WorldWideScience

Sample records for two-and-a-half year period

  1. Two and a half-year-old children are prosocial even when their partners are not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastián-Enesco, Carla; Hernández-Lloreda, María Victoria; Colmenares, Fernando

    2013-10-01

    A total of 33 2.5-year-old toddlers were tested for proactive and selective prosocial responding in an iterated Prosocial Game with unfamiliar adult partners who were communicatively neutral and alternated their roles as actors and recipients every other trial. When children were actors, they were required to choose, at no cost to themselves, between a selfish option that delivered a reward to them only (1/0) and a prosocial option that delivered identical rewards to both themselves and their partners (1/1). When adult partners were actors, they consistently behaved prosocially (1/1) or selfishly (1/0) over 10 alternating trials, depending on test condition. An additional 17 children were used as a recipient-absent control group to test for self-oriented versus other-oriented prosocial preferences. This study shows that by 2.5 years of age, and in the particular context of the task administered, toddlers can display proactive, other-oriented prosocial behavior, but their prosocial responding is indiscriminate in that they fail to respond contingently to their partners' prosocial or selfish behavior in the previous trials. These findings lend further support to the view that human prosociality is in place early in development as a basic tendency to be nice to others. This inclination may be so strong that not even partners who are communicatively neutral or repeatedly selfish toward children can erode it. They also suggest that this precocious proactive prosociality may be independent of reciprocity in terms of both its developmental schedule and psychological scaffolding.

  2. Penile herpes simplex virus type 1 infection presenting two and a half years after Jewish ritual circumcision of an infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yossepowitch, Orit; Gottesman, Tamar; Schwartz, Orna; Stein, Michal; Serour, Francis; Dan, Michael

    2013-06-01

    The association between Jewish ritual circumcision and genital herpes simplex virus type 1 infection has been well described. We report a case of genital herpes that first presented at the age of 2½ years. We believe that the infection was acquired asymptomatically through direct orogenital suction performed during circumcision in the newborn period.

  3. "Peek-a-Boo. How "Can" You Be There?" Analytic Work with a Severely Traumatised Two-and-a-Half-Year-Old Girl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strati, Katerina

    2010-01-01

    This paper traces the analytic work with a severely traumatised two-and-a-half-year-old girl Phoebe, whose early life was marked by chronic abuse and a violent murder she witnessed a few months prior to the beginning of treatment. Bringing the trauma in the room in a dissociative form, in line with post-traumatic stress disorder presentation, was…

  4. Two and a half years of country-wide rainfall maps using radio links from commercial cellular telecommunication networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overeem, A.; Leijnse, H.; Uijlenhoet, R.

    2016-10-01

    Although rainfall estimation employing microwave links from cellular telecommunication networks is recognized as a new promising measurement technique, its potential for long-term large-scale operational rainfall monitoring remains to be demonstrated. This study contributes to this endeavor by deriving a continuous series of rainfall maps from a large 2.5 year microwave link data set of, on average, 3383 links (2044 link paths) covering Netherlands (˜3.5 × 104 km2), a midlatitude country (˜5°E, ˜52°N) with a temperate climate. Maps are extensively verified against an independent gauge-adjusted radar rainfall data set for different temporal (15 min, 1 h, 1 day, 1 month) and spatial (0.9, 74 km2) scales. The usefulness of different steps in the rainfall retrieval algorithm, i.e., a wet-dry classification method and a filter to remove outliers, is systematically assessed. A novel dew filter is developed to correct for dew-induced wet antenna attenuation, which, although a relative underestimation of 6% to 9% is found, generally yields good results. The microwave link rainfall estimation technique performs well for the summer months (June, July, August), even outperforming interpolation of automatic rain gauge data (with a density of ˜1 gauge per 1000 km2), but large deviations are found for the winter months (December, January, February). These deviations are generally expected to be related to frozen or melting precipitation. Hence, our results show the potential of commercial microwave links for long-term large-scale operational rainfall monitoring.

  5. The Incidence and Recurrence of Getting Lost in Community-Dwelling People with Alzheimer's Disease: A Two and a Half-Year Follow-Up.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Chyi Pai

    Full Text Available Getting lost (GL is a serious problem for people living with Alzheimer's disease (PwAD, causing psychological distress in both PwAD and caregivers, and increasing the odds of being institutionalized. It is thus important to identify risk factors for the GL events in PwAD. Between April 2009 and March 2012, we invited 185 community-dwelling PwAD and their caregivers to participate in this study. At the baseline, 95 had experienced GL (Group B; the remaining 90 (Group A had not. We focused on the incidence of GL events and the associated factors by way of demographic data, cognitive function assessed by the Cognitive Ability Screening Instrument (CASI, and spatial navigation abilities as assessed by the Questionnaire of Everyday Navigational Ability (QuENA. After a 2.5-year period, the incidence of GL in Group A was 33.3% and the recurrence of GL in Group B was 40%. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the inattention item on the QuENA and orientation item on the CASI had independent effects on the GL incidence, while the absence of a safety range was associated with the risk of GL recurrence. During the 2.5 years, the PwAD with GL incidence deteriorated more in the mental manipulation item on the CASI than those without. We suggest that before the occurrence of GL, the caregivers of PwAD should refer to the results of cognitive assessment and navigation ability evaluation to enhance the orientation and attention of the PwAD. Once GL occurs, the caregivers must set a safety range to prevent GL recurrence, especially for younger people.

  6. All great ape species (Gorilla gorilla, Pan paniscus, Pan troglodytes, Pongo abelii) and two-and-a-half-year-old children (Homo sapiens) discriminate appearance from reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karg, Katja; Schmelz, Martin; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Nonhuman great apes and human children were tested for an understanding that appearance does not always correspond to reality. Subjects were 29 great apes (bonobos [Pan paniscus], chimpanzees [Pan troglodytes], gorillas [Gorilla gorilla], and orangutans [Pongo abelii]) and 24 2½-year-old children. In our task, we occluded portions of 1 large and 1 small food stick such that the size relations seemed reversed. Subjects could then choose which one they wanted. There was 1 control condition and 2 experimental conditions (administered within subjects). In the control condition subjects saw only the apparent stick sizes, whereas in the 2 experimental conditions they saw the true stick sizes as well (the difference between them being what the subjects saw first: the apparent or the real stick sizes). All great ape species and children successfully identified the bigger stick, despite its smaller appearance, in the experimental conditions, but not in the control. We discuss these results in relation to the understanding of object permanence and conservation, and exclude reversed reward contingency learning as an explanation.

  7. Existence of global weak solution for a reduced gravity two and a half layer model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Zhenhua, E-mail: zhenhua.guo.math@gmail.com; Li, Zilai, E-mail: lizilai0917@163.com; Yao, Lei, E-mail: yaolei1056@hotmail.com [Department of Mathematics and CNS, Northwest University, Xi' an 710127 (China)

    2013-12-15

    We investigate the existence of global weak solution to a reduced gravity two and a half layer model in one-dimensional bounded spatial domain or periodic domain. Also, we show that any possible vacuum state has to vanish within finite time, then the weak solution becomes a unique strong one.

  8. On the compactness of the reduced-gravity two-and-a-half layer equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Ran; Zhou, Chunhui

    We consider the reduced-gravity two-and-a-half model in oceanic fluid dynamics, and prove the stability of weak solutions in periodic domain Ω=T. The proof is based on the uniform a priori estimates and the method of weak convergence, and the limit is carried out with the help of a new higher regularity estimate of the velocity, which is derived by constructing a special test function.

  9. Stochastic Hall-Magneto-hydrodynamics System in Three and Two and a Half Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Kazuo

    2017-01-01

    We introduce the stochastic Hall-magneto-hydrodynamics (Hall-MHD) system in three and two and a half dimensions with infinite-dimensional multiplicative noise, white in time, and prove the global existence of a martingale solution via a stochastic Galerkin approximation and applications of Prokhorov's, Skorokhod's and martingale representation theorems, as well as the pressure term through de Rham's theorem adapted to processes. The Hall term represents mathematically a very singular nonlinear term, unprecedented in the previous work. The results extend many others on the deterministic Hall-MHD and stochastic MHD systems and Navier-Stokes equations. In contrast to the stochastic MHD system, the path-wise uniqueness in the two and a half dimensional case is an open problem.

  10. The Indian winter monsoon and its response to external forcing over the last two and a half centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munz, Philipp M.; Lückge, Andreas; Siccha, Michael; Böll, Anna; Forke, Sven; Kucera, Michal; Schulz, Hartmut

    2016-10-01

    The Indian winter monsoon (IWM) is a key component of the seasonally changing monsoon system that affects the densely populated regions of South Asia. Cold winds originating in high northern latitudes provide a link of continental-scale Northern Hemisphere climate to the tropics. Western disturbances associated with the IWM play a critical role for the climate and hydrology in northern India and the western Himalaya region. It is vital to understand the mechanisms and teleconnections that influence IWM variability to better predict changes in future climate. Here we present a study of regionally calibrated winter (January) temperatures and according IWM intensities, based on a planktic foraminiferal record with biennial (2.55 years) resolution. Over the last 250 years, IWM intensities gradually weakened, based on the long-term trend of reconstructed January temperatures. Furthermore, the results indicate that IWM is connected on interannual- to decadal time scales to climate variability of the tropical and extratropical Pacific, via El Niño Southern Oscillation and Pacific Decadal Oscillation. However, our findings suggest that this relationship appeared to begin to decouple since the beginning of the twentieth century. Cross-spectral analysis revealed that several distinct decadal-scale phases of colder climate and accordingly more intense winter monsoon centered at the years 1800, 1890 and 1930 can be linked to changes of the North Atlantic Oscillation.

  11. An activity stimulation programme during a child's first year reduces some indicators of adiposity at the age of two-and-a-half

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Agm; Huiting, H. G.; van den Heuvel, Er; L'Abée, C; Corpeleijn, E; Stolk, Rp

    2015-01-01

    AIM: Obesity tracks from childhood into adulthood. We evaluated the effect of early stimulation of physical activity on growth, body composition, motor activity and motor development in toddlers. METHODS: We performed a cluster randomised controlled single-blinded trial in Dutch Well Baby Clinics, w

  12. Spitzer/MIPS 24 {mu}m OBSERVATIONS OF HD 209458b: THREE ECLIPSES, TWO AND A HALF TRANSITS, AND A PHASE CURVE CORRUPTED BY INSTRUMENTAL SENSITIVITY VARIATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crossfield, Ian J. M. [Department of Physics, and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Knutson, Heather [Caltech Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Fortney, Jonathan [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Showman, Adam P. [Department of Planetary Sciences and Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Cowan, Nicolas B. [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Deming, Drake, E-mail: ianc@astro.ucla.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2012-06-20

    We report the results of an analysis of all Spitzer/MIPS 24 {mu}m observations of HD 209458b, one of the touchstone objects in the study of irradiated giant planet atmospheres. Altogether, we analyze two and a half transits, three eclipses, and a 58 hr near-continuous observation designed to detect the planet's thermal phase curve. The results of our analysis are: (1) a mean transit depth of 1.484% {+-} 0.033%, consistent with previous measurements and showing no evidence of variability in transit depth at the 3% level. (2) A mean eclipse depth of 0.338% {+-} 0.026%, somewhat higher than that previously reported for this system; this new value brings observations into better agreement with models. From this eclipse depth we estimate an average dayside brightness temperature of 1320 {+-} 80 K; the dayside flux shows no evidence of variability at the 12% level. (3) Eclipses in the system occur 32 {+-} 129 s earlier than would be expected from a circular orbit, which constrains the orbital quantity ecos {omega} to be 0.00004 {+-} 0.00033. This result is fully consistent with a circular orbit and sets an upper limit of 140 m s{sup -1} (3{sigma}) on any eccentricity-induced velocity offset during transit. The phase curve observations (including one of the transits) exhibit an anomalous trend similar to the detector ramp seen in previous Spitzer/IRAC observations; by modeling this ramp we recover the system parameters for this transit. The long-duration photometry which follows the ramp and transit exhibits a gradual {approx}0.2% decrease in flux over {approx}30 hr. This effect is similar to that seen in pre-launch calibration data taken with the 24 {mu}m array and is better fit by an instrumental model than a model invoking planetary emission. The large uncertainties associated with this poorly understood, likely instrumental effect prevent us from usefully constraining the planet's thermal phase curve. Our observations highlight the need for a thorough

  13. Thirty-Year Periodicity of Cosmic Rays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Pérez-Peraza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cosmogenic isotopes have frequently been employed as proxies of ancient cosmic ray fluxes. On the basis of periodicities of the 10Be time series (using data from both the South and North Poles and the 14C time series (with data from Intercal-98, we offer evidence of the existence of cosmic ray fluctuations with a periodicity of around 30 years. Results were obtained by using the wavelet transformation spectral technique, signal reconstruction by autoregressive spectral analysis (ARMA, and the Lomb-Scargle periodogram method. This 30-year periodicity seems to be significant in nature because several solar and climatic indexes exhibit the same modulation, which may indicate that the 30-year frequency of cosmic rays is probably a modulator agent for terrestrial phenomena, reflecting the control source, namely, solar activity.

  14. 7 CFR 1280.109 - Fiscal period and marketing year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... § 1280.109 Fiscal period and marketing year. Fiscal period and marketing year means the 12-month period... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period and marketing year. 1280.109 Section 1280.109 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL...

  15. 7 CFR 1207.310 - Fiscal period and marketing year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... marketing year. Fiscal period and marketing year mean the 12-month period from July 1 through June 30 of the... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period and marketing year. 1207.310 Section 1207.310 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL...

  16. 7 CFR 1210.310 - Fiscal period and marketing year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... marketing year. Fiscal period and marketing year mean the 12 month period from January 1 to December 31 or... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period and marketing year. 1210.310 Section 1210.310 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL...

  17. OA27 Rural palliative care for low resource settings among marginalised communities in the south indian state of tamilnadu - a new venture with two and a half years of outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiagarajan, Mohanasundaram

    2015-04-01

    India with a total of 1.27 Billion (2014) population and over 73% of them are living in rural areas. Cancer remaining as the second cause of death in rural community and at any given time over 4 million cancer cases are living in our country and most of them are diagnosed at their advanced stages and suffering with intractable pain and 'total sufferings'. At present, time available for palliative care services is less than 1% for the needy, it is mostly spread out around the urban areas leaving the remaining 73% of rural sufferers in lack of availability, accessibility, acceptability and affordability. To identify the need for palliative care, in a particular Block of the district, and provide home based total care. Selection of 'Andanallur' village block with a population of nearly 100,000. Sensitisation of the health care staff, village members, self help groups and schools and through the Information, educative and communication methods. Conduction of a primary survey to identify the needy Examination and short listing cases for home based Palliative care Home based palliative care The project was started in 2011 January and 156 cases short listed; 121 cases started with home care and 52 cases had passed away, 8 cases were given end of life care. Palliative care reaching the sufferers directly Reaching the unreachable and under-privileged Need based 'total care' at their door steps Empowering and training the family members. © 2015, Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Period, Place and Mental Space: Using Historical Scholarship to Develop Year 7 Pupils' Sense of Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dan

    2014-01-01

    What is a sense of period? And how can pupils' sense of period be developed? Questions such as these have troubled history teachers for many years, often revolving around debates over the role played by empathy and imagination in coming to know a period on its own terms. Rather than adopt a comparative approach, Dan Smiths decided in his teaching…

  19. Period, Place and Mental Space: Using Historical Scholarship to Develop Year 7 Pupils' Sense of Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dan

    2014-01-01

    What is a sense of period? And how can pupils' sense of period be developed? Questions such as these have troubled history teachers for many years, often revolving around debates over the role played by empathy and imagination in coming to know a period on its own terms. Rather than adopt a comparative approach, Dan Smiths decided in his teaching…

  20. QUASI-PERIODICITIES AT YEAR-LIKE TIMESCALES IN BLAZARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandrinelli, A.; Treves, A. [Università degli Studi dell’Insubria, Dipartimento di Scienza ed Alta Tecnologia, Via Valleggio 11, I-22100 Como (Italy); Covino, S. [INAF—Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via Emilio Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Italy); Dotti, M. [Università degli Studi di Milano Bicocca, Dipartimento di Fisica G. Occhialini, Piazza della Scienza 3, I-20126 Milano (Italy)

    2016-03-15

    We searched for quasi-periodicities on year-like timescales in the light curves of six blazars in the optical—near-infrared bands and we made a comparison with the high energy emission. We obtained optical/NIR light curves from Rapid Eye Mounting photometry plus archival Small and Moderate Aperture Research Telescope System data and we accessed the Fermi light curves for the γ-ray data. The periodograms often show strong peaks in the optical and γ-ray bands, which in some cases may be inter-related. The significance of the revealed peaks is then discussed, taking into account that the noise is frequency dependent. Quasi-periodicities on a year-like timescale appear to occur often in blazars. No straightforward model describing these possible periodicities is yet available, but some plausible interpretations for the physical mechanisms causing periodic variabilities of these sources are examined.

  1. Environmental Volunteering and Health Outcomes over a 20-Year Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillemer, Karl; Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E.; Reid, M. C.; Wells, Nancy M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study tested the hypothesis that volunteering in environmental organizations in midlife is associated with greater physical activity and improved mental and physical health over a 20-year period. Design and Methods: The study used data from two waves (1974 and 1994) of the Alameda County Study, a longitudinal study of health and…

  2. A 15-year epileptogenic period after perinatal brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisani, F; Pavlidis, E; Facini, C; La Morgia, C; Fusco, C; Cantalupo, G

    Seizures are a frequent acute neurological event in the neonatal period. Up to 12 to 18% of all seizures in newborns are due to perinatal stroke and up to 39% of affected children can then develop epilepsy in childhood. We report the case of a young patient who presented stroke-related seizures in the neonatal period and then developed focal symptomatic epilepsy at 15 years of age, and in whom the epileptic focus was found to co-localize with the site of his ischemic brain lesion. Such a prolonged silent period before onset of remote symptomatic epilepsy has not previously been reported. This case suggests that newborns with seizures due to a neonatal stroke are at higher risk of epilepsy and that the epileptogenic process in these subjects can last longer than a decade.

  3. Rabies viral encephalitis with proable 25 year incubation period!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K Shankar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of rabies viral encephalitis in a 48-year-old male with an unusually long incubation period, historically suspected to be more than 20 years. The case was referred for histological diagnosis following alleged medical negligence to the forensic department. The histology and immunocytochemical demonstration of rabies viral antigen established the diagnosis unequivocally. The case manifested initially with hydrophobia and aggressive behavior, although he suddenly went to the bathroom and drank a small amount of water. History of dog bite 25 years back was elicited retrospectively following clinical suspicion. There was no subsequent history to suggest nonbite exposure to a rabid dog to consider recent event causing the disease, although this cannot be totally excluded.

  4. 22-Year Periodicity in the Solar Differential Rotation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. Javaraiah

    2000-09-01

    Using the data on sunspot groups compiled during 1879-1975, we determined variations in the differential rotation coefficients and during the solar cycle. The variation in the equatorial rotation rate is found to be significant only in the odd numbered cycles, with an amplitude ∼ 0.01 rads-1. There exists a good anticorrelation between the variations of the differential rotation rate derived from the odd and even numbered cycles, suggesting existence of a `22-year' periodicity in . The amplitude of the variation of is ∼ 0.05 rad s-1.

  5. One-year period prevalence of blood transfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, J T; Kimper-Karl, M L; Sprogøe, U;

    2010-01-01

    Transfusion practice is reported to differ considerably between countries. Comparisons often rely on transfusion rates, incidence - or prevalence rates. In this paper, the one-year period prevalence rate (1-YPPR) of transfusion of red cells (RBC) is presented. Transfusion data, demographic data...... was 9.2/1000 citizens. Most of the transfused patients had a main diagnosis of neoplasm (22% of recipients), diseases of the circulatory system (15%), the digestive system (15%), injuries (13%) and diseases of the blood (8%). Age standardization reversed the relation between sex specific 1-YPPRs...

  6. Content analysis of 150 years of British periodicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansdall-Welfare, Thomas; Sudhahar, Saatviga; Thompson, James; Lewis, Justin; Cristianini, Nello

    2017-01-24

    Previous studies have shown that it is possible to detect macroscopic patterns of cultural change over periods of centuries by analyzing large textual time series, specifically digitized books. This method promises to empower scholars with a quantitative and data-driven tool to study culture and society, but its power has been limited by the use of data from books and simple analytics based essentially on word counts. This study addresses these problems by assembling a vast corpus of regional newspapers from the United Kingdom, incorporating very fine-grained geographical and temporal information that is not available for books. The corpus spans 150 years and is formed by millions of articles, representing 14% of all British regional outlets of the period. Simple content analysis of this corpus allowed us to detect specific events, like wars, epidemics, coronations, or conclaves, with high accuracy, whereas the use of more refined techniques from artificial intelligence enabled us to move beyond counting words by detecting references to named entities. These techniques allowed us to observe both a systematic underrepresentation and a steady increase of women in the news during the 20th century and the change of geographic focus for various concepts. We also estimate the dates when electricity overtook steam and trains overtook horses as a means of transportation, both around the year 1900, along with observing other cultural transitions. We believe that these data-driven approaches can complement the traditional method of close reading in detecting trends of continuity and change in historical corpora.

  7. FETAL AUTOPSY STUDY OVER A TWO YEAR PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailaja

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Perinatal death rate is declining in developed and developing countries and so are perinatal autopsies. In the present days due to wider availability and awareness of prenatal scanning more and more congenital malformations are picked up in e arlier weeks of gestation. This helps in counselling of the couple which usually leads to an informed decision on medical termination of pregnancy. Autopsy performed on such fetuses , yields additional information in many cases. AIMS: The study was carried out to determine how well the prenatal ultrasound findings correlate with autopsy findings and also to determine the cause of death where ultrasound was not performed in patients who had spontaneous intrauterine death and abortion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: T his was a prospective study carried out over a period of two years in the department of pathology at Kamineni Academy of Medical Sciences and Research Centre , Hyderabad , from January 2013 to December 2014. A total of 23 fetal autopsies were performed of wh ich one was a twin pregnancy. Brief maternal history , prenatal ultrasound scans , relevant biochemical markers and genetic studies wherever done , were noted. RESULTS : There were 14 male (60.86% and 8 female (34.78% fetuses , and in one case (4.34% gender could not be identified. Nineteen cases (82.60 % were less than 28 weeks of gestation. Medical termination of pregnancy was done in 13 cases (56.52 % whereas , 10 patients (43.47 % had spontaneous intrauterine death of the fetus. Ultrasound scanning was done in 15 cases (65.21 %. In 13 cases (86.66 % the ultrasound and autopsy findings were correlating whereas in two cases (13.33 % there were findings on imaging study which could not be identified on autopsy. Ultrasound was not done in 8 cases (34.78 % out of which 5 cases (62.5 % showed findings on autopsy which could have led to the fetal demise. Twelve cases (52.17 % were referral cases which had come from other hospitals

  8. NHS litigation in bariatric surgery over a ten year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnasingham, Kumaran; Knight, James; Liu, Mamie; Karatsai, Eleni; Humadi, Samer; Irukulla, Shashi

    2017-04-01

    Negligence claims in the UK NHS has increased over the last 30 years. The aim of this present study was determine the number of claims and the cost of litigation in Bariatric Surgery and compare it to similar other specialties. Data was received from NHS Litigation Authority (NHSLA) in response to Freedom of Information data request. There was a total of 7 claims, of which 4 were successful. The total pay out sum was £210,000 in 10 years. This is a very low amount compared to other surgical specialties. This low level of litigation probably indicates that the current bariatric surgical services in the NHS are delivering safe care with good patient satisfaction. This needs to be carefully considered prior to changing the payment tariffs for bariatric surgery. Copyright © 2017 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Surgery of eye injuries in an eight-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukosavljević Miroslav

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Eye injuries constitute a leading problem in eye surgery worldwide, as well as at our department. Their treatment is very complex, and requires a wide surgical knowledge and surgical skills supported by the material and the equipment. Aim. To analyze the results of vitreoretinal surgery on 647 patients with severe penetrating eye injuries in the period from 1991 to 1998. Methods. The study included a retrospective analysis of the treatment of 647 injuries, out of which 500 were penetrating, and 147 were severe contusion injuries. Attention was payed to the penetrating injuries with intraocular foreign body (IOFB, to the number of the performed pars plana vitrectomies (VPP, to the number of the extirpated foreign bodies, as well as to the number of the conventional retinal ablation surgeries. Also significant proved the consequences of contusion injuries, and the method of their complete surgical management - the surgery combined with the implantation of intraocular lens, as well as their functional results. Results. Inside the said period, 558 VPPs were performed, 60 conventional retinal ablation surgeries, and 29 combined anterior/posterior segment surgeries. VPP was applied in 286 (51.3% of the cases with penetrating injuries with IOFB, and in 58 (10.4% of the cases with contusion injuries. VPP in one eye was applied in 464 (83% of the cases, in both eyes in 65 (11.8% of the cases, and in a single eye in 29 (5.2% of the cases. Following VPP, silicone oil tamponade was done in 352 (63% of the cases, air tamponade in 123 (22% of the cases, and Ringer-BSS tamponade in 83 (15% of the cases. Laser photocoagulation (LFC was performed in 484 (87% of the cases, cryocoagulation in 45 (8%, while neither of them was done in 29 (5% of the cases. In all of the cases of the conventional retinal ablation (n = 60, a placement of a serclage was applied and exocryocoagulation was performed, while in the 52 cases a placement of a scleral flap was

  10. An Analysis on the Comedy Effect of American Sitcom Two and a Half Men from the Perspective of Verbal Humor%从言语幽默角度分析美国情景喜剧《好汉两个半》的喜剧效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦苏

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative principle, as a key concept of pragmatics ,has contributed a lot to the perception of verbal humor. This thesis takes the verbal humor examples from the American sitcom Two and a Half Men as its research data, classify and analyze it in terms of the co-operative principle, the findings of this thesis have provided us many useful suggestions to comprehend and appreciate the verbal humor and it's comedy effects.%合作原则是语用学中的重要理论,对言语幽默的理解具有指导意义。本文将美国情景喜剧《好汉两个半》中的言语幽默对话作为研究语料,主要运用语用学中的合作原则对典型的幽默话语进行归纳和分析,借此帮助我们更好地理解和欣赏言语幽默及其喜剧效果。

  11. 6-year periodicity and variable synchronicity in a mass-flowering plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakishima, Satoshi; Yoshimura, Jin; Murata, Hiroko; Murata, Jin

    2011-01-01

    Periodical organisms, such as bamboos and periodical cicadas, are very famous for their synchronous reproduction. In bamboos and other periodical plants, the synchronicity of mass-flowering and withering has been often reported indicating these species are monocarpic (semelparous) species. Therefore, synchronicity and periodicity are often suspected to be fairly tightly coupled traits in these periodical plants. We investigate the periodicity and synchronicity of Strobilanthes flexicaulis, and a closely related species S. tashiroi on Okinawa Island, Japan. The genus Strobilanthes is known for several periodical species. Based on 32-year observational data, we confirmed that S. flexicaulis is 6-year periodical mass-flowering monocarpic plant. All the flowering plants had died after flowering. In contrast, we found that S. tashiroi is a polycarpic perennial with no mass-flowering from three-year individual tracking. We also surveyed six local populations of S. flexicaulis and found variation in the synchronicity from four highly synchronized populations (>98% of plants flowering in the mass year) to two less synchronized one with 11-47% of plants flowering before and after the mass year. This result might imply that synchrony may be selected for when periodicity is established in monocarpic species. We found the selective advantages for mass-flowering in pollinator activities and predator satiation. The current results suggest that the periodical S. flexicaulis might have evolved periodicity from a non-periodical close relative. The current report should become a key finding for understanding the evolution of periodical plants.

  12. MOFCOM Defined Major Tasks of Commercial Development during the 12th Five-Year Program Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    According to CPC Central Committee's Proposal for Formulating the 12th Five-Year Program for National Economic and Social Development (2011- 2015) and the 12th Five-Year Program for National Economic and Social Development of the People's Republic of China, MQFCOM defined the guiding ideas, objectives, major tasks of China's commercial development during the 12th Five-Year Program period, after summarizing commercial achievements and experience in the 11th Five-Year Program period and analyzed the domestic and foreign environment during the 12th Five-Year Program.

  13. Urinary phthalates from 168 girls and boys measured twice a year during a 5-year period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, A; Frederiksen, H; Sørensen, K

    2013-01-01

    . Methods: This was a longitudinal study of 168 healthy children (84 girls) examined every 6 months for 5 years. Serum levels of dehydroepiandrostenedione sulfate (DHEAS), Δ4-androstenedione, testosterone, and urinary morning excretion of 14 phthalate metabolites, corresponding to 7 different phthalate...... diesters were determined. A variation in urinary excretion of phthalates was evident in each child, which made a mean of repetitive samples more representative for long-term excretion than a single determination. Results: We found that girls with excretion of monobutyl phthalate isomers (MBP) and di(2.......3 years, P = 0.005). Conclusion: Our data indicate that exposure to dibutyl phthalate isomers (DBP) (in girls) and butylbenzyl phthalate (in boys) are negatively associated with adrenal androgen levels and in boys positively associated with testosterone level at 13 years of age. High exposure to DBP...

  14. CNPC's Remarkable Achievements in Scientific Research during the Eighth Five-Year Plan Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Zhengrong

    1996-01-01

    @@ During the Eighth Five-Year Plan period, the Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development,CNPC made marked progress in applied research (RIPED)of new techniques and new theories and in fundamental research.

  15. The prevalence and incidence of glaucoma in Denmark in a fifteen year period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolko, Miriam; Horwitz, Anna; Thygesen, John

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study was to describe the prevalence, incidence and geographic variation of glaucoma in Denmark in the period from 1996 to 2011. Moreover, the aim was to identify the treatment patterns of glaucoma within the studied period. METHODS: All Danish citizens were...... included throughout the study period. The National Prescription Registry was used to identify all claimed prescriptions for glaucoma medication. RESULTS: A total of 116,592 incident glaucoma patients were identified. Average age at onset was 66 years (range: 0-105 years), 55% were women. The prevalence...... of glaucoma increased from 0.79% to 1.72% during the investigated period. In 2011 glaucoma affected 3.76% of the population above 50 years and 10% in patients above 80 years. The age-specific incidence rate of glaucoma seemed to be constant and the increasing prevalence was primarily attributed to an aging...

  16. Outlook of PetroChina's Technological Development during the 11th Five-Year Plan Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The 11th Five-Year Plan period is a critical time for PetroChina transforming to a transnational enterprise group with international competitiveness, also a turning point for the implementation of its scientific and technological strategy.

  17. AGE, PERIOD, AND COHORT EFFECTS ON PULMONARY-FUNCTION IN A 24-YEAR LONGITUDINAL-STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    XU, XP; LAIRD, N; DOCKERY, DW; SCHOUTEN, JP; RIJCKEN, B; WEISS, ST

    1995-01-01

    This paper proposes the use of two-factor models (age-period and age-cohort models) to estimate age, period, and cohort effects on pulmonary function by using the data collected in a 24-year longitudinal study in the Netherlands from 1965 to 1990. The analysis included 18,363 pulmonary function meas

  18. Sex differences in cognition are stable over a 10-year period in adulthood and old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Frias, Cindy M; Nilsson, Lars-Göran; Herlitz, Agneta

    2006-01-01

    Sex differences in declarative memory and visuospatial ability are robust in cross-sectional studies. The present longitudinal study examined whether sex differences in cognition were present over a 10-year period, and whether age modified the magnitude of sex differences. Tests assessing episodic and semantic memory, and visuospatial ability were administered to 625 nondemented adults (initially aged 35-80 years), participating in the population-based Betula study at two follow-up occasions. There was stability of sex differences across five age groups and over a 10-year period. Women performed at a higher level than men on episodic recall, face and verbal recognition, and semantic fluency, whereas men performed better than women on a task-assessing, visuospatial ability. Sex differences in cognitive functions are stable over a 10-year period and from 35 to 90 years of age.

  19. Geodetic Constraints on Mantle Q at Periods from a Fortnight to 18.6 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, D.; Wahr, J.; Desai, S.

    2002-12-01

    Seismic observations have provided numerous constraints on the earth's spherically-averaged mantle anelasticity at periods of tens of minutes and shorter. Meanwhile, post-glacial rebound and other geodynamic studies provide information at periods of a few thousand years and longer. However, constraints at intermediate periods are scarce. Such constraints could be useful in trying to connect the seismic anelastic models with the longer-period visco-elastic behavior. Here we will describe constraints on anelasticity in this intermediate range of periods as obtained from earth tide and earth rotation observations. We discuss results from: (1) VLBI observations of the monthly and fortnightly tidal variations in rotation rate; (2) satellite laser ranging observations of the 18.6-year tidal variations in the earth's gravitational field; and (3) astrometric and geodetic observations of the 14-month Chandler Wobble period and damping. We find that these observations are consistent with a nearly frequency-independent mantle Q stretching from seismic periods all the way out to the 14-month Chandler Wobble period; but that Q appears to decrease significantly between 14-months and 18.6-years.

  20. Annual incidences of visual impairment during 10-year period in Mie prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikesugi, Kengo; Ichio, Takako; Tsukitome, Hideyuki; Kondo, Mineo

    2017-07-01

    To determine the annual incidence of visual impairment in a Japanese population during a 10-year period. We examined the physical disability certificates issued yearly between 2004 and 2013 in Mie prefecture, Japan. During this period 2468 visually impaired people were registered under the newly defined Act on Welfare of the Physically Disabled Persons' criteria. The age, sex distribution, and causes of visual impairment were determined from the certificates. The major causes of visual impairment during the ten-year period were glaucoma (23.3%), diabetic retinopathy (17.3%), retinitis pigmentosa (12.2%), macular degeneration (9.0%), chorioretinal degeneration or high myopia (7.4%), optic atrophy (5.8%), stroke or brain tumor (5.4%) and cataracts (3.7%). The incidence of glaucoma was significantly higher throughout the period (2004-2013), and that of diabetic retinopathy was lower between 2007 and 2013. The incidence of retinitis pigmentosa did not change significantly during the 10-year period. The incidence of macular degeneration tended to increase between 2004 and 2007, but it decreased significantly between 2007 and 2013. The results indicate that in Japan, the rates of the major causes of visual impairment altered in the most recent 10-year period reflecting the recent changes in the social background and advances in ocular and systemic treatment.

  1. NATIONAL EVALUATION OF THE WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM DURING THE ARRA PERIOD: PROGRAM YEARS 2009-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, Bruce Edward [ORNL; Rose, Erin M [ORNL; Schmoyer, Richard L [ORNL; Eisenberg, Joel Fred [ORNL; Ternes, Mark P [ORNL; Schweitzer, Martin [ORNL; Hendrick, Timothy P [ORNL

    2012-08-01

    This report describes the third major evaluation of the Program, encompassing program years 2009 to 2011. In this report, this period of time is referred to as the ARRA Period. This is a special period of time for the Program because the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 has allocated $5 billion of funding for the Program. In normal program years, WAP s annual appropriation is in the range of $200-250 million, supporting the weatherization of approximately 100,000 homes. With the addition of ARRA funding during these program years, the expectation is that weatherization activity will exceed 300,000 homes per year. In addition to saving energy and reducing low-income energy bills, expanded WAP funding is expected to stimulate the economy by providing new jobs in the weatherization field and allowing low-income households to spend more money on goods and services by spending less on energy.

  2. Oral malignant melanoma diagnosed in an Iranian population over an 11-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanbani, Jahanfar; Forouzandeh, Aghdas; Sadri, Donya; Mirlashari, Jila

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of oral malignant melanoma along with age range and site of presentation over an 11-year period in Iran. The files of Tehran Cancer Institute served as a source of material for this study. Files were systematically searched for all malignant melanomas and oral malignant melanomas during an 11-year period. Prepared slides and demographic data from the biopsy files were reviewed. Statistical analysis was performed with the use of SPSS. Of the 38,993 cases accessed during the 11-year period, 569 were identified as malignant melanomas, while 41 cases among this group had malignant oral melanomas comprising 0.1% of the total cases and 7.2% of all the malignant melanoma lesions. The palate was the most common location for oral malignant melanoma. Thus, all melanocytic lesions in the palate should be viewed with caution, and biopsy is recommended to rule out melanoma.

  3. The Prevalence and Incidence of Glaucoma in Denmark in a Fifteen Year Period: A Nationwide Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Kolko

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to describe the prevalence, incidence and geographic variation of glaucoma in Denmark in the period from 1996 to 2011. Moreover, the aim was to identify the treatment patterns of glaucoma within the studied period.All Danish citizens were included throughout the study period. The National Prescription Registry was used to identify all claimed prescriptions for glaucoma medication.A total of 116,592 incident glaucoma patients were identified. Average age at onset was 66 years (range: 0-105 years, 55% were women. The prevalence of glaucoma increased from 0.79% to 1.72% during the investigated period. In 2011 glaucoma affected 3.76% of the population above 50 years and 10% in patients above 80 years. The age-specific incidence rate of glaucoma seemed to be constant and the increasing prevalence was primarily attributed to an aging population. We found the highest prevalence of glaucoma in the capital region of Denmark. Within the studied period the use of prostaglandin analogs and combination drugs increased, whereas the use of β-blockers, carbon anhydrase inhibitors and parasympathomimetic drugs decreased (p<0.001. Finally, the use of α2-adrenergic agonists remained unchanged. A total of 75% of the patients were treated with two or more glaucoma medications.Over all, the present study is the first to assess the frequency and the development of glaucoma in Denmark over a 15-year period. We find that glaucoma affects a little less than 2% of the total population and increases with age to reach a prevalence of more than 10% amongst people above 80 years. Generally, the present study is the largest nation-wide study ever made and must be a close-to-real-life-picture of the utilization of glaucoma medication on a national scale. Our findings confirm other recent estimations on an increasing burden of glaucoma globally.

  4. The Prevalence and Incidence of Glaucoma in Denmark in a Fifteen Year Period: A Nationwide Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thygesen, John; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Torp-Pedersen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the present study was to describe the prevalence, incidence and geographic variation of glaucoma in Denmark in the period from 1996 to 2011. Moreover, the aim was to identify the treatment patterns of glaucoma within the studied period. Methods All Danish citizens were included throughout the study period. The National Prescription Registry was used to identify all claimed prescriptions for glaucoma medication. Results A total of 116,592 incident glaucoma patients were identified. Average age at onset was 66 years (range: 0–105 years), 55% were women. The prevalence of glaucoma increased from 0.79% to 1.72% during the investigated period. In 2011 glaucoma affected 3.76% of the population above 50 years and 10% in patients above 80 years. The age-specific incidence rate of glaucoma seemed to be constant and the increasing prevalence was primarily attributed to an aging population. We found the highest prevalence of glaucoma in the capital region of Denmark. Within the studied period the use of prostaglandin analogs and combination drugs increased, whereas the use of β-blockers, carbon anhydrase inhibitors and parasympathomimetic drugs decreased (p<0.001). Finally, the use of α2-adrenergic agonists remained unchanged. A total of 75% of the patients were treated with two or more glaucoma medications. Conclusions Over all, the present study is the first to assess the frequency and the development of glaucoma in Denmark over a 15-year period. We find that glaucoma affects a little less than 2% of the total population and increases with age to reach a prevalence of more than 10% amongst people above 80 years. Generally, the present study is the largest nation-wide study ever made and must be a close-to-real-life-picture of the utilization of glaucoma medication on a national scale. Our findings confirm other recent estimations on an increasing burden of glaucoma globally. PMID:26182236

  5. China's Regional Policies: Progress of the 11^th Five Year Plan Period and Prospect of the 12^th Five Year Plan Period%China's Regional Policies: Progress of the 11^th Five Year Plan Period and Prospect of the 12^th Five Year Plan Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Xuebin

    2011-01-01

    During the 11^th Five Year Plan period, China improved its policy system for the overall strategy of regional development, and established and completed the policies intended for the promotion of regional cooperation and interaction. Thereupon, regional development in China took on a series of positive changes such as the enhancement of coordination. During the 12^th Five Year Plan period, China will fully implement and continuously improve the policy measures for development in its four major regions, strengthen differentiated guidance to different regions in line with the planning for major function-oriented zones, and accelerate the establishment of basic systems that facilitate coordinated regional development.

  6. [TRENDS OF PERMANENT PACEMAKER IMPLANTATION IN A SINGLE CENTER OVER A 20-YEAR PERIOD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelli, Dante; Ilan, Limor Bushar; Freedberg, Nahum A; Feldman, Alexander; Turgeman, Yoav

    2015-05-01

    To review the changes in permanent pacemaker implantation indications, pacing modes and patients' demographics over a 20-year period. We retrospectively retrieved data on patients who underwent first implantation of the pacemaker between 1-1-1991 and 31-12-2010. One thousand and nine (1,009) patients underwent a first pacemaker implantation during that period; 535 were men (53%), their mean age was 74.6±19.5 years; the highest rate of implanted pacemaker was in patients ranging in age from 70-79 years, however there was an increasing number of patients aged over 80 years. The median survival time after initial pacemaker implantation was 8 years. Syncope was the most common symptom (62.5%) and atrioventricular block was the most common electrocardiographic indication (56.4%) leading to pacemaker implantation. There was increased utilization of dual chamber and rate responsive pacemakers over the years. There was no difference regarding mode selection between genders. Pacemaker implantation rates have increased over a 20-year period. Dual chamber replaced most of the single ventricular chamber pacemaker and rate responsive pacemakers became the norm. The data of a small volume center are similar to those reported in pacemaker surveys of high volume pacemaker implantation centers. They confirm adherence to the published guidelines for pacing.

  7. CNPC Achievements in Exploration & Development in the Eighth Five-Year Plan Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Zhengyu

    1996-01-01

    @@ In the Eighth Five-Year Plan period, the cumulative proved oil in place of onshore industry was 2.8 billion tons,with a cumulative crude oil production of 694 million tons;the cumulative proved gas reserves was 547 billion cubic meters and more, equal to the total of the whole nation proved gas reserves in the past 40 years, and cumulative natural gas production is over 79 billion cubic meters.

  8. 47 CFR 22.947 - Five year build-out period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MOBILE SERVICES Cellular Radiotelephone Service § 22.947 Five year build-out period. Except for systems authorized in the Gulf of Mexico Exclusive Zone, the licensee of the first cellular system authorized on each... accept applications for authority to operate a new cellular system in any unserved area in a market on...

  9. Macronutrient distribution over a period of 23 years in relation to energy intake and body fatness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppes, L.L.J.; Boon, N.; Nooyens, A.C.J.; Mechelen, W. van; Saris, W.H.M.

    2009-01-01

    The distribution of the four macronutrients is associated with energy intake and body fatness according to short-term interventions. The present study involves macronutrient distribution in relation to energy intake and body fatness over a period of 23 years in individuals who have ad libitum access

  10. Physical and mental functioning in patients with established rheumatoid arthritis over an 11-year followup period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, Van Den Joëlle; Roorda, Leo D.; Boshuizen, Hendriek C.; Tijhuis, Gerard J.; Bos, Van Den Geertrudis A.; Dekker, Joost

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the longterm association of a wide range of comorbidities with physical and mental functioning in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods. Longitudinal data over a period of 11 years were collected from 882 patients with RA. Somatic comorbidity and comorbid depr

  11. Macronutrient distribution over a period of 23 years in relation to energy intake and body fatness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppes, L.L.J.; Boon, N.; Nooyens, A.C.J.; Mechelen, W. van; Saris, W.H.M.

    2009-01-01

    The distribution of the four macronutrients is associated with energy intake and body fatness according to short-term interventions. The present study involves macronutrient distribution in relation to energy intake and body fatness over a period of 23 years in individuals who have ad libitum access

  12. Recurrent amebic liver abscesses over a 16-year period: A case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Creemers-Schild; P.J.J. van Genderen (Perry); L.G. Visser; J.J. van Hellemond (Jaap); P.J. Wismans (Pieter)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Amebic liver abscess is a rare disease in high-income countries. Recurrence of amebic liver abscess is even rarer with only a few previous reports. Here we present a patient who developed three subsequent amebic liver abscesses over a sixteen-year period. Case presentation: A

  13. Recurrent amebic liver abscesses over a 16-year period: A case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Creemers-Schild; P.J.J. van Genderen (Perry); L.G. Visser; J.J. van Hellemond (Jaap); P.J. Wismans (Pieter)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Amebic liver abscess is a rare disease in high-income countries. Recurrence of amebic liver abscess is even rarer with only a few previous reports. Here we present a patient who developed three subsequent amebic liver abscesses over a sixteen-year period. Case presentation: A

  14. Children Treated for Nocturnal Enuresis: Characteristics and Trends over a 15-Year Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnir, Jonathan; Kushnir, Baruch; Sadeh, Avi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Nocturnal Enuresis (NE) is one of the most prevalent childhood disorders and has significant negative psychosocial impact on the child and family. Objective: To assess the characteristics of children with NE and trends over a 15-year period. Methods: The study included 18,677 children [11,205 (60%) boys and 7,472 (40%) girls] referred…

  15. Children Treated for Nocturnal Enuresis: Characteristics and Trends over a 15-Year Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnir, Jonathan; Kushnir, Baruch; Sadeh, Avi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Nocturnal Enuresis (NE) is one of the most prevalent childhood disorders and has significant negative psychosocial impact on the child and family. Objective: To assess the characteristics of children with NE and trends over a 15-year period. Methods: The study included 18,677 children [11,205 (60%) boys and 7,472 (40%) girls] referred…

  16. Ozone pollution during heat wave periods over last 15 years in Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struzewska, J.; Kaminski, J. W.; Jefimow, M.

    2012-04-01

    Periods characterized with the high ozone concentrations are usually associated with very high air temperature and antycyclonic conditions or meridional circulation. A 15-year (1997 - 2011) maximum daily temperature records from GSOD NOAA archive was analyzed for 20 stations in Central Europe. For each year the number of days with the maximum temperature exceeding 25oC and 30oC was calculated. For years with a positive anomaly of the number of the hot days the data were analyzed to identify exact dates and the duration of such events. This allows classification of the high temperature period as "heat waves" (periods with maximum temperature exceeding 30oC lasting at least 3 consecutive days) and hot weather periods (periods with maximum temperature exceeding 25oC and high daily average temperature). These two types of high temperature are usually associated with different air masses inflow - subtropical from the south or transformed polar from westerly directions. This indicates also the differences in contribution of transboundary transport of ozone and its precursors. For selected high temperature episodes the ozone pollution was assessed based on AirBase (1997-2009) and national database (2010-2011). The analysis covered the 8-hour running average and daily maximum concentration of ozone near the surface. Also, the contribution to the SOMO35 index during selected episodes will be calculated as a diagnostic for adverse health effects. Since the two analyzed types of hot weather periods have different origin in terms of synoptic scale situation, an attempt will be made to answer whether there are differences in the intensity of ozone episodes during selected hot weather periods. The outcome from the study will be useful for the interpretation of modelling results for air quality in future climate.

  17. Morbidity and mortality in the antiphospholipid syndrome during a 10-year period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cervera, R; Serrano, R; Pons-Estel, G J

    2015-01-01

    patients from 13 European countries. All had medical histories documented when entered into the study and were followed prospectively during the ensuing 10 years. RESULTS: 53.1% of the patients had primary APS, 36.2% had APS associated with systemic lupus erythematosus and 10.7% APS associated with other...... diseases. Thrombotic events appeared in 166 (16.6%) patients during the first 5-year period and in 115 (14.4%) during the second 5-year period. The most common events were strokes, transient ischaemic attacks, deep vein thromboses and pulmonary embolism. 127 (15.5%) women became pregnant (188 pregnancies......) and 72.9% of pregnancies succeeded in having one or more live births. The most common obstetric complication was early pregnancy loss (16.5% of the pregnancies). Intrauterine growth restriction (26.3% of the total live births) and prematurity (48.2%) were the most frequent fetal morbidities. 93 (9...

  18. Review of the Journal Acta Informatica Medica During Eight Year Period: 2008-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet; Begic, Edin; Zunic, Lejla

    2016-04-01

    Acta Informatica Medica is official journal of the Academy for Medical Sciences of Bosnia and Herzegovina (from 2014 Acta Inform Med is published bimonthly). To evaluate journal "Acta Informatica Medica" in 2015 and compare findings to previous years. The study has retrospective and descriptive character, and included the period 2008-2015 (included 36 issues of journal). A total of 83 (average 13,8 articles per journal) articles were published in Acta Informatica Medica during 2015. Analyzing the type of articles, original articles are present in majority during 2015 (68,6%) (by analyzing last eight years, 310 (67,3%) were original). During 2015, 27,7% of articles were related to the applied of Health informatics in field of clinical medicine, 63,8% preclinical medicine and 8,5% to public health. Collaboration rate in 2015 was 0,84. Most often the time required for decision on acceptance of article in 2015 is between 50 and 60 days. Articles came from 16 countries. According to scimagojr.com for 2014, Acta Informatica Medica has SCImago Journal Rank 0,166, while Cites / Doc. (2 years) parameter (widely used as impact index) is 0,70. According to GoogleScholar, h5 index is 11 and h5 median is 19. We analyzed the Acta Informatica Medica by "Publish or Perish" software - H index was 14, g index was 19 and e-index was 10.39. Year after year the highest number of original articles are published. Although the period of revision of articles is acceptable, the period up to two months is certainly not long, the goal is to reduce this period. Although the magazine in mentioned field found its place, although it is indexed in numerous bases, including: PubMed, PubMed Central, SCOPUS, EMBASE, EBSCO, etc. The main goal for next year is that the magazine becomes part of the Web of Science. Imperative is further internationalization of the magazine.

  19. Age, period, and cohort effects on pulmonary function in a 24-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X; Laird, N; Dockery, D W; Schouten, J P; Rijcken, B; Weiss, S T

    1995-03-15

    This paper proposes the use of two-factor models (age-period and age-cohort models) to estimate age, period, and cohort effects on pulmonary function by using the data collected in a 24-year longitudinal study in the Netherlands from 1965 to 1990. The analysis included 18,363 pulmonary function measurements on 6,148 subjects aged 20-54 years at the initial visit. The subjects were grouped into four birth cohorts (before 1923, 1923-1934, 1935-1946, and after 1946) and four survey periods (1965-1972, 1973-1978, 1979-1984, and 1985-1990). In the age-cohort model, the decrement in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) associated with a yearly increase in age was 28.3 +/- 3.7 ml/year for a man 176 cm tall and 16.0 +/- 1.9 ml/year for a woman 163 cm tall. The estimated acceleration of decline with aging was significant for both men (beta = -0.212; standard error = 0.079 ml) and women (beta = -0.346; standard error = 0.058 ml). Compared with that of the cohort born before 1923, the average level of FEV1 was estimated to increase by 156, 277, and 379 ml, respectively, for the three younger cohorts in men (p = 0.01) and by 133, 213, and 328 ml for the three younger cohorts in women (p linear age effect on FEV1 was 36.2 +/- 4.2 ml/year for a man and 30.5 +/- 2.3 ml/year for a woman. The age quadratic term was significant for women, but not for men. Average FEV1 was estimated to be increased by 141, 169, and 250 ml, respectively, for the periods 1973-1978, 1979-1984, and 1985-1990 in men and by 131, 138, and 219 ml in women. These period effects were significant for both men and women. In summary, this study applied the two-factor models to estimate cross-sectional and longitudinal effects of aging on FEV1 and demonstrated significant period and cohort effects, which could be attributed in part to changes in air pollutants, respiratory infections, vaccinations, types of cigarettes, diet, and lifestyles over time.

  20. China's Exploration Research Resultful in the Eighth Five-Year Plan Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guan Defan; Yuan Lingling; Wang Keyu

    1997-01-01

    @@ The scientific research on oil and gas exploration, conducted by China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) during the Eighth Five-Year Plan Period (1991~1995),was carried out in the principle of "keeping the production stable in East China while accelerating exploration and development in West China." The research work is focused on the pattern of resources distribution and evaluation on selection of blocks for explorative targets. Meanwhile, the results of scientific research were applied to the exploration work, making greater achievements than in the previous five-yearplan period.

  1. Paleocene sea level movements with a 430,000 year quasi-periodic cyclicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briskin, M. (Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (USA)); Fluegeman, R. (Ball State Univ., Muncie, IN (USA))

    1990-04-01

    Sea level movements with quasi-periodicity of 430,000 years are identified in the marine sedimentary units of the Eastern Gulf Coastal Plain of Mississippi, Alabama and Georgia which represent a 5.8 million year record of strandline displacement during Paleocene time. Principal component analysis of the benthic foraminiferal fauna yielded six assemblages which when combined with two other qualitatively derived assemblages provided paleoecologic information which clearly reflects the influence of paleocirculation and paleoclimatic regime of the Eastern Gulf Coastal Plain. The presence of the planktonic foraminiferal taxa Subbotina trinidadensis and Planorotalites pseudomenardii as well as paleolatitudes ranging from 15{degree} N (for the Campeche Shelf) to 25{degree} N (for the Coastal Plain) emphasizes a paleoclimatic regime which is dominantly tropical. A paleoceanographic model was derived which suggests that normal marine waters were brought into the Gulf of Mexico by two major currents. Strandline displacements are related to transgressive and regressive sea level movements in an ice free Paleocene world. The well delineated 430,000 year quasi-periodic cycle observed in the sea level curve is identified as being astronomical in character. These results support the view that changes in the Earth's orbit may trigger changes in the geometry of the Earth's surface in a way which causes sea level to oscillate with a quasi-periodicity of 430,000 years.

  2. A retrospective study of the pattern of sexually transmitted diseases during a ten-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayanan Beena

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Proper knowledge of the patterns of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs in different geographical regions is necessary for evolving proper strategies for control of these diseases. Aims: To study the pattern of STDs and to analyze the changes during a ten-year period from 1990 among patients attending Medical College Hospital, Kottayam Methods: Case records of 686 patients with STDs who attended the outpatient wing of the Department of Dermatology and Venereology were studied. Results: There were 504 males and 182 females in the total of 686 patients. Marital contact alone was reported by 123 (67.6% female patients. Genital ulcer diseases (GUDs accounted for the maximum number of STDs, with 504 cases (73.5%, followed by condyloma acuminatum (17.5% and gonorrhea (10.1%. Forty-three patients had multiple infections. The total number of patients during the first year of study was 129, while it was 41 during the last year. Bacterial STDs showed a striking reduction in numbers. The decline was less marked in the case of viral STDs. Conclusion: The majority of patients had genital ulcer diseases. Spouses were the most common source of infection for female patients. There was a marked decline in the number of patients with various STDs during the ten-year period. The decline was more evident in the bacterial STDs resulting in an apparent increase of the viral STDs towards the end of the period of study.

  3. Temporal trends in inflammatory bowel disease publications over a 19-years period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weintraub, Yael; Mimouni, Francis B; Cohen, Shlomi

    2014-11-28

    To determine whether temporal changes occurred in the pediatric vs adult inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), both in terms of number and type of yearly published articles. We aimed to evaluate all PubMed-registered articles related to the field of IBD from January 1, 1993 and until December 31, 2011. We searched for articles using the key words "inflammatory bowel disease" or "Crohn's disease" or "ulcerative colitis" or "undetermined colitis", using the age filters of "child" or "adult". We repeated the search according to the total number per year of articles per type of article, for each year of the specified period. We studied randomized controlled trials, clinical trials, case reports, meta-analyses, letters to the editor, reviews, systematic reviews, practice guidelines, and editorials. We identified 44645 articles over the 19 year-period. There were 8687 pediatric-tagged articles vs 19750 adult-tagged articles. Thus 16208 articles were unaccounted and not assigned a "pediatric" or "adult" tag by PubMed. There was an approximately 3-fold significant increase in all articles recorded both in pediatric and adult articles. This significant increase was true for nearly every category of article but the number of clinical trials, meta-analysis, and randomized controlled trials increased proportionally more than the number of "lower quality" articles such as editorials or letters to the editor. Very few guidelines were published every year. There is a yearly linear increase in publications related to IBD. Relatively, there are more and more clinical trials and higher quality articles.

  4. The changing panorama of cerebral palsy in Sweden. V. The birth year period 1979-82.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagberg, B; Hagberg, G; Olow, I; von Wendt, L

    1989-03-01

    The prevalence of cerebral palsy (CP) in Swedish infants born in the four-year period 1979-82 is reported and related to the prevalence in infants born during the twenty-year period 1959-78. In 1979-82 it was 2.17 per 1,000 livebirths, 1.23 for children born at term and 0.94 for preterms, which means that the rising trend since the beginning of the 1970s persisted. The most pronounced rise, from 0.18 per 1,000 livebirths in the period 1967-70 to 0.67 in 1979-82 was found in the subgroup of preterms with spastic/ataxic diplegia. The severity of motor disability and the relative frequency of mental retardation, infantile hydrocephalus and epilepsy among preterm CP children successively increased over the same period of time. The livebirth prevalence of CP in term infants increased slightly but non-significantly during the period 1967-82. The birthweight-specific prevalence of CP per 1,000 newborns surviving the first week of life increased in all birthweight groups during the period 1967-82, significantly for birthweights below 1,500 g and over 2,500 g. The rising prevalence of CP was concomitant with a parallel fall in perinatal mortality, especially in very preterm infants. In the 1980s, severely multi-handicapped, very preterm children, only exceptionally seen among CP children born in the 1960s and 1970s, has become a matter of concern.

  5. Rural Transformation and Planning Tactics in the 13th Five-Year Plan Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo; Xiaolong; Xu; Xiao; Li; Min

    2016-01-01

    Rural development has long been the focus of China’s central and local governments. Since the late 2000 s, rural areas have presented new transformation features and development trends. To stimulate rural transformation and development in the 13 th Five-Year Plan period, this paper reviews major ideas on rural development in related disciplines. This study also summarizes main rural transformation features, including the aging population, hollow villages, changes in the allocation of land resource, semi-urbanization, and regional differences in rural development. Finally, it also provides suggestions for planning tactics in the 13 th Five-Year Plan period, such as making differentiated rural development strategies, exploring new methods to stimulate rural stock land planning and use, and enforcing relevant policy and management reforms.

  6. HYSTERECTOMY IN THE PERINATAL AND POSTPARTUM PERIOD IN THE 17-YEAR CLINICAL MATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrosława L. Sikora-Szczęśniak

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Intruduction: Hysterectomy is one of major surgeries. Pregnancy, delivery and postpartum period make the operation even more difficult as it is forced and complicated by various pathological conditions that develop over that time. Objective: The purpose of study was to analyze the frequency of hysterectomy, indications to undertake it and complications associated with the removal of the uterus in pregnancy and during perinatal and postpartum period. The study analyzed the cases of hysterectomies in perinatal and postpartum period performed over the 17-year clinical material from the Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, SZOZ, Lipsko in the years 1985–2001. Material and methods : The material for analysis were medical records of 15 women who developed complications in pregnancy, perinatal and postpartum period, which were absolute indication to perform hysterectomy. The following parameters were analyzed: patient’s age, number of deliveries, the way pregnancies were terminated, the way present pregnancy was terminated, complications, indications to Caesarean section and perinatal and postpartum hysterectomy, type of hysterectomy performed, other associated procedures and complications. Results : In total 15 hysterectomies were performed in the period of study which accounts for 0.10% all deliveries. The material revealed the following causes for hysterectomy: placental pathologies (46.7%, inflammatory conditions of internal sex organs (20.0%, uterine atonia after delivery (13.3%, injuries of sex organs (13.3%. Elective hysterectomy in that period was performed in one patient (6.7%. The risk factors predisposing to complications resulting in hysterectomy were history of Caesarean sections in 10 patients (66.7% and multiple spontaneous deliveries. Complications associated with hysterectomy which enforced additional operations were noted in two cases (13.3%. Total hysterectomy was performed in 8 patients (53.3% including hysterectomy with

  7. Caustic Injury In Adults – A Study For 3 Year Period

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study is to present the results of a 3-year clinico-epidemiological investigation of caustic injury in adults. The study includes 43 patients with acute corrosive ingestion, hospitalized in the Toxicology Clinic, University Hospital “N. I. Pirogov”, Sofia, Bulgaria, for the period 01.01. 2010-31.12.2012. The methods used include: clinical observation and examination, clinical laboratory, imaging, and psychiatric methods and tests. 43 patients between the ages of 22 and 82 with ...

  8. Vegetation Transformations of Kujawy-Pomerania Region in the Last Twenty Years Period

    OpenAIRE

    Załuski Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    This paper contents dynamic tendencies analysis results of Kujawy-Pomerania region (N Poland) for a 20-year time period. Acreage changes as well as structure and species composition transformations of forest and shrub vegetation (associations) and non-forest vegetation (alliances) were evaluated. Main factors influencing on regressive and progressive changes were set out. Analysis was relied on results of geobotanical research and observations of selected objects. Regressive changes were note...

  9. Frequent use of hospital inpatient services during a nine year period: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Adelle M; Condon, John R; Li, Shu Q; Guthridge, Steven L

    2017-05-12

    Frequent use (FU) of hospital services impacts on patients and health service expenditure. Studies examining FU in emergency departments and inpatient settings have found heterogeneity and the need to differentiate between potentially preventable FU and that associated with ongoing management of complex conditions. Psychosocial factors have often been reported as underpinning or exacerbating the phenomena. Most FU studies have been limited by time, to a single study site, or restricted to specific diagnoses or patient groups. This study provides a comprehensive description of adult patient characteristics, conditions and risk factors associated with FU, based on admissions to the five public hospitals in the Northern Territory (NT) of Australia over a nine year period. The study population is distinctive comprising both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal patients. Data on all inpatient episodes in NT public hospitals between 2005 and 2013 was analysed to identify patients with any FU (four or more episodes within any 12-month period) and measure FU duration (number of FU years) and intensity (mean number of episodes per FU year). Pregnancy, alcohol-related and mental health condition flags were assigned to patients with any episode with relevant diagnoses during the study period. Multivariate analysis was used to assess factors associated with any FU, FU duration and FU intensity, separately for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal patients. Of people with any inpatient episodes during the study period, 13.6% were frequent users (Aboriginal 22%, non-Aboriginal 10%) accounting for 46.6% of all episodes. 73% of frequent users had only one FU year. Any FU and increased FU duration were more common among individuals who were: Aboriginal; older; female; and those with a pregnancy, alcohol or mental health flag. Having two or more alcohol-related episodes in the nine-year period was strongly associated with any FU for both Aboriginal (odds ratio 8.9, 95% CI. 8.20-9.66) and non

  10. Linkages of periodic climatic and social-economic changes in China during the past 2000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiuqi; Su, Yu; Yin, Jun; Wei, Zhudeng

    2016-04-01

    Impacts of climate change on rise and fall of human civilization in the history could provide lessons for understanding how impacts of climatic change and human response interacted. However, such a study is highly restricted by lacking in high-resolution series concerning long-term social-economic processes. China is a country that has great potential for providing long-term socio-economic series in high-resolution because it has abundant related historical records as long as thousands of years in the Chinese historical literatures. In this paper, A methodology named Semantic Differential for quantifying historical literal descriptions to grade numbers is developed. Using the methodology, 10-year resolution graded series of social-economic system change of China, including harvest of agriculture, economy, social rise and fall, are reconstructed during the past 2000 years. To compare the periodic changes of climate, harvest, economy, social rise and fall in China during the past 2000 years, it is found that : (1) There are similar periods on multiple time scales among all the series. (2) On the centurial scale, the better economic and social phases generally occurred in the better harvest phases when generally had a warm climate. (3) In the warm phases, both economic and social status were recovered faster and flourished longer than that in the cold phases. (4) The direct impact of climatic change on food security could be enlarged or diminished when it transmitted from harvest I to other social-economic subsystems because of feedbacks of the system.

  11. Analysis of the Thyroid Carcinoma Incidence in Tianjin Over a Recent Twenty-Year Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Biyun Qian; Kexin Chen; Min He; Shufen Dong; Haixin Li; Fengju Song

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the incidence rate and trend of thyroid cancer in Tianjin over a recent 20-year period.METHODS A method of descriptive epidemiology was used to study the occurrence of thyroid cancer.RESULTS During 1981~2001, the average incidence rate of thyroid cancer was 1.770 per 100,000 with a male to female incidence ratio of 1:2.74, the occurrence being higher in females than in males. Thyroid cancer incidence increased gradually with time over the 20 years in both males and females, especially the incidence peaked in females of 35~50 years of age.CONCLUSION The rapid increase in the incidence rate of thyroid cancer, especially in females, suggests that further research on the risk factors and preventive efforts related to high-risk women should be conducted.

  12. Review of Daqing's Technologies in 10th Five-Year Plan Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Zhenghan

    2006-01-01

    @@ During the 10th Five-Year Plan Period, Daqing Oil Field entered the late high water-cut period with the reserveproduction ratio in imbalance. The oil field development became more and more difficult owing to the inadequate substitute resources. Daqing Oil Field Company has made a series of important and new technological achievements to solve those bottlenecks. The oil field has cumulatively achieved a total of technological results, of which eight items are at the State level, 96 items at the provincial and ministerial level, and 1009 items granted with the patent rights. The oil field has developed a family of exploration and development technologies which are world-leading and self-developed with an independent IPR.

  13. Frequent floods in the European Alps coincide with cooler periods of the past 2500 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glur, Lukas; Wirth, Stefanie B; Büntgen, Ulf; Gilli, Adrian; Haug, Gerald H; Schär, Christoph; Beer, Jürg; Anselmetti, Flavio S

    2013-09-26

    Severe floods triggered by intense precipitation are among the most destructive natural hazards in Alpine environments, frequently causing large financial and societal damage. Potential enhanced flood occurrence due to global climate change would thus increase threat to settlements, infrastructure, and human lives in the affected regions. Yet, projections of intense precipitation exhibit major uncertainties and robust reconstructions of Alpine floods are limited to the instrumental and historical period. Here we present a 2500-year long flood reconstruction for the European Alps, based on dated sedimentary flood deposits from ten lakes in Switzerland. We show that periods with high flood frequency coincide with cool summer temperatures. This wet-cold synchronism suggests enhanced flood occurrence to be triggered by latitudinal shifts of Atlantic and Mediterranean storm tracks. This paleoclimatic perspective reveals natural analogues for varying climate conditions, and thus can contribute to a better understanding and improved projections of weather extremes under climate change.

  14. Evaluation of raw milk quality in different production systems and periods of the year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Inácio Marcondes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of raw milk in different production systems and its variation throughout the year. The data were collected from 943 dairy farms in the South, Central-West and Central regions of the state of Minas Gerais, and in Vale do Paraíba, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The data were collected in the period from January 2009 to September 2011, in a total of 18,206 samples. The properties were divided into confinement, semi-confinement and extensive production systems. The evaluated factors were somatic cell count (SCC, total bacterial count (TBC and protein and fat contents. There was no effect of production system on the contents of protein, fat and SCC. Total bacterial count, however, was affected by production. Seasonal variations were found for SCC, TBC, protein and fat; the highest protein values were found from March to June; the highest fat contents were obtained from May to August; and TBC and SCC, from December to March. The production system does not interfere with the percentage of fat and protein and SCC of the milk. However, confinement systems present a better TBC content. Both month and year are factors that interfere with TBC, SCC, protein and milk fat, and the best patterns are found in the coldest periods of the year.

  15. Resistance studies of erythromycin and rifampin for Rhodococcus equi over a 10-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buckley T

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study sought to determine whether an increase in resistance of Rhodococcus equi to the antibiotics rifampin and erythromycin occurred over a 10-year period. This was carried out by the use of E test strips for rifampin and erythromycin to determine the MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration values of Rhodococcus equi to this combination of antibiotics. The findings of this study indicated that there was an increase in resistance of Rhodococcus equi to rifampin and erythromycin over the 10-year period. The MIC for rifampin increased from 0.081 μg/ml in 1996 to 0.187 μg/ml in 2006 and from 0.258 μg/ml for erythromycin during the years prior to 2000 to 0.583 μg/ml in 2006. This finding suggests that there may be a problem in the treatment of Rhodococcus equi infections in foals in the future, particularly as the number of drugs available for treatment of Rhodococcus equi infection is limited because of the intracellular capabilities of this bacterium. Antibiotics used in its treatment have to be able to penetrate the polysaccharide cell wall of Rhodococcus equi as well as the alveolar macrophages in which the bacterium is capable of surviving.

  16. Mortality from Cardiovascular Diseases in the Elderly: Comparative Analysis of Two Five-year Periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piuvezam, Grasiela; Medeiros, Wilton Rodrigues; Costa, Andressa Vellasco; Emerenciano, Felipe Fonseca; Santos, Renata Cristina; Seabra, Danilo Silveira

    2015-10-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in Brazil. The better understanding of the spatial and temporal distribution of mortality from cardiovascular diseases in the Brazilian elderly population is essential to support more appropriate health actions for each region of the country. To describe and to compare geospatially the rates of mortality from cardiovascular disease in elderly individuals living in Brazil by gender in two 5-year periods: 1996 to 2000 and 2006 to 2010. This is an ecological study, for which rates of mortality were obtained from DATASUS and the population rates from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística). An average mortality rate for cardiovascular disease in elderly by gender was calculated for each period. The spatial autocorrelation was evaluated by TerraView 4.2.0 through global Moran index and the formation of clusters by the index of local Moran-LISA. There was an increase, in the second 5-year period, in the mortality rates in the Northeast and North regions, parallel to a decrease in the South, South-East and Midwest regions. Moreover, there was the formation of clusters with high mortality rates in the second period in Roraima among females, and in Ceará, Pernambuco and Roraima among males. The increase in mortality rates in the North and Northeast regions is probably related to the changing profile of mortality and improvement in the quality of information, a result of the increase in surveillance and health care measures in these regions.

  17. Survival and quality of life of cholangiocarcinoma patients: a prospective study over a 4 year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalache, Florentina; Tantau, Marcel; Diaconu, Brindusa; Acalovschi, Monica

    2010-09-01

    Cholangiocarcinomas (CCAs) are tumors with a poor prognosis and a lower quality of life (QoL). The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival rate and quality of life in CCA patients. We prospectively enrolled 133 patients diagnosed with CCA in the 3rd Medical Clinic, Cluj Napoca, over a 4-year period (2005-2009). The QoL was evaluated by means of a QoL questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30). The mean age of the patients was 65 +/- 10.6 years: 55% were males. 71% of the patients had hilar tumor (Klatskin), 23% distal and 6% intrahepatic CCA (IH). Only 11.3% of the patients were eligible to receive curative treatment. The 1-year overall survival was 22.3 +/- 4.4% and the 2-year survival was 3.4 +/- 2.1%. The patients receiving metallic stents had better survival than those receiving plastic stents (40.4% vs 12.5% at 1 year, 9.1% vs 5.0% at 2 years, respectively). The 1-year survival was significantly improved for patients who underwent surgery plus adjuvant chemotherapy. The post-therapy QoL demonstrated a less improvement in Klatskin tumor patients than in patients with other types of tumors. Endoscopic palliative therapy allowed a faster community reintegration, but with variable evolution. The highest 2-year survival rate was 5.5%. Slightly longer survival was recorded when chemotherapy was added and also after endoscopic placement of metallic stents. Endoscopic biliary decompression improved the QoL faster than surgery.

  18. Changes in plant species composition of coastal dune habitats over a 20-year period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Vecchio, Silvia; Prisco, Irene; Acosta, Alicia T. R.; Stanisci, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Coastal sandy ecosystems are increasingly being threatened by human pressure, causing loss of biodiversity, habitat degradation and landscape modifications. However, there are still very few detailed studies focussing on compositional changes in coastal dune plant communities over time. In this work, we investigated how coastal dune European Union (EU) habitats (from pioneer annual beach communities to Mediterranean scrubs on the landward fixed dunes) have changed during the last 20 years. Using phytosociological relevés conducted in 1989–90 and in 2010–12, we investigated changes in floristic composition over time. We then compared plant cover and the proportion of ruderal, alien and habitat diagnostic species (‘focal species’) in the two periods. Finally, we used Ellenberg indicator values to define the ‘preferences’ of the plant species for temperature and moisture. We found that only fore dune habitats showed significant differences in species cover between the two time periods, with higher plant cover in the more recent relevés and a significant increase in thermophilic species. Although previous studies have demonstrated consistent habitat loss in this area, we observed that all coastal dune plant communities remain well represented, after a 20-year period. However, fore dunes have been experiencing significant compositional changes. Although we cannot confirm whether the observed changes are strictly related to climatic changes, to human pressure or to both, we hypothesize that a moderate increment in average yearly temperature may have promoted the increase in plant cover and the spread of thermophilic species. Thus, even though human activities are major driving forces of change in coastal dune vegetation, at the community scale climatic factors may also play important roles. Our study draws on re-visitation studies which appear to constitute a powerful tool for the assessment of the conservation status of EU habitats. PMID:25750408

  19. [Smoking among psychology students over a ten-year period (1996-2006)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Míguez Varela, María del Carmen; Becoña Iglesias, Elisardo

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the evolution of smoking among Psychology students at the University of Santiago de Compostela (Spain) over a ten-year period (1986-2006). We also assessed the extent of knowledge of the Spanish health legislation on tobacco (Ley 28/2005) and its effect on smoking. We administered a questionnaire to representative samples of students from the 1st year of their Psychology course to the 5th year, on four occasions. In the academic year 1996-1997 (N = 835), 34% of the sample claimed to be daily smokers; in 1999-2000 (N = 842), the figure was 35.2%; in 2003-2004 (N = 835) it was 31.9%; and in 2006-2007 (N = 688), it was 22.8%. Moreover, in the last assessment, 97.1% of the sample reported being aware of the legislation (Ley 28/2005) and 41.9% of the smokers claimed that it had some degree of influence on their smoking. It can be stated that, although overall current prevalence of smoking is similar to that of 10 years ago, a significant change is observed in the profile of smokers. This change is expressed in lower levels of nicotine dependence and a decrease in the percentage of daily smokers, together with an increase in occasional smokers.

  20. [Recurrent periods of respiratory tract infections in a 22-year-old].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinreich, Ulla Møller; Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Frost, Majbritt; Iyer, Victor Vishwanath; Bertelsen, Henrik Christian; Clausen, Paul; Jensen, Trine Hammer

    2014-12-01

    A 22-year-old male with recurrent periods of coughing and nasal discharge was unable to work and cooperate. A bronchoscopy revealed high amounts of leucocytes and no eosinofils, acute inflammation and > 105/ml Streptococcus pneumoniae susceptible to penicillin. The symptoms relapsed after penicillin and at the age of 24 the patient was CT-scanned which revealed bilateral sinusitis, mastoiditis and bronchiectasis. Treatment with azithromycin and a weight loss programme (from 156 kg) improved the health of the patient, who was an orangutan. This highlights the benefit of cooperation between medical doctors and veterinarians.

  1. Gestational trophoblastic disease findings of a five year period retrospective audit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balvinder Sagoo

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: We found a high incidence of GTD in the non-Asian population (1 in 415. Most patients who had been diagnosed with GTD on ultrasound were in the first trimester. Accuracy of ultrasound diagnosis is 40 % over a 5 year audit period. The main ultrasound findings of GTD were cystic changes and mixed echogenic echoes. Patients who were undiagnosed on ultrasound but had histological diagnosis of GTD had missed miscarriage as the predominant ultrasound diagnosis. Most patients were registered with the screening centre within six weeks of the histological diagnosis. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(6.000: 1887-1890

  2. The Decline of Inpatient Penile Prosthesis over the 10‐Year Period, 2000–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amjad Alwaal, MD, MSc, FRCSC

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: The number of PP procedures performed in the inpatient setting declined between 2000 and 2010, likely reflecting a shift toward increasing outpatient procedures. Our data also suggest a better outcome for patients having the procedure done at a high‐volume center in terms of inpatient complications. Alwaal A, Harris CR, Hussein AA, Sanford TH, McCulloch CE, Shindel AW, and Breyer BN. The decline of inpatient penile prosthesis over the 10‐year period, 2000–2010. Sex Med 2015;3:280–286.

  3. Treatment trends during a thirteen-year period in a student pediatric dentistry clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimstein, E; Eidelman, E

    1997-01-01

    This manuscript reports the treatment trends in a pediatric dentistry clinic from 1980 to 1992 and discusses their implication in clinical teaching. Analysis of the records of the senior year pediatric dentistry students indicated: no significant change with time in the patients/student ratio, the number of preformed crowns, pulpotomies, and pulpectomies by student or by patient; a significant decrease in the number of one-surface and > or = 2-surface restorations by student and by patient; a significant increase in the number of pit-and-fissure sealants and preventive resin restorations by student and by patient. During the thirteen-year period, the students performed an average of 7.3 one-surface; 12.9 > or = 2-surface restorations; 5.5 preformed crowns; 6.4 pit-and-fissure sealants; 2.4 pulpotomies. There was a significant increase with time in the number of students who performed pit-and-fissure sealants.

  4. Patch-test results in children and adolescents: systematic review of a 15-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Dulcilea Ferraz; Goulart, Eugênio Marcos Andrade

    2016-01-01

    The number of studies on patch-test results in children and adolescents has gradually increased in recent years, thus stimulating reviews. This paper is a systematic review of a 15-year period devoted to studying the issue. Variations pertaining to the number and age groups of tested children and/or adolescents, the number of subjects with atopy/atopic dermatitis history, the quantity, type and concentrations of the tested substances, the test technique and type of data regarding clinical relevance, must all be considered in evaluating these studies, as they make it harder to formulate conclusions. The most common allergens in children were nickel, thimerosal, cobalt, fragrance, lanolin and neomycin. In adolescents, they were nickel, thimerosal, cobalt, fragrance, potassium dichromate, and Myroxylon pereirae. Knowledge of this matter aids health professionals in planning preventive programs aimed at improving children's quality of life and ensuring that their future prospects are not undermined.

  5. Susceptibility to tulathromycin in Mannheimia haemolytica isolated from feedlot cattle over a three-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor W. Alexander

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Mannheimia haemolytica isolated from feedlot cattle were tested for tulathromycin resistance. Cattle were sampled over a three-year period, starting 12 months after approval of tulathromycin for prevention and treatment of bovine respiratory disease. Nasopharyngeal samples from approximately 5,814 cattle were collected when cattle entered feedlots (N = 4 and again from the same cattle after ≥ 60 d on feed. The antimicrobial use history for each animal was recorded. Mannheimia haemolytica was isolated from 796 (13.7% entry samples and 1,038 (20.6% ≥ 60 d samples. Of the cattle positive for M. haemolytica, 18.5%, 2.9%, and 2.4% were administered therapeutic concentrations of tulathromycin, tilmicosin, or tylosin tartrate, respectively. In addition, 13.2% were administered subtherapeutic concentrations of tylosin phosphate in feed. In years one and two, no tulathromycin-resistant M. haemolytica were detected, whereas 5 isolates (0.4% were resistant in year three. These resistant isolates were collected from three cattle originating from a single pen, were all serotype 1, and were genetically related (≥ 89% similarity according to pulsed-field gel electrophoreses patterns. The five tulathromycin-resistant isolates were multi-drug resistant also exhibiting resistance to oxytetracycline, tilmicosin, ampicillin, or penicillin. The macrolide resistance genes erm(42, erm(A, erm(B, erm(F, erm(X and msr(E-mph(E, were not detected in the tulathromycin-resistant M. haemolytica. This study showed that tulathromycin resistance in M. haemolytica from a general population of feedlot cattle in western Canada was low and did not change over a three-year period after tulathromycin was approved for use in cattle.

  6. Susceptibility to tulathromycin in Mannheimia haemolytica isolated from feedlot cattle over a 3-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Trevor W; Cook, Shaun; Klima, Cassidy L; Topp, Ed; McAllister, Tim A

    2013-01-01

    Mannheimia haemolytica isolated from feedlot cattle were tested for tulathromycin resistance. Cattle were sampled over a 3-year period, starting 12 months after approval of tulathromycin for prevention and treatment of bovine respiratory disease. Nasopharyngeal samples from approximately 5,814 cattle were collected when cattle entered feedlots (N = 4) and again from the same cattle after ≥60 days on feed. The antimicrobial use history for each animal was recorded. Mannheimia haemolytica was isolated from 796 (13.7%) entry samples and 1,038 (20.6%) ≥ 60 days samples. Of the cattle positive for M. haemolytica, 18.5, 2.9, and 2.4% were administered therapeutic concentrations of tulathromycin, tilmicosin, or tylosin tartrate, respectively. In addition, 13.2% were administered subtherapeutic concentrations of tylosin phosphate in feed. In years one and two, no tulathromycin-resistant M. haemolytica were detected, whereas five isolates (0.4%) were resistant in year three. These resistant isolates were collected from three cattle originating from a single pen, were all serotype 1, and were genetically related (≥89% similarity) according to pulsed-field gel electrophoreses patterns. The five tulathromycin-resistant isolates were multi-drug resistant also exhibiting resistance to oxytetracycline, tilmicosin, ampicillin, or penicillin. The macrolide resistance genes erm(42), erm(A), erm(B), erm(F), erm(X) and msr(E)-mph(E), were not detected in the tulathromycin-resistant M. haemolytica. This study showed that tulathromycin resistance in M. haemolytica from a general population of feedlot cattle in western Canada was low and did not change over a 3-year period after tulathromycin was approved for use in cattle.

  7. Periods in a 87 Years Light Curve of the Symbiotic Star MWC 560

    CERN Document Server

    Leibowitz, Elia M

    2015-01-01

    We have constructed a visual light curve of the symbiotic star MWC covering the last 87 years of its history. The data were assembled from the literature and from the AAVSO data bank. Most of the periodic components of the system brightness variation can be accounted for by the operation of 3 basic clocks of the periods P1=19000 d, P2=1943 d and P3=722 d. These periods can plausibly, and consistently with the observations, be attributed to 3 physical mechanisms in the system. They are, respectively, the working of a solar-like magnetic dynamo cycle in the outer layers of the giant star of the system, the binary orbit cycle and the sidereal rotation cycle of the giant star. MWC 560 is the 7th symbiotic star with historical light curves that reveal similar basic characteristics of the systems. The light curves of all these stars are well interpreted on the basis of current understanding of the physical processes that are the major sources of the optical luminosity of these symbiotic systems.

  8. THREE FUNDAMENTAL PERIODS IN AN 87 YEAR LIGHT CURVE OF THE SYMBIOTIC STAR MWC 560

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leibowitz, Elia M.; Formiggini, Liliana, E-mail: elia@astro.tau.ac.il [The Wise Observatory and the School of Physics and Astronomy, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2015-08-15

    We construct a visual light curve of the symbiotic star MWC covering the last 87 years of its history. The data were assembled from the literature and from the AAVSO data bank. Most of the periodic components of the system brightness variation can be accounted for by the operation of three basic clocks of the periods P1 = 19,000 days, P2 = 1943 days, and P3 = 722 days. These periods can plausibly, and consistently with the observations, be attributed to three physical mechanisms in the system: the working of a solar-like magnetic dynamo cycle in the outer layers of the giant star of the system, the binary orbit cycle, and the sidereal rotation cycle of the giant star. MWC 560 is the seventh symbiotic star with historical light curves that reveal similar basic characteristics of the systems. The light curves of all these stars are well interpreted on the basis of the current understanding of the physical processes that are the major sources of the optical luminosity of these symbiotic systems.

  9. Binge Eating Behavior and Weight Loss Maintenance over a 2-Year Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carly R. Pacanowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the relationship between binge eating behavior and weight loss maintenance over a two-year period in adults. Design. Secondary data analysis using the Keep It Off study, a randomized trial evaluating an intervention to promote weight loss maintenance. Participants. 419 men and women (ages: 20 to 70 y; BMI: 20–44 kg/m2 who had intentionally lost ≥10% of their weight during the previous year. Measurements. Body weight was measured and binge eating behavior over the past 6 months was reported at baseline, 12 months and 24 months. Height was measured at baseline. Results. Prevalence of binge eating at baseline was 19.4% (n=76. Prevalence of binge eating at any time point was 30.1% (n=126. Although rate of weight regain did not differ significantly between those who did or did not report binge eating at baseline, binge eating behavior across the study period (additive value of presence or absence at each time point was significantly associated with different rates of weight regain. Conclusion. Tailoring weight loss maintenance interventions to address binge eating behavior is warranted given the prevalence and the different rates of weight regain experienced by those reporting this behavior.

  10. Paediatric head injury admissions over a 10-year period in a regional neurosurgical unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phang, I; Mathieson, C; Sexton, I; Forsyth, S; Brown, J; St George, E J

    2012-08-01

    Traumatic brain injury is a leading cause of death and disability in childhood. A retrospective study of all paediatric head injuries admitted to the neurosurgical unit for the West of Scotland over a 10-year period was performed to assess the impact of the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence head injury guidelines on the admission rate and to determine the associated risk factors, causes, severity and outcomes of these injuries. There were 564 admissions between 1998 and 2007. The median age at presentation was nine years and two months. There was no change in the admission rate, injury mechanism or severity of head injury admitted over the period studied. A relationship was observed between the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation Score and the incidence of head injury (P = 0.05). Alcohol was reported as a causative factor in only a small number of cases, and moderate to severe head injuries were more commonly identified as a result of road traffic accidents.

  11. Binge Eating Behavior and Weight Loss Maintenance over a 2-Year Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacanowski, Carly R.; Senso, Meghan M.; Crain, A. Lauren; Sherwood, Nancy E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the relationship between binge eating behavior and weight loss maintenance over a two-year period in adults. Design. Secondary data analysis using the Keep It Off study, a randomized trial evaluating an intervention to promote weight loss maintenance. Participants. 419 men and women (ages: 20 to 70 y; BMI: 20–44 kg/m2) who had intentionally lost ≥10% of their weight during the previous year. Measurements. Body weight was measured and binge eating behavior over the past 6 months was reported at baseline, 12 months and 24 months. Height was measured at baseline. Results. Prevalence of binge eating at baseline was 19.4% (n = 76). Prevalence of binge eating at any time point was 30.1% (n = 126). Although rate of weight regain did not differ significantly between those who did or did not report binge eating at baseline, binge eating behavior across the study period (additive value of presence or absence at each time point) was significantly associated with different rates of weight regain. Conclusion. Tailoring weight loss maintenance interventions to address binge eating behavior is warranted given the prevalence and the different rates of weight regain experienced by those reporting this behavior. PMID:24891946

  12. Anatomical and subjective success rates of endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy over a seven-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshay, N; Ghabrial, R

    2016-11-01

    PurposeEndonasal dacryocystorhinostomy (END-DCR) is a relatively novel approach that has recently been shown in some studies to provide similar success rates to the more traditional external approach for the treatment of nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLDO). However, a range of success rates using this approach are reported within the literature and the majority of oculoplastic surgeons are still favouring the external approach. The purpose of this study was to review the anatomical and subjective success rates of END-DCRs performed over a 7-year period.Patients and methodsWe provide a review of the success rates of 288 END-DCRs for the treatment of acquired NLDO performed over a 7-year period by a single oculoplastic surgeon in Sydney, Australia. We describe the operative technique used and define anatomical success as demonstrated patency of the nasolacrimal drainage system at 10 weeks postoperatively while subjective success is defined as complete resolution or significant improvement of symptoms as reported by patients at the same time point.ResultsIn our study, we were able to demonstrate that out of 288 END-DCRs, an average anatomical success rate of 89.6% and an average subjective success rate of 81.3% were achievable.ConclusionsWe conclude that the success rates using our endonasal approach remain similar to those obtained using the external approach, as reported within the literature, and may be considered as a primary treatment option for acquired NLDO.

  13. Evaluating Period of Accelerated Skeletal Maturation in Gujarati Children between Ages 8+ and 14+ Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarjit Singh Bhatia

    2012-01-01

    Aims and objective: In the present study, an attempt was made to assess the level of skeletal maturation and period of accelerated growth in 70 boys and 70 girls between the ages (8+ and (14+ years using CVMS index. Materials and methods: Lateral cephalogram of 140 individuals were selected, i.e. 70 girls and 70 boys, each of age group from 8+ to 14+ years. It is observed that CVMS index used is highly significant for this purpose. It is observed that this index is highly effective for this purpose. Conclusion: Females′ vertebrae mature earlier than males at each stage. The maturation rate is not constant between the various stages and period of accelerated growth is experienced at different ages and levels in males and females. Need arises to confirm that early maturation in females is not because of their smaller sized vertebra. Further, the time duration recorded between the two subsequent stages is different not because the changes required to be done by nature is different. Longitudinal growth studies of the jaws proper are desired to be conducted for this purpose.

  14. Opinions on Deepening Power Institutional Reform in the 11th Five-Year Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Working Group of Power Institutional Reform; Ye Qing

    2007-01-01

    @@ Power industry is an important infrastructure for national economic and social development. In the 10th Five-Year Plan period, power institutional reform in China has gained important progress, the basic realization of separation between government and enterprises, as well as between power plants and power grids, the formation of competitive situation in power generation field and power enterprises' vitality have been strengthened;along with power tariff reform incessantly deepening, regional power market initiating and power legal construction further strengthening, the construction of power regulatory system achieving progression. In the course of pushing forward power institutional reform, power safety operation, power personnel's stability and rapid growth of power industry have been ensured,which forcefully supported national economic and social development. However, power institutional reform has achieved but an intermediate result, the mission of reform has not yet completed and some new conditions and problems have arisen. In the 11th Five-Year period, we shall firmly grasp the favorable opportunity of power supply alleviation,insist on proceeding from China's reality, assimilate foreign successful experience, consolidate reform achievement and promote power industry's sustained and healthy development,then people's high quality and inexpensive power service can be ensured.

  15. [Epidemiologic behavior of malignant digestive tract tumors over a five year period in Veracruz, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesch-Dietlen, F; Jiménez-García, V A; Remes-Troche, J M; Rubio-Arce, J F; López-Salinas, A; Ruiz-Juárez, I; Grube-Pagola, P; Silva-Cañetas, C F

    2012-01-01

    Tumors of the digestive system are considered to be a public health problem because of their elevated mortality rate. In Mexico, gastric cancer and colon cancer rank fourth and fifth, respectively, following tracheal, bronchial, and lung cancer, and there has been an increase in their frequency in the last few years. However, there are no specific studies that have evaluated their epidemiologic behavior in Veracruz. To determine the frequency of digestive system cancer in five health institutions in the city of Veracruz and to describe its epidemiologic behavior over a five-year period. Annual statistics from the following hospitals were reviewed: the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, the Secretaría de Salud, the Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales de los Trabajadores del Estado, Petróleos Mexicanos, and the Secretaría de la Defensa Nacional within the time frame of January 2005 to December 2009. Diagnoses based on histopathology were recorded, along with patient age and sex. A total of 1803 cases of digestive tract cancers were detected: 52% were men and 48% were women. A yearly increase in the number of cases was observed with colon cancer being in first place, followed by stomach cancer and rectal cancer. The increase in digestive system cancer cases over the last five years in Veracruz underlines the need to evaluate the implementation of screening programs for the at-risk population and to study the different etiologic factors involved in its manifestation.

  16. Primary localized conjunctival amyloidosis: A case report with a ten-year follow-up period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Mesa-Gutiérrez

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Juan Carlos Mesa-Gutiérrez, Tomás Martí Huguet, Noemí Barnils Garcia, Jorge Arruga GinebredaDepartment of Ophthalmology, Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, SpainAbstract: A 57-year-old woman consulted our department about a plaque that had been present in her left eye for one year. Ophthalmological examination revealed a solid mass in the left conjunctival semilunar fold. An excitional biopsy was peformed, revealing an amyloid deposition. The patient was referred to the Internal Medicine Department for systemic study. All studies were negative for systemic amyloidosis. Throughout ten years of follow-up study, the patient has shown neither conjunctival recurrence nor any evidence of systemic amylodosis. Despite the fact that several authors have described ocular amyloidosis as an ophthalmologic manifestation of systemic amyloidosis, conjunctival location of amyloidosis is a very rare condition. Amyloid characterization in ocular structures should not be considered a final diagnosis since involvement of systemic underlying diseases must be ruled out. We report a case of localized conjunctival amyloidosis with a ten-year follow-up period that excluded ocular or systemic diseases.Keywords: conjuctival amyloidosis, ocular amyloidosis, hyaline protein

  17. The Changes of Pulmonary Function in COPD During Four-Year Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukic, Vesna; Lovre, Vladimir; Ustamujic, Aida

    2013-01-01

    Conflict of interest: none declared. Introduction COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) is characterized by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible. OBJECTIVE: to show the changes of pulmonary function in COPD during the 4 -year evolution of illness. Material and Methods The research was done on patients suffering from COPD treated at the Clinic “Podhrastovi” during 2006 and 2007. The tested parameters were examined from the date of receiving patient with COPD to hospital treatment in 2006 and 2007 and then followed prospectively until 2010 or 2011 (the follow-up period was 4 years). There were total 199 treated patients who were chosen at random and regularly attended the control examinations. The study was conducted on adult patients of both sexes, different age group. In each patient the duration of illness was recorded so is sex, age, data of smoking habits, information about the regularity of taking bronchodilator therapy during remissions of disease, about the treatment of disease exacerbations, results of pulmonary functional tests as follows: FVC (forced vital capacity), FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in one second) and bronchodilator reversibility testing. All these parameters were measured at the beginning and at the end of each hospital treatment on the apparatuses of Clinic “Podhrastovi”. We took in elaboration those data obtained in the beginning of the first hospitalization and at the end of the last hospitalization or at the last control in outpatient department when patient was in stable state. Patients were divided into three groups according to the number of exacerbations per year. Results airflow limitation in COPD is progressive; both FVC and FEV1 shows the statistically significant decrease during follow-up period of 4 years (p values / for both parameters/ =0.05) . But in patients regularly treated in phases of remission and exacerbations of illness the course of illness is slower. The fall of FVC and FEV1 is

  18. Comparative heart failure profile over a 3-year period in a Romanian general hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop D

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Dana Pop,1 Oana Maria Penciu,1 Adela Viviana Sitar-Taut,2 Dumitru Tudor Zdrenghea11Department of Cardiology, Clinical Rehabilitation Hospital, "Iuliu Hatieganu" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania; 2"Babes-Bolyai" University, Cluj-Napoca, RomaniaBackground: Heart failure (HF has become an increasingly significant public health problem, associated with repeated hospitalizations, high costs, low quality of life, and decreased survival rate. The progress of the disease may be slowed if treatment is administered in accordance with current guidelines.Objectives: To compare the clinical profile of HF patients in a Romanian general hospital over a 3-year period.Methods and results: We studied two cohorts of patients admitted in the cardiology department of a rehabilitation hospital with a diagnosis of chronic HF New York Heart Association class II–IV. The first, in 2006, included 415 patients, 67.08 ± 10.59 years; the second, in 2009, included 500 patients, 67.31 ± 11.27 years. Considering all patients, the left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF was not statistically different in the two cohorts. Compared to the 2006 cohort, the 2009 female cohort had higher LVEF (60.49% ± 13.41% vs 64.42% ± 13.79%, P < 0.05, while males over 65 years of age had lower LVEF (52.75% ± 15.02% vs 54.37% ± 15.23%, P = NS. For females, the probability of having LVEF ,45% was higher in 2006 (odds ratio = 1.573. HF with preserved LVEF was more common in females, both in 2006 (78.2% vs 54.2% and 2009 (87.2% vs 57.3%. In the 2009 cohort, LVEF was higher both in young patients (59.08% ± 14.22% vs 55.35% ± 14.92% and patients ≥ than 75 years of age (62.28% ± 13.81% vs 56.79% ± 14.81% compared to the 2006 cohort. Ischemic heart disease was the main underlying cause for HF in both cohorts.Conclusion: HF appeared to have the same clinical profile over a 3-year period. Females diagnosed with HF showed higher rates of preserved LVEF.Keywords: heart

  19. Periodic 18.6-year and cyclic 11-year induced drought and flood in northeastern China and some global implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Robert Guinn; Fairbridge, Rhodes W.

    The general patterns of climatic evolution in China during the Holocene are reviewed, and following the postglacial eustatic rise of sea-level and the institution of the East Asian Monsoon, the systems and principal fluctuations are found to be concordant with those operating elsewhere in the globe. China's unique wealth of written history provides an abundance of proxy data on the climatic record and that record now furnishes a basis for analysing both long-term and short-term fluctuations, as well as sunspot behavior, that together provide an insight into extraterrestrial forcing. Recent Chinese work suggests a solar forcing, but our own studies suggest rather that a lunar tidal component, reinforced at times by the solar element may prove more important. Analysis of a drought-flood index for Peking (Beijing) in northeastern China since A.D. 1470 supports evidence (Hameed et al., 1983) for both periodic lunar nodal 18.6-year and solar cyclic 11-year induced drought-flood in the region. The nodal term exhibits bistable phasing with respect to epochs of tidal maxima (for our century epochs occurred at 1917.5, 1936.1, 1954.7 and 1973.3), a phenomenon previously found in drought-flood proxy data for South America (Currie, 1983), India (Currie, 1984a), North America (Currie, 1984d), and Africa (Hameed and Currie, 1985; Currie and Hameed, 1985). Solar cycle epochs of drought-flood are tabulated for the past two centuries, and compared with those from North America and Africa.

  20. Explaining the 11-year periodicity in Neptune's atmosphere with Voyager 2 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aplin, Karen; Harrison, R. Giles

    2017-04-01

    Long-duration observations of Neptune's brightness at two visible wavelengths, made since the 1970s by Lockwood and co-workers [e.g. 1], give a disk-averaged estimate of variations in the planet's clouds and atmospheric aerosol. Brightness variations have previously been associated with the 11-year solar cycle [1], through two solar-modulated mechanisms, firstly, ultraviolet-related colour changes [2], or galactic cosmic ray (GCR)-related nucleation effects on atmospheric particle formation. Over 40 years of brightness data (1972-2014) are used here to show, with physically realistic modelling, that ultraviolet and GCR are likely to be modulating Neptune's atmosphere in combination rather than as alternatives. Existence of the cosmic ray mechanism is further supported by the response of Neptune's atmosphere to an intermittent 1.5- to 1.9-year periodicity during the mid-1980s. This occurred in GCR and, critically for its use in mechanism discrimination, not the solar ultraviolet. This periodicity was detected both at Earth, and in GCR measured by Voyager 2, which was close to Neptune at that time. The similar coincident variability in Neptune's brightness suggests nucleation onto GCR ions. Both GCR and ultraviolet particle modulation mechanisms are expected to occur more rapidly than the subsequent atmospheric transport processes.[2] [1] Lockwood, G. W. & Thompson, D. T. Photometric variability of Neptune, 1972-2000. Icarus 156, 37-51 (2002). [2] Aplin, K. L. & Harrison, R. G. Determining solar effects in Neptune's atmosphere. Nat. Commun. 7:11976 doi: 10.1038/ncomms11976 (2016)

  1. Vascular trauma in Western Australia: a comparison of two study periods over 15 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Jikol; Rao, Sudhakar; Sieunarine, Kishore; Woodroof, Paul

    2016-03-01

    Royal Perth Hospital (RPH) has become Western Australia's only designated adult major trauma facility since a previous study of vascular trauma was conducted in 2001 at the same facility. The aim of this study is to identify changes in vascular trauma patterns over the two study periods and compare these changes with international literature. All individuals presenting to RPH between January 2000 and December 2010 with vascular injury were identified from a prospective trauma database for this descriptive study. Injuries were classified using the Abbreviated Injury Score (AIS). The incidence of vascular trauma as a percentage of total trauma increased over the two study periods. The current 10-year study included 45 164 patients on the trauma database, of which 1205 patients (2.6%) sustained 1335 vascular injuries, an increase from 1% in the previous 5-year study at the same facility. Males aged 20-29 years were more frequently injured. Blunt trauma occurred more frequently than penetrating. The extremities, particularly the upper limbs were most commonly injured. The most common causes of injury for each region were as follows; motorbike crash (MBC), motor vehicle crash (MVC) and stabbing (neck, thorax and abdomen), MBC and MVC (lower limb) and piercing injuries (upper limb). Injury Severity Score (ISS) and mortality 43% (32 of 75) were highest for thoracic injuries, particularly thoracic aorta injury. Mortality rate has decreased. Vascular injuries in Western Australia are increasing. MVC are the most common cause of life threatening injury. Road safety interventions targeting young males are likely to reduce trauma. © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  2. Increasing illness severity in very low birth weight infants over a 9-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Locke Robert G

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent reports have documented a leveling-off of survival rates in preterm infants through the 1990's. The objective of this study was to determine temporal changes in illness severity in very low birth weight (VLBW infants in relationship to the outcomes of death and/or severe IVH. Methods Cohort study of 1414 VLBW infants cared for in a single level III neonatal intensive care unit in Delaware from 1993–2002. Infants were divided into consecutive 3-year cohorts. Illness severity was measured by two objective methods: the Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology (SNAP, based on data from the 1st day of life, and total thyroxine (T4, measured on the 5th day of life. Death before hospital discharge and severe intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH were investigated in the study sample in relation to illness severity. The fetal death rate was also investigated. Statistical analyses included both univariate and multivariate analysis. Results Illness severity, as measured by SNAP and T4, increased steadily over the 9-year study period with an associated increase in severe IVH and the combined outcome of death and/or severe IVH. During the final 3 years of the study, the observed increase in illness severity accounted for 86% (95% CI 57–116% of the variability in the increase in death and/or severe IVH. The fetal death rate dropped from 7.8/1000 (1993–1996 to 5.3/1000 (1999–2002, p = .01 over the course of the study. Conclusion These data demonstrate a progressive increase in illness in VLBW infants over time, associated with an increase in death and/or severe IVH. We speculate that the observed decrease in fetal death, and the increase in neonatal illness, mortality and/or severe IVH over time represent a shift of severely compromised patients that now survive the fetal time period and are presented for care in the neonatal unit.

  3. Treatment and Prognosis for an Esthesioneuroblastoma over a 20-Year Period: Impact of Treatment Era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Chang Hoon; Kim, Il Han; Wu, Hong Gyun; Kim, Dong Wan; Rhee, Chae Seo [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of postoperative radiotherapy in a case of perihilar cholagiocarcinoma by analyzing overall survival rate, patterns of failure, prognostic factors for overall survival, and toxicity. Between January 1998 and March 2008, 38 patients with perihilar cholangiocarcinoma underwent a surgical resection and adjuvant radiotherapy. The median patient age was 59 years (range, 28 to 72 years), which included 23 men and 15 women. The extent of surgery was complete resection in 9 patients, microscopically positive margins in 25 patients, and a subtotal resection in 4 patients. The tumor bed and regional lymphatics initially received 45 Gy or 50 Gy, but was subsequently boosted to a total dose of 59.4 Gy or 60 Gy in incompletely resected patients. The median radiotherapy dose was 59.4 Gy. Concurrent chemotherapy was administered in 30 patients. The median follow-up period was 14 months (range, 6 to 45 months). The 3-year overall survival and 3-year progression free survival rates were 30% and 8%, respectively. The median survival time was 28 months. A multivariate analysis showed that differentiation was the only significant factor for overall survival. The 3-year overall survival was 34% in R0 patients and 20% in R1 patients. No statistically significant differences in survival were found between the 2 groups (p=0.3067). The first site of failure was local in 18 patients (47%). No patient experienced grade 3 or higher acute toxicity and duodenal bleeding developed in 2 patients. Our results suggest that adjuvant RT might be a significant factor in patients with a positive margin following a radical resection. However, there was still a high locoregional recurrence rate following surgery and postoperative radiotherapy. Further study is necessary to enhance the effect of the adjuvant radiotherapy.

  4. The Changes of Arterial Blood Gases in COPD During Four-year Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukic, Vesna

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) is characterized by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible and that can lead to respiratory failure. Objective: to show the changes of arterial blood gases in COPD during the 4 -year evolution of illness. Material and Methods: The research was done on patients suffering from COPD treated at the Clinic “Podhrastovi” during 2006 and 2007 year. The tested parameters were examined from the date of receiving patient with COPD to hospital treatment in 2006 and 2007 and then followed prospectively until 2010 or 2011 year (the follow-up period was 4 years). There were total 199 treated patients who were chosen at random and regularly attended the control examinations. The study was conducted on adult patients of both sexes, different age group. In each patient the duration of illness was recorded so is sex, age, data of smoking habits, information about the regularity of taking bronchodilator therapy during remissions of disease, about the treatment of disease exacerbations, results of blood gases analysis as follows : pH value, PaO2 (partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood), PaCO2 (partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood). All these parameters were measured at the beginning and at the end of each hospital treatment. We took in elaboration data obtained in the beginning of the first hospitalization and at the end of the last hospitalization or at the last control in outpatient department when patient was in stable state. Patients were divided into three groups according to the number of exacerbations per year. Results: there is the statistically significant decrease of PaO2 (p<0.01) and pH, (p<0.05) and an increase of PaCO2 (p<0.01) during follow-up period. But in patients regularly treated in phases of remission and exacerbations of illness the course of illness is slower. The decrease of pH and PaO2 and increase of PaCO2 is statistically significantly smaller in those

  5. A New Approach to Estimating the T-Year Return-Period Wave Height

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jun; SONG Wenpeng; GE Yong

    2011-01-01

    The paper introduces a new approach to estimating the T-year return-period wave height (TRPW),i.e.the wave height expected to occur in T-year,from two sets of observed extreme data and on the basis of the maximum entropy principle.The main points of the approach are as follows.1) A maximum entropy probability density function (PDF) for the extreme wave height H is derived from a Euler equation subject to some necessary and rational constraints.2) The parameters in the function are expressed in terms of the mth moment of H.3) This PDF is convenient to theoretical and practical applications as it is simple and its four parameters are easy to be determined from observed extreme data.An example is given for estimating the TRPW in 50 and 100 years by the present approach and by some currently used methods using observed data at two hydrographic stations.The comparison of the estimated results shows that the present approach is quite similar to the Pearson-Ⅲ and Gumbel methods.

  6. Weight gain in different periods of pregnancy and offspring's body mass index at 7 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Camilla Schou; Gamborg, Michael; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2011-01-01

    We investigated how average weekly gestational weight gain rates during three periods of pregnancy were related to the offspring's body mass index (BMI) at 7 years of age.......We investigated how average weekly gestational weight gain rates during three periods of pregnancy were related to the offspring's body mass index (BMI) at 7 years of age....

  7. 34 CFR 691.64 - Calculation of a grant for a payment period which occurs in two award years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculation of a grant for a payment period which occurs in two award years. 691.64 Section 691.64 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department... occurs in two award years. (a) If a student enrolls in a payment period that is scheduled to occur in two...

  8. Active longitudes in the period of overlap of 11-year cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramynin, A. P.; Mikhalina, F. A.

    2016-12-01

    It is shown that "active longitudes" for the sunspots of old and new cycles manifest themselves approximately in the same longitudinal intervals and remain for several 11-year cycles. To be more accurate, they vanish in some cycles but then appear again at the same longitudinal intervals in the other cycles. The entire period is characterized by a total of four active longitudes. The old-cycle sunspots observed at low equatorial latitudes in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres are characterized by a shift by ≈180°, which indicates antipodality of the active longitudes in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. In the case of highlatitude sunspots (new-cycle sunspots), the best correlation is observed for the shift of ≈90°. There is supposedly a dependence of the rotation speed of active longitudes on the secular cycle.

  9. Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity; An unselected material from a 5-year period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindeloev, B.; Kirkegaard, J.; Hansen, H.S. (Copenhagen Univ. Hospital (Denmark). Dept. of Head and Neck Oncology Copenhagen Univ. Hospital (Denmark). Dept. of Otolaryngology)

    1990-01-01

    Three hundred and four patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity were treated at the Finsen Institute in cooperation with the ENT-surgical departments between 1978 and 1982. The primary treatment consisted of radiotherapy alone in 74%, surgery alone in 4%, and a combination of radiotherapy and surgery in 15% of the patients. 2% received other treatment (cryotherapy), 5% did not complete the planned radiotherapy, and 1% were not treated at all. Of 203 patients with tumour remnant or first recurrence, 45% were operated, 2% received radiotherapy, and 2% combined treatment. This treatment strategy made 38% of the patients free of disease in the follow-up period (3 1/2 to 8 years) or until the patients died from other causes. Fifty-nine percent of the patients died from their oral carcinomas. Tumour size (T), lymph node status (N), and tumour stage were as expected important prognostic factors. (orig.).

  10. Tylosin content in meat and honey samples over a two-year period in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolanović, Božica S; Bilandžić, Nina; Varenina, Ivana; Božić, Durđica

    2014-01-01

    A total of 646 meat and 96 honey samples were examined over a 2-year period for the presence of tylosin residues. ELISA method used was validated according to the criteria of Commission Decision 2002/657/EC established for qualitative screening methods. The CCβ values were 32.1 µg kg⁻¹ in muscle and 24.4 µg kg⁻¹ in honey. The recoveries from spiked samples ranged from 66.4-118.6%, with a coefficient of variation between 12.6% and 18.6%. All the investigated samples showed no presence of tylosin. Calculated estimated daily intakes show exposure levels lower than the acceptable daily intakes set by World Health Organization.

  11. Forecast of Grain Production of China during the Twelfth Five-Year Plan Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    According to the latest revised agricultural economic statistical data in China Statistical Yearbook-2010,by selecting and establishing the square root-treated grey model,the empirical analysis and forecast research on the grain output of China from 2011 to 2015 are conducted.The results show that the grain output of China in 2011 will reach 557.739 million tons,and it will break through 600 million tons at 605.617 million tons in 2015.The persistent and stable grain output will ensure that the national economy develops in normal during the twelfth five-year plan period and remit the world grain crisis efficiently;meanwhile,the problem of exorbitant grain prices should be remitted in some level.

  12. Neurological effects of white spirit: Contribution of animal studies during a 30-year period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gunnar Damgård; Lund, Søren Peter; Ladefoged, Ole

    2006-01-01

    , but the neurophysiological tests showed adverse effects at this level. Fourth, neurophysiological methods may be more sensitive than histopathological, neurobehavioural and neurochemical methods. Overall, white spirit with a high and a low content of aromatics showed no overt difference in long-term effects in animals......Numerous studies have suggested that long-term occupational exposure to white spirit may cause chronic toxic encephalopathy (WHO 1996). This review summarizes the chronic nervous system effects of white spirit in animal studies during a 30-year period. First, routine histopathology was consistently...... unable to reveal adverse peripheral or central nervous system effects after inhalation of white spirit. Second, neurobehavioural studies in animals showed no adverse effect after inhalation of white spirit with a high content of aromatics in contrast to what was found with products with a low content...

  13. Living with diabetes—Development of learning patterns over a 3-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åsa Kneck

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Learning involves acquiring new knowledge and skills, and changing our ways of thinking, acting, and feeling. Learning in relation to living with diabetes is a lifelong process where there is limited knowledge of how it is experienced and established over time. It was considered important to explore how learning was developed over time for persons living with diabetes. Aim: The aim of the study was to identify patterns in learning when living with diabetes, from recently being diagnosed, and over a 3-year period. Materials and methods: A longitudinal qualitative descriptive design was used. Thirteen participants, with both type I and type II diabetes, were interviewed at three different occasions during a 3-year period. Qualitative content analysis was used in different steps in order to distinguish patterns. Findings: Five main patterns of learning were identified. Two of the patterns (I and II were characterized by gradually becoming comfortable living with diabetes, whereas for one pattern (IV living with diabetes became gradually more difficult. For pattern V living with diabetes was making only a limited impact on life, whereas for Pattern III there was a constant management of obstacles related to illness. The different patterns in the present study showed common and different ways of learning and using different learning strategies at different timespans. Conclusion: The present study showed that duration of illness is not of importance for how far a person has come in his own learning process. A person-centered care is needed to meet the different and changing needs of persons living with diabetes in relation to learning to live with a lifelong illness.

  14. Increasing Incidence of Herpes Zoster Over a 60-year Period From a Population-based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Kosuke; Yawn, Barbara P; Wollan, Peter; Harpaz, Rafael

    2016-07-15

    Temporal increases in the incidence of herpes zoster (HZ) have been reported but studies have examined short study periods, and the cause of the increase remains unknown. We examined the long-term trend of HZ. A population-based cohort study was conducted in Olmsted County, Minnesota, using data from 1945-1960 and 1980-2007. Medical records review of possible cases was performed to confirm incident cases of HZ, the patient's immune status, and prescribing of antivirals for HZ. We examined the relative change in the temporal trend in the incidence rates before and after the introduction of the varicella vaccination program. Of the 8017 patients with HZ, 58.7% were females and 6.6% were immunocompromised. The age- and sex-adjusted incidence rate of HZ increased from 0.76 per 1000 person-years (PY) (95% confidence interval [CI], .63-.89) in 1945-1949 to 3.15 per 1000 PY (95% CI, 3.04-3.26) in 2000-2007. The rate of increase across the time period was 2.5% per year after adjusting for age and sex (adjusted incidence rate ratio, 1.025 [95% CI, 1.023-1.026]; P 4-fold over the last 6 decades. This increase is unlikely to be due to the introduction of varicella vaccination, antiviral therapy, or change in the prevalence of immunocompromised individuals. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Variation Characteristics of Low Temperature and Rainy Weather in Guangxi during Spring Sowing Period of Recent 50 Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to study the variation characteristics of low temperature and rainy weather in Guangxi during spring sowing period of recent 50 years.[Method] Based on the daily average temperature data from 1961 to 2010 at 88 meteorological stations in Guangxi,yearly days and end date of low temperature and rainy weather during spring sowing period were carried out statistics.The variation characteristics of low temperature and rainy weather in Guangxi during spring sowing period of recent 5...

  16. Follow-up of a Case of Vitelliform Macular Dystrophy Over an 8-year Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shizhou Huang; Lezheng Wu; Feng Wen; Guangwei Luo; Futian Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To show the follow-up of a case of vitelliform mac-ular dystrophy with morphological and visual functional tests over an 8-year period. Methods:.Retrospective review of medical records..The mor-phological examination included color photography,.fluores-cein angiography, and ocular coherence tomography (OCT). The visual functional tests included visual acuity, electro-ocu-logram (EOG) and multifocal electroretinography (mfERG). The patient was observed for 8 years, from 2003 to 2011. Results:.During the follow-up,.the improvement of sensory retinal detachment and reduction of yellow-white deposit were observed with color photography and fluorescein angiography. OCT revealed a decrease in sensory retinal detachment and subretinal hyper-reflective deposits; both of these morphologi-cal changes were correspondent. Visual acuity was maintained throughout the follow-up..The Arden ratio of EOG was de-creased. The amplitudes of mfERG were decreased but slightly increased during the follow-up. Conclusion:.The retinal morphological changes and visual function slightly improved in this case of vitelliform macu-lopathy. The prognosis is good. (Eye Science 2014; 29:165-169)

  17. Pediatric encephaloceles: A series of 20 cases over a period of 3 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashank Ravindra Ramdurg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Encephalocele is the protrusion of the cranial contents beyond the normal confines of the skull through a defect in the calvarium and is far less common than spinal dysraphism. The exact worldwide frequency is not known. Aims and Objectives: To determine the epidemiological features, patterns of encephalocele, and its postsurgical results. Materials and Methods: The study was carried from year July 2012 to June 2015. Patients with encephalocele were evaluated for epidemiological characteristics, clinical features, imaging characteristics, and surgical results. Results: 20 encephaloceles patients were treated during the study period. Out of these 12 (60% were male and 8 (40% female. Age range was 1 day to 6 years. The most common type of encephalocele was occipital 12 (60%, occipito-cervical 4 (20%, parietal 2 (10%, fronto-nasal 1 (5%, and fronto-naso-ethmoidal 1 (5%. One patient had a double encephalocele (one atretic and other was occipital with dermal sinus tract and limited dermal myeloschisis. Other associations: Chiari 3 malformation (2, meningomyeloceles (4, and syrinx (4. Three patients presented with rupture two of whom succumbed to meningitis and shock. Seventeen patients treated surgically did well with no immediate surgical mortality (except a case of Chiari 3 malformation who succumbed 6 months postsurgery to unrelated causes. Shunt was performed in 4 cases. Conclusion: The most common type of encephalocele is occipital in our set up. Early surgical management of encephalocele is not only for cosmetic reasons but also to prevent tethering, rupture, and future neurological deficits.

  18. Evaluation of hemoglobinopathy screening results of a six year period in Turkey '

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seçil Gunher Arıca

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Hemoglobinopathies are autosomal recessive inherited diseases more commonly seen in Mediterranean countries. Hereditary blood diseases including B-thalassemia and sickle cell anemia are important health problems. In our study we aimed to analyze the results of the premarital hemoglobinopathy screening test for a 6 years period in Hatay region. Material and Methods: The study sample comprised the couples attending to the Mother and Child Health Care Center in Hatay for premarital hemoglobinopathy screening from 2004 to 2009. Hemoglobin chain analyses of 87.830 couples were evaluated. RESULTS: 175.660 people were screened at total. The prevalence of beta thalassemia trait, sickle cell anemia trait, sickle cell anemia, beta thalassemia major, beta-thalassemia intermedia, alpha-thalassemia, alpha-thalassemia trait was found as 13.921 (7,9%, 6.074 (3,4%, 631 (0.35%, 132 (0.07%, 118 (0.06%, 9 (0.005%, 150 (0.08% respectively. 72 newborns with beta-thalassemia were diagnosed as a result of the marriage of the carrier couples in 6 years. Conclusions: Hatay is a high risk region for beta-thalassemia and sickle cell anemia trait. In countries with high prevalence of hemoglobinopathies, a premarital screening program and counseling is needed to decrease the prevalence.

  19. International Collaboration and Academic Exchange of the CHAIN Project in this Three Years (Period)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Satoru; Shibata, Kazunari; Morita, Satoshi; Kimura, Goichi; Asai, Ayumi; Kitai, Reizaburo; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi; Nagata, Shin'ichi; Ishii, Takako; Nakatani, Yoshikazu; Masashi, Yamaguchi; et al.

    2014-02-01

    We will introduce contents of international collaboration and academic exchange of the CHAIN project in recent three years (ISWI period). After April of 2010, we have not obtained any enough budget for new instruments. Therefore, we have not been able to install new Flare Monitoring Telescopes (FMT) in new countries, such as Algeria. On the other hand, however, we have continued international academic exchange through scientific and educational collaboration with mainly Peru, such as data-analysis training, holding scientific workshops etc. Additionally, in this year, King Saudi University of Saudi Arabia and CRAAG of Algeria have planned to build a new FMT in their university by their own budget. Therefore, we have started some collaboration in the field of technical advices of instruments and scientific themes etc. Moreover, Pakistan Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission (SUPARCO) also offered us participation in the CHAIN-project. We would like to continue to consider the possibility of academic collaboration with such new positive developing nations, too.

  20. The Current Status of Ticks in Turkey: A 100-Year Period Review from 1916 to 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İnci, Abdullah; Yıldırım, Alparslan; Düzlü, Önder

    2016-09-01

    Environmental and bio-ecological changes, some administrative and political mistakes, and global warming seriously affect the behaviors of ticks in Turkey and globally. The global public sensitivity toward tick infestations has increased along with increases in tick-borne diseases (TBDs). Recently, the World Health Organization (WHO) developed a new political concept, "One Health," for specific struggle strategies against tick infestations and TBDs. To highlight the importance of the issue, the WHO had declared the year 2015 for vector-borne diseases and adopted the slogan "small bites big threat". In global struggle strategies, the epidemiological aspects and dynamics of increasing tick populations and their effects on the incidence of the TBDs mainly with zoonotic characteristics have been specifically targeted. In Turkey, during the last century, approximately 47 tick species, including eight soft and 39 hard tick species in three and six genera belonging to Argasidae and Ixodidae, respectively, had already been reported. In this article, the recorded tick species, regional infestations, and medical and veterinary importance in Turkey were chronologically reviewed based on a 100-year period between 1916 and 2016.

  1. Subjects with Impaired Fasting Glucose: Evolution in a Period of 6 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Leiva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the evolution of impaired fasting glucose (IFG, considering glucose and HbA1c levels and risk factors associated, in a period of 6 years. Methods. We studied 94 subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG that were diagnosed in 2005 and followed up to 2012. Glucose and HbA1c levels were determined. A descriptive analysis of contingence charts was performed in order to study the evolution in the development of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Results. Twenty-eight of ninety-four subjects became T2DM; 51/94 remained with IFG; and 20/94 presented normal fasting glucose. From the 28 diabetic subjects, 9 had already developed diabetes and were under treatment with oral hypoglycemic agents; 5 were diagnosed with plasma glucose < 126 mg/dL, but with HbA1c over 6.5%. In those who developed diabetes, 15/28 had a family history of T2DM in first relative degree. Also, diabetic subjects had a BMI significantly higher than nodiabetics (t test: P < 0.01. The individuals that in 2005 had the highest BMI are those who currently have diabetes. Conclusion. The IFG constitutes a condition of high risk of developing T2DM in a few years, especially over 110 mg/dL and in obesity patients.

  2. A survey of referral patterns to a paediatric dentistry unit over a 2-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, A J; Nunn, J H; Welbury, R R

    1994-12-01

    Following the changes in October 1990 in the payment system for children's dental treatment within the General Dental Service in the UK there has been widespread concern that repercussions would be felt in other branches of dentistry. The aim of this survey was to investigate the referral of children for specialist care to the Department of Child Dental Health in Newcastle upon Tyne after the changes in 1990, so that consultant clinics and the provision of advice and treatment could be targeted more effectively. Information was obtained from the patients' referral letters and from their hospital records between March 1991 and March 1993. There were 513 referrals (excluding those for orthodontic treatment, extractions under general anaesthesia and acute emergencies), the number more than doubling during the 2-year survey period. 83% of these patients lived within 15 miles of the hospital. 84% of these referrals were from general dental practitioners, and the greater proportion were from those who graduated within the previous 4 years. The most common reason for referral involved behaviour problems. Changes in the payment system that occurred in 1990 may have been a contributory factor in explaining these findings.

  3. Stability and change in sexual orientation identity over a 10-year period in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, Steven E; Eibach, Richard P

    2012-06-01

    We examined reports of sexual orientation identity stability and change over a 10-year period drawing on data from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS I and II) and tested for three patterns: (1) heterosexual stability, (2) female sexual fluidity, and (3) bisexual fluidity. Fifty-four percent of the 2,560 participants were female and the average age was approximately 47 years. At Wave 1, 2,494 (97.42%) reported a heterosexual identity, 32 (1.25%) a homosexual identity, and 34 (1.33%) a bisexual identity and somewhat more than 2% reported a different sexual orientation identity at Wave 2. Although some support for each hypothesis was found, initial sexual orientation identity interacted with gender to predict a more complex pattern. For the sample as a whole, heterosexuality was the most stable identity. For women, bisexuality and homosexuality were equally unstable and significantly less stable than heterosexuality, suggesting that sexual orientation identity fluidity is a pattern that applies more to sexual minority women than heterosexual women. For men, heterosexuality and homosexuality were both relatively stable compared to bisexuality, which stood out as a particularly unstable identity. This pattern of results was consistent with previous findings and helps to address methodological limitations of earlier research by showing the characteristics of a population-based sample of heterosexual, homosexual, and bisexual identified men and women over time.

  4. Cytologic diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis: Spectrum of findings in Southern Arizona patients over a 10 year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, F Zahra; Millius, Rebecca; Sobonya, Richard; Aboul-Nasr, Khalid; Klein, Robert

    2016-03-01

    The largest series examining the cytological diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis was reported more than 20 years ago and only considered fine needle aspiration (FNA) specimens from pulmonary nodules. Since then, there has been a substantial increase in the incidence of the disease in endemic regions. The aims of this study were to examine the spectrum of Coccidioides in all cytologic specimens and detail their diagnostic and clinical features. The prevalence of infection is also examined against temperature and precipitation data. The Department of Pathology database was retrospectively searched for cases diagnosed as coccidioidomycosis. Climate report was obtained from National Weather Service Forecast Office. Statistical analysis was carried out using JMP version 11.2.0. The presence of Coccidiodes was microscopically diverse with immature spherules, variably sized spherules, endosporulating spherules, empty spherules, and ruptured spherules being observed. Bronchoalveolar lavages demonstrated the greatest number of different forms of Coccidioides and were associated with acute inflammatory response. Granulomas were rare and mostly seen in lymph nodes and extra pulmonary sites. A necrotic background with paucity of inflammation was frequently seen in lung FNA. Immune competent patients outnumbered immunocompromised patients, illustrating the importance of considering the diagnosis in all patients. The reported association between rainfall and peak prevalence was not observed in our study. Coccidioides has diverse cytological appearance and varied host response depending on the site and type of preparation examined. In endemic areas, the disease should be considered in all patients, independent of immune status, and throughout the year. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. A Long Period Eclipsing Binary Project - Five Years of Observations at ESO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlin, P.; Sundman, A.

    1982-06-01

    The star HO 161387 first caught our eyes when we were reading an article on ~ Aurigae stars by K. O. Wright in Vistas in Astronomy No. 12. This was some 8 or 9 years ago. Aurigae stars are eclipsing binaries formed by a cool supergiant K star and a very much smaller and holter mainsequence (more or less normal) B star. Out of eclipse the B star dominates the blue spectral region, but a pure K-type spectrum is found in eclipse. The drastic spectral changes lor HO 161387 can be seen in Fig 1c and 1d. Periods for these binaries are in the range of 2 to 10 years. The general benefit 01 ~ Aurigae star studies is the possibility of direct determination 01 physical parameters of the components such as masses and radii. In practice, what one does observe is the change in radial velocity of the stars as they orbit around their common centre 01 gravity and the change in magnitude as the light from the B star is eclipsed by the K supergiant. There is also the possibility of studying the structure of the atmosphere of a K supergiant manifested by spectral changes occurring as the point light of the B star shines through the outer parts of the K star c1ose to the total eclipse. Besides Aurigae itsell only the stars 31 and 32 Cygni have been studied in greater detail.

  6. Human African trypanosomiasis with 7-year incubation period: clinical, laboratory and neuroimaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wengert, Oliver; Kopp, Marcel; Siebert, Eberhard; Stenzel, Werner; Hegasy, Guido; Suttorp, Norbert; Stich, August; Zoller, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), also referred to as "sleeping sickness", is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma brucei. Diagnosing imported HAT outside endemic areas is difficult and diagnosis is often delayed. We report a case of imported human African trypanosomiasis caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense with an unusually long incubation period of at least 7 years. A 33 year old male African patient, a former resident of Cameroon, presented with a 4-month history of progressive personality changes. A few weeks before presentation the patient had first been admitted to a psychiatric ward and received antidepressant treatment, until a lumbar puncture showed pleocytosis and then antibiotic treatment for suspected neuroborreliosis was initiated. The patient continued to deteriorate during antibiotic treatment and became increasingly lethargic. Under antiparasitic and anti-inflammatory treatment, the condition of the patient gradually improved over the following months and he recovered completely after 24 months of follow-up. This well-documented case illustrates typical difficulties in establishing the correct diagnosis outside endemic areas and provides an overview of typical clinical, neuropathological and neuroimaging findings in T. b. gambiense trypanosomiasis, guiding the clinician in establishing the correct diagnosis in this rare disease.

  7. Subjects with Impaired Fasting Glucose: Evolution in a Period of 6 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, E.; Mujica, V.; Orrego, R.; Wehinger, S.; Soto, A.; Icaza, G.; Vásquez, M.; Díaz, L.; Andrews, M.; Arredondo, M.

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To study the evolution of impaired fasting glucose (IFG), considering glucose and HbA1c levels and risk factors associated, in a period of 6 years. Methods. We studied 94 subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) that were diagnosed in 2005 and followed up to 2012. Glucose and HbA1c levels were determined. A descriptive analysis of contingence charts was performed in order to study the evolution in the development of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Results. Twenty-eight of ninety-four subjects became T2DM; 51/94 remained with IFG; and 20/94 presented normal fasting glucose. From the 28 diabetic subjects, 9 had already developed diabetes and were under treatment with oral hypoglycemic agents; 5 were diagnosed with plasma glucose < 126 mg/dL, but with HbA1c over 6.5%. In those who developed diabetes, 15/28 had a family history of T2DM in first relative degree. Also, diabetic subjects had a BMI significantly higher than nodiabetics (t test: P < 0.01). The individuals that in 2005 had the highest BMI are those who currently have diabetes. Conclusion. The IFG constitutes a condition of high risk of developing T2DM in a few years, especially over 110 mg/dL and in obesity patients. PMID:25215305

  8. Aerosol particulate matter in the Baltimore metropolitan area: Temporal variation over a six-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, Daniel; Delgado, Ruben; Wesloh, Daniel; Powers, Richard J; Hoff, Raymond

    2015-09-01

    This study investigates the sources of fine particulate matter (aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm; PM(2.5)) composition for the Baltimore, Maryland, metropolitan area, covering a 6-year period (2008-2013). Data obtained from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Air Quality System (AQS) were used for the identification of eight chemical speciation clusters (factors), which, as a percentage of the average concentration, were identified as secondary sulfate (31.9%), secondary nitrate (14.3%), gasoline (17.4%), diesel (10.1%), soil (4.0%), biomass burning (11%), marine aerosol (4.1%), and industrial processing (7.2%). The results show predominant influence from vehicle emissions transiting major highways I-695 and I-95 located in the vicinity of the sampling site. Strong influence on PM2.5 mass from biomass burning was found in the first 2 years (2008-2009) due to particulate matter remnants from forest fire events in North Carolina and a strong contribution in 2013 that was due mainly to wood burning during winter. Sulfate, nitrate, soil, and marine aerosol fractions registered very low variability over the 6-year period analyzed. In addition, this study shows a significant reduction in particulate matter from industrial origins after a major industrial source in Baltimore shut down. The results obtained from Baltimore were compared with those from the Beltsville, Maryland, sampling station located 25 miles south of Baltimore for 2011 and 2012, where good agreement was found for most of the factors. This paper presents the first long-term aerosol speciation analysis in a Mid-Atlantic United States metropolitan area, which is essential for the air quality management agencies in order to revise regulations and reduce human exposure to adverse air quality conditions. The results suggest that although a declining trend in the overall PM2.5 was observed, no significant tendency was observed in the identified sources besides exceptional events such as the impact of

  9. Eco-region dependent lengthening of vegetation period over the past 30 years in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garonna, I.; De Jong, R.; De Wit, A.; Mücher, C. A.; Schmid, B.; Schaepman, M. E.

    2013-12-01

    Land Surface Phenology (LSP) is the most direct representation of intra-annual dynamics of vegetated land surfaces as observed from satellite observations. As such, LSP plays a key role in understanding the terrestrial carbon budget, as well as the response of terrestrial ecosystems to environmental change. Various studies have highlighted significant increases in vegetation activity over time (i.e. greening) over Europe in recent decades (e.g. Stöckli and Vidale, 2004), associated both with climatic changes and with large-scale human interventions including land-use change (de Jong et al., 2013). In this study, we characterize LSP changes in Europe's eco-regions for the last 30 years. We used the latest version of the 8-km Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index dataset (third generation, or NDVI-3g) to retrieve LSP metrics for Europe for the last three decades (1982-2011). Each year of NDVI data was processed using the Harmonic Analysis of Time Series (HANTS) algorithm, producing smooth NDVI annual profiles on a pixel-by-pixel basis. In order to derive LSP metrics for each year, namely Start, End and Length of Growing Season, we selected the Midpoint-pixel local threshold method, based on the White et al. (2009) inter-comparison. A landscape-based stratification, using the European Landscape Classification (LANMAP) (Mücher et al., 2010) allowed us to examine LSP characteristics and trends for the different European eco-regions. We demonstrate significant shifts in LSP metrics over the study period, with a general lengthening of the growing season in Europe of approximately 0.4 days year-1. LSP trends varied significantly between eco-regions, and we discuss potential reasons for these spatially diverse trends. de Jong, R., et al. (2013), Spatial relationship between climatologies and changes in global vegetation activity, Global Change Biology, 19(6), 1953-1964. Mücher, C. A., J. A. Klijn, D. M. Wascher, and

  10. Mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus in aten years period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delicio Adriane M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives to evaluate mother-to-child transmission (MTCT rates and related factors in HIV-infected pregnant women from a tertiary hospital between 2000 and 2009. Subjects and method cohort of 452 HIV-infected pregnant women and their newborns. Data was collected from recorded files and undiagnosed children were enrolled for investigation. Statistical analysis: qui-square test, Fisher exact test, Student t test, Mann-Whitney test, ANOVA, risk ratio and confidence intervals. Results MTCT occurred in 3.74%. The study population displayed a mean age of 27 years; 86.5% were found to have acquired HIV through sexual contact; 55% were aware of the diagnosis prior to the pregnancy; 62% were not using HAART. Mean CD4 cell-count was 474 cells/ml and 70.3% had undetectable viral loads in the third trimester. HAART included nevirapine in 35% of cases and protease inhibitors in 55%; Zidovudine monotherapy was used in 7.3%. Mean gestational age at delivery was 37.2 weeks and in 92% by caesarian section; 97.2% received intravenous zidovudine. Use of AZT to newborn occurred in 100% of them. Factors identified as associated to MTCT were: low CD4 cell counts, elevated viral loads, maternal AIDS, shorter periods receiving HAART, other conditions (anemia, IUGR (intra uterine growth restriction, oligohydramnium, coinfecctions (CMV and toxoplasmosis and the occurrence of labor. Use of HAART for longer periods, caesarian and oral zidovudine for the newborns were associated with a decreased risk. Poor adhesion to treatment was present in 13 of the 15 cases of transmission; in 7, coinfecctions were diagnosed (CMV and toxoplasmosis. Conclusion Use of HAART and caesarian delivery are protective factors for mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Maternal coinfecctions and other conditions were risk factors for MTCT.

  11. Nursing Taxonomies in Spain: Research Themes Presented at the AENTDE Conferences Over a 16-Year Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guirao-Goris, Silamani J Adolf; Lluch-Canut, Maria Teresa; Martín-Iglesias, Susana; Quero-Rufián, Aurora; Roldán Merino, Juan Francisco

    2016-03-16

    To identify the types of studies of nursing taxonomies and priority research themes presented at AENTDE conferences between 1996 and 2012. Four hundred oral communications and posters and 27 lectures presented at the AENTDE meetings were reviewed by means of a descriptive analysis of the types of studies conducted and a content analysis of priority research themes. The most commonly presented studies were descriptions of the implementation of nursing taxonomies, which accounted for 27.4% of the total over the 16-year period. However, their prevalence fell from 31.8% in 1996 to 9.1% in 2012. Basic research studies accounted for 17.4% of studies overall but were the most frequent in 2012, when their proportion had risen to 37.5%. The prevalence of basic research studies increased notably over the 16-year period. Content validity studies rose in number, while face validity studies fell. Studies of the practical implementation of taxonomies also declined. Identificar los tipos de estudios de taxonomías enfermeras y los temas de investigación prioritarios presentados en las convenciones de AENTDE desde 1996 a 2012. MÉTODO: Se revisaron 400 comunicaciones y 27 ponencias presentadas a 9 simposiums de AENTDE realizando un análisis del tipo de estudio y un análisis de contenido de los temas. Los estudios más frecuentes son las experiencias de implantación de las taxonomías enfermeras con un porcentaje medio de un 27.4% que partiendo de un 31.8% en 1996 disminuyó a un 9,1% en 2012. La investigación básica tienen un porcentaje medio del 17.4% obteniéndose el mayor porcentaje en 2012 con un 37,5%. CONCLUSIÓN: La prevalencia de los estudios de investigación básica se incrementó notablemente durante el período de 16 años. Los estudios de validez de contenido aumentaron en número, mientras que los estudios de validez aparente cayeron. Los estudios sobre la aplicación práctica de las taxonomías también disminuyeron. © 2016 NANDA International, Inc.

  12. Two-and-a-half targets for Estonian foreign policy / Karmo Tuur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuur, Karmo

    2005-01-01

    Tartu Ülikooli politoloogia õppejõu arvates võiksid Eesti peamisteks välispoliitilisteks sihtideks olla koostöö Põhjamaade ja Venemaa lääneosaga ning olla hästi informeeritud meist kaugemate riikide sündmustest. Olgugi, et meie panus võib olla vaid sümboolne, on väga tähtis osaleda ka rahvusvahelistes kriisireguleerimis- ja arenguprogrammides, et end nähtavaks ja usaldusväärseks teha

  13. The Two and a Half Learning Model: A Consequence of Academic Dishonesty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Academic dishonesty has been regarded as a problem but not a visible and declared one in every type of educational setting from elementary school to graduate level all over the world. Dishonesty or misconduct in the academic realm covers plagiarism, fabrication, deception, cheating, bribery, sabotage, professorial misconduct and impersonation.…

  14. Two-and-a-half targets for Estonian foreign policy / Karmo Tuur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuur, Karmo

    2005-01-01

    Tartu Ülikooli politoloogia õppejõu arvates võiksid Eesti peamisteks välispoliitilisteks sihtideks olla koostöö Põhjamaade ja Venemaa lääneosaga ning olla hästi informeeritud meist kaugemate riikide sündmustest. Olgugi, et meie panus võib olla vaid sümboolne, on väga tähtis osaleda ka rahvusvahelistes kriisireguleerimis- ja arenguprogrammides, et end nähtavaks ja usaldusväärseks teha

  15. Comparison of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Different Areas of Health Care Over a 20-Year Period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardim, Thiago Veiga, E-mail: thiagoveiga@cardiol.br; Sousa, Ana Luiza Lima [Liga de Hipertensão Arterial - Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, GO (Brazil); Povoa, Thais Rolim [Faculdade de Educação Física - Universidade Estadual de Goiás, Goiânia, GO (Brazil); Barroso, Weimar Sebba; Chinem, Brunela; Jardim, Paulo Cesar Veiga [Liga de Hipertensão Arterial - Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, GO (Brazil)

    2014-12-15

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death worldwide. Knowledge about cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) in young adults and their modification over time are measures that change the risks and prevent CVDs. To determine the presence of CVRFs and their changes in different health care professionals over a period of 20 years. All students of medicine, nursing, nutrition, odontology, and pharmacy departments of Federal University of Goiás who agreed to participate in this study were evaluated when they started their degree courses and 20 years afterward. Questionnaires on CVRFs [systemic arterial hypertension (SAH), diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and family history of early CVD, smoking, alcohol consumption, and sedentarism] were administered. Cholesterol levels, blood sugar levels, blood pressure, weight, height, and body mass index were determined. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to evaluate distribution, the chi-square test was used to compare different courses and sexes, and the McNemar test was used for comparing CVRFs. The significance level was set at a p value of < 0.05. The first stage of the study included 281 individuals (91% of all the students), of which 62.9% were women; the mean age was 19.7 years. In the second stage, 215 subjects were reassessed (76% of the initial sample), of which 59.07% were women; the mean age was 39.8 years. The sample mostly consisted of medical students (with a predominance of men), followed by nursing, nutrition, and pharmacy students, with a predominance of women (p < 0.05). Excessive weight gain, SAH, and dyslipidemia were observed among physicians and dentists (p < 0.05). Excessive weight gain and SAH and a reduction in sedentarism (p < 0.05) were observed among pharmacists. Among nurses there was an increase in excessive weight and alcohol consumption (p < 0.05). Finally, nutritionists showed an increase in dyslipidemia (p < 0.05). In general, there was an unfavorable progression of CVRFs in the

  16. Comparison of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Different Areas of Health Care Over a 20-Year Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Veiga Jardim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs are the leading cause of death worldwide. Knowledge about cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs in young adults and their modification over time are measures that change the risks and prevent CVDs. Objectives: To determine the presence of CVRFs and their changes in different health care professionals over a period of 20 years. Methods: All students of medicine, nursing, nutrition, odontology, and pharmacy departments of Federal University of Goiás who agreed to participate in this study were evaluated when they started their degree courses and 20 years afterward. Questionnaires on CVRFs [systemic arterial hypertension (SAH, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and family history of early CVD, smoking, alcohol consumption, and sedentarism] were administered. Cholesterol levels, blood sugar levels, blood pressure, weight, height, and body mass index were determined. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to evaluate distribution, the chi-square test was used to compare different courses and sexes, and the McNemar test was used for comparing CVRFs. The significance level was set at a p value of < 0.05. Results: The first stage of the study included 281 individuals (91% of all the students, of which 62.9% were women; the mean age was 19.7 years. In the second stage, 215 subjects were reassessed (76% of the initial sample, of which 59.07% were women; the mean age was 39.8 years. The sample mostly consisted of medical students (with a predominance of men, followed by nursing, nutrition, and pharmacy students, with a predominance of women (p < 0.05. Excessive weight gain, SAH, and dyslipidemia were observed among physicians and dentists (p < 0.05. Excessive weight gain and SAH and a reduction in sedentarism (p < 0.05 were observed among pharmacists. Among nurses there was an increase in excessive weight and alcohol consumption (p < 0.05. Finally, nutritionists showed an increase in dyslipidemia (p < 0.05. Conclusion

  17. Climate impact on airborne particulate matter concentrations in California using seven year analysis periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mahmud

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of global climate change on the annual average concentration of fine particulate matter (PM2.5 in California was studied using a climate-air quality modeling system composed of global through regional models. Output from the NCAR/DOE Parallel Climate Model (PCM generated under the "business as usual" global emissions scenario was downscaled using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model followed by air quality simulations using the UCD/CIT airshed model. The system represents major atmospheric processes acting on gas and particle phase species including meteorological effects on emissions, advection, dispersion, chemical reaction rates, gas-particle conversion, and dry/wet deposition. The air quality simulations were carried out for the entire state of California with a resolution of 8-km for the years 2000–2006 (present climate with present emissions and 2047–2053 (future climate with present emissions. Each of these 7-year analysis periods was analyzed using a total of 1008 simulated days to span a climatologically relevant time period with a practical computational burden. The 7-year windows were chosen to properly account for annual variability with the added benefit that the air quality predictions under the present climate could be compared to actual measurements. The climate-air quality modeling system successfully predicted the spatial pattern of present climate PM2.5 concentrations in California but the absolute magnitude of the annual average PM2.5 concentrations were under-predicted by ~4–39% in the major air basins. The majority of this under-prediction was caused by excess ventilation predicted by PCM-WRF that should be present to the same degree in the current and future time periods so that the net bias introduced into the comparison is minimized.

    Surface temperature, relative humidity (RH, rain rate, and wind speed were predicted to increase in the future climate

  18. Climate impact on airborne particulate matter concentrations in California using seven year analysis periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, A.; Hixson, M.; Hu, J.; Zhao, Z.; Chen, S.-H.; Kleeman, M. J.

    2010-11-01

    The effect of global climate change on the annual average concentration of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in California was studied using a climate-air quality modeling system composed of global through regional models. Output from the NCAR/DOE Parallel Climate Model (PCM) generated under the "business as usual" global emissions scenario was downscaled using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model followed by air quality simulations using the UCD/CIT airshed model. The system represents major atmospheric processes acting on gas and particle phase species including meteorological effects on emissions, advection, dispersion, chemical reaction rates, gas-particle conversion, and dry/wet deposition. The air quality simulations were carried out for the entire state of California with a resolution of 8-km for the years 2000-2006 (present climate with present emissions) and 2047-2053 (future climate with present emissions). Each of these 7-year analysis periods was analyzed using a total of 1008 simulated days to span a climatologically relevant time period with a practical computational burden. The 7-year windows were chosen to properly account for annual variability with the added benefit that the air quality predictions under the present climate could be compared to actual measurements. The climate-air quality modeling system successfully predicted the spatial pattern of present climate PM2.5 concentrations in California but the absolute magnitude of the annual average PM2.5 concentrations were under-predicted by ~4-39% in the major air basins. The majority of this under-prediction was caused by excess ventilation predicted by PCM-WRF that should be present to the same degree in the current and future time periods so that the net bias introduced into the comparison is minimized. Surface temperature, relative humidity (RH), rain rate, and wind speed were predicted to increase in the future climate while the ultra violet (UV) radiation was predicted to decrease

  19. Climate impact on airborne particulate matter concentrations in California using seven year analysis periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mahmud

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of global climate change on the annual average concentration of fine particulate matter (PM2.5 in California was studied using a climate – air quality modeling system composed of global through regional models. Output from the NCAR/DOE Parallel Climate Model (PCM generated under the "business as usual" global emissions scenario was downscaled using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model followed by air quality simulations using the UCD/CIT airshed model. The air quality simulations were carried out for the entire state of California with a resolution of 8-km for the years 2000–2006 (present climate and 2047–2053 (future climate. The 7-year windows were chosen to properly account for annual variability with the added benefit that the air quality predictions under the present climate could be compared to actual measurements. The climate – air quality modeling system successfully predicted the spatial pattern of present climate PM2.5 concentrations in California but the absolute magnitude of the annual average PM2.5 concentrations were under-predicted by ~35–40% in the major air basins. The majority of this under-prediction was caused by excess ventilation predicted by PCM-WRF that should be present to the same degree in the current and future time periods so that the net bias introduced into the comparison is minimized.

    Surface temperature, relative humidity (RH, rain rate, and wind speed were predicted to increase in the future climate while the ultra violet (UV radiation was predicted to decrease in major urban areas in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV and South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB. These changes resulted in a ~0.6–1.9 μg m−3 decrease in predicted PM2.5 concentrations in coastal and central Los Angeles. Annual average PM2.5 concentrations were predicted to increase at certain locations within the SJV and the Sacramento Valley due to the

  20. Evolution of Helicobacter pylori susceptibility to antibiotics during a 10-year period in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupcinskas, Limas; Rasmussen, Lone; Jonaitis, Laimas; Kiudelis, Gediminas; Jørgensen, Marianne; Urbonaviciene, Neringa; Tamosiunas, Vytas; Kupcinskas, Juozas; Miciuleviciene, Jolanta; Kadusevicius, Edmundas; Berg, Douglas; Andersen, Leif P

    2013-05-01

    The study evaluated the changes in the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori strains with primary resistance to antibiotics during the last 10 years in Lithuania. H. pylori susceptibilities to antibiotics were tested in 89 patients in 1998, in 81 patients in 2001 and in 90 patients in 2007/2008. Susceptibility to metronidazole, clarithromycin, amoxicillin and tetracycline was tested using E-test or agar dilution method. Susceptibility to ciprofloxacin was only tested in 2007/2008. Data about utilization of all authorized and available on market macrolides and clindamycin in Lithuania during 2003-2007 were evaluated using WHO ATC/DDD methodology. A total of 260 H. pylori strains cultured from untreated adult patients were investigated. Primary resistance rates (1998, 2001 and 2007/2008) for metronidazole were 24.7%, 33.3%, and 35.6%, for clarithromycin 1.1%, 3.7%, and 3.3% and for tetracycline 0%, 2.5% and 0% respectively. No cases of amoxicillin resistance have been detected. The resistance rate for ciprofloxacin was 5.6% in 2007/2008. Data of total macrolides and clarithromycin utilization in Lithuania revealed that despite an increase of consumption of these drugs in Lithuania during 2003-2007 in 1.5 times, the total macrolide consumption remains one of the lowest in Europe. We have not observed any significant changes in the susceptibility of H. pylori to the most widely used antibiotics during the recent 10-year period. The low resistance rate to clarithromycin might be related to the policy to avoid use of macrolides as first-line treatment for pulmonary and other infections.

  1. Persistent pulmonary hypertension – The neonatal period and evaluation at 2 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Mota

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN is a condition in which the pulmonary vessels fail to dilate at birth. It can be the consequence of a wide array of diseases, such as pneumonia, congenital diaphragmatic hernia, meconium aspiration syndrome and hyaline membrane disease. It has an incidence of 1-2 per 1,000 newborns and it can have pulmonary, neurologic and developmental consequences. We conducted a retrospective study with the aim of analyzing the causes, morbidities and comorbidities, management and mortality of PPHN in newborns hospitalized in our neonatal intensive care unit (NICU and to evaluate respiratory, neurologic and developmental morbidity at 2 years of age. A total of 77 children, born between 1996 and 2012, were studied. Twenty-six (33.8% deceased. The mortality, as well as the need for resuscitation, inhaled nitric oxide (iNO, diuretics, and vasopressor support, was higher in patients with the severe form of PPHN. The need for vasopressor support was the only factor associated with a higher mortality. We found a reduction of 17.8% in mortality rates after the introduction of iNO, sildenafil and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia was the most common cause of PPHN. Pneumonia was more frequent before 2003. There was no significant difference in the morbidity and mortality between the two time periods (before and after 2003. On the follow-up of 37 of the remaining 51 patients, we did not find differences in the morbidity of patients comparing those with the severe vs. non-severe forms of the condition.An evaluation over the years of admitted newborns with PPHN in our NICU is mandatory to confirm a relationship between the new treatment strategies and the better outcome of the patients.

  2. Findings, diagnoses and results of a halitosis clinic over a seven year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zürcher, Andrea; Filippi, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Halitosis or bad breath is a taboo subject that is a widespread problem in the general population. Causes of bad breath can be multifactorial and long time sufferers can be marred from deep psychological stress. Because nine out of ten cases have an oral cause, the initial inquiry should be with a dentist. In a retrospective study from February 2003 to February 2010, the halitosis clinic at the University of Basel analyzed data from 465 patient medical histories. Study objectives evaluated the causes of halitosis, gender distribution and treatment success. All patients reported to have suffered from bad breath. However, 82.7% were actually diagnosed as having halitosis. Within this group, 96.2% showed an oral etiology and 3.8% showed an extra-oral cause. Women suffered significantly more from psychogenic halitosis. Success rates of 92.6% subjectively and 94.5% objectively reflect the treatment success of the diagnostic and therapeutic concepts presented at the University of Basel halitosis clinic over a seven year period.

  3. Fine needle aspiration cytology of supraclavicular lymph nodes: Our experience over a three-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Sumit; Ray, Suchandra; Mitra, Pradip K

    2011-07-01

    This study was taken up with the aim to investigate the pattern of supraclavicular lymphadenopathy among patients presenting to our tertiary care institution, evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), and analyze the diagnostic pitfalls. A total of 215 patients were subjected to FNAC of supraclavicular lymph nodes over a three-year period (August 2006 to July 2009). Since in 18 patients as either the aspirate was inadequate or the opinion was equivocal, we analyzed the remaining 197 cases. Malignant pathology accounted for 79.7% (157/197) of the cases. These were mostly cases of metastatic squamous cell carcinoma (79/197, 40.1%), adenocarcinoma (47/197, 23.9%), small cell carcinoma (12/197, 6.1%) and lymphoma (10/197, 5%). There were 28 (14.2%) cases of tuberculosis. Out of these 197 patients, 92 patients were biopsied. The opinion based on FNAC was erroneous in 6 cases but corroborated with the final histopathology findings in the remaining 86 cases. FNAC is an excellent first line of investigation; and when used with a proper combination of experience and diligence, it can greatly reduce the number of errors.

  4. Advertising Intellection in Ottoman Empire Period end Sample of Tanin Newspaper between 1908 and 1909 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Hanife KOCAKAYA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Advertising that has become an indispensable element of today’s conditions has also become a frequently used tool of goods and services the companies utilized. With the advances in technology, the number of companies that commercialises their goods has been steadily increasing day by day. That fact that advertising has become such a significant sector of the industry; has provided this sector with the opportunity to contact a lot of people all at the same time. That is why; advertising is special among the marketing and the media tools. The Tanin newspaper discussed in this article began to be broadcast towards the end of the Ottoman Empire. The newspaper that began to be published in the late Ottoman and the early Turkish Republic eras came to the fore as a political organ rather than the advertisements of the publication. The number of Tanin newspaper published during the years 1908-1909 were examined in this article. The newspaper had published many advertisements and covered many brands in the issues that were published during this period,The newspaper that encountered various obstacles during its life of publication bears importance by being, established by the Committee of Union and Progress members as well

  5. Caustic Injury In Adults – A Study For 3 Year Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radenkova-Saeva J.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to present the results of a 3-year clinico-epidemiological investigation of caustic injury in adults. The study includes 43 patients with acute corrosive ingestion, hospitalized in the Toxicology Clinic, University Hospital “N. I. Pirogov”, Sofia, Bulgaria, for the period 01.01. 2010-31.12.2012. The methods used include: clinical observation and examination, clinical laboratory, imaging, and psychiatric methods and tests. 43 patients between the ages of 22 and 82 with acute corrosive ingestions have been observed. Eleven were male (25.6% and 32 female (74.4%. All ingestions were intentional. Alkaline agents were used by all of the patients. The severity of poisonings varied from moderate to extremely severe. Different complications were seen in 82% of the cases - severe bleeding, perforation, fistula or/and stricture formation. Two of the patients have undergone surgical intervention - coloesophagoplastic - and have recovered completely. The motivation in different age groups was also studied. Psychiatric comorbidity occurred in patients as depressive and schizoaffective disorder, as well as existential crises. Acute corrosive ingestions by alkaline agents cause severe pathology. The severity and complex character of the injuries require good coordination between different medical specialists.

  6. [Platelet transfusion and allergic transfusion reactions: experiences at Lille Hospital over a four year period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibaut, B; Vannier, V; Renom, P; Goudemand, J

    2000-04-01

    Among the immediate transfusion reactions caused by the utilization of blood products, those suggesting immuno-allergic mechanisms posed problems for frequency, gravity, laboratory diagnosis and safety. We report here the Lille Hospital's experience over a four-year period concerning these manifestations after platelet concentrate transfusion. Eight hundred and fifty-two immediate transfusion reactions have been declared, of which 230 were allergic, which appeared in 181 patients (27%). Among the most frequent clinical signs, rash was often described (158 cases: 68.7%); less frequent were respiratory problems such as dyspnea (34 cases: 14.8%) and hypotensive reactions (18 cases: 7.8%). Seven patients presented severe reactions (3%). Twenty percent of them presented multiple allergic reactions and in 43.2%, the recurrence was more serious than the initial problem in spite of preventive medication; the use of washed blood components was necessary. The age of platelet concentrates does not appear to play a part in provoking these events (67% of platelet concentrates had been collected within four days). These allergic transfusion reactions posed problems for those who prescribe medication, because they are frequent, sometimes serious, can recur and at present, the proposed medication prevention is not always efficient.

  7. 1,500 Year Periodicity in Central Texas Moisture Source Variability Reconstructed from Speleothems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, C. I.; James, E. W.; Silver, M. M.; Banner, J. L.; Musgrove, M.

    2014-12-01

    Delineating the climate processes governing precipitation variability in drought-prone Texas is critical for predicting and mitigating climate change effects, and requires the reconstruction of past climate beyond the instrumental record. Presently, there are few high-resolution Holocene climate records for this region, which limits the assessment of precipitation variability during a relatively stable climatic interval that comprises the closest analogue to the modern climate state. To address this, we present speleothem growth rate and δ18O records from two central Texas caves that span the mid to late Holocene, and assess hypotheses about the climate processes that can account for similarity in the timing and periodicity of variability with other regional and global records. A key finding is the independent variation of speleothem growth rate and δ18O values, suggesting the decoupling of moisture amount and source. This decoupling likely occurs because i) the often direct relation between speleothem growth rate and moisture availability is complicated by changes in the overlying ecosystem that affect subsurface CO2 production, and ii) speleothem δ18O variations reflect changes in moisture source (i.e., proportion of Pacific- vs. Gulf of Mexico-derived moisture) that appear not to be linked to moisture amount. Furthermore, we document a 1,500-year periodicity in δ18O values that is consistent with variability in the percent of hematite-stained grains in North Atlantic sediments, North Pacific SSTs, and El Nino events preserved in an Ecuadorian lake. Previous modeling experiments and analysis of observational data delineate the coupled atmospheric-ocean processes that can account for the coincidence of such variability in climate archives across the northern hemisphere. Reduction of the thermohaline circulation results in North Atlantic cooling, which translates to cooler North Pacific SSTs. The resulting reduction of the meridional SST gradient in the Pacific

  8. Observed year-to-year sea surface salinity variability in the Bay of Bengal during the 2009–2014 period

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chaitanya, A.V.S.; Durand, F.; Mathew, S.; Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Papa, F.; Lengaigne, M.; Vialard, J.; KranthiKumar, C.; Venkatesan, R.

    The present study describes the observed sea surface salinity (SSS) interannual variability in the Bay of Bengal over the 2009–2014 period. It is based on an original compilation of all available in situ SSS observations in that region, assembled...

  9. Retrospective Integration of Research Conducted on a Multi-Section Educational Psychology Course over a Fifteen-Year Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert L.

    2017-01-01

    This article integrates a series of studies conducted over a 15-year period in a multi-section educational course taught by the same supervising professor and his GTAs . The purpose of each study was to determine whether particular interventions or student characteristics affected performance levels in the course. Over the extended period of…

  10. The Periodization of Fighting on Donbass in 2014–2015 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai V. Mityukov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article based on the analysis of the data gives the attempt of the periodical press of combat actions on the territory of Donbas in 2014-2015: there are presented clearly two periods. The first is the period of the maneuvers from 7 April 2014 to 5 September 2014, characterized by the presence of fortified centres which both sides tried to get around to entering the operating room. In this period there is no clear front line, fighting was an interaction maneuverable shock groups. The second period is the period position of action from September 5 to the present time, characterized by clearly formed the front line, as a rule, deeply echeloned. Active hostilities reached a peak during the battle for Lugansk and the Donetsk airport and Debaltsevo during the operation.

  11. [Danish battlefield surgery in the period between the birth of Christ and the year 500 AD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frölich, Annette

    2004-01-01

    Danish battlefield surgery in the period between the birth of Christ and the year 500 AD is exemplified by a reinterpretation of artefacts found in the sacrificial bogs at Thorsbjerg, Nydam, Ejsbøl, Illerup Adal, Vimose and Kragehul, reinterpreted in the light of classic European and Egyptian archaeological finds and ethno-archaeological parallels against the background of the author's years of experience as a practicing specialist in gynaecology and obstetrics. No surgical instruments from the Iron Age have previously been construed or identified as such in Denmark or Schleswig-Holstein. The purpose of this paper is to examine the possible finding and identificiation of surgical instruments - or what could be construed as a battlefield surgeons instruments - among artefacts deposited in the above-mentioned sacrificial bogs in the Iron Age. In this paper, the term 'surgical instrument' is defined as an instrument used in teh practice of medicine. Material for the study was collected in a review of illustrations in published works about these bog finds, localising these artefacts and examining them at the museums at which they were located. Also examined was museum storage of artefacts that had been excavated in the above-mentioned bogs. In an effort to reinterpret the function of the artefacts, they were compared with known surgical instruments found in the geographical areas controlled by the Greeks and later the Romans and with pictures of artefacts and a few written sources form the same area. They were also compared with ethnographic parallels. The material upon which the paper is based consists of a total of 67 artefacts, each identified as being from one of the above-mentioned bogs. Of these 67 artefacts, 40 can be indentifed and reinterpreted as being surgical instruments and 27 are toilet sets, i.e. tweezers for personal use or sets consisting of tweezers connected by a metal ring to either an ear pick or a nail cutter. Analysis of the artefacts revealed

  12. Targets and Patented Drugs for Chemotherapy of Chagas Disease in the Last 15 Years-Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duschak, Vilma G

    2016-01-01

    The American trypanosomiasis, Chagas disease, is a parasitic infection typically spread by triatomine vectors affecting millions of people all over Latin America. Existing chemotherapy is centered on the nitroaromatic compounds benznidazole and nifurtimox that provide unsatisfactory results and substantial side effects. So, the finding and exploration of novel ways to challenge this neglected disease is a main priority. The biologic and biochemical progress in the scientific knowledge of Trypanosoma cruzi in the period comprising last 15-years has increased the identification of multiple targets for Chagas´ disease chemotherapy. In the middle of the best encouraging targets for trypanocidal drugs, ergosterol biosynthesis pathway and cruzipain, a key cysteine protease (CP) of T. cruzi, have been pointed out. Unfortunately, recent clinical trials investigating the administration of pozoconazole and ravuconazole to chronic indeterminate Chagas disease patients revealed their inferiority compared to the standard drug Benznidazole. In view of the information gained in the preceding years, a reasonable approach for the fast development of novel anti-T. cruzi chemotherapy would be focused on K777, the cysteine proteinase inhibitor (CPI) near to enter to clinical trials, and founded on the clinical evaluation of combination of known drugs with existing trypanocidal agents to obtain more efficiency and less secondary effects. Top series of xanthine have been recently identified as clinical candidate for Chagas disease. In addition, trypanothione biosynthesis, thiol-dependant redox and polyamine metabolism, the glycolytic, glyconeogenic, pentose phosphate, lipidic and polyisoprenoid biosynthetic pathways, and the enzymes from biosynthetic glycoconjugates pathways have been studied. Several specific enzymes from these particular biosynthetic pathways such as hypoxanthine-guaninephosphoribosyl- transferase and farnesyl-pyrophosphate synthase, among others, have also been

  13. [Email in a dedicated headache clinic: experience gained over a five-year period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedraza, M Isabel; Herrero-Velázquez, Sonia; López-Mesonero, Luis; Ruiz-Piñero, Marina; Posadas, Javier; Guerrero-Peral, Ángel L

    2015-06-16

    The use of email can facilitate communication between the different levels of an organisation. Our primary care physicians have had an email service in the dedicated headache clinic (DHC) since November 2009, and our aim is therefore to analyse the use of email over that five-year period. Data concerning the emails sent up until October 2014 were collected prospectively. The questions were classified as need for referral to the DHC (group 1), progress made by the cases seen in the DHC (group 2), training in headaches (group 3) or the treatment of the headaches suffered by primary care physicians themselves as patients (group 4). A total of 274 email messages were analysed. Monthly consultations have increased (from 1.5 per month during the first year to 7.5 per month during the fifth). Findings showed that 10.2% of the email messages came from rural health centres and 89.8% were sent from urban health centres. Replies were sent within 2 ± 2.8 days (range: 0-24 days). Altogether 130 consultations were classified as belonging to group 1 (47.4%), in which referral through the normal channel was recommended in 60 cases (46.2%), via the preferential channel in 47 (36.2%) and non-referral was suggested in 23 cases (17.6%). Group 2 included 125 emails (45.7%) and in 80 cases there was no need to make a new appointment or to bring forward the existing one (64%). Thirteen visits (4.7%) were classified into group 3 and six (2.2%) in group 4. Our primary care physicians are using the email of the DHC on an increasingly more frequent basis. Its use makes it possible to detect patients whose appointment -whether the first or a follow-up- needs to be brought forward, as well as allowing issues to be solved without the need for referral. It is effective for the treatment of physicians who themselves have headaches and as a tool for continuing education.

  14. The evolutionary and genetic origins of consciousness in the Cambrian Period over 500 million years ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Todd E.; Mallatt, Jon

    2013-01-01

    Vertebrates evolved in the Cambrian Period before 520 million years ago, but we do not know when or how consciousness arose in the history of the vertebrate brain. Here we propose multiple levels of isomorphic or somatotopic neural representations as an objective marker for sensory consciousness. All extant vertebrates have these, so we deduce that consciousness extends back to the group's origin. The first conscious sense may have been vision. Then vision, coupled with additional sensory systems derived from ectodermal placodes and neural crest, transformed primitive reflexive systems into image forming brains that map and perceive the external world and the body's interior. We posit that the minimum requirement for sensory consciousness and qualia is a brain including a forebrain (but not necessarily a developed cerebral cortex/pallium), midbrain, and hindbrain. This brain must also have (1) hierarchical systems of intercommunicating, isomorphically organized, processing nuclei that extensively integrate the different senses into representations that emerge in upper levels of the neural hierarchy; and (2) a widespread reticular formation that integrates the sensory inputs and contributes to attention, awareness, and neural synchronization. We propose a two-step evolutionary history, in which the optic tectum was the original center of multi-sensory conscious perception (as in fish and amphibians: step 1), followed by a gradual shift of this center to the dorsal pallium or its cerebral cortex (in mammals, reptiles, birds: step 2). We address objections to the hypothesis and call for more studies of fish and amphibians. In our view, the lamprey has all the neural requisites and is likely the simplest extant vertebrate with sensory consciousness and qualia. Genes that pattern the proposed elements of consciousness (isomorphism, neural crest, placodes) have been identified in all vertebrates. Thus, consciousness is in the genes, some of which are already known. PMID

  15. A study of profile of disability certificate seeking patients with schizophrenia over a 5 year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatan Pal Singh Balhara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Schizophrenia has been identified as one of the most disabling condition known to mankind. Until recently there was no published literature on disability certification seeking behavior of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. The current study aimed at understanding the profile of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia seeking disability certification for a tertiary level multispecialty hospital in India. Materials a nd Methods: The study was carried out at the Psychiatry department for a tertiary care hospital in India. The evaluation of the subjects was carried out in the presence of a primary care giver. First, the diagnosis was established using International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Conditions (ICD-10. Subsequently, the disability was assessed using Indian Disability Evaluation Assessment Scale (IDEAS. Data were analyzed using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences software version 17. Results: A total of 169 subjects seeking disability certification over the study period of 5 years were diagnosed with schizophrenia. Out of 169 subjects 132 (78.1% were male and 37 (21.9% were female. There was a statistically significant difference in the marital status of the male and female study subjects. Family history of psychiatric illness was positive in 9.8% of male subjects and 10.8% of female subjects. There was no significant difference between male and female subjects for the duration of illness and duration of being on treatment. Male and female subjects did not differ significantly on the IDEAS global score, personal care, interpersonal interaction, and understanding and communication domains of IDEAS. The two groups differed significantly on the work domain. Conclusions: Majority of patients with schizophrenia seeking disability certificate continue to be male. However, male and female subjects tend to differ very little on various socio-demographic and illness related variables. The levels

  16. Radiation fog chemical composition and its temporal trend over an eight year period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Derek J.

    2017-01-01

    Radiation fog samples have been collected at a rural site in Central Pennsylvania from 2007 through 2015 in order to document chemical composition, assess concentration changes over time, and to provide insight into emission sources that influence the region. The collection of samples over multiple years makes this one of the few long duration radiation fog studies that have been completed. During the course of the campaign, 146 samples were obtained and analyzed for pH, major inorganic ions, low molecular weight organic acids, total organic carbon (TOC) and total nitrogen (TN). Ammonium (median concentration = 209 μN), sulfate (69 μN), calcium (51 μN), and nitrate (31 μN) were the most abundant inorganic ions, although these were present at much lower concentrations than for radiation fog studies conducted in other locations. Organic acids, of which formate (20 μM) and acetate (21 μM) were the most abundant, were closer in magnitude to measurements made during previous studies. Organic acids accounted for 15% of TOC, which had a median concentration of 6.6 mgC l-1. The median concentration of TN was 3.6 mgN l-1, 18% of which was determined to be organic nitrogen. Statistically significant decreasing trends from 2007 to 2015 were noted for sulfate, ammonium, chloride, and nitrate. For the same period, an increase in pH was observed. Seasonal trends were identified for a number of species as well. The partitioning of ammonia between the gas and aqueous phases was also investigated and found to deviate significantly from equilibrium.

  17. The evolutionary and genetic origins of consciousness in the Cambrian Period over 500 million years ago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd E Feinberg

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrates evolved in the Cambrian Period before 520 million years ago, but we do not know when or how consciousness arose in the history of the vertebrate brain. Here we propose multiple levels of isomorphic or somatotopic neural representations as an objective marker for sensory consciousness. All extant vertebrates have these, so we deduce that consciousness extends back to the group’s origin. The first conscious sense may have been vision. Then vision, coupled with additional sensory systems derived from ectodermal placodes and neural crest, transformed primitive reflexive systems into image forming brains that map and perceive the external world and the body’s interior. We posit that the minimum requirement for sensory consciousness and qualia is a brain including a forebrain (but not necessarily a developed cerebral cortex/pallium, midbrain and hindbrain. This brain must also have 1 hierarchical systems of intercommunicating, isomorphically organized, processing nuclei that extensively integrate the different senses into representations that emerge in upper levels of the neural hierarchy; and 2 a widespread reticular formation that integrates the sensory inputs and contributes to attention, awareness, and neural synchronization. We propose a two-step evolutionary history, in which the optic tectum was the original center of multi-sensory conscious perception (as in fish and amphibians: step 1, followed by a gradual shift of this center to the dorsal pallium or its cerebral cortex (in mammals, reptiles, birds: step 2. We address objections to the hypothesis and call for more studies of fish and amphibians. In our view, the lamprey has all the neural requisites and is likely the simplest extant vertebrate with sensory consciousness and qualia. Genes that pattern the proposed elements of consciousness (isomorphism, neural crest, placodes have been identified in all vertebrates. Thus, consciousness is in the genes, some of which are

  18. The prevalence of child maltreatment in the Netherlands across a 5-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euser, Saskia; Alink, Lenneke R A; Pannebakker, Fieke; Vogels, Ton; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Van IJzendoorn, Marinus H

    2013-10-01

    The prevalence of child maltreatment in the Netherlands was in 2005 first systematically examined in the Netherlands' Prevalence study on Maltreatment of children and youth (NPM-2005), using sentinel reports and substantiated CPS cases, and in the Pupils on Abuse study (PoA-2005), using high school students' self-report. In this second National Prevalence study on Maltreatment (NPM-2010), we used the same three methods to examine the prevalence of child maltreatment in 2010, enabling a cross-time comparison of the prevalence of child maltreatment in the Netherlands. First, 1,127 professionals from various occupational branches (sentinels) reported each child for whom they suspected child maltreatment during a period of three months. Second, we included 22,661 substantiated cases reported in 2010 to the Dutch Child Protective Services. Third, 1,920 high school students aged 12-17 years filled out a questionnaire on their experiences of maltreatment in 2010. The overall prevalence of child maltreatment in the Netherlands in 2010 was 33.8 per 1,000 children based on the combined sentinel and CPS reports and 99.4 per 1,000 adolescents based on self-report. Major risk factors for child maltreatment were parental low education, immigrant status, unemployment, and single parenthood. We found a large increase in CPS-reports, whereas prevalence rates based on sentinel and self-report did not change between 2005 and 2010. Based on these findings a likely conclusion is that the actual number of maltreated children has not increased from 2005 to 2010, but that professionals have become more aware of child maltreatment, and more likely to report cases to CPS.

  19. Management of the highly qualified football team preparation during the transition period of the year cycle of training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamardin V.N.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The questions of modeling of highly qualified football team training in the transitional periods of the year cycle of training are given in this article. It is shown that usage of various exercises aimed at integrated development of motor qualities helps to maintain a gradual increase physical and functional training. Data for the study were pedagogical monitoring in the highly qualified football team of "Dnipro" Dnepropetrovsk year cycle preparation in the seasons of 2002 - 2011. It is established that the implementation of individual plans in the transition period allows players to carry high training loads during the preparatory period without a sharp decline in their performance.

  20. More than 20 years of registration of type 1 diabetes in Sardinian children: temporal variations of incidence with age, period of diagnosis, and year of birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Graziella; Maule, Milena; Biggeri, Annibale; Ledda, Alessia; Mannu, Carla; Merletti, Franco; Songini, Marco

    2013-10-01

    We analyzed Sardinian registry data to assess time trends in incidence rates (IRs) of type 1 diabetes during the period 1989-2009 (2,371 case subjects 0-14 years of age). Poisson regression models were used to estimate the effects of sex, age, period of diagnosis, and birth cohorts. IR was 44.8 cases/100,000 person-years (95% CI 43.1-46.7). The annual increase was 2.12% (1.45-2.80; test for linear trend, P 1). For boys, the increasing trend was evident up to 5 years of age and for girls up to 8 years of age. Compared with the 1989-1994 birth cohort, the relative risk increased from 0.78 (0.61-1.10) in 1974-1979 to 1.62 (1.18-2.23) in 2004-2009. The increase over period was less striking, with a tendency to regress in more recent years. The best-fitting model for boys included age and a linear time trend, and for girls age and nonlinear effects of calendar period and birth cohort. In conclusion, incidence increased over time, and the increase tended to level off in more recent years by calendar period but not by birth cohort, with some evidence of a stronger increase among girls than boys. Should the increase be attributable to the effects of some perinatal environmental factor, this would mean that such a factor has started affecting females before males.

  1. 500-year periodicity of political instability in the history of ancient Egypt and China. Androgens at work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Páles, Emil; Mikulecký, Miroslav

    2008-08-01

    DISCOVERY: A periodicity of 500 years has been discovered in the political history of ancient Egypt and documented by means of inferential statistics. Periods of chaos and waning of central power (some of them called "intermediate periods") recurred every 500 years. Input for the computation is the mean duration of ruling dynasties calculated per each half century. Fisher's periodogram analysis and Halberg's cosinor regression have been used. A highly significant (p system of man by raising the levels of androgens periodically. EXPLANATION HYPOTHESES: Sun impacts global weather on Earth, but there is no known significant periodicity of 500 years in solar activity. The Wheeler weather cycle almost fits the cycle of Egyptian political history. But his cold-dry periods seem to lag behind the periods of social destabilization and hence can not cause them. An alternative view (based on idealistic rather than materialistic presuppositions) is, that periodic long-term shifts of archetypes take place within the collective unconscious of mankind independently of external environment.

  2. More than 20 years of registration of type 1 diabetes in Sardinian children: temporal variations of incidence with age, period of diagnosis, and year of birth.

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno, Graziella; Maule, Milena; Biggeri, Annibale; Ledda, Alessia; Mannu, Carla; Merletti, Franco; Songini, Marco; ,

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed Sardinian registry data to assess time trends in incidence rates (IRs) of type 1 diabetes during the period 1989–2009 (2,371 case subjects 0–14 years of age). Poisson regression models were used to estimate the effects of sex, age, period of diagnosis, and birth cohorts. IR was 44.8 cases/100,000 person-years (95% CI 43.1–46.7). The annual increase was 2.12% (1.45–2.80; test for linear trend, P < 0.001). For boys, the increasing trend was evident up to 5 years of age and for girls...

  3. A simple stochastic model with environmental transmission explains multi-year periodicity in outbreaks of avian flu.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Hua Wang

    Full Text Available Avian influenza virus reveals persistent and recurrent outbreaks in North American wild waterfowl, and exhibits major outbreaks at 2-8 years intervals in duck populations. The standard susceptible-infected- recovered (SIR framework, which includes seasonal migration and reproduction, but lacks environmental transmission, is unable to reproduce the multi-periodic patterns of avian influenza epidemics. In this paper, we argue that a fully stochastic theory based on environmental transmission provides a simple, plausible explanation for the phenomenon of multi-year periodic outbreaks of avian flu. Our theory predicts complex fluctuations with a dominant period of 2 to 8 years which essentially depends on the intensity of environmental transmission. A wavelet analysis of the observed data supports this prediction. Furthermore, using master equations and van Kampen system-size expansion techniques, we provide an analytical expression for the spectrum of stochastic fluctuations, revealing how the outbreak period varies with the environmental transmission.

  4. Shaanxi Magnesium Output to Reach 500,000 Tons in The 12th Five-year Plan Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>Recently, Shaanxi unveiled its "12th Five-year Plan" for the nonferrous metals industry. According to the plan, during the 12th five-year plan period, it will focus on advantageous products such as titanium, molybdenum and magnesium, and highlight new nonferrous materials for aviation, national defense, nuclear

  5. Chronic kidney disease during a 12-year period at tertiary health institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paripović Aleksandra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Chronic kidney disease (CKD is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in paediatric population. Objective. The aim of the study was analysis of aetiology, staging and associated complications of CKD at the time of diagnosis. Methods. Data of 97 patients (56 boys of average age 7.8±5.8 years, referred for the first time to the Institute for Mother and Child Healthcare „Dr Vukan Čupić”, Belgrade in the period 1998- 2009, due to CKD, stage 2-5, were analysed. In each patient illness history was obtained, and physical examination, laboratory, X-ray and other investigations were performed according to the indications. CKD was classified according to the glomerular filtration rate into four grades: 2 - mild (60-90 ml/min/1.73 m2; 3 - moderate (30-60 ml/min/1.73 m2; 4 - advanced (15-30 ml/ min/1.73 m2; and 5 - terminal (<15 ml/min/1.73 m2. Results. The most frequent causes of CKD were congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (43.3%, followed by glomerular diseases (17.5%, hereditary kidney diseases (16.5%, metabolic diseases (7.2% and other causes (15.5%. Mild CKD was found in 29.8%, moderate in 28.9%, advanced in 22.7%, and terminal in 18.6% children. Among patients with CKD stage 4 and 5, 75% of patients presented with acute renal failure, while 25% had earlier detected CKD (stage 1, but were not under regular follow-up. Associated complications included metabolic acidosis (63%, anaemia (60%, hypertension (42.3%, short stature (25.8%, renal osteodystrophy (13.4% and cardiovascular diseases (7.2%. Conclusion. Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract are the leading cause of CKD in paediatric population. A significant proportion (41.3% of patients had advanced and terminal CKD. In most patients CKD was diagnosed late and with associated complications.

  6. Periodic Impact Cratering and Extinction Events Over the Last 260 Million Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampino, Michael R.; Caldeira, Ken

    2015-01-01

    The claims of periodicity in impact cratering and biological extinction events are controversial. Anewly revised record of dated impact craters has been analyzed for periodicity, and compared with the record of extinctions over the past 260 Myr. A digital circular spectral analysis of 37 crater ages (ranging in age from 15 to 254 Myr ago) yielded evidence for a significant 25.8 +/- 0.6 Myr cycle. Using the same method, we found a significant 27.0 +/- 0.7 Myr cycle in the dates of the eight recognized marine extinction events over the same period. The cycles detected in impacts and extinctions have a similar phase. The impact crater dataset shows 11 apparent peaks in the last 260 Myr, at least 5 of which correlate closely with significant extinction peaks. These results suggest that the hypothesis of periodic impacts and extinction events is still viable.

  7. A 20-year-old Chinese man with recurrent hypokalemic periodic paralysis and delayed diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqi, Muniba; Bhatt, Vijaya Raj; Pant, Shradha; Shrestha, Rajesh; Tadros, Michael; Murukutla, Srujitha; Rothman, Jeffrey

    2012-02-21

    Periodic paralysis in the setting of hypokalemia can be the result of several underlying conditions, requiring systematic evaluation. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP), a curable cause of hypokalemic periodic paralysis, can often be the first manifestation of thyrotoxicosis. Because the signs and symptoms of thyrotoxicosis can be subtle and clouded by the clinical distress of the patient, the diagnosis of the underlying metabolic disorder can be overlooked. The authors report a case of TPP in a young Chinese man in whom the diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis was initially missed. This case illustrates the lack of awareness of TPP among many physicians, delay in the diagnosis of TPP and the importance of performing thyroid function testing in all cases of periodic paralysis.

  8. Exploring the publications in three major orthodontic journals: a comparative analysis of two 5-year periods.

    OpenAIRE

    Baumgartner, Stefan; Pandis, Nikolaos; Eliades, Theodore

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the types of articles and authorship characteristics of three orthodontic journals--American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (AJODO), The Angle Orthodontist (AO), and European Journal of Orthodontics (EJO)--published between 2008 and 2012 and to assess the differences in content within this period and an earlier period of 1998 to 2002. MATERIALS AND METHODS Each journal's content was accessed through the web edition. From each article, the ...

  9. HYSTERECTOMY IN THE PERINATAL AND POSTPARTUM PERIOD IN THE 17-YEAR CLINICAL MATERIAL

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Intruduction: Hysterectomy is one of major surgeries. Pregnancy, delivery and postpartum period make the operation even more difficult as it is forced and complicated by various pathological conditions that develop over that time. Objective: The purpose of study was to analyze the frequency of hysterectomy, indications to undertake it and complications associated with the removal of the uterus in pregnancy and during perinatal and postpartum period. The study analyzed the cases of hyst...

  10. [Management of penetrating ocular injuries and endophthalmitis in thirteen-year follow-up period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukosavljević, Miroslav

    2006-01-01

    Ocular trauma is one of the most common causes of unilateral morbidity and blindness in the world today. Frequency of penetrating ocular injuries and endophthalmitis after injuries caused by explosive weapons during the war in former Yugoslavia in the period 1991-1999 as well as eye injuries in the period 2000-2004 was examined. During 1991-1999, 647 patients with eye injuries were hospitalized at Eye Clinic, MMA, out of whom 500 cases with penetrating eye injuries. In 2000-2004 period, 601 patients with eye injuries were treated, out of whom 297 had penetrating eye injuries (including patients from Montenegro and Republica Srpska). All patients underwent thorough ophthalmological examination, antibiotic treatment and VPP or other required surgical interventions. All 500 patients from the first period had severe penetrating eye injuries. Intrabulbar foreign bodies (IFB) were detected in 286 cases, while 214 cases with penetrating eye injuries had no intrabulbar foreign bodies. Almost all patients had multiple head and body injuries as well. Endophthalmitis was observed in 29 eyes (5.2%) upon admission to hospital. In the second observed period (2000-2004), 196 (66%) out of 297 penetrating eye injuries had IOFB, and 101 (34%) was without IOFB. Endophthalmitis was observed in 34 eyes (8.4%). War eye injuries are a special group of injuries. Relatively low percent of posttraumatic endophthalmitis is definitely worth attention, especially in comparison with peacetime eye penetrating injuries.

  11. Management of penetrating ocular injuries and endophthalmitis in thirteen-year follow-up period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukosavljević Miroslav

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ocular trauma is one of the most common causes of unilateral morbidity and blindness in the world today. Objective: Frequency of penetrating ocular injuries and endophthalmitis after injuries caused by explosive weapons during the war in former Yugoslavia in the period 1991-1999 as well as eye injuries in the period 2000-2004 was examined. Method: During 1991-1999, 647 patients with eye injuries were hospitalized at Eye Clinic, MMA, out of whom 500 cases with penetrating eye injuries. In 2000-2004 period, 601 patients with eye injuries were treated, out of whom 297 had penetrating eye injuries (including patients from Montenegro and Republica Srpska. All patients underwent thorough ophthalmological examination, antibiotic treatment and VPP or other required surgical interventions. Results: All 500 patients from the first period had severe penetrating eye injuries. Intrabulbar foreign bodies (IFB were detected in 286 cases, while 214 cases with penetrating eye injuries had no intrabulbar foreign bodies. Almost all patients had multiple head and body injuries as well. Endophthalmitis was observed in 29 eyes (5.2% upon admission to hospital. In the second observed period (2000-2004, 196 (66% out of 297 penetrating eye injuries had IOFB, and 101 (34% was without IOFB. Endophthalmitis was observed in 34 eyes (8.4%. Conclusion: War eye injuries are a special group of injuries. Relatively low percent of posttraumatic endophthalmitis is definitely worth attention, especially in comparison with peacetime eye penetrating injuries.

  12. Hydrologic drought of water year 2011 compared to four major drought periods of the 20th century in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivers, Molly J.; Andrews, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Water year 2011 (October 1, 2010, through September 30, 2011) was a year of hydrologic drought (based on streamflow) in Oklahoma and the second-driest year to date (based on precipitation) since 1925. Drought conditions worsened substantially in the summer, with the highest monthly average temperature record for all States being broken by Oklahoma in July (89.1 degrees Fahrenheit), June being the second hottest and August being the hottest on record for those months for the State since 1895. Drought conditions continued into the fall, with all of the State continuing to be in severe to exceptional drought through the end of September. In addition to effects on streamflow and reservoirs, the 2011 drought increased damage from wildfires, led to declarations of states of emergency, water-use restrictions, and outdoor burning bans; caused at least $2 billion of losses in the agricultural sector and higher prices for food and other agricultural products; caused losses of tourism and wildlife; reduced hydropower generation; and lowered groundwater levels in State aquifers. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Oklahoma Water Resources Board, conducted an investigation to compare the severity of the 2011 drought with four previous major hydrologic drought periods during the 20th century – water years 1929–41, 1952–56, 1961–72, and 1976–81. The period of water years 1925–2011 was selected as the period of record because few continuous record streamflow-gaging stations existed before 1925, and gaps in time existed where no streamflow-gaging stations were operated before 1925. In water year 2011, statewide annual precipitation was the 2d lowest, statewide annual streamflow was 16th lowest, and statewide annual runoff was 42d lowest of those 87 years of record. Annual area-averaged precipitation totals by the nine National Weather Service climate divisions from water year 2011 were compared to those during four previous major hydrologic drought

  13. Changes in physical fitness and nutritional status of schoolchildren in a period of 30 years (1980-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Luis de Moraes Ferrari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze and compare the changes in physical fitness according to the nutritional status and gender of schoolchildren during a period of 30 years (1980-2010. Methods: Four cross-sectional evaluations were performed every 10 years in a period of 30 years from 1978 to 1980 (baseline, 1988-1990 (10 years, 1998-2000 (20 years and 2008-2010 (30 years. The sample consisted of 1291 schoolchildren (188 in baseline, 307 in 10 years; 375 in 20 years; 421 in 30 years of 10 and 11 years old. The variables assessed were: body weight (kg, height (cm, upper limb strength (ULS; kg, lower limb strength (LLS; cm, agility (seconds and velocity (seconds. Schoolchildren were classified as normal weight and overweight according to World Health Organization reference of body mass index for age and gender. Comparisons among periods applied ANOVA followed by Bonferroni test, with a significance level set at of p<0.01. Variation between baseline and 30 years was assessed by the percentage delta. Seven different percentile values were presented for each variable. Results: In eutrophic boys and girls, mean values of ULS (−16.7%; −3.2%, agility (−1.5%; −1.6% decreased significantly after 30 years (p<0.001. In the overweight boys and girls, only the average ULS (−15.5%; −12.5% decreased significantly over time (p<0.001. After 30 years, the ULS percentile changed in boys. Conclusions: The decline in physical fitness was greater in schoolchildren with normal weight than in those with overweight.

  14. Changes in physical fitness and nutritional status of schoolchildren in a period of 30 years (1980-2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Gerson Luis de Moraes; Matsudo, Victor Keihan Rodrigues; Fisberg, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To analyze and compare the changes in physical fitness according to the nutritional status and gender of schoolchildren during a period of 30 years (1980-2010). Methods: Four cross-sectional evaluations were performed every 10 years in a period of 30 years from 1978 to 1980 (baseline), 1988-1990 (10 years), 1998-2000 (20 years) and 2008-2010 (30 years). The sample consisted of 1291 schoolchildren (188 in baseline, 307 in 10 years; 375 in 20 years; 421 in 30 years) of 10 and 11 years old. The variables assessed were: body weight (kg), height (cm), upper limb strength (ULS; kg), lower limb strength (LLS; cm), agility (seconds) and velocity (seconds). Schoolchildren were classified as normal weight and overweight according to World Health Organization reference of body mass index for age and gender. Comparisons among periods applied ANOVA followed by Bonferroni test, with a significance level set at of p<0.01. Variation between baseline and 30 years was assessed by the percentage delta. Seven different percentile values were presented for each variable. Results: In eutrophic boys and girls, mean values of ULS (−16.7%; −3.2%), agility (−1.5%; −1.6%) decreased significantly after 30 years (p<0.001). In the overweight boys and girls, only the average ULS (−15.5%; −12.5%) decreased significantly over time (p<0.001). After 30 years, the ULS percentile changed in boys. Conclusions: The decline in physical fitness was greater in schoolchildren with normal weight than in those with overweight. PMID:26298653

  15. Research of level of psychological preparedness of 30–40 years old tourists skiers in the preparation period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Toporkov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: сompare the results of research of the psychological state of 30–40 years old tourists skiers at various stages of preparation period. Material and Methods: 14 people aged 30 to 40 years old who have a different experience in water, hiking and mountain as well as ski-sport hiking took part in research. Analysis of scientific and methodical literature, pedagogical observations, pedagogical experiment, methods of mathematical statistics is used. Results: the test results of 30–40 years old tourists skiers which are the participants in the experimental group received at different stages of preparation period and the results. Their comparative analysis is held. Conclusions: it was found that, at the stages of preparation period indicators of personal qualities and concentration had always risen, reaching the highest degree at the end of the experiment.

  16. Changes in antibiotic use in Dutch hospitals over a six-year period: 1997 to 2002.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liem, T.B.; Filius, F.M.; Linden, P.D. van der; Janknegt, R.; Natsch, S.S.; Vulto, A.G.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse trends in antibiotic use in Dutch hospitals over the period 1997 to 2002. METHODS: Data on the use of antibiotics and hospital resource indicators were obtained by distributing a questionnaire to all Dutch hospital pharmacies. Antibiotic use was expressed as the number of defin

  17. Exploring the publications in three major orthodontic journals: a comparative analysis of two 5-year periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Stefan; Pandis, Nikolaos; Eliades, Theodore

    2014-05-01

    To analyze the types of articles and authorship characteristics of three orthodontic journals--American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (AJODO), The Angle Orthodontist (AO), and European Journal of Orthodontics (EJO)--published between 2008 and 2012 and to assess the differences in content within this period and an earlier period of 1998 to 2002. Each journal's content was accessed through the web edition. From each article, the following parameters were recorded: article type, number of authors, number of affiliations, source of article (referring to the first author's affiliation), and geographic origin. Descriptive statistics were performed and selected parameters were analyzed with the Pearson chi-square or Fisher exact test for independence at the .05 level of significance. Review of differences between the two periods showed that the number of publications was almost double. The percentages of multi-authored articles increased. Fewer studies derived from the United States/Canada and European Union countries. Increases for articles from non-European Union countries, Asia, and other countries were found. Characteristics of the second period showed that the EJO and AO published more research articles, whereas the AJODO regularly published case reports and other articles. Approximately 75% of all studies derived from orthodontic departments. The publications from 1998-2002 and 2008-2012 were significantly different both in terms of numbers and characteristics. Within 2008-2012 there were notable differences between the three journals concerning the type and origin of the publications.

  18. Changes in antibiotic use in Dutch hospitals over a six-year period: 1997 to 2002

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.B. Liem; P.D. van der Linden; R. Janknegt; S. Natsch; A.G. Vulto (Arnold); P.M.G. Filius (Margreet)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To analyse trends in antibiotic use in Dutch hospitals over the period 1997 to 2002. METHODS: Data on the use of antibiotics and hospital resource indicators were obtained by distributing a questionnaire to all Dutch hospital pharmacies. Antibiotic use was ex

  19. Infant milk in Spain during the period 1955-1975: the years of transition and innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Boatella

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available By following the historical sequence started in previous articles, this work describes and analyses the characteristics and producers of infant milk sold in Spain during the period from 1955 to 1975 (n = 41. A wide variability, diffi culties in their classification, and the use of various new ingredients in their formulas was observed when comparing them.

  20. Critical period for first language: the crucial role of language input during the first year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann, Naama; Rusou, Dana

    2015-12-01

    The critical period for language acquisition is often explored in the context of second language acquisition. We focus on a crucially different notion of critical period for language, with a crucially different time scale: that of a critical period for first language acquisition. We approach this question by examining the language outcomes of children who missed their critical period for acquiring a first language: children who did not receive the required language input because they grew in isolation or due to hearing impairment and children whose brain has not developed normally because of thiamine deficiency. We find that the acquisition of syntax in a first language has a critical period that ends during the first year of life, and children who missed this window of opportunity later show severe syntactic impairments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Change in maternal criticism and behavior problems in adolescents and adults with autism across a 7-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Jason K; Smith, Leann E; Greenberg, Jan S; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Taylor, Julie Lounds

    2011-05-01

    In a previous study, high levels of maternal criticism predicted increased behavior problems in adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) over an 18-month period (Greenberg, Seltzer, Hong, & Orsmond, 2006). The current investigation followed these families over a period of 7 years to examine the longitudinal course of criticism and behavior problems, to assess the association between their trajectories, and to determine the degree to which change in each of these factors predicted levels of criticism and behavior problems at the end of the study period. A sample of 118 mothers coresiding with their adolescent and adult children with ASD provided open-ended narratives about their children and reported on the children's behavior problems at 4 waves. Maternal criticism was derived from expressed emotion ratings of the narratives. Criticism exhibited low but significant stability over the 7-year period, and behavior problems exhibited high stability. Through latent growth curve modeling, (a) criticism was found to have increased over time, but only for the group of families in which the sons or daughters transitioned from high school services during the study period; (b) individual changes in criticism and behavior problems were positively correlated over the 7-year period; and (c) changes in criticism predicted levels of behavior problems at the conclusion of the study. Changes in behavior problems were not predictive of end levels of criticism. Implications for intervention and prevention efforts are discussed.

  2. Change in Maternal Criticism and Behavior Problems in Adolescents and Adults with Autism Across a Seven-Year Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Jason K.; Smith, Leann E.; Greenberg, Jan S.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Taylor, Julie Lounds

    2010-01-01

    In a previous study from our laboratory, high levels of maternal criticism predicted increased behavior problems in adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) over an 18-month period (Greenberg, Seltzer, Hong, & Orsmond, 2006). The current investigation followed these families over a period of seven years to examine the longitudinal course of criticism and behavior problems, to assess the association between their trajectories, and to determine the degree to which change in each of these factors predicted levels of criticism and behavior problems at the end of the study period. A sample of 118 mothers co-residing with their adolescents and adults with ASD provided open-ended narratives about their children and reported on the children's behavior problems at four waves. Maternal criticism was derived from expressed emotion ratings of the narratives. Criticism exhibited low but significant stability over the seven year period and behavior problems exhibited high stability. Using latent growth curve modeling, (a) criticism was found to have increased over time, but only for the group of families in which the sons or daughters transitioned from high school services during the study period, (b) individual changes in criticism and behavior problems were positively correlated over the seven-year period, and (c) changes in criticism predicted levels of behavior problems at the conclusion of the study. Changes in behavior problems were not predictive of end levels of criticism. Implications for intervention and prevention efforts are discussed. PMID:21319925

  3. Sexual Identity, Attractions, and Behavior among Young Sexual-Minority Women over a 2-Year Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Lisa M.

    2000-01-01

    Examined sexual identities, attractions, and behaviors of sexual-minority women in 2-year follow-up of women first interviewed at 16-23 years. Found half the participants had changed sexual-minority orientations more than once; one- third changed identities since the first interview. Found changes in sexual attractions were larger among bisexuals…

  4. [Periodic fever, aphtosus stomatitis, pharyngitis, cervical adenopathy syndrome (PFAPA syndrome) in 4-years old girl--case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzywicka, Agnieszka; Rusek-Zychma, Małgorzata; Barć-Czarnecka, Małgorzata; Roszkowska, Dagmara

    2007-01-01

    Characteristic feature of PFAPA syndrome is periodic episodes of fever recurring in 21-28 days in infants and young children. Fever is accompanied by aphtosus stomatitis, pharyngitis and cervical adenopathy. Diagnosis of this syndrome are based on typical clinical manifestations, because there are no characteristic changes in laboratory findings. The reason of this syndrome is unknown. We described a case of 4 years old girl with typical manifestations of this syndrome. We excluded others reasons of periodic fever. PFAPA syndrome passed after 2 years of duration after adenothomy.

  5. KIC 2831097 - A 2-year orbital-period RR Lyrae binary candidate

    CERN Document Server

    Sódor, Á; Liška, J; Bognár, Zs

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery of a new Kepler first-overtone RR Lyrae pulsator, KIC 2831097. The pulsation shows large, 0.1 d amplitude, systematic phase variations that can be interpreted as light travel-time effect caused by orbital motion in a binary system, superimposed on a linear pulsation-period decrease. The assumed eccentric (e=0.47) orbit with the period of approximately 2 yr is the shortest among the non-eclipsing RR Lyrae binary candidates. The binary model gives a lowest estimate for the mass of the companion of 8.4 M_Sun, that places it among black hole candidates. Beside the first-overtone pulsation, numerous additional non-radial pulsation frequencies were also identified. We detected an ~47-d Blazhko-like irregular light-curve modulation.

  6. Nonradial and radial period changes of the δ Scuti star 4 CVn. II. Systematic behavior over 40 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breger, M.; Montgomery, M. H.; Lenz, P.; Pamyatnykh, A. A.

    2017-03-01

    Aims: Radial and nonradial pulsators on and near the main sequence show period and amplitude changes that are too large to be the product of stellar evolution. The multiperiodic δ Sct stars are well suited to study this, as the period changes of different modes excited in the same star can be compared. This requires a very large amount of photometric data covering years and decades as well as mode identifications. Methods: We have examined over 800 nights of high-precision photometry of the multiperiodic pulsator 4 CVn obtained from 1966 through 2012. Because most of the data were obtained in adjacent observing seasons, it is possible to derive very accurate period values for a number of the excited pulsation modes and to study their systematic changes from 1974 to 2012. Results: Most pulsation modes show systematic significant period and amplitude changes on a timescale of decades. For the well-studied modes, around 1986 a general reversal of the directions of both the positive and negative period changes occurred. Furthermore, the period changes between the different modes are strongly correlated, although they differ in size and sign. For the modes with known values of the spherical degree and azimuthal order, we find a correlation between the direction of the period changes and the identified azimuthal order, m. The associated amplitude changes generally have similar timescales of years or decades, but show little systematic or correlated behavior from mode to mode. Conclusions: A natural explanation for the opposite behavior of the prograde and retrograde modes is that their period changes are driven by a changing rotation profile. The changes in the rotation profile could in turn be driven by processes, perhaps the pulsations themselves, that redistribute angular momentum within the star. In general, different modes have different rotation kernels, so this will produce period shifts of varying magnitude for different modes.

  7. [Continuous spectrum analysis during anesthesia and the recovery period in infants under 1 year of age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, P; Bensouda, A; Mayer, M N; Barrier, G

    1989-01-01

    Continuous spectral EEG activity monitoring has been used in adults as a monitor of brain activity during anesthesia. It has not been used in infants. We studied 22 infants less than 7 months old undergoing minor surgery. Halothane alone or minimal Halothane anesthesia associated with caudal epidural anesthesia were used. Life-Scan analysis, in spite of wide individual variations, allowed us to detect infraclinical hypoxia episodes, it provided informations about operative confort, depth of anesthesia and added in the post-operative period an objective criteria to clinical evaluation of pain. A wide use of such a monitoring is warranted in infants.

  8. Morbidity and mortality in the antiphospholipid syndrome during a 5-year period : a multicentre prospective study of 1000 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cervera, R.; Khamashta, M. A.; Shoenfeld, Y.; Camps, M. T.; Jacobsen, S.; Kiss, E.; Zeher, M. M.; Tincani, A.; Kontopoulou-Griva, I.; Galeazzi, M.; Bellisai, F.; Meroni, P. L.; Derksen, R. H. W. M.; de Groot, P. G.; Gromnica-Ihle, E.; Baleva, M.; Mosca, M.; Bombardieri, S.; Houssiau, F.; Gris, J-C; Quere, I.; Hachulla, E.; Vasconcelos, C.; Roch, B.; Fernandez-Nebro, A.; Piette, J-C; Espinosa, G.; Bucciarelli, S.; Pisoni, C. N.; Bertolaccini, M. L.; Boffa, M-C; Hughes, G. R. V.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To identify the main causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) during a 5-year period and to determine clinical and immunological parameters with prognostic significance. Methods: The clinical and immunological features of a cohort of 1000 patient

  9. Morbidity and mortality in the antiphospholipid syndrome during a 10-year period : A multicentre prospective study of 1000 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cervera, R.; Serrano, R.; Pons-Estel, G. J.; Ceberio-Hualde, L.; Shoenfeld, Y.; De Ramón, E.; Buonaiuto, V.; Jacobsen, S.; Zeher, M. M.; Tarr, T.; Tincani, A.; Taglietti, M.; Theodossiades, G.; Nomikou, E.; Galeazzi, M.; Bellisai, F.; Meroni, P. L.; Derksen, R. H W M; De Groot, P. G D; Baleva, M.; Mosca, S.; Bombardieri, M.; Houssiau, F.; Gris, J. C.; Quéré, I.; Hachulla, E.; Vasconcelos, C.; Fernández-Nebro, A.; Haro, M.; Amoura, Z.; Miyara, M.; Tektonidou, M.; Espinosa, G.; Bertolaccini, M. L.; Khamashta, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the prevalence of the main causes of morbi-mortality in the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) during a 10-year-follow-up period and to compare the frequency of early manifestations with those that appeared later. Methods: In 1999, we started an observational study of 1000 APS pat

  10. Morbidity and mortality in the antiphospholipid syndrome during a 10-year period : A multicentre prospective study of 1000 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cervera, R.; Serrano, R.; Pons-Estel, G. J.; Ceberio-Hualde, L.; Shoenfeld, Y.; De Ramón, E.; Buonaiuto, V.; Jacobsen, S.; Zeher, M. M.; Tarr, T.; Tincani, A.; Taglietti, M.; Theodossiades, G.; Nomikou, E.; Galeazzi, M.; Bellisai, F.; Meroni, P. L.; Derksen, R. H W M; De Groot, P. G D; Baleva, M.; Mosca, S.; Bombardieri, M.; Houssiau, F.; Gris, J. C.; Quéré, I.; Hachulla, E.; Vasconcelos, C.; Fernández-Nebro, A.; Haro, M.; Amoura, Z.; Miyara, M.; Tektonidou, M.; Espinosa, G.; Bertolaccini, M. L.; Khamashta, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the prevalence of the main causes of morbi-mortality in the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) during a 10-year-follow-up period and to compare the frequency of early manifestations with those that appeared later. Methods: In 1999, we started an observational study of 1000 APS

  11. In retrospect of the development of China's shipbuilding industry during the 10th Five-Year Plan period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Recently, Zhou Yulan, director of the System Engineering Department of COMSTIND,pointed out in the article that during the 10th Five-Year Plan period, China's shipbuilding industry seized the opportunity offered by the large demand of market at home and aboard, accelerated its steps of development,increased both its industrial scope and quality, and realized a historical jump.

  12. 76 FR 59114 - Request for Comments on Establishment of a One-Year Retention Period for Trademark-Related Papers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... the scanning of such paper documents. ] DATES: Comment Deadline Date: To be ensured of consideration... United States Patent and Trademark Office Request for Comments on Establishment of a One-Year Retention Period for Trademark-Related Papers That Have Been Scanned Into the Trademark Initial Capture...

  13. A systematic review of implant-supported maxillary overdentures after a mean observation period of at least 1 year

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, Wim; Raghoebar, Gerry M.; Vissink, Arjan; Slater, James J. Huddleston; Meijer, Henny J. A.

    2010-01-01

    P>Aim The aim of the present systematic review of implant-supported maxillary overdentures was to assess the survival of implants, survival of maxillary overdentures and the condition of surrounding hard and soft tissues after a mean observation period of at least 1 year. Material and methods MEDLIN

  14. Very low local recurrence rates after breast-conserving therapy : analysis of 8485 patients treated over a 28-year period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, S C J; van der Leij, F; van Werkhoven, E; Bartelink, H; Wesseling, J.; Linn, S; Rutgers, E J; van de Vijver, M J; Elkhuizen, P H M

    The purpose of this study was to study the impact of changes in clinical practice on outcome in patients treated with breast-conserving therapy (BCT) over a period of 28 years. Patients with early invasive breast cancer, who were treated with BCT at the Netherlands Cancer Institute between 1980 and

  15. The Presence of Matthew Effects in Dutch Primary Education, Development of Language Skills over a Six-Year Period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luyten, Johannes W.; ten Bruggencate, G.C.

    2011-01-01

    Using a nationally representative sample of 5,150 Dutch students who have been followed over a 6-year period, the presence of the Matthew effect was investigated for general language skills. The analyses do not reveal unmistakable evidence for the supposition that the rich get richer and the poor po

  16. Understanding the Idea of Chemical Elements and Their Periodic Classification in Spanish Students Aged 16-18 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Mariscal, Antonio-Joaquín; Oliva-Martínez, José María; Almoraima Gil, M. L.

    2016-01-01

    The work reported here involved a comparative study regarding the understanding that high school students (16-18 years) have of the concept of chemical elements and their periodic classification. More specifically, the level of knowledge on this topic was compared before and after the completion of baccalaureate studies in a sample of Spanish…

  17. Observing exoplanets from the planet Earth: How our revolution around the Sun affects the detection of 1-year periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borin, Federico; Poretti, Ennio; Borsa, Francesco; Rainer, Monica

    2017-08-01

    We analysed a selected sample of exoplanets with orbital periods close to 1 year to study the effects of the spectral window on the data, affected by the 1 y-1 aliasing due to the Earth motion around the Sun. We pointed out a few cases where a further observational effort would largely improve the reliability of the orbital solutions.

  18. Marked reduction of anemia during pregnancy over a 10-year period in Montserrat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, W K; Simeon, D T; Bramble, D; Buffonge, C; Gallagher, P

    1996-03-01

    Anemia during pregnancy is associated with adverse outcomes including maternal and perinatal mortality. However, health education and other public health strategies seeking to reduce its prevalence have usually met with only limited success. The study reported here surveyed anemia of pregnancy on the island of Montserrat in 1980, 1985, and 1990. This involved examination of clinic and hospital records for over 90% of all women giving birth on Montserrat in 1980 and 1985, as well as 80% of those giving birth in 1990. This examination showed a dramatic reduction in the prevalence of anemia at the time of the first prenatal visit (a drop from 82% of the study women in 1980 to 23% in 1985 and 19% in 1990) and also a marked drop at three days postpartum (from 91% in 1980 to 41% in 1985 and 39% in 1990). Logistic regression analyses indicated that after controlling for three possible confounding factors (maternal age, parity, and weeks of gestation at first prenatal visit) the difference between the risk of developing anemia during pregnancy in 1980 as compared to 1985 or 1990 was still highly significant. The reasons for the observed drop in anemia's prevalence during the survey period are not entirely clear, partly because of the retrospective nature of the study. However, better nutrition resulting from improvement in the standard of living on Montserrat during the survey period could have been important, as could changes in health education and food supplementation activities.

  19. Length of Growing Period over Africa: Variability and Trends from 30 Years of NDVI Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Y. Said

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The spatial distribution of crops and farming systems in Africa is determined by the duration of the period during which crop and livestock water requirements are met. The length of growing period (LGP is normally assessed from weather station data—scarce in large parts of Africa—or coarse-resolution rainfall estimates derived from weather satellites. In this study, we analyzed LGP and its variability based on the 1981–2011 GIMMS NDVI3g dataset. We applied a variable threshold method in combination with a searching algorithm to determine start- and end-of-season. We obtained reliable LGP estimates for arid, semi-arid and sub-humid climates that are consistent in space and time. This approach effectively mapped bimodality for clearly separated wet seasons in the Horn of Africa. Due to cloud contamination, the identified bimodality along the Guinea coast was judged to be less certain. High LGP variability is dominant in arid and semi-arid areas, and is indicative of crop failure risk. Significant negative trends in LGP were found for the northern part of the Sahel, for parts of Tanzania and northern Mozambique, and for the short rains of eastern Kenya. Positive trends occurred across western Africa, in southern Africa, and in eastern Kenya for the long rains. Our LGP analysis provides useful information for the mapping of farming systems, and to study the effects of climate variability and other drivers of change on vegetation and crop suitability.

  20. Effect of meteorology and soil condition on metolachlor and atrazine volatilization over a 10 year period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volatilization of pesticides can detrimentally affect the environment by contaminating soil and surface waters far away from where the pesticides were applied. A 10-year study was conducted to focus on the impact of soil and climatic factors governing herbicide volatilization from an agricultural f...

  1. Prediction of Childhood Behavior Problems over a Four-Year Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leicht, David J.; And Others

    Path analysis was used to discover predictors of personality, school conduct, and distractibility-hyperactivity problems in this 4-year longitudinal study of 173 rural children. While previous studies had shown that children's behavior disorders are related to sex of child, family disruption, IQ, Bender-Gestalt Test scores, and socioeconomic…

  2. Course of neuropsychiatric symptoms in residents with dementia in nursing homes over 2-year period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetzels, Roland B; Zuidema, Sytse U; de Jonghe, Jos F M; Verhey, Frans R J; Koopmans, Raymond T C M

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the course of neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPSs) in nursing home residents with dementia and to determine their variability across diagnosis. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study over 2 years. SETTING: Fourteen dementia special care units in nine nursing homes in The Netherlands. P

  3. STABILITY AND CHANGES IN HEALTH BEHAVIORS IN YOUNG-ADULTS OVER A ONE-YEAR PERIOD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STEPTOE, A; SANDERMAN, R; WARDLE, J

    1995-01-01

    Data concerning 19 health-related behaviours and associated beliefs were collected by questionnaire from 282 students in the Netherlands on two occasions over one year. While all behaviours showed moderate stability, there were variations in the degree of change. The highest stability was reported

  4. STABILITY AND CHANGES IN HEALTH BEHAVIORS IN YOUNG-ADULTS OVER A ONE-YEAR PERIOD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STEPTOE, A; SANDERMAN, R; WARDLE, J

    1995-01-01

    Data concerning 19 health-related behaviours and associated beliefs were collected by questionnaire from 282 students in the Netherlands on two occasions over one year. While all behaviours showed moderate stability, there were variations in the degree of change. The highest stability was reported f

  5. Leaching of Glyphosate and Aminomethylphosphonic Acid from an Agricultural Field over a Twelve-Year Period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norgaard, Trine; Moldrup, Per; Ferré, Ty P A

    2014-01-01

    The globally-used herbicide glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine) and its most frequently detected metabolite, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), were studied in a unique 12-year field-scale monitoring program. The leaching of glyphosate, AMPA, and soil particles were studied in a shallow...

  6. Leaching of Glyphosate and Aminomethylphosphonic Acid from an Agricultural Field over a Twelve-Year Period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norgaard, Trine; Moldrup, Per; Ferré, Ty P A

    2014-01-01

    The globally-used herbicide glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine) and its most frequently detected metabolite, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), were studied in a unique 12-year field-scale monitoring program. The leaching of glyphosate, AMPA, and soil particles were studied in a shallow...... intensity and the timing of rain events after glyphosate application....

  7. Epidemiology of orofacial clefts in the East of ireland in the 25-year period 1984-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, Robert; Owens, Miriam; Delany, Caroline; Earley, Michael; McGillivary, Anne; Orr, David J; Duggan, Laura

    2014-07-01

    Objective : To describe the epidemiology of orofacial clefts in the east of Ireland. Design and Setting : A descriptive epidemiologic study on 851 cases of orofacial cleft identified over a 25-year period from 1984 to 2008 from more than 500,000 births. Results : There were 438 (51.5%) cases of cleft lip with or without cleft palate and 413 (48.5%) cases of cleft palate. The total birth prevalence was 16.0 per 10,000 births for all orofacial clefts, 8.2 for cleft lip with or without cleft palate, and 7.8 for cleft palate. Of all cases, 63.7% (542/851) occurred as isolated anomalies, 21.5% (183/851) were associated with multiple anomalies, and 14.8% (126/851) were associated with a syndrome or chromosomal anomaly. A significantly increasing trend over the 25-year period was observed for cleft lip with or without cleft palate associated with syndromes or chromosomal anomalies among mothers younger than 35 years but not in those older than 35 years. Conclusion : A slightly higher rate of orofacial clefts was observed in the east of Ireland than was observed in European and multinational studies during the study period, and there were higher rates of cleft palate. The rising trend in the proportion of mothers aged 35 years or older in Ireland is not contributing significantly to orofacial clefts associated with chromosomal syndromes.

  8. Changes in strength over a 2-year period in professional rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, Brendyn; Newton, Robert U; Cormie, Prue

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the magnitude of upper and lower body strength changes in highly trained professional rugby union players after 2 years of training. An additional purpose was to examine if the changes in strength were influenced by the starting strength level, lean mass index (LMI), or chronological age. This longitudinal investigation tracked maximal strength and body composition over 3 consecutive years in 20 professional rugby union athletes. Maximal strength in the bench press and back squat and body composition was assessed during preseason resistance training sessions each year. The athletes completed a very rigorous training program throughout the duration of this study consisting of numerous resistance, conditioning and skills training sessions every week. The primary findings of this study were as follows: (a) Maximal upper and lower body strength was increased by 6.5-11.5% after 2 years of training (p = 0.000-0.002 for bench press; p = 0.277-0.165 for squat); (b) magnitude of the improvement was negatively associated with initial strength level (r = -0.569 to -0.712, p ≤ 0.05); (c) magnitude of improvement in lower body maximal strength was positively related to the change in LMI (an indicator of hypertrophy; r = 0.692-0.880, p ≤ 0.05); and (d) magnitude of improvement was not associated with the age of professional rugby union athletes (r = -0.068 to -0.345). It appears particularly important for training programs to be designed for continued muscle hypertrophy in highly trained athletes. Even in professional rugby union athletes, this must be achieved in the face of high volumes of aerobic and skills training if strength is to be increased.

  9. One-year follow-up period after transumbilical thoracic sympathectomy for hyperhidrosis: outcomes and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li-Huan; Du, Quan; Chen, Long; Yang, Shengsheng; Tu, Yuanrong; Chen, Shengping; Chen, Weisheng

    2014-01-01

    Thoracic sympathectomy is considered the most effective method to treat palmar hyperhidrosis. We developed a novel approach for thoracic sympathectomy in patients with palmar hyperhidrosis through the umbilicus, using an ultrathin gastroscope. The aim of this study was to evaluate the continuing efficacy and patient satisfaction of this innovative surgery. All procedures were performed under general anesthesia and the patients were intubated with a dual-lumen endotracheal tube. After a 5-mm umbilical incision, the muscular parts of the diaphragmatic dome were incised with a needle-knife and the nasal gastroscope was advanced into the thoracic cavity. The sympathetic chain was identified at the desired thoracic level and ablated with hot biopsy forceps. All patients were followed up for at least 1 year after the procedure through clinic visits or telephone/e-mail interviews. From April 2010 to August 2011, a total of 35 patients underwent a transumbilical thoracic sympathectomy. Fifty-seven percent were male patients, with a mean age of 21.2 years (range, 16-33 years). The success rate after 12 months was 97.1% (34 of 35) for isolated palmar hyperhidrosis and 72.2% (13 of 18) for axillary hyperhidrosis. Compensatory sweating was reported in 28.6% of patients at the 1-year follow-up evaluation. There was no mortality, no diaphragmatic hernia, and no Horner syndrome was observed. Quality of life related to hyperhidrosis improved substantially in 27 (77.1%) patients, and improved in 4 (11.4%) patients at 12 months after surgery. A total of 94.3% of patients were satisfied with the excellent cosmetic results of the surgical incision. Transumbilical thoracic sympathectomy is an efficacious alternative to the conventional approach. This technique avoided the chronic pain and chest wall paresthesia associated with the chest incision. In addition, this novel procedure afforded maximum cosmetic benefits. Copyright © 2014 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery

  10. Review of CNPC Petroleum Equipment Manufacturing Industry during the Tenth Five-Year Plan Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Bingyi

    2006-01-01

    @@ The equipment manufacturing industry is a fundamental industry to provide technology and equipment for national economy development. Thus it is a strategic action to realize the sustainable development of national economy by vigorously developing the equipment manufacturing industry and taking the road of new industrialization. For more than 50 years,CNPC (China National Petroleum Corporation) has made significant achievements and developed a large integrated industrial system, making great contribution to the sustained stable development of Chinese petroleum industry.

  11. Description of exercise participation of adolescents with cerebral palsy across a 4-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunton, Laura K; Bartlett, Doreen J

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to describe (1) the types of exercise participation of adolescents with cerebral palsy; (2) the weekly duration of stretching, strengthening, and cardiovascular exercise; (3) how the level of activity compares with national health guidelines; and (4) the change in participation over 4 years. Participants included 126 males and 104 females (mean age = 14.7 years, SD = 1.7 years) who reported physical activities in the previous week. Analyses included frequency counts and proportions, stacked bar graphs, and 2-way analyses of variance of exercise participation by Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) and sex. A significant main effect of GMFCS level was detected for light and moderate exercise. A significant interaction of GMFCS level and sex was found for stretching; females stretched more. An average of 9.4% and 11.4% of our sample participated in weekly levels of moderate and vigorous exercise, respectively. Pediatric physical therapists should promote increased exercise participation rates among youths with cerebral palsy.

  12. Cystic lesions of the jaws. Study of a three-year period.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimosthenis IGOUMENAKIS

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cystic lesions of the jaws are common pathologic entity. Aim: The analysis of a case series of cystic lesions of the jaws. Material and Method: Retrospective study of the cases of cystic lesions, which were managed in our department during the years 2010 - 2012 was conducted. The following inclusion criteria of a case in the study were defined: maximum diameter of the lesion at least 2cm, surgical treatment of the lesion under general anesthesia and postoperative follow-up of the patient for at least one year. Results: 56 cases were analyzed. Average age of the patients was 48.2 years and the average maximum diameter of the lesions was 3.86cm. Almost all cases were managed by enucleation (49/56– 87.5%. Decompression was implemented in 5 cases (8.9%. In all cases, except for one where recurrence was observed, the result was cure of the lesion. The use of bone graft was correlated in statistically significant degree with seemingly quicker bone regeneration, but also with an increased risk of immediate postoperative wound dehiscence. Conclusions: Enucleation as well as decompression were proven to be good methods, as their use provided satisfactory results in all cases. The results of bone allograft application were controversial and therefore its use must be studied more thoroughly.

  13. Burden of herpes zoster requiring hospitalization in Spain during a seven-year period (1998-2004).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Angel; Gil, Ruth; Alvaro, Alejendro; San Martín, María; González, Antonio

    2009-05-07

    A thorough epidemiological surveillance and a good understanding of the burden of diseases associated to VZV are crucial to asses any potential impact of a prevention strategy. A population-based retrospective epidemiological study to estimate the burden of herpes zoster requiring hospitalization in Spain was conducted. This study was conducted by using data from the national surveillance system for hospital data, Conjunto Mínimo Básico de Datos (CMBD). Records of all patients admitted to hospital with a diagnosis of herpes zoster (ICD-9-MC codes 053.0-053.9) during a 7-year period (1998-2004) were selected. A total of 23,584 hospitalizations with a primary or secondary diagnosis of herpes zoster in patients > or = 30 years of age were identified during the study period. Annually there were 13.4 hospitalizations for herpes zoster per 100,000 population in patients > or = 30 years of age. The rate increases with age reaching a maximum in persons > or = 80 years of age (54.3 admissions per 100,000 population >80 years of age). The mean cost of a hospitalization for herpes zoster in adult patients was 3,720 euro. The estimated annual cost of hospitalizations for herpes zoster in patients > or = 30 years of age in Spain was 12,731,954 euro. Herpes zoster imposes an important burden of hospitalizations and result in large cost expenses to the Spanish National Health System, especially in population older than 50 years of age.

  14. Studying cumulative ozone exposures in Europe during a 7-year period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastrup-Birk, Annemarie; Brandt, JøRgen; Zlatev, Zahari; Uria, Ignacio

    1997-10-01

    Ozone is one of the most harmful pollutants in the troposphere. High ozone concentrations can damage plants, animals and humans. The damaging effects depend on the magnitude of a critical level of a special parameter, the cumulative ozone exposure. This is why cumulative ozone exposures must be carefully studied. It is important to determine the relationships between relevant emissions (NOx emissions, human-made VOC emissions, and/or a combination of NOx emissions and human-made VOC emissions) and cumulative ozone exposures. All these issues are discussed in this paper. Meteorological data from seven consecutive years, from 1989 to 1995, have been used in the experiments with different scenarios for varying the emissions (the NOx emissions, the human-made VOC emissions, as well as both the NOx emissions and the human-made VOC emissions). The particular air pollution model used in this study is the Danish Eulerian Model. Several hundred runs with different input data (meteorological data and/or emission data) have been performed. Advanced visualization techniques are used to interpret the large amount of digital data collected in these runs and to show clearly different trends and relationships that are normally hidden behind millions and millions of numbers. The model results were compared with measurements taken at more than 80 stations located in different European countries. The experiments indicate that it is sufficient to carry out computations over 5 consecutive years in order to eliminate the influence of extreme meteorological conditions (very warm or very cold summer months) on the cumulative ozone exposures, while this effect is clearly seen if less than 5 years are used in the experiments. It is shown that the relationship between the emissions (NOx and/or human-made VOC emissions) and the cumulative ozone exposures is in general nonlinear. Finally, it is illustrated that the critical values for ozone exposures are exceeded in most of Europe (in many

  15. Data from "Cohort differences in big five personality factors over a period of 25 years"

    OpenAIRE

    Smits, Iris A. M.; Conor V Dolan; Harrie C. Vorst; Jelte M Wicherts; Timmerman, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    This data set comprises of scores of 8,954 psychology freshmen from the University of Amsterdam (1982-2007) on the ‘Vijf PersoonlijkheidsFactoren Test’ or 5PFT developed by Elshout and Akkerman, which is an instrument to measure the Big Five personality factors Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Openness to Experience. Data were collected during the yearly freshmen-testing program from 1982-2007 and include scores at the level of 70 items that can be used in stud...

  16. Hepatic granulomas: experience over a 10-year period in the West of Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunnigham, D; Mills, P R; Quigley, E M; Patrick, R S; Watkinson, G; MacKenzie, J F; Russell, R I

    1982-01-01

    A survey of all patients in whom liver biopsy showed epithelioid granulomas was undertaken at two major teaching hospitals in Glasgow for the period 1970-1979. Seventy-seven patients with hepatic granulomas were studied retrospectively. In 53 cases (69 per cent) a clear-cut clinical diagnosis was established, which included sarcoidosis (eight cases), tuberculosis (eight), extrahepatic biliary obstruction (seven), primary liver diseases (11), neoplasm (six), bacterial infection (five) and miscellaneous (eight). In 24 patients (31 percent) no cause was found. Seventeen patients from this idiopathic group were studied prospectively and single examples of the following conditions were subsequently diagnosed; pulmonary tuberculosis, primary biliary cirrhosis, ulcerative colitis, adenocarcinoma of rectum, primary hepatocellular carcinoma, alpha-one antitrypsin deficiency and pulmonary fibrosis, sarcoidosis, pulmonary fibrosis alone, gallstones, rheumatic heart disease, unexplained hepatosplenomegaly and one death from mesenteric artery thrombosis. Only six cases remained truly idiopathic. Three of these patients recovered and in two liver biopsy became normal. The other three have persistent granulomas associated with continuing illness.

  17. AUDIT OF INJURIES IN A PREMIERSHIP FOOTBALL SQUAD OVER A FIVE-YEAR PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslam Chougle

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Football is currently the most popular sport in the world. The competitive nature of the sport makes it prone to injuries with the estimated frequency being 10 to 35 per 1000 playing hours (Dvorak and Junge, 2000. The aim of this study was to identify the injury patterns and rehabilitation periods with specific injuries in a premiership football club. Player injuries were retrospectively analysed from a local database (Microsoft Access 2000 at the Blackburn Rovers Football Club, UK from December 1998 to March 2004. The club physiotherapist and physician recorded details of all injuries sustained during both training and matches during that period. Clear distinctions were made between acute and overuse injuries and rehabilitation times for each injury were noted (Arnason et al., 2004. Data was analysed using SPSS (Chicago, Illinois, USA. Differences between the groups were assessed using the independent samples t-test. P values of < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. There were 483 injuries in 91 players. Of these 133 injuries occurred as a result of overuse and 350 as a result of direct trauma. 440 injuries were treated conservatively while 43 were treated operatively. Table 1 shows the range and number of injuries, which occurred during this period along with the average rehabilitation time for each injury. Injuries grouped as "Other" in table 1 accounted for less than 1% of all injuries and could not always be directly attributed to football even though this appeared to be the precipitating factor in all cases. There was no statistical difference between rehabilitation times for acute injuries (18 days, standard deviation 30 as compared to overuse injuries (20 days, standard deviation 39 (p = 0.640. The mean rehabilitation time however for injuries treated conservatively (15 days , standard deviation 24 as compared to injuries treated surgically (61 days, standard deviation 67 was found to be statistically significant (p = 0

  18. Infections of Head and Neck Soft Tissues – A Statistical Study over a 10-year Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amorin-Remus POPA

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A statistical analysis of the epidemiology of head and neck soft tissues conditions was carried out. Material and Method: The patients with head and neck infections who received treatment at Ist Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinics of Cluj-Napoca between January 2000 and December 2009 inclusively were included in this study. Results: 1008 patients accomplished the inclusion criteria. The starting point of the head and neck inflammatory conditions was represented mainly by dental-periodontal lesions (79.66%. Most of the infections were localized at the level of a single cavity (81.85%; when more than one cavity was affected the patients were had also systemic conditions. When septic metastases spread the most affected side was the mediastinal structures. All patients included in this study received surgical treatment, most frequently two surgical interventions being necessary (50.20%. The post-surgical evolution was favorable for 1005 patients with an average of hospitalization period of 6.11 days, the hospitalization stay being also influenced by the presence or absence of the systemic immunodepression. Conclusion: The present research identified that the inflammatory conditions of the head and neck have as major starting point the dental-periodontal inflammatory conditions. The surgical treatment is the best choice for curing these affections.

  19. Surgical treatment of eye injuries in five-year survey period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukosavljević Miroslav

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Eye injuries represent one of the biggest problems in eye surgery all around the world, including our country. Treatment of eye injuries demands highly skilled personnel and adequate technical equipment. Objective: To show a total number of eye injuries, including the surgical methods used for their treatment. Methods: In our study, retrospective analysis of all performed surgical methods used in treatment of hospitalized patients in our Clinic during 2000-2004 was carried out. A special attention was paid to pars plana vitrectomy, together with combined anterior-posterior segment procedures. Results: During 2000-2004, a total of 347 pars plana vitrectomy, and 27 traumatic retinal detachments (conventional methods were performed. In addition, 314 patients with contusion trauma of the eyes were treated. Out of 297 patients with penetrant eye injuries, 196 (66% had intraocular foreign bodies (IOFB, and 101 (34% were without IOFB. A total number of endophthalmitis was 34 (8.73%. The number of combined anterior-posterior segment operations during this period was 227. Conclusion: Vitreoretinal operations are the most prevailing in treatment of serious eye injuries. Pars plana vitrectomy is also the most common method of surgical treatment of eye injuries.

  20. Supplementation of Nellore young bulls on Marandu grass pastures in the dry period of the year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella de Toledo Piza Roth

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate performance and daytime ingestive behavior of 84 Nellore young bulls in the post-weaning phase kept on Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu pastures during the dry season. Treatments were protein mineral supplementation (1 g/kg body weight and protein+energy mineral supplementation (3 g/kg body weight. The experimental area comprised 12 paddocks in a total area of 27.36 ha, divided in two blocks of six paddocks each, having three replications per treatment in each block, with 42 animals/treatment. The data were subjected to variance analysis with repeated measures over time via procedure PROCMIXED of SAS (Statistical Analysis System, version 9.0 and means were compared by the Tukey test at 5% probability. The initial average weight of animals was 204.8 kg; final weights were 260.9 and 276.9 kg for animals that received protein and protein+energy supplement, respectively. The forage availability, sward height and stocking rate values did not differ with supplementation, but they showed difference between the experimental periods. The average time spent grazing during daylight of animals fed protein+energy supplement was shorter as compared with those which consumed protein supplement. Animals kept under the same pasture conditions during the dry season show better performance when they receive protein+energy supplement than protein supplement.

  1. Bibliometric analysis of global environmental assessment research in a 20-year period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wei, E-mail: weili@bnu.edu.cn; Zhao, Yang

    2015-01-15

    Based on the samples of 113,468 publications on environmental assessment (EA) from the past 20 years, we used a bibliometric analysis to study the literature in terms of trends of growth, subject categories and journals, international collaboration, geographic distribution of publications, and scientific research issues. By applying thresholds to network centralities, a core group of countries can be distinguished as part of the international collaboration network. A frequently used keywords analysis found that the priority in assessment would gradually change from project environmental impact assessment (EIA) to strategic environmental assessment (SEA). Decision-theoretic approaches (i.e., environmental indicator selection, life cycle assessment, etc.), along with new technologies and methods (i.e., the geographic information system and modeling) have been widely applied in the EA research field over the past 20 years. Hot spots such as “biodiversity” and “climate change” have been emphasized in current EA research, a trend that will likely continue in the future. The h-index has been used to evaluate the research quality among countries all over the world, while the improvement of developing countries' EA systems is becoming a popular research topic. Our study reveals patterns in scientific outputs and academic collaborations and serves as an alternative and innovative way of revealing global research trends in the EA research field.

  2. A study of cannabis potency in France over a 25 years period (1992-2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dujourdy, Laurence; Besacier, Fabrice

    2017-03-01

    Cannabis contains a unique class of compounds known as the cannabinoids. Pharmacologically, the principal psychoactive constituent is Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). The amount of THC in conjunction with selected additional cannabinoid compounds (cannabidiol/CBD, cannabinol/CBN), determines the strength or potency of the cannabis product. Recently, reports have speculated over the change in the quality of cannabis products, from nearly a decade, specifically concerning the increase in cannabinoid content. This article exploits the analytical data of cannabis samples analyzed in the five French forensic police laboratories over 25 years. The increase potency of both herbal and resin cannabis in France is proved through the monitoring of THC content. For cannabis resin, it has slowly risen from 1992 to 2009, before a considerable increase in the last four years (mean THC content in mid-2016 is 23% compared to 10% in 2009). For herbal cannabis, it has known three main stages of growth (mean THC content is 13% in 2015 and mid-2016 compared to 7% in 2009 and 2% in 1995). The calculation of THC/CBD ratios in both herbal and resin samples confirms the recent change in chemotypes in favor of high potency categories. Finally, the CBN/THC ratios in marijuana samples were measured in order to evaluate the freshness of French seized hemp.

  3. Clinical performance and survival of space maintainers: evaluation over a period of 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajab, Lamis D

    2002-01-01

    The study investigated the clinical performance of 387 space maintainers fitted in 358 patients aged from 3 to 9 years in the Department of Pediatric Dentistry at the Faculty of Dentistry-University of Jordan from 1996 to 2000. Failure occurred in 119 appliances (30.7%), of which 49.6% were due to solder breakage, 32.8% from cement loss, 11% from soft tissue lesions, 4.2% from eruption interference, and 2.5% were completely lost. By using the Kaplan-Meier method, the estimated median survival time for space maintainers was 18 months. Lingual arches had the lowest median survival time of 14 months. Bands and loops, Nance appliances, and removable partial dentures had similar probability of survival. Fixed bilateral mandibular appliances recorded lower survival time than fixed bilateral maxillary appliances. Gender, age, type of dentition, fixed vs. removable, year of placement of the appliance and number of space maintainers fitted simultaneously in the same patient had no significant effect on survival of the appliances.

  4. Recurrent ectopic pancreatitis of the jejunum and mesentery over a 30-year period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John CT Wong; Charlotte Robinson; Edward C Jones; Alison Harris; Charles Zwirewich; Robert Wakefield; Richard K Simons; Eric M Yoshida

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ectopic pancreas is defined as pancreatic tissue found outside its usual anatomical position, with no ductal or vascular communication with the native pancreas. We describe a case of ectopic pancreas of the small bowel and mesentery causing recurrent episodes of pancreatitis, initially suspected on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP), and confirmed on histological review of the resection. METHODS: A 67-year-old woman presented with clinical symptoms and biochemical evidence of pancreatitis. She had similar episodes over the past 30 years with unrevealing investi-gations, and was concluded to have idiopathic pancreatitis. She underwent CT and MRCP, with findings suggestive of ectopic pancreas, a diagnosis confirmed on histology of the resection. RESULTS: MRCP identified a mass in the proximal small bowel mesentery isointense to the native pancreas, with a small duct draining into a proximal jejunal loop. The resected specimen consisted of normal parenchyma with lobulated acinar tissue with scattered islets of Langerhans, an occasional ductular structure, and admixed areas of adipose tissue. The patient remained asymptomatic with normal biochemistry six months post-operatively. CONCLUSION: In an individual with abdominal pain, elevated serum amylase/lipase, but imaging findings of a normal native pancreas, ectopic pancreatitis should be considered, and can be evaluated by CT and MRCP.

  5. European Veterinary Renal Pathology Service: A Survey Over a 7-Year Period (2008-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aresu, L; Martini, V; Benali, S L; Brovida, C; Cianciolo, R E; Dalla Riva, R; Trez, D; Van Der Lugt, J J; Van Dongen, A; Zini, E

    2017-09-01

    published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  6. Recurrent diplopia over a 30-year period: natural history of a Lewis and Sumner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefaucheur, Romain; Bouwyn, Jean Paul; Wallon, David; Bedat-Millet, Anne-Laure; Ahtoy, Patrick; Perot, Guillaume; Hannequin, Didier; Maltête, David

    2012-06-01

    We described the case of a patient with recurrent episodes of isolated diplopia over the last 30 years. On her last event, neurological examination revealed not only a right third and sixth cranial nerves involvement, but also a right peripheral facial palsy and a motor weakness on the left ulnar territory. Electrophysiological nerves motor conduction study revealed a conduction block on the left ulnar nerve and a less severe on the right ulnar nerve. Asymmetrical upper limb sensorimotor weakness combined with conduction block and cranial nerves palsy led to a diagnosis of Lewis and Sumner syndrome (LSS). This case is unusual by the presentation of the disease and is, to our knowledge the longer natural disease course of LSS reported. Moreover, it suggests that the recurrent diplopia variant may represent a separate entity with a good prognosis even in absence of invasive treatment.

  7. Physical Activity Promotion in the Preschool Years: A Critical Period to Intervene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary S. Goldfield

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The primary aim of this paper is to provide a rationale for the necessity of intervening with a physical activity intervention in the preschool years and why the daycare environment is amenable to such intervention. We also review the prevalence of physical activity, sedentary behaviour and obesity in the preschool population and the impact that these lifestyle behaviours and conditions have on the health of preschool aged children, as secondary objectives. Moreover we discuss implications for intervention and research using a “lessons learned” model based on our research team’s experience of conducting a randomized controlled trial aimed at increasing physical activity, reducing sedentary behaviour and improving motor skill development and body composition in preschoolers. Lastly, we make conclusions based on the literature and highlight issues and directions that need to be addressed in future research in order to maximize health promotion and chronic disease prevention in the pediatric population.

  8. Using Logistic Regression to Model New York City Restaurant Grades Over a Two-Year Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Nadler

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A knowledge gap exists in the role of restaurant type on the prediction of attaining the highest grade possible from the local health inspection agency. This study identified disparities using logistic regression between the issuance of a Grade A and restaurant type and location. This study tested the eight most inspected types of restaurants within the City of New York and calculated the odds ratios of their receiving the highest inspection grade by the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. A fitted equation has been proposed for the prediction of receiving the highest inspection grade based upon the citywide results of these eight restaurant types from calendar years 2011 and 2012. The results suggest that certain styles of restaurants have lower odds of receiving the highest grade in comparison to American-style restaurants.

  9. [Acute toxicological cases during a ten-year period in our clinic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Tibor; Páll, Dénes; Abafalvi, Zsuzsa; Karányi, Zsolt; Wórum, Ferenc; Mátyus, János; Kárpáti, Istvan; Balla, József; Ujhelyi, László; Kakuk, György

    2002-01-13

    There's a fact, that Hungary has held the first places in suicidal statstics. The authors studied toxicological cases between 1989 and 1998 at the 1st Department of Medicine of the Medical and Health Science Centre, at the University of Debrecen, paying special attention to suicidal poisoning cases. 2% of the patient turnover accounted for acute poisoning cases, the number of which increased during the 10 years in question. 70% of the cases were of suicidal intentions, 20% were unintentional, these poisonings were not committed on purpose, while the proportion of iatrogenic intoxication cases was 10%. Amongst the failed suicide cases there was a higher proportion of women, whereas a higher percentage of men accounted for "successful" suicide cases. When examining auto-intoxication cases it turned out that the medicine most frequently used was meprobamate, besides benzodiazepines. Mortality rate was highest in the glutethimide intoxication cases. Most poisonings with suicidal intentions took place in the 2nd quarter of the year. Most completed suicides were committed on Wednesdays and Thursdays. 81% of the iatrogenic intoxication cases happened to be with digitalis and coumarin overdose. Nearly 50% of the cases turned out to be combined intoxications. 40% of the men took alcoholic drinks during the auto-intoxications. In the case of 135 patients extracorporeal detoxification therapy was applied, which consisted mostly of hemoperfusion. Three quarters of the patients needed psychiatric care and every fourth patient was admitted to the Department of Psychiatry. 6.9% of the poisonings were fatal. The growing number of toxicological cases--amongst these suicidal poisonings--compels us to pay more attention to the setting up of interdisciplinary based prevention as well as running effective toxicological centres. All physicians have a responsibility to recommend psychiatric care for people suffering from mental problems or depression and for the unsuccessful or potential

  10. Traumatic episodes experienced during the genocide period in Rwanda influence life circumstances in young men and women 17 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugema, Lawrence; Mogren, Ingrid; Ntaganira, Joseph; Gunilla, Krantz

    2013-12-28

    During Rwanda's genocide period in 1994, about 800,000 people were killed. People were murdered, raped and seriously injured. This retrospective study investigated prevalence and frequency of traumatic episodes and associated psychosocial effects in young adults in Rwanda over the lifetime, during the genocide period and in the past three years. This is a cross-sectional population-based study conducted among men and women, aged 20 to 35 years, residing in the Southern province of Rwanda. The study population, randomly selected in a multi stage procedure, included 477 females and 440 males. Data collection was performed through individual interviewing with a structured questionnaire during the period December 2011- January 2012. The Harvard Trauma Questionnaire was used to assess traumatic episodes. All data was sex-disaggregated. Differences between groups were measured by chi square and Fischer's exact test. Associations with socio-demographic and psychosocial factors were estimated by use of odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals in bi- and multivariate analyses. The participants in this study were 3 to 18 years of age in 1994, the year of the genocide. Our sample size was 917 participants, 440 men and 477 women. Women were to a higher extent exposed to traumatic episodes than men during their lifetime, 83.6% (n = 399) and 73.4% (n = 323), respectively. During the genocide period, 37.5% of the men/boys and 35.4% of the women/girls reported such episodes while in the past three years (2009-2011) 25.0% of the men and 23.1% of the women did. Women were more exposed to episodes related to physical and sexual violence, while men were exposed to imprisonment, kidnapping and mass killings. Victims of such violence during the genocide period were 17 years later less educated although married (men OR 1.47; 0.98-2.19; women OR 1.54; 1.03-2.30), without children (men OR 1.59; 1.08-2.36; women OR 1.86; 1.11-3.08) and living under extremely poor circumstances. The

  11. Sphenoid sinus fungall ball: a retrospective study over a 10- year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eloy, Ph; Grenier, J; Pirlet, A; Poirrier, A L; Stephens, J S; Rombaux, Ph

    2013-06-01

    A fungal ball consists of a dense conglomerate of fungal hyphae growing at the surface of the sinus mucosa without tissue infiltration. The maxillary sinus is by far the most commonly involved paranasal sinus cavity followed by the sphenoid sinus. The present study is a retrospective study of 25 consecutive cases treated during the last 10 years in the two hospitals be- longing to the Catholic University of Louvain (CHU Mont-Godinne and UCL Saint Luc). We report the symptomatology, the imaging and discuss the different surgical managements. We conclude that the clinician must have a high index of suspicion when dealing with a unilateral rhinosinusitis persisting despite a maximal and well conducted medical treatment. This is particularly so in elderly women when associated with facial pain and post nasal drip, particularly when the computed tomography shows an unilateral opacity of the sphenoid sinus with or without a sclerosis or an erosion of the bony walls, a polyp in the sphenoethmoidal recess or a hyperdensity mimicking a foreign body. An endonasal endoscopic sphenoidotomy is the treatment of choice in most cases, allowing good ventilation of the sinus and radical removal of all the fungal concretion. A biopsy of the sinus mucosa adjacent to fungal elements is of upmost important to confirm the non- invasiveness of the fungi within the tissue. Antifungal medication is not required in uncomplicated forms. All host factors producing some degree of immunosuppression must be corrected when present and must alert the clinician to rule out any forms of invasive disease.

  12. Review of Pasteurella Multocida Infections over a Twelve-Year Period in a Tertiary Care Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasia Christidou

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to present the epidemiological, clinical and microbiological data, as well as the management and the outcome of 13 patients with documented Pasteurella multocida infections, diagnosed in the University hospital of Crete, Greece, between 1993 and 2004. Most patients (62% were >70 years of age. Respiratory tract infections were most commonly encountered (61.5%, followed by soft-tissue infections (30.8% and septicemia (7.7 %. Underlying diseases included malignancies, bullous pemphigoid, mitral valve stenosis, coronary disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and intracranial hemorrhage. Antibiotic sensitivity testing showed that all P. multocida isolates were susceptible to beta-lactams, quinolones, chloramphenicol, tetracycline and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Antibiotics were administered to all 13 patients and a clinical response was observed in 77% of them. The overall mortality rate was 23% (3/13 but only 15.4% (2/13 died from the infection. Although rare, P. multocida infections should be suspected in patients reporting animal exposure, particularly in those with chronic underlying diseases.

  13. The results of cervical cerclage in a single center during a five-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat Kadanalı

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of the patients who underwent cervical cerclage placement and the contribution of this intervention to the maintenance of pregnancy.Methods: Data of 29 patients who underwent cervical cerclage placement due to cervical insufficiency in Ataturk University Medical Faculty Obstetrics and Gynecology Department Between January 2002 and April 2007 were retrospectively analyzed.The patient’s age, gestational week, history of abortion, history of previous cervical cerclage, preoperative measurement of cervical length, types of cerclage and delivery weeks were recorded and analysed.Results: The patient’s ages were between 24 and 43 years. Weeks of gestation were between 12 weeks 2 days and 26 weeks and 1 day. Nineteen patient’s cervical lengths were less than 20 mm by transvaginal ultrasonography. Eight of patients had funneling sign by transvaginal ultrasonography. Sixteen patients treated with prophylactic cervical cerclage, thirteen women treated with therapeutical cerclage. The cervical lengths of twenty one patients were over 20 mm after the procedure. Five patients reached term.Conclusion: The patient who has risk for cervical insufficiency should be followed with serial ultrasound examination and cervical cerclage should be performed when needed. The prophylactic cerclaje process is still best choice for patients with the history of two or more painless 2nd trimester or early 3rd trimester abortion that typical for cervical incompetence.

  14. Changes in contraceptive practice in a multiracial urban-based community over a ten-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, S; Kishen, D; Hamidah, K; Ang, E S

    1992-06-01

    There have been changes in the national policy regarding population growth in Malaysia from 1982. This report studies the changes in contraceptive practice among the three racial groups in this country, i.e. Malays, Chinese and Indians, over a 5-year period with an interval of 10 years. This is a retrospective study based on the attendance at the same family planning clinic in an urban setting. The striking change noted is the change in the racial composition of contraceptive usage in the two study periods with a shift from the Chinese being predominant in 1975-1979 to Malays in 1985-1989. There was no change among the numbers of Indians using contraception. The results also reveal a significant trend of change for users of the pill and those undergoing sterilization. There were no significant changes in IUD, condom and injectable usage. The study demonstrates how national policies, level of education and rural urban migration can significantly alter contraceptive practice.

  15. Optical and radio variability of the BL Lac object AO 0235+16 a possible 5-6 year periodicity

    CERN Document Server

    Raiteri, C M; Aller, H D; Aller, M F; Heidt, J; Kurtanidze, O M; Lanteri, L; Maesano, M; Massaro, E; Montagni, F; Nesci, R; Nilsson, K; Nikolashvili, M G; Nurmi, P; Ostorero, L; Pursimo, T; Rekola, R; Sillanpää, A; Takalo, L O; Terasranta, H; Tosti, G; Balonek, T J; Feldt, M; McGrath, E J; Heines, A; Heisler, C A; Hu, J; Kidger, M; Mattox, J R; Pati, A K; Robb, R; Sadun, A C; Shastri, P; Wagner, S J; Wei, J; Wu, X

    2001-01-01

    New optical and radio data on the BL Lacertae object AO 0235+16 have been collected in the last four years by a wide international collaboration, which confirm the intense activity of this source. The optical data also include the results of the Whole Earth Blazar Telescope (WEBT) first-light campaign organized in November 1997. The optical spectrum is observed to basically steepen when the source gets fainter. We have investigated the existence of typical variability time scales and of possible correlations between the optical and radio emissions by means of visual inspection, Discrete Correlation Function analysis, and Discrete Fourier Transform technique. The major radio outbursts are found to repeat quasi-regularly with a periodicity of about 5.7 years; this period is also in agreement with the occurrence of some of the major optical outbursts, but not all of them.

  16. Caries status and proximal lesion behaviour during a 6-year period in young adult Danes: an epidemiological investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martignon, Stefania; Chavarría, Nathaly; Ekstrand, Kim

    2009-01-01

    -surface caries and restoration patterns. After 6 years, the behaviour of proximal lesions was studied in 73 of these subjects, and oral health habits were assessed through a questionnaire. Mean number of filled surfaces was 7.5, of which 23% were posterior proximal. Radiographically, the mean number of proximal......) to assess their early proximal lesions 6-year behaviour. In 1996, all 20-year-old conscripts at Central Barrack Birkerød (n = 115) went through an oral examination, including visual surface-level fillings' recording and a radiographic examination with bitewing radiographs that assessed the proximal...... lesions was 5.5. Over the 6-year period, there was progression of lesions into deeper radiolucencies or fillings in 57% of cases. The questionnaire showed a poor compliance with regular flossing/tooth-stick use (18%). Based on these results, more efficacious preventive measures seem to be needed...

  17. Prognostic factors for weight loss over 1-year period in patients recently diagnosed with mild Alzheimer Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M.L.; Waldorff, F.B.; Waldemar, G.;

    2011-01-01

    % in 1 year for defining weight loss. The mean age at inclusion was 76.1 years. Sixty-six patients (24.6%) lost more than 4% of their body weight during the study period. A logistic regression showed that an increase of 1 baseline body mass index point significantly increased the odds of weight loss by 9......%. Furthermore, the results suggested a trend that for men, living alone was a risk factor for losing weight, whereas for women living with somebody was associated with a higher risk. However, further studies are pertinent within this area. As weight loss is a predictor of mortality in patients with AD...

  18. Typing of clinical Mycobacterium avium complex strains cultured during a 2-year period in Denmark by using IS1245

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, Jeanett; Andersen, Åse B.; Askgaard, Dorthe;

    1999-01-01

    In the present study restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses with the recently described insertion sequence IS1245 as a probe was performed with clinical Mycobacterium avium complex strains cultured in Denmark during a 2-year period. The overall aim of the study was to disclose potential...... as potting soil) and veterinary samples were found to contain viable M avium isolates belonging to genotypes also found in humans....

  19. Seasonal variations in the amount of isoorientin and isovitexin in cecropia glaziovii sneth. leaves over a two-year period

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Geison; Caroline F. Ortmann; Eloir P. Schenkel; Reginatto,Flávio H.

    2014-01-01

    Cecropia glaziovii Sneth (Urticaceae) is a common tree from Southeast and South of Brazil, being widely used in traditional medicine to treat heart and respiratory conditions. C-glycosylflavonoids have being described as the major compounds for this genus, however, no seasonality studies of individual flavonoids was conducted for any Cecropia specie. In this work, the content of isoorientin and isovitexin in aqueous extract from the leaves of C glaziovii during a two-year period was determine...

  20. Bibliometric analysis of scientific articles published in Brazilian and international orthodontic journals over a 10-year period

    OpenAIRE

    Neudí Antonio Primo; Vivian Bertoglio Gazzola; Bruno Tochetto Primo; Maximiano Ferreira Tovo; Italo Medeiros Faraco Junior

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed at describing the profiles of Brazilian and international studies published in orthodontic journals. Methods: The sample comprised 635 articles selected from two scientific journals, i.e., Dental Press Journal of Orthodontics and American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, which were analyzed at three different intervals over a 10-year period (1999 - 2004 - 2009). Articles were described in terms of knowledge domain, study design, and country...

  1. Stable expression and phenotypic impact of attacin E transgene in orchard grown apple trees over a 12 year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldwinckle Herb S

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transgenic trees currently are being produced by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and biolistics. The future use of transformed trees on a commercial basis depends upon thorough evaluation of the potential environmental and public health risk of the modified plants, transgene stability over a prolonged period of time and the effect of the gene on tree and fruit characteristics. We studied the stability of expression and the effect on resistance to the fire blight disease of the lytic protein gene, attacin E, in the apple cultivar 'Galaxy' grown in the field for 12 years. Results Using Southern and western blot analysis, we compared transgene copy number and observed stability of expression of this gene in the leaves and fruit in several transformed lines during a 12 year period. No silenced transgenic plant was detected. Also the expression of this gene resulted in an increase in resistance to fire blight throughout 12 years of orchard trial and did not affect fruit shape, size, acidity, firmness, weight or sugar level, tree morphology, leaf shape or flower morphology or color compared to the control. Conclusion Overall, these results suggest that transgene expression in perennial species, such as fruit trees, remains stable in time and space, over extended periods and in different organs. This report shows that it is possible to improve a desirable trait in apple, such as the resistance to a pathogen, through genetic engineering, without adverse alteration of fruit characteristics and tree shape.

  2. Development of Spectral Hazard Map for Indonesia with a Return Period of 2500 Years using Probabilistic Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irsyam M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is performed to develop spectral hazard map for Indonesia with a Return Period of 2500 years earthquake. It will be proposed for revision of the Indonesian hazard map in SNI-03-1726-2002 as response to the meeting organized by the Department of Public Works on 27- October-2008 in Jakarta. The meeting has decided to revise the Indonesia hazard map by referring to IBC-2006 where spectral acceleration values at Peak Ground Acceleration/PGA, 0.2 and 1.0 second with a return period of 2500 year will be applied for general buildings. The spectral hazard map was analyzed using total probability method and three dimensional (3-D source models with recent seismotectonic parameters. Four source models were used in this analysis, namely: shallow background, deep background, fault, and subduction source models. Generally, the results of analysis show the values of PGA with a return period of 2500 years relatively higher 1.2-3.0 times than in SNI-03-1726-2002.

  3. Cost of glaucoma treatment in a developing country over a 5-year period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazcano-Gomez, Gabriel; Ramos-Cadena, María de los Angeles; Torres-Tamayo, Margarita; Hernandez de Oteyza, Alejandra; Turati-Acosta, Mauricio; Jimenez-Román, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study was to disclose a realistic estimate of primary open-angle glaucoma treatment, follow-up costs, and patients’ monthly glaucoma-economic burden in an ophthalmology hospital in Mexico City. Prospective survey of 462 primary open-angle glaucoma patients from 2007 to 2012 was carried out. Costs from visits, glaucoma follow-up studies, laser, and glaucoma surgical procedures were obtained from hospital pricings. Education, employment, and monthly income were interrogated. Total cost was divided into hypotensive treatment cost, nonpharmacologic treatment cost (laser and surgeries), and follow-up studies and consults. Average wholesale price for drugs analyzed was obtained from IMS Health data; monthly cost was calculated using: Monthly cost  = ([average wholesale price/number of drops per eye dropper] × number of daily applications) × 30 days. Patients were classified according to their glaucoma severity, and data were analyzed based on monthly income (average annual exchange rate: 12.85 Mexican pesos = 1 USD). The mean age was 70 ± 10 years, women = 81%, elementary school = 39%, and unemployed = 53%. Low-income group = 266 patients (57%), 146 with mild glaucoma; moderate-income group = 176 patients (38%), 81 with mild glaucoma; high-income group = 20 patients (4.3%), 10 with mild glaucoma. Patients’ monthly average economic burden in glaucoma treatment: low-income patients = 61.5%, moderate-income patients = 19.5%, and high-income patients = 7.9%. Glaucoma-economic burden is substantial not only for health systems, but for the family and the patient. Therefore, screening plans for earlier diagnosis, and health policies that lessen the cost of disease management and increase adherence to treatment, and reduce the prevalence of blindness attributed to glaucoma are essential. These would improve quality of life, reduce personal and national expenditure, and help increase national

  4. Epidemiology of traffic crash mortality in west of Iran in a 9 year period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Behrooz Hamzeh; Farid Najafi; Behzad Karamimatin; Tuoraj Ahmadijouybari; Aresh Salari; Mehdi Moradinazar

    2016-01-01

    Purpose:In Iran,the most common cause of injuries and the second leading cause of deaths are traffic accidents,and those problems impose a substantial financial burden on the society.This study aims to determine traffic accident mortality trends and their epidemiologic characteristics in the Kermanshah province,west of Iran.Methods:In a cross sectional study,road traffic fatality data from 2004 to 2013 were analyzed to determine the epidemiological pattern of traffic accident mortality.Trend assessment was performed to ascertain the decreasing or increasing status.Chi-square and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests,as well as Poisson regression were used to determine the significance of the data in time.Data were analyzed using Excel and statistical package of SPSS version 19.Results:Out of 5110 people that died in traffic accidents,4024 (78.7%) were males.The state of accidents indicated that 404 (43.8%) female pedestrians died as a result of car crashes,and 1330 (41.4%) males died because of car collisions.1554 (31.9%) deaths happened to pedestrians and 1556 (32.1%) to vehicle drivers,and the rest belonged to vehicle passengers.Head trauma was the cause of death for as much as 3400 (69.9%) cases.Fatal crashes in which pedestrians were involved mostly occurred between the hours 13:00 to 15:00,while the time for vehicle drivers was between 16:00 to 18:00.2882 people (59.1%) died before reaching to health care facilities.Traffic crash mortality trend for pedestrians follows a linear pattern with a gentle downward slope,but the trend shows various swings when it comes to vehicle drivers.Conclusion:The number of traffic crash deaths from 2004 to 2013 indicates a decreasing trend in two groups of road users:vehicle drivers and car occupants.This can be due to some interventions such as modification of traffic rules and enhancement of police control which has been implemented in recent years.Moreover,more attention should be paid to promote the

  5. Morbidity and mortality in the antiphospholipid syndrome during a 10-year period: a multicentre prospective study of 1000 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervera, R; Serrano, R; Pons-Estel, G J; Ceberio-Hualde, L; Shoenfeld, Y; de Ramón, E; Buonaiuto, V; Jacobsen, S; Zeher, M M; Tarr, T; Tincani, A; Taglietti, M; Theodossiades, G; Nomikou, E; Galeazzi, M; Bellisai, F; Meroni, P L; Derksen, R H W M; de Groot, P G D; Baleva, M; Mosca, M; Bombardieri, S; Houssiau, F; Gris, J-C; Quéré, I; Hachulla, E; Vasconcelos, C; Fernández-Nebro, A; Haro, M; Amoura, Z; Miyara, M; Tektonidou, M; Espinosa, G; Bertolaccini, M L; Khamashta, M A

    2015-06-01

    To assess the prevalence of the main causes of morbi-mortality in the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) during a 10-year-follow-up period and to compare the frequency of early manifestations with those that appeared later. In 1999, we started an observational study of 1000 APS patients from 13 European countries. All had medical histories documented when entered into the study and were followed prospectively during the ensuing 10 years. 53.1% of the patients had primary APS, 36.2% had APS associated with systemic lupus erythematosus and 10.7% APS associated with other diseases. Thrombotic events appeared in 166 (16.6%) patients during the first 5-year period and in 115 (14.4%) during the second 5-year period. The most common events were strokes, transient ischaemic attacks, deep vein thromboses and pulmonary embolism. 127 (15.5%) women became pregnant (188 pregnancies) and 72.9% of pregnancies succeeded in having one or more live births. The most common obstetric complication was early pregnancy loss (16.5% of the pregnancies). Intrauterine growth restriction (26.3% of the total live births) and prematurity (48.2%) were the most frequent fetal morbidities. 93 (9.3%) patients died and the most frequent causes of death were severe thrombosis (36.5%) and infections (26.9%). Nine (0.9%) cases of catastrophic APS occurred and 5 (55.6%) of them died. The survival probability at 10 years was 90.7%. Patients with APS still develop significant morbidity and mortality despite current treatment. It is imperative to increase the efforts in determining optimal prognostic markers and therapeutic measures to prevent these complications. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Burden of herpes zoster requiring hospitalization in Spain during a seven-year period (1998–2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    San Martín María

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A thorough epidemiological surveillance and a good understanding of the burden of diseases associated to VZV are crucial to asses any potential impact of a prevention strategy. A population-based retrospective epidemiological study to estimate the burden of herpes zoster requiring hospitalization in Spain was conducted. Methods This study was conducted by using data from the national surveillance system for hospital data, Conjunto Mínimo Básico de Datos (CMBD. Records of all patients admitted to hospital with a diagnosis of herpes zoster (ICD-9-MC codes 053.0–053.9 during a 7-year period (1998–2004 were selected. Results A total of 23,584 hospitalizations with a primary or secondary diagnosis of herpes zoster in patients ≥ 30 years of age were identified during the study period. Annually there were 13.4 hospitalizations for herpes zoster per 100,000 population in patients ≥ 30 years of age. The rate increases with age reaching a maximum in persons ≥ 80 years of age (54.3 admissions per 100,000 population >80 years of age. The mean cost of a hospitalization for herpes zoster in adult patients was 3,720 €. The estimated annual cost of hospitalizations for herpes zoster in patients ≥ 30 years of age in Spain was 12,731,954 €. Conclusion Herpes zoster imposes an important burden of hospitalizations and result in large cost expenses to the Spanish National Health System, especially in population older than 50 years of age

  7. Burden of herpes zoster requiring hospitalization in Spain during a seven-year period (1998–2004)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background A thorough epidemiological surveillance and a good understanding of the burden of diseases associated to VZV are crucial to asses any potential impact of a prevention strategy. A population-based retrospective epidemiological study to estimate the burden of herpes zoster requiring hospitalization in Spain was conducted. Methods This study was conducted by using data from the national surveillance system for hospital data, Conjunto Mínimo Básico de Datos (CMBD). Records of all patients admitted to hospital with a diagnosis of herpes zoster (ICD-9-MC codes 053.0–053.9) during a 7-year period (1998–2004) were selected. Results A total of 23,584 hospitalizations with a primary or secondary diagnosis of herpes zoster in patients ≥ 30 years of age were identified during the study period. Annually there were 13.4 hospitalizations for herpes zoster per 100,000 population in patients ≥ 30 years of age. The rate increases with age reaching a maximum in persons ≥ 80 years of age (54.3 admissions per 100,000 population >80 years of age). The mean cost of a hospitalization for herpes zoster in adult patients was 3,720 €. The estimated annual cost of hospitalizations for herpes zoster in patients ≥ 30 years of age in Spain was 12,731,954 €. Conclusion Herpes zoster imposes an important burden of hospitalizations and result in large cost expenses to the Spanish National Health System, especially in population older than 50 years of age PMID:19422687

  8. [Changes in the demand for paediatric neurology care in a spanish tertiary care hospital over a 20-year period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge Galindo, L; López-Pisón, J; Samper Villagrasa, P; Peña Segura, J L

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the profile of the demand for paediatric neurology care in a Spanish tertiary hospital over the past 20 years. We studied epidemiological data, reasons for consultation, diagnoses and complementary tests from all patients examined by our Paediatric Neurology Unit in its 20 years of service (from May 1990 to March 2010). We also reviewed data from patients whose first visit took place within the last five years (2005-2010) and compared them to data obtained from a prior study carried out in this Unit from 1990 to 1995. To compare the first 5 years (group 1) with the last 5 years (group 2), we calculated confidence intervals, P<.05, for the frequency distribution (%) in each category. Main reasons for consultation and principal diagnoses for the 12726 patients evaluated in the 20-year period, as well as results from group 1 (2046 patients) and group 2 (4488 patients) corresponding to first and the last 5 years of activity respectively, are presented with their confidence intervals in a series of tables. Variations in the reasons for consultation, diagnoses and complementary tests over time reflect changes determined by medical, scientific and social progress, and organisational changes specific to each hospital. This explains the difficulty of comparing different patient series studied consecutively, which are even more pronounced between different hospitals. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Antimicrobial use over a four-year period using days of therapy measurement at a Canadian pediatric acute care hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Bruce R; MacTavish, Sandra J; Bresee, Lauren C; Rajapakse, Nipunie; Vanderkooi, Otto; Vayalumkal, Joseph; Conly, John

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance is a concern that is challenging the ability to treat common infections. Surveillance of antimicrobial use in pediatric acute care institutions is complicated because the common metric unit, the defined daily dose, is problematic for this population. OBJECTIVE: During a four-year period in which no specific antimicrobial stewardship initiatives were conducted, pediatric antimicrobial use was quantified using days of therapy (DOT) per 100 patient days (PD) (DOT/100 PD) at the Alberta Children’s Hospital (Calgary, Alberta) for benchmarking purposes. METHODS: Drug use data for systemic antimicrobials administered on wards at the Alberta Children’s Hospital were collected from electronic medication administration records. DOT were calculated and rates were determined using 100 PD as the denominator. Changes over the surveillance period and subgroup proportions were represented graphically and assessed using linear regression. RESULTS: Total antimicrobial use decreased from 93.6 DOT/100 PD to 75.7 DOT/100 PD (19.1%) over the 2010/2011 through to the 2013/2014 fiscal years. During this period, a 20.0% increase in PD and an essentially stable absolute count of DOT (2.9% decrease) were observed. Overall, antimicrobial use was highest in the pediatric intensive care and oncology units. DISCUSSION: The exact changes in prescribing patterns that led to the observed reduction in DOT/100 PD with associated increased PD are unclear, but may be a topic for future investigations. CONCLUSION: Antimicrobial use data from a Canadian acute care pediatric hospital reported in DOT/100 PD were compiled for a four-year time period. These data may be useful for benchmarking purposes. PMID:26600813

  10. Short-Term Outcomes of 100 Consecutive Kidney Transplantations in a 3-Year Period: A Single-Center Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro Sanchez, C I; Molina Higueras, M J; Moiron Fernandez-Felechosa, J P; Mora Gutierrez, J M; Martin Moreno, P L; Garcia Fernandez, N; Lavilla Royo, F J; Errasti Goenaga, P

    2016-11-01

    The results of kidney transplantation have improved significantly in the last decade with patient and graft survival rates that range from 92% to 95%. We analyzed the clinical results in the last 100 consecutive patients with a follow-up of 6-42 months at our institution. We also made a general evaluation of the patients before surgery as candidates for transplantation and divided them into 3 groups (good, moderate, and poor). We had 8 living donors and 92 cadaveric kidney transplantation cases. Principal cause of donor death was cerebrovascular disease accounting for 64%. Mean age of recipients was 55.1 ± 12.9 years with a total of 65 males. Currently there are 96 functioning allografts. During this 3-year period, 2 patients suffered graft loss and 2 patients died with a functioning allograft. We studied whether there were statistically significant differences in renal function (Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study Equation [MDRD]) at 12 months and at last visit with respect to the evaluation of recipient as candidate for renal transplantation. Our observations suggest great improvement of early results of renal transplantation in recent years, including complex cases. In this 3-year period we had a patient survival rate of 98% and a graft survival rate of 96% of cases. Further dedicated prospective studies that aim to evaluate or to propose possible recipient-related predictors for kidney transplantation outcomes in different populations are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A 15-year warranty period for asymptomatic individuals without coronary artery calcium: a prospective follow-up of 9715 individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenti, Valentina; Hartaigh, Bríain ó; Heo, Ran; Cho, Iksung; Schulman-Marcus, Joshua; Gransar, Heidi; Truong, Quynh A.; Shaw, Leslee J.; Knapper, Joseph; Kelkar, Anita A.; Sandesara, Pratik; Lin, Fay Y.; Sciarretta, Sebastiano; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Callister, Tracy Q.; Min, James K

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine long-term prognosis of a zero coronary artery calcium (CAC) score among asymptomatic individuals and its associated warranty period. Background Emerging evidence supports CAC=0 as a favorable cardiovascular short-to-intermediate term prognostic factor. Methods 9715 individuals undergoing CAC imaging were stratified by age, Framingham risk score (FRS) and Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) categories and followed for a mean of 14.6 (12.9–16.8) years. Cox regression, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and net reclassification information (NRI) were used to assess all-cause mortality, discrimination and reclassification of CAC=0 compared with FRS and NCEP ATP III, respectively. A warranty period was pre-defined as <1% annual mortality rate. Vascular age was estimated by linear regression. Results Among 4864 individuals with baseline CAC=0 (mean age 52.1±10.8 years; 57.9% male), 229 deaths occurred. The warranty period of CAC=0 was almost 15 years for individuals at low and intermediate risk with no significant differences regarding age and gender. CAC=0 was associated with a vascular age of 1, 10, 20, and 30 years below chronologic age for individuals between 50–59, 60–69, 70–79, and ≥80 years, respectively. CAC score was the strongest predictor of death (HR 2.67, 95% CI 2.29–3.11) that enabled discrimination and consistent reclassification beyond FRS (AUC 0.71 vs. 0.64, p<0.001) and NCEP ATP III (AUC 0.72 vs. 0.64, p<0.001). Conclusions CAC=0 confers a 15-year warranty period against mortality among individuals at low-to-intermediate risk, which is unaffected by age or gender. Furthermore, in individuals considered at high-risk by clinical risk scores the presence of CAC=0 confers better survival than in individuals at low-to-intermediate risk but with any CAC. PMID:26189116

  12. Assessing the gap in female authorship in the journal Emergency Radiology: trends over a 20-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Kristopher; Ramonas, Milita; Patlas, Michael; Katz, Douglas S

    2017-05-12

    To examine trends in female authorship in the journal Emergency Radiology from January 1994 to December 2014. We obtained institutional review board approval for our study. We retrospectively reviewed a total of 1617 articles published in the journal Emergency Radiology over a 20-year period. Original articles, case reports, review articles, and pictorial essays were included. The first and last position author's gender was categorized as female or male. We analyzed trends by comparing the first and last position authors of original articles from the first and last year reviewed. We utilized Chi-square test for statistical analysis, with a p value years, there has been a statistically significant upward trend in female last position authors publishing in the journal Emergency Radiology.

  13. Progression of lumbar disc herniations over an eight year period in a group of adult Danes from the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tunset, Andreas; Jensen, Tue Secher; Boyle, Eleanor;

    2013-01-01

    Background: The development in size and type of lumbar disc herniation (LDH) over time is not fully understood. Furthermore, the relationship between MRI defined LDH and clinical symptoms may not always confer with each other. This may be due to the lack of knowledge about the natural history...... of morphological changes in the related structures. In order to better understand the relationships, we investigated the following objectives. 1) the changes of LDH size through quantitative measures from MRI images taken at three time points over an eight-year period, 2) the cross-sectional associations between...... sizes of LDH and area of dural sac as well as disc height, and 3) LDH as a predictor of changes in dural sac areas and disc height after four and eight years. Methods: The study sample was assembled using a population-based cohort study of 41 year olds called “Backs on Funen Cohort”. All individuals who...

  14. Examining job tenure and lost-time claim rates in Ontario, Canada, over a 10-year period, 1999-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morassaei, Sara; Breslin, F Curtis; Shen, Min; Smith, Peter M

    2013-03-01

    We sought to examine the association between job tenure and lost-time claim rates over a 10-year period in Ontario, Canada. Data were obtained from workers' compensation records and labour force survey data from 1999 to 2008. Claim rates were calculated for gender, age, industry, occupation, year and job tenure group. A multivariate analysis and examination of effect modification were performed. Differences in injury event and source of injury were also examined by job tenure. Lost-time claim rates were significantly higher for workers with shorter job tenure, regardless of other factors. Claim rates for new workers differed by gender, age and industry, but remained relatively constant at an elevated rate over the observed time period. This study is the first to examine lost-time claim rates by job tenure over a time period during which overall claim rates generally declined. Claim rates did not show a convergence by job tenure. Findings highlight that new workers are still at elevated risk, and suggest the need for improved training, reducing exposures among new workers, promoting permanent employment, and monitoring work injury trends and risk factors.

  15. Delimitation of the warm and cold period of the year based on the variation of the Aegean sea surface temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. MAVRAKIS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the warm and cold season onset is important for the living conditions and the occupational activities of the inhabitants of a given area, and especially for agriculture and tourism. This paper presents a way to estimate the onset/end of the cold and warm period of the year, based on the sinusoidal annual variation of the Sea Surface Temperature. The method was applied on data from 8 stations of the Hellenic Navy Hydrographic Service, covering the period from 1965-1995. The results showed that the warm period starts sometime between April 28th and May 21st while it ends between October 27th and November 19th in accordance with the findings of other studies. Characteristic of the nature of the parameter used is the very low variance per station – 15 days at maximum. The average date of warm period onset is statistically the same for the largest part of the Aegean, with only one differentiation, that between Kavala and the southern stations ( Thira and Heraklion.

  16. The Frequency of Truly Unknown/Undetermined Deaths: A Review of 452 Cases Over a 5-Year Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Alan A; Kimberley Molina, D

    2015-12-01

    The forensic autopsy is often regarded as the final medical diagnosis and expert scientific opinion in matters of death investigation, usually in the legal setting, and sometimes in the clinical setting as well. There are however limitations to what the autopsy can answer, and sometimes the circumstances surrounding a death, despite our best efforts, are simply unable to be determined. Approximately 5% of cases reportedly remain unknown after a complete autopsy. With this in mind, we sought to examine the frequency of deaths in which both the cause and manner are unknown after complete forensic examination and autopsy. Data from 452 undetermined deaths over a 5-year period were analyzed; sudden unexpected infant deaths and decomposed or skeletonized remains were excluded, as well as those with a known cause but undetermined manner of death. After exclusion of these deaths, our analysis revealed that only 0.015% of cases during this period were truly undetermined in both cause and manner of death.

  17. Treatment for retinopathy of prematurity in Denmark in a ten-year period (1996-2005): Is the incidence increasing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slidsborg, C.; Olesen, H.B.; Jensen, Peter Koch

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The objective of this study was to analyze the population incidence of retinopathy of prematurity treatment in Denmark in the 10-year period from 1996 to 2005. METHODS. Patient charts of infants treated for retinopathy of prematurity and the national birth registry provide information...... about neonatal parameters. These parameters, along with birth in the latter half of the period (2001-2005), were analyzed as risk factors for retinopathy of prematurity. The national registry for blind and visually impaired children was accessed to obtain information about visual impairment attributable....... The incidence of treated retinopathy of prematurity cases increased significantly from 1.3% in 1996 to 2000 to 3.5% in 2001 to 2005. Significant risk factors for retinopathy of prematurity treatment were low gestational age, small for gestational age, male gender, and multiple birth. Other, yet unknown factors...

  18. Estimation of Total Yearly CO2 Emissions by Wildfires in Mexico during the Period 1999–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flor Bautista Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of wildfires became a global environmental problem which demands estimations of their CO2 emissions. Wildfires have deteriorated the air quality increasingly. Using available information on documented wildfires and a data set of satellite detected hot spots, total yearly emissions of CO2 in Mexico were estimated for the period 1999–2010. A map of the main vegetation groups was used to calculate total areas for every vegetation type. The yearly number of hot spots per vegetation type was calculated. Estimates of emitted CO2 in a wildfire were then accomplished by considering parameters such as: forest fuel load, vegetation type, burning efficiency, and mean burned area. The number of wildfires and total affected areas showed an annual variability. The yearly mean of affected area by a single wildfire varied between 0.2 and 0.3 km2. The total affected area during the period 1999 to 2010 was 86800 km2 which corresponds to 4.3% of the Mexican territory. Total CO2 emissions were approximately 112 Tg. The most affected vegetation types were forest and rainforest.

  19. Idea and goals of environmental protection and ecological construction in the 11th five-year plan period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yuanqing; Su Yang

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the executive situation of the 10th Five- Year Plan in the field of environmental protection and ecological construction is reviewed, and the characteristics of economic growth and its environmental impact on the 11 th Five- Year Plan period is forecasted and analyzed. A principal idea of environmental protection and ecological construction is put forward for the 11 th Five-Year Plan period: strengthen the point treatment in key areas and set the main targets based on the idea. The relating countermeasures in national level are proposed as follows: set up appropriate ideas for official achievements by launching resources and environmental cost accounting; adjust the industrial structure actively by industrial policies and strenuous work; develop circular economy, change the mode of environmental protection from end treatment to headstream and process control; strengthen the market mechanism in the process of pollution treatment, set up the system of" who treats who benefits"; perfect interrelated laws and standards, strengthen the ability of environmental management; lay extra emphasis on two key targets: water pollution treatment in key river basins and management of the reserves; and combine the ecological construction and poverty alleviation in higher level.

  20. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in professional soldiers of the Czech army over a 11-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fajfrová Jana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Obesity is currently considered to be the most frequent metabolic disease worldwide, not only in developed but also in developing countries. The aim of this work was to describe the development of health status in soldiers of the Armed Forces of the Czech Republic (ACR and to emphasize the markers of non-communicable diseases. Our study describes the anthropometric and biochemical parameters of a large group of Czech Army professional soldiers. Data were obtained over a period of 11 years. Methods. During the monitored period, from 1999 to 2009, military physicians carried out on the average 6,360 examinations on professional soldiers per year and monitored their health and nutritional status with the aim of preventing the risk factors of non-communicable diseases. These examinations are compulsory for all professional soldiers at the age of 25, 30, 33, and 36 years. From the age of 39, these examinations are carried out every year till the end of their career. Besides taking personal histories and carrying out standard physical examinations, blood was taken for biochemical examination. The following anthropometric parameters were monitored: body constitution using body mass index (BMI and waist circumference. Our study describes only part of the data concerning anthropometric and biochemical parameters of professional soldiers which were obtained over a period of 11 years. Results. Average BMI values in men were in the overweight range (26.5-27 kg/m2. Average values of waist circumference, however, ranged from 91.9 cm to 93.4 cm. Between the first and the last year of monitoring a statistically significant decrease in these values ranging from 93.4 ± 9.8 cm to 92.7 ± 9.5 cm (p < 0.001 was observed. All monitored anthropometric parameters in female professional soldiers were within normal limits. During the monitored period the proportion of overweight men gradually increased from 52% to 57.1% (p < 0.001. There were no

  1. Analysis of the Indicence and Survival of Female Breast Cancer Patients in Beijing Over a 20-Year Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qijun Wang; Weixing Zhu; Xiumei Xing; Chenxu Qu

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To provide evidence for breast cancer prevention and control through epidemiological analysis of the incidence, mortality and survival rate of female breast cancer patients in Beijing.METHODS The female registration data in the Beijing urban area from 1982 to 2001 were retrospectively reviewed. The incidence, mortality and survival rate of female breast cancer patients were analyzed using routine and life-table statistical methods.RESULTS During the period of 1982 to 2001, there was a trend of an average annual increase of female breast cancer incidence of 4.6% in urban Beijing, and of 4.9% in the world-population standardized incidence.The epidemiological features of urban Beijing female breast cancer showed:(1)The incidence distribution of different age groups from 25 to 80 years elevated with two peaks at ages of 45~ and 70~ years; (2)There was an elevation in each age group over the last 20 years; (3)The incidence rate at ages of 35 to 64 reached 95.3/105, causing breast cancer to become the number one cancer in females. The changes in the survival rate showed the following: the 5-year observed survival rate (OSR)increased from 62.0% in 1982~1983 to 68.7% in 1987~1988, and the relative-survival rate (RSR) increased from 66.3% to 74.2%. The 10-year OSR and RSR in 1987~1988 were 60.3% and 65.1%, and at 15 years 57.5% and 61.3%, respectively. The mortality rate of breast cancer patients fluctuated from 8 to 10 per 105 population over the 20 years of study.CONCLUSION There is a trend of an annual increase in female breast cancer in Beijing. The 5-year survival is being improved gradually while the mortality remains stable. The results demonstrate that the principles of "early prevention, diagnosis and treatment" for breast cancer are effective in Beijing.

  2. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in professional soldiers of the Czech Army over an 11-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajfrová, Jana; Pavlík, Vladimír; Psutka, Jan; Husarová, Michaela; Krutišová, Pavla; Fajfr, Miroslav

    2016-05-01

    Obesity is currently considered to be the most frequent metabolic disease worldwide, not only in developed but also in developing countries. The aim of this work was to describe the development of health status in soldiers of the Armed Forces of the Czech Republic (ACR) and to emphasizethe markers of non-communicable diseases. Our study describes the anthropometric and biochemical parameters of a large group of Czech Army professional soldiers. Data were obtained over a period of 11 years. During the monitored period, from 1999 to 2009, military physicians carried out on the average 6,360 examinations on professional soldiers per year and monitored their health and nutritional status with the aim of preventing the risk factors of non-communicable diseases. These examinations are compulsory for all professional soldiers at the age of 25, 30, 33, and 36 years. From the age of 39, these examinations are carried out every year till the end of their career. Besides taking personal histories and carrying out standard physical examinations, blood was taken for biochemical examination. The following anthropometric parameters were monitored: body constitution using body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference. Our study describes only part of the data concerning anthropometric and biochemical parameters of professional soldiers which were obtained over a period of 11 years. Average BMI values in men were in the overweight range (26.5-27 kg/m2). Average values of waist circumference, however, ranged from 91.9 cm to 93.4 cm. Between the first and the last year of monitoring a statistically significant decrease in these values ranging from 93.4 ± 9.8 cm to 92.7 ± 9.5 cm (p values of total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL cholesterol was observed; from 5.5 ± 1.1 mmol/L to 5.1 ± 1.0 mmol/L (p values in the overweight range was observed. Although the number of overweight soldiers was overestimated as a result of the inclusion of individuals with increased body weight due

  3. Decline of semen quality among 10932 males consulting for couple infertility over a 20-year period in Marseille,France

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cendrine Geoffroy-Siraudin; Anderson Dieudonné Loundou; Fanny Romain; Vincent Achard; Blandine Courbière; Marie-Hé1ène Perrard; Philippe Durand; Marie-Roberte Guichaoua

    2012-01-01

    Semen from 10932 male partners of infertile couples was analysed and sperm parameter trends were evaluated at the Reproduction Biology Laboratory of the University Hospital of Marseille (France) between 1988 and 2007.After 3-6 days of abstinence,semen samples were collected.Measurements of seminal fluid volume,pH,sperm concentration,total sperm count,motility and detailed morphology of spermatozoa were performed.Sperm parameters were analysed on the entire population and in men with normal total numeration (≥ 40 million per ejaculate).The whole population demonstrated declining trends in sperm concentration (1.5% per year),total sperm count (1.6% per year),total motility (0.4% per year),rapid motility (5.5% per year) and normal morphology (2.2% per year).In the group of selected samples with total normal sperm count,the same trends of sperm quality deterioration with time were observed.Our results clearly indicate that the quality of semen decreased in this population over the study period.

  4. Alcohol-related emergency department injury presentations in Queensland adolescents and young adults over a 13-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hides, Leanne; Limbong, Jesani; Vallmuur, Kirsten; Barker, Ruth; Daglish, Mark; Young, Ross McD

    2015-03-01

    The rate of alcohol-related emergency department (ED) presentations in young people has increased dramatically in recent decades. Injuries are the most common type of youth alcohol-related ED presentation, yet little is known about these injuries in young people. This paper describes the characteristics of alcohol-related ED injury presentations in young people over a 13-year period and determines if they differ by gender and/or age group (adolescents: 12-17 years; young adults: 18-24 years). The Queensland Injury Surveillance Unit (QISU) database collects injury surveillance data at triage in participating EDs throughout Queensland, Australia. A total of 4667 cases of alcohol-related injuries in young people (aged 12-24 years) were identified in the QISU database between January 1999 and December 2011, using an injury surveillance code and nursing triage text-based search strategy. Overall, young people accounted for 38% of all QISU alcohol-related ED injury presentations in patients aged 12 years or over. The majority of young adults presented with injuries due to violence and falls, whereas adolescents presented due to self-harm or intoxication without other injury. Males presented with injuries due to violence, whereas females presented with alcohol-related self-harm and intoxication. There is a need for more effective ways of identifying the degree of alcohol involvement in injuries among young people presenting to EDs. © 2014 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  5. Long-period (30 days-1 year) electromagnetic sounding and the electrical conductivity of the lower mantle beneath Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils

    1999-01-01

    The C-response connects the magnetic vertical component and the horizontal gradient of the horizontal components of electromagnetic variations and forms the basis for deriving the conductivity-depth profile of the Earth. Time-series of daily mean values at 42 observatories typically with 50 years...... of data are used to estimate C-responses for periods between 1 month and 1 yr. The Z:y method is applied, which means that the vertical component is taken locally whereas the horizontal components are used globally by expansion in a series of spherical harmonics. In combination with results from previous...

  6. Polyphenol Intake from Beverages in Japan over an 18-Year Period (1996-2013): Trends by Year, Age, Gender and Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Chie; Fukushima, Yoichi; Kishimoto, Yoshimi; Saita, Emi; Suzuki-Sugihara, Norie; Yoshida, Daishi; Kondo, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    An association between the dietary intake of polyphenols and human health has been shown in many epidemiological studies. Since beverages are rich sources of polyphenols, we aimed to evaluate the polyphenol intake from beverages in Japanese individuals with a focus on differences according to year, age, gender and season. More than 10,000 Japanese male and female subjects aged 1-99 y old participated in this survey every year from 1996 to 2013, and their beverage consumption and amount of polyphenol intake were calculated. Polyphenol intake from beverages in Japan showed no tendency to increase or decrease over the 18-y period, and the major sources of polyphenols in Japanese daily life were coffee and green tea. Polyphenol intake was larger in participants with higher age up to 59 y old in both male and female subjects. There was a slight difference in polyphenol intake by gender, with adult males consuming more polyphenols than adult females. Polyphenols were consumed slightly more in the winter than the summer, although the seasonal difference in polyphenol intake was not large. Our results suggest that polyphenol intake from beverages is influenced by age rather than gender or season in Japan, and may not have changed over time, at least over the 18-y period beginning in 1996 in Japan.

  7. Progression of white matter hyperintensities and incidence of new lacunes over a 3-year period: the Leukoaraiosis and Disability study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gouw, A.A.; Flier, W.M. van der; Fazekas, F.;

    2008-01-01

    of new lacunes, which were found in 19% of the subjects (maximum=9), also appeared in the subcortical white matter, mainly of the frontal lobes, whereas most baseline lacunes were located in the basal ganglia. Baseline WMH and lacunes predicted both WMH progression and new lacunes. Furthermore, previous......, predominantly in the subcortical white matter. Progression was observed especially in subjects with considerable WMH and lacunes at baseline. Moreover, the presence of vascular risk factors at baseline predicted WMH progression and new lacunes over a 3-year period Udgivelsesdato: 2008/5......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We studied the natural course of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and lacunes, the main MRI representatives of small vessel disease, over time and evaluated possible predictors for their development. METHODS: Baseline and repeat MRI (3-year follow-up) were collected...

  8. Changes in antacid use over a 9-year period in a general population adjusted for changes indyspeptic complaints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Furu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To explore changes in self-reported use of antacids over a 9-year period in a general population adjusted for changes in dyspeptic complaints. Methods: Data is based on two health surveys carried out in the same population in Norway in 1987-88 and 1996-97. 15,523 individuals, who responded to the questions concerning drug use in either the first survey and/or in the second survey, were included in the analyses. Generalized estimating equation (GEE was chosen for the multivariate analyses. Results: From 1987-88 to 1996-97 the proportion of antacid users in this region increased among men from 11.2% to 12.7% (40-49 years and from 11.9% to 13.4% (50-59 years, while the proportion of women using antacids decreased. The proportion of antacid users increased with age in both genders. In the same period, the frequency of self-reported dyspeptic complaints such as heartburn decreased. GEE analyses showed an overall increasing trend in antacid use over the 9 years (OR=2.0, 95% CI=1.8, 2.3 adjusted for self-reported heartburn and age. The effect of heartburn on antacid use is very strong (OR=14.6, 95% CI=12.9-16.7. The gender effect indicates that women are less likely to use antacids than men (OR=0.86, 95% CI= 0.77-0.95. Antacid use increased among those with dyspeptic complaints and also among those reporting no dyspeptic symptoms. Conclusion: The prevalence of antacid users in 1996-97 was higher than in 1987-88 adjusted for age, gender and heartburn. The proportion of antacid users increased among those with dyspeptic complaints and also among those reporting no dyspeptic symptoms. Key words: Antacid use, dyspeptic complaints, heartburn, longitudinal, generalized estimating equation, pharmacoepidemiology

  9. Surveillance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa-isolates in a neonatal intensive care unit over a one year-period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabel, Lutz Thomas; Heeg, Peter; Goelz, Rangmar

    2004-07-01

    Outbreaks of gram-negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa in neonatal intensive care units (NICU) can be life-threatening to pre-term infants, which are highly susceptible to serious infections with bacteria. Forty-two ventilated neonates in the NICU of the University Children's Hospital of Tuebingen were found to be colonized (n = 40) or infected (n = 2) with P. aeruginosa within a sampling period of one year. To investigate the colonization patterns and identify potential outbreak sources, epidemiological investigations, environmental surveillance and typing by serotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of the recovered isolates were performed. The investigation demonstrated a genetically related cluster of P. aeruginosa isolates during the surveillance period in 39 neonates and a second cluster at the end of the period in two neonates. A third strain representing a genetically distinct group was found in only one patient. Environmental investigations demonstrated the presence of P. aeruginosa in the ventilation equipment of 22 patients: binasal prongs (n = 22), water reservoir (n = 9), and heater (n = 1). In one case, P. aeruginosa was found in breast milk. Other environmental investigations revealed no P. aeruginosa. Although no evidence for a unique source was found, a series of intervention steps were initiated by the NICU personnel, medical microbiologists and infection control experts. The intervention steps included reinforced training of health care staff and a change from chemical to thermal disinfection of binasal prongs. Implementation of these measurements successfully stopped the recurrent occurrence of P. aeruginosa colonization.

  10. Bidecadal variability in the Bering Sea and the relation with 18.6 year period nodal tidal cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osafune, S.; Yasuda, I.

    2010-02-01

    Bidecadal variations are investigated in the Bering Sea, especially in the southeastern basin adjacent to the Aleutian passes, where vertical mixing may be strong because of the diurnal tide. Those variations found in this region are synchronized with the 18.6 year period nodal tidal cycle, and the temporal patterns are similar to ones around the northwestern subarctic Pacific near the Kuril Straits reported by a previous study. Salinity and density in the upper layer are high in the periods when the diurnal tide is strong. In the intermediate layer, layer thickness is large, and isopycnal potential temperature and apparent oxygen utilization are low in the same periods. It is shown that these variations are consistent with the patterns expected from the nodal modulation of vertical mixing, and a simple two-dimensional model, assuming a balance between anomalous vertical mixing and advection of anomaly by the mean current, succeeds to some extent in explaining the variations of the upper layer salinity and isopycnal temperature and apparent oxygen utilization in the intermediate layer.

  11. Lymphoma of the thyroid gland: a clinicopathologic study over a period of five years in a tertiary care center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Anjit

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Primary Thyroid Lymphoma (PTL is uncommon, accounting for only 5% of thyroid neoplasms and less than 2.5 to 7% of extranodal lymphomas. The study aims to analyze the histopathological findings and to correlate it with clinical features. Methods: This study includes cases of PTL received in the department of pathology in a tertiary care center, Kerala, south India over a period of 5 years. Patient details and follow up data were obtained by communication with treating doctors and reviewing the hospital records. All cases had a minimum follow up of 6 months. Results: 15 cases of PTL were diagnosed over the five year period. In total 72 cases of extranodal lymphomas were diagnosed, thus forming 20.83% of extra nodal lymphomas. Lymphocytic thyroiditis was present in 93.3%. Most of the cases were Extranodal Marginal Zone B Cell Lymphoma (EMZBCL and Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL. Conclusion: It is important to consider the diagnosis of primary thyroid lymphoma in patients presenting with an enlarging neck mass especially with the history of Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Random microscopic foci of DLBCL or small areas of MZBL could be overlooked examination or missed with limited sampling. The distinction between MZBL and DLBCL in the thyroid is clinically significant. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(3.000: 579-582

  12. Substance Use Disorders in Elderly Admissions to an Academic Psychiatric Inpatient Service over a 10-Year Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowski, Dennis; Norrell, Nelly

    2016-01-01

    Objective. There is a paucity of research on substance use disorders (SUDs) in the elderly psychiatric population. This study examines SUDs in a geriatric psychiatry inpatient service over a 10-year period. Methods. Data from 1788 elderly psychiatric inpatients from a ten-year period was collected. Variables collected included psychiatric diagnoses, SUD, number of psychiatric admissions, and length of stay. Those with and without a SUD were compared using Chi-Square or Student's t-test as appropriate using SPSS. Results. 11.7% (N = 210) of patients had a SUD, and the most common substance was alcohol at 73.3% (N = 154) or 8.6% of all admissions. Other SUDs were sedative-hypnotics (11%), opiate (2.9%), cannabis (1%), tobacco (1.4%), and unspecified SUD (38.6%). SUD patients were significantly younger, divorced, male, and less frequently readmitted and had shorter lengths of stay. The most common comorbid diagnoses were major depression (26.1%), bipolar disorder (10.5%), and dementia (17.1%). Conclusions. Over 10% of psychogeriatric admissions were associated with a SUD, with alcohol being the most common. Considering the difficulties in diagnosing SUD in this population and the retrospective study design, the true prevalence in elderly psychiatric inpatients is likely higher. This study adds to sparse literature on SUD in elderly psychiatric patients. PMID:27840765

  13. HST and Optical Data Reveal White Dwarf Cooling, Spin and Periodicities in GW Librae 3-4 Years after Outburst

    CERN Document Server

    Szkody, Paula; Gaensicke, Boris T; Henden, Arne; Sion, Edward M; Townsley, Dean; Chote, Paul; Harmer, Diane; Harpe, Eric J; Hermes, J J; Sullivan, Denis J; Winget, D E

    2012-01-01

    Since the large amplitude 2007 outburst which heated its accreting, pulsating white dwarf, the dwarf nova system GW Librae has been cooling to its quiescent temperature. Our Hubble Space Telescope ultraviolet spectra combined with ground-based optical coverage during the 3rd and 4th year after outburst show that the fluxes and temperatures are still higher than quiescence (T=19,700K and 17,300K vs 16,000K pre-outburst for a log g=8.7 and d=100 pc). The K{wd} of 7.6+/-0.8 km/s determined from the CI1463 absorption line, as well as the gravitational redshift implies a white dwarf mass of 0.79+/-0.08 Msun. The widths of the UV lines imply a white dwarf rotation velocity vsin i of 40 km/s and a spin period of 209 s (for an inclination of 11 deg and a white dwarf radius of 7x10^{8} cm). Light curves produced from the UV spectra in both years show a prominent multiplet near 290 s, with higher amplitude in the UV compared to the optical, and increased amplitude in 2011 vs 2010. As the presence of this set of periods...

  14. Substance Use Disorders in Elderly Admissions to an Academic Psychiatric Inpatient Service over a 10-Year Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Dombrowski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. There is a paucity of research on substance use disorders (SUDs in the elderly psychiatric population. This study examines SUDs in a geriatric psychiatry inpatient service over a 10-year period. Methods. Data from 1788 elderly psychiatric inpatients from a ten-year period was collected. Variables collected included psychiatric diagnoses, SUD, number of psychiatric admissions, and length of stay. Those with and without a SUD were compared using Chi-Square or Student’s t-test as appropriate using SPSS. Results. 11.7% (N=210 of patients had a SUD, and the most common substance was alcohol at 73.3% (N=154 or 8.6% of all admissions. Other SUDs were sedative-hypnotics (11%, opiate (2.9%, cannabis (1%, tobacco (1.4%, and unspecified SUD (38.6%. SUD patients were significantly younger, divorced, male, and less frequently readmitted and had shorter lengths of stay. The most common comorbid diagnoses were major depression (26.1%, bipolar disorder (10.5%, and dementia (17.1%. Conclusions. Over 10% of psychogeriatric admissions were associated with a SUD, with alcohol being the most common. Considering the difficulties in diagnosing SUD in this population and the retrospective study design, the true prevalence in elderly psychiatric inpatients is likely higher. This study adds to sparse literature on SUD in elderly psychiatric patients.

  15. Estimated disability-adjusted life years averted by free-of-charge provision of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system over a 9-year period in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Jessica M; Monteiro, Ilza; Fernandes, Arlete; Bahamondes, Maria V; Pitoli, Ana; Bahamondes, Luis

    2017-07-01

    The objective was to analyse the contribution of the provision at no cost to users of the 20 µg/day levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) towards disability-adjusted life years (DALY) averted over a 9-year period. We analysed data from 15 030 new users of the LNG-IUS who had the device inserted at 26 Brazilian teaching hospitals between January 2007 and December 2015. The devices came from the International Contraceptive Access Foundation (ICA), a not-for-profit foundation that donates the devices to developing countries for use by low-income women who desire long-term contraception and who freely choose to use this device. Estimation of the DALY averted included live births averted, maternal morbidity and mortality, child mortality and unsafe abortions averted. A total of 15 030 women chose the LNG-IUS as a contraceptive method during the study period. Over the 9 years of evaluation, the estimated cumulative contribution of the Brazilian program in terms of DALY averted consisted of 486 live births, 14 cases of combined maternal mortality and morbidity, 143 cases of child mortality and 410 unsafe abortions. Provision of the LNG-IUS at no cost to low-income Brazilian women reduced unwanted pregnancies and probably averted maternal mortality and morbidity, child mortality and unsafe abortions. Family planning programs, policymakers and stakeholders based in low-resource settings could take advantage of the information that the provision of this contraceptive at no cost, or at affordable cost to a publicly-insured population, is an effective policy to help promote women's health. © Faculty of Sexual and Reproductive Healthcare of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. INTAKES OF SELECTED NUTRIENTS, BONE MINERALISATION AND DENSITY OF ADOLESCENT FEMALE SWIMMERS OVER A THREE-YEAR PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Czeczelewski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to conduct three-year monitoring of bone mineralization (BMC and bone mineral density (BMD of adolescent girls engaged in swimming at the time of attaining the peak bone mass and of their counterparts leading a rather sedentary life, considering the intakes of calcium, phosphorus and protein, as well as the proportions among those nutrients. Two groups of girls aged 11–13 years were studied 3 times at yearly intervals: untrained controls (n = 20 and those engaged in competitive swimming (n = 20. Bone density was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA in the lumbar spine (L2 – L4. Nutrient intakes (energy, protein, calcium, phosphorus were assessed from 24-h recalls. The group of swimmers had significantly lower BMI values than the control group. No systematic, significant between-group differences were found in nutrient intake or in bone mineralization variables. Calcium intake was below the recommended norm in all subjects but mean values of bone mineralization variables (BMC, BMD steadily increased in both groups. The BMD z-scores proved negative throughout the three-year period of early adolescence in both groups of girls and that decrease was significant in swimmers. This could have been due to insufficient calcium intake as well as to inadequate calcium-to-phosphate and protein-to-calcium ratios and, when continued, might result in a decreased bone mass in adulthood.

  17. [Results of the video-assisted thoracic surgery lobectomy at our department in the last five-year periode].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furák, József; Pécsy, Balázs; Ottlakán, Aurél; Németh, Tibor; Géczi, Tibor; Tiszlavicz, László; Lakatos, Anna; Lázár, György

    2016-09-01

    Herein we present the results of lobectomies performed with minimally invasive approach (video-assisted thoracic surgery - VATS) at our department during a period of five years. Between 1 January 2011 and 31 December 2015, 197 lobectomies (malignant lesions: 176 cases, benign lesions: 21 cases) were performed by three thoracic surgeons and one resident. Demographical data are as follows: 119 female/78 male, mean age: 62.4 years (range: 41-82 years). In 2011 three VATS lobectomies were performed, equaling 2.2 % of all lobectomies in that year. During the upcomig years the number of VATS lobectomies were as follows: 2012: 7 (7.3%), 2013: 13 (12%), 2014: 59 (34.5%) and 2015: 119 (68.5%). In 153 cases multiportal (78%) and in 44 cases uniportal (22%) anterior approach was performed. The resected lobes showed the following distribution: right upper: 85, mid lobe: 5, right lower: 28, left upper: 44, left lower: 34, upper bilobectomy: 1. In two cases sleeve lobectomy was performed. In 8 cases (4%) conversion to thoracotomy was needed and among the 46 uniportal procedures, 5 cases needed to be expanded into biportal approach (11%). During the study period, no intraoperative, or perioperative mortality occured. Mean operative time was 123 minutes (range: 60-135 minutes) and mean time of chest drainage was 4.3 days (range: 1-27 days). Air leakage lasting more than 7 days was present in 11.7%. Reoperation was needed in 4 cases (2%), in two cases due to bleeding, and in two cases because of expansive difficulties due to extended subcutaneous emphysema. Among the 176 VATS lobectomies performed due to malignant lesions, 169 lung cancers and 7 metastases were removed. The distribution according to the stage and histology of lung cancers was as follows: IA: 100 cases, IB: 28 cases, IIA: 17 cases, IIB: 3 cases, IIIA: 16 cases, IIIB: 1 case, and IV: 4 cases; adenocarcinoma: 128 cases, squamous cell carcinoma: 26 cases, large cell carcinoma: 3 cases, small cell lung cancer: 1 case

  18. Association of the recurrence and canceration rate of vocal leukoplakia with interleukin-10 promoter variants over a 2-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian; Zhang, Duo; Zhou, Liang; Yang, Yue; Liu, Fei; Tao, Lei; Lu, Li-Ming

    2016-11-01

    Conclusion This study indicates that IL-10 promoter polymorphism variants, smoking, and alcohol consumption increase the risk of recurrence and canceration in vocal leukoplakia. Objective This prospective, clinical trial was performed to evaluate the association of interleukin (IL)-10 promoter polymorphism variants and canceration and recurrence rates in vocal leukoplakia (a pre-cancerous laryngeal carcinoma lesion) over a 2-year period. Participants and method Sixty-one post-operative patients with vocal leukoplakia were enrolled in this prospective, observational study and genotyped for the IL-10 promoter gene (IL-10-1082 A/G, -819 T/C and -592 A/C) using pyrosequencing, and responded to a 2-year follow-up survey. Recurrence and canceration rates were used to evaluate the association between the genotype variants and the clinical outcome. Results There was an increased canceration rate in the variant genotype group compared to that in the normal genotype group in the 2-year follow-up period (18.4% vs 0%, p-value = 0.038). Compared with the non-smoker group, the smoker group had a higher recurrence rate of vocal leukoplakia (29.3% vs 5%, p-value =0.044). Likewise, the recurrence rate in the alcohol consumption group was also higher (30.6% vs 8%, p-value =0.034). The percentage of cancerization in the alcohol consumption group was significantly higher than that in the non-alcohol consumption group (19.4% vs 0%, p-value =0.035).

  19. A Retrospective Study of Epidemiological and Clinical Patterns of ACDRs in Goa Medical College over a 6 Year Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakhi Ghodge

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adverse Cutaneous Drug Reactions (ACDRs account for 3% of all hospitalizations. The spectrum of drug reactions can be varied from mild to life threatening forms. Since the diagnosis of ACDR is purely clinical, early and prompt identification and withdrawal of drug (s is life saving for the patient. Aim and Objectives: To study the epidemiological and common clinical patterns and drugs causing ACDRs in tertiary care hospital of Goa Medical College, Goa over a 6 year period. Material and Methods:This was a retrospective study conducted over a period of 6 years. The medical records were analyzed for demographic profiles, morphology of drug eruptions, common groups of drugs involved, presence of co-morbid factors, systemic and mucosal involvement, common haematological abnormalities encountered, time interval between drug intake and onset of rash and mortality. Results: Our study population had 256 patients and the age group of 21-40 years was commonly affected. Maculopapular rash followed by angioedema were the commonest morphology of drug rash patterns encountered in our study. The time interval between consumption of drugs and onset of ACDR varied with interval of 1-7 days being the commonest group in having 158 (61.7% patients. Antibiotics followed by anticonvulsants and antiretrovirals were the commonest groups of drugs causing ACDR. We found that significant proportion of our patients had haematological, renal and hepatic system involvement. Conclusion: Early identification and withdrawal of the culprit drug remains the cornerstone in prevention of mortalities in ACDRs. A prior knowledge about the reaction patterns and common offending drugs in the population by the treating physician cannot be overemphasized.

  20. Meningitis registry of hospitalized cases in children: epidemiological patterns of acute bacterial meningitis throughout a 32-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syriopoulou Vassiliki P

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial meningitis remains a source of substantial morbidity and mortality in childhood. During the last decades gradual changes have been observed in the epidemiology of bacterial meningitis, related to the introduction of new polysaccharide and conjugate vaccines. The study presents an overview of the epidemiological patterns of acute bacterial meningitis in a tertiary children 's hospital during a 32-year period, using information from a disease registry. Moreover, it discusses the contribution of communicable disease registries in the study of acute infectious diseases. Methods In the early 1970s a Meningitis Registry (MR was created for patients admitted with meningitis in Aghia Sofia Children's Hospital in Athens. The MR includes demographic, clinical and laboratory data as well as treatment, complications and outcome of the patients. In 2000 a database was created and the collected data were entered, analyzed and presented in three chronological periods: A (1974–1984, B (1985–1994 and C (1995–2005. Results Of the 2,477 cases of bacterial meningitis registered in total, 1,146 cases (46.3% were classified as "probable" and 1,331 (53.7% as "confirmed" bacterial meningitis. The estimated mean annual Incidence Rate (IR was 16.9/100,000 for bacterial meningitis, 8.9/100,000 for Neisseria meningitidis, 1.3/100,000 for Streptococcus pneumoniae, 2.5/100,000 for Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib before vaccination and 0.4/100,000 for Hib after vaccination. Neisseria meningitis constituted the leading cause of childhood bacterial meningitis for all periods and in all age groups. Hib was the second most common cause of bacterial meningitis before the introduction of Hib conjugate vaccine, in periods A and B. The incidence of bacterial meningitis due to Streptococcus pneumoniae was stable. The long-term epidemiological pattern of Neisseria meningitidis appears in cycles of approximately 10 years, confirmed by a significant

  1. Remote impacts of the 18.6 year period modulation of localized tidal mixing in the North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osafune, S.; Yasuda, I.

    2013-06-01

    The impact of the 18.6 year period modulation of the localized strong tidal mixing on the annual mean sea surface temperature (SST) in the open North Pacific Ocean is analyzed in a numerical experiment using an ocean general circulation model. Oscillatory SST anomalies induced in this model move eastward along the boundary between the subarctic and the subtropical gyres from the western boundary to the central Pacific in about 10 years, with a speed slower than that of the surface currents. Anomalous currents in the upper 300 m play an important role in inducing SST anomalies. These anomalous currents are coupled to subsurface density anomalies and could be related to eastward moving, low-mode (second or higher), baroclinic long Rossby waves. These results suggest that the 18.6 year modulation of localized strong tidal mixing can influence large-scale SST and/or heat flux, and thus climate, as a result of remote impacts associated with changes in the mid-depth density structure, induced locally where mixing is strong, that move horizontally into the open ocean.

  2. Visual impairment from uveitis in a reference hospital of Southeast Brazil: a retrospective review over a twenty years period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luci Meire Pereira da Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To identify the frequency and causes of uveitis leading to visual impairment in patients referred to the Low Vision Service - Department of Ophthalmology - UNIFESP, over a twenty years period. METHODS: In a retrospective study, medical records of 5,461 patients were reviewed. Data from the first clinical evaluation at the Low Vision Service were collected, patient's age, gender and cause of visual impairment were analyzed. Patients with uveitis had their chart reviewed for anatomical classification and clinical diagnosis. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients referred to the Low Vision Service was 42.86 years and the mean age of patients with uveitis diagnosis was 25.51 years. Retinal disorders were the most common cause of visual impairment (N=2,835 patients; 51.9% followed by uveitis (862 patients, 15.7%. Uveitis was posterior in 792 patients (91.9% of uveitis and toxoplasmosis was the most common diagnosis (765 patients, 88.7%. CONCLUSIONS: In our study, uveitis represents the second cause of visual impairment in patients referred for visual rehabilitation and toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis was the most common clinical diagnosis. It affects a young working age population with a relevant social and economic impact, but the early diagnosis and treatment can improve the quality of life of these patients.

  3. Evaluation of the eight-year period of compulsory measles vaccination in the Czech Socialist Republic (CSR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sejda, J

    1979-01-01

    The object of the study is the evaluation of a more than 8-year period of compulsory vaccination against measles in the CSR. So far, a total of 1,850,000 children have been vaccinated. A pronounced decrease has been achieved in morbidity while mortality and lethality reached zero values as early as in 1973. Changes occur in the epidemiological characteristic of measles manifested primarily by the shift of the age distribution of notified cases into older age groups, by continuous prolongation of interepidemic intervals and by gradual disappearances of typical seasonal incidence. Regular immunological surveys have become the most efficient tools in epidemiological surveillance of this infection and in monitoring the vaccination programme. The results of immunological surveys indeed led to the introduction in 1975 of so-called second vaccination compulsory for children starting the first year of school attendance. Up to the present, a total of 24,000 cases of measles have been recorded in children vaccinated earlier, i.e., 1.5% of the total of vaccinated children. It can be expected that measles as a mass disease will be eliminated from the territory of the CSR in the next few years.

  4. Immunogenicity and safety of a tetravalent dengue vaccine during a five-year follow-up period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rosario Capeding

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the safety and persistence of dengue neutralising antibodies for five years after administration of a recombinant live, attenuated, tetravalent dengue vaccine (TDV. Participants aged 2–45 years (n = 126 were randomised at a single centre in the Philippines to receive TDV vaccinations at months 0, 3–4, and 12 (TDV–TDV–TDV group or licensed typhoid vaccination (TyVi at month 0 and TDV at months 3–4 and 12 (TyVi–TDV–TDV group. Dengue antibodies were measured annually (plaque reduction neutralisation test. Participants with suspected dengue underwent laboratory testing. No safety concerns were reported throughout the study. Six dengue cases were virologically confirmed, but assessed as non-severe dengue disease. Geometric mean titres throughout the follow-up period remained 2- to 4-fold higher than at baseline for all serotypes, ages and study groups. Approximately 10% of participants annually were exposed to wild-type dengue, which contributed to persistently higher titres compared with non-infected participants. In conclusion, TDV appears to have good safety and persistence of antibodies over five years.

  5. [Three outbreaks of brucellosis in a one-year period investigated by the occupational health service in Ciudad Real (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castell Monsalve, Juan; Gutiérrez Avila, Gonzalo; Ruiz Valdepeñas, María Asunción

    2009-01-01

    We describe 3 outbreaks of brucellosis investigated by our Occupational Health Service in a 1-year period. Two of these outbreaks, with 2 cases each, occurred in 2 cheese factories and the third outbreak, also with 2 cases, occurred in a cattle laboratory belonging to the local government. In both cheese factories, numerous opportunities for the workers to become infected were found. The greatest risk was considered to be the area for unloading milk, while failure to use personal protection equipment by workers, deficiencies in the laboratories, and the lack of effective separation between areas were also potential risk factors. In the cattle laboratory, we found at least 13 major risk factors that could allow brucellosis transmission. In Spain, there is a substantial risk of Brucella infection in laboratories or dairy factories and current preventive measures are ineffective.

  6. Morbidity and mortality in the antiphospholipid syndrome during a 5-year period: a multicentre prospective study of 1000 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cervera, R; Khamashta, M A; Shoenfeld, Y

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To identify the main causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) during a 5-year period and to determine clinical and immunological parameters with prognostic significance. METHODS: The clinical and immunological features of a cohort of 1000....../121 (2.5%) women with only obstetric APS manifestations at the start of the study developed a new thrombotic event. A total of 77 women (9.4% of the female patients) had one or more pregnancies and 63 (81.8% of pregnant patients) had one or more live births. The most common fetal complications were early...... pregnancy loss (17.1% of pregnancies) and premature birth (35% of live births). 53 (5.3% of the total cohort) patients died. The most common causes of death were bacterial infection (21% of deaths), myocardial infarction (19%) and stroke (13%). No clinical or immunological predictor of thrombotic events...

  7. The presence of Matthew effects in Dutch primary education, development of language skills over a six-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyten, Hans; ten Bruggencate, Gerdy

    2011-01-01

    Using a nationally representative sample of 5,150 Dutch students who have been followed over a 6-year period, the presence of the Matthew effect was investigated for general language skills. The analyses do not reveal unmistakable evidence for the supposition that the rich get richer and the poor poorer. On the contrary, in schools with low starting levels students make more progress than in schools with higher starting levels. On the other hand, the analyses do show a widening gap between students with well educated and poorly educated parents. The gap between delayed and accelerated students was found to increase as well, but the initial disadvantage of boys was found to disappear.

  8. The statistical analysis of failure of a MEVATRON77 DX67 linear accelerator over a ten year period

    CERN Document Server

    Aoyama, H; Tahara, S; Uno, H; Kadohisa, S; Azuma, Y; Nakagiri, Y; Hiraki, Y

    2003-01-01

    A linear accelerator (linac) takes a leading role in radiation therapy. A linac consists of complicated main parts and systems and it is required that highly accurate operational procedures should be maintained. Operational failure occurs for various reasons. In this report, the failure occurrences of one linac over a ten year period were recorded and analyzed. The subject model was a MEVATRON77 DX67 (Siemens, Inc). The failure rate for each system, the form classification of the contents of failure, the operation situation at the time of failure, and the average performance life of the main parts were totaled. Moreover, the relation between the number of therapies that patients received (operating efficiency) and the failure rate within that number and the relation between environment (temperature and humidity) and the failure rate attributed to other systems were analyzed. In this report, irradiation interruption was also included with situations where treatment was unable to begin in total for the number o...

  9. Genetic diversity of human rhinoviruses in Cambodia during a three-year period reveals novel genetic types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughtin, Monica; Sareth, Rith; Sentilhes, Anne-Charlotte; Vong, Sirenda; Joffret, Marie-Line; Cornillot, Emmanuel; Deubel, Vincent; Delpeyroux, Francis; Frutos, Roger; Buchy, Philippe

    2015-10-01

    Acute respiratory viral infections are a major cause of morbidity during early childhood in developing countries. Human rhinoviruses are the most frequent cause of upper respiratory tract infections in humans, which can range in severity from asymptomatic to clinically severe disease. In this study we collected 4170 nasopharyngeal swabs from patients hospitalised with influenza-like illness in two Cambodian provincial hospitals between 2007 and 2010. Samples were screened for 18 respiratory viruses using 5 multiplex PCRs. A total of 11.2% of samples tested positive for human rhinoviruses (HRV). VP4/2 and VP1 regions were amplified and sequenced to study the distribution of rhinoviruses genotypes and species in Cambodia during this three-year period. Five novel genotypes, 2 species A, 2 species B and 1 species C were identified based on VP1 sequences. Co-infections with other viruses were demonstrated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A snapshot of genetic lineages of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Ireland over a two-year period, 2010 and 2011.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzgibbon, M M

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit-variable-number tandem repeat typing alone was used to investigate the genetic lineages among 361 Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains circulating in Ireland over a two-year period, 2010 and 2011. The majority of isolates, 63% (229\\/361), belonged to lineage 4 (Euro-American), while lineages 1 (Indo-Oceanic), 2 (East-Asian) and 3 (East-African–Indian) represented 12% of isolates each (42\\/361, 45\\/361, and 45\\/361, respectively). Sub-lineages Beijing (lineage 2), East-African–Indian (lineage 1) and Delhi\\/central-Asian (lineage 3) predominated among foreign-born cases, while a higher proportion of Euro-American lineages were identified among cases born in Ireland. Eighteen molecular clusters involving 63 tuberculosis (TB) cases were identified across four sub-lineages of lineage 4. While the mean cluster size was 3.5 TB cases, the largest cluster (involving 12 Irish-born cases) was identified in the Latin American–Mediterranean sub-lineage. Clustering of isolates was higher among Irish-born TB cases (47 of 63 clustered cases), whereas only one cluster (3\\/63) involved solely foreign-born individuals. Four multidrug-resistant cases identified during this period represented lineages 2 and 4. This study provides the first insight into the structure of the M. tuberculosis population in Ireland.

  11. Etiologic Characteristics of Enterocolitis in Hospitalized HIV-Infected Patients for 3-Year Period (2013-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yancheva N.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Diarrhea is the most common gastrointestinal symptom in HIV-infected patients. The incidence and severity of diarrhea increase with progression of the immune defi ciency. In the literature, 30-60% of the patients with diarrhea among HIV-infected individuals remain without specified etiological agent. The aim of this article is to present the incidence of enterocolitis among hospitalized HIV-infected patients over a 3-year period and the degree of etiological clarifi cation of the cause. The results of our analyses showed that 63% of the hospitalized HIV-infected patients for this period were with enterocolitis. Only in 30% of these patients etiological agent was isolated. The reasons for this are mainly financial constraints and, therefore, virological investigations and further endoscopic and histopathological examination of the patients with negative for bacteria and parasites stool samples, were not performed. In the cases with isolated pathogen, an etiological treatment was carried out in parallel with highly active antiretroviral therapy, while in unsubstantiated cases an empirical treatment was carried out. Advanced immune defi ciency was associated with more severe course and worse prognosis of the enterocolitis. The treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy, which leads to improvement of the immune status of the patients, is essential for the output of enterocolitis in HIV-infected patients.

  12. Analysing sediment production and transfer in a small Mediterranean mountain basin using a 15-year data period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallart, Francesc; Martínez-Carreras, Núria; Soler, Montserrat; Nord, Guillaume; Catari, Gusman

    2010-05-01

    Badland landscapes are known to be the main sediment sources in the upper Llobregat basin and particularly in the small Vallcebre research basins (Eastern Pyrenees). The dynamics of these badlands is dominated by physical weathering during winter and by water erosion during intense rainstorms in summer. Nevertheless, as these landscapes represent a small fraction of the basin area, their role as runoff source is only relevant when the basin is dry, but it becomes less important during major rainfall events under wet conditions. Thus, there is a temporal uncoupling between runoff and sediment supply that results in events with a large variety of sediment concentration - discharge relationships at the gauging stations, as well as sediment deposition and erosion phases in the stream channels. The main aim of this work is to analyse the relevance and renewal times of the sediment stored in the stream channels in the Ca l'Isard sub-basin (1.32 km2). Information on stream discharge and suspended sediment loads was taken from a 15-year record at the gauging station, whereas badland erosion for the same period was simulated using the soil erosion model KINEROS2. The model was calibrated and validated using 3-year sediment yield data obtained using containers provided with slot divisors in a 1,240 m2 elementary badland catchment. Other qualitative observations were also used for validation. The results demonstrated that there was a low correlation between badland erosion volumes and stream sediment loads at the event scale; the first were well correlated with rainfall intensities whereas the latter were better correlated with total event precipitations and stream discharges. Badland erosion was simulated as null for some events with large stream sediment loads because de model did not simulate any runoff on the hillslopes. Stream sediment transport was more compulsive than badland erosion, as 90% of the sediment exported from the basin was produced by only 21% of the events

  13. Adverse incidents resulting in exposure to body fluids at a UK dental teaching hospital over a 6-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hughes A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A Hughes,1 L Davies,1 R Hale,1 JE Gallagher21Kings College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, 2King's College London Dental Institute, London, United KingdomBackground: The safety and protection of patients and health care workers is of paramount importance in dentistry, and this includes students in training who provide clinical care. Given the nature of dental care, adverse incidents can and do occur, exposing health care workers to body fluids and putting them at risk of infection, including contracting a blood-borne virus. The aim of this research was to analyze trends in the volume, rate, nature, management, and outcome of adverse incidents reported at one dental teaching hospital from 2005 to 2010.Methods: Descriptive analysis of trends in the volume, rate, nature, management, and outcome of adverse incidents reported at one dental teaching hospital over a six-year period was undertaken in relation to the level of outpatient and day surgery activity.Results: In total, 287 incidents were reported over a six-year period, which amounted to 0.039% of outpatient or day surgery appointments. Nearly three quarters of all the incidents (n = 208, 72% took place during treatment or whilst clearing away after the appointment. The most frequent incidents were associated with administration of local anesthetic (n = 63, 22%, followed by burs used in dental hand pieces (n = 51, 18%.Conclusion: This research confirms that adverse incidents are a feature of dental hospitals and reports the common sources. The importance of accurate and consistent reporting of data to ensure that these issues are monitored to inform action and reduce risks to staff, students, and patients are highlighted.Keywords: risk management, blood-borne virus, dental hospital, body fluids exposure, adverse event reporting

  14. Impact of oral health education on plaque scores with and without periodic reinforcement among 12-year-old school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Padma Reddy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: As many oral health problems are preventable, creating awareness at a very early age has an impact on their health-related behaviors. Aim: To assess the impact of oral health education on plaque scores with and without periodic reinforcement among 12-year-old school children. Materials and Methods: An experimental study was conducted among 12-year-old children of Manchi School, Balapur in Hyderabad. The study sample comprised 140 children that was further divided randomly into study and control groups with 70 children in each. The study was conducted for a period of 1 month with clinical examination being carried out at baseline and on 30th day using Turesky, Gilmore, and Glickman modification of Quigley–Hein Plaque Index (1970. The study group received oral health education at the baseline and on the 15th day from the baseline, whereas control group received oral health education only at the baseline. Statistical analysis was done using Wilcoxon matched paired test. Results: Mean difference in the plaque scores among groups based on gender from baseline to follow-up examination (30th day revealed that males in the study and control groups had a difference of 1.09 ± 0.3, 0.59 ± 0.3, respectively (P = 0.001. On the other hand, females in the study and control groups had 1.47 ± 0.2, 0.76 ± 0.2 difference which was statistically more significant (P = 0.0001. The study and control groups showed 61.7% and 32.6% reduction in the mean plaque scores from baseline to follow-up examination (30th day. Conclusion: Study group with reinforcement showed a prominent reduction in the mean plaque scores than control group.

  15. Simulated carbon and water processes of forest ecosystems in Forsmark and Oskarshamn during a 100-year period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, David; Jansson, Per-Erik [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Land and Water Resources Engineering; Gaerdenaes, Annemieke [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Soil Sciences; Eckersten, Henrik [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Crop Production Ecology

    2006-12-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) is currently investigating the Forsmark and Oskarshamn areas for possible localisation of a repository for spent nuclear fuel. Important components of the investigations are characterizations of the land surface ecosystems in the areas with respect to hydrological and biological processes, and their implications for the fate of radionuclide contaminants entering the biosphere from a shallow groundwater contamination. In this study, we simulate water balance and carbon turnover processes in forest ecosystems representative for the Forsmark and Oskarshamn areas for a 100-year period using the ecosystem process model CoupModel. The CoupModel describes the fluxes of water and matter in a one-dimensional soil-vegetation-atmosphere system, forced by time series of meteorological variables. The model has previously been parameterized for many of the vegetation systems that can be found in the Forsmark and Oskarshamn areas: spruce/pine forests, willow, grassland and different agricultural crops. This report presents a platform for further use of models like CoupModel for investigations of radionuclide turnover in the Forsmark and Oskarshamn area based on SKB data, including a data set of meteorological forcing variables for Forsmark 1970-2004, suitable for simulations of a 100-year period representing the present day climate, a hydrological parameterization of the CoupModel for simulations of the forest ecosystems in the Forsmark and Oskarshamn areas, and simulated carbon budgets and process descriptions for Forsmark that correspond to a possible steady state of the soil storage of the forest ecosystem.

  16. Characterization of human metapneumovirus from pediatric patients with acute respiratory infections in a 4-year period in Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Ru-nan; QIAN Yuan; ZHAO Lin-qing; DENG Jie; SUN Yu; WANG Fang; LIAO Bin; LI Yan; HUANG Rong-yan

    2011-01-01

    Background Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) was discovered by scientists in the Netherlands as a novel respiratory virus in 2001 and had been found in children with acute respiratory tract infections (ARTI) in China. The objective of this study was to determine the importance of hMPV infection in children in Beijing and the genotypes of the circulating virus by the surveillance during a four-consecutive-year period.Methods Clinical specimens collected from children with ARTI from January 2006 to December 2009 were tested for hMPV by RT-PCR using primers targeting the matrix (M) gene, followed by genotyping of hMPV directly from positive samples by diplex PCR with primers for glycoprotein (G) genes. Sequence analysis was used for genotyping of those un-typable samples. Common respiratory viruses in these clinical specimens were tested by virus isolation and antigen detection, in addition to hMPV detection.Results Of 4730 tested specimens, 191 (4.0%) were positive for hMPV and 62.8% of 191 were identified as genotype A. The positive rate of hMPV from hospitalized patients was higher than that from outpatients each year. Most of hMPV positive children were under five years old. The peak of hMPV activity mostly occurred in late spring and overlapped with or followed that of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and followed by parainfluenza virus 3. Of hMPV infected cases,68.6% were lower respiratory tract infection, among which 79.4% were hospitalized, and upper respiratory tract infection was diagnosed for 31.4% of hMPV infected children. The 9.4% of hMPV positive samples were found to co-exist with other respiratory viruses.Conclusions hMPV was an important pathogen for ARTI in pediatric patients, especially those under five years old.Both genotypes A and B circulated simultaneously in Beijing.

  17. Evolution of metabolic risk factors over a two-year period in a cohort of first episodes of psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioque, Miquel; García-Portilla, M A Paz; García-Rizo, Clemente; Cabrera, Bibiana; Lobo, Antonio; González-Pinto, Ana; Díaz-Caneja, Covadonga M; Corripio, Iluminada; Vieta, Eduard; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Bobes, Julio; Gutiérrez-Fraile, Miguel; Rodriguez-Jimenez, Roberto; Mezquida, Gisela; Llerena, Adrián; Saiz-Ruiz, Jeronimo; Bernardo, Miguel

    2017-06-26

    Patients with a first episode of psychosis (FEP) display a broad range of metabolic risk factors related to the development of diverse medical comorbidities. Initial stages of these disorders are essential in understanding the increased vulnerability of developing cardiometabolic disturbances, associated with a reduced life expectancy. This study aimed to evaluate the metabolic profile of a cohort of patients with a FEP and its evolution during a two year follow-up, as well as the factors that influence the changes in their metabolic status. 16 participating centers from the PEPs Project recruited 335 subjects with a FEP and 253 matched healthy controls, aged 9-35years. We investigated a set of anthropometric measures, vital signs and laboratory data obtained from each participant over two years in a prospective, naturalistic study. From the beginning of the study the FEP group showed differences in the metabolic profile compared to the control group, together with a progressive worsening in the major part of the analyzed variables during the follow-up period, with higher rates of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Certain risk factors were related to determinate clinical variables such as male gender, the presence of affective symptoms or an early onset or to treatment variables such as the use of antipsychotic polypharmacy, antidepressants or mood stabilizers. Our results highlight the extremely high risk of patients at early phases of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders of developing cardiovascular comorbidity and the fast worsening of the metabolic profile during the first two years. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Changes in the aquatic moss Sphagnum denticulatum Brid. population abundance in a softwater lake over a period of three years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Szmeja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in population abundance of submerged Sphagnum denticulatum Brid. were studied in an acidic and oligotrophic lake in NW Poland over three years. Individuals were counted in a moss carpet at a depth of 2.5 m on 4 experimental plots, 1 × 1 m each, every 30 days for 36 months using the SCUBA method. PAR intensity was seasonally variable (in winter higher than in summer. Changes in water pH, conductivity, HCO3- concentration, hydration and sediment pH were statistically insignificant (p > 0.05. In the summer of the second study year the moss carpet disappeared almost completely due to a massive bloom of filamentous green algae. Periods of growth, regression and regeneration were observed in the population. The stabilisation of population size took 24 months and followed the pattern: slight fluctuations, then rapid growth and repetition of slight fluctuations. The first stage lasted nine, the second four and the third nine months. These stages took place irrespective of seasons, temperature or PAR intensity. Each rapid increase in abundance lasted about 30 days, at PAR intensity >20% and water temperature ranging from 11 to 16oC (in winter, spring or autumn. The regression stage brought about by the algal bloom started in the second year (in summer and lasted six months (until the end of January in the third year. The population regeneration began in winter (in February, water temperature 3.0oC, PAR about 20%, ice cover 0.15 m and finished with the end of spring. The population of S. denticulatum shows a repetitive pattern of abundance variations, which is seriously disturbed in summer, especially after a warm spring, by a massive bloom of filamentous green algae.

  19. Bipolar disorder recurrence prevention using self-monitoring daily mood charts: case reports from a 5 year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasui-Furukori N

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Norio Yasui-Furukori, Kazuhiko Nakamura Department of Neuropsychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki University, Hirosaki, Japan Abstract: Mood symptoms in bipolar disorders are significantly related to psychosocial events, and the personalized identification of symptom triggers is important. Ecological momentary assessments have been used in paper-and-pencil form to explore emotional reactivity to daily life stress in patients with bipolar disorder. However, there are few data on long-term recurrence prevention effects using ecological momentary assessments. Subjects were three outpatients with bipolar disorder who had a history of at least one admission. They recorded self-monitoring daily mood charts using a 5-point Likert scale. Paper-and-pencil mood charts included mood, motivation, thinking speed, and impulsivity. Additionally, they recorded waking time, bedtime, and medication compliance. Fewer manic or depressive episodes including admissions occurred after self-monitoring daily mood charts compared to patients’ admissions in the past 3 years. This study suggests that self-monitoring daily mood in addition to mood stabilizing medication has some effect on recurrence prevention in follow-up periods of at least 5 years. Further studies with rigorous designs and large sample sizes are needed. Keywords: bipolar disorders, recurrence, self-monitoring, ecological momentary assessments

  20. Bipolar disorder recurrence prevention using self-monitoring daily mood charts: case reports from a 5 year period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui-Furukori, Norio; Nakamura, Kazuhiko

    2017-01-01

    Mood symptoms in bipolar disorders are significantly related to psychosocial events, and the personalized identification of symptom triggers is important. Ecological momentary assessments have been used in paper-and-pencil form to explore emotional reactivity to daily life stress in patients with bipolar disorder. However, there are few data on long-term recurrence prevention effects using ecological momentary assessments. Subjects were three outpatients with bipolar disorder who had a history of at least one admission. They recorded self-monitoring daily mood charts using a 5-point Likert scale. Paper-and-pencil mood charts included mood, motivation, thinking speed, and impulsivity. Additionally, they recorded waking time, bedtime, and medication compliance. Fewer manic or depressive episodes including admissions occurred after self-monitoring daily mood charts compared to patients’ admissions in the past 3 years. This study suggests that self-monitoring daily mood in addition to mood stabilizing medication has some effect on recurrence prevention in follow-up periods of at least 5 years. Further studies with rigorous designs and large sample sizes are needed. PMID:28331323

  1. Occurrence of dental avulsion and associated injuries in patients with facial trauma over a 9-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiori, Erica Cristina; Santos, Saulo Ellery; Asprino, Luciana; de Moraes, Márcio; Moreira, Roger William Fernandes

    2013-06-01

    This retrospective study aimed to assess the occurrence of dental avulsions in patients with facial trauma over a 9-year period. Data was collected from records of patients attended to at the Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery at Piracicaba Dental School-State University of Campinas, Piracicaba (SP), Brazil. Two hundred three patients with 387 avulsed teeth were evaluated, the central incisors being the most common teeth involved (42 % of permanent and 61 % of primary teeth). Thirty-four percent of the cases occurred on weekends, mainly on Saturdays (20 %) and the distribution in relation to the time of year was similar with slight peaks in January. The most prevalent associated dentoalveolar injury was lateral luxation (26 %) and 19 % of the patients presented with an associated facial fracture. The most common sign presented was laceration (23 %), and the main symptoms found were pain (58 %). Associated general trauma was present in 139 patients (68 %), and the most prevalent was the upper limb (41 %). Special emphasis should be given not only to diagnosis and treatment of dental avulsion but for prevention, too. An understanding of the etiology, severity, and distribution of associated traumatic injuries can help for future studies and for an effective prevention of these injuries.

  2. High risk for microcarcinoma in thyroid benign diseases. Incidence in a one year period of total thyroidectomies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlini, M.; Giovannini, C.; Castaldi, F.; Mercadante, E.; Dell' Avanzato; Zazza, S.; Nania, A. [S. Eugenio Hospital, Rome (Italy). Dept. of General, Abdominal and Thoracic Surgery; Santeusanio, G. [S. Eugenio Hospital, Rome (Italy). Dept. of Pathology; Di Perna, P. [S. Eugenio Hospital, Rome (Italy). Dept. of Endocrinology

    2005-06-15

    Over the last few years, incidental thyroid microcarcinoma (TMC) has become a frequent disease and its incidence in some reports is considerable. The discovery of new cases depends on the progress of the diagnostics (US scan, fine needle biopsy and cytology, CT, MRI), on the extended indications to thyroidectomy for benign disease and on the attention in pathologic examination of the specimen. The clinical evolution of this disease is not well known: in spite of a high incidence reported in some autoptic series, suggesting that this tumour could have a good prognosis, some authors report an overall incidence of up to 11% of local recurrence, metastasis and mortality. For these reasons the treatment of TMC is still controversial today. Aim of this study was to estimate the incidence and the clinico-pathological findings of TMC over a one year period of total thyroidectomies for diffuse benign thyroid diseases, and to evaluate, on the basis of the frequency of incidental microcarcinoma, if the surgical procedure of complete removal of the gland should be adopted in any case. In this series no patient had pre-operative diagnosis or tentative diagnosis of carcinoma and the incidence of TMC at the final histologic examination was 27.4%. Total thyroidectomy confirmed to be the treatment of choice for diffuse benign diseases and appeared necessary to obtain both, diagnosis and treatment of incidental TMC.

  3. Clinical management of unruptured intracranial aneurysm in Germany: a nationwide observational study over a 5-year period (2005–2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walendy, Victor; Stang, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Our aim was to provide nationwide age-standardised rates (ASR) on the usage of endovascular coiling and neurosurgical clipping for unruptured intracranial aneurysm (UIA) treatment in Germany. Setting Nationwide observational study using the Diagnosis-Related-Groups (DRG) statistics for the years 2005–2009 (overall 83 million hospitalisations). Participants From 2005 to 2009, overall 39 155 hospitalisations with a diagnosis of UIA occurred in Germany. Primary outcome measures Age-specific and age-standardised hospitalisation rates for UIA with the midyear population of Germany in 2007 as the standard. Results Of the 10 221 hospitalisations with UIA during the observation period, 6098 (59.7%) and 4123 (40.3%) included coiling and clipping, respectively. Overall hospitalisation rates for UIA increased by 39.5% (95% CI 24.7% to 56.0%) and 50.4% (95% CI 39.6% to 62.1%) among men and women, respectively. In 2005, the ASR per 100 000 person years for coiling was 0.7 (95% CI 0.62 to 0.78) for men and 1.7 (95% CI 1.58 to 1.82) for women. In 2009, the ASR was 1.0 (95% CI 0.90 to 1.10) and 2.4 (95% CI 2.24 to 2.56), respectively. Similarly, the ASR for clipping in 2005 amounted to 0.6 (95% CI 0.52 to 0.68) for men and 1.1 (95% CI 1.00 to 1.20) for women. These rates increased in 2009 to 0.8 (95% CI 0.72 to 0.88) and 1.7 (95% CI 1.58 to 1.82), respectively. We observed a marked geographical variation of ASR for coiling and less pronounced for clipping. For the federal state of Saarland, the ASR for coiling was 5.64 (95% CI 4.76 to 6.52) compared with 0.68 (95% CI 0.48 to 0.88; per 100 000 person years) in Saxony-Anhalt, whereas, ASR for clipping were highest in Rhineland-Palatinate (2.48, 95% CI 2.17 to 4.75) and lowest in Saxony-Anhalt (0.52, 95% CI 0.34 to 0.70). Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, we presented the first representative, nationwide analysis of the clinical management of UIA in Germany. The ASR increased markedly and showed

  4. Population structure of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) in Portugal over a 19-year period (1992-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, A; Faria, N A; de Lencastre, H; Miragaia, M

    2014-03-01

    Despite their clinical relevance, few studies have addressed the epidemiology of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA). In particular, it is not clear how MSSA population structure has evolved over time and how it might have been shaped by the emergence of MRSA in the community (CA-MRSA). In the present study we have evaluated the MSSA population structure over time, its geographical distribution and relatedness with MRSA in Portugal. A total of 465 MSSA from infection and colonization, collected over a 19-year period (1992-2011) in the northern, central and southern regions of Portugal were analyzed. Isolates were characterized by spa typing and multilocus-sequence typing (MLST). Isolates with predominant spa types were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Isolates relatedness was analyzed by eBURST and BURP. The 172 spa types found among the 465 MSSA were grouped into 18 spa-CC (clonal complexes). Ten clonal types were more prevalent (40 %): one major clone (ST30-t012) was present in the entire study period and all over the country and the other nine were intermittently detected over time (ST5-t002, ST8-t008, ST15-t084, ST34-t166, ST72-t148, ST1-t127, ST7-t091, ST398-t571 and ST34-t136). Interestingly, three MSSA clonal types observed only after 1996 were closely related with CA-MRSA epidemic strains (ST8-t008, ST72-t148 and ST1-t127) found currently in Portugal. The MSSA population in Portugal is genetically diverse; however, some dominant clonal types have been established and widely disseminated for almost two decades. We identified MSSA isolates that were related with emergent CA-MRSA clones found in Portugal.

  5. Epidemiological profile of 239 traumatic spinal cord injury cases over a period of 12 years in Tianjin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Hong-Yong; Ning, Guang-Zhi; Feng, Shi-Qing; Yu, Tie-Qiang; Zhou, Heng-Xing

    2011-01-01

    Study design Hospital-based retrospective review. Objective To describe the epidemiological characteristics and trends of traumatic spinal cord injury in Tianjin, China. Setting Tianjin Medical University General Hospital. Methods Medical records of 239 patients with traumatic spinal cord injury admitted to a general hospital from 1998 to 2009 were reviewed. Variables included gender, age, marital status, occupation, etiology, time of injury, level, and severity of injury. Epidemiological characteristics of different countries were compared. Results Over this period, the mean age of patients with traumatic spinal cord injury was 45.4 ± 14.1 years, and the male/female ratio was 4.6:1. In all, 86.2% were married. The leading cause was fall (52.3%), followed by motor vehicle collision (36.4%). The most common injury site was the cervical spinal cord, accounting for 82.0%. Incomplete tetraplegia made up for 59.4%, followed by complete tetraplegia (22.6%). Eight patients died after operation, six of whom died from respiratory complications. Conclusion The results of this study are in accordance with that of most other developing countries; falls and motor vehicle collisions were the two leading causes, but the mean age was older. Percentage of the aged with traumatic spinal cord injury was increasing. The low-falls group tended to expand over this period. All these data indicated that the preventive programs should focus on the traffic accidents and falls, and more attention should be paid to the aged for the vulnerability to low fall. PMID:21903012

  6. Global validation of the wave model WAM over a one-year period using geosat wave height data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romeiser, R. (Universitaet Hamburg (Germany))

    1993-03-15

    The high quality of wave fields simulated by the third-generation wave model WAM has already been demonstrated in various validation studies using in situ measurements as well as data from satellites as reference. However, owing to limitations of the reference data sets, the previous studies concentrated on relatively small regions or short time periods only, for which adequate measurements were available. In this paper the first global verification of the WAM model over a full 1-year period is presented. The significant wave heights hindcast for 1988 by the WAM model as implemented at the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts are compared with measurements obtained by the Geosat radar altimeter. The wave heights from WAM and Geosat show good agreement in general. However, significant regional and seasonal differences are found. The hindcast wave heights are underestimated by about 20% in large parts of the southern hemisphere and the tropical region during May-September. For the rest of the time, the agreement with Geosat data is fairly good. Together with the fact that also the rms variability of wave heights in the tropical region is clearly underestimated by WAM, this can possibly be attributed to simplifications like the neglect of atmospheric stratification effects when converting wind speeds to the wind stress fields driving WAM. Furthermore, the intercomparison indicates that low wave heights below [approx]1.5 m are generally overestimated by WAM. As it is planned to use altimeter wave heights for updating wave models in future data assimilation systems, it is quite important to have efficient quality control criteria for these data. The difference between the Geosat and WAM wave heights shows a clear dependence on the additional parameters in some cases, which must be related to quality problems of the Geosat data. Some new criteria for the rejection of incorrect Geosat data points are obtained. 16 refs., 6 figs.

  7. Changing picture of acute kidney injury in pregnancy: Study of 259 cases over a period of 33 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, J; Pant, P; Prakash, S; Sivasankar, M; Vohra, R; Doley, P K; Pandey, L K; Singh, U

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) in pregnancy is declining in developing countries but still remains a major cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. The aim of the study was to analyze the changing trends in pregnancy related AKI (PR-AKI) over a period of thirty-three years. Clinical characteristics of PR-AKI with respect to incidence, etiology and fetal and maternal outcomes were compared in three study periods, namely 1982-1991,1992-2002 and 2003-2014. The incidence of PR-AKI decreased to 10.4% in 1992-2002, from 15.2% in 1982-1991, with declining trend continuing in 2003-2014 (4.68%).Postabortal AKI decreased to 1.49% in 2003-2014 from 9.4% in 1982-1991of total AKI cases. The AKI related to puerperal sepsis increased to 1.56% of all AKI cases in 2003-2014 from 1.4% in 1982-1991. Preeclampsia/eclampsia associated AKI decreased from 3.5% of total AKI cases in 1982-1991 to 0.54% in 2003-2014. Pregnancy associated - thrombotic microangiopathy and acute fatty liver of pregnancy were uncommon causes of AKI. Hyperemesis gravidarum associated AKI was not observed in our study. Incidence of renal cortical necrosis (RCN) decreased to 1.4% in 2003-2014 from 17% in 1982-1991.Maternal mortality reduced to 5.79% from initial high value 20% in 1982-1991. The progression of PR-AKI to ESRD decreased to1.4% in 2003-2014 from 6.15% in 1982-1991. The incidence of PR-AKI has decreased over last three decades, mainly due to decrease in incidence of postabortal AKI. Puerperal sepsis and obstetric hemorrhage were the major causes of PR-AKI followed by preeclampsia in late pregnancy. Maternal mortality and incidence and severity of RCN have significantly decreased in PR-AKI. The progression to CKD and ESRD has decreased in women with AKI in pregnancy in recent decade. However, the perinatal mortality did not change throughout study period.

  8. Foreign bodies in upper gastrointestinal tract and urgent endoscopic interventions – review of a ten-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Skok

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Foreign bodies in the upper digestive tube are rarely the cause of an urgent condition in gastroenterology. They usually enter the digestive tube during nutrition or by mistake. However, certain groups of the population such as convicts or psychiatric patients tend to swallow them intentionally. The authors aim was to assess the percentage of patients in which urgent endoscopic investigation revealed true foreign bodies in the upper digestive tube, to evaluate the success of endoscopic procedures and the resolution of eventual complications.Patients and methods: The study includes patients in which urgent endoscopic investigations of the upper digestive tract were performed in a 10-year period (1 January 1994 to 31 December 2003.Results: Altogether 6416 patients were investigated, mean age 59.3 years, SD ± 17.2 years, range 1–106 years, 2452 females and 3964 males. In 51 patients, 0.8% of all subjects, foreign bodies were detected in the esophagus or stomach. In these patients a total of 65 endoscopic investigations were performed, in 94% the foreign bodies were removed endoscopically (48/51 patients, in three cases the endoscopic procedures were not successful. Among the foreign bodies removed were various metal or plastic objects: coins, keys, screws, hooks, batteries, razor blades, needles, parts of kitchen, toilet or writing utensils, lighters, buttons, toys, a toothbrush as well as impacted pieces of bone. In the patients with successful endoscopic removal of the objects, no significant complications were noted. In 3 patients (3/48, 6.3% only mild hemorrhages from the region of the esophagogastric junction were observed.Conclusions: The technological development of endoscopic instruments made it possible to carry out different therapeutic procedures. The method has proved successful in removing foreign bodies from the upper digestive tube. Various factors affect the success of the procedure, the more important being adequate

  9. CD4 dynamics over a 15 year-period among HIV controllers enrolled in the ANRS French observatory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faroudy Boufassa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are few large published studies of HIV controllers with long-term undetectable viral load (VL. We describe the characteristics and outcomes of 81 French HIV controllers. METHODS AND RESULTS: HIV controllers were defined as asymptomatic, antiretroviral-naïve persons infected ≥10 years previously, with HIV-RNA 90% of plasma samples. All available CD4 and VL values were collected at enrolment. Mixed-effect linear models were used to analyze CD4 cell count slopes since diagnosis. HIV controllers represented 0.31% of all patients managed in French hospitals. Patients infected through intravenous drug use were overrepresented (31% and homosexual men were underrepresented (26% of men relative to the ANRS SEROCO cohort of subjects diagnosed during the same period. HIV controllers whose VL values were always below the detection limit of the assays were compared with those who had rare "blips" (50% of VL values above the detection limit. Estimated CD4 cell counts at HIV diagnosis were similar in the three groups. CD4 cell counts remained stable after HIV diagnosis in the "no blip" group, while they fell significantly in the two other groups (-0.26√CD4 and -0.28√CD4/mm(3/year in the rare and frequent blip groups, respectively. No clinical, immunological or virological progression was observed in the no blip group, while 3 immunological and/or virological events and 4 cancers were observed in the blip subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: Viral blips in HIV controllers are associated with a significant decline in CD4 T cells and may be associated with an increased risk of pathological events, possibly owing to chronic inflammation/immune activation.

  10. Overweight and obesity doubled over a 6-year period in young women living in poverty in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Lynnette M; Hernández-Cordero, Sonia; Fernald, Lia C; Ramakrishnan, Usha

    2008-03-01

    To document the changes in BMI and the prevalence of overweight and obesity in young women living in poverty in a semi-urban community in Mexico. Women who had previously participated in a longitudinal research study (1997-2000) were re-assessed in 2005. Anthropometric measurements were obtained using standard procedures, and socio-demographic questionnaires were administered. Total and annual rate of change in BMI and change in the prevalence of overweight and obesity (BMI > or = 25.0 and > or =30.0) were estimated. Mean age in 2005 was 30.0 +/- 5.7 years (n = 683) and time between recruitment and follow-up was 6.4 +/- 1.0 years. Mean change in BMI was +3.6 +/- 2.7 (range -8.2 to +14.6). In 2005, 500 (73.2%) women were overweight, up from 263 (38.5%) in the original assessment. The prevalence of obesity tripled over the follow-up period (from 9.8% to 30.3%). The mean annual rate of change in BMI was +0.6 (+/-0.4). After adjustment for age and parity at baseline, an annual rate of change of BMI above the sample median (>0.5) was associated with lower levels of formal education. The annual increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in this sample is double that which was reported at a national level in Mexico. An understanding of the determinants of this rapid increase among the women living in poverty in Mexico is urgently needed.

  11. Features of Medical Student's Theses at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences during a Five-Year Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazdan Hamzavi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Most of the studies conducted in Iranian medical schools are carried out as student's theses on which a lot of time and energy is spent. The purpose of the present study was to determine the characteristics of medical student's theses at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences during a five year period (2004-2008.Methods: In this descriptive, cross-sectional study a checklist consisting of 21 questions was designed. The data were gathered from all medical student's theses during 2004-2008 (n=189 using a consensus method of data collection. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics using SPSS software.Results: In terms of type, most of the theses were descriptive cross-sectional (33.3%, descriptive (29.1%, and descriptive-analytical (18.5%. The highest number of theses belonged to clinical psychiatry (18.5% and obstetrics and gynecology (17.5% departments. Other departments, especially basic science departments had the lowest number of theses because clinical teachers constituted 86.2% of the supervisors. The duration of the thesis completion was between 2 and 24 months. Using hospital records and inpatients files were the methods mostly used for data collection and as data sources. Furthermore, we could not find an appropriate assessment and scoring system of theses in place.Conclusion: Medical student's theses lacked appropriate quality therefore this issue should be seriously taken into consideration by educational managers.

  12. Factors associated with seclusion in a statewide forensic psychiatric service in Australia over a 2-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Stuart D M; Daffern, Michael; Martin, Trish; Ogloff, James R P; Thomson, Lindsay D G; Ferguson, Murray

    2009-02-01

    Despite seclusion being described as one of the most ethically- and legally-controversial management options available, it remains a widely-used clinical strategy for managing disruptive, aggressive, and violent behaviour. This study sought to determine how frequently seclusion was used, the common characteristics of those secluded and not secluded, and the degree to which the Level of Service Inventory - Revised: Screening Version (LSI-R: SV) could predict seclusion. The study was retrospective, covering the first 2 years of operation of a statewide forensic psychiatry hospital in Victoria, Australia. Data were collected from individual case files, electronic databases, and paper copies of records pertaining to violent incidents and episodes of seclusion. Eighty five (44%) of the 193 patients admitted during this period were secluded. Those secluded were significantly younger and had a more established psychiatric history. LSI-R: SV scores were significantly and positively associated with being secluded. A statistical model containing three LSI-R: SV items, along with age on admission and psychiatric history, achieved an area under the curve of 0.74. Seclusion is used on a regular basis in response to a range of different forms of aggressive behaviour of different severity. The LSI-R: SV demonstrated moderate-to-good accuracy in predicting seclusion and warrants further research using detailed prospective methodologies.

  13. Changes in Active Commuting to School in Czech Adolescents in Different Types of Built Environment across a 10-Year Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Dygrýn

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Active commuting (AC to school represents a great opportunity to incorporate walking or cycling into adolescents’ everyday routine. The objective of the study was to describe changes in AC in Czech adolescents across a 10-year period in different built environments. Data from the 2001 and 2011 Czech Census of Population and Housing were used to examine the mode of transportation taken to school in 6236 adolescents. Changes in AC over time were analyzed for low and high walkable areas separately in two Czech regional cities, Olomouc and Hradec Králové. Between 2001 and 2011, the proportion of adolescents actively commuting to school decreased by 47%, from an absolute rate of 49.1% to 26%. The proportion of active commuters fell in low walkable areas by 61% and in high walkable areas by 39%. The results indicated that adolescents in 2011 were 2.7 times less (OR = 0.365, p < 0.001 likely to actively commute than in 2001. The AC behavior in Czech adolescents has a negative tendency to replicate travel-to-school patterns in adolescents previously described in more developed countries. The findings might serve as a recommendation for municipal policy.

  14. Bibliometric analysis of scientific articles published in Brazilian and international orthodontic journals over a 10-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primo, Neudí Antonio; Gazzola, Vivian Bertoglio; Primo, Bruno Tochetto; Tovo, Maximiano Ferreira; Faraco, Italo Medeiros

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at describing the profiles of Brazilian and international studies published in orthodontic journals. The sample comprised 635 articles selected from two scientific journals, i.e., Dental Press Journal of Orthodontics and American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, which were analyzed at three different intervals over a 10-year period (1999 - 2004 - 2009). Articles were described in terms of knowledge domain, study design, and country of origin (or state of origin for Brazilian papers). The most frequent study designs adopted in international studies were cohort (23.9%) and cross-sectional (21.7%) designs. Among Brazilian papers, cross-sectional studies (28.9%) and literature reviews (24.6%) showed greater frequency. The topics most often investigated in international articles were dental materials (17%) and treatment devices (12.4%), with the latter topic being addressed by 16% of the Brazilian publications, followed by malocclusion, with 12.6%. In all cases, the most frequent countries of origin coincided with the countries of origin of each journal. The majority of the studies analyzed featured a low level of scientific evidence. Moreover, the findings showed that journals tend to publish studies produced in their own country of origin, and that there are marked discrepancies in the number of papers published by different Brazilian states.

  15. Bibliometric analysis of scientific articles published in Brazilian and international orthodontic journals over a 10-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neudí Antonio Primo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed at describing the profiles of Brazilian and international studies published in orthodontic journals. Methods: The sample comprised 635 articles selected from two scientific journals, i.e., Dental Press Journal of Orthodontics and American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, which were analyzed at three different intervals over a 10-year period (1999 - 2004 - 2009. Articles were described in terms of knowledge domain, study design, and country of origin (or state of origin for Brazilian papers. Results: The most frequent study designs adopted in international studies were cohort (23.9% and cross-sectional (21.7% designs. Among Brazilian papers, cross-sectional studies (28.9% and literature reviews (24.6% showed greater frequency. The topics most often investigated were dental materials (17% and treatment devices (12.4% in international articles, with the latter topic being addressed by 16% of the Brazilian publications, followed by malocclusion, with 12.6%. In all cases, the most frequent countries of origin coincided with the countries of origin of each journal. Conclusions: The majority of the studies analyzed featured a low level of scientific evidence. Moreover, the findings showed that journals tend to publish studies produced in their own country of origin, and that there are marked discrepancies in the number of papers published by different Brazilian states.

  16. The OmegaWhite Survey for short period variable stars II: An overview of results from the first four years

    CERN Document Server

    Toma, Ruxandra; MacFarlane, Sally; Groot, Paul; Woudt, Patrick; Dhillon, Vik; Jeffery, C Simon; Marsh, Tom; Nelemans, Gijs; Steeghs, Danny

    2016-01-01

    OmegaWhite is a wide-field, high cadence, synoptic survey targeting fields in the southern Galactic plane, with the aim of discovering short period variable stars. Our strategy is to take a series of 39 s exposures in the g band of a 1 square degree of sky lasting 2 h using the OmegaCAM wide field imager on the VLT Survey Telescope (VST). We give an overview of the initial 4 years of data which covers 134 square degrees and includes 12.3 million light curves. As the fields overlap with the VLT Survey Telescope Halpha Photometric Survey of the Galactic plane and Bulge (VPHAS+), we currently have $ugriH\\alpha$ photometry for ~1/3 of our fields. We find that a significant fraction of the light curves have been affected by the diffraction spikes of bright stars sweeping across stars within a few dozen of pixels over the two hour observing time interval due to the alt-az nature of the VST. We select candidate variable stars using a variety of variability statistics, followed by a manual verification stage. We pres...

  17. Changes in quality of life and coping among people with multiple sclerosis over a 2 year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Marita P; Stokes, Mark; McDonald, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    There is a need to investigate the impact of different coping strategies on quality of life (QOL) of people with multiple sclerosis (MS), in order to better inform intervention programs for this population. This study evaluated the relationship between QOL and coping over a 2 year period among people with MS. Participants were 382 people with MS (144 male, 238 females) and 291 people without a neurological or other chronic illness from the general population (101 males, 190 females). People with MS experienced lower QOL than the control group in the domains of global QOL, independence, social and spiritual QOL scales, as well as the problem solving and social/emotional support coping scales. Interestingly, people with MS experienced higher psychological QOL than the general population, and higher detachment and focusing on the positive coping. Over time, people with MS demonstrated increases in their global QOL as well as in their social/emotional support coping. Women demonstrated higher levels than men of global QOL and Social/emotional support coping. The results of these findings have implications for information and intervention programs for people with MS.

  18. Changes in Active Commuting to School in Czech Adolescents in Different Types of Built Environment across a 10-Year Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dygrýn, Jan; Mitáš, Josef; Gába, Aleš; Rubín, Lukáš; Frömel, Karel

    2015-10-16

    Active commuting (AC) to school represents a great opportunity to incorporate walking or cycling into adolescents' everyday routine. The objective of the study was to describe changes in AC in Czech adolescents across a 10-year period in different built environments. Data from the 2001 and 2011 Czech Census of Population and Housing were used to examine the mode of transportation taken to school in 6236 adolescents. Changes in AC over time were analyzed for low and high walkable areas separately in two Czech regional cities, Olomouc and Hradec Králové. Between 2001 and 2011, the proportion of adolescents actively commuting to school decreased by 47%, from an absolute rate of 49.1% to 26%. The proportion of active commuters fell in low walkable areas by 61% and in high walkable areas by 39%. The results indicated that adolescents in 2011 were 2.7 times less (OR = 0.365, p < 0.001) likely to actively commute than in 2001. The AC behavior in Czech adolescents has a negative tendency to replicate travel-to-school patterns in adolescents previously described in more developed countries. The findings might serve as a recommendation for municipal policy.

  19. Changes in Contributions of Swimming, Cycling, and Running Performances on Overall Triathlon Performance Over a 26-Year Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Pedro; Marques, Elisa A; Lepers, Romuald

    2016-09-01

    Figueiredo, P, Marques, EA, and Lepers, R. Changes in contributions of swimming, cycling, and running performances on overall triathlon performance over a 26-year period. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2406-2415, 2016-This study examined the changes in the individual contribution of each discipline to the overall performance of Olympic and Ironman distance triathlons among men and women. Between 1989 and 2014, overall performances and their component disciplines (swimming, cycling and running) were analyzed from the top 50 overall male and female finishers. Regression analyses determined that for the Olympic distance, the split times in swimming and running decreased over the years (r = 0.25-0.43, p ≤ 0.05), whereas the cycling split and total time remained unchanged (p > 0.05), for both sexes. For the Ironman distance, the cycling and running splits and the total time decreased (r = 0.19-0.88, p ≤ 0.05), whereas swimming time remained stable, for both men and women. The average contribution of the swimming stage (∼18%) was smaller than the cycling and running stages (p ≤ 0.05), for both distances and both sexes. Running (∼47%) and then cycling (∼36%) had the greatest contribution to overall performance for the Olympic distance (∼47%), whereas for the Ironman distance, cycling and running presented similar contributions (∼40%, p > 0.05). Across the years, in the Olympic distance, swimming contribution significantly decreased for women and men (r = 0.51 and 0.68, p < 0.001, respectively), whereas running increased for men (r = 0.33, p = 0.014). In the Ironman distance, swimming and cycling contributions changed in an undulating fashion, being inverse between the two segments, for both sexes (p < 0.01), whereas running contribution decreased for men only (r = 0.61, p = 0.001). These findings highlight that strategies to improve running performance should be the main focus on the preparation to compete in the Olympic distance; whereas, in the Ironman, both

  20. Bird Diversity and Composition in Even-Aged Loblolly Pine Stands Relative to Emergence of 13-year Periodical Cicadas and Vegetation Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer L. Hestir; Michael D. Cain

    1999-01-01

    In southern Arkansas, l3-year periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) were expected to emerge in late April and early May of 1998. Presence of a superabundant food source, such as periodical cicadas, may attract greater numbers of birds and more species of birds than is usually present in a particular area. Three even-aged loblolly pine (Pinus...

  1. Assessment of cyanoprokaryote blooms and of cyanotoxins in Bulgaria in a 15-years period (2000-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya P. Stoyneva-Gärtner

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The scientific and public awareness of hazardous photosynthetic prokaryotes (cyanobacteria/cyanoprokaryotes and especially the contamination of drinking-water reservoirs with cyanotoxins is world-wide increasing. Recently much more attention has been paid to the events and results of mass proliferation of these toxic organisms even in South-East European countries in spite of the fact that, as a rule, they are not controlled by national legislation.The present paper presents a summary of results of such studies carried out in summer-autumn periods of the last 15 years (2000-2015 in Bulgarian water bodies differing by location, morphometry and trophic status, incl. drinking water reservoirs, recreational lakes and sites of nature conservation importance. A multivariate analysis allowed to outline the distribution patterns and environmental drivers of the planktonic cyanoprokaryote assemblages in relation with the available data on the water bodies, highlighting species composition and abundance of the main taxa, including potentially toxic species. Samples analysis by HPLC-DAD and/or LC/MS, ELISA and in vitro cytotoxicity tests allowed detection of microcystins, nodularins and saxitoxins. Toxin concentration ranged between 0.1 and 26.5 µg L-1 in water samples and between 10.9 and 1070 µg g-1 (d.w. in concentrated (net samples. Despite the fact that microcystins were not found in all studied water bodies and that the recorded levels were still lower in comparison with some other European countries, the fact that cyanotoxins were detected in 16 water bodies (incl. 3 drinking water reservoirs could serve as an alert for the need of recognition of cyanotoxins as a new health risk factor in the country. Therefore, permanent monitoring with identification of toxins in water bodies at risk and activities for limitation and control of toxic blooms are urgently needed, in combination with increase of the attention to the effects of cyanotoxins on both

  2. Pyometra caused by carrying of an intrauterine device for a period of forty years and chronic endometritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović Nada 1

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyometra is the accumulation of pus in the uterine cavity, thus streaching its walls and thinning and enlarging the uterus. This change is characteristic of the senium period of life, when the uterus is atrophie with a stenotic cervical canal. It most frequently occurs as a result of secondary infection of the cancerogenic tissue of the uterus and additional stenosation and clogging up of cervical canal by a malignant process. Apart from carcinomas of the body and uterus cervix, pyometra less often can occur in other illnesses such as senile endometritis and senile colpitis. As pyometra most frequently occurs in uterine carcinomas, in detection of this state, we must think of malignancy and direct our examination to this direction. In this paper we present a patient in whom pyometra developed because she carried an intrauterine device for forty years that resulted in chronic endometritis. The main symptoms for which the patient was admited to hospital were abdominal pain and intensive suppurative vaginal excretion a month after removal of intrauterine device. The diagnosis of pyometra was made by gynaecological and ultrasound examinations, and also on the basis of gynecological and ultrasound examinations one month after chronic endometritis was confirmed. On the basis of this finding we suspected that chronic endometritis was caused by this state. By cytological, PAP and histopathological examinations of samples obtained by explorative curettage and biopsy of the uterine cervix, malignant changes were eliminated a possible cause. By laboratory analysis and bacteriological examination of the uterine cavity and vaginal excretion, inflammatory changes of the uterine mocous membrane were confirmed as a cause of the pyometra. This conditions was due to carrying the intrauterine device for more decades. The therapy consisted of dilatation of the cervical canal and evacuation of accumulated suppurative contents and irrigation of uterine cavity with 3

  3. Prevalence and molecular characterization of Staphylococcus aureus in commercially available meat over a one-year period in Iowa, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapaliya, Dipendra; Forshey, Brett M; Kadariya, Jhalka; Quick, Megan K; Farina, Sarah; O' Brien, Ashley; Nair, Rajeshwari; Nworie, Amos; Hanson, Blake; Kates, Ashley; Wardyn, Shylo; Smith, Tara C

    2017-08-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a leading cause of infectious disease morbidity and mortality. Previous studies have confirmed the presence of S. aureus, including MRSA, on raw meat products. We investigated the prevalence and molecular epidemiology of S. aureus and MRSA in commercially-distributed antibiotic-free and conventional raw meat products (n = 3290) purchased in 8 Iowa retail stores weekly for a period of one year. Isolates were characterized using spa typing, and PCR was used to detect the presence of the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) and mecA genes. Quantitation of S. aureus on meat products was carried out one week per month. The prevalence of S. aureus on meat samples was 27.8% (913/3290). Compared to antibiotic-free meat samples, higher prevalence of both MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) were found in conventional meat samples. Among the S. aureus isolates, 18 were PVL-positive (1.9%) and 41 (4.5%) carried mecA. Phenotypic oxacillin resistance was observed for 17.1% (41/239) of the isolates tested, while 23% (55/239) were multi-drug resistant. A total of 132 spa types were detected from 913 contaminated meat samples. Overall, t002 was the most common spa type identified (137; 15.0%). The number of colony-forming units (CFU) per 10 g meat ranged from 2 to 517 (median: 8 CFU per 10 g of meat; mean: 28) with the highest bacterial load observed on turkey samples. These data reinforce the need to consider meat products as potential vehicles of S. aureus transmission from farm into human households, and the potential need for public health intervention programs pre and post-slaughter in meat processing facilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Molecular epidemiology of Acinetobacter baumannii and Acinetobacter nosocomialis in Germany over a 5-year period (2005-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleicher, X; Higgins, P G; Wisplinghoff, H; Körber-Irrgang, B; Kresken, M; Seifert, H

    2013-08-01

    To investigate the species distribution within the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex and the molecular epidemiology of A. baumannii and Acinetobacter nosocomialis, 376 Acinetobacter isolates were collected prospectively from hospitalized patients at 15 medical centres in Germany during three surveillance studies conducted over a 5-year period. Species identification was performed by molecular methods. Imipenem minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined by broth microdilution. The prevalence of the most common carbapenemase-encoding genes was investigated by oxacillinase (OXA) -multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The molecular epidemiology was investigated by repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR; DiversiLab™). Acinetobacter pittii was the most prevalent Acinetobacter species (n = 193), followed by A. baumannii (n = 140), A. calcoaceticus (n = 10) and A. nosocomialis (n = 8). The majority of A. baumannii was represented by sporadic isolates (n = 70, 50%) that showed unique rep-PCR patterns, 25 isolates (18%) clustered with one or two other isolates, and only 45 isolates (32%) belonged to one of the previously described international clonal lineages. The most prevalent clonal lineage was international clone (IC) 2 (n = 34) and IC 1 (n = 6). According to CLSI, 25 A. baumannii isolates were non-susceptible to imipenem (MIC ≥ 8 mg/L), all of which produced an OXA-58-like or OXA-23-like carbapenemase. The rate of imipenem susceptibility among A. baumannii isolates decreased from 96% in 2005 to 76% in 2009. All other Acinetobacter isolates were susceptible to imipenem. The population structure of carbapenem-susceptible A. baumannii in Germany is highly diverse. Imipenem non-susceptibility was strongly associated with the clonal lineages IC 2 and IC 1. These data underscore the high clonality of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii isolates.

  5. Enzootic bovine leukosis: report of eradication and surveillance measures in Italy over an 8-year period (2005-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maresca, C; Costarelli, S; Dettori, A; Felici, A; Iscaro, C; Feliziani, F

    2015-05-01

    Bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) is associated with enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL). BLV causes malignant lymphoma and lymphosarcoma; however, most BLV infections remain clinically silent in an aleukaemic state. EBL is a notifiable disease, and official control measures include screening or monitoring, precautions at borders, control of movement inside the country, and stamping out. The objective of this study was to evaluate EBL eradication and surveillance measures in Italy from 2005 to 2012. One-hundred twenty-three outbreaks were recorded (1 January 2006 to 31 December 2012) in the National Veterinary Information System (SIMAN) on 7 November 2013. Of these, 101 had occurred in southern Italy. An outbreak usually lasted for a few days, but sometimes lasted for weeks. Some areas were subjected to normal eradication measures, whereas others were subjected to additional eradication measures as a consequence of persisting EBL outbreaks. During the study period, we noted an overall annual decrease from 0.21% in 2005 to 0.08% in 2012 in the herd prevalence rate, from 0.06% in 2005 to 0.04% in 2012 in the herd incidence rate, and from 0.027% in 2005 to 0.015% in 2012 in the animal prevalence rate. Regions officially recognised as EBL-free areas were found to have their own surveillance plans. Differences in their surveillance plans include the type of sample (serum, milk, or both), age at which the animals must be tested (12 or 24 months), and test frequency of herds (annually or every 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6 years). The eradication programme for EBL is difficult to implement in some Italian areas because of several factors such as incomplete herd registry, geographical location and socio-economic conditions of the region.

  6. Temporal Trends in Polypharmacy and Hyperpolypharmacy in Older New Zealanders over a 9-Year Period: 2005–2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishtala, Prasad S; Salahudeen, Mohammed Saji

    2015-01-01

    Polypharmacy and hyperpolypharmacy are proxy indicators for inappropriate medicine use. Inappropriate medicine use in older people leads to adverse clinical outcomes. The objectives of this study were to investigate the prevalence and trends of polypharmacy and hyperpolypharmacy in older people in New Zealand from 2005 to 2013, analyzing the pharmaceutical collections maintained by the Ministry of Health. A repeated cross-sectional analysis of population-level dispensing data was conducted from January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2013. Polypharmacy and hyperpolypharmacy in individuals were defined as the use of 5-9 medicines and ≥10 medicines, respectively, dispensed concurrently for a period of ≥90 days. Differences in polypharmacy and hyperpolypharmacy between 2005 and 2013 were examined. A multinomial regression model was used to predict sociodemographic characteristics associated with polypharmacy and hyperpolypharmacy. Polypharmacy and hyperpolypharmacy were found to be higher in 2013 compared to 2005 (polypharmacy: 29.5 vs. 23.4%, ppolypharmacy and hyperpolypharmacy was higher in females, in those aged 80-84 years, in the Māori population (for polypharmacy) and the Middle Eastern, Latin American, or African population (for hyperpolypharmacy), in people living in the Southern-district health board, and in individuals with increasing deprivation. The population of New Zealand is aging and the number of older people with multiple chronic conditions is increasing. The proportion of older people exposed to polypharmacy and hyperpolypharmacy has increased in 2013 compared to 2005. Our study provides important information to alert health policy makers, researchers, and clinicians about the dire need to reduce the medication burden in older New Zealanders. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

  7. Survey of Period Variations of Superhumps in SU UMa-Type Dwarf Novae. VII: The Seventh Year (2014-2015)

    CERN Document Server

    Kato, Taichi; Dubovsky, Pavol A; Kudzej, Igor; Monard, Berto; Miller, Ian; Itoh, Hiroshi; Kiyota, Seiichiro; Masumoto, Kazunari; Fukushima, Daiki; Kinoshita, Hiroki; Maeda, Kazuki; Mikami, Jyunya; Matsuda, Risa; Kojiguchi, Naoto; Kawabata, Miho; Takenaka, Megumi; Matsumoto, Katsura; de Miguel, Enrique; Maeda, Yutaka; Ohshima, Tomohito; Isogai, Keisuke; Pickard, Roger D; Henden, Arne; Kafka, Stella; Akazawa, Hidehiko; Otani, Noritoshi; Ishibashi, Sakiko; Ogi, Minako; Tanabe, Kenji; Imamura, Kazuyoshi; Stein, William; Kasai, Kiyoshi; Vanmunster, Tonny; Starr, Peter; Pavlenko, Elena P; Antonyuk, Oksana I; Antonyuk, Kirill A; Sosnovskij, Aleksei A; Pit, Nikolaj V; Babina, Julia V; Sklyanov, Aleksandr; Novak, Rudolf; Oksanen, Arto; Dvorak, Shawn; Michel, Raul; Masi, Gianluca; Littlefield, Colin; Ulowetz, Joseph; Shugarov, Sergey Yu; Golysheva, Polina Yu; Chochol, Drahomir; Krushevska, Viktoriia; Ruiz, Javier; Tordai, Tamas; Morelle, Etienne; Sabo, Richard; Maehara, Hiroyuki; Richmond, Michael; Katysheva, Natalia; Hirosawa, Kenji; Goff, William N; Dubois, Franky; Logie, Ludwig; Rau, Steve; Voloshina, Irina B; Andreev, Maksim V; Shiokawa, Kazuhiko; Neustroev, Vitaly V; Sjoberg, George; Zharikov, Sergey; James, Nick; Bolt, Greg; Crawford, Tim; Buczynski, Denis; Cook, Lewis M; Kochanek, Christopher S; Shappee, Benjamin; Stanek, Krzysztof Z; Prieto, Jose L; Denisenko, Denis; Nishimura, Hideo; Mukai, Masaru; Kaneko, Shizuo; Ueda, Seiji; Stubbings, Rod; Moriyama, Masayuki; Schmeer, Patrick; Muyllaert, Eddy; Shears, Jeremy; Modic, Robert J; Paxson, Kevin B

    2015-01-01

    Continuing the project described by Kato et al. (2009, arXiv:0905.1757), we collected times of superhump maxima for 102 SU UMa-type dwarf novae observed mainly during the 2014-2015 season and characterized these objects. Our project has greatly improved the statistics of the distribution of orbital periods, which is a good approximation of the distribution of cataclysmic variables at the terminal evolutionary stage, and confirmed the presence of a period minimum at a period of 0.053 d and a period spike just above this period. The number density monotonically decreased toward the longer period and there was no strong indication of a period gap. We detected possible negative superhumps in Z Cha. It is possible that normal outbursts are also suppressed by the presence of a disk tilt in this system. There was no indication of enhanced orbital humps just preceding the superoutburst, and this result favors the thermal-tidal disk instability as the origin of superoutbursts. We detected superhumps in three AM CVn-ty...

  8. Survey of Period Variations of Superhumps in SU UMa-Type Dwarf Novae. II: The Second Year (2009-2010)

    CERN Document Server

    Kato, Taichi; Uemura, Makoto; Henden, Arne; de Miguel, Enrique; Miller, Ian; Dubovsky, Pavol A; Kudzej, Igor; Kiyota, Seiichiro; Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Tanabe, Kenji; Imamura, Kazuyoshi; Kunitomi, Nanae; Takagi, Ryosuke; Nose, Mikiha; Akazawa, Hidehiko; Masi, Gianluca; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Iino, Eriko; Noguchi, Ryo; Matsumoto, Katsura; Fujii, Daichi; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Ogura, Kazuyuki; Ohtomo, Sachi; Yamashita, Kousei; Yanagisawa, Hirofumi; Itoh, Hiroshi; Bolt, Greg; Monard, Berto; Ohshima, Tomohito; Shears, Jeremy; Ruiz, Javier; Imada, Akira; Oksanen, Arto; Nelson, Peter; Gomez, Tomas L; Staels, Bart; Boyd, David; Voloshina, Irina B; Krajci, Thomas; Crawford, Tim; Stockdale, Chris; Richmond, Michael; Morelle, Etienne; Novak, Rudolf; Nogami, Daisaku; Ishioka, Ryoko; Brady, Steve; Simonsen, Mike; Pavlenko, Elena P; Kuramoto, Tetsuya; Miyashita, Atsushi; Pickard, Roger D; Hynek, Tomas; Dvorak, Shawn; Stubbings, Rod; Muyllaert, Eddy

    2010-01-01

    As an extension of the project in Kato et al. (2009, arXiv:0905.1757), we collected times of superhump maxima for 61 SU UMa-type dwarf novae mainly observed during the 2009-2010 season. The newly obtained data confirmed the basic findings reported in Kato et al. (2009): the presence of stages A-C, as well as the predominance of positive period derivatives during stage B in systems with superhump periods shorter than 0.07 d. There was a systematic difference in period derivatives for systems with superhump periods longer than 0.075 d between this study and Kato et al. (2009). We suggest that this difference is possibly caused by the relative lack of frequently outbursting SU UMa-type dwarf novae in this period regime in the present study. We recorded a strong beat phenomenon during the 2009 superoutburst of IY UMa. The close correlation between the beat period and superhump period suggests that the changing angular velocity of the apsidal motion of the elliptical disk is responsible for the variation of superh...

  9. Survey of period variations of superhumps in SU UMa-type dwarf novae. VIII. The eighth year (2015-2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Taichi; Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Monard, Berto; Vanmunster, Tonny; Maeda, Yutaka; Miller, Ian; Itoh, Hiroshi; Kiyota, Seiichiro; Isogai, Keisuke; Kimura, Mariko; Imada, Akira; Tordai, Tamás; Akazawa, Hidehiko; Tanabe, Kenji; Otani, Noritoshi; Ogi, Minako; Ando, Kazuko; Takigawa, Naoki; Dubovsky, Pavol A.; Kudzej, Igor; Shugarov, Sergey Yu.; Katysheva, Natalia; Golysheva, Polina; Gladilina, Natalia; Chochol, Drahomir; Starr, Peter; Kasai, Kiyoshi; Pickard, Roger D.; Miguel, Enrique de; Kojiguchi, Naoto; Sugiura, Yuki; Fukushima, Daiki; Yamada, Eiji; Uto, Yusuke; Kamibetsunawa, Taku; Tatsumi, Taiki; Takeda, Nao; Matsumoto, Katsura; Cook, Lewis M.; Pavlenko, Elena P.; Babina, Julia V.; Pit, Nikolaj V.; Antonyuk, Oksana I.; Antonyuk, Kirill A.; Sosnovskij, Aleksei A.; Baklanov, Aleksei V.; Kafka, Stella; Stein, William; Voloshina, Irina B.; Ruiz, Javier; Sabo, Richard; Dvorak, Shawn; Stone, Geoff; Andreev, Maksim V.; Antipin, Sergey V.; Zubareva, Alexandra M.; Zaostrojnykh, Anna M.; Richmond, Michael; Shears, Jeremy; Dubois, Franky; Logie, Ludwig; Rau, Steve; Vanaverbeke, Siegfried; Simon, Andrei; Oksanen, Arto; Goff, William N.; Bolt, Greg; Dębski, Bartłomiej; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Shappee, Benjamin; Stanek, Krzysztof Z.; Prieto, José L.; Stubbings, Rod; Muyllaert, Eddy; Hiraga, Mitsutaka; Horie, Tsuneo; Schmeer, Patrick; Hirosawa, Kenji

    2016-08-01

    Continuing the project described by Kato et al. (2009, PASJ, 61, S395), we collected times of superhump maxima for 128 SU UMa-type dwarf novae observed mainly during the 2015-2016 season and characterized these objects. The data have improved the distribution of orbital periods, the relation between the orbital period and the variation of superhumps, and the relation between period variations and the rebrightening type in WZ Sge-type objects. Coupled with new measurements of mass ratios using growing stages of superhumps, we now have a clearer and statistically greatly improved evolutionary path near the terminal stage of evolution of cataclysmic variables. Three objects (V452 Cas, KK Tel, and ASASSN-15cl) appear to have slowly growing superhumps, which is proposed to reflect the slow growth of the 3 : 1 resonance near the stability border. ASASSN-15sl, ASASSN-15ux, SDSS J074859.55+312512.6, and CRTS J200331.3-284941 are newly identified eclipsing SU UMa-type (or WZ Sge-type) dwarf novae. ASASSN-15cy has a short (˜0.050 d) superhump period and appears to belong to EI Psc-type objects with compact secondaries having an evolved core. ASASSN-15gn, ASASSN-15hn, ASASSN-15kh, and ASASSN-16bu are candidate period bouncers with superhump periods longer than 0.06 d. We have newly obtained superhump periods for 79 objects and 13 orbital periods, including periods from early superhumps. In order that future observations will be more astrophysically beneficial and rewarding to observers, we propose guidelines on how to organize observations of various superoutbursts.

  10. Identification of drought phases in a 110-year record from Western Mediterranean basin: Trends, anomalies and periodicity analysis for Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, Andrés; López, Laura; Hermida, Lucía; Sánchez, José Luis; García-Ortega, Eduardo; Gascón, Estíbaliz; Fernández-González, Sergio

    2015-10-01

    The Iberian Peninsula (IP), located in a transition area between temperate and subtropical latitudes, has marked temporal and spatial variability of precipitation between its various climatic zones. Therefore, the peninsula is particularly sensitive to climate change owing to frequent periods of precipitation deficit together with societal dependence on water. In this study, we address meteorological droughts of the peninsula between 1901 and 2010, using the Global Precipitation Climatology Center database. First, we carried out a statistical classification of the peninsula according to annual precipitation cycle. The spatiotemporal variability of droughts was evaluated using the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) by determining the evolution of areas affected by severe and extreme drought. Subsequently, we calculated the overall trend of precipitation and anomalies to investigate whether an observed drought increase is attributable to a decrease of precipitation or an increase of precipitation extremes. Finally, we examined periodicities of precipitation anomalies via wavelet analysis, relating these to large-scale modes such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The results show an increase in the area affected by severe and extreme drought, particularly on Atlantic-facing slopes. The mainland areas have longer and more intense periods of drought, with an average SPI of - 0.52 and 4-month duration. Over the 110 years analyzed, we observed weak trends of annual precipitation in the extreme northwest and southern IP. However, in the last decades of the series, long periods of strong negative anomalies are seen, interspersed with years of strong positive anomalies, suggesting an increase in precipitation pattern extremes. Finally, the relationship between the NAO index and precipitation anomalies on the Atlantic seaboard is highlighted. Thus, in both series we found a 5-6-year periodicity in their first years, with a diminishing cycle period reaching a

  11. Dynamics of CO2-exchange and C-budgets due to soil erosion: Insights from a 4 years observation period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Mathias; Albiac Borraz, Elisa; Garcia Alba, Juana; Augustin, Jürgen; Sommer, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Agriculture in the hummocky ground moraine landscape of NE-Germany is characterized by an increase in energy crop cultivation, like maize or sorghum. Both enhance lateral C fluxes by erosion and induce feedbacks on C dynamics of agroecosystems as a result of reduced wintertime plant cover and vigorous crop growth during summer. However, the actual impact of these phenomena on the CO2-sink/-source function of agricultural landscapes, is still not clear. Therefore, the interdisciplinary project "CarboZALF" was established in Dedelow/Prenzlau (NE-Germany) in 2009. Within the field experiment CarboZALF-D, CO2 fluxes for the soil-plant systems were monitored, covering typical landscape relevant soil states in respect to erosion and deposition, like Calcic Cutanic Luvisol and Endogleyic Colluvic Regosol. Automated chamber systems, each consisting of four transparent chambers (2.5 m height, basal area 2.25 m2), were placed along gradients at both measurement sites. Monitored CO2 fluxes were gap-filled on a high-temporal resolution by modelling ecosystem respiration (Reco), gross primary productivity (GPP) and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) based on parallel and continuous measurements of the CO2 exchange, soil and air temperatures as well as photosynthetic active radiation (PAR). Gap-filling was e.g. needed in case of chamber malfunctions and abrupt disturbances by farming practice. The monitored crop rotation was corn-winter wheat (2 a), sorghum-winter triticale and alfalfa (1.5 a). In our presentation we would like to show insights from a 4 years observation period, with prounounced differences between the eroded and the colluvial soil: The Endogleyic Colluvic Regosol showed higher flux rates for Reco, GPP and NEE compared to the Calcic Cutanic Luvisol. Site-specific NEE and C-balances were positively related to soil C-stocks as well as biomass production, and generated a minor C-sink in case of the Calcic Cutanic Luvisol and a highly variable C-source in case of the

  12. Water erosion during a 17-year period under two crop rotations in four soil management systems on a Southbrazilian Inceptisol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertol, Ildegardis; Vidal Vázquez, Eva; Paz Ferreiro, Jorge

    2010-05-01

    Soil erosion still remains a persistent issue in the world, and this in spite of the efforts to ameliorate soil management systems taken into account the point of view of environmental protection against soil losses. In South Brazil water erosion is mainly associated to rainfall events with a great volume and high intensity, which are more or less evenly distributed all over the year. Nowadays, direct drilling is the most widely soil management system used for the main crops of the region. However, some crops still are grown on conventionally tilled soils, which means mainly ploughing and harrowing and less frequently chisel ploughing. In Lages-Santa Catarina State, Brazil, a plot experiment under natural rain was started in 1992 on an Inceptisol with the aim of quantifying soil and water losses. Treatments included bare and vegetated plots. The crop succession was: oats (Avena strigosa), soybean (Glycine max), vetch (Vicia sativa), maize (Zea mays), fodder radish (Raphanus sativus) and beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Soil tillage systems investigated in this study were: i) conventional tillage (CT), ii) reduced tillage (MT), iii) no tillage (NT) under crop rotation and iv) conventional tillage on bare soil (BS). Treatments CT and BS involved ploughing plus twice harrowing, whereas MT involved chisel ploughing plus harrowing. Rainfall erosivity from January 1 1992 to December 31 2009 was calculated. Soil losses from the BS treatment along the 17 year study period were higher than 1200 Mg ha-1. Crop cover significantly reduced erosion, so that under some crops soil losses in the CT treatment were 80% lower than in the BS treatment. In turn soil losses in the MT treatment, where tillage was performed by chiselling and harrowing, were on average about 50% lower than in the CT treatment. No tillage was the most efficient soil management system in reducing soil erosion, so that soil losses in the NT treatment were about 98% lower than in the BS treatment. The three

  13. Recharge and groundwater use in the North China Plain for six irrigated crops for an eleven year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaolin; Chen, Yuanquan; Pacenka, Steven; Gao, Wangsheng; Zhang, Min; Sui, Peng; Steenhuis, Tammo S

    2015-01-01

    Water tables are dropping by approximately one meter annually throughout the North China Plain mainly due to water withdrawals for irrigating winter wheat year after year. In order to examine whether the drawdown can be reduced we calculate the net water use for an 11 year field experiment from 2003 to 2013 where six irrigated crops (winter wheat, summer maize, cotton, peanuts, sweet potato, ryegrass) were grown in different crop rotations in the North China Plain. As part of this experiment moisture contents were measured each at 20 cm intervals in the top 1.8 m. Recharge and net water use were calculated based on these moisture measurement. Results showed that winter wheat and ryegrass had the least recharge with an average of 27 mm/year and 39 mm/year, respectively; cotton had the most recharge with an average of 211 mm/year) followed by peanuts with 118 mm/year, sweet potato with 76 mm/year, and summer maize with 44 mm/year. Recharge depended on the amount of irrigation water pumped from the aquifer and was therefore a poor indicator of future groundwater decline. Instead net water use (recharge minus irrigation) was found to be a good indicator for the decline of the water table. The smallest amount of net (ground water) used was cotton with an average of 14 mm/year, followed by peanut with 32 mm/year, summer maize with 71 mm/year, sweet potato with 74 mm/year. Winter wheat and ryegrass had the greatest net water use with the average of 198 mm/year and 111 mm/year, respectively. Our calculations showed that any single crop would use less water than the prevalent winter wheat summer maize rotation. This growing one crop instead of two will reduce the decline of groundwater and in some rain rich years increase the ground water level, but will result in less income for the farmers.

  14. Recharge and groundwater use in the North China Plain for six irrigated crops for an eleven year period.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Yang

    Full Text Available Water tables are dropping by approximately one meter annually throughout the North China Plain mainly due to water withdrawals for irrigating winter wheat year after year. In order to examine whether the drawdown can be reduced we calculate the net water use for an 11 year field experiment from 2003 to 2013 where six irrigated crops (winter wheat, summer maize, cotton, peanuts, sweet potato, ryegrass were grown in different crop rotations in the North China Plain. As part of this experiment moisture contents were measured each at 20 cm intervals in the top 1.8 m. Recharge and net water use were calculated based on these moisture measurement. Results showed that winter wheat and ryegrass had the least recharge with an average of 27 mm/year and 39 mm/year, respectively; cotton had the most recharge with an average of 211 mm/year followed by peanuts with 118 mm/year, sweet potato with 76 mm/year, and summer maize with 44 mm/year. Recharge depended on the amount of irrigation water pumped from the aquifer and was therefore a poor indicator of future groundwater decline. Instead net water use (recharge minus irrigation was found to be a good indicator for the decline of the water table. The smallest amount of net (ground water used was cotton with an average of 14 mm/year, followed by peanut with 32 mm/year, summer maize with 71 mm/year, sweet potato with 74 mm/year. Winter wheat and ryegrass had the greatest net water use with the average of 198 mm/year and 111 mm/year, respectively. Our calculations showed that any single crop would use less water than the prevalent winter wheat summer maize rotation. This growing one crop instead of two will reduce the decline of groundwater and in some rain rich years increase the ground water level, but will result in less income for the farmers.

  15. The OmegaWhite Survey for short period variable stars - II. An overview of results from the first four years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma, R.; Ramsay, G.; Macfarlane, S.; Groot, P. J.; Woudt, P. A.; Dhillon, V.; Jeffery, C. S.; Marsh, T.; Nelemans, G.; Steeghs, D.

    2016-11-01

    OmegaWhite is a wide-field, high cadence, synoptic survey targeting fields in the southern Galactic plane, with the aim of discovering short period variable stars. Our strategy is to take a series of 39 s exposures in the g band of a 1 deg2 of sky lasting 2 h using the OmegaCAM wide field imager on the VLT Survey Telescope (VST). We give an overview of the initial 4 yr of data which covers 134 deg2 and includes 12.3 million light curves. As the fields overlap with the VLT Survey Telescope Hα Photometric Survey of the Galactic plane and Bulge (VPHAS+), we currently have ugriHα photometry for ˜1/3 of our fields. We find that a significant fraction of the light curves have been affected by the diffraction spikes of bright stars sweeping across stars within a few dozen of pixels over the two hour observing time interval due to the alt-az nature of the VST. We select candidate variable stars using a variety of variability statistics, followed by a manual verification stage. We present samples of several classes of short period variables, including: an ultra compact binary, a DQ white dwarf, a compact object with evidence of a 100 min rotation period, three CVs, one eclipsing binary with an 85 min period, a symbiotic binary which shows evidence of a 31 min photometric period, and a large sample of candidate δ Sct type stars including one with a 9.3 min period. Our overall goal is to cover 400 deg2, and this study indicates we will find many more interesting short period variable stars as a result.

  16. Hospital expenditure as a major driver of nurse labour force participation: evidence from a 10-year period in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujicic, Marko; Onate, Kanecy; Laporte, Audrey; Deber, Raisa

    2011-05-01

    This paper examines trends in the nursing labour market in Canada over a period of dramatic fluctuations in hospital expenditures. We add to previous analysis that covered the period 1991-1996 and use Census data from 2001 to examine the relationship between hospital expenditure and nurse labour force participation. We find that shifts in labour force participation over the period 1991-2001 had a significant impact on the nursing supply in Canada. Individuals who were trained in nursing but were working outside the profession in 1996 because of budgetary reductions and layoffs in hospitals had largely been reabsorbed back into nursing jobs by 2001. Our analysis provides further empirical evidence that the labour force participation among individuals trained in nursing is driven to a large extent by demand-side factors.

  17. Paediatric inflammatory bowel disease during a 44-year period in Copenhagen County: occurrence, course and prognosis--a population-based study from the Danish Crohn Colitis Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Christian; Paerregaard, Anders; Munkholm, Pia;

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To describe the development in incidence, disease localization, activity, surgery and prognosis in two Danish paediatric population-based inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) cohorts comparing the time periods 1962-1987 (period I) and 1998-2006 (period II). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Incident IBD...... patients below 15 years of age were included. Disease localization was classified according to the Montreal classification for ulcerative colitis (UC) patients and into small bowel, large bowel and small and large bowel combined for Crohn's disease (CD) patients. Disease activity and surgery in the first 2...... years after diagnosis were assessed. Standardized cancer incidence rates and standardized mortality rates were calculated. RESULTS: One hundred and nineteen IBD patients (77 UC and 42 CD) were included. Comparing periods II and I, the incidence rate ratios were 0.81 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0...

  18. 77 FR 3745 - Establishment of a One-Year Retention Period for Patent-Related Papers That Have Been Scanned...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... Papers That Have Been Scanned Into the Image File Wrapper System or the Supplemental Complex Repository... scanned into the Image File Wrapper system (IFW) or the Supplemental Complex Repository for Examiners... Period for Patent-Related Papers That Have Been Scanned Into the Image File Wrapper System or...

  19. Changes in yearly birth prevalence rates of children with Down syndrome in the period 1986-2007 in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, G.; Hochstenbach, R.; Engelen, J.; Gerssen-Schoorl, K.; Poddighe, P.; Smeets, D.; van Hove, G.; Haveman, M.

    2011-01-01

    Background The Netherlands are lacking reliable national empirical data in relation to the development of birth prevalence of Down syndrome. Our study aims at assessing valid national live birth prevalence rates for the period 1986-2007. Method On the basis of the annual child/adult ratio of Down sy

  20. Changes in Yearly Birth Prevalence Rates of Children with Down Syndrome in the Period 1986-2007 in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, G.; Haveman, M.; Hochstenbach, R.; Engelen, J.; Gerssen-Schoorl, K.; Poddighe, P.; Smeets, D.; van Hove, G.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The Netherlands are lacking reliable national empirical data in relation to the development of birth prevalence of Down syndrome. Our study aims at assessing valid national live birth prevalence rates for the period 1986-2007. Method: On the basis of the annual child/adult ratio of Down syndrome diagnoses in five out of the eight Dutch…

  1. How One Period Casts Shadows on Another: Exploring Year 8 Encounters with Multiple Interpretations of the First World War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Dan Smith was concerned that his pupils were drawing on oversimplified generalisations about different periods of the past when they were considering why interpretations change over time. This led him to consider how pupils' contextual knowledge and chronological fluency might be used more explicitly in order to avoid weak generalisations about…

  2. Changes in yearly birth prevalence rates of children with Down syndrome in the period 1986-2007 in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, G.; Hochstenbach, R.; Engelen, J.; Gerssen-Schoorl, K.; Poddighe, P.; Smeets, D.; van Hove, G.; Haveman, M.

    Background The Netherlands are lacking reliable national empirical data in relation to the development of birth prevalence of Down syndrome. Our study aims at assessing valid national live birth prevalence rates for the period 1986-2007. Method On the basis of the annual child/adult ratio of Down

  3. Survey of Period Variations of Superhumps in SU UMa-Type Dwarf Novae. V: The Fifth Year (2012-2013)

    CERN Document Server

    Kato, Taichi; Maehara, Hiroyuki; Nocentini, Gianluca Masi Francesca; Dubovsky, Pavol A; Kudzej, Igor; Ogi, Kazuyoshi Imamura Minako; Tanabe, Kenji; Akazawa, Hidehiko; Krajci, Thomas; de Miguel, Ian Miller Enrique; Henden, Arne; Littlefield, Colin; Ishibashi, Ryo Noguchi Takehiro; Ono, Rikako; Kawabata, Miho; Sakai, Hiroshi Kobayashi Daisuke; Nishino, Hirochika; Furukawa, Hisami; Matsumoto, Kazunari Masumoto Katsura; Ohshima, Tomohito; Nakata, Chikako; Kinugasa, Satoshi Honda Kenzo; Hashimoto, Osamu; Stein, William; Kiyota, Roger D Pickard Seiichiro; Pavlenko, Elena P; Antonyuk, Oksana I; Antonyuk, Aleksei V Baklanov Kirill; Samsonov, Denis; Pit, Nikolaj; Oksanen, Aleksei Sosnovskij Arto; Harlingten, Caisey; Tyyska, Jenni; Shugarov, Berto Monard Sergey Yu; Chochol, Drahomir; Kasai, Kiyoshi; Hirosawa, Yutaka Maeda Kenji; Itoh, Hiroshi; Sabo, Richard; Morelle, Joseph Ulowetz Etienne; Michel, Raul; Suarez, Genaro; James, Nick; Voloshina, Shawn Dvorak Irina B; Richmond, Michael; Staels, Bart; Andreev, David Boyd Maksim V; Parakhin, Nikolai; Miyashita, Natalia Katysheva Atsushi; Nakajima, Kazuhiro; Bolt, Greg; Nelson, Stefano Padovan Peter; Starkey, Donn R; Buczynski, Denis; Starr, Peter; Denisenko, William N Goff Denis; Kochanek, Christopher S; Stanek, Benjamin Shappee Krzysztof Z; Prieto, Jose L; Itagaki, Koh-ichi; Stubbings, Shizuo Kaneko Rod; Muyllaert, Eddy; Schmeer, Jeremy Shears Patrick; Poyner, Gary; Marco, Miguel Rodriguez

    2013-01-01

    Continuing the project described by Kato et al. (2009a, arXiv:0905.1757), we collected times of superhump maxima for SU UMa-type dwarf novae mainly observed during the 2012-2013 season. We found three objects (V444 Peg, CSS J203937 and MASTER J212624) having strongly positive period derivatives despite the long orbital period (Porb). By using the period of growing stage (stage A) superhumps, we obtained mass ratios for six objects. We characterized nine new WZ Sge-type dwarf novae. We made a pilot survey of the decline rate of slowly fading part of SU UMa-type and WZ Sge-type outbursts. The decline time scale was found to generally follow the expected Porb^(1/4) dependence and WZ Sge-type outbursts also generally follow this trend. There are some objects which show slower decline rates, and we consider these objects good candidates for period bouncers. We also studied unusual behavior in some objects, including BK Lyn which made a transition from an ER UMa-type state to the novalike (standstill) state in 2013...

  4. Decreased mortality but increased morbidity in neonates with jejunoileal atresia; a study of 114 cases over a 34-year period.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stollman, T.H.; Blaauw, I. de; Wijnen, M.H.W.A.; Staak, F.H.J.M. van der; Rieu, P.N.M.A.; Draaisma, J.M.T.; Wijnen, R.M.H.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to evaluate patient demographics, classification and location of the atresia, operative management, postoperative care, and outcome in 114 infants with jejunoileal atresia (JIA) over a period of more than 3 decades. METHODS: This was a retrospective case series in a

  5. Changes in Yearly Birth Prevalence Rates of Children with Down Syndrome in the Period 1986-2007 in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, G.; Haveman, M.; Hochstenbach, R.; Engelen, J.; Gerssen-Schoorl, K.; Poddighe, P.; Smeets, D.; van Hove, G.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The Netherlands are lacking reliable national empirical data in relation to the development of birth prevalence of Down syndrome. Our study aims at assessing valid national live birth prevalence rates for the period 1986-2007. Method: On the basis of the annual child/adult ratio of Down syndrome diagnoses in five out of the eight Dutch…

  6. Changes in yearly birth prevalence rates of children with Down syndrome in the period 1986-2007 in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, G.; Hochstenbach, R.; Engelen, J.; Gerssen-Schoorl, K.; Poddighe, P.; Smeets, D.; van Hove, G.; Haveman, M.

    2011-01-01

    Background The Netherlands are lacking reliable national empirical data in relation to the development of birth prevalence of Down syndrome. Our study aims at assessing valid national live birth prevalence rates for the period 1986-2007. Method On the basis of the annual child/adult ratio of Down sy

  7. How One Period Casts Shadows on Another: Exploring Year 8 Encounters with Multiple Interpretations of the First World War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Dan Smith was concerned that his pupils were drawing on oversimplified generalisations about different periods of the past when they were considering why interpretations change over time. This led him to consider how pupils' contextual knowledge and chronological fluency might be used more explicitly in order to avoid weak generalisations about…

  8. Cerebral palsy in eastern Denmark: declining birth prevalence but increasing numbers of unilateral cerebral palsy in birth year period 1986-1998

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Susanne Holst; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht; Uldall, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The Cerebral Palsy Registry in eastern Denmark has been collecting cases using a uniform data sampling procedure since birth year 1979. Children are included by two child neurologists and an obstetrician. Information on pregnancy, birth, neonatal period, impairments and demographic data...... are registered. The total cerebral palsy birth prevalence has been significantly decreasing since the birth period 1983-1986 with 3.0 per 1000 live births until the period 1995-1998 with 2.1 per 1000 live births. The overall decrease was seen in preterm infants (...

  9. Emotional and Behavioral Characteristics over a Six-Year Period in Youths with Persistent and Nonpersistent Dyscalculia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Judith G.; Gross-Tsur, Varda; Manor, Orly; Shalev, Ruth S.

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined behavior problems in a matched sample of 58 youths with persistent dyscalculia (PD) and nonpersistent dyscalculia (NPD). Participants were classified as having dyscalculia at age 10-11 years. Parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist for their children at ages 10-11, 13-14, and 16-17 years, while the youths did so at the…

  10. SU-E-T-639: A Study On the Response of 2D Array Detector for VMAT Delivery for a Period of Two Years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Syam [Malabar Cancer Centre, Thalassery, Kannur, Kerala (India); George, Anu [Dr NGP Arts and Science College, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the 2D array for radiation response for a period of 2 years. Methods: 45 VMAT plans already treated and quality assured before 2 years, 1.5 years and 1 year were selected for the study. Quality assurances of the plans were done using 2D array combined with Octavius phantom. Verification plans were recalculated without changing any parameters in Eclipse 10.0 TPS using the AAA algorithm. Response of 2D array to the plans treated before 2 years, 1.5 years and 1 year where evaluated. The results were analyzed using the Gamma analysis method with the standard gamma passing criteria of 3mm distance to agreement (DTA) and 3% dose difference (DD). Results: All the plans evaluated passed the gamma analysis with a percentage greater than 95, except for three cases. Higher gamma passing criteria where observed for all the analyzed plans, when analysis done before 2 years, 1.5 years and 1 year. The standard deviation of ± 1.38, ± 1.40,± 0.97 where observed between the plans when verification plans did before 2 years, 1.5 years and 1 year respectively. Same set of plans shows a standard deviation of ± 0.70, ± 1.36, and ± 1.18, when analysis done recently. A significance difference in response of the array when analysis done recently for the verification plans treated and quality assured before 2 years.This indicates a slightly reduced response of 2D array towards radiation response as the array gets older. Conclusion: It is found that 2D array shows a reduced response against radiation detection over a period of years. An onsite calibration of the instrument is recommended before the measurements. A dose correction factor can be applied if necessary to the results if the radiation response and efficiency of the array is very poor.

  11. Loss of plant biodiversity over a seven-year period in two constructed wetlands in Central New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Miranda A; Fickbohm, Scott; Zhu, Weixing

    2013-05-01

    Since wetland construction projects are becoming more commonplace, meaningful follow-up studies are needed to evaluate how these systems change over time. To that end, the objective of our study was to examine the temporal changes in plant community composition and water chemistry in two constructed wetlands. We investigated two wetland sites that were constructed in 2003 in northern Otsego County, NY, a county that is largely dominated by agriculture. Site 1 was previously an active cow pasture and site 2 was previously a wet meadow surrounded by agricultural fields. No active plant introduction was made during the construction; however, both sites were located in areas with many remnant wetlands and were connected to through-flowing streams. In 2004 (Year 1) and 2010 (Year 7), the plant community composition and nitrogen retention were assessed. We found that both sites experienced site-wide declines in plant species richness, including the loss of upland and facultative upland species and the unanticipated loss of facultative wetland and some obligate species. We propose that high water levels, which, at their maximum depth were >1.5 m deeper than in Year 1, maintained by landowners in the years after the initial survey, may have been responsible for the unexpected loss of wetland species. We also found that site 1 exhibited considerable nitrogen retention in both Year 1 and Year 7; however, N concentrations were low at site 2 in both years.

  12. Survey of period variations of superhumps in SU UMa-type dwarf novae. V. The fifth year (2012-2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Taichi; Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Maehara, Hiroyuki; Masi, Gianluca; Nocentini, Francesca; Dubovsky, Pavol A.; Kudzej, Igor; Imamura, Kazuyoshi; Ogi, Minako; Tanabe, Kenji; Akazawa, Hidehiko; Krajci, Thomas; Miller, Ian; de Miguel, Enrique; Henden, Arne; Noguchi, Ryo; Ishibashi, Takehiro; Ono, Rikako; Kawabata, Miho; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Sakai, Daisuke; Nishino, Hirochika; Furukawa, Hisami; Masumoto, Kazunari; Matsumoto, Katsura; Littlefield, Colin; Ohshima, Tomohito; Nakata, Chikako; Honda, Satoshi; Kinugasa, Kenzo; Hashimoto, Osamu; Stein, William; Pickard, Roger D.; Kiyota, Seiichiro; Pavlenko, Elena P.; Antonyuk, Oksana I.; Baklanov, Aleksei V.; Antonyuk, Kirill; Samsonov, Denis; Pit, Nikolaj; Sosnovskij, Aleksei; Oksanen, Arto; Harlingten, Caisey; Tyyskä, Jenni; Monard, Berto; Shugarov, Sergey Yu.; Chochol, Drahomir; Kasai, Kiyoshi; Maeda, Yutaka; Hirosawa, Kenji; Itoh, Hiroshi; Sabo, Richard; Ulowetz, Joseph; Morelle, Etienne; Michel, Raúl; Suárez, Genaro; James, Nick; Dvorak, Shawn; Voloshina, Irina B.; Richmond, Michael; Staels, Bart; Boyd, David; Andreev, Maksim V.; Parakhin, Nikolai; Katysheva, Natalia; Miyashita, Atsushi; Nakajima, Kazuhiro; Bolt, Greg; Padovan, Stefano; Nelson, Peter; Starkey, Donn R.; Buczynski, Denis; Starr, Peter; Goff, William N.; Denisenko, Denis; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Shappee, Benjamin; Stanek, Krzysztof Z.; Prieto, José L.; Itagaki, Koh-ichi; Kaneko, Shizuo; Stubbings, Rod; Muyllaert, Eddy; Shears, Jeremy; Schmeer, Patrick; Poyner, Gary; Rodríguez-Marco, Miguel

    2014-04-01

    Continuing the project described in Kato et al. (2009, PASJ, 61, S395), we collected times of superhump maxima for SU UMa-type dwarf novae mainly observed during the 2012-2013 season. We found three objects (V444 Peg, CSS J203937, and MASTER J212624) having strongly positive period derivatives despite the long orbital period (Porb). By using the period of growing stage (stage A) superhumps, we obtained mass ratios for six objects. We characterized nine new WZ Sge-type dwarf novae. We made a pilot survey of the decline rate in the slowly fading parts of SU UMa-type and WZ Sge-type outbursts. The decline time scale was found to generally follow an expected P_orb^{1/4} dependence, and WZ Sge-type outbursts also generally follow this trend. There are some objects which show slower decline rates, and we consider these objects good candidates for period bouncers. We also studied unusual behavior in some objects, including BK Lyn which made a transition from an ER UMa-type state to a novalike (standstill) state in 2013, and unusually frequent occurrences of superoutbursts in NY Ser and CR Boo. We applied the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (Lasso) power spectral analysis, which has been proven to be very effective in analyzing the Kepler data, to the ground-based photometry of BK Lyn, and detected a dramatic disappearance of the signal of negative superhumps in 2013. We suggested that the mass-transfer rates did not strongly vary between the ER UMa-type state and novalike state in BK Lyn, and this transition was less likely caused by a systematic variation of the mass-transfer rate.

  13. Stable expression and phenotypic impact of attacin E transgene in orchard grown apple trees over a 12 year period

    OpenAIRE

    Aldwinckle Herb S; Norelli John L; Borejsza-Wysocka Ewa; Malnoy Mickael

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Transgenic trees currently are being produced by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and biolistics. The future use of transformed trees on a commercial basis depends upon thorough evaluation of the potential environmental and public health risk of the modified plants, transgene stability over a prolonged period of time and the effect of the gene on tree and fruit characteristics. We studied the stability of expression and the effect on resistance to the fire blight dise...

  14. Facial growth and oral function in a case of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis during an 8-year period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiborg, S; Bakke, M; Kirkeby, S

    1990-01-01

    casts, and roentgencephalometry, and oral function was assessed clinically by electromyography, kinesiography, and bite force. In addition, histological and histochemical analysis was performed on biopsy material from her masseter muscle obtained at the time of surgery. The study showed a clear...... on these observations it is suggested that the conventional treatment strategy with postponement of orthodontic or orthognathic surgical treatment until cessation of growth is abandoned and that early treatment should be undertaken to maintain occlusal stability throughout the growth period....

  15. Forecasting the Burden of Advanced Knee Osteoarthritis over a 10-Year Period in a Cohort of 60–64 year-old US Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Holly L.; Katz, Jeffrey N.; Reichmann, William M.; Gerlovin, Hanna; Wright, Elizabeth A.; Hunter, David J.; Jordan, Joanne M.; Kessler, Courtenay L.; Losina, Elena

    2010-01-01

    Objective To forecast the burden of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA) in the elderly US population over a 10-year horizon. Design Using a computer simulation model of the natural history and management of knee OA combined with population-based data from the 2008 US Census we projected the 10-year burden of knee OA among persons 60–64 years of age. Knee OA incidence and progression rates were derived from national cohorts and calibrated to published literature. Results Using national data we estimated that 13% of 14,338,292 adults 60–64 years old have prevalent symptomatic, radiographic knee OA. Among persons surviving the next decade, 20% will have symptomatic advanced (Kellgren-Lawrence [K-L] grade 3) or end-stage (K-L 4) knee OA. Prevalence of advanced knee OA will range from 10% among non-obese to 35% among obese persons. Our estimates show that a more sensitive imaging tool, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), may increase the number OA cases diagnosed by up to 94% assuming that 50% of all ‘pre-radiographic knee OA’ (K-L 1) has some evidence of cartilage degeneration seen on MRI. Conclusions Projecting new and advanced cases of knee OA among persons aged 60–64 years over the next decade creates a benchmark that can be used to evaluate population-based benefits of future disease-modifying OA drugs that are currently undergoing testing at various stages. PMID:20955807

  16. Survey of Period Variations of Superhumps in SU UMa-Type Dwarf Novae. VIII: The Eighth Year (2015-2016)

    CERN Document Server

    Kato, Taichi; Monard, Berto; Vanmunster, Tonny; Maeda, Yutaka; Miller, Ian; Itoh, Hiroshi; Kiyota, Seiichiro; Isogai, Keisuke; Kimura, Mariko; Imada, Akira; Tordai, Tamas; Akazawa, Hidehiko; Tanabe, Kenji; Otani, Noritoshi; Ogi, Minako; Ando, Kazuko; Takigawa, Naoki; Dubovsky, Pavol A; Kudzej, Igor; Shugarov, Sergey Yu; Katysheva, Natalia; Golysheva, Polina; Gladilina, Natalia; Chochol, Drahomir; Starr, Peter; Kasai, Kiyoshi; Pickard, Roger D; de Miguel, Enrique; Kojiguchi, Naoto; Sugiura, Yuki; Fukushima, Daiki; Yamada, Eiji; Uto, Yusuke; Kamibetsunawa, Taku; Tatsumi, Taiki; Takeda, Nao; Matsumoto, Katsura; Cook, Lewis M; Pavlenko, Elena P; Babina, Julia V; Pit, Nikolaj V; Antonyuk, Oksana I; Antonyuk, Kirill A; Sosnovskij, Aleksei A; Baklanov, Aleksei V; Kafka, Stella; Stein, William; Voloshina, Irina B; Ruiz, Javier; Sabo, Richard; Dvorak, Shawn; Stone, Geoff; Andreev, Maksim V; Antipin, Sergey V; Zubareva, Alexandra M; Zaostrojnykh, Anna M; Richmond, Michael; Shears, Jeremy; Dubois, Franky; Logie, Ludwig; Rau, Steve; Vanaverbeke, Siegfried; Simon, Andrei; Oksanen, Arto; Goff, William N; Bolt, Greg; Debski, Bartomiej; Kochanek, Christopher S; Shappee, Benjamin; Stanek, Krzysztof Z; Prieto, Jose L; Stubbings, Rod; Muyllaert, Eddy; Hiraga, Mitsutaka; Horie, Tsuneo; Schmeer, Patrick; Hirosawa, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Continuing the project described by Kato et al. (2009, arXiv:0905.1757), we collected times of superhump maxima for 128 SU UMa-type dwarf novae observed mainly during the 2015-2016 season and characterized these objects. The data have improved the distribution of orbital periods, the relation between the orbital period and the variation of superhumps, the relation between period variations and the rebrightening type in WZ Sge-type objects. Coupled with new measurements of mass ratios using growing stages of superhumps, we now have a clearer and statistically greatly improved evolutionary path near the terminal stage of evolution of cataclysmic variables. Three objects (V452 Cas, KK Tel, ASASSN-15cl) appear to have slowly growing superhumps, which is proposed to reflect the slow growth of the 3:1 resonance near the stability border. ASASSN-15sl, ASASSN-15ux, SDSS J074859.55+312512.6 and CRTS J200331.3-284941 are newly identified eclipsing SU UMa-type (or WZ Sge-type) dwarf novae. ASASSN-15cy has a short (~0.05...

  17. Historical trends in the epidemiology of candidaemia: analysis of an 11-year period in a tertiary care hospital in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Paulo Wille

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Candida species are an important cause of bloodstream infections (BSI. To evaluate the epidemiological, clinical and microbiological aspects of two cohorts {1994-1999 [period 1 (P1 ]; 2000-2004 [period 2 (P2 ]} of candidaemic patients, we performed a retrospective analysis from a laboratory-based survey. A total of 388 candidaemias were identified, with an incidence of 0.20/1,000 patient-days and a significant increase in P2 vs. P1 (0.25 vs. 0.15, p = 0.04. Cancer and prior antibiotic use were frequent and Candida albicans was the most prevalent species found (42.4%. Resistance to fluconazole was found in 2.47% of the strains. No differences were observed in the species distribution of Candida during the study periods. In the P2 cohort, there were higher prevalence of elderly individuals, cardiac, pulmonary and liver diseases, renal failure, central venous catheters and antibiotic therapy. In P1, there were higher prevalence of neurological diseases and chemotherapy. The crude mortality was 55.4%. In conclusion, our incidence rates remained high. Furthermore, the distribution pattern of Candida species and the fluconazole resistance profile remained unchanged. Moreover, we found a clear trend of higher prevalence of candidaemia among the elderly and among patients with comorbidities. Finally, it is necessary to discuss strategies for the prevention and control of Candida BSI in Brazil.

  18. Survey of Period Variations of Superhumps in SU UMa-Type Dwarf Novae. III: The Third Year (2010--2011)

    CERN Document Server

    Kato, Taichi; Miller, Ian; Ohshima, Tomohito; de Miguel, Enrique; Tanabe, Kenji; Imamura, Kazuyoshi; Akazawa, Hidehiko; Kunitomi, Nanae; Takagi, Ryosuke; Nose, Mikiha; Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Kiyota, Seiichiro; Pavlenko, Elena P; Baklanov, Aleksei V; Antonyuk, Oksana I; Samsonov, Denis; Sosnovskij, Aleksei; Antonyuk, Kirill; Andreev, Maksim V; Morelle, Etienne; Dubovsky, Pavol A; Kudzej, Igor; Oksanen, Arto; Masi, Gianluca; Krajci, Thomas; Pickard, Roger D; Sabo, Richard; Itoh, Hiroshi; Stein, William; Dvorak, Shawn; Henden, Arne; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Noguchi, Ryo; Iino, Eriko; Matsumoto, Katsura; Nishitani, Hiroki; Aoki, Tomoya; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Akasaka, Chihiro; Ruiz, Javier; Shugarov, Sergey Yu; Chochol, Drahomir; Parakhin, Nikolai A; Monard, Berto; Shiokawa, Kazuhiko; Kasai, Kiyoshi; Staels, Bart; Miyashita, Atsushi; Starkey, Donn R; Ogmen, Yenal; Littlefield, Colin; Katysheva, Natalia; Sergey, Ivan M; Denisenko, Denis; Tordai, Tamas; Fidrich, Robert; Goranskij, Vitaly P; Virtanen, Jani; Crawford, Tim; Pietz, Jochen; Boyd, David; Brady, Steve; James, Nick; Goff, William N; Itagaki, Koh-ichi; Nishimura, Hideo; Nakashima, Youichirou; Yoshida, Seiichi; Stubbings, Rod; Poyner, Gary; Maeda, Yutaka; Korotkiy, Stanislav; Sokolovsky, Kirill V; Ueda, Seiji

    2011-01-01

    Continuing the project described by Kato et al. (2009, PASJ 61, S395, arXiv:0905.1757), we collected times of superhump maxima for 51 SU UMa-type dwarf novae mainly observed during the 2010-2011 season. Although most of the new data for systems with short superhump periods basically confirmed the findings by Kato et al. (2009) and Kato et al. (2010, PASJ 62, 1525, arXiv:1009.5444), the long-period system GX Cas showed an exceptionally large positive period derivative. An analysis of public Kepler data of V344 Lyr and V1504 Cyg yielded less striking stage transitions. In V344 Lyr, there was prominent secondary component growing during the late stage of superoutbursts, and the component persisted at least for two more cycles of successive normal outbursts. We also investigated the superoutbursts of two conspicuous eclipsing objects: HT Cas and the WZ Sge-type object SDSS J080434.20+510349.2. Strong beat phenomena were detected in both objects, and late-stage superhumps in the latter object had an almost constan...

  19. Aluminum Alloy Conductors to Be Widely Applied in Power Grid Construction in the 12th Five-Year Plan Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>2011 is the first year of the 12th Five-Year Plan, but electric power supply has become a bottleneck of China’s economic development. Therefore, it is urgent to carry out power grid construction. From the beginning of 2011 till now, China has made a huge investment to build state-level smart power grid, and new aluminum alloy transmission conductors or smart power grid will play an active role in the construction boom.

  20. Medicare Program; physician performance standard rates of increase for fiscal year 1994 and physician fee schedule update for calendar year 1994--HCFA. Correction of final notice with comment period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-01

    This document corrects an error that occurred in the calculation of the fiscal year 1994 Medicare volume performance standard for surgical services and that appeared in the final notice with comment period published in the Federal Register on December 2, 1993 (58 FR 63856) entitled "Medicare Program; Physician Performance Standard Rates of Increase for Fiscal Year 1994 and Physician Fee Schedule Update for Calendar Year 1994." This notice also corrects a typographical error in a date.

  1. Dynamics of Water Content in Light Bare Soil in Summer Half-Year in the Period of 2003–2012 and its Agro-Meteorological Determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biniak-Pieróg Małgorzata

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was the estimation of decade variation of water content in layers with thickness of 0–10, 0–20, 0–40 and 0–60 cm of a bare light brown soil in the summer half-year (May–October in the 10-year period of 2003–2012 against the background of agro-meteorological conditions. The study was based on results of measurement of the moisture of a bare soil with the use of the TDR method, sums of atmospheric precipitations and ground water levels, conducted in the area of the Agro- and Hydrometeorology Observatory of the Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, situated in Wrocław-Swojec. The analyses revealed slight variation of mean decade values of water content in the bare soil in the summer half-year during the ten-year period under analysis. Irrespective of the thickness of the soil layer, precipitation in the 10-year period of 2003–2012 had a highly significant effect on the water content in the 2nd decade of July. In the case of soil layers with thickness down to 0–20 cm a statistically significant relation between soil water content and ground water levels was noted for the 3rd decade of May, July, and in the 3rd decade of September. In the layer with thickness of 0–60 cm the relations were statistically significant almost throughout the summer half-year, with the exception of the 1st and 2nd decades of May. Analysis of trends of mean water content of the bare soil over the 10-year period of 2003–2012 indicated their statistically significant increase in the case of most of the decades of the summer half-year only in soil layers with thickness of 0–10 and 0–20 cm.

  2. Student Failures on First-Year Medical Basic Science Courses and the USMLE Step 1: A Retrospective Study over a 20-Year Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, E. Robert; Garrett, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Correlates of achievement in the basic science years in medical school and on the Step 1 of the United States Medical Licensing Examination® (USMLE®), (Step 1) in relation to preadmission variables have been the subject of considerable study. Preadmissions variables such as the undergraduate grade point average (uGPA) and Medical College Admission…

  3. Use of age-period-cohort models to estimate effects of vehicle age, year of crash and year of vehicle manufacture on driver injury and fatality rates in single vehicle crashes in New South Wales, 2003-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R W G; Searson, D J

    2015-02-01

    A novel application of age-period-cohort methods are used to explain changes in vehicle based crash rates in New South Wales, Australia over the period 2003-2010. Models are developed using vehicle age, crash period and vehicle cohort to explain changes in the rate of single vehicle driver fatalities and injuries in vehicles less than 13 years of age. Large declines in risk are associated with vehicle cohorts built after about 1996. The decline in risk appears to have accelerated to 12 percent per vehicle cohort year for cohorts since 2004. Within each cohort, the risk of crashing appears to be a minimum at two years of age and increases as the vehicle ages beyond this. Period effects (i.e., other road safety measures) between 2003 and 2010 appear to have contributed to declines of up to about two percent per annum to the driver-fatality single vehicle crash rate, and possibly only negligible improvements to the driver-injury single vehicle crash rate. Vehicle improvements appear to have been responsible for a decline in per-vehicle crash risk of at least three percent per calendar year for both severity levels over the same period. Given the decline in risk associated with more recent vehicle cohorts and the dynamics of fleet turnover, continued declines in per-vehicle crash risk over coming years are almost certain. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Evolution of the military and social research in post-soviet space for the period 1993-2013 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Kalahin

    2013-12-01

    The results showed that during the period from 1993 to 2013 on sociological subjects were protected by 82 theses. The most studied problems of military organization management processes are found in the military organization, its social structure. Less studied the economic aspects of the military organization. The study of the dynamics of military sociological research has shown that the problems of the social structure of the military organization in the long term remain valid. The economic aspects of the military organization only become relevant. It’s a natural tendency, which reflects the influence of both objective and subjective factors at the present stage of reforming the military organization.

  5. Survival analysis of factors affecting incidence risk of Salmonella Dublin in Danish dairy herds during a 7-year surveillance period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Dohoo, Ian

    2012-01-01

    -quarters (YQs), either at the start of the study period or after recovery from infection. Survival analysis was performed on a dataset including 6931 dairy herds with 118969 YQs at risk, in which 1523 failures (new infection events) occurred. Predictors obtained from register data were tested in a multivariable......A national surveillance programme for Salmonella Dublin, based on regular bulk-tank milk antibody screening and movements of cattle, was initiated in Denmark in 2002. From 2002 to end of 2009 the prevalence of test-positive dairy herds was reduced from 26% to 10%. However, new infections and spread...

  6. Surgery for ovarian masses in infants, children, and adolescents: 102 consecutive patients treated in a 15-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cass, D L; Hawkins, E; Brandt, M L; Chintagumpala, M; Bloss, R S; Milewicz, A L; Minifee, P K; Wesson, D E; Nuchtern, J G

    2001-05-01

    Ovarian pathology, although rare in children, must be included in the differential diagnosis of all girls who present with abdominal pain, an abdominal mass, or precocious puberty. To improve clinical appreciation of these lesions, the authors reviewed the presentation, evaluation, and outcome of all patients with ovarian pathology surgically treated at their institution since 1985. One hundred two girls (aged 9.8 +/- 5.5 years; range, 2 days to 20 years) underwent 106 separate ovarian operations (43 salpingo-oophorectomies, 21 oophorectomies, 33 ovarian cystectomies, and 9 ovarian biopsies). Of those presenting with acute abdominal pain (n = 59), 25 (42%) had ovarian torsion (14 associated with a mature teratoma), and only 1 (2%) had a malignant tumor. In contrast, of those presenting with an abdominal mass (n = 23), 6 (26%) had malignancies. There was no age difference between those with benign disease (9.9 +/- 5.6 years; n = 96) and those with malignant tumors (8.6 +/- 3.9 years, n = 10). Nine children had 10 operations for presumed malignant tumors (3 dysgerminomas, 2 immature teratomas with foci of yolk sac tumor, 2 juvenile granulosa cell tumors, 1 yolk sac tumor, and 1 Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor). These patients all had unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, 4 had chemotherapy, and all are now disease free at 8.4 +/- 4.1 years follow-up. Ovarian pathology remains a rare indication for surgery in girls less than 20 years of age. Because most of these lesions are benign, ovarian-preserving operations should be performed whenever feasible. Copyright 2001 by W.B. Saunders Company.

  7. Status of China's Refined Oil Products Consumption and Forecast on Demand During the"11th Five-Year Plan" Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Lu

    2007-01-01

    The author used two common methods in this industry.i.e.the"Consumption Coefficient Method"and the"Elasticity Coefficient Trend Method",to forecast the refined oil product demand in 2010.Through analyzing and comparing the two forecast results,it is projected that the demand for finished product oils in 2010 will be in the range of 220 to 240 million tons a year.In addition,out of concern about the total oil products consumption to exceed 600 million tons/year in 2020,the author puts forward suggestions and measures aimed at conservation of oil products and application of alternative fuels.

  8. The 18.6-year period moon-tidal cycle in Pacific Decadal Oscillation reconstructed from tree-rings in western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Ichiro

    2009-03-01

    Time-series of Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) reconstructed from tree-rings in Western North America is found to have a statistically significant periodicity of 18.6-year period lunar nodal tidal cycle; negative (positive) PDO tends to occur in the period of strong (weak) diurnal tide. In the 3rd and 5th (10th, 11th and 13rd) year after the maximum diurnal tide, mean-PDO takes significant negative (positive) value, suggesting that the Aleutian Low is weak (strong), western-central North Pacific in 30-50°N is warm (cool) and equator-eastern rim of the Pacific is cool (warm). This contributes to climate predictability with a time-table from the astronomical tidal cycle.

  9. Anthropogenic versus geogenic contribution to total suspended atmospheric particulate matter and its variations during a two-year sampling period in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleicher, Nina; Norra, Stefan; Chai, Fahe; Chen, Yizhen; Wang, Shulan; Stüben, Doris

    2010-02-01

    Weekly samples of total suspended particles in air (TSP) were taken in south-east Beijing for a two-year period continuously from August 2005 to August 2007. Mass concentrations varied between 76 and 1028 microg m(-3) with an average concentration of 370 microg m(-3) for the whole period. The chemical composition and the mass concentration of aerosols in combination with meteorological data are reflecting specific influences of distinct aerosol sources on the pollution of Beijing's atmosphere. Lead (Pb), titanium (Ti), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) concentrations were chosen as indicator elements for different sources. Their amounts considerably varied over the course of the year. Element ratios, such as Pb/Ti, supported the distinction between periods of predominant geogenic or anthropogenic caused pollution. However, the interactions between aerosols from different sources are numerous and aerosol pollution still is a big and complex challenge for the sustainable development of Beijing.

  10. Bankruptcy prediction: The influence of the year prior to failure selected for model building and the effects in a period of economic decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pompe, P.P.M.; Bilderbeek, J.

    2005-01-01

    Using large amounts of data from small and medium-sized industrial firms, this study examines two aspects of bankruptcy prediction: the influence of the year prior to failure selected for model building and the effects in a period of economic decline. The results show that especially models

  11. Assessing CO2 interaction with cement and steel over a two-year injection period: current state and future risks for the MovECBM project in Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loizzo, M.; Bressers, P.; Benedictus, T.; Guen, Y. le; Poupard, O.

    2009-01-01

    On the site of Kaniow (Poland) a new well was used to inject supercritical CO2 into coal seams over a two year period. The injection was part of an experiment on Enhanced Coal-Bed Methane recovery sponsored by the RECOPOL and MovECBM European project. Part of the interest in ECBM is the possibility

  12. Qinghai Newly Adds 1 Million Tonnes of Copper and 2 Million Tonnes of Lead Zinc In the “Twelfth Five Year Plan” period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    The reporter recently learned from Qinghai Province Geological Prospecting Bureau that Qinghai’s geological prospecting for the"Twelfth Five Year Plan"period had made significant breakthroughs,and newly submitted58 orefields.It has been learned that,during the"Twelfth

  13. Course of contact allergy in consecutive eczema patients patch tested with TRUE Test panels 1 and 2 at least twice over a 12-year period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlotte D; Andersen, Klaus E

    2005-01-01

    -year period using the TRUE Test standardized patch test system. Out of 297 positive reactions, 66% remained positive in a 2nd test, 10% were scored as doubtful and 24% as negative. Among the previously recorded doubtful reactions, 13% were positive in the 2nd test, 13% were again doubtful and 74...... on the back and the presence of more or less active dermatitis....

  14. Water Quality Conditions Monitored at the Corps’ Fort Randall Project in South Dakota during the 3-Year Period 2006 through 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    autochthonous food web in many reservoirs since fluctuating water levels may limit macrophyte and periphyton production. Phytoplankton can be generally...Randall Project in South Dakota during the 3-Year Period 2006 through 2008 Aerial Photo of Fon Randall Dam, Tai/waters and Reservoir Report Number...Gradients............................................. 11 2.2.2 Chemical Characteristics of Reservoir Processes

  15. Incidence of peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis in edentulous patients with an implant-retained mandibular overdenture during a 10-year follow-up period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Henny J. A.; Raghoebar, Gerry M.; de Waal, Yvonne C. M.; Vissink, Arjan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this sub-analysis of two prospective studies was to assess the incidence of peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis in fully edentulous patients with an implant-retained mandibular overdenture during a 10-year follow-up period. Material and Methods: One hundred and fifty

  16. Reliability of Serum Metabolites over a Two-Year Period : A Targeted Metabolomic Approach in Fasting and Non-Fasting Samples from EPIC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carayol, Marion; Licaj, Idlir; Achaintre, David; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Vineis, Paolo; Key, Timothy J; Onland Moret, N Charlotte; Scalbert, Augustin; Rinaldi, Sabina; Ferrari, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Although metabolic profiles have been associated with chronic disease risk, lack of temporal stability of metabolite levels could limit their use in epidemiological investigations. The present study aims to evaluate the reliability over a two-year period of 158 metabolites and compare rel

  17. Breeding Restrictions Decrease the Prevalence of Myxomatous Mitral Valve Disease in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels over an 8-to 10-Year Period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkegård, Anna Camilla; Reimann, M. J.; Martinussen, T.;

    2016-01-01

    compared with dogs in 2002-2003, reflecting a 73% decreased risk (P Importance: A mandatory breeding scheme based on auscultation...... and echocardiography findings significantly decreased the prevalence of MMVD over the 8- to 10-year period. Such a breeding scheme therefore is recommended for CKCS....

  18. Reliability of Serum Metabolites over a Two-Year Period : A Targeted Metabolomic Approach in Fasting and Non-Fasting Samples from EPIC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carayol, Marion; Licaj, Idlir; Achaintre, David; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Vineis, Paolo; Key, Timothy J; Onland Moret, N Charlotte; Scalbert, Augustin; Rinaldi, Sabina; Ferrari, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Although metabolic profiles have been associated with chronic disease risk, lack of temporal stability of metabolite levels could limit their use in epidemiological investigations. The present study aims to evaluate the reliability over a two-year period of 158 metabolites and compare

  19. Assessing CO2 interaction with cement and steel over a two-year injection period: current state and future risks for the MovECBM project in Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loizzo, M.; Bressers, P.; Benedictus, T.; Guen, Y. le; Poupard, O.

    2009-01-01

    On the site of Kaniow (Poland) a new well was used to inject supercritical CO2 into coal seams over a two year period. The injection was part of an experiment on Enhanced Coal-Bed Methane recovery sponsored by the RECOPOL and MovECBM European project. Part of the interest in ECBM is the possibility

  20. Bankruptcy prediction: The influence of the year prior to failure selected for model building and the effects in a period of economic decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pompe, P.P.M.; Bilderbeek, J.

    2005-01-01

    Using large amounts of data from small and medium-sized industrial firms, this study examines two aspects of bankruptcy prediction: the influence of the year prior to failure selected for model building and the effects in a period of economic decline. The results show that especially models generate

  1. Molecular epidemiology over an 11-year period (2000 to 2010) of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli causing bacteremia in a centralized Canadian region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Peirano (G.); A.K. van der Bij (Akke); S. Gregson (Simon); J.D.D. Pitout (J. D D)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractA study was designed to assess the importance of sequence types among extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli isolates causing bacteremia over an 11-year period (2000 to 2010) in a centralized Canadian region. A total of 197 patients with incident infections were

  2. Terek Area in the Post-Reform Period (1870–1880 years: the Internal Structure and Demography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana E. Gvarliani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the internal structure and demographic processes in the Terek region in the post-reform period (1870–1880-ies. As materials there were used the archival documents of the Central state archive of the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania. In addition, there are reflected the scientific research on the topic of publishing. The methodological basis of research are the principles of historicism, objectivity and consistency, suggesting the consideration of each historical event in conjunction with other phenomena and events, taking into account the concrete historical situation and in chronological order; the freedom from addiction and a desire for maximum reliability; the study of all phenomena, events and processes as elements of a single historical process. With the beginning of the post-reform period, the economic activities and life organization of cossacks were as close to a peasant, which makes the cossacks at this time, a special group of peasants of Russia. The cossack society is gradually transformed into peasant communities with their focus on agriculture. However, the development of economic occupations was hampered by maintaining a long military service, which in new terms came to be regarded by the cossacks as a hindrance to normal life. The level of development of agriculture was constrained by low agro-technical culture and preservation, and routine equipment.

  3. Effect of ruboxistaurin (RBX) On visual acuity decline over a 6-year period with cessation and reinstitution of therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheetz, Matthew J; Aiello, Lloyd Paul; Shahri, Nazila

    2011-01-01

    The PKC-DRS2 was a Phase 3, randomized, double-masked, placebo (PBO)-controlled, 3-year study of the effect of 32 mg/day of ruboxistaurin (RBX), an orally administered protein kinase C inhibitor, on vision loss in patients with moderate to severe nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy. Ruboxistaur...

  4. A Simple Stochastic Model with Environmental Transmission Explains Multi-Year Periodicity in Outbreaks of Avian Flu

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Rong-Hua; Jin, Zhen; Liu, Quan-Xing; van de Koppel, Johan; Alonso, David

    2012-01-01

    Avian influenza virus reveals persistent and recurrent outbreaks in North American wild waterfowl, and exhibits major outbreaks at 2-8 years intervals in duck populations. The standard susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) framework, which includes seasonal migration and reproduction, but lacks

  5. The characterization of trace metals and organics in spent foundry sands over a one-year period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millions of tons of spent sand, used to create metalcasting molds, are generated by the foundry industry each year in the United States. Not surprisingly, spent foundry sands (SFSs) are an excellent substitute for virgin sands that are currently used in manufactured soils and geotechnical applicati...

  6. Enhanced Recognition and Recall of New Words in 7- and 12-Year-Olds Following a Period of Offline Consolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Helen; Weighall, Anna; Henderson, Lisa M.; Gaskell, M. Gareth

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies of adults have found evidence for consolidation effects in the acquisition of novel words, but little is known about whether such effects are found developmentally. In two experiments, we familiarized children with novel nonwords (e.g., "biscal") and tested their recognition and recall of these items. In Experiment 1, 7-year-olds…

  7. 26 CFR 1.852-11 - Treatment of certain losses attributable to periods after October 31 of a taxable year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... loss. (2) Net foreign currency loss. (3) Foreign currency gain or loss. (e) Limitation on capital gain... foreign currency loss attributable to the portion of a regulated investment company's taxable year after... (c)(3) of this section shall apply. (2) Net foreign currency loss. The term “net foreign...

  8. Interpersonal Victimization, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Change in Adolescent Substance Use Prevalence over a Ten-Year Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCart, Michael R.; Zajac, Kristyn; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Strachan, Martha; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Smith, Daniel W.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have identified recent declines in specific types of adolescent substance use. The current study examined whether these declines varied among youth with and without a history of interpersonal victimization or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Data for this study come from two distinct samples of youth (12-17 years of…

  9. Parent-reported appetite of a child and the child's weight status over a 2-year period in Korean children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kayoung; Song, Yun-Mi

    2007-04-01

    This study sought to examine the association between the parent-reported appetite of a child and the child's weight status after 2 years. The design was a 2-year prospective study. A total of 531 Korean children aged 11 to 12 years were followed up for change in weight status (persistent overweight, persistent nonoverweight, recently overweight, recently nonoverweight) between 2001 and 2003 after the measurement of their appetite (low, moderate, and high) using a questionnaire administered to their parents in 2001. Weight status of each child was determined based on the criteria of body mass index (BMI) recommended by the International Obesity Task Force reference. The statistical analyses performed were multiple logistic regression analysis with adjustment for parental factors (parents' weight and height, education level, and income) and the child's characteristics (baseline BMI, physical activity, and television viewing). Main outcome measures were child's mean BMI and weight status, and the proportions of overweight children at the baseline and at the end of the follow-up were greater among those children whose parents reported that they had high appetites (Pchildren with a low appetite, the odds ratio for overweight at the end of follow-up was 3.7 (95% confidence interval 1.2 to 11.7) in children with a high appetite. Subgroup analysis of overweight children at baseline showed that the risk of being persistently overweight over the 2-year follow-up was 5.5 times (95% confidence interval 1.1 to 27.5) higher in children with a high appetite than in those with a low appetite. There was a strong association between the parent-reported appetite of a child and being overweight after 2 years. Identifying children with higher appetites and targeting them for lifestyle modification may provide an effective way of reducing the incidence of childhood overweight.

  10. Clinico-pathological analysis of renal cell carcinoma demonstrates decreasing tumour grade over a 17-year period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nason, Gregory J.; McGuire, Barry B.; Kelly, Michael E.; Murphy, Theodore M.; Looney, Aisling T.; Byrne, Damien P.; Mulvin, David W.; Galvin, David J.; Quinlan, David M.; Lennon, Gerald M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) represents about 3% of adult malignancies in Ireland. Worldwide there is a reported increasing incidence and recent studies report a stage migration towards smaller tumours. We assess the clinico-pathological features and survival of patients with RCC in a surgically treated cohort. Methods: A retrospective analysis of all nephrectomies carried out between 1995 and 2012 was carried out in an Irish tertiary referral university hospital. Data recorded included patient demographics, size of tumour, tumour-node-metastasis (TNM) classification, operative details and final pathology. The data were divided into 3 equal consecutive time periods for comparison purposes: Group 1 (1995–2000), Group 2 (2001–2006) and Group 3 (2007–2012). Survival data were verified with the National Cancer Registry of Ireland. Results: In total, 507 patients underwent nephrectomies in the study period. The median tumour size was 5.8 cm (range: 1.2–20 cm) and there was no statistical reduction in size observed over time (p = 0.477). A total of 142 (28%) RCCs were classified as pT1a, 111 (21.9%) were pT1b, 67 (13.2%) were pT2, 103 (20.3%) were pT3a, 75 (14.8%) were pT3b and 9 (1.8%) were pT4. There was no statistical T-stage migration observed (p = 0.213). There was a significant grade reduction over time (p = 0.017). There was significant differences noted in overall survival between the T-stages (p < 0.001), nuclear grades (p < 0.001) and histological subtypes (p = 0.022). Conclusion: There was a rising incidence in the number of nephrectomies over the study period. Despite previous reports, a stage migration was not evident; however, a grade reduction was apparent in this Irish surgical series. We can demonstrate that tumour stage, nuclear grade and histological subtype are significant prognosticators of relative survival in RCC. PMID:24839483

  11. The effect of GWAS identified BMI loci on changes in body weight among middle-aged danes during a five year period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandholt, Camilla Helene; Allin, Kristine Højgaard; Toft, U

    2013-01-01

    Objective Genome-wide association studies have identified genetic variants associating with BMI, however, it is un-clarified whether the same variants also influence body weight fluctuations. Design and Methods Among 3,982 adult individuals that attended both a baseline and a five year follow...... weight during the five years. Changes in lifestyle, including physical activity, diet and smoking habits associated strongly with body weight changes, however, no interactions with the GRS was observed. Conclusion The GRS associated with body weight cross-sectionally, but not with changes over a five...... year period. Body weight changes were influenced by lifestyle changes, however, independently the GRS....

  12. Retinopathy of prematurity: review of a seven-year period in a Danish neonatal intensive care unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arrøe, M; Peitersen, Birgit

    1994-01-01

    of the hospital. One hundred and eighty survived to at least 8 weeks of age and 170 had eye examinations. Forty-five of the 170 infants examined (26.5%) had retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and 18 (40%) of these developed blindness or severely impaired vision, a higher incidence than reported in other studies....... Significant differences were found between infants with and without ROP for: birth weight, gestational age, Apgar score at 1 min, resuscitation, ventilator treatment, duration of supplementary oxygen, severe complications in the neonatal period and sequels from the central nervous system. Statistical analysis......, corrected for correlations, showed that the occurrence of ROP was related significantly to early intubation, hypotension, persistent ductus arteriosus and necrotizing enterocolitis....

  13. A bibliometric analysis of research productivity in Parasitology by different world regions during a 9-year period (1995–2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falagas Matthew E

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to estimate the research productivity of different world regions in the field of Parasitology. Methods Using the PubMed database we retrieved articles from journals included in the "Parasitology" category of the "Journal Citation Reports" database of the Institute for Scientific Information for the period 1995–2003. Research productivity was evaluated based on a methodology we developed and used in other bibliometric studies by analysing: (1 the total number of publications, (2 the mean impact factor of all papers, and (3 the product of the above two parameters, (4 the research productivity in relation to gross domestic product of each region, and (5 the research productivity in relation to gross national income per capita and population of each region. Results Data on the country of origin of the research was available for 18,110 out of 18,377 articles (98.6% of all articles from the included journals. Western Europe exceeds all world regions in research production for the period studied (34.8% of total articles, with USA ranking second (19.9%, and Latin America & the Caribbean ranking third (17.2%. The mean impact factor in articles published in Parasitology journals was highest for the USA (1.88. Oceania ranked first in research productivity when adjustments for both the gross national income per capita (GNIPC and population were made. Eastern Europe almost tripled the production of articles from only 1.9% of total production in 1995 to 4.3% in 2003. Similarly, Latin America and the Caribbean and Asia doubled their production. However, the absolute and relative production by some developing areas, including Africa, is still very low, despite the fact that parasitic diseases are major public health problems in these areas. Conclusion Our data suggest that more help should be provided by the developed nations to developing areas for improvement of the infrastructure of research.

  14. Frequency of paediatric medical imaging examinations performed at a European teaching hospital over a 7-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portelli, Jonathan L; McNulty, Jonathan P; Bezzina, Paul; Rainford, Louise

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to gain an insight into frequencies by which a range of medical imaging (MI) examinations were performed on paediatric patients at the main acute general teaching hospital in Malta between 2008 and 2014. Frequency data of MI examinations performed on paediatric patients were retrospectively collected from relevant information systems. All data was coded accordingly to facilitate data analysis. A total of 95,805 MI examinations were performed on 39,707 unique paediatric patients (Medical imaging (MI) examinations are commonly performed in paediatric patients. • In 7 years 95,805 examinations were performed on 39,707 paediatric patients. • Use of ultrasound and MRI in paediatric patients increased annually. • Highest frequency of MI examinations was observed in neonates/infants younger than 1 year. • Awareness of MI utilisation patterns and trends can help inform practice.

  15. Characteristics of the functional parameters of children of different somatotype during the period between 8 and 10 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sljusarchuk Viktor Vasil'evich

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Studied the expression and change in functional parameters of the same girls and boys of different somatotypes between 8 and 10 years. In ascertaining experiment was attended by 80 girls and boys who at baseline was 8 years old. Found that girls and boys the same age but different somatotypes. They are similar trends: a high level of features to ensure aerobic metabolic reactions, higher aerobic and anaerobic capacity lower, below the required functionality to most of the studied systems. The features associated primarily with the age in which the possibility of a deteriorating system. The above must be considered when choosing the optimal parameters of physical activity and develop programs to improve the functionality of primary school children during physical education.

  16. Asymptomatic hyperCKemia during a two-year monitoring period: A case report and literature overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinis, Spyridon; Symeonidis, Athanasios; Karanasios, Dimitrios; Symvoulakis, Emmanouil K.

    2017-01-01

    High creatine kinase (CK) levels can be associated with many disorders, including neuromuscular, cardiac, metabolic, endocrine and traumatic. Idiopathic hyperCKemia is a diagnostic dilemma for physicians even though its long-term prognosis is usually benign. We report a case of a Caucasian 61-year-old woman who presented as completely asymptomatic to her general practitioner with a serum CK (sCK) level at 6,122 IU/l. A complete diagnostic evaluation, including physical and laboratory examinations, electromyogram and muscle biopsy were negative for any neuromuscular or other disorder. Two years later the patient remains asymptomatic, active and overall healthy but sCK levels remain elevated, ≤6,591 IU/l (>50-fold higher than normal values). PMID:28123712

  17. Influence of Rural Land Institutional Reform on Urbanization During the 13th Five-Year Plan Period:A Case Study of Jiangsu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen; Xiaohui; Qian; Fang

    2016-01-01

    The rural land institutions have confined the process of China’s urbanization for a long time. During the 13 th Five-Year Plan period, the Chinese government will push forward a new round of rural land institutional reform, so as to promote the restructuring of current rural land use pattern, change related elements concerning urbanization, and realize the transformation of the urbanization mode. Taking Jiangsu Province, a comprehensive pilot site of new urbanization at the provincial level in China, as an example, the paper summarizes the practical experience of rural land institutional reform in Jiangsu during recent years. Further, through analyzing the influence of rural land institutional reform on the urbanization process of Jiangsu Province during the 13 th Five-Year Plan period, the paper puts forward some policy measures, with the hope of providing a lasting impetus for the new urbanization in Jiangsu Province as well as a reference for other provinces in China.

  18. Dietary Intakes of Elite 14 - 19 Year Old English Academy Rugby Players During a Pre-Season Training Period.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, DR; Jones, B.; Sutton, L; King, RF; Duckworth, LC

    2016-01-01

    Good nutrition is essential for the physical development of adolescent athletes, however data on dietary intakes of adolescent rugby players are lacking. This study quantified and evaluated dietary intake in 87 elite male English academy rugby league (RL) and rugby union (RU) players by age (under-16 (U16) and under-19 (U19) years old) and code (RL and RU). Relationships of intakes with body mass and composition (sum of 8 skinfolds) were also investigated. Using 4-day diet and physical activi...

  19. Frequency of paediatric medical imaging examinations performed at a European teaching hospital over a 7-year period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portelli, Jonathan L.; Bezzina, Paul [University of Malta, Department of Radiography, Faculty of Health Sciences, Msida (Malta); McNulty, Jonathan P.; Rainford, Louise [University College Dublin, Diagnostic Imaging, School of Medicine and Medical Science, Dublin (Ireland)

    2016-12-15

    The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to gain an insight into frequencies by which a range of medical imaging (MI) examinations were performed on paediatric patients at the main acute general teaching hospital in Malta between 2008 and 2014. Frequency data of MI examinations performed on paediatric patients were retrospectively collected from relevant information systems. All data was coded accordingly to facilitate data analysis. A total of 95,805 MI examinations were performed on 39,707 unique paediatric patients (<18 years) between 2008 and 2014. Overall, the total number of paediatric MI examinations performed decreased over time, with use varying depending on modality type and paediatric age. Coincidentally the use of ultrasound and MRI increased year after year. Some paediatric patients underwent at least three MI examinations involving the same anatomical region being scanned, and which may collectively contribute to effective doses exceeding 10 mSv. Knowledge of how MI examinations are used within the paediatric population can help practices evaluate and address any trends highlighted for particular examinations or age category of paediatric patients. Furthermore, awareness of current trends of MI in children can be helpful for the planning of future paediatric radiology departments. (orig.)

  20. Withdrawal of corticosteroids in inflammatory bowel disease patients after dependency periods ranging from 2 to 45 years: a proposed method.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, S J

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Even in the biologic era, corticosteroid dependency in IBD patients is common and causes a lot of morbidity, but methods of withdrawal are not well described. AIM: To assess the effectiveness of a corticosteroid withdrawal method. METHODS: Twelve patients (10 men, 2 women; 6 ulcerative colitis, 6 Crohn\\'s disease), median age 53.5 years (range 29-75) were included. IBD patients with quiescent disease refractory to conventional weaning were transitioned to oral dexamethasone, educated about symptoms of the corticosteroid withdrawal syndrome (CWS) and weaned under the supervision of an endocrinologist. When patients failed to wean despite a slow weaning pace and their IBD remaining quiescent, low dose synthetic ACTH stimulation testing was performed to assess for adrenal insufficiency. Multivariate analysis was performed to assess predictors of a slow wean. RESULTS: Median durations for disease and corticosteroid dependency were 21 (range 3-45) and 14 (range 2-45) years respectively. Ten patients (83%) were successfully weaned after a median follow-up from final wean of 38 months (range 5-73). Disease flares occurred in two patients, CWS in five and ACTH testing was performed in 10. Multivariate analysis showed that longer duration of corticosteroid use appeared to be associated with a slower wean (P = 0.056). CONCLUSIONS: Corticosteroid withdrawal using this protocol had a high success rate and durable effect and was effective in patients with long-standing (up to 45 years) dependency. As symptoms of CWS mimic symptoms of IBD disease flares, gastroenterologists may have difficulty distinguishing them, which may be a contributory factor to the frequency of corticosteroid dependency in IBD patients.

  1. Young male soccer players exhibit additional bone mineral acquisition during the peripubertal period: 1-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouch, Mohamed; Vico, Laurence; Frere, Delphine; Tabka, Zouhair; Alexandre, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether soccer could have different bone benefits in prepubescent and pubescent boys. We investigated 76 boys aged 10 to 13 years during a 1-year study. All boys were prepubescent at the beginning of the study (T0); pubescent status was determined by a complete 24-h urine hormonal assay of FSH-LH, with LH ≤ 0.31 IU/24 h and FSH ≤ 2.19 IU/24 h corresponding to prepubescent Tanner stage I and with 0.31 soccer players (F1) and 13 controls (C1)), and 41 boys had entered puberty (26 soccer players (F2) and 15 controls (C2)). Soccer players completed 2 to 5 h of training plus one competition game per week during the school year, and controls only had physical education at school. Bone mineral content (BMC) was measured at T0 and T1 by DPX in the lumbar spine, total hip, and whole body (WB) for a comparison between soccer players and controls. At T0, no BMC difference was found between F1 and C1, but BMC was higher in F2 than C2 in WB and weight-bearing sites. At T1, BMC was higher in WB and weight-bearing sites in both F1 and F2 compared to their respective controls. Between T0 and T1, soccer induced a BMC gain at weight-bearing sites in both F1 and F2 compared to C1 and C2, respectively. The soccer-related bone gain was greater in WB and weight-bearing (the lumbar spine, total hip, and supporting leg) and non-weight-bearing bones (dominant arm and nondominant arm) in boys who became pubescent than in boys who remained prepubescent. In conclusion, 1-year study in young male soccer players demonstrates that the process of bone accretion at the very early phase of puberty is more intensely stimulated by the combination of physical exercise and sexual impregnation than by one of these factors alone.

  2. Foresight analysis of the development of organized crime in El Salvador for the five year period of 2014 - 2019

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Arévalo Linares

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The possible developments of organized crime in El Salvador for the 2014 – 2019 period are studied using a Foresight analysis of scenarios. With this purpose, a concept of the word scenario is initially established, including an explanation on what scenario building consists of, how scenarios are built and which is the reason for building them. Subsequently, several methods for scenario building are described and the most appropriate one for addressing organized crime is established. The emancipatory method was selected because it is considered to be the best technical basis and to have greater results in terms of social utility and decision making.With this method, the factors for defining the conditions that affect the variables that can cause possible scenarios are identified, using hypothesis verification through interviews, statistics, literature reviews and field visits in order to shape the evolution of organized crime under three different situations regarding such variables: First, a situation in which the variables do not change, second, one in which the variables worsen, and third, one in which actions are taken for the variables to improve.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5377/rpsp.v4i2.1761

  3. Semen cultures analysis: retrospective study during a 6-year period and interest in the management of infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leterrier, M; Fréour, T; Guillouzouic, A; Juvin, M-E; Barriere, P; Reynaud, A; Corvec, S

    2011-03-01

    In the past decade, the number of couples consulting an assisted reproductive techniques (ART) center for infertility has increased in most European countries. In France, sperm bacterial examination must be performed every 6 months in couples undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles, according to 2010 French ART Guidelines. The aim of this study was to analyze the results from such samples at Nantes University Hospital and to assess their potential value for infertile couples undergoing ART cycles. Between 2003 and 2008, semen cultures performed were analyzed according to bacterial enumeration, type and number of bacterial species, and their antibiotic resistance profile. A total of 14,119 semen cultures were performed, showing an annual increase of 45% from the start to the end of the study. The proportion of positive semen cultures was stable throughout the study period (40 to 45%). Many bacterial species were considered as contaminants (coagulase-negative staphylococci, alpha-hemolytic streptococci). For pathogen agents (in most cases, Enterobacteriaceae), the antibiotic resistance profile revealed mostly a susceptible phenotype. Finally, every positive bacterial result had direct consequences on the IVF cycle management, with subsequent reinforced advice on the hygiene procedure before sample collection and/or antibiotics prescription.

  4. A review of molar pregnancy at the university hospital of the West Indies over a 16-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simms-Stewart, D; Mcdonald, G; Fletcher, H; Bromfield, M; Williams, N; Bambury, I; James, K

    2013-04-01

    There is a wide variation in reported incidence, risk factors and presentation of molar pregnancy. This necessitates population-based studies to determine these parameters at the University Hospital of the West Indies, which is a referral centre for these conditions. The incidence of molar pregnancy at the University Hospital of the West Indies was found to be 2.81 per 1,000, which fell in the range of worldwide values. Partial moles made up 61.1% and complete moles 31.0%. The mean age of the patients was 28.49 years old with 85% of patients aged between 20 and 40 years old. The median gestational age by dates was 12 weeks and vaginal bleeding was the most common presenting symptom (77%). A significant number of cases (52.2%) of molar pregnancy were diagnosed by routine histopathology for failed pregnancy and not by pre-evacuation ultrasound. The practice of routine assessment of tissue from failed pregnancy should therefore be encouraged in our population.

  5. Field evidence of the influence of aquatic macrophytes on water quality in a shallow eutrophic lake over a 13-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edélti Faria Albertoni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The main objective of this work is to describe the changes in water characteristics of a shallow subtropical lake, in periods with and without growing of macrophytes, related to periods of clear-macrophyte dominance and turbid-phytoplankton dominance states. METHODS: The study was conducted in Biguás Lake, in the south coastal plain of Brazil (32° 04' 43" S and 52° 10' 03" W. Samplings were carried out monthly between October 2000 and November 2013. The limnological variables measured in the water column were dissolved oxygen (DO, water temperature, pH, electrical conductivity (EC, chlorophyll-a, total nitrogen (TN, total phosphorous (TP and suspended material (SM. Data were grouped according to periods with macrophyte growth dominance (MD and without macrophytes, with phytoplankton dominance (PD, and applied t- tests among TP, TN, Chlorophyll-a and SM. During macrophyte growth we estimated the coverage (% and biomass variation of plants. RESULTS: Over the 13 years, the lake was well oxygenated, alkaline, and with a temperature variation according to subtropical seasonality. The lower values of all of the limnological variables were verified during periods of macrophyte growth, characterizing periods of clear and turbid waters. CONCLUSIONS: The influence of aquatic macrophytes in improving water quality in this shallow lake during the studied period, reducing nutrient concentrations, chlorophyll-a and suspended material in water, favoring the maintenance of a clear water state, was verified.

  6. Turn on, fade out - methane exchange in a coastal fen over a period of six years after rewetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurasinski, Gerald; Glatzel, Stephan; Hahn, Juliane; Koch, Stefan; Koch, Marian; Koebsch, Franziska

    2016-04-01

    The rewetting of drained peatlands is widely regarded as an adequate measure for the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, especially in NE Germany, many peatlands are being rewetted. Our knowledge about greenhouse gas exchange associated with rewetting is mainly based on short-term experiments or space-for-time substitutions. These approaches do not consider the transient character of ecosystem acclimatization to flooding by rewetting. Moreover data in this regard on coastal peatland ecosystems are sparse. Here, we present 7 years of data on CH4-exchange in a coastal fen after rewetting by flooding. On the site „Rodewiese", which is located within the NSG "Hütelmoor und Heiligensee" in the Northeast of Rostock, NE Germany, we have established a long term research observatory addressing atmospheric C-exchange. The site is part of the TERENO network. Since summer 2009 we determine CH4 fluxes with closed chambers distributed widely across the study site and CO2-exchange with eddy covariance as well as ancillary data on vegetation, hydrology, and biogeochemistry. This talk addresses the CH4-exchange over time whereas CO2-exchange data are presented by Koebsch et al. in the same session. Rewetting turned the site from a summer dry fen with mean annual water levels of around -0.08m into a shallow lake with water levels up to 0.60m. In the first year after flooding, we observed a substantial die-back of vegetation, especially in stands of Carex acutiformis. Flooding increased methane release rates to extremely high levels of up to 4.3 t ha-1 a-1 for sedge stands and 2.7 t ha-1 a-1 on average, which amounts to 75.6 t ha-1 a-1 in CO2-equivalents. Thereafter, the averaged annual CH4 emissions decreased asymptotically and where at an average of 0.5 t ha-1 a-1 (14 t ha-1 a-1 in CO2-equivalents) in 2015. Factoring in the NEE of the growing season (from Eddy measurements) suggests that the system may be slightly above neutral with respect to the greenhouse

  7. Potential Accumulative Effect of the Herbicide Glyphosate on Glyphosate-Tolerant Maize Rhizobacterial Communities over a Three-Year Cultivation Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriuso, Jorge; Marín, Silvia; Mellado, Rafael P.

    2011-01-01

    Background Glyphosate is a herbicide that is liable to be used in the extensive cultivation of glyphosate-tolerant cultivars. The potential accumulation of the relative effect of glyphosate on the rhizobacterial communities of glyphosate-tolerant maize has been monitored over a period of three years. Methodology/Principal Findings The composition of rhizobacterial communities is known to vary with soil texture, hence, the analyses have been performed in two agricultural fields with a different soil texture. The accumulative effects of glyphosate have been monitored by means of high throughput DNA pyrosequencing of the bacterial DNA coding for the 16S rRNA hypervariable V6 region from rhizobacterial communities. The relative composition of the rhizobacterial communities does vary in each field over the three-year period. The overall distribution of the bacterial phyla seems to change from one year to the next similarly in the untreated and glyphosate-treated soils in both fields. The two methods used to estimate bacterial diversity offered consistent results and are equally suitable for diversity assessment. Conclusions/Significance The glyphosate treatment during the three-year period of seasonal cultivation in two different fields did not seem to significantly change the maize rhizobacterial communities when compared to those of the untreated soil. This may be particularly relevant with respect to a potential authorisation to cultivate glyphosate-tolerant maize in the European Union. PMID:22096595

  8. The effects of olives harvest period and production year on olive mill wastewater properties - evaluation of Pleurotus strains as bioindicators of the effluent's toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntougias, Spyridon; Gaitis, Fragiskos; Katsaris, Panagiotis; Skoulika, Stavroula; Iliopoulos, Nikiforos; Zervakis, Georgios I

    2013-07-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) generated during the oil extraction from Olea europea L. var. koroneiki olives was sampled at the beginning, the middle and the end of the harvesting season for three successive crop production years, and from four olive mills. OMW samples were examined in respect to their physicochemical characteristics, fatty acid composition of the lipid fraction, and adverse effects on biomass production of nine white-rot fungi of the basidiomycetous genus Pleurotus. Total N, nitrogen species, potassium and phosphate concentrations as well as total phenolics content of OMW samples were influenced by the crop year but not from the harvest period (albeit higher values for nitrate, nitrite, phosphate and potassium as well as total phenolics contents were obtained during ripening of olives), whereas protein concentration, total organic carbon and total solids were not significantly affected by the crop year or the harvest period. In addition, fatty acids composition, i.e. nC14:0, nC16:1Δ9cis, nC17:1Δ10cis, nC18:0, nC18:1Δ9cis, nC22:0 and nC24:0 varied significantly during different crop years and harvest periods. Olive fruits maturity and biannual alternate-bearing appear to play key-roles in the fatty acid variation detected in OMW samples. OMW toxicity as evaluated by the mycelium growth of Pleurotus strains was influenced significantly by the phenolic content of OMW samples obtained during three successive crop years; in contrast, the olives harvest period did not affect Pleurotus biomass production. Hence, experimental data indicated that selected Pleurotus strains could serve as bioindicators of OMW toxicity. Development of viable OMW detoxification processes as well as the exploitation of the effluent's fertilizing value are discussed in the light of the above findings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Review Over a 3-Year Period of European Union Proficiency Tests for Detection of Staphylococcal Enterotoxins in Food Matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nia, Yacine; Mutel, Isabelle; Assere, Adrien; Lombard, Bertrand; Auvray, Frederic; Hennekinne, Jacques-Antoine

    2016-04-13

    Staphylococcal food poisoning outbreaks are a major cause of foodborne illnesses in Europe and their notifications have been mandatory since 2005. Even though the European regulation on microbiological criteria for food defines a criterion on staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) only in cheese and dairy products, European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) data reported that various types of food matrices are involved in staphylococcal food poisoning outbreaks. The European Screening Method (ESM) of European Union Reference Laboratory for Coagulase Positive Staphylococci (EURL CPS) was validated in 2011 for SE detection in food matrices and is currently the official method used for screening purposes in Europe. In this context, EURLCPS is annually organizing Inter-Laboratory Proficiency Testing Trials (ILPT) to evaluate the competency of the European countries' National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) to analyse SE content in food matrices. A total of 31 NRLs representing 93% of European countries participated in these ILPTs. Eight food matrices were used for ILPT over the period 2013-2015, including cheese, freeze-dried cheese, tuna, mackerel, roasted chicken, ready-to-eat food, milk, and pastry. Food samples were spiked with four SE types (i.e., SEA, SEC, SED, and SEE) at various concentrations. Homogeneity and stability studies showed that ILPT samples were both homogeneous and stable. The analysis of results obtained by participants for a total of 155 blank and 620 contaminated samples allowed for evaluation of trueness (>98%) and specificity (100%) of ESM. Further to the validation study of ESM carried out in 2011, these three ILPTs allowed for the assessment of the proficiency of the NRL network and the performance of ESM on a large variety of food matrices and samples. The ILPT design presented here will be helpful for the organization of ILPT on SE detection by NRLs or other expert laboratories.

  10. Review Over a 3-Year Period of European Union Proficiency Tests for Detection of Staphylococcal Enterotoxins in Food Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yacine Nia

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcal food poisoning outbreaks are a major cause of foodborne illnesses in Europe and their notifications have been mandatory since 2005. Even though the European regulation on microbiological criteria for food defines a criterion on staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE only in cheese and dairy products, European Food Safety Authority (EFSA data reported that various types of food matrices are involved in staphylococcal food poisoning outbreaks. The European Screening Method (ESM of European Union Reference Laboratory for Coagulase Positive Staphylococci (EURL CPS was validated in 2011 for SE detection in food matrices and is currently the official method used for screening purposes in Europe. In this context, EURLCPS is annually organizing Inter-Laboratory Proficiency Testing Trials (ILPT to evaluate the competency of the European countries’ National Reference Laboratories (NRLs to analyse SE content in food matrices. A total of 31 NRLs representing 93% of European countries participated in these ILPTs. Eight food matrices were used for ILPT over the period 2013–2015, including cheese, freeze-dried cheese, tuna, mackerel, roasted chicken, ready-to-eat food, milk, and pastry. Food samples were spiked with four SE types (i.e., SEA, SEC, SED, and SEE at various concentrations. Homogeneity and stability studies showed that ILPT samples were both homogeneous and stable. The analysis of results obtained by participants for a total of 155 blank and 620 contaminated samples allowed for evaluation of trueness (>98% and specificity (100% of ESM. Further to the validation study of ESM carried out in 2011, these three ILPTs allowed for the assessment of the proficiency of the NRL network and the performance of ESM on a large variety of food matrices and samples. The ILPT design presented here will be helpful for the organization of ILPT on SE detection by NRLs or other expert laboratories.

  11. A Comparison of Household Carbon Emission Patterns of Urban and Rural China over the 17 Year Period (1995–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiansheng Qu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The household sector consumes a large amount of goods and services and is therefore a major source of global carbon emissions. This study aims to analyze per person household carbon emission (HCEs patterns of urban and rural China over the period from 1995 to 2011. Annual macroeconomic data for the study were obtained from authentic Chinese government sources. Direct HCE estimates for each fossil fuel were obtained using the IPCC’s reference approach, and indirect HCEs were calculated by input-output analysis. In 1995, per person HCEs from direct sources for urban and rural China were 0.50 tCO2 and 0.22 tCO2, respectively; by 2011, these values had increased to 0.60 tCO2 and 0.61 tCO2, an increase of 20% and 177.27%, respectively. Similarly, in 1995, per person HCEs from indirect sources for urban and rural China were 0.43 tCO2 and 0.16 tCO2, respectively; by 2011, these values had increased to 1.77 tCO2 and 0.53 tCO2, respectively, an increase of 306% and 235%. The reasons for these differences and the sets of policies required to rectify increasing emissions are discussed. If current trends and practices continue, with a RMB1000 increase in per capita income from 2011 levels, per person HCEs in urban and rural China will increase by 0.119 tCO2 and 0.197 tCO2, respectively. This result indicates that the sector of society which is most vulnerable will contribute most to China’s increasing HCEs. Therefore, while developing energy consumption and emissions reduction policies and programs, principles of fairness and equity need to be followed.

  12. Study of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Campeche (Yucatan Peninsula), Mexico, over a period of two years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Rivera, Mirsha Pamela; Hernández-Montes, Omar; Chiñas-Pérez, Adelaido; Batiza-Avelar, Juan Miguel; Sánchez-Tejeda, Gustavo; Wong-Ramírez, Carlos; Monroy-Ostria, Amalia

    2015-01-01

    To study cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), in the Calakmul municipality of the Campeche State, during two years. Individuals with skin lesions were evaluated. Aspirates taken from the lesions were cultured, PCR was performed to diagnose the Leishmania species. The culture detected 42% of the samples. PCR diagnosed CL in 76% of the samples; of those 38% were from children and 62% from adults. 89% of the patients were infected with L. mexicana; 14.4% with Mexican strains of L. mexicana; 7% with L. braziliensis; 3.6% with L. mexicana and L. braziliensis. The most affected villages with CL were Dos Lagunas Sur with 12.3%, La Mancolona with 6.5% and La Guadalupe with 2.2% of prevalence, respectively. After the treatment with Glucantime, 96% of the patients were healed. CL is an important public health concern in Calakmul, and the parasite causing it belongs to Leishmania mexicana and Leishmania braziliensis complexes.

  13. Ciguatera incidence in the US Virgin Islands has not increased over a 30-year time period despite rising seawater temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radke, Elizabeth G; Grattan, Lynn M; Cook, Robert L; Smith, Tyler B; Anderson, Donald M; Morris, J Glenn

    2013-05-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning is the most common marine food poisoning worldwide. It has been hypothesized that increasing seawater temperature will result in increasing ciguatera incidence. In St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands, we performed an island-wide telephone survey (N = 807) and a medical record review of diagnosed ciguatera cases at the emergency department of the sole hospital and compared these data with comparable data sources collected in 1980. Annual incidence from both recent data sources remained high (12 per 1,000 among adults in the telephone survey). However, the combined data sources suggest that incidence has declined by 20% or more or remained stable over 30 years, whereas seawater temperatures were increasing. Illness was associated with lower education levels, higher levels of fish consumption, and having previous episodes of ciguatera; population shifts from 1980 to 2010 in these factors could explain an incidence decline of approximately 3 per 1,000, obscuring effects from rising seawater temperature.

  14. Trajectories and Determinants of Elder Care in Rural China During an 8-Year Period: Why Having Sons Makes a Difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Man; Chi, Iris; Silverstein, Merril

    2016-07-01

    Using 8-year panel data for 1,355 older adults in rural Anhui province, China, this study examined the trajectories and determinants of elder care provided by adult children to their older parents. The results of two-level latent variable growth models showed that trajectories of elder care differed by the gender of children, with an increase in care from sons but a decrease in care from daughters over time. Children's life stages influenced their care provision but differed by gender. Functional impairment of parents and care provided by siblings in the family also affected the care provided by each child. The findings reflect the patrilineal nature of Chinese family systems and demonstrate the linkages between critical life events and caregiving behaviors of adult children. Findings of this study can inform the formulation of elder care policies that meet the needs of families with different structures and at different life stages.

  15. High-Dose Glycine Treatment of Refractory Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Body Dysmorphic Disorder in a 5-Year Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Louis Cleveland

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an individual who was diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD at age 17 when education was discontinued. By age 19, he was housebound without social contacts except for parents. Adequate trials of three selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, two with atypical neuroleptics, were ineffective. Major exacerbations following ear infections involving Group A -hemolytic streptococcus at ages 19 and 20 led to intravenous immune globulin therapy, which was also ineffective. At age 22, another severe exacerbation followed antibiotic treatment for H. pylori. This led to a hypothesis that postulates deficient signal transduction by the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR. Treatment with glycine, an NMDAR coagonist, over 5 years led to robust reduction of OCD/BDD signs and symptoms except for partial relapses during treatment cessation. Education and social life were resumed and evidence suggests improved cognition. Our findings motivate further study of glycine treatment of OCD and BDD.

  16. Epidemiology and hospital readmission associated with complications of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia in pediatrics over a 25-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LE, J; Dam, Q; Tran, T; Nguyen, A; Adler-Shohet, F C; Kim, S; Schmidt, K; Lieberman, J M; Bradley, J S

    2017-09-01

    We sought to comprehensively assess the prevalence and outcomes of complications associated with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) in children. Secondarily, prevalence of methicillin resistance and outcomes of complications from methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) vs. methicillin-susceptible S. aureus SAB were assessed. This is a single-center cross-sectional study of 376 patients ⩽18 years old with SAB in 1990-2014. Overall, 197 (52%) patients experienced complications, the most common being osteomyelitis (33%), skin and soft tissue infection (31%), and pneumonia (25%). Patients with complications were older (median 3 vs. 0·7 years, P = 0·05) and more had community-associated SAB (66% vs. 34%, P = 0·001). Fewer patients with complications had a SAB-related emergency department or hospital readmission (10% vs. 19%, P = 0·014). Prevalence of methicillin resistance increased from 1990-1999 to 2000-2009, but decreased in 2010-2014. Complicated MRSA bacteremia resulted in more intensive care unit admissions (66% vs. 47%, P = 0·03) and led to increased likelihood of having ⩾2 foci (58% vs. 26%, P < 0·001). From multivariate analysis, community-associated SAB increased risk and concurrent infections decreased risk of complications (odds ratio (OR) 1·82 (1·1-3·02), P = 0·021) and (OR 0·58 (0·34-0·97), P = 0·038), respectively. In conclusion, children with SAB should be carefully evaluated for complications. Methicillin resistance remains associated with poor outcomes but have decreased in overall prevalence.

  17. Epidemiological survey of mucus extravasation phenomenon at an oral pathology referral center during a 43 year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thâmara Manoela Marinho Bezerra

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Mucoceles are common benign pseudocystic lesions of the oral cavity; their main etiological factors are trauma and ductal obstruction. Two histological patterns are found: mucus retention phenomenon (MRP and mucus extravasation phenomenon (MEP. Mucus extravasation phenomenon is the more common histological subtype and it mainly affects the lower lip. The knowledge of its main clinical features and management is important to assist health professionals in clinical practice. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the relative frequency and distribution of oral mucoceles in an oral pathology reference center. METHODS: Cross-sectional historical study that analyzed all cases pathologically diagnosed as mucus extravasation phenomenon by the department of anatomic pathology of an oral pathology referral center from June of 1970 to May of 2014, considering the clinical characteristics of the lesion and those relating to the patient. SPSS v. 20.0 software for Windows was used for descriptive analysis. RESULTS: During 43 years, 719 cases of mucus extravasation phenomenon (54.7% men and 45.3% women were registered, with the lower lip as the most commonly affected site (n = 484; 67.3%. The average age of patients was 20.8 years (SD ± 14.4 with a peak occurrence in the second decade of life. Most professionals had oral mucocele/ranula (n = 606; 84.3% as the initial clinical impression. CONCLUSION: Mucus extravasation phenomenon is a lesion that primarily affects young patients, affecting mainly the lower lip, and is commonly found in oral diagnostic services.

  18. Medicolegal study of child sexual abuse in greater Cairo, Egypt, during a 7-year period: 2005-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgendy, Ibrahim Sadik; Hassan, Nermeen Adly

    2013-12-01

    Child sexual abuse has gained public attention and has become 1 of the most high-profile crimes. This study aimed to determine the demographic and medicolegal aspects of child sexual abuse in greater Cairo, Egypt. This is a retrospective study from January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2011. Data were collected from a Cairo medicolegal department and were statistically analyzed. The total number of cases was 1832 victims; 57.9% were males and 42.1% were females. Most assaults occurred in 2010 (16.2%) and 2011 (17.5%). The age group 6 to 12 years accounted for higher rate (49%), mostly in males (71.8%). A total of 83.3% of the victims belonged to low social class, and 72.3% of the victims were out of school. Only 1.9% of the victims had a mental disability. The crime scene was an unknown place in 78.1%. All offenders were males; most cases had 1 offender (82.5 %); and most offenders were extrafamilial (94.2%), of low social level, illiterate, unemployed, and between 18 and 30 years old. The unmarried offenders assaulted the females more than the males, whereas the married assaulted the males more than the females. A total of 5.8% were intrafamilial offenders; 62.7% of these cases were incest against girls and 37.3% were sodomy against boys. Clothes were normal in 48.8%. Anal assault (52.3%) and incomplete vaginal penetration (32%) were the commonest types. There was no significant relation between findings, investigations, and time. In conclusion, child sexual abuse in greater Cairo represents a problem. Therefore,forensic medicine should be a part of a multidisciplinary approach to prevent, investigate, and treat the problem.

  19. Evaluation of macrophage activation syndrome associated with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis: single center experience over a one-year period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barut, Kenan; Yücel, Gözde; Sinoplu, Ada Bulut; Şahin, Sezgin; Adroviç, Amra; Kasapçopur, Özgür

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the demographic, clinical, laboratory properties of patients with macrophage activation syndrome and treatment outcomes. Material and Methods: The data of the patients who were diagnosed with macrophage activation syndrome secondary to systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis between June 2013–May 2014 were evaluated by screening patient records. Results: Ten patients with macrophage activation syndrome were followed up in one year. The mean age at the time of diagnosis was found to be 7.6±4.5 years. The most common clinical finding at presentation (80%) was increased body temperature. Hepatosplenomegaly was found in half of the patients. The most common hematological finding (90%) was anemia. The mean erythrocyte sedimentation rate was found to be 71.8±36.2 mm/h, whereas it was measured to be lower (31.2±25.2 mm/h) at the time of the diagnosis of macrophage activation syndrome. Increased ferritin level was found in all of our patients (the mean ferritin level was found to be 23 957±15 525 ng/mL). Hypertriglyceridemia was found in nine patients (90%). The mean triglyceride level was found to be 397±332 mg/dL. Systemic steroid treatment was administered to all patients. Cyclosporine A was given to eight patients (80%), canakinumab was given to four patients (40%) and anakinra was given to five patients (50%). Plasmapheresis was performed in two patients. Improvement was found in all patients except for one patient. The patient in whom no improvement was observed showed a chronic course. Conclusions: The diagnosis of macrophage activation syndrome should be considered in presence of sudden disturbance in general condition, resistant high fever and systemic inflammation findings in children with active rheumatic disease. Complete recovery can be provided with early and efficient treatment in macrophage activation syndrome which develops secondary to systemic juvenil idiopathic arthritis. PMID:26884689

  20. A survey of Cryptosporidium oocysts in water supplies during a 10-year period (2000-2009) in Seoul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mok Young; Cho, Eun Joo; Lee, Jin Hyo; Han, Sun Hee; Park, Yong Sang

    2010-09-01

    This study has been conducted to estimate the occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts in water supplies in the Metropolitan area of Seoul, South Korea, for 10 years from 2000 to 2009. Water samples were collected quarterly at 6 intakes in the Han River and its largest stream and 6 conventional Water Treatment Plants (WTPs) serving drinking water for 10 million people of Seoul. Cryptosporidium oocysts were found in 22.5% of intake water samples and arithmetic mean was 0.65 oocysts/10 L (range 0-22 oocysts/10 L). Although the annual mean of oocyst number was as low as 0.04-1.90 oocysts/10 L, 3 peaks in 2004 and 2007 were observed and the pollution level was a little higher in winter. The lowest density was observed at Paldang intake and the pollution level increased at Kuui and Jayang intakes. At the end of the largest stream, oocysts were found in 70% of collected samples (mean 5.71 oocysts/10 L) and it seemed that its joining the Han River resulted in the increase at Kuui intake and downstream. Oocyst removal by physical process exceeded 2.0-2.3 log and then all finished water samples collected at 6 WTPs were negative for Cryptosporidium in each 100 L sample for 10 years. These results suggested that domestic wastewater from the urban region could be a source of Cryptosporidium pollution and separating sewage systems adjacent to the intakes could be meaningful for some intakes having weakness related to parasitological water quality.

  1. Yeast population dynamics in spontaneous fermentations: comparison between two different wine-producing areas over a period of three years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torija, M J; Rozès, N; Poblet, M; Guillamón, J M; Mas, A

    2001-09-01

    Yeast ecology, biogeography and biodiversity are important and interesting topics of research. The population dynamics of yeasts in several cellars of two Spanish wine-producing regions was analysed for three consecutive years (1996 to 1998). No yeast starter cultures had been used in these wineries which therefore provided an ideal winemaking environment to investigate the dynamics of grape-related indigenous yeast populations. Non-Saccharomyces yeast species were identified by RFLPs of their rDNA, while Saccharomyces species and strains were identified by RFLPs of their mtDNA. This study confirmed the findings of other reports that non-Saccharomyces species were limited to the early stages of fermentation whilst Saccharomyces dominated towards the end of the alcoholic fermentation. However, significant differences were found with previous studies, such as the survival of non-Saccharomyces species in stages with high alcohol content and a large variability of Saccharomyces strains (a total of 112, all of them identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae) with no clear predominance of any strain throughout all the fermentation, probably related to the absence of killer phenotype and lack of previous inoculation with commercial strains.

  2. Vaccine-associated measles in the low-incidence country of Korea over a 10-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Young June; Eom, Hye Suk; Bae, Geun-Ryang

    2014-01-01

    As the incidence of measles decreases, cases reported as suspected measles will increasingly involve rash associated with measles vaccination itself. In this study, we assessed vaccine-associated measles cases reported in Korea between 2002 and 2012 using a standardized assessment and following by the World Health Organization case definition criteria. We retrospectively analyzed data regarding (i) wild-type measles and (ii) vaccine-associated measles in patients aged 12-23 months. The presence or absence of fever, rash, cough, coryza, conjunctivitis, and Koplik spots were reviewed. Males were more likely to be reported with vaccine-associated measles than with wild-type measles (68% vs. 47%, P measles peaked between April and July, whereas that of patients with vaccine-associated measles remained relatively constant throughout the year. However, after excluding the cases reported during the 2007 outbreak in Korea, the trend was similar between the two groups. Cough, coryza, and conjunctivitis were more likely to be present in patients with wild-type measles (32-61% vs. 10-43%, P vaccine-associated measles. We therefore conclude that cough, coryza, and conjunctivitis may be useful as key positive findings to distinguish between wild-type measles and vaccine-associated measles infection among 12-23-month-old patients in a country with a low incidence of measles.

  3. Comparisons of carbon storages in Cunninghamia lanceolata and Michelia macclurei plantations during a 22-year period in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Niu; Silong, Wang; Zhiyun, Ouyang

    2009-01-01

    Tree species composition was important for carbon storage within the same climate range. To quantify the dynamics of ecosystem carbon allocation as affected by different tree species, we measured the above- and below-ground biomass accumulation in 22 years, as well as the tissue carbon concentrations of trees in Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation and Michelia macclurei plantation. Results indicated that M. macclurei plantation significantly stored more carbon (174.8 tons/hm2) than C. lanceolata plantation (154.3 tons/hm2). Most of the carbon was found in the soil pool (57.1% in M. macclurei plantation, 55.2% in C. lanceolata plantation). Tree and soil component of M. macclurei plantation possessed significantly higher carbon storage than that of C. lanceolata plantation (p <0.05). No significant difference was found in the carbon storage of understory and forest floor. These results suggest that the broadleaved species (M. macclurei) possesses greater carbon sequestration potential than the coniferous species (C. lanceolata) in southern China.

  4. Comparisons of carbon storages in Cunninghamia lanceolata and Michelia macclurei plantations during a 22-year period in southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIU Dong; WANG Silong; OUYANG Zhiyun

    2009-01-01

    Tree species composition was important for carbon storage within the same climate range.To quantify the dynamics of ecosystem carbon allocation as affected by different tree species,we measured the above- and belowground biomass accumulation in 22 years,as well as the tissue carbon concentrations of trees in Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation and Michelia macclurei plantation.Results indicated that M.macclurei plantation stored significantly more carbon (174.8 tons/hm2) than C.lanceolata plantation (154.3 tons/hm2).Most of the carbon was found in the soil pool (57.1% in M.macclurei plantation,55.2% in C.lanceolata plantation).Tree and soil component of M.macclurei plantation possessed significantly higher carbon storage than that of the C.lanceolata plantation (p<0.05).No significant difference was found in the carbon storage of understory and forest floor.These results suggest that the broadleaved species (M.macclurei) possesses greater carbon sequestration potential than the coniferous species (C.lanceolata) in southern China.

  5. Molecular Typing of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated From Clinical Specimens During an Eight-Year Period (2005 - 2012 in Tabriz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahangarzadeh Rezaee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Antibiotic resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a serious public health problem worldwide. Objectives This study aimed to investigate the susceptibility pattern and molecular typing of S. aureus isolated from clinical specimens of hospitalized patients during eight years, from 2005 to 2012. Materials and Methods A total of 151 randomly selected S. aureus isolates, identified with phenotypic tests and detection of nuc gene, were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing using the disk diffusion method. Moreover, molecular typing of the isolates was carried out by PCR-RFLP based on coa and spa genes. Results All isolates were susceptible to vancomycin and teicoplanin. High rates of susceptibility were also observed with rifampin (98.1%, imipenem (94.7%, and linezolid (94.1%. On the other hand, most of the isolates were resistant against penicillin (95.4%, erythromycin (68.9% and clindamycin (57.6%. Four types of spa and coa were distinguished among the isolates based on PCR results; however, the HaeII digestion resulted in a total of sixteen and nine RFLP patterns for spa and coa genes, respectively. Conclusions The outcome of this study indicates a higher discriminatory power of the RFLP analysis based on the spa gene compared to the coa gene. Moreover, the results of our study reveal that the resistance rate of S. aureus to some antimicrobial agents including linezolid is a growing concern.

  6. The changing indications and rates of cesarean section in one academic center over a 16-year period (1997-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurie, Samuel; Shalev, Amir; Sadan, Oscar; Golan, Abraham

    2016-08-01

    To compare trends and rates of cesarean section delivery by indication in one academic center. A retrospective analysis of the indications of all cesarean sections performed in Edith Wolfson Medical Center, Holon, Israel, a tertiary healthcare university facility, during 1997-2012 was done. Each delivery was assigned to the primary indication noted for that pregnancy, regardless of other indications reported. Whenever more than one indication was present, the principle indication chosen by the attending obstetrician was chosen for the analysis. The cesarean section rate gradually rose from 15.29% in 1997 to 21.10% in 2012, with an overall cesarean section rate of 20.66%. The cesarean section rate between 1997 and 2000 was 17.52%, between 2001 and 2004 was 18.5%, between 2005 and 2009 was 22.86%, and between 2009 and 2012 was 22.07% (p cesarean section (26.0%), non-reassuring fetal heart rate pattern (18.1%), malpresentation (16.9%), labor dystocia (8.8%), and suspected macrosomia (7.2%). Previous cesarean section persistently increased and was the leading indication throughout the years. Any attempt to reverse this trend must be based on reduction of the primary cesarean section rate. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Composition and sources of organic matter in atmospheric PM 10 over a two year period in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiabin; Wang, Tieguan; Zhang, Yanping; Zhong, Ningning; Medeiros, Patricia M.; Simoneit, Bernd R. T.

    2009-08-01

    The solvent-extractable organic compounds of atmospheric PM 10 samples, collected over two years beginning in 2003 at urban and suburban sites of Beijing, were characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The elemental carbon (EC) contents were determined and ranged from 4.3 to 42 μg m - 3 . Organic compounds in total extracts were identified and included unresolved complex mixture (UCM) and series of n-alkanes, n-alkanols, n-alkanoic acids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); saccharides, alkanedioic acids, steroids, and other biomarkers and source tracers. The seasonal variations of their relative abundances are discussed. The abundance order for the major molecular classes in the particulate organic matter (POM) was the following: UCM > saccharides > n-alkanoic acids > n-alkanes > n-alkanols > PAHs > hydroxy-PAHs > other biomarker tracers. Based on the genetic significance of the molecular tracers, the dominant sources of POM are proposed for the two sampling sites. The emissions from fossil fuel use (both coal and petroleum products), biomass combustion, other pyrolysis sources, higher plant wax, and secondary products contribute > 98.0% of the POM mass. The fossil fuel use (average = 65% of POM) is the largest contributor and derives mainly from vehicular traffic.

  8. [Various Salmonella serotypes isolated at a sewage purification plant in a smaller city over a one-year period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüsseler, G; Sobotta, B; Gerhardt, G G; Teitge, E; Gundermann, K O

    1986-04-01

    A one-year-study was carried out in the waste-water treatment plant of Plön (population equivalents 60,000), which has a mechanical and a biological purification and an additional chemical flocculation. Samples were taken at five different places in the plant and examined for Salmonella by use of membrane-filtration and MPN-method. 2,611 Salmonella-strains, representing 23 species, were isolated and serologically typed from samples taken at ten days. S. typhi-murium was found most frequently (Table 1, Fig. 1). The largest spectrum of different types was located in the activated sludge-basin and at the outlet of the chemical flocculation (Table 2). No correlation could be established between the qualitative findings and the Salmonella-counts or other parameter like temperatures. All the ten species that have been officially reported to cause salmonellosis in man were also isolated from the sewage (Table 5). Findings of other Salmonella-serotypes are attributed to unreported human infections and animals or other sources.

  9. A retrospective study of central nervous system shunt infections diagnosed in a university hospital during a 4-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coskun Erdal

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ventriculoperitoneal (VP shunts are used for intracranial pressure management and temporary cerebrospinal fluid (CSF drainage. Infection of the central nervous system (CNS is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with CSF shunts. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical features, pathogens, and outcomes of 22 patients with CSF shunt infections collected over 4 years. Methods The patients with shunt insertions were evaluated using; age, sex, etiology of hydrocephalus, shunt infection numbers, biochemical and microbiological parameters, prognosis, clinical infection features and clinical outcome. Results The most common causes of the etiology of hydrocephalus in shunt infected patients were congenital hydrocephalus-myelomeningocele (32% and meningitis (23%. The commonest causative microorganism identified was Staphylococcus (S. aureus, followed by Acinetobacter spp., and S. epidermidis. Conclusion In a case of a shunt infection the timely usage of appropriate antibiotics, according to the antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and the removal of the shunt apparatus is essential for successful treatment.

  10. Demographic predictors of consistency and change in heterosexuals' attitudes toward homosexual behavior over a two-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Kent; Heywood, Wendy; Simpson, Judy M; Pitts, Marian K; Richters, Juliet; Shelley, Julia M; Smith, Anthony M

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated demographic predictors of consistency and change in heterosexual people's attitudes toward homosexual behavior. A nationally representative sample of Australian men and women were recruited via random digit dialling in 2004 through 2005. Participants completed annual computer-assisted telephone interviews over the next five years. Questions about attitudes toward male and female homosexual behavior were assessed at Wave 1 (2004-2005) and Wave 3 (2006-2007) of the study. The majority of the sample reported tolerance of both male and female homosexual behavior (with women slightly more tolerant than men). Multivariate analyses showed that those who regularly attended religious services were more likely to consistently disapprove of homosexual behavior and more likely to change from tolerant to disapproving. Among those who were initially tolerant, younger respondents and those with higher educations were less likely to become homophobic. The results of this study show that individual attitudes toward homosexual behavior are open to change, particularly toward a more tolerant position. Religiosity appears to be consistently associated with the development and reinforcement of homophobic tendencies.

  11. [Development of the sensitivity to antibiotics in strains of Neisseria gonorrhea isolated in Touraine over a 5-year period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinon, G; Quentin, R; Laudat, P; Vargues, R

    1985-06-01

    347 Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains isolated in Touraine, France, from December 1978 to March 1984 were tested for susceptibility to seven antibiotics using an agar dilution method. Percentage of strains with a penicillin G MIC = 0.06 micrograms/ml rose from 58% in 78-80 to 69% in 82-84. Consistent amoxicillin MICs were found throughout the survey (MIC 50: 0.125 and MIC 90: 0.5 micrograms/ml). Three penicillinase-producing strains were recovered from patients contaminated outside the study area. For tetracycline, minocycline, chloramphenicol and spectinomycin, variations of MICs 50 and 90 did not exceed one dilution either way. For spiramycin, MICs 50 and 90 fell from 2 and 8 micrograms/ml respectively in 78-80 to 1 and 2 micrograms/ml in 82-84. Our findings show that susceptibility of Gonococci to the main antibiotics used for treating gonococcal infections in our area has not changed significantly over the last five years. Moreover, implantation and diffusion of penicillinase-producing strains has failed to occur.

  12. Evolution of Internet addiction in Greek adolescent students over a two-year period: the impact of parental bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siomos, Konstantinos; Floros, Georgios; Fisoun, Virginia; Evaggelia, Dafouli; Farkonas, Nikiforos; Sergentani, Elena; Lamprou, Maria; Geroukalis, Dimitrios

    2012-04-01

    We present results from a cross-sectional study of the entire adolescent student population aged 12-18 of the island of Kos and their parents, on Internet abuse, parental bonding and parental online security practices. We also compared the level of over involvement with personal computers of the adolescents to the respective estimates of their parents. Our results indicate that Internet addiction is increased in this population where no preventive attempts were made to combat the phenomenon from the initial survey, 2 years ago. This increase is parallel to an increase in Internet availability. The best predictor variables for Internet and computer addiction were parental bonding variables and not parental security practices. Parents tend to underestimate the level of computer involvement when compared to their own children estimates. Parental safety measures on Internet browsing have only a small preventive role and cannot protect adolescents from Internet addiction. The three online activities most associated with Internet addiction were watching online pornography, online gambling and online gaming.

  13. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing of Listeria strains isolated from a meat processing plant over a 2-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senczek, D; Stephan, R; Untermann, F

    2000-12-05

    As part of a hygiene monitoring program in a meat processing plant a total of 131 Listeria isolates were detected by sampling different processing areas and meat products within a 2-year period. The isolates were differentiated by means of phenotypic characteristics. Furthermore, the genomic ApaI and SmaI fragment patterns of all isolates were examined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). PFGE using SmaI and ApaI yielded 15 (Listeria monocytogenes), 20 (Listeria innocua) and six (Listeria welshimeri) pulsotypes. Of the environmental Listeria monocytogenes isolates the predominating PFGE-type B was clearly associated with processing area A whereas PFGE-type E predominated in the meat products. Moreover, the study showed the persistence of closely related Listeria strains over a 2-year period in the environment of this meat processing plant.

  14. [Reasons for abolishing the Massage Department of the Imperial Academy of Medicine in the 5(th) year of Longqing Period of the Ming Dynasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang

    2012-01-01

    In the 5th year of the Longqing Period (1571) of the Ming Dynasty, with the abolishment of the Massage and Zhuyou Departments (the latter with a primitive witch doctor, who was dominant in administering incantations, prayers, fortune telling and medicine), the number of departments of the Imperial Academy of Medicine was reduced from thirteen to eleven. In the Jiaqing Period, Taoists occupied some positions in the Imperial Academy of Medicine. Some of them became imperial doctors or even the president, which resulted in Emperor Jiaqing pursuing immortality and neglecting duty on national affairs for more than 20 years. The abolishment of the Massage Department was associated with the official system of reform developed by Emperor Longqing and the prime minister, Gao Gong. Against the background of official reform, they also advanced bold reform in the two departments which Taoists occupied.

  15. Study of platelet-rich plasma injections in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia through an one-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Angeliki Gkini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Platelet-rich plasma (PRP is defined as an autologous concentration of plasma with a greater count of platelets than that of whole blood. Its action depends on the released growth factors from platelets. It has been investigated and used in numerous fields of medicine. Recently, PRP has received growing attention as a potential therapeutic tool for hair loss. Aims: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of PRP injections in the scalp of patients with androgenetic alopecia. Settings and Design: Prospective cohort study. Materials and Methods: 20 patients, 18 males and 2 females, with androgenetic alopecia were enrolled in the study. PRP was prepared using a single spin method (Regenlab SA. Upon activation, it was injected in the androgen-related areas of scalp. Three treatment sessions were performed with an interval of 21 days and a booster session at 6 months following the onset of therapy. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis of the data was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS, version 19.0 (IBM, NY, USA. Results: Hair loss reduced and at 3 months it reached normal levels. Hair density reached a peak at 3 months (170.70 ± 37.81, P < 0.001. At 6 months and at 1 year, it was significantly increased, 156.25 ± 37.75 (P < 0.001 and 153.70 ± 39.92 (P < 0.001 respectively, comparing to baseline. Patients were satisfied with a mean result rating of 7.1 on a scale of 1-10. No remarkable adverse effects were noted. Conclusions: Our data suggest that PRP injections may have a positive therapeutic effect on male and female pattern hair loss without remarkable major side effects. Further studies are needed to confirm its efficacy.

  16. Evaluation of Cases of Abdominal Wall Endometriosis at Universidade Estadual de Campinas in a period of 10 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yela, Daniela Angerame; Trigo, Lucas; Benetti-Pinto, Cristina Laguna

    2017-08-01

    Purpose To determine the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of abdominal wall endometriosis (AWE), as well as the rate and recurrence factors for the disease. Methods A retrospective study of 52 women with AWE was performed at Universidade Estadual de Campinas from 2004 to 2014. Of the 231 surgeries performed for the diagnosis of endometriosis, 52 women were found to have abdominal wall endometriosis (AWE). The frequencies, means and standard deviations of the clinical characteristics of these women were calculated, as well as the recurrence rate of AWE. To determine the risk factors for disease recurrence, Fisher's exact test was used. Results The mean age of the patients was 30.71 ± 5.91 years. The main clinical manifestations were pain (98%) and sensation of a mass (36.5%). We observed that 94% of these women had undergone at least 1 cesarean section, and 73% had used medication for the postoperative control of endometriosis. The lesion was most commonly located in the cesarean section scar (65%). The recurrence rate of the disease was of 26.9%. All 14 women who had relapsed had surgical margins compromised in the previous surgery. There was no correlation between recurrent AWE and a previous cesarean section (p = 0.18), previous laparotomy (p = 0.11), previous laparoscopy (p = 0.12) and postoperative hormone therapy (p = 0.51). Conclusion Women with previous cesarean sections with local pain or lumps should be investigated for AWE. The recurrence of AWE is high, especially when the first surgery is not appropriate and leaves compromised surgical margins. Thieme Revinter Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  17. A Comparison of Women's Collegiate and Girls' High School Volleyball Injury Data Collected Prospectively Over a 4-Year Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeser, Jonathan C; Gregory, Andrew; Berg, Richard L; Comstock, R Dawn

    2015-01-01

    There is a relative paucity of research examining the sport-specific injury epidemiology of high school and collegiate volleyball athletes. Moreover, differences in study methodology frequently limit our ability to compare and contrast injury data collected from selected populations. There are differences between the injury patterns characteristic of high school and collegiate female volleyball athletes. Retrospective clinical review. Level 3. We statistically analyzed injury incidence and outcome data collected over a 4-year interval (2005-2006 to 2008-2009) by 2 similar injury surveillance systems, the National Collegiate Athletic Association's Injury Surveillance System (NCAA ISS) and the High School Reporting Injuries Online (HS RIO). We compared diagnoses, anatomic distribution of injuries, mechanisms of injury, and time lost from training or competition between high school and collegiate volleyball athletes. The overall volleyball-related injury rate was significantly greater among collegiate athletes than among high school athletes during both competition (injury rate ratio, 2.9; 95% CI, 2.5-3.4) and practice (injury rate ratio, 3.5; 95% CI, 3.1-3.9). Collegiate athletes had a higher rate of ankle sprain, knee injury, and shoulder injury. Concussions represented a relatively high percentage of injuries in both populations (5.0% of total NCAA ISS injuries vs 4.8% of total HS RIO injuries, respectively). The data suggest that although similar, there were distinct differences between the injury patterns of the 2 populations. Compared with high school volleyball players, collegiate athletes have a higher rate of acute time loss injury as well as overuse time loss injury (particularly patellar tendinosis). Concussions represented a significant and worrisome component of the injury pattern for both study populations. The injury data suggest that important differences exist in the injury patterns of female high school compared with collegiate volleyball athletes

  18. Hand disinfection in a neonatal intensive care unit: continuous electronic monitoring over a one-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helder Onno K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Good hand hygiene compliance is essential to prevent nosocomial infections in healthcare settings. Direct observation of hand hygiene compliance is the gold standard but is time consuming. An electronic dispenser with built-in wireless recording equipment allows continuous monitoring of its usage. The purpose of this study was to monitor the use of alcohol-based hand rub dispensers with a built-in electronic counter in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU setting and to determine compliance with hand hygiene protocols by direct observation. Methods A one-year observational study was conducted at a 27 bed level III NICU at a university hospital. All healthcare workers employed at the NICU participated in the study. The use of bedside dispensers was continuously monitored and compliance with hand hygiene was determined by random direct observations. Results A total of 258,436 hand disinfection events were recorded; i.e. a median (interquartile range of 697 (559–840 per day. The median (interquartile range number of hand disinfection events performed per healthcare worker during the day, evening, and night shifts was 13.5 (10.8 - 16.7, 19.8 (16.3 - 24.1, and 16.6 (14.2 - 19.3, respectively. In 65.8% of the 1,168 observations of patient contacts requiring hand hygiene, healthcare workers fully complied with the protocol. Conclusions We conclude that the electronic devices provide useful information on frequency, time, and location of its use, and also reveal trends in hand disinfection events over time. Direct observations offer essential data on compliance with the hand hygiene protocol. In future research, data generated by the electronic devices can be supplementary used to evaluate the effectiveness of hand hygiene promotion campaigns.

  19. Surveillance of Antibiotic Resistance among Hospital- and Community-Acquired Toxigenic Clostridium difficile Isolates over 5-Year Period in Kuwait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Wafaa Y.; Rotimi, Vincent O.

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a leading and an important cause of diarrhea in a healthcare setting especially in industrialized countries. Community-associated CDI appears to add to the burden on healthcare setting problems. The aim of the study was to investigate the antimicrobial resistance of healthcare-associated and community-acquired C. difficile infection over 5 years (2008–2012) in Kuwait. A total of 111 hospital-acquired (HA-CD) and 35 community-acquired Clostridium difficile (CA-CD) clinical isolates from stool of patients with diarrhoea were studied. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of 15 antimicrobial agents against these pathogens was performed using E test method. There was no evidence of resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, daptomycin, linezolid, piperacillin-tazobactam, teicoplanin and vancomycin by both HA-CD and CA-CD isolates. Metronidazole had excellent activity against CA-CD but there was a 2.9% resistance rate against HA-CD isolates. Ampicillin, clindamycin, levofloxacin and imipenem resistance rates among the HC-CD vs. CA-CD isolates were 100 vs. 47.4%; 43 vs. 47.4%; 100 vs. 100% and 100 vs. 89%, respectively. An unexpected high rifampicin resistance rate of 15.7% emerged amongst the HA-CD isolates. In conclusion, vancomycin resistance amongst the HA-CD and CA-CD isolates was not encountered in this series but few metronidazole resistant hospital isolates were isolated. High resistance rates of ampicillin, clindamycin, levofloxacin, and imipenem resistance were evident among both CA-CD and HA-CD isolates. Rifampicin resistance is emerging among the HA-CD isolates. PMID:27536994

  20. Outcomes of medical malpractice claims in assisted reproductive technology over a 10-year period from a single carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letterie, Gerard

    2017-04-01

    Medical malpractice claims vary by specialty. Contributory factors to malpractice in reproductive endocrinology and infertility (REI) are not well defined. We sought to determine claims' frequency, basis of claims, and outcomes of settled claims in REI. This is a retrospective, descriptive review of 10 years of claims. The setting is private practices. Claims were monitored within one malpractice carrier between 2006 and 2015 covering 10 practices and 184,015 IVF cycles. Total claims, basis of claims, and indemnity paid were evaluated. There were 176 incidents resulting in 30 settled claims with indemnity payments in 21. Categories of claims settled included misdiagnosis (N = 4), lack of informed consent (N = 5), embryology errors (N = 8), and surgical complications (N = 4). Total and average awards were $15,062,000 and $717,238, respectively. Misdiagnosis and lack of informed consent had highest total award amount at $11,583,000 accounting for 76% of award dollars. The two highest awards were $4.5 million and $3.0 million for cancer and genetic misdiagnosis, respectively. Excluding these two awards, payments totaled $7,562,000, ranged from $6000 to $900,000 and averaged $170,363. Errors in handling of embryos were highest in frequency accounting for 38% of claims paid for a total of $1,593,000 with average payment of $199,188. Settlements for surgical complications totaled $1,855,000 and averaged $463,750 per claim. Misdiagnosis and lack of informed consent are the highest award categories. Embryology lab errors are the most frequent causes of claims with the lowest award per settlement. The average cost for claims settled is relatively high compared to settlements in other specialties.

  1. Environmentally Driven Increases in Type 2 Diabetes and Obesity in Pima Indians and Non-Pimas in Mexico Over a 15-Year Period: The Maycoba Project

    OpenAIRE

    Esparza-Romero, Julian; Valencia, Mauro E; Urquidez-Romero, Rene; Chaudhari, Lisa S.; Hanson, Robert L.; Knowler, William C.; Ravussin, Eric; Bennett, Peter H; Schulz, Leslie O

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The global epidemics of type 2 diabetes and obesity have been attributed to the interaction between lifestyle changes and genetic predisposition to these diseases. We compared the prevalences of type 2 diabetes and obesity in Mexican Pima Indians, presumed to have a high genetic predisposition to these diseases, to those in their non-Pima neighbors, both of whom over a 15-year period experienced a transition from a traditional to a more modern lifestyle. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS ...

  2. Species distribution and in vitro fluconazole susceptibility of clinical Candida isolates in a Brazilian tertiary-care hospital over a 3-year period

    OpenAIRE

    Márcia Cristina Furlaneto; Juliana Frasnelli Rota; Regina Mariuza Borsato Quesada; Luciana Furlaneto-Maia; Renne Rodrigues; Silas Oda; Marcelo Tempesta de Oliveira; Rosana Serpa; Emanuele Júlio Galvão de França

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In this study, we aimed at identifying Candida isolates obtained from blood, urine, tracheal secretion, and nail/skin lesions from cases attended at the Hospital Universitário de Londrina over a 3-year period and at evaluating fluconazole susceptibilities of the isolates. METHODS: Candida isolates were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using species-specific forward primers. The in vitro fluconazole susceptibility test was performed according to EUCAST-AFST reference...

  3. Hypertriglyceridemic Waist Phenotype and Changes in the Fasting Glycemia and Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents Over One-Year Follow-Up Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Priscila Ribas de Farias; Assis, Ana Marlúcia Oliveira; Cunha, Carla de Magalhães; Pereira, Emile Miranda; de Jesus, Gabriela dos Santos; da Silva, Lais Eloy Machado; Alves, Wilanne Pinheiro de Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    Background The hypertriglyceridemic waist (HTW) phenotype is defined as the simultaneous presence of increased waist circumference (WC) and serum triglycerides (TG) levels and it has been associated with cardiometabolic risk in children and adolescents. Objective The objective was to evaluate the influence of HTW phenotype in the fasting glycemia and blood pressure in children and adolescents over one-year follow-up period. Methods It is a cohort study involving 492 children and adolescents from 7 to 15 years old, both genders, who were submitted to anthropometric, biochemical and clinical evaluation at the baseline, and also after 6 and 12 months of follow-up. Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) models were calculated to evaluate the longitudinal influence of the HTW phenotype in the glycemia and blood pressure over one-year. Results It was observed a prevalence of 10.6% (n = 52) of HTW phenotype in the students. The GEE models identified that students with HTW phenotype had an increase of 3.87 mg/dl in the fasting glycemia mean (CI: 1.68-6.05) and of 3.67mmHg in the systolic blood pressure (SBP) mean (CI: 1.55-6.08) over one-year follow-up, after adjusting for confounding variables. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that HTW phenotype is a risk factor for longitudinal changes in glycemia and SBP in children and adolescents over one-year follow-up period. PMID:28562834

  4. One-Year Period Prevalence of Oral Aphthous Ulcers and Oral Health-Related Quality of Life in Patients with Behçet’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariko Naito

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the 1-year period prevalence of oral aphthous ulcers (OAUs and their association with oral health-related quality of life (OHQOL in patients with Behçet’s disease (BD and in the general population. In this cross-sectional study, 675 patients with Behçet’s disease (BD group and 1,097 males and females in the Japanese general population (control group completed both questionnaires on their OAU status during the prior year and the General Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI. In the BD group, 84% of patients reported experiencing an OAU during the previous year, and the mean number of OAUs/year was 13. In the control group, 31% of individuals experienced an OAU during the previous year, and the mean number of OAUs/year was one. Multivariate analysis indicated that both BD patients (OR, 6.2; 95% CI, 4.8–8.0 and controls (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 2.0–3.5 who had OAUs at least twice per year were more likely to have GOHAI scores below the norm than were controls who had fewer than two OAUs per year. The association between HLA-B*51 and OAUs remains unknown. The presence of OAUs has a negative effect on the OHQOL of patients with BD.

  5. Influence of different periods of the year and age on the parameters of antioxidative status and oxidative stress in the blood serum of breeding bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žaja, Ivona Žura; Samardžija, Marko; Vince, Silvijo; Majić-Balić, Ivanka; Đuričić, Dražen; Milinković-Tur, Suzana

    2016-06-01

    The sources of variations that may cause physiological differences between blood serum biochemistry parameters of bulls have not been investigated in detail. Aim of the present study was to establish influence of different periods of the year and the age of breeding bulls on parameters of antioxidative status and oxidative stress in their serum and to correlate these monitored variables. Research was performed on two groups, each comprising 9 Simmental bulls: a younger group (YB) (aged 2-4 years) and older one (OB) (aged 5-10 years). Blood samples for biochemical analyses were collected from jugular vein in cold (CP) and warm periods (WP) of the year. Reduced glutathione (GSH), uric acid (UA), total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), and protein carbonyl content (PCC) serum concentration were determined, as well as activities of selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (Se-GSH-Px), total superoxide dismutase (TSOD), manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) and catalase (CAT). Serum values of SeGSH-Px, MnSOD, UA and TP in OB were significantly higher compared to those in YB during CP of the year. Significantly higher PCC concentration in serum of YB and OB were established in CP of the year than in WP. TBARS serum concentration in YB was significantly higher in comparison to that in OB during CP of the year. It can be concluded that both OB and YB show a great sensitivity to climate condition alterations during CP in comparison to WP of the year and that YB show even greater sensitivity.

  6. Comparison of working conditions and prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms among dairy farmers in southern Sweden over a 25-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan ePinzke

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Working conditions and the prevalence of perceived musculoskeletal symptoms (MSSs among dairy farmers in 2013 were monitored by repeating a mail survey of dairy workers in Scania, southern Sweden, using the same method for collecting data on MSSs and working conditions employed in previous surveys conducted in 1988 and 2002.All dairy enterprises in Scania (total 419 were sent two copies of a questionnaire. One or more responses were received from 232 enterprises (55.4%, of which those from 247 dairy farmers (75% men, 25% women in 199 enterprises are included in this study.The farmers had increased their weekly working hours in 2013 compared with 2002 (males ¯x = 43.9, 40.7; females ¯x = 37.9, 33.9. Each male milked on average 30 cows in 1988, 44 cows in 2002, and 86 cows in 2013. The corresponding numbers milked by female farmers were 29, 60, and 102, respectively. In 1988, almost all farmers used tethered systems, while in 2013 54.4% of male and 66.1% of female farmers instead worked with loose-housing systems. Of the farmers who used loose-housing systems, 50.7% had a robotic milking system.In 2013, 79.0% of male and 88.5% of female farmers reported MSSs on some occasion, especially in the lower back, shoulders, and knees for men and in the shoulders, lower back, and wrists/hands for women. However, there was no statistical change compared with the frequency of MSSs in 2002.In 2013, there was a tendency for younger dairy farmers (≤35 years to report MSSs, especially in the shoulders, elbows, lower back, and feet, more frequently than younger farmers in 2002.The males who worked with robot milking systems in 2013 indicated less discomfort in the shoulders than men who worked with other systems. The corresponding females indicated fewer problems in the lower back in 2013.Various aspects of milking system design and technology have been improved to reduce the workload and prevent MSSs in dairy farmers. Nevertheless, more improvements are

  7. [Various Salmonella serotypes isolated at a sewage purification plant in a large city over a one-year period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobotta, B; Schüsseler, G; Gerhardt, G G; Teitge, E; Gundermann, K O

    1986-04-01

    The paper offers the results of a one-year-survey of Salmonella-serotypes in a municipal sewage-purification plant with a capacity of roughly 70,000 m3 per day. Findings of a quantitative study had shown Salmonella-maxima in the activated-sludge-basin. This suggested specialized Salmonella-serotypes, resident in this part of the plant as a possible explanation which was to be verified by this study. On ten days samples were taken from the inlet, and the outlet of the primary-sedimentation-tank, the outlet of the activated-sludge-basin and the effluent of the final sedimentation-basin. A combination of membrane-filtration and MPN-Method with a fifefold enrichment in 2.5% tetrathionate was applied for salmonella isolation. Plating was done on malachit-green-chinablue-lactose-agar followed by serological typing. 1,587 strains representing 38 different serotypes (Table 1) were identified with S. typhi-murium (Fig. 1) accounting for 36% of the isolations followed by S. bovis-morbificans, S. hadar (Fig. 2) and S. panama. None of the serotypes found showed a preference of a special sampling point. The qualitative and quantitative distribution of Salmonella in the plant seems to depend on the Salmonella contents of the entering waste water mainly. The greatest variety of Salmonella-serotypes was located in the activated-sludge-basin (Table 2) where oxygen-enrichment seems to result in the best ecological conditions for Salmonella survival. 3.3% of 722 strains examined did not produce hydrogen-sulphide (Table 3) and some showed damaged flagella-antigens. As a possible explanation toxic influences in the sewage are discussed. The epidemiological links between findings of Salmonella in sewage and in man of the same area are established and results differing in some aspects explained by the high rate of unknown infections. The existence of an autochthonous Salmonella-population in the sewage plant could not be proved.

  8. Determinants of Aortic Root Dilatation and Reference Values Among Young Adults Over a 20-Year Period: Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixido-Tura, Gisela; Almeida, Andre L C; Choi, Eui-Young; Gjesdal, Ola; Jacobs, David R; Dietz, Harry C; Liu, Kiang; Sidney, Stephen; Lewis, Cora E; Garcia-Dorado, David; Evangelista, Artur; Gidding, Samuel; Lima, João A C

    2015-07-01

    Aortic size increases with age, but factors related to such dilatation in healthy young adult population have not been studied. We aim to evaluate changes in aortic dimensions and its principal correlates among young adults over a 20-year time period. Reference values for aortic dimensions in young adults by echocardiography are also provided. Healthy Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study participants aged 23 to 35 years in 1990-1991 (n=3051) were included after excluding 18 individuals with significant valvular dysfunction. Aortic root diameter (ARD) by M-mode echocardiography at year-5 (43.7% men; age, 30.2 ± 3.6 years) and year-25 CARDIA exams was obtained. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed to assess associations of ARD with clinical data at years-5 and -25. ARD from year-5 was used to establish reference values of ARD in healthy young adults. ARD at year-25 was greater in men (33.3 ± 3.7 versus 28.7 ± 3.4 mm; P<0.001) and in whites (30.9 ± 4.3 versus 30.5 ± 4.1 mm; P=0.006). On multivariable analysis, ARD at year-25 was positively correlated with male sex, white ethnicity, age, height, weight, 20-year gain in weight, active smoking at baseline, and 20-year increase in diastolic, systolic, and mean arterial pressure. A figure showing the estimated 95th percentile of ARD by age and body surface area stratified by race and sex is provided. This study demonstrates that smoking, blood pressure, and increase in body weight are the main modifiable correlates of aortic root dilation during young adulthood. Our study also provides reference values for ARD in young adults.

  9. Contrasting age related changes in autism spectrum disorder phenomenology in Cornelia de Lange, Fragile X, and Cri du Chat syndromes: Results from a 2.5 year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Lisa; Moss, Joanna; Nelson, Lisa; Oliver, Chris

    2015-06-01

    Little is known about the way in which the characteristics of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) develop and manifest across the age span in individuals with genetic syndromes. In this study we present findings from a two and a half year follow-up of the characteristics associated with ASD in three syndromes: Cornelia de Lange (CdLS), Fragile X (FXS), and Cri du Chat (CdCS). Parents and carers of 251 individuals (CdLS=67, CdCS=42, and FXS=142) completed the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) at Time 1 (T1) and again two and a half years later (T2). The FXS and CdLS groups were more likely to meet the cut-offs for both autism and ASD and show greater severity of ASD related behaviors, at both T1 and T2, compared to the CdCS group. Older individuals (>15yrs) with CdLS were more likely to meet the cut off for ASD than younger individuals (≤15 yrs) with the syndrome and more likely to show greater severity of social impairments. In FXS repetitive behaviors were found to become less prominent with age and in CdCS social impairments were reported to be more severe with age. There were no significant changes between T1 and T2 in the severity of ASD characteristics in the CdCS and CdLS groups. The FXS group showed significantly fewer repetitive behaviors and less severe impairments in social interaction over this time frame. The findings suggest that while there may be similarities in overall severity and presentation of ASD characteristics in CdLS and FXS, these characteristics have divergent patterns of development within these groups. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Chlorhexidine bathing for the prevention of colonization and infection with multidrug-resistant microorganisms in a hematopoietic stem cell transplantation unit over a 9-year period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Elisa Teixeira; Ranzani, Otavio T.; Marchi, Ana Paula; da Silva, Mariama Tomaz; Filho, José Ulysses Amigo; Alves, Tânia; Guimarães, Thais; Levin, Anna S.; Costa, Silvia Figueiredo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Health care associated infections (HAIs) are currently among the major challenges to the care of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) patients. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of 2% chlorhexidine (CHG) bathing on the incidence of colonization and infection with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE), multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative pathogens, and to evaluate their CHG minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) after the intervention. A quasi-experimental study with duration of 9 years was conducted. VRE colonization and infection, HAI rates, and MDR gram-negative infection were evaluated by interrupted time series analysis. The antibacterial susceptibility profile and mechanism of resistance to CHG were analyzed in both periods by the agar dilution method in the presence or absence of the efflux pump inhibitor carbonyl cyanide-m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (CCCP) and presence of efflux pumps (qacA/E, qacA, qacE, cepA, AdeA, AdeB, and AdeC) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The VRE colonization and infection rates were significantly reduced in the postintervention period (P = 0.001). However, gram-negative MDR rates in the unit increased in the last years of the study. The CHG MICs for VRE increased during the period of exposure to the antiseptic. A higher MIC at baseline period was observed in MDR gram-negative strains. The emergence of a monoclonal Pseudomonas aeruginosa clone was observed in the second period. Concluding, CHG bathing was efficient regarding VRE colonization and infection, whereas no similar results were found with MDR gram-negative bacteria. PMID:27861350

  11. Frequency and changes in trends of leading risk factors of coronary heart disease in women in the city of Novi Sad during a 20-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakić Dušica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Backround/Aim. From 1984 to 2004 the city of Novi Sad participated through its Health Center “Novi Sad” in the international Multinational MONItoring of Trends and Determinants in CArdiovascular Disease (MONICA project, as one of the 38 research centers in 21 countries around the world. The aim of this study was to determine frequency and changes of trends in leading risk factors of coronary heart disease (CHD and to analyze the previous trend of movement of coronary event in women in Novi Sad during a 20- year period. Methods. In 2004, the fourth survey within MONICA project was conducted in the city of Novi Sad. The representative sample included 1,041 women between the age of 25 and 74. The prevalence of risk factors in CHD such as smoking, high blood pressure, elevated blood cholesterol, elevated blood glucose and obesity was determined. Also, indicators of risk factors and rates of coronary events in women were compared with the results from MONICA project obtained in previous three screens, as well as with the results from other research centres. χ2-test, linear trend and correlartion coefficient were used in statistical analysis of results obtained. Results. It was observed that during a 20-year period covered by the study, the prevalence of the leading risk factors for the development of CHD in the surveyed women was significantly increasing and in positive correlation with the values of linear trend. Also, the increase of morbidity rates and mortality rates of coronary event were in positive correlation. The decrease was only recorded in the period from 1985-1989 (the implementation of the intervention programme. Conclusion. Upon analysing the increase in prevalence of leading risk factors of CHD and significant increase in the rates of coronary event, we can conclude that health status of women in Novi Sad during a 20-year period was deteriorating.

  12. SOCIOECONOMIC AND DEMOGRAPHIC VARIATION IN NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF UNDER-FIVE BANGLADESHI CHILDREN AND TREND OVER THE TWELVE-YEAR PERIOD 1996-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsena, Masuda; Goto, Rie; Mascie-Taylor, C G Nicholas

    2017-03-01

    The nutritional status of under-five-year-old children is a sensitive indicator of a country's health status as well as economic condition. The objectives of this study were to analyse trends in the nutritional status in Bangladeshi children over the period 1996-2007 and to examine the associations between nutritional and socioeconomic status variables. Bangladesh Demographic Health Surveys (BDHS) were the source of data, and a total of 16,278 children were examined. The Z-scores of the children were analysed as continuous as well as categorical variables (stunted, underweight and wasted). The socioeconomic status variables used were region, urban-rural residence, education and occupation of the parents, house type and household possession score. A series of General Linear Model and Sequential Linear and Binary Logistic Regression analyses were done to assess the relationship between demographic and socioeconomic variables and nutritional status. The trends of Z-scores were analysed by survey, as well as by child birth cohort. Region, house type, educational level of parents and household possession score showed significant associations with all three Z-scores of children after removing the effects of age, period of DHS and other explanatory variables in the model. No significant sex difference was observed between any of the Z-scores. There were improvements in mean WAZ and HAZ between 1996 and 2007 but deterioration in mean WHZ over this period. The obesity rate was below 2% in 2007, although the absolute numbers of obese children had nearly doubled in this 12-year period. Children from poorer households showed greater improvement than their better-off counterparts. The study reveals that over the years there has been substantial improvement in nutritional status of under-five children in Bangladesh and the main gains have been amongst the lower socioeconomic groups; it is also evident that malnutrition in Bangladesh is a multidimensional problem, like poverty

  13. High Angular Resolution Observations of Episodic Dust Emission from Long Period Variable Stars Twenty Years of Observations with the Berkeley Infrared Spatial Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danchi, William

    2010-01-01

    Over the past twenty years the U. C. Berkeley Infrared Spatial Interferometer has observed a number of Long Period Variable stars in the mid-infrared, obtaining information on the spatial distribution of dust around these stars with resolutions of the order of a few tens of milliarcseconds. The ISI is a heterodyne interferometer operating mostly at 11.15 microns, initially with two telescopes. In the last decade, it has been taking data regularly with three telescopes, thus obtaining visibility data on three baselines and also a closure phase. Over the course of the years, the ISI has been able to measure the physical properties of the dust shells surrounding these stars, in particular the inner radii of the dust shells, as well as the temperature and density distribution. For some stars, the ISI has also made precision measurements of their diameters in the mid-infrared. Closure phase measurements have revealed asymmetries in the dust distributions around many stars. Most surprisingly the ISI data has shown evidence for substantial changes in the amount of dust on time scales of 5-10 years, rather than being directly correlated with the stellar pulsation periods, which are of the order of one year. We discuss past results and new results from the ISI that highlight the dynamic environment around these stars.

  14. Attention problems among children with a positive family history of alcohol abuse or dependence and controls. Prevalence and course for the period from preteen to early teen years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnow, Sven; Schuckit, Marc; Smith, Tom; Spitzer, Carsten; Freyberger, Harald-J

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the scope and course of attention problems over a period of time from preteen (ages 7-12 years) to early teen years (ages 13-17 years). We compared symptoms in subjects with and without a family history (FH) of alcohol abuse or dependence from among families without evidence of antisocial personality disorder. Evaluations of attention problems for the offspring were based on the Child Behavior Checklist and a validated semistructured interview carried out with the mother. The findings indicate no higher risk for attention problems and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-like symptoms in the children of families with an alcohol use disorder. Regarding the course of problems, the ADHD symptom count tended to decrease over time, especially for children without a FH of alcohol abuse or dependence. Further research will be needed to determine whether results can be replicated with families from different social strata and including subjects with the antisocial personality disorder.

  15. Impact of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on serotype distribution and susceptibility trends of pediatric non-invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates in Tokai, Japan over a 5-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okade, Hayato; Funatsu, Tori; Eto, Maki; Furuya, Yuri; Mizunaga, Shingo; Nomura, Nobuhiko; Mitsuyama, Junichi; Yamagishi, Yuka; Mikamo, Hiroshige

    2014-07-01

    Introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in February 2010 markedly reduced the burden of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and changed serotype distribution in Japan. We investigated the serotype distribution and susceptibility trends of non-invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates collected from pediatric patients. A total of 564 pneumococcal isolates were collected over a 5-year period between 2008 and 2012. The coverage of PCV7 significantly decreased throughout the study period, from 49.3% in period 1 (between June 2008 and April 2009) to 23.4% in period 4 (between October 2011 and March 2012). This change was mainly due to a large decrease in the frequency of 19F (from 20.6% to 9.9%) and 6B (from 10.3% to 2.7%) and an increase in serotype 3 (from 5.1% to 13.5%) and serogroup 15 (from 4.4% to 9.0%). According to serotype replacement, the susceptible ratios of S. pneumoniae to β-lactams increased slightly while macrolide resistance remained high. The high frequency of macrolide-resistant pneumococcal isolates may continue because of the high frequency of erm(B) in replace serotypes such as serotype 3 and serogroup 15. The continuous surveillance study is essential following the introduction of a second generation 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13).

  16. An analysis of the sequence variability of meningococcal fHbp, NadA and NHBA over a 50-year period in the Netherlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Bambini

    Full Text Available Studies of meningococcal evolution and genetic population structure, including the long-term stability of non-random associations between variants of surface proteins, are essential for vaccine development. We analyzed the sequence variability of factor H-binding protein (fHbp, Neisserial Heparin-Binding Antigen (NHBA and Neisseria adhesin A (NadA, three major antigens in the multicomponent meningococcal serogroup B vaccine 4CMenB. A panel of invasive isolates collected in the Netherlands over a period of 50 years was used. To our knowledge, this strain collection covers the longest time period of any collection available worldwide. Long-term persistence of several antigen sub/variants and of non-overlapping antigen sub/variant combinations was observed. Our data suggest that certain antigen sub/variants including those used in 4CMenB are conserved over time and promoted by selection.

  17. An analysis of the sequence variability of meningococcal fHbp, NadA and NHBA over a 50-year period in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambini, Stefania; Piet, Jurgen; Muzzi, Alessandro; Keijzers, Wendy; Comandi, Sara; De Tora, Lisa; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Rappuoli, Rino; van de Beek, Diederik; van der Ende, Arie; Comanducci, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    Studies of meningococcal evolution and genetic population structure, including the long-term stability of non-random associations between variants of surface proteins, are essential for vaccine development. We analyzed the sequence variability of factor H-binding protein (fHbp), Neisserial Heparin-Binding Antigen (NHBA) and Neisseria adhesin A (NadA), three major antigens in the multicomponent meningococcal serogroup B vaccine 4CMenB. A panel of invasive isolates collected in the Netherlands over a period of 50 years was used. To our knowledge, this strain collection covers the longest time period of any collection available worldwide. Long-term persistence of several antigen sub/variants and of non-overlapping antigen sub/variant combinations was observed. Our data suggest that certain antigen sub/variants including those used in 4CMenB are conserved over time and promoted by selection.

  18. Numerical study on the impact of the 18.6-year period nodal tidal cycle on water masses in the subarctic North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osafune, S.; Yasuda, I.

    2012-05-01

    A series of numerical experiments is performed to test the hypothesis that temporal variations in localized strong tidal mixing related to the 18.6-year period nodal tidal cycle induce water mass variations. It is suggested that enhanced mixing around the Bering Sea, as that around the Okhotsk Sea, have an impact on water masses broadly in the North Pacific including the Bering Sea and the Okhotsk Sea. Oscillatory tidal mixing with a 18.6-year period reproduces water mass variations in salinity and isopycnal potential temperature around the subarctic North Pacific that are qualitatively consistent with observed variations. When the amplitude of oscillatory vertical diffusivity is 15% of the long-term mean (and even when the amplitude is as small as 3 cm2/s, as obtained for a long-term mean of 20 cm2/s), the amplitude of the salinity variation near regions of strong mixing is smaller than but on the same order of magnitude as that observed. The induced salinity anomaly spreads broadly, over a distance of several hundreds of kilometers, by mean currents with a short lag time of less than 3 years, and is suggested to influence the model winter mixed layer over broad regions. These results support the hypothesis stated above and suggest that it is necessary to clarify spatial and temporal variations in tidal mixing to reproduce both the mean states of and temporal variations in water masses of the subarctic North Pacific.

  19. Early introduction and cumulative consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages during the pre-school period and risk of obesity at 8-14 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantoral, A; Téllez-Rojo, M M; Ettinger, A S; Hu, H; Hernández-Ávila, M; Peterson, K

    2016-02-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) has been associated with risk of obesity, but little evidence exists to evaluate if age of introduction and cumulative SSB consumption increases risk in children. The objective of the study was to estimate the relationship between age of introduction and cumulative SSB consumption with risk of obesity in 227 Mexican children. SSB intake was measured every 6 months; age of introduction and cumulative consumption during the pre-school period were calculated. Height, weight, waist circumference, SSB intake and other relevant variables were measured at age 8-14 years and obesity defined using standard criteria. All participants were introduced to SSB before age 24 months and most (73%) before 12 months. Early SSB introduction (≤12 months) was not significantly associated with increased odds of obesity (odds ratio [OR] = 2.00, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.87, 4.59). However, children in the highest tertile of cumulative SSB consumption, compared with the lowest, had almost three times the odds of general (OR = 2.99, 95% CI: 1.27, 7.00) and abdominal (OR = 2.70, 95% CI: 1.03, 7.03) obesity at age 8-14 years. High SSB consumption increased the likelihood of obesity in 8-14-year-old children. Our results suggest that SSB intake should be delayed and excessive SSB consumption in pre-school period should be avoided. © 2015 World Obesity.

  20. Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis episode during halothane anesthesia in a horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, J E; Pablo, L; Hubbell, J A

    1996-06-01

    A 7-month-old Quarter Horse filly was admitted for surgical repair of a right olecranon fracture. Anesthesia was achieved with xylazine hydrochloride, guaifenesin, ketamine hydrochloride, and halothane. Two and a half hours after induction of anesthesia, myotonia, muscle fasciculations, and sweating, concurrent with high serum potassium concentration and associated electrocardiographic changes consistent with hyperkalemic periodic paralysis, were observed. Treatment included intermittent positive-pressure ventilation, changing intravenous administration of fluids from lactated Ringer's solution to 0.9% NaCl solution, and administration of calcium gluconate, glycopyrrolate, dopamine, and sodium bicarbonate. Clinical signs resolved with the return of serum potassium concentrations to the reference range. The horse was confirmed to be heterozygous for hyperkalemic periodic paralysis by DNA testing.

  1. Anthropometric evaluation and micronutrients intake in patients submitted to laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass with a postoperative period of ≥ 1 year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercachita, Tânia; Santos, Zélia; Limão, Jorge; Carolino, Elisabete; Mendes, Lino

    2014-01-01

    Bariatric surgery is indicated as the most effective treatment for morbid obesity; the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is considered the procedure of choice. However, nutritional deficiency may occur in the postoperative period as a result of reduced gastric capacity and change in nutrients absorption in the gastrointestinal tract. The prescription of vitamin and mineral supplementation is a common practice after RYGB; however, it may not be sufficient to prevent micronutrient deficiencies. The aim of this study was to quantify the micronutrient intake in patients undergoing RYGB and verify if the intake of supplementation would be enough to prevent nutritional deficiencies. The study was conducted on 60 patients submitted to RYGB. Anthropometric, analytical, and nutritional intake data were assessed preoperatively and 1 and 2 years postoperatively. The dietary intake was assessed using 24-h food recall; the values of micronutrients evaluated (vitamin B12, folic acid, iron, and calcium) were compared to the dietary reference intakes (DRI). There were significant differences (p < 0.05) between excess weight loss at the first and second year (69.9 ± 15.3 vs 9.6 ± 62.9 %). In the first and second year after surgery, 93.3 and 94.1 % of the patients, respectively, took the supplements as prescribed. Micronutrient deficiencies were detected in the three evaluation periods. At the first year, there was a significant reduction (p < 0.05) of B12, folic acid, and iron intake. Despite taking vitamin and mineral supplementation, micronutrient deficiencies are common after RYGB. In the second year after surgery, micronutrient intake remains below the DRI.

  2. Tree community dynamics in a submontane forest in southeastern Brazil: growth, recruitment, mortality and changes in species composition over a seven-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange de Vasconcellos Albuquerque Pessoa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess long-term community dynamics in tree populations, we investigated trees with a diameter at breast height (DBH > 5 cm in an 11-ha fragment of submontane tropical forest in southeastern Brazil, at the beginning and end of a seven-year period. We observed a general tendency toward decreasing numbers of trees and toward stability in basal area. The stability in basal area was associated with an equilibrium between the loss of trees and the basal area gain from the horizontal growth of surviving trees, as well as from recruits The abundance of dead trees was significantly higher than was that of recruits. Changes in tree abundance occurred mainly in the lower DBH classes, whereas changes in basal area occurred mainly in the intermediate DBH classes. Among trees with a DBH > 10 cm, the observed rates of mortality and recruitment (2.4% yr-1 and 1.8% yr-1, respectively were similar to those reported for other tropical forests. When we examined only trees with a DBH > 10 cm, we found the half-life to be 29.5 years, which places the forest fragment studied among the most dynamic of tropical forests. Over the seven-year period evaluated, the tree community lost ten species, with no new records. The most abundant species showed the highest rates of mortality and recruitment. Climax species, whether shade-tolerant or light-demanding, accounted for more species and individuals than did pioneer species, suggesting that the former group has a greater influence on forest dynamics. The results suggest that the tree community studied is in or is approaching a state of dynamic equilibrium, the changes in community structure and composition being attributed to periodic fluctuations.

  3. The incidence of lymphocytic thyroid infiltration and Hashimoto's thyroiditis increased in patients operated for benign goiter over a 31-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Johannes; Meusel, Moritz; Schultheis, Andrea; Promberger, Regina; Pallikunnel, Shannon Joan; Neuhold, Nikolaus; Hermann, Michael

    2011-09-01

    The incidence of Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) seems to have increased over the last several decades. Since there is a lack of recent studies in the literature that evaluate this phenomenon on a histological basis, we aimed to assess the incidence of lymphocytic thyroid infiltration (LTI) in our large surgical patient collective over a 31-year period. In our study, a total of 1,050 patients who had undergone uni- or bilateral thyroid surgery for benign goiter were included (150 patients in each group, during 1979 to 2009). The stored histological sections of the removed thyroid specimens were re-analyzed, including routine grading of LTI severity on a scale of 0-4, according to Williams and Doniach. Positive correlations were seen for the incidences of LTI grading (0-4) (r = 0.077, p = 0.013) and HT (r = 0.044, p = 0.078) over the years. Furthermore, when comparing the years 1979-1989 and 1994-2009, i.e., before and after the second iodine prophylaxis had been introduced in Austria, a higher incidence of HT was found for the later years (2 out of 450, 0.4%, vs. 6 out of 600, 1.0%, respectively; p < 0.0001). In conclusion, the data demonstrate that the incidence of LTI and HT has increased substantially over the last 31 years.

  4. 大地震的18.6年周期%The 18.6-year periodicity of great earthquakes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜品仁; 赵俊猛; 高祥林

    2011-01-01

    Dividing the world into 15 study areas and using the earthquake catalogue of Mw≥7. 0 during 1900~2009, we make a statistical analysis of the relationship between seismicity of each area and the period of lunar nodal motion. The result shows that among the 15 areas, 10 areas exhibit an 18. 6-year cycle of great earthquakes in statistical sense, which consists of a 12. 4-year active section and a 6. 2-year quiet section. In the eastern, northern, southern and western areas of the Circum-Pacific seismic belt, such a periodicity is present and their active sections have certain regularity. In terms of seismic events during the sixth cycle (1991~2009), this study has tested the stability and applicability of the 18. 6-year periodicity derived from earlier five cycles (1900- 1990). It is found that most of periodicities are stable in the regions with such characters. The possible mechanisms of the 18. 6-year periodicity are as follows: (1) Earthquakes are modulated by the 18. 6-year tide via day and half-day tides. (2) Effect of fluid tide in upper mantle (tide within the Earth). And (3) earthquakes are dictated by 18. 6-year tide through variation of Earth rotation.%将全球分为15个研究区,用1900~2009年Mw≥7.0地震目录,统计分析了各区大地震与月球交点运动周期的关系,得出15个研究区中有10个区,大地震存在统计意义上的18.6a周期:活跃段为12.4a,平静段为6.2a;环太平洋地震带北、南、西、东4大区的大地震,不仅有这样的周期,而且其地震活跃段的时间存在一定规律.用第6个18.6 a(1991~2009年)期间的大地震,检验据前5个18.6 a(1900~1990年)地震目录所得18.6 a周期的稳定性和实用性,发现有这种周期的地区多数的周期性是稳定的.大地震18.6 a周期的可能成因有:(1)18.6 a潮波通过调制日潮和半日潮调制大地震;(2)上地幔内流体的潮汐(地内潮)作用;(3)18.6 a潮波通过影响地球自转变化调制大地震.

  5. Decline in lymphatic filariasis transmission with annual mass drug administration using DEC with and without albendazole over a 10year period in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunish, I P; Kalimuthu, M; Rajendran, R; Munirathinam, A; Ashok Kumar, V; Nagaraj, J; Tyagi, B K

    2015-02-01

    The National Programme for the Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis is underway in the endemic districts of Tamil Nadu State, South India, since 2001. Annual mass drug administration (MDA) was carried out by the state health department to all eligible individuals. The impact of MDAs on transmission parameters was evaluated in 2 revenue blocks, viz, one with DEC alone and the other with a combination of albendazole. After 10 years with 6 annual MDAs, the transmission indices reached low levels in both treatment arms, but still persisted. However, the DEC alone arm showed higher transmission rates, compared to the DEC+ALB arm. Few villages which demonstrated persistent transmission need to be targeted with an additional control measure viz, vector control, to achieve LF elimination. It is evident from the 10 year period of the study that inclusion of albendazole along with DEC has significantly reduced the transmission indices to almost nil level, as compared to DEC alone.

  6. Progression of lumbar disc herniations over an eight-year period in a group of adult Danes from the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Per; Tunset, Andreas; Boyle, Eleanor;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A lumbar disc herniation (LDH) is a localised displacement of disc material, which may initiate changes in the disc and adjacent structures such as the nerve root and the spinal canal. Knowledge about how morphological changes in the disc relate to changes in other spinal structures...... with MRI-confirmed disc herniations at 41 or 45 years were included. Cross-sectional areas (mm(2)) of the LDH, dural sac and disc height were calculated from measurements performed on sagittal T2-weighted images using a previously validated method. Changes over time for the three MRI findings were defined.......35[0.14;0.56]). Moreover, larger herniation size predicted a statistically significant reduction in both dural sac area (β-0.35[-0.58;-0.13]) and disc height (β-0.50[-0.81;-0.20]). CONCLUSIONS: On average, most LDHs do not change over a four- to eight-year period. However, larger herniation size predicts a reduction...

  7. Time trends of cannabis use among treatment-seeking individuals at government de-addiction centers across India over a period of 7 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatan Pal Singh Balhara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cannabis continues to be the most commonly used illicit psychoactive substance globally. The National Survey in India conducted in the year 2004 also reported it to be the most commonly used illicit substance in the country. Furthermore, it was reported to be the second most commonly used psychoactive substance by the treatment seekers at de-addiction centers in the country. Objectives: To assess time trends of cannabis use among treatment-seeking individuals at government de-addiction centers across India over a period of 7 years. Materials and Methods: The study utilized data collected through Drug Abuse Monitoring System across India. The data of treatment seekers from de-addiction centers established under the Drug De-addiction Program, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India and supported by the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, Government of India (122 in number across the country were analyzed. Results: A total of 107,469 individuals sought treatment from government de-addiction centers over the 7 years (2007–2013 period. With the exception of an aberration for the year 2012, there has been a steady decline in the proportion of treatment seekers who are not current cannabis users. A significantly greater proportion (Chi-square: 586.30, df: 1, P < 0.001 of individuals with current cannabis use alone or along with tobacco (20.4% tend to have a co-morbid psychiatric disorder as compared to treatment seekers with current use of substances other than cannabis (6.1%. Conclusions: It is important to focus on cannabis in clinical service delivery and research in the country.

  8. The relationship between prevalent medial meniscal intrasubstance signal changes and incident medial meniscal tears in women over a 1-year period assessed with 3.0 T MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crema, Michel D. [Boston University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Quantitative Imaging Center, Boston, MA (United States); Ribeirao Preto School of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo (USP), Department of Biomechanics, Medicine and Rehabilitation of the Locomotor Apparatus, and Department of Internal Medicine, Radiology Division, Ribeirao Preto (Brazil); Institute of Diagnostic Imaging (IDI), Ribeirao Preto (Brazil); Hunter, David J. [The University of Sydney, Sydney School of Medicine, Sydney (Australia); Roemer, Frank W. [Boston University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Quantitative Imaging Center, Boston, MA (United States); Klinikum Augsburg, Department of Radiology, Augsburg (Germany); Li, Ling [New England Baptist Hospital, Division of Research, Boston, MA (United States); Marra, Monica D. [Boston University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Quantitative Imaging Center, Boston, MA (United States); Institute of Diagnostic Imaging (IDI), Ribeirao Preto (Brazil); Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello H. [Ribeirao Preto School of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo (USP), Department of Biomechanics, Medicine and Rehabilitation of the Locomotor Apparatus, and Department of Internal Medicine, Radiology Division, Ribeirao Preto (Brazil); Hellio Le Graverand, Marie-Pierre; Wyman, Bradley T. [Pfizer Global Research and Development, New London, CT (United States); Guermazi, Ali [Boston University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Quantitative Imaging Center, Boston, MA (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Intrasubstance meniscal signal changes not reaching the articular surface on fast spin echo (FSE) sequences are considered to represent mucoid degeneration on MRI. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of prevalent intrasubstance signal changes with incident tears of the medial meniscus detected on 3.0 T MRI over a 1-year period. A total of 161 women aged {>=}40 years participated in a longitudinal 1-year observational study of knee osteoarthritis. MRI (3.0 T) was performed at baseline and 12-month follow-up. The anterior horn, body, and posterior horn of the medial meniscus were scored by two experienced musculoskeletal radiologists using the Boston-Leeds Osteoarthritis Knee Score (BLOKS) system. Four grades were used to describe the meniscal morphology: grade 0 (normal), grade 1 (intrasubstance signal changes not reaching the articular surface), grade 2 (single tears), and grade 3 (complex tears and maceration). Fisher's exact test and the Cochran-Armitage trend test were performed to evaluate whether baseline intrasubstance signal changes (grade 1) predict incident meniscal tears/maceration (grades 2 and/or 3) in the same subregion of the medial meniscus, when compared to subregions without pathology as the reference group (grade 0). Medial meniscal intrasubstance signal changes at baseline did not predict tears at follow-up when evaluating the anterior and posterior horns (left-sided p-values 0.06 and 0.59, respectively). No incident tears were detected in the body. We could not demonstrate an association between prevalent medial meniscal intrasubstance signal changes with incident tears over a 1-year period. (orig.)

  9. Cerebral palsy in eastern Denmark: declining birth prevalence but increasing numbers of unilateral cerebral palsy in birth year period 1986-1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravn, Susanne Holst; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht; Uldall, Peter

    2010-05-01

    The Cerebral Palsy Registry in eastern Denmark has been collecting cases using a uniform data sampling procedure since birth year 1979. Children are included by two child neurologists and an obstetrician. Information on pregnancy, birth, neonatal period, impairments and demographic data are registered. The total cerebral palsy birth prevalence has been significantly decreasing since the birth period 1983-1986 with 3.0 per 1000 live births until the period 1995-1998 with 2.1 per 1000 live births. The overall decrease was seen in preterm infants (term infants and despite a simultaneous fall in perinatal and early neonatal mortality in the preterm group. Analysing the subtypes of CP we found a significant increase in the numbers as well as the rate of unilateral CP with a simultaneous fall in the numbers as well as the rate of bilateral CP. The explanation of this rise is not obvious. A change from bilateral periventricular lesions to unilateral is a possibility, but no major change in the neonatal handling could be documented. Regarding associated impairments, developmental delay/learning disabilities as well as motor function assessed by ability to walk (unassisted/assisted), both have changed toward higher percentage of children with unassisted walking and in need of special education.

  10. Evolutionary trajectory of channel planforms in the middle Garonne River (Toulouse, SW France) over a 130-year period: Contribution of mixed multiple factor analysis (MFAmix)

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Mélodie; Labenne, Amaury; Carozza, Jean-Michel; Valette, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to propose a methodological essay for defining evolutionary trajectories of channel planforms and to examine the channel change in the middle Garonne River (southwest France) over a 130-year period. The study focuses on a reach of ~ 90 km situated downstream from the city of Toulouse. A set of four historical maps (1868, 1940s, 1970s, and 2000s) is used to build a geomorphometric diachronic database. Data processing through mixed multiple factor analysis (MFAmix) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) allows distinction between four homogeneous zones within the study reach, depending on their evolutionary trajectories. Channel behavior in the upstream and median zones evolved as of the beginning of the study period (narrowing of the fluvial area, colonization by vegetation, and removal of alluvial bars), likely owing to punctual anthropogenic actions. The downstream zone is characterized by stabilization of the channel and alluvial bar removal over the second half of the twentieth century, coinciding with the campaign undertaken by French local authorities between 1960 and 1984 to protect river banks. The role of climate transition between the Little Ice Age (LIA) and the onset of the Global Warming period (GW) is also discussed. Results generally are consistent with the chronology established for most European rivers.

  11. Comparative study of antiepileptic drug use during pregnancy over a period of 12 years in Spain. Efficacy of the newer antiepileptic drugs lamotrigine, levetiracetam, and oxcarbazepine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez Ferri, M; Peña Mayor, P; Perez López-Fraile, I; Escartin Siquier, A; Martin Moro, M; Forcadas Berdusan, M

    2016-07-21

    The prescription pattern of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) during pregnancy is changing but to what extent this is occurring in Spain remains unknown. The efficacy of newer drugs for controlling seizures is a key issue and may have changed over the years as doctors gained familiarity with these drugs during pregnancy. To assess these 2 topics, we report the results from the Spanish EURAP register gathered over a 12-year period. After signing informed consent forms, patients were included in the register and evaluated at onset of pregnancy, at the end of the second and third trimesters, after delivery, and one year after delivery. For the purposes of this study, we analysed AEDs, type of epilepsy, seizure frequency per trimester and throughout pregnancy, percentage of seizure-free pregnancies, and frequency of congenital malformations. We then compared data from 2 periods (June 2001-October 2007) and (January 2008-May 2015) RESULTS: We compared 304 monotherapies from the older period to 127 from the more recent one. There was a clear increase in the use of levetiracetam (LEV) with declining use of carbamazepine (CBZ), phenytoin, and phenobarbital; a slight decline in use of valproate (VPA), and a slight increase in the use of lamotrigine (LTG) and oxcarbazepine (OXC). Epilepsy types treated with CBZ and VPA remained unchanged, whereas fewer cases of generalised epilepsy were treated with LTG in the new period. This trend was not associated with significant changes in seizure frequency, but rather linked to better control over de novo seizures in the third trimester. LEV was similar to CBZ and VPA with regard to levels of seizure control, and more effective than LTG. Generalised epilepsy accounted for 64% of the cases treated with LEV. The prescription pattern of AEDs during pregnancy has changed in Spain, with diminishing use of CBZ, phenytoin, and phenobarbital. Changes also reflect the type of epilepsy, since there is less use of LTG for generalised epilepsy. LEV

  12. Sensing propagation events and fade statistics at C-band for two over-water, line-of-sight propagation paths over a one year period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhirsh, Julius; Dockery, G. Daniel; Musiani, Bert H.

    1992-01-01

    We examine signal fading statistics over a year period corresponding to two over-water, line-of-site, propagation links in the mid-Atlantic coast of the US. These links are comprised of a transmitter on a tower at Parramore Island, VA operating at 4.7 GHz sending simultaneous cw signals to two receiver systems located on a lighthouse and a lookout tower on Assateague Beach, VA at distances of 44 and 39 km, respectively. The receiving sites are separated by approximately 5 km. Cumulative fade distributions corresponding to yearly, monthly, and diurnal time scales were derived. Fade duration statistics correspond to sustained attenuation events were also derived. These events, which were arbitrarily defined as having fades relative to free space powers in excess of 20 dB for durations of two hours or more, are believed to be generally due to subrefraction. Analysis of synoptic weather conditions and nearby rawindsonde data during two sustained deep fading periods showed atmospheric conditions consistent with extreme subrefraction, where the refractivity-height profile had a positive lapse rate. The efficacy of employing the links as indicators of real time conditions of atmospheric propagation was also demonstrated by a telephone call-up procedure which enabled displays of time series of the fading at remote locations to be generated.

  13. Bidecadal variability in the intermediate waters of the northwestern subarctic Pacific and the Okhotsk Sea in relation to 18.6-year period nodal tidal cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osafune, S.; Yasuda, I.

    2006-05-01

    On the basis of historical oceanographic data, we investigated the long-term variations of the intermediate waters in the four regions in the northwestern subarctic Pacific: Oyashio, Okhotsk Sea Mode Water, Upstream Oyashio and East Kamchatka Current. We found bidecadal oscillations in these water properties that are synchronized with the 18.6-year period nodal cycle. In periods when the diurnal tide is strong, the following characteristics are found: Apparent oxygen utilization and phosphate are low in Oyashio and Okhotsk Sea Mode Water. The thickness of the intermediate layers is large, and thus potential vorticity is correspondingly low, in Oyashio, Okhotsk Sea Mode Water, and Upstream Oyashio. Around the mesothermal (temperature maximum) water, isopycnal potential temperature are low in the areas on the Pacific side, and high in the intermediate layer of Okhotsk Sea Mode Water. The mixing ratio of Okhotsk Sea Mode Water in the Upstream Oyashio water is high. These bidecadal oscillations can be explained by changes in the vertical mixing around the Kuril Straits induced by the diurnal tide whose amplitude is modulated with the 18.6-year nodal cycle. Higher sea surface salinity water around the Kuril Straits caused by stronger tidal mixing is possibly transported northward along the cyclonic Okhotsk Sea Gyre, and possibly enhances the formation of the dense shelf water. This makes apparent oxygen utilization, phosphate, and potential vorticity lower in Okhotsk Sea Mode Water and Oyashio.

  14. Possible explanation linking 18.6-year period nodal tidal cycle with bi-decadal variations of ocean and climate in the North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Ichiro; Osafune, Satoshi; Tatebe, Hiroaki

    2006-04-01

    Bi-decadal climate variation is dominant over the North Pacific on inter-decadal timescale; however the mechanism has not been fully understood. We here find that the bi-decadal variations in the North Pacific climate and intermediate waters possibly relate to the 18.6-year period modulation of diurnal tide. In the period of strong diurnal tide, tide-induced diapycnal mixing makes surface salinity and density higher and the upper-layer shallower along the Kuril Islands and the east coast of Japan. Simple model results suggest that the coastal depth adjustment by baroclinic Kelvin waves enhances the thermohaline circulation, the upper-layer poleward western boundary current and associated heat transport by about 0.05PW. This could also explain the warmer SST in the Kuroshio-Oyashio Extension regions, where positive feedback with Aleutian Low might amplify the bidecadal variations. The 18.6-year tidal cycle hence could play a role as a basic forcing for the bi-decadal ocean and climate variations.

  15. Changes in gram negative microorganisms’ resistance pattern during 4 years period in a referral teaching hospital; a surveillance study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalili Hossein

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose Surveillance studies evaluating antimicrobial susceptibilities are of great value in preventing the spread of resistant pathogens by elucidating the trend of resistance in commonly used antibiotics and as a consequence providing information for prescribing the most appropriate agent. This study is a longitudinal antimicrobial resistance surveillance study designed to evaluate the trend in antimicrobial resistance to gram negative microorganisms from 2007 to 2010. Method During a four-year period (2007–2010 isolates derived from all patients admitted to infectious diseases ward of Imam Khomeini Hospital, the major referral center for infectious disease in Iran with the highest admission rates, were evaluated. Based on disk diffusion method and zone of inhibition size, the microorganism was regarded as to be sensitive, resistant or has intermediate susceptibility to the antimicrobial agents. Results The widest spread Gram-negative microorganism in all of isolates taken together in our study was E.coli (30% followed by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in 28.6% and Enterobacter spp. in 11.9%, respectively. The susceptibility to amikacin, imipenem, piperacillin/tazobactam, and nitrofurantoin was equal or above 50% for all microorganisms over four years. However, the susceptibility to ampicillin, ampicillin/sulbactam, cefotaxim, and ceftriaxone was less than 50% in derived isolates during the study period. Conclusion In conclusion, the finding of the present study revealed that resistance rate to common antimicrobial agents in Iran is growing and isolates were susceptible mostly to broad-spectrum antibiotics including imipenem and piperacillin/tazobactam.

  16. AIR QUALITY AND VARIATIONS IN PM10 POLLUTANT CONCENTRATION IN WESTERN IRAN DURING A FOUR -YEAR PERIOD (2008-2011, KERMANSHAH - A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KIOMARS SHARAFI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study explored the quality of PM10, over a four-year period in the western part of Iran. A total of 1334 samples were collected from air pollution measurement stations in Kermanshah. Statistical analysis was carried out using the SPSS ver.14. The results showed that the total percent change in PM10 over a period of 4 years was 10.04%, 59.2%, 26.4%, 0.7% and 3.3%. The highest and the lowest frequencies of PM10 occurred in February with 37.7%, June and July with 0%; winter and summer months with 21.96 and 4.81%, respectively. The results are depicted that the air quality in July, the summer months and 2008 was worst in terms of PM10 concentration, which was mainly due to the fluctuations and acute entrance of dust particles into western Iran. Hence, the reduction in such emissions is indispensable and requires extensive and considerable cooperation between the government of Iran and the neighbouring countries.

  17. To the History of Financial and Economic Activity of the Volga River Transport During the NEP and the First Five-Year Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomanenko Olesya Aleksandrovna

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Volga transport for 10 years (1923-1934 was influenced by all those changes which happened in the national economy of the country during the periods of the New Economic Policy and its transition to the forced industrialization. Since 1923 attempts of its delivery to concession in connection with the project of creation of the Volga-Don-Azov Sea hydraulic engineering constructions by means of the Western firms and banks took place. In 1929 those attempts ended without any results. Most likely, threat of outflow from the USSR of scarce currency in the form of profits of concessionaires was the main cause. That threat moved promises of foreign firms to significantly modernize and expand the Volga transport with all its coastal infrastructure, and also to promote creation of “new freights” in a zone of operations of the Volga fleet. Up to its reorganization in 1934 the Volga fleet constantly experienced the financial and technical difficulties caused by wear of watercrafts, low tariffs for a cargo transportation, etc. However, these low tariffs allowed the large new enterprises and constructions of the first five-year plans period to reduce their transport expenses. It favorably affected the process of industrialization of the Volga region and other ones. Losses on freight transportation were offset by the Volga water transport due to passenger traffic by increasing the high efficiency of passenger capacity of ships, an intensification of a passenger traffic and increase of a passenger tariff.

  18. Evaluation of semen parameters in semen donors in a ten-year period in the city of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Glina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate sperm concentration, morphology and motility of Brazilian semen donors from 1992 to 2003, in the city of São Paulo. Methods: Retrospective study analyzing 182 donor semen samples from 1992 to 2003. The first and the second donated sample were analyzed for each donor. Donor average age was 30.8 years. Means with standard errors, medians with minimum and maximum values, and interquartile ranges were calculated for age, sperm concentration, semen volume, oval morphology and motility. The relation between each characteristic of the semen samples and the year of donation, as well as donor age and season of the year were studied by linear and multiple regression analysis. Results: Linear regression analysis showed that the sperm concentration (R2 = 19.1%, R2 = 20.2%, p < 0.0001 respectively and the oval morphology (R2 = 13%; R2 = 13.5%; p < 0.0001, respectively decreased significantly, even when the first or the second sperm collection is considered. The ejaculated volume showed slight increase during the period for both samples (R2 = 2.2%, p = 0.048; R-sq = 2.4%. p = 0.038, respectively. All characteristics did not depend on the donors’ age or season of the year when the samples were obtained. Conclusions: There was a decrease in spermatic concentration and percentage of oval sperm of semen donors samples from 1992 to 2003, in the city of São Paulo.

  19. Importance of root development in autotransplantations: a retrospective study of 137 teeth with a follow-up period varying from 1 week to 14 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denys, Delphine; Shahbazian, Maryam; Jacobs, Reinhilde; Laenen, Annouschka; Wyatt, Jan; Vinckier, Frans; Willems, Guy

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to perform a retrospective study of autotransplanted teeth with a variable but individually maximized follow-up period in order to provide information on the long-term clinical outcome. The sample was obtained from patients who were treated at the University Hospitals KU-Leuven, Belgium, during the period 1996-2010. Of the total of 109 subjects (137 teeth), 98 patients were invited for recall, of whom 68 patients (87 teeth) responded positively. Eleven out of the 109 patients were excluded due to loss of the transplanted tooth. Although 41 patients had no re-examination visit, clinical and radiological data from all 109 subjects were included in the sample. The follow-up period varied from 1 week of 14.8 years, with a mean of 4.9 years. Transplanted teeth receiving orthodontic treatment had a lower risk of ankylosis and were less likely to fail. The risk of root resorption was lower for teeth with stages one-half to three-quarters of root length at the time of transplantation. Molars were more susceptible to ankylosis. Almost all teeth showed partial or full obliteration of the pulp. Absence of further root development was higher in donor teeth with root length stage less than one-half. Trans-alveolar transplantation was less successful. Autotransplantation can be a valid alternative method in young adolescents for replacing missing teeth because of agenesis or trauma. The optimal time to transplant is when the root has reached two-thirds to three-quarters of the final root length.

  20. Seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis infections among blood donors at Gondar University Teaching Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia: declining trends over a period of five years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amsalu Anteneh

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transfusion-transmissible infectious agents such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepatitis C virus (HCV and syphilis are among the greatest threats to blood safety for the recipient. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence, risk factors and trends of HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis infections among blood donors over a period of five years at Gondar University Teaching Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods A retrospective analysis of consecutive blood donors' records covering the period between January 2003 and December 2007 was conducted. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine risk factors associated with HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis infections. Results From the total of 6361 consecutive blood donors, 607 (9.5% had serological evidence of infection with at least one pathogen and 50 (0.8% had multiple infections. The overall seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis was 3.8%, 4.7%, 0.7%, and 1.3% respectively. Among those with multiple infections, the most common combinations were HIV - syphilis 19 (38% and HIV - HBV 17 (34%. The seropositivity of HIV was significantly increased among female blood donors, first time donors, housewives, merchants, soldiers, drivers and construction workers. Significantly increased HBV seropositivity was observed among farmers, first time donors and age groups of 26 - 35 and 36 - 45 years. Similarly, the seroprevalence of syphilis was significantly increased among daily labourers and construction workers. Statistically significant association was observed between syphilis and HIV infections, and HCV and HIV infections. Moreover, significantly declining trends of HIV, HCV and syphilis seropositivity were observed over the study period. Conclusions A substantial percentage of the blood donors harbour HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis infections. Strict selection of blood donors and comprehensive screening of donors' blood using standard methods are highly

  1. The dental specialties related articles published in Medical Journal Armed Forces India from 2000 to 2014 over a 15-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Thorakkal

    2015-12-01

    There is a paucity of information about the dental specialties related articles published in the Medical Journal Armed Forces India (MJAFI). This study aimed to audit the dental specialities related articles published in MJAFI from 2000 to 2014 over a 15-year period. Bibliometric analysis of sixty issues of MJAFI from 2000 to 2014 were performed using web-based search. The articles published were analyzed for type of article and topic of individual dental specialities. The articles published were also evaluated to identify whether the study was an Armed Forces Medical Research Committee Project or funded research project or not. Out of the total 118 published articles related to dental specialities, original articles (55) and case reports (49) contribute the major share. The highest number of dental specialities related articles was published in 2009 with 16, followed by 2010 with 13 and 2011 with 11 and the least published year was 2013 with 3 articles. Regarding the relationship with dental specialities, the maximum number of published articles were related to oral medicine and radiology (56) followed by oral and maxillofacial surgery (49), orthodontics (23) and prosthodontics (17). Among the articles published in MJAFI, maxillofacial injuries (11) followed by orthodontic treatment (8) and craniofacial deformities (8) form the major attraction of the contributors. Among the 118 dental speciality articles, there were only 4 Armed Forces Medical Research Committee Project articles and 19 funded research project articles. An equal distribution of articles related to clinical dentistry and nonclinical dentistry is maintained for the MJAFI from 2000 to 2014 over a 15-year period.

  2. The dental specialties related articles published in Medical Journal Armed Forces India from 2000 to 2014 over a 15-year period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Thorakkal

    2015-01-01

    There is a paucity of information about the dental specialties related articles published in the Medical Journal Armed Forces India (MJAFI). This study aimed to audit the dental specialities related articles published in MJAFI from 2000 to 2014 over a 15-year period. Bibliometric analysis of sixty issues of MJAFI from 2000 to 2014 were performed using web-based search. The articles published were analyzed for type of article and topic of individual dental specialities. The articles published were also evaluated to identify whether the study was an Armed Forces Medical Research Committee Project or funded research project or not. Out of the total 118 published articles related to dental specialities, original articles (55) and case reports (49) contribute the major share. The highest number of dental specialities related articles was published in 2009 with 16, followed by 2010 with 13 and 2011 with 11 and the least published year was 2013 with 3 articles. Regarding the relationship with dental specialities, the maximum number of published articles were related to oral medicine and radiology (56) followed by oral and maxillofacial surgery (49), orthodontics (23) and prosthodontics (17). Among the articles published in MJAFI, maxillofacial injuries (11) followed by orthodontic treatment (8) and craniofacial deformities (8) form the major attraction of the contributors. Among the 118 dental speciality articles, there were only 4 Armed Forces Medical Research Committee Project articles and 19 funded research project articles. An equal distribution of articles related to clinical dentistry and nonclinical dentistry is maintained for the MJAFI from 2000 to 2014 over a 15-year period. PMID:26858474

  3. Impact of improved neonatal care on the profile of retinopathy of prematurity in rural neonatal centers in India over a 4-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinekar A

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Anand Vinekar,1 Chaitra Jayadev,1 Siddesh Kumar,2 Shwetha Mangalesh,1,3 Mangat Ram Dogra,4 Noel J Bauer,5 Bhujang Shetty6 1Department of Pediatric Retina, Narayana Nethralaya Eye Hospital, Bangalore, 2Raichur Institute of Medical Sciences, Raichur, Karnataka, India; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA; 4Advanced Eye Center, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India; 5Department of Ophthalmology, Maastricht University of Health Sciences, Maastricht, the Netherlands; 6Department of Ophthalmology, Narayana Nethralaya Postgraduate Institute of Ophthalmology, Bangalore, India Purpose: To report the reduction in the incidence and severity of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP in rural India over a 4-year period following the introduction of improved neonatal care practices. Methods: The Karnataka Internet Diagnosis of Retinopathy of Prematurity program (KIDROP, is a tele-medicine network that screens for ROP in different zones of Karnataka state in rural India. North Karnataka is the most underdeveloped and remote zone of this program and did not have any ROP screening programs before the intervention of the KIDROP in 2011. Six government and eleven private neonatal centers in this zone were screened weekly. Specific neonatal guidelines for ROP were developed and introduced in these centers. They included awareness about risk factors, oxygen regulation protocols, use of pulse oxymetry, monitoring postnatal weight gain, nutritional best practices, and management of sepsis. The incidence and severity of ROP were compared before the guidelines were introduced (Jan 2011 to Dec 2012 and after the guidelines were introduced (July 2013 to June 2015. Results: During this 4-year period, 4,167 infants were screened over 11,390 imaging sessions. The number of enrolled infants increased from 1,825 to 2,342 between the two periods (P<0.001. The overall incidence of any stage ROP reduced significantly from

  4. LIVER FUNCTION CHANGES IN PATIENTS WITH SPONDYLOARTHRITIS TAKING NONSTEROIDAL ANTI-INFLAMMATORY DRUGS OVER A LONG PERIOD: RESULTS OF A 10-YEAR PROGRESS PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Rebrov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess liver function changes in patients with spondyloarthritis (SpA taking NSAIDs regularly over a long period.Patients and methods. The data obtained during a 10-year PROGRESS prospective single-center cohort study of functional status, activity, and comorbidity (including gastrointestinal tract diseases in patients with SpA were analyzed. The data of 363 SpA patients receiving NSAIDs regularly over a long period and followed up for 10 years were also explored. The changes that had occurred over a decade in the liver enzyme levels, the number of discontinued NSAID treatments because of a persistent increase in liver enzyme levels, and the number of prescriptions of hepatoprotective agents were analyzed.Results. For 10 years, 18 patients with SpA discontinued their NSAID intake due to elevated liver enzyme levels (≥3 times greater than the reference value; during that time, the same increase in enzyme levels was observed in 2 healthy individuals (χ2 =1.39; p=0.2. In the patients with SpA as compared to the healthy individuals, the relative risk of abnormal liver function was 1.19 (95% CI, 1.009–1.405; odds ratio was 2.9 (95% CI, 0.65–12.95. There was no increased risk for discontinuation of some NSAIDs, including nimesulide (χ2 =0.03, p=0.85, the frequency of using hepatoprotective drugs was proved to be highest for diclofenac sodium, ibuprofen, nimesulide, and ketoprofen.Conclusion. The regular long-term (as long as 10 years use of NSAIDs to treat SpA is associated with treatment discontinuation because of elevated enzyme levels in every 10 patients. The maximum rate of discontinuation of NSAIDs due to a persistent increase in liver enzyme levels is observed 6–8 years after their regular use, so long-term NSAID therapy requires continuous monitoring of hepatic safety. The longterm intake of nimesulide, as compared with other NSAIDs, is shown to be unassociated with the higher rate of its discontinuation because of

  5. A systematic review of the survival and complication rates of resin-bonded fixed dental prostheses after a mean observation period of at least 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Daniel S; Sailer, Irena; Ioannidis, Alexis; Zwahlen, Marcel; Makarov, Nikolay; Pjetursson, Bjarni E

    2017-02-13

    The objective of this systematic review was to assess the 5-year and 10-year survival of resin-bonded fixed dental prostheses (RBBs) and to describe the incidence of technical and biological complications. An electronic MEDLINE search complemented by manual searching was conducted to identify prospective and retrospective cohort studies and case series on RBBs with a mean follow-up time of at least 5 years. Patients had to have been examined clinically at the follow-up visit. Assessment of the identified studies and data extraction were performed independently by two reviewers. Failure and complication rates were analyzed using robust Poisson regression models to obtain summary estimates of 5- and 10-year proportions. The search provided 367 titles and 87 abstracts. Full-text analysis was performed for 22 articles resulting in seven studies that met the inclusion criteria. Five articles were found through manual search, and 17 studies were provided from (Pjetursson et al. 2008, Clinical Oral Implants Research, 19, 131), resulting in an overall number of included studies of 29. Meta-analysis of these studies reporting on 2300 RBBs indicated an estimated survival of resin-bonded bridges of 91.4% (95 percent confidence interval [95% CI]: 86.7-94.4%) after 5 years and 82.9% (95% CI: 73.2-89.3%) after 10 years. A significantly higher survival rate was reported for RBBs with zirconia framework compared with RBBs from other materials. RBBs with one retainer had a significantly higher survival rate (P < 0.0001) and a lower de-bonding rate (P = 0.001) compared with RBBs retained by two or more retainers. Moreover, the survival rate was higher for RBBs inserted in the anterior area of the oral cavity compared with posterior RBBs. The most frequent complications were de-bonding (loss of retention), which occurred in 15% (95% CI: 10.9-20.6%) and chipping of the veneering material that was reported for 4.1% (95% CI: 1.8-9.5%) of the RBBs over an observation period of 5 years

  6. The time narrating of prose in the Seventeen-Year Period%论十七年时期散文的时间叙事

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜水生

    2014-01-01

    十七年时期散文在时间叙事方面具有鲜明特征,主要表现为时间的意识形态化、历史决定论和历史化方法三个方面。在十七年散文中,时间具有强烈的现实指向性,负载了丰富的意识形态内涵,成为社会意识形态的符码;强调过去—现在—未来的紧密关系,遵行过去—现在—未来的线性发展规律,强调社会历史发展的必然性和规律性,忽略了社会历史发展的偶然性和曲折性;把时间放置在历史进程中进行理解和认识,或者把时间与特定历史阶段进行对比,体现出一种历史主义态度。%The Seventeen-Year Period is a brand-new historical period, which reflected a sharp time sense and history ideas. The time narrating of prose in the Seventeen-Year Period has distinctive characteristics, mainly for the time of ideology, historical determinism and historicized, etc. In the prose of the seventeen years, the time has strong practical orientation, loading rich ideological connotation, and thus becoming the social ideological codes. The works emphasize the close relationship between the past, the present and the future, walk along the past-present-future linear developmen law and emphasize the inevitability and regularity of the social historical development, while ignoring the Contingency and twists of the social and historical development. They place the time in the historical process for understanding and awareness, or compare the time with the specific historical stage so as to understand and process time with historical strategy. Marx’s time theory has important guiding significance on the prose research.

  7. The Amoco CadizOil Spill: Evolution of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in the Ile Grande Salt Marshes (Brittany) after a 13-year Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mille, G.; Munoz, D.; Jacquot, F.; Rivet, L.; Bertrand, J.-C.

    1998-11-01

    The Ile Grande salt marshes (Brittany coast) were polluted by petroleum hydrocarbons after theAmoco Cadizgrounding in 1978. Thirteen years after the oil spill, sediments were analysed for residual hydrocarbons in order to monitor the aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon signatures and to assess both qualitatively and quantitatively the changes in composition of theAmoco Cadizoil. Six stations were selected in the Ile Grande salt marshes and sediments were sampled to a depth of 20 cm. For each sample, the hydrocarbon compositions were determined for alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and biomarkers (terpanes, steranes, diasteranes). Hydrocarbon levels drastically decreased between 1978 and 1991, but to different extents according to the initial degree of contamination. In 1991, hydrocarbon concentrations never exceeded 1·7 g kg-1sediment dr