gaining energy independence. Haiti is highlighted as a special case in the region and the potential use of several renewable resources are discussed, along with a potential business model based on the idea of the Internet. Power storage is covered, specifically the potential of battery operated vehicles to have a positive impact on the Caribbean region and other developing states. The role of government regulation and policy comes into play next, followed by a discussion on the need for developed states to change patterns of behavior in order to achieve sustainability. Finally, nuclear power and liquefied natural gas are reviewed and rejected as power options for the region.

  9. River ice implications related to water power production in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asvall, R.P. [Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate, Oslo (Norway). Hydrology Dept.

    2009-07-01

    Nearly 99 per cent of the electricity produced in Norway is based on water power. While the period of large power development is over, the current focus lies in developing small hydroelectric power plants. A new market based energy law was implemented in Norway in 1991 to achieve more efficient use of electricity production by means of market forces. Since water regulation influences ice conditions in lakes and rivers, this paper focused on the implications of changes in ice conditions. In Norway, the expected changes in ice conditions are taken into account when issuing permits for water regulations and schemes for water discharge because some waterways are used as winter roads. Follow-up includes both close and long term observations and measurements. The impact of variable price on power was also discussed, with particular reference to ice conditions in cases where water discharge occurs on rivers. This paper summarized selected ice problems and how they have been handled. The paper also included a summary of anticipated climatic changes relevant to ice conditions.

  10. The full costs of thermal power production in Eastern Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venema, H.D.; Barg, S.

    2003-07-01

    This study examines the public health and global warming costs associated with generating electricity with fossil fuels such as coal, oil or natural gas. A Full Cost Accounting approach was used to determine the costs for Eastern Canada. The electricity sector is chosen because it is a large emitter of air pollutants and greenhouse gases. The sector it will undergo potentially significant structural changes as Canada complies with the Kyoto Protocol. Alternative investments in nonpolluting sources of electricity should include analysis of full costs. Two types of factors are evaluated in this study: the public health costs caused by emissions of sulphur and nitrogen oxides and volatile organic carbon (VOC) in Eastern Canada, and the marginal climate change damages caused by the emissions of greenhouse gasses (GHGs) in Eastern Canada. The major contribution of this study is the application of the impact-pathway approach to power sector emissions. Recent Canadian studies have reported either the pollutant emission rates for different power generation technologies and fuels, or the health costs of ambient air pollution not specifically attributable to the power sector. This study isolates the component of air pollution attributable to the power sector and analyses its geographic distribution. It was concluded that coal-fired generation should be closely monitored because the externalities burden is the same magnitude as the marginal production cost. 77 refs., 20 tabs., 21 figs

  11. River ice implications related to water power production in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asvall, R.P.

    2009-01-01

    Nearly 99 per cent of the electricity produced in Norway is based on water power. While the period of large power development is over, the current focus lies in developing small hydroelectric power plants. A new market based energy law was implemented in Norway in 1991 to achieve more efficient use of electricity production by means of market forces. Since water regulation influences ice conditions in lakes and rivers, this paper focused on the implications of changes in ice conditions. In Norway, the expected changes in ice conditions are taken into account when issuing permits for water regulations and schemes for water discharge because some waterways are used as winter roads. Follow-up includes both close and long term observations and measurements. The impact of variable price on power was also discussed, with particular reference to ice conditions in cases where water discharge occurs on rivers. This paper summarized selected ice problems and how they have been handled. The paper also included a summary of anticipated climatic changes relevant to ice conditions.

  12. Possibilities and future of wind power production in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holttinen, E.; Tammelin, B.

    1997-01-01

    The article was prepared for two presentations for Finnish MPs late autumn 1996 in connection of the handling of new energy taxation in Finland. The governmental proposal was going to favour the use of coal and unfavour the use of renewable energy sources. The total amount of installed wind power in Finland (7 MW) was compared to some other European countries. Anyhow it is well known that the wind potential in Finland due to its long coast line, large archipelago and great number of arctic mountains, all with very good wind climate, offers a great opportunity for effective exploitation of wind energy. The price of wind energy in Finland is 30 p/kWh (about 0,05 ECU) and it is estimated that with bigger power plan units it could be 20 p/kWh. Different ways to support wind energy production was presented with examples from Germany, Denmark and Sweden. (orig.) (8 refs.)

  13. Properties of bituminization product from Olkiluoto power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valkiainen, M.; Vuorinen, U.

    1985-09-01

    In Finland, disposal into repositories excavated into bedrock on the present power plant sites is considered to be the most feasible alternative for the low- and intermediate level wastes. The Nuclear Waste Commission of the Finnish power companies has sponsored mainly experimental research work on long-term properties of bituminized ion exchange resin performed in the Reactor Laboratory of the Technical Research Centre of Finland since 1981. This report presents results on follow-up measurements of the leach tests started in 1981 and results on new leach tests with cement equilibrated water. Swelling of the bituminization product caused by water uptake is considered important. Both unrestricted and restricted swelling measurements were performed and are reported here. In addition to leaching and swelling also radiolytic gas generation and pH-changes of the leachant are discussed

  14. Influence of pressure and humidity on ethanol distillery power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zumalacarregui de Cardenas, Lourdes; Perez Ones, Osney; Rodriguez Ramos, Pedro; Lombardi, Geraldo

    2011-01-01

    A distillery for the Generation of Renewable Energy Integrated to Food Production (GERIPA), that produces 125 000 L/day of ethanol, presents advantages in comparison with the traditional distilleries. In this paper the available thermal energy in sugar cane and sorghum, bagasse and straw, and also in biogas are calculated. This energy produces vapor for the process and electricity, using a boiler with 88 % of efficiency and a two stages with intermediate extraction turbine. The dependence of electric power surplus with vapor pressure is evaluated, finding that between 60 and 100 MPa, the electric power surplus reaches 7.15 to 7.82 MW. This electricity can be send to the electro-energetic system. The effective efficiency is calculated for 6 to 10 MPa finding values lower than 25 %. It is shown that a bagasse dryer can be used to increase the efficiency. (author)

  15. Evaluation of the electric power production cost growth due to decommissioning of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basso, G.

    1982-01-01

    The increase of production cost for electric power generated by nuclear plants, due to their decommissioning and the end of operating life, is analysed in respect to (a) waiting time from indefinite shut-down date to the start of dismantlement, (b) financing method, (c) interest and inflation rates. The analysis shows that the additional cost is always small for those solutions which have higher probability to be adopted

  16. REDUCING POWER PRODUCTION COSTS BY UTILIZING PETROLEUM COKE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin C. Galbreath; Donald L. Toman; Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    1999-09-01

    Petroleum coke, a byproduct of the petroleum-refining process, is an attractive primary or supplemental fuel for power production primarily because of a progressive and predictable increase in the production volumes of petroleum coke (1, 2). Petroleum coke is most commonly blended with coal in proportions suitable to meet sulfur emission compliance. Petroleum coke is generally less reactive than coal; therefore, the cofiring of petroleum coke with coal typically improves ignition, flame stability, and carbon loss relative to the combustion of petroleum coke alone. Although petroleum coke is a desirable fuel for producing relatively inexpensive electrical power, concerns about the effects of petroleum coke blending on combustion and pollution control processes exist in the coal-fired utility industry (3). The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) completed a 2-year technical assessment of petroleum coke as a supplemental fuel. A survey questionnaire was sent to seven electric utility companies that are currently cofiring coal and petroleum coke in an effort to solicit specific suggestions on research needs and fuel selections. An example of the letter and survey questionnaire is presented in Appendix A. Interest was expressed by most utilities in evaluating the effects of petroleum coke blending on grindability, combustion reactivity, fouling, slagging, and fly ash emissions control. Unexpectedly, concern over corrosion was not expressed by the utilities contacted. Although all seven utilities responded to the question, only two utilities, Northern States Power Company (NSP) and Ameren, sent fuels to the EERC for evaluation. Both utilities sent subbituminous coals from the Power River Basin and petroleum shot coke samples. Petroleum shot coke is produced unintentionally during operational upsets in the petroleum refining process. This report evaluates the effects of petroleum shot coke blending on grindability, fuel reactivity, fouling/slagging, and

  17. Exposures resulting from nuclear power production. Annex F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This Annex assesses the releases of radioactive materials from the nuclear fuel cycle and their resulting dose commitments to the public. The nuclear fuel cycle includes the mining and milling of uranium ores, conversion to nuclear fuel materials, fabrication of fuel elements, production of power in the nuclear reactor, reprocessing of irradiated fuel and recycling of fissile and fertile nuclides recovered, and disposal of radioactive wastes. This Annex also reviews reactor accidents which have led to unplanned releases of activity into the environment, together with estimates of the resulting collective doses.

  18. Microbial Reverse Electrodialysis Cells for Synergistically Enhanced Power Production

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Younggy

    2011-07-01

    A new type of bioelectrochemical system for producing electrical power, called a microbial reverse-electrodialysis cell (MRC), was developed to increase voltages and power densities compared to those generated individually by microbial fuel cells (MFCs) or reverse electrodialysis (RED) systems. In RED systems, electrode overpotentials create significant energy losses due to thermodynamically unfavorable electrode reactions, and therefore a large number of stacked cells must be used to have significant energy recovery. This results in high capital costs for the large number of membranes, and increases energy losses from pumping water through a large number of cells. In an MRC, high overpotentials are avoided through oxidation of organic matter by exoelectrogenic bacteria on the anode and oxygen reduction on the cathode. An MRC containing only five pairs of RED cells, fed solutions typical of seawater (600 mM NaCl) and river water (12 mM NaCl) at 0.85 mL/min, produced up to 3.6 W/m2 (cathode surface area) and 1.2-1.3 V with acetate as a substrate. Pumping accounted for <2% of the produced power. A higher flow rate (1.55 mL/min) increased power densities up to 4.3 W/m2. COD removal was 98% with a Coulombic efficiency of 64%. Power production by the individual components was substantially lower with 0.7 W/m2 without salinity driven energy, and <0.015 W/m2 with reduced exoelectrogenic activity due to substrate depletion. These results show that the combination of an MFC and a RED stack synergistically increases performance relative to the individual systems, producing a new type of system that can be used to more efficiently capture salinity driven energy from seawater and river water. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  19. Displacement of oil by gas in power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundram, S.; Seng, L.K.; Kow, P.T.A.

    1992-01-01

    After the oil crises, Malaysia unveiled its four fuel diversification policy in the late 1970s towards utilization of gas, oil, coal and hydro. This was to ensure adequate and continuous energy supply for driving economic development and to cushion itself against impact of possible future fluctuations in oil prices. The primary energy supply in 1978 was predominantly oil based, consisting of 75.5% oil. As a result of this diversification policy, the oil component was reduced to about 51.8% in 1988. Due to its inherent ability to adapt and adjust to different fuels, the power sector played a crucial role in this massive shift away from oil. For the corresponding period, the oil component in the electricity generation input mix has decreased from 86.7% oil to 47.4%. Malaysia is endowed with substantial natural gas reserves amounting to 52.5 trillion cubic feet. Gas, therefore constitutes a natural and attractive option for the power sector in diversifying into non-oil indigenous energy resources, as the country's hydro potential has its limitations and the available proven coal reserves are relatively small. The paper addresses the past and current status and issues involved in displacing oil by gas for the power sector. These include the economic, technological and pricing aspects of natural gas development and issues pertaining to power system development. Future gas utilization strategies include the conversion of existing oil-fired plants to gas-fired, and the plant-up of gas turbines and the efficient combined cycle plants to meet the load requirements. These strategies are assessed from the viability and security perspective of increased gas utilization. Oil will continue to be displaced, but the extent to which gas will increase its share in power production is dependent on numerous factors ranging from its economics to supply security

  20. Standing-wave free-electron laser two-beam accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sessler, A.M.; Whittum, D.H.; Wurtele, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    A free-electron laser (FEL) two-beam accelerator (TBA) is proposed, in which the FEL interaction takes place in a series of drive cavities, rather than in a waveguide. Each drive cavity is 'beat-coupled' to a section of the accelerating structure. This standing-wave TBA is investigated theoretically and numerically, with analyses included of microwave extraction, growth of the FEL signal through saturation, equilibrium longitudinal beam dynamics following saturation, and sensitivity of the microwave amplitude and phase to errors in current and energy. It is found that phase errors due to current jitter are substantially reduced from previous versions of the TBA. Analytic scalings and numerical simulations are used to obtain an illustrative TBA parameter set. (orig.)

  1. Neutron spectra in two beam ports of a TRIGA Mark III reactor with HEU fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega C, H. R.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Paredes G, L.; Aguilar, F.

    2012-10-01

    Before to change the HEU for Leu fuel of the ININ's TRIGA Mark III nuclear reactor the neutron spectra were measured in two beam ports using 5 and 10 W. Measurements were carried out in a tangential and a radial beam port using a Bonner sphere spectrometer. It was found that neutron spectra are different in the beam ports, in radial beam port the amplitude of thermal and fast neutrons are approximately the same while, in the tangential beam port thermal neutron peak is dominant. In the radial beam port the fluence-to-ambient dose equivalent factors are 131±11 and 124±10 p Sv-cm 2 for 5 and 10 W respectively while in the tangential beam port the fluence-to-ambient dose equivalent factor is 55±4 p Sv-cm 2 for 10 W. (Author)

  2. Optimal construction and combined wind and diesel power production in a regional power purchase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lautala, P.; Antila, H.; Raekkoelaeinen, J.; Heikkilae, H. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Automation and Control Inst.

    1998-12-31

    A weak electricity transmission and distribution network and a wind generator were modelled by a non-linear dynamic model. Energy purchase of a small utility was modelled as a linear mixed integer optimisation problem. The dynamic model was used to simulate the effects of distance between the wind generator and a regional power grid and the effects of changes in the production of the wind generator. The optimisation model was used to investigate the effect of the combined diesel and wind production. In this case the results show that if the distance between the generator and the network grid is more than 70 km, then voltage fluctuations exceed acceptable levels. The optimisation provides the value of the combined diesel and wind production. (orig.)

  3. Application of Modern Technologies for Nuclear Power Plant Productivity Improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, A. Naser

    2011-01-01

    The nuclear power industry in several countries is concerned about the ability to maintain current high plant performance levels due to aging and obsolescence, knowledge drain, fewer plant staff, new requirements and commitments, unnecessary workloads and stress levels, and human errors. Current plant operations are labor-intensive due to the vast number of operational and support activities required by the commonly used technology in most plants. These concerns increase as plants extend their operating life. In addition, there is the desire by many plants to further improve performance while reducing human errors and increasingly focus on reducing operations and maintenance costs. New productivity improvement capabilities with measurable economic benefits are needed so that a successful business case can be made for their use. Improved and new instrumentation and control, human-system interface, information and communications technologies used properly can address concerns about cost-effectively maintaining current performance levels and enable shifts to even higher performance levels. This can be accomplished through the use of new technology implementations to improve productivity, reduce costs of systemic inefficiencies and avoid unexpected costs. Many of the same type of productivity improvements for operating plants will be applicable for new plants. As new plants are being built, it is important to include these productivity improvements or at least provide the ability to implement them easily later

  4. Innovative applications of technology for nuclear power plant productivity improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naser, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear power industry in several countries is concerned about the ability to maintain high plant performance levels due to aging and obsolescence, knowledge drain, fewer plant staff, and new requirements and commitments. Current plant operations are labor-intensive due to the vast number of operational and support activities required by commonly used technology in most plants. These concerns increase as plants extend their operating life. In addition, there is the goal to further improve performance while reducing human errors and increasingly focus on reducing operations and maintenance costs. New plants are expected to perform more productively than current plants. In order to achieve and increase high productivity, it is necessary to look at innovative applications of modern technologies and new concepts of operation. The Electric Power Research Inst. is exploring and demonstrating modern technologies that enable cost-effectively maintaining current performance levels and shifts to even higher performance levels, as well as provide tools for high performance in new plants. Several modern technologies being explored can provide multiple benefits for a wide range of applications. Examples of these technologies include simulation, visualization, automation, human cognitive engineering, and information and communications technologies. Some applications using modern technologies are described. (authors)

  5. Wind Turbine and Power Production, the Danish Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjems, Joergen; Oester, Flemming

    2007-07-01

    The progress within the Danish wind energy sector in Denmark is reviewed. Excluding minor intermission periods the R and D development of electricity producing wind turbines has taken place continuously for more than 100 years in Denmark. After the first oil crisis in 1973 this development accelerated and has led to a remarkable scientific and commercial success. For a few years turbines in Denmark have been producing electricity corresponding to almost 20% of the Danish demand. Danish manufacturers produce components and export turbines in large quantities, amounting in 2005 to a total capacity of about 3.8 GW which is about one third of the world market. Important present day R&D topics are offshore technology and interaction between turbines and the grid, including the ability of turbines to contribute to regulation and stabilization of the power system. These questions are crucial when handling fluctuating electricity production in networks with large fractions of wind energy and CHP power production. In the future, a main point may be storage of wind energy, e.g. in the form of hydrogen produced by fuel cells. (auth)

  6. Reverse electrodialysis heat engine for sustainable power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamburini, A.; Tedesco, M.; Cipollina, A.; Micale, G.; Ciofalo, M.; Papapetrou, M.; Van Baak, W.; Piacentino, A.

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: State of the art technologies for the conversion of heat into power. Grey circles refer to technologies at very early stage of development and non-available at industrial level. The Carnot efficiency (on the secondary horizontal axis) is evaluated assuming a cold sink temperature of 25 °C. SRC-hot gases: Steam Rankine Cycle integrated with gas turbine/other topping cycles; SRC-fuel: Steam Rankine Cycle directly fuelled by oil, coal or other fuels; KC: Kalina Cycle; ORC: Organic Rankine Cycle; TEG: Thermoelectric Generation; PEPG: Piezoelectric Power Generation with waste heat-powered expansion/compression cycle; OHE: Osmotic Heat Engine; REDHE, Reverse Electrodialysis Heat Engine (this paper). Display Omitted -- Highlights: •For the first time, the potential of Reverse Electrodialysis Heat Engine is assessed. •An overview of the possible regeneration methods is presented. •Performance of the RED unit fed by different salty solutions was suitably optimized. •Three different RED Heat Engine scenarios were studied. •Exergetic efficiency of about 85% could be achieved in the foreseen future. -- Abstract: Reverse Electrodialysis Heat Engine (REDHE) is a promising technology to convert waste heat at temperatures lower than 100 °C into electric power. In the present work an overview of the possible regeneration methods is presented and the technological challenges for the development of the RED Heat Engine (REDHE) are identified. The potential of this power production cycle was investigated through a simplified mathematical model. In the first part of the work, several salts were singularly modelled as possible solutes in aqueous solutions feeding the RED unit and the corresponding optimal conditions were recognized via an optimization study. In the second part, three different RED Heat Engine scenarios were studied. Results show that power densities much higher than those relevant to NaCl-water solutions can be obtained by using different

  7. INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGICAL SOLUTIONS IN CREATING FUNCTIONAL PRODUCTS POWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Sergienko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with a problem of functional products creation for consumers feeling need in proteins, irreplaceable amino acids, vitamins, mineral substances, food fibers, polynonsaturated fat acids. One of the possible ways to improve human nutrition is using non-traditional cultures for bread making technology containing significant amounts of fibrous substances, easily digestible protein, vitamins, unsaturated fatty acids and minerals. Taking into account the Nutrition Science requirements an expediency of the most full functional ingredients complex entering into bakery products prescription structure is proved. Replacement of the first grade wheat flour by the offered prescription composition allows to slow down a bread aging, to increase periods of products storage and to improve their physical and chemical indicators on the specific volume and porosity. The bakery products "Svyatogor" at the use of 100 g of a product allow to cover daily need in protein for 38,9%, in carbohydrates – for 3,4%, fat – for 9,2%. The power value of "Svyatogor" is 897 kJ, in control 959. Biological value, % 82,7 against 53,1 in control. Thanks to it the digestibility of bread protein (in vitro method of “Svyatogor” is higher. Thanks to unique properties of the compounding components “Svyatogor” gets functional properties by full-fledged protein increasing and its best comprehensibility (in vitro, advanced structure according to the content of vitamins, mineral substances, their balanced structure and can be recommended for mass consumption and prevention of osteoporosis, atherosclerosis, anemia, for children food, pregnant women and the feeding women.

  8. Operational costs induced by fluctuating wind power production in Germany and Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meibom, Peter; Weber, C.; Barth, R.

    2009-01-01

    Adding wind power generation in a power system changes the operational patterns of the existing units due to the variability and partial predictability of wind power production. For large amounts of wind power production, the expectation is that the specific operational costs (fuel costs, start......-up costs, variable operation and maintenance costs, costs of consuming CO2 emission permits) of the other power plants will increase due to more operation time in part-load and more start-ups. The change in operational costs induced by the wind power production can only be calculated by comparing...... the operational costs in two power system configurations: with wind power production and with alternative wind production having properties such as conventional production, that is, being predictable and less variable. The choice of the characteristics of the alternative production is not straightforward...

  9. Staging Rankine Cycles Using Ammonia for OTEC Power Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharathan, D.

    2011-03-01

    Recent focus on renewable power production has renewed interest in looking into ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) systems. Early studies in OTEC applicability indicate that the island of Hawaii offers a potential market for a nominal 40-MWe system. a 40-MWe system represents a large leap in the current state of OTEC technology. Lockheed Martin Inc. is currently pursuing a more realistic goal of developing a 10-MWe system under U.S. Navy funding (Lockheed 2009). It is essential that the potential risks associated with the first-of-its-kind plant should be minimized for the project's success. Every means for reducing costs must also be pursued without increasing risks. With this in mind, the potential for increasing return on the investment is assessed both in terms of effective use of the seawater resource and of reducing equipment costs.

  10. Grate-firing of biomass for heat and power production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen; Rosendahl, Lasse; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2008-01-01

    bed on the grate, and the advanced secondary air supply (a real breakthrough in this technology) are highlighted for grate-firing systems. Amongst all the issues or problems associated with grate-fired boilers burning biomass, primary pollutant formation and control, deposition formation and corrosion......As a renewable and environmentally friendly energy source, biomass (i.e., any organic non-fossil fuel) and its utilization are gaining an increasingly important role worldwide Grate-firing is one of the main competing technologies in biomass combustion for heat and power production, because it can...... combustion mechanism, the recent breakthrough in the technology, the most pressing issues, the current research and development activities, and the critical future problems to be resolved. The grate assembly (the most characteristic element in grate-fired boilers), the key combustion mechanism in the fuel...

  11. Local power production at the end consumer - appropriate technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinden, Bjoern; Morch, Andrei Z.; Braanaas, Marit; Stang, Jacob; Berner, Monica

    2002-11-01

    The report describes and evaluates a selection of technologies which may be adequate for a local power production at the end consumer. Contrary to may other technology surveys it is focused on small-scale production units that also may be of interest to small consumers. For the various technologies the particular technology is described and an evaluation of the suitability to Norwegian conditions is carried out. For each technology the following is described: 1) The technology in general. 2) Construction and technology trends. 3) Environmental conditions, operation and maintenance. 4) Experiences. 5) Key facts/data. It has to be emphasised that all the technologies are in development and this report describes them as they are in 2002 except for general conditions which always will exist. It has not been possible to obtain exact facts regarding the investment costs and the costs for each produced kWh e lectricity or kWh h eat for many of the technologies because they are new and mass production has not yet started. In an appendix a form is presented for use in obtaining information from equipment suppliers. Later in the project there will be developed a model for calculating the profitability of such investments as well. Technologies such as small-scale wind and hydropower units are the technologies most suited for Norway in a short perspective. In the years to come it is probable that technologies which use biologic fuel/waste of some kind would be used to some extent. In a longer perspective technologies as the Stirling engine and fuel cells may be of interest. The micro gas turbines and combustion engines may be current technologies if the distribution network for natural gas is developed. For these technologies the utilisation of waste heat would approximately double the efficiency and halve the operation costs. Various external conditions will play a major part in the spreading of the local power production. The political, legal and economical external

  12. Comparing costs of power and heat production by prospective and present sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, S.

    1979-01-01

    Capital and running costs are compared of power and heat production from different sources. The lowest capital costs were found for coal-fired power plants followed by light water reactor power plants. The capital costs of other types of power plants, such as wind, geothermal, solar, thermonuclear power plants are significantly higher. The estimated specific cost for electric power production in 1985 for a nuclear power plant is lower than for a fossil-fuel power plant. It is estimated that in 1985 coal will be the cheapest heat source. (Ha)

  13. The independent power production and the reorganization of the electric power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    The transformation of the electric power production and distribution sector is in progress thanks to the progressive opening of markets and to the emergence of a new kind of actor: the independent producer. After the USA, the UK, and most of the emerging countries, the continental Europe is actively preparing its mutation. The historical actors try to protect their positions on their own national markets and at the same time to develop their international position. The newcomers (oil companies, independent power producers, collective service companies) have adopted a radically offensive strategy based on an international development and a skimming of the market. This study takes stock of the degree of liberalization of the different markets and analyzes their structuring elements and dynamism. An analytical presentation of the main actors of the electric power market is performed in order to evaluate their forces and feeblenesses in front of this mutation. Finally, it tries to answer the following questions: which are the most promising zones for the newcomers, and which companies will win this new deal? (J.S.)

  14. Nuclear power and health. The implications for health of nuclear power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear power production is, in principle, a safe technology when practised in accordance with the well established and very strict national and international rules and regulations. Yet management failures have occurred, resulting in injuries to personnel and, occasionally, escape of radioactive material. Such events may cause potential health problems, affecting physical, mental and social well-being. Public concern still tends to concentrate on nuclear-power-related facilities, yet the public's desire for a reduction in environmental pollution has led to increased demand for the development and use of low-waste or non-waste energy technologies. Nuclear energy production is one such technology, which has become established and well developed, particularly in highly industrialized countries. This was recognized by the WHO Regional Office for Europe as early as the 1970s, and led to a series of scientific working groups to discuss the most urgent issues related to the impact on health of the generation of electrical power by means of nuclear energy. Five major meetings took place between 1975 and 1985, resulting in five publications (1 - 5) covering various aspects of particular concern to the general public (and thus also to national authorities) such as handling plutonium, managing high-level radioactive waste, and preparing for accidental releases of radioactive material. The first such publication was issued in 1977. All five books were based on the collective knowledge and experience of groups of experts, and were published following the meetings of the respective working groups. The project was initiated at the request and with the support of the Government of Belgium, to study and discuss the effects of the nuclear power industry on people and the environment. The project served two objectives. First, it assisted Member States in developing the capacity to understand the public health implications of the widespread use of nuclear power. Second, it

  15. Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmholdt, Claus Westergård; Fogsgaard, Morten

    2016-01-01

    and creativity suggests that when managers give people the opportunity to gain power and explicate that there is reason to be more creative, people will show a boost in creative behaviour. Moreover, this process works best in unstable power hierarchies, which implies that power is treated as a negotiable....... It is thus a central point that power is not necessarily something that breaks down and represses. On the contrary, an explicit focus on the dynamics of power in relation to creativity can be productive for the organisation. Our main focus is to elaborate the implications of this for practice and theory...

  16. Engineering study, development and prototype fabrication of the supporting system for the CLIC Two-Beam Module

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2068725; Karyotakis, Yannis; Dahoo, Pierre Richard; Alexopoulos, Theo; MEIS, Costantin; De Conto, Jean Marie; Jeremie, Andrea; Puzot, Patrique

    CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, is based on the international collaboration in the field of high-energy particle physics research. The experiments carried out in its facilities are achieved through the existing particle accelerators. In addition, advanced accelerator research and development is one of the goals of CERN. For this reason, CLIC (the Compact LInear Collider) a new electron-positron linear accelerator is being studied at CERN. CLIC is built by the assembly of the Two-Beam Modules and takes advantage of an innovative acceleration principle, the Two-Beam acceleration. Each Module contains several technical systems that contribute to its successful operation. This thesis presents the development of the prototype supporting system for the CLIC Two-Beam Module. At first, the physics requirements are translated into technical specifications and the fundamental parts of the supporting system are defined. The CLIC operational conditions are identified and the corresponding boundaries...

  17. Dispersion characteristics of a two-beam electron-ion system in a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapchinskij, M.I.; Rozanov, N.E.

    1982-01-01

    Without an assumption of the problem potentiality the dispersion properties of a two-beam system important for the realization of the autoresonance method of the acceleration are investigated for the different configurations of an electron flow and arbitrary radii of an ion beam. Two models are used. In the first the ion beam is considered a homogeneous dielectric medium of low density, which permits to apply to the problem the method of perturbations and examine both continuous and thin-wall tubular electron beams. The second model based on an assumption of the self-similarity of beam density change permits to describe ion instabilities of both the cyclotron and Langmuir waves of the electron beam in the quasistatic long-wave limit. Comparison of the results shows that both approaches in the longwave limit give the same qualitative dependence of instability increments on the system parameters and the complicated qualitative dependence. It is shown that for the purposes of the collective ion acceleration it is necessary to decrease the ion beam radius, as it permits to avoid the development of stray instabilities [ru

  18. Rf transfer in the Coupled-Cavity Free-Electron Laser Two-Beam Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makowski, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    A significant technical problem associated with the Coupled-Cavity Free-Electron Laser Two-Beam Accelerator is the transfer of RF energy from the drive accelerator to the high-gradient accelerator. Several concepts have been advanced to solve this problem. This paper examines one possible solution in which the drive and high-gradient cavities are directly coupled to one another by means of holes in the cavity walls or coupled indirectly through a third intermediate transfer cavity. Energy cascades through the cavities on a beat frequency time scale which must be made small compared to the cavity skin time but large compared to the FEL pulse length. The transfer is complicated by the fact that each of the cavities in the system can support many resonant modes near the chosen frequency of operation. A generalized set of coupled-cavity equations has been developed to model the energy transfer between the various modes in each of the cavities. For a two cavity case transfer efficiencies in excess of 95% can be achieved. 3 refs., 2 figs

  19. A Q-band two-beam cryogenic receiver for the Tianma Radio Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Wei-Ye; Dong, Jian; Gou, Wei; Yu, Lin-Feng; Wang, Jin-Qing; Xia, Bo; Jiang, Wu; Liu, Cong; Zhang, Hui; Shi, Jun; Yin, Xiao-Xing; Shi, Sheng-Cai; Liu, Qing-Hui; Shen, Zhi-Qiang

    2018-04-01

    A Q-band two-beam cryogenic receiver for the Tianma Radio Telescope (TMRT) has been developed, and it uses the independently-developed key microwave and millimeter-wave components operating from 35 to 50GHz with a fractional bandwidth of 35%. The Q-band receiver consists of three parts: optics, cold unit assembly and warm unit assembly, and it can receive simultaneously the left-handed and right-handed circularly polarized waves. The cold unit assembly of each beam is composed of a feed horn, a noise injection coupler, a differential phase shifter, an orthomode transducer and two low-noise amplifiers, and it works at a temperature range near 20 K to greatly improve the detection sensitivity of the receiving system. The warm unit assembly includes four radio-frequency amplifiers, four radio-frequency high-pass filters, four waveguide biased mixers, four 4–12 GHz intermediate-frequency amplifiers and one 31–38 GHz frequency synthesizer. The measured Q-band four-channel receiver noise temperatures are roughly 30–40 K. In addition, the single-dish spectral line and international very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations between the TMRT and East Asia VLBI Network at the Q-band have been successfully carried out, demonstrating the advantages of the TMRT equipped with the state-of-the-art Q-band receiver.

  20. High efficiency power production from biomass and waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabou, L.P.L.M.; Van Leijenhorst, R.J.C.; Hazewinkel, J.H.O. [ECN Biomass, Coal and Environment, Petten (Netherlands)

    2008-11-15

    Two-stage gasification allows power production from biomass and waste with high efficiency. The process involves pyrolysis at about 550C followed by heating of the pyrolysis gas to about 1300C in order to crack hydrocarbons and obtain syngas, a mixture of H2, CO, H2O and CO2. The second stage produces soot as unwanted by-product. Experimental results are reported on the suppression of soot formation in the second stage for two different fuels: beech wood pellets and Rofire pellets, made from rejects of paper recycling. Syngas obtained from these two fuels and from an industrial waste fuel has been cleaned and fed to a commercial SOFC stack for 250 hours in total. The SOFC stack showed comparable performance on real and synthetic syngas and no signs of accelerated degradation in performance over these tests. The experimental results have been used for the design and analysis of a future 25 MWth demonstration plant. As an alternative, a 2.6 MWth system was considered which uses the Green MoDem approach to convert waste fuel into bio-oil and syngas. The 25 MWth system can reach high efficiency only if char produced in the pyrolysis step is converted into additional syngas by steam gasification, and if SOFC off-gas and system waste heat are used in a steam bottoming cycle for additional power production. A net electrical efficiency of 38% is predicted. In addition, heat can be delivered with 37% efficiency. The 2.6 MWth system with only a dual fuel engine to burn bio-oil and syngas promises nearly 40% electrical efficiency plus 41% efficiency for heat production. If syngas is fed to an SOFC system and off-gas and bio-oil to a dual fuel engine, the electrical efficiency can rise to 45%. However, the efficiency for heat production drops to 15%, as waste heat from the SOFC system cannot be used effectively. The economic analysis makes clear that at -20 euro/tonne fuel, 70 euro/MWh for electricity and 7 euro/GJ for heat the 25 MWth system is not economically viable at the

  1. Feasibility Study of Hydrogen Production at Existing Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Schey

    2009-07-01

    Cooperative Agreement DE-FC07-06ID14788 was executed between the U.S. Department of Energy, Electric Transportation Applications, and Idaho National Laboratory to investigate the economics of producing hydrogen by electrolysis using electricity generated by nuclear power. The work under this agreement is divided into the following four tasks: Task 1 – Produce Data and Analyses Task 2 – Economic Analysis of Large-Scale Alkaline Electrolysis Task 3 – Commercial-Scale Hydrogen Production Task 4 – Disseminate Data and Analyses. Reports exist on the prospect that utility companies may benefit from having the option to produce electricity or produce hydrogen, depending on market conditions for both. This study advances that discussion in the affirmative by providing data and suggesting further areas of study. While some reports have identified issues related to licensing hydrogen plants with nuclear plants, this study provides more specifics and could be a resource guide for further study and clarifications. At the same time, this report identifies other area of risks and uncertainties associated with hydrogen production on this scale. Suggestions for further study in some of these topics, including water availability, are included in the report. The goals and objectives of the original project description have been met. Lack of industry design for proton exchange membrane electrolysis hydrogen production facilities of this magnitude was a roadblock for a significant period. However, recent design breakthroughs have made costing this facility much more accurate. In fact, the new design information on proton exchange membrane electrolyzers scaled to the 1 kg of hydrogen per second electrolyzer reduced the model costs from $500 to $100 million. Task 1 was delayed when the original electrolyzer failed at the end of its economic life. However, additional valuable information was obtained when the new electrolyzer was installed. Products developed during this study

  2. Production price of hydrogen from grid connected electrolysis in a power market with high wind penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joergensen, Claus; Ropenus, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    In liberalized power markets, there are significant power price fluctuations due to independently varying changes in demand and supply, the latter being substantial in systems with high wind power penetration. In such systems, hydrogen production by grid connected electrolysis can be cost optimized by operating an electrolyzer part time. This paper presents a study on the minimization of the hydrogen production price and its dependence on estimated power price fluctuations. The calculation of power price fluctuations is based on a parameterization of existing data on wind power production, power consumption and power price evolution in the West Danish power market area. The price for hydrogen is derived as a function of the optimal electrolyzer operation hours per year for four different wind penetration scenarios. It is found to amount to 0.41-0.45 EUR/Nm 3 . The study further discusses the hydrogen price sensitivity towards investment costs and the contribution from non-wind power sources. (author)

  3. Production price of hydrogen from grid connected electrolysis in a power market with high wind penetration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, Claus [Materials Research Department, Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, P.O. Box 49, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Ropenus, Stephanie [Systems Analysis Department, Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, P.O. Box 49, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2008-10-15

    In liberalized power markets, there are significant power price fluctuations due to independently varying changes in demand and supply, the latter being substantial in systems with high wind power penetration. In such systems, hydrogen production by grid connected electrolysis can be cost optimized by operating an electrolyzer part time. This paper presents a study on the minimization of the hydrogen production price and its dependence on estimated power price fluctuations. The calculation of power price fluctuations is based on a parameterization of existing data on wind power production, power consumption and power price evolution in the West Danish power market area. The price for hydrogen is derived as a function of the optimal electrolyzer operation hours per year for four different wind penetration scenarios. It is found to amount to 0.41-0.45 EUR/Nm{sup 3}. The study further discusses the hydrogen price sensitivity towards investment costs and the contribution from non-wind power sources. (author)

  4. Production price of hydrogen from grid connected electrolysis in a power market with high wind penetration.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, Claus [Materials Research Department, Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, P.O. Box 49, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Ropenus, Stephanie [Systems Analysis Department, Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, P.O. Box 49, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2008-10-15

    In liberalized power markets, there are significant power price fluctuations due to independently varying changes in demand and supply, the latter being substantial in systems with high wind power penetration. In such systems, hydrogen production by grid connected electrolysis can be cost optimized by operating an electrolyzer part time. This paper presents a study on the minimization of the hydrogen production price and its dependence on estimated power price fluctuations. The calculation of power price fluctuations is based on a parameterization of existing data on wind power production, power consumption and power price evolution in the West Danish power market area. The price for hydrogen is derived as a function of the optimal electrolyzer operation hours per year for four different wind penetration scenarios. It is found to amount to 0.41-0.45 EUR/Nm{sup 3}. The study further discusses the hydrogen price sensitivity towards investment costs and the contribution from non-wind power sources. (author)

  5. Current production costs in various power plant systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weible, H.

    1977-01-01

    The costs of producing electric power were evaluated for flowing water power plants, storage and pumped storage power plants, bituminous coal power plants, heating oil power plants (fired with heavy heating oil), natural gas-fired power plants, gas turbines, pressurized water reactors, and boiling water reactors. The calculational methods used for evaluating costs and the input data for methods used for the KOSKON and KOSKERN computer programs are described. It is emphasized that the calculations are examples to indicate the possible effects of the cost program and are only as valid as the input data. (JSR)

  6. How do users interact with photovoltaic-powered products? Investigating 100 'lead-users' and 6 PV products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apostolou, G.; Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.

    2016-01-01

    In order to better understand how 'lead-users' interact with PV-powered products, the behaviour of 100 people interacting with six different PV-powered products in their daily life was analysed. The sample of respondents to be observed consisted of 20 groups, each one formed by five students of

  7. Beam-Based Diagnostics of RF-Breakdown in the Two-Beam Test-Stand in CTF3

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, M

    2007-01-01

    The general outline of a beam-based diagnostic method of RF-breakdown, using BPMs, at the two-beam test-stand in CTF3 is discussed. The basic components of the set-up and their functions in the diagnostic are described. Estimations of the expected error in the measured parameters are performed.

  8. Manufacture of power station heat exchangers using modern production technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genzlinger, W.; Hoffmann, J.; Ohlhaeuser, K.

    1986-01-01

    Heat exchangers of high quality and operational safety can only be fabricated economically if fabrication is as 'simple' as possible and can be controlled and if, through value analysis, the work flows can be mechanized and automated and the following requirements are met: use of materials that are easy to work with for the application considered, choice of product designs and wall thicknesses that offer favourable conditions for processing and non-destructive testing, placing of seams in such a way that good accessibility for welding and minimum residual welding stresses are assured, minimizing the number of welding seams, use of automatic welding machines for submerged-arc welding and electronically controlled sources of welding current - semi-automatic equipment for spatter-free interfaces (pulse technique), electronically controlled equipment for welding in rollers and pipes and CNC-controlled machining centres for drilling pipe galleries (deep-hole drilling) and baffle plates and for machining the sealing elements after welding. Continuous inspections in each phase of fabrication assures that heat exchangers are made which fully meet the requirements of nuclear power station operators. (orig.)

  9. Efficiency mark of the two-product power complex of nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrustalev, V. A.; Suchkov, V. M.

    2017-11-01

    The article discusses the combining nuclear power plants (NPP) with pressurized water reactors and distillation-desalination plants (DDP), their joint mode of operation during periods of coating failures of the electric power load graphs and thermo-economical efficiency. Along with the release of heat and generation of electric energy a desalination complex with the nuclear power plant produces distillate. Part of the selected steam “irretrievably lost” with a mix of condensation of this vapor in a desalination machine with a flow of water for distillation. It means that this steam transforms into condition of acquired product - distillate. The article presents technical solutions for the return of the working fluid for turbine К-1000-60/1500-2 и К-1200-6,8/50, as well as permissible part of low pressure regime according to the number of desalination units for each turbine. Patent for the proposed two-product energy complex, obtained by Gagarin State Technical University is analyzed. The energy complex has such system advantages as increasing the capacity factor of a nuclear reactor and also allows to solve the problem of shortage of fresh water. Thermo-economics effectiveness of this complex is determined by introducing a factor-“thermo-economic index”. During analyzing of the results of the calculations of a thermo-economic index we can see a strong influence of the cost factor of the distillate on the market. Then higher participation of the desalination plant in coverage of the failures of the graphs of the electric loading then smaller the payback period of the NPP. It is manifested more clearly, as it’s shown in the article, when pricing options depend on time of day and the configuration of the daily electric load diagram. In the geographical locations of the NPPs with PWR the Russian performance in a number of regions with low freshwater resources and weak internal electrical connections combined with DDP might be one of the ways to improve the

  10. Power laws in the information production process Lotkaian informetrics

    CERN Document Server

    Egghe, Leo

    2005-01-01

    Explains many informetric regularities, only based on a decreasing power law as size-frequency function, that is Lotka''s law. This book revives the historical formulation of Alfred Lotka and shows the power of this power law, both in classical aspects of informetrics as well as in applications such as social networks and others.

  11. Electric power supply in an offshore oil production platform | Ibe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    powered UPS system with a rotary engine UPS which can provide long-term power supply back-up as well as the benefits of rotating machines. KEY WORDS: Offshore, Platform, Power Supply, Gas turbine, Rotary Diesel UPS. [Global Jnl ...

  12. The safe production of hydrogen by nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verfondern, Karl

    2009-01-01

    One of the most promising 'GEN-IV' nuclear reactor concepts is the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR). It is characterized by a helium-cooled, graphite moderated, thermal neutron spectrum reactor core of 400-600 MW(th). Coolant outlet temperatures of 900-1000 .deg. C ideally suited for a wide spectrum of high temperature process heat or process steam applications, which allow to deliver, besides the classical electricity, also non-electrical products such as hydrogen or other fuels. In a future energy economy, hydrogen as a storable medium could adjust a variable demand for electricity by means of fuel cell power plants providing much more flexibility in optimized energy structures. The mass production of hydrogen is a major goal for Gen-IV systems. In a nuclear hydrogen production facility, the coupling between the nuclear plant and the process heat/steam application side is given by an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX), a component which provides a clear separation preventing the primary coolant from accessing the heat application plant and, vice versa, any process gases from being routed through the reactor containment. The physical separation has the advantage that the heat application facility can be conventionally designed, and repair works can be conducted under non-nuclear conditions. With regard to the safety of combined nuclear and chemical facilities, apart from their own specific categories of hazards, a qualitatively new class of events will have to be taken into account characterized by interacting influences. Arising problems to be covered by a decent overall safety concept are the questions of safety of the nuclear plant in case of fire and explosion hazards resulting from the leakage of flammable substances, the tolerable tritium contamination of the product hydrogen, or the situations of thermo-dynamic feedback in case of a loss of heat source (nuclear) or heat sink (chemical) resulting in thermal turbulences. A safety-related issue is the

  13. ANALYSIS OF GROSS REGIONAL PRODUCT FLUCTUATIONS AND ELECTRIC POWER CONSUMPTION IN 2005- 2014. RESERVES FOR DECREASING ELECTRIC POWER PRICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suslov N. I.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work we considered the trajectories of change in indicators characterizing the status of economics and power industry: gross regional product, electric power consumption, industrial production, energy prices and costs of delivering electric power to consumers in Russian regions for the last 10 years. Low global commodity prices and sanctions led to a sharp decrease of equipment import, which resulted in an acute problem of import substitution. The level of tariffs of natural monopolies is of great importance for industrial development. The goal of this work was to analyze possibilities for reducing electric power prices by changing the institutional and economic conditions of management. We analyzed not only the official information from Rosstat, but also government regulations, figures given in the official government publication «The Rossiyskaya Gazeta» as well as articles and interviews on economic problems of the electric power industry over the recent years published in «The Kommersant» newspaper. High tariffs of network marketing companies for electric energy transmission, state regulation of heating prices, financing the construction of new capacities by charging the payment in power provision contracts, high price of electric power of nuclear power plants lead to an annual increase in electric power prices for end users. In this work we considered possible solutions to limit the growth of electric power prices.

  14. Renewable Production of Water, Hydrogen, and Power From Ambient Moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    20 B. COMBINER BOX, CHARGE CONTROLLER , BREAKER PANEL AND BATTERIES To manage the power produced by the solar panels and ensure the power...function for the combiner box is to connect the solar panels in a parallel configuration prior to the charge controller . The combiner box installed in the...Configurations. From the combiner box the power is routed to the charge controller , which main function is to drop the voltage input from the solar

  15. In vivo visualization method by absolute blood flow velocity based on speckle and fringe pattern using two-beam multipoint laser Doppler velocimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyoden, Tomoaki, E-mail: kyouden@nc-toyama.ac.jp; Naruki, Shoji; Akiguchi, Shunsuke; Momose, Noboru; Homae, Tomotaka; Hachiga, Tadashi [National Institute of Technology, Toyama College, 1-2 Ebie-Neriya, Imizu, Toyama 933-0293 (Japan); Ishida, Hiroki [Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science, Okayama University of Science, 1-1 Ridai-cho, Okayama 700-0005 (Japan); Andoh, Tsugunobu [Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Takada, Yogo [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka City University, 3-3-138 Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan)

    2016-08-28

    Two-beam multipoint laser Doppler velocimetry (two-beam MLDV) is a non-invasive imaging technique able to provide an image of two-dimensional blood flow and has potential for observing cancer as previously demonstrated in a mouse model. In two-beam MLDV, the blood flow velocity can be estimated from red blood cells passing through a fringe pattern generated in the skin. The fringe pattern is created at the intersection of two beams in conventional LDV and two-beam MLDV. Being able to choose the depth position is an advantage of two-beam MLDV, and the position of a blood vessel can be identified in a three-dimensional space using this technique. Initially, we observed the fringe pattern in the skin, and the undeveloped or developed speckle pattern generated in a deeper position of the skin. The validity of the absolute velocity value detected by two-beam MLDV was verified while changing the number of layers of skin around a transparent flow channel. The absolute velocity value independent of direction was detected using the developed speckle pattern, which is created by the skin construct and two beams in the flow channel. Finally, we showed the relationship between the signal intensity and the fringe pattern, undeveloped speckle, or developed speckle pattern based on the skin depth. The Doppler signals were not detected at deeper positions in the skin, which qualitatively indicates the depth limit for two-beam MLDV.

  16. Thermal Heat and Power Production with Models for Local and Regional Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saether, Sturla

    1999-07-01

    The primary goal of this thesis is the description and modelling of combined heat and power systems as well as analyses of thermal dominated systems related to benefits of power exchange. Large power plants with high power efficiency (natural gas systems) and heat production in local heat pumps can be favourable in areas with low infrastructure of district heating systems. This system is comparable with typical combined heat and power (CHP) systems based on natural gas with respect to efficient use of fuel energy. The power efficiency obtainable from biomass and municipal waste is relatively low and the advantage of CHP for this system is high compared to pure power production with local heat pumps for heat generation. The advantage of converting pure power systems into CHP systems is best for power systems with low power efficiency and heat production at low temperature. CHP systems are divided into two main groups according to the coupling of heat and power production. Some CHP systems, especially those with strong coupling between heat and power production, may profit from having a thermal heat storage subsystem. District heating temperatures direct the heat to power ratio of the CHP units. The use of absorption chillers driven by district heating systems are also evaluated with respect to enhancing the utilisation of district heating in periods of low heat demand. Power exchange between a thermal dominated and hydropower system is found beneficial. Use of hydropower as a substitute for peak power production in thermal dominated systems is advantageous. Return of base load from the thermal dominated system to the hydropower system can balance in the net power exchange.

  17. Modernisation of the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant increases the power production efficiency under safe limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valkeapaeae, R.

    1995-01-01

    Teollisuuden Voima Oy published the efficiency increment plans as a part of the modernisation of the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant. The power of the reactor units, originally designed for 660 MW will now be increased for a second time. The former improvements were made in 1994. The power of the units was increased to 710 MW. After this new renovation the power of the both units will be 830-840 MW. (2 figs.)

  18. Establishing and development of nuclear power production in the Republic of Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadyrzhanov, K.K.; Zhotabayev, Zh.R.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: As it was stressed by the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan N. Nazarbaev in his address to people of Kazakhstan on February 28 2007, among the most important directions of domestic and foreign policy there is the need in development of power production and creation of conditions for nuclear power production. Intensive development of new and revived sectors such as machine-building, oil chemistry, nuclear, space, information, nano- and bio-technologies would inevitably require growth in power generation. That is why development of power production becomes a priority task. Growth of demand in power consumption worldwide, rise in prices for oil and natural gas, toughening of environmental regulations for utilization of organic fuel, concerns regarding energy supply security in many countries stipulate growth of interest to nuclear power production. International experience in power production shows the advantages and need in development of nuclear power production. In energy production, people currently use organic fuel, hydropower and alternative energy source; current share of nuclear production in the total rate of energy generation comprises about 17%. The Republic has considerable grounds for development of nuclear power production - well-developed uranium mining and processing National Company 'KazAtomProm' and a State Enterprise 'National Nuclear Center'. Creation of nuclear power production sector and development of nuclear power production in the country would help solving a set of inter-related problems aimed to satisfaction of demand in energy production by diversification of energy supply sources. This, in turn, would contribute to effective and balanced utilization of available mineral resources, improve export capacities of the country, assure environmental security at energy production; it would also preserve and develop science and technology in the country in the field of nuclear power production and nuclear industry. Objective and

  19. Thermal insulation product for insulation, especially in nuclear power engineering, and method of its production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veselovsky, P.; Zink, S.; Balacek, P.; Mares, I.

    1989-01-01

    The insulation consists of a sewn fabric cover made of inorganic fibers, in which the fiber filling is reinforced mechanically by dense point interweaving. The inorganic fibers, 1 to 5 μm in diameter, consist of min. 97 wt.% mixture of aluminium and silicon oxides in the vitreous state. The fibers making up the cover consist of min. 95% silicon, aluminium, calcium, magnesium and boron oxides in the vitreous state; the rest can consist of alloy steel fibres. The bulk density of the insulation is 70 to 150 kg/m 3 . The product is highly resistant to temperature and to the action of chemicals, water, and acid and alkaline deactivation solutions. Its manufacture is fast and undemanding. It is designed for thermal insulation of pipes, tanks and valves in nuclear power plants. (M.D.). 2 figs

  20. Suppression of beam-break-up in a standing wave free electron laser two-beam accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, H.; Kim, J.S.

    1994-03-01

    Various schemes are examined in this study on the suppression of beam break-up (BBU) in a standing wave free electron laser two-beam accelerator (SWFEL/TBA). Two schemes are found to be not only able to effectively suppress the BBU but at the same time have minimum effect on the microwave generation process inside the SWFEL cavities. One is making the cavity-iris junction sufficiently gradual and the other is stagger-tuning the cavities

  1. Application of industrial wood residues for combined heat and power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majchrzycka, A.

    2015-01-01

    The paper discusses combined production of heat and power (CHP) from industrial wood residues. The system will be powered by wood residues generated during manufacturing process of wooden floor panels. Based on power and heat demands of the plant and wood residues potential, the CHP system was selected. Preliminary analysis of biomass conversion in CHP system and environmental impact was performed.

  2. Application of biogas for combined heat and power production in the rural region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozak, T.; Majchrzycka, A.

    2009-01-01

    The paper discusses combined production of heat and power (CHP) from biogas in a small-scale power plant placed in the rural region. Based on power and heat demands of the rural region and biomass supply, the CHP system was selected. Keywords: biogas, cogeneration

  3. Wind farm power production in the changing wind: Robustness quantification and layout optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ju; Shen, Wen Zhong

    2017-01-01

    Wind farms operate often in the changing wind. The wind condition variations in a wide range of time scales lead to the variability of wind farms’ power production. This imposes a major challenge to the power system operators who are facing a higher and higher penetration level of wind power. Thu...

  4. Offshore Wind Power Production in Critical Weather Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio; Litong-Palima, Marisciel; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2012-01-01

    control the power balance during offshore storm passages. The demonstration will be done on Horns Rev 2 wind farm. In the same project, the impact of a storm front passage over the system security, for the whole Danish system, and with the expected offshore wind power in 2020 will be investigated....... This paper will present the results of up-scaling the impact that a storm front passage will have on the Danish power system in 2020, given that the existing wind turbine storm controller is not replaced. The simulations are done with CorWind and the analysis is focusing on establishing a reference case...... and quantifying the balancing reserve requirements needed in order to keep the security of the power system....

  5. Plans to expand nuclear power production in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laaksonen, J.

    2002-01-01

    The Finnish Government made in January 2002 a Decision in Principle which concludes that constructing of a new nuclear power plant in Finland is in line with the overall good of the society. The Finnish Parliament ratified the decision in May 2002. Based on this decision, the electricity generating company TVO is authorised to continue preparations for the construction of a new nuclear power plant unit

  6. Modified two beam accelerator driven by a D.C. pelletron free electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, D.

    1985-01-01

    Assembling the next generation of linear particle accelerators requires progress in three areas. (1) Sources must be developed to provide the coherent electromagnetic radiation used to power the device. (2) Physical structures must be designed which efficiently transfer the power to the high energy beam. (3) Cooling techniques must be developed in order to enhance beam transport and to provide sufficient luminosity. This paper will describe a method of obtaining a highly efficient coherent radiation source by using a continuous wave Free Electron Laser (FEL). Several possibilities exist for an accelerating structure which could use this radiation as a power source. These include scaling down the size of traditional RF cavities, inverse free electron lasers, and surface grating schemes. Inverse free electron lasers have the possibility of intrinsic cooling of the high energy beam

  7. Power plant asset market evaluations: Forecasting the costs of power production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefton, S.A.; Grunsrud, G.P. [Aptech Engineering Services, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA (United States)

    1998-12-31

    This presentation discusses the process of evaluating and valuing power plants for sale. It describes a method to forecast the future costs at a power plant using a portion of the past fixed costs, variable energy costs, and most importantly the variable cycling-related wear-and-tear costs. The presentation then discusses how to best determine market share, expected revenues, and then to forecast plant future costs based on future expected unit cycling operations. The presentation concludes with a section on recommendations to power plant buyers or sellers on how to manage the power plant asset and how to increase its market value. (orig.) 4 refs.

  8. Power plant asset market evaluations: Forecasting the costs of power production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefton, S A; Grunsrud, G P [Aptech Engineering Services, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA (United States)

    1999-12-31

    This presentation discusses the process of evaluating and valuing power plants for sale. It describes a method to forecast the future costs at a power plant using a portion of the past fixed costs, variable energy costs, and most importantly the variable cycling-related wear-and-tear costs. The presentation then discusses how to best determine market share, expected revenues, and then to forecast plant future costs based on future expected unit cycling operations. The presentation concludes with a section on recommendations to power plant buyers or sellers on how to manage the power plant asset and how to increase its market value. (orig.) 4 refs.

  9. Power plant asset market evaluations: Forecasting the costs of power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefton, S.A.; Grunsrud, G.P.

    1998-01-01

    This presentation discusses the process of evaluating and valuing power plants for sale. It describes a method to forecast the future costs at a power plant using a portion of the past fixed costs, variable energy costs, and most importantly the variable cycling-related wear-and-tear costs. The presentation then discusses how to best determine market share, expected revenues, and then to forecast plant future costs based on future expected unit cycling operations. The presentation concludes with a section on recommendations to power plant buyers or sellers on how to manage the power plant asset and how to increase its market value. (orig.) 4 refs

  10. Slovenske elektrarne has fulfilled the plan of electric power production at 101 %

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2004-01-01

    Slovenske elektrarne, a. s., produced in 2003 year the electric power in capacity 26,047.6 GWh, whereby they fulfilled business plan at 101 %. In compare with the last year it is a reduction in production by 1,397.3 GWh. The biggest share of production - till 68.6 % of overall production of the Slovenske elektrarne, was provided by nuclear sources. Nuclear power plants fulfilled business plan at 104 %, when Jaslovske Bohunice NPP has produced 11,625 GWh and Mochovce NPP 6,238 GWh. The share of other power plants on the electricity production is presented

  11. Transportation cost of nuclear off-peak power for hydrogen production based on water electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Saburo; Ueno, Shuichi

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes transportation cost of the nuclear off-peak power for a hydrogen production based on water electrolysis in Japan. The power could be obtainable by substituting hydropower and/or fossil fueled power supplying peak and middle demands with nuclear power. The transportation cost of the off-peak power was evaluated to be 1.42 yen/kWh when an electrolyser receives the off-peak power from a 6kV distribution wire. Marked reduction of the cost was caused by the increase of the capacity factor. (author)

  12. Economies of scale and asset values in power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Considine, T.J.

    1999-01-01

    While innovative trading tools have become an increasingly important aspect of the electricity business, the future of any firm in the industry boils down to a basic bread and butter issue of generating power at competitive costs. While buying electricity from power pools at spot prices instead of generating power to service load may be profitable for some firms in the short run, the need to efficiently utilize existing plants in the long run remains. These competitive forces will force the closure of many inefficient plants. As firms close plants and re-evaluate their generating asset portfolios, the basic structure of the industry will change. This article presents some quantitative analysis that sheds light on this unfolding transformation

  13. Distributed Solar Photovoltaic Power Production - Technology and Benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, Al [PSE& G; Stuby, Rick [Petra Solar

    2011-11-02

    As part of its nationally recognized Solar 4 All program, PSE&G has partnered with Petra Solar to deploy the world’s first and largest pole attached solar project. The project, based on Petra Solar’s distributed Smart Solar solution, will create a 40 megawatt solar “virtual power plant.” In deployment as 200,000 individual grid-connected solar power producers on utility poles in PSE&G territory, Petra Solar SunWave® solutions leverage Smart Grid communications and high-tech panel-level inverters to implement a robust system with many technical benefits over traditional solar photovoltaic solutions. The program overview, deployment model, smart grid communications and enabling inverter technology and safety features will be presented, as well the future challenges of, and solutions for, solar power intermittency as photovoltaic penetration on the electric grid increases.

  14. The cogeneration and small power production manual. 3rd edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiewak, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    This book is divided into six sections covering regulations, environmental issues, engineering, contract, financing, and taxes. The edition adds a comprehensive 80-page chapter outlining how to prepare for electric power shortages, including details on rate structure, tariff negotiation, contract-based rates, partial requirement service, supplementary, backup, and interruptible rates, and retail sale of electric power. The engineering section covers optimum cogeneration system design, operational considerations, and energy efficiency. Combustion turbines, diesel engines, gas engines, rotary engines, steam turbines, and electric generators are covered in detail

  15. Renewable resource power production: Italian decree CIP No. 34

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Macco, C.

    1991-01-01

    As part of an overall energy conservation campaign, a concrete step, in the form of a more favourable electricity rate structure for auto-producers, is being taken by the Italian Government to encourage medium sized industries to adopt cogeneration systems to meet their heat and power requirements. Within this context, this paper gives a look at the incentives for renewable energy source use which are incorporated in the CIP (Italian Inter-ministerial Commission on Prices) Provision No. 34/90, regulating industrial plant cogeneration systems, and which governs ENEL's (Italian National Electricity Board) rate structure in the case of independent on-site producers ceding power to the national utility's grid

  16. Combined heat and power production through biomass gasification with 'Heatpipe-Reformer'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliev, I.; Kamburova, V.; Terziev, A.

    2013-01-01

    The current report aims is to analyze the system for combined heat and power production through biomass gasification with “heatpipe-reformer” system. Special attention is paid on the process of synthetic gas production in the Reformer, its cleaning and further burning in the co-generation unit. A financial analysis is made regarding the investments and profits generated by the combined heat and power production. (authors)

  17. Governmentalizing Gramsci: Topologies of power and passive revolution in Cambodia’s garment production network

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold, D.; Hess, M.

    2017-01-01

    This article takes a fresh look at the multiple power relations between state, capital and labor in global production networks. Moving beyond debates about public vs. private governance, it brings together Antonio Gramsci’s concepts of hegemony and the integral state with Michel Foucault’s concepts of governmentality and the “dipositive” in order to analyze the power topologies that permeate global production networks. Using the Cambodian garment production network as example, we scrutinize t...

  18. The production of power in everyday life of organizational practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch-Jensen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    ambition of the article is to consider what democratic collaboration and coexistence entails and how it might be supported conceptually and analytically by the notion of conflicts as heuristics for social inquiry and by the notion of power as a capacity for action and social participation....

  19. Emotional Labour and Governmentality: Productive Power in Childcare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monrad, Merete

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the interplay between governance and cost-containment efforts in the public sector and the emotional labour and well-being of childcare workers. Care-work researchers have highlighted the complexities of power in emotional labour, such as the fact that emotional labour may simultaneously benefit the individual worker and…

  20. Environmental Externalities Related to Power Production Technologies in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Liselotte Schleisner; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    1997-01-01

    of the Danish part of the project is to implement the framework for externality evaluation, for three different power plants located in Denmark. The paper will focus on the assessment of the impacts of the whole fuel cycles for wind, natural gas and biogas. Priority areas for environmental impact assessment...

  1. Development of small and medium reactors for power and heat production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becka, J.

    1978-01-01

    Data are given on the current state of development of small and medium-power reactors designed mainly for electric power production in small power grids, for heat production for small- and medium-power desalination plants with possible electric power generation, for process steam production and heat development for district heating systems, again combined with electric power generation, and for propelling big and fast passenger ships. A diagram is shown of the primary system of an integrated PWR derived from the Otto Hahn reactor. The family is listed of the standard sizes of the integral INTERATOM company pressurized water reactors. Also listed are the specifications and design of CAS 2CG and AS 3G type reactors used mainly for long-distance heating systems. (J.B.)

  2. Model based fleet optimisation and master control of a power production system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joergensen, C.; Mortensen, J.H.; Nielsen, E.O.; Moelbak, T.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discussed an optimization concept for power plants operated by the Danish power company Elsam. The power company operates a distributed power production system with fossil fuel thermal plants, biomass-fired thermal plants, waste incineration plants, on- and offshore wind power, and district heating storage units. Power and regulation power are traded on an hourly basis, while trading of district heating resources is conducted using bilateral contracts. System and plant level case studies on optimization and control were presented. A system control level was developed to ensure compliance with power market requirements. Dynamic constraints were posed by environmental regulations, grid capabilities, and fuel and district heating contracts. System components included a short-term load scheduler; a power controller; a frequency control scheduler; a marginal cost calculator; and a master control. The scheduler consisted of an optimization algorithm and a set of steady-state models designed to minimize fuel, load, and maintenance costs. Quadratic programming and mixed integer programming methods were used to minimize deviations between the total electrical power production reference value and actual power production values. The study showed that control levels can be optimized using advanced modelling and control methods. However, integration and coordination between the various levels is needed to obtain improved performance. It was concluded that a bottom-up approach starting at the lowest possible level can ensure the performance of an optimization scheme. 6 refs., 9 figs

  3. Nuclear power production: The financial costs. Background paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, P.

    1993-11-01

    For many years, the Canadian nuclear industry has priced itself on its ability to provide safe, reliable and low-cost electricity to consumers. While nuclear power has indeed proved to be a relatively safe generator of electricity, its performance with respect to reliability and cost has declined noticeably in recent years. This paper documents the deteriorating cost performance of the industry, in comparison with that of its traditional competitor in power generation. It also breaks down the total costs into its component parts, assessing the key factors underlying the trends that are worsening the competitive position of the industry: a rise in initial capital costs, unanticipated technical difficulties resulting in additional capital costs, and the increasing operating expenses associated with poorer-than-expected reactor performance. (author). 8 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  4. Training for power plant personnel on hydrogen production and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickelman, G.J.

    1982-01-01

    It is the purpose of this paper to address the issue of training for power plant personnel in the area of hydrogen control. The authors experience in the training business indicates that most of the operations and engineering personnel have a very limited awareness of this phenomenon. Topics discussed in this paper include: 1) theory of hydrogen combustion kinetics; 2) incidents involving hydrogen combustion events; 3) normal operations interfacing with hydrogen; 4) accident conditions; and 5) mitigation schemes

  5. Technological development in the nuclear area: nuclear power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Jose Mendonca de.

    1991-01-01

    The factors and obstacles that influence the progress and regress of nuclear power presently are evaluated. The international policies of the industrial conglomerates and the hegemonic countries in the nuclear area are described. In the particular case of Brazil, it was tried to identify the obstacles which must be removed so that the country can reach development in this field. 35 refs., 9 figs., 9 tabs

  6. Product marketing for eco-power; Produktemarketing fuer Oekostrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, D. [Verband Schweizerischer Elektrizitaetswerke, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    1998-10-30

    The company NaturEnergie (natural energy), a subsidiary of the Energieversorger Kraftwerk Laufenburg AG (KWL) is located in Grenzach-Whylen (Germany) near Basel (Switzerland) has been selling power generated from sun and water since the 1st of October 1998. The company employes a cleverly designed, emotional marketing strategy in order to position the brand ``NaturEnergie`` as a label for ``green power`` on the market. Bulletin VSE talked to Dr. Kai-Hendrik Schlusche (40), co-founder and member of the board of NaturEnergie AG about marketing and pricing of ``green`` power and about relations with Switzerland.(orig.) [Deutsch] Im grenznahen Grenzach-Whylen bei Basel verkauft die Firma NaturEnergie, eine Tochtergesellschaft der Energieversorger Kraftwerk Laufenburg AG (KWL) und Kraftuebertragungswerke Rheinfelden AG (KWR), seit 1. Oktober 1998 Oekostrom aus Sonne und Wasser. Mit Hilfe einer ausgekluegelten emotionellen Marketingstrategie will das junge Unternehmen die Marke `NaturEnergie` als Label fuer `gruenen Strom` im Markt positionieren. Bulletin VSE sprach mit Dr. Kai-Hendrik Schlusche (40), seit Mai 1998 Gruendungsvorstand der NaturEnergie AG, ueber Marketing, Preisgestaltung von `gruenem Strom` und die Beziehungen zur Schweiz. (orig.)

  7. Dry-type cooling systems in electric power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, K.W.

    1973-01-01

    This study indicates that the dry-type cooling tower could be adopted in this country as an alternative method for removing waste heat from power plants. The use of dry cooling towers would not only lead to a change of cooling system design, but also to a change of overall thermal design in a power generating system. The principal drawbacks to using dry cooling towers in a large steam-turbine plant are the generating capacity loss, increased fuel consumption and the high capital cost of the dry cooling towers. These economic penalties must be evaluated in each specific case against the benefits that may result from the use of dry cooling towers. The benefits are principally these: (1) Fewer constraints in the selection of power plant sites, (2) No thermal discharge to the natural water bodies, (3) Elimination of vapor plumes and water evaporation loss, and (4) Freedom of adding new units to an existing facility where inadequate water supply may otherwise rule out this possibility

  8. Economic requirements for competitive laser fusion power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, W.J.; Meier, W.R.

    1986-01-01

    An economic model of a laser fusion commercial power plant is used to identify the design and operating regimes of the driver, target and reaction chamber that will result in economic competitiveness with future fission and coal plants. The authors find that, for a plant with a net power of 1 GW/sub e/, the cost of the driver must be less than $0.4 to 0.6 B, and the recirculating power fraction must be less than 25%. Target gain improvements at low driver energy are the most beneficial but also the most difficult to achieve. The optimal driver energy decreases with increasing target technology. The sensitivity of the cost of electricity to variations in cost and performance parameters decreases with increasing target technology. If chamber pulse rates of a few Hz can be achieved, then gains of 80-100 are sufficient, and higher pulse rates do not help much. Economic competitiveness becomes more difficult with decreasing plant size. Finally, decreasing the cost of the balance of plant has the greatest beneficial effect on economic competitiveness

  9. Use of a Geothermal-Solar Hybrid Power Plant to Mitigate Declines in Geothermal Resource Productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dan Wendt; Greg Mines

    2014-09-01

    Many, if not all, geothermal resources are subject to decreasing productivity manifested in the form of decreasing brine temperature, flow rate, or both during the life span of the associated power generation project. The impacts of resource productivity decline on power plant performance can be significant; a reduction in heat input to a power plant not only decreases the thermal energy available for conversion to electrical power, but also adversely impacts the power plant conversion efficiency. The reduction in power generation is directly correlated to a reduction in revenues from power sales. Further, projects with Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) contracts in place may be subject to significant economic penalties if power generation falls below the default level specified. A potential solution to restoring the performance of a power plant operating from a declining productivity geothermal resource involves the use of solar thermal energy to restore the thermal input to the geothermal power plant. There are numerous technical merits associated with a renewable geothermal-solar hybrid plant in which the two heat sources share a common power block. The geo-solar hybrid plant could provide a better match to typical electrical power demand profiles than a stand-alone geothermal plant. The hybrid plant could also eliminate the stand-alone concentrated solar power plant thermal storage requirement for operation during times of low or no solar insolation. This paper identifies hybrid plant configurations and economic conditions for which solar thermal retrofit of a geothermal power plant could improve project economics. The net present value of the concentrated solar thermal retrofit of an air-cooled binary geothermal plant is presented as functions of both solar collector array cost and electricity sales price.

  10. Using Purchasing Power Parity to Assess Construction Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick Best

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available For many reasons comparing construction productivity between countries is a difficult task. One key problem is that of converting construction costs to a common currency. This problem can be overcome relatively simply by using a basket of construction materials and labour, termed a BLOC (Basket of Locally Obtained Commodities, as a unit of construction cost. Average BLOC costs in each location are calculated from data obtained from a number of sources (quantity surveyors, estimators. Typical building costs obtained from published construction cost data are expressed in BLOC equivalents. Lower BLOC equivalents represent higher productivity as other inputs (largely materials are constant. The method provides a relatively simple and direct method for comparing productivity between different locations.

  11. Graphical analysis of French nuclear power plant production date

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jourdan, J.P. [Electricite de France (EDF), Projet Production EPR 1, 93 - Saint-Denis (France)

    2001-07-01

    The analysis of values of plant production uses here an original method of graphical analysis. This method clarifies various difficulties of analysing big experience feedback databases among which the language interpretation and distinctions between scarce events and multi-annual events. In general, the method shows the logical processes that production values obey (pure chance logic, administrative logic, and willpower) This method of graphical analysis provides a tool to observe and question in a concrete way so that each person involved can put the events in which he played a role into the general context of other plants. It is a deductible method to improve this big and complex system. (author)

  12. Graphical analysis of French nuclear power plant production date

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jourdan, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    The analysis of values of plant production uses here an original method of graphical analysis. This method clarifies various difficulties of analysing big experience feedback databases among which the language interpretation and distinctions between scarce events and multi-annual events. In general, the method shows the logical processes that production values obey (pure chance logic, administrative logic, and willpower) This method of graphical analysis provides a tool to observe and question in a concrete way so that each person involved can put the events in which he played a role into the general context of other plants. It is a deductible method to improve this big and complex system. (author)

  13. Local power production at the end consumer - legal, political and economical external conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinden, Bjoern; Hunnes, Arngrim; Naesje, Paal; Wangensteen, Ivar; Morch, Andrei Z.

    2002-12-01

    The report deals with the external conditions for local power production, suggested as a production close to or at the end consumer. The political, legal and economical frame conditions for such production including rating are discussed. The report shall together with a technical report regarding appropriate technologies for such production (A5712), serve as a basis for case studies and monitors later in the project. Through the case studies it will be uncovered how the external conditions are functioning which will make foundations for recommendations concerning possible alterations in the conditions in order to make the local power production more profitable. In the discussion on the political and legal external conditions the system of today is studied. From the political area the general development is described and a short analysis is made of what to expect from case handling procedures, and some challenges are pointed out At present there is a simplified handling of cases of minor and smaller power plants. In order to obtain a more realistic construction of such plants the requirements of license handling may need sharpening. The tariffing of energy deliverance is studied. The regulations for tariffing and income regulation in the distribution network is mainly designed with the consumer and the central power production in mind. A study is made of how the regulations work, to what extent precessions and additional rules are needed and to what extent alterations in the regulations are needed in order to incorporate the local power production in a rational way. While a local power producer at best, will want a price for power which is sold at the power market of the size of 20 oere/kWh, the power will increase in value further down in the voltage level. At the 230 V level the power price will be of the size of 60 oere/kWh all expenses included and the network rent (during normal precipitation conditions). Therefore the production for own consumption will be met

  14. Common analysis of the relativistic klystron and the standing-wave free-electron laser two-beam accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurtele, J.S.; Whittum, D.H.; Sessler, A.M.

    1992-07-01

    This paper summarizes a new formalism which makes the analysis and understanding of both the relativistic klystron (RK) and the standing-wave free-electron laser (SWFEL) two-beam accelerator (TBA) available to a wide audience of accelerator physicists. A ''coupling impedance'' for both the RK and SWFEL is introduced, which can include realistic cavity features, such as beam and vacuum ports, in a simple manner. The RK and SWFEL macroparticle equations, which govern the energy and phase evolution of successive bunches in the beam, are of identical form, differing only by multiplicative factors. The analysis allows, for the first time, a relative comparison of the RF and SWFEL TBAs

  15. Cobalt-60 production in the BN-350 fast power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvonarev, A.V.; Korobejnikov, V.V.; Matveenko, I.P.

    1994-01-01

    A possibility of Co-60 isotope production in the BN-350 fast reactor was considered. A special irradiating device, which is an assembly with a central hole, where a container containing cobalt and zirconium hydride is placed. The irradiating device tested permits generating 60 Co with specific activity of 100 Ci/g

  16. IT use, productivity, and market power in banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetter, Michael; Noth, Felix

    2013-01-01

    Information management is a core process in banking that can resolve information a symmetries and thereby help to mitigate competitive pressure. We test if the use of information technology (IT) contributes to bank output, and how IT-augmented bank productivity relates to differences in market

  17. Wind power: Italian auto-production legislation (ISES convention)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mari, G.

    1991-01-01

    With reference to what was discussed at the Bologna (Italy) June 1991 ISES (International Solar Energy Society) convention on wind energy, this paper summarizes the Italian legislative framework relative to on-site power generation and outlines the National Energy Plan objectives regarding the promotion of the use, by industry, of renewable energy sources. Brief notes are also provided on wind energy promotional activities being carried out by ENEL (the Italian National Energy Board), ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment), and EWEA (the European Wind Energy Association)

  18. Nuclear steam turbines for power production in combination with heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frilund, B.; Knudsen, K.

    1977-01-01

    The general operating conditions for nuclear steam turbines in district heating system are briefly outlined. The turbine plant can consist of essentially the same types of machines as in conventional district heating systems. Some possible arrangements of back-pressure turbines, back-pressure turbines with condensing tails, or condensing turbines with heat extraction are considered for nuclear power and heat stations. Principles of control for hot water temperature and electrical output are described. Optimization of the plant, considering parallel variations during the year between heat load, cooling water temperature, and required outgoing temperature is discussed. (U.K.)

  19. Modern biofuel-fired power plants in power and heat production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuominen, J.

    1993-01-01

    This article gives a survey of the gasification techniques, power plant technology and boiler solutions for small power plants using biofuels. Also some experiences from commercial projects and targets of development work are presented. At present, fluidized bed combustion is by far the most important combustion technique for biomass fuels in small power plants. Compared with grate combustion, fluidized bed combustion is a distinctly more economical combustion method, and so the thermic dimensioning of a steam boiler is easier. Besides, a wider range of fuels can be used in fluidized bed combustion. Fluidized bed combustion is an excellent combustion technique for biofuels. Plenty of experience has been gained in the combustion of peat and industrial waste wood, as far as both bubbling fluidized bed combustion (BFBC) and circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) are concerned. Both of the fluidized bed techniques are suitable for the combustion of biomasses

  20. Patterned ion exchange membranes for improved power production in microbial reverse-electrodialysis cells

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Jia; Geise, Geoffrey M.; Luo, Xi; Hou, Huijie; Zhang, Fang; Feng, Yujie; Hickner, Michael A.; Logan, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    Power production in microbial reverse-electrodialysis cells (MRCs) can be limited by the internal resistance of the reverse electrodialysis stack. Typical MRC stacks use non-conductive spacers that block ion transport by the so-called spacer shadow

  1. Introducing life cycle thinking in product development – A case from Siemens Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonou, Alexandra; Olsen, Stig Irving; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2015-01-01

    How can use of LCA improve the environmental sustainability of wind industry products? An analysis of a case study from Siemens Wind Power identifies the knowledge offered by LCA that is relevant to each step of the product development process (PDP). The study illustrates the difference that this......How can use of LCA improve the environmental sustainability of wind industry products? An analysis of a case study from Siemens Wind Power identifies the knowledge offered by LCA that is relevant to each step of the product development process (PDP). The study illustrates the difference...

  2. Industry sector analysis, Mexico: Electric power production and distribution equipment. Export Trade Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, J.S.; Miller, R.W.

    1988-09-01

    The Industry Sector Analyses (I.S.A.) for electric power production and distribution equipment contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users, receptivity of Mexican consumers to U.S. products, the competitive situation - Mexican production, total import market, U.S. market position, foreign competition, and competitive factors, and market access - Mexican tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes and distribution channels. The I.S.A. provides the United States industry with meaningful information regarding the Mexican market for electric power production and distribution equipment

  3. INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGICAL SOLUTIONS IN CREATING FUNCTIONAL PRODUCTS POWER

    OpenAIRE

    I. V. Sergienko; A. E. Kutsova; S. V. Kutsov

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with a problem of functional products creation for consumers feeling need in proteins, irreplaceable amino acids, vitamins, mineral substances, food fibers, polynonsaturated fat acids. One of the possible ways to improve human nutrition is using non-traditional cultures for bread making technology containing significant amounts of fibrous substances, easily digestible protein, vitamins, unsaturated fatty acids and minerals. Taking into account the Nutrition Science requireme...

  4. Power plant production of inertial confinement fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, C.D.; Johnson, W.L.

    1979-01-01

    Many of the current techniques for fabricating experimental targets appear to be directly extendable to the high-rate, low-cost production of reactor targets. This report describes several new techniques that, in conjunction with the expansion of existing techniques, can constitute a target factory. We have evaluated this concept on the basis of a generalized reactor target design and the projected specifications of reactor-grade targets

  5. Techniques of power production from biogas and syngas. Extended abstract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couturier, Ch.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to achieve a state of the art on the techniques of electricity production (mainly engines and turbines) from biomass gases (biogas and syngas). After a brief description of the various routes to produce gas from biomass, i.e. anaerobic digestion and gasification, the study shows the composition of these gases, their constituents, the factors characterizing combustion, to finish on air emissions. Then, there is a description of the general principles and parameters of operation and adjustment of the main electricity production techniques: and their various possible associations. This chapter is concluded by a comparative synthesis on the scopes and maturity of each technique. The second chapter is a review of different processes to remove contaminants of biogas and syngas. It gives operating principle, feedback, costs and development. The third chapter is an economical, energy and environmental analysis of the techniques of electricity production. The fourth chapter is a technical guide, with some practical details to operate a plant about treatment, functioning of machines. This is also a synthesis of difficulties. An economic and environmental analysis of biogas plants permits to compare different choices. This guide gives information to actors in this field to make decisions. The study is finished by a synthesis with key points and research fields, followed by a conclusion. The last chapter lists resource materials: bibliography and patents of the last 10 years. Provided in appendix, there is a directory about actors like equipment manufacturers or operating contractors. (author)

  6. Decentralized power generation from biogas; Production d'energie decentralisee a partir de biogaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Areva Bioenergies proposes ready-to-use biogas production and valorization units that use industrial effluents (liquid effluents, spent water, solid wastes). Biogas valorization is performed through cogeneration plants with an output power of 500 kW to 10 MW. This brochure presents Areva's global offer in methanation projects (support, engineering, optimization). Areva Bioenergies counts 20 dual-purpose power plants in operation or under construction in the world which represent an installed power of 220 MW.

  7. Technology assessment of laser-fusion power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, L.A.; Frank, T.G.

    1976-01-01

    The inherent features of laser-induced fusion, some laser-fusion reactor concepts, and attendant means of utilizing the thermonuclear energy for commercial electric power generation are discussed. Theoretical fusion-pellet microexplosion energy release characteristics are described and the effects of pellet design options on pellet-microexplosion characteristics are discussed. The results of analyses to assess the engineering feasibility of reactor cavities for which protection of cavity components is provided either by suitable ablative materials or by diversion of plasmas by magnetic fields are presented. Two conceptual laser-fusion electric generating stations, based on different laser-fusion reactor concepts, are described. Technology developments for ultimate commercial application are outlined

  8. Decontaminating products for routine decontamination in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, K.

    2001-01-01

    Routine decontamination work that has to be carried out in practical operation includes the cleaning of all kinds of surfaces such as floors, walls and apparatus, the decontamination of professional clothes and of the personnel. In order to ensure a trouble-free functioning of plants for the treatment of waste water and concentrate in nuclear power plants, radioactive liquid wastes appearing in the controlled area should be compatible with the treatment methods in practice. Radioactive concentrates and resides obtained from the treatment methods are mixed with matrix materials like cement or bitumen or treated by roller frame drying and thus are conditioned for intermediate or final storage. Several requirements should be made on decontaminating agents used in the controlled area. Some of these physical-chemical criteria will be described in detail. (R.P.)

  9. Productivity Enhancement of Solar Still with PV Powered Heating Coil and Chamber Step-Wise Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Abdallah

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a strong need to improve the productivity of single slope solar still. PV generator powered electrical heater and chamber step-wise design were introduced to the conventional solar still. An experimental study was performed to investigate the effect of adding the above mentioned modifications on the output parameters of the modified solar still. The inclusion of PV-powered heating coil and chamber step-wise design enhanced the productivity of distiller by up to 1098%.

  10. Assessment of Wind Production Impacts to a Power System and Market Formation in Baltic

    OpenAIRE

    Turcik, M; Obuševs, A; Oļeiņikova, I; Junghāns, G

    2013-01-01

    This paper is related to the topical problem of expanding wind production integration to the power system and electricity markets. The model for simulation of wind production curves according to the development of wind capacities in Baltic is proposed. In order to evaluate the effect of the wind power integration to the price formation as well as level of system penetration by wind, methodology and algorithms taking into account the development scenarios in Baltic are pre...

  11. Using Unsupervised Machine Learning for Outlier Detection in Data to Improve Wind Power Production Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Åkerberg, Ludvig

    2017-01-01

    The expansion of wind power for electrical energy production has increased in recent years and shows no signs of slowing down. This unpredictable source of energy has contributed to destabilization of the electrical grid causing the energy market prices to vary significantly on a daily basis. For energy producers and consumers to make good investments, methods have been developed to make predictions of wind power production. These methods are often based on machine learning were historical we...

  12. Increased productivity in power plants by the computer-based information system PRAUT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanbaba, P.

    1978-01-01

    Decrease of commissionning times, reduction of shut-down periods, avoiding of power reductions, fast adaption to load requirement variations act in the direction of increasing the productivity of a power plant. An essential contribution to this is provided by harmonized control, monitoring and communications concepts as realized, e.g. in the PRO-CONTROL system by Brown Boveri. (orig.) [de

  13. Analysis of power and frequency control requirements in view of increased decentralized production and market liberalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roffel, B.; Boer, W.W. de

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic approach of the analysis of the minimum control requirements that are imposed on power producing units in the Netherlands, especially in the case when decentralized production increases. Also some effects of the liberalization on the control behavior are analyzed. First an overview is given of the amount and type of power production in the Netherlands, followed by a review of the control requirements. Next models are described, including a simplified model for the UCTE power system. The model was tested against frequency and power measurements after failure of a 558 MW production unit in the Netherlands. Agreement between measurements and model predictions proved to be good. The model was subsequently used to analyze the primary and secondary control requirements and the impact of an increase in decentralized power production on the fault restoration capabilities of the power system. Since the latter production units are not actively participating in primary and secondary control, fault restoration takes longer and becomes unacceptable when only 35% of the power producing units participate in secondary control. Finally, the model was used to study the impact of deregulation, especially the effect of 'block scheduling', on additional control actions of the secondary control. (Author)

  14. System Evaluation and Economic Analysis of a HTGR Powered High-Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKellar, Michael G.; Harvego, Edwin A.; Gandrik, Anastasia A.

    2010-01-01

    A design for a commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) plant for hydrogen production has been developed. The HTE plant is powered by a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) whose configuration and operating conditions are based on the latest design parameters planned for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). The current HTGR reference design specifies a reactor power of 600 MWt, with a primary system pressure of 7.0 MPa, and reactor inlet and outlet fluid temperatures of 322 C and 750 C, respectively. The power conversion unit will be a Rankine steam cycle with a power conversion efficiency of 40%. The reference hydrogen production plant operates at a system pressure of 5.0 MPa, and utilizes a steam-sweep system to remove the excess oxygen that is evolved on the anode (oxygen) side of the electrolyzer. The overall system thermal-to-hydrogen production efficiency (based on the higher heating value of the produced hydrogen) is 40.4% at a hydrogen production rate of 1.75 kg/s and an oxygen production rate of 13.8 kg/s. An economic analysis of this plant was performed with realistic financial and cost estimating assumptions. The results of the economic analysis demonstrated that the HTE hydrogen production plant driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear power plant can deliver hydrogen at a cost of $3.67/kg of hydrogen assuming an internal rate of return, IRR, of 12% and a debt to equity ratio of 80%/20%. A second analysis shows that if the power cycle efficiency increases to 44.4%, the hydrogen production efficiency increases to 42.8% and the hydrogen and oxygen production rates are 1.85 kg/s and 14.6 kg/s respectively. At the higher power cycle efficiency and an IRR of 12% the cost of hydrogen production is $3.50/kg.

  15. Phase Analysis of Corrosion Products from Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipka, J.; Slugen, V.; Toth, I.; Hascik, J.; Lehota, M.

    2002-01-01

    The variability of the properties and the composition of the corrosion products of the stainless CrNi and mild steels in dependence on the conditions (temperature, acidity, etc.) is of such a range that, in practice, it is impossible to determine the properties of the corrosion products for an actual case from the theoretical data only. Since the decontamination processes for the materials of the water-cooled reactor (VVER-440) secondary circuits are in a process of development, it is necessary to draw the needed information by the measurement and analysis of the real specimens. The corrosion layer was separated by scraping the rust off the surface and the powder samples were studied by transmission Moessbauer spectroscopy. It should be noted that the gamma spectroscopic measurements give no evidence of the presence of low-energy gamma radiation emitted from the samples. The scrapped specimen powder was homogenised (using the 50 μm sieve) and fixed into the special holder. The 57 Co in Rh matrix was used as the radioactive Moessbauer source. Measured spectra were fitted using program NORMOS SITE. According to the results obtained from Moessbauer spectra, it is possible to establish that the main component of secondary circuit's corrosion products is magnetite Fe 3 O 4 . Next components are hematite α-Fe 2 O 3 and hydroxide akagenite β-FeOOH, which is characterised by a significant paramagnetic doublet in the middle of the spectra. The sextets corresponding to base materials (martensite and austenite steels) were identified in all measured spectra.

  16. Production of wind power in the built environment. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakeman, L.G.J.; Peters, D.J.; Bruessau, K.M.; Lichtenberg, R.; Cleijne, H.; Hoeve, R.J.

    2002-01-01

    A state-of-the-art is given of the production of energy from wind in the built environment in the Netherlands. Also attention is paid to technical, planning, sociological and economical bottlenecks for the use of small wind turbines in the built environment. And finally, the perspectives in the light of renewable energy targets in the Netherlands for the year 2020 are discussed. Two scenario's were discussed: (1) turbines installed on or next to buildings; and (2) turbines that are integrated in the building [nl

  17. Next-to-leading-logarithmic power corrections for N -jettiness subtraction in color-singlet production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughezal, Radja; Isgrò, Andrea; Petriello, Frank

    2018-04-01

    We present a detailed derivation of the power corrections to the factorization theorem for the 0-jettiness event shape variable T . Our calculation is performed directly in QCD without using the formalism of effective field theory. We analytically calculate the next-to-leading logarithmic power corrections for small T at next-to-leading order in the strong coupling constant, extending previous computations which obtained only the leading-logarithmic power corrections. We address a discrepancy in the literature between results for the leading-logarithmic power corrections to a particular definition of 0-jettiness. We present a numerical study of the power corrections in the context of their application to the N -jettiness subtraction method for higher-order calculations, using gluon-fusion Higgs production as an example. The inclusion of the next-to-leading-logarithmic power corrections further improves the numerical efficiency of the approach beyond the improvement obtained from the leading-logarithmic power corrections.

  18. Electricity production by hydro power plants: possibilities of forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkans, J.; Zicmane, I.

    2004-01-01

    Hydro energy accounts for 17% of global electricity production and is the most important source of renewable energies actively used today, being at the same time the least influential ecologically. Its only disadvantages is that this kind of energy is difficult to forecast, which hinders not only the planning of tariffs, year budgets and investments, but also contractual negotiations in particular month. The paper shows that the forecasting of hydro energy production can be linked to certain natural processes, namely, to the cyclic behaviour observed for water flows of the world's rivers. The authors propose a method according to which the forecasting procedure is performed using the data of observations as signals applied to special digital filters transforming the water flow process into integral and differential forms, which after appropriate treatment are expected again in usual water flow units. For this purpose the water flow integral function is to be divided, by means of spectral analysis, into 'low-frequency' (with a semi-period of 44 years) and 'high-frequency' (4-6 year semi-periods) components, which are of different origin. Each of them should be forecasted separately, with the following summation of the results. In the research it is shown that the cyclic fluctuations of world rivers' water flows are directly associated with variations in the Solar activity. (authors)

  19. Agriculture and food production after a nuclear power accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulvsand, T.; Preuthun, J.; Rosen, K.; Svensson, Kettil

    1999-02-01

    In a situation with radioactive fall-out in agricultural areas in Sweden, many organisations will be engaged. The authorities in the field of agriculture and food will give advices and recommendations, the producers will see to their interests, the consumers will react and researchers and experts will be engaged. A combined game and seminar was carried through in the city of Huskvarna 17 - 18 March, 1998 with participation from the responsible authorities: Swedish Board of Agriculture, National Food Administration, Swedish Radiation Protection Institute and from producers, organisations and the government and with researchers and people from contract laboratories. The game and seminar was based upon a scenario with a release of radioactivity from the nuclear power plant of Ignalina in early July and focused on the threat phase and the time close to the deposition. The release and the weather condition resulted in a deposition of 137 Cs and 131 I in agricultural areas in southern Sweden. The biggest levels of deposition took place in the county of Oestergoetland, where the resulting levels were three times the highest levels in Sweden after the Chernobyl-accident The seminar combined lectures, group-work and discussions and actualised a great number of issues that should be further investigated. The report ends with a factual part about possible countermeasures in agriculture

  20. Future Power Production by LENR with Thin-Film Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miley, George H.; Hora, Heinz; Lipson, Andrei; Luo, Nie; Shrestha, P. Joshi

    2007-03-01

    PdD cluster reaction theory was recently proposed to explain a wide range of Low energy Nuclear Reaction (LENR) experiments. If understood and optimized, cluster reactions could lead to a revolutionary new power source of nuclear energy. The route is two-fold. First, the excess heat must be obtained reproducibly and over extended run times. Second, the percentage of excess must be significantly (order of magnitude or more) higher than the 20-50% typically today. The thin film methods described here have proven to be quite reproducible, e.g. providing excess heat of 20-30% in nine consecutive runs of several weeks each. However, mechanical separation of the films occurs over long runs due to the severe mechanical stresses created.. Techniques to overcome these problems are possible using graded bonding techniques similar to that used in high temperature solid oxide fuel cells. Thus the remaining key issue is to increase the excess heat. The cluster model provides import insight into this. G. H. Miley, H. Hora, et al., 233rd Amer Chem Soc Meeting, Chicago, IL, March 25-29, 2007.

  1. Production of fast switching power thyristors by proton irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawko, D.C.; Bartko, J.

    1983-01-01

    There are several techniques currently employed by various manufacturers in the fabrication of fast switching power thyristors. Gold doping and irradiation by electron beams are among the more common ones. In all cases, the fast switching capability results from a reduction of the minority carrier lifetime of the host material by the introduction of carrier traps or recombination centers. However, accompanying this beneficial reduction in switching speed is a deleterious increase in forward voltage drop which also results from the introduction of carrier traps. Methods which minimize the voltage drop increase as the switching speed is reduced are highly desirable. One such method would achieve this by introducing the traps or recombination centers into well defined narrow regions where they will be more effective in reducing the switching speed than in increasing the forward voltage drop. Because the proton range-energy relationship in materials is relatively well defined and the lifetime reducing displacements occur near the end of their ranges, the lifetime in silicon can be reduced where desired by the precise control of proton energy. Dual energy proton beams from a tandem Van de Graaff accelerator were used in the experiments to determine whether proton beam irradiations offer advantages over other techniques. This was the subject of the present work. The results indicate that this is the preferred technique for reproducibly and rapidly processing fast switching thyristors with superior characteristics. The experimental procedure is discussed and comparisons are made with electron and neutron irradiated thyristors

  2. 18 CFR 292.208 - Special requirements for hydroelectric small power production facilities located at a new dam or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... for hydroelectric small power production facilities located at a new dam or diversion. 292.208 Section... requirements for hydroelectric small power production facilities located at a new dam or diversion. (a) A hydroelectric small power production facility that impounds or diverts the water of a natural watercourse by...

  3. Whose power? Whose knowledge? Tensions in collaborative production of knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Birgitte Ravn

    to produce long-lasting, relevant and socially robust knowledge where complexity is seen as a quality rather than a problem. Looking back at the many rich processes I have been involved in makes it clear to me how the quality of the relations which were established became crucial for the outcome......This speech is a critical, reflexive gaze on my own research practices and ideals about creating knowledge through collaboration between researchers from universities and professionals in dialogical processes. Here the aim is often to give voice to differences and dissenting meanings in order...... of the research projects In social sciences and humanities it is possible to find especially poststructuralist (and feminist) researchers who refer to a discourse about knowledge production as a messy and entangled way of extending our understanding of the world. Social and natural phenomena are recognized...

  4. Production of zinc oxide nanowires power with precisely defined morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mičová, Júlia; Remeš, Zdeněk; Chan, Yu-Ying

    2017-12-01

    The interest about zinc oxide is increasing thanks to its unique chemical and physical properties. Our attention has focused on preparation powder of 1D nanostructures of ZnO nanowires with precisely defined morphology include characterization size (length and diameter) and shape controlled in the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We have compared results of SEM with dynamic light scattering (DLS) technique. We have found out that SEM method gives more accurate results. We have proposed transformation process from ZnO nanowires on substrates to ZnO nanowires powder by ultrasound peeling to colloid followed by lyophilization. This method of the mass production of the ZnO nanowires powder has some advantages: simplicity, cost effective, large-scale and environment friendly.

  5. UPVapor: Cofrentes nuclear power plant production results analysis software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curiel, M.; Palomo, M. J.; Baraza, A.; Vaquer, J.

    2010-10-01

    UPVapor software version 02 has been developed for the Cofrentes nuclear power plant Data Analysis Department (Spain). It is an analysis graphical environment in which users have available all the plant variables registered in the process computer system (SIEC). In order to perform this, UPVapor software has many advanced graphic tools for work simplicity, as well as a friendly environment easy to use and with many configuration possibilities. Plant variables are classified in the same way that they are in SIEC computer and these values are taken from it through the network of Iberdrola. UPVapor can generate two different types of graphics: evolution graphs and X Y graphs. The first ones analyse the evolution up to twenty plant variables in a user's defined time period and according to historic plant files. Many tools are available: cursors, graphic configuration, mobile means, non valid data visualization ... Moreover, a particular analysis configuration can be saved, as a pre selection, giving the possibility of charging pre selection directly and developing quick monitoring of a group of preselected plant variables. In X Y graphs, it is possible to analyse a variable value against another variable in a defined time. As an option, users can filter previous data depending on a variable certain range, with the possibility of programming up to five filters. As well as the other graph, X Y graph has many configurations, saving and printing options. With UPVapor software, data analysts can save a valuable time during daily work and, as it is of easy utilization, it permits to other users to perform their own analysis without ask the analysts to develop. Besides, it can be used from any work centre with access to network framework. (Author)

  6. UPVapor: Cofrentes nuclear power plant production results analysis software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curiel, M. [Logistica y Acondicionamientos Industriales SAU, Sorolla Center, local 10, Av. de las Cortes Valencianas No. 58, 46015 Valencia (Spain); Palomo, M. J. [ISIRYM, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, Valencia (Spain); Baraza, A. [Iberdrola Generacion S. A., Central Nuclear Cofrentes, Carretera Almansa Requena s/n, 04662 Cofrentes, Valencia (Spain); Vaquer, J., E-mail: m.curiel@lainsa.co [TITANIA Servicios Tecnologicos SL, Sorolla Center, local 10, Av. de las Cortes Valencianas No. 58, 46015 Valencia (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    UPVapor software version 02 has been developed for the Cofrentes nuclear power plant Data Analysis Department (Spain). It is an analysis graphical environment in which users have available all the plant variables registered in the process computer system (SIEC). In order to perform this, UPVapor software has many advanced graphic tools for work simplicity, as well as a friendly environment easy to use and with many configuration possibilities. Plant variables are classified in the same way that they are in SIEC computer and these values are taken from it through the network of Iberdrola. UPVapor can generate two different types of graphics: evolution graphs and X Y graphs. The first ones analyse the evolution up to twenty plant variables in a user's defined time period and according to historic plant files. Many tools are available: cursors, graphic configuration, mobile means, non valid data visualization ... Moreover, a particular analysis configuration can be saved, as a pre selection, giving the possibility of charging pre selection directly and developing quick monitoring of a group of preselected plant variables. In X Y graphs, it is possible to analyse a variable value against another variable in a defined time. As an option, users can filter previous data depending on a variable certain range, with the possibility of programming up to five filters. As well as the other graph, X Y graph has many configurations, saving and printing options. With UPVapor software, data analysts can save a valuable time during daily work and, as it is of easy utilization, it permits to other users to perform their own analysis without ask the analysts to develop. Besides, it can be used from any work centre with access to network framework. (Author)

  7. Micro-structured nuclear fuel and novel nuclear reactor concepts for advanced power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popa-Simil, Liviu

    2008-01-01

    Many applications (e.g. terrestrial and space electric power production, naval, underwater and railroad propulsion and auxiliary power for isolated regions) require a compact-high-power electricity source. The development of such a reactor structure necessitates a deeper understanding of fission energy transport and materials behavior in radiation dominated structures. One solution to reduce the greenhouse-gas emissions and delay the catastrophic events' occurrences may be the development of massive nuclear power. The actual basic conceptions in nuclear reactors are at the base of the bottleneck in enhancements. The current nuclear reactors look like high security prisons applied to fission products. The micro-bead heterogeneous fuel mesh gives the fission products the possibility to acquire stable conditions outside the hot zones without spilling, in exchange for advantages - possibility of enhancing the nuclear technology for power production. There is a possibility to accommodate the materials and structures with the phenomenon of interest, the high temperature fission products free fuel with near perfect burning. This feature is important to the future of nuclear power development in order to avoid the nuclear fuel peak, and high price increase due to the immobilization of the fuel in the waste fuel nuclear reactor pools. (author)

  8. CO2 emission costs and Gas/Coal competition for power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santi, Federico

    2005-01-01

    This paper demonstrates how a CO 2 emission reduction programme can change the competition between the two power production technologies which will probably dominate the future of the Italian power industry: the coal fired USC steam power plant and the natural gas fired CCGT power plant. An economic value of the CO 2 emission is calculated, in order to make the short-run-marginal-cost (or the long-run-marginal-cost). equal for both technologies, under a CO 2 emission trading scheme and following a single-plant specific CO 2 emission homogenizing approach [it

  9. Comparative gross domestic production and electricity consumption per capita in the context of nuclear power prospect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridzuan Abdul Mutalib; Maragatham Kumar; Nik Arlina Nik Ali; Abi Muttaqin Jalal Bayar; Aisya Raihan Abdul Kadir; Muhammed Zulfakar Zolkaffly; Azlinda Aziz; Jamal Khaer Ibrahim

    2008-08-01

    Malaysia, based on its economic and industrial growth level should be able to absorb nuclear technology and capacity in implementing a nuclear power programme. Malaysia Gross Domestic Production (GDP) and electricity consumption (kWh per capita is higher compared with other developing countries, which have already announced their plans to implement nuclear power programme. Furthermore, Asia reliance on nuclear power plants to meet growing energy needs in the near future is also significantly increasing. This paper presents the comparative GDP and kWh per capita in Asia and globally in the context of nuclear power prospect in Malaysia. (Author)

  10. Production capacity of equipment for medium and large hydroelectric power plant in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Shenyang [Ministry of Electric Power, Beijing (China). Bureau of Electric Power Machinery

    1995-07-01

    This document presents an overview on the production capacity of equipment for medium and large hydroelectric power plant in China. The document approaches general aspects, production capability and testing facilities related to Francis, Kaplan, tubular and impulse hydroelectric generating sets, and the introduction of main manufacturers as well.

  11. 78 FR 5773 - Notification of Proposed Production Activity, Generac Power Systems, Inc., Subzone 41J...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... Activity, Generac Power Systems, Inc., Subzone 41J, (Generators, Pressure Washers, Engines and Other... Whitewater, Edgerton and Jefferson, Wisconsin. The facilities are used for the production of generators... the foreign status components used in export production (15% of annual shipments). On its domestic...

  12. The International Comparison of Value Added, Productivity and Purchasing Power Parities in Agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maddison, Angus; Ooststroom, Harry van

    1993-01-01

    This study is part of the ICOP (International Comparison of Output and Productivity) project of the University of Groningen. It presents international comparisons of levels of value added, productivity and purchasing power parities (PPPs) in agriculture for 13 countries for 1975. An early version of

  13. Corrosion products in the coolant circuits of PWR nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darras, R.

    1984-01-01

    The characteristics of corrosion products formed in the primary and secondary circuits of pressurized light water nuclear power plants are first briefly recalled. The problem set by the pollution of coolants and metallic surfaces is then examined. Finally, the measures of precaution to take and the possible solutions to minimize the disturbing effects of this pollution by corrosion products are presented [fr

  14. Gas power production, surplus concepts and the transformation of hydro-electric rent into resource rent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amundsen, Eirik S.

    1997-01-01

    The paper considers the effects of introducing large scale gas power production capacity into an electricity sector based on hydropower. In this process the economic rent is transmitted from the hydro power sector to the resource rent in the gas power sector, but is along the way intermingled with ordinary producer surplus and quasi-rent stemming from increasing cost conditions in the production infrastructure and capacity constraints. The net effect on total rent generated depends on development in demand, demand elasticities, costs saved from delaying hydropower projects and the existence of producer surplus in gas power generation. The paper closes with a discussion of possible tax base changes following from the introduction of a thermal power system based on natural gas

  15. From wind ensembles to probabilistic information about future wind power production - results from an actual application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg; Nielsen, Torben Skov; Madsen, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    on the wind power ensemble forecasts. Given measurements of power production, representing a region or a single wind farm, we have developed methods applicable for these two steps. While (ii) should in principle be a simple task we found that the probabilistic information contained in the wind power ensembles...... horizon we aim at supplying quantiles of the wind power production conditional on the information available at the time at which the forecast is generated. This involves: (i) transformation of meteorological ensemble forecasts into wind power ensemble forecasts and (ii) calculation of quantiles based....... The application use ECMWF-ensembles. One setup corresponds to an offshore wind farm (Nysted, Denmark) and one corresponds to regional forecasting (Western Denmark). In the paper we analyze the results obtained from 8 months of actual operation of this system. It is concluded that the demo-application produce...

  16. The effect of microwave power on the production of biodiesel from nyamplung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadariyah, L.; Mujaddid, F.; Raka; Dhonny, S. B.; Mahfud, M.

    2017-12-01

    Today, energy needs in Indonesia still rely on fossil energy sources that its availability in the world is increasingly depleted. Therefore, the research for alternative energy of petroleum must be developed, one of them is biodiesel. The use of microwave as energy source of biodiesel production can speed up the reaction time. So the microwave is considered more efficient. Seeds of nyamplung has an oil content of 71.4% (w/w) by weight. With the oil content of the nyamplung seeds has great potential when used as a raw material for biodiesel production. The aim of this research to study the effect of microwave power on the production of biodisel from nyamplung oil. Microwave power affects density, viscosity and yield of the product. The used of alkali catalyst, with higher the power, the lower the density and viscosity of the resulting product, but the resulting yield is 300 W. The power of more than 300 W is the opposite, resulting in the production of biodiesel using the optimum base catalyst at 300 W power.

  17. The structure of atomic power industry with allowance for energy production other than electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrov, A.P.; Legasov, V.A.; Sidorenko, V.A.; Ponomarev-Stepnoj, N.N.; Protsenko, A.N.; Grebennik, V.N.; Glushkov, E.S.

    1977-01-01

    The important tendency in the development of nuclear power is broadening the scope of its application for substitution of mineral fuel by the nuclear one not only at the electrical power production but in other energy consuming fields of industry. The development of large-scale nuclear power plants permits the provision of the significant part of energy supply of all kinds and save on oil and gas. Scales and rates of development of nuclear power are estimated for the model society on the basis of predicted need energy consumption per capita. The possible rates and scales of nuclear power development are determined at some alternative amounts of potential reserves of organic fuel (oil, gas) per capita and within the economically and ecologically reasonable scales of coal utilization. There has been given the analysis of possible scopes of application of nuclear power industry: for production of electricity, central heating, hydrogen generation, gasification of coals, metallurgy, chemistry by means of medium- and high-temperature reactors. The conceivable relation between electrical energy and heat production in energetics and the nuclear power industry and the dynamics of change in this relation is being forecasted. The promising development of high temperature helium reactors has been discussed. Considerations on possible effect of thorium cycle on the structure of nuclear power industry are outlined. The nuclear power industry is being developed mainly on the basis of nuclear power plants with thermal reactors and it should not be expected for the next decade that its structure is to change significantly. However, the development of only this type reactors will require, as early as the end of this century, the significant consumption of natural uranium and considerable increase in capacities of uranium output and uranium enrichment industry. Therefore, in the following stages of development of nuclear power industry it is necessary to introduce fast breeders

  18. PLAN 2003. Costs for management of the radioactive waste products from nuclear power production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-06-01

    The companies that own nuclear power plants in Sweden are responsible for adopting measures needed to manage and dispose of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste from the Swedish nuclear power reactors in a safe manner. The so-called Financing Act (1992:1537) is linked to this responsibility and prescribes that a reactor owner, in consultation with other reactor owners, shall calculate the cost for management and disposal of the spent fuel and radioactive waste and for decommissioning and dismantling of the reactor plant. The reactor owner shall annually submit to the regulatory authority the cost data that are required for calculation of the fees to be imposed on electricity production during the ensuing year and of the guarantees that must be given as security for costs not covered by paid-in fees. The reactor owners have jointly commissioned SKB to calculate and compile these costs. This report presents a calculation of the costs for implementing all of these measures. The cost calculations are based on the plan for management and disposal of the radioactive waste that has been prepared by SKB and is described in this report. The following facilities and systems are in operation: Transportation system for radioactive waste products; Central interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel, CLAB; Final repository for radioactive operational waste, SFR 1. Plans also exist for: Canister factory and encapsulation plant for spent nuclear fuel; Deep repository for spent nuclear fuel; Final repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste; Final repository for decommissioning waste. The cost calculations also include costs for research, development and demonstration, as well as for decommissioning and dismantling the reactor plants. This report is based on the proposed strategy for the activities which is presented in SKB's RD and D-Programme 2001 and in the supplementary account to RD and D-Programme 98 which SKB submitted to the regulatory authority

  19. PLAN 2003. Costs for management of the radioactive waste products from nuclear power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-06-01

    The companies that own nuclear power plants in Sweden are responsible for adopting measures needed to manage and dispose of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste from the Swedish nuclear power reactors in a safe manner. The so-called Financing Act (1992:1537) is linked to this responsibility and prescribes that a reactor owner, in consultation with other reactor owners, shall calculate the cost for management and disposal of the spent fuel and radioactive waste and for decommissioning and dismantling of the reactor plant. The reactor owner shall annually submit to the regulatory authority the cost data that are required for calculation of the fees to be imposed on electricity production during the ensuing year and of the guarantees that must be given as security for costs not covered by paid-in fees. The reactor owners have jointly commissioned SKB to calculate and compile these costs. This report presents a calculation of the costs for implementing all of these measures. The cost calculations are based on the plan for management and disposal of the radioactive waste that has been prepared by SKB and is described in this report. The following facilities and systems are in operation: Transportation system for radioactive waste products; Central interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel, CLAB; Final repository for radioactive operational waste, SFR 1. Plans also exist for: Canister factory and encapsulation plant for spent nuclear fuel; Deep repository for spent nuclear fuel; Final repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste; Final repository for decommissioning waste. The cost calculations also include costs for research, development and demonstration, as well as for decommissioning and dismantling the reactor plants. This report is based on the proposed strategy for the activities which is presented in SKB's RD and D-Programme 2001 and in the supplementary account to RD and D-Programme 98 which SKB submitted to the regulatory authority. The

  20. Applications of magnetic power production and its assessment - Annual report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitanovski, A.; Vuarnoz, D.; Diebold, M.; Gonin, C.; Egolf, P. W.

    2007-07-01

    This annual report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the work done at the University of Applied Sciences of Western Switzerland in 2007 on a project involving power production based on magnetic effects. In this annual report, a selection of feasible and economic magnetic power conversion systems is listed. Magnetic 'power generators' based on permanent and superconducting magnets are analysed for several heat source temperatures, magnetic field strengths and machine rotational frequencies. The analysis uses a newly derived model, which permits the determination of thermodynamic efficiency and exergy efficiency of a magnetic power-conversion system. This study shows that magnetic power conversion is better than conventional technologies in many aspects, such as, for example, for low exergy heat sources, where most of the conventional energy conversion technologies cannot even operate. The authors state that, in contrast, magnetic power generation technology leads to a high exergy efficiency of energy conversion for such sources.

  1. Complex analysis of hazards to the man and natural environment due to electricity production in nuclear and coal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strupczewski, A.

    1990-01-01

    The report presents a complex analysis of hazards connected with electrical energy production in nuclear power plants and coal power plants, starting with fuel mining, through power plant construction, operation, possible accidents and decommissioning to long term global effects. The comparison is based on contemporary, proven technologies of coal fired power plants and nuclear power plants with pressurized water reactors. The hazards to environment and man due to nuclear power are shown to be much smaller than those due to coal power cycle. The health benefits due to electrical power availability are shown to be much larger than the health losses due to its production. (author). 71 refs, 17 figs, 12 tabs

  2. The influence of climate-warming on the power production of Swiss hydroelectric power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaeppi, A.

    2006-01-01

    This article summarises an interview with Michael Piot of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) on a study commissioned by the office that takes a look at the influence of a possible climate warming on water flow in the Swiss alpine area. In particular, the influence of such possible changes on the Swiss power generation industry are looked at. Prognoses for climate change are reviewed, as are the results of a study made by the SFOE on energy perspectives for the period up to the year 2035. Possible changes in the alpine climate are discussed and their influence on the water household of the region is examined. Possible further and more drastic changes in the period up to 2099 are briefly commented on

  3. Two-beam ultrabroadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy for high resolution gas-phase multiplex imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohlin, Alexis; Kliewer, Christopher J., E-mail: cjkliew@sandia.gov [Combustion Research Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2014-01-20

    We propose and develop a method for wideband coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) in the gas phase and demonstrate the single-shot measurement of N{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and CH{sub 4}. Pure-rotational and vibrational O-, Q-, and S- branch spectra are collected simultaneously, with high spectral and spatial resolution, and within a single-laser-shot. The relative intensity of the rotational and vibrational signals can be tuned arbitrarily using polarization techniques. The ultrashort 7 fs pump and Stokes pulses are automatically overlapped temporally and spatially using a two-beam CARS technique, and the crossed probe beam allows for excellent spatial sectioning of the probed location.

  4. Impedance-based analysis and study of phase sensitivity in slow-wave two-beam accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurtele, J.S.; Whittum, D.H.; Sessler, A.M.

    1992-06-01

    This paper presents a new formalism which makes the analysis and understanding of both the relativistic klystron (RK) and the standing-wave free-electron laser (SWFEL) two-beam accelerator (TBA) available to a wide audience of accelerator physicists. A ''coupling impedance'' for both the RK and SWFEWL is introduced, which can include realistic cavity features, such as beam and vacuum ports, in a simple manner. The RK and SWFEL macroparticle equations, which govern the energy and phase evolution of successive bunches in the beam, are of identical form, differing only by multiplicative factors. Expressions are derived for the phase and amplitude sensitivities of the TBA schemes to errors (shot-to-shot jitter) in current and energy. The analysis allows, for the first time, relative comparisons of the RK and the SWFEL TBAs

  5. Two-beam ultrabroadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy for high resolution gas-phase multiplex imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohlin, Alexis; Kliewer, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    We propose and develop a method for wideband coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) in the gas phase and demonstrate the single-shot measurement of N 2 , H 2 , CO 2 , O 2 , and CH 4 . Pure-rotational and vibrational O-, Q-, and S- branch spectra are collected simultaneously, with high spectral and spatial resolution, and within a single-laser-shot. The relative intensity of the rotational and vibrational signals can be tuned arbitrarily using polarization techniques. The ultrashort 7 fs pump and Stokes pulses are automatically overlapped temporally and spatially using a two-beam CARS technique, and the crossed probe beam allows for excellent spatial sectioning of the probed location

  6. Backscatter spectra measurements of the two beams on the same cone on Shenguang-III laser facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Weiyi; Yang, Dong; Xu, Tao; Liu, Yonggang; Wang, Feng; Peng, Xiaoshi; Li, Yulong; Wei, Huiyue; Liu, Xiangming; Mei, Yu; Yan, Yadong; He, Junhua; Li, Zhichao; Li, Sanwei; Jiang, Xiaohua; Guo, Liang; Xie, Xufei; Pan, Kaiqiang; Liu, Shenye; Jiang, Shaoen; Zhang, Baohan; Ding, Yongkun

    2018-01-01

    In laser driven hohlraums, laser beams on the same incident cone may have different beam and plasma conditions, causing beam-to-beam backscatter difference and subsequent azimuthal variations in the x-ray drive on the capsule. To elucidate the large variation of backscatter proportion from beam to beam in some gas-filled hohlraum shots on Shenguang-III, two 28.5° beams have been measured with the Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS) time-resolved spectra. A bifurcated fiber is used to sample two beams and then coupled to a spectrometer and streak camera combination to reduce the cost. The SRS spectra, characterized by a broad wavelength, were further corrected considering the temporal distortion and intensity modulation caused by components along the light path. This measurement will improve the understanding of the beam propagation inside the hohlraum and related laser plasma instabilities.

  7. Is Power Production Flexibility a Substitute for Storability? Evidence from Electricity Futures Prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilic, M.; Huisman, R. [Erasmus School of Economics, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-07-15

    Electricity is not storable. As a consequence, electricity demand and supply need to be in balance at any moment in time as a shortage in production volume cannot be compensated with supply from inventories. However, if the installed power supply capacity is very flexible, variation in demand can be counterbalanced with flexible adjustment of production volumes. Therefore, supply flexibility can replace the role of inventory. In this paper, we question whether power production flexibility is a substitute for storability. To do so, we examine power futures prices from countries that differ in their power supply and test whether power futures prices contain information about expected future spot prices and risk premiums and examine whether futures prices from a market in which power supply is more flexible would lead to futures prices that are more in line with the theory of storage. We find the opposite; futures prices from markets with flexible power supply behave according to the expectations theory. The implicit view from futures prices is that flexibility is not a substitute for storability.

  8. Model for optimization of plant investments in combined power and heat production systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantunen, E.; Sinisalo, A.; Koskelainen, L.

    1980-01-01

    A mathematical model is developed for optimal dimensioning and timing the investments of power and heat production system in a community. The required electric power may be purchased by different production systems, such as: thermal power plants, gas turbines, diesel plants, etc. or by delivering all or part of it from a national power company. Also the required heat may be produced in many different ways in single-purpose or combined plants. The model assumes the extent of the heating system fixed, and it is not optimized. It is assumed that the same company is responsible for supplying both the power and heat for the community. It's aim is to allocate the existing capital in an optimal way, and the model may be used for facilitating the decision in such questions as: what kind of production capacity should be purchased in future; how high should the heat and power capacities be; and when should this additional capacity be available. The report also reviews the methods for forecasting the demand of power and heat and their fluctuation during the planning period. The solution of this large-scale non-linear optimization problem is searched via successive linearizations by using the Method of Approximate Programming (MAP). It was found that the solution method is very suitable for this kind of multivariable problems. The computing times with the Functional Mathematical Programmin System (FMPS) in Univac 1108 computer were quite reasonable.

  9. Is Power Production Flexibility a Substitute for Storability? Evidence from Electricity Futures Prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilic, M.; Huisman, R.

    2010-07-01

    Electricity is not storable. As a consequence, electricity demand and supply need to be in balance at any moment in time as a shortage in production volume cannot be compensated with supply from inventories. However, if the installed power supply capacity is very flexible, variation in demand can be counterbalanced with flexible adjustment of production volumes. Therefore, supply flexibility can replace the role of inventory. In this paper, we question whether power production flexibility is a substitute for storability. To do so, we examine power futures prices from countries that differ in their power supply and test whether power futures prices contain information about expected future spot prices and risk premiums and examine whether futures prices from a market in which power supply is more flexible would lead to futures prices that are more in line with the theory of storage. We find the opposite; futures prices from markets with flexible power supply behave according to the expectations theory. The implicit view from futures prices is that flexibility is not a substitute for storability.

  10. Altering Anode Thickness To Improve Power Production in Microbial Fuel Cells with Different Electrode Distances

    KAUST Repository

    Ahn, Yongtae

    2013-01-17

    A better understanding of how anode and separator physical properties affect power production is needed to improve energy and power production by microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Oxygen crossover from the cathode can limit power production by bacteria on the anode when using closely spaced electrodes [separator electrode assembly (SEA)]. Thick graphite fiber brush anodes, as opposed to thin carbon cloth, and separators have previously been examined as methods to reduce the impact of oxygen crossover on power generation. We examined here whether the thickness of the anode could be an important factor in reducing the effect of oxygen crossover on power production, because bacteria deep in the electrode could better maintain anaerobic conditions. Carbon felt anodes with three different thicknesses were examined to see the effects of thicker anodes in two configurations: widely spaced electrodes and SEA. Power increased with anode thickness, with maximum power densities (604 mW/m 2, 0.32 cm; 764 mW/m2, 0.64 cm; and 1048 mW/m2, 1.27 cm), when widely spaced electrodes (4 cm) were used, where oxygen crossover does not affect power generation. Performance improved slightly using thicker anodes in the SEA configuration, but power was lower (maximum of 689 mW/m2) than with widely spaced electrodes, despite a reduction in ohmic resistance to 10 Ω (SEA) from 51-62 Ω (widely spaced electrodes). These results show that thicker anodes can work better than thinner anodes but only when the anodes are not adversely affected by proximity to the cathode. This suggests that reducing oxygen crossover and improving SEA MFC performance will require better separators. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  11. Altering Anode Thickness To Improve Power Production in Microbial Fuel Cells with Different Electrode Distances

    KAUST Repository

    Ahn, Yongtae; Logan, Bruce E.

    2013-01-01

    A better understanding of how anode and separator physical properties affect power production is needed to improve energy and power production by microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Oxygen crossover from the cathode can limit power production by bacteria on the anode when using closely spaced electrodes [separator electrode assembly (SEA)]. Thick graphite fiber brush anodes, as opposed to thin carbon cloth, and separators have previously been examined as methods to reduce the impact of oxygen crossover on power generation. We examined here whether the thickness of the anode could be an important factor in reducing the effect of oxygen crossover on power production, because bacteria deep in the electrode could better maintain anaerobic conditions. Carbon felt anodes with three different thicknesses were examined to see the effects of thicker anodes in two configurations: widely spaced electrodes and SEA. Power increased with anode thickness, with maximum power densities (604 mW/m 2, 0.32 cm; 764 mW/m2, 0.64 cm; and 1048 mW/m2, 1.27 cm), when widely spaced electrodes (4 cm) were used, where oxygen crossover does not affect power generation. Performance improved slightly using thicker anodes in the SEA configuration, but power was lower (maximum of 689 mW/m2) than with widely spaced electrodes, despite a reduction in ohmic resistance to 10 Ω (SEA) from 51-62 Ω (widely spaced electrodes). These results show that thicker anodes can work better than thinner anodes but only when the anodes are not adversely affected by proximity to the cathode. This suggests that reducing oxygen crossover and improving SEA MFC performance will require better separators. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  12. Power system for production, construction, life support and operations in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sovie, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    As one looks to man's future in space it becomes obvious that unprecedented amounts of power are required for the exploration, colonization, and exploitation of space. Activities envisioned include interplanetary travel and LEO to GEO transport using electric propulsion, Earth and lunar observatories, advance space stations, free-flying manufacturing platforms, communications platforms, and eventually evolutionary lunar and Mars bases. These latter bases would start as camps with modest power requirements (kWes) and evolve to large bases as manufacturing, food production, and life support materials are developed from lunar raw materials. These latter activities require very robust power supplies (MWes). The advanced power system technologies being pursued by NASA to fulfill these future needs are described. Technologies discussed will include nuclear, photovoltaic, and solar dynamic space power systems, including energy storage, power conditioning, power transmission, and thermal management. The state-of-the-art and gains to be made by technology advancements will be discussed. Mission requirements for a variety of applications (LEO, GEO, lunar, and Martian) will be treated, and data for power systems ranging from a few kilowatts to megawatt power systems will be represented. In addition the space power technologies being initiated under NASA's new Civilian Space Technology Initiative (CSTI) and Space Leadership Planning Group Activities will be discussed

  13. Improvement of uranium production efficiency to meet China's nuclear power requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, R.

    1997-01-01

    Recently China put the Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant, with an installed capacity of 300 MW, in the province of Zhejiang and the Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant, with a total installed capacity of 2 x 900 MW, in commercial operation. China plans a rapid growth in nuclear power from 1995 to 2010. China's uranium production will therefore also enter a new period with nuclear power increasing. In order to meet the demand of nuclear power for uranium special attention has been paid to both technical progress improvement using management with the aim of reducing the cost of uranium production. The application of the trackless mining technique has enhanced the uranium mining productivity significantly. China has produced a radiometric sorter, model 5421-2 for pre-concentrating uranium run-of-mine ore. This effectively increases the uranium content in mill feed and decreases the operating cost of hydrometallurgical treatment. The in situ leach technique after blasting is applied underground in the Lantian Mine, in addition to the surface heap leaching, and has obtained a perfect result. The concentrated acid-curing, and ferric sulphate trickle leaching process, will soon be used in commercial operation for treating uranium ore grading -5 to -7 mm in size. The annual production capability of the Yining Mine will be extended to 100 tonnes U using improving in situ leaching technology. For the purpose of improving the uranium production efficiency much work has been done optimizing the distribution of production centres. China plans to expand its uranium production to meet the uranium requirements of the developing nuclear power plants. (author). 4 tabs

  14. Designing PV powered LED products - Integration of PV technology in innovative products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.; de Boer, Andries; de Winter, Arjan; Haverlag, Marco; Ossenbrink Sinke, W.; Helm, P.

    2009-01-01

    This study covers the design of innovative product concepts based on a combination of PV and LED technology. The products were developed in a project that took place in 2008 and 2009 during a cooperation of the University of Twente with Philips Lighting. It is shown that surprisingly unpredictable -

  15. Apparatus for nuclear transmutation and power production using an intense accelerator-generated thermal neutron flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Charles D.

    1992-01-01

    Apparatus for nuclear transmutation and power production using an intense accelerator-generated thermal neutron flux. High thermal neutron fluxes generated from the action of a high power proton accelerator on a spallation target allows the efficient burn-up of higher actinide nuclear waste by a two-step process. Additionally, rapid burn-up of fission product waste for nuclides having small thermal neutron cross sections, and the practicality of small material inventories while achieving significant throughput derive from employment of such high fluxes. Several nuclear technology problems are addressed including 1. nuclear energy production without a waste stream requiring storage on a geological timescale, 2. the burn-up of defense and commercial nuclear waste, and 3. the production of defense nuclear material. The apparatus includes an accelerator, a target for neutron production surrounded by a blanket region for transmutation, a turbine for electric power production, and a chemical processing facility. In all applications, the accelerator power may be generated internally from fission and the waste produced thereby is transmuted internally so that waste management might not be required beyond the human lifespan.

  16. Apparatus for nuclear transmutation and power production using an intense accelerator-generated thermal neutron flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, C.D.

    1992-11-03

    Apparatus for nuclear transmutation and power production using an intense accelerator-generated thermal neutron flux. High thermal neutron fluxes generated from the action of a high power proton accelerator on a spallation target allows the efficient burn-up of higher actinide nuclear waste by a two-step process. Additionally, rapid burn-up of fission product waste for nuclides having small thermal neutron cross sections, and the practicality of small material inventories while achieving significant throughput derive from employment of such high fluxes. Several nuclear technology problems are addressed including 1. nuclear energy production without a waste stream requiring storage on a geological timescale, 2. the burn-up of defense and commercial nuclear waste, and 3. the production of defense nuclear material. The apparatus includes an accelerator, a target for neutron production surrounded by a blanket region for transmutation, a turbine for electric power production, and a chemical processing facility. In all applications, the accelerator power may be generated internally from fission and the waste produced thereby is transmuted internally so that waste management might not be required beyond the human lifespan.

  17. Biodigester economic viability for electrical power production using biogas from swine waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervi, Ricardo Ghantous; Esperancini, Maura Seiko Tsutsui; Bueno, Osmar de Carvalho [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas], E-mail: ricardogc@fca.unesp.br; Souza, Samuel Nelson Melegari de [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (CCET/UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas

    2008-07-01

    The increase of energy use in agriculture and the raising prices of electricity demand studies on alternate sources of energy and improvement on biogas use efficiency so that agricultural activities become more competitive. Biogas production through anaerobic biodigestion represents an important breakthrough for the problem of swine waste and energy availability for rural areas. This work aimed to analyze the economy on biodigester investment for electrical power production using biogas from anaerobic biodigestion of swine waste. Two factors were used for this evaluation: the cost of electrical power production through biogas and time for equipment investment return. Results show that investment return time can be only 2.45 years for electrical power at peak time. (author)

  18. Parameter study of electric power production in wind farms - experiments using two model scale wind turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Ceccotti, Clio

    2015-01-01

    Wind farms are widely developed even if several unsolved problems need to be faced. The rotor-wake interaction involves different physical phenomena, not yet fully understood, directly affecting the overall wind farm power production. Numerical models and engineering rules have always been used to design wind farm layout but a spread between power predictions and results is verified. In this context wind energy research assumes a "back to basic" approach, by means of wind tunne...

  19. Minimal RED Cell Pairs Markedly Improve Electrode Kinetics and Power Production in Microbial Reverse Electrodialysis Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Cusick, Roland D.

    2013-12-17

    Power production from microbial reverse electrodialysis cell (MRC) electrodes is substantially improved compared to microbial fuel cells (MFCs) by using ammonium bicarbonate (AmB) solutions in multiple RED cell pair stacks and the cathode chamber. Reducing the number of RED membranes pairs while maintaining enhanced electrode performance could help to reduce capital costs. We show here that using only a single RED cell pair (CP), created by operating the cathode in concentrated AmB, dramatically increased power production normalized to cathode area from both acetate (Acetate: from 0.9 to 3.1 W/m 2-cat) and wastewater (WW: 0.3 to 1.7 W/m2), by reducing solution and charge transfer resistances at the cathode. A second RED cell pair increased RED stack potential and reduced anode charge transfer resistance, further increasing power production (Acetate: 4.2 W/m2; WW: 1.9 W/m2). By maintaining near optimal electrode power production with fewer membranes, power densities normalized to total membrane area for the 1-CP (Acetate: 3.1 W/m2-mem; WW: 1.7 W/m2) and 2-CP (Acetate: 1.3 W/m2-mem; WW: 0.6 W/m2) reactors were much higher than previous MRCs (0.3-0.5 W/m2-mem with acetate). While operating at peak power, the rate of wastewater COD removal, normalized to reactor volume, was 30-50 times higher in 1-CP and 2-CP MRCs than that in a single chamber MFC. These findings show that even a single cell pair AmB RED stack can significantly enhance electrical power production and wastewater treatment. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  20. Minimal RED Cell Pairs Markedly Improve Electrode Kinetics and Power Production in Microbial Reverse Electrodialysis Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Cusick, Roland D.; Hatzell, Marta; Zhang, Fang; Logan, Bruce E.

    2013-01-01

    Power production from microbial reverse electrodialysis cell (MRC) electrodes is substantially improved compared to microbial fuel cells (MFCs) by using ammonium bicarbonate (AmB) solutions in multiple RED cell pair stacks and the cathode chamber. Reducing the number of RED membranes pairs while maintaining enhanced electrode performance could help to reduce capital costs. We show here that using only a single RED cell pair (CP), created by operating the cathode in concentrated AmB, dramatically increased power production normalized to cathode area from both acetate (Acetate: from 0.9 to 3.1 W/m 2-cat) and wastewater (WW: 0.3 to 1.7 W/m2), by reducing solution and charge transfer resistances at the cathode. A second RED cell pair increased RED stack potential and reduced anode charge transfer resistance, further increasing power production (Acetate: 4.2 W/m2; WW: 1.9 W/m2). By maintaining near optimal electrode power production with fewer membranes, power densities normalized to total membrane area for the 1-CP (Acetate: 3.1 W/m2-mem; WW: 1.7 W/m2) and 2-CP (Acetate: 1.3 W/m2-mem; WW: 0.6 W/m2) reactors were much higher than previous MRCs (0.3-0.5 W/m2-mem with acetate). While operating at peak power, the rate of wastewater COD removal, normalized to reactor volume, was 30-50 times higher in 1-CP and 2-CP MRCs than that in a single chamber MFC. These findings show that even a single cell pair AmB RED stack can significantly enhance electrical power production and wastewater treatment. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  1. Qualified Coatings in Nuclear Power Plants. Commercial products; Qualified Coatings in Nuclear Power Plants. Commercial products. Pinturas homologadas en centrales nucleares. Productos comerciales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barcena, J.; Nunez, B.; Romero, M.; Baladiam, M.

    2014-07-01

    Recently, the supplier of paints that were qualified for use in nuclear applications as protective coatings have ceased to supply in Spain the paints that was used in areas or components with special requirements for nuclear power plants (NPPs). This lack of the common commercial products called for the search for and homologation of other products. A study was performed on the current status of the homologation of commercial products for NPPs and on the codes and standards governing them. The criteria to be met have been defined and the results of the tests performed on the selected paints have been compared against the established criteria so as to allow the homologation of the paints. (Author)

  2. Prediction of small hydropower plant power production in Himreen Lake dam (HLD using artificial neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Thaeer Hammid

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries, the power production is properly less than the request of power or load, and sustaining a system stability of power production is a trouble quietly. Sometimes, there is a necessary development to the correct quantity of load demand to retain a system of power production steadily. Thus, Small Hydropower Plant (SHP includes a Kaplan turbine was verified to explore its applicability. This paper concentrates on applying on Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs by approaching of Feed-Forward, Back-Propagation to make performance predictions of the hydropower plant at the Himreen lake dam-Diyala in terms of net turbine head, flow rate of water and power production that data gathered during a research over a 10 year period. The model studies the uncertainties of inputs and output operation and there's a designing to network structure and then trained by means of the entire of 3570 experimental and observed data. Furthermore, ANN offers an analyzing and diagnosing instrument effectively to model performance of the nonlinear plant. The study suggests that the ANN may predict the performance of the plant with a correlation coefficient (R between the variables of predicted and observed output that would be higher than 0.96. Keywords: Himreen Lake Dam, Small Hydropower plants, Artificial Neural Networks, Feed forward-back propagation model, Generation system's prediction

  3. Performances of nuclear power plants for combined production of electricity and hot water for district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronzen, S.

    The possibilities for using nuclear power plants for combined production of heat and power seem to be very good in the future. With the chosen 600 MWsub (e) BWR plant a heat output up to 1200 MW can be arranged. An alternative, consisting of steam extractions from the low-pressure turbine, offers a flexible solution for heat and power generation. With this alternative the combined plant can use components from normal condensing nuclear power plants. The flexible extraction design also offers a real possibility for using the combined plant in electric peak generation. However, urban siting requires long distance heat transmission and the pipe design for this transmission is a major problem when planning and optimizing the whole nuclear combined heat and power plant. (author)

  4. 18 CFR 292.209 - Exceptions from requirements for hydroelectric small power production facilities located at a new...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... requirements for hydroelectric small power production facilities located at a new dam or diversion. 292.209... Exceptions from requirements for hydroelectric small power production facilities located at a new dam or... the Federal Power Act, at which non-Federal hydroelectric development is permissible; or (2) An...

  5. Comparison of electricity production costs of nuclear and coal-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltzer, M.

    1980-01-01

    Electricity production costs of nuclear and coal-fired power plants their structure and future development are calculated and compared. Assumed beginning of operation is in the mid-1980. The technical and economical data are based on a nuclear power unit of 1 300 MW and on a coal-fired twin plant of 2 x 750 MW. The study describes and discusses the calculational method and the results. The costs for the electricity generation show an economic advantage for nuclear power. A sensitivity analysis shows that these results are valid also for changed input parameters. (orig.) [de

  6. Integration of a hydraulic production plant in a weak power system on a long radial line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lariviere, P. [Hydro-Quebec TransEnergie, 5655 de Marseille, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Racine, M. [Hydro-Quebec TransEnergie, C.P. 10 000, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2009-03-15

    Integrating power plants on long lines and weak power systems requires some care. To this effect, a study was conducted to determine if severe disturbances could result when a hydraulic production plant is integrated along a very long radial transmission line. Frequency responses were evaluated to identify possible resonant system operating conditions. Many events such as faults, transformer energyzing and line opening were investigated. All power plant synchronous machines were represented including exciter and governor regulators. Impact of dynamic modeling of the load was examined. The study demonstrates that the overall protective strategy implemented will limit worst overvoltage constraints imposed to equipment and load within an acceptable level. (author)

  7. Time delays between core power production and external detector response from Monte Carlo calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentine, T.E.; Mihalczo, J.T.

    1996-01-01

    One primary concern for design of safety systems for reactors is the time response of external detectors to changes in the core. This paper describes a way to estimate the time delay between the core power production and the external detector response using Monte Carlo calculations and suggests a technique to measure the time delay. The Monte Carlo code KENO-NR was used to determine the time delay between the core power production and the external detector response for a conceptual design of the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) reactor. The Monte Carlo estimated time delay was determined to be about 10 ms for this conceptual design of the ANS reactor

  8. Measurements of the radioactivity of power plant by-products processed into construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcinkowski, S.A.; Dudelewski, H.A.

    1992-01-01

    The subject of the recycling of residual products comprising, inter alia, fly ash and slags accuring from the combustion of black and brown coal in modern coal dust boilers in the power industry has been topical for a number of years. Numerous discussions and articles in technical periodicals and the daily press have revolved around the problem of the radioactivity of construction materials or construction elements obtained from fly ash or slags of power plant. In Poland, this was a forbidden subject until the publication in 1980 by the Warsaw institute of construction technology of standard no. 234 entitled: 'Recommendations for establishing the natural radioactivity of products processed into construction materials'. (orig.) [de

  9. Effects of lignocellulosic composition and microwave power level on the gaseous product of microwave pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yu-Fong; Chiueh, Pei-Te; Kuan, Wen-Hui; Lo, Shang-Lien

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural residues are abundant resources to produce renewable energy and valuable chemicals. This study focused on the effects of lignocellulosic composition and microwave power level on the gaseous product of microwave pyrolysis of agricultural residues. When agricultural residues were under microwave radiation within 10 min, the maximum temperatures of approximately 320, 420, and 530 °C were achieved at the microwave power levels of 300, 400, and 500 W, respectively. Gas yield increased with increasing microwave power level, whereas solid and liquid yields decreased. Besides, gaseous products with higher H 2 content and higher calorific values can be obtained at higher microwave power levels. In addition to microwave power level, lignocellulosic composition was also an important factor. H 2 and CO 2 yields increased with increasing hemicellulose content, whereas CH 4 and CO yields increased with increasing cellulose content. Four empirical equations were derived to present the contributions of lignocellulosic materials to the yields of gaseous components. - Highlights: • About 530 °C was reached within 10 min at a microwave power level of 500 W. • Gas yield increased with increasing microwave power level. • A high correlation between hemicellulose content and either H 2 or CO 2 yield. • A high correlation between cellulose content and either CH 4 or CO yield. • Empirical equations depict contribution of lignocellulosic content to gas yield

  10. Integrated firewood production, ensures fuel security for self sustaining Biomass Power Plants reduces agricultural cost and provides livestock production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Andre

    2010-01-01

    Growing concerns on the impact of climate change, constraints on fossil fuel electricity generation and the likelihood of oil depletion is driving unprecedented growth and investment in renewable energy across the world. The consistency of biomass power plants makes them capable of replacing coal and nuclear for base-load. However experience had shown otherwise, climate change reduces yields, uncontrolled approvals for biomass boilers increased demands and at times motivated by greedy farmers have raised price of otherwise a problematic agricultural waste to high secondary income stream forcing disruption to fuel supply to power plants and even their shutting down. The solution is to established secured fuel sources, fortunately in Asia there are several species of trees that are fast growing and have sufficient yields to make their harvesting economically viable for power production. (author)

  11. The Possibility Using the Power Production Function of Complex Variable for Economic Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Gennadyevich Svetunkov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of dynamic analysis and forecasting production results using the power production functions of complex variables with real coefficients is considered. This model expands the arsenal of instrumental methods and allows multivariate production forecasts which are unattainable by other methods of real variables as the functions of complex variables simulate the production differently in comparison with the models of real variables. The values of coefficients of the power production functions of complex variables can be calculated for each statistical observation. This allows to consider the change of the coefficients over time, to analyze this trend and predict the values of the coefficients for a given term, thereby to predict the form of the production function, which forecasts the operating results. Thus, the model of the production function with variable coefficients is introduced into the scientific circulation. With this model, the inverse problem of forecasting might be solved, such as the determination of the necessary quantities of labor and capital to achieve the desired operational results. The study is based on the principles of the modern methodology of complex-valued economy, one of its sections is the complex-valued patterns of production functions. In the article, the possibility of economic forecasting is tested on the example of the UK economy. The results of this prediction are compared with the forecasts obtained by other methods, which have led to the conclusion about the effectiveness of the proposed approach and the method of forecasting at the macro levels of production systems. A complex-valued power model of the production function is recommended for the multivariate prediction of sustainable production systems — the global economy, the economies of individual countries, major industries and regions.

  12. Wind power production: from the characterisation of the wind resource to wind turbine technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beslin, Guy; Multon, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Illustrated by graphs and tables, this article first describes the various factors and means related to the assessment of wind resource in the World, in Europe, and the factors which characterize a local wind resource. In this last respect, the authors indicate how local topography is taken into account to calculate wind speed, how time variations are taken into account (at the yearly, seasonal or daily level), the different methods used to model a local wind resource, how to assess the power recoverable by a wind turbine with horizontal axis (notion of Betz limit). In the second part, the authors present the different wind turbines, their benefits and drawbacks: vertical axis, horizontal axis (examples of a Danish-type wind turbine, of wind turbines designed for extreme conditions). Then, they address the technology of big wind turbines: evolution of technology and of commercial offer, aerodynamic characteristics of wind turbine and benefit of a varying speed (technological solutions, importance of the electric generator). They describe how to choose a wind turbine, how product lines are organised, how the power curve and energy capacity are determined. The issue of integration of wind energy into the power system is then addressed. The next part addressed the economy of wind energy production (annualized production cost, order of magnitude of wind electric power production cost). Future trends are discussed and offshore wind energy production is briefly addressed

  13. Verification and Enhancement of VIIRS Day-Night Band Power Outage Detection Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, A.; Schultz, L. A.; Omitaomu, O.; Molthan, A.; Cole, T.; Griffin, R.

    2017-12-01

    The NASA SPoRT (Short-term Prediction Research and Transition) Center has collaborated with scientists at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center to create a power outage detection product from radiance data obtained by the VIIRS (Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite) sensor aboard the Suomi-NPP satellite. This product uses a composite of pre-event radiance values from the VIIRS Day-Night Band to establish a baseline of "normal" nighttime lights for a study area. Then, after a severe weather event or other disaster, post-event images are compared to the composite to generate a percent-of-normal radiance product to identify areas that are experiencing outages and to aid in disaster response and monitor recovery. This project will use ground-truth county-level outage data provided by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in order validate the product and to establish a percent-of-normal threshold for identifying power outages. Once a threshold is found, ORNL's LandScan Global population data will be combined with the product to estimate how many electrical customers are being affected by power outages after a disaster. Two case studies will be explored to examine power outage recovery after severe weather events, including Hurricane Matthew from 2016 and the Washington D.C. Derecho event of 2012.

  14. STUDY OF PLANT-WIDE CONTROL IMPLEMENTATION IN PRODUCTION PROCESS OF GEOTHERMAL POWER PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KATHERIN INDRIAWATI

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The design of plant-wide control system to optimize electricity production in geothermal power plant is proposed in this research. The objective is to overcome the deficiency due to changes in the characteristics of production well and fluctuation in electricity demand load. The proposed plant-wide control system has two main tasks; to maintain production process at optimum value and to increase efficiency. The pressure in separator and condenser is maintained at the respective set points under electrical load fluctuations in order to ensure optimum efficiency. The control system also reduce the usage of auxialiary electrical power and increase efficiency. The task was performed by controlling inlet cooling water temperatures to the condenser. It was concluded that the proposed control structure was able to increase efficiency and maintain production.

  15. Subsurface Hybrid Power Options for Oil & Gas Production at Deep Ocean Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J C; Haut, R; Jahn, G; Goldman, J; Colvin, J; Karpinski, A; Dobley, A; Halfinger, J; Nagley, S; Wolf, K; Shapiro, A; Doucette, P; Hansen, P; Oke, A; Compton, D; Cobb, M; Kopps, R; Chitwood, J; Spence, W; Remacle, P; Noel, C; Vicic, J; Dee, R

    2010-02-19

    An investment in deep-sea (deep-ocean) hybrid power systems may enable certain off-shore oil and gas exploration and production. Advanced deep-ocean drilling and production operations, locally powered, may provide commercial access to oil and gas reserves otherwise inaccessible. Further, subsea generation of electrical power has the potential of featuring a low carbon output resulting in improved environmental conditions. Such technology therefore, enhances the energy security of the United States in a green and environmentally friendly manner. The objective of this study is to evaluate alternatives and recommend equipment to develop into hybrid energy conversion and storage systems for deep ocean operations. Such power systems will be located on the ocean floor and will be used to power offshore oil and gas exploration and production operations. Such power systems will be located on the oceans floor, and will be used to supply oil and gas exploration activities, as well as drilling operations required to harvest petroleum reserves. The following conceptual hybrid systems have been identified as candidates for powering sub-surface oil and gas production operations: (1) PWR = Pressurized-Water Nuclear Reactor + Lead-Acid Battery; (2) FC1 = Line for Surface O{sub 2} + Well Head Gas + Reformer + PEMFC + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (3) FC2 = Stored O2 + Well Head Gas + Reformer + Fuel Cell + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (4) SV1 = Submersible Vehicle + Stored O{sub 2} + Fuel Cell + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (5) SV2 = Submersible Vehicle + Stored O{sub 2} + Engine or Turbine + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (6) SV3 = Submersible Vehicle + Charge at Docking Station + ZEBRA & Li-Ion Batteries; (7) PWR TEG = PWR + Thermoelectric Generator + Lead-Acid Battery; (8) WELL TEG = Thermoelectric Generator + Well Head Waste Heat + Lead-Acid Battery; (9) GRID = Ocean Floor Electrical Grid + Lead-Acid Battery; and (10) DOC = Deep Ocean Current + Lead-Acid Battery.

  16. Production costs: U.S. hydroelectric power plants, 4th Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The book provides 1991 operation and maintenance expenses for over 800 conventional and pumped-storage hydroelectric power plants. Report shows operator and plant name, plant year-in-service, installed capacity, 1991 net generation, O ampersand M expenses, total production costs and current plant capitalization. Fifty eight percent of the utility-owned hydroelectric plants in the US are covered by this report. Data diskette provides additional capital and production cost accounts and number of employees for each plant

  17. Verification and Enhancement of VIIRS Day-Night Band (DNB) Power Outage Detection Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Angela; Schultz, Lori A.; Omitaomu, Olufemi; Molthan, Andrew L.; Cole, Tony; Griffin, Robert

    2017-01-01

    This case study of Hurricane Matthew (October 2016) uses the NASA Short-Term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center DNB power outage product (using GSFC VIIRS DNB preliminary Black Marble product, Roman et al.. 2017) and 2013 LandScan Global population data to look for correlations between the post-event %-of-normal radiance and the utility company-reported outage numbers (obtained from EAGLE-1).

  18. Production-distribution of electric power in France: 1997-98 statistical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This document has been realized using the annual inquiry carried out by the French direction of gas, electricity and coal (Digec). It brings together the main statistical data about the production, transport and consumption of electric power in France: 1997 and 1998 balance sheets, foreign exchanges, long-term evolutions, production with respect to the different energy sources, consumption in the different departments and regions.. (J.S.)

  19. Catalytic production of hydrogen from methanol for mobile, stationary and portable fuel-cell power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukyanov, Boris N

    2008-01-01

    Main catalytic processes for hydrogen production from methanol are considered. Various schemes of fuel processors for hydrogen production in stationary, mobile and portable power plants based on fuel cells are analysed. The attention is focussed on the design of catalytic reactors of fuel processors and on the state-of-the-art in the design of catalysts for methanol conversion, carbon monoxide steam conversion and carbon monoxide selective oxidation. Prospects for the use of methanol in on-board fuel processors are discussed.

  20. Analysis of an Improved Solar-Powered Hydrogen Generation System for Sustained Renewable Energy Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    hydrogen gas by electrolysis. In LT Aviles’ design , distilled water was collected from the ambient air using Peltier dehumidifiers, manufactured by...Figure 13 shows the shelfing along with the entire system. Figure 13. Reconfigured Hydrogen Production Facility Because the system was designed for...POWERED HYDROGEN GENERATION SYSTEM FOR SUSTAINED RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION by Sen Feng Yu December 2017 Thesis Advisor: Garth V. Hobson Co

  1. Statistics for products of traces of high powers of the frobenius class of hyperelliptic curves

    OpenAIRE

    Roditty-Gershon, Edva

    2011-01-01

    We study the averages of products of traces of high powers of the Frobenius class of hyperelliptic curves of genus g over a fixed finite field. We show that for increasing genus g, the limiting expectation of these products equals to the expectation when the curve varies over the unitary symplectic group USp(2g). We also consider the scaling limit of linear statistics for eigenphases of the Frobenius class of hyperelliptic curves, and show that their first few moments are Gaussian.

  2. Public synthesis of the reference costs study of the electric power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Every 3 or 5 years, the DGEC published the reference costs study of the electric power production which evaluates, in a theoretical framework, the total cost of an electrical MWh, from different production ways. These studies bring information for the definition of the energy policy and the elaboration of the investments program. because of the great competition of the market, it was decided not to publish the absolute value of the hypothesis and the results but under indexed form. (A.L.B.)

  3. Collision-Induced Dissociation Mass Spectrometry: A Powerful Tool for Natural Product Structure Elucidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Andrew R; Carlson, Erin E

    2015-11-03

    Mass spectrometry is a powerful tool in natural product structure elucidation, but our ability to directly correlate fragmentation spectra to these structures lags far behind similar efforts in peptide sequencing and proteomics. Often, manual data interpretation is required and our knowledge of the expected fragmentation patterns for many scaffolds is limited, further complicating analysis. Here, we summarize advances in natural product structure elucidation based upon the application of collision induced dissociation fragmentation mechanisms.

  4. Job Stress Risk Factors Among Power Generation and Machine Production Employees: A Case Study-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Naghavi; M.R. Hajgholami; Y. Shokoohi; F. Zayeri

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective: Job stress has been adverse effects on performance, quality of work, absents, unsafe behaviors and occupational accidents and also health problems. Risk factors of job stress can be different in various workplaces. Risk factors determination is the first step of job stress management. Identifying these risk factors among workers of Power production & Machine production industries was the aim of this study. Methods: First parts of Osipow questionnaire was used for ...

  5. System-Level Value of a Gas Engine Power Plant in Electricity and Reserve Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti Alahäivälä

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Power systems require a certain amount of flexibility to meet varying demand and to be able to cope with unexpected events, and this requirement is expected to increase with the emergence of variable power generation. In this paper, we focus on gas engine power plant technology and the beneficial influence its flexible operation can have on a power system. The study introduces the concept of a combined-cycle gas engine power plant (CCGE, which comprises a combination of several gas-fired combustion engines and a steam turbine. The operation of CCGE is then comprehensively analyzed in electricity and reserve production in the South African power system and compared with combined-cycle gas turbine (CCGT technology. Even though CCGE is a form of technology that has already been commercialized, it is rarely considered as a source of flexibility in the academic research. That is the notion providing the motivation for this study. Our core contribution is to show that the flexibility of CCGE can be valuable in power systems. The methodology is based on the unit-level model of the studied system and the solving of a day-ahead unit commitment problem for each day of the simulated 11-year period. The simulation studies reveal how a CCGE is able to offer system flexibility to follow hourly load variations and capacity to provide reserve power effectively.

  6. Development of computer-aided design and production system for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Masanori

    1983-01-01

    The technically required matters related to the design and production of nuclear power stations tended to increase from the viewpoint of the safety and reliability, and it is indispensable to cope with such technically required matters skillfully for the rationalization of the design and production and for the construction of highly reliable plants. Ishikawajima Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., has developed the computer-aided design data information and engineering system which performs dialogue type design and drawing, and as the result, the design-production consistent system is developed to do stress analysis, production design, production management and the output of data for numerically controlled machine tools consistently. In this paper, mainly the consistent system in the field of plant design centering around piping and also the computer system for the design of vessels and others are outlined. The features of the design works for nuclear power plants, the rationalization of the design and production management of piping and vessels, and the application of the CAD system to other general equipment and improvement works are reported. This system is the powerful means to meet the requirement of heightening quality and reducing cost. (Kako, I.)

  7. Improving Power System Modeling. A Tool to Link Capacity Expansion and Production Cost Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diakov, Victor [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cole, Wesley [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sullivan, Patrick [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brinkman, Gregory [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Capacity expansion models (CEM) provide a high-level long-term view at the prospects of the evolving power system. In simulating the possibilities of long-term capacity expansion, it is important to maintain the viability of power system operation in the short-term (daily, hourly and sub-hourly) scales. Production-cost models (PCM) simulate routine power system operation on these shorter time scales using detailed load, transmission and generation fleet data by minimizing production costs and following reliability requirements. When based on CEM 'predictions' about generating unit retirements and buildup, PCM provide more detailed simulation for the short-term system operation and, consequently, may confirm the validity of capacity expansion predictions. Further, production cost model simulations of a system that is based on capacity expansion model solution are 'evolutionary' sound: the generator mix is the result of logical sequence of unit retirement and buildup resulting from policy and incentives. The above has motivated us to bridge CEM with PCM by building a capacity expansion - to - production cost model Linking Tool (CEPCoLT). The Linking Tool is built to onset capacity expansion model prescriptions onto production cost model inputs. NREL's ReEDS and Energy Examplar's PLEXOS are the capacity expansion and the production cost models, respectively. Via the Linking Tool, PLEXOS provides details of operation for the regionally-defined ReEDS scenarios.

  8. Effect of External Loading on Force and Power Production During Plyometric Push-ups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinshaw, Taylour J; Stephenson, Mitchell L; Sha, Zhanxin; Dai, Boyi

    2018-04-01

    Hinshaw, TJ, Stephenson, ML, Sha, Z, and Dai, B. Effect of external loading on force and power production during plyometric push-ups. J Strength Cond Res 32(4): 1099-1108, 2018-One common exercise to train upper-body strength and power is the push-up. Training at the loads that would produce the greatest power is an effective way to increase peak power. The purpose of the current study was to quantify the changes in peak force, peak power, and peak velocity among a modified plyometric push-up and plyometric push-ups with or without external loading in physically active young adults. Eighteen male and 17 female participants completed 4 push-ups: (a) modified plyometric push-up on the knees, (b) plyometric push-up without external loading, (c) plyometric push-up with an external load of 5% of body weight, and (d) plyometric push-up with an external load of 10% of body weight. Two force platforms were set up to collect vertical ground reaction forces at the hands and feet. The modified plyometric push-up demonstrated the lowest force, power, and velocity (5.4≥ Cohen's dz ≥1.2). Peak force and force at peak velocity increased (3.8≥ Cohen's dz ≥0.3) and peak velocity and velocity at peak power decreased (1.4≥ Cohen's dz ≥0.8) for the push-up without external loading compared with the 2 push-ups with external loading. No significant differences were observed for peak power among the push-ups with or without external loading (0.4≥ Cohen's dz ≥0.1). Although peak power is similar with or without external loading, push-ups without external loading may be more beneficial for a quick movement, and push-ups with external loading may be more beneficial for a greater force production.

  9. Inventory of future power and heat production technologies. Partial report Wind Power; Inventering av framtidens el- och vaermeproduktionstekniker. Delrapport Vindkraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clausen, Niels-Erik; Lawaetz, Henrik; Lemming, Joergen; Morthorst, Poul Erik [Risoe National Laboratory, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2008-12-15

    The development of the wind energy technology has been very successful from the 1970s and up till now. Initially there was a battle between wind turbine concepts, but the commercial winner today is the three-bladed horizontal axis, upwind, electricity producing and grid connected wind turbine with availability on mature markets somewhere around 99%. An important contributor to the growth of the European market for wind energy technology has been EU framework legislation combined with legislation at the national level. The binding target for renewable energy in Sweden is proposed to be 49% of the final energy consumption in 2020 compared to 39.8% in 2005. To stimulate the development of wind energy and to promote a specific national goals Sweden is mainly using an electricity certificate system. The target is to increase the production of electricity from renewable sources by 17 TWh in 2016, relative to corresponding production in 2002. There is not at specific target for the use of wind energy. A future energy system that includes a high proportion of wind energy will be expected to meet the same requirements for security of supply and economic efficiency as the energy systems of today. The variability of wind power create a specific challenges for the future energy systems compared to those of today. The economics of wind power depends mainly of investment cost, operation and maintenance costs, electricity production and turbine lifetime. An average turbine installed in Europe has a total investment cost of 1.230 Euro/kW with a typically variation from approximately 1000 Euro/kW to approximately 1400 Euro/kW. The calculated costs per kWh wind generated power range from approximately 0.07-0.10 Euro/kWh at sites with low average wind speeds to approximately 0.05-0.065 Euro/kWh at good coastal positions, with an average of approximately 0.07 Euro/kWh at a medium wind site. Offshore costs are largely dependent on weather and wave conditions, water depth, and distance

  10. Design, production and materials of PV powered consumer products - the case of mass production (cd-rom)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.; Akkerman, Remko; Palz, W.; Ossenbrink, H.; Helm, P.

    2005-01-01

    Though many options exist, the application of integrated PV systems in mass produced consumer products is still unusual and rare [1]. Therefore, to date, design and manufacturing aspects of product-integrated PV systems have been explored only to a very limited extent. The requirements for the

  11. Stochastic Optimization in The Power Management of Bottled Water Production Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoro, Budi; Nababan, Esther; Mawengkang, Herman

    2018-01-01

    This paper review a model developed to minimize production costs on bottled water production planning through stochastic optimization. As we know, that planning a management means to achieve the goal that have been applied, since each management level in the organization need a planning activities. The built models is a two-stage stochastic models that aims to minimize the cost on production of bottled water by observing that during the production process, neither interfernce nor vice versa occurs. The models were develop to minimaze production cost, assuming the availability of packing raw materials used considered to meet for each kind of bottles. The minimum cost for each kind production of bottled water are expressed in the expectation of each production with a scenario probability. The probability of uncertainly is a representation of the number of productions and the timing of power supply interruption. This is to ensure that the number of interruption that occur does not exceed the limit of the contract agreement that has been made by the company with power suppliers.

  12. Hydrogen as an energy carrier and its production by nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The impact of power generation on environment is becoming an ever increasing concern in decision making when considering the energy options and power systems required by a country in order to sustain its economic growth and development. Hydrogen is a strong emerging candidate with a significant role as a clean, environmentally benign and safe to handle major energy carrier in the future. Its enhanced utilization in distributed power generation as well as in propulsion systems for mobile applications will help to significantly mitigate the strong negative effects on the environment. It ia also the nuclear power that will be of utmost importance in the energy supply of many countries over the next decades. The development of new, innovative reactor concepts utilizing passive safety features for process heat and electricity generation are considered by many to play a substantial role in the world`s energy future in helping to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This report produced by IAEA documents past and current activities in Member States in the development of hydrogen production as an energy carrier and its corresponding production through the use of nuclear power. It provides an introduction to nuclear technology as a means of producing hydrogen or other upgraded fuels and to the energy carries hydrogen and its main fields of application. Emphasis is placed on high-temperature reactor technology which can achieve the simultaneous generation of electricity and the production of high-temperature process heat Refs, figs, tabs

  13. Hydrogen as an energy carrier and its production by nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-05-01

    The impact of power generation on environment is becoming an ever increasing concern in decision making when considering the energy options and power systems required by a country in order to sustain its economic growth and development. Hydrogen is a strong emerging candidate with a significant role as a clean, environmentally benign and safe to handle major energy carrier in the future. Its enhanced utilization in distributed power generation as well as in propulsion systems for mobile applications will help to significantly mitigate the strong negative effects on the environment. It ia also the nuclear power that will be of utmost importance in the energy supply of many countries over the next decades. The development of new, innovative reactor concepts utilizing passive safety features for process heat and electricity generation are considered by many to play a substantial role in the world's energy future in helping to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This report produced by IAEA documents past and current activities in Member States in the development of hydrogen production as an energy carrier and its corresponding production through the use of nuclear power. It provides an introduction to nuclear technology as a means of producing hydrogen or other upgraded fuels and to the energy carries hydrogen and its main fields of application. Emphasis is placed on high-temperature reactor technology which can achieve the simultaneous generation of electricity and the production of high-temperature process heat

  14. New products from the power merchant to customer with time measurements and load management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solem, Gerd; Doorman, Gerard; Grande, Ove S.

    2003-01-01

    The main aim is to develop products from the power merchants that improve the consumer flexibility. For the development of the products the basis is that the consumption is measured by hours and that a connection to a load management scheme is present. Calculations for four products are made where the risk exposure is different for the customer and the supplier. The four products are ''Spot price with mark-up'', ''The combination of constant price and spot price'', ''Constant price with disconnection'' and ''Effect subscription''. The customers are exposed to the spot price in the first two products and may through disconnection reduce the costs by adapting to the market signals. Remote disconnection of parts of the consumption may be offered as a service jointly by the network companies and the power suppliers through a two-way communication but it is not realistic that the customers may pay much for this. ''Spot price with mark-up'' implies that the customer carries the entire risk while constant price may place considerable risk at the power supplier by long high consumption combined with high spot prices. '' Constant price with disconnection'' gives the power supplier the possibilities of reducing the risks. A disconnection possibility that is committing to the customers may be part of the product specification. The customers may be offered a discount calculated out from the costs for alternative price securing. Also '' Effect subscription'' reduces the merchant risks considerably at the disconnection of the consumption. The ''combined product of constant and spot price'' may be interesting from the supplier's viewpoint due to considerable risk reductions compared to solely using the constant price. The product gives the customers a guaranteed price for a part of the product and has an additional possibility of adapting the consumption to the market signals. The network company routines for handling of the hour values are a large challenge. It is important to

  15. Exergy analysis of a combined heat and power plant with integrated lignocellulosic ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lythcke-Jørgensen, Christoffer; Haglind, Fredrik; Clausen, Lasse R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We model a system where lignocellulosic ethanol production is integrated with a combined heat and power (CHP) plant. • We conduct an exergy analysis for the ethanol production in six different system operation points. • Integrated operation, district heating (DH) production and low CHP loads all increase the exergy efficiency. • Separate operation has the largest negative impact on the exergy efficiency. • Operation is found to have a significant impact on the exergy efficiency of the ethanol production. - Abstract: Lignocellulosic ethanol production is often assumed integrated in polygeneration systems because of its energy intensive nature. The objective of this study is to investigate potential irreversibilities from such integration, and what impact it has on the efficiency of the integrated ethanol production. An exergy analysis is carried out for a modelled polygeneration system in which lignocellulosic ethanol production based on hydrothermal pretreatment is integrated in an existing combined heat and power (CHP) plant. The ethanol facility is driven by steam extracted from the CHP unit when feasible, and a gas boiler is used as back-up when integration is not possible. The system was evaluated according to six operation points that alternate on the following three different operation parameters: Load in the CHP unit, integrated versus separate operation, and inclusion of district heating production in the ethanol facility. The calculated standard exergy efficiency of the ethanol facility varied from 0.564 to 0.855, of which the highest was obtained for integrated operation at reduced CHP load and full district heating production in the ethanol facility, and the lowest for separate operation with zero district heating production in the ethanol facility. The results suggest that the efficiency of integrating lignocellulosic ethanol production in CHP plants is highly dependent on operation, and it is therefore suggested that the

  16. Safeguard assessment for life extension in nuclear power plants (NPPs) using a production function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Tae-Ho; Lee, Un-Chul

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The numerical value is constructed for the secure operation. → As the power increases, the NSEF increases. → Specific month could be indicated by the relative value of NSEF. → It is suggested for the better power in NPPs. → There is another possibility for the secure operation factors. - Abstract: Life extension is investigated as a safeguard assessment for the stability on the operation of the nuclear power plants (NPPs). The Cobb-Douglas function, one of the production functions, is modified for the nuclear safeguard in NPPs, which was developed for the life quality of the social and natural objects. Nuclear Safeguard Estimator Function (NSEF) is developed for the application in NPPs. The cases of NPPs are compared with each other in the aspect of the secure performance. The results are obtained by the standard productivity comparisons with the designed power operations. The range of secure life extension is between 1.008 and 5.353 in 2000 MW e and the range is between 0.302 and 0.994 in 600 MW e . So, the successfulness of the power operation increases about 5 times higher than that of the interested power in this study, which means that the safeguard assessment has been performed in the life extension of the NPPs. The technology assessment (TA) is suggested for the safe operation which is an advanced method comparing conventional probabilistic safety assessment (PSA).

  17. Watts Up? Pro AC Power Meter for Automated Energy Recording: A Product Review

    OpenAIRE

    Hirst, Jason M.; Miller, Jonathan R.; Kaplan, Brent A.; Reed, Derek D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to review the Watts up? Pro AC power meter. Evaluations of the meter's reliability for measuring energy consumption by consumer electronics yielded acceptable levels of reliability. Implications and limitations for the use of this product in behavior analytic research and practice are discussed.

  18. Pricing Power of Agricultural Products under the Background of Small Peasant Management and Information Asymmetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dexuan LI

    2016-01-01

    From the background of small peasant management and information asymmetry,this paper introduced the middle profit sharing model and discussed influence factors and ownership of pricing power of agricultural products. It obtained following results:( i) the transaction scale has positive effect on farmer’s pricing power of agricultural products,while the competitor’s transaction scale has negative effect on it,so does the cost for information search;( ii) under the condition of small peasant management system,farmer is in a relatively weak position in the distribution of pricing power of agricultural products,due to factors such as small transaction scale,information asymmetry and farmer’s weak negotiation ability;( iii) through cooperative game,farmer and buyers can share cooperative surplus at the agreed ratio;( iv) the introduction of self-organizing specialized farmers cooperatives is favorable for solving the problem of pricing power of agricultural products,and possible problems,such as " collective action dilemma" and " fake cooperatives" in the cooperative development process can be solved by internal and external division of labor and specialization of cooperatives.

  19. Beyond "on" or "with": Questioning Power Dynamics and Knowledge Production in "Child-Oriented" Research Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunleth, Jean

    2011-01-01

    By taking a reflexive approach to research methodology, this article contributes to discussions on power dynamics and knowledge production in the social studies of children. The author describes and analyzes three research methods that she used with children--drawing, child-led tape-recording and focus group discussions. These methods were carried…

  20. Mineral raw materials for power production in legislation of the Republic of Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matisa, Z.

    1999-01-01

    According to the Constitution of the Republic of Croatia, mineral wealth is a public good of legal interest to the Republic of Croatia and enjoys its special protection. The Mining Law establishes that mineral wealth (including mineral resources that are used for power production) is the property of the Republic of Croatia. Among other mineral raw materials, this refers to mineral raw materials that are used for power production: coal, oil, natural gas, radioactive mineral raw materials and geothermal waters. These mineral resources are as almost all other mineral raw materials with the exception of geothermal waters, an unrecoverable natural resource. The right to use that natural resource may be granted only by a concession. The mining legislation provides for exploration and exploitation of mineral raw materials. Exploration of oil and gas is considered to comprise operations and testing with the aim to establish the existence, position and form of oil and natural gas deposits, their quality and quantity, as well as exploitation conditions. Exploitation of oil and natural gas is considered to comprise extraction from deposits, refining and transport, as well as disposal in geological structures. Mineral raw materials used in power production amount to 63% of national total primary energy production, and they cover 33% of total power consumption in the country. Legislation in the Republic of Croatia, which refers to exploration and exploitation of oil and natural gas, allows economic utilization of that unrecoverable natural wealth to run smoothly and in compliance with practices in our European environment. (author)

  1. Power Product Equipment Technician: Outboard-Engine Systems and Service. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilley, Robert

    This curriculum guide contains teacher and student materials for a course on outboard-engine boat systems and service for power product equipment technician occupations. The course contains the following four units of instruction: (1) Outboard-Engine Design and Identification; (2) Operation and Service of Engine-Support Systems; (3) Operation and…

  2. Power Product Equipment Technician: Outboard-Engine Boat Systems. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilley, Robert

    This curriculum guide contains teacher and student materials for a course on outboard-engine boat systems for power product equipment technician occupations. The course contains the following three units of instruction: (1) Orientation to Outboard-Engine Boat Systems and Rigging; (2) Trailers and Safe Towing and Boat Operation; and (3) Seasonal…

  3. Industrial Arts Test Development, Book III. Resource Items for Graphics Technology, Power Technology, Production Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    This booklet is designed to assist teachers in developing examinations for classroom use. It is a collection of 955 objective test questions, mostly multiple choice, for industrial arts students in the three areas of graphics technology, power technology, and production technology. Scoring keys are provided. There are no copyright restrictions,…

  4. Power Production Experience from Wave Dragon Prototype Testing in Nissum Bredning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    The first Wave Dragon prototype power production testing started May 2003 and ended temporarily primo 2005. In the mentioned period Wave Dragon was situated in a corner of Nissum Bredning with relative little amount of wave energy. Main purpose of the tests was demonstration of survivability...

  5. Steel corrosion products solubility under conditions simulating various water chemistry parameters in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slobodov, A.A.; Kritskij, V.G.; Zarembo, V.I.; Puchkov, L.V.

    1988-01-01

    To simulate construction material corrosion product mass transfer model in power plant circuits calculation of iron oxide and hydroxide solubility, depending on water chemistry parameters: temperature, pH-value, content of dissolved in water hydrogen and oxygen, is carried out

  6. Mapping Wind Farm Loads and Power Production - A Case Study on Horns Rev 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galinos, Christos; Dimitrov, Nikolay Krasimirov; Larsen, Torben J.

    2016-01-01

    , the ones facing a free sector towards west and south. The power production results of few turbines are compared with SCADA data. The results of this paper are expected to have significance for operation and maintenance planning, where the schedules for inspection and service activities can be adjusted...

  7. Governmentalizing Gramsci : Topologies of power and passive revolution in Cambodia’s garment production network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, D.; Hess, M.

    2017-01-01

    This article takes a fresh look at the multiple power relations between state, capital and labor in global production networks. Moving beyond debates about public vs. private governance, it brings together Antonio Gramsci’s concepts of hegemony and the integral state with Michel Foucault’s concepts

  8. The influence of ERP implementation on the division of power at the production-sales interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, J.; Boonstra, A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to develop and validate a model that demonstrates the influence of enterprise resource planning (ERP) implementation on the power and interests of actors at the production-sales interface, and vice versa. Design/methodology/approach - An empirical in-depth

  9. Is Power Production Flexibility a Substitute for Storability? Evidence from Electricity Futures Prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Kilic (Mehtap); R. Huisman (Ronald)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractElectricity is not storable. As a consequence, electricity demand and supply need to be in balance at any moment in time as a shortage in production volume cannot be compensated with supply from inventories. However, if the installed power supply capacity is very flexible, variation in

  10. Overview of Maximum Power Point Tracking Techniques for Photovoltaic Energy Production Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koutroulis, Eftichios; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    A substantial growth of the installed photovoltaic systems capacity has occurred around the world during the last decade, thus enhancing the availability of electric energy in an environmentally friendly way. The maximum power point tracking technique enables maximization of the energy production...... of photovoltaic sources during stochastically varying solar irradiation and ambient temperature conditions. Thus, the overall efficiency of the photovoltaic energy production system is increased. Numerous techniques have been presented during the last decade for implementing the maximum power point tracking...... process in a photovoltaic system. This article provides an overview of the operating principles of these techniques, which are suited for either uniform or non-uniform solar irradiation conditions. The operational characteristics and implementation requirements of these maximum power point tracking...

  11. Contribution of green energy sources to electrical power production of Turkey: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balat, Havva

    2008-01-01

    Green power products may be seen as a means of fostering renewable energy sources (RES) because they create and channel consumer demand for environmentally sound power generation. Turkey also has a large potential for renewable energy exploitation in a number of areas. Clean, domestic and renewable energy is commonly accepted as the key for future life, not only for Turkey but also for the world. The renewable energy contribution in the total primary energy production is insignificant. The alternative and renewable energy systems have been neglected so far in Turkey but must be included in the new energy programs. In this context, Renewable Energy Law was enacted in 2005 in order to encourage renewable-based generation in competitive market conditions. Supporting mechanisms such as feed-in tariffs and purchase obligation are defined in the law, in conformity with the EU legislation and practice. These mechanisms are envisaged to facilitate the development of power plants based on RES. (author)

  12. Guide for prioritizing power plant productivity improvement projects: handbook of availability improvement methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    As part of its program to help improve electrical power plant productivity, the Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a methodology for evaluating productivity improvement projects. This handbook presents a simplified version of this methodology called the Availability Improvement Methodology (AIM), which provides a systematic approach for prioritizing plant improvement projects. Also included in this handbook is a description of data taking requirements necessary to support the AIM methodology, benefit/cost analysis, and root cause analysis for tracing persistent power plant problems. In applying the AIM methodology, utility engineers should be mindful that replacement power costs are frequently greater for forced outages than for planned outages. Equivalent availability includes both. A cost-effective ranking of alternative plant improvement projects must discern between those projects which will reduce forced outages and those which might reduce planned outages. As is the case with any analytical procedure, engineering judgement must be exercised with respect to results of purely mathematical calculations

  13. Two-beam laser fabrication technique and the application for fabricating conductive silver nanowire on flexible substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui-Cang He

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a two-beam laser fabrication technique is proposed to fabricate silver nanowire (AgNW on the polyethylene terephthalate (PET substrate. The femtosecond pulse laser in the technique plays a role in generating Ag nanoparticles from the silver aqueous solution by multiphoton photoreduction. The continuous wave (CW laser of the technique works as optical tweezers, and make the Ag nanoparticles gather to a continuous AgNW by the optical trapping force. The optical trapping force of the CW laser was calculated under our experimental condition. The flexibility and the resistance stability of the AgNW that fabricated by this technique are very excellent. Compared to the resistance of the AgNW without bending, the decreasing rate of the AgNW resistance is about 16% under compressed bending condition at the radius of 1 mm, and the increasing rate of the AgNW resistance is only 1.3% after the AgNW bended about 3500 times at the bending radius of 1 mm. The study indicates that the AgNW is promising for achieving flexible device and would promote the development of the flexible electronics.

  14. The study of photocatalysis under ultraviolet + visible two-beam light irradiation using undoped nano-titanium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Baoshun; Wen Liping; Zhao Xiujian

    2008-01-01

    The nano-TiO 2 powder was synthesized using wet chemical method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The photodegradation of aqueous methyl orange and phenol under the irradiation of visible, ultraviolet (UV), and UV + visible lights was used to evaluate the photocatalytic activity of nano-TiO 2 powder prepared. It is found that the photocatalysis under UV and visible light irradiation simultaneously is much faster than the sum of that solely induced by UV light and visible light. UV-vis spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to investigate the physical cause of the enhancement of photocatalytic activity induced by UV + visible two-beam light irradiation. A photocatalytic mechanism based on the d-d transition of photoinduced electrons on surface located at conduction band was suggested to explain the experimental result. It is considered that this is a novel method to utilize visible light in the photocatalysis by using undoped TiO 2 material

  15. Investigate the electrical and thermal properties of the low temperature resistant silver nanowire fabricated by two-beam laser technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Gui-Cang; Dong, Xian-Zi; Liu, Jie; Lu, Heng; Zhao, Zhen-Sheng

    2018-05-01

    A two-beam laser fabrication technique is introduced to fabricate the single silver nanowire (AgNW) on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. The resistivity of the AgNW is (1.31 ± 0.05) × 10-7 Ω·m, which is about 8 times of the bulk silver resistivity (1.65 × 10-8 Ω·m). The AgNW electrical resistance is measured in temperature range of 10-300 K and fitted with the Bloch-Grüneisen formula. The fitting results show that the residue resistance is 153 Ω, the Debye temperature is 210 K and the electron-phonon coupling constant is (5.72 ± 0.24) × 10-8 Ω·m. Due to the surface scattering, the Debye temperature and the electron-phonon coupling constant are lower than those of bulk silver, and the residue resistance is bigger than that of bulk silver. Thermal conductivity of the single AgNW is calculated in the corresponding temperature range, which is the biggest at the temperature approaching the Debye temperature. The AgNW on PET substrate is the low temperature resistance material and is able to be operated stably at such a low temperature of 10 K.

  16. Exergetic life cycle assessment of cement production process with waste heat power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sui, Xiuwen; Zhang, Yun; Shao, Shuai; Zhang, Shushen

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Exergetic life cycle assessment was performed for the cement production process. • Each system’s efficiency before and after waste heat power generation was analyzed. • The waste heat power generation improved the efficiency of each production system. • It provided technical support for the implementation of energy-saving schemes. - Abstract: The cement industry is an industry that consumes a considerable quantity of resources and energy and has a very large influence on the efficient use of global resources and energy. In this study, exergetic life cycle assessment is performed for the cement production process, and the energy efficiency and exergy efficiency of each system before and after waste heat power generation is investigated. The study indicates that, before carrying out a waste heat power generation project, the objective energy efficiencies of the raw material preparation system, pulverized coal preparation system and rotary kiln system are 39.4%, 10.8% and 50.2%, respectively, and the objective exergy efficiencies are 4.5%, 1.4% and 33.7%, respectively; after carrying out a waste heat power generation project, the objective energy efficiencies are 45.8%, 15.5% and 55.1%, respectively, and the objective exergy efficiencies are 7.8%, 2.8% and 38.1%, respectively. The waste heat power generation project can recover 3.7% of the total input exergy of a rotary kiln system and improve the objective exergy efficiencies of the above three systems. The study can identify degree of resource and energy utilization and the energy-saving effect of a waste heat power generation project on each system, and provide technical support for managers in the implementation of energy-saving schemes

  17. Productivity and compensation by purchase power parity in Ukraine and other countries: comparative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    M. Sokolyk

    2011-01-01

    The trends of the real growth rates of the GDP, of productivity and wages per employee and of aver-age monthly salary in Ukraine for a long period of time (1990-2010) are evaluated in this article. The author makes comparative analysis of labor productivity and wages per one employee on the basis of the data on purchasing power parity in Ukraine and in other countries during the pre-crisis period. He justifies the measures to bring the levels of labor productivity and compensation per employe...

  18. Population distribution, food production and other aspects in the vicinity of the Embalse Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancio, D.; Ciallella, N.R.; Zunino, R.; Perez, T.; Jordan, O.

    1978-01-01

    The paper presents some of the results of the pre-operational studies carried out in the vicinity of the site of the Embalse Nuclear Power Station, which is being built in the Province of Cordoba, Rio Tercero, next to the lake Embalse. The studies cover population distribution, food production, and other local aspects. The low population in the vicinity of the site increases in summer due to tourism. Main use of the land is grazing and cereal production. Milk production is small, but some is produced near the site. Other aspects of the study are presented in other papers of the Seminar. (author)

  19. Sharing product data of nuclear power plants across their lifecycles by utilizing a neutral model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mun, Duhwan [WIG Craft Research Division, Maritime and Ocean Engineering Research Institute, KORDI, 171 Jang-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: dhmun@moeri.re.kr; Hwang, Jinsang [Department of Mechanical Engineering, KAIST (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: mars@icad.kaist.ac.kr; Han, Soonhung [Department of Mechanical Engineering, KAIST (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: shhan@kaist.ac.kr; Seki, Hiroshi [Hitachi Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd. (Japan)], E-mail: hiroshi.seki.mf@hitachi.com; Yang, Jeongsam [Industrial and Information Systems Engineering, Ajou University (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: jyang@ajou.ac.kr

    2008-02-15

    Many public and private Korean organizations are involved during the lifecycle of a domestic nuclear power plant. Korea Plant Engineering Co. (KOPEC) participates in the design stage, Korea Hydraulic and Nuclear Power (KHNP) operates and manages all nuclear power plants in Korea, Doosan Heavy Industry and Construction Co. manufactures the main equipment, and a construction company constructs the plant. Even though each organization has its own digital data management system and obtains a certain level of automation, data sharing among organizations is poor. KHNP obtains drawings and technical specifications from KOPEC in the form of paper. This results in manual re-work of definitions, and errors can potentially occur in the process. In order to establish an information bridge between design and operation and maintenance (O and M) phases, a generic product model (GPM), a data model from Hitachi, is extended for constructing a neutral data warehouse and the Korean Nuclear Power Plant Information Sharing System (KNPISS) is implemented.

  20. Sharing product data of nuclear power plants across their lifecycles by utilizing a neutral model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mun, Duhwan; Hwang, Jinsang; Han, Soonhung; Seki, Hiroshi; Yang, Jeongsam

    2008-01-01

    Many public and private Korean organizations are involved during the lifecycle of a domestic nuclear power plant. Korea Plant Engineering Co. (KOPEC) participates in the design stage, Korea Hydraulic and Nuclear Power (KHNP) operates and manages all nuclear power plants in Korea, Doosan Heavy Industry and Construction Co. manufactures the main equipment, and a construction company constructs the plant. Even though each organization has its own digital data management system and obtains a certain level of automation, data sharing among organizations is poor. KHNP obtains drawings and technical specifications from KOPEC in the form of paper. This results in manual re-work of definitions, and errors can potentially occur in the process. In order to establish an information bridge between design and operation and maintenance (O and M) phases, a generic product model (GPM), a data model from Hitachi, is extended for constructing a neutral data warehouse and the Korean Nuclear Power Plant Information Sharing System (KNPISS) is implemented

  1. Hydrogen-oxygen steam generator applications for increasing the efficiency, maneuverability and reliability of power production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schastlivtsev, A. I.; Borzenko, V. I.

    2017-11-01

    The comparative feasibility study of the energy storage technologies showed good applicability of hydrogen-oxygen steam generators (HOSG) based energy storage systems with large-scale hydrogen production. The developed scheme solutions for the use of HOSGs for thermal power (TPP) and nuclear power plants (NPP), and the feasibility analysis that have been carried out have shown that their use makes it possible to increase the maneuverability of steam turbines and provide backup power supply in the event of failure of the main steam generating equipment. The main design solutions for the integration of hydrogen-oxygen steam generators into the main power equipment of TPPs and NPPs, as well as their optimal operation modes, are considered.

  2. Solar Powered Automated Pipe Water Management System, Water Footprint and Carbon Footprint in Soybean Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyanto, K. S.; Abang, Z. E.; Arif, C.; Yanuar, J. P. M.

    2018-05-01

    An automatic water management system for agriculture land was developed based on mini PC as controller to manage irrigation and drainage. The system was integrated with perforated pipe network installed below the soil surface to enable water flow in and out through the network, and so water table of the land can be set at a certain level. The system was operated by using solar power electricity supply to power up water level and soil moisture sensors, Raspberry Pi controller and motorized valve actuator. This study aims to implement the system in controlling water level at a soybean production land, and further to observe water footprint and carbon footprint contribution of the soybean production process with application of the automated system. The water level of the field can be controlled around 19 cm from the base. Crop water requirement was calculated using Penman-Monteith approach, with the productivity of soybean 3.57t/ha, total water footprint in soybean production is 872.01 m3/t. Carbon footprint was calculated due to the use of solar power electric supply system and during the soybean production emission was estimated equal to 1.85 kg of CO2.

  3. Experiences with local power production at the end-user (case studies)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morch, Andrei Z.; Grinden, Bjoern; Fleten, Stein-Erik; Maribu, Karl Magnus; Johansen, Boerre; Vanebo, Torstein; Berner, Monica; Stang, Jacob; Naesje, Paal

    2004-12-01

    This report describes the results of case studies performed as part of the project 'Local power production at the end-user'. It was found that the construction of a power plant, even a small one, is not an easy task. It is important to exploit the resources optimally and to allow for many income and cost elements in calculating the profitability. It may therefore be worth while to consult qualified assistance at an early stage during the planning of such construction projects. It is also found that there are clear scale effects in the development of small power plants, that is, the relative costs (NOK/kWh) are larger for small plants than for bigger ones. This is true of both investment costs and operation costs. This will affect the profitability. Of 16 plants, there is enough data for analysing 15, although estimates must be used instead of real data where the latter is missing. For eight of the 15, the net present value is positive at a power price of 25 oere/kWh, 6% discount rate and 15-20 years lifetime. For the other plants it will be more economical to wait until the market price of power rises. The price that is necessary to make these plants profitable varies from 32 to 45 oere/kWh. Basically it is assumed that the developer of small power plants (up to 10 MW) wants to produce as much energy (kWh) as possible from the plant, both to cover his own consumption and to sell surplus energy to the power market. However, there is an economically interesting market for power (kW), in which the producer (over 25 MW) is paid for being ready to start production on short notice

  4. Optimization of nonthermal fusion power consistent with channeling of charged fusion product energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, P.B.; Herrmann, M.C.; Fisch, N.J.

    1994-01-01

    If the energy of charged fusion products can be diverted directly to fuel ions, non-Maxwellian fuel ion distributions and temperature differences between species will result. To determine the importance of these nonthermal effects, the fusion power density is optimized at constant-β for non-thermal distributions that are self-consistently maintained by channeling of energy from charged fusion products. For D-T and D- 3 He reactors, with 75% of charged fusion product power diverted to fuel ions, temperature differences between electrons and ions increase the reactivity by 40-70%, while non-Maxwellian fuel ion distributions and temperature differences between ionic species increase the reactivity by an additional 3-15%

  5. Monitoring Disaster-Related Power Outages Using NASA Black Marble Nighttime Light Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z.; Román, M. O.; Sun, Q.; Molthan, A. L.; Schultz, L. A.; Kalb, V. L.

    2018-04-01

    Timely and accurate monitoring of disruptions to the electricity grid, including the magnitude, spatial extent, timing, and duration of net power losses, is needed to improve situational awareness of disaster response and long-term recovery efforts. Satellite-derived Nighttime Lights (NTL) provide an indication of human activity patterns and have been successfully used to monitor disaster-related power outages. The global 500 m spatial resolution National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Black Marble NTL daily standard product suite (VNP46) is generated from Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Day/Night Band (DNB) onboard the NASA/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi- NPP) satellite, which began operations on 19 January 2012. With its improvements in product accuracy (including critical atmospheric and BRDF correction routines), the VIIRS daily Black Mable product enables systematic monitoring of outage conditions across all stages of the disaster management cycle.

  6. MONITORING DISASTER-RELATED POWER OUTAGES USING NASA BLACK MARBLE NIGHTTIME LIGHT PRODUCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Timely and accurate monitoring of disruptions to the electricity grid, including the magnitude, spatial extent, timing, and duration of net power losses, is needed to improve situational awareness of disaster response and long-term recovery efforts. Satellite-derived Nighttime Lights (NTL provide an indication of human activity patterns and have been successfully used to monitor disaster-related power outages. The global 500 m spatial resolution National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA Black Marble NTL daily standard product suite (VNP46 is generated from Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS Day/Night Band (DNB onboard the NASA/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi- NPP satellite, which began operations on 19 January 2012. With its improvements in product accuracy (including critical atmospheric and BRDF correction routines, the VIIRS daily Black Mable product enables systematic monitoring of outage conditions across all stages of the disaster management cycle.

  7. Sociology of Knowledge and Production of Normative Power in the European Union’s External Actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2015-01-01

    of these actions suffer from unnecessary dichotomisation. Advocates and analysts of the EU’s normative power have argued that the separation of norms and interests, both in terms of policy-making and policy analysis, is impossible. In contrast, advocates and analysts of the EU as a ‘normal power’, a great power......The chapter focuses on the entanglement between the EU’s attempts to construct its external actions in global politics and research on the EU as a global actor. The chapter argues that both the development of EU external actions and the sociology of knowledge production surrounding the analysis...... of knowledge about the EU and the production of the EU’s external actions. The chapter uses an analytical means of illustrating the deep interdependencies between the sociology of knowledge and production of the EU’s external actions. This application illustrates how ideas about external actions are spread...

  8. Sociology of Knowledge and Production of Normative Power in the European Union’s External Actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2015-01-01

    of these actions suffer from unnecessary dichotomisation. Advocates and analysts of the EU’s normative power have argued that the separation of norms and interests, both in terms of policy-making and policy analysis, is impossible. In contrast, advocates and analysts of the EU as a ‘normal power’, a great power......The article focuses on the entanglement between the EU’s attempts to construct its external actions in global politics and research on the EU as a global actor. The article argues that both the development of EU external actions and the sociology of knowledge production surrounding the analysis...... of knowledge about the EU and the production of the EU’s external actions. The article uses an analytical means of illustrating the deep interdependencies between the sociology of knowledge and production of the EU’s external actions. This application illustrates how ideas about external actions are spread...

  9. Plant Design Nuclear Fuel Element Production Capacity Optimization to Support Nuclear Power Plant in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bambang Galung Susanto

    2007-01-01

    The optimization production capacity for designing nuclear fuel element fabrication plant in Indonesia to support the nuclear power plant has been done. From calculation and by assuming that nuclear power plant to be built in Indonesia as much as 12 NPP and having capacity each 1000 MW, the optimum capacity for nuclear fuel element fabrication plant is 710 ton UO 2 /year. The optimum capacity production selected, has considered some aspects such as fraction batch (cycle, n = 3), length of cycle (18 months), discharge burn-up value (Bd) 35,000 up 50,000 MWD/ton U, enriched uranium to be used in the NPP (3.22 % to 4.51 %), future market development for fuel element, and the trend of capacity production selected by advances country to built nuclear fuel element fabrication plant type of PWR. (author)

  10. Reference costs for power generation; Couts de reference de la production electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-12-01

    The first part of the 2003 study of reference costs for power generation has been completed. It was carried out by the General Directorate for Energy and Raw Materials (DGEMP) of the French Ministry of the Economy, Finance and Industry, with the collaboration of power-plant operators, construction firms and many other experts. A Review Committee of experts including economists (Forecasting Department, French Planning Office), qualified public figures, representatives of power-plant construction firms and operators, and non-governmental organization (NGO) experts, was consulted in the final phase. The study examines the costs of power generated by different methods (i.e. nuclear and fossil-fuel [gas-, coal-, and oil-fired] power plants) in the context of an industrial operation beginning in the year 2015. - The second part of the study relating to decentralized production methods (wind, photovoltaic, combined heat and power) is still in progress and will be presented at the beginning of next year. - 1. Study approach: The study is undertaken mainly from an investor's perspective and uses an 8% discount rate to evaluate the expenses and receipts from different years. In addition, the investment costs are considered explicitly in terms of interest during construction. - 2. Plant operating on a full-time basis (year-round): The following graph illustrates the main conclusions of the study for an effective operating period of 8000 hours. It can be seen that nuclear is more competitive than the other production methods for a year-round operation with an 8% discount rate applied to expenses. This competitiveness is even better if the costs related to greenhouse-gas (CO{sub 2}) emission are taken into account in estimating the MWh cost price. Integrating the costs resulting from CO{sub 2} emissions by non-nuclear fuels (gas, coal), which will be compulsory as of 2004 with the transposition of European directives, increases the total cost per MWh of these power generation

  11. Reference costs for power generation; Couts de reference de la production electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-12-01

    The first part of the 2003 study of reference costs for power generation has been completed. It was carried out by the General Directorate for Energy and Raw Materials (DGEMP) of the French Ministry of the Economy, Finance and Industry, with the collaboration of power-plant operators, construction firms and many other experts. A Review Committee of experts including economists (Forecasting Department, French Planning Office), qualified public figures, representatives of power-plant construction firms and operators, and non-governmental organization (NGO) experts, was consulted in the final phase. The study examines the costs of power generated by different methods (i.e. nuclear and fossil-fuel [gas-, coal-, and oil-fired] power plants) in the context of an industrial operation beginning in the year 2015. - The second part of the study relating to decentralized production methods (wind, photovoltaic, combined heat and power) is still in progress and will be presented at the beginning of next year. - 1. Study approach: The study is undertaken mainly from an investor's perspective and uses an 8% discount rate to evaluate the expenses and receipts from different years. In addition, the investment costs are considered explicitly in terms of interest during construction. - 2. Plant operating on a full-time basis (year-round): The following graph illustrates the main conclusions of the study for an effective operating period of 8000 hours. It can be seen that nuclear is more competitive than the other production methods for a year-round operation with an 8% discount rate applied to expenses. This competitiveness is even better if the costs related to greenhouse-gas (CO{sub 2}) emission are taken into account in estimating the MWh cost price. Integrating the costs resulting from CO{sub 2} emissions by non-nuclear fuels (gas, coal), which will be compulsory as of 2004 with the transposition of European directives, increases the total cost per MWh of these power

  12. The independent power production and the reorganization of the electric power sector; La production independante d'electricite et la reconfiguration du secteur electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The transformation of the electric power production and distribution sector is in progress thanks to the progressive opening of markets and to the emergence of a new kind of actor: the independent producer. After the USA, the UK, and most of the emerging countries, the continental Europe is actively preparing its mutation. The historical actors try to protect their positions on their own national markets and at the same time to develop their international position. The newcomers (oil companies, independent power producers, collective service companies) have adopted a radically offensive strategy based on an international development and a skimming of the market. This study takes stock of the degree of liberalization of the different markets and analyzes their structuring elements and dynamism. An analytical presentation of the main actors of the electric power market is performed in order to evaluate their forces and feeblenesses in front of this mutation. Finally, ittries to answer the following questions: which are the most promising zones for the newcomers, and which companies will win this new deal? (J.S.)

  13. Exergy analysis of a combined heat and power plant with integrated lignocellulosic ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lythcke-Jørgensen, Christoffer Ernst; Haglind, Fredrik; Clausen, Lasse Røngaard

    2014-01-01

    production. An exergy analysis is carried out for a modelled polygeneration system in which lignocellulosic ethanol production based on hydrothermal pretreatment is integrated in an existing combined heat and power (CHP) plant. The ethanol facility is driven by steam extracted from the CHP unit when feasible...... district heating production in the ethanol facility. The results suggest that the efficiency of integrating lignocellulosic ethanol production in CHP plants is highly dependent on operation, and it is therefore suggested that the expected operation pattern of such polygeneration system is taken......Lignocellulosic ethanol production is often assumed integrated in polygeneration systems because of its energy intensive nature. The objective of this study is to investigate potential irreversibilities from such integration, and what impact it has on the efficiency of the integrated ethanol...

  14. Power/heat production from biomass in Finland - Two modern Finnish examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aeijaelae, M.

    1997-01-01

    According to this conference paper, Finland is a leading country in the utilization of biomass fuels for power and heat production. One reason is that peat and wood are the only indigenous fuels available in Finland. Other reasons are the strong forest industry and the widely adopted combined heat and power (CHP) production. CHP production is typical of process industry and municipal district heating. The most common boiler type in modern CHP plants is the fluidized bed type. District heating is the cheapest heating in municipalities with a few thousand inhabitants. Electric heating dominates in sparsely populated regions. CHP becomes attractive for populations of more than ten thousand. Two examples are described: (1) Rauhalahti Power Plant produces 140 MW of district heat, 65 MW of industrial steam and 87 MW of electricity. (2) Kuusamo Power Plant produces 6.1 MW electric energy and 17.6 MW district heat; its unique feature is the utilization of the bed mixing dryer for drying of the fuel prior to combustion, this dryer being the first of its kind in the world. 1 figure

  15. LED power efficiency of biomass, fatty acid, and carotenoid production in Nannochloropsis microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ruijuan; Thomas-Hall, Skye R; Chua, Elvis T; Eltanahy, Eladl; Netzel, Michael E; Netzel, Gabriele; Lu, Yinghua; Schenk, Peer M

    2018-03-01

    The microalga Nannochloropsis produces high-value omega-3-rich fatty acids and carotenoids. In this study the effects of light intensity and wavelength on biomass, fatty acid, and carotenoid production with respect to light output efficiency were investigated. Similar biomass and fatty acid yields were obtained at high light intensity (150 μmol m -2  s -1 ) LEDs on day 7 and low light intensity (50 μmol m -2  s -1 ) LEDs on day 11 during cultivation, but the power efficiencies of biomass and fatty acid (specifically eicosapentaenoic acid) production were higher for low light intensity. Interestingly, low light intensity enhanced both, carotenoid power efficiency of carotenoid biosynthesis and yield. White LEDs were neither advantageous for biomass and fatty acid yields, nor the power efficiency of biomass, fatty acid, and carotenoid production. Noticeably, red LED resulted in the highest biomass and fatty acid power efficiency, suggesting that LEDs can be fine-tuned to grow Nannochloropsis algae more energy-efficiently. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Medical Radioisotope Production in a Power-Flattened ADS Fuelled with Uranium and Plutonium Dioxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gizem Bakır

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the medical radioisotope production performance of a conceptual accelerator driven system (ADS. Lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE is selected as target material. The subcritical fuel core is conceptually divided into ten equidistant subzones. The ceramic (natural U, PuO2 fuel mixture and the materials used for radioisotope production (copper, gold, cobalt, holmium, rhenium, thulium, mercury, palladium, thallium, molybdenum, and yttrium are separately prepared as cylindrical rods cladded with carbon/carbon composite (C/C and these rods are located in the subzones. In order to obtain the flattened power density, percentages of PuO2 in the mixture of UO2 and PuO2 in the subzones are adjusted in radial direction of the fuel zone. Time-dependent calculations are performed at 1000 MW thermal fission power (Pth for one hour using the BURN card. The neutronic results show that the investigated ADS has a high neutronic capability, in terms of medical radioisotope productions, spent fuel transmutation and energy multiplication. Moreover, a good quasiuniform power density is achieved in each material case. The peak-to-average fission power density ratio is in the range of 1.02–1.28.

  17. Power production from biomass III. Gasification and pyrolysis R and D and D for industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipilae, K.; Korhonen, M. [eds.] [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). New Energy Technologies

    1999-07-01

    The Seminar on Power Production from Biomass III. Gasification and Pyrolysis R and D and D for Industry, was held on 14-15 September 1998 in Espoo. The seminar was organised by VTT Energy in co-operation with the University of Groningen, EU-Thermie Programme and Technology Development Centre, Finland (Tekes). Overviews of current activities on power production from biomass and wastes in Europe and in the United States were given, and all European and U. S. demonstration projects on biomass gasification were presented. In Europe, the target is to produce additional 90 Mtoe/a of bioenergy for the market by 2010. This is a huge challenge for the bioenergy sector, including biomass production and harvesting, conversion technology, energy companies, and end users. In USA, U.S. Department of Energy is promoting the Biomass Power Programme to encourage and assist industry in the development and validation of renewable, biomass-based electricity generation systems, the objective being to double the present use of 7 000 MW biomass power by the year 2010. The new Finnish PROGAS Programme initiated by VTT was also introduced. Several gasification projects are today on the demonstration stage prior to entering the commercial level. Pyrolysis technologies are not yet on the demonstration stage on the energy market. Bio-oils can easily be transported, stored and utilised in existing boiler and diesel plants. The proceedings include the presentations given by the keynote speakers and other invited speakers, as well as some extended poster presentations. (orig.)

  18. Application of the discounted value flows method in production cost calculations for Czechoslovak nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majer, P.

    1990-01-01

    The fundamentals are outlined of the discounted value flows method, which is used in industrial countries for calculating the specific electricity production costs. Actual calculations were performed for the first two units of the Temelin nuclear power plant. All costs associated with the construction, operation and decommissioning of this nuclear power plant were taken into account. With a high degree of certainty, the specific production costs of the Temelin nuclear power plant will lie within the range of 0.32 to 0.36 CSK/kWh. Nearly all results of the sensitivity analysis performed for the possible changes in the input values fall within this range. An increase in the interest rate to above 8% is an exception; this, however, can be regarded as rather improbable on a long-term basis. Sensitivity analysis gave evidence that the results of the electricity production cost calculations for the Temelin nuclear power plant can be considered sufficiently stable. (Z.M.). 7 figs., 2 tabs., 14 refs

  19. Correlated wind-power production and electric load scenarios for investment decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baringo, L.; Conejo, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Investment models require an accurate representation of the involved uncertainty. ► Demand and wind power production are correlated and uncertain parameters. ► Two methodologies are provided to represent uncertainty and correlation. ► An accurate uncertainty representation is crucial to get optimal results. -- Abstract: Stochastic programming constitutes a useful tool to address investment problems. This technique represents uncertain input data using a set of scenarios, which should accurately describe the involved uncertainty. In this paper, we propose two alternative methodologies to efficiently generate electric load and wind-power production scenarios, which are used as input data for investment problems. The two proposed methodologies are based on the load- and wind-duration curves and on the K-means clustering technique, and allow representing the uncertainty of and the correlation between electric load and wind-power production. A case study pertaining to wind-power investment is used to show the interest of the proposed methodologies and to illustrate how the selection of scenarios has a significant impact on investment decisions.

  20. Regulation of the wind power production. Contribution of the electric vehicles and other energy storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mateus, Carlos B. [Instituto de Meteorologia, Lisboa (Portugal); Estanqueiro, Ana [INETI/LNEG - National Laboratory for Energy and Geology, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2012-07-01

    The increase in penetration of variable renewable energy sources (RES) introduced additional difficulties regarding the management of the Portuguese Power System. This is mainly due to the high temporal variability and low controllability, characteristics of these kinds of sources. There is a real need to reduce the impact of non-dispatchable RES sources; maximizing their penetration and minimizing curtailment. This is especially true for wind power and run-of-the-river hydro (ROR); as it appears beneficial to combine their variable production with added capacity of energy storage and demand side management; thereby increasing the flexibility of the power system as a whole. This paper aims to assess the excess wind generation (and other non-dispatchable sources); this for periods of production's excess in a 2020 timeframe, and assuming different weather scenarios. The adjustment of wind power generation (WPG) profile to the load profile is also addressed; the result is computed in the form of the value of the energy temporally deferred, using Pumped Hydro Storage (PHS) power plants as well as electric Vehicles (EVs). (orig.)

  1. Electricity production and SO{sub 2} emissions in Poland`s power industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salay, J.

    1996-09-01

    The report analyzes how the Polish power industry`s electricity production and SO{sub 2} emissions have changed between 1988 and 1994. It examines to what extent the Polish government`s reform of air pollution control and its reorganization of the power industry affected power plant`s SO{sub 2} emissions in the same period. SO{sub 2} emissions from Polish power plants fell by 37% in 1988-1994. The drop in emissions was partly a result of the fall in economic activity and electricity production in the early 1990s. The main reasons for the emission reduction were the introduction of hard budget constraints, increased coal prices, and stricter enforcement of air pollution control. These reforms created strong incentives for power plants to switch to high-quality coal with lower sulfur content and higher heating value. Improved efficiency of electricity generation also contributed to the fall in SO{sub 2} emissions. 32 refs, 15 figs, 1 tab

  2. Radioecological studies of activation products released from a nuclear power plant into the marine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, M.; Mattsson, S.; Holm, E.

    1984-01-01

    The Barseback nuclear power plant, located on the Oresund sound between Denmark and Sweden, consists of two boiling water reactors. The release of radionuclides, mainly activation products, is quite low during normal operation. During the summer, when annual overhaul and partial refuelling take place, the discharge is much higher. Samples of seaweeds and crustaceans collected along the coast were analyzed for radionuclides. Seaweeds (Fucus vesiculosus, F. Serratus, Ascophyllum nodosum and Cladophora glomerata) and crustaceans (Idothea and Gammarus) proved to be excellent bioindicators for radioactive corrosion products released from the nuclear power plant into the marine environment. These bioindicators have been used to map the spatial and temporal distribution of the released radioactivity. The activity has been followed up to 150 km from the power plant, and the decrease in activity concentration in the bioindicators with distance can be expressed by a power function. The variation with time of activity concentration reflects the amount of activity discharged from the power plant, with good resolution in time. The bioindicators exhibit different uptake patterns of the radionuclides detected. The crustacean Idothea showed variations in the Co/sup 60/ activity concentration between winter and summer. 9 references, 12 figures, 2 tables.

  3. Fusion power production from TFTR plasmas fueled with deuterium and tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachan, J.D.; Adler, H.; Alling, P.

    1994-03-01

    Peak fusion power production of 6.2 ± 0.4 MW has been achieved in TFTR plasmas heated by deuterium and tritium neutral beams at a total power of 29.5 MW. These plasmas have an inferred central fusion alpha particle density of 1.2 x 10 17 m -3 without the appearance of either disruptive MHD events or detectable changes in Alfven wave activity. The measured loss rate of energetic alpha particles agreed with the approximately 5% losses expected from alpha particles which are born on unconfined orbits

  4. Thermodynamic evaluation of geothermal energy powered hydrogen production by PEM water electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, Ceyhun; Kanoglu, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Thermodynamic energy and exergy analysis of a PEM water electrolyzer driven by geothermal power for hydrogen production is performed. For this purpose, work is produced from a geothermal resource by means of the organic Rankine cycle; the resulting work is used as a work input for an electrolysis process; and electrolysis water is preheated by the waste geothermal water. The first and second-law based performance parameters are identified for the considered system and the system performance is evaluated. The effects of geothermal water and electrolysis temperatures on the amount of hydrogen production are studied and these parameters are found to be proportional to each other. We consider a geothermal resource at 160 °C available at a rate of 100 kg/s. Under realistic operating conditions, 3810 kW power can be produced in a binary geothermal power plant. The produced power is used for the electrolysis process. The electrolysis water can be preheated to 80 °C by the geothermal water leaving the power plant and hydrogen can be produced at a rate of 0.0340 kg/s. The energy and exergy efficiencies of the binary geothermal power plant are 11.4% and 45.1%, respectively. The corresponding efficiencies for the electrolysis system are 64.0% and 61.6%, respectively, and those for the overall system are 6.7% and 23.8%, respectively. - Highlights: • Thermodynamic analysis of hydrogen production by PEM electrolysis powered by geothermal energy. • Power is used for electrolyser; used geothermal water is for preheating electrolysis water. • Effect of geothermal water and electrolysis temperatures on the amount of hydrogen production. • Hydrogen can be produced at a rate of 0.0340 kg/s for a resource at 160 °C available at 100 kg/s. • Energy and exergy efficiencies of the overall system are 6.7% and 23.8%, respectively

  5. Considerations in the design of a high power medical isotope production reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, Russell M.; Nordyke, William H.; Brown, Roy

    2002-01-01

    For the low enriched aqueous homogeneous reactor to be economic in the production of medical isotopes, such as Mo-99 and Sr-89, the power level should be of the order of 100 kWth. This is double the earlier designs and this paper discusses the design changes which must be considered to meet this goal. The topics considered are: 1. Heat removal from the reactor solution; 2. Recombination of radiolytic gases; 3. Adequate radiation shielding; 4. Stability of reactor power with fluctuating reactivity; 5. Adequate cooling of the reflector; 6. Independent shutdown mechanisms; 7. Required volume of the reactor; 8. Economic implementation. (author)

  6. How wing kinematics affect power requirements and aerodynamic force production in a robotic bat wing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahlman, Joseph W; Swartz, Sharon M; Breuer, Kenneth S

    2014-01-01

    Bats display a wide variety of behaviors that require different amounts of aerodynamic force. To control and modulate aerodynamic force, bats change wing kinematics, which, in turn, may change the power required for wing motion. There are many kinematic mechanisms that bats, and other flapping animals, can use to increase aerodynamic force, e.g. increasing wingbeat frequency or amplitude. However, we do not know if there is a difference in energetic cost between these different kinematic mechanisms. To assess the relationship between mechanical power input and aerodynamic force output across different isolated kinematic parameters, we programmed a robotic bat wing to flap over a range of kinematic parameters and measured aerodynamic force and mechanical power. We systematically varied five kinematic parameters: wingbeat frequency, wingbeat amplitude, stroke plane angle, downstroke ratio, and wing folding. Kinematic values were based on observed values from free flying Cynopterus brachyotis, the species on which the robot was based. We describe how lift, thrust, and power change with increases in each kinematic variable. We compare the power costs associated with generating additional force through the four kinematic mechanisms controlled at the shoulder, and show that all four mechanisms require approximately the same power to generate a given force. This result suggests that no single parameter offers an energetic advantage over the others. Finally, we show that retracting the wing during upstroke reduces power requirements for flapping and increases net lift production, but decreases net thrust production. These results compare well with studies performed on C. brachyotis, offering insight into natural flight kinematics. (paper)

  7. Thermodynamic Analysis of a Ship Power Plant Operating with Waste Heat Recovery through Combined Heat and Power Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Grljušić

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research is to study a cogeneration plant for combined heat & power (CHP production that utilises the low-temperature waste energy in the power plant of a Suezmax-size oil tanker for all heating and electricity requirements during navigation. After considering various configurations, a standard propulsion engine operating at maximum efficiency and a CHP Plant with R245fa fluid using a supercritical organic Rankine cycle (ORC is selected. All the ship heat requirements can be covered by energy of organic fluid after expansion in the turbine, except feeder-booster heating. Hence, an additional quantity of working fluid may be heated using an after Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG directed to the feeder-booster module. An analysis of the obtained results shows that the steam turbine plant does not yield significant fuel savings. However, a CHP plant with R245fa fluid using supercritical ORC meets all of the demands for electrical energy and heat while burning only a small amount of additional fuel in HRSG at the main engine off-design operation.

  8. HelioTrope: An innovative and efficient prototype for solar power production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papageorgiou George

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The solar energy alternative could provide us with all the energy we need as it exist in vast quantities all around us. We only should be innovative enough in order to improve the efficiency of our systems in capturing and converting solar energy in usable forms of power. By making a case for the solar energy alternative, we identify areas where efficiency can be improved and thereby Solar Energy can become a competitive energy source. This paper suggests an innovative approach to solar energy power production, which is manifested in a prototype given the name HelioTrope. The Heliotrope Solar Energy Production prototype is tested on its' capabilities to efficiently covert solar energy to generation of electricity and other forms of energy for storage or direct use. HelioTrope involves an innovative Stirling engine design and a parabolic concentrating dish with a sun tracking system implementing a control algorithm to maximize the capturing of solar energy. Further, it utilizes a patent developed by the authors where a mechanism is designed for the transmission of reciprocating motion of variable amplitude into unidirectional circular motion. This is employed in our prototype for converting linear reciprocating motion into circular for electricity production, which gives a significant increase in efficiency and reduces maintenance costs. Preliminary calculations indicate that the Heliotrope approach constitutes a competitive solution to solar power production.

  9. A lignite-geothermal hybrid power and hydrogen production plant for green cities and sustainable buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilkis, B. [Baskent University, Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2011-02-15

    Turkey is rich in both geothermal energy and lignite reserves, which in many cases, are co-located. This condition makes it feasible to utilize both lignite and geothermal energy in a hybrid form for combined power heat, and cold generation, which may lead to optimally energy and exergy efficient, environmentally benign, and economically sound applications. This paper presents a novel concept of hybrid lignite-geothermal plant for a district energy system and hydrogen production facility in Aydin with special emphasis on high performance, green buildings and green districts. In this concept, lignite is first introduced to a partially fluidized-bed gasifier and then to a fluidized-bed gas cleaning unit, which produces synthetic gas and finally hydrogen. The by-products, namely char and ash are used in a fluidized-bed combustor to produce power. Waste heat from all these steps are utilized in a district heating system along with heat received from geothermal production wells after power is generated there. H{sub 2}S gas obtained from the separator system is coupled with hydrogen production process at the lignite plant. Absorption cooling systems and thermal storage tanks complement the hybrid system for the tri-generation district energy system. On the demand side, the new, green OSTIM OSB administration building in Ankara is exemplified for greener, low-exergy buildings that will compound the environmental benefits.

  10. Biological effects of activation products and other chemicals released from fusion power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, J.A.; Poston, T.M.

    1976-09-01

    Literature reviews indicate that existing information is incomplete, often contradictory, and of questionable value for the prediction and assessment of ultimate impact from fusion-associated activation products and other chemical releases. It is still uncertain which structural materials will be used in the blanket and first wall of fusion power plants. However, niobium, vanadium, vanadium-chromium alloy, vanadium-titanium alloy, sintered aluminum product, and stainless steel have been suggested. The activation products of principal concern will be the longer-lived isotopes of 26 Al, 49 V, 51 Cr, 54 Mn, 55 Fe, 58 Co, 60 Co, 93 Nb, and 94 Nb. Lithium released to the environment either during the mining cycle, from power plant operation or accident, may be in the form of a number of compound types varying in solubility and affinity for biological organisms. The effects of a severe liquid metal fire or explosion involving Na or K will vary according to inherent abiotic and biotic features of the affected site. Saline, saline-alkaline, and sodic soils of arid lands would be particularly susceptible to alkaline stress. Beryllium released to the environment during the mining cycle or reactor accident situation could be in the form of a number of compound types. Adverse effects to aquatic species from routine chemical releases (biocides, corrosion inhibitors, dissolution products) may occur in the discharge of both fission and fusion power plant designs

  11. Spatial Trade-Offs between Wind Power Production and Bird Collision Avoidance in Agricultural Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Eichhorn

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of renewable energy production is seen as an appropriate way to mitigate climate change. Renewable energies are not free of negative external effects on humans and the natural environment. We analyzed the conflict between wind power production and bird protection through the example of one of the most sensitive species, the red kite (Milvus milvus in West Saxony, Germany. We investigated a large number of potential land use scenarios, defined by whether or not each potential site contained a wind turbine (WT. Based on meteorological and ornithological data, we evaluated the land use scenarios for their annual energy supply and impact on the red kite. We identified the efficient land use scenarios that maximized energy supply for a given ecological impact. Within the scope of our analysis, the current allocation of WTs in the study region was considered inefficient. The set of efficient scenarios allowed us to draw conclusions on the trade-offs involved. We developed an indicator that measures the severity of the conflict between wind power production and bird protection. Increasing the minimum distance of WTs to settlements beyond the legal requirements in order to minimize the impact on humans further intensifies the conflict. Our results can support planning authorities in their development of long-term regional plans by identifying areas that are most suitable for wind power production from an integrated point of view.

  12. Production-integrated emission reduction: Examples from power plant engineering; Produktionsintegrierte Emissionsminderung - Beispiele aus der Kraftwirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reich, J.; Brueggendick, H. [STEAG AG, Essen (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    The contribution presents examples of how environmental protection can be integrated in the production process: 1. Low-NOx coal furnaces; 2. Flue gas desulphurisation; 3. Mercury in sludge from flue gas desulphurisation systems, 4. Production of acid aerosols in the power plant process; 5. Semi-dry flue gas desulphurisation. Apart from generating power, modern coal power stations also produce recycleable materials like gypsum, filter ash, granulates etc., all of which must meet certain quality specifications. Avoidance of residues is the main goal; if this is not possible, recycling is given priority over dumping. Recycling and utilisation of by-products can reduce the power generation cost by up to 15 %. The parameters concerned, i.e. fuels, furnace technology, flue gas purification technology, product utilisation, are weighted differently depending on the site. Solutions range form high-grade fuels and product requiring high investments (e.g. dust furnaces with limestone or ammonia scrubbers) to simple processes with lower investment cost (e.g. flue gas purification using dry or semi-dry processes). High investments and high-quality products are economically efficient only if there is an infrastructure for product sales and distribution. Coal power plants therefore must be optimised for the conditions of a given site. [German] Der Beitrag befasst sich mit einigen Beispielen fuer produktionsintegrierten Umweltschutz: 1. NO{sub x}-arme Steinkohlefeuerungen; 2. Rauchgasentschwefelung (REA); 3. Quecksilber in REA-Schlamm; 4. Sauere Aerosole und ihre Entstehung im Kraftwerksprozess; 5. Halbtrockene Rauchgasreinigung. Es wird resumiert, dass ein Kohlekraftwerk heute mehreren 'Meistern' gehorchen muss. Es erzeugt nicht nur Strom- und Waerme, sondern gleichzeitig noch Wertstoffe wie Gips, Filterasche, Granulat etc., die bestimmte Qualitaetsanforderungen erfuellen muessen. Der Grundsatz 'Vermeiden vor Verwerten vor Beseitigen' wird dabei nachdruecklich

  13. Hydrogen co-production from subcritical water-cooled nuclear power plants in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnanapragasam, N.; Ryland, D.; Suppiah, S., E-mail: gnanapragasamn@aecl.ca [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-06-15

    Subcritical water-cooled nuclear reactors (Sub-WCR) operate in several countries including Canada providing electricity to the civilian population. The high-temperature-steam-electrolysis process (HTSEP) is a feasible and laboratory-demonstrated large-scale hydrogen-production process. The thermal and electrical integration of the HTSEP with Sub-WCR-based nuclear-power plants (NPPs) is compared for best integration point, HTSEP operating condition and hydrogen production rate based on thermal energy efficiency. Analysis on integrated thermal efficiency suggests that the Sub-WCR NPP is ideal for hydrogen co-production with a combined efficiency of 36%. HTSEP operation analysis suggests that higher product hydrogen pressure reduces hydrogen and integrated efficiencies. The best integration point for the HTSEP with Sub-WCR NPP is upstream of the high-pressure turbine. (author)

  14. Economic Analysis of a Nuclear Reactor Powered High-Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E. A. Harvego; M. G. McKellar; M. S. Sohal; J. E. O'Brien; J. S. Herring

    2008-01-01

    A reference design for a commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) plant for hydrogen production was developed to provide a basis for comparing the HTE concept with other hydrogen production concepts. The reference plant design is driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear reactor coupled to a direct Brayton power cycle. The reference design reactor power is 600 MWt, with a primary system pressure of 7.0 MPa, and reactor inlet and outlet fluid temperatures of 540 C and 900 C, respectively. The electrolysis unit used to produce hydrogen includes 4,009,177 cells with a per-cell active area of 225 cm2. The optimized design for the reference hydrogen production plant operates at a system pressure of 5.0 MPa, and utilizes an air-sweep system to remove the excess oxygen that is evolved on the anode (oxygen) side of the electrolyzer. The inlet air for the air-sweep system is compressed to the system operating pressure of 5.0 MPa in a four-stage compressor with intercooling. The alternating-current, AC, to direct-current, DC, conversion efficiency is 96%. The overall system thermal-to-hydrogen production efficiency (based on the lower heating value of the produced hydrogen) is 47.12% at a hydrogen production rate of 2.356 kg/s. An economic analysis of this plant was performed using the standardized H2A Analysis Methodology developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program, and using realistic financial and cost estimating assumptions. The results of the economic analysis demonstrated that the HTE hydrogen production plant driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear power plant can deliver hydrogen at a competitive cost. A cost of $3.23/kg of hydrogen was calculated assuming an internal rate of return of 10%

  15. Water Stress on U.S. Power Production at Decadal Time Horizons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganguly, Auroop R. [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States). Sustainability and Data Sciences Lab.. Civil and Environmental Engineering Dept.; Ganguli, Poulomi [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States). Sustainability and Data Sciences Lab.; Kumar, Devashish [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States). Sustainability and Data Sciences Lab.

    2014-09-01

    Thermoelectric power production at risk, owing to current and projected water scarcity and rising stream temperatures, is assessed for the contiguous United States at decadal scales. Regional water scarcity is driven by climate variability and change, as well as by multi-sector water demand. While a planning horizon of zero to about thirty years is occasionally prescribed by stakeholders, the challenges to risk assessment at these scales include the difficulty in delineating decadal climate trends from intrinsic natural or multiple model variability. Current generation global climate or earth system models are not credible at the spatial resolutions of power plants, especially for surface water quantity and stream temperatures, which further exacerbates the assessment challenge. Population changes, which are difficult to project, cannot serve as adequate proxies for changes in the water demand across sectors. The hypothesis that robust assessments of power production at risk are possible, despite the uncertainties, has been examined as a proof of concept. An approach is presented for delineating water scarcity and temperature from climate models, observations and population storylines, as well as for assessing power production at risk by examining geospatial correlations of power plant locations within regions where the usable water supply for energy production happens to be scarcer and warmer. Our analyses showed that in the near term, more than 200 counties are likely to be exposed to water scarcity in the next three decades. Further, we noticed that stream gauges in more than five counties in the 2030s and ten counties in the 2040s showed a significant increase in water temperature, which exceeded the power plant effluent temperature threshold set by the EPA. Power plants in South Carolina, Louisiana, and Texas are likely to be vulnerable owing to climate driven water stresses. In all, our analysis suggests that under various combinations of plausible climate

  16. Very High Efficiency Reactor (VHER) Concepts for Electrical Power Generation and Hydrogen Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PARMA JR, EDWARD J.; PICKARD, PAUL S.; SUO-ANTTILA, AHTI JORMA

    2003-01-01

    The goal of the Very High Efficiency Reactor study was to develop and analyze concepts for the next generation of nuclear power reactors. The next generation power reactor should be cost effective compared to current power generation plant, passively safe, and proliferation-resistant. High-temperature reactor systems allow higher electrical generating efficiencies and high-temperature process heat applications, such as thermo-chemical hydrogen production. The study focused on three concepts; one using molten salt coolant with a prismatic fuel-element geometry, the other two using high-pressure helium coolant with a prismatic fuel-element geometry and a fuel-pebble element design. Peak operating temperatures, passive-safety, decay heat removal, criticality, burnup, reactivity coefficients, and material issues were analyzed to determine the technical feasibility of each concept

  17. Power-efficient production of photon pairs in a tapered chalcogenide microwire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer-Scott, Evan, E-mail: emeyersc@uwaterloo.ca; Dot, Audrey [Institute for Quantum Computing and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Ahmad, Raja; Li, Lizhu; Rochette, Martin [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, McGill University, 3480 University Street, Montréal, Québec H3A 2A7 (Canada); Jennewein, Thomas [Institute for Quantum Computing and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Quantum Information Science Program, Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, 180 Dundas Street West, Suite 1400, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1Z8 (Canada)

    2015-02-23

    Using tapered fibers of As{sub 2}Se{sub 3} chalcogenide glass, we produce photon pairs at telecommunication wavelengths with low pump powers. We found maximum coincidences-to-accidentals ratios of 2.13 ± 0.07 for degenerate pumping with 3.2 μW average power, and 1.33 ± 0.03 for non-degenerate pumping with 1.0 μW and 1.5 μW average power of the two pumps. Our results show that the ultrahigh nonlinearity in these microwires could allow single-photon pumping to produce photon pairs, enabling the production of large entangled states, heralding of single photons after lossy transmission, and photonic quantum information processing with nonlinear optics.

  18. Effects of internalising external production costs in a North European power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munksgaard, J.; Ramskov, J.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of integrating national power markets is to improve the overall efficiency thereby making a potential for reducing electricity prices. However, efficiency is not necessarily improved if external environmental protection costs are neglected. In this paper, we analyse the effects of regulating an integrated power market by using environmental producer taxes based on external production costs. The analysis is based on an empirical equilibrium model for the North European power market. The results show that internalising costs will increase electricity producer prices by 40-50% in the period from 1995 to 2020. Further, demand for electricity will be reduced by 10%. We conclude, however, that in order to achieve the national Kyoto targets of reducing CO 2 emissions, further regulation is needed, such as national CO 2 taxes or cost efficient mechanisms like tradeable permits and joint implementation. (author)

  19. High-power proton linac for transmuting the long-lived fission products in nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, G.P.

    1991-01-01

    High power proton linacs are being considered at Los Alamos as drivers for high-flux spallation neutron sources that can be used to transmute the troublesome long-lived fission products in defense nuclear waste. The transmutation scheme being studied provides a high flux (> 10{sup 16}/cm{sup 2}{minus}s) of thermal neutrons, which efficiently converts fission products to stable or short-lived isotopes. A medium-energy proton linac with an average beam power of about 110 MW can burn the accumulated Tc99 and I129 inventory at the DOE's Hanford Site within 30 years. Preliminary concepts for this machine are described. 3 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Main problems of increasing labour productivity in the power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falaleev, P.P.

    1984-01-01

    The reserve for labour productivity growth in power-, industrial- and civil engineering in the USSR Minenergo system are discussed. Such reserve comprises: introduction of effective designs, increase of technological readiness of structures; a higher mechanization level in construction, improvement of industrial organization, economical and social aspects. Decrease of labour inputs in NPP construction will be attained by using unified designs of serial WWER-1000, RBMK-1000- and RBMK-1500 reactors as well as by developing nuclear power construction complexes-industrial-construction enterprises for manufacturing and transport of special structures as well as for performing civil engineering and installation work on the ground part of the reactor building and special structure. Other potentialities for increasing labour productivity in NPP construction are considered

  1. Scenarios for power production with biomass in the Finnish forest industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nousiainen, I.K.; Malinen, H.O.; Villa, A.O.

    1997-01-01

    This study presents three scenarios for power production with biomass in Finnish pulp and paper mills. The basic scenario assumes that the production capacity in the forest industry increases as in the past. The green energy scenario assumes that there is a strong demand from the market for sustainable green energy production. The maximum scenario assumes that the production capacity of chemical pulp increases significantly and the use of wood raw material extends to the maximum level. According to the basic scenario the use of biofuels in the pulp and paper mills will increase from starting level, 3.24 Mtoe in 1992, to 5.07 Mtoe by the year 2010. The utilization potential of biofuels will increase to 5.45 Mtoe in green energy and to 6.43 Mtoe in the maximum biofuels scenario. The power production with biomass will increase from the starting level, 572 MW in 1992, to 930 MW in the basic, to 1 100 MW in the green energy and to 1 670 MW in the maximum biofuels scenario by the year 2010. (author)

  2. Phytoplankton abundance and productivity in the vicinity of an operating power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poornima, E.H.; Rajadurai, M.; Venugopalan, V.P.; Narasimhan, S.V.; Rao, V.N.R.

    2007-01-01

    The impact of power plant operation on the abundance and productivity of phytoplankton was monitored over a period of fifteen months. Field studies showed that in spite of the consistent reduction in phytoplankton biomass and productivity at the Outfall where the heated effluent is discharged, stations close to the mixing point did not show any significant change in phytoplankton biomass or productivity. This suggested that at the Mixing point, mixing of the heated effluents with the ambient seawater was rapid and very extensive, ensuring recovery of phytoplankton biomass and their productivity potential. Field studies during low-dose, shock-dose and no-chlorination suggested that chlorination caused greater damage to phytoplankton chlorophyll than temperature. Laboratory experiments revealed that diatom growth was not much influenced by passage through the condenser cooling system and they were able to grow between 28 deg C and 40 deg C. Short term experiments indicated that chemical stress due to chlorination might be more important than temperature in reducing phytoplankton biomass and productivity. Combined treatment of temperature and chlorine showed little synergistic effect. The data suggest that formulation of condenser discharge criteria of power plants must consider the relative effects of both the stress factors viz., temperature and chlorine. (author)

  3. Accelerating the introduction of HTS products for a broad range of electric power and industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Russell

    2002-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), as part of its Superconductivity Program for Electric Systems, is successfully pursuing the development of electric power and industrial devices, incorporating significant high-temperature superconducting (HTS) components or subsystems, through its innovative Superconducting Partnership Initiative (SPI). The objective of the SPI is to accelerate the commercial introduction of the HTS products for a broad range of electric power and industrial applications. DOE's approach to accomplishing the SPI objective is to support cost shared projects carried out by industry led teams. DOE will fund projects to develop HTS devices that are either in (1) the research and development stage (Phase 1), (2) the pre-commercialization stage (Phase II), or (3) the commercial entry stage (Phase III). DOE's industry partners must contribute at least half a project's costs. These teams will include capabilities needed to develop the device as well as to develop the business plan for the commercial product introduction. DOE's partners consist of vertically integrated teams consisting of equipment manufacturers, HTS wire and coil suppliers, national laboratories, and end users, primarily utilities. These partners carry out the multi-year technology development efforts, consisting generally of design, construction, and testing of the HTS system. Finally, commercialization of HTS products will be discussed primarily in terms of benefits these products will have over competing products based upon conventional conductors and the critical need for affordable, practical HTS materials and conductors for these applications. .

  4. An assessment of fission product data for decay power calculation in fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sridharan, M.S.; Murthy, K.P.N.

    1987-01-01

    A review of our present capability at IGC, Kalpakkam to predict fission product decay power in fast reactors is presented. This is accomplished by comparing our summation calculations with the calculations of others and the reported experimental measurements. Our calculations are based on Chandy code developed at our Centre. The fission product data base of Chandy is essentially drawn from the yield data compiled by Crouch (1977) and the data on halflives etc. compiled by Tobias (1973). In general, we find good agreement amongst the different calculations (within ±5%) and our calculations also compare well with experimental measurements of AKIAMA et al and MURPHY et al

  5. Innovative self-powered submersible microbial electrolysis cell (SMEC) for biohydrogen production from anaerobic reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini

    2012-01-01

    A self-powered submersible microbial electrolysis cell (SMEC), in which a specially designed anode chamber and external electricity supply were not needed, was developed for in situ biohydrogen production from anaerobic reactors. In batch experiments, the hydrogen production rate reached 17.8 m...... improvement of voltage output and reduction of electron losses were essential for efficient hydrogen generation. In addition, alternate exchanging the electricity-assisting and hydrogen-producing function between the two cell units of the SMEC was found to be an effective approach to inhibit methanogens...

  6. Production Planning with Respect to Uncertainties. Simulator Based Production Planning of Average Sized Combined Heat and Power Production Plants; Produktionsplanering under osaekerhet. Simulatorbaserad produktionsplanering av medelstora kraftvaermeanlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeggstaahl, Daniel [Maelardalen Univ., Vaesteraas (Sweden); Dotzauer, Erik [AB Fortum, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-12-01

    Production planning in Combined Heat and Power (CHP) systems is considered. The focus is on development and use of mathematical models and methods. Different aspects on production planning are discussed, including weather and load predictions. Questions relevant on the different planning horizons are illuminated. The main purpose with short-term (one week) planning is to decide when to start and stop the production units, and to decide how to use the heat storage. The main conclusion from the outline of pros and cons of commercial planning software are that several are using Mixed Integer Programming (MIP). In that sense they are similar. Building a production planning model means that the planning problem is formulated as a mathematical optimization problem. The accuracy of the input data determines the practical detail level of the model. Two alternatives to the methods used in today's commercial programs are proposed: stochastic optimization and simulator-based optimization. The basic concepts of mathematical optimization are outlined. A simulator-based model for short-term planning is developed. The purpose is to minimize the production costs, depending on the heat demand in the district heating system, prices of electricity and fuels, emission taxes and fees, etc. The problem is simplified by not including any time-linking conditions. The process model is developed in IPSEpro, a heat and mass-balance software from SimTech Simulation Technology. TOMLAB, an optimization toolbox in MATLAB, is used as optimizer. Three different solvers are applied: glcFast, glcCluster and SNOPT. The link between TOMLAB and IPSEpro is accomplished using the Microsoft COM technology. MATLAB is the automation client and contains the control of IPSEpro and TOMLAB. The simulator-based model is applied to the CHP plant in Eskilstuna. Two days are chosen and analyzed. The optimized production is compared to the measured. A sensitivity analysis on how variations in outdoor

  7. Power-law approach to modeling biological systems. II. Application to ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voit, E O; Savageau, M A

    1982-01-01

    The use of the power-law formalism is illustrated by modeling yeast ethanol production in batch culture at high cell densities. Parameter values are estimated from experimental data. The results suggest that ethanol killing of viable cells and lysis of nonviable cells are major determinants of system behavior, whereas catabolism of ethanol and inhibition of cell growth by ethanol appear to be insignificant under these experimental conditions.

  8. Comparative analysis for power generation and ethanol production from sugarcane residual biomass in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seabra, Joaquim E.A.; Macedo, Isaias C.

    2011-01-01

    This work compares the technical, economic and environmental (GHG emissions mitigation) performance of power generation and ethanol production from sugarcane residual biomass, considering conversion plants adjacent to a sugarcane mill in Brazil. Systems performances were simulated for a projected enzymatic saccharification co-fermentation plant (Ethanol option) and for a commercial steam-Rankine power plant (Electricity option). Surplus bagasse from the mill would be used as fuel/raw material for conversion, while cane trash collected from the field would be used as supplementary fuel at the mill. For the Electricity option, the sugarcane biorefinery (mill+adjacent plant) would produce 91 L of ethanol per tonne of cane and export 130 kWh/t of cane, while for the Ethanol option the total ethanol production would be 124 L/t of cane with an electricity surplus of 50 kWh/t cane. The return on investment (ROI) related to the biochemical conversion route was 15.9%, compared with 23.2% for the power plant, for the conditions in Brazil. Considering the GHG emissions mitigation, the environmentally preferred option is the biochemical conversion route: the net avoided emissions associated to the adjacent plants are estimated to be 493 and 781 kgCO 2 eq/t of dry bagasse for the Electricity and Ethanol options, respectively. - Research Highlights: → Power generation would present better profitability than ethanol production from sugarcane residues in Brazil, in the reference scenario adopted here. → The Ethanol option would be able to mitigate more GHG emissions in Brazil. → The economics for the ethanol production technology are more likely to improve in the future.

  9. Influence of Buoyancy Control Performance on Power Production by the Wave Dragon Nissum Bredning Prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Tedd, James; Friis-Madsen, E.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on the real sea performance of the buoyancy control system of Wave Dragon, a floating wave energy converter using the overtopping principle. The device operates with the full independent control system which has been tested during three years of operation. The impact of the buo...... of the buoyancy control system performance on the power production is noted. This provides motivation and a target for improved control algorithms....

  10. Steam condensation process in a power production cycle and heat exchanger for it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tondeur, Gerard; Andro, Jean; Marjollet, Jacques; Pouderoux, Pierre.

    1982-01-01

    Steam condensation process in a power production cycle by expansion in turbines, characterized by the fact that this condensation is performed by the vaporization of a coolant with a vaporization temperature at atmospheric pressure lower than that of water, and that the vaporized coolant fluid is expanded in a turbine and then condensed by heat exchange with cold water being heated, while the liquefied coolant is recompressed and used for heat exchange with the steam to be condensed [fr

  11. Market Power in Poultry Production Contracting? Evidence from a Farm Survey

    OpenAIRE

    MacDonald, James M.; Key, Nigel D.

    2012-01-01

    The exercise of market power by broiler processing firms (integrators) is plausible because local markets for growers are concentrated and because growers face hold-up risks arising from substantial investments in specific assets set against limited integrator purchase commitments. This article explores the links between local integrator concentration and grower compensation under production contracts using data from the 2006 broiler version of the USDA’s Agricultural Resource Management Su...

  12. A decision for security of supply and climate friendly power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigler, Hans-Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    On 27 November 2016, the Swiss people voted on the 2016 nuclear phase-out referendum. The majority of the voters were, as in the case of previous anti-nuclear movements, pragmatic and nuclear- friendly. The clear rejection of the demanded overhasty nuclear phase-out is also a vote of confidence by the Swiss voters in the nuclear power plants and their operators. After the vote, the focus now is on the basic conditions and future for the domestic electricity production.

  13. Power infrastructure quality and manufacturing productivity in Africa: A firm level analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moyo, Busani

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to examine the impact of the quality of power infrastructure on productivity in African manufacturing firms using data from the World Bank enterprise surveys. We measured power infrastructure quality using the number of hours per day without electricity and the percentage of output lost due to outages and found these indicators to be negative and significant determinants of productivity. These variables seem to be significant determinants in Uganda, Tanzania and Zambia as well as in the food and agriculture sector. To improve economic growth and encourage employment creation, governments in Africa have to come up with measures to improve the reliability of electricity infrastructure. - Highlights: • Power infrastructure quality indicators are found to have a negative and significant effect. • The power quality indicators have varied effects both at country and sector level. • Owning a generator minimises the negative impact of outages in Uganda, Tanzania and Mauritius. • Other controls like labour, capital, foreign ownership etc. have a positive and significant effect. • The firm age variable is insignificant suggesting that accumulated knowledge does not matter

  14. Wake interaction and power production of variable height model wind farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vested, M H; Sørensen, J N; Hamilton, N; Cal, R B

    2014-01-01

    Understanding wake dynamics is an ongoing research topic in wind energy, since wakes have considerable effects on the power production when wind turbines are placed in a wind farm. Wind tunnel experiments have been conducted to study the wake to wake interaction in a model wind farm in tandem with measurements of the extracted power. The aim is to investigate how alternating mast height influences the interaction of the wakes and the power production. Via the use of stereo-particle image velocimetry, the flow field was obtained in the first and last rows of the wind turbine array as a basis of comparison. It was found that downstream of the exit row wind turbine, the power was increased by 25% in the case of a staggered height configuration. This is partly due to the fact that the taller turbines reach into a flow area with a softened velocity gradient. Another aspect is that the wake downstream of a tall wind turbine to some extent passes above the standard height wind turbine. Overall the experiments show that the velocity field downstream of the exit row changes considerably when the mast height is alternating

  15. Assessment of advanced small-scale combined heat and power production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spitzer, J. [Joanneum Research (Austria)

    1996-12-31

    To increase the share of renewable energy sources, bioenergy has to be used for electricity generation, preferably in combined heat and power (CHP) production systems, besides its traditional use in space heating. The need for small-scale, i.e. below 5 MW{sub el}, CHP production arises from the fact that a considerable portion of the available solid biofuels may not be transported over long distances for economic reasons and that in many cases the heat demand is below 10 MW{sub el} in district heating schemes in communities with less than 10 000 inhabitants. The available technical options have to be assessed with respect to performance, reliability and economy. Such an assessment has been performed in a study where the following options have been compared: Gasification - combustion engine or gas turbine; Combustion - steam turbine/engine; Combustion - hot air turbine; Combustion - Stirling engine. While conventional steam cycle systems are available and reliable they are generally not economical in the power range under consideration. Among the other systems, which are not yet commercially available, the Stirling engine system seems to be attractive in the power range below 500 kW{sub el} and the hot air system could close the gap to the steam cycle systems, i.e. cover the power range between 0.5 and 5.0 MW{sub el}. Gasification schemes seem less suitable: The power generation part (combustion engine and gas turbine) is well established for natural gas, with the combustion engine in the lower (<5 MW{sub el}) and the gas turbine in the higher (>5MW{sub el}) power range. However, the gas quality needed for the operation of a combustion engine requires expensive pre-treatment of the gas from wood gasification so that this scheme is less attractive for the power range under consideration. These conclusions lead to R and D efforts in Austria in two directions: Hot air turbine: A utility demonstration plant is under construction with a power of 1 600 kW{sub el

  16. Assessment of advanced small-scale combined heat and power production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spitzer, J [Joanneum Research (Austria)

    1997-12-31

    To increase the share of renewable energy sources, bioenergy has to be used for electricity generation, preferably in combined heat and power (CHP) production systems, besides its traditional use in space heating. The need for small-scale, i.e. below 5 MW{sub el}, CHP production arises from the fact that a considerable portion of the available solid biofuels may not be transported over long distances for economic reasons and that in many cases the heat demand is below 10 MW{sub el} in district heating schemes in communities with less than 10 000 inhabitants. The available technical options have to be assessed with respect to performance, reliability and economy. Such an assessment has been performed in a study where the following options have been compared: Gasification - combustion engine or gas turbine; Combustion - steam turbine/engine; Combustion - hot air turbine; Combustion - Stirling engine. While conventional steam cycle systems are available and reliable they are generally not economical in the power range under consideration. Among the other systems, which are not yet commercially available, the Stirling engine system seems to be attractive in the power range below 500 kW{sub el} and the hot air system could close the gap to the steam cycle systems, i.e. cover the power range between 0.5 and 5.0 MW{sub el}. Gasification schemes seem less suitable: The power generation part (combustion engine and gas turbine) is well established for natural gas, with the combustion engine in the lower (<5 MW{sub el}) and the gas turbine in the higher (>5MW{sub el}) power range. However, the gas quality needed for the operation of a combustion engine requires expensive pre-treatment of the gas from wood gasification so that this scheme is less attractive for the power range under consideration. These conclusions lead to R and D efforts in Austria in two directions: Hot air turbine: A utility demonstration plant is under construction with a power of 1 600 kW{sub el

  17. Environmental and ventilation benefits for underground mining operations using fuel cell powered production equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocsis, C.; Hardcastle, S.

    2007-01-01

    The benefits of replacing diesel engines with fuel cells in mine production equipment were discussed. The paper was part of a multi-year feasibility study conducted to evaluate the use of hydrogen fuel cell-powered equipment to replace diesel engine powered equipment in underground mining operations. The feasibility study demonstrated that fuel cells are capable of eliminating the unwanted by-products of combustion engines. However, the use of fuel cells also reduced the amount of ventilation that mines needed to supply, thereby further reducing energy consumption. This study examined the benefits of replacing diesel engines with fuel cells, and discussed the mitigating qualifiers that may limit ventilation energy savings. Solutions to retaining and maintaining additional ventilation in the event of hydrogen leaks from fuel cell stacks were also investigated. The analyses were conducted on 6 operating mines. Current operating costs were compared with future operating conditions using fuel cell powered production vehicles. Operating costs of the primary ventilation system were established with a mine ventilation simulator. The analysis considered exhaust shaft velocities, heating system air velocities, and levels of silica exposure. Canadian mine design criteria were reviewed. It was concluded that appropriate safeguards are needed along hydrogen distribution lines to lower the impacts of hydrogen leaks. Large financial commitments may also be required to ensure a spark-free environment. 20 refs., 6 tabs., 3 figs

  18. Geothermal power production in future electricity markets-A scenario analysis for Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purkus, Alexandra; Barth, Volker

    2011-01-01

    Development and diffusion of new renewable energy technologies play a central role in mitigating climate change. In this context, small-scale deep geothermal power has seen growing interest in recent years as an environmentally friendly, non-intermittent energy source with large technical potential. Following the first successful demonstration projects, the German geothermal industry is currently experiencing an internationally unparalleled growth. In this study we explore the factors driving this development, and the role geothermal power production could play in the future of the German electricity market. For this, we apply the scenario technique, based on literature analysis and interviews with companies operating actively in the field. Our findings highlight the importance of political support and framework conditions in the electricity market, with the best prospects in a decentralised energy system based on renewable energy sources, where high investment costs and the risk of discovery failure are balanced by the benefits of low-carbon base load power. - Research highlights: → Small scale geothermal plants could provide base load for RES based power systems. → New technologies allow its use even in geologically inactive regions like Germany. → Key factors for growth are political support and power market framework conditions. → Main investment barriers are comparatively high investment costs and discovery risks. → Scale of use depends on technological evolution and energy system structure.

  19. Maximizing the transferred power to electric arc furnace for having maximum production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samet, Haidar; Ghanbari, Teymoor; Ghaisari, Jafar

    2014-01-01

    In order to increase production of an EAF (electric arc furnace) by reduction of melting time, one can increase transferred power to the EAF. In other words a certain value of energy can be transferred to the EAF in less time. The transferred power to the EAF reduces when series reactors are utilized in order to have stable arc with desired characteristics. To compensate the reduced transferred power, the secondary voltage of the EAF transformer should be increased by tap changing of the transformer. On the other hand, after any tap changing of the EAF transformer, improved arc stability is degraded. Therefore, the series reactor and EAF transformer tap changing should be simultaneously determined to achieve arc with desired characteristics. In this research, three approaches are proposed to calculate the EAF system parameters, by which the optimal set-points of the different series reactor and EAF transformer taps are determined. The electric characteristics relevant to the EAF for the all transformer and series reactor taps with and without SVC (static VAr compensator) are plotted and based on these graphs the optimal set-points are tabulated. Finally, an economic evaluation is also presented for the methods. - Highlights: • The main goal is to transfer the maximum power to electric arc furnace. • Optimal transformer and series reactor taps are determined. • Arc stability and transferred power to EAF determine the optimal performance. • An economic assessment is done and the number of increased meltings is calculated

  20. Quantifying the Sensitivity of the Production of Environmental Externalities to Market-Based Interventions in the Power Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peer, R.; Sanders, K.

    2017-12-01

    The optimization function that governs the dispatching of power generators to meet electricity demand minimizes the marginal cost of electricity generation without regard to the environmental or public health damages caused by power production. Although technologies exist for reducing the externalities resulting from electricity generation at power plants, current solutions typically raise the cost of power production or introduce operational challenges for the grid. This research quantifies the trade-offs and couplings between the cooling water, greenhouse gas emissions, and air quality impacts of different power generating technologies under business as usual market conditions, as well as a series of market-based interventions aimed to reduce the production of those externalities. Using publicly available data from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the US Energy Information Administration (EIA) for power plant water use and emissions, a unit commitment and dispatch power market simulation model is modified to evaluate the production of environmental externalities from power production. Scenarios are developed to apply a set of fees for cooling water, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide and sulfur oxide emissions, respectively. Trade-offs between environmental performance, overall generation costs, and shifts in the power plants dispatched to meet demand are quantified for each power market simulation. The results from this study will provide insight into the development of a novel market-based framework that modifies the optimization algorithms governing the dispatching of electricity onto the grid in efforts to achieve cost-effective improvements in its environmental performance without the need for new infrastructure investments.

  1. Thermodynamic aspects of power production in thermal, chemical and electrochemical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sieniutycz, Stanisław; Poświata, Artur

    2012-01-01

    We apply optimization methods to study power generation limits for various energy converters, such as thermal, solar, chemical, and electrochemical engines. Methodological similarity is observed when analysing power limits in thermal machines and fuel cells which are electrochemical flow engines. Operative driving forces and voltage are suitable indicators of imperfect phenomena in energy converters. The results obtained generalize our previous findings for power yield limits in purely thermal systems with finite rates. While temperatures T i of participating media were only necessary variables in purely thermal systems, in the present work both temperatures and chemical potentials μ k are essential. This case is associated with engines propelled by fluxes of both energy and substance. In dynamical systems downgrading or upgrading of resources may occur. Energy flux (power) is created in the generator located between the resource fluid (‘upper’ fluid 1) and the environmental fluid (‘lower’ fluid, 2). Fluid properties, transfer mechanisms and conductance values of dissipative layers or conductors influence the rate of power production. Numerical approaches to the dynamical solutions are based on the dynamic programming or maximum principle. Here we focus especially on the latter method, which involves discrete algorithms of Pontryagin’s type. Downgrading or upgrading of resources may also occur in electrochemical systems of fuel cell type. Yet, in this paper we restrict ourselves to the steady-state fuel cells. We present a simple analysis showing that, in linear systems, only at most ¼ of power dissipated in the natural transfer process can be transformed into the noble form of mechanical power.

  2. Method of inhibiting concentration of radioactive corrosion products in cooling water or nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takabayashi, Jun-ichi; Hishida, Mamoru; Ishikura, Takeshi.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To suppress the increase in the concentration of the radioactive corrosion products in cooling water, which increase is accompanied by the transference of the corrosion products activated and accumulated in the core due to dissolution and exfoliation into the core water, and inhibit the flowing of said products out of the core and the diffusion thereof into the cooling system, thereby to prevent the accumulation of said products in the cooling system and prevent radioactive contaminations. Method: In a nuclear power plant of a BWR type light water reactor, when the temperature of the pile water is t 0 C, hydrogen is injected in cooling water in a period of time from immediately before starting of the drive stopping operation of the nuclear power plant to immediately after the termination of restarting operation, whereby the concentration of hydrogen in the reactor water through said period is maintained at a value more than 2exp (0.013 t) cm 3 N.T.P./kg H 2 O. (Aizawa, K.)

  3. Production and distribution of chlorination by-products in the cooling water system of a coastal power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinnitha, E.; Rajamohan, R.; Venugopalan, V.P.; Narasimhan, S.V.

    2008-01-01

    Employing chlorination as antifouling agent in cooling water circuits of coastal power plants can lead to the production of chlorination by-products (CBP), mainly due to chlorine's reactions with the organic compounds present in natural seawater. Important among the by products are trihalomethane, haloacetonitriles, halo acetic acids, halo phenols etc., with trihalomethanes (THM) generally being the predominant compounds. The THM species that are commonly observed are chloroform, mono bromodichloromethane, dibromochloro-methane and bromoform. The present work was carried out to understand the production and distribution of chlorination by products (mainly trihalomethanes) in the cooling water systems of Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS). Field studies were carried out in which samples collected from the intake, forebay pump house, out fall point and mixing point were analysed for THM using gas chromatograph with electron capture detector. The results showed that bromoform was the dominant THM formed as a result of chlorination, followed by dibromochloromethane. Mono bromodichloromethane and chloroform were not observed in seawater throughout the study period. Moreover, no THM could be detected at the intake point. The total THM values at other stations ranged between 25-250 μgL -1 , the highest values were observed at the process seawater pump outlet and the lowest at the mixing point. The concentrations of CBP's formed were found to be related to the chlorine residuals measured. In addition, laboratory experiments were carried out to understand CBP formation as a function of chlorine dose and contact time. Chlorine doses ranging from 1 to 10 mgL -1 were added to unfiltered seawater and the various THMs formed were analysed after different time intervals. The results confirmed that bromoform was the dominant THM species, followed by dibromochloromethane, as observed in the field studies. As the chlorine doses increased, the other THMs, namely, mono

  4. Electronics Come of Age: A Taxonomy for Miscellaneous and LowPower Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordman, Bruce; Sanchez, Marla C.

    2006-08-01

    Most energy end uses such as space conditioning or waterheating are apparently well-defined in what is included, and haveterminology that derives from the professionals who work in the relevantfield. The topic of miscellaneous consumption lacks such clarity forhistorical and practical reasons. As this end use grows in size andinterest for the energy community, the confusion and ambiguity around thetopic is an increasing barrier to progress. This paper providesdefinitions for key terms and concepts with the intent that that futurework can be more correctly and consistently reported and interpreted. Inaddition, it provides a taxonomy of product types and categories, whichcovers both residential and commercial miscellaneous consumption. A keyelement is identification of "electronics" as a distinct energy end use.Finally, products are identified as to whether they commonly have alow-power mode, and product types that have such modes within thetraditional end uses are also listed.

  5. Energy Production System Management - Renewable energy power supply integration with Building Automation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, Joao; Martins, Joao

    2010-01-01

    Intelligent buildings, historically and technologically, refers to the integration of four distinctive systems: Building Automation Systems (BAS), Telecommunication Systems, Office Automation Systems and Computer Building Management Systems. The increasing sophisticated BAS has become the 'heart and soul' of modern intelligent buildings. Integrating energy supply and demand elements - often known as Demand-Side Management (DSM) - has became an important energy efficiency policy concept. Nowadays, European countries have diversified their power supplies, reducing the dependence on OPEC, and developing a broader mix of energy sources maximizing the use of renewable energy domestic sources. In this way it makes sense to include a fifth system into the intelligent building group: Energy Production System Management (EPSM). This paper presents a Building Automation System where the Demand-Side Management is fully integrated with the building's Energy Production System, which incorporates a complete set of renewable energy production and storage systems.

  6. Hydrogen Production System with High Temperature Electrolysis for Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kentaro, Matsunaga; Eiji, Hoashi; Seiji, Fujiwara; Masato, Yoshino; Taka, Ogawa; Shigeo, Kasai

    2006-01-01

    Steam electrolysis with solid oxide cells is one of the most promising methods for hydrogen production, which has the potential to be high efficiency. Its most parts consist of environmentally sound and common materials. Recent development of ceramics with high ionic conductivity suggests the possibility of widening the range of operating temperature with maintaining the high efficiency. Toshiba is constructing a hydrogen production system with solid oxide electrolysis cells for nuclear power plants. Tubular-type cells using YSZ (Yttria-Stabilized- Zirconia) as electrolyte showed good performance of steam electrolysis at 800 to 900 deg C. Larger electrolysis cells with present configuration are to be combined with High Temperature Reactors. The hydrogen production efficiency on the present designed system is expected around 50% at 800 to 900 deg C of operating temperature. For the Fast Reactors, 'advanced cell' with higher efficiency at lower temperature are to be introduced. (authors)

  7. Computer study of isotope production for medical and industrial applications in high power accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashnik, S. G.; Wilson, W. B.; Van Riper, K. A.

    2001-07-01

    Methods for radionuclide production calculation in a high power proton accelerator have been developed and applied to study production of 22 isotopes. These methods are readily applicable both to accelerator and reactor environments and to the production of other radioactive and stable isotopes. We have also developed methods for evaluating cross sections from a wide variety of sources into a single cross section set and have produced an evaluated library covering about a third of all natural elements that may be expanded to other reactions. A 684 page detailed report on this study, with 37 tables and 264 color figures, is available on the Web at http://t2.lanl.gov/publications/.

  8. A computer study of radionuclide production in high power accelerators for medical and industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Riper, K. A.; Mashnik, S. G.; Wilson, W. B.

    2001-05-01

    Methods for radionuclide production calculation in a high power proton accelerator have been developed and applied to study production of 22 isotopes by high-energy protons and neutrons. These methods are readily applicable to accelerator, and reactor, environments other than the particular model we considered and to the production of other radioactive and stable isotopes. We have also developed methods for evaluating cross sections from a wide variety of sources into a single cross section set and have produced an evaluated library covering about a third of all natural elements. These methods also are applicable to an expanded set of reactions. A 684 page detailed report on this study, with 37 tables and 264 color figures is available on the Web at http://t2.lanl.gov/publications/publications.html, or, if not accessible, in hard copy from the authors.

  9. Implementation of heat production and storage technology and devices in power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanovsky, G.; Mutale, J.

    2012-01-01

    Implementation of heat storage devices and technologies at power generation plants is a promising way to provide more efficient use of natural energy resources. Heat storage devices can partly replace conventional heating technologies (such as direct use of fossil fuels) during peak energy demand or in the situations where heat and electricity supply and demand do not coincide and to obtain low cost heat energy which can be further transmitted to industrial, commercial and domestic consumers. This paper presents the innovative Heat Production and Storage Device and its application at conventional, nuclear and renewable power generation plants for optimization and balancing of electricity grids. The Heat Production and Storage Device is a vessel type induction-immersion heat production and storage device which produces pre-heated water under pressure for heat energy conservation. Operation of this device is based on simultaneous and/or sequential action of an inductor and an immersion heater and can be easily connected to the electricity network as a single or a three phase unit. Heat energy accumulated by the Heat Production and Storage Device can be utilized in different industrial technological processes during periods of high energy prices. - Highlights: ► Heat Production and Storage Device for energy conservation within low load hours. ► Simultaneous and/or sequential operation of the inductor and immersion heater. ► Transform the energy of low frequency electrical current (50 Hz) into heat energy. ► Connection to the electricity network either in single or three phase unit. ► Heat Production and Storage Device will enhance the economic value of the system.

  10. Influence of renewable sources of energy on the operation of the production capacity in electrical power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolova-Potseva, Sofija

    2012-01-01

    In the PhD dissertation an approach for solving the generation scheduling problem between conventional power plants in a complex power system with integrated wind power plants is presented. The system that is analyzed is composed of thermal power plants, storage hydro power plants, pumped-storage hydro power plants, additional systems to deal with pumping water of pumped-storage hydro power plants and wind power plants. The model takes into consideration thermal power plants with and without contracted energy production over the study period. The objective of the generation scheduling problem in such a hybrid system is to determine the optimal amounts of generation power of conventional power plants over the study period, so that the total production costs of thermal power plants and additional units engaged for pumping water of pumped-storage hydro power plants be minimal and be satisfied the relevant real operational constraints of the system. The problem model takes into account the following constraints: power balance equations, constraints resulting from power output limits of thermal and hydro power plants, balance equations for contracted energy for thermal power plants with contracted energy production, power output limits of wind energy system and balance equations for available volume of water of storage hydro power plants and pumped-storage hydro power plants over the study period. The proposed model for power plant optimal operation does not take into account the system configuration and network losses. The computer program is developed in Matlab, in order to verify the proposed method for solving the optimal generation scheduling of conventional power plants in complex power system with integrated wind power plants. The developed computer program has been applied to specific systems and different variants of systems with integrated wind power plants have been analyzed. Particular problem in the operation of the power system is suppressed energy towards

  11. Securing a safer, greener, expandable nuclear fuel cycle supply chain for future power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capus, Georges

    2009-01-01

    After looking at what is necessary to sustainably ensure the global nuclear power plant fleet expansion, it becomes appearant that advanced reactor design should be accompanied with a greener and more flexible fuel cycle capability. The financial crisis has invaded all the front pages and our thoughts. However it has not rescheduled the growth of world population or reduced the desire of people in emerging economies to achieve a higher level of 'development'; nor has it alleviated climate change issues that demand CO2 constrained power sources. What is the outlook for nuclear power? On a worldwide basis, we have today a significant fleet of nuclear power plants, operating well, upgrading output, extending lifetime, and producing not only a safe reliable flow of electricity but a good flow of cash as well. For the countries hosting significant shares of this fleet, their nuclear power plants are increasingly precious assets, and despite the financial crisis, most of them are considering expansion of their nuclear fleets. For the others, the desire to access such a reliable and ultimately cheap source of energy will last longer than the temporary difficulties to get its financing. In short, the outlook for a massive phase of new nuclear builds remains very likely. Then comes the consequential issue of the nuclear fuel supply chain. From uranium exploration and production to back end solutions, most of the existing facilities were designed and startup decades ago. The question is therefore, does this supply chain offer the requested characteristics to sustain the nuclear power plants fleet for the long run? By requested characteristics, it is meant not only adequate capacity and improvement of quality, but also environmentally friendly new designs and processes. This paper is aimed at recalling the current situation of the supply chain, then at describing the status of major projects, and finally at identifying some gaps and issues

  12. Power production from biomass II with special emphasis on gasification and pyrolysis R and DD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipilae, K; Korhonen, M [eds.; VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1997-12-31

    The Seminar on Power Production from Biomass II with special emphasis on gasification and pyrolysis R and DD, was organized by VTT Energy on 27 - 28 March 1995 in Espoo, Finland. All seminar speakers were invited in order to give a high-level overview of the achievements of biomass combustion, gasification and flash pyrolysis technologies. The sessions included presentations by all key industrial entrepreneurs in the field. The poster session was open to all groups interested. Globally bioenergy covers about 3 % of the primary energy consumption. Locally it has a significant role in many countries like in Finland, where bioenergy covers almost 15 % and peat 5 % of primary energy consumption. Today`s cost-effective heat and power production is based on industrial wood residues and spent cooking liquors in relatively large industrial units or municipal heating and power stations. Agricultural residues like straw and especially energy crops are becoming more interesting in co-utilization with other biomasses or fossil fuels. The seminar successfully displayed the status of present technologies as well as development targets for new gasification and flash pyrolysis technologies in the coming years. The many industrial participants showed that there are growing business possibilities in many countries all over the world. The proceedings include the most oral presentations given at the Seminar and also abstracts of poster presentations. (orig.)

  13. Power production from biomass II with special emphasis on gasification and pyrolysis R and DD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipilae, K.; Korhonen, M. [eds.] [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1996-12-31

    The Seminar on Power Production from Biomass II with special emphasis on gasification and pyrolysis R and DD, was organized by VTT Energy on 27 - 28 March 1995 in Espoo, Finland. All seminar speakers were invited in order to give a high-level overview of the achievements of biomass combustion, gasification and flash pyrolysis technologies. The sessions included presentations by all key industrial entrepreneurs in the field. The poster session was open to all groups interested. Globally bioenergy covers about 3 % of the primary energy consumption. Locally it has a significant role in many countries like in Finland, where bioenergy covers almost 15 % and peat 5 % of primary energy consumption. Today`s cost-effective heat and power production is based on industrial wood residues and spent cooking liquors in relatively large industrial units or municipal heating and power stations. Agricultural residues like straw and especially energy crops are becoming more interesting in co-utilization with other biomasses or fossil fuels. The seminar successfully displayed the status of present technologies as well as development targets for new gasification and flash pyrolysis technologies in the coming years. The many industrial participants showed that there are growing business possibilities in many countries all over the world. The proceedings include the most oral presentations given at the Seminar and also abstracts of poster presentations. (orig.)

  14. A dynamic model to assess tradeoffs in power production and riverine ecosystem protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miara, Ariel; Vörösmarty, Charles J

    2013-06-01

    Major strategic planning decisions loom as society aims to balance energy security, economic development and environmental protection. To achieve such balance, decisions involving the so-called water-energy nexus must necessarily embrace a regional multi-power plant perspective. We present here the Thermoelectric Power & Thermal Pollution Model (TP2M), a simulation model that simultaneously quantifies thermal pollution of rivers and estimates efficiency losses in electricity generation as a result of fluctuating intake temperatures and river flows typically encountered across the temperate zone. We demonstrate the model's theoretical framework by carrying out sensitivity tests based on energy, physical and environmental settings. We simulate a series of five thermoelectric plants aligned along a hypothetical river, where we find that warm ambient temperatures, acting both as a physical constraint and as a trigger for regulatory limits on plant operations directly reduce electricity generation. As expected, environmental regulation aimed at reducing thermal loads at a single plant reduces power production at that plant, but ironically can improve the net electricity output from multiple plants when they are optimally co-managed. On the technology management side, high efficiency can be achieved through the use of natural gas combined cycle plants, which can raise the overall efficiency of the aging population of plants, including that of coal. Tradeoff analysis clearly shows the benefit of attaining such high efficiencies, in terms of both limiting thermal loads that preserve ecosystem services and increasing electricity production that benefits economic development.

  15. Design of a full scale model fuel assembly for full power production reactor flow excursion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, C.A.; Blake, J.E.; Rush, G.C.

    1990-01-01

    A novel full scale production reactor fuel assembly model was designed and built to study thermal-hydraulic effects of postulated Savannah River Site (SRS) nuclear reactor accidents. The electrically heated model was constructed to simulate the unique annular concentric tube geometry of fuel assemblies in SRS nuclear production reactors. Several major design challenges were overcome in order to produce the prototypic geometry and thermal-hydraulic conditions. The two concentric heater tubes (total power over 6 MW and maximum heat flux of 3.5 MW/m 2 ) (1.1E+6 BTU/(ft 2 hr)) were designed to closely simulate the thermal characteristics of SRS uranium-aluminum nuclear fuel. The paper discusses the design of the model fuel assembly, which met requirements of maintaining prototypic geometric and hydraulic characteristics, and approximate thermal similarity. The model had a cosine axial power profile and the electrical resistance was compatible with the existing power supply. The model fuel assembly was equipped with a set of instruments useful for code analysis, and durable enough to survive a number of LOCA transients. These instruments were sufficiently responsive to record the response of the fuel assembly to the imposed transient

  16. Integrating wind power in the (French) power system; Eolien et systeme de production d'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellen, A

    2007-03-15

    RTE and EDF have no other technological option than to restrain the contribution of the French wind power fleet to base-load generation where it comes in direct competition with the nuclear power plants. The author aims to explain this situation and answer the following questions. Why the fossil fueled reactor fleet in France will not be affected by an evolution of the wind power capacity? Why, in France electric power generation-demand SYSTEM wind power cannot be a substitute for fossil fueled thermal units? (A.L.B.)

  17. Estimated population exposure from nuclear power production and other radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pochin, E.E.

    1976-01-01

    Estimates are given of the total radiation dose from all forms of ionizing radiation resulting from nuclear power reduction. A power consumption of 1kW per head of population, derived entirely from nuclear energy, would increase the average radiation exposure of the whole population from 100mrem per year from natural sources (plus about 40mrem per year from medical procedures and other artificial causes) by about 6mrem per year. The genetically signifificant component of this increase would be about 4mrem per year. Available estimates of harm from radiation would indicate that this would give a risk per year per million of population of about 1 fatal induced malignancy, about the same number of malignancies fully treatable by operation, and, after many generations, about the same number of inherited defects, of greater or less severity, per year. Accidental injuries, particularly in constructional and mining work, would cause an estimated 1 fatality and 50 other accidents annually. Indications are given of the number of fatalities and accidents involved in equal power production by alternative methods, and of the value and limitations of such numerical comparisons in reaching decisions on the development of future power programmes

  18. Power unit with GT-MHR reactor plant for electricity production and district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiryushin, A.L.; Kodochigov, N.G.; Kuzavkov, N.G.; Golovko, V.F.

    2000-01-01

    Modular helium reactor with the gas turbine (GT-MHR) is a perspective power reactor plant for the next century. The project reactor is based on experience of operation more than 50 gas-cooled reactors on carbon dioxide and helium, and also on subsequent achievements in the field of realization direct gas turbine Brayton cycle. To the beginning of 90 years, achievements in technology of gas turbines, highly effective recuperators and magnetic bearings made it possible to start development of the reactor plant project combining a safe modular gas cooled reactor and a power conversion system, realizing the highly effective Brayton cycle. The conceptual project of the commercial GT-MHR reactor plant fulfilled in 1997 by joint efforts of international firms, combines a safe modular reactor with an annular active core of prismatic fuel blocks and a power conversion system with direct gas turbine cycle. The efficiency of GT-MHR gas turbine cycle at level of about 48% makes it competitive in the electricity production market in comparison with any fossil or nuclear power stations

  19. An assessment of using oil shale for power production in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, L.J.; Holcomb, R.S.; Petrich, C.H.; Roop, R.D.

    1990-11-01

    This report addresses the oil shale-for-power-production option in Jordan. Under consideration are 20- and 50-MW demonstration units and a 400-MW, commercial-scale plant with, at the 400-MW scale, a mining operation capable of supplying 7.8 million tonnes per year of shale fuel and also capable of disposal of up to 6.1 million tonnes per year of wetted ash. The plant would be a direct combustion facility, burning crushed oil shale through use of circulating fluidized bed combustion technology. The report emphasizes four areas: (1) the need for power in Jordan, (2) environmental aspects of the proposed oil shale-for-power plant(s), (3) the engineering feasibility of using Jordan's oil shale in circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) boiler, and (4) the economic feasibility of the proposed plant(s). A sensitivity study was conducted to determine the economic feasibility of the proposed plant(s) under different cost assumptions and revenue flows over the plant's lifetime. The sensitivity results are extended to include the major extra-firm benefits of the shale-for-power option: (1) foreign exchange savings from using domestic energy resources, (2) aggregate income effects of using Jordan's indigenous labor force, and (3) a higher level of energy security. 14 figs., 47 tabs.

  20. Thermodynamic and heat transfer analysis of LNG energy recovery for power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco, A; Casarosa, C

    2014-01-01

    An important option to transport the gas is to convert it into liquid natural gas (LNG) and convey it using insulated LNG tankers. At receiving terminals, the LNG is offloaded into storage tanks and then pumped at the required pressure and vaporized for final transmission to the pipeline. The LNG production process consumes a considerable amount of energy, while the cold availability, as also known as cold energy, has been stored in LNG. At a receiving terminal, LNG needs to be evaporated into gas at environmental temperature before fed into the gas distribution system. Seawater is commonly used for the regasification process of the LNG. In the present paper, after a general analysis of the perspectives of the various thermodynamic schemes proposed for power production from the regasification, a detailed analysis of enhanced direct expansion system is carried out in order to identify the upper level of the energy that can be recovered. The analysis outlines that power production typical of optimized ORC plant configurations (120 kJ/kg) can be obtained with direct expansion solutions

  1. Studies of activation products in the terrestrial environment of three swedish nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingemansson, T.; Erlandsson, B.; Mattsson, S.

    1982-01-01

    Samples of sewage sludge, lichen (Cladonia alpestris), soil and ground level air have been analysed for activation products released to the atmosphere from the three Swedish nuclear power stations at Simpevarp near Oskarshamn, Ringhals and Barsebaeck. The activity concentration of the activation products in the sludge can be arranged in the following sequence: 60 Co > 65 Zn > 58 Co 54 Mn. There is agreement between the time variation of the activity concentration in the sludge and the reported releases to the air from the power stations. The measured activity ratio 58 Co/ 60 Co in sludge does not significantly differ from that reported in the releases to the air. The activity concentration in sludge sedimented from incoming waste water has been used to get better time resolution than using only digested sludge from the final step of the plant. These studies have shown that the activity concentration of 60 Co increases substantially with the first rain run-off that reaches the sewage plant and then falls off rapidly. Measurements on samples of lichen and underlying soil show that the radioactive cobalt isotopes ( 58 Co and 60 Co) have a short mean residence time in the lichen carpet compared to most fission products present in global fall-out. (author)

  2. The Environmental Mitigation Potential of Photovoltaic-Powered Irrigation in the Production of South African Maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Wettstein

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is under pressure to reduce its environmental impact. The use of renewable energy sources has potential to decrease these impacts. Maize is one of the most significant crops in South Africa and approximately 241,000 hectares are irrigated. This irrigation is most commonly powered by grid electricity generated using coal. However, South Africa has high solar irradiation, which could be used to generate photovoltaic electricity. The aim of this study was to determine the environmental mitigation potential of replacing grid-powered irrigation in South African maize production with photovoltaic irrigation systems using Life Cycle Assessment. The study included the value chain of maize production from cultivation to storage. Replacing grid electricity with photovoltaic-generated electricity leads to a 34% reduction in the global warming potential of maize produced under irrigation, and—applied at a national level—could potentially reduce South Africa’s greenhouse gas emissions by 536,000 t CO2-eq. per year. Non-renewable energy demand, freshwater eutrophication, acidification, and particulate matter emissions are also significantly lowered. Replacing grid electricity with renewable energy in irrigation has been shown to be an effective means of reducing the environmental impacts associated with South African maize production.

  3. Radioecological studies of activation products released from a nuclear power plant into the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattsson, S.; Nilsson, M.; Holm, E.

    1980-01-01

    Since 1967 samples of Fucus serratus and Fucus vesi--culosus from the Swedish west-coast were collected for analysis of the concentration of fallout products, natural actinides and products released by the nuclear industry. During this time two nuclear power stations were built and began operation in this area, ''Ringhals'' in 1974 and ''Barseback'' in 1975. When detectable concentrations of Co-60 and other activation products were found in Fucus, the sampling program was intensified, both in the vicinity of ''Barseback'' and at localities up to 150 km north. Our studies have shown that measurements on Fucus can be used to map the distribution of various radionuclides from a nuclear power station in the marine environment. Knowledge of this distribution and of factors affecting it are needed to construct a radioecological model for the estimation of individual and collective dose equivalent commitment arising from intake of food and water from the marine environment of the south-west of Sweden. (H.K.)

  4. Thermodynamic and heat transfer analysis of LNG energy recovery for power production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, A.; Casarosa, C.

    2014-11-01

    An important option to transport the gas is to convert it into liquid natural gas (LNG) and convey it using insulated LNG tankers. At receiving terminals, the LNG is offloaded into storage tanks and then pumped at the required pressure and vaporized for final transmission to the pipeline. The LNG production process consumes a considerable amount of energy, while the cold availability, as also known as cold energy, has been stored in LNG. At a receiving terminal, LNG needs to be evaporated into gas at environmental temperature before fed into the gas distribution system. Seawater is commonly used for the regasification process of the LNG. In the present paper, after a general analysis of the perspectives of the various thermodynamic schemes proposed for power production from the regasification, a detailed analysis of enhanced direct expansion system is carried out in order to identify the upper level of the energy that can be recovered. The analysis outlines that power production typical of optimized ORC plant configurations (120 kJ/kg) can be obtained with direct expansion solutions.

  5. Externalities of biomass based electricity production compared to power generation from coal in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faaij, A.; Meuleman, B.

    1997-12-01

    Externalities of electricity production from biomass and coal are investigated and compared for the Dutch context. Effects on economic activity and employment are investigated by means of Input/Output and multiplier tables. Valuations of damage from emissions to air are based on generic data from other studies. In addition, external costs are estimated for nitrogen leaching and for the use of agrochemicals for energy crop production. The average private costs for biomass and coal based power generation are projected to be 68 and 38 mECU/kWh respectively in the year 2005. It is assumed that biomass production takes place on fallow land. Coal mining is excluded from the analysis. If the quantified external damages and benefits are included the cost range for bio-electricity is 53-70 mECU/kWh and 45-72 mECU/kWh for coal. Indirect economic effects (increment of Gross Domestic Product) and the difference in CO2 emissions are the most important distinguishing factors between coal and biomass in economic terms. Damage costs of other emissions to air (NOx, SO2, dust and CO) are of the same order of magnitude for both coal and biomass (coal mining excluded). In this analysis environmental impacts of energy farming are compared mainly to fallow land focused on the use of fertilizers and agrochemicals. The related damage costs appear to be low but should be considered as a preliminary estimate only. The quantitative outcomes should not be considered as the external costs of the two fuel cycles studied. Many impacts have not been valued and large uncertainties persist e.g. with respect to the costs of climate change and numerous dose response relations. More detailed analysis is required with respect to macro-economic impacts. The results serve as a first indication, but the outcomes plead for the support of bio-electricity production and/or taxation of coal based power generation. 88 refs

  6. Uncertainties and Wakes for Short-term Power Production of a Wind Farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Göçmen, Tuhfe; Giebel, Gregor

    2018-01-01

    Similar to the conventional power plants, the wind farms are expected to contribute to the grid stability and communicate with the system operators regarding the potential power production on much shorter time scales than AEP or even 10-min. Additionally, increasing interest to aerodynamic control...... of wind farms, both in the research community and in the industry, necessitates the wake models to be more accurate and reliable at shorter intervals. In this study, we discuss the uncertainties attached to an engineering wake model derived for 1-sec turbine data, and investigate the methods for reducing...... the uncertainty of such an application via further training the model for the wind farm and the time period in question using the historical data....

  7. Program THEK energy production units of average power and using thermal conversion of solar radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    General studies undertaken by the C.N.R.S. in the field of solar power plants have generated the problem of building energy production units in the medium range of electrical power, in the order of 100 kW. Among the possible solutions, the principle of the use of distributed heliothermal converters has been selected as being, with the current status of things, the most advantageous solution. This principle consists of obtaining the conversion of concentrated radiation into heat by using a series of heliothermal conversion modules scattered over the ground; the produced heat is collected by a heat-carrying fluid circulating inside a thermal loop leading to a device for both regulation and storage.

  8. Special scientific programme on use of high energy accelerators for transmutation of actinides and power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    Various techniques for the transmutation of radioactive waste through the use of high energy accelerators are reviewed and discussed. In particular, the present publication contains presentations on (i) requirements and the technical possibilities for the transmutation of long-lived radionuclides (background paper); (ii) high energy particle accelerators for bulk transformation of elements and energy generation; (iii) the resolution of nuclear energy issues using accelerator-driven technology; (iv) the use of proton accelerators for the transmutation of actinides and power production; (v) the coupling of an accelerator to a subcritical fission reactor (with a view on its potential impact on waste transmutation); (vi) research and development of accelerator-based transmutation technology at JAERI (Japan); and (vii) questions and problems with regard to accelerator-driven nuclear power and transmutation facilities. Refs, figs and tabs

  9. From probabilistic forecasts to statistical scenarios of short-term wind power production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinson, Pierre; Papaefthymiou, George; Klockl, Bernd

    2009-01-01

    on the development of the forecast uncertainty through forecast series. However, this additional information may be paramount for a large class of time-dependent and multistage decision-making problems, e.g. optimal operation of combined wind-storage systems or multiple-market trading with different gate closures......Short-term (up to 2-3 days ahead) probabilistic forecasts of wind power provide forecast users with highly valuable information on the uncertainty of expected wind generation. Whatever the type of these probabilistic forecasts, they are produced on a per horizon basis, and hence do not inform....... This issue is addressed here by describing a method that permits the generation of statistical scenarios of short-term wind generation that accounts for both the interdependence structure of prediction errors and the predictive distributions of wind power production. The method is based on the conversion...

  10. Ownership options, financing structures, and regulatory considerations affecting independent power production projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, G.M.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper is a framework for analysis of the legal, financing, and policy differences between independent power production projects (IPPs) and projects with qualifying facility status (QFs) under the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA). At a basic level, there is no fundamental difference in types of ownership and financing structures available to IPPs and QFS. The key consideration, though, is the regulatory and legal implications to project participants. Significant issues arise for equity participants, lenders, developers, and project operators that are considering IPP projects. Of course, many of these same issues apply to certain types of QF projects that are not fully exempt from the Public Utility Holding Company Act (PUHCA) and the Federal Power Act (FPA)

  11. High-Efficiency Food Production in a Renewable Energy Based Micro-Grid Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David; Meiners, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Controlled Environment Agriculture (CEA) systems can be used to produce high-quality, desirable food year round, and the fresh produce can positively contribute to the health and well being of residents in communities with difficult supply logistics. While CEA has many positive outcomes for a remote community, the associated high electric demands have prohibited widespread implementation in what is typically already a fully subscribed power generation and distribution system. Recent advances in CEA technologies as well as renewable power generation, storage, and micro-grid management are increasing system efficiency and expanding the possibilities for enhancing community supporting infrastructure without increasing demands for outside supplied fuels. We will present examples of how new lighting, nutrient delivery, and energy management and control systems can enable significant increases in food production efficiency while maintaining high yields in CEA. Examples from Alaskan communities where initial incorporation of renewable power generation, energy storage and grid management techniques have already reduced diesel fuel consumption for electric generation by more than 40% and expanded grid capacity will be presented. We will discuss how renewable power generation, efficient grid management to extract maximum community service per kW, and novel energy storage approaches can expand the food production, water supply, waste treatment, sanitation and other community support services without traditional increases of consumable fuels supplied from outside the community. These capabilities offer communities with a range of choices to enhance their communities. The examples represent a synergy of technology advancement efforts to develop sustainable community support systems for future space-based human habitats and practical implementation of infrastructure components to increase efficiency and enhance health and well being in remote communities today and tomorrow.

  12. Ozone Production With Dielectric Barrier Discharge: Effects of Power Source and Humidity

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xuming

    2016-08-24

    Ozone synthesis in air dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) was studied with an emphasis on the effects of power sources and humidity. Discharge characteristics were investigated to understand the physical properties of plasma and corresponding system performance. It was found that 10-ns pulsed DBD produced a homogeneous discharge mode, while ac DBD yielded an inhomogeneous pattern with many microdischarge channels. At a similar level of the energy density (ED), decreasing the flowrate is more effective in the production of ozone for the cases of the ac DBD, while increased voltage is more effective for the pulsed DBD. Note that the maximum ozone production efficiency (110 g/kWh) was achieved with the pulsed DBD. At the ED of ∼ 85 J/L, the ozone concentrations with dry air were over three times higher than those with the relative humidity of 100% for both the ac DBD and pulsed DBD cases. A numerical simulation was conducted using a global model to understand a detailed chemical role of water vapor to ozone production. It was found HO and OH radicals from water vapor significantly consumed O atoms, resulting in a reduction in ozone production. The global model qualitatively captured the experimental trends, providing further evidence that the primary effect of humidity on ozone production is chemical in nature.

  13. A novel simultaneous photoelastic and two-beam interferometric system: I. Dynamic full-field evaluation of the elasticity modulus profile of polymeric fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza, A A; Sokkar, T Z N; El-Farahaty, K A; Raslan, M I

    2014-06-01

    A novel optical setup for simultaneous capturing of photoelastic and two-beam interference patterns was designed. The designed optical setup was used to simultaneously record two types of patterns. The first pattern is two-beam interference pattern, and the second one is photoelastic interference pattern produced by objects under stress. This simultaneous capturing of the two patterns allowed us to calculate the full-field distribution of the elasticity modulus profile of fibres. A mathematical expression of the profile of the elasticity modulus was derived. This was applied to evaluate the elasticity modulus of anisotropic isotactic polypropylene fibres during stretching processes. The profile of the elasticity modulus was determined for both static and dynamic in situ cases where the propagation of different structural deformations was observed and studied using the designed optical setup. Patterns were given for illustration. © 2014 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2014 Royal Microscopical Society.

  14. The Two-Beam-Line Ion Implanter and Review of its Application to Creation of Complex Layers by the IBAD Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajchel, B.; Drwiega, M.; Lipinska, E.; Hajduk, R.

    1998-12-01

    The present status of the two-beam-line ion implanter its basic specifications after the upgrading and the possibilities of its application to ion engineering methods is presented. The examples of created layers (DLC, TiN x , SiC x ) and research methods applied to find out the features of the ion beam assisted deposited coatings are presented in order to prove the suitability of the device to scientific studies

  15. Thermodynamic analyses of solar thermal gasification of coal for hybrid solar-fossil power and fuel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Yi Cheng; Lipiński, Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    Thermodynamic analyses are performed for solar thermal steam and dry gasification of coal. The selected types of coal are anthracite, bituminous, lignite and peat. Two model conversion paths are considered for each combination of the gasifying agent and the coal type: production of the synthesis gas with its subsequent use in a combined cycle power plant to generate power, and production of the synthesis gas with its subsequent use to produce gasoline via the Fischer–Tropsch synthesis. Replacement of a coal-fired 35% efficient Rankine cycle power plant and a combustion-based integrated gasification combined cycle power plant by a solar-based integrated gasification combined cycle power plant leads to the reduction in specific carbon dioxide emissions by at least 47% and 27%, respectively. Replacement of a conventional gasoline production process via coal gasification and a subsequent Fischer–Tropsch synthesis with gasoline production via solar thermal coal gasification with a subsequent Fischer–Tropsch synthesis leads to the reduction in specific carbon dioxide emissions by at least 39%. -- Highlights: ► Thermodynamic analyses for steam and dry gasification of coal are presented. ► Hybrid solar-fossil paths to power and fuels are compared to those using only combustion. ► Hybrid power production can reduce specific CO 2 emissions by more than 27%. ► Hybrid fuel production can reduce specific CO 2 emissions by more than 39%.

  16. Validation of the standalone implementation of the dynamic wake meandering model for power production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keck, Rolf-Erik Henrik Jussi

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents validation for using the standalone implementation of the dynamic wake meandering (DWM) model to conduct numerical simulations of power production of rows of wind turbines. The standalone DWM model is an alternative formulation of the conventional DWM model that does not require...... information exchange with an aeroelastic code. As a consequence, the standalone DWM model has significantly shorter computational times and lower demands on the user environment. The drawback of the standalone DWM model is that it does not have the capability to predict turbine loads. Instead, it should...

  17. Evaluation Of Electricity Production Cost Of Commercial Nuclear Power Plant Models

    OpenAIRE

    DÖNER, Nimeti

    2017-01-01

    The level of the development of countries is being measured by thecountry’s quantity of production and consumption energy. Concerning Turkey,according to an energy report of The World Energy Council Turkish NationalCommittee in order to meet the electricity needs of the country in 2010, there should befounded a 2000 MW(e) capacity nuclear power plant. For the nuclear electric powerplant considered to be founded in Turkey, three types of commercial reactor models,that are Pressiued Water React...

  18. Production and quality control of concrete for the Rajasthan Atomic Power Station - [Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh Roy, P.K.; Sukhtankar, K.D.; Prasad, K.

    1975-01-01

    The following aspects of the production and quality control of concrete and concrete materials used in the construction of twin-reactor Rajasthan Atomic Power Station are discussed : (1) relationship between strength of cubes and cylinders made of concrete used for the prestressed dome (2) temperature control during pouring of concrete (3) thermal conductivity of heavy concrete (4) various types of grouting procedures used for different structures forming part of reactors (5) quality control of normal and heavy concrete and (6) leakage through form ties. Typical concrete mixes used for grouts are also given. (M.G.B.)

  19. Production costs: U.S. gas turbine ampersand combined-cycle power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This fourth edition of UDI's gas turbine O ampersand M cost report gives 1991 operation and maintenance expenses for over 450 US gas turbine power plants. Modeled on UDI's popular series of O ampersand M cost reports for US steam-electric plants, this report shows operator and plant name, plant year-in-service, installed capacity, 1991 net generation, total fuel expenses, total non-fuel O ampersand M expenses, total production costs, and current plant capitalization. Coverage includes over 90 percent of the utility-owned gas/combustion turbine and combined-cycle plants installed in the country

  20. Problems of building social and production bases for the construction of the Temelin nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchopar, J.

    1984-01-01

    A survey is given of capital costs of building parts and the concept is presented of the equipment of a building site. The social basis consists of accommodation units, cloakrooms, catering units, utility units, a health care centre and a shopping centre. The production base consists of a central concrete plant, cement plant, central armour unit, forming hall, storage area, buildings for pre-assembly, fleet of trucks and other machines, maintenance and repair shops. The network infrastructure and the mains connections are designed and the procedure of the build up of the site is described. The experience is summed up and recommendations made for future nuclear power plant projects. (E.S.)

  1. Transfer parameters of fission and activation products present in effluents of nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancio, D.; Menossi, C.A.; Ciallella, N.R.

    1978-01-01

    The paper presents results of research carried out in Argentina on transfer parameters of fission and activation products which may be present in the effluents of nuclear power reactors. For some nuclides, as Sr-90, Co-137 and I-131, the parameters were obtained by studies of the fallout, from measurements of integrated levels in the environment and in the food chains. Other values are concentration factors derived from laboratory and field experiments. They refer to fish, molluscs, crustaces and fresh water plants, for several fission and activation nuclides. Transfer parameters obtained have been of significant importance for environmental assessments, relating to nuclear installations in Argentina. (author)

  2. Optimization of the production plan and risk control in Third Qinshan Nuclear Power Co.,Ltd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Jun

    2009-01-01

    Some optimized and improved measures have been taken in Third Qinshan Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. (TQNPC) to optimize the routine production plan management, strengthen the maintenance work risk analysis, and improve the plan execution capability. Which involve unified management of generation, refueling, periodic test and maintenance plans; simplifying the defect scale and reducing the intermediate link of defect treatment; intensifying the appraisal on plan execution and adopting star performance evaluation and merit rating measures. In this paper, the above-mentioned improvement and optimization are introduced comprehensively and systematically. (authors)

  3. Peak power and heavy water production from electrolytic H2 and O2 using CANDU reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammerli, M.; Stevens, W.H.; Bradley, W.J.; Butler, J.P.

    1976-04-01

    A combined energy storage - heavy water production system is presented. Off-peak nuclear energy is stored in the form of electrolytic H 2 (and O 2 ) from which a large fraction of the deuterium has been transferred to water in an H 2 /H 2 O deuterium exchange catalytic column. The main features and advantages of the combined electrolysis -catalytic exchange D 2 O process are discussed. Significant quantities of D 2 O could be produced economically at reasonable peak to base power cost ratios. Thirty to forty percent of the primary electric energy should be available for peak energy via either gas-steam turbines or fuel cells. (author)

  4. Design and Control of Integrated Systems for Hydrogen Production and Power Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgis, Dimitrios

    Growing concerns on CO2 emissions have led to the development of highly efficient power plants. Options for increased energy efficiencies include alternative energy conversion pathways, energy integration and process intensification. Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) constitute a promising alternative for power generation since they convert the chemical energy electrochemically directly to electricity. Their high operating temperature shows potential for energy integration with energy intensive units (e.g. steam reforming reactors). Although energy integration is an essential tool for increased efficiencies, it leads to highly complex process schemes with rich dynamic behavior, which are challenging to control. Furthermore, the use of process intensification for increased energy efficiency imposes an additional control challenge. This dissertation identifies and proposes solutions on design, operational and control challenges of integrated systems for hydrogen production and power generation. Initially, a study on energy integrated SOFC systems is presented. Design alternatives are identified, control strategies are proposed for each alternative and their validity is evaluated under different operational scenarios. The operational range of the proposed control strategies is also analyzed. Next, thermal management of water gas shift membrane reactors, which are a typical application of process intensification, is considered. Design and operational objectives are identified and a control strategy is proposed employing advanced control algorithms. The performance of the proposed control strategy is evaluated and compared with classical control strategies. Finally SOFC systems for combined heat and power applications are considered. Multiple recycle loops are placed to increase design flexibility. Different operational objectives are identified and a nonlinear optimization problem is formulated. Optimal designs are obtained and their features are discussed and compared

  5. THERMAL POWER LOSS COMPENSATION IN THE PRODUCTION OF COOKED AND DRIED GRAINS WITH HEAT PUMPS USING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Shevtsov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using scientificand practical experience and analysis of recent innovative activity on modernization of food concentrates production, a new variant of the energy-efficient processing of cereal crops using superheated steam and direct involvement in the cooking and drying process waste energy using the vapor compression heat pump was suggested. A method for production of cereal concentrates, which is realized using microprocessor control of technological parameters. According to the information on the processes of cereals washing, cooking, drying and cooling microprocessor provides regime parameters control under the restrictions due to both yield of cooked and dried cereal of high quality and economic feasibility. At the same time the amount of moisture is continuously determined in the recirculation loop formed by the evaporation from the cereals in the drying process. To implement the proposed method of cooked and dried cereals production it is offered to use refrigerationand compressor unit operating in a heat pump mode. The refrigerant to be used is khladon 12V1 CF2ClBr with a boiling point in the evaporator of 4°C and the condensing temperature of 153.7 °C. The use of the heat pump in the heat supply system of cooked and dried cereals production instead of electric heaters will reduce power costs by 1.72 times. The proposed method for the production and control of technological parameters in the field of the product acceptable technological properties will provide high quality cooked and dried cereals; an increase in thermal efficiency by making full use of the waste heat of superheated steam; the reduction of specific energy consumption by 25-30 %; the creation of waste-free and environmentally friendly technologies for cereal production.

  6. Sub-micrometric surface texturing of AZ31 Mg-alloy through two-beam direct laser interference patterning with a ns-pulsed green fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlan, Valentina; Biondi, Marco; Demir, Ali Gökhan; Pariani, Giorgio; Previtali, Barbara; Bianco, Andrea

    2017-11-01

    Two-beam direct laser interference patterning (DLIP) is the method that employs two beams and provides control over the pattern geometry by regulating the angle between the beams and the wavelength of the beam. Despite the simplistic optical arrangement required for the method, the feasibility of sub-micrometric patterning of a surface depends on the correct manipulation of the process parameters, especially in the case of metallic materials. Magnesium alloys, from this point of view, exhibit further difficulty in processability due to low melting point and high reactivity. With biocompatibility and biodegradability features, Mg-alloy implants can take further advantage of surface structuring for tailoring the biological behaviour. In this work, a two-beam DLIP setup has been developed employing an industrial grade nanosecond-pulsed fiber laser emitting at 532 nm. The high repetition rate and ramped pulse profile provided by the laser were exploited for a more flexible control over the energy content deposited over the heat-sensitive Mg-alloy. The paper describes the strategies developed for controlling ramped laser emission at 20 kHz repetition rate. The process feasibility window was assessed within a large range of parameters. Within the feasibility window, a complete experimental plan was applied to investigate the effect of main laser process parameters on the pattern dimensions. Periodic surface structures with good definition down to 580 nm ± 20 nm spacing were successfully produced.

  7. Autothermal upgrading of biomass and wastes for clean and efficient production of power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafal Kobylecki; Zbigniew Bis; Wojciech Nowak [Czestochowa University of Technology (Poland)

    2005-07-01

    In this paper it is demonstrated that the main barrier of large scale heat and electricity production from biomass may be significantly reduced or eliminated by fuel upgrading and thermal treatment in a specially-designed pilot plant autothermal reactor. The process does not require significant amount of additional energy, since the whole process is run autothermal. The process final products are hot flue gases and a solid residue called a 'biocarbon' of LHV of roughly 28 MJ/kg. The properties of the biocarbon were similar, regardless of the input raw fuel type (biomass, waste, sewage sludge, energy crops, etc.). The use of the biocarbon for direct co-combustion with coal does not require installation of any additional feeding or fuel treatment systems at the power plants. Apart from its possible direct combustion, the biocarbon can be also efficiently used as a promising solid energy carrier for other processes (e.g. fuel cells). 6 refs., 6 figs.

  8. Overview of Maximum Power Point Tracking Techniques for Photovoltaic Energy Production Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koutroulis, Eftichios; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    production of PV sources, despite the stochastically varying solar irradiation and ambient temperature conditions. Thereby, the overall efficiency of the PV energy production system is increased. Numerous techniques have been presented during the last decades for implementing the MPPT process in a PV system......A substantial growth of the installed photovoltaic (PV) systems capacity has occurred around the world during the last decade, thus enhancing the availability of electric energy in an environmentally friendly way. The maximum power point tracking (MPPT) technique enables to maximize the energy....... This chapter provides an overview of the operating principles of these techniques, which are suited for either uniform or nonuniform solar irradiation conditions. The operational characteristics and implementation requirements of these MPPT methods are also analyzed in order to demonstrate their performance...

  9. Inventory of future power and heat production technologies; Inventering av framtidens el- och vaermeproduktionstekniker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekstroem, Clas (Vattenfall Research and Development AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    's Water Framework Directive. Combined heat and power with a steam cycle is currently the most cost-effective alternative for biofuel based power production, and it also provides optimal utilization of fuel. The potential here is restricted mainly by the amount of available district heating demands. Gasification with gas turbines or gas engines ensures higher electricity efficiency for plants up to 50 MW, although costs are currently high. Wind power has become competitive owing to fast international expansion, although only on the strength of effective climate-related control measures and measures favouring renewable energy production. Its potential is restricted by the quantities that can be integrated into the electricity network, given that production is reliant on wind conditions. The possibility of storing electricity/energy could increase its usability. Wave power is a promising future alternative, although currently at an early stage of development. Its potential is restricted by the quantities that can be integrated into the electricity network, given that production is entirely reliant on waves. Combined plants with combined heat and power or district heating improve the overall utilization of fuel. Upgrading solid biofuels to pellets is currently a competitive option, and torrefication could prove an interesting option should there be a demand for prolonged storing ability and improved grindability. Pyrolysis oil can be burned in simple plants, and would also enable a cost-effective use of 'problematic' biofuels. Infrastructure and handling must however be adapted to the fact that pyrolysis oil is corrosive and unstable for storing. The competitiveness of all biofuel based automotive fuel alternatives studied pre-supposes that future control measures within the transport sector are equally effective as those currently in place. Under current conditions biogas is a competitive alternative to petrol, but its potential is curbed by the restricted

  10. Life cycle assessment of hydrogen and power production by supercritical water reforming of glycerol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galera, S.; Gutiérrez Ortiz, F.J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The environmental performance of the supercritical water reforming (SCWR) of glycerol was assessed. • Biogenic CO 2 emissions allowed quantifying a realistic GHG inventory of 3.8 kg CO 2 -eq/kg H 2 . • The environmental profile of SCWR process was compared to those of other technologies. • A good environmental performance of H 2 and power production by SCWR of glycerol was obtained. - Abstract: The environmental performance of hydrogen and electricity production by supercritical water reforming (SCWR) of glycerol was evaluated following a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. The heat-integrated process was designed to be energy self-sufficient. Mass and energy balances needed for the study were performed using Aspen Plus 8.4, and the environmental assessment was carried out through SimaPro 8.0. CML 2000 was selected as the life cycle impact assessment method, considering as impact categories the global warming, ozone layer depletion, abiotic depletion, photochemical oxidant formation, eutrophication, acidification, and cumulative energy demand. A distinction between biogenic and fossil CO 2 emissions was done to quantify a more realistic GHG inventory of 3.77 kg CO 2 -eq per kg H 2 produced. Additionally, the environmental profile of SCWR process was compared to other H 2 production technologies such as steam methane reforming, carbon gasification, water electrolysis and dark fermentation among others. This way, it is shown that SCWR of glycerol allows reducing greenhouse gas emissions and obtaining a favorable positive life cycle energy balance, achieving a good environmental performance of H 2 and power production by SCWR of glycerol

  11. Production of 165 Dy for radiation synovectomy, in a low-power (slowpoke) nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridges, C.; Duke, M.J.M.; McQuarrie, S.A.; Wiebe, L.I.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Severe, debilitating pain accompanies inflammation of the synovial membrane in rheumatoid arthritis. Under certain conditions, radiation synovectomy is an effective alternative to surgery for relief of these symptoms. Radionuclides which decay by the emission of beta particles, or beta plus low yields of gamma/x-rays are indicated for this medical application. Of the radionuclides with appropriate decay emissions, half-life and physical/chemical properties, 165 Dy is a suitable candidate for production in a low-power reactor. Literature methods for production of this radiopharmaceutical usually involve irradiating solid Dy(OH) 3 , which is dissolved in HCl to form DyCl 3 and then re-precipitated under controlled conditions using NaOH, to produce the desired particle size for medical use. A procedure in which most or all of this post-irradiation processing can be eliminated is particularly important when using low neutron flux reactors, in order to avoid reductions in the amount of deliverable radiopharmaceutical. Radiological safety considerations may also necessitate avoiding post-irradiation processing, since low-power reactor facilities usually have no appropriate hot cells for extensive manipulation of highly active samples. Appropriately-sized, pre-formed Dy(OH) 3 particles were produced under a variety of conditions in attempts to produce a stable, sodium-free product that would be suitable for irradiation and use without further processing. Sodium content could be reduced to about 165 Dy production yields and particle characteristics will be presented in support of this concept

  12. WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES (IMPPCCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doug Strickland; Albert Tsang

    2002-10-14

    The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is conducted by a multi-industry team lead by Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC), and supported by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation. Three project phases are planned for execution over a three year period, including: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility, and for fence-line commercial plants operated at Dow Chemical or Dow Corning chemical plant locations; (2) Research, development, and testing to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues; and (3) Engineering design and financing plan to install an integrated commercial demonstration facility at the existing Wabash River Energy Limited (WREL) plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana. This report describes management planning, work breakdown structure development, and feasibility study activities by the IMPPCCT consortium in support of the first project phase. Project planning activities have been completed, and a project timeline and task list has been generated. Requirements for an economic model to evaluate the West Terre Haute implementation and for other commercial implementations are being defined. Specifications for methanol product and availability of local feedstocks for potential commercial embodiment plant sites have been defined. The WREL facility is a project selected and co-funded under the fifth phase solicitation of the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other solid fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis

  13. Consequences of flexible electricity production from biogas on the conventional power plant fleet and the CO2 emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzhammer, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    Electricity production using biogas is rather homogeneous throughout the year due to the compensational regulations. As a consequence of the fluctuating energy production from renewable energy sources a more flexible electricity production is needed. The contribution deals with the regulations and measures of the new renewable energy law 2012 and their impact on the conventional power plant fleet and the carbon dioxide emissions and their impact on an improvement of demand-oriented electricity production.

  14. Economics of the production of liquid fuel and fertilizer by the fixation of atmospheric carbon and nitrogen using nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, S.; Steinberg, M.

    1975-01-01

    The economics of using reactor power during off-peak period for the production of H 2 and fixation of C to produce methanol and the fixation of N 2 for the production of NH 3 are reviewed to show that it is economically feasible with the current prices of fossil fuels. The incremental energy costs for synthesis processes are summarized. Methanol and ammonia production and economics are analyzed. An additional economic advantage would be the possible production of single cell protein

  15. Reliability of offshore wind power production under extreme wind conditions. Deliverable D 9.5. Work Package 9: Electrical grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio; Zeni, Lorenzo

    years, with each year simulated with five random seeds, leading to a total of 25 annual wind power time series for six large offshore wind farms, summing up to a little over 330 wind turbines. Two storm control strategies were used. The analysis involved several aspects inspired from reliability studies....... The aspects investigated are storm events occurrences and durations, storm control strategy impact on the capacity factor (lost production), the loss of production (power produced from wind drops below a certain threshold due to high wind speeds and storm controller) and finally, the wind power production......Reliability of offshore wind production under extreme wind conditions was investigated in this report. The wind power variability from existing and future large offshore wind farms in Western Denmark were simulated using the Correlated Wind model developed at Risø. The analysis was done for five...

  16. Inventory of future power and heat production technologies. Partial report Energy combines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thunman, Henrik; Lind, Fredrik; Johnsson, Filip

    2008-12-01

    This report treats different ways to produce various upgraded biofuels from lignocellulosic materials in so called polygeneration processes. Furthermore the different upgrading technologies are also investigated with respect to co-production of heat and power. The processes investigated are linked to production of - bio pellets (or lignin pellets), dried, grinded and compressed biomass (or lignin); - torrified bio pellets, dried, grinded, heat treated and compressed biomass; - bio-oils or pyrolytic oils, liquefied biomass with crude oil quality; - ethanol via hydrolysis (process where the biomass is divided into sugars and lignin) followed by fermentation; - methane via hydrolysis and fermentation; - methane via indirect gasification and methane via indirect or suspension gasification, - DME (dimethyl ether) via indirect or suspension gasification; - methanol via indirect or suspension gasification; - DME and methanol via methane produced via indirect gasification. Lignocellulosic biomasses are, for example, forest residues or biomass that can be cultivated on degraded lands. The result from this report shows that it is only the production of bio pellets that is fully commercially available today. For all the other polygeneration processes investigated the production of bio-oil and torrified bio pellets stands out from the other processes investigated, as it is the market for the product that holds back the introduction of the technology. For the other technologies one or several components are still not commercialized and the challenges for these technologies are described in the report. Summarizing the efficiencies for the different processes, the processes that produces biofuels for stationary applications, bio pellets, torrified bio pellets and bio-oil, show the highest efficiencies. Accounted for the co-generated power, efficiencies up to 90 % based on ingoing lower heating values of the dry substance fed to the process could be achieved. For the processes

  17. The formation, composition and structure of corrosion products in CANDU nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rummery, T.E.

    1978-01-01

    To gain a better understanding of the formation and transport of corrosion products in CANDU-PHW power reactors, and the role played by these products in the generation and subsequent fixation of radioactive species, we have examined in detail several surfaces removed from the Douglas Point Generating Station (Douglas Point, Ontario). Results are given for the surface of the primary-side of a Monel-400 boiler tube, and surfaces of carbon steel piping at the inlet and outlet of the boiler. The experimental techniques that were used included sequential acid stripping, X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. The corrosion products on the Monel-400 were mainly nickel, copper, nickel oxide and nickel-deficient nickel ferrite and varied in composition and quantity as a function of both distance from the boiler inlet, and depth in the corrosion layer. The radioactive cobalt ( 60 Co) content was localized in 'streaks' deposited in the straight sections of the boiler tube, but distributed uniformly over the whole surface in the downstream bend section. The material covering the carbon steel surface comprised three phases: magnetite, aluminosilicate particles at the outermost surface, and a mixed cation spinel phase uniformly distributed over the surface at the corrosion film-water interface. The formation, composition and structure of the corrosion products are discussed. (author)

  18. Major activated corrosion products cobalt, silver and antimony in the primary coolant of PWR power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Mingxia

    2012-01-01

    The production of the major activated corrosion products such as cobalt, silver and antimony in the primary coolant of PWR power plants and the impacts on the increase of the dose rates caused by these corrosion products during the shutdown are described in the paper. Investigating the corrosion product behavior during the operation and shutdown periods aims at detecting the appearance of these radiological pollutants in the early time and searching relevant solutions that may enable eventually to decrease the dose rate. The solutions may include: Replacing critical material in the primary system's equipment and components, which contact with primary coolant circuit to possibly limit the source term, Elaborating strictly the specific chemical and shutdown procedure to optimize the purification capacity and to minimize the over-contaminations; Improving purification techniques according to the real operation circumstance, and limiting the impacts of these pollutants. It is obvious in the real practices that implementing appropriate solution will be benefit to decrease or limit the pollutants species like cobalt, silver and antimony. (author)

  19. Modeling of corrosion product migration in the secondary circuit of nuclear power plants with WWER-1200

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritskii, V. G.; Berezina, I. G.; Gavrilov, A. V.; Motkova, E. A.; Zelenina, E. V.; Prokhorov, N. A.; Gorbatenko, S. P.; Tsitser, A. A.

    2016-04-01

    Models of corrosion and mass transfer of corrosion products in the pipes of the condensate-feeding and steam paths of the secondary circuit of NPPs with WWER-1200 are presented. The mass transfer and distribution of corrosion products over the currents of the working medium of the secondary circuit were calculated using the physicochemical model of mass transfer of corrosion products in which the secondary circuit is regarded as a cyclic system consisting of a number of interrelated elements. The circuit was divided into calculated regions in which the change in the parameters (flow rate, temperature, and pressure) was traced and the rates of corrosion and corrosion products entrainment, high-temperature pH, and iron concentration were calculated. The models were verified according to the results of chemical analyses at Kalinin NPP and iron corrosion product concentrations in the feed water at different NPPs depending on pH at 25°C (pH25) for service times τ ≥ 5000 h. The calculated pH values at a coolant temperature t (pH t ) in the secondary circuit of NPPs with WWER-1200 were presented. The calculation of the distribution of pH t and ethanolamine and ammonia concentrations over the condensate feed (CFC) and steam circuits is given. The models are designed for developing the calculation codes. The project solutions of ATOMPROEKT satisfy the safety and reliability requirements for power plants with WWER-1200. The calculated corrosion and corrosion product mass transfer parameters showed that the model allows the designer to choose between the increase of the correcting reagent concentration, the use of steel with higher chromium contents, and intermittent washing of the steam generator from sediments as the best solution for definite regions of the circuit.

  20. Design of robust hollow fiber membranes with high power density for osmotic energy production

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Sui; Sukitpaneenit, Panu; Chung, Neal Tai-Shung

    2014-01-01

    This study highlights the design strategy of highly asymmetric hollow fiber membranes that possess both characteristics of high flux and high mechanical strength to effectively reap the osmotic energy from seawater brine with an ultrahigh power density. An advanced co-extrusion technology was employed to fabricate the polyethersulfone (PES) hollow fiber supports with diversified structures from macrovoid to sponge-like. The microstructure of the supports is found critical for the stability and water permeability of the thin film composite (TFC) membranes. A high porosity in the porous layer is needed to reduce internal concentration polarization, while a thick and relatively dense skin layer underneath the TFC layer is required to maintain good mechanical stability and stress dissipation. The pore size of the supporting layer underneath the TFC layer must be small with a narrow pore size distribution to ensure the formation of a less-defective, highly permeable and mechanically stable TFC layer. The newly developed hollow fiber comprising high asymmetry, high porosity, and a thick skin layer with a small and narrow pore size distribution underneath the TFC layer produces a maximum power density of 24.3W/m2 at 20.0bar by using 1M NaCl as the concentrated brine and deionized (DI) water as the feed. The proposed design strategy for ultrahigh power density membranes clearly advances the osmotic energy production close to commercialization with a quite cost-effective and practicable approach. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.