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Sample records for two-alternative forced-choice paradigm

  1. A user-operated audiometry method based on the maximum likelihood principle and the two-alternative forced-choice paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jesper Hvass; Brandt, Christian; Pedersen, Ellen Raben

    2014-01-01

    with standard deviation of differences from 3.9 dB to 5.2 dB in the frequency range of 250-8000 Hz. User-operated 2AFC audiometrygave thresholds 1-2 dB lower at most frequencies compared to traditional audiometry. Conclusions: User-operated 2AFC audiometry does not require specific operating skills...

  2. Confidence in Forced-Choice Recognition: What Underlies the Ratings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzka, Katarzyna; Higham, Philip A.; Hanczakowski, Maciej

    2017-01-01

    Two-alternative forced-choice recognition tests are commonly used to assess recognition accuracy that is uncontaminated by changes in bias. In such tests, participants are asked to endorse the studied item out of 2 presented alternatives. Participants may be further asked to provide confidence judgments for their recognition decisions. It is often…

  3. PEST reduces bias in forced choice psychophysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M M; Forbes, S M; Creelman, C D

    1983-11-01

    Observers performed several different detection tasks using both the PEST adaptive psychophysical procedure and a fixed-level (method of constant stimuli) psychophysical procedure. In two experiments, PEST runs targeted at P (C) = 0.80 were immediately followed by fixed-level detection runs presented at the difficulty level resulting from the PEST run. The fixed-level runs yielded P (C) about 0.75. During the fixed-level runs, the probability of a correct response was greater when the preceding response was correct than when it was wrong. Observers, even highly trained ones, perform in a nonstationary manner. The sequential dependency data can be used to determine a lower bound for the observer's "true" capability when performing optimally; this lower bound is close to the PEST target, and well above the forced choice P (C). The observer's "true" capability is the measure used by most theories of detection performance. A further experiment compared psychometric functions obtained from a set of PEST runs using different targets with those obtained from blocks of fixed-level trials at different levels. PEST results were more stable across observers, performance at all but the highest signal levels was better with PEST, and the PEST psychometric functions had shallower slopes. We hypothesize that PEST permits the observer to keep track of what he is trying to detect, whereas in the fixed-level method performance is disrupted by memory failure. Some recently suggested "more virulent" versions of PEST may be subject to biases similar to those of the fixed-level procedures.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Test person operated 2-Alternative Forced Choice Audiometry compared to traditional audiometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jesper Hvass; Brandt, Christian; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

      Background: With a newly developed technique, hearing thresholds can be estimated with a system operated by the test persons themselves. This technique is based on the 2 Alternative Forced Choice paradigm known from the psychoacoustic research theory. Test persons can operate the system very......-likelihood and up-down methods has proven effective and reliable even under suboptimal test settings. In non-optimal testing conditions i.e. as a part of a hearing conservation programme the headphone Sennheiser HDA-200 has been used as it contains hearing protection. This test-method has been validated......-retest studies of 2AFC audiometry are comparable to test-retest results known from traditional audiometry under standard clinical settings.   Conclusions 2 Alternative Forced Choice audiometry can be a reliable alternative to traditional audiometry especially under certain circumstances, where it can...

  5. Individual differences in forced-choice recognition memory:Partitioning contributions of recollection and familiarity

    OpenAIRE

    Migo, Ellen M.; Quamme, Joel R.; Holmes, Selina; Bendell, Andrew; Norman, Kenneth A.; Mayes, Andrew R.; Montaldi, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    In forced-choice recognition memory, two different testing formats are possible under conditions of high target-foil similarity: Each target can be presented alongside foils similar to itself (forced-choice corresponding; FCC), or alongside foils similar to other targets (forced-choice noncorresponding; FCNC). Recent behavioural and neuropsychological studies suggest that FCC performance can be supported by familiarity whereas FCNC performance is supported primarily by recollection. In this p...

  6. Some further notes on the forced-choice leadership attitude scale.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogstraten, J.; Vorst, H.C.M.

    1972-01-01

    The Conceptions of Leadership Scale (LOS) consists of 19 2-choice items and the responses are in terms of a forced-choice technique. 14 individual items refer to the subscale (T) that indicates behavior in which the leader organizes and defines the activities of the group, 11 individual items refer

  7. Integration of the Forced-Choice Questionnaire and the Likert Scale: A Simulation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Xiao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Thurstonian item response theory (IRT model allows estimating the latent trait scores of respondents directly through their responses in forced-choice questionnaires. It solves a part of problems brought by the traditional scoring methods of this kind of questionnaires. However, the forced-choice designs may still have their own limitations: The model may encounter underidentification and non-convergence and the test may show low test reliability in simple test designs (e.g., test designs with only a small number of traits measured or short length. To overcome these weaknesses, the present study applied the Thurstonian IRT model and the Graded Response Model to a different test format that comprises both forced-choice blocks and Likert-type items. And the Likert items should have low social desirability. A Monte Carlo simulation study is used to investigate how the mixed response format performs under various conditions. Four factors are considered: the number of traits, test length, the percentage of Likert items, and the proportion of pairs composed of items keyed in opposite directions. Results reveal that the mixed response format can be superior to the forced-choice format, especially in simple designs where the latter performs poorly. Besides the number of Likert items needed is small. One point to note is that researchers need to choose Likert items cautiously as Likert items may bring other response biases to the test. Discussion and suggestions are given to construct personality tests that can resist faking as much as possible and have acceptable reliability.

  8. Individual differences in forced-choice recognition memory: partitioning contributions of recollection and familiarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migo, Ellen M; Quamme, Joel R; Holmes, Selina; Bendell, Andrew; Norman, Kenneth A; Mayes, Andrew R; Montaldi, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    In forced-choice recognition memory, two different testing formats are possible under conditions of high target-foil similarity: Each target can be presented alongside foils similar to itself (forced-choice corresponding; FCC), or alongside foils similar to other targets (forced-choice noncorresponding; FCNC). Recent behavioural and neuropsychological studies suggest that FCC performance can be supported by familiarity whereas FCNC performance is supported primarily by recollection. In this paper, we corroborate this finding from an individual differences perspective. A group of older adults were given a test of FCC and FCNC recognition for object pictures, as well as standardized tests of recall, recognition, and IQ. Recall measures were found to predict FCNC, but not FCC performance, consistent with a critical role for recollection in FCNC only. After the common influence of recall was removed, standardized tests of recognition predicted FCC, but not FCNC performance. This is consistent with a contribution of only familiarity in FCC. Simulations show that a two-process model, where familiarity and recollection make separate contributions to recognition, is 10 times more likely to give these results than a single-process model. This evidence highlights the importance of recognition memory test design when examining the involvement of recollection and familiarity.

  9. Are Sexual and Emotional Infidelity Equally Upsetting to Men and Women? Making Sense of Forced-Choice Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Lishner

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Forced-choice measures that assess reactions to imagined sexual and emotional infidelity are ubiquitous in studies testing the Jealousy as a Specific Innate Module (JSIM model. One potential problem with such measures is that they fail to identify respondents who find both forms of infidelity equally upsetting. To examine this issue, an experiment was conducted in which two groups of participants imagined a romantic infidelity after which participants in the first group used a traditional forced-choice measure to indicate whether they found sexual or emotional infidelity more upsetting. Participants in the second group instead used a modified forced-choice measure that allowed them also to indicate whether they found both forms of infidelity equally upsetting. Consistent with previous research, those given the traditional forced-choice measure tended to respond in a manner that supported the JSIM model. However, the majority of participants given the modified measure indicated that both forms of infidelity were equally upsetting.

  10. Merging Psychophysical and Psychometric Theory to Estimate Global Visual State Measures from Forced-Choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massof, Robert W; Schmidt, Karen M; Laby, Daniel M; Kirschen, David; Meadows, David

    2013-01-01

    Visual acuity, a forced-choice psychophysical measure of visual spatial resolution, is the sine qua non of clinical visual impairment testing in ophthalmology and optometry patients with visual system disorders ranging from refractive error to retinal, optic nerve, or central visual system pathology. Visual acuity measures are standardized against a norm, but it is well known that visual acuity depends on a variety of stimulus parameters, including contrast and exposure duration. This paper asks if it is possible to estimate a single global visual state measure from visual acuity measures as a function of stimulus parameters that can represent the patient's overall visual health state with a single variable. Psychophysical theory (at the sensory level) and psychometric theory (at the decision level) are merged to identify the conditions that must be satisfied to derive a global visual state measure from parameterised visual acuity measures. A global visual state measurement model is developed and tested with forced-choice visual acuity measures from 116 subjects with no visual impairments and 560 subjects with uncorrected refractive error. The results are in agreement with the expectations of the model

  11. Design and validation of realistic breast models for use in multiple alternative forced choice virtual clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elangovan, Premkumar; Mackenzie, Alistair; Dance, David R; Young, Kenneth C; Cooke, Victoria; Wilkinson, Louise; Given-Wilson, Rosalind M; Wallis, Matthew G; Wells, Kevin

    2017-04-07

    A novel method has been developed for generating quasi-realistic voxel phantoms which simulate the compressed breast in mammography and digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). The models are suitable for use in virtual clinical trials requiring realistic anatomy which use the multiple alternative forced choice (AFC) paradigm and patches from the complete breast image. The breast models are produced by extracting features of breast tissue components from DBT clinical images including skin, adipose and fibro-glandular tissue, blood vessels and Cooper's ligaments. A range of different breast models can then be generated by combining these components. Visual realism was validated using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) study of patches from simulated images calculated using the breast models and from real patient images. Quantitative analysis was undertaken using fractal dimension and power spectrum analysis. The average areas under the ROC curves for 2D and DBT images were 0.51  ±  0.06 and 0.54  ±  0.09 demonstrating that simulated and real images were statistically indistinguishable by expert breast readers (7 observers); errors represented as one standard error of the mean. The average fractal dimensions (2D, DBT) for real and simulated images were (2.72  ±  0.01, 2.75  ±  0.01) and (2.77  ±  0.03, 2.82  ±  0.04) respectively; errors represented as one standard error of the mean. Excellent agreement was found between power spectrum curves of real and simulated images, with average β values (2D, DBT) of (3.10  ±  0.17, 3.21  ±  0.11) and (3.01  ±  0.32, 3.19  ±  0.07) respectively; errors represented as one standard error of the mean. These results demonstrate that radiological images of these breast models realistically represent the complexity of real breast structures and can be used to simulate patches from mammograms and DBT images that are indistinguishable from

  12. Using Likert-type and ipsative/forced choice items in sequence to generate a preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ried, L Douglas

    2014-01-01

    Collaboration and implementation of a minimum, standardized set of core global educational and professional competencies seems appropriate given the expanding international evolution of pharmacy practice. However, winnowing down hundreds of competencies from a plethora of local, national and international competency frameworks to select the most highly preferred to be included in the core set is a daunting task. The objective of this paper is to describe a combination of strategies used to ascertain the most highly preferred items among a large number of disparate items. In this case, the items were >100 educational and professional competencies that might be incorporated as the core components of new and existing competency frameworks. Panelists (n = 30) from the European Union (EU) and United States (USA) were chosen to reflect a variety of practice settings. Each panelist completed two electronic surveys. The first survey presented competencies in a Likert-type format and the second survey presented many of the same competencies in an ipsative/forced choice format. Item mean scores were calculated for each competency, the competencies were ranked, and non-parametric statistical tests were used to ascertain the consistency in the rankings achieved by the two strategies. This exploratory study presented over 100 competencies to the panelists in the beginning. The two methods provided similar results, as indicated by the significant correlation between the rankings (Spearman's rho = 0.30, P < 0.09). A two-step strategy using Likert-type and ipsative/forced choice formats in sequence, appears to be useful in a situation where a clear preference is required from among a large number of choices. The ipsative/forced choice format resulted in some differences in the competency preferences because the panelists could not rate them equally by design. While this strategy was used for the selection of professional educational competencies in this exploratory study, it is

  13. List length and overlap effects in forced-choice associative recognition.

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    Clark, S E; Hori, A

    1995-07-01

    Two experiments examined forced-choice associative recognition for OLAP and NOLAP test conditions. OLAP test trials consist of pairs with overlapping items (e.g., AB vs. AD), whereas NOLAP test trials contain no overlapping items (e.g., AB vs. CF). Previous results show better performance for NOLAP than for OLAP tests, contrary to the predictions of global memory models. The present experiments varied list length to examine the hypothesis that the NOLAP advantage is produced by recall-like retrieval processes. The use of longer lists either eliminated (Experiment 1) or greatly reduced (Experiment 2) the NOLAP advantage. However, a reliable OLAP advantage was not obtained. Implications for models are discussed.

  14. Which Infidelity Type Makes You More Jealous? Decision Strategies in a Forced-Choice between Sexual and Emotional Infidelity

    OpenAIRE

    Achim Schützwohl

    2004-01-01

    This study tested the prediction derived from the evolutionary psychological analysis of jealousy that men and women selecting the adaptively primary infidelity type (i.e., female sexual and male emotional infidelity, respectively) in a forced-choice response format need to engage in less elaborate decision strategies than men and women selecting the adaptively secondary infidelity type (i.e., male sexual and female emotional infidelity, respectively). Unknown to the participants, decision ti...

  15. Warm-Up Effect in Panelist-Articulated-2-Alternative Forced Choice Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, David J; Baik, Hwa-Young; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2018-01-01

    Panelist performance in discrimination tests has been shown to increase when warm-up samples are provided prior to the actual test. Samples are used prior to the actual test for the attribute articulation process of a panelist-articulated-2-alternative forced choice (PA-2-AFC) procedure; however, it is yet unknown if the pretest articulation phase adds to the power of this testing method as with the warm-up. The goal of the study was to determine if a "warm-up" effect was displayed in the PA-2-AFC test resulting in greater power compared to the researcher-designated-2-AFC (RD-2-AFC) test. A RD-2-AFC test, with and without warm-up samples, and a PA-2-AFC test were performed by 61 panelists. A reduced calorie, citrus-flavored, and carbonated beverage was used in the tests. During RD-2-AFC testing, panelists were asked to identify which sample was more sour. For PA-2-AFC testing, panelists individually articulated the nature and direction of the difference between the 2 samples through a pretesting articulation procedure. The articulated difference was, then, used in standard 2-AFC test procedure. A warm-up effect was observed when comparing the standard RD-2-AFC with and without warm-up samples. The addition of warm up samples significantly increased the power of the test, in addition, the PA-2-AFC method had lower power than the RD-2-AFC method. The increase in power with the addition of warm-up samples for the RD-2-AFC procedure supports literature findings on the benefit of providing warm-up samples. No warm-up effect can be attributed to the PA-2-AFC method evidenced by the overall low power observed, which may be attributed to sample complexity. Selecting a specified discrimination testing method is advantageous and can reduce costs of sensory testing, but has been considered unpractical when samples may differ in unknown ways. This research explores the use of panelist derived terms to circumvent the need for researchers to identify these differences and

  16. A Comparison of the Nomological Networks Associated With Forced-Choice and Likert Formats of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joshua D; Gentile, Brittany; Carter, Nathan T; Crowe, Michael; Hoffman, Brian J; Campbell, W Keith

    2018-01-01

    The Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) is one of the most popular measures of narcissism. However, its use of a forced-choice response set might negatively affect some of its psychometric properties. The purpose of this research was to compare a Likert version of the NPI, in which only the narcissistic response of each pair was given, to the original NPI, in 3 samples of participants (N = 1,109). To this end, we compared the nomological networks of the forced-choice and Likert formats of the NPI in relation to alternative measures of narcissism, narcissistic personality disorder, entitlement, self-esteem, general personality traits (reported by self and informants), interpersonal styles, and general pathological traits included in the DSM-5. The Likert format NPI-total and subscales-manifested similar construct validity to the original forced-choice format across all criteria with only minor differences that seem to be due mainly to the increased reliability and variability found in the Likert NPI Entitlement/Exploitativeness subscale. These results provide evidence that a version of the NPI that employs a Likert format can justifiably be used in place of the original.

  17. Which Infidelity Type Makes You More Jealous? Decision Strategies in a Forced-Choice between Sexual and Emotional Infidelity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achim Schützwohl

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study tested the prediction derived from the evolutionary psychological analysis of jealousy that men and women selecting the adaptively primary infidelity type (i.e., female sexual and male emotional infidelity, respectively in a forced-choice response format need to engage in less elaborate decision strategies than men and women selecting the adaptively secondary infidelity type (i.e., male sexual and female emotional infidelity, respectively. Unknown to the participants, decision times were registered as an index of the elaborateness of their decision strategies. The results clearly support the prediction. Implications and limitations of the present findings are discussed.

  18. Two alternating motor programs drive navigation in Drosophila larva.

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    Subhaneil Lahiri

    Full Text Available When placed on a temperature gradient, a Drosophila larva navigates away from excessive cold or heat by regulating the size, frequency, and direction of reorientation maneuvers between successive periods of forward movement. Forward movement is driven by peristalsis waves that travel from tail to head. During each reorientation maneuver, the larva pauses and sweeps its head from side to side until it picks a new direction for forward movement. Here, we characterized the motor programs that underlie the initiation, execution, and completion of reorientation maneuvers by measuring body segment dynamics of freely moving larvae with fluorescent muscle fibers as they were exposed to temporal changes in temperature. We find that reorientation maneuvers are characterized by highly stereotyped spatiotemporal patterns of segment dynamics. Reorientation maneuvers are initiated with head sweeping movement driven by asymmetric contraction of a portion of anterior body segments. The larva attains a new direction for forward movement after head sweeping movement by using peristalsis waves that gradually push posterior body segments out of alignment with the tail (i.e., the previous direction of forward movement into alignment with the head. Thus, reorientation maneuvers during thermotaxis are carried out by two alternating motor programs: (1 peristalsis for driving forward movement and (2 asymmetric contraction of anterior body segments for driving head sweeping movement.

  19. Taking the Test Taker's Perspective: Response Process and Test Motivation in Multidimensional Forced-Choice Versus Rating Scale Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sass, Rachelle; Frick, Susanne; Reips, Ulf-Dietrich; Wetzel, Eunike

    2018-03-01

    The multidimensional forced-choice (MFC) format has been proposed as an alternative to the rating scale (RS) response format. However, it is unclear how changing the response format may affect the response process and test motivation of participants. In Study 1, we investigated the MFC response process using the think-aloud technique. In Study 2, we compared test motivation between the RS format and different versions of the MFC format (presenting 2, 3, 4, and 5 items simultaneously). The response process to MFC item blocks was similar to the RS response process but involved an additional step of weighing the items within a block against each other. The RS and MFC response format groups did not differ in their test motivation. Thus, from the test taker's perspective, the MFC format is somewhat more demanding to respond to, but this does not appear to decrease test motivation.

  20. The Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test forced-choice recognition task: Base-rate data and norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poreh, Amir; Bezdicek, Ondrej; Korobkova, Irina; Levin, Jennifer B; Dines, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    The present study describes a novel Forced-Choice Response (FCR) index for detecting poor effort on the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). This retrospective study analyzes the performance of 4 groups on the new index: clinically referred patients with suspected dementia, forensic patients identified as not exhibiting adequate effort on other measures of response bias, students who simulated poor effort, and a large normative sample collected in the Gulf State of Oman. Using sensitivity and specificity analyses, the study shows that much like the California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition FCR index, the RAVLT FCR index misses a proportion of individuals with inadequate effort (low sensitivity), but those who fail this measure are highly likely to be exhibiting poor effort (high specificity). The limitations and benefits of utilizing the RAVLT FCR index in clinical practice are discussed.

  1. Reward Rate Optimization in Two-Alternative Decision Making: Empirical Tests of Theoretical Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simen, Patrick; Contreras, David; Buck, Cara; Hu, Peter; Holmes, Philip; Cohen, Jonathan D.

    2009-01-01

    The drift-diffusion model (DDM) implements an optimal decision procedure for stationary, 2-alternative forced-choice tasks. The height of a decision threshold applied to accumulating information on each trial determines a speed-accuracy tradeoff (SAT) for the DDM, thereby accounting for a ubiquitous feature of human performance in speeded response…

  2. Induction of habits in rats by a forced-choice procedure in T-maze and the effect of pre-test free exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moustgaard, Anette; Hau, Jann

    2009-01-01

    the opportunity to explore the entire maze immediately before the free-choice challenge after 200 forced-choice trials, this resulted in a large variation in the choice pattern of the individual rats, and a subgroup of rats choose the newly opened maze arm in 95-100% of the 20 free-choice trials....

  3. Yes/No Versus Forced-Choice Recognition Memory in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer’s Disease: Patterns of Impairment and Associations with Dementia Severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Lindsay R.; Stricker, Nikki H.; Libon, David J.; Delano-Wood, Lisa; Salmon, David P.; Delis, Dean C.; Bondi, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    Memory tests are sensitive to early identification of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) but less useful as the disease advances. However, assessing particular types of recognition memory may better characterize dementia severity in later stages of AD. We sought to examine patterns of recognition memory deficits in individuals with AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Memory performance and global cognition data were collected from participants with AD (n=37), MCI (n=37), and cognitively intact older adults (normal controls, NC; n=35). One-way analyses of variance (ANOVAs) examined differences between groups on yes/no and forced-choice recognition measures. Individuals with amnestic MCI performed worse than NC and nonamnestic MCI participants on yes/no recognition, but were comparable on forced-choice recognition. AD patients were more impaired across yes/no and forced-choice recognition tasks. Individuals with mild AD (≥120 Dementia Rating Scale, DRS) performed better than those with moderate-to-severe AD (recognition, but were equally impaired on yes/no recognition. There were differences in the relationships between learning, recall, and recognition performance across groups. Although yes/no recognition testing may be sensitive to MCI, forced-choice procedures may provide utility in assessing severity of anterograde amnesia in later stages of AD. Implications for assessment of insufficient effort and malingering are also discussed. PMID:23030301

  4. Specific food preferences of older adults with a poor appetite. A forced-choice test conducted in various care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meij, Barbara S; Wijnhoven, Hanneke A H; Finlayson, Graham S; Oosten, Babette S H; Visser, Marjolein

    2015-07-01

    A poor appetite in older adults is an important determinant of reduced food intake and undernutrition. Food preferences may influence food intake. The aim of this study was to investigate food preferences of older adults with a poor appetite and compare these with preferences of older adults with a good appetite. Older adults (n = 349, aged 65-101 years) in nursing/residential care homes, hospitals or at home receiving home care participated in a computer-based forced-choice food preference assessment. Self-reported appetite in the past week was classified as 'good' or 'poor' using a validated instrument. Food preferences were determined by counting the relative frequency of choices for food images according to 11 dichotomous categories: high/low 1) protein; 2) fat; 3) carbohydrates; 4) fiber; 5) variation; and 6) animal/vegetarian proteins; 7) sweet/savory taste; 8) solid/liquid texture; 9) dairy/non-dairy; with/without 10) sauce or 11) color variation. Specific food preferences in participants with a poor appetite were identified by one-sample t-tests comparing frequencies to the expected value of 48. Preference differences between those with a good and a poor appetite were analyzed using GLM adjusting for confounders. The results showed that older adults with a poor appetite (n = 113; 32.4%) preferred variation (51.6 vs. 48, P food preferences. Their preference for variation differs from those with a good appetite. These results may be used to develop meals that are preferred by older adults with poor appetite in order to increase food intake and prevent undernutrition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessing implicit odor localization in humans using a cross-modal spatial cueing paradigm.

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    Moessnang, Carolin; Finkelmeyer, Andreas; Vossen, Alexandra; Schneider, Frank; Habel, Ute

    2011-01-01

    Navigation based on chemosensory information is one of the most important skills in the animal kingdom. Studies on odor localization suggest that humans have lost this ability. However, the experimental approaches used so far were limited to explicit judgements, which might ignore a residual ability for directional smelling on an implicit level without conscious appraisal. A novel cueing paradigm was developed in order to determine whether an implicit ability for directional smelling exists. Participants performed a visual two-alternative forced choice task in which the target was preceded either by a side-congruent or a side-incongruent olfactory spatial cue. An explicit odor localization task was implemented in a second experiment. No effect of cue congruency on mean reaction times could be found. However, a time by condition interaction emerged, with significantly slower responses to congruently compared to incongruently cued targets at the beginning of the experiment. This cueing effect gradually disappeared throughout the course of the experiment. In addition, participants performed at chance level in the explicit odor localization task, thus confirming the results of previous research. The implicit cueing task suggests the existence of spatial information processing in the olfactory system. Response slowing after a side-congruent olfactory cue is interpreted as a cross-modal attentional interference effect. In addition, habituation might have led to a gradual disappearance of the cueing effect. It is concluded that under immobile conditions with passive monorhinal stimulation, humans are unable to explicitly determine the location of a pure odorant. Implicitly, however, odor localization seems to exert an influence on human behaviour. To our knowledge, these data are the first to show implicit effects of odor localization on overt human behaviour and thus support the hypothesis of residual directional smelling in humans. © 2011 Moessnang et al.

  6. Assessing implicit odor localization in humans using a cross-modal spatial cueing paradigm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Moessnang

    Full Text Available Navigation based on chemosensory information is one of the most important skills in the animal kingdom. Studies on odor localization suggest that humans have lost this ability. However, the experimental approaches used so far were limited to explicit judgements, which might ignore a residual ability for directional smelling on an implicit level without conscious appraisal.A novel cueing paradigm was developed in order to determine whether an implicit ability for directional smelling exists. Participants performed a visual two-alternative forced choice task in which the target was preceded either by a side-congruent or a side-incongruent olfactory spatial cue. An explicit odor localization task was implemented in a second experiment.No effect of cue congruency on mean reaction times could be found. However, a time by condition interaction emerged, with significantly slower responses to congruently compared to incongruently cued targets at the beginning of the experiment. This cueing effect gradually disappeared throughout the course of the experiment. In addition, participants performed at chance level in the explicit odor localization task, thus confirming the results of previous research.The implicit cueing task suggests the existence of spatial information processing in the olfactory system. Response slowing after a side-congruent olfactory cue is interpreted as a cross-modal attentional interference effect. In addition, habituation might have led to a gradual disappearance of the cueing effect. It is concluded that under immobile conditions with passive monorhinal stimulation, humans are unable to explicitly determine the location of a pure odorant. Implicitly, however, odor localization seems to exert an influence on human behaviour. To our knowledge, these data are the first to show implicit effects of odor localization on overt human behaviour and thus support the hypothesis of residual directional smelling in humans.

  7. Forced-Choice Assessment of Work-Related Maladaptive Personality Traits: Preliminary Evidence From an Application of Thurstonian Item Response Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenole, Nigel; Brown, Anna A; Cooper, Andrew J

    2018-06-01

    This article describes an investigation of whether Thurstonian item response modeling is a viable method for assessment of maladaptive traits. Forced-choice responses from 420 working adults to a broad-range personality inventory assessing six maladaptive traits were considered. The Thurstonian item response model's fit to the forced-choice data was adequate, while the fit of a counterpart item response model to responses to the same items but arranged in a single-stimulus design was poor. Monotrait heteromethod correlations indicated corresponding traits in the two formats overlapped substantially, although they did not measure equivalent constructs. A better goodness of fit and higher factor loadings for the Thurstonian item response model, coupled with a clearer conceptual alignment to the theoretical trait definitions, suggested that the single-stimulus item responses were influenced by biases that the independent clusters measurement model did not account for. Researchers may wish to consider forced-choice designs and appropriate item response modeling techniques such as Thurstonian item response modeling for personality questionnaire applications in industrial psychology, especially when assessing maladaptive traits. We recommend further investigation of this approach in actual selection situations and with different assessment instruments.

  8. [Formula: see text]Determination of the smoking gun of intent: significance testing of forced choice results in social security claimants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Laurence M; Chafetz, Michael D

    2018-01-01

    Significantly below-chance findings on forced choice tests have been described as revealing "the smoking gun of intent" that proved malingering. The issues of probability levels, one-tailed vs. two-tailed tests, and the combining of PVT scores on significantly below-chance findings were addressed in a previous study, with a recommendation of a probability level of .20 to test the significance of below-chance results. The purpose of the present study was to determine the rate of below-chance findings in a Social Security Disability claimant sample using the previous recommendations. We compared the frequency of below-chance results on forced choice performance validity tests (PVTs) at two levels of significance, .05 and .20, and when using significance testing on individual subtests of the PVTs compared with total scores in claimants for Social Security Disability in order to determine the rate of the expected increase. The frequency of significant results increased with the higher level of significance for each subtest of the PVT and when combining individual test sections to increase the number of test items, with up to 20% of claimants showing significantly below-chance results at the higher p-value. These findings are discussed in light of Social Security Administration policy, showing an impact on policy issues concerning child abuse and neglect, and the importance of using these techniques in evaluations for Social Security Disability.

  9. Comparisons of an open-ended vs. forced-choice 'mind reading' task: implications for measuring perspective-taking and emotion recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy G Cassels

    Full Text Available Perspective-taking and emotion recognition are essential for successful social development and have been the focus of developmental research for many years. Although the two abilities often overlap, they are distinct and our understanding of these abilities critically rests upon the efficacy of existing measures. Lessons from the literature differentiating recall versus recognition memory tasks led us to hypothesize that an open-ended emotion recognition measure would be less reliant on compensatory strategies and hence a more specific measure of emotion recognition abilities than a forced-choice task. To this end, we compared an open-ended version of the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Task with the original forced-choice version in two studies: 118 typically-developing 4- to 8-year-olds (Study 1 and 139 5- to 12-year-olds; 85 typically-developing and 54 with learning disorders (Study 2. We found that the open-ended version of the task was a better predictor of empathy and more reliably discriminated typically-developing children from those with learning disorders. As a whole, the results suggest that the open-ended version is a more sensitive measure of emotion recognition specifically.

  10. Behavioral and EEG reactions in primary school-aged children to emotionally colored verbal stimuli with the condition of their own or forced choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiusheeva T. A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to compare behavioral and EEG reactions of primary school-aged children during the recognition of syntactic errors in emotionally (positively or negatively colored sentences that appeal to the choice of the child differently. 20 children (mean age 9,0±0,3 years, 12 boys, 8 girls were examined. We found out that the children with a high quality of solving a linguistic task concentrate all their attention on finding an error in the sentences, and children with a low quality of solving a task demonstrate increased emotionality, possibly connected with their unsuccessfulness. The strongest EEG reactions in the ranges of alpha- and theta- rhythms were recorded in children with slow speed and bad quality of the solution of the task. The recognition of sentences with negative emotions took longer than sentences with positive emotions. The increase of emotions (synchronization in theta range during the recognition of negative sentences was provoked by the expectation of failure and “identification” with it. The children found the mistake better in the sentences with their own choice than in the sentences that describes the forced-choice situation. Desynchronization (i.e. decrease in the spectral power and synchronization (i.e. increase in spectral power was detected on the EEG in the alpha-rhythm range. Desynchronization was associated with the recognition of sentences describing the children’s own choice; synchronization was recorded when recognizing sentences describing the forced-choice situation.

  11. Membrane paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.H.; Thorne, K.S.

    1986-01-01

    The membrane paradigm is a modified frozen star approach to modeling black holes, with particles and fields assuming a complex, static, boundary-layer type structure (membrane) near the event horizon. The membrane has no effects on the present or future evolution of particles and fields above itself. The mathematical representation is a combination of a formalism containing terms for the shear and bulk viscosity, surface pressure, momentum, temperature, entropy, etc., of the horizon and the 3+1 formalism. The latter model considers a family of three-dimensional spacelike hypersurfaces in one-dimensional time. The membrane model considers a magnetic field threading the hole and undergoing torque from the hole rotation. The field is cleaned by the horizon and distributed over the horizon so that ohmic dissipation is minimized. The membrane paradigm is invalid inside the horizon, but is useful for theoretically probing the properties of slowly evolving black holes

  12. Use of a forced-choice test of tactile discrimination in the evaluation of functional sensory loss: a report of 3 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greve, Kevin W; Bianchini, Kevin J; Ameduri, Clifford J

    2003-08-01

    The loss of sensation is not an uncommon associated finding after injury to the peripheral nerves and the spinal cord. However, the sensory examination is prone to the influence of nonphysiologic factors, and one cannot use it to determine whether functional sensory loss reflects unconscious or intentional symptom production. This distinction has important implications for differential diagnosis and for decision making in the context of workers' compensation claims and personal injury litigation. We present 3 cases of patients with chronic pain and nondermatomal patterns of loss of fine-touch sensation, whose sensory loss was examined by a sensory forced-choice symptom validity test. Their below-chance scores showed intentionally produced sensory symptoms. The use of this methodology in differential diagnosis is discussed.

  13. Reward rate optimization in two-alternative decision making: empirical tests of theoretical predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simen, Patrick; Contreras, David; Buck, Cara; Hu, Peter; Holmes, Philip; Cohen, Jonathan D

    2009-12-01

    The drift-diffusion model (DDM) implements an optimal decision procedure for stationary, 2-alternative forced-choice tasks. The height of a decision threshold applied to accumulating information on each trial determines a speed-accuracy tradeoff (SAT) for the DDM, thereby accounting for a ubiquitous feature of human performance in speeded response tasks. However, little is known about how participants settle on particular tradeoffs. One possibility is that they select SATs that maximize a subjective rate of reward earned for performance. For the DDM, there exist unique, reward-rate-maximizing values for its threshold and starting point parameters in free-response tasks that reward correct responses (R. Bogacz, E. Brown, J. Moehlis, P. Holmes, & J. D. Cohen, 2006). These optimal values vary as a function of response-stimulus interval, prior stimulus probability, and relative reward magnitude for correct responses. We tested the resulting quantitative predictions regarding response time, accuracy, and response bias under these task manipulations and found that grouped data conformed well to the predictions of an optimally parameterized DDM.

  14. PARADIGMS IN CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    Sabrina Oktoria Sihombing

    2011-01-01

    A paradigm influences what we see and conceive about certain facts. Paradigm can also influence what we accept as a truth. Yet, the debate over which paradigm and methodology is best suit for marketing and consumer behavior has begun since 1980s. Many researchers criticized the domination of logical empiricism paradigm and offered alternative paradigm to understand marketing and consumer behavior. This article discusses several paradigms and methodology, which are part of qualitative paradigm...

  15. Impaired temporal contrast sensitivity in dyslexics is specific to retain-and-compare paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Yehudah, G; Sackett, E; Malchi-Ginzberg, L; Ahissar, M

    2001-07-01

    Developmental dyslexia is a specific reading disability that affects 5-10% of the population. Recent studies have suggested that dyslexics may experience a deficit in the visual magnocellular pathway. The most extensively studied prediction deriving from this hypothesis is impaired contrast sensitivity to transient, low-luminance stimuli at low spatial frequencies. However, the findings are inconsistent across studies and even seemingly contradictory. In the present study, we administered several different paradigms for assessing temporal contrast sensitivity, and found both impaired and normal contrast sensitivity within the same group of dyslexic participants. Under sequential presentation, in a temporal forced choice paradigm, dyslexics showed impaired sensitivity to both drifting and flickering gratings. However, under simultaneous presentation, with a spatial forced choice paradigm, dyslexics' sensitivity did not differ from that of the controls. Within each paradigm, dyslexics' sensitivity was poorer at higher temporal frequencies, consistent with the magnocellular hypothesis. These results suggest that a basic perceptual impairment in dyslexics may be their limited ability to retain-and-compare perceptual traces across brief intervals.

  16. PARADIGMS IN CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Oktoria Sihombing

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A paradigm influences what we see and conceive about certain facts. Paradigm can also influence what we accept as a truth. Yet, the debate over which paradigm and methodology is best suit for marketing and consumer behavior has begun since 1980s. Many researchers criticized the domination of logical empiricism paradigm and offered alternative paradigm to understand marketing and consumer behavior. This article discusses several paradigms and methodology, which are part of qualitative paradigm, and compares them with positivism paradigm. This article will also point to the importance of reconciliation between qualitative and quantitative paradigm in order to improve marketing and consumer behavior studies.

  17. AMPT-induced monoamine depletion in humans: evaluation of two alternative [{sup 123}I]IBZM SPECT procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boot, Erik [Academic Medical Centre (AMC), University of Amsterdam, Department of Psychiatry, Amsterdam (Netherlands); De Bruggen, Centre for People with Intellectual Disability, Zwammerdam (Netherlands); Booij, Jan [AMC, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hasler, Gregor [University Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Zuerich (Switzerland); Zinkstok, Janneke R.; Haan, Lieuwe de; Linszen, Don H.; Amelsvoort, Therese A. van [Academic Medical Centre (AMC), University of Amsterdam, Department of Psychiatry, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2008-07-15

    Acute monoamine depletion paradigms using alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine (AMPT) combined with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) have been used successfully to evaluate disturbances in central dopaminergic neurotransmission. However, severe side effects due to relatively high doses (4,500 to 8,000 mg) of AMPT have been reasons for study withdrawal. Thus, we assessed the effectiveness and tolerability of two alternative procedures, using lower doses of AMPT. Six healthy subjects underwent three measurements of striatal dopamine D{sub 2} receptor (D{sub 2}R)-binding potential (BP{sub ND}) with SPECT and the selective radiolabeled D{sub 2}R antagonist [{sup 123}I]IBZM. All subjects were scanned in the absence of pharmacological intervention (baseline) and after two different depletion procedures. In the first depletion session, over 6 h, subjects were administered 1,500 mg of AMPT before scanning. In the second depletion session, over 25 h, subjects were administered 40 mg AMPT/kg body weight. We also administered the Subjective Well-being Under Neuroleptic Treatment Scale, a self-report instrument designed to measure the subjective experience of patients on neuroleptic medication. We found no change of mean D{sub 2}R BP{sub ND} after the first and short AMPT challenge compared to the baseline. However, we found a significant increase in striatal D{sub 2}R BP{sub ND} binding after the AMPT challenge adjusted for bodyweight compared to both other regimen. Although subjective well-being worsened after the prolonged AMPT challenge, no severe side effects were reported. Our results imply a low-dosage, suitable alternative to the common AMPT procedure. The probability of side effects and study withdrawal can be reduced by this procedure. (orig.)

  18. AMPT-induced monoamine depletion in humans: evaluation of two alternative [123I]IBZM SPECT procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boot, Erik; Booij, Jan; Hasler, Gregor; Zinkstok, Janneke R.; Haan, Lieuwe de; Linszen, Don H.; Amelsvoort, Therese A. van

    2008-01-01

    Acute monoamine depletion paradigms using alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine (AMPT) combined with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) have been used successfully to evaluate disturbances in central dopaminergic neurotransmission. However, severe side effects due to relatively high doses (4,500 to 8,000 mg) of AMPT have been reasons for study withdrawal. Thus, we assessed the effectiveness and tolerability of two alternative procedures, using lower doses of AMPT. Six healthy subjects underwent three measurements of striatal dopamine D 2 receptor (D 2 R)-binding potential (BP ND ) with SPECT and the selective radiolabeled D 2 R antagonist [ 123 I]IBZM. All subjects were scanned in the absence of pharmacological intervention (baseline) and after two different depletion procedures. In the first depletion session, over 6 h, subjects were administered 1,500 mg of AMPT before scanning. In the second depletion session, over 25 h, subjects were administered 40 mg AMPT/kg body weight. We also administered the Subjective Well-being Under Neuroleptic Treatment Scale, a self-report instrument designed to measure the subjective experience of patients on neuroleptic medication. We found no change of mean D 2 R BP ND after the first and short AMPT challenge compared to the baseline. However, we found a significant increase in striatal D 2 R BP ND binding after the AMPT challenge adjusted for bodyweight compared to both other regimen. Although subjective well-being worsened after the prolonged AMPT challenge, no severe side effects were reported. Our results imply a low-dosage, suitable alternative to the common AMPT procedure. The probability of side effects and study withdrawal can be reduced by this procedure. (orig.)

  19. From Teaching to Learning--a New Paradigm for Undergraduate Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Robert B.; Tagg, John

    1995-01-01

    Two alternative paradigms for undergraduate education are compared; one holds teaching as its purpose, the other learning. The natures of the two paradigms are examined on the following dimensions: mission and purposes, criteria for success, teaching and learning structures, underlying learning theory, concepts of productivity and methods of…

  20. Functional MRI of Challenging Food Choices: Forced Choice between Equally Liked High- and Low-Calorie Foods in the Absence of Hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonnier, Lisette; van der Laan, Laura N; Viergever, Max A; Smeets, Paul A M

    2015-01-01

    We are continuously exposed to food and during the day we make many food choices. These choices play an important role in the regulation of food intake and thereby in weight management. Therefore, it is important to obtain more insight into the mechanisms that underlie these choices. While several food choice functional MRI (fMRI) studies have been conducted, the effect of energy content on neural responses during food choice has, to our knowledge, not been investigated before. Our objective was to examine brain responses during food choices between equally liked high- and low-calorie foods in the absence of hunger. During a 10-min fMRI scan 19 normal weight volunteers performed a forced-choice task. Food pairs were matched on individual liking but differed in perceived and actual caloric content (high-low). Food choice compared with non-food choice elicited stronger unilateral activation in the left insula, superior temporal sulcus, posterior cingulate gyrus and (pre)cuneus. This suggests that the food stimuli were more salient despite subject's low motivation to eat. The right superior temporal sulcus (STS) was the only region that exhibited greater activation for high versus low calorie food choices between foods matched on liking. Together with previous studies, this suggests that STS activation during food evaluation and choice may reflect the food's biological relevance independent of food preference. This novel finding warrants further research into the effects of hunger state and weight status on STS, which may provide a marker of biological relevance.

  1. Functional MRI of Challenging Food Choices: Forced Choice between Equally Liked High- and Low-Calorie Foods in the Absence of Hunger.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisette Charbonnier

    Full Text Available We are continuously exposed to food and during the day we make many food choices. These choices play an important role in the regulation of food intake and thereby in weight management. Therefore, it is important to obtain more insight into the mechanisms that underlie these choices. While several food choice functional MRI (fMRI studies have been conducted, the effect of energy content on neural responses during food choice has, to our knowledge, not been investigated before. Our objective was to examine brain responses during food choices between equally liked high- and low-calorie foods in the absence of hunger. During a 10-min fMRI scan 19 normal weight volunteers performed a forced-choice task. Food pairs were matched on individual liking but differed in perceived and actual caloric content (high-low. Food choice compared with non-food choice elicited stronger unilateral activation in the left insula, superior temporal sulcus, posterior cingulate gyrus and (precuneus. This suggests that the food stimuli were more salient despite subject's low motivation to eat. The right superior temporal sulcus (STS was the only region that exhibited greater activation for high versus low calorie food choices between foods matched on liking. Together with previous studies, this suggests that STS activation during food evaluation and choice may reflect the food's biological relevance independent of food preference. This novel finding warrants further research into the effects of hunger state and weight status on STS, which may provide a marker of biological relevance.

  2. Prediction of human observer performance in a 2-alternative forced choice low-contrast detection task using channelized Hotelling observer: Impact of radiation dose and reconstruction algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Lifeng; Leng Shuai; Chen Lingyun; Kofler, James M.; McCollough, Cynthia H. [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States); Carter, Rickey E. [Division of Biomedical Statistics and Informatics, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: Efficient optimization of CT protocols demands a quantitative approach to predicting human observer performance on specific tasks at various scan and reconstruction settings. The goal of this work was to investigate how well a channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) can predict human observer performance on 2-alternative forced choice (2AFC) lesion-detection tasks at various dose levels and two different reconstruction algorithms: a filtered-backprojection (FBP) and an iterative reconstruction (IR) method. Methods: A 35 Multiplication-Sign 26 cm{sup 2} torso-shaped phantom filled with water was used to simulate an average-sized patient. Three rods with different diameters (small: 3 mm; medium: 5 mm; large: 9 mm) were placed in the center region of the phantom to simulate small, medium, and large lesions. The contrast relative to background was -15 HU at 120 kV. The phantom was scanned 100 times using automatic exposure control each at 60, 120, 240, 360, and 480 quality reference mAs on a 128-slice scanner. After removing the three rods, the water phantom was again scanned 100 times to provide signal-absent background images at the exact same locations. By extracting regions of interest around the three rods and on the signal-absent images, the authors generated 21 2AFC studies. Each 2AFC study had 100 trials, with each trial consisting of a signal-present image and a signal-absent image side-by-side in randomized order. In total, 2100 trials were presented to both the model and human observers. Four medical physicists acted as human observers. For the model observer, the authors used a CHO with Gabor channels, which involves six channel passbands, five orientations, and two phases, leading to a total of 60 channels. The performance predicted by the CHO was compared with that obtained by four medical physicists at each 2AFC study. Results: The human and model observers were highly correlated at each dose level for each lesion size for both FBP and IR. The

  3. Prediction of human observer performance in a 2-alternative forced choice low-contrast detection task using channelized Hotelling observer: Impact of radiation dose and reconstruction algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Lifeng; Leng Shuai; Chen Lingyun; Kofler, James M.; McCollough, Cynthia H.; Carter, Rickey E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Efficient optimization of CT protocols demands a quantitative approach to predicting human observer performance on specific tasks at various scan and reconstruction settings. The goal of this work was to investigate how well a channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) can predict human observer performance on 2-alternative forced choice (2AFC) lesion-detection tasks at various dose levels and two different reconstruction algorithms: a filtered-backprojection (FBP) and an iterative reconstruction (IR) method. Methods: A 35 × 26 cm 2 torso-shaped phantom filled with water was used to simulate an average-sized patient. Three rods with different diameters (small: 3 mm; medium: 5 mm; large: 9 mm) were placed in the center region of the phantom to simulate small, medium, and large lesions. The contrast relative to background was −15 HU at 120 kV. The phantom was scanned 100 times using automatic exposure control each at 60, 120, 240, 360, and 480 quality reference mAs on a 128-slice scanner. After removing the three rods, the water phantom was again scanned 100 times to provide signal-absent background images at the exact same locations. By extracting regions of interest around the three rods and on the signal-absent images, the authors generated 21 2AFC studies. Each 2AFC study had 100 trials, with each trial consisting of a signal-present image and a signal-absent image side-by-side in randomized order. In total, 2100 trials were presented to both the model and human observers. Four medical physicists acted as human observers. For the model observer, the authors used a CHO with Gabor channels, which involves six channel passbands, five orientations, and two phases, leading to a total of 60 channels. The performance predicted by the CHO was compared with that obtained by four medical physicists at each 2AFC study. Results: The human and model observers were highly correlated at each dose level for each lesion size for both FBP and IR. The Pearson's product

  4. RecO protein initiates DNA recombination and strand annealing through two alternative DNA binding mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhikov, Mikhail; Gupta, Richa; Glickman, Michael; Korolev, Sergey

    2014-10-17

    Recombination mediator proteins (RMPs) are important for genome stability in all organisms. Several RMPs support two alternative reactions: initiation of homologous recombination and DNA annealing. We examined mechanisms of RMPs in both reactions with Mycobacterium smegmatis RecO (MsRecO) and demonstrated that MsRecO interacts with ssDNA by two distinct mechanisms. Zinc stimulates MsRecO binding to ssDNA during annealing, whereas the recombination function is zinc-independent and is regulated by interaction with MsRecR. Thus, different structural motifs or conformations of MsRecO are responsible for interaction with ssDNA during annealing and recombination. Neither annealing nor recombinase loading depends on MsRecO interaction with the conserved C-terminal tail of single-stranded (ss) DNA-binding protein (SSB), which is known to bind Escherichia coli RecO. However, similarly to E. coli proteins, MsRecO and MsRecOR do not dismiss SSB from ssDNA, suggesting that RMPs form a complex with SSB-ssDNA even in the absence of binding to the major protein interaction motif. We propose that alternative conformations of such complexes define the mechanism by which RMPs initiate the repair of stalled replication and support two different functions during recombinational repair of DNA breaks. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Two Alternative Strategies for Raising Public Awareness of Science and Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Couto Marques

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In today’s knowledge society it is important to keep people informed about emerging technological developments while at the same time providing an accurate scientific and historical framework for such novelties in order to contribute to eradicate existing misconceptions. Dissemination of science and technology is presently essential to convey information within the research communities as well as among the younger generations and the general public. This paper describes two initiatives which pursue this objective by using multimedia tools. One consists in a set of 250 one-minute programs about engineering topics which were broadcast on TV, radio and the multimedia online platform of a daily journal. The other is a collection of videos produced by a research unit in two alternative formats aimed at specialist and general viewers. Both initiatives, based on two very different budgets, may be instrumental for improving the general perception of the role of engineering and for attracting new vocations. The multimedia contents developed are also valuable teaching tools.

  6. Measuring HPV vaccination coverage in Australia: comparing two alternative population-based denominators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaro, Bianca; Brotherton, Julia M L

    2015-08-01

    To compare the use of two alternative population-based denominators in calculating HPV vaccine coverage in Australia by age groups, jurisdiction and remoteness areas. Data from the National HPV Vaccination Program Register (NHVPR) were analysed at Local Government Area (LGA) level, by state/territory and by the Australian Standard Geographical Classification Remoteness Structure. The proportion of females vaccinated was calculated using both the ABS ERP and Medicare enrolments as the denominator. HPV vaccine coverage estimates were slightly higher using Medicare enrolments than using the ABS estimated resident population nationally (70.8% compared with 70.4% for 12 to 17-year-old females, and 33.3% compared with 31.9% for 18 to 26-year-old females, respectively.) The greatest differences in coverage were found in the remote areas of Australia. There is minimal difference between coverage estimates made using the two denominators except in Remote and Very Remote areas where small residential populations make interpretation more difficult. Adoption of Medicare enrolments for the denominator in the ongoing program would make minimal, if any, difference to routine coverage estimates. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  7. New energy paradigm?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldoni, Giovanni

    2007-01-01

    The rise of oil prices, the difficulties in markets liberalization, and the poor results of competition have convinced many that a new energy paradigm is necessary. Taking the original definition of scientific paradigm, it doesn't seem that a practical solution could be found outside the present paradigm of energy policy, made of privatisation, liberalisation and competition [it

  8. Preliminary Assessment of Two Alternative Core Design Concepts for the Special Purpose Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterbentz, James W. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Werner, James E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hummel, Andrew J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kennedy, John C. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); O' Brien, Robert C. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Dion, Axel M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wright, Richard N. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ananth, Krishnan P. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-11-01

    The Special Purpose Reactor (SPR) is a small 5 MWt, heat pipe-cooled, fast reactor based on the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Mega-Power concept. The LANL concept features a stainless steel monolithic core structure with drilled channels for UO2 pellet stacks and evaporator sections of the heat pipes. Two alternative active core designs are presented here that replace the monolithic core structure with simpler and easier to manufacture fuel elements. The two new core designs are simply referred to as Design A and Design B. In addition to ease of manufacturability, the fuel elements for both Design A and Design B can be individually fabricated, assembled, inspected, tested, and qualified prior to their installation into the reactor core leading to greater reactor system reliability and safety. Design A fuel elements will require the development of a new hexagonally-shaped UO2 fuel pellet. The Design A configuration will consist of an array of hexagonally-shaped fuel elements with each fuel element having a central heat pipe. This hexagonal fuel element configuration results in four radial gaps or thermal resistances per element. Neither the fuel element development, nor the radial gap issue are deemed to be serious and should not impact an aggressive reactor deployment schedule. Design B uses embedded arrays of heat pipes and fuel pins in a double-wall tank filled with liquid metal sodium. Sodium is used to thermally bond the heat pipes to the fuel pins, but its usage may create reactor transportation and regulatory challenges. An independent panel of U.S. manufacturing experts has preliminarily assessed the three SPR core designs and views Design A as simplest to manufacture. Herein are the results of a preliminary neutronic, thermal, mechanical, material, and manufacturing assessment of both Design A and Design B along with comparisons to the LANL concept (monolithic core structure). Despite the active core differences, all three reactor concepts behave

  9. The Next Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Kastrup

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to perceive the world, we need more than just raw sensory input: a subliminal paradigm of thought is required to interpret raw sensory data and, thereby, create the objects and events we perceive around ourselves. As such, the world we see reflects our own unexamined, culture-bound assumptions and expectations, which explains why every generation in history has believed that it more or less understood the world. Today, we perceive a world of objects and events outside and independent of mind, which merely reflects our current paradigm of thought. Anomalies that contradict this paradigm have been accumulated by physicists over the past couple of decades, which will eventually force our culture to move to a new paradigm. Under this new paradigm, a form of universal mind will be viewed as nature’s sole fundamental entity. In this paper, I offer a sketch of what the new paradigm may look like.

  10. Didaktiske paradigmer og refleksion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Torben Spanget

    2014-01-01

    analysis of subject didactics by Sigmund Ongstad. The two positions offer fundamentally different insights into didactics. Nielsen’s position establishes didactics as a knowledge domain and Ongstad’s position points to the dynamics of subject didactics by analyzing communication as a basic aspect. Krogh...... this article. A possible utilitarian didactical paradigm, already indicated by Krogh as a historical paradigm prominent in our time, is also discussed. It is suggested that reflection could be seen as a normative response to the utilitarian paradigm, and not as a paradigm in its own right. It is concluded...

  11. Dynamic paradigm of turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhamedov, Alfred M.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a dynamic paradigm of turbulence is proposed. The basic idea consists in the novel definition of chaotic structure given with the help of Pfaff system of PDE associated with the turbulent dynamics. A methodological analysis of the new and the former paradigm is produced

  12. An Integrative Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammack, Phillip L.

    2005-01-01

    Through the application of life course theory to the study of sexual orientation, this paper specifies a new paradigm for research on human sexual orientation that seeks to reconcile divisions among biological, social science, and humanistic paradigms. Recognizing the historical, social, and cultural relativity of human development, this paradigm…

  13. Of Paradigms and Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Martin B.; Matthijs, Matthias

    in the study of policy paradigms. To demonstrate the general applicability of our framework, the paper examines the evolution of British macroeconomic policy making since 1990. We show that various Prime Ministers and their Chancellors were able to reinterpret and redefine the dominant neoliberal understanding......? Despite the profound impact of Peter Hall’s approach to policy paradigms and social learning, there is a burgeoning consensus that transposing a rudimentary ‘Kuhnian’ understanding of paradigms into the context of public policy making leads to a notion of punctuated equilibrium style shifts as the only...

  14. Programming Language Paradigms

    OpenAIRE

    Felician ALECU

    2013-01-01

    This paper's goal is to briefly explain the basic theory behind programming languages and their history while taking a close look at different programming paradigms that are used today as well as describing their differences, benefits, and drawbacks

  15. Winnicott's paradigm outlined

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeljko Loparic

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to present a unified view of Winnicott’s contribution to psychoanalysis. Part I (Sections 1-4 starts off by recalling that, according to some important commentators, Winnicott introduced a change in paradigms in psychoanalysis. In order to show that this change can be viewed as an overall “switch in paradigms”, in the sense given by T. S. Kuhn, this paper presents an account of the Kuhn’s view of science and offers a reconstruction of Freud’s Oedipal, Triangular or “Toddler-in-the-Mother’s-Bed” Paradigm. Part II (Sections 5-13 shows that as early as the 1920’s Winnicott encountered insurmountable anomalies in the Oedipal paradigm and, for that reason, started what can be called revolutionary research for a new framework of psychoanalysis. This research led Winnicott, especially during the last period of his life, to produce an alternative dual or “Baby-on-the-Mother’s-Lap” Paradigm. This new paradigm is described in some detail, especially the paradigmatic dual mother-baby relation and Winnicott’s dominant theory of maturation. Final remarks are made regarding Winnicott’s heritage and the future of psychoanalysis.

  16. Three paradigms of horror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Ognjanović

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Starting with the definition of horror as a literary genre the core story of which is based on a meeting with threatening Otherness whose influx into consensual reality and it’s tacit normality creates unrest and awakens fear in the protagonists and the audience, this paper defines the three key paradigms of the horror genre, based on the causes of fear, or rather the “monstrous” Otherness in them. Paradigm 1 concerns the “fear of one’s own self”: the root of the fear is inside, in the individual psyche, in the split, deceived, or in some other way unreliable self which is, consciously or unconsciously, harmful to others, and ultimately to itself. Paradigm 2 deals with the “Fear of others”: the root of fear is outside and is concerned with other people and other creatures which have an urge to occupy a certain human microcosm. Paradigm 3 is concerned with the “Fear of the numinous”: the root of the fear is mostly situated on the outside; however its shape is amorphous, ambivalent and unknowable. The “monster” is faceless; it touches on primary forces of the divine/demonic, and as such is situated on the very border between inside/outside. All three paradigms, with their main approaches and constitutive elements, are modulated through two basic possible treatments: the conservative and the progressive (liberal, which affords a total of six basic variations of horror. Starting from definitions given by John Carpenter, Robin Wood and his own, the author analyzes representative examples from horror literature and film for each paradigm and its variation, with a special accent on the image of Otherness and its connection to the norm, its intrusion into the status quo, anthropocentrism and the presence or absence of a happy ending. The paper demonstrates the richness of connotative potential within the horror genre and provides a basis for its taxonomy.

  17. Three paradigms of horror

    OpenAIRE

    Dejan Ognjanović

    2016-01-01

    Starting with the definition of horror as a literary genre the core story of which is based on a meeting with threatening Otherness whose influx into consensual reality and it’s tacit normality creates unrest and awakens fear in the protagonists and the audience, this paper defines the three key paradigms of the horror genre, based on the causes of fear, or rather the “monstrous” Otherness in them. Paradigm 1 concerns the “fear of one’s own self”: the root of the fear is inside, in the indivi...

  18. Paradigms in object recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutihac, R.; Mutihac, R.C.

    1999-09-01

    A broad range of approaches has been proposed and applied for the complex and rather difficult task of object recognition that involves the determination of object characteristics and object classification into one of many a priori object types. Our paper revises briefly the three main different paradigms in pattern recognition, namely Bayesian statistics, neural networks, and expert systems. (author)

  19. Programming Language Paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartoníček Jan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper's goal is to briefly explain the basic theory behind programming languages and their history while taking a close look at different programming paradigms that are used today as well as describing their differences, benefits, and drawbacks

  20. Shifting the paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiss, Katalin; Brozik, Anna; Kucsma, Nora

    2012-01-01

    ABCB6, a member of the adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family, has been proposed to be responsible for the mitochondrial uptake of porphyrins. Here we show that ABCB6 is a glycoprotein present in the membrane of mature erythrocytes and in exosomes released from reticuloc...... paradigm linking the expression and function of ABCB6 to mitochondria....

  1. Deconstructing Research: Paradigms Lost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifonas, Peter Pericles

    2009-01-01

    In recent decades, proponents of naturalistic and/or critical modes of inquiry advocating the use of ethnographic techniques for the narrative-based study of phenomena within pedagogical contexts have challenged the central methodological paradigm of educational research: that is, the tendency among its practitioners to adhere to quantitative…

  2. The resilience of paradigm mixes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Farsund, Arild Aurvåg; Langhelle, Oluf

    2017-01-01

    This paper argues that a policy regime based on a paradigm mix may be resilient when challenged by changing power balances and new agendas. Controversies between the actors can be contained within the paradigm mix as it enables them to legitimize different ideational positions. Rather than engaging...... context changed. The paradigm mix proved sufficiently flexible to accommodate food security concerns and at the same time continue to take steps toward further liberalization. Indeed, the main players have not challenged the paradigm mix....

  3. CHANGE OF ENERGY PARADIGM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionut PURICA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We are at the beginning of a change of paradigm in the energy systems of the whole World. Both new resources being found and exploited and the new technologies for energy conversion, transport and distribution, along with the associated artificial intelligence systems, are starting to create new futures, with different living values, for the greatest machine created by men: the energy system. Some relevant elements are presented in the paper along with the position and the perspectives of Romania.

  4. Intragenic deletions affecting two alternative transcripts of the IMMP2L gene in patients with Tourette syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelsen, Birgitte; Melchior, Linea; Jensen, Lars R; Groth, Camilla; Glenthøj, Birte; Rizzo, Renata; Debes, Nanette Mol; Skov, Liselotte; Brøndum-Nielsen, Karen; Paschou, Peristera; Silahtaroglu, Asli; Tümer, Zeynep

    2014-01-01

    Tourette syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by multiple motor and vocal tics, and the disorder is often accompanied by comorbidities such as attention-deficit hyperactivity-disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder. Tourette syndrome has a complex etiology, but the underlying environmental and genetic factors are largely unknown. IMMP2L (inner mitochondrial membrane peptidase, subunit 2) located on chromosome 7q31 is one of the genes suggested as a susceptibility factor in disease pathogenesis. Through screening of a Danish cohort comprising 188 unrelated Tourette syndrome patients for copy number variations, we identified seven patients with intragenic IMMP2L deletions (3.7%), and this frequency was significantly higher (P=0.0447) compared with a Danish control cohort (0.9%). Four of the seven deletions identified did not include any known exons of IMMP2L, but were within intron 3. These deletions were found to affect a shorter IMMP2L mRNA species with two alternative 5′-exons (one including the ATG start codon). We showed that both transcripts (long and short) were expressed in several brain regions, with a particularly high expression in cerebellum and hippocampus. The current findings give further evidence for the role of IMMP2L as a susceptibility factor in Tourette syndrome and suggest that intronic changes in disease susceptibility genes should be investigated further for presence of alternatively spliced exons. PMID:24549057

  5. The peopleware paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, C G

    1996-08-01

    Manufacturing managements and practitioners alike are at long last realizing that the heartbeat of competitive advantage springs from peopleware, not hardware and software. But despite this heightened awareness the problem persists even among manufacturing professionals--they may talk a good game about priortizing people and quality, but all too many have precious little idea of how to go about it with constancy of purpose. This article bridges the gap and addresses the key issues in adopting the powerful new peopleware paradigm that provides the positive motivational climate for the improvement-change journey toward world-class performance through teamwork, innovation, and continuous improvement.

  6. Competitiveness: new economic paradigm?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Peñaloza

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays competitiveness is made up of “the new” paradigm that allows to prevail in the global World. Thus, it is inevitable to ask, was it required to be competitive to be successful in the international trade arena? Recognizing the discussion about it and its theoretical-conceptual density, the present paper studies this old notion whose meaning, in essence, is always the same one. This applies even though new realities in the present world-wide atmosphere confer to it a distinguishing character and new and old players are forced to organize actions and bring efforts together to obtain the competitive supremacy.

  7. Women's views and experiences of two alternative consent pathways for participation in a preterm intrapartum trial: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Alexandra; Chhoa, Celine; Ayers, Susan; Pushpa-Rajah, Angela; Duley, Lelia

    2017-09-09

    The Cord Pilot Trial compared alternative policies for timing of cord clamping at very preterm birth at eight UK hospitals. In addition to standard written consent, an oral assent pathway was developed for use when birth was imminent. The aim of this study was to explore women's views and experiences of two alternative consent pathways to participate in the Cord Pilot Trial. We conducted a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews. A total of 179 participants in the Cord Pilot Trial were sent a postal invitation to take part in interviews. Women who agreed were interviewed in person or by telephone to explore their experiences of two consent pathways for a preterm intrapartum trial. Data were analysed using inductive systematic thematic analysis. Twenty-three women who gave either written consent (n = 18) or oral assent followed by written consent (n = 5) to participate in the trial were interviewed. Five themes were identified: (1) understanding of the implications of randomisation, (2) importance of staff offering participation, (3) information about the trial and time to consider participation, (4) trial secondary in women's minds and (5) reasons for agreeing to take part in the trial. Experiences were similar for the two consent pathways. Women recruited by the oral assent pathway reported being given less information about the trial but felt it was sufficient to make a decision regarding participation. There were gaps in women's understanding of the trial and intervention, regardless of the consent pathway. Overall, women were positive about their experiences of being invited to participate in the trial. The oral assent pathway seems an acceptable option for women if the intervention is low-risk and time is limited. ISRCTN Registry, ISRCTN21456601 . Registered on 28 February 2013.

  8. Don't spin the pen: two alternative methods for second-stage sampling in urban cluster surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Angela MC

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In two-stage cluster surveys, the traditional method used in second-stage sampling (in which the first household in a cluster is selected is time-consuming and may result in biased estimates of the indicator of interest. Firstly, a random direction from the center of the cluster is selected, usually by spinning a pen. The houses along that direction are then counted out to the boundary of the cluster, and one is then selected at random to be the first household surveyed. This process favors households towards the center of the cluster, but it could easily be improved. During a recent meningitis vaccination coverage survey in Maradi, Niger, we compared this method of first household selection to two alternatives in urban zones: 1 using a superimposed grid on the map of the cluster area and randomly selecting an intersection; and 2 drawing the perimeter of the cluster area using a Global Positioning System (GPS and randomly selecting one point within the perimeter. Although we only compared a limited number of clusters using each method, we found the sampling grid method to be the fastest and easiest for field survey teams, although it does require a map of the area. Selecting a random GPS point was also found to be a good method, once adequate training can be provided. Spinning the pen and counting households to the boundary was the most complicated and time-consuming. The two methods tested here represent simpler, quicker and potentially more robust alternatives to spinning the pen for cluster surveys in urban areas. However, in rural areas, these alternatives would favor initial household selection from lower density (or even potentially empty areas. Bearing in mind these limitations, as well as available resources and feasibility, investigators should choose the most appropriate method for their particular survey context.

  9. Auditory Discrimination of Anisochrony: Influence of the Tempo and Musical Backgrounds of Listeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrle, N.; Samson, S.

    2005-01-01

    This study explored the influence of several factors, physical and human, on anisochrony's thresholds measured with an adaptive two alternative forced choice paradigm. The effect of the number and duration of sounds on anisochrony discrimination was tested in the first experiment as well as potential interactions between each of these factors and…

  10. Modeling Expressed Emotions in Music using Pairwise Comparisons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jens; Nielsen, Jens Brehm; Jensen, Bjørn Sand

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a two-alternative forced-choice experimental paradigm to quantify expressed emotions in music using the two wellknown arousal and valence (AV) dimensions. In order to produce AV scores from the pairwise comparisons and to visualize the locations of excerpts in the AV space, we...

  11. The WIMP Paradigm: Current Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    The WIMP paradigm is the glue that joins together much of the high energy and cosmic frontiers. It postulates that most of the matter in the Universe is made of weakly-interacting massive particles, with implications for a broad range of experiments and observations. I will review the WIMP paradigm's underlying motivations, its current status in view of rapid experimental progress on several fronts, and recent theoretical variations on the WIMP paradigm theme.

  12. PARADIGM OF ACCOUNTING CHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanta Iacob

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The words and phrases swop with each other and the apparent stability of a word’s meaning sometimes change in time. This explains why the generic term of accounting is used when referring to the qualities attributed to accounting,but also when it comes to organizing financial accounting function within the entity, and when referring concretely to keeping a double record with its specific means, methods and tools specific, respectively seen as a technical accounting.Speaking about the qualities of accounting, but also about the organizational form it takes, we note that there is a manifold meaning of the word accounting, which is why the purpose of this article is to demonstrate that the paradigm shift aimed at a new set of rules and if the rules changes, then we can change the very purpose of accounting.

  13. Paradigms for parasite conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Eric R; Carlson, Colin J; Bueno, Veronica M; Burgio, Kevin R; Cizauskas, Carrie A; Clements, Christopher F; Seidel, Dana P; Harris, Nyeema C

    2016-08-01

    Parasitic species, which depend directly on host species for their survival, represent a major regulatory force in ecosystems and a significant component of Earth's biodiversity. Yet the negative impacts of parasites observed at the host level have motivated a conservation paradigm of eradication, moving us farther from attainment of taxonomically unbiased conservation goals. Despite a growing body of literature highlighting the importance of parasite-inclusive conservation, most parasite species remain understudied, underfunded, and underappreciated. We argue the protection of parasitic biodiversity requires a paradigm shift in the perception and valuation of their role as consumer species, similar to that of apex predators in the mid-20th century. Beyond recognizing parasites as vital trophic regulators, existing tools available to conservation practitioners should explicitly account for the unique threats facing dependent species. We built upon concepts from epidemiology and economics (e.g., host-density threshold and cost-benefit analysis) to devise novel metrics of margin of error and minimum investment for parasite conservation. We define margin of error as the risk of accidental host extinction from misestimating equilibrium population sizes and predicted oscillations, while minimum investment represents the cost associated with conserving the additional hosts required to maintain viable parasite populations. This framework will aid in the identification of readily conserved parasites that present minimal health risks. To establish parasite conservation, we propose an extension of population viability analysis for host-parasite assemblages to assess extinction risk. In the direst cases, ex situ breeding programs for parasites should be evaluated to maximize success without undermining host protection. Though parasitic species pose a considerable conservation challenge, adaptations to conservation tools will help protect parasite biodiversity in the face of

  14. The performance of cleaner wrasse, Labroides dimidiatus, in a reversal learning task varies across experimental paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Gingins

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Testing performance in controlled laboratory experiments is a powerful tool for understanding the extent and evolution of cognitive abilities in non-human animals. However, cognitive testing is prone to a number of potential biases, which, if unnoticed or unaccounted for, may affect the conclusions drawn. We examined whether slight modifications to the experimental procedure and apparatus used in a spatial task and reversal learning task affected performance outcomes in the bluestreak cleaner wrasse, Labroides dimidiatus (hereafter “cleaners”. Using two-alternative forced-choice tests, fish had to learn to associate a food reward with a side (left or right in their holding aquarium. Individuals were tested in one of four experimental treatments that differed slightly in procedure and/or physical set-up. Cleaners from all four treatment groups were equally able to solve the initial spatial task. However, groups differed in their ability to solve the reversal learning task: no individuals solved the reversal task when tested in small tanks with a transparent partition separating the two options, whereas over 50% of individuals solved the task when performed in a larger tank, or with an opaque partition. These results clearly show that seemingly insignificant details to the experimental set-up matter when testing performance in a spatial task and might significantly influence the outcome of experiments. These results echo previous calls for researchers to exercise caution when designing methodologies for cognition tasks to avoid misinterpretations.

  15. The performance of cleaner wrasse, Labroides dimidiatus, in a reversal learning task varies across experimental paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingins, Simon; Marcadier, Fanny; Wismer, Sharon; Krattinger, Océane; Quattrini, Fausto; Bshary, Redouan; Binning, Sandra A

    2018-01-01

    Testing performance in controlled laboratory experiments is a powerful tool for understanding the extent and evolution of cognitive abilities in non-human animals. However, cognitive testing is prone to a number of potential biases, which, if unnoticed or unaccounted for, may affect the conclusions drawn. We examined whether slight modifications to the experimental procedure and apparatus used in a spatial task and reversal learning task affected performance outcomes in the bluestreak cleaner wrasse, Labroides dimidiatus (hereafter "cleaners"). Using two-alternative forced-choice tests, fish had to learn to associate a food reward with a side (left or right) in their holding aquarium. Individuals were tested in one of four experimental treatments that differed slightly in procedure and/or physical set-up. Cleaners from all four treatment groups were equally able to solve the initial spatial task. However, groups differed in their ability to solve the reversal learning task: no individuals solved the reversal task when tested in small tanks with a transparent partition separating the two options, whereas over 50% of individuals solved the task when performed in a larger tank, or with an opaque partition. These results clearly show that seemingly insignificant details to the experimental set-up matter when testing performance in a spatial task and might significantly influence the outcome of experiments. These results echo previous calls for researchers to exercise caution when designing methodologies for cognition tasks to avoid misinterpretations.

  16. Cronbach's [Alpha], Revelle's [Beta], and McDonald's [Omega][sub H]: Their Relations with Each Other and Two Alternative Conceptualizations of Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinbarg, Richard E.; Revelle, William; Yovel, Iftah; Li, Wen

    2005-01-01

    We make theoretical comparisons among five coefficients--Cronbach's [alpha], Revelle's [beta], McDonald's [omega][sub h], and two alternative conceptualizations of reliability. Though many end users and psychometricians alike may not distinguish among these five coefficients, we demonstrate formally their nonequivalence. Specifically, whereas…

  17. The Consumption Paradigm in Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Ardianto

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available This article elaborates consumption paradigm in marketing. In background, this paper reviews different perspectives of consumption: economic perspective and marketing perspective. In ontology, this work describes various issues regarding consumption view. In epistemology, this article demonstrates how marketers especially researches explore the consumption phenomena. In methodology, the article describes experiential marketing –one of applied consumption paradigm in marketing, which could be an alternative choice of marketing practices.

  18. Paradigm Shifts in Ophthalmic Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebag, J; Sadun, Alfredo A; Pierce, Eric A

    2016-08-01

    Future advances in ophthalmology will see a paradigm shift in diagnostics from a focus on dysfunction and disease to better measures of psychophysical function and health. Practical methods to define genotypes will be increasingly important and non-invasive nanotechnologies are needed to detect molecular changes that predate histopathology. This is not a review nor meant to be comprehensive. Specific topics have been selected to illustrate the principles of important paradigm shifts that will influence the future of ophthalmic diagnostics. It is our impression that future evaluation of vision will go beyond visual acuity to assess ocular health in terms of psychophysical function. The definition of disease will incorporate genotype into what has historically been a phenotype-centric discipline. Non-invasive nanotechnologies will enable a paradigm shift from disease detection on a cellular level to a sub-cellular molecular level. Vision can be evaluated beyond visual acuity by measuring contrast sensitivity, color vision, and macular function, as these provide better insights into the impact of aging and disease. Distortions can be quantified and the psychophysical basis of vision can be better evaluated than in the past by designing tests that assess particular macular cell function(s). Advances in our understanding of the genetic basis of eye diseases will enable better characterization of ocular health and disease. Non-invasive nanotechnologies can assess molecular changes in the lens, vitreous, and macula that predate visible pathology. Oxygen metabolism and circulatory physiology are measurable indices of ocular health that can detect variations of physiology and early disease. This overview of paradigm shifts in ophthalmology suggests that the future will see significant improvements in ophthalmic diagnostics. The selected topics illustrate the principles of these paradigm shifts and should serve as a guide to further research and development. Indeed

  19. The synthesis paradigm in genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, William R

    2014-02-01

    Experimental genetics with model organisms and mathematically explicit genetic theory are generally considered to be the major paradigms by which progress in genetics is achieved. Here I argue that this view is incomplete and that pivotal advances in genetics--and other fields of biology--are also made by synthesizing disparate threads of extant information rather than generating new information from experiments or formal theory. Because of the explosive expansion of information in numerous "-omics" data banks, and the fragmentation of genetics into numerous subdisciplines, the importance of the synthesis paradigm will likely expand with time.

  20. Transmission pricing: paradigms and methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirmohammadi, Dariush [Pacific Gas and Electric Co., San Francisco, CA (United States); Vieira Filho, Xisto; Gorenstin, Boris [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pereira, Mario V.P. [Power System Research, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    In this paper we describe the principles of several paradigms and methodologies for pricing transmission services. The paper outlines some of the main characteristics of these paradigms and methodologies such as where they may be used for best results. Due to their popularity, power flow based MW-mile and short run marginal cost pricing methodologies will be covered in some detail. We conclude the paper with examples of the application of these two pricing methodologies for pricing transmission services in Brazil. (author) 25 refs., 2 tabs.

  1. CNN a paradigm for complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Chua, Leon O

    1998-01-01

    Revolutionary and original, this treatise presents a new paradigm of EMERGENCE and COMPLEXITY, with applications drawn from numerous disciplines, including artificial life, biology, chemistry, computation, physics, image processing, information science, etc.CNN is an acronym for Cellular Neural Networks when used in the context of brain science, or Cellular Nonlinear Networks, when used in the context of emergence and complexity. A CNN is modeled by cells and interactions: cells are defined as dynamical systems and interactions are defined via coupling laws. The CNN paradigm is a universal Tur

  2. Examining Vision and Attention in Sports Performance Using a Gaze-Contingent Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghyun Ryu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In time-constrained activities, such as competitive sports, the rapid acquisition and comprehension of visual information is vital for successful performance. Currently our understanding of how and what visual information is acquired and how this changes with skill development is quite rudimentary. Interpretation of eye movement behaviour is limited by uncertainties surrounding the relationship between attention, line-of-gaze data, and the mechanism of information pick-up from different sectors of the visual field. We used gaze-contingent display methodology to provide a selective information presentation to the central and peripheral parts of the visual field while performing a decision-making task. Eleven skilled and 11 less-skilled players watched videos of basketball scenarios under three different vision conditions (tunnel, masked, and full vision and in a forced-choice paradigm responded whether it was more appropriate for the ball carrier to pass or drive. In the tunnel and mask conditions vision was selectively restricted to, or occluded from, 5o around the line of gaze respectively. The skilled players showed significantly higher response accuracy and faster response times compared to their lesser skilled counterparts irrespective of the vision condition, demonstrating the skilled players' superiority in information extraction irrespective of the segment of visual field they rely on. Findings suggest that the capability to interpret visual information appears to be the key limiting factor to expert performance rather than the sector of the visual field in which the information is detected.

  3. Programming Language: Concepts and Paradigms

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Lizama, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    The article presents the concepts that govern around the programming languages and the paradigms of the programming and the influence in the development of the software. El artículo presenta los conceptos que rigen a los lenguajes de programación y los paradigmas de la programación y como estos influyen en el desarrollo del software.

  4. Understanding the land management paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    There is a worldwide need to build understanding of the land management paradigm and for institutional development to establish sustainable national concepts. This includes creation and adoption of a policy on land development, and an approach that combines the land administration...

  5. Artificial life, the new paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Paez, Jose Jesus

    1998-01-01

    A chronological synthesis of the most important facts is presented in the theoretical development and computational simulation that they have taken to the formation of a new paradigm that is known as artificial life; their characteristics and their main investigation lines are analyzed. Finally, a description of its work is made in the National University of Colombia

  6. Policy paradigms, transnationalism, and domestic politics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Skogstad, Grace Darlene

    2011-01-01

    Policy Paradigms, Transnationalism, and Domestic Politics offers a variety of perspectives on the development of policy paradigms -- the ideas that structure thinking about what can and should be done in a policy domain...

  7. Black hole evaporation: a paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashtekar, Abhay; Bojowald, Martin

    2005-01-01

    A paradigm describing black hole evaporation in non-perturbative quantum gravity is developed by combining two sets of detailed results: (i) resolution of the Schwarzschild singularity using quantum geometry methods and (ii) time evolution of black holes in the trapping and dynamical horizon frameworks. Quantum geometry effects introduce a major modification in the traditional spacetime diagram of black hole evaporation, providing a possible mechanism for recovery of information that is classically lost in the process of black hole formation. The paradigm is developed directly in the Lorentzian regime and necessary conditions for its viability are discussed. If these conditions are met, much of the tension between expectations based on spacetime geometry and structure of quantum theory would be resolved

  8. Three Paradigms of Social Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Marc Daigneault

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available “Ideas,” which are defined as the normative and cognitive beliefs of actors, are fundamental to a full understanding of the welfare state and, in particular, of social assistance. However, policy ideas have been neglected in most typologies of social assistance regimes. Based on a selective review of the literature, this article proposes a brief but systematic analysis of policy paradigms in the field of social assistance. Three ideal types that emphasize the ideational dimension of social assistance are analyzed, namely, the entitlement, workfare, and activation paradigms. The value of the typology lies in its utility for characterizing the ideational orientation of social assistance regimes. Specifically, the typology provides a yardstick for measuring the ideas of policy actors with respect to social assistance and can facilitate the conduct of case studies, comparative research, and causal analyses on this policy sector.

  9. Exploring Paradigms of Crime Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soothill, Keith; Christoffersen, Mogens N.; Hussain, Azhar

    2010-01-01

    Using Danish registers for a 1980 birth cohort of 29,944 males with parental information and following up these cases for 25 years, the study considers four paradigms of crime reduction (parental child rearing, structural factors around adolescence, locality and individual resources). Focusing on...... have more widespread benefits, but the assumed causal links need to be further explored. The use of population registers, under controlled conditions, provides an important window on criminal careers....

  10. Storytelling, advertising and paradigm fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, David

    2012-01-01

    'The art of storytelling in the modern age is fundamentally important. So, how we create stories for a screen-based culture is vitally important to master' (Hegarty, 2011, p.96-97). This paper explores the potential benefit of fusing aspects of creative writing with the curriculum of the BA Creative Advertising programme (BACAP) at Leeds College of Art (LCA) in order to address Sir John Hegarty's assertion. In particular it will focus on the characteristics of the 'classical paradigms' us...

  11. Mandarin functional MRI Language paradigms

    OpenAIRE

    Ci, He; van Graan, Andre; Gonz?lvez, Gloria; Thompson, Pamela; Hill, Andrea; Duncan, John S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective The objective of this study was to implement convenient, fast, and accurate Mandarin task paradigms for functional MRI, and to locate the Chinese language functional areas in frontal and temporal lobes. Materials and Methods Nineteen healthy Chinese volunteers participated in this study, which utilized a block design with four language tasks: auditory naming (AN), picture naming (PN), verbal fluency?character (VFC), and verbal fluency?letter (VFL). All functional images wer...

  12. About hypotheses and paradigms: exploring the Discreetness-Chance Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaellis, Eugene

    2006-01-01

    Hypotheses generally conform to paradigms which, over time, change, usually tardily, after they have become increasingly difficult to sustain under the impact of non-conforming evidence and alternative hypotheses, but more important, when they no longer are comfortably ensconced in the surrounding social-economic-political-cultural milieu. It is asserted that this milieu is the most important factor in shaping scientific theorizing. Some examples are cited: the rejection of the evidence that the world orbits around the sun (suspected by Pythagoras) in favor of centuries-long firm adherence to the Ptolemaic geocentric system; the early acceptance of Natural Selection in spite of its tautological essence and only conjectural supporting evidence, because it justified contemporaneous social-political ideologies as typified by, e.g., Spencer and Malthus. Economic, social, and cultural factors are cited as providing the ground, i.e., ideational substrate, for what is cited as the Discreetness-Chance Paradigm (DCP), that has increasingly dominated physics, biology, and medicine for over a century and which invokes small, discrete packets of energy/matter (quanta, genes, microorganisms, aberrant cells) functioning within an environment of statistical, not determined, causality. There is speculation on a possible paradigmatic shift from the DCP, which has fostered the proliferation, parallel with ("splitting") taxonomy, of alleged individual disease entities, their diagnoses, and, when available, their specific remedies, something particularly prominent in, e.g., psychiatry's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, a codified compendium of alleged mental and behavioral disorders, but evident in any textbook of diagnosis and treatment of physical ailments. This presumed paradigm shift may be reflected in Western medicine, presently increasingly empirical and atomized, towards a growing acceptance of a more generalized, subject-oriented, approach to health and disease, a non

  13. Paradigm for new scientific technology; Shinkagaku gijutsu paradigm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shindo, Y [National Chemical Lab. for Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-01-05

    This paper reviews the current status from the standpoint of chemical engineers facing the coming of the 21st century, and surveys the paradigm for new scientific technologies. The criticism is mixed with unique opinions everywhere, such as `departure of students from scientific and engineering faculties is none other than the result of a market principle`, `national burden of trillions of yens should not be spent only under a justice of advancement of the science`, and `the global civilization itself has no other way but to change from the conventional expansive development type of the western country style to the internal development type of the oriental country style`. Values that define the paradigm for new scientific technologies may include such keywords as saturation in technology, baseless expansion of research projects, criticism on science, market principle, and centering human being. It should be looked at seriously that profit from research and development should exceed the cast invested therein in the future, and scientific technologies that serve truly the society should be aimed at. These efforts will result in one of the large pillars that support the future in which creation of new functions is aimed at as a result of structuring the new systems. Trying to overcome the environmental problems is one of them.

  14. The Paradigm of Distributed Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    This presentation aims to focus on and develop the notion of distributed creativity from a cultural psychological perspective. It will start by outlining the need for a cultural psychological paradigm of creative expression and argue that this perspective is primarily concerned with what can...... be called ‘distributed creativity’. Drawing on related literature on distributed cognition (Hutchins, 2000), I will consider here the three inter-related ways in which creative action is distributed: across people, across people and objects, and across time. This particular understanding of creativity...

  15. Psychiatry beyond the current paradigm.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bracken, Pat

    2012-12-01

    A series of editorials in this Journal have argued that psychiatry is in the midst of a crisis. The various solutions proposed would all involve a strengthening of psychiatry\\'s identity as essentially \\'applied neuroscience\\'. Although not discounting the importance of the brain sciences and psychopharmacology, we argue that psychiatry needs to move beyond the dominance of the current, technological paradigm. This would be more in keeping with the evidence about how positive outcomes are achieved and could also serve to foster more meaningful collaboration with the growing service user movement.

  16. Identification and functional analysis of two alternatively spliced transcripts of ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 (ABI3) in linseed flax (Linum usitatissimum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanyan; Zhang, Tianbao; Song, Xiaxia; Zhang, Jianping; Dang, Zhanhai; Pei, Xinwu; Long, Yan

    2018-01-01

    Alternative splicing is a popular phenomenon in different types of plants. It can produce alternative spliced transcripts that encode proteins with altered functions. Previous studies have shown that one transcription factor, ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 (ABI3), which encodes an important component in abscisic acid (ABA) signaling, is subjected to alternative splicing in both mono- and dicotyledons. In the current study, we identified two homologs of ABI3 in the genome of linseed flax. We screened two alternatively spliced flax LuABI3 transcripts, LuABI3-2 and LuABI3-3, and one normal flax LuABI3 transcript, LuABI3-1. Sequence analysis revealed that one of the alternatively spliced transcripts, LuABI3-3, retained a 6 bp intron. RNA accumulation analysis showed that all three transcripts were expressed during seed development, while subcellular localization and transgene experiments showed that LuABI3-3 had no biological function. The two normal transcripts, LuABI3-1 and LuABI3-2, are the important functional isoforms in flax and play significant roles in the ABA regulatory pathway during seed development, germination, and maturation.

  17. Phase diagrams in mixed spin-3/2 and spin-2 Ising system with two alternative layers within the effective-field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deviren, Bayram; Polat, Yasin; Keskin, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    The phase diagrams in the mixed spin-3/2 and spin-2 Ising system with two alternative layers on a honeycomb lattice are investigated and discussed by the use of the effective-field theory with correlations. The interaction of the nearest-neighbour spins of each layer is taken to be positive (ferromagnetic interaction) and the interaction of the adjacent spins of the nearest-neighbour layers is considered to be either positive or negative (ferromagnetic or anti-ferromagnetic interaction). The temperature dependence of the layer magnetizations of the system is examined to characterize the nature (continuous or discontinuous) of the phase transitions and obtain the phase transition temperatures. The system exhibits both second- and first-order phase transitions besides triple point (TP), critical end point (E), multicritical point (A), isolated critical point (C) and reentrant behaviour depending on the interaction parameters. We have also studied the temperature dependence of the total magnetization to find the compensation points, as well as to determine the type of behaviour, and N-type behaviour in Néel classification nomenclature existing in the system. The phase diagrams are constructed in eight different planes and it is found that the system also presents the compensation phenomena depending on the sign of the bilinear exchange interactions. (general)

  18. Identification and functional analysis of two alternatively spliced transcripts of ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 (ABI3 in linseed flax (Linum usitatissimum L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyan Wang

    Full Text Available Alternative splicing is a popular phenomenon in different types of plants. It can produce alternative spliced transcripts that encode proteins with altered functions. Previous studies have shown that one transcription factor, ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 (ABI3, which encodes an important component in abscisic acid (ABA signaling, is subjected to alternative splicing in both mono- and dicotyledons. In the current study, we identified two homologs of ABI3 in the genome of linseed flax. We screened two alternatively spliced flax LuABI3 transcripts, LuABI3-2 and LuABI3-3, and one normal flax LuABI3 transcript, LuABI3-1. Sequence analysis revealed that one of the alternatively spliced transcripts, LuABI3-3, retained a 6 bp intron. RNA accumulation analysis showed that all three transcripts were expressed during seed development, while subcellular localization and transgene experiments showed that LuABI3-3 had no biological function. The two normal transcripts, LuABI3-1 and LuABI3-2, are the important functional isoforms in flax and play significant roles in the ABA regulatory pathway during seed development, germination, and maturation.

  19. The detour paradigm in animal cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabadayi, Can; Bobrowicz, Katarzyna; Osvath, Mathias

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we review one of the oldest paradigms used in animal cognition: the detour paradigm. The paradigm presents the subject with a situation where a direct route to the goal is blocked and a detour must be made to reach it. Often being an ecologically valid and a versatile tool, the detour paradigm has been used to study diverse cognitive skills like insight, social learning, inhibitory control and route planning. Due to the relative ease of administrating detour tasks, the paradigm has lately been used in large-scale comparative studies in order to investigate the evolution of inhibitory control. Here we review the detour paradigm and some of its cognitive requirements, we identify various ecological and contextual factors that might affect detour performance, we also discuss developmental and neurological underpinnings of detour behaviors, and we suggest some methodological approaches to make species comparisons more robust.

  20. ENVIRONMENTALISM AND CLASSIC PARADIGMS OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    D. D. Miniaeva

    2014-01-01

    This article examines an environmentalism integration process into Three classical paradigms of international relations theory (Liberalism, Realism and Marxism) into Three classical paradigms of international relations theory (Liberalism, Realism and Marxism). The main purpose of this study is to reveal the result of this integration. Methods used in this article include analysis and comparison of "ecological" paradigms on selected parameters (the nature of international relations, actors, ta...

  1. Geometrical factors in the perception of sacredness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, Marco; Bonetti, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Geometrical and environmental factors in the perception of sacredness, dominance, and attractiveness were assessed by 137 participants in five tests. In the first test, a two-alternative forced-choice paradigm was used to test the perception of sacredness, dominance, and attractiveness in geometr......Geometrical and environmental factors in the perception of sacredness, dominance, and attractiveness were assessed by 137 participants in five tests. In the first test, a two-alternative forced-choice paradigm was used to test the perception of sacredness, dominance, and attractiveness...... in geometrical figures differing in shape, verticality, size, and symmetry. Verticality, symmetry, and convexity were found to be important factors in the perception of sacredness. In the second test, participants had to mark the point inside geometrical surfaces that was perceived as most sacred, dominant....... Geometrical factors in the perception of sacredness, dominance, and attractiveness were largely overlapping....

  2. The Oral Paradigm and Snapchat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oren Soffer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this short essay, I argue that the ephemeral nature of emerging instant-messaging applications, such as Snapchat, applies an oral paradigm. While online discourse of computer-mediated communication shares many qualities with oral communication, the case of ephemeral applications is unique, as the oral features are already integrated in the application technology design and as orality is often implemented on highly visual products. Snapchat applies technology that fades visual contents as if they were spoken words fading in the air after utterance. Moreover, Snapchat’s promise to delete all messages from its database after they are viewed echoes a key characteristic of primary oral culture: that is, the inability (and in our case, the obligation not to store knowledge. In this, Snapchat demonstrates counter-logic to the contemporary grammar of new media, which is based on information aggregation.

  3. Toward a New Energy Paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farhad Mahmud

    2006-01-01

    More than 50% of the developing world does not have access to electricity. It is our belief that it is as much a problem of distribution as of production. The traditional approach of power distribution through a national grid system is remarkably slow. Alternate methods are not sought because of an implicit assumption that it is an area that would necessarily involve large infra-structural undertaking. However, the traditional distribution paradigm can be challenged by new developments in fuel cell technology that can open up the possibility of involvement of small private initiatives in the distribution of power in remote areas where grid penetration has not taken place. This would require distribution re-engineering in an innovative and practical way based on advancement in new technology (fuel cells in our case). Our business approach would require a shift in focus away from production to distribution in addressing the issue. (authors)

  4. Shield calculations, optimization vs. paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornejo D, N.; Hernandez S, A.; Martinez G, A.

    2006-01-01

    Many shieldings have been designed under the criteria of 'Maximum dose rates of project'. It has created the paradigm of those 'low dose rates', for the one which not few specialists would consider unacceptable levels of dose rate superior to the units of μSv.h -1 , independently of the exposure times. At the present time numerous shieldings are being designed considering dose restrictions in real times of exposure. After these new shieldings, the dose rates could be notably superior to those after traditional shieldings, without it implies inadequate designs or constructive errors. In the work significant differences in levels of dose rates and thickness of shieldings estimated by both methods for some typical facilities. It was concluded that the use of real times of exposure is more adequate for the optimization of the Radiological Protection, although this method demands bigger care in its application. (Author)

  5. Shielding calculations. Optimization vs. Paradigms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornejo Diaz, Nestor; Hernandez Saiz, Alejandro; Martinez Gonzalez, Alina

    2005-01-01

    Many radiation shielding barriers in Cuba have been designed according to the criterion of Maxi-mum Projected Dose Rates. This fact has created the paradigm of low dose rates. Because of this, dose rate levels greater than units of Sv.h-1 would be considered unacceptable by many specialists, regardless of the real exposure times. Nowadays many shielding barriers are being designed using dose constraints in real exposure times. Behind the new barriers, dose rates could be notably greater than those behind the traditional ones, and it does not imply inadequate designs or constructive errors. In this work were obtained significant differences in dose rate levels and shield-ing thicknesses calculated by both methods for some typical installations. The work concludes that real exposure time approach is more adequate in order to optimise Radiation Protection, although this method should be carefully applied

  6. Emerging Paradigms in Machine Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Lakhmi; Howlett, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This  book presents fundamental topics and algorithms that form the core of machine learning (ML) research, as well as emerging paradigms in intelligent system design. The  multidisciplinary nature of machine learning makes it a very fascinating and popular area for research.  The book is aiming at students, practitioners and researchers and captures the diversity and richness of the field of machine learning and intelligent systems.  Several chapters are devoted to computational learning models such as granular computing, rough sets and fuzzy sets An account of applications of well-known learning methods in biometrics, computational stylistics, multi-agent systems, spam classification including an extremely well-written survey on Bayesian networks shed light on the strengths and weaknesses of the methods. Practical studies yielding insight into challenging problems such as learning from incomplete and imbalanced data, pattern recognition of stochastic episodic events and on-line mining of non-stationary ...

  7. Subjective costs drive overly patient foraging strategies in rats on an intertemporal foraging task

    OpenAIRE

    Wikenheiser, Andrew M.; Stephens, David W.; Redish, A. David

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory studies of decision making often take the form of two-alternative, forced-choice paradigms. In natural settings, however, many decision problems arise as stay/go choices. We designed a foraging task to test intertemporal decision making in rats via stay/go decisions. Subjects did not follow the rate-maximizing strategy of choosing only food items associated with short delays. Instead, rats were often willing to wait for surprisingly long periods, and consequently earned a lower rat...

  8. Is This the Paradigm Shift We Need?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirvis, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Dr. Woocher's essay, states Mirvis, is seminal in the field of Jewish education. It proposes a new paradigm for Jewish education in North America. This proposed paradigm is supported by a comprehensive multi-disciplinary research drawing on literature from education, philosophy, history, sociology, psychology, and economics. The essay reflects a…

  9. Testing the membrane paradigm with holography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, J.; Heller, M.P.; Pinzani-Fokeeva, N.

    2015-01-01

    One version of the membrane paradigm states that, as far as outside observers are concerned, black holes can be replaced by a dissipative membrane with simple physical properties located at the stretched horizon. We demonstrate that such a membrane paradigm is incomplete in several aspects. We argue

  10. Programming Paradigms in Computer Science Education

    OpenAIRE

    Bolshakova, Elena

    2005-01-01

    Main styles, or paradigms of programming – imperative, functional, logic, and object-oriented – are shortly described and compared, and corresponding programming techniques are outlined. Programming languages are classified in accordance with the main style and techniques supported. It is argued that profound education in computer science should include learning base programming techniques of all main programming paradigms.

  11. Towards a New Paradigm of Moral Personhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimer, Jeremy A.; Walker, Lawrence J.

    2008-01-01

    Moral psychology is between paradigms. Kohlberg's model of moral rationality has proved inadequate in explaining action; yet its augmentation--moral personality--awaits empirical embodiment. This article addresses some critical issues in developing a comprehensive empirical paradigm of moral personhood. Is a first-person or a third-person…

  12. Understanding paradigms used for nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Kathryn; Olson, Joanne K

    2006-02-01

    The aims of this paper are to add clarity to the discussion about paradigms for nursing research and to consider integrative strategies for the development of nursing knowledge. Paradigms are sets of beliefs and practices, shared by communities of researchers, which regulate inquiry within disciplines. The various paradigms are characterized by ontological, epistemological and methodological differences in their approaches to conceptualizing and conducting research, and in their contribution towards disciplinary knowledge construction. Researchers may consider these differences so vast that one paradigm is incommensurable with another. Alternatively, researchers may ignore these differences and either unknowingly combine paradigms inappropriately or neglect to conduct needed research. To accomplish the task of developing nursing knowledge for use in practice, there is a need for a critical, integrated understanding of the paradigms used for nursing inquiry. We describe the evolution and influence of positivist, postpositivist, interpretive and critical theory research paradigms. Using integrative review, we compare and contrast the paradigms in terms of their philosophical underpinnings and scientific contribution. A pragmatic approach to theory development through synthesis of cumulative knowledge relevant to nursing practice is suggested. This requires that inquiry start with assessment of existing knowledge from disparate studies to identify key substantive content and gaps. Knowledge development in under-researched areas could be accomplished through integrative strategies that preserve theoretical integrity and strengthen research approaches associated with various philosophical perspectives. These strategies may include parallel studies within the same substantive domain using different paradigms; theoretical triangulation to combine findings from paradigmatically diverse studies; integrative reviews; and mixed method studies. Nurse scholars are urged to

  13. Black holes: the membrane paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorne, K.S.; Price, R.H.; Macdonald, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    The physics of black holes is explored in terms of a membrane paradigm which treats the event horizon as a two-dimensional membrane embedded in three-dimensional space. A 3+1 formalism is used to split Schwarzschild space-time and the laws of physics outside a nonrotating hole, which permits treatment of the atmosphere in terms of the physical properties of thin slices. The model is applied to perturbed slowly or rapidly rotating and nonrotating holes, and to quantify the electric and magnetic fields and eddy currents passing through a membrane surface which represents a stretched horizon. Features of tidal gravitational fields in the vicinity of the horizon, quasars and active galalctic nuclei, the alignment of jets perpendicular to accretion disks, and the effects of black holes at the center of ellipsoidal star clusters are investigated. Attention is also given to a black hole in a binary system and the interactions of black holes with matter that is either near or very far from the event horizon. Finally, a statistical mechanics treatment is used to derive a second law of thermodynamics for a perfectly thermal atmosphere of a black hole

  14. Self-organized criticality paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, I.; Stoeckel, J.; Hron, M.; Horacek, J.; Jakubka, K.; Kryska, L.

    2000-01-01

    According to the paradigm of the Self-Organized Criticality (SOC), the anomalous transport in tokamaks is caused by fast transient processes - avalanches. One of the manifestations of these phenomena should be 1/f decay of electrostatic fluctuations power spectra in a certain frequency range. In this paper, the frequency spectra of floating potential, density and fluctuation-induced flux, measured by poloidal and radial arrays of Langmuir probes on the CASTOR tokamak, are presented. The floating potential and the fluctuation-induced flux decay from 30 kHz up to 100 kHz as f -1 . The plasma density decays as f -1 in a more narrow band, 20 to 40 kHz. The possible limitation of SOC behavior for frequencies higher than 100 kHz due to intermittency is stressed. For this reason the Probability Distribution Functions (PDFs) of floating potential fluctuations were computed at different time scales using wavelet transform. A clear departure of the computed PDFs from Gaussianity, which is a classical signature of intermittency, is observed at time scales under 10 μs (100 kHz). (author)

  15. MDMA and the "ecstasy paradigm".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jon C

    2014-01-01

    For nearly 30 years, there has been a steady flow of research papers highlighting the dangers of MDMA and the implications for ecstasy users. After such a long time, it would be reasonable to expect that these dangers would be obvious due to the large number of ecstasy users. The available evidence does not indicate that there are millions of ecstasy users experiencing any problems linked to their ecstasy use. The "precautionary principle" suggests that, in the absence of knowing for certain, "experts" should argue that MDMA be avoided. However, this may have been taken too far, as the dire warnings do not seem to be reducing with the lack of epidemiological evidence of clinically relevant problems. The "ecstasy paradigm" is one way of articulating this situation, in that the needs of research funders and publication bias lead to a specific set of subcultural norms around what information is acceptable in the public domain. By digging a little deeper, it is easy to find problems with the evidence base that informs the public debate around MDMA. The key question is whether it is acceptable to maintain this status quo given the therapeutic potential of MDMA.

  16. Cancer: shift of the paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, Anatoly V

    2008-12-01

    Cancer is usually considered to be a by-product of design limitations of a multicellular organism and its intrinsic fallibility. However, recent data prompt a revision of some established notions about carcinogenesis and form a new paradigm of carcinogenesis as a highly conserved biological phenomenon - a programmed death of an organism. This altruistic program, which is unleashed when mutagenesis surpasses a certain critical threshold, gives a population the important benefit acting as a guardian of the gene pool against the spread of certain mutant genes. A growing body of evidence supports this point of view: (i) epigenetic changes leading to cancer arise early, simultaneously in many cells and look like deterministic regulation; (ii) concept of cancer stem cell suggests a view of carcinogenesis not as vague transformation but as well known differentiation; (iii) tumor/host relations usually perceived as antagonistic are, in reality, synergistic; (iv) death of an individual from cancer is predetermined and results apparently from a specific activity (killer function) of cancer cell and (v) evolutionary conservation indicates that cancer comes with a general advantage that explains its evolutionary success. A holistic approach to carcinogenesis suggests new avenues of research and new therapeutic strategy.

  17. Ostracism Online: A social media ostracism paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Wouter; Levordashka, Ana; Ruff, Johanna R; Kraaijeveld, Steven; Lueckmann, Jan-Matthis; Williams, Kipling D

    2015-06-01

    We describe Ostracism Online, a novel, social media-based ostracism paradigm designed to (1) keep social interaction experimentally controlled, (2) provide researchers with the flexibility to manipulate the properties of the social situation to fit their research purposes, (3) be suitable for online data collection, (4) be convenient for studying subsequent within-group behavior, and (5) be ecologically valid. After collecting data online, we compared the Ostracism Online paradigm with the Cyberball paradigm (Williams & Jarvis Behavior Research Methods, 38, 174-180, 2006) on need-threat and mood questionnaire scores (van Beest & Williams Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 91, 918-928, 2006). We also examined whether ostracized targets of either paradigm would be more likely to conform to their group members than if they had been included. Using a Bayesian analysis of variance to examine the individual effects of the different paradigms and to compare these effects across paradigms, we found analogous effects on need-threat and mood. Perhaps because we examined conformity to the ostracizers (rather than neutral sources), neither paradigm showed effects of ostracism on conformity. We conclude that Ostracism Online is a cost-effective, easy to use, and ecologically valid research tool for studying the psychological and behavioral effects of ostracism.

  18. Evolution of the radiological protection paradigms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sordi, Gian Maria A.A.

    2009-01-01

    We consider as initial radiological protection paradigms those in vigour after the release of the atomic energy for pacific usages in 1955. In that occasion, only one paradigm was introduced, presently named dose limitation system. After arguing about the basis that raised the paradigm, we introduced the guidance, that is, the measurements to be implemented to comply with the paradigm. In that occasion, they were two, i.e., the radiation dose monitoring and the workplace classification. Afterwards, the reasons that caused the radiological protection paradigms changes in force until 1995 are discussed. The initial paradigm was modified introducing the justification and the optimization principles, adding that the radiological protection should be economical and effective. The guidance also increased to four: personal monitoring, workplace classification, reference level and workers classification. Afterwards, we give the main justifications for the present paradigms that besides the formers were added the dose constraints, the potential exposure and the annual risk limits. Due to these modifications, the workers classifications were eliminated from the guidance, but the potential exposure and the search for the dose constraints were added. Eventually, we discuss the tendencies for the next future and the main changes introduced by the ICRP in the Publication 103, 2007. (author)

  19. The Cognitive Paradigm Ontology: Design and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Angela R.

    2013-01-01

    We present the basic structure of the Cognitive Paradigm Ontology (CogPO) for human behavioral experiments. While the experimental psychology and cognitive neuroscience literature may refer to certain behavioral tasks by name (e.g., the Stroop paradigm or the Sternberg paradigm) or by function (a working memory task, a visual attention task), these paradigms can vary tremendously in the stimuli that are presented to the subject, the response expected from the subject, and the instructions given to the subject. Drawing from the taxonomy developed and used by the BrainMap project (www.brainmap.org) for almost two decades to describe key components of published functional imaging results, we have developed an ontology capable of representing certain characteristics of the cognitive paradigms used in the fMRI and PET literature. The Cognitive Paradigm Ontology is being developed to be compliant with the Basic Formal Ontology (BFO), and to harmonize where possible with larger ontologies such as RadLex, NeuroLex, or the Ontology of Biomedical Investigations (OBI). The key components of CogPO include the representation of experimental conditions focused on the stimuli presented, the instructions given, and the responses requested. The use of alternate and even competitive terminologies can often impede scientific discoveries. Categorization of paradigms according to stimulus, response, and instruction has been shown to allow advanced data retrieval techniques by searching for similarities and contrasts across multiple paradigm levels. The goal of CogPO is to develop, evaluate, and distribute a domain ontology of cognitive paradigms for application and use in the functional neuroimaging community. PMID:21643732

  20. Gas transmission : a paradigm shift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornelson, D.W.

    1997-01-01

    The evolution of energy markets in North America was discussed. The investment opportunities that are possible in a deregulated energy market, be it in production or in the generation of energy commodities, in the development of midstream infrastructure, or in the provision of energy services, were outlined. Deregulation of crude oil, natural gas and electricity has resulted in significant changes in the structure of energy markets and the way in which customers are served. One of the advantages of competition regarding power generation is that it has turned energy into a commodity which has resulted in greater customer choice and efficiency. As one example of midstream infrastructure development, the Alliance Pipeline project was described. This project was conceived as a means to enhance the value of western Canadian natural gas. The 1,900 mile pipeline will run from British Columbia, through Alberta into Chicago where it will interconnect with the North American gas transmission grid. The pipeline is an efficient means of transporting energy from Western Canada to North American markets, and Alliance, as a lowest cost transporter, will continue to put pressure on the traditional infrastructure to become even more competitive at the margin. As such, Alliance represents a paradigm shift in energy transportation, and serves as an excellent example of the type of investment opportunity that a deregulated market can provide. It was suggested that innovation and competition in a deregulated North American energy market will continue to increase. As electricity is deregulated, the energy market will respond more quickly to changes in supply and demand than it did in the past, in an effort to satisfy the needs of investors and customers. This will provide increased opportunities for restructuring and further competition

  1. PARADIGM OF EDUCATION FOR THE INFORMATION SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy M. Bogachkov

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering total crisis in education in Informational Age, we suggest that to overcome the crisis, it is necessary to promote pedagogical science up from "pre-paradigm stage” to the "paradigm stage". For this purpose it is necessary to separate the "educational science" from "education." “Educational paradigm” in such study will be the subject of the science. The key concepts for the "pedagogical paradigm" should be the concepts of "educational practice", "class of problems" and "educational text". We offer some axioms around these concepts.

  2. The Prerequisites for a Degrowth Paradigm Shift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch-Hansen, Hubert

    2018-01-01

    What would it take for a degrowth paradigm shift to take place? Drawing on contemporary critical political economy scholarship, this article identifies four prerequisites for socio-economic paradigm shifts: deep crisis, an alternative political project, a comprehensive coalition of social forces...... currently facing humanity. On the other hand, the prospects for a degrowth paradigm shift remain bleak: unlike political projects that became hegemonic in the past, degrowth has neither support from a comprehensive coalition of social forces nor any consent to its agenda among the broader population....

  3. Accurate forced-choice recognition without awareness of memory retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Voss, Joel L.; Baym, Carol L.; Paller, Ken A.

    2008-01-01

    Recognition confidence and the explicit awareness of memory retrieval commonly accompany accurate responding in recognition tests. Memory performance in recognition tests is widely assumed to measure explicit memory, but the generality of this assumption is questionable. Indeed, whether recognition in nonhumans is always supported by explicit memory is highly controversial. Here we identified circumstances wherein highly accurate recognition was unaccompanied by hallmark features of explicit ...

  4. Beyond desertification: New paradigms for dryland landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The dryland desertification paradigm focuses on losses of ecosystem services accompanying transitions from grasslands to systems dominated by bare ground or woody plants unpalatable for domestic livestock. However, recent studies reveal complex transitions across a range of environmental conditions ...

  5. The safety implications of emerging software paradigms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suski, G.J.; Persons, W.L.; Johnson, G.L.

    1994-10-01

    This paper addresses some of the emerging software paradigms that may be used in developing safety-critical software applications. Paradigms considered in this paper include knowledge-based systems, neural networks, genetic algorithms, and fuzzy systems. It presents one view of the software verification and validation activities that should be associated with each paradigm. The paper begins with a discussion of the historical evolution of software verification and validation. Next, a comparison is made between the verification and validation processes used for conventional and emerging software systems. Several verification and validation issues for the emerging paradigms are discussed and some specific research topics are identified. This work is relevant for monitoring and control at nuclear power plants

  6. Major Development Communication Paradigms and Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    info

    major paradigms of development and communication practices on graphic ... mobilize, educate and persuade target audience to support human development ... facilitates the understanding of the themes, issues and facts of a campaign.

  7. Paradigms and pragmatism: approaches to medical statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, M J

    2000-01-01

    Until recently, the dominant philosophy of science was that due to Karl Popper, with its doctrine that the proper task of science was the formulation of hypotheses followed by attempts at refuting them. In spite of the close analogy with significance testing, these ideas do not fit well with the practice of medical statistics. The same can be said of the later philosophy of Thomas Kuhn, who maintains that science proceeds by way of revolutionary upheavals separated by periods of relatively pedestrian research which are governed by what Kuhn refers to as paradigms. Through there have been paradigm shifts in the history of statistics, a degree of continuity can also be discerned. A current paradigm shift is embodied in the spread of Bayesian ideas. It may be that a future paradigm will emphasise the pragmatic approach to statistics that is associated with the name of Daniel Schwartz.

  8. New Indivisible Planetary Science Paradigm: Consequence of Questioning Popular Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvin Herndon, J.

    2014-05-01

    Progress in science involves replacing less precise understanding with more precise understanding. In science and in science education one should always question popular ideas; ask "What's wrong with this picture?" Finding limitations, conflicts or circumstances that require special ad hoc consideration sometimes is the key to making important discoveries. For example, from thermodynamic considerations, I found that the 'standard model of solar system formation' leads to insufficiently massive planetary cores. That understanding led me to discover a new indivisible planetary science paradigm. Massive-core planets formed by condensing and raining-out from within giant gaseous protoplanets at high pressures and high temperatures, accumulating heterogeneously on the basis of volatility with liquid core-formation preceding mantle-formation; the interior states of oxidation resemble that of the Abee enstatite chondrite. Core-composition was established during condensation based upon the relative solubilities of elements, including uranium, in liquid iron in equilibrium with an atmosphere of solar composition at high pressures and high temperatures. Uranium settled to the central region and formed planetary nuclear fission reactors, producing heat and planetary magnetic fields. Earth's complete condensation included a ~300 Earth-mass gigantic gas/ice shell that compressed the rocky kernel to about 66% of Earth's present diameter. T-Tauri eruptions, associated with the thermonuclear ignition of the Sun, stripped the gases away from the Earth and the inner planets. The T-Tauri outbursts stripped a portion of Mercury's incompletely condensed protoplanet and transported it to the region between Mars and Jupiter where it fused with in-falling oxidized condensate from the outer regions of the Solar System, forming the parent matter of ordinary chondrite meteorites, the main-Belt asteroids, and veneer for the inner planets, especially Mars. With its massive gas/ice shell

  9. A Viable Paradigm for Quantum Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Jagdish

    2010-10-01

    After a brief discussion of the EPR paradox, Bell's inequality, and Aspect's experiment, arguments will be presented in favor of the following statements: ``As it stands, Quantum mechanics is incomplete. There is further hidden structure, which would involve variables. No influence can move faster than light. The wave function is one whole thing and any change in its structure instantly influences its outcomes. Bell's theorem has not been applied correctly. There is a better paradigm.'' The said paradigm will be presented.

  10. International business and the eclectic paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The eclectic paradigm has become the dominant theoretical basis in the study of international business, multinational corporations and internationalization since 1980. However, developments such as economic globalization and the subsequent growth of global and alliance capitalism have fundamentally......, finance, evolutionary economics, resource-based theory or strategic management? Can it be utilized to explain new developments in international business and economics? Do these require new ideas and concepts to be integrated within the eclectic paradigm? What are the new challenges to which international...

  11. Project management: a new service delivery paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. van der Walt

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In line with international trends in governance, the South African Government’s initial focus on the development of policy frameworks, structures and systems in order to give effect to the values and principles of the Constitution, shifted to the most critical issue, namely service delivery. The Government became increasingly aware that a significant expansion in the scope and quality of service provision was not possible with traditional delivery settings and approaches. There is growing evidence that there is a need for a significant departure from conventional approaches and that a leap into a new service delivery paradigm is necessary. Increasingly this new paradigm highlights the need to further develop the government’s project management skills and applications with a view to achieving improved delivery capability. In this article the focus will be placed on the changing service delivery paradigm – from an “old” traditional model through the transition to a “new” paradigm. This paradigm is shaped by international and national trends and events in government. The contribution and advantages of project management applications for effective governance are highlighted and the article concludes with an explanation of project management organisational arrangements necessary to support the new paradigm.

  12. The Underlying Social Dynamics of Paradigm Shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Sickert, Carlos; Cosmelli, Diego; Claro, Francisco; Fuentes, Miguel Angel

    2015-01-01

    We develop here a multi-agent model of the creation of knowledge (scientific progress or technological evolution) within a community of researchers devoted to such endeavors. In the proposed model, agents learn in a physical-technological landscape, and weight is attached to both individual search and social influence. We find that the combination of these two forces together with random experimentation can account for both i) marginal change, that is, periods of normal science or refinements on the performance of a given technology (and in which the community stays in the neighborhood of the current paradigm); and ii) radical change, which takes the form of scientific paradigm shifts (or discontinuities in the structure of performance of a technology) that is observed as a swift migration of the knowledge community towards the new and superior paradigm. The efficiency of the search process is heavily dependent on the weight that agents posit on social influence. The occurrence of a paradigm shift becomes more likely when each member of the community attaches a small but positive weight to the experience of his/her peers. For this parameter region, nevertheless, a conservative force is exerted by the representatives of the current paradigm. However, social influence is not strong enough to seriously hamper individual discovery, and can act so as to empower successful individual pioneers who have conquered the new and superior paradigm.

  13. The Underlying Social Dynamics of Paradigm Shifts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rodriguez-Sickert

    Full Text Available We develop here a multi-agent model of the creation of knowledge (scientific progress or technological evolution within a community of researchers devoted to such endeavors. In the proposed model, agents learn in a physical-technological landscape, and weight is attached to both individual search and social influence. We find that the combination of these two forces together with random experimentation can account for both i marginal change, that is, periods of normal science or refinements on the performance of a given technology (and in which the community stays in the neighborhood of the current paradigm; and ii radical change, which takes the form of scientific paradigm shifts (or discontinuities in the structure of performance of a technology that is observed as a swift migration of the knowledge community towards the new and superior paradigm. The efficiency of the search process is heavily dependent on the weight that agents posit on social influence. The occurrence of a paradigm shift becomes more likely when each member of the community attaches a small but positive weight to the experience of his/her peers. For this parameter region, nevertheless, a conservative force is exerted by the representatives of the current paradigm. However, social influence is not strong enough to seriously hamper individual discovery, and can act so as to empower successful individual pioneers who have conquered the new and superior paradigm.

  14. Active training paradigm for motor imagery BCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junhua; Zhang, Liqing

    2012-06-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) allows the use of brain activities for people to directly communicate with the external world or to control external devices without participation of any peripheral nerves and muscles. Motor imagery is one of the most popular modes in the research field of brain-computer interface. Although motor imagery BCI has some advantages compared with other modes of BCI, such as asynchronization, it is necessary to require training sessions before using it. The performance of trained BCI system depends on the quality of training samples or the subject engagement. In order to improve training effect and decrease training time, we proposed a new paradigm where subjects participated in training more actively than in the traditional paradigm. In the traditional paradigm, a cue (to indicate what kind of motor imagery should be imagined during the current trial) is given to the subject at the beginning of a trial or during a trial, and this cue is also used as a label for this trial. It is usually assumed that labels for trials are accurate in the traditional paradigm, although subjects may not have performed the required or correct kind of motor imagery, and trials may thus be mislabeled. And then those mislabeled trials give rise to interference during model training. In our proposed paradigm, the subject is required to reconfirm the label and can correct the label when necessary. This active training paradigm may generate better training samples with fewer inconsistent labels because it overcomes mistakes when subject's motor imagination does not match the given cues. The experiments confirm that our proposed paradigm achieves better performance; the improvement is significant according to statistical analysis.

  15. Cancer research in need of a scientific revolution: Using `paradigm ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It has been proposed that science proceeds not only by accumulating data but also through paradigm shifts. Here, we propose to use the concept of `paradigm shift' as a method of investigation when dominant paradigms fail to achieve their promises. The first step in using the `paradigm shift' method in cancer research ...

  16. ENVIRONMENTALISM AND CLASSIC PARADIGMS OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. D. Miniaeva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines an environmentalism integration process into Three classical paradigms of international relations theory (Liberalism, Realism and Marxism into Three classical paradigms of international relations theory (Liberalism, Realism and Marxism. The main purpose of this study is to reveal the result of this integration. Methods used in this article include analysis and comparison of "ecological" paradigms on selected parameters (the nature of international relations, actors, targets, tools, processes. Results of research show that the beginning of the XXI century is distinguished by the development of new types of political concepts that explain interaction of elements in modern international relations in the area of environmental protection. The reason of these changes lies in the phenomena of environmentalism integration into Three paradigms of international relations. However, we cannot say that any of the examined paradigms accumulated all features of environmentalism without their modification. Better to say, it's rather similar to adaptation of environmental ideas. Therefore, to understand modern international relations processes, it is necessary to take into account their environmental element. Purchase on Elibrary.ru > Buy nowDOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2070-7568-2014-3-4

  17. Understanding Mixed Emotions: Paradigms and Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreibig, Sylvia D.; Gross, James J.

    2017-01-01

    In this review, we examine the paradigms and measures available for experimentally studying mixed emotions in the laboratory. For eliciting mixed emotions, we describe a mixed emotions film library that allows for the repeated elicitation of a specific homogeneous mixed emotional state and appropriately matched pure positive, pure negative, and neutral emotional states. For assessing mixed emotions, we consider subjective and objective measures that fall into univariate, bivariate, and multivariate measurement categories. As paradigms and measures for objectively studying mixed emotions are still in their early stages, we conclude by outlining future directions that focus on the reliability, temporal dynamics, and response coherence of mixed emotions paradigms and measures. This research will build a strong foundation for future studies and significantly advance our understanding of mixed emotions. PMID:28804752

  18. A New Paradigm for Chemical Engineering?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    evidence of this change comes from the jobs taken by graduating chemical engineering professionals in North America, Europe, and some of the Asian countries. In terms of where the graduating chemical engineers are going to work, a clear shift from the commodity chemical industry to the product oriented...... businesses has been observed. There is an increasing trend within the chemical industry to focus on products and the sustainable processes that can make them. Do these changes point to a paradigm shift in chemical engineering as a discipline? Historically, two previous paradigm shifts in chemical engineering...... corresponded to major shifts in chemical engineering as a discipline, which affected not only the education of chemical engineers, but also the development of chemical engineering as a discipline. Has the time come for a new paradigm shift that will prepare the current and future chemical engineering graduates...

  19. School on Cloud: Towards a Paradigm Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsopoulos, Kostis C.; Kotsanis, Yannis C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the basic concept of the EU Network School on Cloud: Namely, that present conditions require a new teaching and learning paradigm based on the integrated dimension of education, when considering the use of cloud computing. In other words, it is suggested that there is a need for an integrated approach which is simultaneously…

  20. Den postmoderna stadens två paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tom

    2005-01-01

    the attention of politicians, planners and architects today is focused on the individual, not the collective. But the policy of the third way has no counterpart in an urbanism torn between two paradigms. Tom Nielsen paints the picture of what has to urban development since the welfare state...

  1. Redesigning Higher Education: Embracing a New Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, William R.; Watson, Sunnie Lee

    2014-01-01

    Higher education is under enormous pressure to transform itself and embrace a new paradigm. Operating under an outdated model that no longer aligns with the realities of modern society, institutions of higher education are recognizing the need to drastically remake themselves or possibly cease to exist. This article explores the current landscape…

  2. A postfoundationalist research paradigm of practical theology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Kyu Park

    2010-10-01

    This article examines and argues for postfoundationalism – transversal reason, interdisciplinarity and interpreted experience – as a viable theological option against rigid foundationalism and relativistic nonfoundationalism. Also discussed are the process and the interdisciplinary nature of practical theology. It is suggested that narrative research and social constructionism should be part of the research paradigm of postfoundational practical theology.

  3. New Paradigms for Computer Aids to Invention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langston, M. Diane

    Many people are interested in computer aids to rhetorical invention and want to know how to evaluate an invention aid, what the criteria are for a good one, and how to assess the trade-offs involved in buying one product or another. The frame of reference for this evaluation is an "old paradigm," which treats the computer as if it were…

  4. Diet and Cancer: The Fourth Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter C. Willett, MD, DrPH, an international expert in diet and nutrition, with posts as a Professor of Epidemiology and Nutrition and Chairman of the Department of Nutrition at Harvard School of Public Health and as Professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School, presented "Diet and Cancer: The Fourth Paradigm".

  5. Challenging paradigms in estuarine ecology and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, M.; Whitfield, A. K.

    2011-10-01

    For many years, estuarine science has been the 'poor relation' in aquatic research - freshwater scientists ignored estuaries as they tended to get confused by salt and tides, and marine scientists were more preoccupied by large open systems. Estuaries were merely regarded by each group as either river mouths or sea inlets respectively. For the past four decades, however, estuaries (and other transitional waters) have been regarded as being ecosystems in their own right. Although often not termed as such, this has led to paradigms being generated to summarise estuarine structure and functioning and which relate to both the natural science and management of these systems. This paper defines, details and affirms these paradigms that can be grouped into those covering firstly the science (definitions, scales, linkages, productivity, tolerances and variability) and secondly the management (pressures, valuation, health and services) of estuaries. The more 'science' orientated paradigms incorporate the development and types of ecotones, the nature of stressed and variable systems (with specific reference to resilience and redundancy), the relationship between generalists and specialists produced by environmental tolerance, the relevance of scale in relation to functioning and connectivity, the sources of production and degree of productivity, the biodiversity-ecosystem functioning and the stress-subsidy debates. The more 'management' targeted paradigms include the development and effects of exogenic unmanaged pressures and endogenic managed pressures, the perception of health and the ability to manage estuaries (related to internal and external influences), and the influence of all of these on the production of ecosystem services and societal benefits.

  6. THE NEW PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION PARADIGM DIRECTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    CHERVYAKOVA OLHA VOLODYMYRIVNA

    2017-01-01

    This article presents aspects of public administration paradigm of using disciplinary matrix, a public management model based on a feedback mechanism in the subject-subject interaction, which is the basis of theoretical and methodological establishment in public administration science (Public administration) in Ukraine.

  7. Trace elements as paradigms of developmental neurotoxicants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Herz, Katherine T

    2015-01-01

    Trace elements have contributed unique insights into developmental neurotoxicity and serve as paradigms for such adverse effects. Many trace elements are retained in the body for long periods and can be easily measured to assess exposure by inexpensive analytical methods that became available...

  8. 06472 Abstracts Collection - XQuery Implementation Paradigms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boncz, Peter A.; Grust, Torsten; Siméon, Jerome; Boncz, P.A.; Grust, T.; Siméon, J.; van Keulen, Maurice

    From 19.11.2006 to 22.11.2006, the Dagstuhl Seminar 06472 ``XQuery Implementation Paradigms'' was held in the International Conference and Research Center (IBFI), Schloss Dagstuhl. During the seminar, several participants presented their current research, and ongoing work and open problems were

  9. Answer Set Programming and Other Computing Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yunsong

    2013-01-01

    Answer Set Programming (ASP) is one of the most prominent and successful knowledge representation paradigms. The success of ASP is due to its expressive non-monotonic modeling language and its efficient computational methods originating from building propositional satisfiability solvers. The wide adoption of ASP has motivated several extensions to…

  10. Toward an Ecological Paradigm in Adventure Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beringer, Almut

    2004-01-01

    Many forms of adventure therapy, in particular wilderness therapy, rely on challenges in the outdoors to achieve objectives of client change. While nature is drawn on as a medium for therapy and healing, some adventure therapists give nature little if any mention when it comes to explaining therapeutic success. The dominant paradigm in psychology…

  11. ACCOUNTING PARADIGMS WHICH FAVOR HISTORICAL COST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Gabriel CRISTEA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Henning Kirkegaard shows that the evolution of accounting is to shift from one paradigm to another . Business continuity perspective should guide the company into the future , without confine it exclusively in the past. Accounting in its classical form , however, can not be dissociated from the historical cost evaluation .

  12. On the solitary wave paradigm for tsunamis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Per A.; Fuhrman, David R.; Schäffer, Hemming Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Since the 1970s, solitary waves have commonly been used to model tsunamis especially in experimental and mathematical studies. Unfortunately, the link to geophysical scales is not well established, and in this work we question the geophysical relevance of this paradigm. In part 1, we simulate...

  13. Evolving conservation paradigms for the Anthropocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariel E. Lugo

    2014-01-01

    The Anthropocene will have fundamental effects on the species composition, function, and structure of the ecosystems of the world. Land management agencies such as the USDA Forest Service will need to adapt their policies and conservation activities to avoid engaging in continuous conflict with natural processes and unfamiliar biotic assemblages. Conservation paradigms...

  14. A new paradigm for doing Reformed dogmatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. Spykman

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available When discussing Reformational Theology: A New Paradigm for Doing Dogmatics some people may call it my opus magnum. Perhaps time 'will tell. The book has only recently - early 1992 - entered the marketplace of theological ideas. How critic readers and reviewers respond will go a long way toward settling the case.

  15. Moral Developmental Science between Changing Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Monika

    2012-01-01

    This review encompasses a time-span of about 50 years of research on morality and moral development. It discusses Kohlberg's (1984) work as a milestone that constituted the cognitive developmental viewpoint of morality and that dominated research for about three decades. In this paradigm the role of reasoning and deliberation was emphasized as the…

  16. Paradigms of Interaction Between Culture and Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Bahrani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Political thought as a normative knowledge seeks a good society and the means for its realization. Accordingly, every intellectual paradigm introduces us a social and individual situation which is the best. This model, itself requires a dramatic change in the culture and flourishes it. In another words, there is a necessary relationship between the elements of political thought and the culture in every society. This relationship is twofold, so it is impossible to indicate whether which aspect is the first. So every paradigm feeds some special elements into the current culture of society, while there is it feedback. It is important that political thought goes in search of condition for cultural flourishing which is according whit the criteria of good society. This paper focuses on most important paradigm in political thought history and shows the trend in which indicates the relationships between political thought and culture. This trend looks at human beings as "citizen", then "the individual"; and in the modem era, paradigms of "critical modem", "postmodern", and "communitarian" has a key role in prospering the realm of culture.

  17. Fourth Generation War: Paradigm for Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    PARADIGM FOR CHANGE by Ghanshyam Singh Katoch June 2005 Thesis Advisor : Kalev Sepp Second Reader...Approved by: Kalev Sepp Thesis Advisor Douglas Borer Second Reader Gordon McCormick Chairman, Department of Defense...combination of all the resources of the government, not just the army. d. Economy of Effort A Robo -Soldier is a small, tracked, electrically powered vehicle

  18. Operationalizing Social Justice Counseling: Paradigm to Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Judith A.

    2011-01-01

    Social justice counseling, like all humanistic models, recognizes the dignity of each human being, affirms the right of all people to choose and work toward their own goals, and asserts the importance of service to community. The social justice paradigm brings a special emphasis on the role of the environment. (Contains 1 figure and 1 table.)

  19. The membrane paradigm for black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.H.; Thorne, K.S.

    1988-01-01

    It is now widely accepted that black holes exist and have an astrophysical role, in particular as the likely power source of quasars. To understand this role with ease, the authors and their colleagues have developed a new paradigm for black holes - a new way to picture, think about and describe them. As far as possible it treats black holes as ordinary astrophysical objects, made of real material. A black hole in this description is a spherical or oblate surface made of a thin, electrically conducting membrane. It was the author's quest to understand the Blandford-Znajek process intuitively that led them to create the membrane paradigm. Their strategy was to translate the general-relativistic mathematics of black holes into the same language of three-dimensional space that is used for magnetized plasmas and to create a new set of black-hole diagrams and pictures to go along with the language. 9 figs

  20. Changing the Dominant Paradigm in Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Lourdes Mollo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the discussion proposed by the World Academy of Art & Science (WAAS about the need to build a new paradigm to confront the challenges of the global society and to move across to a New Society discussing specific problems related to economic globalization and proposing changes. The ways in which economic orthodoxy and heterodoxy analyze the role of the State and the question of sustainability of development and the problems of environmental sustainability depend on their different views or theoretical arguments about the role of the market. The article contrasts the mainstream economics arguments to support the free market context of globalization with Post-Keynesian and Marxist’s skeptical or critical views. Finally, it proposes some strategies to face the critical aspects analyzed making suggestions to move to another dominant economic paradigm.

  1. [Assistance to the climacteric woman: new paradigms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzi, Dino Roberto Soares De; Catan, Lenita Binelli; Moreira, Karen; Artico, Graziela Rech

    2009-01-01

    Population aging is a demographic reality for Brazil. Consequently, in the next years it is expected a progressive increase in seeking health care services in the country by women with complaints related to climacterium. Parallel to it, assistance at this part of woman's life has been going through a paradigm shift which has imposed to health professionals a change of attitude in relation to this stage of woman's life. Today it is acknowledged that the climacterium is influenced by biological, psychosocial and cultural factors, whose knowledge is fundamental for planning a more qualified and humanized care. This article proposes a reflection on the paradigm shifts in assistance at climacterium, highlighting important aspects as multidisciplinarity and interdisciplinarity, so as to serve better this portion of population, and provide it with more integrated and individualized care, bringing together knowledge and sensitivity, and always aiming at a better quality of life.

  2. Inhabiting compassion: A pastoral theological paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil C. Zylla

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by the vision of care in Vincent van Gogh’s depiction of the parable of the Good Samaritan, this article offers a paradigm for inhabiting compassion. Compassion is understood in this article as a moral emotion that is also a pathocentric virtue. This definition creates a dynamic view of compassion as a desire to alleviate the suffering of others, the capacity to act on behalf of others and a commitment to sustain engagement with the suffering other. To weave this vision of compassion as a habitus rather than a theoretical construct, the article develops three phases of compassion: seeing, companioning and sighing. This framework deepens and augments a pastoral theological paradigm of compassion with the aim of inculcating an inhabited compassion in caregivers and the communities in which they participate.

  3. BMS invariance and the membrane paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penna, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    The Bondi-van der Burg-Metzner-Sachs (BMS) group is the asymptotic symmetry group of asymptotically flat spacetime. It is infinite dimensional and entails an infinite number of conservation laws. According to the black hole membrane paradigm, null infinity (in asymptotically flat spacetime) and black hole event horizons behave like fluid membranes. The fluid dynamics of the membrane is governed by an infinite set of symmetries and conservation laws. Our main result is to point out that the infinite set of symmetries and conserved charges of the BMS group and the membrane paradigm are the same. This relationship has several consequences. First, it sheds light on the physical interpretation of BMS conservation laws. Second, it generalizes the BMS conservation laws to arbitrary subregions of arbitrary null surfaces. Third, it clarifies the identification of the superrotation subgroup of the BMS group. We briefly comment on the black hole information problem.

  4. Radiation a new paradigm... Societal impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutcliffe, Jill

    2010-01-01

    Latency is associated with the time lag it takes for the health effects resulting from exposure to ionising radiation to show up. However, the term latency can also be applied to the time it takes for a policy to be implemented. This length of time has been suggested as broadly 40-year process. Given that radioactivity was identified and named in 1896, three paradigms are identified and examined from 1896 to 2016 and the criteria for a 4th paradigm suggested for the period 2017-2056. The review examines the changes that have taken place in scientific understanding and in public trust, a few key developments and the associated establishment of the related organisational infrastructure designed to collate and assess the evidence.

  5. Paradigms of modern radio-biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grodzins'kij, D.M.

    2005-01-01

    The basic paradigms of modern radio-biology are considered as models of pictures of essence of radio-biology problems and methods of their decision. It is marked on absolute heuristics of these ascending conceptual assertions and their assistance to subsequent development of experimental science. That has the concrete display in the decision of actual tasks of protection of people from action of ionizing radiation

  6. The Knowledge Society: A Sustainability Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naim Hamdija Afgan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper defines the knowledge society as a human structured organisation based on contemporary developed knowledge and representing new quality of life support systems. It implies the need for a full understanding of distribution of knowledge, access to information and the capability to transfer information into a knowledge. The understanding of knowledge is the central challenge when defining a knowledge society. From our present perception of knowledge society, it is of interest to emphasize the role of the knowledge society in future development of human society. The life support systems are essential pillars of human society development. In this respect knowledge society represents a new paradigm for future development and it is strongly correlated to sustainable development. For this reason the sustainability paradigm of knowledge society is a potential frame for human society development leading to social cohesion, economic competitiveness and stability, use of resources and economic development, safeguarding biodiversity and the ecosystem.In order to verify the mutual relation between knowledge society and sustainability, we have to introduce the difference between these two terms. The knowledge society is based on the agglomeration of eco-knowledge, env-knowledge and soc-knowledge, it may be evaluated as the complex knowledge of quality of life support systems. We have to introduce metrics which will allow us to present knowledge as the paradigm of the number of indicators for verifying progress made.Sustainability metrics are designed to consolidate measures of economic, environmental and social performance of any system. It can be understood as a pattern for evaluation of the available knowledge about systems and their performance. In particular the decision-making process for the selection of the system under consideration must be based on the available knowledge. The link between knowledge and sustainability makes it possible for

  7. Agricultural Economics and Qualitative Research: Incompatible Paradigms?

    OpenAIRE

    Vera Bitsch

    2000-01-01

    The disciplinary paradigm of agricultural economics emphasizes rational behavior in a world constrained by scarce resources. The research practice focuses on the quantitative modeling of optimization behavior. These models, though, only offer limited support to practitioners in solving real-world problems. Qualitative research approaches contribute to this task, particularly with research in developing countries. Participatory action research was introduced in the seventies; case studies have...

  8. Doing smooth pursuit paradigms in Windows 7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilms, Inge Linda

    predict strengths or deficits in perception and attention. However, smooth pursuit movements have been difficult to study and very little normative data is available for smooth pursuit performance in children and adults. This poster describes the challenges in setting up a smooth pursuit paradigm...... in Windows 7 with live capturing of eye movements using a Tobii TX300 eye tracker. In particular, the poster describes the challenges and limitations created by the hardware and the software...

  9. What Do Ecological Paradigms Offer to Conservation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ale, S.B.; Howe, H.F.; Ale, S.B.; Howe, H.F.

    2010-01-01

    Ecological theory provides applications to biodiversity management but often falls short of expectations. One possibility is that heuristic theories of a young science are too immature. Logistic growth predicts a carrying capacity, but fisheries managed with the Lotka-Volterra paradigm continue to collapse. A second issue is that general predictions may not be useful. The theory of island biogeography predicts species richness but does not predict community composition. A third possibility is that the theory itself may not have much to do with nature, or that empirical parameterization is too difficult to know. The meta population paradigm is relevant to conservation, but meta populations might not be common in nature. For instance, empirical parameterization within the meta population paradigm is usually infeasible. A challenge is to determine why ecology fails to match needs of managers sometimes but helps at other. Managers may expect too much of paradigmatic blueprints, while ecologists believe them too much. Those who implement biodiversity conservation plans need simple, pragmatic guidelines based on science. Is this possible. What is possible An eclectic review of theory and practice demonstrate the power and weaknesses of the ideas that guide conservation and attempt to identify reasons for prevailing disappointment.

  10. Toward a Metatheoretical Integration of Developmental Paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark W. Antley

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows how a partial consilience might be achieved in the field of human development by means of principles from general systems theory. The author concurs with Sameroff (1989 that it is possible to interpret the mechanistic, organisimic, and contextualist paradigms/worldviews (Goldhaber, 2000; Pepper, 1970 in terms of general systems theory. The author selects a major developmentalist from each paradigm and interprets that scholar’s work in terms of systems principles. The following developmentalists were selected: Arnold Sameroff (contextualism, Erik Erickson (organicism, and Albert Bandura (mechanism. The systems principles employed are wholeness and order, self-stabilization, self-reorganization, hierarchical interaction, and dialectical contradiction (Sameroff, 1989. The author addresses the conflicting presuppositions of the major paradigms in order to provide for their theoretical subsuming under systems theory. Finally, the author notes areas of inconsistency that will need to be resolved in the future and calls for further scholarship to translate developmental theory in terms of general systems theory for the benefit of students, scholars, consultants and other practitioners familiar with systems theory.

  11. Marketing communications: Qualitative and quantitative paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzelac Nikola

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on key issues in relation to the choice of basic language of communication of marketing as a practical and academic field. Principally, marketing managers prefer descriptive way of expression, but they should use the advantages of language of numbers much more. By doing so, they will advance decision-making process - and the communication with finance and top management. In this regard, models offered by academic community could be helpful. This especially pertains to those positive or normative verbal approaches and models in which mathematics and statistical solutions have been embedded, as well as to those which emphasize financial criteria in decision-making. Concerning the process of creation and verification of scientific knowledge, the choice between languages of words and numbers is the part of much wider dimension, because it is inseparable from the decision on basic research orientation. Quantitative paradigm is more appropriate for hypotheses testing, while qualitative paradigm gives greater contribution in their generation. Competition factor could become the key driver of changes by which existing "parallel worlds" of main paradigms would be integrating, for the sake of disciplinary knowledge advancement.

  12. Paradigm Adherence and Personality Correlates across Mental Health Professions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Laura Anne

    2012-01-01

    Paradigm adherence has been developed as a meta-theoretical approach to organize and to classify the multitude of different theories of counseling and psychotherapy. Four paradigms have been identified in the literature: The Organic-Medical, The Psychological, The Systemic-Relational, and the Social Constructivist paradigms. Only one other study…

  13. Linking aims, paradigm and method in nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Catherine; Hunter, Andrew; Meskell, Pauline

    2012-01-01

    To explore the use of paradigms as ontological and philosophical guides for conducting PhD research. A paradigm can help to bridge the aims of a study and the methods to achieve them. However, choosing a paradigm can be challenging for doctoral researchers: there can be ambiguity about which paradigm is suitable for a particular research question and there is a lack of guidance on how to shape the research process for a chosen paradigm. The authors discuss three paradigms used in PhD nursing research: post-positivism, interpretivism and pragmatism. They compare each paradigm in relation to its ontology, epistemology and methodology, and present three examples of PhD nursing research studies to illustrate how research can be conducted using these paradigms in the context of the research aims and methods. The commonalities and differences between the paradigms and their uses are highlighted. Creativity and flexibility are important when deciding on a paradigm. However, consistency and transparency are also needed to ensure the quality and rigour necessary for conducting nursing research. When choosing a suitable paradigm, the researcher should ensure that the ontology, epistemology and methodology of the paradigm are manifest in the methods and research strategies employed.

  14. The Imperative Paradigm of Korowai, a language of West Papua

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Lourens; Aikhenvald, Alexandra; Dixon, R.M.W

    2017-01-01

    The imperative paradigm of Korowai, a Papuan language of West Papua, is the richest independent verb paradigm of Korowai: it makes more tense, aspect, mood, person and number distinctions than all other verb paradigms. This formal richness is matched by functional richness: imperatives are used in a

  15. Paradigm Shift in Language Teaching and Language Teacher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Ferreira do Vale Borges

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I intend to conduct a short literature review and discussion about paradigm shift in language teaching and language teacher education from Cartesian to the complexity paradigm. For that, I use the Kuhnian notion of scientific revolution to present a short compilation of works related to paradigm shift in different sciences, including psychology, linguistics and, more emphatically, applied linguistics. The main proposal is to show the evolutions of paradigm shift in language and social sciences and its impact on the emergence of the complexity paradigm in language teaching and language teacher education fields.

  16. SCHOOL ECONOMY IN THE INVENTING EDUCATION PARADIGM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy Alexandrovich Lepeshev

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Requirements applied to specialists for working in the sixth wave of innovation, i.e. Industry 4.0, determines the necessity of education system improvement concerning training solution and, as a result, creation of inventive ideas. Today in our country this process is stimulated by various competitions, including financing for the implementation of results. In training programs knowledge approach still prevails. The corresponding methods, along with stimulation, are included into educational programs in leading foreign educational institutions, mostly at universities. If in previous decades mostly divergent methods were studied (morphological analysis, the focal objects method, synectics, etc., then now the leading place is taken by theory of inventive problem solving – TRIZ created in the former USSR by G.S. Altshuller in connection with the increasing leading corporations requirement for specialists in TRIZ. This fact gives Russia essential competitive advantages in the innovative way of development. For effective use of this advantage it is important to form the TRIZ-based innovative thinking beginning from school days. For this purpose authors developed new methods in TRIZ-pedagogics, uniting metasubject results (in higher education institutions – competences into the system of innovative thinking. As a result, both educational and economic effects are achieved: the intellectual property created in educational process. For schools it is the possibility of significant improvement of financing causing importance of new mechanisms of intellectual property fixation, protection and implementation. Recommendations about creation of such system are provided in the article. Purpose Defining the opportunities and ways of improving economic effectiveness of educational activities in the paradigm of inventive education. Tasks: – analysis of school education institutions experience in implementation of approaches preceding the inventing education

  17. Urgency of changing paradigms in radiation hygiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudritskij, Yu.K.; Karpov, V.I.; Georgievskij, A.B.

    1991-01-01

    A problem has been raised on the necessity to substitute the linear-nonthreshold hypothesis as a paradigm of radiation hygiene for the hypothesis of the biological effectiveness of ionizing irradiations. A comparison of the methodological substantiation for both hypotheses and a conception of 'acceptable risk' has been carried out. It is suggested that the possibility of theoretical substantiation of safety standards for the radiational factor on the basis of adatational hypothesis be acknowledged instead of the linear - nonthreshold conception which has lost its historic significance

  18. Causal hydrodynamics and the membrane paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natsuume, Makoto

    2008-01-01

    We obtain the relaxation time for the shear viscous stress for various geometries using the 'membrane paradigm' formula proposed recently. We consider the generic Schwarzschild-anti-de Sitter black holes (SAdS), the generic Dp-brane, the Klebanov-Tseytlin (KT) geometry, and the N=2* theory. The formula is the 'shear mode' result and is not fully trustable, but it may be helpful to learn some generic behaviors about the relaxation time. For example, a simple formula summarizes all known results for SAdS, and a single expression summarizes the results for the Dp-brane and the KT geometry.

  19. In search of a new paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars K.

    2005-01-01

    In this review of research priorities, presented for the European Commission, food allergy is established as a disease with a considerable impact on modern society. Research paradigms have changed from establishing basic symptomatology and diagnostic methods over allergen characterization to a risk...... mechanisms in the cross-field between immunology and gastroenterology. Research priorities should include the molecular basis of cross-reactivity, the digestion and maintenance of antigenicity, the genetics of food allergy, and the immune response to food antigens and effects on the gastrointestinal immune...

  20. Three paradigms for the analysis of corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Vannucci

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades a growing awareness emerged of the relevance of corruption as an hidden factor which may negatively affect political and economic decision-making processes. In spite of a lively scientific debate there is no general consensus on a commonly accepted definition of what corruption is.The A. distinguishes three main paradigms, focusing on different (though not irreconcilable variables.The first is the economic paradigm, which usually takes the principal-agent model of corruption as its founding pillar. In this paradigm corruption is considered the outcome of rational individual choices, and its spread within a certain organization is influenced by the factors defining the structure of expected costs and rewards.A second approach – the cultural paradigm – looks at the differences in cultural traditions, social norms and interiorized values which shape individuals’ moral preferences and consideration of his social and institutional role. These are a leading forces that can push a corrupt public or private agent (not to violate legal norms.A third neo-institutional approach considers also mechanisms which allow the internal regulation of social interactions within corrupt networks, and their effects on individuals’ beliefs and preferences. Though the corrupt agreements cannot be enforced with legal sanctions, several informal, non-written rules, contractual provisos and conventions may regulate the corrupt exchange between agent and corruptor.The A. underlines that corruption is the outcome of a multitude of individual and collective choices which change public opinion towards corruption and its diffusion throughout the state, markets and civil society. There is no univocal recipe to deal with anti-bribery measures, since corruption is a complex and multifaceted phenomenon.Reforms aimed at dismantling systemic corruption have to be finely tuned against its hidden governance structures, i.e. its internal regulation of

  1. Chua's circuit a paradigm for chaos

    CERN Document Server

    1993-01-01

    For uninitiated researchers, engineers, and scientists interested in a quick entry into the subject of chaos, this book offers a timely collection of 55 carefully selected papers covering almost every aspect of this subject. Because Chua's circuit is endowed with virtually every bifurcation phenomena reported in the extensive literature on chaos, and because it is the only chaotic system which can be easily built by a novice, simulated in a personal computer, and tractable mathematically, it has become a paradigm for chaos, and a vehicle for illustrating this ubiquitous phenomenon. Its supreme

  2. RENEGOTIATION MINING CONTRACT: LEGAL PARADIGM RECONSTRUCTION EFFORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilang -

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Renegotiation contract mining is not a priori notion that was born but is driven by the fact that empirical Work Contract (KK and coal mining concessions of the Works Agreement (Cca that are valid for this resulted in profits which are not comparable between countries with investors (domestic and foreign. In addition, Law No. 4 of 2009 about Mineral and Coal Mining (minerba through article 169 have been injected that though the mining contracts during the validity of this, still respected until the end, however, if the implementation of these contracts give rise to distortions for the national interest, then the Government must encourage the investors to do Renegotiation against existing contracts to comply with legislation minerba forever within a period of one year since the enactment of the legislation this minerba. Renegotiation mining contracts that have been approved on the fact of the matter is simply an attempt to reconstruct the ruling paradigm, so with that paradigm shift, both parties can reach the intersection for the benefit of both parties, i.e. the parties proportionately Indonesia suffered no losses on the one hand, and the benefit of the domestic and foreign investors remain in reasonable limits on the other. 

  3. Consumers’ Empowerement for a New Marketing Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Danciu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The marketing practices of the companies show that not all of them are observing ethical and moral standards and they manipulate the consumers. This paper has as main goal to examine the most usual unethical techniques, the present status of consumers’ power and how more power could work for a new marketing paradigm. There are many unethical marketing techniques which could be found in deceptive product recipes, packaging, promotion, prices and in other areas. Most consumers have no appropriate powers and tools to counteract the manipulation techniques and feel they have fewer rights than the marketers. The current state of empowerment of the consumer show that the European consumers are not in the best position in the market as the Consumer Empowerment Index proves. This matter of facts emphasizes a strong need for a better empowerment of the consumers. The consumer which has more power and wisely use it could improve the balance of power in the market. But the consumers should have a proactive buying behavior in order to get such results. These revolutionary consumers attack the structural roots of the social, economic and political problems which produces a new market ideology as a part of the new tier of transnational institutional ideology. This consumer behavior may have a strong influence toward a new marketing paradigm.

  4. Osteoporosis: Modern Paradigms for Last Century's Bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Marlena C; Wolber, Frances M

    2016-06-17

    The skeleton is a metabolically active organ undergoing continuously remodelling. With ageing and menopause the balance shifts to increased resorption, leading to a reduction in bone mineral density and disruption of bone microarchitecture. Bone mass accretion and bone metabolism are influenced by systemic hormones as well as genetic and lifestyle factors. The classic paradigm has described osteoporosis as being a "brittle bone" disease that occurs in post-menopausal, thin, Caucasian women with low calcium intakes and/or vitamin D insufficiency. However, a study of black women in Africa demonstrated that higher proportions of body fat did not protect bone health. Isoflavone interventions in Asian postmenopausal women have produced inconsistent bone health benefits, due in part to population heterogeneity in enteric bacterial metabolism of daidzein. A comparison of women and men in several Asian countries identified significant differences between countries in the rate of bone health decline, and a high incidence rate of osteoporosis in both sexes. These studies have revealed significant differences in genetic phenotypes, debunking long-held beliefs and leading to new paradigms in study design. Current studies are now being specifically designed to assess genotype differences between Caucasian, Asian, African, and other phenotypes, and exploring alternative methodology to measure bone architecture.

  5. Imaging deductive reasoning and the new paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oaksford, Mike

    2015-01-01

    There has been a great expansion of research into human reasoning at all of Marr’s explanatory levels. There is a tendency for this work to progress within a level largely ignoring the others which can lead to slippage between levels (Chater et al., 2003). It is argued that recent brain imaging research on deductive reasoning—implementational level—has largely ignored the new paradigm in reasoning—computational level (Over, 2009). Consequently, recent imaging results are reviewed with the focus on how they relate to the new paradigm. The imaging results are drawn primarily from a recent meta-analysis by Prado et al. (2011) but further imaging results are also reviewed where relevant. Three main observations are made. First, the main function of the core brain region identified is most likely elaborative, defeasible reasoning not deductive reasoning. Second, the subtraction methodology and the meta-analytic approach may remove all traces of content specific System 1 processes thought to underpin much human reasoning. Third, interpreting the function of the brain regions activated by a task depends on theories of the function that a task engages. When there are multiple interpretations of that function, interpreting what an active brain region is doing is not clear cut. It is concluded that there is a need to more tightly connect brain activation to function, which could be achieved using formalized computational level models and a parametric variation approach. PMID:25774130

  6. The Institutional Paradigm of Human Capital Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolomiiets Viktoriia М.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The formation of the modern conception of human capital is connected with the development of post-industrial information society, knowledge economy and digital economy. The main role in analyzing of the content and role of human capital can play a new institutional economic theory. It is determined that the methodology of research of paradigm change in economic science remains the subject of discussion. The conception of institutional paradigm of human capital development can be attributed to the new economy, the development of which is carried out on the condition that the employee is not always alienated from the relationships of ownership: he himself becomes the owner of the «new» economic resources. The factors of education along with the factors of health care which are determining in the development of human capital are researched. Special attention is paid to education, as it acts as an intellectual capital of the new economy, where knowledge and skills become the «intellectual 5D printer», producing the modern human capital. The transition to a new, post-industrial economy is characterized by a major long-term tendency: the progress of knowledge and the increasing complexity of the socio-economic life; created by powerful factors of information and computer technologies and leading to expansion of global economic space.

  7. Passage of American shad: paradigms and realities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro, Alex; Castro-Santos, Theodore

    2012-01-01

    Despite more than 250 years of development, the passage of American shad Alosa sapidissima at dams and other barriers frequently remains problematic. Few improvements in design based on knowledge of the swimming, schooling, and migratory behaviors of American shad have been incorporated into passage structures. Large-scale technical fishways designed for the passage of adult salmonids on the Columbia River have been presumed to have good performance for American shad but have never been rigorously evaluated for this species. Similar but smaller fishway designs on the East Coast frequently have poor performance. Provision of effective downstream passage for both juvenile and postspawning adult American shad has been given little consideration in most passage projects. Ways to attract and guide American shad to both fishway entrances and downstream bypasses remain marginally understood. The historical development of passage structures for American shad has resulted in assumptions and paradigms about American shad behavior and passage that are frequently unsubstantiated by supporting data or appropriate experimentation. We propose that many of these assumptions and paradigms are either unfounded or invalid and that significant improvements to American shad upstream and downstream passage can be made via a sequential program of behavioral experimentation, application of experimental results to the physical and hydraulic design of new structures, and controlled tests of large-scale prototype structures in the laboratory and field.

  8. New paradigms of Game Theory from globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Esquivel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Games Theory constitutes a model by means every player tries to predict what they will make the other players in reply to his own actions, and to optimize the result of the above mentioned actions in his benefit knowing that the others are thinking to about the same form. The development of the theory supposed a boom after the World War II, which happened of analyzing exclusively competitive behaviors to considering situations with competitive and cooperative characteristics. Nevertheless, the advance of the humanity and the disappearance of both geopolitical blocks have eliminated the balance of power and have produced the emergence of a world the most based on the exclusive conquest of the power. This has originated the model change and dilemmas, happening from the most cooperative models (Prisoner’s Dilemma or from the models of the Cold War (Dilemma of the Gallina up to reaching the dilemmas of the Leader or of the Hero. This change of paradigm owes to the extension of the globalization, which originates an immeasurable loss of economic, social, political power, of human rights, which they have affected negatively to the poor people. In this paper is studied the change of paradigm caused by the consequences of the globalization and the geopolitical transformations in a monopolar world, analyzing the consequences on the basis of the Theory of Games.

  9. Tolerance of sexual harassment: a laboratory paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelone, David J; Mitchell, Damon; Carola, Kara

    2009-12-01

    The present study attempted to develop a laboratory analogue for the study of tolerance for sexual harassment by using an online speed-dating paradigm. In that context, the relation between participants' sexual harassment attitudes, perpetrator attractiveness, perpetrator status, and perceived dating potential of the perpetrator were examined as factors influencing participants' tolerance of sexually harassing behavior. Participants were 128 female college students from a small northeastern public university. Results indicated that attractiveness, high social status, and attitudinal beliefs about sexual harassment were all predictive of tolerance for sexual harassment, providing preliminary support for the validity of this paradigm. In addition, participants' self reported likelihood to date a bogus male dating candidate was also predictive of tolerance for sexual harassment, over and above the aforementioned variables, suggesting that dating potential can play a role in perceptions of sexual harassment. Further, this experiment demonstrated that perceptions of sexual harassment can be assessed using the in vivo measurement of behavior. In addition, using an online environment not only provides a contemporary spin and adds a greater degree of external validity compared to other sexual harassment analogues, it also reduces any risk of potential physical sexual contact for participants.

  10. Colloidal paradigm in supercapattery electrode systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kunfeng; Xue, Dongfeng

    2018-01-01

    Among decades of development, electrochemical energy storage systems are now sorely in need of a new design paradigm at the nano size and ion level to satisfy the higher energy and power demands. In this review paper, we introduce a new colloidal electrode paradigm for supercapattery that integrates multiple-scale forms of matter, i.e. ion clusters, colloidal ions, and nanosized materials, into one colloid system, coupled with multiple interactions, i.e. electrostatic, van der Waals forces, and chemical bonding, thus leading to the formation of many redox reactive centers. This colloidal electrode not only keeps the original ionic nature in colloidal materials, but also creates a new attribute of high electroactivity. Colloidal supercapattery is a perfect application example of the novel colloidal electrode, leading to higher specific capacitance than traditional electrode materials. The high electroactivity of the colloidal electrode mainly comes from the contribution of exposed reactive centers, owing to the confinement effect of carbon and a binder matrix. Systematic and thorough research on the colloidal system will significantly promote the development of fundamental science and the progress of advanced energy storage technology.

  11. Understanding emerging treatment paradigms in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breedveld, Ferdinand C; Combe, Bernard

    2011-05-25

    Treatment strategies for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) will continue to evolve as new drugs are developed, as new data become available, and as our potential to achieve greater and more consistent outcomes becomes more routine. Many patients will find both symptom relief and modest control of their disease with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), yet this course of therapy is clearly not effective in all patients. In fact, despite strong evidence that intensive treatment in the early stages of RA can slow or stop disease progression and may prevent disability, many patients continue to be managed in a stepwise manner and are treated with an ongoing monotherapy regimen with DMARDs. There is now a large body of evidence demonstrating the success of treating RA patients with anti-TNF therapy, usually in combination with methotrexate. As a result of the increased use of anti-TNF therapy, treatment paradigms have changed - and our practice is beginning to reflect this change. In the present review, we summarize the salient points of several recently proposed and emerging treatment paradigms with an emphasis on how these strategies may impact future practice.

  12. A new guiding paradigm for waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suter, Peter

    2003-01-01

    New situations call for a revision of strategies in the waste recycling and recovery sector. The guiding paradigm is that the evaluation and optimization of strategies ought to be integral, i.e. it ought to incorporate all steps from cradle to grave, all cost components and also to take into account all environmental aspects, as well as resource depletion. Furthermore, all variants of a comparison must have the same output and the same boundaries in space and time. Total cost (comprising also environmental damage and resource depletion) is proposed here as the evaluation function; environmental damage can be made operational by the DALY concept (Hofstetter P. Perspectives in life cycle impact assessment. Boston: Kluwer Academic, 1998) ('disability adjusted loss of life years') accounting for the years of life lost due to premature death, to illness or annoyance. The search for optimal strategies in the waste sector evidently requires the solution of a system with an enormous number of parameters; the method of genetic algorithms may represent a suitable solution paradigm, leading to the result in a reasonable computing time

  13. Tourism development and the degrowth paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriotis Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to look at alternatives to the classic models of development by exploring the paradigm of degrowth in a tourism context. Degrowth touted as an alternative to mainstream paradigms of development, aims to ensure a high quality of life for people in a society where work, production and consumption are reduced. As a weapon to the problems accrued by capitalism, degrowth reorients the current unsustainable and inequitable path through the transition to a smaller economy with less production and consumption. By arguing that natural limits to growth of many destinations have already been surpassed and their carrying capacity levels have been reached, degrowth proposes the abandonment of growth which promotes nothing other than a quest for profits on part of the owners of capital and results in disastrous implications for the environment and the humanity. As a philosophical concept and movement, degrowth is revolutionary and anticapitalist directed to sustainable change which results from an interest in locality and place, small and medium-sized enterprises, employment generation and reduction in working hours, ecology and quality of life, decommodification of tourism activity, carbon reduction in transport, changed pattern of production and consumption, and high priority in the travel experience.

  14. Special Feature: Epistemological Paradigms in Evaluation: Implications for Practice. Section 3: "Paradigm Complementarity" Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamis-Gould, Edna; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Three studies are presented, which illustrate situations in which researchers and funders agreed on the primacy of either the experimental or pragmatic paradigms but acknowledged a role for the other. The studies involved evaluations of mental health care, information systems, and a curriculum for behavioral and academic dysfunction. (SLD)

  15. Quantitative analysis of distributed control paradigms of robot swarms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngo, Trung Dung

    2010-01-01

    describe the physical and simulated robots, experiment scenario, and experiment setup. Third, we present our robot controllers based on behaviour based and neural network based paradigms. Fourth, we graphically show their experiment results and quantitatively analyse the results in comparison of the two......Given a task of designing controller for mobile robots in swarms, one might wonder which distributed control paradigms should be selected. Until now, paradigms of robot controllers have been within either behaviour based control or neural network based control, which have been recognized as two...... mainstreams of controller design for mobile robots. However, in swarm robotics, it is not clear how to determine control paradigms. In this paper we study the two control paradigms with various experiments of swarm aggregation. First, we introduce the two control paradigms for mobile robots. Second, we...

  16. Information processing as a paradigm for decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Daniel M; Kelso, Evan

    2015-01-03

    For decades, the dominant paradigm for studying decision making--the expected utility framework--has been burdened by an increasing number of empirical findings that question its validity as a model of human cognition and behavior. However, as Kuhn (1962) argued in his seminal discussion of paradigm shifts, an old paradigm cannot be abandoned until a new paradigm emerges to replace it. In this article, we argue that the recent shift in researcher attention toward basic cognitive processes that give rise to decision phenomena constitutes the beginning of that replacement paradigm. Models grounded in basic perceptual, attentional, memory, and aggregation processes have begun to proliferate. The development of this new approach closely aligns with Kuhn's notion of paradigm shift, suggesting that this is a particularly generative and revolutionary time to be studying decision science.

  17. Thought Suppression Research Methods: Paradigms, Theories, Methodological Concerns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niczyporuk Aneta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It is hard to provide an unequivocal answer to the question of whether or not thought suppression is effective. Two thought suppression paradigms - the “white bear” paradigm and the think/no-think paradigm - give mixed results. Generally, “white bear” experiments indicate that thought suppression is counterproductive, while experiments in the think/no-think paradigm suggest that it is possible to effectively suppress a thought. There are also alternative methods used to study thought suppression, for instance the directed forgetting paradigm or the Stroop task. In the article, I describe the research methods used to explore thought suppression efficacy. I focus on the “white bear” and the think/no-think paradigms and discuss theories proposed to explain the results obtained. I also consider the internal and external validity of the methods used.

  18. Vascular access surveillance: case study of a false paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, William D; Moist, Louise; Lok, Charmaine E

    2013-01-01

    The hemodialysis vascular access surveillance controversy provides a case study of how enthusiasm for a new test or treatment can lead to adoption of a false paradigm. Paradigms are the beliefs and assumptions shared by those in a field of knowledge, and are commonly included in clinical practice guidelines. The guidelines of the National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative recommend that arteriovenous vascular accesses undergo routine surveillance for detection and correction of stenosis. This recommendation is based on the paradigm that surveillance of access blood flow or dialysis venous pressure combined with correction of stenosis improves access outcomes. However, the quality of evidence that supports this paradigm has been widely criticized. We tested the validity of the surveillance paradigm by applying World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for evaluating screening tests to a literature review of published vascular access studies. These criteria include four components: undesired condition, screening test, intervention, and desired outcome. The WHO criteria show that surveillance as currently practiced fails all four components and provides little or no significant benefit, suggesting that surveillance is a false paradigm. Once a paradigm is established, however, challenges to its validity are usually resisted even as new evidence indicates the paradigm is not valid. Thus, it is paramount to apply rigorous criteria when developing guidelines. Regulators may help promote needed changes in paradigms when cost and safety considerations coincide. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. [The template principle: paradigm of modern genetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inge-Vechtomov, S G

    2013-01-01

    The idea of continuity in living systems, which was initially developed in mid-19th century, reached its peak in 1928 thanks to N.K. Koltsov, who proposed the template principle in chromosome reproduction. The determination of genetic functions of nucleic acids and the advent of molecular genetics led to F. Crick's statement of the central dogma of molecular biology in 1958. This dogma became a contemporary version of the template principle (templates of the first order). The discovery of "protein inheritance" underlay the notion of steric or conformational templates (second order) for reproducing conformation in a number of proteins. The template principle supplemented by this notion claims to be the main paradigm of modern genetics.

  20. TAMU: A New Space Mission Operations Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkat, Leila; Ruszkowski, James; Haensly, Jean; Pennington, Granvil A.; Hogle, Charles

    2011-01-01

    The Transferable, Adaptable, Modular and Upgradeable (TAMU) Flight Production Process (FPP) is a model-centric System of System (SoS) framework which cuts across multiple organizations and their associated facilities, that are, in the most general case, in geographically diverse locations, to develop the architecture and associated workflow processes for a broad range of mission operations. Further, TAMU FPP envisions the simulation, automatic execution and re-planning of orchestrated workflow processes as they become operational. This paper provides the vision for the TAMU FPP paradigm. This includes a complete, coherent technique, process and tool set that result in an infrastructure that can be used for full lifecycle design and decision making during any flight production process. A flight production process is the process of developing all products that are necessary for flight.

  1. Toxicogenomics: A New Paradigm for Nanotoxicity Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Sourabh; Saquib, Quaiser; Ahmad, Bilal; Ansari, Sabiha M; Azam, Ameer; Musarrat, Javed

    2018-01-01

    The wider applications of nanoparticles (NPs) has evoked a world-wide concern due to their possible risk of toxicity in humans and other organisms. Aggregation and accumulation of NPs into cell leads to their interaction with biological macromolecules including proteins, nucleic acids and cellular organelles, which eventually induce toxicological effects. Application of toxicogenomics to investigate molecular pathway-based toxicological consequences has opened new vistas in nanotoxicology research. Indeed, genomic approaches appeared as a new paradigm in terms of providing information at molecular levels and have been proven to be as a powerful tool for identification and quantification of global shifts in gene expression. Toxicological responses of NPs have been discussed in this chapter with the aim to provide a clear understanding of the molecular mechanism of NPs induced toxicity both in in vivo and in vitro test models.

  2. A new paradigm of modern central banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Szunke

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The changes in the modern monetary policy, which took place at the beginning of the twenty-first century, in response to the global financial crisis led to the transformation of the place and the role of central banks. The strategic aim of the central monetary institutions has become preventing financial instability. So far, central banks have defined financial stability as a public good, which took care independently of other monetary purposes (Pyka, 2010. Unconventional monetary policy resulted in changes the global central banking. The aim of the study is to identify a new paradigm of the role and place of the central bank in the financial system and its new responsibilities, aimed at countering financial instability.

  3. Introduction: Science, Sexuality, and Psychotherapy: Shifting Paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerbone, Armand R

    2017-08-01

    This introduction presents an overview of the current issue (73, 8) of Journal of Clinical Psychology: In Session. This issue features a series of articles, with clinical cases, each presented to illustrate the challenges faced by individuals and couples whose sexual and gender identities and expressions do not comport with traditional and cultural norms. These articles also document the challenges to the therapists who treat them. Considered individually, each article underscores the need to recognize the importance of evidence in guiding psychotherapy in cases involving sexuality. The discussions in each article offer recommendations meant to help and guide psychotherapists. Considered collectively, they raise important questions and considerations about shifting paradigms of human sexuality. Implications for assessment and treatment of cases involving sexuality and gender identity are discussed and recommended. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The Rational Relevance of the Diffuse Paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Dinu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Processes like the globalization consistency and learning about society are screened by diffuse concepts such as those taking the last steps of the industrial civilization and hierarchically ordered world through hegemony. This is why the meaning of globalization is given by deviant trends, like globalism, and the knowledge society is taken for the tools promoted by itself, such as the internet. This does not imply only approximations of meaning but rather the vanity of change, preserving the status quo represented by the pre-global world or the adversity principle. Historicism of paradigm cannot be avoided. Evolvement towards something else, announced by globalization is implacable, and the new ordinating principle, the one of competition, opens the opportunity horizon to global world.

  5. The Rational Relevance of the Diffuse Paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Dinu

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Processes like the globalization consistency and learning about society are screened by diffuse concepts such as those taking the last steps of the industrial civilization and hierarchically ordered world through hegemony. This is why the meaning of globalization is given by deviant trends, like globalism, and the knowledge society is taken for the tools promoted by itself, such as the internet. This does not imply only approximations of meaning but rather the vanity of change, preserving the status quo represented by the pre-global world or the adversity principle. Historicism of paradigm cannot be avoided. Evolvement towards something else, announced by globalization is implacable, and the new ordinating principle, the one of competition, opens the opportunity horizon to global world

  6. Systems healthcare: a holistic paradigm for tomorrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiandaca, Massimo S; Mapstone, Mark; Connors, Elenora; Jacobson, Mireille; Monuki, Edwin S; Malik, Shaista; Macciardi, Fabio; Federoff, Howard J

    2017-12-19

    Systems healthcare is a holistic approach to health premised on systems biology and medicine. The approach integrates data from molecules, cells, organs, the individual, families, communities, and the natural and man-made environment. Both extrinsic and intrinsic influences constantly challenge the biological networks associated with wellness. Such influences may dysregulate networks and allow pathobiology to evolve, resulting in early clinical presentation that requires astute assessment and timely intervention for successful mitigation. Herein, we describe the components of relevant biological systems and the nature of progression from at-risk to manifest disease. We illustrate the systems approach by examining two relevant clinical examples: Alzheimer's and cardiovascular diseases. The implications of systems healthcare management are examined through the lens of economics, ethics, policy and the law. Finally, we propose the need to develop new educational paradigms to enhance the training of the health professional in an era of systems medicine.

  7. Wind power, policy learning and paradigm change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szarka, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this article is to study how policy learning has led to new understandings of ways to support renewable energies, based on experience in the wind power sector. Drawing on analysis of the literature and informed by field-work in the wind power sector in Denmark, France and the UK, it explores the extent to which policy learning over the medium term has brought us closer to models that integrate economic, environmental and societal desiderata into renewables policy in a manner congruent with the sustainable development aspirations espoused by the European Union and its constituent states. It contributes to policy theory development by arguing in favour of a new policy paradigm that reaches beyond measures to increase production capacity per se to embrace both the institutional dynamics of innovation processes and the fostering of societal engagement in implementation processes

  8. Ubiquitous health in practice: the interreality paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaggioli, Andrea; Raspelli, Simona; Grassi, Alessandra; Pallavicini, Federica; Cipresso, Pietro; Wiederhold, Brenda K; Riva, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a new ubiquitous computing paradigm for behavioral health care: "Interreality". Interreality integrates assessment and treatment within a hybrid environment, that creates a bridge between the physical and virtual worlds. Our claim is that bridging virtual experiences (fully controlled by the therapist, used to learn coping skills and emotional regulation) with real experiences (allowing both the identification of any critical stressors and the assessment of what has been learned) using advanced technologies (virtual worlds, advanced sensors and PDA/mobile phones) may improve existing psychological treatment. To illustrate the proposed concept, a clinical scenario is also presented and discussed: Daniela, a 40 years old teacher, with a mother affected by Alzheimer's disease.

  9. An Instrumental Paradigm for Ubiquitous Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted

    2008-01-01

    will require comprehensive experimental user centred development. Originality/Value -- This research offers a new way of thinking interaction, suited for the dynamism of modern computing. Take away message -- Through a strong foundation in activity theory and ecological psychology a new paradigm for ubiquitous...... shortcomings of some of the restrictive assumptions contemporary graphical user interfaces are built upon. Research approach -- Based on activity theory and ecological psychology a conceptual model for ubiquitous interaction is proposed and iteratively challenged and developed through actual implementation....... Findings/Design -- The project will ultimately shed light on how an understanding of interaction form activity theory and ecological psychology maps to an implementation of a new conceptual model for interaction with technology. Research limitations/Implications -- Implementation of an actual system...

  10. Social Media Guidelines and the News Paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blumell, Lindsey; Hellmueller, Lea; Etter, Michael

    Social network use continues to increase in the majority of regions around the world, with a global increase of 17.6% in 2012, and another projected 12.6% in 2014 (digital.org, 2014). Social media have also been incorporated into daily routines of American journalists, with 53.8% reporting...... that they use microblogs like Twitter on a regular basis to both gather and disseminate information (Willnat & Weaver, 2014). The aim of this study is to investigate how social media, more specifically, social media guidelines, implemented at the organizational level intercede with journalism practices...... and if these guidelines challenge the news paradigm. While using social media have been a “loop-hole” of sorts to disseminating political information in countries that have strong censorship (the Arab Spring being a premiere example, Eltantawy & Wiest, 2011; Lotan, Graeff, Ananny, Gaffney, & Pearce, 2011), journalists...

  11. Implementing the Bayesian paradigm in risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aven, T.; Kvaloey, J.T.

    2002-01-01

    The Bayesian paradigm comprises a unified and consistent framework for analyzing and expressing risk. Yet, we see rather few examples of applications where the full Bayesian setting has been adopted with specifications of priors of unknown parameters. In this paper, we discuss some of the practical challenges of implementing Bayesian thinking and methods in risk analysis, emphasizing the introduction of probability models and parameters and associated uncertainty assessments. We conclude that there is a need for a pragmatic view in order to 'successfully' apply the Bayesian approach, such that we can do the assignments of some of the probabilities without adopting the somewhat sophisticated procedure of specifying prior distributions of parameters. A simple risk analysis example is presented to illustrate ideas

  12. [Meta-legal paradigms of nanomedicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Alvarez, Salvador

    2012-01-01

    Nanomedicine is the Nanotechnology applied in the field of Medicine. Nanomedicine includes a wide range of technologies applied to devices, materials, medical procedures and treatment modalities are being developed, in some cases, through the convergence of living and nonliving materials. The developments in this scientific field are the prelude of a new era in health where Nanotechnology will provide, in a short period of time, substantial benefits for the general welfare and health of people with serious and incurable diseases using other more traditional medical treatments. This is, in brief, the object of this research that has been focused in the study of the ethical-legal paradigms that should inform the developments and expectations generated by medical applications of Nanotechnology.

  13. The complexity paradigm in management reconceptualizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Slavica P.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Chaos and complexity theory is a special, functionalist systems approach to dealing with complex, dynamic, nonlinear systems. Through treating organizations as complex, with their environments coevolving, nonlinear systems, complexity theory is aimed at creative research of their erratic nature. When an organization is in a state of bounded instability, at the edge of chaos, order and disorder are intertwined, its behavior is irregular and unpredictable but has some pattern. According to the complexity paradigm organizations have to strive to avoid the equilibrium states of stability and instability. They have instead to strive to remain in a state of bounded instability, at the edge of chaos, where they are able to display their full potential for creativity and innovation.

  14. The search for understanding: the role of paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Marcella; Dowling, Maura; Millar, Michelle

    2018-03-16

    Kuhn's ( 1962 ) acknowledgement of a paradigm as a way that scientists make sense of their world and its reality gave recognition to the idea of 'paradigm shift'. This shift exposes the transience of paradigm development shaped by societal and scientific evolution. This ongoing evolutionary development provides the researcher with many paradigms to consider regarding how research is undertaken and the search for understanding achieved. An understanding of paradigm development is necessary when planning a study and can shape the search for understanding. It is hoped that the discussion presented here will assist novice and experienced researchers in articulating the rationales for their paradigm choices. An overview of the dominant paradigms is presented, reflecting ongoing paradigm development shaped by ontological, epistemological and methodological perspectives. Potential paradigm choices that shape research aims, objectives and focus in the search for understanding are considered. The inherent debates about paradigm shift, division, war and synthesis leave the researcher many perspectives to consider. Articulating the world views underpinning constructivism, interpretivism and pragmatism is particularly challenging because of the blurring of boundaries between them. The evolutionary nature of paradigmatic development has provided nurse researchers with the opportunity for methodological openness to the myriad research approaches, methods and designs that they may choose to answer their research question. However, it is imperative that researchers consider their ontological stances and the nature of their research questions. This is challenging in constructivism, interpretivism and pragmatism, where there is often an overlap of paradigm world views. ©2018 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.

  15. Affective Computing used in an imaging interaction paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Nette

    2003-01-01

    This paper combines affective computing with an imaging interaction paradigm. An imaging interaction paradigm means that human and computer communicates primarily by images. Images evoke emotions in humans, so the computer must be able to behave emotionally intelligent. An affective image selection...

  16. Paradigms: How Far Does Research in Distributed Leadership "Stretch"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, David

    2010-01-01

    Burrell and Morgan's widely-cited "Sociological Paradigms and Organizational Analysis" is applied here to research on distributed leadership in education. Nearly all of the extant research is regulatory, not radical; and the evidence which it has generated falls broadly within the paradigm of interpretivism. Few studies have generated the…

  17. Industry 4.0 and the New Simulation Modelling Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodič Blaž

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The aim of this paper is to present the influence of Industry 4.0 on the development of the new simulation modelling paradigm, embodied by the Digital Twin concept, and examine the adoption of the new paradigm via a multiple case study involving real-life R&D cases involving academia and industry.

  18. Disability Is Not Measles: New Research Paradigms in Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioux, Marcia H., Ed.; Bach, Michael, Ed.

    This book is the product of a forum titled New Research Directions and Paradigms, held at the Congress of the International Association for the Scientific Study of Mental Deficiency in Australia in August 1992. The book presents 13 chapters, all written within a critical paradigm for disability research which critiques the reification of…

  19. Paradigms in the Gerontology Classroom: Connections and Challenges to Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    The article explores paradigms for approaching course content to be studied in the classroom. These paradigms, or global views about what is of interest or importance and ways of knowing, relate to key questions in gerontology, such as what is the relevant domain/content to be studied, what is the central level of analysis or action, what are…

  20. Interaction between Social Categories in the Composite Face Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenfeng; Ren, Naixin; Young, Andrew W.; Liu, Chang Hong

    2018-01-01

    The composite face paradigm (Young, Hellawell, & Hay, 1987) is widely used to demonstrate holistic perception of faces (Rossion, 2013). In the paradigm, parts from different faces (usually the top and bottom halves) are recombined. The principal criterion for holistic perception is that responses involving the component parts of composites in…

  1. Modularity beyond Perception: Evidence from the PRP Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magen, Hagit; Cohen, Asher

    2010-01-01

    The Dimension Action (DA) model asserts that the visual system is modular, and that each task involves multiple-response mechanisms rather than a unitary-response selection mechanism. The model has been supported by evidence from single-task interference paradigms. We use the psychological refractory period paradigm and show that dual-task…

  2. [Nursing knowledge: the evolution of scientific philosophies and paradigm trends].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Hsuan-Man; Wang, Hui-Ling; Chang, Yun-Hsuan; Chen, Chung-Hey

    2010-02-01

    Different aspects of philosophy are derived from different paradigms that contain various main points, some of which are repeated or overlap. Belief and practice are two components of a paradigm that provide perspective and framework and lead to nursing research. Changes in healthcare have popularized empirical and evidence-based research in the field of nursing research. However, the evidence-base study approach has given rise to a certain level of debate. Until now, no standard paradigm has been established for the nursing field, as different professionals use different paradigms in their studies. Such provides certain limitations as well as advantages. The quantitative aspects of a nursing paradigm were developed by Peplau and Henderson (1950) and Orem (1980). Such remained the standard until 1990, when Guba and Parse proposed qualitative viewpoints in contextual features. Therefore, the nursing paradigm has made great contributions to the development of knowledge in nursing care, although debate continues due to incomplete knowledge attributable to the presentation of knowledge and insight within individually developed paradigms. It is better to apply multiple paradigms to different research questions. It is suggested that better communication amongst experts regarding their individual points of view would help nursing members to integrate findings within the global pool of knowledge and allow replication over multiple studies.

  3. Critical evaluation of paradigms for modelling integrated supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dam, K.H.; Adhitya, A.; Srinivasan, R.; Lukszo, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Contemporary problems in process systems engineering often require model-based decision support tool. Among the various modelling paradigms, equation-based models and agent-based models are widely used to develop dynamic models of systems. Which is the most appropriate modelling paradigm for a

  4. A new learning paradigm: learning using privileged information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vapnik, Vladimir; Vashist, Akshay

    2009-01-01

    In the Afterword to the second edition of the book "Estimation of Dependences Based on Empirical Data" by V. Vapnik, an advanced learning paradigm called Learning Using Hidden Information (LUHI) was introduced. This Afterword also suggested an extension of the SVM method (the so called SVM(gamma)+ method) to implement algorithms which address the LUHI paradigm (Vapnik, 1982-2006, Sections 2.4.2 and 2.5.3 of the Afterword). See also (Vapnik, Vashist, & Pavlovitch, 2008, 2009) for further development of the algorithms. In contrast to the existing machine learning paradigm where a teacher does not play an important role, the advanced learning paradigm considers some elements of human teaching. In the new paradigm along with examples, a teacher can provide students with hidden information that exists in explanations, comments, comparisons, and so on. This paper discusses details of the new paradigm and corresponding algorithms, introduces some new algorithms, considers several specific forms of privileged information, demonstrates superiority of the new learning paradigm over the classical learning paradigm when solving practical problems, and discusses general questions related to the new ideas.

  5. Formal Epistemology and New Paradigm Psychology of Reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfeifer, Niki; Douven, Igor

    This position paper advocates combining formal epistemology and the new paradigm psychology of reasoning in the studies of conditionals and reasoning with uncertainty. The new paradigm psychology of reasoning is characterized by the use of probability theory as a rationality framework instead of

  6. A Comparison of Two Paradigms for Distributed Shared Memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levelt, W.G.; Kaashoek, M.F.; Bal, H.E.; Tanenbaum, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    Two paradigms for distributed shared memory on loosely‐coupled computing systems are compared: the shared data‐object model as used in Orca, a programming language specially designed for loosely‐coupled computing systems, and the shared virtual memory model. For both paradigms two systems are

  7. Exponential time paradigms through the polynomial time lens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drucker, A.; Nederlof, J.; Santhanam, R.; Sankowski, P.; Zaroliagis, C.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a general approach to modelling algorithmic paradigms for the exact solution of NP-hard problems. Our approach is based on polynomial time reductions to succinct versions of problems solvable in polynomial time. We use this viewpoint to explore and compare the power of paradigms such as

  8. Researching Style: Epistemology, Paradigm Shifts and Research Interest Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    This paper identifies the need for a deliberate approach to theory building in the context of researching cognitive and learning style differences in human performance. A case for paradigm shift and a focus upon research epistemology is presented, building upon a recent critique of style research. A proposal for creating paradigm shift is made,…

  9. A Practical Examination of Two Diverse Research Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Robert A.

    2007-01-01

    This manuscript examines the practical differences between quantitative and qualitative inquiry by comparing the differences between one article from each paradigm. Quantitative research differs greatly from qualitative inquiry in purpose, assumptions, methodology, and representation. While quantitative research has been the dominant paradigm for…

  10. Underlying Paradigms in Student Affairs Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guido, Florence M.; Chavez, Alicia Fedelina; Lincoln, Yvonna S.

    2010-01-01

    Student affairs professionals benefit from understanding paradigms, worldviews, and ways of being among diverse faculty, staff, and students. It is challenging to understand core differences of paradigms, design student affairs practice and research in congruence with or across specific philosophies, and work effectively with individuals operating…

  11. A Critical Evaluation of the Paradigm Approach in Sepedi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Abstract: This article gives a critical evaluation of the paradigm approach of the Groot Noord-. Sotho Woordeboek to the lemmatisation of verbs and nouns derived from verbs. The verb stem -roba. 'break' with its complicated system of derivations will be taken as a case in point. The paradigm presented for -roba will be ...

  12. The World Religions Paradigm Time for a Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    The teaching of religions has long relied on the World Religions paradigm to guide curricula throughout education, which has led to a widening gap, on the one hand, between what is taught in schools and in universities and, on the other, between research and teaching. While the World Religions paradigm has allowed the inclusion of non-Christian…

  13. The Question of Work: Adolescent Literature and the Eriksonian Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgan, Mary

    1988-01-01

    Suggests that focusing on paradigms of work--the way it is described, together with the thematic implications it embodies--can be useful in teaching literature to young adults. Examines how examples from literature illustrate Erik H. Erikson's paradigm of the psychosocial stages of development in late childhood and adolescence. (MM)

  14. A Paradigm for Learning in a World of Continuous Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Through ongoing rapid-fire changes in the nature of communications, the social, professional, and political landscapes of our time are rapidly transforming. But the prevailing paradigm in most schools and school systems is a relic of the industrial revolution. Schools and school systems must adopt a new paradigm for learning if they are to remain…

  15. Sexual Violence through a Social Justice Paradigm: Framing and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Luoluo; Marine, Susan B.

    2018-01-01

    In this chapter, we explore the factors that support the occurrence of sexual violence, including the role of interlocking systems of oppression. Traditional conceptions of "prevention" are deconstructed, a social justice paradigm for addressing sexual violence is advanced, and examples of how the paradigm can be applied to practice are…

  16. The Membrane Paradigm and black-hole thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorne, K.S.

    1986-01-01

    A brief overview is given of the theoretical underpinnings of the Membrane Paradigm for black-hole physics. Then those underpinnings are used to elucidate the Paradigm's view that the laws of black-hole thermodynamics (including the statistical origin of black-hole entropy) are just a special case of the laws of thermodynamics for an ordinary, rotating, thermal reservoir

  17. Towards a Paradigm Shift in Educational Research: A Case of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The postcolonial theory paradigm guided the study. The article reviews literature on the postcolonial theory with the objective of illustrating how this research paradigm may be employed in the field of education in a postcolonial context. The origin, purpose and relevance of the postcolonial theory are brought to the fore as ...

  18. Motor imagery enhancement paradigm using moving rubber hand illusion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minsu Song; Jonghyun Kim

    2017-07-01

    Motor imagery (MI) has been widely used in neurorehabilitation and brain computer interface. The size of event-related desynchronization (ERD) is a key parameter for successful motor imaginary rehabilitation and BCI adaptation. Many studies have used visual guidance for enhancement/ amplification of motor imagery ERD amplitude, but their enhancements were not significant. We propose a novel ERD enhancing paradigm using body-ownership illusion, or also known as rubber hand illusion (RHI). The system was made by motorized, moving rubber hand which can simulate wrist extension. The amplifying effects of the proposed RHI paradigm were evaluated by comparing ERD sizes of the proposed paradigm with motor imagery and actual motor execution paradigms. The comparison result shows that the improvement of ERD size due to the proposed paradigm was statistically significant (pparadigms.

  19. A Cultural Paradigm--Learning by Observing and Pitching In.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogoff, Barbara; Mejía-Arauz, Rebeca; Correa-Chávez, Maricela

    2015-01-01

    We discuss Learning by Observing and Pitching In (LOPI) as a cultural paradigm that provides an interesting alternative to Assembly-Line Instruction for supporting children's learning. Although LOPI may occur in all communities, it appears to be especially prevalent in many Indigenous and Indigenous-heritage communities of the Americas. We explain key features of this paradigm, previewing the chapters of this volume, which examine LOPI as it occurs in the lives of families and communities. In this introductory chapter, we focus especially on one feature of the paradigm that plays an important role in its uptake and maintenance in families, institutions, and communities-the nature of assessment. We consider the power of the dominant paradigm and the challenges in making paradigm shifts. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Revisiting System Paradigms from the Viewpoint of Manufacturing Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuming Bi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A system paradigm is an abstract representation of system; it includes system architecture used to determine the types and numbers of components and their relations in the system. The design of system paradigm relies on customers’ requirements and the characteristics of the manufacturing environment. Many system paradigms and design guidelines have been proposed for a variety of customers’ needs including functions, cost, quality, personalization, and lead time of products. However, the consideration of sustainability becomes essential to today’s manufacturing systems; a new challenge is how to evolve existing paradigms to accommodate the requirements of sustainability. In contrast to ample research activities on system paradigms in past decades, recent studies on system paradigms have been restricted, partially due to unclear research directions. Limited works can be found on conceiving new manufacturing system paradigms from the perspective of sustainability; most of the related literature concerns the new requirements of sustainability. The objectives of this work are (i to examine the requirements of manufacturing systems in a wider scope; (ii to revisit existing paradigms to clarify their limitations and bottlenecks; and eventually (iii to identify some research directions, which will lead to a solution of sustainable manufacturing. To achieve these objectives, firstly, a brief description of today’s manufacturing environment is provided. Secondly, the requirements of sustainability are discussed, and the relevant researches on system sustainability are surveyed. Thirdly, the reconfigurable system paradigm is focused, and the gaps between a reconfigurable manufacturing system and a sustainable manufacturing system are discussed. Finally, the future endeavors towards to the next-generation manufacturing system paradigms are discussed.

  1. Anthropology of music: Paradigms and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rašić Miloš

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Music represents a relational category, in the sense that people write meaning into it, and later by the means of the same music they write the meaning into other people. Therefore, I regard music as a cultural construct. Music does not possess universal meanings, but it forms its numerous meanings in different cultural environments, as well as in different individual perceptions. In anthropology, music is not studied in relation to its musical characteristics or aesthetical values. Anthropologists study its role in a wider social system, and strive to understand, by analysing the role of music in a society, the social and cultural system it belongs to - musical structure is less important here. The goal of the paper is to give an overview of the paradigms in ethnology and anthropology which have been used in studying music. In addition, a hypothetical-theoretical framework for studying music in institutions is set. Although the theory of hubs, which is presented here as a potential framework for studying music in institutions, is exemplified by traditional music, it can be applied to any genre of music. The basic theoretical framework offered by the authors Nadia Kiwan and Hanna Mainhof has been supplemented by certain parts which the author thought appropriate for studying music in institutions, both in ethnological and anthropological discourse.

  2. Paradigm transition in cosmic plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfven, H.

    1982-01-01

    In situ measurements in the magnetospheres together with general advancement in plasma physics are now necessitating introduction of a number of effects that have been recently discovered or earlier neglected. Examples are: electric double layers (like in the lower magnetosphere); thin current layer (like in the magnetopause) giving space a cellular structure; current produced filaments (e.g., in prominences, solar corona and interstellar clouds). Further it is important to use the electric current (particle) description and to study the whole circuit in which the current flows. The pinch effect cannot be neglected as is now usually done. The critical velocity phenomenon is essential, for example for the band structure of solar system. Theory of dusty plasmas is important. The result is a change in so many theories in cosmic plasma physics that it is appropriate to speak of an introduction of a new paradigm. This should be based on empirical knowledge from magnetospheric and laboratory investigations. Its application to astrophysics in general, including cosmology, will necessarily lead to a revision of, e.g., the present theories of the formation of stars, planets and satellites. It is doubtful whether the big bang cosmology will survive. (Auth.)

  3. Changing the paradigm for engineering ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jon Alan

    2014-12-01

    Modern philosophy recognizes two major ethical theories: deontology, which encourages adherence to rules and fulfillment of duties or obligations; and consequentialism, which evaluates morally significant actions strictly on the basis of their actual or anticipated outcomes. Both involve the systematic application of universal abstract principles, reflecting the culturally dominant paradigm of technical rationality. Professional societies promulgate codes of ethics with which engineers are expected to comply (deontology), while courts and the public generally assign liability to engineers primarily in accordance with the results of their work, whether intended or unintended (consequentialism). A third option, prominent in ancient philosophy, has reemerged recently: virtue ethics, which recognizes that sensitivity to context and practical judgment are indispensable in particular concrete situations, and therefore rightly focuses on the person who acts, rather than the action itself. Beneficial character traits--i.e., virtues--are identified within a specific social practice in light of the internal goods that are unique to it. This paper proposes a comprehensive framework for implementing virtue ethics within engineering.

  4. The future of management: The NASA paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Philip R.

    1992-01-01

    Prototypes of 21st century management, especially for large scale enterprises, may well be found within the aerospace industry. The space era inaugurated a number of projects of such scope and magnitude that another type of management had to be created to ensure successful achievement. The challenges will be not just in terms of technology and its management, but also human and cultural in dimension. Futurists, students of management, and those concerned with technological administration would do well to review the literature of emerging space management for its wider implications. NASA offers a paradigm, or demonstrated model, of future trends in the field of management at large. More research is needed on issues of leadership for Earth based project in space and space based programs with managers there. It is needed to realize that large scale technical enterprises, such as are undertaken in space, require a new form of management. NASA and other responsible agencies are urged to study excellence in space macromanagement, including the necessary multidisciplinary skills. Two recommended targets are the application of general living systems theory and macromanagement concepts for space stations in the 1990s.

  5. International trade disputes in modern regulatory paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Gordeeva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the latest trends observed in the area of contradictory relations between countries with regard to international trade, which cause changes in the paradigm of international trade disputes. It has been found out that any state of inconsistent relations between the countries is recently characterized as a «trade war». It has been analyzed the notions of «dispute», «conflict», «war» according to international regulatory documents and determined the applicability of these terms depending on a number of criteria. It has been studied the evolution of the objects of international trade disputes since the time of ancient Greece until today, and new trends based on this have been revealed with regard to use of trade policy instruments that cause disputes between countries. Several specific examples of international trade disputes and causes of their occurrence have been considered. A quantitative analysis of international trade disputes in general and in relations between the leading countries in terms of a number of the trade disputes in which they were involved has been performed.

  6. Inflationary paradigm in trouble after Planck2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ijjas, Anna, E-mail: aijjas@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); University Observatory Munich, 81679 Munich (Germany); Steinhardt, Paul J., E-mail: steinh@princeton.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Princeton Center for Theoretical Science, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Loeb, Abraham, E-mail: aloeb@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-06-25

    Recent results from the Planck satellite combined with earlier observations from WMAP, ACT, SPT and other experiments eliminate a wide spectrum of more complex inflationary models and favor models with a single scalar field, as reported by the Planck Collaboration. More important, though, is that all the simplest inflaton models are disfavored statistically relative to those with plateau-like potentials. We discuss how a restriction to plateau-like models has three independent serious drawbacks: it exacerbates both the initial conditions problem and the multiverse-unpredictability problem and it creates a new difficulty that we call the inflationary “unlikeliness problem.” Finally, we comment on problems reconciling inflation with a standard model Higgs, as suggested by recent LHC results. In sum, we find that recent experimental data disfavors all the best-motivated inflationary scenarios and introduces new, serious difficulties that cut to the core of the inflationary paradigm. Forthcoming searches for B-modes, non-Gaussianity and new particles should be decisive.

  7. Bitters: Time for a New Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael K. McMullen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In plant-based medical systems, bitter tasting plants play a key role in managing dyspepsia. Yet when it comes to defining their mechanism of activity, herbalists and pharmacologists are split between two theories: one involves cephalic elicited vagal responses while the other comprises purely local responses. Recent studies indicate that bitters elicit a range of cephalic responses which alter postprandial gastric phase haemodynamics. Caffeine and regular coffee (Coffea arabica semen, L. increase heart rate whereas gentian (Gentiana lutea radix, L. and wormwood (Artemisia absinthium herba L. increase tonus in the vascular resistance vessels. Following meals increased cardiac activity acts to support postprandial hyperaemia and maintain systemic blood pressure. The increased vascular tonus acts in parallel with the increased cardiac activity and in normal adults this additional pressor effect results in a reduced cardiac workload. The vascular response is a sympathetic reflex, evident after 5 minutes and dose dependent. Thus gentian and wormwood elicit cephalic responses which facilitate rather than stimulate digestive activity when postprandial hyperaemia is inadequate. Encapsulated caffeine elicits cardiovascular responses indicating that gastrointestinal bitter receptors are functionally active in humans. However, neither encapsulated gentian nor wormwood elicited cardiovascular responses during the gastric phase. These findings provide the platform for a new evidence-based paradigm.

  8. Bitters: Time for a New Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Michael K; Whitehouse, Julie M; Towell, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    In plant-based medical systems, bitter tasting plants play a key role in managing dyspepsia. Yet when it comes to defining their mechanism of activity, herbalists and pharmacologists are split between two theories: one involves cephalic elicited vagal responses while the other comprises purely local responses. Recent studies indicate that bitters elicit a range of cephalic responses which alter postprandial gastric phase haemodynamics. Caffeine and regular coffee (Coffea arabica semen, L.) increase heart rate whereas gentian (Gentiana lutea radix, L.) and wormwood (Artemisia absinthium herba L.) increase tonus in the vascular resistance vessels. Following meals increased cardiac activity acts to support postprandial hyperaemia and maintain systemic blood pressure. The increased vascular tonus acts in parallel with the increased cardiac activity and in normal adults this additional pressor effect results in a reduced cardiac workload. The vascular response is a sympathetic reflex, evident after 5 minutes and dose dependent. Thus gentian and wormwood elicit cephalic responses which facilitate rather than stimulate digestive activity when postprandial hyperaemia is inadequate. Encapsulated caffeine elicits cardiovascular responses indicating that gastrointestinal bitter receptors are functionally active in humans. However, neither encapsulated gentian nor wormwood elicited cardiovascular responses during the gastric phase. These findings provide the platform for a new evidence-based paradigm.

  9. Diverticular Disease: Traditional and Evolving Paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamanna, Lenore; Moran, Patricia E

    Diverticular disease includes diverticulosis, which are sac protrusions of the intestinal mucosa, and diverticulitis, inflammation of the diverticula. Diverticular disease is listed as one of the top 10 leading physician diagnoses for gastrointestinal disorders in outpatient clinic visits in the United States. There are several classifications of diverticular disease ranging from asymptomatic diverticulosis to diverticulitis with complications. Several theories are linked to the development of diverticula which includes the physiology of the colon itself, collagen cross-linking, and recently challenged, low-fiber intake. The differential diagnoses of lower abdominal pain in addition to diverticular disease have overlapping signs and symptoms, which can make a diagnosis challenging. Identification of the distinct signs and symptoms of each classification will assist the practitioner in making the correct diagnosis and lead to appropriate management. The findings from recent studies have changed the paradigm of diverticular disease. The purpose of this article is to discuss traditional dogma and evolving concepts in the pathophysiology, prevention, and management of diverticular disease. Practitioners must be knowledgeable about diverticular disease for improved outcomes.

  10. Biofabrication: a 21st century manufacturing paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mironov, V; Trusk, T; Markwald, R; Kasyanov, V; Little, S; Swaja, R

    2009-01-01

    Biofabrication can be defined as the production of complex living and non-living biological products from raw materials such as living cells, molecules, extracellular matrices, and biomaterials. Cell and developmental biology, biomaterials science, and mechanical engineering are the main disciplines contributing to the emergence of biofabrication technology. The industrial potential of biofabrication technology is far beyond the traditional medically oriented tissue engineering and organ printing and, in the short term, it is essential for developing potentially highly predictive human cell- and tissue-based technologies for drug discovery, drug toxicity, environmental toxicology assays, and complex in vitro models of human development and diseases. In the long term, biofabrication can also contribute to the development of novel biotechnologies for sustainable energy production in the future biofuel industry and dramatically transform traditional animal-based agriculture by inventing 'animal-free' food, leather, and fur products. Thus, the broad spectrum of potential applications and rapidly growing arsenal of biofabrication methods strongly suggests that biofabrication can become a dominant technological platform and new paradigm for 21st century manufacturing. The main objectives of this review are defining biofabrication, outlining the most essential disciplines critical for emergence of this field, analysis of the evolving arsenal of biofabrication technologies and their potential practical applications, as well as a discussion of the common challenges being faced by biofabrication technologies, and the necessary conditions for the development of a global biofabrication research community and commercially successful biofabrication industry. (topical review)

  11. Biofabrication: a 21st century manufacturing paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironov, V; Trusk, T; Kasyanov, V; Little, S; Swaja, R; Markwald, R

    2009-06-01

    Biofabrication can be defined as the production of complex living and non-living biological products from raw materials such as living cells, molecules, extracellular matrices, and biomaterials. Cell and developmental biology, biomaterials science, and mechanical engineering are the main disciplines contributing to the emergence of biofabrication technology. The industrial potential of biofabrication technology is far beyond the traditional medically oriented tissue engineering and organ printing and, in the short term, it is essential for developing potentially highly predictive human cell- and tissue-based technologies for drug discovery, drug toxicity, environmental toxicology assays, and complex in vitro models of human development and diseases. In the long term, biofabrication can also contribute to the development of novel biotechnologies for sustainable energy production in the future biofuel industry and dramatically transform traditional animal-based agriculture by inventing 'animal-free' food, leather, and fur products. Thus, the broad spectrum of potential applications and rapidly growing arsenal of biofabrication methods strongly suggests that biofabrication can become a dominant technological platform and new paradigm for 21st century manufacturing. The main objectives of this review are defining biofabrication, outlining the most essential disciplines critical for emergence of this field, analysis of the evolving arsenal of biofabrication technologies and their potential practical applications, as well as a discussion of the common challenges being faced by biofabrication technologies, and the necessary conditions for the development of a global biofabrication research community and commercially successful biofabrication industry.

  12. Revisiting cytogenetic paradigms armed with new tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornforth, M.N.

    2003-01-01

    It could be argued that most of the fundamental tenets of radiation biology were either discovered, or subsequently confirmed, by observing eukaryotic chromosomes under the microscope. These include, but are certainly not limited to, dose-response relationships with respect to intensity (dose rate/dose fractionation) and radiation quality (LET/track structure). Chromosome aberrations are exquisitely sensitive indicators of radiation damage, and provide quantitative information of biological effect on a cell-by-cell-basis. As such, they have long been a favored endpoint for theoreticians, thereby figuring prominently in the development of generalized models of radiation action. Most of these seminal contributions to radiation biology occurred over a period of time when cytogenetic techniques were, of course, less refined than today. Considering the increasing rate at which technological advances have been made available to the researcher over the past few years, a reexamination of some of the radiological principles that cytogenetics helped to found seems in order. As an example of such effort, this talk will center around improvements to the use of whole chromosome painting by FISH- principally combinatorial painting techniques like mFISH and SKY- for the purposes of examining in greater detail structural aberrations to chromosomes produced following exposure to ionizing radiations of differing quality and intensity. This and related approaches by various laboratories around the world have turned up a few surprise discoveries that do not always fit established paradigms, and which serve to sharpen arguments that have been used to buttress existing models of aberration formation

  13. Spirituality in Contemporary Paradigms: An Integrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monir Ramezani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: As two of the most prominent cultural components, spirituality and religion give sense to our human values, conducts, and experiences. The spiritual dimension is one of the four significant aspects of holistic care. However, the diversity of views has resulted in different interpretations of the reality of spirituality and its origins and consequences. Aim: This study aimed to examine the available approaches and paradigms in the realm of spirituality. Method: In the present integrative review, the initial search was performed in national and international databases, including Science Direct, PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, Sage, Medline, Wiley, SID, MagIran, IranMedex, and IranDoc, using the keyword, "spirituality", without considering any time limits. Articles relevant to the objectives of the study were then fully reviewed. Results: Since ancient times, spirituality has been sporadically discussed in human intellectual and artistic artifacts. This concept was expanded as an independent, systematic, and conscious movement since the second half of the 19th century in Europe, USA, and Canada. The three prominent approaches to spirituality include religious, secular, and holistic health perspectives. Implications for Practice: Despite the growing interest in research on spirituality, it is difficult to reach a unanimous decision about this concept. However, it should be noted that spiritual concerns cannot be disregarded, considering the holistic perspective to humanity as the building block of holistic nursing care. Overall, every patient is a unique human being whose spiritual needs are affected by his/her cultural beliefs and values.

  14. Paradigm transition in cosmic plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfven, H.

    1982-06-01

    In situ measurements in the magnetospheres together with general advancement in plasma physics are now necessitating introduction of a number of effects that have been recently discovered or earlier neglected. Examples are: 1) Electric double layers (like in the lower magnetosphere) 2) Thin current layer (like in the magnetopause) giving space a cellular structure. 3) Current produced filaments (e.g. in prominences, solar corona and interstellar clouds). 4) Further it is important to use the electric current (particle) description and to study the whole circuit in which the current flows. 5) The pinch effect cannot be neglected as is now usually done. 6) The critical velocity phenomenon is essential, for example for the band structure of solar systems. 7) Theory of dusty plasmas is important. The result is a change in so many theories in cosmic plasma physics that it is appropriate to speak of an introduction of a new paradigm. This should be based on empirical knowledge from magnetospheric and laboratory investigations. Its application to astrophysics in general, including cosmology, will necessarily lead to a revision of e.g. the present theories of the formation of stars, planets and satellites. It is doubtful whether the big bang cosmology will survive. (Author)

  15. A LEGO paradigm for virtual accelerator concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrianov, S.; Ivanov, A.; Podzyvalov, E.

    2012-01-01

    The paper considers basic features of a Virtual Accelerator concept based on LEGO paradigm. This concept involves three types of components: different mathematical models for accelerator design problems, integrated beam simulation packages (i. e. COSY, MAD, OptiM and others), and a special class of virtual feedback instruments similar to real control systems (EPICS). All of these components should inter-operate for more complete analysis of control systems and increased fault tolerance. The Virtual Accelerator is an information and computing environment which provides a framework for analysis based on these components that can be combined in different ways. Corresponding distributed computing services establish interaction between mathematical models and low level control system. The general idea of the software implementation is based on the Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) that allows using cloud computing technology and enables remote access to the information and computing resources. The Virtual Accelerator allows a designer to combine powerful instruments for modeling beam dynamics in a friendly way including both self-developed and well-known packages. In the scope of this concept the following is also proposed: the control system identification, analysis and result verification, visualization as well as virtual feedback for beam line operation. The architecture of the Virtual Accelerator system itself and results of beam dynamics studies are presented. (authors)

  16. Integrated reporting – innovation in accounting paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosława Kwiecień

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article is an introduction to the issues and results of a new trend in interdisciplinary research, which is integrated reporting. „Violated balance”, characteristic of contemporary global economy, forces us to seek solutions oriented to symbiosis between economic, social and environmental progress, which is the basis for fundamental changes in mental models that determine the way the economic organization oper-ates. On the basis of literature studies, as well as management (of innovation, knowledge, etc. science studies and research on changes in legal regulations of accounting, one can venture to say that the change in accounting paradigms is an innovation which stems from legal requirements. Legislation stimulates conceptuality, including information management, standardization of accounting, etc. Innovation theory refers to technological, organizational and market changes, so a question ariseswhether this theory can be applied to accounting practices as well? In this way an idea emerged for inves-tigating the question if the implementation of legal regulations such as International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS or the standards of the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI is a manifestation of the inno-vation theory in the development of accounting systems, especially in reporting.

  17. Citizen utilities: The emerging power paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Jemma; Newman, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The emergence of citizen-based power systems in an integrated grid has been anticipated for decades. We can reveal how this is emerging in practice due to the significant uptake of solar photovoltaics (solar PV) and now battery storage in Perth, Australia. The high cost of electricity, high radiant energy levels and easy access to cheap Chinese technology, has led to dramatic buying during Perth's recent boomtown years. The traditional uni-directional power system is rapidly disrupting and this paper assesses where this may lead and what it means for the grid. Results of detailed monitoring in a solar powered house along with the impact of a battery storage system show the impact on the traditional grid is substantial but it will still be needed and must therefore adapt to the new distributed, bi-directional energy system. Surveys and price trajectories reveal how the trends to solar power storage will continue and how a citizen utility paradigm will emerge as the future grid building block using new blockchain support systems. Responses from utilities are then see to be fight, flight or innovate. - Highlights: • Citizen based power systems are emerging in Perth, Western Australia. • Solar power and battery storage systems are disrupting traditional utilities. • The grid will still have a role in the new, distributed power system. • The new system will lead to economic localism and the democratisation of power.

  18. An automated paradigm for Drosophila visual psychophysics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Evans

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mutations that cause learning and memory defects in Drosophila melanogaster have been found to also compromise visual responsiveness and attention. A better understanding of attention-like defects in such Drosophila mutants therefore requires a more detailed characterization of visual responsiveness across a range of visual parameters. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We designed an automated behavioral paradigm for efficiently dissecting visual responsiveness in Drosophila. Populations of flies walk through multiplexed serial choice mazes while being exposed to moving visuals displayed on computer monitors, and infra-red fly counters at the end of each maze automatically score the responsiveness of a strain. To test our new design, we performed a detailed comparison between wild-type flies and a learning and memory mutant, dunce(1. We first confirmed that the learning mutant dunce(1 displays increased responsiveness to a black/green moving grating compared to wild type in this new design. We then extended this result to explore responses to a wide range of psychophysical parameters for moving gratings (e.g., luminosity, contrast, spatial frequency, velocity as well as to a different stimulus, moving dots. Finally, we combined these visuals (gratings versus dots in competition to investigate how dunce(1 and wild-type flies respond to more complex and conflicting motion effects. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We found that dunce(1 responds more strongly than wild type to high contrast and highly structured motion. This effect was found for simple gratings, dots, and combinations of both stimuli presented in competition.

  19. Current treatment paradigms in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, J F

    2000-06-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has traditionally been treated using the pyramid approach, in which non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the first-line treatment and disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) are introduced relatively late in the disease. This approach is no longer valid. Previously regarded as a benign disease, RA is now recognized as causing substantial morbidity and mortality, as do the NSAIDs used in treatment. DMARDs are more effective in controlling the pain and disability of RA than NSAIDs, and are often no more toxic. The current treatment paradigm emphasizes early, consistent use of DMARDs. A 'sawtooth' strategy of DMARD use has been proposed, in which a rising but low level of disability triggers a change in therapy. Determining the most clinically useful DMARD combinations and the optimal sequence of DMARD use requires effectiveness studies, Bayesian approaches and analyses of long-term outcomes. Such approaches will allow optimization of multiple drug therapies in RA, and should substantially improve the long-term outcome for many patients.

  20. Paradigms and Paradoxes: Dawn at Vesta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Carol; Russell, Christopher; Mittlefehldt, David

    2014-05-01

    While confirming the paradigm of Vesta as the parent body of the HED meteorites, measurements by Dawn have discovered many unexpected aspects of the vestan surface. First, an olivine layer was not found in the bottom of the large basin near the south pole of Vesta where excavation of the mantle was thought to have occurred. In fact, while patches of olivine have been found in the north, it is rare on the surface. Secondly, while Vesta has little gravity and appears to have completely differentiated, it is not completely dry. Morphological evidence from the walls and floors of some craters suggest transient fluid flows and pits formed by devolatization, implying a substantial amount of accessible water. The question is, did this water derive from internal or external sources? Thirdly, transport of material to the surface of Vesta from elsewhere in the asteroid belt appears as dark material buried near the top of the regolith of Vesta. This may have arrived in a single large impact and been spread around the surface and buried, later to be re-excavated. However, this is not the only scenario possible for the source of this material. Meteoritical evidence from howardites shows that debris from multiple types of impactors are present in the vestan regolith. In short, Dawn's observations of Vesta have been both reassuring but unsettling at the same time.

  1. Objective and subjective evaluation of façade sound insulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ordoñez, Rodrigo Pizarro; Visentin, Chiara; Markovic, Milos

    2013-01-01

    by filtering recordings of traffic noise with the frequency response of sound insulation measurements. The measurements were performed in typical Italian buildings in accordance with the ISO 140-5 standard. The objectives of the present paper are to compare the subjective evaluations obtained with the two......Façade insulation of several different construction types were subjectively evaluated using two psychoacoustic methods: paired comparisons using a two alternative forced choice (2-AFC) paradigm and direct scaling using a visual analogue scale (VAS). The stimuli used in the evaluations were obtained...

  2. A nomenclature paradigm for benign midmembranous vocal fold lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Clark A; Gartner-Schmidt, Jackie; Hathaway, Bridget; Simpson, C Blake; Postma, Gregory N; Courey, Mark; Sataloff, Robert T

    2012-06-01

    There is a significant lack of uniform agreement regarding nomenclature for benign vocal fold lesions (BVFLs). This confusion results in difficulty for clinicians communicating with their patients and with each other. In addition, BVFL research and comparison of treatment methods are hampered by the lack of a detailed and uniform BVFL nomenclature. Clinical consensus conferences were held to develop an initial BVFL nomenclature paradigm. Perceptual video analysis was performed to validate the stroboscopy component of the paradigm. The culmination of the consensus conferences and the video-perceptual analysis was used to evaluate the BVFL nomenclature paradigm using a retrospective review of patients with BVFL. An initial BVFL nomenclature paradigm was proposed utilizing detailed definitions relating to vocal fold lesion morphology, stroboscopy, response to voice therapy and intraoperative findings. Video-perceptual analysis of stroboscopy demonstrated that the proposed binary stroboscopy system used in the BVFL nomenclature paradigm was valid and widely applicable. Retrospective review of 45 patients with BVFL followed to the conclusion of treatment demonstrated that slight modifications of the initial BVFL nomenclature paradigm were required. With the modified BVFL nomenclature paradigm, 96% of the patients fit into the predicted pattern and definitions of the BVFL nomenclature system. This study has validated a multidimensional BVFL nomenclature paradigm. This vocal fold nomenclature paradigm includes nine distinct vocal fold lesions: vocal fold nodules, vocal fold polyp, pseudocyst, vocal fold cyst (subepithelial or ligament), nonspecific vocal fold lesion, vocal fold fibrous mass (subepithelial or ligament), and reactive lesion. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  3. Innovative technological paradigm-based approach towards biofuel feedstock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Jiuping; Li, Meihui

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • DAS was developed through an innovative approach towards literature mining and technological paradigm theory. • A novel concept of biofuel feedstock development paradigm (BFDP) is proposed. • The biofuel production diffusion velocity model gives predictions for the future. • Soft path appears to be the driving force for the new paradigm shift. • An integrated biofuel production feedstock system is expected to play a significant role in a low-carbon sustainable future. - Abstract: Biofuels produced from renewable energy biomass are playing a more significant role because of the environmental problems resulting from the use of fossil fuels. However, a major problem with biofuel production is that despite the range of feedstock that can be used, raw material availability varies considerably. By combining a series of theories and methods, the research objective of this study is to determine the current developments and the future trends in biofuel feedstock. By combining technological paradigm theory with literature mining, it was found that biofuel feedstock production development followed a three-stage trajectory, which was in accordance with the traditional technological paradigm – the S-curve. This new curve can be divided into BFDP (biofuel feedstock development paradigm) competition, BFDP diffusion, and BFDP shift. The biofuel production diffusion velocity model showed that there has been constant growth from 2000, with the growth rate reaching a peak in 2008, after which time it began to drop. Biofuel production worldwide is expected to remain unchanged until 2030 when a paradigm shift is expected. This study also illustrates the results of our innovative procedure – a combination of the data analysis system and the technological paradigm theory – for the present biofuel feedstock soft path that will lead to this paradigm shift, with integrated biofuel production feedstock systems expected to be a significant new trend.

  4. GRB 110731A within the IGC paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primorac Daria

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bright gamma-ray burst (GRB 110731A was simultaneously observed by Fermi and Swift observatories, with a follow up optical observation which inferred the redshift of z = 2.83. Thus, available data are spanning from optical to high energy (GeV emission. We analyze these data within the induced gravitational collapse (IGC paradigm, recently introduced to explain temporal coincidence of some long GRBs with type Ic supernovae. The case of binary-driven hypcrnova (BdHN assumes a close system, which starts as an evolved core - neutron star binary. After the core-collapse event, the new NS - black hole system is formed, emitting the GRB in the process. We performed the time-resolved and time-integrated analysis of the Fermi data. Preliminary results gave isotropic energy Eiso = 6.05 × 1053 erg and the total P-GRB energy of Ep–GRB = 3.7 × 1052 erg. At transparency point we found a Lorentz factor Γ ~ 2.17 × 103 laboratory radius of 8.33 x 1013 cm, P-GRB observed temperature of 168 keV and a baryon load B = 4.35 × 10-4. Simulated light-curve and prompt emission spectra showed the average circum burst medium density to be n ~ 0.03 particles per cm3. We reproduced the X-ray light-curve within the rest-frame of the source, finding the common late power-law behavior, with α = –1.22. Considering these results, we interpret GRB 110731A as a member of a BdHNe group.

  5. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: Evolving paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonardo, Amedeo; Nascimbeni, Fabio; Maurantonio, Mauro; Marrazzo, Alessandra; Rinaldi, Luca; Adinolfi, Luigi Elio

    2017-01-01

    In the last years new evidence has accumulated on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) challenging the paradigms that had been holding the scene over the previous 30 years. NAFLD has such an epidemic prevalence as to make it impossible to screen general population looking for NAFLD cases. Conversely, focusing on those cohorts of individuals exposed to the highest risk of NAFLD could be a more rational approach. NAFLD, which can be diagnosed with either non-invasive strategies or through liver biopsy, is a pathogenically complex and clinically heterogeneous disease. The existence of metabolic as opposed to genetic-associated disease, notably including ”lean NAFLD” has recently been recognized. Moreover, NAFLD is a systemic condition, featuring metabolic, cardiovascular and (hepatic/extra-hepatic) cancer risk. Among the clinico-laboratory features of NAFLD we discuss hyperuricemia, insulin resistance, atherosclerosis, gallstones, psoriasis and selected endocrine derangements. NAFLD is a precursor of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and metabolic syndrome and progressive liver disease develops in T2D patients in whom the course of disease is worsened by NAFLD. Finally, lifestyle changes and drug treatment options to be implemented in the individual patient are also critically discussed. In conclusion, this review emphasizes the new concepts on clinical and pathogenic heterogeneity of NAFLD, a systemic disorder with a multifactorial pathogenesis and protean clinical manifestations. It is highly prevalent in certain cohorts of individuals who are thus potentially amenable to selective screening strategies, intensive follow-up schedules for early identification of liver-related and extrahepatic complications and in whom earlier and more aggressive treatment schedules should be carried out whenever possible. PMID:29085206

  6. Local seafood: rethinking the direct marketing paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua S. Stoll

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Faced with strict regulations, rising operational costs, depleted stocks, and competition from less expensive foreign imports, many fishers are pursuing new ways to market and sell their catch. Direct marketing arrangements can increase the ex-vessel value of seafood and profitability of operations for fishers by circumventing dominant wholesale chains of custody and capturing the premium that customers are willing to pay for local seafood. Our analysis goes beyond a paradigm that understands direct marketing arrangements as solely economic tools to consider how these emerging business configurations create a set of conditions that can result in increased bonding and bridging capital among fishers by incentivizing cooperation, communication, and information production and organization. To build our case, we report on the economic value being generated for fishers in a cooperatively owned and operated direct marketing arrangement in eastern North Carolina. Over the course of 2 years, fishers participating in the Walking Fish community-supported fishery received 33% more revenue for their catch compared to the average monthly ex-vessel price of finfish and shellfish landed in the surrounding region, and an additional 14% to 18% more per dollar by way of year-end profit sharing. We argue that these economic benefits create an incentive to participate, resulting in cooperation among fishers and increased communication skills that foster bonding and bridging capital that put fishers in a position to identify and respond to challenges that threaten the social-ecological resilience of the systems within which they operate. We suggest that "institutional starters" like these can play a critical role in increasing the resilience of social-ecological systems, including fisheries.

  7. Cooperate! A paradigm shift for health equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wei-Ching; Fraser, Joy H

    2017-02-21

    The role of competition and cooperation in relation to the goal of health equity is examined in this paper. The authors explain why the win-lose mentality associated with avoidable competition is ethically questionable and less effective than cooperation in achieving positive outcomes, particularly as it relates to health and health equity. Competition, which differentiates winners from losers, often with the winner-takes-all reward system, inevitably leads to a few winners and many losers, resulting in social inequality, which, in turn, engenders and perpetuates health inequity.Competitive market-driven approaches to healthcare-brought about by capitalism, neo-liberalization, and globalization, based primarily on a competitive framework-are shown to have contributed to growing inequities with respect to the social determinants of health, and have undermined equal opportunity to access health care and achieve health equity. It is possible to redistribute income and wealth to reduce social inequality, but globalization poses increasing challenges to policy makers. John Stuart Mill provided a passionate, philosophical defense of cooperatives, followed by Karl Polanyi who offered an insightful critique of both state socialism and especially the self-regulating market, thereby opening up the cooperative way of shaping the future. We cite Hannah Arendt's "the banality of evil" to characterize the tragic concept of "ethical fading" witnessed in business and everyday life all over the world, often committed (without thinking and reflecting) by ordinary people under competitive pressures.To promote equity in health for all, we recommend the adoption of a radically new cooperation paradigm, applied whenever possible, to everything in our daily lives.

  8. Electromagnetic servoing-a new tracking paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichl, Tobias; Gardiazabal, José; Navab, Nassir

    2013-08-01

    Electromagnetic (EM) tracking is highly relevant for many computer assisted interventions. This is in particular due to the fact that the scientific community has not yet developed a general solution for tracking of flexible instruments within the human body. Electromagnetic tracking solutions are highly attractive for minimally invasive procedures, since they do not require line of sight. However, a major problem with EM tracking solutions is that they do not provide uniform accuracy throughout the tracking volume and the desired, highest accuracy is often only achieved close to the center of tracking volume. In this paper, we present a solution to the tracking problem, by mounting an EM field generator onto a robot arm. Proposing a new tracking paradigm, we take advantage of the electromagnetic tracking to detect the sensor within a specific sub-volume, with known and optimal accuracy. We then use the more accurate and robust robot positioning for obtaining uniform accuracy throughout the tracking volume. Such an EM servoing methodology guarantees optimal and uniform accuracy, by allowing us to always keep the tracked sensor close to the center of the tracking volume. In this paper, both dynamic accuracy and accuracy distribution within the tracking volume are evaluated using optical tracking as ground truth. In repeated evaluations, the proposed method was able to reduce the overall error from 6.64±7.86 mm to a significantly improved accuracy of 3.83±6.43 mm. In addition, the combined system provides a larger tracking volume, which is only limited by the reach of the robot and not the much smaller tracking volume defined by the magnetic field generator.

  9. Autonomous vehicles: from paradigms to technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionita, Silviu

    2017-10-01

    Mobility is a basic necessity of contemporary society and it is a key factor in global economic development. The basic requirements for the transport of people and goods are: safety and duration of travel, but also a number of additional criteria are very important: energy saving, pollution, passenger comfort. Due to advances in hardware and software, automation has penetrated massively in transport systems both on infrastructure and on vehicles, but man is still the key element in vehicle driving. However, the classic concept of ‘human-in-the-loop’ in terms of ‘hands on’ in driving the cars is competing aside from the self-driving startups working towards so-called ‘Level 4 autonomy’, which is defined as “a self-driving system that does not requires human intervention in most scenarios”. In this paper, a conceptual synthesis of the autonomous vehicle issue is made in connection with the artificial intelligence paradigm. It presents a classification of the tasks that take place during the driving of the vehicle and its modeling from the perspective of traditional control engineering and artificial intelligence. The issue of autonomous vehicle management is addressed on three levels: navigation, movement in traffic, respectively effective maneuver and vehicle dynamics control. Each level is then described in terms of specific tasks, such as: route selection, planning and reconfiguration, recognition of traffic signs and reaction to signaling and traffic events, as well as control of effective speed, distance and direction. The approach will lead to a better understanding of the way technology is moving when talking about autonomous cars, smart/intelligent cars or intelligent transport systems. Keywords: self-driving vehicle, artificial intelligence, deep learning, intelligent transport systems.

  10. GRB 110731A within the IGC paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primorac, Daria; Ruffini, Remo; Pisani, Giovanni Battista; Aimuratov, Yerlan; Biancol, Carlo Luciano; Karlica, Mile; Melon Fuksman, Julio David; Moradi, Rahim; Muccino, Marco; Penacchioni, Ana Virginia; Rueda, Jorge Armando; Wang, Yu

    2018-01-01

    Bright gamma-ray burst (GRB) 110731A was simultaneously observed by Fermi and Swift observatories, with a follow up optical observation which inferred the redshift of z = 2.83. Thus, available data are spanning from optical to high energy (GeV) emission. We analyze these data within the induced gravitational collapse (IGC) paradigm, recently introduced to explain temporal coincidence of some long GRBs with type Ic supernovae. The case of binary-driven hypcrnova (BdHN) assumes a close system, which starts as an evolved core - neutron star binary. After the core-collapse event, the new NS - black hole system is formed, emitting the GRB in the process. We performed the time-resolved and time-integrated analysis of the Fermi data. Preliminary results gave isotropic energy Eiso = 6.05 × 1053 erg and the total P-GRB energy of Ep-GRB = 3.7 × 1052 erg. At transparency point we found a Lorentz factor Γ 2.17 × 103 laboratory radius of 8.33 x 1013 cm, P-GRB observed temperature of 168 keV and a baryon load B = 4.35 × 10-4. Simulated light-curve and prompt emission spectra showed the average circum burst medium density to be n 0.03 particles per cm3. We reproduced the X-ray light-curve within the rest-frame of the source, finding the common late power-law behavior, with α = -1.22. Considering these results, we interpret GRB 110731A as a member of a BdHNe group.

  11. Contemporary paradigms for research related to women's mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, Shelley Anne; Letourneau, Nicole Lyn; Stoppard, Janet M

    2010-04-01

    Mental health problems are serious health concerns that affect women across diverse settings internationally. Knowledge of this population historically has been informed by research using a positivist approach. This article is a critical examination of contemporary paradigms for research related to women's mental health. We begin the article with an introduction to women's mental health, followed by an overview of the postpositivist, critical theory, and constructivist paradigms. We then present a critical examination of the benefits and limitations of these paradigms in relation to the study of women's mental health. We conclude with implications for research and practice.

  12. Innovation Policy Development and the Emergence of New Innovation Paradigms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, Stoyan; Knudsen, Mette Præst; Bisgaard, Tanja

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present article is to discuss innovation policy issues related to three emerging innovation paradigms: user-driven innovation, open innovation, and value cocreation. It provides a summary of insights based on innovation policy practices and challenges in Denmark. The choice...... of Danish innovation policy practices is not accidental. In 2008 Denmark implemented 40 different national innovation programs by allocating about 400 million euros. Since the three emerging paradigms have become globally relevant, the discussion of Danish policy development challenges and practices...... is expected to be insightful for innovation experts from other developed countries that are currently dealing with the adoption of these paradigms....

  13. A flow paradigm in heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Li

    2018-04-01

    The success of hydrodynamics in high energy heavy-ion collisions leads to a flow paradigm, to understand the observed features of harmonic flow in terms of the medium collective expansion with respect to initial state geometrical properties. In this review, we present some essential ingredients in the flow paradigm, including the hydrodynamic modeling, the characterization of initial state geometry and the medium response relations. The extension of the flow paradigm to small colliding systems is also discussed. Supported by Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada

  14. Clinical fMRI of language function in aphasic patients: Reading paradigm successful, while word generation paradigm fails

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engstroem, Maria; Landtblom, Anne-Marie; Ragnehed, Mattias; Lundberg, Peter (Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV), Linkoeping Univ., Linkoeping (Sweden)), e-mail: maria.engstrom@liu.se; Karlsson, Marie; Crone, Marie (Dept. of Clinical and Experimental Medicine/Logopedics, Linkoeping Univ., Linkoeping (Sweden)); Antepohl, Wolfram (Dept. of Clinical and Experimental Medicine/Rehabilitation, Linkoeping Univ., Linkoeping (Sweden))

    2010-07-15

    Background: In fMRI examinations, it is very important to select appropriate paradigms assessing the brain function of interest. In addition, the patients' ability to perform the required cognitive tasks during fMRI must be taken into account. Purpose: To evaluate two language paradigms, word generation and sentence reading for their usefulness in examinations of aphasic patients and to make suggestions for improvements of clinical fMRI. Material and Methods: Five patients with aphasia after stroke or trauma sequelae were examined by fMRI. The patients' language ability was screened by neurolinguistic tests and elementary pre-fMRI language tests. Results: The sentence-reading paradigm succeeded to elicit adequate language-related activation in perilesional areas whereas the word generation paradigm failed. These findings were consistent with results on the behavioral tests in that all patients showed very poor performance in phonemic fluency, but scored well above mean at a reading comprehension task. Conclusion: The sentence-reading paradigm is appropriate to assess language function in this patient group, while the word-generation paradigm seems to be inadequate. In addition, it is crucial to use elementary pre-fMRI language tests to guide the fMRI paradigm decision.

  15. Clinical fMRI of language function in aphasic patients: Reading paradigm successful, while word generation paradigm fails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engstroem, Maria; Landtblom, Anne-Marie; Ragnehed, Mattias; Lundberg, Peter; Karlsson, Marie; Crone, Marie; Antepohl, Wolfram

    2010-01-01

    Background: In fMRI examinations, it is very important to select appropriate paradigms assessing the brain function of interest. In addition, the patients' ability to perform the required cognitive tasks during fMRI must be taken into account. Purpose: To evaluate two language paradigms, word generation and sentence reading for their usefulness in examinations of aphasic patients and to make suggestions for improvements of clinical fMRI. Material and Methods: Five patients with aphasia after stroke or trauma sequelae were examined by fMRI. The patients' language ability was screened by neurolinguistic tests and elementary pre-fMRI language tests. Results: The sentence-reading paradigm succeeded to elicit adequate language-related activation in perilesional areas whereas the word generation paradigm failed. These findings were consistent with results on the behavioral tests in that all patients showed very poor performance in phonemic fluency, but scored well above mean at a reading comprehension task. Conclusion: The sentence-reading paradigm is appropriate to assess language function in this patient group, while the word-generation paradigm seems to be inadequate. In addition, it is crucial to use elementary pre-fMRI language tests to guide the fMRI paradigm decision.

  16. A new paradigm of knowledge management: Crowdsourcing as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new paradigm of knowledge management: Crowdsourcing as emergent research and development. ... Southern African Business Review ... Drawing from knowledge management theory, this paper argues that the knowledge aggregation ...

  17. Information retrieval for children based on the aggregated search paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte Torres, Sergio

    This report presents research to develop information services for children by expanding and adapting current Information retrieval technologies according to the search characteristics and needs of children. Concretely, we will employ the aggregated search paradigm as theoretical framework. The

  18. Cosmological horizons as new examples of the membrane paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Tower

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we aim to provide new examples of the application and the generality of the membrane paradigm. The membrane paradigm is a formalism for studying the event horizon of black holes. After analyzing it with some technical details and realizing it in the Reissner–Nordström black hole, we apply the paradigm to cosmological horizons, first to the pure de Sitter horizon, and then to the trapping horizon of the Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker Universe. In the latter case, the cosmological stretched horizon is oblique, thus the running of the renormalization parameter is nonzero in the timelike direction and gives a correction to the membrane pressure. In this paradigm, the cosmological equations come from continuity equations of the membrane fluid and the bulk fluid respectively. (paper)

  19. Paradigm shift in psychiatry: what may it involve?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valent, Paul

    2018-02-01

    This study aims to examine the potential nature of an ongoing paradigm shift in psychiatry that has been suggested to be occurring. New findings in traumatology and neuroscience do form a potential platform for a paradigm shift. Prior conflicting paradigms are suggested to be due to biases arising from mental structures themselves. A new wholist perspective is proposed, which makes sense of and incorporates previous paradigms, and coheres recent understanding of right- and left-brain functioning and biopsychosocial traumatic processes and their ramifications. The perspective makes sense of the great variety of post-traumatic manifestations ranging from somatic to meaning-making dysfunctions. The wholist perspective may well be an important step in solidifying a fresh paradigmatic perspective in psychiatry.

  20. The "extended mind" approach for a new paradigm of psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Tetsuya

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, I would like to propose the idea of "extended mind" for a new paradigm of psychology. Kohler (Integrative Psychology & Behavioral Science 44:39-57, 2010) correctly pointed out the serious problems of the machine paradigm, and proposed the "organic" view as a new paradigm. But the term "organic" signifying the processes inside the body, is inadequate to express the characteristic of human mind. The recent philosophy of mind suggests that the mind is realized neither only in the brain nor only in the body, but in the whole system of brain-body-environment, namely, in the "extended mind". The characteristic of human mind resides in the interaction with the mediating tools, artifacts, and the humanized environment. We should propose an "extended mind approach" or an "ecological approach to humanized environment" as a new paradigm for a psychology.

  1. Toward an Afro-Centric indigenous HCI paradigm

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Winschiers-Theophilus, H

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Current human–computer interaction (HCI) paradigms are deeply rooted in a Western epistemology that attests its partiality and bias of its embedded assumptions, values, definitions, techniques, and derived frameworks and models. Thus tensions...

  2. [Reconstituting evaluation methods based on both qualitative and quantitative paradigms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Hiroaki; Okubo, Suguru; Yoshie, Satoru; Kai, Ichiro

    2011-01-01

    Debate about the relationship between quantitative and qualitative paradigms is often muddled and confusing and the clutter of terms and arguments has resulted in the concepts becoming obscure and unrecognizable. In this study we conducted content analysis regarding evaluation methods of qualitative healthcare research. We extracted descriptions on four types of evaluation paradigm (validity/credibility, reliability/credibility, objectivity/confirmability, and generalizability/transferability), and classified them into subcategories. In quantitative research, there has been many evaluation methods based on qualitative paradigms, and vice versa. Thus, it might not be useful to consider evaluation methods of qualitative paradigm are isolated from those of quantitative methods. Choosing practical evaluation methods based on the situation and prior conditions of each study is an important approach for researchers.

  3. [New Paradigms? Current Trends within National and International Psychotherapy Research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauß, Bernhard

    2015-09-01

    This article is devoted to the question which paradigms currently determine psychotherapy and psychotherapy research, and if there are indicators of paradigm changes in this field. The question of the efficacy and effectiveness (including the effectiveness of a transfer of psychotherapeutic knowledge to service) is specifically focussed as well as the question of the central therapeutic factors and the significance of the person of the therapist. It is argued that there are really some signals of a paradigm switch, with a turn away from controlled outcome research, representing only a minor part of patients in need of psychotherapy, towards a more specific process oriented research, also considering differential effects of the therapist. The most prominent indicator of a paradigm change is reflected by an increasing influence of patient oriented psychotherapy research which - consequently - should also be supported by the insurances as well as the funding organisations. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Japan as a Paradigm for U.S. Homeland Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ruth, Allen C

    2006-01-01

    ...) is in full swing and the United States is engaged around the world. These factors provide valid reasons for the United States to research other countries' homeland security paradigms to provide a contrast in methods of combating terrorism...

  5. Scaling, Similarity, and the Fourth Paradigm for Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Clark, Martyn; Samaniego, Luis; Verhoest, Niko E. C.; van Emmerik, Tim; Uijlenhoet, Remko; Achieng, Kevin; Franz, Trenton E.; Woods, Ross

    2017-01-01

    In this synthesis paper addressing hydrologic scaling and similarity, we posit that roadblocks in the search for universal laws of hydrology are hindered by our focus on computational simulation (the third paradigm), and assert that it is time for hydrology to embrace a fourth paradigm of data-intensive science. Advances in information-based hydrologic science, coupled with an explosion of hydrologic data and advances in parameter estimation and modelling, have laid the foundation for a data-driven framework for scrutinizing hydrological scaling and similarity hypotheses. We summarize important scaling and similarity concepts (hypotheses) that require testing, describe a mutual information framework for testing these hypotheses, describe boundary condition, state flux, and parameter data requirements across scales to support testing these hypotheses, and discuss some challenges to overcome while pursuing the fourth hydrological paradigm. We call upon the hydrologic sciences community to develop a focused effort towards adopting the fourth paradigm and apply this to outstanding challenges in scaling and similarity.

  6. The prevalence of disability among children: paradigms and estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudrick, Nancy R

    2002-11-01

    Every examination of disability among children must first grapple with definition of disability. The challenges to identifying disability among children involve not only determining the appropriate paradigm for defining disability, but also applying that paradigm to children in a meaningful way. This discussion of the prevalence of disability among children starts by examining the various paradigms utilized to identify disability and how they are interpreted when applied to children. Estimates of the prevalence of childhood disability, under different definitions of disability are presented. The goal of the discussion is to illustrate the sensitivity of the estimates of disability prevalence to the particular definition and data set used. Finally, the potential influence of the choice of paradigm on further measurement and service delivery is outlined.

  7. Indian Science Culture Needs a Paradigm Shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Om P

    2017-06-01

    am sure such a cultural change and paradigm shift from the status quo does not need extra funds and can be surely ushered in without money.

  8. Skin-Inspired Electronics: An Emerging Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sihong; Oh, Jin Young; Xu, Jie; Tran, Helen; Bao, Zhenan

    2018-05-15

    Future electronics will take on more important roles in people's lives. They need to allow more intimate contact with human beings to enable advanced health monitoring, disease detection, medical therapies, and human-machine interfacing. However, current electronics are rigid, nondegradable and cannot self-repair, while the human body is soft, dynamic, stretchable, biodegradable, and self-healing. Therefore, it is critical to develop a new class of electronic materials that incorporate skinlike properties, including stretchability for conformable integration, minimal discomfort and suppressed invasive reactions; self-healing for long-term durability under harsh mechanical conditions; and biodegradability for reducing environmental impact and obviating the need for secondary device removal for medical implants. These demands have fueled the development of a new generation of electronic materials, primarily composed of polymers and polymer composites with both high electrical performance and skinlike properties, and consequently led to a new paradigm of electronics, termed "skin-inspired electronics". This Account covers recent important advances in skin-inspired electronics, from basic material developments to device components and proof-of-concept demonstrations for integrated bioelectronics applications. To date, stretchability has been the most prominent focus in this field. In contrast to strain-engineering approaches that extrinsically impart stretchability into inorganic electronics, intrinsically stretchable materials provide a direct route to achieve higher mechanical robustness, higher device density, and scalable fabrication. The key is the introduction of strain-dissipation mechanisms into the material design, which has been realized through molecular engineering (e.g., soft molecular segments, dynamic bonds) and physical engineering (e.g., nanoconfinement effect, geometric design). The material design concepts have led to the successful demonstrations of

  9. Comunication: the Paradigms of symmetry, antisymmetry anda asymmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Winfried Nöth

    2011-01-01

    The paper examines how the process of communication is represented (a) in the etymology of the conceptof communication, (b) in everyday metaphors of communication, and (c) in 20th century theories andmodels of communication. These reflect this paradox in three different scenarios: the paradigms ofsymmetry, antisymmetry and asymmetry. The dead end into which communication theory is led by theproponents of the latter paradigm is contrasted with some solutions offered by Charles S. Peirce’scommu...

  10. Black hole mass formula in the membrane paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, José P. S.; Zaslavskii, Oleg B.

    2018-03-01

    The membrane paradigm approach adopts a timelike surface, stretched out off the null event horizon, to study several important black hole properties. We use this powerful tool to give a direct derivation of the black hole mass formula in the static and stationary cases without and with electric field. Since here the membrane is a self-gravitating material system, we go beyond the usual applicability on test particles and test fields of the paradigm.

  11. Historical ESWT Paradigms Are Overcome: A Narrative Review

    OpenAIRE

    Lohrer, Heinz; Nauck, Tanja; Korakakis, Vasileios; Malliaropoulos, Nikos

    2016-01-01

    Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy (ESWT) is a conservative treatment modality with still growing interest in musculoskeletal disorders. This narrative review aims to present an overview covering 20-year development in the field of musculoskeletal ESWT. Eight historical paradigms have been identified and put under question from a current perspective: energy intensity, focus size, anesthesia, imaging, growth plates, acuteness, calcifications, and number of sessions. All paradigms as set in a hi...

  12. Pins and posters: paradigms for content publication on situated displays

    OpenAIRE

    José, Rui; Pinto, Helder; Siva, Bruno; Melro, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Public display systems are still far from being a communication medium that people can appropriate to serve diverse communication goals. Moving towards open displays will require new publication paradigms that can overcome the challenges of meaningful engagement and enable users to fully understand and control the entire publication process. In this paper, we report on the study of two novel and complimentary communication paradigms for public displays inspired by the metaphors of pin badges ...

  13. Innovative character of marketing paradigm of education governance

    OpenAIRE

    E. G. Sytnychenko

    2014-01-01

    The most common methodological basis for creating marketing paradigm of public education management is the allocation of general forms of marketing to management activities. Immediate methodological basis for the formation of the said paradigm was synthesis of marketing concepts and management activities. Educational marketing is a cognitive foundation of values reorientation of all forms of regulation to meet the social and educational needs of the individual. In this sense, marketing manage...

  14. Sustainable intensification: A new paradigm for African agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    The Montpellier Panel

    2013-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa faces a rapid population growth that drives food demand and scarcity together with scarcity in natural resources such as land, water, and soil fertility. This Montpellier Panel report identifies the paradigm of sustainable intensification as a framework to address both of these issues. It provides a comprehensive overview of the sustainable intensification paradigm, which seeks to utilize existing land to maximize yields, incomes, and nutrition while minimizing negative ext...

  15. Paradigms in the Recovery of Estuarine and Coastal Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, Carlos M.; Borja, Ángel; Carstensen, Jacob; Elliott, Michael S.; Krause-Jensen, Dorte; Marbà, Núria

    2015-01-01

    © 2013, Coastal and Estuarine Research Federation. Following widespread deterioration of coastal ecosystems since the 1960s, current environmental policies demand ecosystem recovery and restoration. However, vague definitions of recovery and untested recovery paradigms complicate efficient stewardship of coastal ecosystems. We critically examine definitions of recovery and identify and test the implicit paradigms against well-documented cases studies based on a literature review. The study hi...

  16. Incorporación de dos ensayos alternativos para evaluar irritación ocular en un laboratorio de toxicología Incorporation of two alternative assays for evaluating ocular irritation in a toxicology laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Murillo Jorge

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron 2 ensayos alternativos al uso de animales de laboratorio que han sido propuestos para determinar el potencial de irritación ocular de sustancias químicas y formulaciones; uno que utiliza eritrocitos bovinos y, otro, la membrana corioalantoidea del embrión de pollo de 10 días de incubación. Se halló el potencial de irritación de algunas de las sustancias de referencia que están incluidas en los respectivos protocolos y se encontró correspondencia con los datos reportados en ellos, ya que la clasificación para cada una de las sustancias fue igual a la referida. Fueron irritantes el cloruro de benzalconio, el lauril sulfato de sodio y el hidróxido de sodio; no resultó irritante el poli-etilen-glicol. Este comportamiento es el mismo que se ha obtenido en estudios in vivo. Además de ofrecer resultados confiables, estas técnicas son económicas, rápidas y de fácil realización, en comparación con el procedimiento tradicional que se realiza en conejos.Two alternative assays to the use of laboratory animals that have been proposed to determine the potential of ocular irritation of chemical substances and formulations, were evaluated. One of them uses bovine erythrocytes and the other the chorio-allantoic membrane of the chicken embrio of 10 days of incubation. The irritation potential of some of the reference substances that are included in the respective protocols was calculated and it was found correspondence with the data reported in them, since the classification for each of the substance was identical to the referred one. Benzalkonium chloride, lauryl sodium sulphate and sodium hydroxide proved to be irritant. Poly-ethylen-glycol was not irritant. This behavior is the same that has been obtained in vivo. Besides providing reliable results, these techniques are economic, fast and easy to be applied compared with the traditional procedure carried out in rabbits.

  17. The string-pulling paradigm in comparative psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Ivo F; Osvath, Mathias

    2015-05-01

    String pulling is one of the most widely used paradigms in comparative psychology. First documented 2 millennia ago, it has been a well-established scientific paradigm for a century. More than 160 bird and mammal species have been tested in over 200 studies with countless methodological variations. The paradigm can be used to address a wide variety of issues on animal cognition; for example, what animals understand about contact and connection as well as whether they rely on perceptual feedback, grasp the functionality of strings, generalize across conditions, apply their knowledge flexibly, and possess insight. Mammals are typically tested on a horizontal configuration, birds on a vertical one, making the studies difficult to compare; in particular, pulling a string vertically requires better coordination and attention. A species' performance on the paradigm is often influenced by its ecology, especially concerning whether limbs are used for foraging. Many other factors can be of importance and should be considered. The string-pulling paradigm is easy to administer, vary, and apply to investigate a wide array of cognitive abilities. Although it can be and has been used to compare species, divergent methods and unclear reporting have limited its comparative utility. With increasing research standards, the paradigm is expected to become an even more fundamental tool in comparative psychology. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Long-term reliability of the visual EEG Poffenberger paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Patrick; Ocklenburg, Sebastian; Mochalski, Lisa; Schlüter, Caroline; Güntürkün, Onur; Genc, Erhan

    2017-07-14

    The Poffenberger paradigm is a simple perception task that is used to estimate the speed of information transfer between the two hemispheres, the so-called interhemispheric transfer time (IHTT). Although the original paradigm is a behavioral task, it can be combined with electroencephalography (EEG) to assess the underlying neurophysiological processes during task execution. While older studies have supported the validity of both paradigms for investigating interhemispheric interactions, their long-term reliability has not been assessed systematically before. The present study aims to fill this gap by determining both internal consistency and long-term test-retest reliability of IHTTs produced by using the two different versions of the Poffenberger paradigm in a sample of 26 healthy subjects. The results show high reliability for the EEG Poffenberger paradigm. In contrast, reliability measures for the behavioral Poffenberger paradigm were low. Hence, our results indicate that electrophysiological measures of interhemispheric transfer are more reliable than behavioral measures; the later should be used with caution in research investigating inter-individual differences of neurocognitive measures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis - Towards a new paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaschke, Thomas; Hay, Geoffrey J; Kelly, Maggi; Lang, Stefan; Hofmann, Peter; Addink, Elisabeth; Queiroz Feitosa, Raul; van der Meer, Freek; van der Werff, Harald; van Coillie, Frieke; Tiede, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    The amount of scientific literature on (Geographic) Object-based Image Analysis - GEOBIA has been and still is sharply increasing. These approaches to analysing imagery have antecedents in earlier research on image segmentation and use GIS-like spatial analysis within classification and feature extraction approaches. This article investigates these development and its implications and asks whether or not this is a new paradigm in remote sensing and Geographic Information Science (GIScience). We first discuss several limitations of prevailing per-pixel methods when applied to high resolution images. Then we explore the paradigm concept developed by Kuhn (1962) and discuss whether GEOBIA can be regarded as a paradigm according to this definition. We crystallize core concepts of GEOBIA, including the role of objects, of ontologies and the multiplicity of scales and we discuss how these conceptual developments support important methods in remote sensing such as change detection and accuracy assessment. The ramifications of the different theoretical foundations between the ' per-pixel paradigm ' and GEOBIA are analysed, as are some of the challenges along this path from pixels, to objects, to geo-intelligence. Based on several paradigm indications as defined by Kuhn and based on an analysis of peer-reviewed scientific literature we conclude that GEOBIA is a new and evolving paradigm.

  20. New radiobiological, radiation risk and radiation protection paradigms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodhead, Dudley T.

    2010-01-01

    The long-standing conventional paradigm for radiobiology has formed a logical basis for the standard paradigm for radiation risk of cancer and heritable effects and, from these paradigms, has developed the internationally applied system for radiation protection, but with many simplifications, assumptions and generalizations. A variety of additional radiobiological phenomena that do not conform to the standard paradigm for radiobiology may have potential implications for radiation risk and radiation protection. It is suggested, however, that the current state of knowledge is still insufficient for these phenomena, individually or collectively, to be formulated systematically into a new paradigm for radiobiology. Additionally, there is at present lack of direct evidence of their relevance to risk for human health, despite attractive hypotheses as to how they might be involved. Finally, it remains to be shown how incorporation of such phenomena into the paradigm for radiation protection would provide sufficient added value to offset disruption to the present widely applied system. Further research should aim for better mechanistic understanding of processes such as radiation-induced genomic instability (for all radiation types) and bystander effects (particularly for low-fluence high-LET particles) and also priority should be given to confirmation, or negation, of the relevance of the processes to human health risks from radiation.

  1. A knowledge-centered paradigm for operations and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perin, C.

    2005-01-01

    A paradigm premised on the reactor design basis and on its systems, structures, and components also governs nuclear power plant operations. This machine-centered paradigm emphasizes a functional and discipline-based division of responsibilities, which can create hierarchical 'silos' and 'stovepipes' inhibiting the development and lateral exchange of knowledge about safety-critical system interactions. A knowledge-centered paradigm instead encourages the timely development, analysis, and exchange of information about system conditions and their likely consequences. This new paradigm puts operational focus on the importance of operating experience, informative root cause analyses, effective corrective actions, and cross-discipline exchange and cooperation. Although the knowledge-centered paradigm is already central to three main strategies of risk reduction, it is less likely to be recognized as such in terms of priorities, resources, and training: configuration control, control room operations, and root cause analysis. To maintain the capacity for safe shutdown and to preserve public trust, the knowledge-centered paradigm places as high a priority on interactions of safety-critical knowledge as it does on interactions of safety-critical systems, structures, and components. (author)

  2. Composite paradigms in medicine: analysing Gillies' claim of reclassification of disease without paradigm shift in the case of Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Joseph

    2012-09-01

    Since the publication of Kuhn's The Structure of Scientific Revolutions in 1962, the notion of paradigms has shaped the way that philosophy views scientific discovery and how changes in what is regarded as empirical fact occur. This drew heavily on examples from the history of the natural sciences to support Kuhn's hypothesis. However, some argue that medicine is different from the natural sciences. Gillies has proposed another theory of how paradigms apply to medicine; that of composite paradigms. In doing so, Gillies uses the example of Helicobacter pylori and the shift from the excess-acid theory to the current bacterial-infection theory of gastric ulcers to illustrate these fundamental differences between medicine and the natural sciences. Upon analysis of Gillies' claim, it is evident that traditional Kuhnian paradigms are also composite and that the manner in which Gillies proposes disease is classified is insufficient in describing medicine. Furthermore, new local paradigms are demonstrably introduced and the change was accompanied by many of the markers of paradigmatic change including changes in worldview, resistance, incommensurability and the introduction of new questions that could not have existed under the previous paradigm. Whilst this change may not be on the scale of the Chemical revolution, it can still be considered paradigm shift. Thagard also proposes an alternate view of discovery using the case of H. pylori. This has much in common with Kuhnian paradigms but Thagard's theory offers further elucidation and refinement. This allows it to better characterise all of the associated features of discovery relevant in the case of H. pylori, thus provides a preferable tool for examination of this important recent discovery. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Increasing Product Confidence-Shifting Paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Marla; Kashyap, Vishal; Cheung, Mee-Shew

    2015-01-01

    Leaders in the pharmaceutical, medical device, and food industries expressed a unilateral concern over product confidence throughout the total product lifecycle, an unsettling fact for these leaders to manage given that their products affect the lives of millions of people each year. Fueled by the heparin incident of intentional adulteration in 2008, initial efforts for increasing product confidence were focused on improving the confidence of incoming materials, with a belief that supplier performance must be the root cause. As in the heparin case, concern over supplier performance extended deep into the supply chain to include suppliers of the suppliers-which is often a blind spot for pharmaceutical, device, and food manufacturers. Resolved to address the perceived lack of supplier performance, these U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-regulated industries began to adopt the supplier relationship management strategy, developed by the automotive industry, that emphasizes "management" of suppliers for the betterment of the manufacturers. Current product and supplier management strategies, however, have not led to a significant improvement in product confidence. As a result of the enduring concern by industry leaders over the lack of product confidence, Xavier University launched the Integrity of Supply Initiative in 2012 with a team of industry leaders and FDA officials. Through a methodical research approach, data generated by the pharmaceutical, medical device, and food manufacturers surprisingly pointed to themselves as a source of the lack of product confidence, and revealed that manufacturers either unknowingly increase the potential for error or can control/prevent many aspects of product confidence failure. It is only through this paradigm shift that manufacturers can work collaboratively with their suppliers as equal partners, instead of viewing their suppliers as "lesser" entities needing to be controlled. The basis of this shift provides manufacturers

  4. TIPS (trigger an IIF paradigm shift)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilcup, P.E. Glen [Intel Corporation, MS: F9-016, 4100 Sara Road, Rio Rancho, NM 87124 (United States)]. E-mail: glen.w.kilcup@intel.com; Hickox, Dick [Intel Corporation, MS: F9-016, 4100 Sara Road, Rio Rancho, NM 87124 (United States); Reynaga, Adolfo [Intel Corporation, MS: F9-016, 4100 Sara Road, Rio Rancho, NM 87124 (United States)

    2007-04-11

    Challenge: New Mexico Corporate Services (NMCS) recordable injuries have been averaging 2-4 per year for the last 5 years with no statistical improvement. However, we believe all NM employees must go home incident and injury free every day and just as healthy as they came to work. In addition, we have received feedback from several sources, that indicates some employees are reluctant to report injuries. These indicators showed us that continuing our current strategies, making incremental improvement and changes, would not give us the improvement desired. We needed a paradigm shift to get everyone completely engaged in the IIF (Incident and Injury Free) culture, in order to achieve true IIF results. Methods/Strategies: We formed a small (3-person) taskforce consisting of safety representatives from EHS, Site Services and CS Operations. We reviewed 5 years worth of data to determine what was injuring our people. We also decided to review all injuries, not simply those classified as recordable by OSHA standards. First we identified the types of injury information needed to get a true picture of our safety issues. We analyzed IRB (Incident Review Board) data showing us the following factors and whether any of them contributed to the injury: - Date - Incident Description - Severity - Root Cause - Type of Injury - Season - Work Group/Shift - Area - Improper evaluation of hazard - Inadequate work procedures - Incorrect Mental Model - Inadequate PPE Requirement - Failure to Follow or Unaware of PPE Requirement - Shortcut or Schedule Pressure - Last or First Day of Shift or Adjacent to Holiday - OT - Aggravate Existing Condition - Inadequate Training or Passdown - Experience in Task - Corrective Action Taken - Overall Quality of Response. Once this information was collected for all injuries in an Excel file, we graphed it several ways to help reveal trends: - Shift 7 had double the injuries of shift 5 - Night shift injuries were relatively high but lower than Shift 7 -Shift

  5. TIPS (trigger an IIF paradigm shift)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilcup, P.E. Glen; Hickox, Dick; Reynaga, Adolfo

    2007-01-01

    Challenge: New Mexico Corporate Services (NMCS) recordable injuries have been averaging 2-4 per year for the last 5 years with no statistical improvement. However, we believe all NM employees must go home incident and injury free every day and just as healthy as they came to work. In addition, we have received feedback from several sources, that indicates some employees are reluctant to report injuries. These indicators showed us that continuing our current strategies, making incremental improvement and changes, would not give us the improvement desired. We needed a paradigm shift to get everyone completely engaged in the IIF (Incident and Injury Free) culture, in order to achieve true IIF results. Methods/Strategies: We formed a small (3-person) taskforce consisting of safety representatives from EHS, Site Services and CS Operations. We reviewed 5 years worth of data to determine what was injuring our people. We also decided to review all injuries, not simply those classified as recordable by OSHA standards. First we identified the types of injury information needed to get a true picture of our safety issues. We analyzed IRB (Incident Review Board) data showing us the following factors and whether any of them contributed to the injury: - Date - Incident Description - Severity - Root Cause - Type of Injury - Season - Work Group/Shift - Area - Improper evaluation of hazard - Inadequate work procedures - Incorrect Mental Model - Inadequate PPE Requirement - Failure to Follow or Unaware of PPE Requirement - Shortcut or Schedule Pressure - Last or First Day of Shift or Adjacent to Holiday - OT - Aggravate Existing Condition - Inadequate Training or Passdown - Experience in Task - Corrective Action Taken - Overall Quality of Response. Once this information was collected for all injuries in an Excel file, we graphed it several ways to help reveal trends: - Shift 7 had double the injuries of shift 5 - Night shift injuries were relatively high but lower than Shift 7 -Shift

  6. TIPS (trigger an IIF paradigm shift).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilcup P E, Glen; Hickox, Dick; Reynaga, Adolfo

    2007-04-11

    New Mexico Corporate Services (NMCS) recordable injuries have been averaging 2-4 per year for the last 5 years with no statistical improvement. However, we believe all NM employees must go home incident and injury free every day and just as healthy as they came to work. In addition, we have received feedback from several sources, that indicates some employees are reluctant to report injuries. These indicators showed us that continuing our current strategies, making incremental improvement and changes, would not give us the improvement desired. We needed a paradigm shift to get everyone completely engaged in the IIF (Incident & Injury Free) culture, in order to achieve true IIF results. We formed a small (3-person) taskforce consisting of safety representatives from EHS, Site Services and CS Operations. We reviewed 5 years worth of data to determine what was injuring our people. We also decided to review all injuries, not simply those classified as recordable by OSHA standards. First we identified the types of injury information needed to get a true picture of our safety issues. We analyzed IRB (Incident Review Board) data showing us the following factors and whether any of them contributed to the injury: - Date - Incident Description - Severity - Root Cause - Type of Injury - Season - Work Group/Shift - Area - Improper evaluation of hazard - Inadequate work procedures - Incorrect Mental Model - Inadequate PPE Requirement - Failure to Follow or Unaware of PPE Requirement - Shortcut or Schedule Pressure - Last or First Day of Shift or Adjacent to Holiday - OT - Aggravate Existing Condition - Inadequate Training or Passdown - Experience in Task - Corrective Action Taken - Overall Quality of Response. Once this information was collected for all injuries in an Excel file, we graphed it several ways to help reveal trends: Shift 7 had double the injuries of shift 5. Night shift injuries were relatively high but lower than Shift 7. Shift 5 had no severe (recordable

  7. Presence of two alternative kdr-like mutations, L1014F and L1014S, and a novel mutation, V1010L, in the voltage gated Na+ channel of Anopheles culicifacies from Orissa, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatt Rajendra M

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knockdown resistance in insects resulting from mutation(s in the voltage gated Na+ channel (VGSC is one of the mechanisms of resistance against DDT and pyrethroids. Recently a point mutation leading to Leu-to-Phe substitution in the VGSC at residue 1014, a most common kdr mutation in insects, was reported in Anopheles culicifacies-a major malaria vector in the Indian subcontinent. This study reports the presence of two additional amino acid substitutions in the VGSC of an An. culicifacies population from Malkangiri district of Orissa, India. Methods Anopheles culicifacies sensu lato (s.l. samples, collected from a population of Malkangiri district of Orissa (India, were sequenced for part of the second transmembrane segment of VGSC and analyzed for the presence of non-synonymous mutations. A new primer introduced restriction analysis-PCR (PIRA-PCR was developed for the detection of the new mutation L1014S. The An. culicifacies population was genotyped for the presence of L1014F substitution by an amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS and for L1014S substitutions by using a new PIRA-PCR developed in this study. The results were validated through DNA sequencing. Results DNA sequencing of An. culicifacies individuals collected from district Malkangiri revealed the presence of three amino acid substitutions in the IIS6 transmembrane segments of VGSC, each one resulting from a single point mutation. Two alternative point mutations, 3042A>T transversion or 3041T>C transition, were found at residue L1014 leading to Leu (TTA-to-Phe (TTT or -Ser (TCA changes, respectively. A third and novel substitution, Val (GTG-to-Leu (TTG or CTG, was identified at residue V1010 resulting from either of the two transversions–3028G>T or 3028G>C. The L1014S substitution co-existed with V1010L in all the samples analyzed irrespective of the type of point mutation associated with the latter. The PIRA-PCR strategy developed for the

  8. Nota Técnica: Comportamiento productivo de la morera sometida a dos alternativas de fertilización orgánica Technical Note: Productive performance of mulberry subject to two alternatives of organic fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertrudis Pentón

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar el comportamiento agronómico de la morera (Morus alba L. var. Acorazonada ante dos alternativas de fertilización orgánica, se realizó un estudio en áreas de la EEPF «Indio Hatuey». El suelo característico del lugar es del tipo Ferralítico Rojo hidratado; las precipitaciones oscilaron entre 1 000 y 1 145 mm de lluvia por año. En el corte de establecimiento se obtuvieron variaciones altamente significativas entre los tratamientos: testigo sin fertilizar, asociación morera-Albizia lebbeck como abono verde vs morera fertilizada con materia orgánica (41,6; 45,0 y 72,4 g de biomasa seca comestible por individuo, respectivamente. Sin embargo, en la época lluviosa del segundo año de explotación, la producción acumulada no mostró variaciones significativas entre la asociación y la morera fertilizada (88,8 y 86,7 g de biomasa seca comestible por individuo, aunque sí con respecto al testigo que solo produjo 40,7 g. Se concluye que el aporte de materia orgánica al suelo durante el establecimiento de las plantaciones de morera y/o la asociación de A. lebbeck manejada como abono verde, proporcionan una ventaja significativa en la respuesta productiva del arbusto forrajero, y se destacó la segunda alternativa por su carácter endógeno.A study was carried out in areas of the EEPF “Indio Hatuey”, with the objective of evaluating the agronomic performance of mulberry (Morus alba L. var. Acorazonada before two alternatives of organic fertilization. The soil of the site is hydrated Ferralitic Red; rainfall oscillated between 1 000 and 1 145 mm per year. In the establishment cutting highly significant variations were obtained among the treatments: control without fertilization, association mulberry-Albizia lebbeck as green manure vs mulberry fertilized with organic matter (41,6; 45,0 and 72,4 g of edible dry biomass per individual, respectively. Nevertheless, in the rainy season of the second year of exploitation

  9. A Case-Conference Exercise to Facilitate Understanding of Paradigms in Abnormal Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafosse, Jose M.; Zinser, Michael C.

    2002-01-01

    In this article we describe an in-class case-conference exercise designed to enhance the teaching of paradigms in abnormal psychology courses. The primary pedagogical goals are to increase awareness of how paradigms are applied in real-life settings; better distinguish between paradigms; and recognize how paradigms influence understanding of…

  10. Reexamining unconscious response priming: A liminal-prime paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avneon, Maayan; Lamy, Dominique

    2018-03-01

    Research on the limits of unconscious processing typically relies on the subliminal-prime paradigm. However, this paradigm is limited in the issues it can address. Here, we examined the implications of using the liminal-prime paradigm, which allows comparing unconscious and conscious priming with constant stimulation. We adapted an iconic demonstration of unconscious response priming to the liminal-prime paradigm. On the one hand, temporal attention allocated to the prime and its relevance to the task increased the magnitude of response priming. On the other hand, the longer RTs associated with the dual task inherent to the paradigm resulted in response priming being underestimated, because unconscious priming effects were shorter-lived than conscious-priming effects. Nevertheless, when the impact of long RTs was alleviated by considering the fastest trials or by imposing a response deadline, conscious response priming remained considerably larger than unconscious response priming. These findings suggest that conscious perception strongly modulates response priming. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Complexity: a potential paradigm for a health promotion discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Marie-Claude; Richard, Lucie

    2014-06-01

    Health promotion underpins a distancing from narrow, simplifying health approaches associated with the biomedical model. However, it has not yet succeeded in formally establishing its theoretical, epistemological and methodological foundations on a single paradigm. The complexity paradigm, which it has yet to broach head-on, might provide it with a disciplinary matrix in line with its implicit stances and basic values. This article seeks to establish complexity's relevance as a paradigm that can contribute to the development of a health promotion discipline. The relevance of complexity is justified primarily by its matching with several implicit epistemological and methodological/theoretical stances found in the cardinal concepts and principles of health promotion. The transcendence of ontological realism and determinism as well as receptiveness in respect of the reflexivity that complexity encompasses are congruent with the values of social justice, participation, empowerment and the concept of positive health that the field promotes. Moreover, from a methodological and theoretical standpoint, complexity assumes a holistic, contextual and transdisciplinary approach, toward which health promotion is tending through its emphasis on ecology and interdisciplinary action. In a quest to illustrate our position, developmental evaluation is presented as an example of practice stemming from a complexity paradigm that can be useful in the evaluation of health promotion initiatives. In short, we argue that it would be advantageous for health promotion to integrate this paradigm, which would provide it with a formal framework appropriate to its purposes and concerns.

  12. e-Science Paradigm for Astroparticle Physics at KISTI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kihyeon Cho

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information (KISTI has been studying the e-Science paradigm. With its successful application to particle physics, we consider the application of the paradigm to astroparticle physics. The Standard Model of particle physics is still not considered perfect even though the Higgs boson has recently been discovered. Astrophysical evidence shows that dark matter exists in the universe, hinting at new physics beyond the Standard Model. Therefore, there are efforts to search for dark matter candidates using direct detection, indirect detection, and collider detection. There are also efforts to build theoretical models for dark matter. Current astroparticle physics involves big investments in theories and computing along with experiments. The complexity of such an area of research is explained within the framework of the e-Science paradigm. The idea of the e-Science paradigm is to unify experiment, theory, and computing. The purpose is to study astroparticle physics anytime and anywhere. In this paper, an example of the application of the paradigm to astrophysics is presented.

  13. Connecting traditional sciences with the OLAP and data mining paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guergachi, Aziz A.

    2003-03-01

    The paradigms of OLAP, multidimensional modeling and data mining have first emerged in the areas of market analysis and finance to address various needs of people working in these areas. Does this mean that they are useful and applicable in these areas only? Or, can they also be applicable in the other more traditional areas of science and engineering? What characterize the systems for which these paradigms are suitable? What are the goals of these paradigms? How do they relate to the traditional body of knowledge that has been developed throughout the centuries in the areas of mathematics, statistics, systems science and engineering? Where, how and to what extent can we leverage the conventional wisdom that has been accumulated in the aforementioned disciplines to develop a foundational basis for the above paradigms? The goal of this paper is to address these questions at the foundational level. We argue that the paradigms of OLAP, multidimensional modeling and data mining can also be applied successfully to complex engineering systems, such as membrane-based water/wastewater treatment plants, for example. We develop mathematically-based axiomatic definition of the concepts of 'dimension,' 'dimension level,' 'dimension hierarchy' and 'measure' using set theory and equivalence relations.

  14. The Paradigm of Critical Realism: Approach to an Interdisciplinary Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Tavana

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The debate of method of recognition in humanities, social and nature science is one of the apprehensions of Scientists in Wisdom Domain –especially in the modern world. This apprehension, before all things was of appearing in the paradigm of methodoligical between the advocates of the paradigms of positivism with having a share of the natural science. They used to values of naturalism in social and human studies. Additionally, testing and observation and repetition are present as the main terms of recognition. In front, the difference between human studies and natural science is important for the advocates of hermeneutic paradigm. Also, they speak about the methodology of interpretation (understanding of human and social phenomenon. But, in the second half of 20th century another paradigms was established as the Critical realism. This paradigm is tried to parther from the methodoloigcal binary and has a share from the recognition of ontological positivism and epistemological hermeneutics attain to a procedure of interdisciplinary about recognition. So, on the basis of this subject, this article mentioned this question that: would the critical realism receive as the methodology in interdisciplinary? Method of the Article is postulate. This article reasoned that multilayer ontology and epistemology redounded to multilayer methodology that could build up the knowledge of interdisciplinary.

  15. Charting Relations between Intersectionality Theory and the Neurodiversity Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Rose Strand

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores central elements and applications of intersectionality theory and the neurodiversity paradigm. First, the histories and tenets of intersectionality theory and neurodiversity paradigm are provided. Then, areas are explored where each of the two approaches might further engage with the principles of the other. Finally, the essay concludes by broadly considering the efforts made by the Black Lives Matter movement and the Autistic Self Advocacy Network to bring attention to and end police violence as both networks employ and attend to elements of intersectionality and neurodiversity. The way these two networks draw on both intersectionality and neurodiversity to further their mission could be a possible site for scholars to consider in the interest of advancing dialogues between intersectionality theory and the neurodiversity paradigm. Ultimately, the essay calls for a continued exploration of the potentials for intersectionality and neurodiversity to complement and complicate one another, both in terms of theoretical development and coalition building.

  16. Conjugal conflict and violence: a review and theoretical paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smilkstein, G; Aspy, C B; Quiggins, P A

    1994-02-01

    Conjugal violence has been described as having multiple etiologies. The variables are so numerous that intervention and research protocols are difficult to effect. This paper proposes a paradigm that establishes conjugal conflict and violence as separate entities. According to the paradigm, conjugal conflict is viewed as "an inevitable part of human association," whereas conjugal violence is determined to be a learned behavioral tactic that is employed as a coping strategy when an individual's conflict threshold potential is exceeded. Evidence will be offered that violence is learned from family of origin and from observing what is common or accepted practice in the community. Use of this paradigm would give primacy to community education programs that advance the concept of conflict resolution through rational discourse.

  17. Convergent paradigms for visual neuroscience and dissociative identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Mark L; Manning, Rana L

    2009-01-01

    Although dissociative identity disorder, a condition in which multiple individuals appear to inhabit a single body, is a recognized psychiatric disorder, patients may yet encounter health professionals who declare that they simply "do not believe in multiple personalities." This article explores the proposal that resistance to the disorder represents a failure to apply an appropriate paradigm from which the disorder should be interpreted. Trauma and sociocognitive explanations of dissociative identity disorder are contrasted. The trauma hypothesis is further differentiated into paradigms in which trauma affects a defense mechanism, and one in which trauma serves to inhibit the normal integration sequence of parallel processes of the self in childhood. This latter paradigm is shown to be broadly consistent with current models of cortical processing in another system, the cortical visual system.

  18. Pins and posters: Paradigms for content publication on situated displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    José, Rui; Pinto, Hélder; Silva, Bruno; Melro, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Public-display systems are still far from being a medium for meeting people's diverse communication goals. Moving toward open displays will require publication paradigms that can overcome the challenges of meaningful engagement and enable users to fully understand and control the publication process. The metaphors of pins and posters have inspired two complementary paradigms for public displays. Researchers implemented these paradigms in the Instant Places system, which they deployed on 10 displays in diverse urban locations for six months. They collected user and system data regarding the users' practices. The findings improve the understanding of what might drive user-generated content in networks of urban displays. Such knowledge can inform the design of tools and procedures for situated publication in public displays.

  19. Toward a patient-based paradigm for blood transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, Albert; Vamvakas, Eleftherios

    2014-01-01

    The current "manufacturing paradigm" of transfusion practice has detached transfusion from the clinical environment. As an example, fresh whole blood in large-volume hemorrhage may be superior to whole blood reconstituted from multiple components. Multicomponent apheresis can overcome logistical difficulties in matching patient needs with fresh component availability and can deliver the benefits of fresh whole blood. Because of the different transfusion needs of patients in emerging economies and the vulnerability of these blood systems to emerging infections, fresh whole blood and multicomponent apheresis can better meet patient needs when compared with transplants of the "manufacturing paradigm". We propose that patient blood management, along with panels of repeat, paid, accredited apheresis and fresh whole-blood donors can be used in emerging economies to support decentralized blood services. This alternative transfusion-medicine paradigm could eventually also be adopted by established economies to focus transfusion medicine on local patient needs and to alleviate the problem of the aging volunteer donor base.

  20. Embracing the new paradigm of assessment in residency training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringsted, C; Østergaard, D; Scherpbier, A

    2003-01-01

    Assessment of clinical competence is facing a paradigm shift in more than one sense. The shift relates to test content, which increasingly covers a broader spectrum of competences than mere medical expertise, and to test methods, with an increasing focus on testing performance in realistic settings....... Also there is a shift in the concept of assessment in that instruction and assessment are no longer seen as being separate in time and purpose, but as integral parts of the learning process. The nature of the new paradigm for assessment is well described but the challenge to programme directors...... is to specify the evaluation situations and develop appropriate methods. This paper describes the intrinsic rational validation process in outlining an assessment programme for first-year anaesthesiology residency training according to the new paradigm. The applicability to other residency programmes and higher...

  1. Cryptocurrency Networks: A New P2P Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Delgado-Segura

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available P2P networks are the mechanism used by cryptocurrencies to disseminate system information while keeping the whole system as much decentralized as possible. Cryptocurrency P2P networks have new characteristics that propose new challenges and avoid some problems of existing P2P networks. By characterizing the most relevant cryptocurrency network, Bitcoin, we provide details on different properties of cryptocurrency networks and their similarities and differences with standard P2P network paradigms. Our study allows us to conclude that cryptocurrency networks present a new paradigm of P2P networks due to the mechanisms they use to achieve high resilience and security. With this new paradigm, interesting research lines can be further developed, both in the focused field of P2P cryptocurrency networks and also when such networks are combined with other distributed scenarios.

  2. Language-learning disabilities: Paradigms for the nineties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiig, E H

    1991-01-01

    We are beginning a decade, during which many traditional paradigms in education, special education, and speech-language pathology will undergo change. Among paradigms considered promising for speech-language pathology in the schools are collaborative language intervention and strategy training for language and communication. This presentation introduces management models for developing a collaborative language intervention process, among them the Deming Management Method for Total Quality (TQ) (Deming 1986). Implementation models for language assessment and IEP planning and multicultural issues are also introduced (Damico and Nye 1990; Secord and Wiig in press). While attention to processes involved in developing and implementing collaborative language intervention is paramount, content should not be neglected. To this end, strategy training for language and communication is introduced as a viable paradigm. Macro- and micro-level process models for strategy training are featured and general issues are discussed (Ellis, Deshler, and Schumaker 1989; Swanson 1989; Wiig 1989).

  3. Bayesian evidence and predictivity of the inflationary paradigm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubitosi, Giulia; Lagos, Macarena; Magueijo, João [Theoretical Physics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London, SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom); Allison, Rupert, E-mail: g.gubitosi@imperial.ac.uk, E-mail: m.lagos13@imperial.ac.uk, E-mail: j.magueijo@imperial.ac.uk, E-mail: rupert.allison@astro.ox.ac.uk [Astrophysics, University of Oxford, DWB, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we consider the issue of paradigm evaluation by applying Bayes' theorem along the following nested hierarchy of progressively more complex structures: i) parameter estimation (within a model), ii) model selection and comparison (within a paradigm), iii) paradigm evaluation. In such a hierarchy the Bayesian evidence works both as the posterior's normalization at a given level and as the likelihood function at the next level up. Whilst raising no objections to the standard application of the procedure at the two lowest levels, we argue that it should receive a considerable modification when evaluating paradigms, when testability and fitting data are equally important. By considering toy models we illustrate how models and paradigms that are difficult to falsify are always favoured by the Bayes factor. We argue that the evidence for a paradigm should not only be high for a given dataset, but exceptional with respect to what it would have been, had the data been different. With this motivation we propose a measure which we term predictivity , as well as a prior to be incorporated into the Bayesian framework, penalising unpredictivity as much as not fitting data. We apply this measure to inflation seen as a whole, and to a scenario where a specific inflationary model is hypothetically deemed as the only one viable as a result of information alien to cosmology (e.g. Solar System gravity experiments, or particle physics input). We conclude that cosmic inflation is currently hard to falsify, but that this could change were external/additional information to cosmology to select one of its many models. We also compare this state of affairs to bimetric varying speed of light cosmology.

  4. Critical examination of RHIC paradigms - mostly high pT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tannenbaum, M.I.

    2009-01-01

    A critical examination of RHIC paradigms is presented. Topics include: search for a critical point with a low energy scan; the lack of understanding of radiative processes in a medium in QCD compared in detail to examples from QED; the reason why some physicists started to measure particles at large p T in the 1960's; a review of the discovery of hard-scattering in p-p collisions in the 1970's via single-inclusive and two-particle correlations and application of these techniques at RHIC. Several paradigms in both soft and hard physics which are popular at RHIC are discussed and challenged.

  5. Software engineering frameworks for the cloud computing paradigm

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmood, Zaigham

    2013-01-01

    This book presents the latest research on Software Engineering Frameworks for the Cloud Computing Paradigm, drawn from an international selection of researchers and practitioners. The book offers both a discussion of relevant software engineering approaches and practical guidance on enterprise-wide software deployment in the cloud environment, together with real-world case studies. Features: presents the state of the art in software engineering approaches for developing cloud-suitable applications; discusses the impact of the cloud computing paradigm on software engineering; offers guidance an

  6. Why empowerment does not empower: the bankruptcy of current paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belasco, J A; Gorham, G

    1996-03-01

    As a result of the rapid changes taking place in health care, nurse leaders are more challenged than ever to assume a new and different kind of leadership. Under the current paradigm, leaders are responsible for the performance of their people. Leaders do things TO the organization and the people in it. That paradigm of leader responsibility for other people's performance, given today's circumstances, guarantees organizational failure. A radical transformation in leadership thinking must take place. The leader's job is to get the people to be responsible for their own performance.

  7. Paradigm shift from cartography to geo-communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Lars

    2007-01-01

    This paper argues that the domain of GIS, cartography, geo-information etc. is facing a paradigm shift. The implication of a paradigm shift is a complete and necessary re-definition of e.g. the philosophical foundation of the system, as well as with a major upgrade and readjustment of procedures......-information is actually not possible at all without having a usage (a project identity and a purpose) in mind. Objective and neutral geo-information does not exist. Therefore the overall philosophy of the geo-domain will be that it is a communication discipline....

  8. Place of great extinctions in the new ecological paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Я. Кипоренко

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper demonstrates importance of the knowledge of the causes and consequences of the Great extinctions that occurred before the origin of man, in the formation of a new environmental paradigm. Were described methodological foundations of paleoecological studies. Were analyzed the fossilized remains found directly by the authors on the territory of Ukraine. In the development of new environmental paradigm is necessary to consider knowledge of the great extinction (the knowledge of the past, because it is an event, that can be used not only to study past, as well as predicting the same events in the future

  9. Fingerprints of primordial universe paradigms as features in density perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xingang

    2011-01-01

    Experimentally distinguishing different primordial universe paradigms that lead to the Big Bang model is an outstanding challenge in modern cosmology and astrophysics. We show that a generic type of signals that exist in primordial universe models can be used for such purpose. These signals are induced by tiny oscillations of massive fields and manifest as features in primordial density perturbations. They are capable of recording the time-dependence of the scale factor of the primordial universe, and therefore provide direct evidence for specific paradigm. These signals present special opportunities and challenges for experiments and data analyses.

  10. Dynamics of systems and change in the accounting paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luis Juliao Rossi

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this document is to demonstrate the potential of the dynamics of systems as a thinking trend which may help in the understanding process and the construction of an accounting paradigm change. This objective is framed inside a wider purpose: to propase interdisciplinary encounters that contribute to the necessary paradigm change. The described problem is studied from the «System Thinking», which is an approach with theoretical framework and representation and simulation tools related to the tapie.

  11. Inhabiting compassion: A pastoral theological paradigm | Zylla | HTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inspired by the vision of care in Vincent van Gogh's depiction of the parable of the Good Samaritan, this article offers a paradigm for inhabiting compassion. Compassion is understood in this article as a moral emotion that is also a pathocentric virtue. This definition creates a dynamic view of compassion as a desire to ...

  12. The New Aid Paradigm: A Case of Policy Incoherence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.G. Dijkstra (Geske)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractFrom around 2000 onwards, donors and recipient governments embarked upon a new aid paradigm. The most important elements include increased selectivity in the aid allocation, more ownership of recipient countries based on nationally elaborated Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs),

  13. Identity based marketing: a new balanced marketing paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alsem, K.J.; Kostelijk, Erik Jan

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to propose a fundamentally new extension of the marketing paradigm. This is theoretically and practically necessary since in the authors' view there is an insufficient balance between customer and brand thinking. Design/methodology/approach – While the

  14. Understanding the Intersections of Paradigm, Meta-Theory, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Researchers rely on theories to guide the research process. Theories provide directions in formulating research questions and in the interpretation of findings. The choice of theory to guide inquiry must relate to research paradigm and corresponding meta-theory. However, many beginning scholars experience difficulty in ...

  15. Consumers and Makers: Exploring Opposing Paradigms of Millennial College Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    The political and technological circumstances of the past two decades have culminated in opposing epistemic paradigms of college readiness, where millennial students' conceptual understanding of "learning" is both narrowed to meet the demands of school systems bound to accountability and amplified by a rapidly evolving digital world. The…

  16. Embracing the Learning Paradigm to Foster Systems Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habron, Geoffrey; Goralnik, Lissy; Thorp, Laurie

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Michigan State University developed an undergraduate, academic specialization in sustainability based on the learning paradigm. The purpose of this paper is to share initial findings on assessment of systems thinking competency. Design/methodology/approach: The 15-week course served 14 mostly third and fourth-year students. Assessment of…

  17. Models for predicting the inflectional paradigm of Croatian words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Šnajder

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Morphological analysis is a prerequisite for many natural language processing tasks. For inflectionally rich languages such as Croatian, morphological analysis typically relies on a morphological lexicon, which lists the lemmas and their paradigms. However, a real-life morphological analyzer must also be able to handle properly the out-of-vocabulary words. We address the task of predicting the correct inflectional paradigm of unknown Croatian words. We frame this as a supervised machine learning problem: we train a classifier to predict whether a candidate lemma-paradigm pair is correct based on a number of string- and corpus-based features. The candidate lemma-paradigm pairs are generated using a handcrafted morphology grammar. Our aim is to examine the machine learning aspect of the problem: we test a comprehensive set of features and evaluate the classification accuracy using different feature subsets. We show that satisfactory classification accuracy (92% can be achieved with SVM using a combination of string- and corpus-based features. On a per word basis, the F1-score is 53% and accuracy is 70%, which outperforms a frequency-based baseline by a wide margin. We discuss a number of possible directions for future research.

  18. Port Harcourt Medical Journal, a paradigm shift | Eke | Port Harcourt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Port Harcourt Medical Journal, a paradigm shift. N Eke. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0795-3038.179439 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

  19. L ocating the doctoral study in the 'paradigm skirmishes': Challenges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is important to understand the thought patterns of students and supervisors that underlie the choice of paradigm and determine the progression of doctoral studies as an integral part of articulating scholarship at the doctoral level and subsequently, to completing the research. This paper traces a student's and a supervisor's ...

  20. Leveling the Playing Field: The Normed-Opportunity Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Alicia; Cormier, Bret T.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the practices, beliefs, and attitudes of secondary teachers in order to identify factors that led to success for non-dominant-group students. We found a unique paradigm among educators whose students of color and/or poverty showed no achievement gap. Rather than coming from a deficit perspective or one expecting assimilation, those…

  1. The National Terminology Services: a new paradigm | Jordaan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The new dispensation in South Africa necessitated a paradigm shift at the National Terminology Services (NTS). Being part of the Central Government, the NTS has to implement policy as laid down by the government of the day. Former policy, processes and products are described as well as the vision and objectives for the ...

  2. Power distribution in the face of the new energy paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desama, Claude

    2012-01-01

    After the challenge of the liberalization of the domestic market of the energy which put an end to the vertically integrated structures, the managers of the distribution networks must now face the energy transition i.e. to substitution from a supply from electricity centralized by intermittent productions related to renewable energies. The article approaches the possible solutions to face this new energy paradigm

  3. Paradigm Changes in Linguistics: From Reductionism to Holism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigand, Edda

    2011-01-01

    Linguistics like any science has undergone a series of paradigm changes, one of the most important being the change from the view of language as a sign system to that of language-in-use. In the face of the progress made in the natural and social sciences in recent years, from biology to economics, the question has to be posed where linguistics and…

  4. Innovative Assessment Paradigm to Enhance Student Learning in Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Maaddawy, Tamer

    2017-01-01

    Incorporation of student self-assessment (SSA) in engineering education offers opportunities to support and encourage learner-led-learning. This paper presents an innovative assessment paradigm that integrates formative, summative, and SSA to enhance student learning. The assessment innovation was implemented in a senior-level civil engineering…

  5. Beyond Criminal Justice: Toward a New Paradigm for Political ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Beyond Criminal Justice: Toward a New Paradigm for Political Settlement in Africa. Mass violence in contemporary Africa typically occurs in cycles. Months or years after one wave of violence is brought to an end, another wave overtakes it. Peace agreements are swept away and yesterday's victims emerge as today's ...

  6. Exploring paradigms of crime reduction: An empirical longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soothill, University of Lancaster, Keith; Christoffersen, Mogens; Azhar, Hussain

    on offenders with first-time convictions for shoplifting (n=1,778), for violence (n=1,585) and for burglary (n=1,208), all four paradigms made a contribution to risk of first time offending for all three crimes. The counter factual analysis indicated that a focus on structural issues within a society may have...

  7. The human dynamic clamp as a paradigm for social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Guillaume; de Guzman, Gonzalo C; Tognoli, Emmanuelle; Kelso, J A Scott

    2014-09-02

    Social neuroscience has called for new experimental paradigms aimed toward real-time interactions. A distinctive feature of interactions is mutual information exchange: One member of a pair changes in response to the other while simultaneously producing actions that alter the other. Combining mathematical and neurophysiological methods, we introduce a paradigm called the human dynamic clamp (HDC), to directly manipulate the interaction or coupling between a human and a surrogate constructed to behave like a human. Inspired by the dynamic clamp used so productively in cellular neuroscience, the HDC allows a person to interact in real time with a virtual partner itself driven by well-established models of coordination dynamics. People coordinate hand movements with the visually observed movements of a virtual hand, the parameters of which depend on input from the subject's own movements. We demonstrate that HDC can be extended to cover a broad repertoire of human behavior, including rhythmic and discrete movements, adaptation to changes of pacing, and behavioral skill learning as specified by a virtual "teacher." We propose HDC as a general paradigm, best implemented when empirically verified theoretical or mathematical models have been developed in a particular scientific field. The HDC paradigm is powerful because it provides an opportunity to explore parameter ranges and perturbations that are not easily accessible in ordinary human interactions. The HDC not only enables to test the veracity of theoretical models, it also illuminates features that are not always apparent in real-time human social interactions and the brain correlates thereof.

  8. Solar Ethics: A New Paradigm for Environmental Ethics and Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michael A.; Hung, Ruyu

    2009-01-01

    This article provides grounds for a new paradigm of environmental ethics and education based on the centrality of the sun and solar system--a shift from anthropocentrism to solar systemism. The article provides some grounds for this shift from the physical sciences that considers the planet Earth as part of a wider system that is dependent upon…

  9. In Search of a New Paradigm for Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schejbal, David

    2012-01-01

    In this essay I argue that online education, artificial intelligence, and market pressures are driving higher education to adopt the industrial model and to find a new paradigm for delivering education at low costs. In addition, there is tremendous pressure from the federal government to make universities more accountable while making higher…

  10. Trends in global development paradigms and the ramifications in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The recent Sustainable Development Goals draw from the antecedents of colonialism, economic growth and development, people-centred development, sustainable development, and globalization. The implications for policy are key issues in regard to the analytical meaning of the co-existing paradigms and the destination ...

  11. Youth, physical activity and leisure education: Need for a paradigm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The publication of the Surgeon General's Report (1996) on Physical Activity and Health by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services recommended a paradigm shift during the 21st Century from prescribing exercise for fitness, to promoting physical activity and leisure education as an active approach to good ...

  12. The Usefulness of a Suggested Paradigm for Improving Paragraph Coherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Fiona Kwai-peng

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to explore the effectiveness of a paradigm to teach native Cantonese-speaking university students the hierarchical structure of expository prose to improve paragraph coherence. Most of the diagnostic argumentative essays the participants in this study wrote in the course were incoherent, failing to meet readers' expectation of…

  13. Linear and Nonlinear Career Models: Metaphors, Paradigms, and Ideologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzanell, Patrice M.; Goldzwig, Steven R.

    1991-01-01

    Examines the linear or bureaucratic career models (dominant in career research, metaphors, paradigms, and ideologies) which maintain career myths of flexibility and individualized routes to success in organizations incapable of offering such versatility. Describes nonlinear career models which offer suggestive metaphors for re-visioning careers…

  14. TQM Paradigm for Higher Education in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Janette; Valenzuela, Madonna; Ayuyao, Nunilon

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Critical success factors (CSFs) in total quality management (TQM) implementation are vital to the quality improvement of organizations, including higher education institutions (HEIs). The present study aims to attempt to develop a TQM paradigm contextualized to HEIs in the Philippine setting. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 309…

  15. Quantum ergonomics: shifting the paradigm of the systems agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Guy H; Salmon, Paul M; Bedinger, Melissa; Stanton, Neville A

    2017-02-01

    A paradigm is an accepted world view. If we do not continually question our paradigm then wider trends and movements will overtake the discipline leaving it ill adapted to future challenges. This Special Issue is an opportunity to keep systems thinking at the forefront of ergonomics theory and practice. Systems thinking prompts us to ask whether ergonomics, as a discipline, has been too timid? Too preoccupied with the resolution of immediate problems with industrial-age methods when, approaching fast, are developments which could render these operating assumptions an irrelevance. Practical case studies are presented to show how abstract systems problems can be tackled head-on to deliver highly innovative and cost-effective insights. The strategic direction of the discipline foregrounds high-quality systems problems. These are something the discipline is well able to respond to provided that the appropriate operating paradigms are selected. Practitioner Summary: High-quality systems problems are the future of the discipline. How do we convert obtuse sounding systems concepts into practical interventions? In this paper, the essence of systems thinking is distilled and practical case studies used to demonstrate the benefits of this new paradigm.

  16. A Systemic Integration of Technology for New-Paradigm Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, William R.; Watson, Sunnie Lee; Reigeluth, Charles M.

    2012-01-01

    Educational reform efforts have failed to create widespread improvement. The authors argue that rather than trying to improve the existing system of education, a new learner-centered paradigm is needed that supports individualized learning. Such a significantly different system of education will require the systemic application of technology to…

  17. Academic Performance, School Desertion and Emotional Paradigm in University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, Emma Rosa Cruz; Barrientos, Laura Gática; Castro, Patricia Eugenia García; García, Jesús Hernández

    2010-01-01

    The present work aims to describe academic performance, school desertion and the emotional paradigm of the university students of the accounting school of the Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla (FCPBUAP). We have found that low academic performance is related to students' economic deficiency, which affects their concentration on their…

  18. Bacteria Hunt: Evaluating multi-paradigm BCI interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mühl, C.; Gürkök, Hayrettin; Plass - Oude Bos, D.; Thurlings, Marieke E.; Scherffig, Lasse; Duvinage, Matthieu; Elbakyan, Alexandra A.; Kang, SungWook; Poel, Mannes; Heylen, Dirk K.J.

    The multimodal, multi-paradigm brain-computer interfacing (BCI) game Bacteria Hunt was used to evaluate two aspects of BCI interaction in a gaming context. One goal was to examine the effect of feedback on the ability of the user to manipulate his mental state of relaxation. This was done by having

  19. Paradigm shifts in orthodontic treatment with mini-implant anchorage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny Joung-Lin Liaw

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available After the applications of mini-implant anchorage, the envelope of orthodontic treatment was expanded and some treatment modes were changed because of more predictable tooth movement with empowered anchorage. The author tried to share his experience of TADs applications for clarifying the paradigm shifts of orthodontic treatment assisted with the mini-implant anchorage.

  20. Multi-level programming paradigm for extreme computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petiton, S.; Sato, M.; Emad, N.; Calvin, C.; Tsuji, M.; Dandouna, M.

    2013-01-01

    In order to propose a framework and programming paradigms for post peta-scale computing, on the road to exa-scale computing and beyond, we introduced new languages, associated with a hierarchical multi-level programming paradigm, allowing scientific end-users and developers to program highly hierarchical architectures designed for extreme computing. In this paper, we explain the interest of such hierarchical multi-level programming paradigm for extreme computing and its well adaptation to several large computational science applications, such as for linear algebra solvers used for reactor core physic. We describe the YML language and framework allowing describing graphs of parallel components, which may be developed using PGAS-like language such as XMP, scheduled and computed on supercomputers. Then, we propose experimentations on supercomputers (such as the 'K' and 'Hooper' ones) of the hybrid method MERAM (Multiple Explicitly Restarted Arnoldi Method) as a case study for iterative methods manipulating sparse matrices, and the block Gauss-Jordan method as a case study for direct method manipulating dense matrices. We conclude proposing evolutions for this programming paradigm. (authors)

  1. A Longitudinal analysis of the Porterian paradigm utilization in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Sehnem

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to investigate to what extent Michael Porter's ideas keep attracting the interest of Brazilian researchers vis-à-vis other possibilities. In this research, we conceptualize Porter's paradigm by the the following elements: strategic groups, generic strategies, model of the five forces and value chain. Weanalyzed conferece communications to EnANPAD¿s, from 1998 to 2008, and to 3Es, from 2003to 2007. The results indicate a decline in the use of the porterian paradigm as the main axis of research in strategy. The generic strategies and the model of five forces are the elements of Porter's paradigm most employed, while the concepts of strategic groups and value chain are the ones that received less attention by researchers. The analysis of methodology and purpose of comunications indicates that the "porterian life" in Brazil was characterized by the acritical use of its concepts in order to describe the reality of the strategy in Brazil. There are no evidences of consistent and systematic attempts to test or adapt the porterian paradigm for the Brazilian context. And results indicate no evidences that this trend will be reversed.

  2. Governance Paradigms of Public Universities: An International Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Joe

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to develop a conceptual model of the wider influencing forces impacting the governance paradigms of public universities. It draws on the multi-theoretical governance concept and seeks to identify these forces through the lens of chief audit executives using a qualitative research approach. The interview data supported by published…

  3. EPISTEMOLOGY IN THE CONTEXT OF THE MODERN BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTIONAL PARADIGM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. S. Tokovenko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the work is finding the reasonability of using bio-evolutionary paradigm for researching ratio morphic cognitive activity. Methodology. Methodological grounds consist of the original principles and conceptual apparatus of evolutionary epistemology. Scientific novelty. The article identifies opportunities for using of biological and evolutionary paradigm to study the peculiarities of ratiomorphic cognitive backgrounds and their influence on the formation and development of human knowledge. Conclusions. The article concludes that together with the idea of hyper cycles (feedback loop with mutual transmission of information in cognitive process the concept of ratiomorphic cognitive backgrounds, as well as attempts to examine cognitive processes based on the scientific criteria (empirical verification, explanatory power and ability to predict should be certainly considered as a positive contribution to the development of evolutionary epistemology into modern epistemological research. However, it is also indicated the fact of narrowing the heuristic possibilities of this epistemological direction because of excessive metaphor of bio-evolutionary paradigm. Further development of evolutionary epistemological research is considered in shifting the emphasis from biological and evolutionary towards cultural and evolutionary paradigm.

  4. Problems with a False Recognition Paradigm for Developmental Memory Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindauer, Barbara K.; Paris, Scott G.

    1976-01-01

    Developmental changes in memory organization based on synonym and antonym relationships were examined in three experiments. Subjects were 64 second graders and 64 sixth graders. Some inadequacies of a false recognition paradigm for developmental research are identified and some alternative analyses are proposed. (Author/JH)

  5. Think globally, research locally: paradigms and place in agroecological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Heather L; Smith, Alex A; Farmer, James R

    2014-10-01

    Conducting science for practical ends implicates scientists, whether they wish it or not, as agents in social-ecological systems, raising ethical, economic, environmental, and political issues. Considering these issues helps scientists to increase the relevance and sustainability of research outcomes. As we rise to the worthy call to connect basic research with food production, scientists have the opportunity to evaluate alternative food production paradigms and consider how our research funds and efforts are best employed. In this contribution, we review some of the problems produced by science conducted in service of industrial agriculture and its associated economic growth paradigm. We discuss whether the new concept of "ecological intensification" can rescue the industrial agriculture/growth paradigm and present an emerging alternative paradigm of decentralized, localized, biodiversity-promoting agriculture for a steady-state economy. This "custom fit" agriculture engages constructively with complex and highly localized ecosystems, and we draw from examples of published work to demonstrate how ecologists can contribute by using approaches that acknowledge local agricultural practices and draw on community participation. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  6. Understanding and Applying Research Paradigms in Educational Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivunja, Charles; Kuyini, Ahmed Bawa

    2017-01-01

    The concept of research paradigm is one that many higher degree research students, and even early career researchers, find elusive to articulate, and challenging to apply in their research proposals. Adopting an ethnographic and hermeneutic methodology, the present paper draws upon our experiences as lecturers in Research Methods over many years,…

  7. Aspects of Theories, Frameworks and Paradigms in Mathematics Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoilescu, Dorian

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses major theoretical debates and paradigms from the last decades in general education and their specific influences in mathematics education contexts. Behaviourism, cognitive science, constructivism, situated cognition, critical theory, place-based learning, postmodernism and poststructuralism and their significant aspects in…

  8. Trends in global development paradigms and the ramifications in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since the 1950s, Ghana has rolled out a number of development paradigms in a bid to ... the general systems theory and spatial processes of rural–urban migration in ..... The processes embody nodes (countries, regional blocs, and cardinal ... interconnectedness (as in networking including relationships among the nodes).

  9. Identity-based marketing : A new balanced marketing paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alsem, K.J.; Kostelijk, E.J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to propose a fundamentally new extension of the marketing paradigm. This is theoretically and practically necessary since in the authors' view there is an insufficient balance between customer and brand thinking. Design/methodology/approach - While the

  10. What Philanthropy's Paradigm Shift Means for Higher Ed Fundraising

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCully, George

    2015-01-01

    This is an unprecedented era of human history, in which simultaneous transformations of every technically advanced field are being driven by the powerful technological revolution in information and communications. Technically, these transformative changes are "paradigm shifts"--a distinct kind of historical change in which the governing…

  11. The maturing of the quality improvement paradigm in the SEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basili, Victor R.

    1993-01-01

    The Software Engineering Laboratory uses a paradigm for improving the software process and product, called the quality improvement paradigm. This paradigm has evolved over the past 18 years, along with our software development processes and product. Since 1976, when we first began the SEL, we have learned a great deal about improving the software process and product, making a great many mistakes along the way. Quality improvement paradigm, as it is currently defined, can be broken up into six steps: characterize the current project and its environment with respect to the appropriate models and metrics; set the quantifiable goals for successful project performance and improvement; choose the appropriate process model and supporting methods and tools for this project; execute the processes, construct the products, and collect, validate, and analyze the data to provide real-time feedback for corrective action; analyze the data to evaluate the current practices, determine problems, record findings, and make recommendations for future project improvements; and package the experience gained in the form of updated and refined models and other forms of structured knowledge gained from this and prior projects and save it in an experience base to be reused on future projects.

  12. Discussing discourse modalities in argument theory : Reconsidering a paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hoven, P.J.

    2018-01-01

    This article analyzes a statement by Blair that the conditions of interpretation of visual expression are indeterminate to a much greater degree than is the case with verbal expression. We argue that this proposition reveals a somewhat hidden paradigm about what argument theory is or should be. This

  13. A Technical/Strategic Paradigm for Online Executive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Marlene A.; Keaveney, Susan M.

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the development and delivery of online courses for the executive education audience. The goal is to introduce a new framework, the technical/strategic paradigm, that will help educators to identify the pedagogical needs of disparate executive groups and adjust their online course development plans accordingly. We describe…

  14. A nonmusical paradigm for identifying absolute pitch possessors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, David A.; Olson, Ingrid R.; Marks, Lawrence E.; Gore, John C.

    2004-09-01

    The ability to identify and reproduce sounds of specific frequencies is remarkable and uncommon. The etiology and defining characteristics of this skill, absolute pitch (AP), have been very controversial. One theory suggests that AP requires a specific type of early musical training and that the ability to encode and remember tones depends on these learned musical associations. An alternate theory argues that AP may be strongly dependent on hereditary factors and relatively independent of musical experience. To date, it has been difficult to test these hypotheses because all previous paradigms for identifying AP have required subjects to employ knowledge of musical nomenclature. As such, these tests are insensitive to the possibility of discovering AP in either nonmusicians or musicians of non-Western training. Based on previous literature in pitch memory, a paradigm is presented that is intended to distinguish between AP possessors and nonpossessors independent of the subjects' musical experience. The efficacy of this method is then tested with 20 classically defined AP possessors and 22 nonpossessors. Data from these groups strongly support the validity of the paradigm. The use of a nonmusical paradigm to identify AP may facilitate research into many aspects of this phenomenon.

  15. A movement ecology paradigm for unifying organismal movement research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Ran; Getz, Wayne M; Revilla, Eloy; Holyoak, Marcel; Kadmon, Ronen; Saltz, David; Smouse, Peter E

    2008-12-09

    Movement of individual organisms is fundamental to life, quilting our planet in a rich tapestry of phenomena with diverse implications for ecosystems and humans. Movement research is both plentiful and insightful, and recent methodological advances facilitate obtaining a detailed view of individual movement. Yet, we lack a general unifying paradigm, derived from first principles, which can place movement studies within a common context and advance the development of a mature scientific discipline. This introductory article to the Movement Ecology Special Feature proposes a paradigm that integrates conceptual, theoretical, methodological, and empirical frameworks for studying movement of all organisms, from microbes to trees to elephants. We introduce a conceptual framework depicting the interplay among four basic mechanistic components of organismal movement: the internal state (why move?), motion (how to move?), and navigation (when and where to move?) capacities of the individual and the external factors affecting movement. We demonstrate how the proposed framework aids the study of various taxa and movement types; promotes the formulation of hypotheses about movement; and complements existing biomechanical, cognitive, random, and optimality paradigms of movement. The proposed framework integrates eclectic research on movement into a structured paradigm and aims at providing a basis for hypothesis generation and a vehicle facilitating the understanding of the causes, mechanisms, and spatiotemporal patterns of movement and their role in various ecological and evolutionary processes. "Now we must consider in general the common reason for moving with any movement whatever." (Aristotle, De Motu Animalium, 4th century B.C.).

  16. A Paradigm Shift for Educational Administrators: The Total Quality Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, M. J.

    This paper reviews the major ideas of the seminal total quality management theorists, such as Deming, Crosby, Juran, Ishikawa, and Imai, to illustrate how total quality management is applicable to education. It is argued that there is a need for a paradigm shift in educational administration. The first part reviews current Australian societal…

  17. The spin glasses: the paradigm of the complex systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz-Lorenzo, J.J.

    1997-01-01

    The solution of the spin glasses in the Mean Field approximation gives some interesting characteristics such as the existence of an infinite number of pure states organized in an ultrametric way (like in Taxonomy). These properties raise the spin glasses to a paradigm of the complex systems. (Author) 7 refs

  18. Cloud Manufacturing Service Paradigm for Group Manufacturing Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingtao Zhou

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The continuous refinement of specialization requires that the group manufacturing company must be constantly focused on how to concentrate its core resources in special sphere to form its core competitive advantage. However, the resources in enterprise group are usually distributed in different subsidiary companies, which means they cannot be fully used, constraining the competition and development of the enterprise. Conducted as a response to a need for cloud manufacturing studies, systematic and detailed studies on cloud manufacturing schema for group companies are carried out in this paper. A new hybrid private clouds paradigm is proposed to meet the requirements of aggregation and centralized use of heterogeneous resources and business units distributed in different subsidiary companies. After the introduction of the cloud manufacturing paradigm for enterprise group and its architecture, this paper presents a derivation from the abstraction of paradigm and framework to the application of a practical evaluative working mechanism. In short, the paradigm establishes an effective working mechanism to translate collaborative business process composed by the activities into cloud manufacturing process composed by services so as to create a foundation resulting in mature traditional project monitoring and scheduling technologies being able to be used in cloud manufacturing project management.

  19. The 'Turn to Parenting': Paradigm shift or work in progress?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopman, M.; Knijn, G.C.M.

    In the field of child and youth support, preventive and parent-oriented support programs are currently emphasized. This is understood as a new paradigm of parenting support, which is sometimes referred to as “the turn to parenting.” Using Campbell’s (Annual Review of Sociology, 28:21–38, 2002),

  20. Health Paradigm Shifts in the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Miguel DeAngulo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of systems theory and the study of complexity to medicine and human health allows for a more comprehensive understanding and a more holistic view of what it means to be human. Such application overcomes the limitations of the traditional, fragmented understanding of phenomena and problems based on the mechanistic or Newtonian worldview. It recognizes that phenomena are interrelated, and that individual parts cannot be understood by only focusing on the analysis of their individual qualities. Rather, the individual parts can only be understood in relation to the whole and by being analyzed in the context of their interaction with the whole. The door is opened to previously unimagined models of thinking.In the 20th Century there have been shifts in the paradigms that have governed medicine and human health in the modern western world. There has been a shift from the focus on specific biological analysis and pathological diagnostics to complex human interactions with the environment and with sociopolitical and economic processes. There are complex models of systems in immunology, in neuroscience, and in genetics, as well as complex ways of understanding interactions as in epidemic modeling, in social media technologies, socioeconomic factors, and artificial intelligence.In this paper we describe three paradigms of the health-disease process that in some degree correspond to the historical development of modern medicine and healthcare over the previous century. The oldest paradigm focused on specific disease mechanisms and treatment. This gave way to paradigms that historically were broader and more inclusive, such as “international health”. The international health paradigm focused primarily on the control of epidemics across national borders and considered government as the only health actor. However, this perspective has come to be seen as excessively reductionist and excluded many critical components essential to a robust

  1. Misrepresenting Religious Education's Past and Present in Looking Forward: Gearon Using Kuhn's Concepts of Paradigm, Paradigm Shift and Incommensurability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Robert

    2015-01-01

    In looking to the future, some writers on religious education (RE) have attempted to evaluate current approaches to the subject. Some have characterised any significant change in approach as a "paradigm shift", a term derived from Thomas Kuhn's work in the philosophy of science. This article examines the uses of the terms…

  2. The Risk-Benefit Paradigm vs the Causal Exposure Paradigm: LDL as a primary cause of vascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Peter P; Thanassoulis, George; Williams, Ken; Furberg, Curt D; Sniderman, Allan

    2014-01-01

    All current guidelines use the 10-year risk of a cardiovascular event to select subjects for statin primary preventive therapy. Benefit from therapy is stated to be determined by risk with the result that statin primary preventive therapy is initiated only when the risk of a cardiovascular event over the next decade exceeds a specified level. Thus all current guidelines are based primarily on the Risk-Benefit paradigm of primary prevention. The recent American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology guidelines differ from others in basing selection for statin therapy virtually exclusively on risk except for those few subjects with markedly elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). The Causal Exposure paradigm differs from the Risk-Benefit paradigm in that the objective of therapy is to prevent the anatomic disease within arterial walls that produces cardiovascular risk. Moreover, the anatomic disease and, therefore, the cardiovascular risk, is a function of the injurious action of the causal factors of vascular disease, such as blood pressure and LDL, on the arterial wall over long periods. In this article, we explain the strengths and weaknesses of both paradigms to provide a more secure framework to compare the strengths and weaknesses in the different cholesterol guidelines with particular emphasis on the evidence that the cardiovascular risk and the benefit from statin therapy is related to the level of LDL. Copyright © 2014 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Stroke mimics under the drip-and-ship paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Sonal; Vora, Nirav; Edgell, Randall C; Allam, Hesham; Alawi, Aws; Koehne, Jennifer; Kumar, Abhay; Feen, Eliahu; Cruz-Flores, Salvador; Alshekhlee, Amer

    2014-01-01

    Recent reports suggested better outcomes associated with the drip-and-ship paradigm for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) treated with thrombolysis. We hypothesized that a higher rate of stroke mimics (SM) among AIS treated in nonspecialized stroke centers that are transferred to comprehensive centers is responsible for such outcomes. Consecutive patients treated with thrombolysis according to the admission criteria were reviewed in a single comprehensive stroke center over 1 academic year (July 1, 2011 to June 30, 2012). Information on the basic demographic, hospital complications, psychiatric diagnoses, and discharge disposition was collected. We identified those patients who were treated at a facility and then transferred to the tertiary center (ie, drip-and-ship paradigm). In addition to comparative and adjusted analysis to identify predictors for SM, a stratified analysis by the drip-and-ship status was performed. One hundred twenty patients were treated with thrombolysis for AIS included in this analysis; 20 (16.7%) were discharged with the final diagnosis of SM; 14 of those had conversion syndrome and 6 patients had other syndromes (seizures, migraine, and hypoglycemia). Patients with SM were younger (55.6 ± 15.0 versus 69.4 ± 14.9, P = .0003) and more likely to harbor psychiatric diagnoses (45% versus 9%; P ≤ .0001). Eighteen of 20 SM patients (90%) had the drip-and-ship treatment paradigm compared with 65% of those with AIS (P = .02). None of the SM had hemorrhagic complications, and all were discharged to home. Predictors of SM on adjusted analysis included the drip-and-ship paradigm (odds ratio [OR] 12.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.78, 92.1) and history of any psychiatric illness (OR 12.08; 95% CI 3.14, 46.4). Eighteen of 83 drip-and-ship patients (21.7%) were diagnosed with SM compared with 2 of 37 patients (5.4%) presented directly to the hub hospital (P = .02). The drip-and-ship paradigm and any psychiatric history predict the diagnosis of

  4. The Lunar Magma Ocean (LMO) Paradigm Versus the Realities of Lunar Anorthosites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiman, A. H.; Gross, J.

    2018-05-01

    The paradigm of the Lunar Magma Ocean (LMO) is inconsistent with much chemical and compositional data on lunar anorthosites. The paradigm of serial anorthosite diapirism is more consistent, though not a panacea.

  5. Corporate social capital and strategic management paradigm : a contingency view on organizational performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenders, Roger Th.A.J.; Gabbay, Shaul M.; Fiegenbaum, Avi

    2001-01-01

    The strategic management paradigm explains organizational performance through the alignment between environment, strategy, and reference points. We extend this paradigm by incorporating the role of interorganizational networks on firm performance, thus integrating strategic management and corporate

  6. A heretic's view of the object-oriented paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Per

    1998-01-01

    A basic assumption of the object-oriented paradigm of computer programming and database thinking is that objects (including classes) are dynamic: classes have objects as instances which can be created, modified, and deleted. I argue that this leads to unnecessary conceptual difficulties, and sugg......A basic assumption of the object-oriented paradigm of computer programming and database thinking is that objects (including classes) are dynamic: classes have objects as instances which can be created, modified, and deleted. I argue that this leads to unnecessary conceptual difficulties......, and suggest that although real world entities are undeniably dynamic and perishable, much may be gained by assuming that the objects we use for thinking about them are static. This, it is submitted, may prove to facilitate both practical system development and theoretical pursuits of a mathematically sound...... object-oriented data model....

  7. Philosophy of science and the emerging paradigm: implications for hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osowiec, Darlene A

    2014-01-01

    Within the hypnosis field, there is a disparity between clinical and research worldviews. Clinical practitioners work with patients who are dealing with serious, often unique, real-world problems-lived experience. Researchers adhere to objective measurements, standardization, data, and statistics. Although there is overlap, an ongoing divergence can be counterproductive to the hypnosis field and to the larger professional and social contexts. The purpose of this article is: (1) to examine some of the major assumptions, the history, and the philosophy that undergird the definition of science, which was constructed in the mid-17th century; (2) to discover how science is a product of prevailing social forces and is undergoing a paradigm shift; and (3) to understand the more encompassing, holistic paradigm with implications for the hypnosis field.

  8. Affordability and Paradigms in Agent-Based Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boldur E. Barbat

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at substantiating that in universities with scarce resources, applied Information Technologies (IT research is affordable, even in most advanced and dynamic sub-domains. This target is split into four specific objectives: a to set up a framework for IT research affordability in universities representative for current East-European circumstances; b to outline a workable approach based on synergistic leverage and to assess the paradigms prevalent in modern artificial intelligence through this ``affordability filter''; c to describe the evolution and the current stages of two undertakings exploiting paradigms founded on emergence (the sub-domains are stigmergic coordination and agent self-awareness; d to summarise for both sub domains the mechanisms and the architectonics (the focus is on computer science aspects; implementation details will be given in future papers. The results in both directions appear as promising and reveal significant potential for transdisciplinarity. From this perspective, the paper is a call to improved cooperation.

  9. fMRI paradigm designing and post-processing tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, Jija S; Rajesh, PG; Chandran, Anuvitha VS; Kesavadas, Chandrasekharan

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we first review some aspects of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigm designing for major cognitive functions by using stimulus delivery systems like Cogent, E-Prime, Presentation, etc., along with their technical aspects. We also review the stimulus presentation possibilities (block, event-related) for visual or auditory paradigms and their advantage in both clinical and research setting. The second part mainly focus on various fMRI data post-processing tools such as Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) and Brain Voyager, and discuss the particulars of various preprocessing steps involved (realignment, co-registration, normalization, smoothing) in these software and also the statistical analysis principles of General Linear Modeling for final interpretation of a functional activation result

  10. E-learning paradigmer og e-learning strategiudvikling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duus, Henrik Johannsen

    2003-01-01

    E-learning området er meget varieret hvad angår produkter, holdninger ogmeninger, og indeholder også en del 'støj' og mytedannelser, som afspejles i såvel denakademisk-videnskabelige som den journalistisk-offentlige debat om området. Dennevariation i såvel produkter som udtrykte meninger søges...... systematiseret og ordnet i fireidealtypiske paradigmer. Det vises, hvorledes disse fire paradigmer har hver sinebestemte karakteristika og udviklingsgrænser. Dette har afgørende strategisk betydningfor virksomheders og læreanstalters udvikling af e-learning, idet forkerte paradigmevalgvil hæmme udviklingen....

  11. Migration: The Present State, Problems and Perspectives of Research Paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Mežnarić

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Two prevailing paradigms in contemporary international migration research – migration as unpredictable explosion and migration as mainly predictable long cycles movement – are put into question. Both paradigms are not valid in explaining latest development in international migration field. They are too robust for reality which is satiated with novel developments in the field of volume, directions, labour markets and structure of migration flows, both voluntary and involuntary. Individual independent migrant as decision maker is coming to the fore. Therefore the reassessment of theoretical and conceptual apparatus of migration is imminent. As to the methods, mathematically supported sociological models of contemporary migration could be needed. On the basis of “new intuition”, the principles of simplicity, parsimony, and universality could lead to a theoretical innovation.

  12. Towards a new paradigm: Activity level balanced sustainability reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samudhram, Ananda; Siew, Eu-Gene; Sinnakkannu, Jothee; Yeow, Paul H P

    2016-11-01

    Technoeconomic paradigms based economic growth theories suggest that waves of technological innovations drove the economic growth of advanced economies. Widespread economic degradation and pollution is an unintended consequence of such growth. Tackling environmental and social issues at firm levels would help us to overcome such issues at macro-levels. Consequently, the Triple Bottom Line (TBL) reporting approach promotes firm level economic, environmental and social performances. Incorporating Zink's (2014) 3-pillar presentation model, this paper indicates that economic, social and environmental performances tend to be reported at firm level. All three pillars are not covered evenly at the activity levels. Thus, a loophole is identified whereby excellent environmental performance at activity levels could potentially leave poor social performance undisclosed. A refinement of the TBL paradigm, whereby all three pillars are covered at the activity level, is suggested, to enhance sustainability reporting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Are Nurse Leaders Prepared to Lead Across the Continuum of Care in the New Paradigm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, O Ed; Malin, Shelly

    2017-05-01

    The movement toward linking reimbursement with outcomes necessitates providing care across a continuum of settings, leading to the need for a new healthcare paradigm. Issues related to shifting to this new paradigm include disagreement about what this paradigm encompasses, the fragmentation of the healthcare system, and overreliance on the medical model as a framework for driving health policy decisions. We advocate for nurse leaders to guide the development of this new paradigm.

  14. Thermally Optimized Paradigm of Thermal Management (TOP-M)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-18

    19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) 18-07-2017 Final Technical Jul 2015 - Jul 2017 NICOP - Thermally Optimized Paradigm of Thermal Management ...The main goal of this research was to present a New Thermal Management Approach, which combines thermally aware Very/Ultra Large Scale Integration...SPAD) image sensors were used to demonstrate the new thermal management approach. Thermal management , integrated temperature sensors, Vt extractor

  15. Interval timing in genetically modified mice: a simple paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Balci, F.; Papachristos, E. B.; Gallistel, C. R.; Brunner, D.; Gibson, J.; Shumyatsky, G. P.

    2007-01-01

    We describe a behavioral screen for the quantitative study of interval timing and interval memory in mice. Mice learn to switch from a short-latency feeding station to a long-latency station when the short latency has passed without a feeding. The psychometric function is the cumulative distribution of switch latencies. Its median measures timing accuracy and its interquartile interval measures timing precision. Next, using this behavioral paradigm, we have examined mice with a gene knockout ...

  16. Attention shifts the language network reflecting paradigm presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin eKollndorfer

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI is a reliable and non-invasive method with which to localize language function in pre-surgical planning. In clinical practice, visual stimulus presentation is often difficult or impossible, due to the patient’s restricted language or attention abilities. Therefore, our aim was to investigate modality-specific differences in visual and auditory stimulus presentation.Methods: Ten healthy subjects participated in an fMRI study comprising two experiments with visual and auditory stimulus presentation. In both experiments, two language paradigms (one for language comprehension and one for language production used in clinical practice were investigated. In addition to standard data analysis by the means of the general linear model (GLM, independent component analysis (ICA was performed to achieve more detailed information on language processing networks.Results: GLM analysis revealed modality-specific brain activation for both language paradigms for the contrast visual > auditory in the area of the intraparietal sulcus and the hippocampus, two areas related to attention and working memory. Using group ICA, a language network was detected for both paradigms independent of stimulus presentation modality. The investigation of language lateralization revealed no significant variations. Visually presented stimuli further activated an attention-shift network, which could not be identified for the auditory presented language.Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that the visually presented language stimuli additionally activate an attention-shift network. These findings will provide important information for pre-surgical planning in order to preserve reading abilities after brain surgery, significantly improving surgical outcomes. Our findings suggest that the presentation modality for language paradigms should be adapted on behalf of individual indication.

  17. The Predictive Processing Paradigm Has Roots in Kant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Link R

    2016-01-01

    Predictive processing (PP) is a paradigm in computational and cognitive neuroscience that has recently attracted significant attention across domains, including psychology, robotics, artificial intelligence and philosophy. It is often regarded as a fresh and possibly revolutionary paradigm shift, yet a handful of authors have remarked that aspects of PP seem reminiscent of the work of 18th century philosopher Immanuel Kant. To date there have not been any substantive discussions of how exactly PP links back to Kant. In this article, I argue that several core aspects of PP were anticipated by Kant (1996/1787) in his works on perception and cognition. Themes from Kant active in PP include: (1) the emphasis on "top-down" generation of percepts; (2) the role of "hyperpriors"; (3) the general function of "generative models"; (4) the process of "analysis-by-synthesis"; and (5) the crucial role of imagination in perception. In addition to these, I also point out that PP echoes Kant's general project in that it aims to explain how minds track causal structure in the world using only sensory data, and that it uses a reverse-engineer or "top-down" method of analysis. I then locate a possible source of Kant's influence on PP by tracing the paradigm back to Hermann von Helmholtz, who saw himself as providing a scientific implementation of Kant's conclusions. I conclude by arguing that PP should not be regarded as a new paradigm, but is more appropriately understood as the latest incarnation of an approach to perception and cognition initiated by Kant and refined by Helmholtz.

  18. The Paradigm of Unity in the Science and Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grochmal Stanislaw

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paradigm of unity is a response to the contemporary needs of society; it shows a new way of looking at social and cultural processes, in positive and creative aspects, giving the hope to solve many problems of the modern world. It constitutes a methodological basis for building both the theoretical models and application schemas, also reveals the directions of the empirical research (Biela, 1996.

  19. Agua Para Todos: A New Regionalist Hydraulic Paradigm in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Lopez-Gunn

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the hydraulic paradigm in Spain and its evolution over the last 100 years to the current decentralisation process of "agua para todos", i.e. where different regional governments vie for control over 'scarce' water resources and defining the concept of hydro-solidarity between regions. Recent events seem to point to a new hydraulic bureaucracy at the sub-national level due to the political devolution currently taking place in Spain, where water has an increased political value in electoral terms. Water has strategic importance in single-issue politics and territorial identity, as compared to traditional left/right ideological politics for both national and regional parties in the Spanish multilevel electoral system. This refers to an important aspect of water politics – openly discussed in Spain but rarely analysed – namely the 'political returns' on water (or 'political rent-seeking'. This also points to spatial dimensions of the definition of state, identity, and access to resources in a semiarid country. This historical process of decentralisation of water is highlighted with particular reference to key events in recent Spanish history, including the Hydraulic Plan of the 1930s, its reappearance in the 1993 National Hydrological Plan, a revised version in the year 2001, and a final change in paradigm in 2005 at the national level. This suggests that the hydraulic paradigm is re-enacted at the regional government level. It is argued that a multi-scalar analysis of Spanish water decentralisation is essential in order to understand change and stasis in public policy paradigms related to water.

  20. Paradigms of Communication in Performance and Dance Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Popa Blanariu, Nicoleta

    2015-01-01

    In her article "Paradigms of Communication in Performance and Dance Studies" Nicoleta Popa Blanariu approaches from an interdisciplinary perspective the measure in which performing arts (theater, music, ballet, Indian classical dance, folk dance, etc.), as well as ritual performance constitute a corpus that may be analysed by means of theoretical and conceptual tools in communication studies and semiotics. Popa Blanariu analyses the relation between signification and communication in performi...

  1. Paradigm Shift Additive Manufacturing and the New Way of War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    the DoD must actively pivot away from the acquisition, logis- tics, sustainment and contracting practices developed from more than 100 years of...replenished during the duration of the operation, and returned to the warehouse at the end of operation. Pivoting to AM’s New Paradigm Contrast conventional...program managers and even operators. No amount of computer based training, PowerPoint presentations, and white papers will convey the digital

  2. Testing Paradigms of Ecosystem Change under Climate Warming in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melbourne-Thomas, Jessica; Constable, Andrew; Wotherspoon, Simon; Raymond, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Antarctic marine ecosystems have undergone significant changes as a result of human activities in the past and are now responding in varied and often complicated ways to climate change impacts. Recent years have seen the emergence of large-scale mechanistic explanations–or “paradigms of change”–that attempt to synthesize our understanding of past and current changes. In many cases, these paradigms are based on observations that are spatially and temporally patchy. The West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP), one of Earth’s most rapidly changing regions, has been an area of particular research focus. A recently proposed mechanistic explanation for observed changes in the WAP region relates changes in penguin populations to variability in krill biomass and regional warming. While this scheme is attractive for its simplicity and chronology, it may not account for complex spatio-temporal processes that drive ecosystem dynamics in the region. It might also be difficult to apply to other Antarctic regions that are experiencing some, though not all, of the changes documented for the WAP. We use qualitative network models of differing levels of complexity to test paradigms of change for the WAP ecosystem. Importantly, our approach captures the emergent effects of feedback processes in complex ecological networks and provides a means to identify and incorporate uncertain linkages between network elements. Our findings highlight key areas of uncertainty in the drivers of documented trends, and suggest that a greater level of model complexity is needed in devising explanations for ecosystem change in the Southern Ocean. We suggest that our network approach to evaluating a recent and widely cited paradigm of change for the Antarctic region could be broadly applied in hypothesis testing for other regions and research fields. PMID:23405116

  3. Analysis of the Paradigm Evolution of Digital Libraries in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Sun

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors analyze the developmental framework of digital libraries in China and point out their current demand characteristics, development requirements, and developmental period. They then conclude that it is necessary to start up a new paradigm evolution of a digital library, from a traditional digital library to a virtual digital library. On that basis, they describe in detail several problems and developmental approaches that developing a virtual digital library must deal with, drawing lessons from the prototype DILIGENT.

  4. Toward a patient-based paradigm for blood transfusion

    OpenAIRE

    Farrugia, Albert; Vamvakas, Eleftherios

    2014-01-01

    Albert Farrugia,1,2 Eleftherios Vamvakas31College of Medicine, Biology and Environment, Australian National University, Acton, ACT, Australia; 2Centre for Orthopaedic Research, Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, Australia; 3Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USAAbstract: The current "manufacturing paradigm" of transfusion practice has detached transfusion from the clinical environment. As an example,...

  5. Happiness and the Family 2.0 Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocan, Rodica; Racorean, Stefana

    Does new media technology have the potential to make us happier? This paper explores the influence of new information communication technologies on family life satisfaction while analyzing some of the factors that determine changes in the way we live our lives in the information age. Family 2.0 is the new paradigm of family life and the emergence of Web 2.0 type of applications is at the very core of its existence.

  6. SOME PARADIGMS OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN FINANCIAL COMPUTER SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Balicki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses some paradigms of artificial intelligence in the context of their applications in computer financial systems. The proposed approach has a significant po-tential to increase the competitiveness of enterprises, including financial institutions. However, it requires the effective use of supercomputers, grids and cloud computing. A reference is made to the computing environment for Bitcoin. In addition, we characterized genetic programming and artificial neural networks to prepare investment strategies on the stock exchange market.

  7. Will Mobile Learning Bring a Paradigm Shift in Higher Education?

    OpenAIRE

    Rajasingham, Lalita

    2011-01-01

    In the light of technology-driven social change that creates new challenges for universities, this paper considers the potential of mobile learning as a subset of e-learning to effect a paradigm shift in higher education. Universities face exponential growth in demand for higher education, significant decreases in government funding for education, a changing in understanding of the nature of knowledge, changing student demographics and expectations, and global competition. At the same time un...

  8. LOD wars: The affected-sib-pair paradigm strikes back!

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrall, M. [Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    1997-03-01

    In a recent letter, Greenberg et al. aired their concerns that the affected-sib-pair (ASP) approach was becoming excessively popular, owing to misconceptions and ignorance of the properties and limitations of both the ASP and the classic LOD-score approaches. As an enthusiast of using the ASP approach to map susceptibility genes for multifactorial traits, I would like to contribute a few comments and explanatory notes in defense of the ASP paradigm. 18 refs.

  9. SOME PARADIGMS OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN FINANCIAL COMPUTER SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Jerzy Balicki

    2015-01-01

    The article discusses some paradigms of artificial intelligence in the context of their applications in computer financial systems. The proposed approach has a significant po-tential to increase the competitiveness of enterprises, including financial institutions. However, it requires the effective use of supercomputers, grids and cloud computing. A reference is made to the computing environment for Bitcoin. In addition, we characterized genetic programming and artificial neural networks to p...

  10. Degrading emotional memories induced by a virtual reality paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuperus, Anne A; Laken, Maarten; van den Hout, Marcel A; Engelhard, Iris M

    2016-09-01

    In Eye Movement and Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy, a dual-task approach is used: patients make horizontal eye movements while they recall aversive memories. Studies showed that this reduces memory vividness and/or emotionality. A strong explanation is provided by working memory theory, which suggests that other taxing dual-tasks are also effective. Experiment 1 tested whether a visuospatial task which was carried out while participants were blindfolded taxes working memory. Experiment 2 tested whether this task degrades negative memories induced by a virtual reality (VR) paradigm. In experiment 1, participants responded to auditory cues with or without simultaneously carrying out the visuospatial task. In experiment 2, participants recalled negative memories induced by a VR paradigm. The experimental group simultaneously carried out the visuospatial task, and a control group merely recalled the memories. Changes in self-rated memory vividness and emotionality were measured. The slowing down of reaction times due to the visuospatial task indicated that its cognitive load was greater than the load of the eye movements task in previous studies. The task also led to reductions in emotionality (but not vividness) of memories induced by the VR paradigm. Weaknesses are that only males were tested in experiment 1, and the effectiveness of the VR fear/trauma induction was not assessed with ratings of mood or intrusions in experiment 2. The results suggest that the visuospatial task may be applicable in clinical settings, and the VR paradigm may provide a useful method of inducing negative memories. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The challenges of neural mind-reading paradigms

    OpenAIRE

    Vilarroya, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    Neural mind-reading studies, based on multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) methods, are providing exciting new studies. Some of the results obtained with these paradigms have raised high expectations, such as the possibility of creating brain reading devices. However, such hopes are based on the assumptions that: (a) the BOLD signal is a marker of neural activity; (b) the BOLD pattern identified by a MVPA is a neurally sound pattern; (c) the MVPA's feature space is a good mapping of the neura...

  12. Sustainable Public Procurement : a new policy paradigm in France ?

    OpenAIRE

    Le Velly, Ronan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the “new paradigm” of sustainable public procurement in France, that is, its cognitive and normative frameworks. Firstly, the author shows that the newness of this paradigm has to do with the identification of sustainable procurement as a stake in its own right. Next, he shows that the good practices associated with sustainable procurement are also new (close relationships with suppliers, systematic thought about what is needed, innovative methods of co...

  13. The Predictive Processing Paradigm Has Roots in Kant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Link R.

    2016-01-01

    Predictive processing (PP) is a paradigm in computational and cognitive neuroscience that has recently attracted significant attention across domains, including psychology, robotics, artificial intelligence and philosophy. It is often regarded as a fresh and possibly revolutionary paradigm shift, yet a handful of authors have remarked that aspects of PP seem reminiscent of the work of 18th century philosopher Immanuel Kant. To date there have not been any substantive discussions of how exactly PP links back to Kant. In this article, I argue that several core aspects of PP were anticipated by Kant (1996/1787) in his works on perception and cognition. Themes from Kant active in PP include: (1) the emphasis on “top-down” generation of percepts; (2) the role of “hyperpriors”; (3) the general function of “generative models”; (4) the process of “analysis-by-synthesis”; and (5) the crucial role of imagination in perception. In addition to these, I also point out that PP echoes Kant’s general project in that it aims to explain how minds track causal structure in the world using only sensory data, and that it uses a reverse-engineer or “top-down” method of analysis. I then locate a possible source of Kant’s influence on PP by tracing the paradigm back to Hermann von Helmholtz, who saw himself as providing a scientific implementation of Kant’s conclusions. I conclude by arguing that PP should not be regarded as a new paradigm, but is more appropriately understood as the latest incarnation of an approach to perception and cognition initiated by Kant and refined by Helmholtz. PMID:27777555

  14. Directed forgetting of complex pictures in an item method paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Hauswald, Anne; Kissler, Johanna

    2008-01-01

    An item-cued directed forgetting paradigm was used to investigate the ability to control episodic memory and selectively encode complex coloured pictures. A series of photographs was presented to 21 participants who were instructed to either remember or forget each picture after it was presented. Memory performance was later tested with a recognition task where all presented items had to be retrieved, regardless of the initial instructions. A directed forgetting effect that is, better recogni...

  15. A new paradigm of knowledge engineering by soft computing

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, Liya

    2001-01-01

    Soft computing (SC) consists of several computing paradigms, including neural networks, fuzzy set theory, approximate reasoning, and derivative-free optimization methods such as genetic algorithms. The integration of those constituent methodologies forms the core of SC. In addition, the synergy allows SC to incorporate human knowledge effectively, deal with imprecision and uncertainty, and learn to adapt to unknown or changing environments for better performance. Together with other modern technologies, SC and its applications exert unprecedented influence on intelligent systems that mimic hum

  16. Power sharing and transitional justice : a clash of paradigms?

    OpenAIRE

    Vandeginste, Stef; Sriram, Chandra Lekha

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Recent peace negotiations practice has given rise to the emergence of two paradigms. In line with normative developments in global human rights protection, internationally brokered peace processes often address the options for accountability for abuses committed in the past and generally cannot include blanket amnesties. At the same time, many agreements end armed conflicts by offering power-sharing incentives for warring parties. In most cases, power-sharing arrangements are likely...

  17. What is the new paradigm in product quality?

    OpenAIRE

    Robotham, AJ; Guldbrandsen, M

    2000-01-01

    The current product quality paradigm is founded upon a customer-focused product development process, in which the functionality and behaviour of a product are designed to fulfil the needs of customers, and technological innovation is used to expand the capability and enhance the performance of the product. However, this view of product quality does not reflect the current practices of today's leading manufacturers, who now offer "total solutions" based upon an integrated package of products a...

  18. Dissonance: scientific paradigms underpinning the study of sound in geography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Paiva

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to approach the different conceptions of sound – and its relations to the underlying scientific paradigms – that emerged throughout the history of geography. There has been a growing interest among geographers in understanding the spatialities of sound, and geographies of sound have become an emerging subfield of the discipline. For this reason, it is the right time to address how the discipline has approached sound throughout its history. Several theoretical perspectives influenced geography in the twentieth century, changing its methodologies and how its subjects were conceived. Sound, like other subjects, has been conceived very differently by geographers of competing paradigms. Concepts such as noise, soundscape, or sound as affect, among others, have dominated geographies of sound at specific periods. Due to the marginality of the subject in the discipline, assessments of these conceptual shifts are rare. I tackle this issue in this article as I provide a first attempt of writing a history of sound in geography. The article reviews debates regarding the name of the subfield, and the conceptions of sound in the successive and competing scientific paradigms in geography.

  19. Toward a patient-based paradigm for blood transfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrugia A

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Albert Farrugia,1,2 Eleftherios Vamvakas31College of Medicine, Biology and Environment, Australian National University, Acton, ACT, Australia; 2Centre for Orthopaedic Research, Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, Australia; 3Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USAAbstract: The current "manufacturing paradigm" of transfusion practice has detached transfusion from the clinical environment. As an example, fresh whole blood in large-volume hemorrhage may be superior to whole blood reconstituted from multiple components. Multicomponent apheresis can overcome logistical difficulties in matching patient needs with fresh component availability and can deliver the benefits of fresh whole blood. Because of the different transfusion needs of patients in emerging economies and the vulnerability of these blood systems to emerging infections, fresh whole blood and multicomponent apheresis can better meet patient needs when compared with transplants of the "manufacturing paradigm". We propose that patient blood management, along with panels of repeat, paid, accredited apheresis and fresh whole-blood donors can be used in emerging economies to support decentralized blood services. This alternative transfusion–medicine paradigm could eventually also be adopted by established economies to focus transfusion medicine on local patient needs and to alleviate the problem of the aging volunteer donor base.Keywords: indications, emerging countries, patient blood management

  20. Accelerating Research Innovation by Adopting the Lean Startup Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaisa Still

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Converting scientific expertise into marketable products and services is playing an increasingly important role in the launching of new ventures, the growth of existing firms, and the creation of new jobs. In this article, we explore how the lean startup paradigm, which validates the market for a product with a business model that can sustain subsequent scaling, has led to a new process model to accelerate innovation. We then apply this paradigm to the context of research at universities and other research organizations. The article is based on the assumption that the organizational context matters, and it shows how a deeper understanding of the research context could enable an acceleration of the innovation process. We complement theoretical examples with a case example from VTT Technical Research Institute of Finland. Our findings show that many of the concepts from early-acceleration phases – and the lean startup paradigm – can also be relevant in innovation discussions within the research context. However, the phase of value-proposition discovery is less adequately addressed, and that of growth discovery, with its emphasis on building on a scalable, sustainable business does not seem to be addressed with the presented innovation approaches from the research context. Hence, the entrepreneurial activities at the research context differ from those in startups and internal startups in established organizations.

  1. Paradigm Shift in Distance Education in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet FIRAT

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Information and communication technologies have been one of a driving force which enables higher education expansion and gives a dynamic structure to the science in the twenty-first century. One of the most effective users of this driving force in higher education is distance education. Previously, distance education was considered to be as a method to ensure equality of opportunity in education, and partly to meet the educational needs of citizens in limited circumstances; today it has undergone an incontrovertible paradigm shift by transforming into an interdisciplinary science field with its functional flexibility, strong technology infrastructure, diversity of programs, innovative teaching approaches and rapidly increasing student numbers. In this study, it is aimed to reveal this paradigm shift with a historical point of view, and the information technology supported rise and paradigm shift of distance education is evaluated by a holistic perspective from different point of views of different perspectives from the studies in literature to the current research topics.

  2. Realizing a new paradigm in radiation therapy treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegenhein, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This thesis investigates the feasibility of a new IMRT planning paradigm called Interactive Dose Shaping (IDS). The IDS paradigm enables the therapist to directly impose local dose features into the therapy plan. In contrast to the conventional IMRT planning approach, IDS does not employ an objective function to drive an iterative optimization procedure. In the first part of this work, the conventional IMRT plan optimization method is investigated. Concepts for a near-optimal implementation of the planning problem are provided. The second part of this work introduces the IDS concept. It is designed to overcome clinical drawbacks of the conventional method on the one hand and to provide interactive planning strategies which exploit the full potential of modern high-performance computer hardware on the other hand. The realization of the IDS concept consists of three main parts. (1)A two-step Dose Variation and Recovery (DVR) strategy which imposes localized plan features and recovers for unintentional plan modifications elsewhere. (2)A new dose calculation method (3)The design of an IDS planning framework which provides a powerful graphical user interface. It could be shown that the IDS paradigm is able to reproduce conventionally optimized therapy plans and that the IDS concepts can be realized in real-time.

  3. [The dimension of the paradigm of complexity in health systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo-Ortiz, Guillermo; Fernández-Ortega, Miguel Ángel; Ortiz-Montalvo, Armando; Olivares-Santos, Roberto Antonio

    2015-01-01

    This article presents elements to better understand health systems from the complety paradigm, innovative perspective that offers other ways in the conception of the scientific knowledge prevalent away from linear, characterized by the arise of emerging dissociative and behaviors, based on the intra and trans-disciplinarity concepts such knowledges explain and understand in a different way what happens in the health systems with a view to efficiency and effectiveness. The complexity paradigm means another way of conceptualizing the knowledge, is different from the prevalent epistemology, is still under construction does not separate, not isolated, is not reductionist, or fixed, does not solve the problems, but gives other bases to know them and study them, is a different strategy, a perspective that has basis in the systems theory, informatics and cybernetics beyond traditional knowledge, the positive logics, the newtonian physics and symmetric mathematics, in which everything is centered and balanced, joint the "soft sciences and hard sciences", it has present the Social Determinants of Health and organizational culture. Under the complexity paradigm the health systems are identified with the following concepts: entropy, neguentropy, the thermodynamic second law, attractors, chaos theory, fractals, selfmanagement and self-organization, emerging behaviors, percolation, uncertainty, networks and robusteness; such expressions open new possibilities to improve the management and better understanding of the health systems, giving rise to consider health systems as complex adaptive systems. Copyright © 2015. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A.

  4. Emergence of life: Physical chemistry changes the paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, Jan; Pielak, Gary J; Poolman, Bert

    2015-06-10

    Origin of life research has been slow to advance not only because of its complex evolutionary nature (Franklin Harold: In Search of Cell History, 2014) but also because of the lack of agreement on fundamental concepts, including the question of 'what is life?'. To re-energize the research and define a new experimental paradigm, we advance four premises to better understand the physicochemical complexities of life's emergence: (1) Chemical and Darwinian (biological) evolutions are distinct, but become continuous with the appearance of heredity. (2) Earth's chemical evolution is driven by energies of cycling (diurnal) disequilibria and by energies of hydrothermal vents. (3) Earth's overall chemical complexity must be high at the origin of life for a subset of (complex) chemicals to phase separate and evolve into living states. (4) Macromolecular crowding in aqueous electrolytes under confined conditions enables evolution of molecular recognition and cellular self-organization. We discuss these premises in relation to current 'constructive' (non-evolutionary) paradigm of origins research - the process of complexification of chemical matter 'from the simple to the complex'. This paradigm artificially avoids planetary chemical complexity and the natural tendency of molecular compositions toward maximum disorder embodied in the second law of thermodynamics. Our four premises suggest an empirical program of experiments involving complex chemical compositions under cycling gradients of temperature, water activity and electromagnetic radiation.

  5. Narrative research on mental health recovery: two sister paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector-Mersel, Gabriela; Knaifel, Evgeny

    2017-06-24

    Despite the breadth of narrative studies on individuals with severe mental illness, the suitability of narrative inquiry to exploring mental health recovery (MHR) has not been examined. (1) Examining the appropriateness of narrative inquiry to studying MHR; (2) assessing the extent to which narrative studies on MHR conform to the unique features of narrative research, as a distinctive form of qualitative inquiry. Review of empirical, theoretical and methodological literature on recovery and narrative inquiry. Considering the perspectives of recovery and narrative as paradigms, the similarity between their ontology and epistemology is shown, evident in 10 common emphases: meaning, identity, change and development, agency, holism, culture, uniqueness, context, language and giving voice. The resemblance between these "sister" paradigms makes narrative methodology especially fruitful for accessing the experiences of individuals in recovery. Reviewing narrative studies on MHR suggests that, currently, narrative research's uniqueness, centered on the holistic principle, is blurred on the philosophical, methodological and textual levels. Well-established narrative research has major implications for practice and policy in recovery-oriented mental health care. The narrative inquiry paradigm offers a possible path to enhancing the distinctive virtues of this research, realizing its potential in understanding and promoting MHR.

  6. Integrative Mental Health (IMH): paradigm, research, and clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, James; Helgason, Chanel; Sarris, Jerome

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the rapidly evolving paradigm of "Integrative Mental Health (IMH)." The paradigm of contemporary biomedical psychiatry and its contrast to non-allopathic systems of medicine is initially reviewed, followed by an exploration of the emerging paradigm of IMH, which aims to reconcile the bio-psycho-socio-spiritual model with evidence-based methods from traditional healing practices. IMH is rapidly transforming conventional understandings of mental illness and has significant positive implications for the day-to-day practice of mental health care. IMH incorporates mainstream interventions such as pharmacologic treatments, psychotherapy, and psychosocial interventions, as well as alternative therapies such as acupuncture, herbal and nutritional medicine, dietary modification, meditation, etc. Two recent international conferences in Europe and the United States show that interest in integrative mental health care is growing rapidly. In response, the International Network of Integrative Mental Health (INIMH: www.INIMH.org) was established in 2010 with the objective of creating an international network of clinicians, researchers, and public health advocates to advance a global agenda for research, education, and clinical practice of evidence-based integrative mental health care. The paper concludes with a discussion of emerging opportunities for research in IMH, and an exploration of potential clinical applications of integrative mental health care. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Modern Paradigm of Ensuring Competitive Advantages of an Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klymchuk Alyona O.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers evolution of development of the paradigm of ensuring competitive advantages of an enterprise. Foreign and domestic scientists focus on individual directions of development of competitive advantages and pay insufficient attention to new management concepts – development of the information society, knowledge economy and dynamism of integration processes. The goal of the study is formation of the modern paradigm of ensuring competitive advantages of an enterprise with consideration of tendencies of development of the knowledge economy, information society and integration processes. Enterprise competitiveness is a synergetic characteristic, which reflects enterprise capability of dynamic response to changes of the market situation with the aim of keeping predominance over other economic subjects. Management of the future, on the basis of the management 2.0 concept, should take into account interests not only of top management and shareholders but also employees, local communities and territories and meet requirements of the society in general, individual groups of consumers and tendencies of development of managerial and information technologies. The paradigm of the modern theory of ensuring competitive advantages should include models of keeping competitive advantages in the existing markets and models of development of future markets; strategy of development of enterprise competitiveness, human capital development and efficient enterprise management.

  8. It's time to re-think the radiation paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagan, L.A.

    1992-01-01

    Several observers have noted a striking difference in views of the public and the scientific community regarding risks to health from exposures to low dose ionizing radiation. While the scientific community considers risks to be small, the public generally finds almost any degree of exposure unacceptable. For example, the siting of a repository for low level waste in the United States has been nearly impossible, in spite of reassurances of scientific authorities. Besides a variety of explanations such as the role of the media, grotesque movies and comics, and the thought of atomic weapons, there is another one, which has not received much attention; the scientific community itself in creating exaggerated risks of radiation, particularly to low doses of irradiation. This occurs as result of the use by the scientific community, of a risk paradigm that assumes a convenient but unproven absence of a threshold for radiation health effects. Two reasons for this paradigm are discussed: -the practice, common in science, of adopting a model, which through usage become an article of faith, to the exclusion of other competing models, and -the implicit influence of personal and community values in the construction and maintenance of those paradigms. (author). 12 refs

  9. Revisiting Mary Daly: Towards a quadripartite theological and philosophical paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannelie Wood

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available I was a tenderfoot in feminist discourse when I started my research on patriarchy, feminism, and Mary Daly. In my thesis, one aspect I engaged was Daly’s battle with gender issues in Christian theology. From the beginning I was troubled by Mary Daly’s views on God, men, and women in her discourse on Christianity. Daly undoubtedly contributed to the discussion on gender issues in the Christian faith, but her focus on androcentrism and her interpretations of Scripture led her to abandon the Christian faith. Mary Daly has written extensively on patriarchy as it is found in religion – particularly in the Christian faith – and how it filters through society. In her critique of patriarchy she set her course to dismantle the facade of a patriarchal and misogynistic God as the root of patriarchy. Daly did not see any positive qualities of the Christian faith and completely rejected other interpretations of a God whose person embraces both male and female qualities. Against this background I will evaluate Daly’s post-Christian feminist theological and philosophical paradigm. I propose that Daly has a quadripartite theological and philosophical paradigm wherein there are four main players. The ‘Who is who’ in Daly’s quadripartite patriarchal theological and philosophical paradigm are the patriarchal male, the patriarchal female, the patriarchal God and the biophilic woman.

  10. Hydropower development trends from a technological paradigm perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Jiuping; Ni, Ting; Zheng, Bobo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We propose a novel concept of hydropower development technological paradigm. • We create a data analysis system to visualize the keyword foci. • Future trajectories include hybrid power systems and resources from seawater. • The HDTP consists of a three-stage evolution and a policy framework. • The HDTP provides a how-to-do solution for the soft path. - Abstract: Hydropower has long been considered the backbone of the power generation sector in low-carbon and sustainable energy systems. Yet, as reliance on hydropower has been generally declining, the world is awakening to the need to fundamentally rethink the way hydropower is developed and managed. The paper proposes a systematic methodology to research the development trends and find a more sustainable hydropower path. Literature mining using the data analysis system and the technological paradigm theory were adopted to conduct the research. The keyword visualization results were found to meet the laws for the three phases of the technological paradigm. Specific key areas, such as small hydropower plants, hybrid power systems, and hydropower from seawater were identified as past, present and near future trajectories. To further accelerate hydropower development, specific subsidies and incentives need to be provided in areas such as capital costs and technological support. The study paves the way for a soft path solution which complements the hard path in hydropower field

  11. A Paradigm for Student Learning Outcome Assessment in Information Systems Education: Continuous Improvement or Chasing Rainbows?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saulnier, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    A paradigm is presented for student learning outcome assessment in information systems education. Successful deployment of the paradigm is illustrated using the author's home institution. The paradigm is consistent with both the scholarship of teaching and learning and the scholarship of assessment. It is concluded that the deployment of the…

  12. Too Hard, Too Soft or Just about Right: Paradigms in Music Teachers' Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Tim

    2012-01-01

    This article considers some paradigms of educational research, and their relation to teachers' action research in their classrooms or studios. The positivist/scientific paradigm and the interpretive/naturalist paradigm are examined, with reference to two cases of music teachers' action research studies. These studies are found to be flawed because…

  13. Different Research Paradigms Concerning Giftedness and Gifted Education: Shall Ever They Meet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Kurt A.

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge regarding giftedness and gifted education is supplied by different sources of information and different research paradigms. Particularly relevant approaches are here the psychometric paradigm, the expert-novice paradigm, and the explanatory approaches from cognitive sciences, also the quasi-experimental social and developmental studies…

  14. Disability and multi-state labour force choices with state dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Oguzoglu, Umut

    2010-01-01

    I use a dynamic mixed multinomial logit model with unobserved heterogeneity to study the impact of work limiting disabilities on disaggregated labour choices. The first seven waves of the Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia survey are used to investigate this relationship. Findings point out to strong state dependence in employment choices. Further, the impact of disability on employment outcomes is highly significant. Model simulations suggest that high cross and own state depe...

  15. Evolution of the marketing paradigm: a new vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina V. ASTRATOVA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to confirm the feasibility of using the disciplinary matrix by Th. Kuhn in relation to the marketing theory. Methods paradigmatic and systemic methods of analysis of marketing phenomena. Results to date the paradigm as a specific tool of scientific research is poorly studied in the marketing methodology in contrast to other branches of knowledge. An analysis of available literature revealed no sources that use the famous disciplinary matrix by Th. Kuhn and its components symbolic generalizations metaphysical parts values and conventional samples ndash in relation to marketing. The content of the marketing paradigm is described as the disciplinary matrix by Th. Kuhn which was composed of the four abovementioned elements 1 symbolic generalizations are the expressions that are used by members of the scientific community without disagreements and doubts and can be easily formalized or verbalized e.g. definition of marketing 2 metaphysical parts of modern marketing are a set of the existing concepts and theories e.g. theory of stages of marketing evolution 3 values in the context of the marketing paradigms are considered by the authors through emphasis on three research objects a goods service ndash creation of new goods andor formation of a set of qualities inherent in the goods service perceived by the consumer as a combination of rational and emotional values of the product b customer ndash development of quotvalue proposition for the consumerquot c sellermanufacturer ndash basing on the concept of quotvalue chainquot that builds strategic management of the company 4 conventional samples of the marketing paradigm include standards or algorithms models and methods of solving specific problems of marketing research for example a diagram of the stages of the marketing research process and industrial standards of their conduct. Scientific novelty the appropriateness of the disciplinary matrix by Th. Kuhn in relation to the marketing theory

  16. Operations Strategy under Chaos –Lessons to be learned from a new Paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new paradigm being able to conceptualize content and process aspects of Operations Strategy. Based on a critical reading of literature; two opposing paradigms of Operations Strategy are identified and described. The first focuses on content issues...... of Operations Strategy and relies on a normative orientation and the second focuses on process issues of Operations Strategy and relies on a descriptive orientation. To compare and evaluate the two paradigms; the results of a longitudinal case-study of Operations Strategy formulation and implementation...... in practice are shown. These results promote the need for a new or third paradigm to integrate and balance the two former paradigms. The new paradigm is labeled as a moderate constructivist paradigm using the metaphor of chaos and seems suitable for conceptualizing Operations Strategy as it is in practice...

  17. SCIENTIFIC PARADIGM SHIFT AS THE BACKGROUND OF LANGUAGE EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Tabanakova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Recently, there has been a cardinal restructuring of university preparation. Linguistic education takes up nearly the last position in the new model of the higher school dictated by economic interests. Investments in linguistic projects are considered as unprofitable today. The linguistic component in educational programs of a bachelor degree is reduced to a minimum, and focused on language knowledge promoting as communication technologies.The aim of the work purposes to trace how the scientific and the linguistic paradigm shift have an impact on the domestic linguistic education system, and to show the unrealized potential capacity of linguistic knowledge.Methodology and research methods. The methodology of the offered research is based, on the one hand, upon the domestic periodical press review on the linguistic education problems for the last 15 years, on the other – on the philosophical analysis of science historical forms which change has caused the past, the present and the future of linguistics and linguistic education. The inductive methods to integrate different approaches are also used.Theoretical significance. The author emphasizes the need to consider the problems of higher education in philosophical aspect, through the interaction of a scientific and educational paradigm.Results and scientific novelty. At a time of global changes in domestic higher education the linguistic education is considered to be a display of the convergence process of natural sciences, technology and humanities. The philosophical study of the scientific paradigms – classical, non-classical and post-non-classical has revealed the regularities of the linguistic scientific paradigms – structural, communicative and cognitive. Each of the paradigms was traced in the frame of linguistic education functions alternation and constantly changing academic programs.A new take on the U-turn of a centrifugal vector in science has obviously demonstrated

  18. A New Control Paradigm for Stochastic Differential Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Matthias J. A.

    This study presents a novel comprehensive approach to the control of dynamic systems under uncertainty governed by stochastic differential equations (SDEs). Large Deviations (LD) techniques are employed to arrive at a control law for a large class of nonlinear systems minimizing sample path deviations. Thereby, a paradigm shift is suggested from point-in-time to sample path statistics on function spaces. A suitable formal control framework which leverages embedded Freidlin-Wentzell theory is proposed and described in detail. This includes the precise definition of the control objective and comprises an accurate discussion of the adaptation of the Freidlin-Wentzell theorem to the particular situation. The new control design is enabled by the transformation of an ill-posed control objective into a well-conditioned sequential optimization problem. A direct numerical solution process is presented using quadratic programming, but the emphasis is on the development of a closed-form expression reflecting the asymptotic deviation probability of a particular nominal path. This is identified as the key factor in the success of the new paradigm. An approach employing the second variation and the differential curvature of the effective action is suggested for small deviation channels leading to the Jacobi field of the rate function and the subsequently introduced Jacobi field performance measure. This closed-form solution is utilized in combination with the supplied parametrization of the objective space. For the first time, this allows for an LD based control design applicable to a large class of nonlinear systems. Thus, Minimum Large Deviations (MLD) control is effectively established in a comprehensive structured framework. The construction of the new paradigm is completed by an optimality proof for the Jacobi field performance measure, an interpretive discussion, and a suggestion for efficient implementation. The potential of the new approach is exhibited by its extension

  19. Efficient Actor Recovery Paradigm for Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahjoub, Reem K; Elleithy, Khaled

    2017-04-14

    The actor nodes are the spine of wireless sensor and actor networks (WSANs) that collaborate to perform a specific task in an unverified and uneven environment. Thus, there is a possibility of high failure rate in such unfriendly scenarios due to several factors such as power consumption of devices, electronic circuit failure, software errors in nodes or physical impairment of the actor nodes and inter-actor connectivity problem. Therefore, it is extremely important to discover the failure of a cut-vertex actor and network-disjoint in order to improve the Quality-of-Service (QoS). In this paper, we propose an Efficient Actor Recovery (EAR) paradigm to guarantee the contention-free traffic-forwarding capacity. The EAR paradigm consists of a Node Monitoring and Critical Node Detection (NMCND) algorithm that monitors the activities of the nodes to determine the critical node. In addition, it replaces the critical node with backup node prior to complete node-failure which helps balancing the network performance. The packets are handled using Network Integration and Message Forwarding (NIMF) algorithm that determines the source of forwarding the packets; either from actor or sensor. This decision-making capability of the algorithm controls the packet forwarding rate to maintain the network for a longer time. Furthermore, for handling the proper routing strategy, Priority-Based Routing for Node Failure Avoidance (PRNFA) algorithm is deployed to decide the priority of the packets to be forwarded based on the significance of information available in the packet. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed EAR paradigm, the proposed algorithms were tested using OMNET++ simulation.

  20. Epistemology of the origin of cancer: a new paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brücher, Björn LDM; Jamall, Ijaz S

    2014-01-01

    Carcinogenesis is widely thought to originate from somatic mutations and an inhibition of growth suppressors, followed by cell proliferation, tissue invasion, and risk of metastasis. Fewer than 10% of all cancers are hereditary; the ratio in gastric (1%), colorectal (3-5%) and breast (8%) cancers is even less. Cancers caused by infection are thought to constitute some 15% of the non-hereditary cancers. Those remaining, 70 to 80%, are called “sporadic,” because they are essentially of unknown etiology. We propose a new paradigm for the origin of the majority of cancers. Our paradigm postulates that cancer originates following a sequence of events that include (1) a pathogenic stimulus (biological or chemical) followed by (2) chronic inflammation, from which develops (3) fibrosis with associated changes in the cellular microenvironment. From these changes a (4) pre-cancerous niche develops, which triggers the deployment of (5) a chronic stress escape strategy, and when this fails to resolve, (6) a transition of a normal cell to a cancer cell occurs. If we are correct, this paradigm would suggest that the majority of the findings in cancer genetics so far reported are either late events or are epiphenomena that occur after the appearance of the pre-cancerous niche. If, based on experimental and clinical findings presented here, this hypothesis is plausible, then the majority of findings in the genetics of cancer so far reported in the literature are late events or epiphenomena that could have occurred after the development of a PCN. Our model would make clear the need to establish preventive measures long before a cancer becomes clinically apparent. Future research should focus on the intermediate steps of our proposed sequence of events, which will enhance our understanding of the nature of carcinogenesis. Findings on inflammation and fibrosis would be given their warranted importance, with research in anticancer therapies focusing on suppressing the PCN state

  1. Negation in context: evidence from the visual world paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Orenes, Isabel; Moxey, Linda; Scheepers, Christoph; Santamaría, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Literature assumes that negation is more difficult to understand than affirmation, but this might depend on the pragmatic context. The goal of this paper is to show that pragmatic knowledge modulates the unfolding processing of negation due to the previous activation of the negated situation. To test this, we used the visual world paradigm. In this task, we presented affirmative (e.g., her dad was rich) and negative sentences (e.g., her dad was not poor) while viewing two images of the affirm...

  2. Uprooting an abscisic acid paradigm: Shoots are the primary source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdam, Scott A M; Manzi, Matías; Ross, John J; Brodribb, Timothy J; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio

    2016-06-02

    In the past, a conventional wisdom has been that abscisic acid (ABA) is a xylem-transported hormone that is synthesized in the roots, while acting in the shoot to close stomata in response to a decrease in plant water status. Now, however, evidence from two studies, which we have conducted independently, challenges this root-sourced ABA paradigm. We show that foliage-derived ABA has a major influence over root development and that leaves are the predominant location for ABA biosynthesis during drought stress.

  3. A new paradigm for nursing: the potential of realism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainwright, S P

    1997-12-01

    Realism has been the dominant approach in the philosophy of science for the last 20 years. Realist philosophy has also been widely employed across a range of social sciences. Unfortunately, these powerful intellectual currents have not reached the shores of nursing which appears trapped in a time-warped debate about 'qualitative' (constructivist) and 'quantitative' (positivist) approaches. This paper argues that both positivism and constructionism are seriously flawed as philosophies of social and natural science. This is in marked contrast with realism which is a philosophy of both the natural and social sciences. I therefore propose that realism should be adopted as a radically different new paradigm for a unified biopsychosocial nursing.

  4. Modeling urban landscape: New paradigms and challenges in territorial representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheyla Aguilar de Santana

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to give a brief background on the production of urban space considering the social functions of the city, the needs of contemporary urban reforms and the need for tools that assist in decision making. This state of the art about the production space justifies the current studies on the development of geoprocessing tools, techniques and methodologies that attempt the needs of creating interpretive portraits of urban landscapes to facilitate dialogue between urban technical, administrators and community. In this sense, it is presented how GIS has been working within the context of urban planning and appointed the new challenges and paradigms of territorial representation.

  5. The PAD Class: a new paradigm for university classroom teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuexin

    2017-08-01

    The PAD Class (Presentation-Assimilation-Discussion) is a new paradigm for classroom teaching combining strengths of lecture and discussion. With half class time allocated for teacher's presentation and the other half for students' discussion, an assimilation stage was inserted between presentation and discussion for independent and individualized learning. Since its first success in 2014, the PAD method has gained national popularity in China and been successfully put into practice by thousands of college teachers in nearly all subjects, e.g., science, engineering, medical sciences, social sciences, humanities and arts. This paper analyzed the psychological and pedagogical rationales underlying the PAD Class to explicate its effectiveness in enhancing active learning.

  6. Structure, conduct and performance paradigm in assessing travel agency performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stănciulescu Gabriela Cecilia

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present and exemplify traditional and neoclassical approaches to market structure and tourism firm performance analysis. The paper tackles some of the industrial economic thinking trends which were meant to fill the gaps left by the traditional approaches. Two approaches stand out from among the industrial economic trends: SCP paradigm and game theory. The results show that the strategy tourism operators prefer is to practise high prices; however there is no certainty that the competitors would adhere to such an idea at the beginning or during the season.

  7. A Longitudinal analysis of the Porterian paradigm utilization in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Fábio Lazzarotti; Simone Sehnem; Rodrigo Bandeira de Mello

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate to what extent Michael Porter;s ideas keep attracting the interest of Brazilian researchers vis-à-vis other possibilities. In this research, we conceptualize Porter’s paradigm by the the following elements: strategic groups, generic strategies, model of the five forces and value chain. Weanalyzed conferece communications to EnANPAD’s, from 1998 to 2008, and to 3Es, from 2003to 2007. The results indicate a decline in the use of the porterian paradi...

  8. The new risk paradigm for chemical process security and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, David A

    2004-11-11

    The world of safety and security in the chemical process industries has certainly changed since 11 September, but the biggest challenges may be yet to come. This paper will explain that there is a new risk management paradigm for chemical security, discuss the differences in interpreting this risk versus accidental risk, and identify the challenges we can anticipate will occur in the future on this issue. Companies need to be ready to manage the new chemical security responsibilities and to exceed the expectations of the public and regulators. This paper will outline the challenge and a suggested course of action.

  9. Transparency and public participation - the need for a new paradigm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Kjell [Karinta-Konsult, Taeby (Sweden)

    2001-07-01

    Increasing openness, public participation and transparency are considered important for decision-making in public issues. Transparency serves two purposes; for the awareness of decision-makers and for public insight and influence. However, the increasing complexity of today's society, the complexity of decision processes and the complexity of the underlying factual basis are all factors that work against transparency and participation. Furthermore, the decision-making context in controversial issues is not only set up by the factual basis provided by the experts, but also by stakeholder pressure groups, lobbyists and extensive media coverage. The seemingly unlimited availability of information on the Internet and the continuous information flow in TV channels does not make it easier for the layman to get insight and clarity. This paper starts with a discussion about the expert role, a definition of transparency and three rationales for public participation. The two areas of nuclear waste disposal and biotechnology are then used to illustrate problems with transparency, but also initiatives for improving the situation. Frameworks for the evaluation of participative processes are described, as well as the role of media in making complex issues transparent. A central theme in the paper is the need for a shift from the 'experts-agenda paradigm' to the 'values-first paradigm'. We end up with suggestions for how transparency and public participation can be enhanced for the sake of democratic development: 1. We must have a multi-perspective starting point. Participants in participative processes should represent a broad spectrum of views. People must hear each other out to achieve common understanding that there are a variety of legitimate perspectives to consider. 2. The RISCOM model has been shown both innovative and workable in the nuclear waste area. We should extend its application to other areas, biotechnology being one primary candidate. 3

  10. Lingual rhetoric paradigm as integrative research prism in philological science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Аlexandra A. Vorozhbitova

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The article characterizes the lingual rhetoric paradigm as an integrative approach in philology based on three crossing categorical ranges: 1 the ideological aspects of a speech act (ethos, logos, pathos; 2 the phases of the universal ideospeech cycle «from a thought to a word» (invention, disposition (arrangement, elocution (style as the technology of discourse process; 3 the structural levels of a lingual identity (associative verbal network, thesaurus, pragmaticon as the producer of discourse, the carrier of ideology. Hence there are three groups of lingual rhetoric parameters: ethos motivational dispositive, logos thesaurus inventive, pathos verbal elocutive.

  11. Political behavior in organizational context: nature, research and paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Jafariani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates political behavior in organization context. In the first section, it studies inappropriate terminology in political behavior arena and recommends that political behaviors are neither positive nor negative in nature. The study also demonstrates that ends and means for influencing others are two criteria for determining faces of political behavior. In the second section, related and important research are reviewed and categorized in terms of content. Finally, we present the dominant paradigm of political behavior as a philosophical infrastructure. The study also presents some guidelines for further research the limitations are discussed in conclusion part.

  12. Merging paradigms: Decision Making, Management, and Cognitive Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens

    1996-01-01

    The paper discusses the trend in paradigms within decision research, drifting from concepts of decision making in terms of normative models of 'rational decision making, through behavioral models in terms of 'biases' - deviations from rational models, toward models of actual decision making...... behavior, such as the SRK concept, naturalistic decision making, and dynamic decision making.In this evolution, concepts such as decision making, management, and behavioral control merge and a concurrent change in concepts underlying design of systems aiming at control of behavior is visible, from...

  13. Paradigms of artificial intelligence programming case studies in common Lisp

    CERN Document Server

    Norvig, Peter

    1991-01-01

    Paradigms of AI Programming is the first text to teach advanced Common Lisp techniques in the context of building major AI systems. By reconstructing authentic, complex AI programs using state-of-the-art Common Lisp, the book teaches students and professionals how to build and debug robust practical programs, while demonstrating superior programming style and important AI concepts. The author strongly emphasizes the practical performance issues involved in writing real working programs of significant size. Chapters on troubleshooting and efficiency are included, along with a discussion of th

  14. Application of neural computing paradigms for signal validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyaya, B.R.; Eryurek, E.; Mathai, G.

    1989-01-01

    Signal validation and process monitoring problems often require the prediction of one or more process variables in a system. The feasibility of applying neural network paradigms to relate one variable with a set of other related variables is studied. The backpropagation network (BPN) is applied to develop models of signals from both a commercial power plant and the EBR-II. Modification of the BPN algorithm is studied with emphasis on the speed of network training and the accuracy of prediction. The prediction of process variables in a Westinghouse PWR is presented in this paper

  15. Transparency and public participation - the need for a new paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Kjell

    2001-01-01

    Increasing openness, public participation and transparency are considered important for decision-making in public issues. Transparency serves two purposes; for the awareness of decision-makers and for public insight and influence. However, the increasing complexity of today's society, the complexity of decision processes and the complexity of the underlying factual basis are all factors that work against transparency and participation. Furthermore, the decision-making context in controversial issues is not only set up by the factual basis provided by the experts, but also by stakeholder pressure groups, lobbyists and extensive media coverage. The seemingly unlimited availability of information on the Internet and the continuous information flow in TV channels does not make it easier for the layman to get insight and clarity. This paper starts with a discussion about the expert role, a definition of transparency and three rationales for public participation. The two areas of nuclear waste disposal and biotechnology are then used to illustrate problems with transparency, but also initiatives for improving the situation. Frameworks for the evaluation of participative processes are described, as well as the role of media in making complex issues transparent. A central theme in the paper is the need for a shift from the 'experts-agenda paradigm' to the 'values-first paradigm'. We end up with suggestions for how transparency and public participation can be enhanced for the sake of democratic development: 1. We must have a multi-perspective starting point. Participants in participative processes should represent a broad spectrum of views. People must hear each other out to achieve common understanding that there are a variety of legitimate perspectives to consider. 2. The RISCOM model has been shown both innovative and workable in the nuclear waste area. We should extend its application to other areas, biotechnology being one primary candidate. 3. Experiences from

  16. Transparency and public participation - the need for a new paradigm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Kjell [Karinta-Konsult, Taeby (Sweden)

    2001-07-01

    Increasing openness, public participation and transparency are considered important for decision-making in public issues. Transparency serves two purposes; for the awareness of decision-makers and for public insight and influence. However, the increasing complexity of today's society, the complexity of decision processes and the complexity of the underlying factual basis are all factors that work against transparency and participation. Furthermore, the decision-making context in controversial issues is not only set up by the factual basis provided by the experts, but also by stakeholder pressure groups, lobbyists and extensive media coverage. The seemingly unlimited availability of information on the Internet and the continuous information flow in TV channels does not make it easier for the layman to get insight and clarity. This paper starts with a discussion about the expert role, a definition of transparency and three rationales for public participation. The two areas of nuclear waste disposal and biotechnology are then used to illustrate problems with transparency, but also initiatives for improving the situation. Frameworks for the evaluation of participative processes are described, as well as the role of media in making complex issues transparent. A central theme in the paper is the need for a shift from the 'experts-agenda paradigm' to the 'values-first paradigm'. We end up with suggestions for how transparency and public participation can be enhanced for the sake of democratic development: 1. We must have a multi-perspective starting point. Participants in participative processes should represent a broad spectrum of views. People must hear each other out to achieve common understanding that there are a variety of legitimate perspectives to consider. 2. The RISCOM model has been shown both innovative and workable in the nuclear waste area. We should extend its application to other areas, biotechnology being one primary candidate. 3. Experiences from

  17. Computational Hydrodynamics: How Portable and Scalable Are Heterogeneous Programming Paradigms?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlak, Wojciech; Glimberg, Stefan Lemvig; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter

    New many-core era applications at the interface of mathematics and computer science adopt modern parallel programming paradigms and expose parallelism through proper algorithms. We present new performance results for a novel massively parallel free surface wave model suitable for advanced......-device system sizes from desktops to large HPC systems such as superclusters and in the cloud utilizing heterogeneous devices like multi-core CPUs, GPUs, and Xeon Phi coprocessors. The numerical efficiency is evaluated on heterogeneous devices like multi-core CPUs, GPUs and Xeon Phi coprocessors to test...

  18. A new paradigm for the development of analysis software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, D.; Harauz, J.

    2012-01-01

    For the CANDU industry, analysis software is an important tool for scientists and engineers to examine issues related to safety, operation, and design. However, the software quality assurance approach currently used for these tools assumes the software is the delivered product. In this paper, we present a model that shifts the emphasis from software being the end-product to software being support for the end-product, the science. We describe a novel software development paradigm that supports this shift and provides the groundwork for re-examining the quality assurance practices used for analysis software. (author)

  19. On the Feasibility of a Unified Modelling and Programming Paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the feasibility of a unified modelling and programming paradigm is discussed from the perspective of large scale system development and verification in collaborative development environments. We motivate the necessity to utilise multiple formalisms for development and verification....... It is illustrated by means of a case study from the railway domain, how this can be achieved, using concepts from the theory of institutions. This also enables the utilisation of verification tools in different formalisms, despite the fact that these tools are usually developed for one specific formal method....

  20. Practical planning extending the classical AI planning paradigm

    CERN Document Server

    Wilkins, David E

    2014-01-01

    Planning, or reasoning about actions, is a fundamental element of intelligent behavior--and one that artificial intelligence has found very difficult to implement. The most well-understood approach to building planning systems has been under refinement since the late 1960s and has now reached a level of maturity where there are good prospects for building working planners. Practical Planning is an in-depth examination of this classical planning paradigm through an intensive case study of SIPE, a significantly implemented planning system. The author, the developer of SIPE, defines the plann

  1. Training induced cortical plasticity compared between three tongue training paradigms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kothari, Mohit; Svensson, Peter; Jensen, Jim

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different training types and secondary to test gender differences on the training-related cortical plasticity induced by three different tongue training paradigms: 1. Therapeutic tongue exercises (TTE), 2. Playing computer games......) (control) were established using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) at three time-points: (1) before tongue training, (2) immediately after training, (3) 1 h after training. Subject-based reports of motivation, fun, pain and fatigue were evaluated on 0-10 numerical rating scales (NRS) after training....... The resting motor thresholds of tongue MEPs were lowered by training with TDS and TPT (Ptraining with TDS and TPT (P

  2. Paradigms and building tools for real-time expert systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrens, U.; Flasinski, M.; Hagge, L.; Ohrenberg, K.

    1994-01-01

    An expert system is a software which can simulate the problem solving behavior of a human expert. The rule-based paradigm is chosen to describe the different aspects involved in expert system development. Differences between expert systems and common procedural or object-oriented programs are investigated. Expert system shells are introduced as a building tool for expert systems, together with some guidelines on the evaluation of such shells. A discussion of special needs for real-time expert system development concludes the paper

  3. Impaired somatosensory discrimination of shape in Parkinson's disease : Association with caudate nucleus dopaminergic function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weder, BJ; Leenders, KL; Vontobel, P; Nienhusmeier, M; Keel, A; Zaunbauer, W; Vonesch, T; Ludin, HP

    1999-01-01

    Tactile discrimination of macrogeometric objects in a two-alternative forced-choice procedure represents a demanding task involving somatosensory pathways and higher cognitive processing. The objects for somatosensory discrimination, i.e., rectangular parallelepipeds differing only in oblongness,

  4. A P300 brain-computer interface based on a modification of the mismatch negativity paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jing; Sellers, Eric W; Zhou, Sijie; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Xingyu; Cichocki, Andrzej

    2015-05-01

    The P300-based brain-computer interface (BCI) is an extension of the oddball paradigm, and can facilitate communication for people with severe neuromuscular disorders. It has been shown that, in addition to the P300, other event-related potential (ERP) components have been shown to contribute to successful operation of the P300 BCI. Incorporating these components into the classification algorithm can improve the classification accuracy and information transfer rate (ITR). In this paper, a single character presentation paradigm was compared to a presentation paradigm that is based on the visual mismatch negativity. The mismatch negativity paradigm showed significantly higher classification accuracy and ITRs than a single character presentation paradigm. In addition, the mismatch paradigm elicited larger N200 and N400 components than the single character paradigm. The components elicited by the presentation method were consistent with what would be expected from a mismatch paradigm and a typical P300 was also observed. The results show that increasing the signal-to-noise ratio by increasing the amplitude of ERP components can significantly improve BCI speed and accuracy. The mismatch presentation paradigm may be considered a viable option to the traditional P300 BCI paradigm.

  5. Use of a Green Familiar Faces Paradigm Improves P300-Speller Brain-Computer Interface Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Liu, Shuai; Li, Jian; Bai, Ou

    2015-01-01

    A recent study showed improved performance of the P300-speller when the flashing row or column was overlaid with translucent pictures of familiar faces (FF spelling paradigm). However, the performance of the P300-speller is not yet satisfactory due to its low classification accuracy and information transfer rate. To investigate whether P300-speller performance is further improved when the chromatic property and the FF spelling paradigm are combined. We proposed a new spelling paradigm in which the flashing row or column is overlaid with translucent green pictures of familiar faces (GFF spelling paradigm). We analyzed the ERP waveforms elicited by the FF and proposed GFF spelling paradigms and compared P300-speller performance between the two paradigms. Significant differences in the amplitudes of four ERP components (N170, VPP, P300, and P600f) were observed between both spelling paradigms. Compared to the FF spelling paradigm, the GFF spelling paradigm elicited ERP waveforms of higher amplitudes and resulted in improved P300-speller performance. Combining the chromatic property (green color) and the FF spelling paradigm led to better classification accuracy and an increased information transfer rate. These findings demonstrate a promising new approach for improving the performance of the P300-speller.

  6. Cancer research in need of a scientific revolution: Using 'paradigm shift' as a method of investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wion, Didier; Appaix, Florence; Burruss, Meriwether; Berger, Francois; van der Sanden, Boudewijn

    2015-09-01

    Despite important human and financial resources and considerable accumulation of scientific publications, patents, and clinical trials, cancer research has been slow in achieving a therapeutic revolution similar to the one that occurred in the last century for infectious diseases. It has been proposed that science proceeds not only by accumulating data but also through paradigm shifts. Here, we propose to use the concept of 'paradigm shift' as a method of investigation when dominant paradigms fail to achieve their promises. The first step in using the 'paradigm shift' method in cancer research requires identifying its founding paradigms. In this review, two of these founding paradigms will be discussed: (i) the reification of cancer as a tumour mass and (ii) the translation of the concepts issued from infectious disease in cancer research. We show how these founding paradigms can generate biases that lead to over-diagnosis and over-treatment and also hamper the development of curative cancer therapies. We apply the 'paradigm shift' method to produce perspective reversals consistent with current experimental evidence. The 'paradigm shift' method enlightens the existence of a tumour physiologic-prophylactic-pathologic continuum. It integrates the target/antitarget concept and that cancer is also an extracellular disease. The 'paradigm shift' method has immediate implications for cancer prevention and therapy. It could be a general method of investigation for other diseases awaiting therapy.

  7. Adaptive Systems Engineering: A Medical Paradigm for Practicing Systems Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Douglas Hamelin; Ron D. Klingler; Christopher Dieckmann

    2011-06-01

    From its inception in the defense and aerospace industries, SE has applied holistic, interdisciplinary tools and work-process to improve the design and management of 'large, complex engineering projects.' The traditional scope of engineering in general embraces the design, development, production, and operation of physical systems, and SE, as originally conceived, falls within that scope. While this 'traditional' view has expanded over the years to embrace wider, more holistic applications, much of the literature and training currently available is still directed almost entirely at addressing the large, complex, NASA and defense-sized systems wherein the 'ideal' practice of SE provides the cradle-to-grave foundation for system development and deployment. Under such scenarios, systems engineers are viewed as an integral part of the system and project life-cycle from conception to decommissioning. In far less 'ideal' applications, SE principles are equally applicable to a growing number of complex systems and projects that need to be 'rescued' from overwhelming challenges that threaten imminent failure. The medical profession provides a unique analogy for this latter concept and offers a useful paradigm for tailoring our 'practice' of SE to address the unexpected dynamics of applying SE in the real world. In short, we can be much more effective as systems engineers as we change some of the paradigms under which we teach and 'practice' SE.

  8. A New Paradigm for Evaluating Avoidance/Escape Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui-Kimura, Iku; Bouchekioua, Youcef; Mimura, Masaru; Tanaka, Kenji F

    2017-07-01

    Organisms have evolved to approach pleasurable opportunities and to avoid or escape from aversive experiences. These 2 distinct motivations are referred to as approach and avoidance/escape motivations and are both considered vital for survival. Despite several recent advances in understanding the neurobiology of motivation, most studies addressed approach but not avoidance/escape motivation. Here we develop a new experimental paradigm to quantify avoidance/escape motivation and examine the pharmacological validity. We set up an avoidance variable ratio 5 task in which mice were required to press a lever for variable times to avoid an upcoming aversive stimulus (foot shock) or to escape the ongoing aversive event if they failed to avoid it. We i.p. injected ketamine (0, 1, or 5 mg/kg) or buspirone (0, 5, or 10 mg/kg) 20 or 30 minutes before the behavioral task to see if ketamine enhanced avoidance/escape behavior and buspirone diminished it as previously reported. We found that the performance on the avoidance variable ratio 5 task was sensitive to the intensity of the aversive stimulus. Treatment with ketamine increased while that with buspirone decreased the probability of avoidance from an aversive stimulus in the variable ratio 5 task, being consistent with previous reports. Our new paradigm will prove useful for quantifying avoidance/escape motivation and will contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of motivation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  9. Malthusian paradigm and the issue of compulsion in family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pethe, V P

    1982-01-01

    Addresses the question of whether Malthus, were he alive today, would support compulsory family planning (a policy generally referred to as "Malthusian"). The neomalthusian position is basically that the race between population growth and development of resources, especially food supply, is highly unequal; poverty and stagnation are the inevitable outcome. Population growth must therefore be curbed by whatever means are available, through legal compulsion if necessary. A number of statements from Indian government sources during the mid 1970s, with regard to sterilization, are offered as illustrations. The Malthusian paradigm described has been subjected to severe criticism, which leads to questions about its validity as a justification for compulsory sterilization. Malthus distinguished between policy measures for control of population, rejecting all but the moral restraint implied in postponement of marriage. Thus, like Gandhi, he rejected the belief that the ends justify the means. The Malthusian basis is seen as untenable for 3 reasons: it is erroneous (science and technology have nullified the thesis of over population as the cause of poverty); it is dangerous (treating symptoms rather than the disease); it is inadequate, leaving out variables other than the economic from its analysis. Malthus the moralist would have rejected compulsion, and the use of his paradigm to justify such a policy does him an injustice.

  10. The cloud paradigm applied to e-Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilaplana, Jordi; Solsona, Francesc; Abella; Filgueira, Rosa; Rius, Josep

    2013-03-14

    Cloud computing is a new paradigm that is changing how enterprises, institutions and people understand, perceive and use current software systems. With this paradigm, the organizations have no need to maintain their own servers, nor host their own software. Instead, everything is moved to the cloud and provided on demand, saving energy, physical space and technical staff. Cloud-based system architectures provide many advantages in terms of scalability, maintainability and massive data processing. We present the design of an e-health cloud system, modelled by an M/M/m queue with QoS capabilities, i.e. maximum waiting time of requests. Detailed results for the model formed by a Jackson network of two M/M/m queues from the queueing theory perspective are presented. These results show a significant performance improvement when the number of servers increases. Platform scalability becomes a critical issue since we aim to provide the system with high Quality of Service (QoS). In this paper we define an architecture capable of adapting itself to different diseases and growing numbers of patients. This platform could be applied to the medical field to greatly enhance the results of those therapies that have an important psychological component, such as addictions and chronic diseases.

  11. The PRISM (Pliocene Palaeoclimate) reconstruction: Time for a paradigm shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowsett, Harry J.; Robinson, Marci M.; Stoll, Danielle K.; Foley, Kevin M.; Johnson, Andrew L. A.; Williams, Mark; Riesselman, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Global palaeoclimate reconstructions have been invaluable to our understanding of the causes and effects of climate change, but single-temperature representations of the oceanic mixed layer for data–model comparisons are outdated, and the time for a paradigm shift in marine palaeoclimate reconstruction is overdue. The new paradigm in marine palaeoclimate reconstruction stems the loss of valuable climate information and instead presents a holistic and nuanced interpretation of multi-dimensional oceanographic processes and responses. A wealth of environmental information is hidden within the US Geological Survey's Pliocene Research,Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping (PRISM) marine palaeoclimate reconstruction, and we introduce here a plan to incorporate all valuable climate data into the next generation of PRISM products. Beyond the global approach and focus, we plan to incorporate regional climate dynamics with emphasis on processes, integrating multiple environmental proxies wherever available in order to better characterize the mixed layer, and developing a finer time slice within the Mid-Piacenzian Age of the Pliocene, complemented by underused proxies that offer snapshots into environmental conditions. The result will be a proxy-rich, temporally nested, process-oriented approach in a digital format - a relational database with geographic information system capabilities comprising a three-dimensional grid representing the surface layer, with a plethora of data in each cell.

  12. The pan occupational paradigm: development and key concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitch, Danielle; Pepin, Genevieve; Stagnitti, Karen

    2018-01-01

    Wilcock's Occupational Perspective of Health (OPH) aligns with the profession's re-discovery of its holistic, occupationally focused roots. Its dimensions of occupation-doing, being, becoming and belonging - resonate strongly with therapists on an intuitive, implicit level. However, its documented use in practice to date has been sparse, and several barriers to its implementation have been identified. The aim of this article is to present a renewal of the OPH - the Pan Occupational Paradigm (POP). Method of development: POP was developed using critical analysis, reflection and a comprehensive literature review. Each stage of development is described in detail, including the POP's inherent assumptions. Key concepts: POP retains the four dimensions of occupation, and shows their interdependent role within occupational entities (e.g. individuals, groups or communities). An entity can be approached by occupational therapy at any point and all the dimensions (either directly or indirectly) can be engaged. Occupational entities move along a continuum of wellbeing, and this movement can be in both positive and negative directions over a lifespan. POP is a distillation of occupational therapy's unique way of knowing about occupation and the promotion of wellbeing. It is put forward as an updated paradigm for occupational therapy in the 21st century.

  13. Bion and the sublime: the origins of an aesthetic paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civitarese, Giuseppe

    2014-12-01

    In constructing his theory Bion drew on a number of symbolic matrices: psychoanalysis, philosophy, mathematics, literature, aesthetics. The least investigated of these is the last. True, we know that Bion cites many authors of the Romantic period, such as Coleridge, Keats, Blake and Wordsworth, as well as others who were held in high esteem in the Romantic period, such as Milton. However, less is known about the influence exerted on him by the aesthetics of the sublime, which while chronologically preceding Romanticism is in fact one of its components. My working hypothesis is that tracing a number of Bion's concepts back to this secret model can serve several purposes: firstly, it contributes to the study of the sources, and, secondly, it makes these concepts appear much less occasional and idiosyncratic than we might believe, being as they are mostly those less immediately understandable but not less important (O, negative capability, nameless dread, the infinite, the language of achievement, unison etc.). Finally, connecting these notions to a matrix, that is, disclosing the meaning of elements that are not simply juxtaposed but dynamically interrelated, in my view significantly increases not only their theoretical intelligibility but also their usefulness in clinical practice. In conclusion, one could legitimately argue that Bion gradually subsumed all the other paradigms he drew on within the aesthetic paradigm. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  14. Historical ESWT Paradigms Are Overcome: A Narrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauck, Tanja; Korakakis, Vasileios; Malliaropoulos, Nikos

    2016-01-01

    Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy (ESWT) is a conservative treatment modality with still growing interest in musculoskeletal disorders. This narrative review aims to present an overview covering 20-year development in the field of musculoskeletal ESWT. Eight historical paradigms have been identified and put under question from a current perspective: energy intensity, focus size, anesthesia, imaging, growth plates, acuteness, calcifications, and number of sessions. All paradigms as set in a historical consensus meeting in 1995 are to be revised. First, modern musculoskeletal ESWT is divided into focused and radial technology and the physical differences are about 100-fold with respect to the applied energy. Most lesions to be treated are easy to reach and clinical focusing plays a major role today. Lesion size is no longer a matter of concern. With the exception of nonunion fractures full, regional, or even local anesthesia is not helpful in musculoskeletal indications. Juvenile patients can also effectively be treated without risk of epiphyseal damage. Further research is needed to answer the question about if and which acute injuries can be managed effectively. Treatment parameters like the number of sessions are still relying on empirical data and have to be further elucidated. PMID:27493955

  15. Historical ESWT Paradigms Are Overcome: A Narrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz Lohrer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy (ESWT is a conservative treatment modality with still growing interest in musculoskeletal disorders. This narrative review aims to present an overview covering 20-year development in the field of musculoskeletal ESWT. Eight historical paradigms have been identified and put under question from a current perspective: energy intensity, focus size, anesthesia, imaging, growth plates, acuteness, calcifications, and number of sessions. All paradigms as set in a historical consensus meeting in 1995 are to be revised. First, modern musculoskeletal ESWT is divided into focused and radial technology and the physical differences are about 100-fold with respect to the applied energy. Most lesions to be treated are easy to reach and clinical focusing plays a major role today. Lesion size is no longer a matter of concern. With the exception of nonunion fractures full, regional, or even local anesthesia is not helpful in musculoskeletal indications. Juvenile patients can also effectively be treated without risk of epiphyseal damage. Further research is needed to answer the question about if and which acute injuries can be managed effectively. Treatment parameters like the number of sessions are still relying on empirical data and have to be further elucidated.

  16. Control effects of stimulus paradigms on characteristic firings of parkinsonism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Honghui; Wang, Qingyun; Chen, Guanrong

    2014-09-01

    Experimental studies have shown that neuron population located in the basal ganglia of parkinsonian primates can exhibit characteristic firings with certain firing rates differing from normal brain activities. Motivated by recent experimental findings, we investigate the effects of various stimulation paradigms on the firing rates of parkinsonism based on the proposed dynamical models. Our results show that the closed-loop deep brain stimulation is superior in ameliorating the firing behaviors of the parkinsonism, and other control strategies have similar effects according to the observation of electrophysiological experiments. In addition, in conformity to physiological experiments, we found that there exists optimal delay of input in the closed-loop GPtrain|M1 paradigm, where more normal behaviors can be obtained. More interestingly, we observed that W-shaped curves of the firing rates always appear as stimulus delay varies. We furthermore verify the robustness of the obtained results by studying three pallidal discharge rates of the parkinsonism based on the conductance-based model, as well as the integrate-and-fire-or-burst model. Finally, we show that short-term plasticity can improve the firing rates and optimize the control effects on parkinsonism. Our conclusions may give more theoretical insight into Parkinson's disease studies.

  17. Sulforaphane (SFN: An Isothiocyanate in a Cancer Chemoprevention Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Fahad Ullah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC in its latest World Cancer Report (2014 has projected the increase in the global cancer burden from 14 million (2012 to 22 million incidence annually within the next two decades. Such statistics warrant a collaborative engagement of conventional and complementary and alternative therapies to contain and manage cancer. In recent years, there has been a shift in the cancer chemoprevention paradigm with a significant focus turning towards bioactive components of human diets for their anticancer properties. Since diet is an integral part of lifestyle and given that an estimated one third of human cancers are believed to be preventable though appropriate lifestyle modification including dietary habits, the current shift in the conventional paradigm assumes significance. Several epidemiological studies have indicated that consumption of broccoli is associated with a lower risk of cancer incidence including breast, prostate, lung, stomach and colon cancer. The edible plant belonging to the family of cruciferae such as broccoli is a rich source of glucoraphanin, a precursor of isothiocyanate sulforaphane which is considered to be a potent anti-cancer agent. Plant-based dietary agents such as sulforaphane mimic chemotherapeutic drugs such as vorinostat, possessing histone deacetylase inhibition activity. Evidence from epidemiological and experimental studies have emerged, enhancing the clinical plausibility and translational value of sulforaphane in cancer chemoprevention. The present review provides the current understanding of the cancer chemopreventive pharmacology of sulforaphane towards its potential as an anticancer agent.

  18. Left Handed Materials: A New Paradigm in Structured Electromagnetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johri, Manoj; Paudyal, Harihar

    2010-05-01

    A new paradigm has emerged exhibiting reverse electromagnetic properties. Novel composite and micro-structured materials (metamaterials) have been designed to control electromagnetic radiation. Such substances have been called as Left Handed Material (LHM) with simultaneous negative permittivity and negative permeability and negative refractive index as well. Left handed materials are of importance because of their ability to influence the behavior of electromagnetic radiation and to display properties beyond those available in naturally occurring materials. Typically these are sub-wavelength artificial structures where the dimensions are very small compared to the working wavelength. These dimensions are normally of the order of λ/10 where λ is the wavelength of electromagnetic wave propagating in the material. Emergence of this new paradigm leads to some very interesting consequences, such as, to create lenses that are not diffraction limited, cloaking, sensors (chemical, biological and individual molecule), optical and radio communication. This new development in structured electromagnetic materials has had a dramatic impact on the physics, optics and engineering communities. (author)

  19. Linguistic diversity, global paradigms and taken-for-grantedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Angéline

    2004-01-01

    In the first part of this paper taken-for-granted hypotheses in linguistic diversity are presented. In the second part the two constellations of globalized ideologies are described constituting paradigms that these hypotheses illustrate: competition and solidarity. In the third part, a condensed version of emerging globalized concerns is given. Sociolinguistics and anthropological linguistics are disciplines that increasingly theorize and analyze within the solidarity paradigm. It is suggested that a systematic uprooting of competition as taken-for-granted grounding of scientific research should allow for the development of theorization and successful applications of solidarity ideologies. In short, in this paper, our multifaceted taken-for-grantedness is challenged in many ways: (1) competition is ideological and many social movements are unmasking it by articulating solidarity as a basis for ideologies, (2) difference is not necessarily divisive but it is so in pervasive competition, (3) proponents of the Nation-State as a model of social organization have vested interests in competition, (4) competition has not favored the articulation of common human grounds but globalization helps to raise concerns and articulate commonness/solidarity in difference.

  20. The Federated Satellite Systems paradigm: Concept and business case evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golkar, Alessandro; Lluch i Cruz, Ignasi

    2015-06-01

    This paper defines the paradigm of Federated Satellite Systems (FSS) as a novel distributed space systems architecture. FSS are networks of spacecraft trading previously inefficiently allocated and unused resources such as downlink bandwidth, storage, processing power, and instrument time. FSS holds the promise to enhance cost-effectiveness, performance and reliability of existing and future space missions, by networking different missions and effectively creating a pool of resources to exchange between participants in the federation. This paper introduces and describes the FSS paradigm, and develops an approach integrating mission analysis and economic assessments to evaluate the feasibility of the business case of FSS. The approach is demonstrated on a case study on opportunities enabled by FSS to enhance space exploration programs, with particular reference to the International Space Station. The application of the proposed methodology shows that the FSS concept is potentially able to create large commercial markets of in-space resources, by providing the technical platform to offer the opportunity for spacecraft to share or make use of unused resources within their orbital neighborhood. It is shown how the concept is beneficial to satellite operators, space agencies, and other stakeholders of the space industry to more flexibly interoperate space systems as a portfolio of assets, allowing unprecedented collaboration among heterogeneous types of missions.

  1. New Paradigm for Plasma Crystal Formation with weak grain interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsytovich, V.N.; Morfill, G.E.

    2005-01-01

    New results for non-linear grain screening, non-linear ion drag and non-linear collective attractions appropriate for existing experiments are used for the first time together to explain the observed phenomena of plasma condensation. Based on the physics of collective non-linear grain attraction a paradigm for plasma crystal formation is formulated according to which plasma the crystal formation is due to localization of grains in weak non-linear collective attraction wells. Nonlinearity in screening is an important feature of new paradigm and takes into account that the grain charges are large. The physical consequence of large non-linearity is the presence of relative large attraction potential well at distances several times larger then the non-linear screening radius. Calculated location of the potential well is of the order of the observed inter-grain distances in plasma crystals and the calculated deepness of the potential well determining the temperature of phase transition is close to that observed. The calculations of the deepness of the attraction collective well and the critical value of the coupling constant are performed using an assumption that the collective attraction length is larger than the non-linear screening length. The concept of collective grain interaction in complex plasmas is considered for the case where the non-linear screening is fully determining the collective attraction well

  2. Interval timing in genetically modified mice: a simple paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balci, F; Papachristos, E B; Gallistel, C R; Brunner, D; Gibson, J; Shumyatsky, G P

    2008-04-01

    We describe a behavioral screen for the quantitative study of interval timing and interval memory in mice. Mice learn to switch from a short-latency feeding station to a long-latency station when the short latency has passed without a feeding. The psychometric function is the cumulative distribution of switch latencies. Its median measures timing accuracy and its interquartile interval measures timing precision. Next, using this behavioral paradigm, we have examined mice with a gene knockout of the receptor for gastrin-releasing peptide that show enhanced (i.e. prolonged) freezing in fear conditioning. We have tested the hypothesis that the mutants freeze longer because they are more uncertain than wild types about when to expect the electric shock. The knockouts however show normal accuracy and precision in timing, so we have rejected this alternative hypothesis. Last, we conduct the pharmacological validation of our behavioral screen using d-amphetamine and methamphetamine. We suggest including the analysis of interval timing and temporal memory in tests of genetically modified mice for learning and memory and argue that our paradigm allows this to be done simply and efficiently.

  3. Nature: a new paradigm for well-being and ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Miles; Maspero, Marta; Golightly, David; Sheffield, David; Staples, Vicki; Lumber, Ryan

    2017-02-01

    Nature is presented as a new paradigm for ergonomics. As a discipline concerned with well-being, the importance of natural environments for wellness should be part of ergonomics knowledge and practice. This position is supported by providing a concise summary of the evidence of the value of the natural environment to well-being. Further, an emerging body of research has found relationships between well-being and a connection to nature, a concept that reveals the integrative character of human experience which can inform wider practice and epistemology in ergonomics. Practitioners are encouraged to bring nature into the workplace, so that ergonomics keeps pace with the move to nature-based solutions, but also as a necessity in the current ecological and social context. Practitioner Summary: Nature-based solutions are coming to the fore to address societal challenges such as well-being. As ergonomics is concerned with well-being, there is a need for a paradigm shift in the discipline. This position is supported by providing a concise summary of the evidence of the value of the natural environment to well-being.

  4. Reliability and Validity of Qualitative and Operational Research Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Bashir

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Both qualitative and quantitative paradigms try to find the same result; the truth. Qualitative studies are tools used in understanding and describing the world of human experience. Since we maintain our humanity throughout the research process, it is largely impossible to escape the subjective experience, even for the most experienced of researchers. Reliability and Validity are the issue that has been described in great deal by advocates of quantitative researchers. The validity and the norms of rigor that are applied to quantitative research are not entirely applicable to qualitative research. Validity in qualitative research means the extent to which the data is plausible, credible and trustworthy; and thus can be defended when challenged. Reliability and validity remain appropriate concepts for attaining rigor in qualitative research. Qualitative researchers have to salvage responsibility for reliability and validity by implementing verification strategies integral and self-correcting during the conduct of inquiry itself. This ensures the attainment of rigor using strategies inherent within each qualitative design, and moves the responsibility for incorporating and maintaining reliability and validity from external reviewers’ judgments to the investigators themselves. There have different opinions on validity with some suggesting that the concepts of validity is incompatible with qualitative research and should be abandoned while others argue efforts should be made to ensure validity so as to lend credibility to the results. This paper is an attempt to clarify the meaning and use of reliability and validity in the qualitative research paradigm.

  5. Positive communication paradigm decreases early recurrence in clubfoot treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Matthew L; Hoopes, Daniel M; Szalay, Elizabeth A

    2014-03-01

    The Ponseti method has become the treatment standard for idiopathic clubfoot. Deformity recurrence is most commonly attributed to premature abandonment of the requisite abduction orthosis. A study in 2009 from our center revealed a high rate of deformity recurrence in our patient population. It was surmised that the importance of bracing to maintain correction had not been adequately communicated to some families, especially Native Americans. As a result, the principal investigator developed a different communication protocol for parents of infants. All children treated for clubfoot at the University of New Mexico Carrie Tingley Hospital, Albuquerque, NM, from 2008 to 2010 were reviewed. They were compared with a historical control group from this institution, the subjects of the 2009 study, and were analyzed for the rate of recurrence and Pirani score improvement. Our study cohort comprised 69 infants (104 clubfeet), all of whom were treated with the new communication style. The recurrence rate for the new communication paradigm was 2.88% compared with 18.2% in the control group (Pgroup compared with 3.5 in the control group (P=0.001). Native American recurrence was zero in the treatment group and 41% in the control group (P=0.011). A positive, rather than a negative communication style, emphasis on the brace as the most important aspect of treatment, and a more culturally sensitive family education paradigm, resulted in a lower rate of deformity recurrence when treating children with clubfeet using the Ponseti method. Level III.

  6. Synergetic Paradigm of Geopolitical Confrontation in the Postmodern Era

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    Sergey N. Teplyakov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes current state and mechanisms of geopolitical struggle in postmodern information age that has come. The author judges from assumption that entirely new postmodern society appeared with expansion of information technology, accompanied by cardinal changes in mechanisms of political power. Information technologies have become one of the most important factors contributing to the transformation of modern society from industrial to informational (post-industrial. In modern conditions, ensuring national and global security is a comprehensive process that includes not only measures to ensure information and economic security individually, but also such an integrated component as providing both information and economic security. The author suggests that modem geopolitical confrontation is carried out based on the synergetic paradigm. The main tool is information and energy influence on enemy system weaknesses using information space control, organizing negative information campaigns and applying economic sanctions. If the main focus of geopolitical struggle in modern era was forced expansion of the territory, in information postmodern age control over economic and information space has become priority among forms of geopolitical struggle. Military expansion of modern era becomes substituted by information and economic expansionism of postmodern using synergetic paradigm of geopolitical confrontation in order to control and capture the opponent's political space.

  7. The waste isolation pilot plant project: a changing paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, L.E.; McFadden, M.H.

    1996-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a US Department of Energy (DOE) repository that has been developed to demonstrate the safe and permanent isolation of transuranic radioactive wastes in a deep geologic site. It is located in 650 m below the surface in a bedded salt formation, and is designed to hold approximately 175,500 cubic meters of waste. Compliance with the regulations has become the principal focus for the Project. The scientific baseline is an important and integral part of the CCA, as it provides the foundation for conducting total system performance assessment calculations for comparison with applicable standards. The activities required to support the scientific baseline are being pursued in parallel to minimize the time required to collect, analyze, interpret and fully incorporate the results into the CCA. The DOE has shifted its approach to demonstrating compliance with the applicable regulations from a paradigm of a series of broad investigations to a new paradigm of highly focused activities conducted in parallel. The success of this approach will be assessed by the EPA when the application is critically reviewed

  8. Science, human nature, and a new paradigm for ethics education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, Marc

    2012-09-01

    For centuries, religion and philosophy have been the primary basis for efforts to guide humans to be more ethical. However, training in ethics and religion and imparting positive values and morality tests such as those emanating from the categorical imperative and the Golden Rule have not been enough to protect humankind from its bad behaviors. To improve ethics education educators must better understand aspects of human nature such as those that lead to "self-deception" and "personal bias." Through rationalizations, faulty reasoning and hidden bias, individuals trick themselves into believing there is little wrong with their own unethical behavior. The application of science to human nature offers the possibility of improving ethics education through better self-knowledge. The author recommends a new paradigm for ethics education in contemporary modern society. This includes the creation of a new field called "applied evolutionary neuro-ethics" which integrates science and social sciences to improve ethics education. The paradigm can merge traditional thinking about ethics from religious and philosophical perspectives with new ideas from applied evolutionary neuro-ethics.

  9. Ordering schemes for sparse matrices using modern programming paradigms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliker, Leonid; Li, Xiaoye; Husbands, Parry; Biswas, Rupak

    2000-01-01

    The Conjugate Gradient (CG) algorithm is perhaps the best-known iterative technique to solve sparse linear systems that are symmetric and positive definite. In previous work, we investigated the effects of various ordering and partitioning strategies on the performance of CG using different programming paradigms and architectures. This paper makes several extensions to our prior research. First, we present a hybrid(MPI+OpenMP) implementation of the CG algorithm on the IBM SP and show that the hybrid paradigm increases programming complexity with little performance gains compared to a pure MPI implementation. For ill-conditioned linear systems, it is often necessary to use a preconditioning technique. We present MPI results for ILU(0) preconditioned CG (PCG) using the BlockSolve95 library, and show that the initial ordering of the input matrix dramatically affect PCG's performance. Finally, a multithreaded version of the PCG is developed on the Cray (Tera) MTA. Unlike the message-passing version, this implementation did not require the complexities of special orderings or graph dependency analysis. However, only limited scalability was achieved due to the lack of available thread level parallelism

  10. Partnering with patients to promote holistic diabetes management: changing paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Lenora

    2013-07-01

    To provide a review of best practice for clinical management of diabetes mellitus (DM) for nurse practitioners (NPs) and accelerate incorporation of key findings into current practice. A search was conducted in Pub Med, Ovid, CINAHL, and Cochrane's Database of Systematic Reviews. There are many challenges for DM care identified in the current health system. There is a great need to change care paradigms to engage patients in partnership for enhanced management and self-management in DM. A review of the best practice evidence revealed numerous models of care, strategies, and tools available to enhance diabetes care and promote health and well-being. The primary focus of this article is to engage NP clinicians to incorporate new strategies to augment management and improve clinical outcomes. Incorporation of best practice for DM management may accelerate the paradigm shift to more patient-focused care. Engaged, informed, and activated patients along with clinicians working in partnerships may enhance clinical outcomes. ©2013 The Author ©2013 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  11. On the paradigm of altruistic suicide in the unicellular world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedelcu, Aurora M; Driscoll, William W; Durand, Pierre M; Herron, Matthew D; Rashidi, Armin

    2011-01-01

    Altruistic suicide is best known in the context of programmed cell death (PCD) in multicellular individuals, which is understood as an adaptive process that contributes to the development and functionality of the organism. After the realization that PCD-like processes can also be induced in single-celled lineages, the paradigm of altruistic cell death has been extended to include these active cell death processes in unicellular organisms. Here, we critically evaluate the current conceptual framework and the experimental data used to support the notion of altruistic suicide in unicellular lineages, and propose new perspectives. We argue that importing the paradigm of altruistic cell death from multicellular organisms to explain active death in unicellular lineages has the potential to limit the types of questions we ask, thus biasing our understanding of the nature, origin, and maintenance of this trait. We also emphasize the need to distinguish between the benefits and the adaptive role of a trait. Lastly, we provide an alternative framework that allows for the possibility that active death in single-celled organisms is a maladaptive trait maintained as a byproduct of selection on pro-survival functions, but that could-under conditions in which kin/group selection can act-be co-opted into an altruistic trait. © 2010 The Author(s). Evolution© 2010 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  12. A multi-paradigm language for reactive synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Filippidis

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a language for describing reactive synthesis problems that integrates imperative and declarative elements. The semantics is defined in terms of two-player turn-based infinite games with full information. Currently, synthesis tools accept linear temporal logic (LTL as input, but this description is less structured and does not facilitate the expression of sequential constraints. This motivates the use of a structured programming language to specify synthesis problems. Transition systems and guarded commands serve as imperative constructs, expressed in a syntax based on that of the modeling language Promela. The syntax allows defining which player controls data and control flow, and separating a program into assumptions and guarantees. These notions are necessary for input to game solvers. The integration of imperative and declarative paradigms allows using the paradigm that is most appropriate for expressing each requirement. The declarative part is expressed in the LTL fragment of generalized reactivity(1, which admits efficient synthesis algorithms, extended with past LTL. The implementation translates Promela to input for the Slugs synthesizer and is written in Python. The AMBA AHB bus case study is revisited and synthesized efficiently, identifying the need to reorder binary decision diagrams during strategy construction, in order to prevent the exponential blowup observed in previous work.

  13. Pancasila Paradigm: Methodology of Wawasan Nusantara for Accounting of Pancasila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwan Triyuwono

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present the research methodology of the accounting paradigm “Pancasila”. Pancasila is the basic view of life appropriate to the citizens of Indonesia's independence. In the paradigm of Pancasila, there are contained elements of philosophical research or basic beliefs that underlie accounting thought and research. These elements are based on the nature of Pancasila human beings, i.e. the first point of Pancasila, Ketuhanan Yang Maha Esa (The Almighty God contains elements of life, as a study of ontology; the second point, Kemanusiaan yang Adil dan Beradab ( Just and Civilized Humanity, contains elements of the senses, the mind, and rasa as the study of epistemology; the third point, Persatuan Indonesia (the Unity of Indonesia, contains elements of Karsa (will in concepts ofWawasan Nusantara as the study methodology, i.e. the Methodology ofWawasan Nusantara (MWN; the fourth point, Kerakyatan yang dipimpin oleh Hikmah Kebijaksanaan dalam Permusyawaratan / Perwakilan (Democracy Guided by the Inner Wisdom in Deliberations and Representations, contains elements of deeds and inner wisdom as a method of research; and fifth points, Keadilan Sosial bagi Seluruh Rakyat Indonesia (Social Justice for all the People of Indonesia, contains elements of purpose as the study of axiology, namely the research results in the form of the concept and practice of accounting based on Pancasila.

  14. Happy Face Superiority Effect in Change Detection Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domagoj Švegar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate which affective component guides cognitive processing of emotional facial expressions. According to the threat hypothesis, processing of angry faces is prioritized by the human cognitive system, because rapid detection of threat has a large adaptive value. The negativity hypothesis presumes that distressing emotional experiences of other people attract attention, regardless of whether they represent danger or not. The emotionality hypothesis proposes that positive emotional facial expressions can capture attention as effective as negative ones, while the happy face superiority hypothesis predicts that happy faces are prioritized. In the present study, which was conducted on 24 participants, change detection paradigm was used, because that procedure enables insight into the later stage of information processing. The results obtained show that happy facial expressions are heavily prioritized by the human cognitive system. In explanation of these results, that clearly support the happy face superiority hypothesis, we propose that angry expressions are initially prioritized by our cognitive system, because we benefit from early detection of potential threat in the environment, but in later cognitive processing, happy expressions are given the priority, because smiling is a valuable mechanism for forming and maintaining cooperative relationships. Besides the theoretical relevance, the present study is also valuable methodologically, because we demonstrated that change detection paradigm can be efficiently used for the research of emotional facial expressions processing.

  15. The cloud paradigm applied to e-Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Cloud computing is a new paradigm that is changing how enterprises, institutions and people understand, perceive and use current software systems. With this paradigm, the organizations have no need to maintain their own servers, nor host their own software. Instead, everything is moved to the cloud and provided on demand, saving energy, physical space and technical staff. Cloud-based system architectures provide many advantages in terms of scalability, maintainability and massive data processing. Methods We present the design of an e-health cloud system, modelled by an M/M/m queue with QoS capabilities, i.e. maximum waiting time of requests. Results Detailed results for the model formed by a Jackson network of two M/M/m queues from the queueing theory perspective are presented. These results show a significant performance improvement when the number of servers increases. Conclusions Platform scalability becomes a critical issue since we aim to provide the system with high Quality of Service (QoS). In this paper we define an architecture capable of adapting itself to different diseases and growing numbers of patients. This platform could be applied to the medical field to greatly enhance the results of those therapies that have an important psychological component, such as addictions and chronic diseases. PMID:23496912

  16. A new hybrid BCI paradigm based on P300 and SSVEP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minjue; Daly, Ian; Allison, Brendan Z; Jin, Jing; Zhang, Yu; Chen, Lanlan; Wang, Xingyu

    2015-04-15

    P300 and steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) approaches have been widely used for brain-computer interface (BCI) systems. However, neither of these approaches can work for all subjects. Some groups have reported that a hybrid BCI that combines two or more approaches might provide BCI functionality to more users. Hybrid P300/SSVEP BCIs have only recently been developed and validated, and very few avenues to improve performance have been explored. The present study compares an established hybrid P300/SSVEP BCIs paradigm to a new paradigm in which shape changing, instead of color changing, is adopted for P300 evocation to decrease the degradation on SSVEP strength. The result shows that the new hybrid paradigm presented in this paper yields much better performance than the normal hybrid paradigm. A performance increase of nearly 20% in SSVEP classification is achieved using the new hybrid paradigm in comparison with the normal hybrid paradigm. All the paradigms except the normal hybrid paradigm used in this paper obtain 100% accuracy in P300 classification. The new hybrid P300/SSVEP BCIs paradigm in which shape changing, instead of color changing, could obtain as high classification accuracy of SSVEP as the traditional SSVEP paradigm and could obtain as high classification accuracy of P300 as the traditional P300 paradigm. P300 did not interfere with the SSVEP response using the new hybrid paradigm presented in this paper, which was superior to the normal hybrid P300/SSVEP paradigm. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. UO2: production based on two alternative lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppa, R.C.; Martin, H.R.

    1987-01-01

    The production of the uranium dioxide (UO 2 ) is carried out at the Cordoba factory, of the Argentine National Atomic Energy Commission, by the uranil carbonate method (AUC). The commercial uranium concentrates (yellow cake) is dissolved with HNO 3 and purificated with tributil phosphate (TBP). The pure uranium compound coming from the reextraction, is concentrated to 0.4 Kg U/l, then the precipitation with CO 2 and NH 3 gives the AUC crystalls. After conversion of AUC to UO 2 powder, the pellets are obtained by direct compacting. In the second experimental method used by CNEA, the yellow cake is dissolved with H 2 SO 4 , and then it is purified with a terciary amine and precipitated with (NH 4 ) 2 CO 3 . In this form the ammonium uranil tri-carbonate (AUT) crystals are obtained. The convertion to UO 2 is made under an atmosphere of dissociated NH 3 . (M.E.L.) [es

  18. Performance and sustainability of two alternative rabbit breeding systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Theau.Clément

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate 2 alternative breeding systems that differ from the current system in terms of reproduction rhythm, age of females at first insemination and the age of kits at weaning and at slaughter. We measured the performance of 332 females and their offspring over 4 consecutive cycles, as well as the sustainability of the systems. We compared an intensive (group I: reproduction rhythm [RR]=35 d; first insemination [AI1]=20.6 wk of age; weaning age [WA]=32 d; slaughter age [WS]=63 d an extensive (group E: RR=49 d; AI1=16.6 wk; WA=30 d; WS=70 d and a semi-intensive system (group S: RR=42 d; AI1=19.6 wk; WA=35 d; WS=70 d considered as the control system. Sustainability was evaluated using a multicriteria assessment method that takes 14 economic, environmental and social criteria into account, for which 3 to 5 indicators were expressed as the relative score [–1; –0.5; 0; +0.5; +1] for alternative systems compared to the control system. The productivity measured at 28 d (3.5, 4.2 and 4.6 kg/AI, for groups I, S and E, respectively, at 63 d post-partum (30, 38 and 42 kg/female for 4 cycles, respectively, and the total body energy measured 3 d after the 1st and at the 4th insemination (45.4, 46.8 and 49.5 MJ, respectively, were significantly increased when the reproductive rhythm decreased (P<0.001. Before and after weaning, kit mortality decreased when the reproduction rhythm decreased (11.4, 7.3, and 1.9% and 18.3, 15.3 and 10.6% for groups I, S and E, respectively, P<0.05. Carcass quality (weight and dressing percentage was lower in I than in the S and E groups (P<0.001. On this basis, the yearly productivity per doe at weaning could be estimated at 79, 83, and 78 kg for groups I, S and E, respectively. Consequently, the productivity per reproductive cycle increases with the extensification of the breeding system. Nevertheless, compared with the current French system (S, simultaneous changes in several breeding practices could lead to new coherent and functional systems capable of improving various aspects of sustainability.

  19. Equivalence of two alternative approaches to Schroedinger equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goenuel, B; Koeksal, K

    2006-01-01

    A recently developed simple approach for the exact/approximate solution of Schroedinger equations with constant/position-dependent mass, in which the potential is considered as in the perturbation theory, is shown to be equivalent to the one leading to the construction of exactly solvable potentials via the solution of second-order differential equations in terms of known special functions. The formalism in the former solves difficulties encountered in the latter in revealing the corrections explicitly to the unperturbed piece of the solutions whereas the other obviates cumbersome procedures used in the calculations of the former

  20. The visual mismatch negativity (vMMN): toward the optimal paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xiaosen; Liu, Yi; Xiao, Bing; Gao, Li; Li, Songlin; Dang, Lijie; Si, Cuiping; Zhao, Lun

    2014-09-01

    In the present article, we tested an optimal vMMN paradigm allowing one to obtain vMMNs for several visual attributes in a short time. vMMN responses to changes in color, duration, orientation, shape, and size were compared between the traditional 'oddball' paradigm (a single type of visual change in each sequence) and the optimal paradigm in which all the 5 types of changes appeared within the same sequence. The vMMNs obtained in the optimal paradigm were equal or larger in amplitude to those in the traditional vMMN paradigm. The optimal paradigm can provide 5 different vMMNs in the same time in which usually only one MMN is obtained. This short objective measure could putatively be used as an index for visual cognition function especially in clinical research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.