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Sample records for two-alternative forced-choice paradigm

  1. A user-operated audiometry method based on the maximum likelihood principle and the two-alternative forced-choice paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jesper Hvass; Brandt, Christian; Pedersen, Ellen Raben

    2014-01-01

    response criteria. User-operated audiometry was developed as an alternative to traditional audiometry for research purposes among musicians. Design: Test-retest reliability of the user-operated audiometry system was evaluated and the user-operated audiometry system was compared with traditional audiometry......Objective: To create a user-operated pure-tone audiometry method based on the method of maximum likelihood (MML) and the two-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) paradigm with high test-retest reliability without the need of an external operator and with minimal influence of subjects' fluctuating....... Study sample: Test-retest reliability of user-operated 2AFC audiometry was tested with 38 naïve listeners. User-operated 2AFC audiometry was compared to traditional audiometry in 41 subjects. Results: The repeatability of user-operated 2AFC audiometry was comparable to traditional audiometry...

  2. Classification image analysis: estimation and statistical inference for two-alternative forced-choice experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbey, Craig K.; Eckstein, Miguel P.

    2002-01-01

    We consider estimation and statistical hypothesis testing on classification images obtained from the two-alternative forced-choice experimental paradigm. We begin with a probabilistic model of task performance for simple forced-choice detection and discrimination tasks. Particular attention is paid to general linear filter models because these models lead to a direct interpretation of the classification image as an estimate of the filter weights. We then describe an estimation procedure for obtaining classification images from observer data. A number of statistical tests are presented for testing various hypotheses from classification images based on some more compact set of features derived from them. As an example of how the methods we describe can be used, we present a case study investigating detection of a Gaussian bump profile.

  3. The Physics of Optimal Decision Making: A Formal Analysis of Models of Performance in Two-Alternative Forced-Choice Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogacz, Rafal; Brown, Eric; Moehlis, Jeff; Holmes, Philip; Cohen, Jonathan D.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors consider optimal decision making in two-alternative forced-choice (TAFC) tasks. They begin by analyzing 6 models of TAFC decision making and show that all but one can be reduced to the drift diffusion model, implementing the statistically optimal algorithm (most accurate for a given speed or fastest for a given…

  4. Comprehension of argument structure and semantic roles: evidence from English-learning children and the forced-choice pointing paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Claire H; Rowland, Caroline F; Pine, Julian M

    2011-07-01

    Research using the intermodal preferential looking paradigm (IPLP) has consistently shown that English-learning children aged 2 can associate transitive argument structure with causal events. However, studies using the same methodology investigating 2-year-old children's knowledge of the conjoined agent intransitive and semantic role assignment have reported inconsistent findings. The aim of the present study was to establish at what age English-learning children have verb-general knowledge of both transitive and intransitive argument structure using a new method: the forced-choice pointing paradigm. The results suggest that young 2-year-olds can associate transitive structures with causal (or externally caused) events and can use transitive structure to assign agent and patient roles correctly. However, the children were unable to associate the conjoined agent intransitive with noncausal events until aged 3;4. The results confirm the pattern from previous IPLP studies and indicate that children may develop the ability to comprehend different aspects of argument structure at different ages. The implications for theories of language acquisition and the nature of the language acquisition mechanism are discussed.

  5. Neural processing of recollection, familiarity and priming at encoding: evidence from a forced-choice recognition paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yingfang; Ye, Xiaohong; Gonsalves, Brian D

    2014-10-17

    The distinction between neural mechanisms of explicit and implicit expressions of memory has been well studied at the retrieval stage, but less at encoding. In addition, dissociations obtained in many studies are complicated by methodological difficulties in obtaining process-pure measures of different types of memory. In this experiment, we applied a subsequent memory paradigm and a two-stage forced-choice recognition test to classify study ERP data into four categories: subsequent remembered (later retrieved accompanied by detailed information), subsequent known (later retrieved accompanied by a feeling of familiarity), subsequent primed (later retrieved without conscious awareness) and subsequent forgotten (not retrieved). Differences in subsequent memory effects (DM effects) were measured by comparing ERP waveform associated with later memory based on recollection, familiarity or priming with ERP waveform for later forgotten items. The recollection DM effect involved a robust sustained (onset at 300 ms) prefrontal positive-going DM effect which was right-lateralized, and a later (onset at 800 ms) occipital negative-going DM effect. Familiarity involved an earlier (300-400 ms) prefrontal positive-going DM effect and a later (500-600 ms) parietal positive-going DM effect. Priming involved a negative-going DM effect which onset at 600 ms, mainly distributed over anterior brain sites. These results revealed a sequence of components that represented cognitive processes underlying the encoding of verbal information into episodic memory, and separately supported later remembering, knowing and priming.

  6. Confidence in Forced-Choice Recognition: What Underlies the Ratings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzka, Katarzyna; Higham, Philip A.; Hanczakowski, Maciej

    2017-01-01

    Two-alternative forced-choice recognition tests are commonly used to assess recognition accuracy that is uncontaminated by changes in bias. In such tests, participants are asked to endorse the studied item out of 2 presented alternatives. Participants may be further asked to provide confidence judgments for their recognition decisions. It is often…

  7. Confidence in Forced-Choice Recognition: What Underlies the Ratings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzka, Katarzyna; Higham, Philip A; Hanczakowski, Maciej

    2016-09-29

    Two-alternative forced-choice recognition tests are commonly used to assess recognition accuracy that is uncontaminated by changes in bias. In such tests, participants are asked to endorse the studied item out of 2 presented alternatives. Participants may be further asked to provide confidence judgments for their recognition decisions. It is often assumed that both recognition decisions and confidence judgments in 2-alternative forced-choice recognition tests depend on participants' assessments of a difference in strength of memory evidence supporting the 2 alternatives-the relative account. In the present study we focus on the basis of confidence judgments and we assess the relative account of confidence against the absolute account of confidence, by which in assigning confidence participants consider only strength of memory evidence supporting the chosen alternative. The results of the study show that confidence in 2-alternative forced-choice recognition decisions is higher when memory evidence is stronger for the chosen alternative and also when memory evidence is stronger for the unchosen alternative. These patterns of results are consistent with the absolute account of confidence in 2-alternative forced-choice recognition but they are inconsistent with the relative account. (PsycINFO Database Record

  8. Test person operated 2-Alternative Forced Choice Audiometry compared to traditional audiometry

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Jesper Hvass; Brandt, Christian; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Andersen, Ture; Bælum, Jesper; Poulsen, Torben

    2009-01-01

      Background:With a newly developed technique, hearing thresholds can be estimated with a system operated by the test persons themselves. This technique is based on the 2 Alternative Forced Choice paradigm known from the psychoacoustic research theory. Test persons can operate the system very easily themselves. Furthermore the system uses the theories behind the methods of maximum-likelihood fitting of the most probable psychometric function and a modification of the well known up-down method...

  9. PEST reduces bias in forced choice psychophysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M M; Forbes, S M; Creelman, C D

    1983-11-01

    Observers performed several different detection tasks using both the PEST adaptive psychophysical procedure and a fixed-level (method of constant stimuli) psychophysical procedure. In two experiments, PEST runs targeted at P (C) = 0.80 were immediately followed by fixed-level detection runs presented at the difficulty level resulting from the PEST run. The fixed-level runs yielded P (C) about 0.75. During the fixed-level runs, the probability of a correct response was greater when the preceding response was correct than when it was wrong. Observers, even highly trained ones, perform in a nonstationary manner. The sequential dependency data can be used to determine a lower bound for the observer's "true" capability when performing optimally; this lower bound is close to the PEST target, and well above the forced choice P (C). The observer's "true" capability is the measure used by most theories of detection performance. A further experiment compared psychometric functions obtained from a set of PEST runs using different targets with those obtained from blocks of fixed-level trials at different levels. PEST results were more stable across observers, performance at all but the highest signal levels was better with PEST, and the PEST psychometric functions had shallower slopes. We hypothesize that PEST permits the observer to keep track of what he is trying to detect, whereas in the fixed-level method performance is disrupted by memory failure. Some recently suggested "more virulent" versions of PEST may be subject to biases similar to those of the fixed-level procedures.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Psychophysics, reliability, and norm values for temporal contrast sensitivity implemented on the two alternative forced choice C-Quant device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Thomas J T P; Franssen, Luuk; Kruijt, Bastiaan; Coppens, Joris E

    2011-08-01

    The current paper describes the design and population testing of a flicker sensitivity assessment technique corresponding to the psychophysical approach for straylight measurement. The purpose is twofold: to check the subjects' capability to perform the straylight test and as a test for retinal integrity for other purposes. The test was implemented in the Oculus C-Quant straylight meter, using homemade software (MATLAB). The geometry of the visual field lay-out was identical, as was the subjects' 2AFC task. A comparable reliability criterion ("unc") was developed. Outcome measure was logTCS (temporal contrast sensitivity). The population test was performed in science fair settings on about 400 subjects. Moreover, 2 subjects underwent extensive tests to check whether optical defects, mimicked with trial lenses and scatter filters, affected the TCS outcome. Repeated measures standard deviation was 0.11 log units for the reference population. Normal values for logTCS were around 2 (threshold 1%) with some dependence on age (range 6 to 85 years). The test outcome did not change upon a tenfold (optical) deterioration in visual acuity or straylight. The test has adequate precision for checking a subject's capability to perform straylight assessment. The unc reliability criterion ensures sufficient precision, also for assessment of retinal sensitivity loss.

  11. Forced-choice testing provides evidence of malingering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, L M

    1992-04-01

    Assessment of motivation using forced-choice testing is described and illustrated with case reports. Two injured workers with protracted disability complained of numbness and loss of sensation in their fingers. Each patient received a forced-choice, multiple-choice finger graphesthesia test, with a 0.5 probability of guessing correctly on each item. Both patients performed significantly below the chance level, indicating that they had deliberately provided wrong answers. One patient did not exaggerate until the difficulty level of the task was enhanced. Forced-choice testing, particularly with enhancement of difficulty levels, is proposed as a specific measure to detect faked poor performance. Identification of malingering reduces the risk of iatrogenic damage. The subjective complaints of malingerers must be viewed with skepticism.

  12. Psychometric Correlates of the Mosher Forced Choice Guilt Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, Kevin E.; Janda, Louis H.

    1978-01-01

    Undergraduate psychology students were administered the Mosher Forced Choice Guilt Inventory (MFCGI). Inspection of correlations and principal component solutions for each sex indicated that guilt emerges as a construct separate from anxiety or authoritarianism. The applicability of the male form of the MFCGI for use with females is discussed.…

  13. Classification images reveal decision variables and strategies in forced choice tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchett, Lisa M; Murray, Richard F

    2015-06-09

    Despite decades of research, there is still uncertainty about how people make simple decisions about perceptual stimuli. Most theories assume that perceptual decisions are based on decision variables, which are internal variables that encode task-relevant information. However, decision variables are usually considered to be theoretical constructs that cannot be measured directly, and this often makes it difficult to test theories of perceptual decision making. Here we show how to measure decision variables on individual trials, and we use these measurements to test theories of perceptual decision making more directly than has previously been possible. We measure classification images, which are estimates of templates that observers use to extract information from stimuli. We then calculate the dot product of these classification images with the stimuli to estimate observers' decision variables. Finally, we reconstruct each observer's "decision space," a map that shows the probability of the observer's responses for all values of the decision variables. We use this method to examine decision strategies in two-alternative forced choice (2AFC) tasks, for which there are several competing models. In one experiment, the resulting decision spaces support the difference model, a classic theory of 2AFC decisions. In a second experiment, we find unexpected decision spaces that are not predicted by standard models of 2AFC decisions, and that suggest intrinsic uncertainty or soft thresholding. These experiments give new evidence regarding observers' strategies in 2AFC tasks, and they show how measuring decision variables can answer long-standing questions about perceptual decision making.

  14. Inter-reader variability in alternate forced choice studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huda, W.; Ogden, K. M.; Samei, E.; Scalzetti, E. M.; Lavallee, R. L.; Roskopf, M. L.

    2008-03-01

    In this study, we investigated differences in detection performance for twelve observers who each generated a CT contrast detail curve. An anthropomorphic newborn phantom's abdomen was imaged using a GE Light Speed CT scanner (4-slice). Alternate Forced Choice (AFC) experiments were performed with lesions sizes ranging from 2.5 to 12.5 mm to determine the intensity needed to achieve 92% correct (I 92%). Following training, twelve readers consisting of (2 technologists, 4 college students, 4 medical students, and 2 radiology residents) generated a single contrast detail curve. Eight readers produced approximately linear contrast detail curves while the remaining four readers required a second order polynomial fit because of reduced performance when detecting the largest (i.e., 12.5 mm) lesion. For the three smallest lesions, the coefficient of variation between the twelve readers was ~12%, which increases with increasing lesion size to ~23% for 12.5 mm lesion size. The ratio of the maximum I 92% to minimum I 92% values was ~1.6 for the smallest lesions, which increased to a factor of ~2.1 for the 12.5 mm lesion. Our results show that minimizing inter-reader variability in our AFC experiments could be achieved by eliminating the largest lesion that cause detection problems in one third of observers. The combined experimental data showed that the slope of the contrast detail curve was -0.42, lower than the value of -1.0 predicted by the Rose model, suggesting that the noise texture in CT associated with both quantum mottle and anatomic structure is an important factor affecting detection of these lesions.

  15. Unbounded evidence accumulation characterizes subjective visual vertical (SVV) forced-choice perceptual choice and confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Koeun; Wang, Wei; Merfeld, Daniel M

    2017-07-26

    Humans can subjectively yet quantitatively assess choice confidence based on perceptual precision even when a perceptual decision is made without an immediate reward or feedback. However, surprisingly little is known about choice confidence. Here we investigate the dynamics of choice confidence by merging two parallel conceptual frameworks of decision-making, signal detection theory and sequential analyses (i.e., drift diffusion modeling). Specifically, in order to capture end-point statistics of binary choice and confidence, we built on a previous study that defined choice confidence in terms of psychophysics derived from signal detection theory. At the same time, we augmented this mathematical model to include accumulator dynamics of a drift-diffusion model to characterize the time-dependency of the choice behaviors in a standard forced-choice paradigm in which stimulus duration is controlled by the operator. Human subjects performed a subjective visual vertical task, simultaneously reporting binary orientation choice and probabilistic confidence. Both binary choice and confidence experimental data displayed statistics and dynamics consistent with both signal detection theory and evidence accumulation, respectively. Specifically, the computational simulations showed that the unbounded evidence accumulator model fits the confidence data better than the classical bounded model, while bounded and unbounded models were indistinguishable for binary choice data. These results suggest that the brain can utilize mechanisms consistent with signal detection theory - especially when judging confidence without time pressure. Copyright © 2017, Journal of Neurophysiology.

  16. Integration of the Forced-Choice Questionnaire and the Likert Scale: A Simulation Study

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Yue; Liu, Hongyun; Li, Hui

    2017-01-01

    The Thurstonian item response theory (IRT) model allows estimating the latent trait scores of respondents directly through their responses in forced-choice questionnaires. It solves a part of problems brought by the traditional scoring methods of this kind of questionnaires. However, the forced-choice designs may still have their own limitations: The model may encounter underidentification and non-convergence and the test may show low test reliability in simple test designs (e.g., test design...

  17. Yes/no recognition, forced-choice recognition, and the human hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayley, P J; Wixted, J T; Hopkins, R O; Squire, L R

    2008-03-01

    Two recent studies reported that yes/no recognition can be more impaired by hippocampal lesions than forced-choice recognition when the targets and foils are highly similar. This finding has been taken in support of two fundamental proposals: (1) yes/no recognition tests depend more on recollection than do forced-choice tests; and (2) the hippocampus selectively supports the recollection process. Using the same stimulus materials as in the earlier studies, we tested five memory-impaired patients with circumscribed hippocampal lesions and 15 controls. As in the earlier studies, participants studied 12 pictures of objects and then took either a 12-item forced-choice test with four alternatives or a 60-item yes/no test. Patients were impaired on both tests but did more poorly on the yes/no test. However, a yes/no test based on 12 study items would conventionally involve only 24 test items (i.e., 12 study items and 12 foil items). When we scored only the first 24 test items, the patients performed identically on the yes/no and forced-choice tests. Examination of the data in blocks of 12 trials indicated that the scores of the patients declined as testing continued. We suggest that a yes/no test of 60 items is difficult relative to a 12-item forced-choice test due to the increased study-test delay and due to increased interference, not because of any fundamental difference between the yes/no and forced-choice formats. We conclude that hippocampal lesions impair yes/no and forced-choice recognition to the same extent.

  18. Fitting a Thurstonian IRT model to forced-choice data using Mplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Anna; Maydeu-Olivares, Alberto

    2012-12-01

    To counter response distortions associated with the use of rating scales (a.k.a. Likert scales), items can be presented in a comparative fashion, so that respondents are asked to rank the items within blocks (forced-choice format). However, classical scoring procedures for these forced-choice designs lead to ipsative data, which presents psychometric challenges that are well described in the literature. Recently, Brown and Maydeu-Olivares (Educational and Psychological Measurement 71: 460-502, 2011a) introduced a model based on Thurstone's law of comparative judgment, which overcomes the problems of ipsative data. Here, we provide a step-by-step tutorial for coding forced-choice responses, specifying a Thurstonian item response theory model that is appropriate for the design used, assessing the model's fit, and scoring individuals on psychological attributes. Estimation and scoring is performed using Mplus, and a very straightforward Excel macro is provided that writes full Mplus input files for any forced-choice design. Armed with these tools, using a forced-choice design is now as easy as using ratings.

  19. Malingering detected by forced choice testing of memory and tactile sensation: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, L M

    1992-01-01

    A man with a possible diagnosis of multiple sclerosis was evaluated in connection with his claim for Social Security Disability. Two neurological examinations had revealed essentially normal findings. Neuropsychological testing revealed moderately severe deficits, but testing of his motivation with two forced choice measures, the Portland Digit Recognition Test and a finger graphesthesia procedure, both yielded performances significantly worse than chance. It was concluded that the patient was faking some or all of his deficits, and that his abilities had not been measured accurately. Forced choice testing is a robust procedure for documenting poor motivation.

  20. Some further notes on the forced-choice leadership attitude scale.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogstraten, J.; Vorst, H.C.M.

    1972-01-01

    The Conceptions of Leadership Scale (LOS) consists of 19 2-choice items and the responses are in terms of a forced-choice technique. 14 individual items refer to the subscale (T) that indicates behavior in which the leader organizes and defines the activities of the group, 11 individual items refer

  1. The Forced Choice Dilemma: A Model Incorporating Idiocentric/Allocentric Cultural Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jae Yup; McCormick, John; Gross, Miraca U. M.

    2012-01-01

    This study developed and tested a new model of the forced choice dilemma (i.e., the belief held by some intellectually gifted students that they must choose between academic achievement and peer acceptance) that incorporates individual-level cultural orientation variables (i.e., vertical allocentrism and vertical idiocentrism). A survey that had…

  2. Levels of Intellectual Giftedness, Culture, and the Forced-Choice Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jae Yup; Barnett, Kerry; Gross, Miraca U. M.; McCormick, John

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether intellectually gifted students in Australia, with different levels of giftedness and cultural orientations, had different experiences of the forced-choice dilemma--choosing between the needs for peer acceptance and academic achievement. A random sample of 231 intellectually gifted students attending secondary school…

  3. Two Alternative Routes to MS2 Nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanqing LIU; Changsheng LI; Jinghai YANG; Zhong HUA; Junmao LI; Kehong YAN; Shuhuo ZHAO

    2007-01-01

    Inorganic tubular nanostructure MS2 (M=Mo, W, Nb, Ta) were synthesized by two alternative routes. Thermal decomposition method was used for producing fullerence-like MS2 (M=Mo, W) nanotubes on Al2O3 template using ammonium sulfur respectively; NbS2, and TaS2 nanotubes were obtained successfully by reducing corresponding metal trisulfide in a stream of H2 (mixed with N2 in some cases) at elevated temperatures.Detailed experimental procedure, and the characterization of associated results, were evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The result reveals that products are composed of high density of MS2 tubular nanostructures with the diameter of 100 nm and length of tens of micrometers. And no mistake, these 1-D (one-dimensional) tubular nanomaterials added quantities and varieties in the growing family of nanotubes of inorganic layered materials.

  4. Integration of the Forced-Choice Questionnaire and the Likert Scale: A Simulation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yue; Liu, Hongyun; Li, Hui

    2017-01-01

    The Thurstonian item response theory (IRT) model allows estimating the latent trait scores of respondents directly through their responses in forced-choice questionnaires. It solves a part of problems brought by the traditional scoring methods of this kind of questionnaires. However, the forced-choice designs may still have their own limitations: The model may encounter underidentification and non-convergence and the test may show low test reliability in simple test designs (e.g., test designs with only a small number of traits measured or short length). To overcome these weaknesses, the present study applied the Thurstonian IRT model and the Graded Response Model to a different test format that comprises both forced-choice blocks and Likert-type items. And the Likert items should have low social desirability. A Monte Carlo simulation study is used to investigate how the mixed response format performs under various conditions. Four factors are considered: the number of traits, test length, the percentage of Likert items, and the proportion of pairs composed of items keyed in opposite directions. Results reveal that the mixed response format can be superior to the forced-choice format, especially in simple designs where the latter performs poorly. Besides the number of Likert items needed is small. One point to note is that researchers need to choose Likert items cautiously as Likert items may bring other response biases to the test. Discussion and suggestions are given to construct personality tests that can resist faking as much as possible and have acceptable reliability.

  5. Integration of the Forced-Choice Questionnaire and the Likert Scale: A Simulation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Xiao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Thurstonian item response theory (IRT model allows estimating the latent trait scores of respondents directly through their responses in forced-choice questionnaires. It solves a part of problems brought by the traditional scoring methods of this kind of questionnaires. However, the forced-choice designs may still have their own limitations: The model may encounter underidentification and non-convergence and the test may show low test reliability in simple test designs (e.g., test designs with only a small number of traits measured or short length. To overcome these weaknesses, the present study applied the Thurstonian IRT model and the Graded Response Model to a different test format that comprises both forced-choice blocks and Likert-type items. And the Likert items should have low social desirability. A Monte Carlo simulation study is used to investigate how the mixed response format performs under various conditions. Four factors are considered: the number of traits, test length, the percentage of Likert items, and the proportion of pairs composed of items keyed in opposite directions. Results reveal that the mixed response format can be superior to the forced-choice format, especially in simple designs where the latter performs poorly. Besides the number of Likert items needed is small. One point to note is that researchers need to choose Likert items cautiously as Likert items may bring other response biases to the test. Discussion and suggestions are given to construct personality tests that can resist faking as much as possible and have acceptable reliability.

  6. Individual differences in forced-choice recognition memory: partitioning contributions of recollection and familiarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migo, Ellen M; Quamme, Joel R; Holmes, Selina; Bendell, Andrew; Norman, Kenneth A; Mayes, Andrew R; Montaldi, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    In forced-choice recognition memory, two different testing formats are possible under conditions of high target-foil similarity: Each target can be presented alongside foils similar to itself (forced-choice corresponding; FCC), or alongside foils similar to other targets (forced-choice noncorresponding; FCNC). Recent behavioural and neuropsychological studies suggest that FCC performance can be supported by familiarity whereas FCNC performance is supported primarily by recollection. In this paper, we corroborate this finding from an individual differences perspective. A group of older adults were given a test of FCC and FCNC recognition for object pictures, as well as standardized tests of recall, recognition, and IQ. Recall measures were found to predict FCNC, but not FCC performance, consistent with a critical role for recollection in FCNC only. After the common influence of recall was removed, standardized tests of recognition predicted FCC, but not FCNC performance. This is consistent with a contribution of only familiarity in FCC. Simulations show that a two-process model, where familiarity and recollection make separate contributions to recognition, is 10 times more likely to give these results than a single-process model. This evidence highlights the importance of recognition memory test design when examining the involvement of recollection and familiarity.

  7. Merging Psychophysical and Psychometric Theory to Estimate Global Visual State Measures from Forced-Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massof, Robert W.; Schmidt, Karen M.; Laby, Daniel M.; Kirschen, David; Meadows, David

    2013-09-01

    Visual acuity, a forced-choice psychophysical measure of visual spatial resolution, is the sine qua non of clinical visual impairment testing in ophthalmology and optometry patients with visual system disorders ranging from refractive error to retinal, optic nerve, or central visual system pathology. Visual acuity measures are standardized against a norm, but it is well known that visual acuity depends on a variety of stimulus parameters, including contrast and exposure duration. This paper asks if it is possible to estimate a single global visual state measure from visual acuity measures as a function of stimulus parameters that can represent the patient's overall visual health state with a single variable. Psychophysical theory (at the sensory level) and psychometric theory (at the decision level) are merged to identify the conditions that must be satisfied to derive a global visual state measure from parameterised visual acuity measures. A global visual state measurement model is developed and tested with forced-choice visual acuity measures from 116 subjects with no visual impairments and 560 subjects with uncorrected refractive error. The results are in agreement with the expectations of the model.

  8. Design and validation of realistic breast models for use in multiple alternative forced choice virtual clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elangovan, Premkumar; Mackenzie, Alistair; Dance, David R; Young, Kenneth C; Cooke, Victoria; Wilkinson, Louise; Given-Wilson, Rosalind M; Wallis, Matthew G; Wells, Kevin

    2017-04-07

    A novel method has been developed for generating quasi-realistic voxel phantoms which simulate the compressed breast in mammography and digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). The models are suitable for use in virtual clinical trials requiring realistic anatomy which use the multiple alternative forced choice (AFC) paradigm and patches from the complete breast image. The breast models are produced by extracting features of breast tissue components from DBT clinical images including skin, adipose and fibro-glandular tissue, blood vessels and Cooper's ligaments. A range of different breast models can then be generated by combining these components. Visual realism was validated using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) study of patches from simulated images calculated using the breast models and from real patient images. Quantitative analysis was undertaken using fractal dimension and power spectrum analysis. The average areas under the ROC curves for 2D and DBT images were 0.51  ±  0.06 and 0.54  ±  0.09 demonstrating that simulated and real images were statistically indistinguishable by expert breast readers (7 observers); errors represented as one standard error of the mean. The average fractal dimensions (2D, DBT) for real and simulated images were (2.72  ±  0.01, 2.75  ±  0.01) and (2.77  ±  0.03, 2.82  ±  0.04) respectively; errors represented as one standard error of the mean. Excellent agreement was found between power spectrum curves of real and simulated images, with average β values (2D, DBT) of (3.10  ±  0.17, 3.21  ±  0.11) and (3.01  ±  0.32, 3.19  ±  0.07) respectively; errors represented as one standard error of the mean. These results demonstrate that radiological images of these breast models realistically represent the complexity of real breast structures and can be used to simulate patches from mammograms and DBT images that are indistinguishable from

  9. Design and validation of realistic breast models for use in multiple alternative forced choice virtual clinical trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elangovan, Premkumar; Mackenzie, Alistair; Dance, David R.; Young, Kenneth C.; Cooke, Victoria; Wilkinson, Louise; Given-Wilson, Rosalind M.; Wallis, Matthew G.; Wells, Kevin

    2017-04-01

    A novel method has been developed for generating quasi-realistic voxel phantoms which simulate the compressed breast in mammography and digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). The models are suitable for use in virtual clinical trials requiring realistic anatomy which use the multiple alternative forced choice (AFC) paradigm and patches from the complete breast image. The breast models are produced by extracting features of breast tissue components from DBT clinical images including skin, adipose and fibro-glandular tissue, blood vessels and Cooper’s ligaments. A range of different breast models can then be generated by combining these components. Visual realism was validated using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) study of patches from simulated images calculated using the breast models and from real patient images. Quantitative analysis was undertaken using fractal dimension and power spectrum analysis. The average areas under the ROC curves for 2D and DBT images were 0.51  ±  0.06 and 0.54  ±  0.09 demonstrating that simulated and real images were statistically indistinguishable by expert breast readers (7 observers); errors represented as one standard error of the mean. The average fractal dimensions (2D, DBT) for real and simulated images were (2.72  ±  0.01, 2.75  ±  0.01) and (2.77  ±  0.03, 2.82  ±  0.04) respectively; errors represented as one standard error of the mean. Excellent agreement was found between power spectrum curves of real and simulated images, with average β values (2D, DBT) of (3.10  ±  0.17, 3.21  ±  0.11) and (3.01  ±  0.32, 3.19  ±  0.07) respectively; errors represented as one standard error of the mean. These results demonstrate that radiological images of these breast models realistically represent the complexity of real breast structures and can be used to simulate patches from mammograms and DBT images that are indistinguishable from

  10. Using Likert-type and ipsative/forced choice items in sequence to generate a preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ried, L Douglas

    2014-01-01

    Collaboration and implementation of a minimum, standardized set of core global educational and professional competencies seems appropriate given the expanding international evolution of pharmacy practice. However, winnowing down hundreds of competencies from a plethora of local, national and international competency frameworks to select the most highly preferred to be included in the core set is a daunting task. The objective of this paper is to describe a combination of strategies used to ascertain the most highly preferred items among a large number of disparate items. In this case, the items were >100 educational and professional competencies that might be incorporated as the core components of new and existing competency frameworks. Panelists (n = 30) from the European Union (EU) and United States (USA) were chosen to reflect a variety of practice settings. Each panelist completed two electronic surveys. The first survey presented competencies in a Likert-type format and the second survey presented many of the same competencies in an ipsative/forced choice format. Item mean scores were calculated for each competency, the competencies were ranked, and non-parametric statistical tests were used to ascertain the consistency in the rankings achieved by the two strategies. This exploratory study presented over 100 competencies to the panelists in the beginning. The two methods provided similar results, as indicated by the significant correlation between the rankings (Spearman's rho = 0.30, P Likert-type and ipsative/forced choice formats in sequence, appears to be useful in a situation where a clear preference is required from among a large number of choices. The ipsative/forced choice format resulted in some differences in the competency preferences because the panelists could not rate them equally by design. While this strategy was used for the selection of professional educational competencies in this exploratory study, it is applicable in other situations where

  11. Test person operated 2-Alternative Forced Choice Audiometry compared to traditional audiometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jesper Hvass; Brandt, Christian; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob;

    as a comparison with traditional audiometry. A series of 30 persons (60 ears) have conducted traditional audiometry as well as self-operated 2AFC-audiometry. Test subjects are normal as well as moderately hearing impaired people. The different thresholds are compared.   Results: 2 AFC Audiometry is reliable...... and comparable to traditional audiometry. 2AFC audiometry tends to give thresholds 1-2 dB lower compared to traditional audiometry. In general standard deviations between the two test methods are below 4.5 dB for frequencies from (250-4000 Hz) and up to 6.7 dB for frequencies above 4000 Hz. Results from test......-retest studies of 2AFC audiometry are comparable to test-retest results known from traditional audiometry under standard clinical settings.   Conclusions 2 Alternative Forced Choice audiometry can be a reliable alternative to traditional audiometry especially under certain circumstances, where it can...

  12. A four-alternative forced choice (4AFC) software for observer performance evaluation in radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guozhi; Cockmartin, Lesley; Bosmans, Hilde

    2016-03-01

    Four-alternative forced choice (4AFC) test is a psychophysical method that can be adopted for observer performance evaluation in radiological studies. While the concept of this method is well established, difficulties to handle large image data, perform unbiased sampling, and keep track of the choice made by the observer have restricted its application in practice. In this work, we propose an easy-to-use software that can help perform 4AFC tests with DICOM images. The software suits for any experimental design that follows the 4AFC approach. It has a powerful image viewing system that favorably simulates the clinical reading environment. The graphical interface allows the observer to adjust various viewing parameters and perform the selection with very simple operations. The sampling process involved in 4AFC as well as the speed and accuracy of the choice made by the observer is precisely monitored in the background and can be easily exported for test analysis. The software has also a defensive mechanism for data management and operation control that minimizes the possibility of mistakes from user during the test. This software can largely facilitate the use of 4AFC approach in radiological observer studies and is expected to have widespread applicability.

  13. Induction of habits in rats by a forced-choice procedure in T-maze and the effect of pre-test free exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moustgaard, Anette; Hau, Jann

    2009-01-01

    A forced-choice procedure in T-maze designed for the induction of habits was used to induce strong habits in rats. The response choices of rats in 20 free-choice trials were compared after the rats had been subjected to 1 or 200 forced-choice trials to one side of the T-maze. After 200 forced-cho...

  14. Categorizing patients in a forced-choice triad task: the integration of context in patient management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L Devantier

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies of experts' problem-solving abilities have shown that experts can attend to the deep structure of a problem whereas novices attend to the surface structure. Although this effect has been replicated in many domains, there has been little investigation into such effects in medicine in general or patient management in particular. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We designed a 10-item forced-choice triad task in which subjects chose which one of two hypothetical patients best matched a target patient. The target and its potential matches were related in terms of surface features (e.g., two patients of a similar age and gender and deep features (e.g., two diabetic patients with similar management strategies: a patient with arthritis and a blind patient would both have difficulty with self-injected insulin. We hypothesized that experts would have greater knowledge of management categories and would be more likely to choose deep matches. We contacted 130 novices (medical students, 11 intermediates (medical residents, and 159 experts (practicing endocrinologists and 15, 11, and 8 subjects (respectively completed the task. A linear mixed effects model indicated that novices were less likely to make deep matches than experts (t(68 = -3.63, p = .0006, while intermediates did not differ from experts (t(68 = -0.24, p = .81. We also found that the number of years in practice correlated with performance on diagnostic (r = .39, p = .02, but not management triads (r = .17, p = .34. CONCLUSIONS: We found that experts were more likely than novices to match patients based on deep features, and that this pattern held for both diagnostic and management triads. Further, management and diagnostic triads were equally salient for expert physicians suggesting that physicians recognize and may create management-oriented categories of patients.

  15. A Comparison of the Nomological Networks Associated With Forced-Choice and Likert Formats of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joshua D; Gentile, Brittany; Carter, Nathan T; Crowe, Michael; Hoffman, Brian J; Campbell, W Keith

    2017-04-24

    The Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) is one of the most popular measures of narcissism. However, its use of a forced-choice response set might negatively affect some of its psychometric properties. The purpose of this research was to compare a Likert version of the NPI, in which only the narcissistic response of each pair was given, to the original NPI, in 3 samples of participants (N = 1,109). To this end, we compared the nomological networks of the forced-choice and Likert formats of the NPI in relation to alternative measures of narcissism, narcissistic personality disorder, entitlement, self-esteem, general personality traits (reported by self and informants), interpersonal styles, and general pathological traits included in the DSM-5. The Likert format NPI-total and subscales-manifested similar construct validity to the original forced-choice format across all criteria with only minor differences that seem to be due mainly to the increased reliability and variability found in the Likert NPI Entitlement/Exploitativeness subscale. These results provide evidence that a version of the NPI that employs a Likert format can justifiably be used in place of the original.

  16. Which Infidelity Type Makes You More Jealous? Decision Strategies in a Forced-Choice between Sexual and Emotional Infidelity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achim Schützwohl

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study tested the prediction derived from the evolutionary psychological analysis of jealousy that men and women selecting the adaptively primary infidelity type (i.e., female sexual and male emotional infidelity, respectively in a forced-choice response format need to engage in less elaborate decision strategies than men and women selecting the adaptively secondary infidelity type (i.e., male sexual and female emotional infidelity, respectively. Unknown to the participants, decision times were registered as an index of the elaborateness of their decision strategies. The results clearly support the prediction. Implications and limitations of the present findings are discussed.

  17. Manipulation detection and preference alterations in a choice blindness paradigm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumihiko Taya

    Full Text Available It is commonly believed that individuals make choices based upon their preferences and have access to the reasons for their choices. Recent studies in several areas suggest that this is not always the case. In choice blindness paradigms, two-alternative forced-choice in which chosen-options are later replaced by the unselected option, individuals often fail to notice replacement of their chosen option, confabulate explanations for why they chose the unselected option, and even show increased preferences for the unselected-but-replaced options immediately after choice (seconds. Although choice blindness has been replicated across a variety of domains, there are numerous outstanding questions. Firstly, we sought to investigate how individual- or trial-factors modulated detection of the manipulations. Secondly, we examined the nature and temporal duration (minutes vs. days of the preference alterations induced by these manipulations.Participants performed a computerized choice blindness task, selecting the more attractive face between presented pairs of female faces, and providing a typewritten explanation for their choice on half of the trials. Chosen-face cue manipulations were produced on a subset of trials by presenting the unselected face during the choice explanation as if it had been selected. Following all choice trials, participants rated the attractiveness of each face individually, and rated the similarity of each face pair. After approximately two weeks, participants re-rated the attractiveness of each individual face online.Participants detected manipulations on only a small proportion of trials, with detections by fewer than half of participants. Detection rates increased with the number of prior detections, and detection rates subsequent to first detection were modulated by the choice certainty. We show clear short-term modulation of preferences in both manipulated and non-manipulated explanation trials compared to choice-only trials

  18. The Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test forced-choice recognition task: Base-rate data and norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poreh, Amir; Bezdicek, Ondrej; Korobkova, Irina; Levin, Jennifer B; Dines, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    The present study describes a novel Forced-Choice Response (FCR) index for detecting poor effort on the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). This retrospective study analyzes the performance of 4 groups on the new index: clinically referred patients with suspected dementia, forensic patients identified as not exhibiting adequate effort on other measures of response bias, students who simulated poor effort, and a large normative sample collected in the Gulf State of Oman. Using sensitivity and specificity analyses, the study shows that much like the California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition FCR index, the RAVLT FCR index misses a proportion of individuals with inadequate effort (low sensitivity), but those who fail this measure are highly likely to be exhibiting poor effort (high specificity). The limitations and benefits of utilizing the RAVLT FCR index in clinical practice are discussed.

  19. Two alternating motor programs drive navigation in Drosophila larva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, Subhaneil; Shen, Konlin; Klein, Mason; Tang, Anji; Kane, Elizabeth; Gershow, Marc; Garrity, Paul; Samuel, Aravinthan D T

    2011-01-01

    When placed on a temperature gradient, a Drosophila larva navigates away from excessive cold or heat by regulating the size, frequency, and direction of reorientation maneuvers between successive periods of forward movement. Forward movement is driven by peristalsis waves that travel from tail to head. During each reorientation maneuver, the larva pauses and sweeps its head from side to side until it picks a new direction for forward movement. Here, we characterized the motor programs that underlie the initiation, execution, and completion of reorientation maneuvers by measuring body segment dynamics of freely moving larvae with fluorescent muscle fibers as they were exposed to temporal changes in temperature. We find that reorientation maneuvers are characterized by highly stereotyped spatiotemporal patterns of segment dynamics. Reorientation maneuvers are initiated with head sweeping movement driven by asymmetric contraction of a portion of anterior body segments. The larva attains a new direction for forward movement after head sweeping movement by using peristalsis waves that gradually push posterior body segments out of alignment with the tail (i.e., the previous direction of forward movement) into alignment with the head. Thus, reorientation maneuvers during thermotaxis are carried out by two alternating motor programs: (1) peristalsis for driving forward movement and (2) asymmetric contraction of anterior body segments for driving head sweeping movement.

  20. Yes/no versus forced-choice recognition memory in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: patterns of impairment and associations with dementia severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Lindsay R; Stricker, Nikki H; Libon, David J; Delano-Wood, Lisa; Salmon, David P; Delis, Dean C; Bondi, Mark W

    2012-01-01

    Memory tests are sensitive to early identification of Alzheimer's disease (AD) but less useful as the disease advances. However, assessing particular types of recognition memory may better characterize dementia severity in later stages of AD. We sought to examine patterns of recognition memory deficits in individuals with AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Memory performance and global cognition data were collected from participants with AD (n = 37), MCI (n = 37), and cognitively intact older adults (normal controls, NC; n = 35). One-way analyses of variance (ANOVAs) examined differences between groups on yes/no and forced-choice recognition measures. Individuals with amnestic MCI performed worse than NC and nonamnestic MCI participants on yes/no recognition, but were comparable on forced-choice recognition. AD patients were more impaired across yes/no and forced-choice recognition tasks. Individuals with mild AD (≥120 Dementia Rating Scale, DRS) performed better than those with moderate-to-severe AD (yes/no recognition. There were differences in the relationships between learning, recall, and recognition performance across groups. Although yes/no recognition testing may be sensitive to MCI, forced-choice procedures may provide utility in assessing severity of anterograde amnesia in later stages of AD. Implications for assessment of insufficient effort and malingering are also discussed.

  1. Developing Bayesian adaptive methods for estimating sensitivity thresholds (d′) in Yes-No and forced-choice tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesmes, Luis A.; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Baek, Jongsoo; Tran, Nina; Dosher, Barbara A.; Albright, Thomas D.

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by Signal Detection Theory (SDT), we developed a family of novel adaptive methods that estimate the sensitivity threshold—the signal intensity corresponding to a pre-defined sensitivity level (d′ = 1)—in Yes-No (YN) and Forced-Choice (FC) detection tasks. Rather than focus stimulus sampling to estimate a single level of %Yes or %Correct, the current methods sample psychometric functions more broadly, to concurrently estimate sensitivity and decision factors, and thereby estimate thresholds that are independent of decision confounds. Developed for four tasks—(1) simple YN detection, (2) cued YN detection, which cues the observer's response state before each trial, (3) rated YN detection, which incorporates a Not Sure response, and (4) FC detection—the qYN and qFC methods yield sensitivity thresholds that are independent of the task's decision structure (YN or FC) and/or the observer's subjective response state. Results from simulation and psychophysics suggest that 25 trials (and sometimes less) are sufficient to estimate YN thresholds with reasonable precision (s.d. = 0.10–0.15 decimal log units), but more trials are needed for FC thresholds. When the same subjects were tested across tasks of simple, cued, rated, and FC detection, adaptive threshold estimates exhibited excellent agreement with the method of constant stimuli (MCS), and with each other. These YN adaptive methods deliver criterion-free thresholds that have previously been exclusive to FC methods. PMID:26300798

  2. Frequent and prolonged nocturnal occupation of port areas by Yangtze finless porpoises (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis): forced choice for feeding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhitao; Akamatsu, Tomonari; Mei, Zhigang; Dong, Lijun; Imaizumi, Tomohito; Wang, Kexiong; Wang, Ding

    2015-01-01

    During the Yangtze Freshwater Dolphin Expedition 2012, Yangtze finless porpoises (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis) were acoustically monitored in 9 port areas at night. During 6566 min of nocturnal monitoring, porpoise sonar was detected for 488 min (7.43% of the total time). Of all 81 encounters, the longest echolocation span obtained was 102.9 min, suggesting frequent and prolonged porpoise occupation of the port areas. A combined total of 2091 click trains were recorded, with 129 (6.2%) containing minimum inter-click intervals (ICIs) below 10 ms (termed a buzz). Buzzes with a decrease in ICIs and search and approach phases that resembled feeding echolocation signals accounted for 44.2% (N=52) of all buzzes. Buzzes with an increase in ICIs, suggesting a mirrored prey capture phase, accounted for 20.2% (N=26) and could reflect attempts to locate escaped prey because they were followed by approach-phase feeding buzzes. Anecdotal evidence of porpoises fleeing the proximity of vessels was observed. The recordings indicating clusters of porpoises feeding near the port areas suggest a forced choice for feeding due to the relatively higher prey availability in the port areas compared to other areas in the Yangtze River that are probably overfished.

  3. Developing Bayesian adaptive methods for estimating sensitivity thresholds (d') in Yes-No and forced-choice tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesmes, Luis A; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Baek, Jongsoo; Tran, Nina; Dosher, Barbara A; Albright, Thomas D

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by Signal Detection Theory (SDT), we developed a family of novel adaptive methods that estimate the sensitivity threshold-the signal intensity corresponding to a pre-defined sensitivity level (d' = 1)-in Yes-No (YN) and Forced-Choice (FC) detection tasks. Rather than focus stimulus sampling to estimate a single level of %Yes or %Correct, the current methods sample psychometric functions more broadly, to concurrently estimate sensitivity and decision factors, and thereby estimate thresholds that are independent of decision confounds. Developed for four tasks-(1) simple YN detection, (2) cued YN detection, which cues the observer's response state before each trial, (3) rated YN detection, which incorporates a Not Sure response, and (4) FC detection-the qYN and qFC methods yield sensitivity thresholds that are independent of the task's decision structure (YN or FC) and/or the observer's subjective response state. Results from simulation and psychophysics suggest that 25 trials (and sometimes less) are sufficient to estimate YN thresholds with reasonable precision (s.d. = 0.10-0.15 decimal log units), but more trials are needed for FC thresholds. When the same subjects were tested across tasks of simple, cued, rated, and FC detection, adaptive threshold estimates exhibited excellent agreement with the method of constant stimuli (MCS), and with each other. These YN adaptive methods deliver criterion-free thresholds that have previously been exclusive to FC methods.

  4. Specific food preferences of older adults with a poor appetite. A forced-choice test conducted in various care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meij, Barbara S; Wijnhoven, Hanneke A H; Finlayson, Graham S; Oosten, Babette S H; Visser, Marjolein

    2015-07-01

    A poor appetite in older adults is an important determinant of reduced food intake and undernutrition. Food preferences may influence food intake. The aim of this study was to investigate food preferences of older adults with a poor appetite and compare these with preferences of older adults with a good appetite. Older adults (n = 349, aged 65-101 years) in nursing/residential care homes, hospitals or at home receiving home care participated in a computer-based forced-choice food preference assessment. Self-reported appetite in the past week was classified as 'good' or 'poor' using a validated instrument. Food preferences were determined by counting the relative frequency of choices for food images according to 11 dichotomous categories: high/low 1) protein; 2) fat; 3) carbohydrates; 4) fiber; 5) variation; and 6) animal/vegetarian proteins; 7) sweet/savory taste; 8) solid/liquid texture; 9) dairy/non-dairy; with/without 10) sauce or 11) color variation. Specific food preferences in participants with a poor appetite were identified by one-sample t-tests comparing frequencies to the expected value of 48. Preference differences between those with a good and a poor appetite were analyzed using GLM adjusting for confounders. The results showed that older adults with a poor appetite (n = 113; 32.4%) preferred variation (51.6 vs. 48, P food preferences. Their preference for variation differs from those with a good appetite. These results may be used to develop meals that are preferred by older adults with poor appetite in order to increase food intake and prevent undernutrition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessing implicit odor localization in humans using a cross-modal spatial cueing paradigm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Moessnang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Navigation based on chemosensory information is one of the most important skills in the animal kingdom. Studies on odor localization suggest that humans have lost this ability. However, the experimental approaches used so far were limited to explicit judgements, which might ignore a residual ability for directional smelling on an implicit level without conscious appraisal. METHODS: A novel cueing paradigm was developed in order to determine whether an implicit ability for directional smelling exists. Participants performed a visual two-alternative forced choice task in which the target was preceded either by a side-congruent or a side-incongruent olfactory spatial cue. An explicit odor localization task was implemented in a second experiment. RESULTS: No effect of cue congruency on mean reaction times could be found. However, a time by condition interaction emerged, with significantly slower responses to congruently compared to incongruently cued targets at the beginning of the experiment. This cueing effect gradually disappeared throughout the course of the experiment. In addition, participants performed at chance level in the explicit odor localization task, thus confirming the results of previous research. CONCLUSION: The implicit cueing task suggests the existence of spatial information processing in the olfactory system. Response slowing after a side-congruent olfactory cue is interpreted as a cross-modal attentional interference effect. In addition, habituation might have led to a gradual disappearance of the cueing effect. It is concluded that under immobile conditions with passive monorhinal stimulation, humans are unable to explicitly determine the location of a pure odorant. Implicitly, however, odor localization seems to exert an influence on human behaviour. To our knowledge, these data are the first to show implicit effects of odor localization on overt human behaviour and thus support the hypothesis of residual

  6. Forced-Choice Assessment of Work-Related Maladaptive Personality Traits: Preliminary Evidence From an Application of Thurstonian Item Response Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenole, Nigel; Brown, Anna A; Cooper, Andrew J

    2016-04-07

    This article describes an investigation of whether Thurstonian item response modeling is a viable method for assessment of maladaptive traits. Forced-choice responses from 420 working adults to a broad-range personality inventory assessing six maladaptive traits were considered. The Thurstonian item response model's fit to the forced-choice data was adequate, while the fit of a counterpart item response model to responses to the same items but arranged in a single-stimulus design was poor. Monotrait heteromethod correlations indicated corresponding traits in the two formats overlapped substantially, although they did not measure equivalent constructs. A better goodness of fit and higher factor loadings for the Thurstonian item response model, coupled with a clearer conceptual alignment to the theoretical trait definitions, suggested that the single-stimulus item responses were influenced by biases that the independent clusters measurement model did not account for. Researchers may wish to consider forced-choice designs and appropriate item response modeling techniques such as Thurstonian item response modeling for personality questionnaire applications in industrial psychology, especially when assessing maladaptive traits. We recommend further investigation of this approach in actual selection situations and with different assessment instruments. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Comparisons of an open-ended vs. forced-choice 'mind reading' task: implications for measuring perspective-taking and emotion recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy G Cassels

    Full Text Available Perspective-taking and emotion recognition are essential for successful social development and have been the focus of developmental research for many years. Although the two abilities often overlap, they are distinct and our understanding of these abilities critically rests upon the efficacy of existing measures. Lessons from the literature differentiating recall versus recognition memory tasks led us to hypothesize that an open-ended emotion recognition measure would be less reliant on compensatory strategies and hence a more specific measure of emotion recognition abilities than a forced-choice task. To this end, we compared an open-ended version of the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Task with the original forced-choice version in two studies: 118 typically-developing 4- to 8-year-olds (Study 1 and 139 5- to 12-year-olds; 85 typically-developing and 54 with learning disorders (Study 2. We found that the open-ended version of the task was a better predictor of empathy and more reliably discriminated typically-developing children from those with learning disorders. As a whole, the results suggest that the open-ended version is a more sensitive measure of emotion recognition specifically.

  8. AMPT-induced monoamine depletion in humans: evaluation of two alternative [{sup 123}I]IBZM SPECT procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boot, Erik [Academic Medical Centre (AMC), University of Amsterdam, Department of Psychiatry, Amsterdam (Netherlands); De Bruggen, Centre for People with Intellectual Disability, Zwammerdam (Netherlands); Booij, Jan [AMC, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hasler, Gregor [University Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Zuerich (Switzerland); Zinkstok, Janneke R.; Haan, Lieuwe de; Linszen, Don H.; Amelsvoort, Therese A. van [Academic Medical Centre (AMC), University of Amsterdam, Department of Psychiatry, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2008-07-15

    Acute monoamine depletion paradigms using alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine (AMPT) combined with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) have been used successfully to evaluate disturbances in central dopaminergic neurotransmission. However, severe side effects due to relatively high doses (4,500 to 8,000 mg) of AMPT have been reasons for study withdrawal. Thus, we assessed the effectiveness and tolerability of two alternative procedures, using lower doses of AMPT. Six healthy subjects underwent three measurements of striatal dopamine D{sub 2} receptor (D{sub 2}R)-binding potential (BP{sub ND}) with SPECT and the selective radiolabeled D{sub 2}R antagonist [{sup 123}I]IBZM. All subjects were scanned in the absence of pharmacological intervention (baseline) and after two different depletion procedures. In the first depletion session, over 6 h, subjects were administered 1,500 mg of AMPT before scanning. In the second depletion session, over 25 h, subjects were administered 40 mg AMPT/kg body weight. We also administered the Subjective Well-being Under Neuroleptic Treatment Scale, a self-report instrument designed to measure the subjective experience of patients on neuroleptic medication. We found no change of mean D{sub 2}R BP{sub ND} after the first and short AMPT challenge compared to the baseline. However, we found a significant increase in striatal D{sub 2}R BP{sub ND} binding after the AMPT challenge adjusted for bodyweight compared to both other regimen. Although subjective well-being worsened after the prolonged AMPT challenge, no severe side effects were reported. Our results imply a low-dosage, suitable alternative to the common AMPT procedure. The probability of side effects and study withdrawal can be reduced by this procedure. (orig.)

  9. Functional MRI of Challenging Food Choices: Forced Choice between Equally Liked High- and Low-Calorie Foods in the Absence of Hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonnier, Lisette; van der Laan, Laura N; Viergever, Max A; Smeets, Paul A M

    2015-01-01

    We are continuously exposed to food and during the day we make many food choices. These choices play an important role in the regulation of food intake and thereby in weight management. Therefore, it is important to obtain more insight into the mechanisms that underlie these choices. While several food choice functional MRI (fMRI) studies have been conducted, the effect of energy content on neural responses during food choice has, to our knowledge, not been investigated before. Our objective was to examine brain responses during food choices between equally liked high- and low-calorie foods in the absence of hunger. During a 10-min fMRI scan 19 normal weight volunteers performed a forced-choice task. Food pairs were matched on individual liking but differed in perceived and actual caloric content (high-low). Food choice compared with non-food choice elicited stronger unilateral activation in the left insula, superior temporal sulcus, posterior cingulate gyrus and (pre)cuneus. This suggests that the food stimuli were more salient despite subject's low motivation to eat. The right superior temporal sulcus (STS) was the only region that exhibited greater activation for high versus low calorie food choices between foods matched on liking. Together with previous studies, this suggests that STS activation during food evaluation and choice may reflect the food's biological relevance independent of food preference. This novel finding warrants further research into the effects of hunger state and weight status on STS, which may provide a marker of biological relevance.

  10. Functional MRI of Challenging Food Choices: Forced Choice between Equally Liked High- and Low-Calorie Foods in the Absence of Hunger.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisette Charbonnier

    Full Text Available We are continuously exposed to food and during the day we make many food choices. These choices play an important role in the regulation of food intake and thereby in weight management. Therefore, it is important to obtain more insight into the mechanisms that underlie these choices. While several food choice functional MRI (fMRI studies have been conducted, the effect of energy content on neural responses during food choice has, to our knowledge, not been investigated before. Our objective was to examine brain responses during food choices between equally liked high- and low-calorie foods in the absence of hunger. During a 10-min fMRI scan 19 normal weight volunteers performed a forced-choice task. Food pairs were matched on individual liking but differed in perceived and actual caloric content (high-low. Food choice compared with non-food choice elicited stronger unilateral activation in the left insula, superior temporal sulcus, posterior cingulate gyrus and (precuneus. This suggests that the food stimuli were more salient despite subject's low motivation to eat. The right superior temporal sulcus (STS was the only region that exhibited greater activation for high versus low calorie food choices between foods matched on liking. Together with previous studies, this suggests that STS activation during food evaluation and choice may reflect the food's biological relevance independent of food preference. This novel finding warrants further research into the effects of hunger state and weight status on STS, which may provide a marker of biological relevance.

  11. Didaktiske paradigmer og refleksion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Torben Spanget

    2014-01-01

    this article. A possible utilitarian didactical paradigm, already indicated by Krogh as a historical paradigm prominent in our time, is also discussed. It is suggested that reflection could be seen as a normative response to the utilitarian paradigm, and not as a paradigm in its own right. It is concluded...... that reflection must be understood as an overarching cultural phenomenon and a very important qualification of all Nielsen’s paradigms, and also a possible utilitarian paradigm, because it has the potential to add dynamic elements to the more or less static didactic paradigms. Thus the semiotic analysis may...

  12. Comparison of Two Alternative Dominant Selectable Markers for Wine Yeast Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebollero, Eduardo; Gonzalez, Ramon

    2004-01-01

    Genetic improvement of industrial yeast strains is restricted by the availability of selectable transformation markers. Antibiotic resistance markers have to be avoided for public health reasons, while auxotrophy markers are generally not useful for wine yeast strain transformation because most industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains are prototrophic. For this work, we performed a comparative study of the usefulness of two alternative dominant selectable markers in both episomic and centromeric plasmids. Even though the selection for sulfite resistance conferred by FZF1-4 resulted in a larger number of transformants for a laboratory strain, the p-fluoro-dl-phenylalanine resistance conferred by ARO4-OFP resulted in a more suitable selection marker for all industrial strains tested. Both episomic and centromeric constructions carrying this marker resulted in transformation frequencies close to or above 103 transformants per μg of DNA for the three wine yeast strains tested. PMID:15574895

  13. Performance of two alternative methods for Listeria detection throughout Serro Minas cheese ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Gardênia Márcia Silva Campos; Martins, Evandro; Machado, Solimar Gonçalves; Pinto, Maximiliano Soares; de Carvalho, Antônio Fernandes; Vanetti, Maria Cristina Dantas

    2016-01-01

    The ability of pathogens to survive cheese ripening is a food-security concern. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the performance of two alternative methods of analysis of Listeria during the ripening of artisanal Minas cheese. These methods were tested and compared with the conventional method: Lateral Flow System™, in cheeses produced on laboratory scale using raw milk collected from different farms and inoculated with Listeria innocua; and VIDAS(®)-LMO, in cheese samples collected from different manufacturers in Serro, Minas Gerais, Brazil. These samples were also characterized in terms of lactic acid bacteria, coliforms and physical-chemical analysis. In the inoculated samples, L. innocua was detected by Lateral Flow System™ method with 33% false-negative and 68% accuracy results. L. innocua was only detected in the inoculated samples by the conventional method at 60-days of cheese ripening. L. monocytogenes was not detected by the conventional and the VIDAS(®)-LMO methods in cheese samples collected from different manufacturers, which impairs evaluating the performance of this alternative method. We concluded that the conventional method provided a better recovery of L. innocua throughout cheese ripening, being able to detect L. innocua at 60-day, aging period which is required by the current legislation.

  14. Two Alternative Strategies for Raising Public Awareness of Science and Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Couto Marques

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In today’s knowledge society it is important to keep people informed about emerging technological developments while at the same time providing an accurate scientific and historical framework for such novelties in order to contribute to eradicate existing misconceptions. Dissemination of science and technology is presently essential to convey information within the research communities as well as among the younger generations and the general public. This paper describes two initiatives which pursue this objective by using multimedia tools. One consists in a set of 250 one-minute programs about engineering topics which were broadcast on TV, radio and the multimedia online platform of a daily journal. The other is a collection of videos produced by a research unit in two alternative formats aimed at specialist and general viewers. Both initiatives, based on two very different budgets, may be instrumental for improving the general perception of the role of engineering and for attracting new vocations. The multimedia contents developed are also valuable teaching tools.

  15. Performance of two alternative methods for Listeria detection throughout Serro Minas cheese ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardênia Márcia Silva Campos Mata

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The ability of pathogens to survive cheese ripening is a food-security concern. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the performance of two alternative methods of analysis of Listeria during the ripening of artisanal Minas cheese. These methods were tested and compared with the conventional method: Lateral Flow System™, in cheeses produced on laboratory scale using raw milk collected from different farms and inoculated with Listeria innocua; and VIDAS®-LMO, in cheese samples collected from different manufacturers in Serro, Minas Gerais, Brazil. These samples were also characterized in terms of lactic acid bacteria, coliforms and physical-chemical analysis. In the inoculated samples, L. innocua was detected by Lateral Flow System™ method with 33% false-negative and 68% accuracy results. L. innocua was only detected in the inoculated samples by the conventional method at 60-days of cheese ripening. L. monocytogenes was not detected by the conventional and the VIDAS®-LMO methods in cheese samples collected from different manufacturers, which impairs evaluating the performance of this alternative method. We concluded that the conventional method provided a better recovery of L. innocua throughout cheese ripening, being able to detect L. innocua at 60-day, aging period which is required by the current legislation.

  16. Paradigms of polyamory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano, M

    1999-01-01

    SUMMARY The paradigm theory of Thomas Kuhn is used as a framework to discuss alternative ways of intimacy. The author discusses the implications of structuring actual lesbian relationships by a paradigm of monogamy among Latin-American women. The author proposes that creating alternative paradigms of multiple relationships would be useful for many lesbians as models for alternative life patterns.

  17. Positioning Theory in Paradigms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Xiao-qiu

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of theory and paradigm to a researcher. It starts from introducing and analyzing the definition of the two terms, by using the theories in the field of intercultural communication as examples. To a good researcher, he needs not only clarifying the paradigm his research is positioned, but also integrating the theories in his paradigm.

  18. The Investment Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Mark C.

    2005-01-01

    Is marketing an expense or an investment? Most accountants will claim that marketing is an expense, and clearly that seems true when cutting the checks to fund these efforts. When it is done properly, marketing is the best investment. A key principle to Smart Marketing is the Investment Paradigm. The Investment Paradigm is understanding that every…

  19. Of Paradigms and Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Martin B.; Matthijs, Matthias

    game in town. In effect, while Hall’s approach can account for inter-paradigm change with reference to exogenous shocks, it does not allow for significant ideational change to occur intra-paradigm. In order to remedy this, we suggest that the concept of ideational power be placed more centrally...

  20. Parallel Programming Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-07-01

    GOVT ACCESSION NO. 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER 4, TITL.: td Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Parallel Programming Paradigms...studied. 0A ITI is Jt, t’i- StCUI-eASSIICATION OFvrHIS PAGFrm".n Def. £ntered, Parallel Programming Paradigms Philip Arne Nelson Department of Computer...8416878 and by the Office of Naval Research Contracts No. N00014-86-K-0264 and No. N00014-85- K-0328. 8 ?~~ O .G 1 49 II Parallel Programming Paradigms

  1. The fictionalist paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paley, John

    2011-01-01

    The fictionalist paradigm is introduced, and differentiated from other paradigms, using the Lincoln & Guba template. Following an initial overview, the axioms of fictionalism are delineated by reference to standard metaphysical categories: the nature of reality, the relationship between knower and known, the possibility of generalization, the possibility of causal linkages, and the role of values in inquiry. Although a paradigm's 'basic beliefs' are arbitrary and can be assumed for any reason, in this paper the fictionalist axioms are supported with philosophical considerations, and the key differences between fictionalism, positivism, and constructivism are briefly explained. Paradigm characteristics are then derived, focusing particularly on the methodological consequences. Towards the end of the paper, various objections and misunderstandings are discussed. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Winnicott's paradigm outlined

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeljko Loparic

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to present a unified view of Winnicott’s contribution to psychoanalysis. Part I (Sections 1-4 starts off by recalling that, according to some important commentators, Winnicott introduced a change in paradigms in psychoanalysis. In order to show that this change can be viewed as an overall “switch in paradigms”, in the sense given by T. S. Kuhn, this paper presents an account of the Kuhn’s view of science and offers a reconstruction of Freud’s Oedipal, Triangular or “Toddler-in-the-Mother’s-Bed” Paradigm. Part II (Sections 5-13 shows that as early as the 1920’s Winnicott encountered insurmountable anomalies in the Oedipal paradigm and, for that reason, started what can be called revolutionary research for a new framework of psychoanalysis. This research led Winnicott, especially during the last period of his life, to produce an alternative dual or “Baby-on-the-Mother’s-Lap” Paradigm. This new paradigm is described in some detail, especially the paradigmatic dual mother-baby relation and Winnicott’s dominant theory of maturation. Final remarks are made regarding Winnicott’s heritage and the future of psychoanalysis.

  3. Three paradigms of horror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Ognjanović

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Starting with the definition of horror as a literary genre the core story of which is based on a meeting with threatening Otherness whose influx into consensual reality and it’s tacit normality creates unrest and awakens fear in the protagonists and the audience, this paper defines the three key paradigms of the horror genre, based on the causes of fear, or rather the “monstrous” Otherness in them. Paradigm 1 concerns the “fear of one’s own self”: the root of the fear is inside, in the individual psyche, in the split, deceived, or in some other way unreliable self which is, consciously or unconsciously, harmful to others, and ultimately to itself. Paradigm 2 deals with the “Fear of others”: the root of fear is outside and is concerned with other people and other creatures which have an urge to occupy a certain human microcosm. Paradigm 3 is concerned with the “Fear of the numinous”: the root of the fear is mostly situated on the outside; however its shape is amorphous, ambivalent and unknowable. The “monster” is faceless; it touches on primary forces of the divine/demonic, and as such is situated on the very border between inside/outside. All three paradigms, with their main approaches and constitutive elements, are modulated through two basic possible treatments: the conservative and the progressive (liberal, which affords a total of six basic variations of horror. Starting from definitions given by John Carpenter, Robin Wood and his own, the author analyzes representative examples from horror literature and film for each paradigm and its variation, with a special accent on the image of Otherness and its connection to the norm, its intrusion into the status quo, anthropocentrism and the presence or absence of a happy ending. The paper demonstrates the richness of connotative potential within the horror genre and provides a basis for its taxonomy.

  4. Towards a New Paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, Rob; Larsen, Vibeke Grupe; Hacker, Jake

    2010-01-01

    for developing a new paradigm for zero-energy architecture. There has been a radical transformation in building energy consumption over the last 30 years, with an absolute reduction in heat consumption and a rapid growth in electricity consumption, reflecting wider technological and social transformations...... in the future. With this background, a new paradigm for zero-energy architecture is developed that re-flects the architectural design process. In this way, the architectural focus early in the de-sign process on functional disposition, spatial quality and built form can act as the driving force in the movement...

  5. Alternative Evaluation Research Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Michael Quinn

    This monograph is one of a continuing series initiated to provide materials for teachers, parents, school administrators, and governmental decision-makers that might encourage reexamination of a range of evaluation issues and perspectives about schools and schooling. This monograph is a description and analysis of two contrasting paradigms: one…

  6. Programming Language Paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartoníček Jan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper's goal is to briefly explain the basic theory behind programming languages and their history while taking a close look at different programming paradigms that are used today as well as describing their differences, benefits, and drawbacks

  7. The resilience of paradigm mixes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Farsund, Arild Aurvåg; Langhelle, Oluf

    2017-01-01

    This paper argues that a policy regime based on a paradigm mix may be resilient when challenged by changing power balances and new agendas. Controversies between the actors can be contained within the paradigm mix as it enables them to legitimize different ideational positions. Rather than engaging...... context changed. The paradigm mix proved sufficiently flexible to accommodate food security concerns and at the same time continue to take steps toward further liberalization. Indeed, the main players have not challenged the paradigm mix....

  8. Modeling Expressed Emotions in Music using Pairwise Comparisons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jens; Nielsen, Jens Brehm; Jensen, Bjørn Sand

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a two-alternative forced-choice experimental paradigm to quantify expressed emotions in music using the two wellknown arousal and valence (AV) dimensions. In order to produce AV scores from the pairwise comparisons and to visualize the locations of excerpts in the AV space, we...

  9. Objective and subjective evaluation of façade sound insulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ordoñez, Rodrigo Pizarro; Visentin, Chiara; Markovic, Milos;

    2013-01-01

    Façade insulation of several different construction types were subjectively evaluated using two psychoacoustic methods: paired comparisons using a two alternative forced choice (2-AFC) paradigm and direct scaling using a visual analogue scale (VAS). The stimuli used in the evaluations were obtained...

  10. Noise on, Voicing off: Speech Perception Deficits in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Johannes C.; Pech-Georgel, Catherine; George, Florence; Lorenzi, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Speech perception of four phonetic categories (voicing, place, manner, and nasality) was investigated in children with specific language impairment (SLI) (n=20) and age-matched controls (n=19) in quiet and various noise conditions using an AXB two-alternative forced-choice paradigm. Children with SLI exhibited robust speech perception deficits in…

  11. Modeling Expressed Emotions in Music using Pairwise Comparisons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jens; Nielsen, Jens Brehm; Jensen, Bjørn Sand

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a two-alternative forced-choice experimental paradigm to quantify expressed emotions in music using the two wellknown arousal and valence (AV) dimensions. In order to produce AV scores from the pairwise comparisons and to visualize the locations of excerpts in the AV space, we...

  12. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PARADIGM - SYNOPSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantinescu Andreea

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Even if sustainable development is a concept that gained quite recently its scientific prestige, through contribution of researchers its content has upgraded to a high degree of conceptual luggage and, through contribution from governance representatives, has gained an impressive good-practice background. Allowing the use of different methodological premises and conceptual tools, sustainable development paradigm is equipped with all the elements that would allow the opening of new horizons of knowledge. Based on the facility which can operate the concept of sustainable development, the European Union aims to develop both a more competitive economy based on environmental protection as well as a new governance of economic policy. This on one hand demonstrates the sustainable development ability to irradiate creativity towards the establishment of interdisciplinary bridges and on the other hand explains the growing interest of researchers interested in the problem of analyzing in detail this fruitful concept. Launched first as a theoretical framework to serve justify actions responsible for weighting economic growth, the concept of Sustainable Development has quickly become a topic of ethical debate circumscribed to the area of perfectibility of human nature to the necessity registry. In this regard, the philosophical content of this paradigm could not remain outside researchers concerns, who want to provide both policy makers and the general public a wide range of evidence to demonstrate the viability of this paradigm. Academia waits until maximization of the contribution of governance to achieve sustainable economic development, which consists in conjunction of this upward path with the momentum given by public policy sync, perfectly adapted for globalization era and all crises to come. However, because this concept based its structure and composition on three pillars, equally important economy, society and environment any attempt to strengthen

  13. Challenging the Innovation Paradigm

    CERN Document Server

    Sveiby, Karl Erik; Segercrantz, Beata

    2012-01-01

    Innovation is almost always seen as a "good thing". Challenging the Innovation Paradigm is a critical analysis of the innovation frenzy and contemporary innovation research. The one-sided focus on desirable effects of innovation misses many opportunities to reduce the undesirable consequences. Authors in this book show how systemic effects outside the innovating firms reduce the net benefits of innovation for individual employees, customers, as well as for society as a whole - also the innovators' own organizations. This book analyzes the dominant discourses that construct and recons

  14. Don't spin the pen: two alternative methods for second-stage sampling in urban cluster surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Angela MC

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In two-stage cluster surveys, the traditional method used in second-stage sampling (in which the first household in a cluster is selected is time-consuming and may result in biased estimates of the indicator of interest. Firstly, a random direction from the center of the cluster is selected, usually by spinning a pen. The houses along that direction are then counted out to the boundary of the cluster, and one is then selected at random to be the first household surveyed. This process favors households towards the center of the cluster, but it could easily be improved. During a recent meningitis vaccination coverage survey in Maradi, Niger, we compared this method of first household selection to two alternatives in urban zones: 1 using a superimposed grid on the map of the cluster area and randomly selecting an intersection; and 2 drawing the perimeter of the cluster area using a Global Positioning System (GPS and randomly selecting one point within the perimeter. Although we only compared a limited number of clusters using each method, we found the sampling grid method to be the fastest and easiest for field survey teams, although it does require a map of the area. Selecting a random GPS point was also found to be a good method, once adequate training can be provided. Spinning the pen and counting households to the boundary was the most complicated and time-consuming. The two methods tested here represent simpler, quicker and potentially more robust alternatives to spinning the pen for cluster surveys in urban areas. However, in rural areas, these alternatives would favor initial household selection from lower density (or even potentially empty areas. Bearing in mind these limitations, as well as available resources and feasibility, investigators should choose the most appropriate method for their particular survey context.

  15. Differences in lower limb transverse plane joint moments during gait when expressed in two alternative reference frames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schache, Anthony G; Baker, Richard; Vaughan, Christopher L

    2007-01-01

    When comparing previous studies that have measured the three-dimensional moments acting about the lower limb joints (either external moments or opposing internal joint moments) during able-bodied adult gait, significant variation is apparent in the profiles of the reported transverse plane moments. This variation cannot be explained on the basis of adopted convention (i.e. external versus internal joint moment) or inherent variability in gait strategies. The aim of the current study was to determine whether in fact the frame in which moments are expressed has a dominant effect upon transverse plane moments and thus provides a valid explanation for the observed inconsistency in the literature. Kinematic and ground reaction force data were acquired from nine able-bodied adult subjects walking at a self-selected speed. Three-dimensional hip, knee and ankle joint moments during gait were calculated using a standard inverse dynamics approach. In addition to calculating internal joint moments, the components of the external moment occurring in the transverse plane at each of the lower limb joints were calculated to determine their independent effects. All moments were expressed in both the laboratory frame (LF) as well as the anatomical frame (AF) of the distal segment. With the exception of the ankle rotation moment in the foot AF, lower limb transverse plane joint moments during gait were found to display characteristic profiles that were consistent across subjects. Furthermore, lower limb transverse plane joint moments during gait differed when expressed in the distal segment AF compared to the LF. At the hip, the two alternative reference frames produced near reciprocal joint moment profiles. The components of the external moment revealed that the external ground reaction force moment was primarily responsible for this result. Lower limb transverse plane joint moments during gait were therefore found to be highly sensitive to a change in reference frame. These

  16. The Peter Pan paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, J Craig; Larson, Janet E

    2008-01-08

    Genetic and environmental agents that disrupt organogenesis are numerous and well described. Less well established, however, is the role of delay in the developmental processes that yield functionally immature tissues at birth. Evidence is mounting that organs do not continue to develop postnatally in the context of these organogenesis insults, condemning the patient to utilize under-developed tissues for adult processes. These poorly differentiated organs may appear histologically normal at birth but with age may deteriorate revealing progressive or adult-onset pathology. The genetic and molecular underpinning of the proposed paradigm reveals the need for a comprehensive systems biology approach to evaluate the role of maternal-fetal environment on organogenesis."You may delay, but time will not" Benjamin Franklin, USA Founding Father.

  17. The Peter Pan paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larson Janet E

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Genetic and environmental agents that disrupt organogenesis are numerous and well described. Less well established, however, is the role of delay in the developmental processes that yield functionally immature tissues at birth. Evidence is mounting that organs do not continue to develop postnatally in the context of these organogenesis insults, condemning the patient to utilize under-developed tissues for adult processes. These poorly differentiated organs may appear histologically normal at birth but with age may deteriorate revealing progressive or adult-onset pathology. The genetic and molecular underpinning of the proposed paradigm reveals the need for a comprehensive systems biology approach to evaluate the role of maternal-fetal environment on organogenesis. You may delay, but time will not Benjamin Franklin USA Founding Father

  18. PARADIGM OF ACCOUNTING CHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanta Iacob

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The words and phrases swop with each other and the apparent stability of a word’s meaning sometimes change in time. This explains why the generic term of accounting is used when referring to the qualities attributed to accounting,but also when it comes to organizing financial accounting function within the entity, and when referring concretely to keeping a double record with its specific means, methods and tools specific, respectively seen as a technical accounting.Speaking about the qualities of accounting, but also about the organizational form it takes, we note that there is a manifold meaning of the word accounting, which is why the purpose of this article is to demonstrate that the paradigm shift aimed at a new set of rules and if the rules changes, then we can change the very purpose of accounting.

  19. Paradigms for parasite conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Eric R; Carlson, Colin J; Bueno, Veronica M; Burgio, Kevin R; Cizauskas, Carrie A; Clements, Christopher F; Seidel, Dana P; Harris, Nyeema C

    2016-08-01

    Parasitic species, which depend directly on host species for their survival, represent a major regulatory force in ecosystems and a significant component of Earth's biodiversity. Yet the negative impacts of parasites observed at the host level have motivated a conservation paradigm of eradication, moving us farther from attainment of taxonomically unbiased conservation goals. Despite a growing body of literature highlighting the importance of parasite-inclusive conservation, most parasite species remain understudied, underfunded, and underappreciated. We argue the protection of parasitic biodiversity requires a paradigm shift in the perception and valuation of their role as consumer species, similar to that of apex predators in the mid-20th century. Beyond recognizing parasites as vital trophic regulators, existing tools available to conservation practitioners should explicitly account for the unique threats facing dependent species. We built upon concepts from epidemiology and economics (e.g., host-density threshold and cost-benefit analysis) to devise novel metrics of margin of error and minimum investment for parasite conservation. We define margin of error as the risk of accidental host extinction from misestimating equilibrium population sizes and predicted oscillations, while minimum investment represents the cost associated with conserving the additional hosts required to maintain viable parasite populations. This framework will aid in the identification of readily conserved parasites that present minimal health risks. To establish parasite conservation, we propose an extension of population viability analysis for host-parasite assemblages to assess extinction risk. In the direst cases, ex situ breeding programs for parasites should be evaluated to maximize success without undermining host protection. Though parasitic species pose a considerable conservation challenge, adaptations to conservation tools will help protect parasite biodiversity in the face of

  20. The Consumption Paradigm in Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Ardianto, Eka

    2003-01-01

    This article elaborates consumption paradigm in marketing. In background, this paper reviews different perspectives of consumption: economic perspective and marketing perspective. In ontology, this work describes various issues regarding consumption view. In epistemology, this article demonstrates how marketers especially researches explore the consumption phenomena. In methodology, the article describes experiential marketing –one of applied consumption paradigm in marketing, which could be ...

  1. Cronbach's [Alpha], Revelle's [Beta], and McDonald's [Omega][sub H]: Their Relations with Each Other and Two Alternative Conceptualizations of Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinbarg, Richard E.; Revelle, William; Yovel, Iftah; Li, Wen

    2005-01-01

    We make theoretical comparisons among five coefficients--Cronbach's [alpha], Revelle's [beta], McDonald's [omega][sub h], and two alternative conceptualizations of reliability. Though many end users and psychometricians alike may not distinguish among these five coefficients, we demonstrate formally their nonequivalence. Specifically, whereas…

  2. Cronbach's [Alpha], Revelle's [Beta], and McDonald's [Omega][sub H]: Their Relations with Each Other and Two Alternative Conceptualizations of Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinbarg, Richard E.; Revelle, William; Yovel, Iftah; Li, Wen

    2005-01-01

    We make theoretical comparisons among five coefficients--Cronbach's [alpha], Revelle's [beta], McDonald's [omega][sub h], and two alternative conceptualizations of reliability. Though many end users and psychometricians alike may not distinguish among these five coefficients, we demonstrate formally their nonequivalence. Specifically, whereas…

  3. Towards reduction of Paradigm coordination models

    CERN Document Server

    Andova, Suzana; de Vink, Erik; 10.4204/EPTCS.60.1

    2011-01-01

    The coordination modelling language Paradigm addresses collaboration between components in terms of dynamic constraints. Within a Paradigm model, component dynamics are consistently specified at a detailed and a global level of abstraction. To enable automated verification of Paradigm models, a translation of Paradigm into process algebra has been defined in previous work. In this paper we investigate, guided by a client-server example, reduction of Paradigm models based on a notion of global inertness. Representation of Paradigm models as process algebraic specifications helps to establish a property-preserving equivalence relation between the original and the reduced Paradigm model. Experiments indicate that in this way larger Paradigm models can be analyzed.

  4. PARADIGM SHIFT IN ISLAMIC STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor Al-Jami'ah: Journal of Islamic Studies

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In the early 1990s, there was a heated debate among students ofIAIN (the State Institute for Islamic Studies Sunan KalijagaYogyakarta about the future of Islamic studies, focusing on the possibilityof incorporating Thomas Kuhn’s paradigm to the discourse ofIslamic studies. Kuhn explains in detail the rise and decline of scientificparadigm in his classic work, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions,firstly published in 1970. Paradigm is defined as a set of beliefs thatguides the researchers to address some important problems or issuesunder a certain theoretical framework and provides procedures how tosolve those problems. A paradigm shift is a process whereby a newway of perceiving the world comes into existence and is accepted byscholars in a given time. Kuhn proposed two conditions for paradigmshift; first, the presence of anomalies in ‘normal science’, and secondly,the presence of alternative paradigm.

  5. Investigating the characteristics of "not responding": backward crosstalk in the PRP paradigm with forced vs. free no-go decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röttger, Eva; Haider, Hilde

    2017-05-01

    Have you ever thought about what it means not to act? Basically, most people think about nonactions (or "not responding") as depending on the existence of a pre-activated response which is then inhibited. The main problem when investigating the characteristics of such no-go responses is that they do not provide reaction times. Importantly, Miller (Psychol Res 70:484-493, 2006) recently showed that in a dual-task paradigm, forced go/no-go decisions in the secondary task lead to a backward crosstalk effect (BCE) in the reaction times of the primary task. Based on this experimental setup, we conducted three experiments to investigate the characteristics of "not responding." The goal of Experiments 1 and 2 was to compare forced-choice and free-choice no-go responses. In both experiments, we only found a BCE when participants were forced not to respond. We interpret these findings as a first hint that the BCE is not due to an active inhibition of a pre-activated response tendency. Rather, we assume that it is caused by an automatic activation of specific response features when merely perceiving the secondary stimulus (Hommel, J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 24:1368-1384, 1998). In the forced-choice condition, the stimulus unambiguously announces a no-go response. By contrast, this is not the case in the free-choice condition as here the stimulus only signals participants to freely decide to "go" or "not to go." Therefore, we tested in Experiment 3 rather directly if merely perceiving a stimulus unambiguously announcing a "no-go" causes a BCE. The results confirmed this. Overall, our results suggest that no-go responses do not differ conceptually from go responses.

  6. Health Inequities: Evaluation of Two Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashcroft, Rachelle

    2010-01-01

    Social work practice in health is shaped by underlying paradigms. To effectively target health inequities, practitioners need to consider appropriate paradigms. In this exploration of how six health paradigms shape theory and practice, the two health paradigms that most attended to health inequalities are social determinants of health and…

  7. Examining Vision and Attention in Sports Performance Using a Gaze-Contingent Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghyun Ryu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In time-constrained activities, such as competitive sports, the rapid acquisition and comprehension of visual information is vital for successful performance. Currently our understanding of how and what visual information is acquired and how this changes with skill development is quite rudimentary. Interpretation of eye movement behaviour is limited by uncertainties surrounding the relationship between attention, line-of-gaze data, and the mechanism of information pick-up from different sectors of the visual field. We used gaze-contingent display methodology to provide a selective information presentation to the central and peripheral parts of the visual field while performing a decision-making task. Eleven skilled and 11 less-skilled players watched videos of basketball scenarios under three different vision conditions (tunnel, masked, and full vision and in a forced-choice paradigm responded whether it was more appropriate for the ball carrier to pass or drive. In the tunnel and mask conditions vision was selectively restricted to, or occluded from, 5o around the line of gaze respectively. The skilled players showed significantly higher response accuracy and faster response times compared to their lesser skilled counterparts irrespective of the vision condition, demonstrating the skilled players' superiority in information extraction irrespective of the segment of visual field they rely on. Findings suggest that the capability to interpret visual information appears to be the key limiting factor to expert performance rather than the sector of the visual field in which the information is detected.

  8. MUSICAL LITERACY AND EDUCATIONAL PARADIGMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alboni Marisa Dudeque Pianovski Vieira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents us contemporary conceptions of musical literacy and its relation to educational paradigmatic issues, thus exposing different types of paradigms and their modifications. The possibility to relate and discuss issues related to these paradigms and to the contributions from different authors to musical literacy issues, characterizing graduates, are also among the objectives of this work. The relevance of these issues is in the few existing debates on the paradigms within music education as well as within the possibility of such a study being able to provide useful material for educators. Of bibliographical and documentary nature, this study is based on the works of Schafer (1992, 1997 and Swanwick (1979, 2003, 2014. The results point to the new trend of musical literacy, with an inclusive commitment, made accessible not only to the student who aims to be a professional musician, but also to people from different social contexts.

  9. Cultural Paradigms in Management Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukasz Sulkowski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present an idea for understanding cultural processes in the organizational discourse from the perspective of four paradigms in management sciences based on the concept of G. Burrell and G. Morgan.Methodology: The author has elaborated a valuable list of structures of the scientifi c theory based on the respective paradigms and has compared cultural paradigms in management sciences. The methodology involves an analysis of classical and recent world literature. Nowadays there is no consensus on the defi nitions, types or research models of organizational culture.Originality: In the literature on the subject we can fi nd many, sometimes contradictory cultural research studies that require further analysis. Precisely because of the diversity and complexity of cultural issues in management sciences a multi-paradigmatic analysis is necessary. The paper presents a proposal for a pluralistic approach to the theory and methodology of cultural studies in management sciences.

  10. Transmission pricing: paradigms and methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirmohammadi, Dariush [Pacific Gas and Electric Co., San Francisco, CA (United States); Vieira Filho, Xisto; Gorenstin, Boris [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pereira, Mario V.P. [Power System Research, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    In this paper we describe the principles of several paradigms and methodologies for pricing transmission services. The paper outlines some of the main characteristics of these paradigms and methodologies such as where they may be used for best results. Due to their popularity, power flow based MW-mile and short run marginal cost pricing methodologies will be covered in some detail. We conclude the paper with examples of the application of these two pricing methodologies for pricing transmission services in Brazil. (author) 25 refs., 2 tabs.

  11. The synthesis paradigm in genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, William R

    2014-02-01

    Experimental genetics with model organisms and mathematically explicit genetic theory are generally considered to be the major paradigms by which progress in genetics is achieved. Here I argue that this view is incomplete and that pivotal advances in genetics--and other fields of biology--are also made by synthesizing disparate threads of extant information rather than generating new information from experiments or formal theory. Because of the explosive expansion of information in numerous "-omics" data banks, and the fragmentation of genetics into numerous subdisciplines, the importance of the synthesis paradigm will likely expand with time.

  12. Bayesian test and Kuhn's paradigm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Xiaoping

    2006-01-01

    Kuhn's theory of paradigm reveals a pattern of scientific progress,in which normal science alternates with scientific revolution.But Kuhn underrated too much the function of scientific test in his pattern,because he focuses all his attention on the hypothetico-deductive schema instead of Bayesian schema.This paper employs Bayesian schema to re-examine Kuhn's theory of paradigm,to uncover its logical and rational components,and to illustrate the tensional structure of logic and belief,rationality and irrationality,in the process of scientific revolution.

  13. CNN a paradigm for complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Chua, Leon O

    1998-01-01

    Revolutionary and original, this treatise presents a new paradigm of EMERGENCE and COMPLEXITY, with applications drawn from numerous disciplines, including artificial life, biology, chemistry, computation, physics, image processing, information science, etc.CNN is an acronym for Cellular Neural Networks when used in the context of brain science, or Cellular Nonlinear Networks, when used in the context of emergence and complexity. A CNN is modeled by cells and interactions: cells are defined as dynamical systems and interactions are defined via coupling laws. The CNN paradigm is a universal Tur

  14. Design Paradigms in Car History

    OpenAIRE

    Dowlen, CMC

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research into Design Paradigms in Car History is to evaluate how production car design has changed over the last hundred and twenty-five years or so, using numerical analyses of specific cars, which act as exemplars. This evaluation should lead to a better understanding of car design history and how car designers think. Design thinking can be evidenced from how products have changed over the course of time. Design paradigms have been used to produce a structured analysis o...

  15. Explaining (Missing) Regulator Paradigm Shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigger, Angela; Buch-Hansen, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    of competition regulation is heaving into sight. It sets out to explain this from the vantage point of a critical political economy perspective, which identifies the circumstances under which a crisis can result in a regulatory paradigm shift. Contrasting the current situation with the shift in EC/EU competition...... capitalism; the social power configuration underpinning the neoliberal order remains unaltered; no clear counter-project has surfaced; the European Commission has been (and remains) in a position to oppose radical changes; and finally, there are no signs of a wider paradigm shift in the EU's regulatory...

  16. Paradigms in Physics Education Research

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, Amy D; McKagan, Sarah B

    2013-01-01

    Physics education research (PER) includes three distinct paradigms: quantitative research, qualitative research, and question-driven research. Quantitative PER seeks reproducible, representative patterns and relationships; human behavior is seen as dictated by lawful (albeit probabilistic) relationships. Qualitative PER seeks to refine and develop theory by linking theory to cases; human action is seen as shaped by the meanings that participants make of their local environments. Question-driven physics education researchers prioritize questions over the pursuit of local meanings or abstract relationships. We illustrate each paradigm with interviews with physics education researchers and examples of published PER.

  17. Paradigm Statements of Educational Objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Peter J.

    Five distinct format categories are used in this study to describe the form of educational objectives: clarity, range, level of abstractness, behavioralness, and observability. These form concepts are used to describe paradigm statements of three kinds of educational objectives: goals, intended learning outcomes, and behavioral evidence. Goals are…

  18. The Paradigm of Distributed Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    This presentation aims to focus on and develop the notion of distributed creativity from a cultural psychological perspective. It will start by outlining the need for a cultural psychological paradigm of creative expression and argue that this perspective is primarily concerned with what can...

  19. The emerging land management paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    Manchet: This paper was first presented by Professor Enemark at the RICS Christmas Lecture in December last year. It provides a cogent and detailed reference point for the current state of land management in developed countries, charts a course for the future and looks at how education must chang...... to meet the new paradigm....

  20. Understanding the land management paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    There is a worldwide need to build understanding of the land management paradigm and for institutional development to establish sustainable national concepts. This includes creation and adoption of a policy on land development, and an approach that combines the land administration/cadastre/land r......There is a worldwide need to build understanding of the land management paradigm and for institutional development to establish sustainable national concepts. This includes creation and adoption of a policy on land development, and an approach that combines the land administration....../cadastre/land registration function with topographic mapping. The author seeks to awaken more awareness of global trends in this area, recognising that the systems design involved is always unique....

  1. The Afrocentric Paradigm: Contours and Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazama, Ama

    2001-01-01

    Defines and describes Afrocentricity, suggesting that Afrocentricity within the academic context is best understood as a paradigm. Explains how Afrocentricity meets the definition of a paradigm, examining the affective, cognitive, and conative aspects of the Afrocentric paradigm (metaphysical and sociological) and looking at the structural and…

  2. Towards reduction of Paradigm coordination models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Andova; L.P.J. Groenewegen; E.P. de Vink (Erik Peter)

    2011-01-01

    htmlabstractThe coordination modelling language Paradigm addresses collaboration between components in terms of dynamic constraints. Within a Paradigm model, component dynamics are consistently specified at a detailed and a global level of abstraction. To enable automated verification of Paradigm mo

  3. Paradigm Lost: Reclaiming America's Educational Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spady, William G.

    The ways in which a paradigm of empowerment can be adopted in schools are explored in this book. The book is divided into two sections--the importance of being a paradigm pioneer and the Future Empowerment Paradigm--and focuses on four points: (1) The systemic inertia that keeps schools tied to a familiar, comfortable, unproductive, and…

  4. Exploring Paradigms of Crime Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soothill, Keith; Christoffersen, Mogens N.; Hussain, Azhar

    2010-01-01

    Using Danish registers for a 1980 birth cohort of 29,944 males with parental information and following up these cases for 25 years, the study considers four paradigms of crime reduction (parental child rearing, structural factors around adolescence, locality and individual resources). Focusing...... have more widespread benefits, but the assumed causal links need to be further explored. The use of population registers, under controlled conditions, provides an important window on criminal careers....

  5. Employee discipline: a changing paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raper, J L; Myaya, S N

    1993-12-01

    To increase the receptiveness of health care supervisors to a broader meaning of discipline and to simulate investigation of nontraditional methods of encouragement to employees who fail to meet minimum standards of conduct and thereby negatively affect the quality of patient care, a subjectively realistic view of the implications of the traditional punitive disciplinary paradigm is presented. Through the use of a case study, the authors present, explain, and apply the contemporary concept of discipline without punishment as first described by J. Huberman.

  6. Poverty eradication: a new paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pethe, V P

    1998-08-01

    This article offers a new paradigm for eradicating poverty in India. It was assumed incorrectly by Mahatma Gandhi that a good society without mass poverty would follow after independence. India copied Western models of development and developed giant factories, big dams, and megacities. Agriculture did not expand the number of jobs for people. The Western paradigm failed in India because of the false assumption of "trickle down" of income to the masses. The targeted programs to the poor did not directly benefit enough of the poor. Mega-industrialization led to reduced employment and higher skill needs. The model failed mainly because it was a proxy and relied on indirect ways of reaching the poor. The models failed to be adapted to conditions in India. The Swadeshi paradigm is a direct model for addressing mass poverty. Poverty is affected by immediate, intermediate, and ultimate determinants. Poverty begets social and economic problems, such as ignorance, ill health, high fertility, unemployment, and crime. In India and developing countries, mass poverty results from under use of human resources; lack of equal opportunities; and an outdated non-egalitarian social structure, an unjust global economic order, human cruelty, and erosion of ethical values. Indians are squandering their precious resources mimicking Western consumerism. Poverty leads to rapid population growth. People become productive assets with universal literacy, compulsory and free education, health services and sanitation, vocational training, and work ethics. India needs people-oriented policies with less emphasis on capital accumulation.

  7. Orphism as a scientific paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biernat Przemyslaw

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In my essay I would like to examine current interpretative paradigm, which western scholarship cast on heterogenous and ambiguous data first to create and then to modify the notion of ‘orphism’. In case of paradigms preceding the actual one, the role which ‘orphism’ played in contemporary theories and controversies centered around the question of its significance for emergence of Christianity is well known. That is why in my work I would like to focus on deconstruction of interpretative consensus, elaborated in recent years, which is to be found in such works as Martin West’s The Orphic Poems (1983, Ritual Texts for the Afterlife. Orpheus and the Bacchic Gold Tablets by Fritz Graf and Sarah Iles-Johnston (2007 or monumental Orfeo y la tradición órfica. Un reencuentro (2008 edited by Alberto Bernabé. What is significant, inasmuch as we can write the history of Athenian religion or the history of Hellenistic kings’ worship, we still cannot write the history of orphism. In formulation of all these scholars it is an ahistorical phenomenon, a hidden constant in the sphere of Greek religion, never expressed directly and entirely, but always alluded to y ancient authors. I find difficult to agree with such a statement. The aim of my inquiry is to reveal assumptions of current paradigm, which are hidden in it, but leave a distinct impression on data.

  8. [Paradigm shift in bancroftian filariasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyer, Gerusa; Mattos, Denise; Figueredo-Silva, José; Norões, Joaquim

    2009-01-01

    The way a particular subject is understood changes over time as a result of scientific research. In most cases, these changes are minor, with limited effect on the overall knowledge on the subject. Sometimes, however, revolutionary changes occur and not only modify the understanding of the subject but open perspectives that can trigger new interpretations and new ways for expansion of scientific knowledge. The studies of Gregor Johann Mendel were a good example. They led to discovery of the laws of inheritance which, in turn, have revolutionized biology and provided the foundation for genetics. In certain situations, changes not only alter ways of thinking, but have practical implications, also improving the quality of life for many people. In his book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Thomas Kuhn refers to discontinuities in scientific development as a 'change of paradigm', a term now used in a generic manner to describe a profound changes in our reference points. For lymphatic filariasis the old paradigm stated that Wuchereria bancrofti at the adult stage causes lymphatic vessel obstruction, triggering an inevitable immune response in predisposed individuals and leading to elephantiasis. This has been replaced by a new paradigm, which offers hope that W. bancrofti infection does not necessarily predispose to the disfiguring outward manifestation of lymphatic dysfunction. Repeated secondary bacterial infections (erysipela-like) are now recognized as the most important factor for initiation and progression of chronic lymphedema in individuals living in filariasis-endemic areas. Most inhabitants of endemic communities can prevent and minimize the acute bacterial episodes by regular use of soap and water, the simplest form of hygiene already well known to human beings.

  9. Challenging the Service Cost Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Most healthcare organizations are looking to find more efficient and cost-effective ways of delivering service as they are challenged to assume more risk in order to provide timely and cost effective care. Alternative service with an independent service organization or third party may be an easy and rewarding solution. Serious consideration should be given purchase/service cycle and into a lower cost service paradigm designed to provide excellent service tailored to a facility's specific needs. In this article, an evaluation of all service model options is provided, as well as examples including a CT acquisition, pro formas, and program development.

  10. The Paradigm of Distributed Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    This presentation aims to focus on and develop the notion of distributed creativity from a cultural psychological perspective. It will start by outlining the need for a cultural psychological paradigm of creative expression and argue that this perspective is primarily concerned with what can...... be called ‘distributed creativity’. Drawing on related literature on distributed cognition (Hutchins, 2000), I will consider here the three inter-related ways in which creative action is distributed: across people, across people and objects, and across time. This particular understanding of creativity...

  11. International Politics: A Desirable Paradigm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Aiding; Feng Shuai

    2007-01-01

    This article first traces the origin of four concepts: International Politics (IP), International Relations (IR), World Politics (WP) and Global Politics (GP) and discusses the similarities among these four paradigms. It then analyses their application both at home and abroad. Finally, it argues for the desirability of selecting the concept of IP in academic training, thus facilitating practical application of concepts. It asserts that this will not only enhance academic discussion about IP among different Chinese schools of thought, but also help blazing new ideas.

  12. Psychiatry beyond the current paradigm.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bracken, Pat

    2012-12-01

    A series of editorials in this Journal have argued that psychiatry is in the midst of a crisis. The various solutions proposed would all involve a strengthening of psychiatry\\'s identity as essentially \\'applied neuroscience\\'. Although not discounting the importance of the brain sciences and psychopharmacology, we argue that psychiatry needs to move beyond the dominance of the current, technological paradigm. This would be more in keeping with the evidence about how positive outcomes are achieved and could also serve to foster more meaningful collaboration with the growing service user movement.

  13. Rivers and streams: Ecosystem dynamics and integrating paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, K.W.; Wilzbach, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Full understanding of running waters requires an ecosystem perspective, which encompasses the physical and chemical setting in interaction with dependent biological communities. Several conceptual models or paradigms of river and stream ecosystems that capture critical components of lotic ecosystems have been developed, including the ‘river continuum concept’, to describe fluxes of matter and energy within the stream or river channel together with exchanges between the channel and its terrestrial setting. A complete ecosystem perspective includes consideration of hierarchical spatial scales in a temporal context. Flow of energy in lotic ecosystems is driven by two alternative energy sources: sunlight regulating in-stream photosynthesis and plant litter derived from the stream-side riparian corridor or floodplain. Energy transfers within the ecosystem pass through micro- and macroproducers (algae and vascular hydrophytes) and micro- and macroconsumers (microorganisms, invertebrates, and vertebrates). Material fluxes encompass the cycling of key nutrients, such as nitrogen and phosphorus, and the transport, storage, and metabolism of dissolved (DOM) and particulate (POM) organic matter (OM). Growth of lotic periphyton (algae and associated microbes, microzoans, and detritus) and coarse (CPOM) and fine (FPOM) particulate organic matter constitute the food resources of nonpredaceous running-water invertebrates (e.g., shredders that consume CPOM and collectors that feed on FPOM and associated microbes of both).

  14. Hypothesis Formation, Paradigms, and Openness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conrad P. Pritscher

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A part of hypothesis formation, while necessary for scientific investigation, is beyond direct observation. Powerful hypothesis formation is more than logical and is facilitated by mind­opening. As Percy Bridgeman, Nobel laureate, said, science is: “Nothing more than doing one's damnedest with one's mind, no holds barred.” This paper suggests more open schooling helps generate more open hypothesizing which helps one do one's damnedest with one's mind. It is hypothesized that a more open process of hypothesis formation may help schools and society forge new ways of living and learning so that more people more often can do their damnedest with their mind. This writing does not offer a new paradigm but rather attempts to elaborate on the notion that new paradigms are difficult to form without openness to what was previously quasi­unthinkable. More on these topics and issues is included in the author's Reopening Einstein's Thought: About What Can't Be Learned From Textbooks ­­to be published by Sense Publishers in June 2008.

  15. Phase diagrams in mixed spin-3/2 and spin-2 Ising system with two alternative layers within the effective-field theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bayram Devirena; Yasin Polatb; Mustafa Keskinc

    2011-01-01

    The phase diagrams in the mixed spin-3/2 and spin-2 Ising system with two alternative layers on a honeycomb lattice are investigated and discussed by the use of the effective-field theory with correlations. The interaction of the nearest-neighbour spins of each layer is taken to be positive (ferromagnetic interaction) and the interaction of the adjacent spins of the nearest-neighbour layers is considered to be either positive or negative (ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic interaction). The temperature dependence of the layer magnetizations of the system is examined to characterize the nature (continuous or discontinuous) of the phase transitions and obtain the phase transition temperatures. The system exhibits both second-and first-order phase transitions besides triple point (TP), critical end point (E), multicritical point (A), isolated critical point (C) and reentrant behaviour depending on the interaction parameters. We have also studied the temperature dependence of the total magnetization to find the compensation points,system. The phase diagrams are constructed in eight different planes and it is found that the system also presents the compensation phenomena depending on the sign of the bilinear exchange interactions.

  16. EVALUATIVE RESEARCH PARADIGMS IN EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS

    OpenAIRE

    Flores Barboza, José; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos

    2014-01-01

    The article focuses on the confrontation /comparison? between the naturalistic and the experimental paradigms to evaluate educational programs. It examines the theoretical framework of each paradigm and the proposed methodology to pursue an evaluation. Finally, the article addresses the possibility of a reconciliation between both paradigms. El artículo trata de la confrontación entre los paradigmas naturalista y experimental para la evaluación de programas educacionales. Examina los argum...

  17. PSYCHOLOGICAL PARADIGMS USED IN TEACHING ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin CRISTEA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, teaching as a subject of instruction, will be examined in terms of some actual psychological paradigms of communication: structural-expressive, formal-transactional, relational-systemic, and phenomenal-praxis. Reporting these paradigms, thispaper highlights the importance of psychological processes involved in teaching process. Related to various paradigms described, the author demonstrates the importance of addressing teaching from a high level participation in the elaboration of a mutual action.

  18. Concept learning and the use of three common psychophysical paradigms in the archerfish (Toxotes chatareus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newport, Cait; Wallis, Guy; Siebeck, Ulrike E

    2014-01-01

    Archerfish are well known for their specialized hunting technique of spitting water at prey located above the water line. This unique ability has made them a popular focus of study as researchers try to understand the mechanisms involved in targeting and spitting. In more recent years, archerfish have also become an increasingly popular model for studying visual discrimination and learning in general. Until now, only the alternative forced-choice (AFC) task has been used with archerfish, however, they may be capable of learning other classical discrimination tasks. As well as providing alternative, and potentially more efficient, means for testing their visual capabilities, these other tasks may also provide deeper insight into the extent to which an organism with no cortex can grasp the concepts underlying these tasks. In this paper, we consider both the matched-to-sample (MTS) and the odd-one-out (OOO) tasks as they require the subject to learn relatively sophisticated concepts rather than a straight, stimulus-reward relationship, of the kind underlying AFC tasks. A variety of line drawings displayed on a monitor were used as stimuli. We first determined if archerfish could complete the MTS and OOO test and then evaluated their ability to be retrained to new stimuli using a 4-AFC test. We found that archerfish were unable to learn the MTS and had only a limited capacity for learning the OOO task. We conclude that the MTS and OOO are impractical as paradigms for behavioral experiments with archerfish. However, the archerfish could rapidly learn to complete an AFC test and select the conditioned stimulus with a high degree of accuracy when faced with four stimuli, making this a powerful test for behavioral studies testing visual discrimination. In addition, the fish were able to learn the concept of oddity under particular training circumstances. This paper adds to the growing evidence that animals without a cortex are capable of learning some higher order concepts.

  19. Understanding the land management paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    structures by identifying an ideal and historically neutral LAS model for: servicing the needs of governments, business and the public; utilising the latest technologies; servicing rights, responsibilities, restrictions and risks in relation to land; and delivering much broader information about sustainable......Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land and natural resources that are required to achieve sustainable development. Land Administration Systems (LAS) are institutional...... frameworks complicated by the tasks they must perform, by national cultural, political and judicial settings, and by technology. This paper facilitates an overall understanding of the land management paradigm. This paper assists sharing LAS among countries with diverse legal systems and institutional...

  20. Emerging Paradigms in Machine Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Lakhmi; Howlett, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This  book presents fundamental topics and algorithms that form the core of machine learning (ML) research, as well as emerging paradigms in intelligent system design. The  multidisciplinary nature of machine learning makes it a very fascinating and popular area for research.  The book is aiming at students, practitioners and researchers and captures the diversity and richness of the field of machine learning and intelligent systems.  Several chapters are devoted to computational learning models such as granular computing, rough sets and fuzzy sets An account of applications of well-known learning methods in biometrics, computational stylistics, multi-agent systems, spam classification including an extremely well-written survey on Bayesian networks shed light on the strengths and weaknesses of the methods. Practical studies yielding insight into challenging problems such as learning from incomplete and imbalanced data, pattern recognition of stochastic episodic events and on-line mining of non-stationary ...

  1. Understanding the land management paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land and natural resources that are required to achieve sustainable development. Land Administration Systems (LAS) are institutional...... frameworks complicated by the tasks they must perform, by national cultural, political and judicial settings, and by technology. This paper facilitates an overall understanding of the land management paradigm. This paper assists sharing LAS among countries with diverse legal systems and institutional...... structures by identifying an ideal and historically neutral LAS model for: servicing the needs of governments, business and the public; utilising the latest technologies; servicing rights, responsibilities, restrictions and risks in relation to land; and delivering much broader information about sustainable...

  2. New Paradigms For Asteroid Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Johansen, Anders; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Gounelle, Matthieu

    2015-01-01

    Asteroids and meteorites provide key evidence on the formation of planetesimals in the Solar System. Asteroids are traditionally thought to form in a bottom-up process by coagulation within a population of initially km-scale planetesimals. However, new models challenge this idea by demonstrating that asteroids of sizes from 100 to 1000 km can form directly from the gravitational collapse of small particles which have organised themselves in dense filaments and clusters in the turbulent gas. Particles concentrate passively between eddies down to the smallest scales of the turbulent gas flow and inside large-scale pressure bumps and vortices. The streaming instability causes particles to take an active role in the concentration, by piling up in dense filaments whose friction on the gas reduces the radial drift compared to that of isolated particles. In this chapter we review new paradigms for asteroid formation and compare critically against the observed properties of asteroids as well as constraints from meteo...

  3. The Oral Paradigm and Snapchat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oren Soffer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this short essay, I argue that the ephemeral nature of emerging instant-messaging applications, such as Snapchat, applies an oral paradigm. While online discourse of computer-mediated communication shares many qualities with oral communication, the case of ephemeral applications is unique, as the oral features are already integrated in the application technology design and as orality is often implemented on highly visual products. Snapchat applies technology that fades visual contents as if they were spoken words fading in the air after utterance. Moreover, Snapchat’s promise to delete all messages from its database after they are viewed echoes a key characteristic of primary oral culture: that is, the inability (and in our case, the obligation not to store knowledge. In this, Snapchat demonstrates counter-logic to the contemporary grammar of new media, which is based on information aggregation.

  4. Datacubes as a Service Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Angelo Pio; Baumann, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Spatio-temporal data sets often can be represented conveniently through datacubes as a common unifying paradigm. Flexible, scalable services can be offered based on the concept of a datacube query language while hiding the technicalities, thereby allowing user-friendly visual data interaction. One of today's most influential initiatives in Big Geo Data is EarthServer which is paving the way for flexible, scalable datacube services based on innovative NewSQL technology (Fig. 1). Researchers from Europe, the US and recently Australia have teamed up to rigorously materialize the datacube paradigm for Earth Observation, ocean, meteorological, and planetary science. EarthServer has established client and server technology for such spatio-temporal datacubes strictly based on the open datacube standards, OGC WCS and WPCS. The underlying scalable array engine, rasdaman, enables direct interaction, including 3-D visualization, what-if scenarios, common EO data processing, and general analytics on regular and irregular grids. Integration of datacube and metadata retrieval, together with advanced visualization based on NASA WorldWind, are geared towards an effective, user-friendly access and analysis. Conversely, EarthServer is significantly shaping the ISO, OGC, and INSPIRE Big Data standards landscape by being specification editor. Phase 1 of EarthServer has advanced scalable array data¬base technology into 100+ TB services; in phase 2, a federation of Petabyte datacubes is being built in Europe and Australia to perform ad-hoc querying and merging. Phase 1 reviewers have attested rasdaman to "significantly transform the way that scientists in different areas of Earth Science will be able to access and use data in a way that hitherto was not possible". Altogether, these large-scale deployments prove that datacubes are a convenient model for presenting users with a simple, consolidated view on the massive amount of data files gathered - "a cube tells more than a million

  5. Linking metacommunity paradigms to spatial coexistence mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Lauren G; Melbourne, Brett A

    2016-09-01

    Four metacommunity paradigms-usually called neutral, species sorting, mass effects, and patch dynamics, respectively-are widely used for empirical and theoretical studies of spatial community dynamics. The paradigm framework highlights key ecological mechanisms operating in metacommunities, such as dispersal limitation, competition-colonization tradeoffs, or species equivalencies. However, differences in coexistence mechanisms between the paradigms and in situations with combined influences of multiple paradigms are not well understood. Here, we create a common model for competitive metacommunities, with unique parameterizations for each metacommunity paradigm and for scenarios with multiple paradigms operating simultaneously. We derive analytical expressions for the strength of Chesson's spatial coexistence mechanisms and quantify these for each paradigm via simulation. For our model, fitness-density covariance, a concentration effect measuring the importance of intraspecific aggregation of individuals, is the dominant coexistence mechanism in all three niche-based metacommunity paradigms. Increased dispersal between patches erodes intraspecific aggregation, leading to lower coexistence strength in the mass effects paradigm compared to species sorting. Our analysis demonstrates the potential importance of aggregation of individuals (fitness-density covariance) over co-variation in abiotic environments and competition between species (the storage effect), as fitness-density covariance can be stronger than the storage effect and is the sole stabilizing mechanism in the patch dynamics paradigm. As expected, stable coexistence does not occur in the neutral paradigm, which requires species to be equal and emphasizes the role of stochasticity. We show that stochasticity also plays an important role in niche-structured metacommunities by altering coexistence strength. We conclude that Chesson's spatial coexistence mechanisms provide a flexible framework for comparing

  6. Comparison of the risk factors effects between two populations: two alternative approaches illustrated by the analysis of first and second kidney transplant recipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Whereas the prognosis of second kidney transplant recipients (STR) compared to the first ones has been frequently analyzed, no study has addressed the issue of comparing the risk factor effects on graft failure between both groups. Methods Here, we propose two alternative strategies to study the heterogeneity of risk factors between two groups of patients: (i) a multiplicative-regression model for relative survival (MRS) and (ii) a stratified Cox model (SCM) specifying the graft rank as strata and assuming subvectors of the explicatives variables. These developments were motivated by the analysis of factors associated with time to graft failure (return-to-dialysis or patient death) in second kidney transplant recipients (STR) compared to the first ones. Estimation of the parameters was based on partial likelihood maximization. Monte-Carlo simulations associated with bootstrap re-sampling was performed to calculate the standard deviations for the MRS. Results We demonstrate, for the first time in renal transplantation, that: (i) male donor gender is a specific risk factor for STR, (ii) the adverse effect of recipient age is enhanced for STR and (iii) the graft failure risk related to donor age is attenuated for STR. Conclusion While the traditional Cox model did not provide original results based on the renal transplantation literature, the proposed relative and stratified models revealed new findings that are useful for clinicians. These methodologies may be of interest in other medical fields when the principal objective is the comparison of risk factors between two populations. PMID:23915191

  7. The Three Paradigms of Mass Media Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, W. James; And Others

    A study examined the mass media research literature to determine if there was a dominant paradigm in the field. The mass media research published in eight communication journals from 1965 to 1989 was content analyzed to identify paradigm, orientation (focus and theory), data (type, source, and sample), methodology (type and manipulation), and…

  8. The New Paradigm Dialogs and Qualitative Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denzin, Norman K.

    2008-01-01

    This paper re-engages the paradigm wars of the 1980s, discussing their relevance in the current historical moment. It extends Egon Guba's call for dialogue across paradigm communities. Ten theses and three agenda items are advanced. (Contains 4 notes.)

  9. The cognitive paradigm and the immunological homunculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, I R

    1992-12-01

    In last month's issue of Immunology Today, Irun Cohen discussed the inadequacies of the clonal selection paradigm and proposed a cognitive paradigm in which preformed internal images guide and restrict the process of clonal activation. Here he clarifies the nature of these internal images, during on concrete examples from the image of infection and the image of self, the immunological homunculus.

  10. Towards a New Paradigm of Moral Personhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimer, Jeremy A.; Walker, Lawrence J.

    2008-01-01

    Moral psychology is between paradigms. Kohlberg's model of moral rationality has proved inadequate in explaining action; yet its augmentation--moral personality--awaits empirical embodiment. This article addresses some critical issues in developing a comprehensive empirical paradigm of moral personhood. Is a first-person or a third-person…

  11. Is This the Paradigm Shift We Need?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirvis, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Dr. Woocher's essay, states Mirvis, is seminal in the field of Jewish education. It proposes a new paradigm for Jewish education in North America. This proposed paradigm is supported by a comprehensive multi-disciplinary research drawing on literature from education, philosophy, history, sociology, psychology, and economics. The essay reflects a…

  12. Paradigm Lost: The Human Chromosome Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Lawrence; Blystone, Robert V.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses whether the discovery in 1956 that humans have a chromosome number of 46, as opposed to 47 or 48 as previously thought, fits into a paradigm shift of the Kuhnian type. Concludes that Kuhn probably would not have considered the chromosome number shift to be large enough to be a focus for one of his paradigms. (AIM)

  13. Reforming the Paradigm of American Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, B. Charles; Messner, Phillip E.

    1991-01-01

    The current crisis of U.S. public education cannot be addressed through reforms to the existing paradigm. In fact, the current paradigm is being challenged and shifted bringing in a new perception of the educational process. Because of resistance in the education profession, that change may be variously applied. (JB)

  14. Emergence and decline of scientific paradigms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bornholdt, S.; Jensen, Mogens Høgh; Sneppen, Kim

    2011-01-01

    deals with this asymmetry by constraining the ability of agents to return to already abandoned concepts. The model exhibits a fairly regular pattern of global paradigm shifts, where older paradigms are eroded and subsequently replaced by new ones. The model sets the theme for a new class of pattern...

  15. The Technological Paradigm of Psychological Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvale, Steinar

    1973-01-01

    The experiment in physics has often been pictured as an ideal for the less mature social sciences, especially by positivist philosophy of science. The thesis to be presented here is that the physical experiment as a paradigm for psychology is merely a pretext, a smoke-screen for a more fundamental and concealed technological paradigm for the study…

  16. Holism and Empiricism as Complementary Paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronick, Doreen

    1990-01-01

    In response to Poplin (EC 210 561) and Heshusius (EC 220 916), the paper stresses that holism and empiricism are not dichotomous paradigms and that learning-disabled students require instruction which recognizes individual differences, the meaning inherent in structure and pattern, and accountability consistent with the paradigm being applied. (DB)

  17. The Technological Paradigm of Psychological Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvale, Steinar

    1973-01-01

    The experiment in physics has often been pictured as an ideal for the less mature social sciences, especially by positivist philosophy of science. The thesis to be presented here is that the physical experiment as a paradigm for psychology is merely a pretext, a smoke-screen for a more fundamental and concealed technological paradigm for the study…

  18. Derfor har vi brug for paradigmer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Kirsten A. Jeppesen; Schøsler, Lene

    2016-01-01

    Based on previous studies on verbs of perception in French and Ita- lian, this study claims that the notion of paradigm is useful for the understanding of grammatical structure. Our case-study concerns the status of Modern French voir in the paradigms of presentation and of progressivity....

  19. Towards a New Paradigm of Moral Personhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimer, Jeremy A.; Walker, Lawrence J.

    2008-01-01

    Moral psychology is between paradigms. Kohlberg's model of moral rationality has proved inadequate in explaining action; yet its augmentation--moral personality--awaits empirical embodiment. This article addresses some critical issues in developing a comprehensive empirical paradigm of moral personhood. Is a first-person or a third-person…

  20. The Failure of Progressive Paradigm Reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Gerard

    2017-01-01

    The student-centred, progressive paradigm has not had sustained success in changing teacher-centred, formalistic practices in "developing" country classrooms. Does "Gestalt-switch" and paradigm reversal demonstrate that progressive theory has realigned with formalistic reality, or has it remained axiomatic in the research and…

  1. A New Paradigm for Chemical Engineering?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    businesses has been observed. There is an increasing trend within the chemical industry to focus on products and the sustainable processes that can make them. Do these changes point to a paradigm shift in chemical engineering as a discipline? Historically, two previous paradigm shifts in chemical engineering...... corresponded to major shifts in chemical engineering as a discipline, which affected not only the education of chemical engineers, but also the development of chemical engineering as a discipline. Has the time come for a new paradigm shift that will prepare the current and future chemical engineering graduates...... to tackle the complex problems facing the chemicals based industries and serve the modern society more efficiently? The lecture will review the current status of chemical engineering as a discipline, the proposals for the third paradigm, the need for such a paradigm shift and related educational issues....

  2. Understanding paradigms used for nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Kathryn; Olson, Joanne K

    2006-02-01

    The aims of this paper are to add clarity to the discussion about paradigms for nursing research and to consider integrative strategies for the development of nursing knowledge. Paradigms are sets of beliefs and practices, shared by communities of researchers, which regulate inquiry within disciplines. The various paradigms are characterized by ontological, epistemological and methodological differences in their approaches to conceptualizing and conducting research, and in their contribution towards disciplinary knowledge construction. Researchers may consider these differences so vast that one paradigm is incommensurable with another. Alternatively, researchers may ignore these differences and either unknowingly combine paradigms inappropriately or neglect to conduct needed research. To accomplish the task of developing nursing knowledge for use in practice, there is a need for a critical, integrated understanding of the paradigms used for nursing inquiry. We describe the evolution and influence of positivist, postpositivist, interpretive and critical theory research paradigms. Using integrative review, we compare and contrast the paradigms in terms of their philosophical underpinnings and scientific contribution. A pragmatic approach to theory development through synthesis of cumulative knowledge relevant to nursing practice is suggested. This requires that inquiry start with assessment of existing knowledge from disparate studies to identify key substantive content and gaps. Knowledge development in under-researched areas could be accomplished through integrative strategies that preserve theoretical integrity and strengthen research approaches associated with various philosophical perspectives. These strategies may include parallel studies within the same substantive domain using different paradigms; theoretical triangulation to combine findings from paradigmatically diverse studies; integrative reviews; and mixed method studies. Nurse scholars are urged to

  3. The Physical and Cognitive Paradigms in Information Retrieval Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, David

    1992-01-01

    Explores the role of paradigms in information retrieval research and discusses the nature of a paradigm and the applicability of the paradigm concept to a multidisciplinary field such as information science. The features of the physical paradigm and the cognitive paradigm are outlined, and their origins, nature, and role are examined. (55…

  4. A handy new design paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bergelin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In light of technological advances, researchers have lost sight of robotic grippers/end effectors design intent. In a semi-structured environment the biomimetic approach is impractical due to the high complexity of the mechanism and control algorithms. Current industrial grippers are robust, but lack the flexibility that allows for in hand manipulation. The authors believe that underactuated grippers provide the best approach to allow for in hand manipulation along with being rugged enough for an industrial setting. Thinking of the robotic gripper and the robotic arm as one system (as opposed to two separate subsystems, one is capable of using the degrees of freedom of the robot in conjunction with that of the gripper to provide the desired motion profile without the complexity of running two subsystems. This paper will outline where recent grippers have failed and will introduce a new design paradigm for grippers along with several underactuated gripper ideas.

    This paper was presented at the IFToMM/ASME International Workshop on Underactuated Grasping (UG2010, 19 August 2010, Montréal, Canada.

  5. Human Amebiasis: Breaking the Paradigm?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Partida

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available For over 30 years it has been established that the Entamoeba histolytica protozoan included two biologically and genetically different species, one with a pathogenic phenotype called E. histolytica and the other with a non-pathogenic phenotype called Entamoeba dispar. Both of these amoebae species can infect humans. E. histolytica has been considered as a potential pathogen that can cause serious damage to the large intestine (colitis, dysentery and other extraintestinal organs, mainly the liver (amebic liver abscess, whereas E. dispar is a species that interacts with humans in a commensal relationship, causing no symptoms or any tissue damage. This paradigm, however, should be reconsidered or re-evaluated. In the present work, we report the detection and genotyping of E. dispar sequences of DNA obtained from patients with amebic liver abscesses, including the genotyping of an isolate obtained from a Brazilian patient with a clinical diagnosis of intestinal amebiasis that was previously characterized as an E. dispar species. The genetic diversity and phylogenetic analysis performed by our group has shown the existence of several different genotypes of E. dispar that can be associated to, or be potentiality responsible for intestinal or liver tissue damage, similar to that observed with E. histolytica.

  6. Human Amebiasis: Breaking the Paradigm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ximénez, Cecilia; Cerritos, Rene; Rojas, Liliana; Dolabella, Silvio; Morán, Patricia; Shibayama, Mineko; González, Enrique; Valadez, Alicia; Hernández, Eric; Valenzuela, Olivia; Limón, Angélica; Partida, Oswaldo; Silva, Edwards F

    2010-01-01

    For over 30 years it has been established that the Entamoeba histolytica protozoan included two biologically and genetically different species, one with a pathogenic phenotype called E. histolytica and the other with a non-pathogenic phenotype called Entamoeba dispar. Both of these amoebae species can infect humans. E. histolytica has been considered as a potential pathogen that can cause serious damage to the large intestine (colitis, dysentery) and other extraintestinal organs, mainly the liver (amebic liver abscess), whereas E. dispar is a species that interacts with humans in a commensal relationship, causing no symptoms or any tissue damage. This paradigm, however, should be reconsidered or re-evaluated. In the present work, we report the detection and genotyping of E. dispar sequences of DNA obtained from patients with amebic liver abscesses, including the genotyping of an isolate obtained from a Brazilian patient with a clinical diagnosis of intestinal amebiasis that was previously characterized as an E. dispar species. The genetic diversity and phylogenetic analysis performed by our group has shown the existence of several different genotypes of E. dispar that can be associated to, or be potentiality responsible for intestinal or liver tissue damage, similar to that observed with E. histolytica. PMID:20617021

  7. MDMA and the "ecstasy paradigm".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jon C

    2014-01-01

    For nearly 30 years, there has been a steady flow of research papers highlighting the dangers of MDMA and the implications for ecstasy users. After such a long time, it would be reasonable to expect that these dangers would be obvious due to the large number of ecstasy users. The available evidence does not indicate that there are millions of ecstasy users experiencing any problems linked to their ecstasy use. The "precautionary principle" suggests that, in the absence of knowing for certain, "experts" should argue that MDMA be avoided. However, this may have been taken too far, as the dire warnings do not seem to be reducing with the lack of epidemiological evidence of clinically relevant problems. The "ecstasy paradigm" is one way of articulating this situation, in that the needs of research funders and publication bias lead to a specific set of subcultural norms around what information is acceptable in the public domain. By digging a little deeper, it is easy to find problems with the evidence base that informs the public debate around MDMA. The key question is whether it is acceptable to maintain this status quo given the therapeutic potential of MDMA.

  8. Metacognition: A new cognitive paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kankaraš Miloš

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews concept of metacognition, defined as: (a knowledge about ones own cognitive activity, (b strategies to monitor and regulate cognitive activity and behavior, and (c subjective or metacognitive experiences which comes from some changes or temporary difficulties in cognitive functioning. While describing different conceptualizations of metacognition, its development, fields of application, relation with intelligence, and its constrictions and ambiguity, we attempt to present new and emerging metacognitive paradigm, which is, for a relatively short period, succeeded to improve, expand, and redefine wide range of theoretical and practical fields in psychology, on new and original way. How do we become conscious of our own cognitive processes? What role and significance that consciousness has, what is the functional level above thinking processes and how that level, which monitor and control cognitive activity, works. Metacognition is concept that presents, as so far, the most important insight in those human mind areas, which, although very important, remained on the margin of psychological investigations until now.

  9. New Indivisible Planetary Science Paradigm

    CERN Document Server

    Herndon, J Marvin

    2013-01-01

    I present here a new, indivisible planetary science paradigm, a wholly self-consistent vision of the nature of matter in the Solar System, and dynamics and energy sources of planets. Massive-core planets formed by condensing and raining-out from within giant gaseous protoplanets at high pressures and high temperatures. Earth's complete condensation included a 300 Earth-mass gigantic gas/ice shell that compressed the rocky kernel to about 66% of Earth's present diameter. T-Tauri eruptions stripped the gases away from the inner planets and stripped a portion of Mercury's incompletely condensed protoplanet, and transported it to the region between Mars and Jupiter where it fused with in-falling oxidized condensate from the outer regions of the Solar System and formed the parent matter of ordinary chondrite meteorites, the main-Belt asteroids, and veneer for the inner planets, especially Mars. In response to decompression-driven planetary volume increases, cracks form to increase surface area and mountain ranges ...

  10. Weaving versus blending: a quantitative assessment of the information carrying capacities of two alternative methods for conveying multivariate data with color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagh-Shenas, Haleh; Kim, Sunghee; Interrante, Victoria; Healey, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    In many applications, it is important to understand the individual values of, and relationships between, multiple related scalar variables defined across a common domain. Several approaches have been proposed for representing data in these situations. In this paper we focus on strategies for the visualization of multivariate data that rely on color mixing. In particular, through a series of controlled observer experiments, we seek to establish a fundamental understanding of the information-carrying capacities of two alternative methods for encoding multivariate information using color: color blending and color weaving. We begin with a baseline experiment in which we assess participants' abilities to accurately read numerical data encoded in six different basic color scales defined in the L*a*b* color space. We then assess participants' abilities to read combinations of 2, 3, 4 and 6 different data values represented in a common region of the domain, encoded using either color blending or color weaving. In color blending a single mixed color is formed via linear combination of the individual values in L*a*b* space, and in color weaving the original individual colors are displayed side-by-side in a high frequency texture that fills the region. A third experiment was conducted to clarify some of the trends regarding the color contrast and its effect on the magnitude of the error that was observed in the second experiment. The results indicate that when the component colors are represented side-by-side in a high frequency texture, most participants' abilities to infer the values of individual components are significantly improved, relative to when the colors are blended. Participants' performance was significantly better with color weaving particularly when more than 2 colors were used, and even when the individual colors subtended only 3 minutes of visual angle in the texture. However, the information-carrying capacity of the color weaving approach has its limits. We

  11. Life behind cell walls: paradigm lost, paradigm regained.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamport, D T

    2001-09-01

    This review of the living cell wall and its protein components is in two parts. The first is anecdotal. A personal account spanning over 40 years research may perhaps be an antidote to one stereotypical view of scientists as detached and humorless. The second part deals with the meaning of function, particularly as it applies to hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins. Function is a difficult word to define objectively. However, with help from such luminaries as Humpty Dumpty: "A word means what I want it to mean, neither more nor less," and Wittgenstein: "Giving examples of usage ... is the only way to talk about meaning," it is possible to construct a ziggurat representing increasingly complex levels of organization from molecular structure to ecology. Forty years ago I suggested that hydroxyproline-rich structural proteins played a key role in cell wall functioning. But because the bulk of the wall is carbohydrate, there has been an understandable resistance to paradigm change. Expansins, paradoxically, contribute greatly to this resistance because their modus operandi as cell-wall-loosening proteins is based on the idea that they break hydrogen bonds between polysaccharide chains allowing slippage. However, this view is not consistent with the recent discovery [Grobe et al. (1999) Eur. J. Biochem 263: 33-40] that beta-expansins may be proteases, as it implies that the extensin network is not a straightjacket but a substrate for expansin in muro. Such a direct role for extensins in both negative and positive regulation of cell expansion and elongation may constitute a major morphogenetic mechanism operating at all levels of plant growth and development.

  12. Ostracism Online: A social media ostracism paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Wouter; Levordashka, Ana; Ruff, Johanna R; Kraaijeveld, Steven; Lueckmann, Jan-Matthis; Williams, Kipling D

    2015-06-01

    We describe Ostracism Online, a novel, social media-based ostracism paradigm designed to (1) keep social interaction experimentally controlled, (2) provide researchers with the flexibility to manipulate the properties of the social situation to fit their research purposes, (3) be suitable for online data collection, (4) be convenient for studying subsequent within-group behavior, and (5) be ecologically valid. After collecting data online, we compared the Ostracism Online paradigm with the Cyberball paradigm (Williams & Jarvis Behavior Research Methods, 38, 174-180, 2006) on need-threat and mood questionnaire scores (van Beest & Williams Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 91, 918-928, 2006). We also examined whether ostracized targets of either paradigm would be more likely to conform to their group members than if they had been included. Using a Bayesian analysis of variance to examine the individual effects of the different paradigms and to compare these effects across paradigms, we found analogous effects on need-threat and mood. Perhaps because we examined conformity to the ostracizers (rather than neutral sources), neither paradigm showed effects of ostracism on conformity. We conclude that Ostracism Online is a cost-effective, easy to use, and ecologically valid research tool for studying the psychological and behavioral effects of ostracism.

  13. The cognitive paradigm ontology: design and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Jessica A; Laird, Angela R

    2012-01-01

    We present the basic structure of the Cognitive Paradigm Ontology (CogPO) for human behavioral experiments. While the experimental psychology and cognitive neuroscience literature may refer to certain behavioral tasks by name (e.g., the Stroop paradigm or the Sternberg paradigm) or by function (a working memory task, a visual attention task), these paradigms can vary tremendously in the stimuli that are presented to the subject, the response expected from the subject, and the instructions given to the subject. Drawing from the taxonomy developed and used by the BrainMap project ( www.brainmap.org ) for almost two decades to describe key components of published functional imaging results, we have developed an ontology capable of representing certain characteristics of the cognitive paradigms used in the fMRI and PET literature. The Cognitive Paradigm Ontology is being developed to be compliant with the Basic Formal Ontology (BFO), and to harmonize where possible with larger ontologies such as RadLex, NeuroLex, or the Ontology of Biomedical Investigations (OBI). The key components of CogPO include the representation of experimental conditions focused on the stimuli presented, the instructions given, and the responses requested. The use of alternate and even competitive terminologies can often impede scientific discoveries. Categorization of paradigms according to stimulus, response, and instruction has been shown to allow advanced data retrieval techniques by searching for similarities and contrasts across multiple paradigm levels. The goal of CogPO is to develop, evaluate, and distribute a domain ontology of cognitive paradigms for application and use in the functional neuroimaging community.

  14. Forced Choices: Role Play and the Problem of Disappearing Syntax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kellogg

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We begin with the observation that some Korean elementary school children in English class, confined to a single situation and even a single language exponent in a role play, appear to produce far more coherent dialogue than the previous week when they were allowed completely free choices in language. We note that at the same time as their dialogue becomes longer, their sentences become shorter (tall and thinner on the printed page, and we suggest that the grammatical complexity is consciously unpacked as discourse complexity. When we turn to a large corpus of longitudinal and cross sectional data, we see, however, that “thinner” dialogue with short utterances is not always more creative, at least not grammatically. We see that the children are deliberately and consciously choosing more elliptical and less creative expressions when they speak. We generalize from this data to show that the problem is no mere artifact of the data sample. We theorize from this generalization to show that the development of the child’s free will in syntax is related to a long chain of such constraints, leading from instincts to habits to intelligent choices oriented toward the immediate environment to acts of free will which are genuinely voluntary and which admit no sovereign but the child’s developing self. Indeed, we shall argue that the exercise of this sovereignty is precisely how the child develops a self in the first place.

  15. Factor Analysis of the Mosher Forced-Choice Guilt Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, Kevin E.; Janda, Louis H.

    1979-01-01

    This inventory measures sex guilt, hostility guilt, and morality-conscience guilt. Analyses indicate the appropriateness of a simple present-absent scoring system. Internal structure of each subscale is complex. Intercorrelations of scores are larger for males. (Author/BEF)

  16. Fuzzy Hybrid Deliberative/Reactive Paradigm (FHDRP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmadi, Hengameth

    2004-01-01

    This work aims to introduce a new concept for incorporating fuzzy sets in hybrid deliberative/reactive paradigm. After a brief review on basic issues of hybrid paradigm the definition of agent-based fuzzy hybrid paradigm, which enables the agents to proceed and extract their behavior through quantitative numerical and qualitative knowledge and to impose their decision making procedure via fuzzy rule bank, is discussed. Next an example performs a more applied platform for the developed approach and finally an overview of the corresponding agents architecture enhances agents logical framework.

  17. PARADIGM OF EDUCATION FOR THE INFORMATION SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy M. Bogachkov

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering total crisis in education in Informational Age, we suggest that to overcome the crisis, it is necessary to promote pedagogical science up from "pre-paradigm stage” to the "paradigm stage". For this purpose it is necessary to separate the "educational science" from "education." “Educational paradigm” in such study will be the subject of the science. The key concepts for the "pedagogical paradigm" should be the concepts of "educational practice", "class of problems" and "educational text". We offer some axioms around these concepts.

  18. Contemporary Treatment Paradigms in Keratoconus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGhee, Charles N J; Kim, Bia Z; Wilson, Peter J

    2015-10-01

    The past 20 years have witnessed an explosion in our knowledge of keratoconus, accompanied by a radical transformation of management options. A 2-hit hypothesis proposes an underlying genetic predisposition coupled with external environmental factors, including eye rubbing and atopy. The variable prevalence and natural history have been better defined including significant cone progression in middle age. Therefore, current management must include early diagnosis, regular monitoring, and treatment of environmental cofactors. Spectacles and contact lenses remain fundamental to the optical management of keratoconus. Intrastromal corneal ring segments have been increasingly used, providing improvement in the corneal shape, corrected visual acuity, and contact lens wear. However, like contact lenses, intrastromal corneal ring segments do not treat the underlying disease process. Therefore, current approaches must also consider treatments to minimize keratoconus progression. Fortunately, there is increasing evidence that corneal collagen crosslinking will halt or slow progression in most cases. Until relatively recently, penetrating keratoplasty was the preferred intervention for advanced keratoconus, with long-term success in the region of 90%; however, the greatest risk of failure remains endothelial allograft rejection. Deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty has emerged in the new millennium as a preferred approach to conserve the host endothelium and avoid rejection. Nonetheless, the overall superiority of deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty compared with penetrating keratoplasty, in terms of optical and survival benefits, is still debated. This perspective provides an overview of our current knowledge of keratoconus and current management options. A step-ladder approach to managing keratoconus is outlined to provide the practitioner with a contemporary management paradigm.

  19. The safety implications of emerging software paradigms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suski, G.J.; Persons, W.L.; Johnson, G.L.

    1994-10-01

    This paper addresses some of the emerging software paradigms that may be used in developing safety-critical software applications. Paradigms considered in this paper include knowledge-based systems, neural networks, genetic algorithms, and fuzzy systems. It presents one view of the software verification and validation activities that should be associated with each paradigm. The paper begins with a discussion of the historical evolution of software verification and validation. Next, a comparison is made between the verification and validation processes used for conventional and emerging software systems. Several verification and validation issues for the emerging paradigms are discussed and some specific research topics are identified. This work is relevant for monitoring and control at nuclear power plants.

  20. a postfoundationalist research paradigm of practical theology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-07-18

    Jul 18, 2010 ... part of the research paradigm of postfoundational practical theology. ... appealing to some item of knowledge that is self-evident or indubitable' (Van Huyssteen .... individual or subjective construction, and emphasises the.

  1. Levelling in the German Verb Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, John

    1974-01-01

    Levelling processes in the history of the German verb paradigm from Old High German to the present are discussed. It is asserted that the theory of transformational generative grammar provides a proper framework for the study of linguistic change. (RM)

  2. Paradigms and pragmatism: approaches to medical statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, M J

    2000-01-01

    Until recently, the dominant philosophy of science was that due to Karl Popper, with its doctrine that the proper task of science was the formulation of hypotheses followed by attempts at refuting them. In spite of the close analogy with significance testing, these ideas do not fit well with the practice of medical statistics. The same can be said of the later philosophy of Thomas Kuhn, who maintains that science proceeds by way of revolutionary upheavals separated by periods of relatively pedestrian research which are governed by what Kuhn refers to as paradigms. Through there have been paradigm shifts in the history of statistics, a degree of continuity can also be discerned. A current paradigm shift is embodied in the spread of Bayesian ideas. It may be that a future paradigm will emphasise the pragmatic approach to statistics that is associated with the name of Daniel Schwartz.

  3. Levelling in the German Verb Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, John

    1974-01-01

    Levelling processes in the history of the German verb paradigm from Old High German to the present are discussed. It is asserted that the theory of transformational generative grammar provides a proper framework for the study of linguistic change. (RM)

  4. Major Development Communication Paradigms and Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    info

    major paradigms of development and communication practices on graphic communication. ... media to the success of development initiatives. ...... in relation with sex. Also ..... Development communication in India: Prospect, issues and trends.

  5. The Emerging Paradigm in Black Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershaw, Terry

    1989-01-01

    Argues that traditional sociology has treated Black studies as peripheral to the study of human behavior. Proposes a paradigm that includes an emphasis on Afrocentric perspective and a methodology that combines positivist and critical methodologies. (FMW)

  6. Yakov Zeldovich and the Cosmic Web Paradigm

    CERN Document Server

    Einasto, Jaan

    2014-01-01

    I discuss the formation of the modern cosmological paradigm. In more detail I describe the early study of dark matter and cosmic web and the role of Yakov Zeldovich in the formation of the present concepts on these subjects.

  7. Yakov Zeldovich and the Cosmic Web Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einasto, Jaan

    2016-10-01

    I discuss the formation of the modern cosmological paradigm. In more detail I describe the early study of dark matter and cosmic web and the role of Yakov Zeldovich in the formation of the present concepts on these subjects.

  8. Engineering paradigms and anthropogenic global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohle, Martin

    2016-04-01

    This essay discusses 'paradigms' as means to conceive anthropogenic global change. Humankind alters earth-systems because of the number of people, the patterns of consumption of resources, and the alterations of environments. This process of anthropogenic global change is a composite consisting of societal (in the 'noosphere') and natural (in the 'bio-geosphere') features. Engineering intercedes these features; e.g. observing stratospheric ozone depletion has led to understanding it as a collateral artefact of a particular set of engineering choices. Beyond any specific use-case, engineering works have a common function; e.g. civil-engineering intersects economic activity and geosphere. People conceive their actions in the noosphere including giving purpose to their engineering. The 'noosphere' is the ensemble of social, cultural or political concepts ('shared subjective mental insights') of people. Among people's concepts are the paradigms how to shape environments, production systems and consumption patterns given their societal preferences. In that context, engineering is a means to implement a given development path. Four paradigms currently are distinguishable how to make anthropogenic global change happening. Among the 'engineering paradigms' for anthropogenic global change, 'adaptation' is a paradigm for a business-as-usual scenario and steady development paths of societies. Applying this paradigm implies to forecast the change to come, to appropriately design engineering works, and to maintain as far as possible the current production and consumption patterns. An alternative would be to adjust incrementally development paths of societies, namely to 'dovetail' anthropogenic and natural fluxes of matter and energy. To apply that paradigm research has to identify 'natural boundaries', how to modify production and consumption patterns, and how to tackle process in the noosphere to render alterations of common development paths acceptable. A further alternative

  9. Changing paradigms in the diagnosis of urolithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lulich, Jody P; Osborne, Carl A

    2009-01-01

    A paradigm shift is a fundamental change from a traditional model of thinking. This article presents four paradigm shifts in the diagnoses of urolithiasis, based on the experiences of the authors in the treatment of uroliths in dogs and cats. Case examples are provided to illustrate points regarding urine storage, ultrasonography, use of radiography to assure complete removal of uroliths, and the frequency of upper tract uroliths in cats.

  10. International business and the eclectic paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The eclectic paradigm has become the dominant theoretical basis in the study of international business, multinational corporations and internationalization since 1980. However, developments such as economic globalization and the subsequent growth of global and alliance capitalism have fundamentally......, finance, evolutionary economics, resource-based theory or strategic management? Can it be utilized to explain new developments in international business and economics? Do these require new ideas and concepts to be integrated within the eclectic paradigm? What are the new challenges to which international...

  11. New Indivisible Planetary Science Paradigm: Consequence of Questioning Popular Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvin Herndon, J.

    2014-05-01

    Progress in science involves replacing less precise understanding with more precise understanding. In science and in science education one should always question popular ideas; ask "What's wrong with this picture?" Finding limitations, conflicts or circumstances that require special ad hoc consideration sometimes is the key to making important discoveries. For example, from thermodynamic considerations, I found that the 'standard model of solar system formation' leads to insufficiently massive planetary cores. That understanding led me to discover a new indivisible planetary science paradigm. Massive-core planets formed by condensing and raining-out from within giant gaseous protoplanets at high pressures and high temperatures, accumulating heterogeneously on the basis of volatility with liquid core-formation preceding mantle-formation; the interior states of oxidation resemble that of the Abee enstatite chondrite. Core-composition was established during condensation based upon the relative solubilities of elements, including uranium, in liquid iron in equilibrium with an atmosphere of solar composition at high pressures and high temperatures. Uranium settled to the central region and formed planetary nuclear fission reactors, producing heat and planetary magnetic fields. Earth's complete condensation included a ~300 Earth-mass gigantic gas/ice shell that compressed the rocky kernel to about 66% of Earth's present diameter. T-Tauri eruptions, associated with the thermonuclear ignition of the Sun, stripped the gases away from the Earth and the inner planets. The T-Tauri outbursts stripped a portion of Mercury's incompletely condensed protoplanet and transported it to the region between Mars and Jupiter where it fused with in-falling oxidized condensate from the outer regions of the Solar System, forming the parent matter of ordinary chondrite meteorites, the main-Belt asteroids, and veneer for the inner planets, especially Mars. With its massive gas/ice shell

  12. The Underlying Social Dynamics of Paradigm Shifts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rodriguez-Sickert

    Full Text Available We develop here a multi-agent model of the creation of knowledge (scientific progress or technological evolution within a community of researchers devoted to such endeavors. In the proposed model, agents learn in a physical-technological landscape, and weight is attached to both individual search and social influence. We find that the combination of these two forces together with random experimentation can account for both i marginal change, that is, periods of normal science or refinements on the performance of a given technology (and in which the community stays in the neighborhood of the current paradigm; and ii radical change, which takes the form of scientific paradigm shifts (or discontinuities in the structure of performance of a technology that is observed as a swift migration of the knowledge community towards the new and superior paradigm. The efficiency of the search process is heavily dependent on the weight that agents posit on social influence. The occurrence of a paradigm shift becomes more likely when each member of the community attaches a small but positive weight to the experience of his/her peers. For this parameter region, nevertheless, a conservative force is exerted by the representatives of the current paradigm. However, social influence is not strong enough to seriously hamper individual discovery, and can act so as to empower successful individual pioneers who have conquered the new and superior paradigm.

  13. Non-programmed versus programmed aging paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libertini, Giacinto

    2015-01-01

    There are two opposite paradigms to explain aging, here precisely defined as "age-related progressive mortality increase, i.e. fitness decline, in the wild". The first maintains that natural selection is unable to maintain fitness as age increases. The second asserts that, in particular ecological conditions, natural selection favors specific mechanisms for limiting the lifespan. The predictions derived from the two paradigms are quite different and often opposing. A series of empirical data and certain theoretical considerations (non-universality of aging; great inter-specific variation of aging rates; effects of caloric restriction on lifespan; damage of aging for the senescing individual but its advantage in terms of supra-individual selection; existence of fitness decline in the wild; proportion of deaths due to intrinsic mortality inversely related to extrinsic mortality, when various species are compared; impossibility of explaining the age-related fitness decline as a consequence of genes that are harmful at a certain age; age-related progressive decline of cell turnover capacities; on/off cell senescence; gradual cell senescence) are compared with the predictions of the two paradigms and their compatibility with each paradigm is considered. The result is that the abovementioned empirical data and theoretical considerations strongly contradict and falsify in many ways all theories belonging to the first paradigm. On the contrary, they are consistent or compatible with the predictions of the second paradigm.

  14. Project management: a new service delivery paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. van der Walt

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In line with international trends in governance, the South African Government’s initial focus on the development of policy frameworks, structures and systems in order to give effect to the values and principles of the Constitution, shifted to the most critical issue, namely service delivery. The Government became increasingly aware that a significant expansion in the scope and quality of service provision was not possible with traditional delivery settings and approaches. There is growing evidence that there is a need for a significant departure from conventional approaches and that a leap into a new service delivery paradigm is necessary. Increasingly this new paradigm highlights the need to further develop the government’s project management skills and applications with a view to achieving improved delivery capability. In this article the focus will be placed on the changing service delivery paradigm – from an “old” traditional model through the transition to a “new” paradigm. This paradigm is shaped by international and national trends and events in government. The contribution and advantages of project management applications for effective governance are highlighted and the article concludes with an explanation of project management organisational arrangements necessary to support the new paradigm.

  15. The Underlying Social Dynamics of Paradigm Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claro, Francisco; Fuentes, Miguel Angel

    2015-01-01

    We develop here a multi-agent model of the creation of knowledge (scientific progress or technological evolution) within a community of researchers devoted to such endeavors. In the proposed model, agents learn in a physical-technological landscape, and weight is attached to both individual search and social influence. We find that the combination of these two forces together with random experimentation can account for both i) marginal change, that is, periods of normal science or refinements on the performance of a given technology (and in which the community stays in the neighborhood of the current paradigm); and ii) radical change, which takes the form of scientific paradigm shifts (or discontinuities in the structure of performance of a technology) that is observed as a swift migration of the knowledge community towards the new and superior paradigm. The efficiency of the search process is heavily dependent on the weight that agents posit on social influence. The occurrence of a paradigm shift becomes more likely when each member of the community attaches a small but positive weight to the experience of his/her peers. For this parameter region, nevertheless, a conservative force is exerted by the representatives of the current paradigm. However, social influence is not strong enough to seriously hamper individual discovery, and can act so as to empower successful individual pioneers who have conquered the new and superior paradigm. PMID:26418255

  16. The Underlying Social Dynamics of Paradigm Shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Sickert, Carlos; Cosmelli, Diego; Claro, Francisco; Fuentes, Miguel Angel

    2015-01-01

    We develop here a multi-agent model of the creation of knowledge (scientific progress or technological evolution) within a community of researchers devoted to such endeavors. In the proposed model, agents learn in a physical-technological landscape, and weight is attached to both individual search and social influence. We find that the combination of these two forces together with random experimentation can account for both i) marginal change, that is, periods of normal science or refinements on the performance of a given technology (and in which the community stays in the neighborhood of the current paradigm); and ii) radical change, which takes the form of scientific paradigm shifts (or discontinuities in the structure of performance of a technology) that is observed as a swift migration of the knowledge community towards the new and superior paradigm. The efficiency of the search process is heavily dependent on the weight that agents posit on social influence. The occurrence of a paradigm shift becomes more likely when each member of the community attaches a small but positive weight to the experience of his/her peers. For this parameter region, nevertheless, a conservative force is exerted by the representatives of the current paradigm. However, social influence is not strong enough to seriously hamper individual discovery, and can act so as to empower successful individual pioneers who have conquered the new and superior paradigm.

  17. Active training paradigm for motor imagery BCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junhua; Zhang, Liqing

    2012-06-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) allows the use of brain activities for people to directly communicate with the external world or to control external devices without participation of any peripheral nerves and muscles. Motor imagery is one of the most popular modes in the research field of brain-computer interface. Although motor imagery BCI has some advantages compared with other modes of BCI, such as asynchronization, it is necessary to require training sessions before using it. The performance of trained BCI system depends on the quality of training samples or the subject engagement. In order to improve training effect and decrease training time, we proposed a new paradigm where subjects participated in training more actively than in the traditional paradigm. In the traditional paradigm, a cue (to indicate what kind of motor imagery should be imagined during the current trial) is given to the subject at the beginning of a trial or during a trial, and this cue is also used as a label for this trial. It is usually assumed that labels for trials are accurate in the traditional paradigm, although subjects may not have performed the required or correct kind of motor imagery, and trials may thus be mislabeled. And then those mislabeled trials give rise to interference during model training. In our proposed paradigm, the subject is required to reconfirm the label and can correct the label when necessary. This active training paradigm may generate better training samples with fewer inconsistent labels because it overcomes mistakes when subject's motor imagination does not match the given cues. The experiments confirm that our proposed paradigm achieves better performance; the improvement is significant according to statistical analysis.

  18. Paradigm formation and paradigm change in the EU’s Stability and Growth Pact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Princen, Sebastiaan; van Esch, Femke

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses whether the European Union’s (EU) Stability and Growth Pact (SGP) has been underpinned by a policy paradigm. In doing so, it seeks to contribute to the debate on the existence and importance of paradigms in policy-making. It uses a causal mapping technique to reconstruct the be

  19. ENVIRONMENTALISM AND CLASSIC PARADIGMS OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. D. Miniaeva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines an environmentalism integration process into Three classical paradigms of international relations theory (Liberalism, Realism and Marxism into Three classical paradigms of international relations theory (Liberalism, Realism and Marxism. The main purpose of this study is to reveal the result of this integration. Methods used in this article include analysis and comparison of "ecological" paradigms on selected parameters (the nature of international relations, actors, targets, tools, processes. Results of research show that the beginning of the XXI century is distinguished by the development of new types of political concepts that explain interaction of elements in modern international relations in the area of environmental protection. The reason of these changes lies in the phenomena of environmentalism integration into Three paradigms of international relations. However, we cannot say that any of the examined paradigms accumulated all features of environmentalism without their modification. Better to say, it's rather similar to adaptation of environmental ideas. Therefore, to understand modern international relations processes, it is necessary to take into account their environmental element. Purchase on Elibrary.ru > Buy nowDOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2070-7568-2014-3-4

  20. A Paradigm for Spreadsheet Engineering Methodologies

    CERN Document Server

    Grossman, Thomas A

    2008-01-01

    Spreadsheet engineering methodologies are diverse and sometimes contradictory. It is difficult for spreadsheet developers to identify a spreadsheet engineering methodology that is appropriate for their class of spreadsheet, with its unique combination of goals, type of problem, and available time and resources. There is a lack of well-organized, proven methodologies with known costs and benefits for well-defined spreadsheet classes. It is difficult to compare and critically evaluate methodologies. We present a paradigm for organizing and interpreting spreadsheet engineering recommendations. It systematically addresses the myriad choices made when developing a spreadsheet, and explicitly considers resource constraints and other development parameters. This paradigm provides a framework for evaluation, comparison, and selection of methodologies, and a list of essential elements for developers or codifiers of new methodologies. This paradigm identifies gaps in our knowledge that merit further research.

  1. Introduction. Les paradigmes de la justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelui Bîlbă

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Theories of justice are marred by a permanent state of conflict because they express prejudices whose source lies in the lifeworld. One may regard these theories as interpretations of the concept of justice. Assuming a strong meaning of “theory,” one can legitimately ask if it is possible to reduce a theory of justice to its underlying paradigm. Several different paradigms coexist in modernity; the tension between them has intensified with the advent of political ideologies. The newest paradigm of justice is global justice. Yet the epistemic status of all theories of justice is ambiguous. A theory ofjustice is true to the extent that it is right, and false if it is not. This applies toRawls’ theory, as well.

  2. Convergence Analysis of a Domain Decomposition Paradigm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bank, R E; Vassilevski, P S

    2006-06-12

    We describe a domain decomposition algorithm for use in several variants of the parallel adaptive meshing paradigm of Bank and Holst. This algorithm has low communication, makes extensive use of existing sequential solvers, and exploits in several important ways data generated as part of the adaptive meshing paradigm. We show that for an idealized version of the algorithm, the rate of convergence is independent of both the global problem size N and the number of subdomains p used in the domain decomposition partition. Numerical examples illustrate the effectiveness of the procedure.

  3. Paradigms for Realizing Machine Learning Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agneeswaran, Vijay Srinivas; Tonpay, Pranay; Tiwary, Jayati

    2013-12-01

    The article explains the three generations of machine learning algorithms-with all three trying to operate on big data. The first generation tools are SAS, SPSS, etc., while second generation realizations include Mahout and RapidMiner (that work over Hadoop), and the third generation paradigms include Spark and GraphLab, among others. The essence of the article is that for a number of machine learning algorithms, it is important to look beyond the Hadoop's Map-Reduce paradigm in order to make them work on big data. A number of promising contenders have emerged in the third generation that can be exploited to realize deep analytics on big data.

  4. International business and the eclectic paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The eclectic paradigm has become the dominant theoretical basis in the study of international business, multinational corporations and internationalization since 1980. However, developments such as economic globalization and the subsequent growth of global and alliance capitalism have fundamentally......, finance, evolutionary economics, resource-based theory or strategic management? Can it be utilized to explain new developments in international business and economics? Do these require new ideas and concepts to be integrated within the eclectic paradigm? What are the new challenges to which international...... business theorizing must respond?...

  5. 06472 Abstracts Collection - XQuery Implementation Paradigms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boncz, Peter A.; Grust, Torsten; Siméon, Jerome; Keulen, van Maurice; Boncz, P.A.; Grust, T.; Siméon, J.; Keulen, van M.

    2007-01-01

    From 19.11.2006 to 22.11.2006, the Dagstuhl Seminar 06472 ``XQuery Implementation Paradigms'' was held in the International Conference and Research Center (IBFI), Schloss Dagstuhl. During the seminar, several participants presented their current research, and ongoing work and open problems were disc

  6. 06472 Abstracts Collection - XQuery Implementation Paradigms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boncz, P.A.; Grust, T.; Siméon, J.; Keulen, M. van

    2007-01-01

    From 19.11.2006 to 22.11.2006, the Dagstuhl Seminar 06472 "XQuery Implementation Paradigms" was held in the International Conference and Research Center (IBFI), Schloss Dagstuhl. During the seminar, several participants presented their current research, and ongoing work and open problems were discus

  7. Augmenting the ADDIE Paradigm for Instructional Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Xiaopeng; Branch, Robert Maribe

    2008-01-01

    The authors discuss topics appropriate for augmenting the ADDIE paradigm for instructional design. The topics selected are based on data from a study of working professionals who successfully completed an instructional design and technology certificate program and who identified related topics that they regarded as beneficial. The participants…

  8. Multi level programming Paradigm for Extreme Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petiton, S.; Sato, M.; Emad, N.; Calvin, C.; Tsuji, M.; Dandouna, M.

    2014-06-01

    Abstract: In order to propose a framework and programming paradigms for post-petascale computing, on the road to exascale computing and beyond, we introduced new languages, associated with a hierarchical multi-level programming paradigm, allowing scientific end-users and developers to program highly hierarchical architectures designed for extreme computing. In this paper, we explain the interest of such hierarchical multi-level programming paradigm for extreme computing and its well adaptation to several large computational science applications, such as for linear algebra solvers used for reactor core physic. We describe the YML language and framework allowing describing graphs of parallel components, which may be developed using PGAS-like language such as XMP, scheduled and computed on supercomputers. Then, we propose experimentations on supercomputers (such as the "K" and "Hooper" ones) of the hybrid method MERAM (Multiple Explicitly Restarted Arnoldi Method) as a case study for iterative methods manipulating sparse matrices, and the block Gauss-Jordan method as a case study for direct method manipulating dense matrices. We conclude proposing evolutions for this programming paradigm.

  9. Paradigms and pragmatic constructivism: a reply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørreklit, Hanne; Nørreklit, Lennart; Mitchell, Falconer

    2010-01-01

    to the analysis of the comment on their past paper. Findings - In addressing each of the issues in turn the authors clarify their analysis. Originality/value - The paper provides an argument for the development of a paradigm for accounting practice derived from the use of pragmatic constructivism....

  10. A new paradigm for minimax search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Plaat (Aske); J. Schaeffer; W.H.L.M. Pijls (Wim); A. de Bruin (Arie)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThis paper introduces a new paradigm for minimax game-tree search algorithms. MT is a memory-enhanced version of Pearl's Test procedure. By changing the way MT is called, a number of best-first game-tree search algorithms can be simply and elegantly constructed (including SSS*). Most of

  11. Toward an Ecological Paradigm in Adventure Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beringer, Almut

    2004-01-01

    Many forms of adventure therapy, in particular wilderness therapy, rely on challenges in the outdoors to achieve objectives of client change. While nature is drawn on as a medium for therapy and healing, some adventure therapists give nature little if any mention when it comes to explaining therapeutic success. The dominant paradigm in psychology…

  12. ACCOUNTING PARADIGMS WHICH FAVOR HISTORICAL COST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Gabriel CRISTEA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Henning Kirkegaard shows that the evolution of accounting is to shift from one paradigm to another . Business continuity perspective should guide the company into the future , without confine it exclusively in the past. Accounting in its classical form , however, can not be dissociated from the historical cost evaluation .

  13. Dark matter and the neutrino portal paradigm

    CERN Document Server

    González-Macías, Vannia; Wudka, José

    2016-01-01

    A simple extension of the Standard Model (SM) that provides an explicit realization of the dark-matter (DM) neutrino-portal paradigm is presented. The leading interactions between the dark sector, containing scalars and relic fermions, and the SM involve neutrinos. This model meets all observational constraints.

  14. Moral Developmental Science between Changing Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Monika

    2012-01-01

    This review encompasses a time-span of about 50 years of research on morality and moral development. It discusses Kohlberg's (1984) work as a milestone that constituted the cognitive developmental viewpoint of morality and that dominated research for about three decades. In this paradigm the role of reasoning and deliberation was emphasized as the…

  15. Challenging paradigms in estuarine ecology and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, M.; Whitfield, A. K.

    2011-10-01

    For many years, estuarine science has been the 'poor relation' in aquatic research - freshwater scientists ignored estuaries as they tended to get confused by salt and tides, and marine scientists were more preoccupied by large open systems. Estuaries were merely regarded by each group as either river mouths or sea inlets respectively. For the past four decades, however, estuaries (and other transitional waters) have been regarded as being ecosystems in their own right. Although often not termed as such, this has led to paradigms being generated to summarise estuarine structure and functioning and which relate to both the natural science and management of these systems. This paper defines, details and affirms these paradigms that can be grouped into those covering firstly the science (definitions, scales, linkages, productivity, tolerances and variability) and secondly the management (pressures, valuation, health and services) of estuaries. The more 'science' orientated paradigms incorporate the development and types of ecotones, the nature of stressed and variable systems (with specific reference to resilience and redundancy), the relationship between generalists and specialists produced by environmental tolerance, the relevance of scale in relation to functioning and connectivity, the sources of production and degree of productivity, the biodiversity-ecosystem functioning and the stress-subsidy debates. The more 'management' targeted paradigms include the development and effects of exogenic unmanaged pressures and endogenic managed pressures, the perception of health and the ability to manage estuaries (related to internal and external influences), and the influence of all of these on the production of ecosystem services and societal benefits.

  16. Den postmoderna stadens två paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tom

    2005-01-01

    the attention of politicians, planners and architects today is focused on the individual, not the collective. But the policy of the third way has no counterpart in an urbanism torn between two paradigms. Tom Nielsen paints the picture of what has to urban development since the welfare state...

  17. Haptics in computer music : a paradigm shift

    CERN Document Server

    Castagné, Nicolas; Florens, Jean-Loup; Luciani, Annie

    2010-01-01

    With an historical point of view combined with a bibliographic overview, the article discusses the idea that haptic force feedback transducers correspond with a paradigm shift in our real-time tools for creating music. So doing, il shows that computer music may be regarded as a major field of research and application for haptics.

  18. Reinforcing the Afrocentric Paradigm: A Theoretical Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sams, Timothy E.

    2010-01-01

    Thomas Kuhn's 1962 groundbreaking work, "The Scientific Revolution," established the process for creating, and the components of, a disciplinary paradigm. This "scientific revolution" has evolved to become the standard for determining a field's claim to disciplinary status. In 2001 and 2003, Ama Mazama, used Kuhn's model to establish the…

  19. Redesigning Higher Education: Embracing a New Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, William R.; Watson, Sunnie Lee

    2014-01-01

    Higher education is under enormous pressure to transform itself and embrace a new paradigm. Operating under an outdated model that no longer aligns with the realities of modern society, institutions of higher education are recognizing the need to drastically remake themselves or possibly cease to exist. This article explores the current landscape…

  20. An Instrumental Paradigm for Ubiquitous Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted

    2008-01-01

    will require comprehensive experimental user centred development. Originality/Value -- This research offers a new way of thinking interaction, suited for the dynamism of modern computing. Take away message -- Through a strong foundation in activity theory and ecological psychology a new paradigm for ubiquitous...

  1. Evolving conservation paradigms for the Anthropocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariel E. Lugo

    2014-01-01

    The Anthropocene will have fundamental effects on the species composition, function, and structure of the ecosystems of the world. Land management agencies such as the USDA Forest Service will need to adapt their policies and conservation activities to avoid engaging in continuous conflict with natural processes and unfamiliar biotic assemblages. Conservation paradigms...

  2. Empirical Testing of an Affective Learning Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmus, Edward P., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    This investigation of a college music course examined the effectiveness of a cyclical affective learning paradigm based on the premise that student affect toward a course of instruction will dictate, in part, cognitive performance. Results suggest that teachers would be better advised to concentrate on cognitive instruction than on affect.…

  3. A Review of Process Modeling Language Paradigms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Qin-hai; GUAN Zhi-min; LI Ying; ZHAO Xi-nan

    2002-01-01

    Process representation or modeling plays an important role in business process engineering.Process modeling languages can be evaluated by the extent to which they provide constructs useful for representing and reasoning about the aspects of a process, and subsequently are chosen for a certain purpose.This paper reviews process modeling language paradigms and points out their advantages and disadvantages.

  4. A new paradigm for doing Reformed dogmatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. Spykman

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available When discussing Reformational Theology: A New Paradigm for Doing Dogmatics some people may call it my opus magnum. Perhaps time 'will tell. The book has only recently - early 1992 - entered the marketplace of theological ideas. How critic readers and reviewers respond will go a long way toward settling the case.

  5. A new paradigm for minimax search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Plaat (Aske); J. Schaeffer; W.H.L.M. Pijls (Wim); A. de Bruin (Arie)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThis paper introduces a new paradigm for minimax game-tree search algorithms. MT is a memory-enhanced version of Pearl's Test procedure. By changing the way MT is called, a number of best-first game-tree search algorithms can be simply and elegantly constructed (including SSS*). Most of

  6. About the Consept of Pedagogic Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Testov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paradigm concept, essential for comprehension and analysis of the science history, is used quite freely and easily in educational sphere nowadays when some authors discuss their views, theories and developments referring to a new paradigm. Consequently, in pedagogy, there is an illusion of pseudo-paradigmatic progress, which results from the lack of unified understanding of the given concept, and reorganization complexity. According to the author, paradigmatic transformation in pedagogy and education mainly depends on the fundamental changes of the scientific worldview. Though, compared to the worldview alterations, paradigmatic changes take more time and effort. So, in order to overcome this lagging behind, a lot of contradicting views appear in the modern pedagogic theory. The research methodology is based on the works by T. Coon, defining the paradigm as the complex of theoretical and methodological notions, more general than the theory, concept and attitude. In author’s opinion, turning back to the scientific interpretation of the paradigm concept can overcome the existing misunderstanding of educational experience and its prospects, and ensure the adequate perception of pedagogic reality. 

  7. In Defense of Positivist Research Paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrag, Francis

    1992-01-01

    Presents a prototypical case illustrating what positivist research means and argues that even critics of positivist research are logically committed to propositions that can be tested only through positivist research paradigms. The relationship between the nature of a community's research enterprise and its educational provisions must be causal.…

  8. From Paradigm Wars to Disputatious Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulston, Rolland G.

    1990-01-01

    Criticizes Psacharopoulos for distorting the legitimate scope of intellectual work in comparative education, reducing paradigm framing choices to functionalist/positivist orthodoxy, and unconvincingly presenting hypothesis testing as a means to solve educational problems. Suggests the benefits of multiple research perspectives on problems. (SV)

  9. Production planning development and paradigm integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Ledneva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews principles of different concepts of enterprise management including a theory of constrains, a Balanced Scorecard, lean production, Six Sigma. The authors believe that creating some mix or integration of these paradigms can bring extraordinary effect for production management. As example the modified Balanced Scorecard based on constraints and its application on Magnitorsk metallurgical enterprise in Russia is described.

  10. Redesigning Higher Education: Embracing a New Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, William R.; Watson, Sunnie Lee

    2014-01-01

    Higher education is under enormous pressure to transform itself and embrace a new paradigm. Operating under an outdated model that no longer aligns with the realities of modern society, institutions of higher education are recognizing the need to drastically remake themselves or possibly cease to exist. This article explores the current landscape…

  11. In search of a new paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars K.

    2005-01-01

    In this review of research priorities, presented for the European Commission, food allergy is established as a disease with a considerable impact on modern society. Research paradigms have changed from establishing basic symptomatology and diagnostic methods over allergen characterization to a risk...

  12. Education paradigm in information-oriented society

    OpenAIRE

    Maksimova, E.

    2011-01-01

    The article covers the role of knowledge as a value in information-oriented society. The author defines implications of education system modernization, and characterizes personal-oriented education paradigm as most suitable for information-oriented society. The conclusion of development personal characteristics through obtaining universal knowledge is drawn.

  13. Much Ado about Something: Naturalistic Inquiry and the Paradigm Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, William J.

    1988-01-01

    Two recent books that confront the questions and assumptions of traditional and new paradigms for studying education are discussed: "Organizational Theory and Inquiry: The Paradigm Revolution" (Yvonna Lincoln, editor) and "Naturalistic Inquiry" (Y. Lincoln and Egon Guba). (MSE)

  14. Industry 4.0 and the New Simulation Modelling Paradigm

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blaž Rodič

    2017-01-01

    ... R&D cases involving academia and industry. Design: We introduce the Industry 4.0 paradigm, presents its background, current state of development and its influence on the development of the simulation modelling paradigm...

  15. Code Component Composition Reuse Is a New Programming Paradigm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    After describing the characteristics of programming paradigm,this pap er introduces the approach of code component composition reuse in detail, propos es and discusses viewpoint that code component composition reuse is a kind of ne w programming paradigm. This paper also specifies the characteristics of this ne w programming paradigm in detail, and points out some issues that must be resolv ed for using this new programming paradigm.

  16. Reviving Campbell's paradigm for attitude research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Florian G; Byrka, Katarzyna; Hartig, Terry

    2010-11-01

    Because people often say one thing and do another, social psychologists have abandoned the idea of a simple or axiomatic connection between attitude and behavior. Nearly 50 years ago, however, Donald Campbell proposed that the root of the seeming inconsistency between attitude and behavior lies in disregard of behavioral costs. According to Campbell, attitude- behavior gaps are empirical chimeras. Verbal claims and other overt behaviors regarding an attitude object all arise from one "behavioral disposition." In this article, the authors present the constituents of and evidence for a paradigm for attitude research that describes individual behavior as a function of a person's attitude level and the costs of the specific behavior involved. In the authors' version of Campbell's paradigm, they propose a formal and thus axiomatic rather than causal relationship between an attitude and its corresponding performances. The authors draw implications of their proposal for mainstream attitude theory, empirical research, and applications concerning attitudes.

  17. [Assistance to the climacteric woman: new paradigms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzi, Dino Roberto Soares De; Catan, Lenita Binelli; Moreira, Karen; Artico, Graziela Rech

    2009-01-01

    Population aging is a demographic reality for Brazil. Consequently, in the next years it is expected a progressive increase in seeking health care services in the country by women with complaints related to climacterium. Parallel to it, assistance at this part of woman's life has been going through a paradigm shift which has imposed to health professionals a change of attitude in relation to this stage of woman's life. Today it is acknowledged that the climacterium is influenced by biological, psychosocial and cultural factors, whose knowledge is fundamental for planning a more qualified and humanized care. This article proposes a reflection on the paradigm shifts in assistance at climacterium, highlighting important aspects as multidisciplinarity and interdisciplinarity, so as to serve better this portion of population, and provide it with more integrated and individualized care, bringing together knowledge and sensitivity, and always aiming at a better quality of life.

  18. Changing the Dominant Paradigm in Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Lourdes Mollo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the discussion proposed by the World Academy of Art & Science (WAAS about the need to build a new paradigm to confront the challenges of the global society and to move across to a New Society discussing specific problems related to economic globalization and proposing changes. The ways in which economic orthodoxy and heterodoxy analyze the role of the State and the question of sustainability of development and the problems of environmental sustainability depend on their different views or theoretical arguments about the role of the market. The article contrasts the mainstream economics arguments to support the free market context of globalization with Post-Keynesian and Marxist’s skeptical or critical views. Finally, it proposes some strategies to face the critical aspects analyzed making suggestions to move to another dominant economic paradigm.

  19. Needed, new paradigms in antibiotic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceri, Howard; Olson, Merle E; Turner, Raymond J

    2010-06-01

    While antibiotic resistance has grabbed the headlines and the attention of the pharmaceutical industry, the lack of susceptibility of biofilms formed both on animate and inanimate surfaces deserve greater attention from the industry, medical practitioners and regulators. The current literature tells us that the inherent tolerance to antibiotics demonstrated by antibiotic-sensitive organisms when grown as a biofilm clearly identifies a major disconnect between our current practices in antimicrobial development, diagnostics and efficacy in patient treatment. A paradigm shift is required in the way we utilize conventional antimicrobials and in the way we screen for next-generation antibiotics with efficacy to treat biofilms associated with chronic, recurrent and device related infections. This paradigm shift must not only take place in industry but also in how drugs are brought to the marketplace for acceptance.

  20. Changing the Cultural Paradigm to Meet Emerging Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, William W.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews changes that are required in Space Transportation. This new transportation paradigm from the reliance on the Space Shuttle to a mixture of space transportation vehicles, i.e., the Russian Progress, vehicle, the Japanese HTV, the European ATV and other commercial orbital transportation systems, requires a new cultural paradigm. This new paradigm is outlined, and reviewed.

  1. Paradigm Adherence and Personality Correlates across Mental Health Professions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Laura Anne

    2012-01-01

    Paradigm adherence has been developed as a meta-theoretical approach to organize and to classify the multitude of different theories of counseling and psychotherapy. Four paradigms have been identified in the literature: The Organic-Medical, The Psychological, The Systemic-Relational, and the Social Constructivist paradigms. Only one other study…

  2. Linking aims, paradigm and method in nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Catherine; Hunter, Andrew; Meskell, Pauline

    2012-01-01

    To explore the use of paradigms as ontological and philosophical guides for conducting PhD research. A paradigm can help to bridge the aims of a study and the methods to achieve them. However, choosing a paradigm can be challenging for doctoral researchers: there can be ambiguity about which paradigm is suitable for a particular research question and there is a lack of guidance on how to shape the research process for a chosen paradigm. The authors discuss three paradigms used in PhD nursing research: post-positivism, interpretivism and pragmatism. They compare each paradigm in relation to its ontology, epistemology and methodology, and present three examples of PhD nursing research studies to illustrate how research can be conducted using these paradigms in the context of the research aims and methods. The commonalities and differences between the paradigms and their uses are highlighted. Creativity and flexibility are important when deciding on a paradigm. However, consistency and transparency are also needed to ensure the quality and rigour necessary for conducting nursing research. When choosing a suitable paradigm, the researcher should ensure that the ontology, epistemology and methodology of the paradigm are manifest in the methods and research strategies employed.

  3. The Knowledge Society: A Sustainability Paradigm

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    Naim Hamdija Afgan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper defines the knowledge society as a human structured organisation based on contemporary developed knowledge and representing new quality of life support systems. It implies the need for a full understanding of distribution of knowledge, access to information and the capability to transfer information into a knowledge. The understanding of knowledge is the central challenge when defining a knowledge society. From our present perception of knowledge society, it is of interest to emphasize the role of the knowledge society in future development of human society. The life support systems are essential pillars of human society development. In this respect knowledge society represents a new paradigm for future development and it is strongly correlated to sustainable development. For this reason the sustainability paradigm of knowledge society is a potential frame for human society development leading to social cohesion, economic competitiveness and stability, use of resources and economic development, safeguarding biodiversity and the ecosystem.In order to verify the mutual relation between knowledge society and sustainability, we have to introduce the difference between these two terms. The knowledge society is based on the agglomeration of eco-knowledge, env-knowledge and soc-knowledge, it may be evaluated as the complex knowledge of quality of life support systems. We have to introduce metrics which will allow us to present knowledge as the paradigm of the number of indicators for verifying progress made.Sustainability metrics are designed to consolidate measures of economic, environmental and social performance of any system. It can be understood as a pattern for evaluation of the available knowledge about systems and their performance. In particular the decision-making process for the selection of the system under consideration must be based on the available knowledge. The link between knowledge and sustainability makes it possible for

  4. Quantum Mechanics and the Cookie Cutter Paradigm

    CERN Document Server

    Mohrhoff, U

    2000-01-01

    What has so far prevented us from decrypting quantum mechanics is the Cookie Cutter Paradigm, according to which the world's synchronic multiplicity derives from surfaces that carve up space in the manner of three-dimensional cookie cutters. This insidious notion is shown to be rooted in our neurophysiological make-up. An effort is made to liberate the physical world from this innate fallacy.

  5. Paradigm Change: Cybersecurity of Critical Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    the first century Ptolemaic theory of astronomy that purported the Earth as both stationary and the center of the universe. Initially, the...resulted in the Copernican theory of astronomy that codified the sun as the center of the universe. 3 Likewise, successive United States...of the box thinking flies in the face of the traditional American football paradigm. However, in the last three seasons Coach Kelley’s team punted

  6. Paradigm dichotomies of international cultural relations

    OpenAIRE

    Rogač-Mijatović, Ljiljana

    2012-01-01

    International cultural relations are being discussed in terms of both theory and practice, as well as designing terms of reference 'cultural diplomacy' and 'public diplomacy'. The presented analysis shows the development of international cultural relations in a historical perspective, from cultural internationalism and cultural propaganda, to the paradigms of the Cold War post-Cold War cultural relations. The text as a key idea tackles the issue of diverse conceptions of culture in internatio...

  7. Thinking differently about strategy: comparing paradigms

    OpenAIRE

    Carlisle, Ysanne; McMillan, Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    Our paper shows that mainstream strategic thinking and research already challenges the established Newtonian-Cartesian paradigm. Newtonian thought is the customary mode of western thinking, but is that about to change? Some papers from a complexity standpoint have appeared in the mainstream journals but its precise implications and merits have yet to be systematically spelled out and debated. We aim to facilitate this debate by comparing the established Newtonian and emergent complexity parad...

  8. Beyond Westphalia: The Emergent Globalization Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-25

    phenomenon its [war] dominant tendencies always make war a paradoxical trinity – composed of primordial violence, hatred and enmity, which are to be...Malaya and Vietnam: Learning to Eat Soup with a Knife (New York: Praeger, 2002), 43. WAR AND PEACE IN THE WESTPHALIAN PARADIGM POLITICAL SPECTRUM...Eat Soup with a Knife. New York: Praeger, 2002. Nooy, Gert de, ed. The Clausewitzian Dictum and the Future of Western Military Strategy. The

  9. Toward a Metatheoretical Integration of Developmental Paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark W. Antley

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows how a partial consilience might be achieved in the field of human development by means of principles from general systems theory. The author concurs with Sameroff (1989 that it is possible to interpret the mechanistic, organisimic, and contextualist paradigms/worldviews (Goldhaber, 2000; Pepper, 1970 in terms of general systems theory. The author selects a major developmentalist from each paradigm and interprets that scholar’s work in terms of systems principles. The following developmentalists were selected: Arnold Sameroff (contextualism, Erik Erickson (organicism, and Albert Bandura (mechanism. The systems principles employed are wholeness and order, self-stabilization, self-reorganization, hierarchical interaction, and dialectical contradiction (Sameroff, 1989. The author addresses the conflicting presuppositions of the major paradigms in order to provide for their theoretical subsuming under systems theory. Finally, the author notes areas of inconsistency that will need to be resolved in the future and calls for further scholarship to translate developmental theory in terms of general systems theory for the benefit of students, scholars, consultants and other practitioners familiar with systems theory.

  10. Shifting paradigms: Reflecting Germanys European policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Staeck

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Germany's presidency of the European Council in the first half of 1999 has focused the attention of schlolars on Germany's attitude towards the EU. Germany's European policy has been guided from the beginning by a pro-European vision of 'the house of Europe'. The hypothesis of the article is that this paradigm of German European policy is in flux. Via a constructivist approach it is argued that we are observing a paradigm shift away from a visionary towards a pragmatic European policy which is oriented around efficiency criteria and national interest. Evidence is given by analysing the following propositions: (1 the advocates of a European vision have vanished in Germany, and the broad coalition in society towards Europe is crumbling; (2 at the same time the discussion on Europe has become highly politicised; (3 in addition, important German institutions such as the Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht are reluctant to (re-strengthen the European idea; and (4 the fit between Germany's and the EU's institutional setting supports the change in paradigm. In conclusion it is argued that Germany is on its way to changing its role from that of a supporting participant to that of a self-confident active player.

  11. Toward a Metatheoretical Integration of Developmental Paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark W. Antley

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows how a partial consilience might be achieved in the field of human development by means of principles from general systems theory. The author concurs with Sameroff (1989 that it is possible to interpret the mechanistic, organisimic, and contextualist paradigms/worldviews (Goldhaber, 2000; Pepper, 1970 in terms of general systems theory. The author selects a major developmentalist from each paradigm and interprets that scholar’s work in terms of systems principles. The following developmentalists were selected: Arnold Sameroff (contextualism, Erik Erickson (organicism, and Albert Bandura (mechanism. The systems principles employed are wholeness and order, self-stabilization, self-reorganization, hierarchical interaction, and dialectical contradiction (Sameroff, 1989. The author addresses the conflicting presuppositions of the major paradigms in order to provide for their theoretical subsuming under systems theory. Finally, the author notes areas of inconsistency that will need to be resolved in the future and calls for further scholarship to translate developmental theory in terms of general systems theory for the benefit of students, scholars, consultants and other practitioners familiar with systems theory.

  12. Arts and Health: A New Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary Moss

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This position paper presents a new paradigm about the intrinsic structure and nature of arts and health practice. This paradigm is based on a variety of research experiences over twenty years working as a music therapist, musician, music and health practitioner, researcher and director of an arts and health programme in university teaching hospitals, community contexts, and non-governmental organizations in Ireland and the UK. The aim of this paper is to propose a new perspective on the term arts and health, to encompass all arts related activity that exists in contexts related to health. This paradigm aims to counter the artificial and defensive barriers constructed between practitioners and professional groups within the field, encourage greater respect and understanding between practitioners and assist in identifying training and development needs for the various arts professionals working in contexts related to health and well-being. It is proposed that the current commonly held assumptions surrounding definitions of arts and health and arts therapies are unhelpful and problematic and should be refined.

  13. Perceptual crossing: the simplest online paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auvray, Malika; Rohde, Marieke

    2012-01-01

    Researchers in social cognition increasingly realize that many phenomena cannot be understood by investigating offline situations only, focusing on individual mechanisms and an observer perspective. There are processes of dynamic emergence specific to online situations, when two or more persons are engaged in a real-time interaction that are more than just the sum of the individual capacities or behaviors, and these require the study of online social interaction. Auvray et al.'s (2009) perceptual crossing paradigm offers possibly the simplest paradigm for studying such online interactions: two persons, a one-dimensional space, one bit of information, and a yes/no answer. This study has provoked a lot of resonance in different areas of research, including experimental psychology, computer/robot modeling, philosophy, psychopathology, and even in the field of design. In this article, we review and critically assess this body of literature. We give an overview of both behavioral experimental research and simulated agent modeling done using the perceptual crossing paradigm. We discuss different contexts in which work on perceptual crossing has been cited. This includes the controversy about the possible constitutive role of perceptual crossing for social cognition. We conclude with an outlook on future research possibilities, in particular those that could elucidate the link between online interaction dynamics and individual social cognition. PMID:22723776

  14. Nonspecific effects of gap paradigm on swallowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, Masaki; Saitoh, Kazuya

    2017-02-01

    Analogous to the gap paradigm in experiments for saccadic eye movements with very short reaction times, we hypothesized that the initiation of oropharyngeal swallowing movements guided by visual cues are encouraged under experimental conditions using a similar gap paradigm. A red visual cue indicating to hold a bolus in the mouth and a blue one indicating to swallow the bolus were sequentially provided on a computer display to 11 healthy participants. The gap period between these cues varied from 0 to 800ms. Swallowing kinetics and kinematics were recorded using surface electromyography and a laser displacement sensor, respectively. In comparison with the no-gap paradigm, the delay from the onset of muscle activities to initiation of movement significantly decreased with a 100- (pparadigm of 100-200ms. Wrist flexion was boosted in a similar manner. Thus, the gap effect may be a generalized warning effect. Our findings might provide insights into the contribution of the basal ganglia to volitional swallowing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Perceptual crossing: The simplest online paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malika eAuvray

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Researchers in social cognition increasingly realize that many phenomena cannot be understood by investigating offline situations only, focusing on individual mechanisms and an observer perspective. There are processes of dynamic emergence specific to online situations, when two or more persons are engaged in a real-time interaction that are more than just the sum of the individual capacities or behaviours, and these require the study of online social interaction. Auvray et al.’s (2009 perceptual crossing paradigm offers possibly the simplest paradigm for studying such online interactions: two persons, a one-dimensional space, one bit of information, and a yes/no answer. Despite, or maybe because of its simplicity, this study has provoked a lot of resonance in different areas of research, including experimental psychology, computer/robot modelling, philosophy, more recently psychopathology, and even in the field of design. In this article, we review and critically assess this body of literature. We give an overview over work on the perceptual crossing paradigm, both concerning behavioural experiments and computational agent modelling, and review the different contexts in which it has been referred to. We discuss the controversy about the possible constitutive role of perceptual crossing for social cognition and other theoretical contexts in which the research has been cited, offering our own interpretation. We conclude with an outlook on future research possibilities, in particular those that could elucidate the link between online interaction dynamics and individual social cognition.

  16. Biological Robustness: Paradigms, Mechanisms, and Systems Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Michael Whitacre

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Robustness has been studied through the analysis of data sets, simulations, and a variety of experimental techniques that each have their own limitations but together confirm the ubiquity of biological robustness. Recent trends suggest that different types of perturbation (e.g. mutational, environmental are commonly stabilized by similar mechanisms, and system sensitivities often display a long-tailed distribution with relatively few perturbations representing the majority of sensitivities. Conceptual paradigms from network theory, control theory, complexity science, and natural selection have been used to understand robustness, however each paradigm has a limited scope of applicability and there has been little discussion of the conditions that determine this scope or the relationships between paradigms. Systems properties such as modularity, bow-tie architectures, degeneracy, and other topological features are often positively associated with robust traits, however common underlying mechanisms are rarely mentioned. For instance, many system properties support robustness through functional redundancy or through response diversity with responses regulated by competitive exclusion and cooperative facilitation. Moreover, few studies compare and contrast alternative strategies for achieving robustness such as homeostasis, adaptive plasticity, environment shaping, and environment tracking. These strategies share similarities in their utilization of adaptive and self-organization processes that are not well appreciated yet might be suggestive of reusable building blocks for generating robust behavior.

  17. A new paradigm (Westphal-Paradigm) to study the neural correlates of panic disorder with agoraphobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, A; Schlagenhauf, F; John, T; Guhn, A; Rehbein, H; Siegmund, A; Stoy, M; Held, D; Schulz, I; Fehm, L; Fydrich, T; Heinz, A; Bruhn, H; Ströhle, A

    2011-04-01

    Agoraphobia (with and without panic disorder) is a highly prevalent and disabling anxiety disorder. Its neural complexity can be characterized by specific cues in fMRI studies. Therefore, we developed a fMRI paradigm with agoraphobia-specific stimuli. Pictures of potential agoraphobic situations were generated. Twenty-six patients, suffering from panic disorder and agoraphobia, and 22 healthy controls rated the pictures with respect to arousal, valence, and agoraphobia-related anxiety. The 96 pictures, which discriminated best between groups were chosen, split into two parallel sets and supplemented with matched neutral pictures from the International Affective Picture System. Reliability, criterion, and construct validity of the picture set were determined in a second sample (44 patients, 28 controls). The resulting event-related "Westphal-Paradigm" with cued and uncued pictures was tested in a fMRI pilot study with 16 patients. Internal consistency of the sets was very high; parallelism was given. Positive correlations of picture ratings with Mobility Inventory and Hamilton anxiety scores support construct validity. FMRI data revealed activations in areas associated with the fear circuit including amygdala, insula, and hippocampal areas. Psychometric properties of the Westphal-Paradigm meet necessary quality requirements for further scientific use. The paradigm reliably produces behavioral and fMRI patterns in response to agoraphobia-specific stimuli. To our knowledge, it is the first fMRI paradigm with these properties. This paradigm can be used to further characterize the functional neuroanatomy of panic disorder and agoraphobia and might be useful to contribute data to the differentiation of panic disorder and agoraphobia as related, but conceptually different clinical disorders.

  18. Inevitable suicide: a new paradigm in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadock, Benjamin J

    2012-05-01

    The author suggests that a new paradigm may be needed which holds that some suicides may be inevitable. The goal of this paradigm would be to diminish the sense of failure and inadequacy felt by many psychiatrists who experience the suicide of a patient and to increase understanding of the unique biopsychosocial profile of those whose suicides appear to be inevitable. The author stresses that this proposed paradigm should not be misconstrued as therapeutic nihilism but rather should serve to stimulate efforts to treat this patient population more effectively. Risk factors that place individuals at high risk for suicide are reviewed, including presence of a mental illness, genetic predisposition, and factors such as a history of abuse, divorce, unemployment, male gender, recent discharge from a psychiatric hospital, prior suicide attempts, alcohol or other substance abuse, a history of panic attacks, and persistent suicidal thoughts, especially if coupled with a plan. The author notes that, in those suicides that appear to have been inevitable, risk factors are not only numerous but at the extreme end of profound pathology. The example of Ernest Hemingway is used to illustrate how such a combination of risk factors may have contributed to his eventual suicide. Psychiatrists, like other doctors, may have to acknowledge that some psychiatric disorders are associated with a high mortality rate as a natural outcome. This could lead to heightened vigilance, a more realistic view of what can and cannot be achieved with therapy, and efforts to improve the quality of life of patients at high risk for suicide with the goal of reducing this risk and prolonging their lives. (Journal of Psychiatric Practice 2012;18:221-224).

  19. Auto/ethnography: A Transformative Research Paradigm

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    Sadruddin Bahadur Qutoshi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to address the key question, ‘How far autoethnography contributes towards enriching the field of transformative learning?’ Using my lived experiences as a teacher educator/autoethnographer/researcher and contextualizing self/others within a particular socio-pedagogical life courses I build the basis through addressing questions: Why auto/ethnography is one of the most suitable spaces for transformative researchers and to what extent it serves the agenda of envisioning a transformative teacher education. To achieve this objective I use autobiographies, stories, reflections and poems etc. as narratives with multiple logics and genres; pictography as art-based expression; and ethnography as methodological space within multiparadigmatic design space. In so doing autoethnographer has to delve into whole process of research along a continuum of self and beyond within a particular sociocultural context to understand the phenomena at deeper level of consciousness. This transformative paradigm holds a strong basis in the process of research as: re/reading, re/viewing, critically reflecting on self/others, re/writing for meaning making and developing a subjective understanding of phenomena under exploration. This process of research is found to be an innovative way of knowing through ‘interpreting and constructing (Luitel, 2009within Interpretivism, critically thinking and reflecting within Criticalism, and adding both ‘pluralism and playfulness’ (Taylor, 2013 within Postmodernism. In so doing it raises awareness, develops consciousness and improves capacities constantly that ultimately alters our way of seeing and being in the world differently- a paradigm shift in self/others. It is found to be highly rigorous, dialectically eloquent, dialogically rigorous, critically reflective, consciously awakening, and innovative critical discourse that greatly contributes to transform researcher/s. Therefore, it seems illustrious for

  20. Power and shifting paradigm in translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Djovčoš

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with interrelation of dominant ideology and its influence on the translation and publishing policy as reflected on the example of Slovakia. The introductory part is devoted to theoretical framework for the research drawing upon the works of Slovak and foreign translation scholars. The analytical part is contrastive; it presents publishing tendencies in selected dominant vs dependent cultures within the periods of opposing ideologies (socialistic vs democratic regimes. It clearly shows the shift of paradigm and the place of "small cultures" in the intercultural dialogue/monologue.

  1. Three paradigms for the analysis of corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Vannucci

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades a growing awareness emerged of the relevance of corruption as an hidden factor which may negatively affect political and economic decision-making processes. In spite of a lively scientific debate there is no general consensus on a commonly accepted definition of what corruption is.The A. distinguishes three main paradigms, focusing on different (though not irreconcilable variables.The first is the economic paradigm, which usually takes the principal-agent model of corruption as its founding pillar. In this paradigm corruption is considered the outcome of rational individual choices, and its spread within a certain organization is influenced by the factors defining the structure of expected costs and rewards.A second approach – the cultural paradigm – looks at the differences in cultural traditions, social norms and interiorized values which shape individuals’ moral preferences and consideration of his social and institutional role. These are a leading forces that can push a corrupt public or private agent (not to violate legal norms.A third neo-institutional approach considers also mechanisms which allow the internal regulation of social interactions within corrupt networks, and their effects on individuals’ beliefs and preferences. Though the corrupt agreements cannot be enforced with legal sanctions, several informal, non-written rules, contractual provisos and conventions may regulate the corrupt exchange between agent and corruptor.The A. underlines that corruption is the outcome of a multitude of individual and collective choices which change public opinion towards corruption and its diffusion throughout the state, markets and civil society. There is no univocal recipe to deal with anti-bribery measures, since corruption is a complex and multifaceted phenomenon.Reforms aimed at dismantling systemic corruption have to be finely tuned against its hidden governance structures, i.e. its internal regulation of

  2. Software development: A paradigm for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basili, Victor R.

    1989-01-01

    A new paradigm for software development that treats software development as an experimental activity is presented. It provides built-in mechanisms for learning how to develop software better and reusing previous experience in the forms of knowledge, processes, and products. It uses models and measures to aid in the tasks of characterization, evaluation and motivation. An organization scheme is proposed for separating the project-specific focus from the organization's learning and reuse focuses of software development. The implications of this approach for corporations, research and education are discussed and some research activities currently underway at the University of Maryland that support this approach are presented.

  3. Chua's circuit a paradigm for chaos

    CERN Document Server

    1993-01-01

    For uninitiated researchers, engineers, and scientists interested in a quick entry into the subject of chaos, this book offers a timely collection of 55 carefully selected papers covering almost every aspect of this subject. Because Chua's circuit is endowed with virtually every bifurcation phenomena reported in the extensive literature on chaos, and because it is the only chaotic system which can be easily built by a novice, simulated in a personal computer, and tractable mathematically, it has become a paradigm for chaos, and a vehicle for illustrating this ubiquitous phenomenon. Its supreme

  4. Passage of American shad: paradigms and realities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro, Alex; Castro-Santos, Theodore

    2012-01-01

    Despite more than 250 years of development, the passage of American shad Alosa sapidissima at dams and other barriers frequently remains problematic. Few improvements in design based on knowledge of the swimming, schooling, and migratory behaviors of American shad have been incorporated into passage structures. Large-scale technical fishways designed for the passage of adult salmonids on the Columbia River have been presumed to have good performance for American shad but have never been rigorously evaluated for this species. Similar but smaller fishway designs on the East Coast frequently have poor performance. Provision of effective downstream passage for both juvenile and postspawning adult American shad has been given little consideration in most passage projects. Ways to attract and guide American shad to both fishway entrances and downstream bypasses remain marginally understood. The historical development of passage structures for American shad has resulted in assumptions and paradigms about American shad behavior and passage that are frequently unsubstantiated by supporting data or appropriate experimentation. We propose that many of these assumptions and paradigms are either unfounded or invalid and that significant improvements to American shad upstream and downstream passage can be made via a sequential program of behavioral experimentation, application of experimental results to the physical and hydraulic design of new structures, and controlled tests of large-scale prototype structures in the laboratory and field.

  5. Osteoporosis: Modern Paradigms for Last Century's Bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Marlena C; Wolber, Frances M

    2016-06-17

    The skeleton is a metabolically active organ undergoing continuously remodelling. With ageing and menopause the balance shifts to increased resorption, leading to a reduction in bone mineral density and disruption of bone microarchitecture. Bone mass accretion and bone metabolism are influenced by systemic hormones as well as genetic and lifestyle factors. The classic paradigm has described osteoporosis as being a "brittle bone" disease that occurs in post-menopausal, thin, Caucasian women with low calcium intakes and/or vitamin D insufficiency. However, a study of black women in Africa demonstrated that higher proportions of body fat did not protect bone health. Isoflavone interventions in Asian postmenopausal women have produced inconsistent bone health benefits, due in part to population heterogeneity in enteric bacterial metabolism of daidzein. A comparison of women and men in several Asian countries identified significant differences between countries in the rate of bone health decline, and a high incidence rate of osteoporosis in both sexes. These studies have revealed significant differences in genetic phenotypes, debunking long-held beliefs and leading to new paradigms in study design. Current studies are now being specifically designed to assess genotype differences between Caucasian, Asian, African, and other phenotypes, and exploring alternative methodology to measure bone architecture.

  6. Consumers’ Empowerement for a New Marketing Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Danciu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The marketing practices of the companies show that not all of them are observing ethical and moral standards and they manipulate the consumers. This paper has as main goal to examine the most usual unethical techniques, the present status of consumers’ power and how more power could work for a new marketing paradigm. There are many unethical marketing techniques which could be found in deceptive product recipes, packaging, promotion, prices and in other areas. Most consumers have no appropriate powers and tools to counteract the manipulation techniques and feel they have fewer rights than the marketers. The current state of empowerment of the consumer show that the European consumers are not in the best position in the market as the Consumer Empowerment Index proves. This matter of facts emphasizes a strong need for a better empowerment of the consumers. The consumer which has more power and wisely use it could improve the balance of power in the market. But the consumers should have a proactive buying behavior in order to get such results. These revolutionary consumers attack the structural roots of the social, economic and political problems which produces a new market ideology as a part of the new tier of transnational institutional ideology. This consumer behavior may have a strong influence toward a new marketing paradigm.

  7. New paradigms of Game Theory from globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Esquivel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Games Theory constitutes a model by means every player tries to predict what they will make the other players in reply to his own actions, and to optimize the result of the above mentioned actions in his benefit knowing that the others are thinking to about the same form. The development of the theory supposed a boom after the World War II, which happened of analyzing exclusively competitive behaviors to considering situations with competitive and cooperative characteristics. Nevertheless, the advance of the humanity and the disappearance of both geopolitical blocks have eliminated the balance of power and have produced the emergence of a world the most based on the exclusive conquest of the power. This has originated the model change and dilemmas, happening from the most cooperative models (Prisoner’s Dilemma or from the models of the Cold War (Dilemma of the Gallina up to reaching the dilemmas of the Leader or of the Hero. This change of paradigm owes to the extension of the globalization, which originates an immeasurable loss of economic, social, political power, of human rights, which they have affected negatively to the poor people. In this paper is studied the change of paradigm caused by the consequences of the globalization and the geopolitical transformations in a monopolar world, analyzing the consequences on the basis of the Theory of Games.

  8. On a Paradigm Shift in Disaster Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail-Zadeh, A.; Cutter, S. L.; Takeuchi, K.; Paton, D.

    2016-12-01

    Despite major advancements in knowledge on disaster risks and disasters caused by natural hazards, the number and severity of disasters is increasing. Convolving natural, engineering, social and behavioral sciences and practices with policymaking into co-designed and co-productive work should significantly reduce disaster risks caused by natural hazards. To this end, a fundamental change in scientific approaches to disaster risk reduction is needed by shifting the current emphasis on individual hazard and risk assessment dominant in the geoscientific community to a trans-disciplinary system analysis with action-oriented research on disaster risk reduction co-produced with other stakeholders, including policymakers. This paradigm shift will allow for acquisition of useful knowledge and for immediate application of scientific achievements to knowledge- and evidence-based policy and decision making for disaster risk reduction. The need for the paradigm shift is more critical now than ever before because of the human-induced changes resulting in increasing vulnerability and exposure of society to disaster risk and the need for cross-cutting actions in policy and practice related to climate change and sustainability.

  9. Long Period Variables: questioning the pulsation paradigm

    CERN Document Server

    Berlioz-Arthaud, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Long period variables, among them Miras, are thought to be pulsating. Under this approach the whole star inflates and deflates along a period that can vary from 100 to 900 days; that pulsation is assumed to produce shock waves on the outer layers of the star that propagate into the atmosphere and could account for the increase in luminosity and the presence of emission lines in the spectra of these stars. However, this paradigm can seriously be questioned from a theoretical point of view. First, in order to maintain a radial pulsation, the spherical symmetry of the star must be preserved: how can it be reconciled with the large convective cells present in these stars? or when close companions are detected? Secondly, how different radial and non-radial pulsation modes of a sphere could be all damped except one radial mode? These problems have no solution and significantly weigh on the pulsation paradigm. Acknowledging this inconsistency, we show that a close companion around these stars could account for the s...

  10. Locating the Doctoral Study in the "Paradigm Skirmishes": Challenges and Prospects for Adopting a Paradigm Cradle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruto-Korir, Rose; Lubbe, Carien

    2010-01-01

    It is important to understand the thought patterns of students and supervisors that underlie the choice of paradigm and determine the progression of doctoral studies as an integral part of articulating scholarship at the doctoral level and subsequently, to completing the research. This paper traces a student's and a supervisor's thought patterns…

  11. [Socioeconomic status and health: a discussion of two paradigms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira

    2008-06-01

    Socioeconomic status and its impact on health are in the mainstream of public health thinking. This text discusses two paradigms utilized in assessing socioeconomic status in epidemiologic studies. One paradigm refers to prestige-based measurements and positive differentiation among social strata. This paradigm is characterized by classifications assessing social capital and the access to goods and services. The other paradigm refers to the classification of social deprivation and negative differentiation among social strata. The proposal of State-funded reposition to the mostly deprived social strata is acknowledged as characteristic of this paradigm. The contrast between these paradigms, and their potential interaction and debate are discussed. Fostering reflection on methodological strategies to assess socioeconomic status in epidemiologic studies can contribute to the promotion of health and social justice.

  12. Vascular access surveillance: case study of a false paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, William D; Moist, Louise; Lok, Charmaine E

    2013-01-01

    The hemodialysis vascular access surveillance controversy provides a case study of how enthusiasm for a new test or treatment can lead to adoption of a false paradigm. Paradigms are the beliefs and assumptions shared by those in a field of knowledge, and are commonly included in clinical practice guidelines. The guidelines of the National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative recommend that arteriovenous vascular accesses undergo routine surveillance for detection and correction of stenosis. This recommendation is based on the paradigm that surveillance of access blood flow or dialysis venous pressure combined with correction of stenosis improves access outcomes. However, the quality of evidence that supports this paradigm has been widely criticized. We tested the validity of the surveillance paradigm by applying World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for evaluating screening tests to a literature review of published vascular access studies. These criteria include four components: undesired condition, screening test, intervention, and desired outcome. The WHO criteria show that surveillance as currently practiced fails all four components and provides little or no significant benefit, suggesting that surveillance is a false paradigm. Once a paradigm is established, however, challenges to its validity are usually resisted even as new evidence indicates the paradigm is not valid. Thus, it is paramount to apply rigorous criteria when developing guidelines. Regulators may help promote needed changes in paradigms when cost and safety considerations coincide. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. On the solitary wave paradigm for tsunamis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Per A.; Fuhrman, David R.; Schäffer, Hemming Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Since the 1970s, solitary waves have commonly been used to model tsunamis especially in experimental and mathematical studies. Unfortunately, the link to geophysical scales is not well established, and in this work we question the geophysical relevance of this paradigm. In part 1, we simulate...... of finite amplitude solitary wave theory in laboratory studies of tsunamis. We conclude that order-of-magnitude errors in effective temporal and spatial duration occur when this theory is used as an approximation for long waves on a sloping bottom. In part 3, we investigate the phenomenon of disintegration...... of long waves into shorter waves, which has been observed e.g. in connection with the Indian Ocean tsunami in 2004. This happens if the front of the tsunami becomes sufficently steep, and as a result the front turns into an undular bore. We discuss the importance of these very short waves in connection...

  14. Inflationary paradigm in trouble after Planck2013

    CERN Document Server

    Ijjas, Anna; Loeb, Abraham

    2013-01-01

    The recent Planck satellite combined with earlier results eliminate a wide spectrum of more complex inflationary models and favor models with a single scalar field, as reported in the analysis of the collaboration. More important, though, is that all the simplest inflaton models are disfavored by the data while the surviving models -- namely, those with plateau-like potentials -- are problematic. We discuss how the restriction to plateau-like models leads to three independent problems: it exacerbates both the initial conditions problem and the multiverse-unpredictability problem and it creates a new difficulty which we call the inflationary "unlikeliness problem." Finally, we comment on problems reconciling inflation with a standard model Higgs, as suggested by recent LHC results. In sum, we find that recent experimental data disfavors all the best-motivated inflationary scenarios and introduces new, serious difficulties that cut to the core of the inflationary paradigm. Forthcoming searches for B-modes, non-...

  15. The complexity paradigm in management reconceptualizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Slavica P.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Chaos and complexity theory is a special, functionalist systems approach to dealing with complex, dynamic, nonlinear systems. Through treating organizations as complex, with their environments coevolving, nonlinear systems, complexity theory is aimed at creative research of their erratic nature. When an organization is in a state of bounded instability, at the edge of chaos, order and disorder are intertwined, its behavior is irregular and unpredictable but has some pattern. According to the complexity paradigm organizations have to strive to avoid the equilibrium states of stability and instability. They have instead to strive to remain in a state of bounded instability, at the edge of chaos, where they are able to display their full potential for creativity and innovation.

  16. [Meta-legal paradigms of nanomedicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Alvarez, Salvador

    2012-01-01

    Nanomedicine is the Nanotechnology applied in the field of Medicine. Nanomedicine includes a wide range of technologies applied to devices, materials, medical procedures and treatment modalities are being developed, in some cases, through the convergence of living and nonliving materials. The developments in this scientific field are the prelude of a new era in health where Nanotechnology will provide, in a short period of time, substantial benefits for the general welfare and health of people with serious and incurable diseases using other more traditional medical treatments. This is, in brief, the object of this research that has been focused in the study of the ethical-legal paradigms that should inform the developments and expectations generated by medical applications of Nanotechnology.

  17. Lorenz on Light: A Precocious Photon Paradigm

    CERN Document Server

    Potter, H C

    2008-01-01

    In 1867, during the time when Maxwell was publishing his electromagnetic theory, L. Lorenz published his theory equating light vibrations with electric currents. Starting from Kirchhoff's Ohm's law expression, Lorenz introduces scalar potential retardation to obtain an expression for the electric field using retarded potentials. In his theory Lorenz sets the vacuum light speed equal to \\sqrt{2}/2 times Weber's measured superluminal value for magnetic induction speed. Using the wave equation Green's function paradigm Lorenz reduces his integral, retarded Ohm's law formulation to a differential formulation for current density. This represents his solution to the electromagnetic action at a distance problem. During the reduction he presents a light like, plane wave solution for current density that can not satisfy initial conditions on the expanding wave front and, using a faulty by parts integration that neglects retardation, he develops the eponymic Lorenz condition. Although generally accepted, this condition...

  18. The Rational Relevance of the Diffuse Paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Dinu

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Processes like the globalization consistency and learning about society are screened by diffuse concepts such as those taking the last steps of the industrial civilization and hierarchically ordered world through hegemony. This is why the meaning of globalization is given by deviant trends, like globalism, and the knowledge society is taken for the tools promoted by itself, such as the internet. This does not imply only approximations of meaning but rather the vanity of change, preserving the status quo represented by the pre-global world or the adversity principle. Historicism of paradigm cannot be avoided. Evolvement towards something else, announced by globalization is implacable, and the new ordinating principle, the one of competition, opens the opportunity horizon to global world

  19. The Rational Relevance of the Diffuse Paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Dinu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Processes like the globalization consistency and learning about society are screened by diffuse concepts such as those taking the last steps of the industrial civilization and hierarchically ordered world through hegemony. This is why the meaning of globalization is given by deviant trends, like globalism, and the knowledge society is taken for the tools promoted by itself, such as the internet. This does not imply only approximations of meaning but rather the vanity of change, preserving the status quo represented by the pre-global world or the adversity principle. Historicism of paradigm cannot be avoided. Evolvement towards something else, announced by globalization is implacable, and the new ordinating principle, the one of competition, opens the opportunity horizon to global world.

  20. Changing computing paradigms towards power efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klavík, Pavel; Malossi, A Cristiano I; Bekas, Costas; Curioni, Alessandro

    2014-06-28

    Power awareness is fast becoming immensely important in computing, ranging from the traditional high-performance computing applications to the new generation of data centric workloads. In this work, we describe our efforts towards a power-efficient computing paradigm that combines low- and high-precision arithmetic. We showcase our ideas for the widely used kernel of solving systems of linear equations that finds numerous applications in scientific and engineering disciplines as well as in large-scale data analytics, statistics and machine learning. Towards this goal, we developed tools for the seamless power profiling of applications at a fine-grain level. In addition, we verify here previous work on post-FLOPS/W metrics and show that these can shed much more light in the power/energy profile of important applications.

  1. [Bilateral dependency and the minimal group paradigm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, N; Yamagishi, T; Kiyonari, T

    1996-06-01

    Two experiments examined the effect of illusion of control on in-group favoritism found in the minimal group situation (Tajfel, Billig, Bundy, & Flament, 1971). In bilateral dependency condition, each member made allocation decisions for in-group as well as out-group participants. It was exactly the same situation used in the original studies under the minimal group paradigm, and the subjects knew that their reward allocation too depended on others' decisions. In contrast, in unilateral dependency condition, the subjects made allocation decisions knowing that theirs were not dependent on others' decisions. In Experiment 1, an in-group bias in reward distribution was found in the bilateral dependency condition, but not in the unilateral condition. In Experiment 2, it was found that only those who felt illusion of control exhibited such an in-group bias. Results of the experiments therefore confirmed that illusion of control explained in-group favoritism, as Karp, Jin, Yamagishi, and Shinotsuka (1993) originally hypothesized.

  2. Social Media Guidelines and the News Paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blumell, Lindsey; Hellmueller, Lea; Etter, Michael

    Social network use continues to increase in the majority of regions around the world, with a global increase of 17.6% in 2012, and another projected 12.6% in 2014 (digital.org, 2014). Social media have also been incorporated into daily routines of American journalists, with 53.8% reporting...... that they use microblogs like Twitter on a regular basis to both gather and disseminate information (Willnat & Weaver, 2014). The aim of this study is to investigate how social media, more specifically, social media guidelines, implemented at the organizational level intercede with journalism practices...... and if these guidelines challenge the news paradigm. While using social media have been a “loop-hole” of sorts to disseminating political information in countries that have strong censorship (the Arab Spring being a premiere example, Eltantawy & Wiest, 2011; Lotan, Graeff, Ananny, Gaffney, & Pearce, 2011), journalists...

  3. Novel Diagnostic Paradigms for Friedreich Ataxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigatti, Karlla W.; Deutsch, Eric C.; Lynch, David R.; Farmer, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    Friedreich ataxia is the most common inherited ataxia, with a wide phenotypic spectrum. It is generally caused by GAA expansions on both alleles of FXN, but a small percentage of patients are compound heterozygotes for a pathogenic expansion and a point mutation. Two recent diagnostic innovations are further characterizing individuals with the phenotype but without the classic genotypes. First, lateral-flow immunoassay is able to quantify the frataxin protein, thereby further characterizing these atypical individuals as likely affected or not affected, and providing some correlation to phenotype. It also holds promise as a biomarker for clinical trials in which the investigative agent increases frataxin. Second, gene dosage analysis and the identification of affected individuals with gene deletions introduce a novel genetic mechanism of disease. Both tests are now clinically available and suggest a new diagnostic paradigm for the disorder. Genetic counseling issues and future diagnostic testing approaches are considered as well. PMID:22752491

  4. Introduction: Science, Sexuality, and Psychotherapy: Shifting Paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerbone, Armand R

    2017-08-01

    This introduction presents an overview of the current issue (73, 8) of Journal of Clinical Psychology: In Session. This issue features a series of articles, with clinical cases, each presented to illustrate the challenges faced by individuals and couples whose sexual and gender identities and expressions do not comport with traditional and cultural norms. These articles also document the challenges to the therapists who treat them. Considered individually, each article underscores the need to recognize the importance of evidence in guiding psychotherapy in cases involving sexuality. The discussions in each article offer recommendations meant to help and guide psychotherapists. Considered collectively, they raise important questions and considerations about shifting paradigms of human sexuality. Implications for assessment and treatment of cases involving sexuality and gender identity are discussed and recommended. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. An Instrumental Paradigm for Ubiquitous Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted

    2008-01-01

    Motivation -- Developments of novel interaction techniques and computer uses have exploded during the last decade. These new ways of interacting with a computer - here covered by the umbrella term ubiquitous interaction - give rise to a range of interesting theoretical HCI challenges, and reveal...... shortcomings of some of the restrictive assumptions contemporary graphical user interfaces are built upon. Research approach -- Based on activity theory and ecological psychology a conceptual model for ubiquitous interaction is proposed and iteratively challenged and developed through actual implementation...... will require comprehensive experimental user centred development. Originality/Value -- This research offers a new way of thinking interaction, suited for the dynamism of modern computing. Take away message -- Through a strong foundation in activity theory and ecological psychology a new paradigm for ubiquitous...

  6. Monitoring source in an unconscious plagiarism paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, J D; Marsh, R L

    1997-06-01

    Current laboratory paradigms used to assess unconscious plagiarism consist of three tasks. First, participants generate solutions to a puzzle task with a partner (initial generation task); second, they recall their individual contribution (recall-own task); and third, they attempt to create new solutions that were not offered previously (generate-new task). An analysis of these tasks indicated that they differ in terms of the source monitoring they require. The two generative tasks require less differentiated information (e.g., familiarity) and relatively lax decision criteria. The recall-own task, however, demands more differentiated information and more extended decision criteria. In two experiments, factors known to influence source monitoring were manipulated. Consistent with the analysis, no effects were associated with the generative tasks. Recall-own plagiarisms increased when self- and other-generated solutions were difficult to distinguish (Experiment 1) and decreased when the two sources were easier to distinguish (Experiment 2).

  7. A postfoundationalist research paradigm of practical theology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Kyu Park

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Practical theology describes a context, interprets what has been discovered, brings in Christian norms, and constructs models of Christian practice. It is a process that involves epistemology and hermeneutics. For practical theology to be transformative, a postfoundational theological framework that allows interdisciplinary work and interpretation of experience in a given context is essential. Research in postfoundational practical theology can be conducted using narratives and social constructionism to obtain meaning from events or situations and to construct preferred realities.This article examines and argues for postfoundationalism – transversal reason, interdisciplinarity and interpreted experience – as a viable theological option against rigid foundationalism and relativistic nonfoundationalism. Also discussed are the process and the interdisciplinary nature of practical theology. It is suggested that narrative research and social constructionism should be part of the research paradigm of postfoundational practical theology.

  8. New Thermodynamic Paradigm of Chemical Equilibria

    CERN Document Server

    Zilbergleyt, B

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents new thermodynamic paradigm of chemical equilibrium, setting forth comprehensive basics of Discrete Thermodynamics of Chemical Equilibria (DTd). Along with previous results by the author during the last decade, this work contains also some new developments of DTd. Based on the Onsager's constitutive equations, reformulated by the author thermodynamic affinity and reaction extent, and Le Chatelier's principle, DTd brings forward a notion of chemical equilibrium as a balance of internal and external thermodynamic forces (TdF), acting against a chemical system. Basic expression of DTd is the chemical system logistic map of thermodynamic states that ties together energetic characteristics of chemical reaction, occurring in the system, the system shift from "true" thermodynamic equilibrium (TdE), and causing that shift external thermodynamic forces. Solutions to the basic map are pitchfork bifurcation diagrams in coordinates "shift from TdE - growth factor (or TdF)"; points, corresponding to the ...

  9. TAMU: A New Space Mission Operations Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkat, Leila; Ruszkowski, James; Haensly, Jean; Pennington, Granvil A.; Hogle, Charles

    2011-01-01

    The Transferable, Adaptable, Modular and Upgradeable (TAMU) Flight Production Process (FPP) is a model-centric System of System (SoS) framework which cuts across multiple organizations and their associated facilities, that are, in the most general case, in geographically diverse locations, to develop the architecture and associated workflow processes for a broad range of mission operations. Further, TAMU FPP envisions the simulation, automatic execution and re-planning of orchestrated workflow processes as they become operational. This paper provides the vision for the TAMU FPP paradigm. This includes a complete, coherent technique, process and tool set that result in an infrastructure that can be used for full lifecycle design and decision making during any flight production process. A flight production process is the process of developing all products that are necessary for flight.

  10. A new paradigm for practice education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmond, C B

    2001-05-01

    This paper explores the complex nature of professional practice. It suggests that educating for all practice disciplines is about to undergo a paradigm shift whereby the value of practical education and experience will be better understood, more rigorously analyzed and integrated with propositional knowledge in the construction of personal professional knowledge and identity. It relates this cross disciplinary position to the present problems of skills deficits which are evident in nurses at the point of registration and demonstrates how routinization and internalization of process and tacit knowledge can create problems for students and newly qualified staff nurses. It also suggests how this can be addressed. It discusses the present culture of 'clinical education by default', unavailability of mentors and resources, and general lack of formal collaborative structures between education and service institutions and suggests that the present system cannot sustain the complex demands, expectations and pace of the clinical context and the evolution of nursing practice. Clinical credibility is an issue as is the current heavy clinical workload of staff nurse mentors, and several collaborative clinical education models are outlined which ensure that staff nurses or resident clinical educators are available and can make clinical teaching their priority. History and the present crisis in nursing suggest that there is a case for mandatory collaborative education/service structures to ensure adequate funding and to monitor the effectiveness of selected models so that staff nurse mentors can work with lecturer colleagues to articulate and teach the complexities of clinical practice through related research. It is predicted that this collaborative approach is capable of addressing both the skills deficits and the wider intellectual challenge of developing a new paradigm of practice education and providing an integrated base for continuing professional development.

  11. Objective and subjective evaluation of façade sound insulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ordoñez, Rodrigo Pizarro; Visentin, Chiara; Markovic, Milos

    2013-01-01

    Façade insulation of several different construction types were subjectively evaluated using two psychoacoustic methods: paired comparisons using a two alternative forced choice (2-AFC) paradigm and direct scaling using a visual analogue scale (VAS). The stimuli used in the evaluations were obtained...... by filtering recordings of traffic noise with the frequency response of sound insulation measurements. The measurements were performed in typical Italian buildings in accordance with the ISO 140-5 standard. The objectives of the present paper are to compare the subjective evaluations obtained with the two...... psychoacoustic methods, and to investigate the correlation between subjective assessments and objective ratings in different construction types....

  12. The third paradigm in labour pain preparation and management: the childbearing woman's paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsdottir, Sigfridur Inga; Halldorsdottir, Sigridur; Lundgren, Ingela

    2014-06-01

    Women's experiences regarding labour pain preparation and management have been largely neglected. Explore women's experiences regarding labour pain preparation and management in normal childbirth. The Vancouver School of doing phenomenology was the methodological approach of the study since it provides inside information about the lived experience. Data were collected through in-depth interviews with 14 participants; seven primiparous and seven multiparous women. The women described a challenging journey of no return through labour pain, with different landmarks on the journey. They described how they prepared for the pain; the context of the pain experience; how they experienced and managed the pain with different strategies and how they saw the pain at the journey's end. The quality of the midwife's presence and professionalism was of great importance to them. The 'good midwives' they described created a special atmosphere which was warm and secure and was conducive to their managing the pain. The women also described how important it was for them to have a supportive partner, with whom they had a mutual understanding, in order to manage the pain. In this paper, we are presenting a study within the third paradigm in labour pain preparation and management: the childbearing woman's paradigm - the first and second being the midwifery and the medical paradigm, respectively. Midwives can play a major role in working with women in their preparation and management of labour pain. In the future, more research has to be done to illuminate this essential part of the childbearing woman's paradigm. © 2013 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  13. Analysis on New Paradigms of Informatization in the Countryside

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei; XUE; Lina; WANG

    2014-01-01

    Through the analyses of several typical paradigms of informatization in the countryside,the status of informatization in the countryside and some unresolved issues were studied. A new way was proposed to develop rural information with embedded mobile phone terminal,and to explore an inexpensive and efficient information services paradigm for the future development in the countryside.

  14. Researching Style: Epistemology, Paradigm Shifts and Research Interest Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    This paper identifies the need for a deliberate approach to theory building in the context of researching cognitive and learning style differences in human performance. A case for paradigm shift and a focus upon research epistemology is presented, building upon a recent critique of style research. A proposal for creating paradigm shift is made,…

  15. Affective Computing used in an imaging interaction paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Nette

    2003-01-01

    This paper combines affective computing with an imaging interaction paradigm. An imaging interaction paradigm means that human and computer communicates primarily by images. Images evoke emotions in humans, so the computer must be able to behave emotionally intelligent. An affective image selection...

  16. Fear conditioning with film clips: a complex associative learning paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E. Kunze; A. Arntz; M. Kindt

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives: We argue that the stimuli used in traditional fear conditioning paradigms are too simple to model the learning and unlearning of complex fear memories. We therefore developed and tested an adapted fear conditioning paradigm, specifically designed for the study of complex a

  17. Disability Is Not Measles: New Research Paradigms in Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioux, Marcia H., Ed.; Bach, Michael, Ed.

    This book is the product of a forum titled New Research Directions and Paradigms, held at the Congress of the International Association for the Scientific Study of Mental Deficiency in Australia in August 1992. The book presents 13 chapters, all written within a critical paradigm for disability research which critiques the reification of…

  18. Fear conditioning with film clips: a complex associative learning paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunze, A.E.; Arntz, A.; Kindt, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives: We argue that the stimuli used in traditional fear conditioning paradigms are too simple to model the learning and unlearning of complex fear memories. We therefore developed and tested an adapted fear conditioning paradigm, specifically designed for the study of complex a

  19. Paradigms in the Gerontology Classroom: Connections and Challenges to Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    The article explores paradigms for approaching course content to be studied in the classroom. These paradigms, or global views about what is of interest or importance and ways of knowing, relate to key questions in gerontology, such as what is the relevant domain/content to be studied, what is the central level of analysis or action, what are…

  20. Paradigms in the Gerontology Classroom: Connections and Challenges to Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    The article explores paradigms for approaching course content to be studied in the classroom. These paradigms, or global views about what is of interest or importance and ways of knowing, relate to key questions in gerontology, such as what is the relevant domain/content to be studied, what is the central level of analysis or action, what are…

  1. The Hermeneutical-Praxis Paradigm and Practical Theology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Sook

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this article is to propose a method for practical theology, the hermeneutical-praxis paradigm, based on discussions of three different methodological approaches to practical theology. This article suggests the hermeneutical-praxis paradigm, which bridges theory and practice, which connects church with society, which correlates theology…

  2. Critical evaluation of paradigms for modelling integrated supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dam, K.H.; Adhitya, A.; Srinivasan, R.; Lukszo, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Contemporary problems in process systems engineering often require model-based decision support tool. Among the various modelling paradigms, equation-based models and agent-based models are widely used to develop dynamic models of systems. Which is the most appropriate modelling paradigm for a suppl

  3. The World Religions Paradigm Time for a Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    The teaching of religions has long relied on the World Religions paradigm to guide curricula throughout education, which has led to a widening gap, on the one hand, between what is taught in schools and in universities and, on the other, between research and teaching. While the World Religions paradigm has allowed the inclusion of non-Christian…

  4. Modularity beyond Perception: Evidence from the PRP Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magen, Hagit; Cohen, Asher

    2010-01-01

    The Dimension Action (DA) model asserts that the visual system is modular, and that each task involves multiple-response mechanisms rather than a unitary-response selection mechanism. The model has been supported by evidence from single-task interference paradigms. We use the psychological refractory period paradigm and show that dual-task…

  5. Industry 4.0 and the New Simulation Modelling Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodič Blaž

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The aim of this paper is to present the influence of Industry 4.0 on the development of the new simulation modelling paradigm, embodied by the Digital Twin concept, and examine the adoption of the new paradigm via a multiple case study involving real-life R&D cases involving academia and industry.

  6. In Search of a Paradigm for Bilingual Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquirre, Adalberto, Jr.

    The success of a new paradigm depends upon the level of coherency and organization within its supporting community, and Thomas Kuhn's argument concerning the resistance to new paradigms and their power to change the existing order can be used in the context of bilingual education. Bilingual education programs have the potential to create a…

  7. The Question of Work: Adolescent Literature and the Eriksonian Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgan, Mary

    1988-01-01

    Suggests that focusing on paradigms of work--the way it is described, together with the thematic implications it embodies--can be useful in teaching literature to young adults. Examines how examples from literature illustrate Erik H. Erikson's paradigm of the psychosocial stages of development in late childhood and adolescence. (MM)

  8. Fear conditioning with film clips: a complex associative learning paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunze, A.E.; Arntz, A.; Kindt, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives: We argue that the stimuli used in traditional fear conditioning paradigms are too simple to model the learning and unlearning of complex fear memories. We therefore developed and tested an adapted fear conditioning paradigm, specifically designed for the study of complex

  9. Formal Epistemology and New Paradigm Psychology of Reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfeifer, Niki; Douven, Igor

    This position paper advocates combining formal epistemology and the new paradigm psychology of reasoning in the studies of conditionals and reasoning with uncertainty. The new paradigm psychology of reasoning is characterized by the use of probability theory as a rationality framework instead of

  10. Paradigms and Problem-Solving: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, Eta S.

    1984-01-01

    Thomas Kuhn's conceptions of the influence of paradigms on the progress of science form the framework for analyzing how medical educators have approached research on medical problem solving. A new paradigm emphasizing multiple types of problems with varied solution strategies is proposed. (Author/MLW)

  11. Reconstruction of concept of Paradigm in Thomas S. Kuhn

    OpenAIRE

    Estrada, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to discuss an evaluation of the concept of paradigm of T. Kuhn in his representative work: The Structure of Scientific Revolutions ERC, [Ku96] and the complementary version by W. Stegmüller, Structure and dynamics of theories EDT, [Steg83]. This refined interpretation of the concept of paradigm allows for a more complete set of central Kuhnian concept.

  12. Paradigm shift from cartography to geo-communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Lars

    2007-01-01

    This paper argues that the domain of GIS, cartography, geo-information etc. is facing a paradigm shift. The implication of a paradigm shift is a complete and necessary re-definition of e.g. the philosophical foundation of the system, as well as with a major upgrade and readjustment of procedures...

  13. A Paradigm for Learning in a World of Continuous Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Through ongoing rapid-fire changes in the nature of communications, the social, professional, and political landscapes of our time are rapidly transforming. But the prevailing paradigm in most schools and school systems is a relic of the industrial revolution. Schools and school systems must adopt a new paradigm for learning if they are to remain…

  14. Affective Computing used in an imaging interaction paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Nette

    2003-01-01

    This paper combines affective computing with an imaging interaction paradigm. An imaging interaction paradigm means that human and computer communicates primarily by images. Images evoke emotions in humans, so the computer must be able to behave emotionally intelligent. An affective image selection...

  15. Libraries and Learning: A History of Paradigm Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Scott

    2009-01-01

    The transformation of information from a scarce to a superabundant commodity has driven three paradigms in the design of library space. These are the reader-centered, book-centered, and learning-centered paradigms. The first two competed inconclusively with one another throughout most of the twentieth century. Revolutionary changes in information…

  16. A Cultural Paradigm--Learning by Observing and Pitching In.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogoff, Barbara; Mejía-Arauz, Rebeca; Correa-Chávez, Maricela

    2015-01-01

    We discuss Learning by Observing and Pitching In (LOPI) as a cultural paradigm that provides an interesting alternative to Assembly-Line Instruction for supporting children's learning. Although LOPI may occur in all communities, it appears to be especially prevalent in many Indigenous and Indigenous-heritage communities of the Americas. We explain key features of this paradigm, previewing the chapters of this volume, which examine LOPI as it occurs in the lives of families and communities. In this introductory chapter, we focus especially on one feature of the paradigm that plays an important role in its uptake and maintenance in families, institutions, and communities-the nature of assessment. We consider the power of the dominant paradigm and the challenges in making paradigm shifts. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Policy Governance--An Example of the Learning Paradigm in Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, D. Wayne

    This essay describes benefits of the Learning Paradigm and discusses policy governance as an example of this paradigm. In education, the current dominant paradigm is known as the "Instruction Paradigm." According to this paradigm, instructors should serve to transfer information and offer some practice using this information in such a…

  18. Is the Learning Paradigm a Fad? The Learning Paradigm as an Indicator of a Maturing Community College Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Felix

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the learning paradigm and its implications for the community college mission. Argues that the learning paradigm is not a fad but part of a natural progression of learning strategies and programs that have been developed over the past few decades. (Contains 11 references.) (NB)

  19. [Oedipus, the medicine and the "evidential paradigm"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    The inquiry about the causes of the Thebes plague characterizes Sophocles' tragedy Oedipus the King. This inquiry uses a circumstantial method (Ginzburg's "evidential paradigm") which can be compared to Peirce's abduction. The circumstantial knowledge is a proceedment of the hippocratic medicine and Sophocles undoubtedly knew it: it can also be observed in the Mesopotamian proceedments of divination and medicine from which it probably derives through a laicization process. This knowledge is related to the [see text], a type of intelligence which has to do with the development of fluent situations. The characters of Oedipus also shows some aspects of a holy medicine (for example the theme of the enigma and some shamanist aspects) which reappear after the failure of the hippocratic medicine unsuccessfully used by the doctors during the Athens' plague. In this tragedy we can find different types of knowledge: on the one hand a rational knowledge of techniques (which in turn comes from a holy semiotic knowledge) and on the other hand an initiatory knowledge closely linked to the medicine which also includes interpretation.

  20. Changing the paradigm for engineering ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jon Alan

    2014-12-01

    Modern philosophy recognizes two major ethical theories: deontology, which encourages adherence to rules and fulfillment of duties or obligations; and consequentialism, which evaluates morally significant actions strictly on the basis of their actual or anticipated outcomes. Both involve the systematic application of universal abstract principles, reflecting the culturally dominant paradigm of technical rationality. Professional societies promulgate codes of ethics with which engineers are expected to comply (deontology), while courts and the public generally assign liability to engineers primarily in accordance with the results of their work, whether intended or unintended (consequentialism). A third option, prominent in ancient philosophy, has reemerged recently: virtue ethics, which recognizes that sensitivity to context and practical judgment are indispensable in particular concrete situations, and therefore rightly focuses on the person who acts, rather than the action itself. Beneficial character traits--i.e., virtues--are identified within a specific social practice in light of the internal goods that are unique to it. This paper proposes a comprehensive framework for implementing virtue ethics within engineering.

  1. Inflationary paradigm in trouble after Planck2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijjas, Anna; Steinhardt, Paul J.; Loeb, Abraham

    2013-06-01

    Recent results from the Planck satellite combined with earlier observations from WMAP, ACT, SPT and other experiments eliminate a wide spectrum of more complex inflationary models and favor models with a single scalar field, as reported by the Planck Collaboration. More important, though, is that all the simplest inflaton models are disfavored statistically relative to those with plateau-like potentials. We discuss how a restriction to plateau-like models has three independent serious drawbacks: it exacerbates both the initial conditions problem and the multiverse-unpredictability problem and it creates a new difficulty that we call the inflationary "unlikeliness problem." Finally, we comment on problems reconciling inflation with a standard model Higgs, as suggested by recent LHC results. In sum, we find that recent experimental data disfavors all the best-motivated inflationary scenarios and introduces new, serious difficulties that cut to the core of the inflationary paradigm. Forthcoming searches for B-modes, non-Gaussianity and new particles should be decisive.

  2. The riches of the cyclopean paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Christopher W.

    2005-03-01

    The cyclopean paradigm introduced by Bela Julesz remains one of the richest probes into the neural organization of sensory processing, by virtue of both its specificity for purely stereoscopic form and the sophistication of the processing required to retrieve it. The introduction of the sinusoidal stereograting showed that the perceptual limitations of human depth processing are very different from those for monocular form. Their use has also revealed the existence of hypercyclopean form channels selective for specific aspects of the monocularly invisible depth form. The natural extension of stereogratings to patches of stereoGabor ripple has allowed the measurement of the summation properties for depth structure, which is specific for narrow horizontal bars in depth. Consideration of the apparent motion between two cyclopean depth structures reveals the existence of a novel surface correspondence problem operating for cyclopean surfaces over time after the binocular correspondence has been solved. Such concepts imply that remains to be discovered about cyclopean stereopsis and its relationship to 3D form perception from other depth cues.

  3. New paradigms for treatment-resistant depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarate, Carlos; Duman, Ronald S.; Liu, Guosong; Sartori, Simone; Quiroz, Jorge; Murck, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Clinical depression is a serious mental disorder characterized by low mood, anhedonia, loss of interest in daily activities, and other symptoms, and is associated with severe consequences including suicide and increased risk of cardiovascular events. Depression affects nearly 15% of the population. The standard of care for the last 50 years has focused on monoamine neurotransmitters, including such treatments as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs). However, these treatments have significant limitations: they can take weeks before showing mood-altering effects, and only one to two out of ten patients shows clinical effects beyond those associated with placebo. A major paradigm shift in research into the treatment of depression is underway, based on promising results with the glutamatergic NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine. Further research has demonstrated the significance of glutamatergic pathways in depression and the association of this system with the stress pathway and magnesium homeostasis. Treatment with NMDA receptor antagonists and magnesium have shown the ability to sprout new synaptic connections and reverse stress-induced neural changes, opening up promising new territory for the development of drugs to meet the unmet need in patients with clinical depression. PMID:23876043

  4. A new paradigm for computer users

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wikstrom, M.C.; Gustafson, J.L.

    1995-07-01

    Why is it that mathematical results are useful for centuries, yet computer programs suffer tumultuous changes of technology? Can one write programs that will be useful in fifty years? Extreme efforts to preserve ``dusty deck`` programs have confused the roles and responsibilities of four participants: the end user, application programmer, system software designer, and hardware engineer. Users feel they must know hardware details like word size and megahertz rate--yet are oblivious to error in the output. Application programmers try to guess compiler behavior, often obtaining high performance only by trickery. With new hardware, that old guess is often wrong. The result is ``high-performance code`` that is slower than the original code. The hardware engineer tries to maintain compatibility through many generations, sacrificing performance and hardware affordability to meet presumed needs of the other three participants. We propose that the respective roles and responsibilities be clearly delineated via a three-stage contract between the four participants. The result is a new interaction paradigm that should allow programs to share the longevity of mathematical results and absorb technical advances gracefully.

  5. Challenging the standard perfect fluid paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, James

    2015-04-01

    We show that the standard perfect fluid paradigm is not necessarily a valid description of a curved space steady state gravitational source. Simply by virtue of not being flat, curved space geometries have to possess intrinsic length scales, and such length scales can affect the fluid structure.We show that for the specific case of a static, spherically symmetric geometry, the steady state energy-momentum tensor that ensues will in general be of the form Tμν =(ρ + p) UμUν + pgμν + qπμν where πμν is a symmetric, traceless rank two tensor which obeys Uμπμν = 0 . Such a qπμν type term is absent for an incoherently averaged steady state fluid in a spacetime where there are no intrinsic length scales, and in principle would thus be missed in a covariantizing of a flat spacetime Tμν. While it is reassuring that we find that in practice the effect of such qπμν type terms is small for weak gravity stars, for strong gravity systems their potential influence would need to be explored.

  6. The blazar paradigm and its discontents

    CERN Document Server

    Dermer, C D

    2014-01-01

    The standard blazar paradigm consists of a supermassive black hole that expels relativistic jets of magnetized plasma in our direction. This plasma entrains nonthermal synchrotron-emitting electrons that furthermore scatter internally-produced synchrotron photons as well as externally-produced photons from the accretion-disk, the broad-line region, and the infrared-emitting torus. This picture has been very successful in reproducing the two-humped blazar spectral energy distribution. Yet various discontents persist, including (1) ultra-short variability at TeV energies that is much shorter than the black hole's dynamical timescale; (2) very-high energy (VHE; >100 GeV) radiation from FSRQs; (3) evidence for a hard spectral component in high-synchrotron peaked objects, found when deabsorbing the measured VHE spectrum using conventional extragalactic background light (EBL) models; (4) an unusual slowly varying class of BL Lac objects; (5) location of the gamma-ray emission region. Some of these problems can be r...

  7. The future of management: The NASA paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Philip R.

    1992-01-01

    Prototypes of 21st century management, especially for large scale enterprises, may well be found within the aerospace industry. The space era inaugurated a number of projects of such scope and magnitude that another type of management had to be created to ensure successful achievement. The challenges will be not just in terms of technology and its management, but also human and cultural in dimension. Futurists, students of management, and those concerned with technological administration would do well to review the literature of emerging space management for its wider implications. NASA offers a paradigm, or demonstrated model, of future trends in the field of management at large. More research is needed on issues of leadership for Earth based project in space and space based programs with managers there. It is needed to realize that large scale technical enterprises, such as are undertaken in space, require a new form of management. NASA and other responsible agencies are urged to study excellence in space macromanagement, including the necessary multidisciplinary skills. Two recommended targets are the application of general living systems theory and macromanagement concepts for space stations in the 1990s.

  8. Bitters: Time for a New Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael K. McMullen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In plant-based medical systems, bitter tasting plants play a key role in managing dyspepsia. Yet when it comes to defining their mechanism of activity, herbalists and pharmacologists are split between two theories: one involves cephalic elicited vagal responses while the other comprises purely local responses. Recent studies indicate that bitters elicit a range of cephalic responses which alter postprandial gastric phase haemodynamics. Caffeine and regular coffee (Coffea arabica semen, L. increase heart rate whereas gentian (Gentiana lutea radix, L. and wormwood (Artemisia absinthium herba L. increase tonus in the vascular resistance vessels. Following meals increased cardiac activity acts to support postprandial hyperaemia and maintain systemic blood pressure. The increased vascular tonus acts in parallel with the increased cardiac activity and in normal adults this additional pressor effect results in a reduced cardiac workload. The vascular response is a sympathetic reflex, evident after 5 minutes and dose dependent. Thus gentian and wormwood elicit cephalic responses which facilitate rather than stimulate digestive activity when postprandial hyperaemia is inadequate. Encapsulated caffeine elicits cardiovascular responses indicating that gastrointestinal bitter receptors are functionally active in humans. However, neither encapsulated gentian nor wormwood elicited cardiovascular responses during the gastric phase. These findings provide the platform for a new evidence-based paradigm.

  9. School on Cloud: Towards a paradigm shift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostis C. Koutsopoulos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the basic concept of the EU Network School on Cloud: Namely, that present conditions require a new teaching and learning paradigm based on the integrated dimension of education, when considering the use of cloud computing. In other words, it is suggested that there is a need for an integrated approach which is simultaneously pedagogic (i.e. new role of teachers, technical/technological (i.e. use of the internet, administrative (i.e. new role of school administrators, social (i.e. a different disposition of parents towards school, political (i.e. a different approach of government to school and cultural (i.e. new role of students, being in dialectic harmony and respecting all aspects of teaching and learning, an integral part of which are pupils, teachers and school administrators. As a result, the principal tasks in the area at the interface between education and cloud technology, which are presented in this paper, are to determine and describe the nature of the basic education stakeholders: i-Students, i-Teachers and i-Administrators.

  10. Integrated reporting – innovation in accounting paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosława Kwiecień

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article is an introduction to the issues and results of a new trend in interdisciplinary research, which is integrated reporting. „Violated balance”, characteristic of contemporary global economy, forces us to seek solutions oriented to symbiosis between economic, social and environmental progress, which is the basis for fundamental changes in mental models that determine the way the economic organization oper-ates. On the basis of literature studies, as well as management (of innovation, knowledge, etc. science studies and research on changes in legal regulations of accounting, one can venture to say that the change in accounting paradigms is an innovation which stems from legal requirements. Legislation stimulates conceptuality, including information management, standardization of accounting, etc. Innovation theory refers to technological, organizational and market changes, so a question ariseswhether this theory can be applied to accounting practices as well? In this way an idea emerged for inves-tigating the question if the implementation of legal regulations such as International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS or the standards of the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI is a manifestation of the inno-vation theory in the development of accounting systems, especially in reporting.

  11. Inflationary paradigm in trouble after Planck2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ijjas, Anna, E-mail: aijjas@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); University Observatory Munich, 81679 Munich (Germany); Steinhardt, Paul J., E-mail: steinh@princeton.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Princeton Center for Theoretical Science, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Loeb, Abraham, E-mail: aloeb@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-06-25

    Recent results from the Planck satellite combined with earlier observations from WMAP, ACT, SPT and other experiments eliminate a wide spectrum of more complex inflationary models and favor models with a single scalar field, as reported by the Planck Collaboration. More important, though, is that all the simplest inflaton models are disfavored statistically relative to those with plateau-like potentials. We discuss how a restriction to plateau-like models has three independent serious drawbacks: it exacerbates both the initial conditions problem and the multiverse-unpredictability problem and it creates a new difficulty that we call the inflationary “unlikeliness problem.” Finally, we comment on problems reconciling inflation with a standard model Higgs, as suggested by recent LHC results. In sum, we find that recent experimental data disfavors all the best-motivated inflationary scenarios and introduces new, serious difficulties that cut to the core of the inflationary paradigm. Forthcoming searches for B-modes, non-Gaussianity and new particles should be decisive.

  12. International trade disputes in modern regulatory paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Gordeeva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the latest trends observed in the area of contradictory relations between countries with regard to international trade, which cause changes in the paradigm of international trade disputes. It has been found out that any state of inconsistent relations between the countries is recently characterized as a «trade war». It has been analyzed the notions of «dispute», «conflict», «war» according to international regulatory documents and determined the applicability of these terms depending on a number of criteria. It has been studied the evolution of the objects of international trade disputes since the time of ancient Greece until today, and new trends based on this have been revealed with regard to use of trade policy instruments that cause disputes between countries. Several specific examples of international trade disputes and causes of their occurrence have been considered. A quantitative analysis of international trade disputes in general and in relations between the leading countries in terms of a number of the trade disputes in which they were involved has been performed.

  13. Does MOND follow from the CDM paradigm?

    CERN Document Server

    Milgrom, M

    2001-01-01

    In a recent paper, Kaplinghat and Turner (2001) (KT) advertise that MOND can be derived naturally in the CDM paradigm. They actually proceed to produce a more limited result: Every galaxy should have a transition radius, $r_t$, below which baryons dominate, and above which dark matter (DM) takes over; the acceleration at $r_t$ is nearly the same for all galaxies; and due to a coincidences this is of order $a_0\\sim cH_0$. This follows from their tacit, intermediate result, whereby CDM halos of galaxies have a very nearly universal acceleration profile $a(r)\\approx v^2(r)/r\\approx A\\hat a(r/\\ell)$, where A is universal, and only the scale $\\ell$ varies from halo to halo. (This remains so when baryons are added because they assume a universal baryon-collapse factor.) The KT scenario is phenomenologically wrong--observed galaxies are simply not like that. For example, it precludes altogether the existence of LSB galaxies, in which the acceleration is everywhere smaller than $a_0$. The phenomenologically sound out...

  14. Paradigms and Paradoxes: Dawn at Vesta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.

    2014-01-01

    While confirming the popular paradigm of Vesta as the parent body of the HED meteorites, Dawn measurements have discovered many unexpected aspects of the vestan surface. First, an olivine layer was not found in the bottom of the large basin near the south pole of Vesta. In fact, while patches of olivine have been found in the north, it is rare on the surface. Secondly, while Vesta has little gravity and appears to have completely differentiated, it is not completely dry evidence for transient flows and pits resulting from devolatization have been found, implying a substantial amount of accessible water. Thirdly, transport of material to the surface of Vesta from elsewhere in the asteroid belt appears as dark material buried near the top of the crust to Vesta. This may have arrived in a single large impact and been spread around the surface and buried, later to be re-excavated. However, it is not certain that this is the only scenario possible for the source of this material. In short, Dawn's observations of Vesta have been both reassuring but unsettling at the same time.

  15. Covariant Entropy Bound and Padmanabhan's Emergent Paradigm

    CERN Document Server

    Hadi, H; Darabi, F

    2016-01-01

    The covariant entropy conjecture is invariant under time reversal and consequently its origin must be statistical rather than thermodynamical. This may impose a fundamental constraint on the number of degrees of freedom in nature. Indeed, the covariant entropy bound imposes an upper entropy bound for any physical system. Considering a cosmological system, we show that Padmanabhan's emergent paradigm, which indicates that the emergence of cosmic space is due to the discrepancy between the surface and bulk degrees of freedom, leads to a lower entropy bound. The lower and upper entropy bounds may coincide on the apparent horizon for the radiation field and dark energy with the equations of state $\\omega=\\frac{1}{3}$ and $\\omega=-1$, respectively. Moreover, the maximal entropy inside the apparent horizon occurs when it is filled completely by the radiation field or dark energy. It turns out that for dark energy case (pure de Sitter space)\\ the holographic principle is satisfied in the sense that the number of deg...

  16. Anthropology of music: Paradigms and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rašić Miloš

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Music represents a relational category, in the sense that people write meaning into it, and later by the means of the same music they write the meaning into other people. Therefore, I regard music as a cultural construct. Music does not possess universal meanings, but it forms its numerous meanings in different cultural environments, as well as in different individual perceptions. In anthropology, music is not studied in relation to its musical characteristics or aesthetical values. Anthropologists study its role in a wider social system, and strive to understand, by analysing the role of music in a society, the social and cultural system it belongs to - musical structure is less important here. The goal of the paper is to give an overview of the paradigms in ethnology and anthropology which have been used in studying music. In addition, a hypothetical-theoretical framework for studying music in institutions is set. Although the theory of hubs, which is presented here as a potential framework for studying music in institutions, is exemplified by traditional music, it can be applied to any genre of music. The basic theoretical framework offered by the authors Nadia Kiwan and Hanna Mainhof has been supplemented by certain parts which the author thought appropriate for studying music in institutions, both in ethnological and anthropological discourse.

  17. Biofabrication: a 21st century manufacturing paradigm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mironov, V; Trusk, T; Markwald, R [Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States); Kasyanov, V [Riga Stradins University, Riga (Latvia); Little, S [South Carolina EPSCoR/IDeA Program, Columbia, SC (United States); Swaja, R [South Carolina Bioengineering Alliance, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Biofabrication can be defined as the production of complex living and non-living biological products from raw materials such as living cells, molecules, extracellular matrices, and biomaterials. Cell and developmental biology, biomaterials science, and mechanical engineering are the main disciplines contributing to the emergence of biofabrication technology. The industrial potential of biofabrication technology is far beyond the traditional medically oriented tissue engineering and organ printing and, in the short term, it is essential for developing potentially highly predictive human cell- and tissue-based technologies for drug discovery, drug toxicity, environmental toxicology assays, and complex in vitro models of human development and diseases. In the long term, biofabrication can also contribute to the development of novel biotechnologies for sustainable energy production in the future biofuel industry and dramatically transform traditional animal-based agriculture by inventing 'animal-free' food, leather, and fur products. Thus, the broad spectrum of potential applications and rapidly growing arsenal of biofabrication methods strongly suggests that biofabrication can become a dominant technological platform and new paradigm for 21st century manufacturing. The main objectives of this review are defining biofabrication, outlining the most essential disciplines critical for emergence of this field, analysis of the evolving arsenal of biofabrication technologies and their potential practical applications, as well as a discussion of the common challenges being faced by biofabrication technologies, and the necessary conditions for the development of a global biofabrication research community and commercially successful biofabrication industry. (topical review)

  18. Big Data, new epistemologies and paradigm shifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Kitchin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how the availability of Big Data, coupled with new data analytics, challenges established epistemologies across the sciences, social sciences and humanities, and assesses the extent to which they are engendering paradigm shifts across multiple disciplines. In particular, it critically explores new forms of empiricism that declare ‘the end of theory’, the creation of data-driven rather than knowledge-driven science, and the development of digital humanities and computational social sciences that propose radically different ways to make sense of culture, history, economy and society. It is argued that: (1 Big Data and new data analytics are disruptive innovations which are reconfiguring in many instances how research is conducted; and (2 there is an urgent need for wider critical reflection within the academy on the epistemological implications of the unfolding data revolution, a task that has barely begun to be tackled despite the rapid changes in research practices presently taking place. After critically reviewing emerging epistemological positions, it is contended that a potentially fruitful approach would be the development of a situated, reflexive and contextually nuanced epistemology.

  19. Deciphering the selective androgen receptor modulators paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuqing; Sui, Zhihua

    2013-02-01

    The development and potential clinical use of tissue-selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) have advanced tremendously over the past few years. A key aspect of SARMs is the ability to clearly differentiate between the anabolic and androgenic activities. SARMs provide therapeutic opportunities in a variety of diseases, including muscle wasting associated with burns, cancer, end-stage renal disease, osteoporosis, frailty and hypogonadism. The aim of the present paper is to summarize the current standing of research and development of SARMs and plausible molecular mechanisms underlying the potential for selective modulation of androgen receptor (AR) by different ligands. This paper also provides an update on SARM discovery paradigms for preclinical evaluations. Promising results have been obtained in preclinical investigations and initial clinical trials, but long-term safety, tolerability and efficacy studies in patients are still necessary. Preclinically, improving knowledge of tissue selectivity at the molecular level, developing AR selectivity transcription profile, exploring in vitro/in vivo correlation, along with expanding selectivity evaluation among more androgen responsive tissues would accelerate the discovery of a new generation of more selective and safer clinical candidates, minimize false leads and hasten development of effective approaches for an expanded range of clinical conditions.

  20. Evolving paradigms in multifocal breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, Roberto; Aftimos, Philippe; Sotiriou, Christos; Desmedt, Christine

    2015-04-01

    The 7th edition of the TNM defines multifocal breast cancer as multiple simultaneous ipsilateral and synchronous breast cancer lesions, provided they are macroscopically distinct and measurable using current traditional pathological and clinical tools. According to the College of American Pathologists (CAP), the characterization of only the largest lesion is considered sufficient, unless the grade and/or histology are different between the lesions. Here, we review three potentially clinically relevant aspects of multifocal breast cancers: first, the importance of a different intrinsic breast cancer subtype of the various lesions; second, the emerging awareness of inter-lesion heterogeneity; and last but not least, the potential introduction of bias in clinical trials due to the unrecognized biological diversity of these cancers. Although the current strategy to assess the lesion with the largest diameter has clearly its advantages in terms of costs and feasibility, this recommendation may not be sustainable in time and might need to be adapted to be compliant with new evolving paradigms in breast cancer.

  1. Evolution of paradigms of child health in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohs, E

    1985-01-01

    In 1982 Costa Rica had an infant mortality of 18 per 1000 live births and a life expectancy at birth of 76 years for women and 72 years for men. In the evolution of infant health in Costa Rica two paradigms were identified. One developed in the decades before 1970 and the other during the 1970s. The necessity of conceptualizing a third new paradigm compatible with health needs of the present and the immediate future is recognized. The first or "malnutrition paradigm" was orthodox in its derivation; it identified the lack of food as the underlying base for the major health problems and placed its emphasis on institutional medicine. The paradigm was influenced by foreign schools of nutrition and pediatrics and led to the development of an infrastructure for the delivery of medical services and the programs for food distribution. The "infectious disease paradigm" recognized infectious diseases as the main determinants of morbidity, mortality and malnutrition in childhood. The strategies derived from such a revolutionary paradigm aimed at the control and eradication of infectious diseases, and they resulted in a rapid improvement of child nutrition and health. However, the infectious disease paradigm does not seem to reduce infant mortality below the present level.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. A nomenclature paradigm for benign midmembranous vocal fold lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Clark A; Gartner-Schmidt, Jackie; Hathaway, Bridget; Simpson, C Blake; Postma, Gregory N; Courey, Mark; Sataloff, Robert T

    2012-06-01

    There is a significant lack of uniform agreement regarding nomenclature for benign vocal fold lesions (BVFLs). This confusion results in difficulty for clinicians communicating with their patients and with each other. In addition, BVFL research and comparison of treatment methods are hampered by the lack of a detailed and uniform BVFL nomenclature. Clinical consensus conferences were held to develop an initial BVFL nomenclature paradigm. Perceptual video analysis was performed to validate the stroboscopy component of the paradigm. The culmination of the consensus conferences and the video-perceptual analysis was used to evaluate the BVFL nomenclature paradigm using a retrospective review of patients with BVFL. An initial BVFL nomenclature paradigm was proposed utilizing detailed definitions relating to vocal fold lesion morphology, stroboscopy, response to voice therapy and intraoperative findings. Video-perceptual analysis of stroboscopy demonstrated that the proposed binary stroboscopy system used in the BVFL nomenclature paradigm was valid and widely applicable. Retrospective review of 45 patients with BVFL followed to the conclusion of treatment demonstrated that slight modifications of the initial BVFL nomenclature paradigm were required. With the modified BVFL nomenclature paradigm, 96% of the patients fit into the predicted pattern and definitions of the BVFL nomenclature system. This study has validated a multidimensional BVFL nomenclature paradigm. This vocal fold nomenclature paradigm includes nine distinct vocal fold lesions: vocal fold nodules, vocal fold polyp, pseudocyst, vocal fold cyst (subepithelial or ligament), nonspecific vocal fold lesion, vocal fold fibrous mass (subepithelial or ligament), and reactive lesion. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  3. Silencing of two alternative splicing-derived mRNA variants of chitin synthase 1 gene by RNAi is lethal to the oriental migratory locust, Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianzhen; Liu, Xiaojian; Zhang, Jianqin; Li, Daqi; Sun, Yi; Guo, Yaping; Ma, Enbo; Zhu, Kun Yan

    2010-11-01

    Chitin synthases are crucial enzymes responsible for chitin biosynthesis in fungi, nematodes and arthropods. We characterized two alternative splicing-derived variants of chitin synthase 1 gene (LmCHS1) from the oriental migratory locust, Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen). Each cDNA of the two variants (LmCHS1A and LmCHS1B) consists of 5116 nucleotides that include a 4728-nucleotide open reading frame (ORF) encoding 1576 amino acid residues, and 67- and 321-bp non-coding regions at the 5'- and 3'-ends of the cDNA, respectively. The two variants differ only in one exon consisting of 177 nucleotides that encode 59 amino acid residues. The amino acid sequences within this alternative splicing region are 75% identical between the two variants. Both variants were expressed in all the developmental stages. However, LmCHS1A was predominately expressed in the integument whereas LmCHS1B was mainly expressed in the trachea. Our RNAi-based gene silencing study resulted in a dramatic reduction in the levels of the corresponding mRNA in the locust nymphs injected with dsRNA of LmCHS1, or either of its two variants, LmCHS1A and LmCHS1B. Consequentially, 95, 88 and 51% of mortalities were observed in the locusts injected with the LmCHS1, LmCHS1A and LmCHS1B dsRNA, respectively. The phenotypes resulted from the injection of LmCHS1A dsRNA were similar to those from the injection of LmCHS1 dsRNA, whereas the locusts injected with LmCHS1B dsRNA exhibited crimpled cuticle phenotype. Our results suggest that both variants of chitin synthase 1 are essential for insect growth and development.

  4. A synchronous paradigm for modeling stable reactive systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, V.L.

    1998-12-01

    This paper describes a modeling technique for single-agent reactive systems, that is influenced by the modeling paradigm of Parnas as well as by the synchronous paradigms of LUSTRE and ESTEREL. In this paradigm, single-agent reactive systems are modeled in a universe having a discrete clock. This discretization of time greatly reduces the temporal complexity of the model. He believes that the advantage of this reduction in temporal complexity is that the resulting model is in many ways better suited to automated software construction and analysis techniques (e.g., deductive synthesis, transformation, and verification) than models that are based on continuous representations of time.

  5. [Feminist theory: the challenge of turning into a paradigm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, M S

    1997-01-01

    From crisis of traditional paradigm and having feminist criticism as an epicentre, this work attempts to present the challenge feminist theory faces for becoming a new paradigm and for that, a bibliographical research is accomplished, sustained by literature regarding to this theme. It is evidentiated that the challenge of being a paradigm in ascension makes this theory to face theoretical, conceptual and methodological problems which need a joined effort to be deepened and solved. However, this theory development depend not only on the academic world but is also linked to changes in social structure for it will more easily emerge, from a more equalitary society, knowledge with no domination of gender.

  6. Double forced compliance: a new paradigm in cognitive dissonance theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joule, R V

    1991-12-01

    An experiment was conducted with a new paradigm of Festinger's (1957) theory of dissonance. This paradigm was used to test dissonance reduction following two behaviors, rather than just one as in the classic forced compliance paradigm. The first behavior involved refraining from smoking for one evening, and the second, convincing a peer that abstinence from smoking was not difficult. It was hypothesized that the dissonance reduction effect would be greater for a sample of French students who had executed both behaviors than for those who had executed only one. The results supported this hypothesis.

  7. Innovation Policy Development and the Emergence of New Innovation Paradigms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, Stoyan; Knudsen, Mette Præst; Bisgaard, Tanja

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present article is to discuss innovation policy issues related to three emerging innovation paradigms: user-driven innovation, open innovation, and value cocreation. It provides a summary of insights based on innovation policy practices and challenges in Denmark. The choice...... of Danish innovation policy practices is not accidental. In 2008 Denmark implemented 40 different national innovation programs by allocating about 400 million euros. Since the three emerging paradigms have become globally relevant, the discussion of Danish policy development challenges and practices...... is expected to be insightful for innovation experts from other developed countries that are currently dealing with the adoption of these paradigms....

  8. Transcranial magnetic stimulation intensities in cognitive paradigms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob A Kaminski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS has become an important experimental tool for exploring the brain's functional anatomy. As TMS interferes with neural activity, the hypothetical function of the stimulated area can thus be tested. One unresolved methodological issue in TMS experiments is the question of how to adequately calibrate stimulation intensities. The motor threshold (MT is often taken as a reference for individually adapted stimulation intensities in TMS experiments, even if they do not involve the motor system. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether it is reasonable to adjust stimulation intensities in each subject to the individual MT if prefrontal regions are stimulated prior to the performance of a cognitive paradigm. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Repetitive TMS (rTMS was applied prior to a working memory task, either at the 'fixed' intensity of 40% maximum stimulator output (MSO, or individually adapted at 90% of the subject's MT. Stimulation was applied to a target region in the left posterior middle frontal gyrus (pMFG, as indicated by a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI localizer acquired beforehand, or to a control site (vertex. Results show that MT predicted the effect size after stimulating subjects with the fixed intensity (i.e., subjects with a low MT showed a greater behavioral effect. Nevertheless, the individual adaptation of intensities did not lead to stable effects. CONCLUSION: Therefore, we suggest assessing MT and account for it as a measure for general cortical TMS susceptibility, even if TMS is applied outside the motor domain.

  9. Cooperate! A paradigm shift for health equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wei-Ching; Fraser, Joy H

    2017-02-21

    The role of competition and cooperation in relation to the goal of health equity is examined in this paper. The authors explain why the win-lose mentality associated with avoidable competition is ethically questionable and less effective than cooperation in achieving positive outcomes, particularly as it relates to health and health equity. Competition, which differentiates winners from losers, often with the winner-takes-all reward system, inevitably leads to a few winners and many losers, resulting in social inequality, which, in turn, engenders and perpetuates health inequity.Competitive market-driven approaches to healthcare-brought about by capitalism, neo-liberalization, and globalization, based primarily on a competitive framework-are shown to have contributed to growing inequities with respect to the social determinants of health, and have undermined equal opportunity to access health care and achieve health equity. It is possible to redistribute income and wealth to reduce social inequality, but globalization poses increasing challenges to policy makers. John Stuart Mill provided a passionate, philosophical defense of cooperatives, followed by Karl Polanyi who offered an insightful critique of both state socialism and especially the self-regulating market, thereby opening up the cooperative way of shaping the future. We cite Hannah Arendt's "the banality of evil" to characterize the tragic concept of "ethical fading" witnessed in business and everyday life all over the world, often committed (without thinking and reflecting) by ordinary people under competitive pressures.To promote equity in health for all, we recommend the adoption of a radically new cooperation paradigm, applied whenever possible, to everything in our daily lives.

  10. Clinical fMRI of language function in aphasic patients: Reading paradigm successful, while word generation paradigm fails

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engstroem, Maria; Landtblom, Anne-Marie; Ragnehed, Mattias; Lundberg, Peter (Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV), Linkoeping Univ., Linkoeping (Sweden)), e-mail: maria.engstrom@liu.se; Karlsson, Marie; Crone, Marie (Dept. of Clinical and Experimental Medicine/Logopedics, Linkoeping Univ., Linkoeping (Sweden)); Antepohl, Wolfram (Dept. of Clinical and Experimental Medicine/Rehabilitation, Linkoeping Univ., Linkoeping (Sweden))

    2010-07-15

    Background: In fMRI examinations, it is very important to select appropriate paradigms assessing the brain function of interest. In addition, the patients' ability to perform the required cognitive tasks during fMRI must be taken into account. Purpose: To evaluate two language paradigms, word generation and sentence reading for their usefulness in examinations of aphasic patients and to make suggestions for improvements of clinical fMRI. Material and Methods: Five patients with aphasia after stroke or trauma sequelae were examined by fMRI. The patients' language ability was screened by neurolinguistic tests and elementary pre-fMRI language tests. Results: The sentence-reading paradigm succeeded to elicit adequate language-related activation in perilesional areas whereas the word generation paradigm failed. These findings were consistent with results on the behavioral tests in that all patients showed very poor performance in phonemic fluency, but scored well above mean at a reading comprehension task. Conclusion: The sentence-reading paradigm is appropriate to assess language function in this patient group, while the word-generation paradigm seems to be inadequate. In addition, it is crucial to use elementary pre-fMRI language tests to guide the fMRI paradigm decision.

  11. A deviation from the bipolar-tetrapolar mating paradigm in an early diverged basidiomycete.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A Coelho

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In fungi, sexual identity is determined by specialized genomic regions called MAT loci which are the equivalent to sex chromosomes in some animals and plants. Usually, only two sexes or mating types exist, which are determined by two alternate sets of genes (or alleles at the MAT locus (bipolar system. However, in the phylum Basidiomycota, a unique tetrapolar system emerged in which four different mating types are generated per meiosis. This occurs because two functionally distinct molecular recognition systems, each encoded by one MAT region, constrain the selection of sexual partners. Heterozygosity at both MAT regions is a pre-requisite for mating in both bipolar and tetrapolar basidiomycetes. Tetrapolar mating behaviour results from the absence of genetic linkage between the two regions bringing forth up to thousands of mating types. The subphylum Pucciniomycotina, an early diverged lineage of basidiomycetes encompassing important plant pathogens such as the rusts and saprobes like Rhodosporidium and Sporidiobolus, has been so far poorly explored concerning the content and organization of MAT loci. Here we show that the red yeast Sporidiobolus salmonicolor has a mating system unlike any previously described because occasional disruptions of the genetic cohesion of the bipolar MAT locus originate new mating types. We confirmed that mating is normally bipolar and that heterozygosity at both MAT regions is required for mating. However, a laboratory cross showed that meiotic recombination may occur within the bipolar MAT locus, explaining tetrapolar features like increased allele number and evolution rates of some MAT genes. This pseudo-bipolar system deviates from the classical bipolar-tetrapolar paradigm and, to our knowledge, has never been observed before. We propose a model for MAT evolution in the Basidiomycota in which the pseudo-bipolar system may represent a hitherto unforeseen gradual form of transition from an ancestral tetrapolar

  12. Guiding New Teacher Training towards the Acquisition of a Systemic Paradigm

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Luis Guillermo Barrantes-Montero

    2015-01-01

    This paper distinguishes between positivist disciplinary paradigm, which classifies human knowledge into isolated disciplines, and systemic paradigm, which aims at integrating knowledge and an inter...

  13. Information retrieval for children based on the aggregated search paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte Torres, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    This report presents research to develop information services for children by expanding and adapting current Information retrieval technologies according to the search characteristics and needs of children. Concretely, we will employ the aggregated search paradigm as theoretical framework. The objec

  14. The "extended mind" approach for a new paradigm of psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Tetsuya

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, I would like to propose the idea of "extended mind" for a new paradigm of psychology. Kohler (Integrative Psychology & Behavioral Science 44:39-57, 2010) correctly pointed out the serious problems of the machine paradigm, and proposed the "organic" view as a new paradigm. But the term "organic" signifying the processes inside the body, is inadequate to express the characteristic of human mind. The recent philosophy of mind suggests that the mind is realized neither only in the brain nor only in the body, but in the whole system of brain-body-environment, namely, in the "extended mind". The characteristic of human mind resides in the interaction with the mediating tools, artifacts, and the humanized environment. We should propose an "extended mind approach" or an "ecological approach to humanized environment" as a new paradigm for a psychology.

  15. Think globally, research locally: paradigms and place in agroecological research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reynolds, Heather L; Smith, Alex A; Farmer, James R

    2014-01-01

    .... As we rise to the worthy call to connect basic research with food production, scientists have the opportunity to evaluate alternative food production paradigms and consider how our research funds...

  16. [Reconstituting evaluation methods based on both qualitative and quantitative paradigms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Hiroaki; Okubo, Suguru; Yoshie, Satoru; Kai, Ichiro

    2011-01-01

    Debate about the relationship between quantitative and qualitative paradigms is often muddled and confusing and the clutter of terms and arguments has resulted in the concepts becoming obscure and unrecognizable. In this study we conducted content analysis regarding evaluation methods of qualitative healthcare research. We extracted descriptions on four types of evaluation paradigm (validity/credibility, reliability/credibility, objectivity/confirmability, and generalizability/transferability), and classified them into subcategories. In quantitative research, there has been many evaluation methods based on qualitative paradigms, and vice versa. Thus, it might not be useful to consider evaluation methods of qualitative paradigm are isolated from those of quantitative methods. Choosing practical evaluation methods based on the situation and prior conditions of each study is an important approach for researchers.

  17. Toward an Afro-Centric indigenous HCI paradigm

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Winschiers-Theophilus, H

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Current human–computer interaction (HCI) paradigms are deeply rooted in a Western epistemology that attests its partiality and bias of its embedded assumptions, values, definitions, techniques, and derived frameworks and models. Thus tensions...

  18. How do new innovation paradigms challenge current innovation policy perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Mette Præst; Tanev, Stoyan; Bisgaard, Tanja

    2012-01-01

    multiple actors by managing knowledge sharing processes across entire value networks. The chapter provides a brief description and comparison of these new innovation paradigms and discusses the challenges that these paradigms imply for existing innovation policies. The innovation policy recommendations......Successful firms today are forced to deal with new competitive realities by being globally present, innovatively resourceful and internationally competitive on multiple markets across the world. The new competitive realities challenge firms to open their innovation processes by adopting new...... innovation paradigms such as user-driven innovation, open innovation and value co-creation. The user-driven and open innovation paradigms have already become the subject of extensive research and are currently discussed in terms of their potential implications for policy development. The value co...

  19. A consideration of the paradigm of exercise physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgore, J L; Baker, J S; Davies, B

    2014-01-01

    Exercise physiology, in terms of the history of biological sciences, is quite young and has a rather tumultuous history - as it spans physical education, health & medicine, sport science, and biology. This has led to the development of differing definitions, research approaches, practices and goals. This is easily seen in the presence of competing and non-universally adopted definitions of fitness. Such internal inconsistencies portray to the outside world a discipline experiencing the problems associated with a changing paradigm. Every science requires the presence of a paradigm that both describes and guides the evolution of thinking, experimentation, and the application of such. It is argued here that exercise physiology has been operating without benefit of a satisfactory and relevant paradigm. A further proposition is that the required disciplinary definitions derived from an articulated paradigm are also absent. A paradigmatic scheme based on biological dogma is presented along with proposed definitions.

  20. Scaling, similarity, and the fourth paradigm for hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Clark, Martyn; Samaniego, Luis; Verhoest, Niko E. C.; van Emmerik, Tim; Uijlenhoet, Remko; Achieng, Kevin; Franz, Trenton E.; Woods, Ross

    2017-07-01

    In this synthesis paper addressing hydrologic scaling and similarity, we posit that roadblocks in the search for universal laws of hydrology are hindered by our focus on computational simulation (the third paradigm) and assert that it is time for hydrology to embrace a fourth paradigm of data-intensive science. Advances in information-based hydrologic science, coupled with an explosion of hydrologic data and advances in parameter estimation and modeling, have laid the foundation for a data-driven framework for scrutinizing hydrological scaling and similarity hypotheses. We summarize important scaling and similarity concepts (hypotheses) that require testing; describe a mutual information framework for testing these hypotheses; describe boundary condition, state, flux, and parameter data requirements across scales to support testing these hypotheses; and discuss some challenges to overcome while pursuing the fourth hydrological paradigm. We call upon the hydrologic sciences community to develop a focused effort towards adopting the fourth paradigm and apply this to outstanding challenges in scaling and similarity.

  1. A Communication Paradigm for Modular Avionics: The DAPAR Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorca-Cejudo, Roger; Carayon, Jean-Louis; Autolinos, Luc

    2014-08-01

    The DAPAR avionics paradigm was conceived at CNES as a path to reduce avionics subsystem development costs while, at the same time increasing its modularity and flexibility. A demonstrator system has been constructed based on DAPAR concepts with the objective of studying what are the difficulties/benefits of the approach. This paper describes both the characteristics of the DAPAR paradigm and the lessons learned from the demonstrator system.

  2. Cross-Paradigm Simulation Modeling: Challenges and Successes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    This paper addresses the broad topic area of cross-paradigm simulation modeling with a focus on the discrete-event, system dynamics and agent-based...used in simulation modeling are also discussed, and the implications of these mechanisms for each paradigm is explored....and definitions are presented. The difference between the process-oriented worldview and the event-oriented worldview within discrete-event simulation

  3. Indian Science Culture Needs a Paradigm Shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Om P

    2017-06-01

    am sure such a cultural change and paradigm shift from the status quo does not need extra funds and can be surely ushered in without money.

  4. The string-pulling paradigm in comparative psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Ivo F; Osvath, Mathias

    2015-05-01

    String pulling is one of the most widely used paradigms in comparative psychology. First documented 2 millennia ago, it has been a well-established scientific paradigm for a century. More than 160 bird and mammal species have been tested in over 200 studies with countless methodological variations. The paradigm can be used to address a wide variety of issues on animal cognition; for example, what animals understand about contact and connection as well as whether they rely on perceptual feedback, grasp the functionality of strings, generalize across conditions, apply their knowledge flexibly, and possess insight. Mammals are typically tested on a horizontal configuration, birds on a vertical one, making the studies difficult to compare; in particular, pulling a string vertically requires better coordination and attention. A species' performance on the paradigm is often influenced by its ecology, especially concerning whether limbs are used for foraging. Many other factors can be of importance and should be considered. The string-pulling paradigm is easy to administer, vary, and apply to investigate a wide array of cognitive abilities. Although it can be and has been used to compare species, divergent methods and unclear reporting have limited its comparative utility. With increasing research standards, the paradigm is expected to become an even more fundamental tool in comparative psychology. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Beyond paradigms in Organization Studies: the Circle of Epistemic Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Paes de Paula

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article, I present a sketch of a new proposition to guide organizational studies: the Cicle of Epistemic Matrices. Inspired by Thomas Kuhn and based on the thesis of paradigms' incommensurability, Gibson Burrell and Gareth Morgan drew the diagram of sociological paradigms, but its inclusion in the academy has encouraged a paradigms war. The Circle of Epistemic Matrices also provides an outline for the guidance of organizational studies, but it is based on Habermas and defends the thesis of cognitive incompleteness, suggesting that the sociological and organizational knowledge grows according to the thesis of epistemic reconstructions. To accomplish these propositions and elaborations, I present the debate about the paradigms' war in literature and I question the adequacy of sociological paradigms of Gibson Burrell and Gareth Morgan to organizational studies, with the issue of the influence that it suffered from Kuhnian paradigms and logic. In the following sections, there is an exhibition of alternative proposition - the of Circle of Epistemic Matrices - and, also, I support the thesis of cognitive incompleteness and the thesis of epistemic reconstructions in order to bring a new theory of knowledge development to the area. Finally, I present the findings and thoughts for future research.

  6. Long-term reliability of the visual EEG Poffenberger paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Patrick; Ocklenburg, Sebastian; Mochalski, Lisa; Schlüter, Caroline; Güntürkün, Onur; Genc, Erhan

    2017-07-14

    The Poffenberger paradigm is a simple perception task that is used to estimate the speed of information transfer between the two hemispheres, the so-called interhemispheric transfer time (IHTT). Although the original paradigm is a behavioral task, it can be combined with electroencephalography (EEG) to assess the underlying neurophysiological processes during task execution. While older studies have supported the validity of both paradigms for investigating interhemispheric interactions, their long-term reliability has not been assessed systematically before. The present study aims to fill this gap by determining both internal consistency and long-term test-retest reliability of IHTTs produced by using the two different versions of the Poffenberger paradigm in a sample of 26 healthy subjects. The results show high reliability for the EEG Poffenberger paradigm. In contrast, reliability measures for the behavioral Poffenberger paradigm were low. Hence, our results indicate that electrophysiological measures of interhemispheric transfer are more reliable than behavioral measures; the later should be used with caution in research investigating inter-individual differences of neurocognitive measures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis - Towards a new paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaschke, Thomas; Hay, Geoffrey J; Kelly, Maggi; Lang, Stefan; Hofmann, Peter; Addink, Elisabeth; Queiroz Feitosa, Raul; van der Meer, Freek; van der Werff, Harald; van Coillie, Frieke; Tiede, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    The amount of scientific literature on (Geographic) Object-based Image Analysis - GEOBIA has been and still is sharply increasing. These approaches to analysing imagery have antecedents in earlier research on image segmentation and use GIS-like spatial analysis within classification and feature extraction approaches. This article investigates these development and its implications and asks whether or not this is a new paradigm in remote sensing and Geographic Information Science (GIScience). We first discuss several limitations of prevailing per-pixel methods when applied to high resolution images. Then we explore the paradigm concept developed by Kuhn (1962) and discuss whether GEOBIA can be regarded as a paradigm according to this definition. We crystallize core concepts of GEOBIA, including the role of objects, of ontologies and the multiplicity of scales and we discuss how these conceptual developments support important methods in remote sensing such as change detection and accuracy assessment. The ramifications of the different theoretical foundations between the 'per-pixel paradigm' and GEOBIA are analysed, as are some of the challenges along this path from pixels, to objects, to geo-intelligence. Based on several paradigm indications as defined by Kuhn and based on an analysis of peer-reviewed scientific literature we conclude that GEOBIA is a new and evolving paradigm.

  8. Incorporación de dos ensayos alternativos para evaluar irritación ocular en un laboratorio de toxicología Incorporation of two alternative assays for evaluating ocular irritation in a toxicology laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Murillo Jorge

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron 2 ensayos alternativos al uso de animales de laboratorio que han sido propuestos para determinar el potencial de irritación ocular de sustancias químicas y formulaciones; uno que utiliza eritrocitos bovinos y, otro, la membrana corioalantoidea del embrión de pollo de 10 días de incubación. Se halló el potencial de irritación de algunas de las sustancias de referencia que están incluidas en los respectivos protocolos y se encontró correspondencia con los datos reportados en ellos, ya que la clasificación para cada una de las sustancias fue igual a la referida. Fueron irritantes el cloruro de benzalconio, el lauril sulfato de sodio y el hidróxido de sodio; no resultó irritante el poli-etilen-glicol. Este comportamiento es el mismo que se ha obtenido en estudios in vivo. Además de ofrecer resultados confiables, estas técnicas son económicas, rápidas y de fácil realización, en comparación con el procedimiento tradicional que se realiza en conejos.Two alternative assays to the use of laboratory animals that have been proposed to determine the potential of ocular irritation of chemical substances and formulations, were evaluated. One of them uses bovine erythrocytes and the other the chorio-allantoic membrane of the chicken embrio of 10 days of incubation. The irritation potential of some of the reference substances that are included in the respective protocols was calculated and it was found correspondence with the data reported in them, since the classification for each of the substance was identical to the referred one. Benzalkonium chloride, lauryl sodium sulphate and sodium hydroxide proved to be irritant. Poly-ethylen-glycol was not irritant. This behavior is the same that has been obtained in vivo. Besides providing reliable results, these techniques are economic, fast and easy to be applied compared with the traditional procedure carried out in rabbits.

  9. Increasing Product Confidence-Shifting Paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Marla; Kashyap, Vishal; Cheung, Mee-Shew

    2015-01-01

    Leaders in the pharmaceutical, medical device, and food industries expressed a unilateral concern over product confidence throughout the total product lifecycle, an unsettling fact for these leaders to manage given that their products affect the lives of millions of people each year. Fueled by the heparin incident of intentional adulteration in 2008, initial efforts for increasing product confidence were focused on improving the confidence of incoming materials, with a belief that supplier performance must be the root cause. As in the heparin case, concern over supplier performance extended deep into the supply chain to include suppliers of the suppliers-which is often a blind spot for pharmaceutical, device, and food manufacturers. Resolved to address the perceived lack of supplier performance, these U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-regulated industries began to adopt the supplier relationship management strategy, developed by the automotive industry, that emphasizes "management" of suppliers for the betterment of the manufacturers. Current product and supplier management strategies, however, have not led to a significant improvement in product confidence. As a result of the enduring concern by industry leaders over the lack of product confidence, Xavier University launched the Integrity of Supply Initiative in 2012 with a team of industry leaders and FDA officials. Through a methodical research approach, data generated by the pharmaceutical, medical device, and food manufacturers surprisingly pointed to themselves as a source of the lack of product confidence, and revealed that manufacturers either unknowingly increase the potential for error or can control/prevent many aspects of product confidence failure. It is only through this paradigm shift that manufacturers can work collaboratively with their suppliers as equal partners, instead of viewing their suppliers as "lesser" entities needing to be controlled. The basis of this shift provides manufacturers

  10. A Case-Conference Exercise to Facilitate Understanding of Paradigms in Abnormal Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafosse, Jose M.; Zinser, Michael C.

    2002-01-01

    In this article we describe an in-class case-conference exercise designed to enhance the teaching of paradigms in abnormal psychology courses. The primary pedagogical goals are to increase awareness of how paradigms are applied in real-life settings; better distinguish between paradigms; and recognize how paradigms influence understanding of…

  11. A Case-Conference Exercise to Facilitate Understanding of Paradigms in Abnormal Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafosse, Jose M.; Zinser, Michael C.

    2002-01-01

    In this article we describe an in-class case-conference exercise designed to enhance the teaching of paradigms in abnormal psychology courses. The primary pedagogical goals are to increase awareness of how paradigms are applied in real-life settings; better distinguish between paradigms; and recognize how paradigms influence understanding of…

  12. Nota Técnica: Comportamiento productivo de la morera sometida a dos alternativas de fertilización orgánica Technical Note: Productive performance of mulberry subject to two alternatives of organic fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertrudis Pentón

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar el comportamiento agronómico de la morera (Morus alba L. var. Acorazonada ante dos alternativas de fertilización orgánica, se realizó un estudio en áreas de la EEPF «Indio Hatuey». El suelo característico del lugar es del tipo Ferralítico Rojo hidratado; las precipitaciones oscilaron entre 1 000 y 1 145 mm de lluvia por año. En el corte de establecimiento se obtuvieron variaciones altamente significativas entre los tratamientos: testigo sin fertilizar, asociación morera-Albizia lebbeck como abono verde vs morera fertilizada con materia orgánica (41,6; 45,0 y 72,4 g de biomasa seca comestible por individuo, respectivamente. Sin embargo, en la época lluviosa del segundo año de explotación, la producción acumulada no mostró variaciones significativas entre la asociación y la morera fertilizada (88,8 y 86,7 g de biomasa seca comestible por individuo, aunque sí con respecto al testigo que solo produjo 40,7 g. Se concluye que el aporte de materia orgánica al suelo durante el establecimiento de las plantaciones de morera y/o la asociación de A. lebbeck manejada como abono verde, proporcionan una ventaja significativa en la respuesta productiva del arbusto forrajero, y se destacó la segunda alternativa por su carácter endógeno.A study was carried out in areas of the EEPF “Indio Hatuey”, with the objective of evaluating the agronomic performance of mulberry (Morus alba L. var. Acorazonada before two alternatives of organic fertilization. The soil of the site is hydrated Ferralitic Red; rainfall oscillated between 1 000 and 1 145 mm per year. In the establishment cutting highly significant variations were obtained among the treatments: control without fertilization, association mulberry-Albizia lebbeck as green manure vs mulberry fertilized with organic matter (41,6; 45,0 and 72,4 g of edible dry biomass per individual, respectively. Nevertheless, in the rainy season of the second year of exploitation

  13. Presence of two alternative kdr-like mutations, L1014F and L1014S, and a novel mutation, V1010L, in the voltage gated Na+ channel of Anopheles culicifacies from Orissa, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatt Rajendra M

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knockdown resistance in insects resulting from mutation(s in the voltage gated Na+ channel (VGSC is one of the mechanisms of resistance against DDT and pyrethroids. Recently a point mutation leading to Leu-to-Phe substitution in the VGSC at residue 1014, a most common kdr mutation in insects, was reported in Anopheles culicifacies-a major malaria vector in the Indian subcontinent. This study reports the presence of two additional amino acid substitutions in the VGSC of an An. culicifacies population from Malkangiri district of Orissa, India. Methods Anopheles culicifacies sensu lato (s.l. samples, collected from a population of Malkangiri district of Orissa (India, were sequenced for part of the second transmembrane segment of VGSC and analyzed for the presence of non-synonymous mutations. A new primer introduced restriction analysis-PCR (PIRA-PCR was developed for the detection of the new mutation L1014S. The An. culicifacies population was genotyped for the presence of L1014F substitution by an amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS and for L1014S substitutions by using a new PIRA-PCR developed in this study. The results were validated through DNA sequencing. Results DNA sequencing of An. culicifacies individuals collected from district Malkangiri revealed the presence of three amino acid substitutions in the IIS6 transmembrane segments of VGSC, each one resulting from a single point mutation. Two alternative point mutations, 3042A>T transversion or 3041T>C transition, were found at residue L1014 leading to Leu (TTA-to-Phe (TTT or -Ser (TCA changes, respectively. A third and novel substitution, Val (GTG-to-Leu (TTG or CTG, was identified at residue V1010 resulting from either of the two transversions–3028G>T or 3028G>C. The L1014S substitution co-existed with V1010L in all the samples analyzed irrespective of the type of point mutation associated with the latter. The PIRA-PCR strategy developed for the

  14. SCKE:Combining Logic— with Object Oriented Paradigm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金芝; 胡守仁

    1993-01-01

    A new implementation(SCKE-Structured Communication Knowledge Entity)has been proposed towards combining the logic with the object-oriented paradigm of computing.It is intended to explore the advatnages in these two paradigms in a structured,natural and efficient manner for large-scale knowledge processing.The SCKE model supports modularity and protection for the structured development of knowledge systems.It also introduces the concepts that are typical for the object-oriented systems in the logic-oriented paradigm,without losing its advantages as a declarative language.Various inheritance hierarchies are supported in the SCKE model.They provide the semantics basis basis for various knowledge in AI systems.The M-entity/K-entity/Instance inberitance captures the relationship among the control,procedural and factural knowledge in AI systems.And ,the super-entity/entity/instance inheritance shows the concepts of data abstraction in the knowledge of a particular domain.In addition,the SCKE model is not simply supported on top of Prolog like other attempts to integrate the object-into the logic-oriented paradigm.The SCKE model is a tightly coupled model of the logic and the object-oriented paradigm and its interpreter uniformly interprets the logic semantics and the object-oriented semantics.

  15. Complexity: a potential paradigm for a health promotion discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Marie-Claude; Richard, Lucie

    2014-06-01

    Health promotion underpins a distancing from narrow, simplifying health approaches associated with the biomedical model. However, it has not yet succeeded in formally establishing its theoretical, epistemological and methodological foundations on a single paradigm. The complexity paradigm, which it has yet to broach head-on, might provide it with a disciplinary matrix in line with its implicit stances and basic values. This article seeks to establish complexity's relevance as a paradigm that can contribute to the development of a health promotion discipline. The relevance of complexity is justified primarily by its matching with several implicit epistemological and methodological/theoretical stances found in the cardinal concepts and principles of health promotion. The transcendence of ontological realism and determinism as well as receptiveness in respect of the reflexivity that complexity encompasses are congruent with the values of social justice, participation, empowerment and the concept of positive health that the field promotes. Moreover, from a methodological and theoretical standpoint, complexity assumes a holistic, contextual and transdisciplinary approach, toward which health promotion is tending through its emphasis on ecology and interdisciplinary action. In a quest to illustrate our position, developmental evaluation is presented as an example of practice stemming from a complexity paradigm that can be useful in the evaluation of health promotion initiatives. In short, we argue that it would be advantageous for health promotion to integrate this paradigm, which would provide it with a formal framework appropriate to its purposes and concerns.

  16. The Paradigm of Critical Realism: Approach to an Interdisciplinary Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Tavana

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The debate of method of recognition in humanities, social and nature science is one of the apprehensions of Scientists in Wisdom Domain –especially in the modern world. This apprehension, before all things was of appearing in the paradigm of methodoligical between the advocates of the paradigms of positivism with having a share of the natural science. They used to values of naturalism in social and human studies. Additionally, testing and observation and repetition are present as the main terms of recognition. In front, the difference between human studies and natural science is important for the advocates of hermeneutic paradigm. Also, they speak about the methodology of interpretation (understanding of human and social phenomenon. But, in the second half of 20th century another paradigms was established as the Critical realism. This paradigm is tried to parther from the methodoloigcal binary and has a share from the recognition of ontological positivism and epistemological hermeneutics attain to a procedure of interdisciplinary about recognition. So, on the basis of this subject, this article mentioned this question that: would the critical realism receive as the methodology in interdisciplinary? Method of the Article is postulate. This article reasoned that multilayer ontology and epistemology redounded to multilayer methodology that could build up the knowledge of interdisciplinary.

  17. e-Science Paradigm for Astroparticle Physics at KISTI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kihyeon

    2016-03-01

    The Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information (KISTI) has been studying the e-Science paradigm. With its successful application to particle physics, we consider the application of the paradigm to astroparticle physics. The Standard Model of particle physics is still not considered perfect even though the Higgs boson has recently been discovered. Astrophysical evidence shows that dark matter exists in the universe, hinting at new physics beyond the Standard Model. Therefore, there are efforts to search for dark matter candidates using direct detection, indirect detection, and collider detection. There are also efforts to build theoretical models for dark matter. Current astroparticle physics involves big investments in theories and computing along with experiments. The complexity of such an area of research is explained within the framework of the e-Science paradigm. The idea of the e-Science paradigm is to unify experiment, theory, and computing. The purpose is to study astroparticle physics anytime and anywhere. In this paper, an example of the application of the paradigm to astrophysics is presented.

  18. Paradigms in epidemiology textbooks: in the footsteps of Thomas Kuhn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhopal, R

    1999-08-01

    This article attempts to contribute to the debate on the future of epidemiology by combining Thomas Kuhn's ideas on scientific paradigms with the author's observations on some epidemiology textbooks. The author's interpretations were based on his readings of Kuhn's The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, epidemiology textbooks, and papers on the future of epidemiology. Thomas Kuhn's view is that sciences mostly work with a single paradigm driven by exemplars of successful work, and that proposals for paradigm change are resisted. Sciences that are maturing or changing do not have a dominant paradigm. Epidemiology textbooks showed diversity in their concepts, content, and approach. Most exemplars related to etiologic research rather than public health practice. One key focus of the recent controversy regarding the role of epidemiology has been the increasing inability of epidemiology to solve socially based public health problems. Kuhn's views help explain the polarization of views expressed. Kuhn's philosophy of science offers insights into controversies such as whether a paradigm shift is needed or imminent and the gap between epidemiology and public health practice. Interaction between science philosophers, epidemiologists, and public health practitioners may be valuable.

  19. Uncorking the Future: Transitions to a New Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Jacobs

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article explores issues discussed at three recent WAAS events regarding the process of transition to a new paradigm. The prominent institutions and policies governing the present paradigm are founded upon a bedrock of ideas and values and an abstract, reductionistic mode of analytic thinking detached from people and social reality. Escape from the present blind alley and transition to a new paradigm require adoption of a different way of thinking that is human-centered, value-based, inclusive and synthetic. The multidimensional challenges confronting humanity today are the consequence of precious opportunities missed at the end of the Cold War. At the same time the awareness and energy released by these challenges has the potential for converting current challenges into unprecedented opportunities for progress at the global level. The outcome depends on our capacity to discover the complementarity underlying apparently contradictory, opposite viewpoints. Multi-culturalism is at once the source of intense frictions and conflict and the rich genetic potential from which a new paradigm can emerge. A new paradigm requires a deeper understanding of the cultural underpinnings of democracy, a rational examination of the sacred cow of national sovereignty, and explicit recognition of the social responsibility of science for the consequences of scientific discovery and technological innovation. Leadership will play a crucial role in determining the outcome – intellectual leadership at the level of ideas, scientific leadership that exhibits consciousness responsibility, transformational leadership at the level of international institutions and nation-states.

  20. Charting Relations between Intersectionality Theory and the Neurodiversity Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Rose Strand

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores central elements and applications of intersectionality theory and the neurodiversity paradigm. First, the histories and tenets of intersectionality theory and neurodiversity paradigm are provided. Then, areas are explored where each of the two approaches might further engage with the principles of the other. Finally, the essay concludes by broadly considering the efforts made by the Black Lives Matter movement and the Autistic Self Advocacy Network to bring attention to and end police violence as both networks employ and attend to elements of intersectionality and neurodiversity. The way these two networks draw on both intersectionality and neurodiversity to further their mission could be a possible site for scholars to consider in the interest of advancing dialogues between intersectionality theory and the neurodiversity paradigm. Ultimately, the essay calls for a continued exploration of the potentials for intersectionality and neurodiversity to complement and complicate one another, both in terms of theoretical development and coalition building.

  1. Campus suicide prevention: bridging paradigms and forging partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drum, David J; Denmark, Adryon Burton

    2012-01-01

    Colleges and universities are increasingly recognizing the need to expand suicide-prevention efforts beyond the standard, clinical-intervention paradigm of suicide prevention, which relies on referral to, and treatment by, mental health services. These services frequently struggle, however, to provide effective, comprehensive care. After reviewing findings that support the need to adopt a broader, problem-focused paradigm, the article provides a framework for bridging this paradigm with the clinical-intervention approach and for conceptualizing a full continuum of preventive interventions. For each level of intervention (ranging from the individual to the ecological), we describe the goals and methods used, and provide examples to illustrate the role of psychiatrists and other campus mental health providers in the collaborative partnerships that must form to support a comprehensive, campus-wide suicide-prevention strategy.

  2. The locative paradigm in Spanish in the generative perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja Jenko

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The author deals with locative paradigm as a universal linguistic phenomenon, which encompasses three types of sentences: predicative-locative sentence, existential sentence and possessive sentence. It is assumed that all three types of sentences derive from the same deep structure. The emphasis is on the analysis of the Spanish locative paradigm; especially in linking verbs ser, estar, haber and tener as well as on those properties of nominal phrases that affect their distribution. The results show that the locative argument is mandatory, that the linking verbs of the locative paradigm derive from each other, and that in particular [+/- definiteness] of the theme and [+/- humanity] of the location influence the selection of a particular sentence type.

  3. Paradigms of mangroves in treatment of anthropogenic wastewater pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Xiaoguang; Guo, Fen

    2016-02-15

    Mangroves have been increasingly recognized for treating wastewater from aquaculture, sewage and other sources with the overwhelming urbanization trend. This study clarified the three paradigms of mangroves in disposing wastewater contaminants: natural mangroves, constructed wetlands (including free water surface and subsurface flow) and mangrove-aquaculture coupling systems. Plant uptake is the common major mechanism for nutrient removal in all the paradigms as mangroves are generally nitrogen and phosphorus limited. Besides, sediments accrete and provide substrates for microbial activities, thereby removing organic matter and nutrients from wastewater in natural mangroves and constructed wetlands. Among the paradigms, the mangrove-aquaculture coupling system was determined to be the optimal alternative for aquaculture wastewater treatment by multi-criterion decision making. Sensitivity analysis shows variability of alternative ranking but underpins the coupling system as the most environment-friendly and cost-efficient option. Mangrove restoration is expected to be achievable if aquaculture ponds are planted with mangrove seedlings, creating the coupling system.

  4. Logic and human reasoning: an assessment of the deduction paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jonathan St B T

    2002-11-01

    The study of deductive reasoning has been a major paradigm in psychology for approximately the past 40 years. Research has shown that people make many logical errors on such tasks and are strongly influenced by problem content and context. It is argued that this paradigm was developed in a context of logicist thinking that is now outmoded. Few reasoning researchers still believe that logic is an appropriate normative system for most human reasoning, let alone a model for describing the process of human reasoning, and many use the paradigm principally to study pragmatic and probabilistic processes. It is suggested that the methods used for studying reasoning be reviewed, especially the instructional context, which necessarily defines pragmatic influences as biases.

  5. The emergence of a new paradigm in ape language research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanker, Stuart G; King, Barbara J

    2002-10-01

    In recent years we have seen a dramatic shift, in several different areas of communication studies, from an information-theoretic to a dynamic systems paradigm. In an information processing system, communication, whether between cells, mammals, apes, or humans, is said to occur when one organism encodes information into a signal that is transmitted to another organism that decodes the signal. In a dynamic system, all of the elements are continuously interacting with and changing in respect to one another, and an aggregate pattern emerges from this mutual co-action. Whereas the information-processing paradigm looks at communication as a linear, binary sequence of events, the dynamic systems paradigm looks at the relation between behaviors and how the whole configuration changes over time. One of the most dramatic examples of the significance of shifting from an information processing to a dynamic systems paradigm can be found in the debate over the interpretation of recent advances in ape language research (ALR). To some extent, many of the early ALR studies reinforced the stereotype that animal communication is functional and stimulus bound, precisely because they were based on an information-processing paradigm that promoted a static model of communicative development. But Savage-Rumbaugh's recent results with bonobos has introduced an entirely new dimension into this debate. Shifting the terms of the discussion from an information-processing to a dynamic systems paradigm not only highlights the striking differences between Savage-Rumbaugh's research and earlier ALR studies, but further, it sheds illuminating light on the factors that underpin the development of communication skills in great apes and humans, and the relationship between communicative development and the development of language.

  6. Touch and technology: Two paradigms of patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadow, S

    1984-03-01

    Technology violates human dignity only to the extent that its use reduces persons to the moral status of objects. The prevalence of technology in health care is an extension of the scientific paradigm, in which the body is reduced to an object void of subjectivity. The empathie paradigm, in contrast, is based upon the moral primacy of subjectivity. Empathic touch-as distinct from instrumental and philanthropic touch-establishes a clinical relation of intersubjectivity, affirming in patients the dignity and worth that morally distinguish persons from objects.

  7. Embracing the new paradigm of assessment in residency training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringsted, C; Østergaard, D; Scherpbier, A

    2003-01-01

    . Also there is a shift in the concept of assessment in that instruction and assessment are no longer seen as being separate in time and purpose, but as integral parts of the learning process. The nature of the new paradigm for assessment is well described but the challenge to programme directors...... is to specify the evaluation situations and develop appropriate methods. This paper describes the intrinsic rational validation process in outlining an assessment programme for first-year anaesthesiology residency training according to the new paradigm. The applicability to other residency programmes and higher......-level training in anaesthesiology is discussed. Udgivelsesdato: 2003-Jan...

  8. Dynamics of systems and change in the accounting paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luis Juliao Rossi

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this document is to demonstrate the potential of the dynamics of systems as a thinking trend which may help in the understanding process and the construction of an accounting paradigm change. This objective is framed inside a wider purpose: to propase interdisciplinary encounters that contribute to the necessary paradigm change. The described problem is studied from the «System Thinking», which is an approach with theoretical framework and representation and simulation tools related to the tapie.

  9. Software engineering frameworks for the cloud computing paradigm

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmood, Zaigham

    2013-01-01

    This book presents the latest research on Software Engineering Frameworks for the Cloud Computing Paradigm, drawn from an international selection of researchers and practitioners. The book offers both a discussion of relevant software engineering approaches and practical guidance on enterprise-wide software deployment in the cloud environment, together with real-world case studies. Features: presents the state of the art in software engineering approaches for developing cloud-suitable applications; discusses the impact of the cloud computing paradigm on software engineering; offers guidance an

  10. Asymmetric Unification: A New Unification Paradigm for Cryptographic Protocol Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The final publication is available at Springer via http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-38574-2_16 We present a new paradigm for unification arising out of a technique commonly used in cryptographic protocol analysis tools that employ unification modulo equational theories. This paradigm relies on: (i) a decomposition of an equational theory into (R,E) where R is confluent, terminating, and coherent modulo E, and (ii) on reducing unification problems to a set of problems s=?ts=?t under the ...

  11. Sex therapy: advances in paradigms, nomenclature, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althof, Stanley

    2010-01-01

    The author reviews the historical paradigms that have influenced the treatment of sexual problems, changes in the diagnostic nomenclature, and recent innovations in sex therapy. The author reviews the literature and provides expert opinion. The author gives a historical overview of how theoretical models of understanding human sexuality have influenced treatment, describes the changes in sexual dysfunction nomenclature, and focuses on the combined medical and psychological treatment of sexual dysfunction. Sex therapy continues to evolve with new paradigms and definitions for understanding and diagnosing sexual problems and innovative methods of treating sexual problems.

  12. Exploring paradigms of crime reduction: An empirical longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soothill, University of Lancaster, Keith; Christoffersen, Mogens; Azhar, Hussain

    on offenders with first-time convictions for shoplifting (n=1,778), for violence (n=1,585) and for burglary (n=1,208), all four paradigms made a contribution to risk of first time offending for all three crimes. The counter factual analysis indicated that a focus on structural issues within a society may have......Using Danish registers for a 1980 birth cohort of 29,944 males with parental information and following up these cases for 24 years, the study considers four paradigms of crime reduction (parental child-rearing, structural factors around adolescence, locality and individual resources). Focusing...

  13. Computing discrete logarithm by interval-valued paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedek Nagy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Interval-valued computing is a relatively new computing paradigm. It uses finitely many interval segments over the unit interval in a computation as data structure. The satisfiability of Quantified Boolean formulae and other hard problems, like integer factorization, can be solved in an effective way by its massive parallelism. The discrete logarithm problem plays an important role in practice, there are cryptographical methods based on its computational hardness. In this paper we show that the discrete logarithm problem is computable by an interval-valued computing in a polynomial number of steps (within this paradigm.

  14. Fingerprints of Primordial Universe Paradigms as Features in Density Perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xingang

    2011-01-01

    Experimentally distinguishing different primordial universe paradigms that lead to the Big Bang model is an outstanding challenge in modern cosmology and astrophysics. We show that a generic type of signals that exist in primordial universe models can be used for such purpose. These signals are induced by tiny oscillations of massive fields and manifest as features in primordial density perturbations. They are capable of recording the time-dependence of the scale factor of the primordial universe, and therefore provide direct evidence for specific paradigm.

  15. A heretic's view of the object-oriented paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Per

    1998-01-01

    A basic assumption of the object-oriented paradigm of computer programming and database thinking is that objects (including classes) are dynamic: classes have objects as instances which can be created, modified, and deleted. I argue that this leads to unnecessary conceptual difficulties, and sugg......A basic assumption of the object-oriented paradigm of computer programming and database thinking is that objects (including classes) are dynamic: classes have objects as instances which can be created, modified, and deleted. I argue that this leads to unnecessary conceptual difficulties...

  16. A Technical/Strategic Paradigm for Online Executive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Marlene A.; Keaveney, Susan M.

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the development and delivery of online courses for the executive education audience. The goal is to introduce a new framework, the technical/strategic paradigm, that will help educators to identify the pedagogical needs of disparate executive groups and adjust their online course development plans accordingly. We describe…

  17. Innovation Policy Development and the Emergence of New Innovation Paradigms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, Stoyan; Knudsen, Mette Præst; Bisgaard, Tanja;

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present article is to discuss innovation policy issues related to three emerging innovation paradigms: user-driven innovation, open innovation, and value co-creation. It provides a summary of insights based on innovation policy practices and challenges in Denmark....

  18. A Paradigm Shift for Educational Administrators: The Total Quality Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, M. J.

    This paper reviews the major ideas of the seminal total quality management theorists, such as Deming, Crosby, Juran, Ishikawa, and Imai, to illustrate how total quality management is applicable to education. It is argued that there is a need for a paradigm shift in educational administration. The first part reviews current Australian societal…

  19. A Technical/Strategic Paradigm for Online Executive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Marlene A.; Keaveney, Susan M.

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the development and delivery of online courses for the executive education audience. The goal is to introduce a new framework, the technical/strategic paradigm, that will help educators to identify the pedagogical needs of disparate executive groups and adjust their online course development plans accordingly. We describe…

  20. A movement ecology paradigm for unifying organismal movement research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Ran; Getz, Wayne M.; Revilla, Eloy; Holyoak, Marcel; Kadmon, Ronen; Saltz, David; Smouse, Peter E.

    2008-01-01

    Movement of individual organisms is fundamental to life, quilting our planet in a rich tapestry of phenomena with diverse implications for ecosystems and humans. Movement research is both plentiful and insightful, and recent methodological advances facilitate obtaining a detailed view of individual movement. Yet, we lack a general unifying paradigm, derived from first principles, which can place movement studies within a common context and advance the development of a mature scientific discipline. This introductory article to the Movement Ecology Special Feature proposes a paradigm that integrates conceptual, theoretical, methodological, and empirical frameworks for studying movement of all organisms, from microbes to trees to elephants. We introduce a conceptual framework depicting the interplay among four basic mechanistic components of organismal movement: the internal state (why move?), motion (how to move?), and navigation (when and where to move?) capacities of the individual and the external factors affecting movement. We demonstrate how the proposed framework aids the study of various taxa and movement types; promotes the formulation of hypotheses about movement; and complements existing biomechanical, cognitive, random, and optimality paradigms of movement. The proposed framework integrates eclectic research on movement into a structured paradigm and aims at providing a basis for hypothesis generation and a vehicle facilitating the understanding of the causes, mechanisms, and spatiotemporal patterns of movement and their role in various ecological and evolutionary processes. ”Now we must consider in general the common reason for moving with any movement whatever.“ (Aristotle, De Motu Animalium, 4th century B.C.) PMID:19060196

  1. TRANSITIONAL PARADIGM AS AN EXPLANATION FOR THE DEMOCRATIZATION PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerti Sqapi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the last quarter of the century, the transitional paradigm (or the approach of the transition has been a dominant paradigm that has greatly influenced different studies on democratization. The purpose of this paper, in a general perspective, is to conduct an analysis of the transitional paradigm, assumptions, key concepts, and hypotheses developed thereof, in order to evaluate the validity or at least be able to understand and explain the processes of democratization wave that affected third world countries.  Development of literature and studies within the conceptual framework of this paradigm was mainly conducted during the period of what is known as “the third wave of democratization.” Explanation and direction of change from autocratic to democratic regimes, evident in those countries affected by the third wave, were the main claim of the transition approach.  This paper attempts to investigate the validity of the conceptual framework of this approach with respect to the interpretation (and change of directions of the democratization processes in these countries.

  2. Rethinking the paradigm for the development of inhaled drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, John N

    2015-12-30

    Nebulized treatment is an important delivery option for the young, elderly, and those with severe chronic respiratory disease, but there is a lack of new nebulized drug products being produced for these patients, leading to the potential for under-treatment. This communication describes a new drug development paradigm as a timely solution to this issue. Often, drug development is initiated with nebulizers in the early stages, to provide cheaper and faster drug development, and then switched to inhaler devices in later clinical trials to address the majority of patients. However, the waste of resource on parallel development of the inhaler can be large due to the high early attrition rate of new drug development. The new paradigm uses the nebulizer to continue drug development through to market, and initiates inhaler development after completion of the riskier early phase studies. New drug safety and efficacy can be assessed faster and more efficiently by using a nebulized formulation rather than developing an inhaler. The results of calculations of expected net present value showed that the new paradigm produced higher expected net present values than the conventional model over a range of economic scenarios. This new paradigm could therefore provide improved returns on investments, as well as more modern drugs in nebulized form for those patients unable to use inhalers.

  3. Aspects of Theories, Frameworks and Paradigms in Mathematics Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoilescu, Dorian

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses major theoretical debates and paradigms from the last decades in general education and their specific influences in mathematics education contexts. Behaviourism, cognitive science, constructivism, situated cognition, critical theory, place-based learning, postmodernism and poststructuralism and their significant aspects in…

  4. Quantitative analysis of distributed control paradigms of robot swarms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngo, Trung Dung

    2010-01-01

    describe the physical and simulated robots, experiment scenario, and experiment setup. Third, we present our robot controllers based on behaviour based and neural network based paradigms. Fourth, we graphically show their experiment results and quantitatively analyse the results in comparison of the two...

  5. The 'Turn to Parenting': Paradigm shift or work in progress?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopman, M.; Knijn, G.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    In the field of child and youth support, preventive and parent-oriented support programs are currently emphasized. This is understood as a new paradigm of parenting support, which is sometimes referred to as “the turn to parenting.” Using Campbell’s (Annual Review of Sociology, 28:21–38, 2002), Yee’

  6. Shifting paradigms of nontuberculous mycobacteria in cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, Tavs; Pressler, Tania; Høiby, Niels;

    2014-01-01

    Important paradigms of pulmonary disease with nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are currently shifting based on an increasing attention within the field of cystic fibrosis (CF). These shifts are likely to benefit the management of all patients with pulmonary NTM, regardless of underlying pathology...

  7. In Search of a New Paradigm for Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schejbal, David

    2012-01-01

    In this essay I argue that online education, artificial intelligence, and market pressures are driving higher education to adopt the industrial model and to find a new paradigm for delivering education at low costs. In addition, there is tremendous pressure from the federal government to make universities more accountable while making higher…

  8. Identity-based marketing : A new balanced marketing paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alsem, K.J.; Kostelijk, E.J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to propose a fundamentally new extension of the marketing paradigm. This is theoretically and practically necessary since in the authors' view there is an insufficient balance between customer and brand thinking. Design/methodology/approach - While the marketin

  9. Robot Choreography: Performance Paradigms for Experimental HRI Setups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jochum, Elizabeth Ann; Heath, Damith

    2016-01-01

    We propose a robust framework for combining performance paradigms with human robot interaction (HRI) research. Following an analysis of several case studies that combine the performing arts with HRI experiments, we propose a methodology and “best practices” for implementing choreography and other...

  10. The Usefulness of a Suggested Paradigm for Improving Paragraph Coherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Fiona Kwai-peng

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to explore the effectiveness of a paradigm to teach native Cantonese-speaking university students the hierarchical structure of expository prose to improve paragraph coherence. Most of the diagnostic argumentative essays the participants in this study wrote in the course were incoherent, failing to meet readers' expectation of…

  11. A Longitudinal analysis of the Porterian paradigm utilization in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Sehnem

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to investigate to what extent Michael Porter's ideas keep attracting the interest of Brazilian researchers vis-à-vis other possibilities. In this research, we conceptualize Porter's paradigm by the the following elements: strategic groups, generic strategies, model of the five forces and value chain. Weanalyzed conferece communications to EnANPAD¿s, from 1998 to 2008, and to 3Es, from 2003to 2007. The results indicate a decline in the use of the porterian paradigm as the main axis of research in strategy. The generic strategies and the model of five forces are the elements of Porter's paradigm most employed, while the concepts of strategic groups and value chain are the ones that received less attention by researchers. The analysis of methodology and purpose of comunications indicates that the "porterian life" in Brazil was characterized by the acritical use of its concepts in order to describe the reality of the strategy in Brazil. There are no evidences of consistent and systematic attempts to test or adapt the porterian paradigm for the Brazilian context. And results indicate no evidences that this trend will be reversed.

  12. Knowledge, Sentience and Receptivity: A Paradigm of Lifelong Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eneroth, Bo

    2008-01-01

    This article aims to develop a paradigm of lifelong learning situations. The starting point is the EU-Commission policy document where three kinds of learning situations are identified: formal, non-formal and informal. The article tries to deepen this categorisation by searching for the underlying ontological and epistemological dimensions. The…

  13. Quantum ergonomics: shifting the paradigm of the systems agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Guy H; Salmon, Paul M; Bedinger, Melissa; Stanton, Neville A

    2017-02-01

    A paradigm is an accepted world view. If we do not continually question our paradigm then wider trends and movements will overtake the discipline leaving it ill adapted to future challenges. This Special Issue is an opportunity to keep systems thinking at the forefront of ergonomics theory and practice. Systems thinking prompts us to ask whether ergonomics, as a discipline, has been too timid? Too preoccupied with the resolution of immediate problems with industrial-age methods when, approaching fast, are developments which could render these operating assumptions an irrelevance. Practical case studies are presented to show how abstract systems problems can be tackled head-on to deliver highly innovative and cost-effective insights. The strategic direction of the discipline foregrounds high-quality systems problems. These are something the discipline is well able to respond to provided that the appropriate operating paradigms are selected. Practitioner Summary: High-quality systems problems are the future of the discipline. How do we convert obtuse sounding systems concepts into practical interventions? In this paper, the essence of systems thinking is distilled and practical case studies used to demonstrate the benefits of this new paradigm.

  14. Paradigm shifts in orthodontic treatment with mini-implant anchorage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny Joung-Lin Liaw

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available After the applications of mini-implant anchorage, the envelope of orthodontic treatment was expanded and some treatment modes were changed because of more predictable tooth movement with empowered anchorage. The author tried to share his experience of TADs applications for clarifying the paradigm shifts of orthodontic treatment assisted with the mini-implant anchorage.

  15. A Tour of a New Paradigm: Relationships and Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blustein, David L.; Medvide, Mary Beth; Kozan, Saliha

    2012-01-01

    The authors provide a reaction to the Major Contribution by Richardson in this issue of "The Counseling Psychologist" on the counseling for work and relationships perspective. The authors examine the trajectory of Richardson's work, beginning with her seminal article in 1993, which set the stage for a new paradigm for vocational psychology.…

  16. A Response to the Proposed Paradigm: Freedom Runs through It

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottens, Allen J.

    2011-01-01

    Freedom, conceived as self-determination, control, and agency, has been put forth as the central purpose of a paradigm to bring together the specialties of the counseling profession, integrate the many theories, and usher in a wave of potentially powerful techniques from Asian psychologies. It remains to be seen how the foci of the specialties…

  17. New Questions for Vocational Psychology: Premises, Paradigms, and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savickas, Mark L.

    2011-01-01

    The innovative responses of vocational psychology and career counseling to the important questions raised by people living in information societies will continue the disciplines' tradition of helping individuals link their lives to the economic context. The questions pertaining to perspectives, paradigms, and practices arise mainly from the…

  18. Identity-based marketing : A new balanced marketing paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alsem, K.J.; Kostelijk, E.J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to propose a fundamentally new extension of the marketing paradigm. This is theoretically and practically necessary since in the authors' view there is an insufficient balance between customer and brand thinking. Design/methodology/approach - While the marketin

  19. Paradigms and Problems: Thomas Kuhn and "Composition Revolutions".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallman, John Gary

    The arguments for and against Thomas Kuhn's paradigmatic thesis are presented in this paper as a means of discussing the appropriateness of Kuhn's thesis to the emerging composition discipline. Section one of the paper introduces the topic, noting how the term paradigm is used in composition to define a system of widely shared values, beliefs, and…

  20. Academic Performance, School Desertion and Emotional Paradigm in University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, Emma Rosa Cruz; Barrientos, Laura Gática; Castro, Patricia Eugenia García; García, Jesús Hernández

    2010-01-01

    The present work aims to describe academic performance, school desertion and the emotional paradigm of the university students of the accounting school of the Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla (FCPBUAP). We have found that low academic performance is related to students' economic deficiency, which affects their concentration on their…

  1. Embracing the Learning Paradigm to Foster Systems Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habron, Geoffrey; Goralnik, Lissy; Thorp, Laurie

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Michigan State University developed an undergraduate, academic specialization in sustainability based on the learning paradigm. The purpose of this paper is to share initial findings on assessment of systems thinking competency. Design/methodology/approach: The 15-week course served 14 mostly third and fourth-year students. Assessment of…

  2. Difficulties and Outlets: On Paradigm of China's Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haimin; Lin, Dan

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the paradigm of China's pedagogy means a way of thinking followed and adhered to by Chinese educationists from the establishment of New China till now when they consider, study and conceive problems of pedagogy. This way of thinking guides educationists to have particular study directions, unique modes of pedagogy establishment and…

  3. The Credit Crisis and Recession as a Paradigm Test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, Dirk J.

    This paper contributes to the debate on what economics can learn from the credit crisis and recession. It asks what are the elements in the mainstream paradigm that caused many economists to misjudge the state of the economy so dramatically in the years leading up to the 2007 credit crisis and the

  4. Paradigm, Persona and Epideictic: The Lovesongs of Eurythmics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oglesbee, Frank W.

    A study examined the lyrics of the lovesongs of the musical partnership Eurythmics (David Stewart and Annie Lennox), a popular music group. The method used was based on the James Chesbro study, which classified lyrics using a critical paradigm that combined Northrop Frye's hierarchy of communications systems (Ironic, Mimetic, Leader-centered,…

  5. Human Nature and Research Paradigms: Theory Meets Physical Therapy Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plack, Margaret M.

    2005-01-01

    Human nature is a very complex phenomenon. In physical therapy this complexity is enhanced by the need to understand the intersection between the art and science of human behavior and patient care. A paradigm is a set of basic beliefs that represent a worldview, defines the nature of the world and the individual's place in it, and helps to…

  6. Learning: Shifting Paradigms in Education and Extension Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roling, N.; de Jong, F.

    1998-01-01

    In both education and extension studies, the traditional approach (transfer of knowledge, learning as passive absorption) has given way to new discourses: in education, knowledge construction and in extension, participatory learning and research. The new paradigms have yet to be formed into effective praxis. (SK)

  7. Mental Health Recovery Paradigm: Implications for Social Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Jenneth

    2002-01-01

    Article argues that the values and beliefs of the consumer-survivor recovery movement are closely aligned with those of the social work profession, and the movement offers social workers a more promising perspective from which to practice. Primary concepts and values of the evolving recovery paradigm are delineated; implications for direct…

  8. Exploring the consequences of nonbelieved memories in the DRM paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otgaar, Henry; Moldoveanu, Georgiana; Wang, Jianqin; Howe, Mark L

    2016-01-01

    In the current experiments, we attempted to elicit nonbelieved memories (NBMs) using the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) false memory paradigm. Furthermore, by using this approach, we explored the consequences of nonbelieved true and false memories. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants received sever

  9. A Tour of a New Paradigm: Relationships and Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blustein, David L.; Medvide, Mary Beth; Kozan, Saliha

    2012-01-01

    The authors provide a reaction to the Major Contribution by Richardson in this issue of "The Counseling Psychologist" on the counseling for work and relationships perspective. The authors examine the trajectory of Richardson's work, beginning with her seminal article in 1993, which set the stage for a new paradigm for vocational psychology.…

  10. Bacteria Hunt: Evaluating multi-paradigm BCI interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mühl, C.; Gürkök, Hayrettin; Plass - Oude Bos, D.; Thurlings, Marieke E.; Scherffig, Lasse; Duvinage, Matthieu; Elbakyan, Alexandra A.; Kang, SungWook; Poel, Mannes; Heylen, Dirk K.J.

    The multimodal, multi-paradigm brain-computer interfacing (BCI) game Bacteria Hunt was used to evaluate two aspects of BCI interaction in a gaming context. One goal was to examine the effect of feedback on the ability of the user to manipulate his mental state of relaxation. This was done by having

  11. Paradigm Changes in Linguistics: From Reductionism to Holism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigand, Edda

    2011-01-01

    Linguistics like any science has undergone a series of paradigm changes, one of the most important being the change from the view of language as a sign system to that of language-in-use. In the face of the progress made in the natural and social sciences in recent years, from biology to economics, the question has to be posed where linguistics and…

  12. The new rural paradigm and the leader method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Jeppe Engset

    2013-01-01

    I am going today to speak on rural development and how it is currently practiced in Europe, with a specific focus on the new rural paradigm and the LEADER method. I will try to explain the background and setup of rural development in the European Union, and try to describe the principles of the so...

  13. Paradigm, Persona and Epideictic: The Lovesongs of Eurythmics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oglesbee, Frank W.

    A study examined the lyrics of the lovesongs of the musical partnership Eurythmics (David Stewart and Annie Lennox), a popular music group. The method used was based on the James Chesbro study, which classified lyrics using a critical paradigm that combined Northrop Frye's hierarchy of communications systems (Ironic, Mimetic, Leader-centered,…

  14. The Strategic Nature of False Recognition in the DRM Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michael B.; Guerin, Scott A.; Wolford, George L.

    2011-01-01

    The false memory effect produced by the Deese/Roediger & McDermott (DRM) paradigm is reportedly impervious to warnings to avoid false alarming to the critical lures (D. A. Gallo, H. L. Roediger III, & K. B. McDermott, 2001). This finding has been used as strong evidence against models that attribute the false alarms to a decision…

  15. Solar Ethics: A New Paradigm for Environmental Ethics and Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michael A.; Hung, Ruyu

    2009-01-01

    This article provides grounds for a new paradigm of environmental ethics and education based on the centrality of the sun and solar system--a shift from anthropocentrism to solar systemism. The article provides some grounds for this shift from the physical sciences that considers the planet Earth as part of a wider system that is dependent upon…

  16. Governance Paradigms of Public Universities: An International Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Joe

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to develop a conceptual model of the wider influencing forces impacting the governance paradigms of public universities. It draws on the multi-theoretical governance concept and seeks to identify these forces through the lens of chief audit executives using a qualitative research approach. The interview data supported by published…

  17. Environmental Concerns and the New Environmental Paradigm in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostrom, Ann; Barke, Richard; Turaga, Rama Mohana R.; O'Connor, Robert E.

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about environmental concerns and attitudes among people in former Soviet bloc countries in Eastern Europe despite widespread perceptions of severe environmental problems. The authors addressed this gap by examining Bulgarians' environmental concerns with a focus on whether the new environmental paradigm (NEP) scale can reliably…

  18. The New Environmental Paradigm Scale: From Marginality to Worldwide Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Riley E.

    2008-01-01

    The New Environmental Paradigm (NEP) Scale, published in "The Journal of Environmental Education" by R. E. Dunlap and K. D. Van Liere (1978), has become the most widely used measure of environmental concern in the world and been employed in hundreds of studies in dozens of nations. This article tells the story of the NEP Scale, beginning with how…

  19. Identity-based marketing : A new balanced marketing paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alsem, K.J.; Kostelijk, E.J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to propose a fundamentally new extension of the marketing paradigm. This is theoretically and practically necessary since in the authors' view there is an insufficient balance between customer and brand thinking. Design/methodology/approach - While the

  20. Aesthetic Implications of the New Paradigm in Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simus, Jason Boaz

    2008-01-01

    The new paradigm in ecology emphasizes dynamic change, disturbance, and nonequilibrium in natural systems, and it presents some challenges for contemporary environmental aesthetics, one of which has to do with the thesis known as "scientific cognitivism." Scientific cognitivism holds that appropriate aesthetic appreciation of nature must be…

  1. EPISTEMOLOGY IN THE CONTEXT OF THE MODERN BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTIONAL PARADIGM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. S. Tokovenko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the work is finding the reasonability of using bio-evolutionary paradigm for researching ratio morphic cognitive activity. Methodology. Methodological grounds consist of the original principles and conceptual apparatus of evolutionary epistemology. Scientific novelty. The article identifies opportunities for using of biological and evolutionary paradigm to study the peculiarities of ratiomorphic cognitive backgrounds and their influence on the formation and development of human knowledge. Conclusions. The article concludes that together with the idea of hyper cycles (feedback loop with mutual transmission of information in cognitive process the concept of ratiomorphic cognitive backgrounds, as well as attempts to examine cognitive processes based on the scientific criteria (empirical verification, explanatory power and ability to predict should be certainly considered as a positive contribution to the development of evolutionary epistemology into modern epistemological research. However, it is also indicated the fact of narrowing the heuristic possibilities of this epistemological direction because of excessive metaphor of bio-evolutionary paradigm. Further development of evolutionary epistemological research is considered in shifting the emphasis from biological and evolutionary towards cultural and evolutionary paradigm.

  2. Toward an Affirmative Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Leadership Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassinger, Ruth E.; Shullman, Sandra L.; Stevenson, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an affirmative paradigm for understanding the leadership of sexual minorities--that is, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people. Although research on LGBT issues in leadership to date is almost nonexistent, there are several bodies of literature that can contribute to an understanding of the unique leadership…

  3. Developing Cultural Understanding: The Culture Triangle Paradigm in FCS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Deborah A.; Schmidt-Rinehart, Barbara C.; Morris, Nancy A.

    2011-01-01

    Academic institutions as well as professional organizations are faced with providing their constituents with the knowledge and tools that will enable them to interact with people of other cultures--to be global citizens in both their personal and professional lives. The foreign language profession developed a paradigm that has been effectively…

  4. Aesthetic Implications of the New Paradigm in Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simus, Jason Boaz

    2008-01-01

    The new paradigm in ecology emphasizes dynamic change, disturbance, and nonequilibrium in natural systems, and it presents some challenges for contemporary environmental aesthetics, one of which has to do with the thesis known as "scientific cognitivism." Scientific cognitivism holds that appropriate aesthetic appreciation of nature must be…

  5. A social paradigm in psychiatry - themes and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priebe, S

    2016-12-01

    Psychiatry as science is underpinned by paradigms. Considering whether a social paradigm may help to advance the current state of psychiatry, the review provides a reference to the rich, but fragmented past of related initiatives in the history of psychiatry and a personal view of themes, challenges and perspectives of using a social paradigm in psychiatry. Major themes are the evidence on social determinants of mental health; the value-based importance of integrating people with mental disorders in society; options to overcome the social isolation and improve the networks of psychiatric patients; utilising a systemic approach for interventions in families and communities; and understanding group and one-to-one treatments in psychiatry primarily as social interactions. Whilst all these themes open up perspectives for future action and/or research, there are also conceptual challenges through the limitations of the current construct of mental disorders and the dominating terminology. Initiatives for using a social paradigm in psychiatry may refer to important achievements in the past, but need to go beyond this and consider on-going societal changes. Innovation may benefit from close collaboration with social sciences and humanities.

  6. Leveling the Playing Field: The Normed-Opportunity Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Alicia; Cormier, Bret T.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the practices, beliefs, and attitudes of secondary teachers in order to identify factors that led to success for non-dominant-group students. We found a unique paradigm among educators whose students of color and/or poverty showed no achievement gap. Rather than coming from a deficit perspective or one expecting assimilation, those…

  7. What Philanthropy's Paradigm Shift Means for Higher Ed Fundraising

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCully, George

    2015-01-01

    This is an unprecedented era of human history, in which simultaneous transformations of every technically advanced field are being driven by the powerful technological revolution in information and communications. Technically, these transformative changes are "paradigm shifts"--a distinct kind of historical change in which the governing…

  8. Finding a Way out of the Ethnographic Paradigm Jungle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Subhadip; Banerjee, Pratyush

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, an attempt has been made to develop a hybrid ethnographic paradigm, taking the best points from the different approaches of ethnographic research. The pioneering proponents of ethnography differed in their conceptualization of the method, resulting in the development of three distinct schools of thought-holistic, semiotic and…

  9. The Emerging Paradigm of Organizational Excellence: Success through Planned Adaptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spady, William G.

    1986-01-01

    This article briefly interprets the major findings of Peters and Waterman's themes about corporate excellence; describes the theoretical framework of two outcome-based education programs; discusses the messages common to excellence in management and in education; and interprets key elements in the emerging excellence paradigm. (JL)

  10. A nonmusical paradigm for identifying absolute pitch possessors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, David A.; Olson, Ingrid R.; Marks, Lawrence E.; Gore, John C.

    2004-09-01

    The ability to identify and reproduce sounds of specific frequencies is remarkable and uncommon. The etiology and defining characteristics of this skill, absolute pitch (AP), have been very controversial. One theory suggests that AP requires a specific type of early musical training and that the ability to encode and remember tones depends on these learned musical associations. An alternate theory argues that AP may be strongly dependent on hereditary factors and relatively independent of musical experience. To date, it has been difficult to test these hypotheses because all previous paradigms for identifying AP have required subjects to employ knowledge of musical nomenclature. As such, these tests are insensitive to the possibility of discovering AP in either nonmusicians or musicians of non-Western training. Based on previous literature in pitch memory, a paradigm is presented that is intended to distinguish between AP possessors and nonpossessors independent of the subjects' musical experience. The efficacy of this method is then tested with 20 classically defined AP possessors and 22 nonpossessors. Data from these groups strongly support the validity of the paradigm. The use of a nonmusical paradigm to identify AP may facilitate research into many aspects of this phenomenon.

  11. A New Leadership Paradigm for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodland, Calvin; Parsons, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Leadership in the 21st century will require new insights and a new paradigm. With nearly 100 years of combined experience in community college teaching and administration, the authors of this chapter blend theory and experience into a design for engaging the "new normal."

  12. Governance Paradigms of Public Universities: An International Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Joe

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to develop a conceptual model of the wider influencing forces impacting the governance paradigms of public universities. It draws on the multi-theoretical governance concept and seeks to identify these forces through the lens of chief audit executives using a qualitative research approach. The interview data supported by published…

  13. Health Paradigm Shifts in the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Miguel DeAngulo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of systems theory and the study of complexity to medicine and human health allows for a more comprehensive understanding and a more holistic view of what it means to be human. Such application overcomes the limitations of the traditional, fragmented understanding of phenomena and problems based on the mechanistic or Newtonian worldview. It recognizes that phenomena are interrelated, and that individual parts cannot be understood by only focusing on the analysis of their individual qualities. Rather, the individual parts can only be understood in relation to the whole and by being analyzed in the context of their interaction with the whole. The door is opened to previously unimagined models of thinking.In the 20th Century there have been shifts in the paradigms that have governed medicine and human health in the modern western world. There has been a shift from the focus on specific biological analysis and pathological diagnostics to complex human interactions with the environment and with sociopolitical and economic processes. There are complex models of systems in immunology, in neuroscience, and in genetics, as well as complex ways of understanding interactions as in epidemic modeling, in social media technologies, socioeconomic factors, and artificial intelligence.In this paper we describe three paradigms of the health-disease process that in some degree correspond to the historical development of modern medicine and healthcare over the previous century. The oldest paradigm focused on specific disease mechanisms and treatment. This gave way to paradigms that historically were broader and more inclusive, such as “international health”. The international health paradigm focused primarily on the control of epidemics across national borders and considered government as the only health actor. However, this perspective has come to be seen as excessively reductionist and excluded many critical components essential to a robust

  14. CARMA: Management infrastructure and middleware for multi-paradigm computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troxel, Ian A.

    A recent trend toward multi-paradigm systems that couple General-Purpose Processors (GPPs) and other special-purpose devices such as Field-Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) has shown impressive speedups. In fact, some researchers see such systems as vital to extending an anticipated slowing of Moore's law. However, extracting the full potential of large-scale, multi-paradigm, High-Performance Computing (HPC) systems has proven difficult due in part to a lack of traditional job management services upon which HPC users have come to rely. In this dissertation, the Comprehensive Approach to Reconfigurable Management Architecture (CARMA) is introduced and investigated. CARMA attempts to address the issue of large-scale, multi-paradigm system utilization by (1) providing a scalable, modular framework standard upon which other scholarly work can build; (2) conducting feasibility and tradeoff analysis of key components to determine strategies for reducing overhead and increasing performance and functionality; and (3) deploying initial prototypes with baseline services to receive feedback from the research community. In order to serve the needs of a wide range of HPC users, versions of CARMA tailored to two unique processing paradigms have been deployed and studied on an embedded space system and Beowulf cluster. Several scholarly contributions have been made by developing and analyzing the first comprehensive framework to date for job and resource management and services. CARMA is a first step toward developing an open standard with a modular design that will spur inventiveness and foster industry, government and scholarly collaboration much like Condor, Globus and the Open Systems Interconnect model have done for the cluster, grid and networking environments. Developing and evaluating components to fill out the CARMA infrastructure provided key insight into how future multi-paradigm runtime management services should be structured. In addition, deploying initial prototypes

  15. Operations Strategy under Chaos –Lessons to be learned from a new Paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new paradigm being able to conceptualize content and process aspects of Operations Strategy. Based on a critical reading of literature; two opposing paradigms of Operations Strategy are identified and described. The first focuses on content issues...... in practice are shown. These results promote the need for a new or third paradigm to integrate and balance the two former paradigms. The new paradigm is labeled as a moderate constructivist paradigm using the metaphor of chaos and seems suitable for conceptualizing Operations Strategy as it is in practice...

  16. Quantifying the clinical relevance of a laboratory observer performance paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, D P; Haygood, T M; Ryan, J; Marom, E M; Evanoff, M; McEntee, M F; Brennan, P C

    2012-09-01

    Laboratory observer performance measurements, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and free-response ROC (FROC) differ from actual clinical interpretations in several respects, which could compromise their clinical relevance. The objective of this study was to develop a method for quantifying the clinical relevance of a laboratory paradigm and apply it to compare the ROC and FROC paradigms in a nodule detection task. The original prospective interpretations of 80 digital chest radiographs were classified by the truth panel as correct (C=1) or incorrect (C=0), depending on correlation with additional imaging, and the average of C was interpreted as the clinical figure of merit. FROC data were acquired for 21 radiologists and ROC data were inferred using the highest ratings. The areas under the ROC and alternative FROC curves were used as laboratory figures of merit. Bootstrap analysis was conducted to estimate conventional agreement measures between laboratory and clinical figures of merit. Also computed was a pseudovalue-based image-level correctness measure of the laboratory interpretations, whose association with C as measured by the area (rAUC) under an appropriately defined relevance ROC curve, is as a measure of the clinical relevance of a laboratory paradigm. Low correlations (e.g. κ=0.244) and near chance level rAUC values (e.g. 0.598), attributable to differences between the clinical and laboratory paradigms, were observed. The absolute width of the confidence interval was 0.38 for the interparadigm differences of the conventional measures and 0.14 for the difference of the rAUCs. The rAUC measure was consistent with the traditional measures but was more sensitive to the differences in clinical relevance. A new relevance ROC method for quantifying the clinical relevance of a laboratory paradigm is proposed.

  17. A virtual reality paradigm as an analogue to real-life trauma : its effectiveness compared with the trauma film paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuperus, A.A.; Hagenaars, M.A.; Engelhard, I.M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The trauma film paradigm (TFP) is a well-established method to study the effects of analogue psychological trauma under controlled laboratory settings. It has been used to examine pre-, peri-, and post-trauma processes, and to create and test interventions. A possible drawback is that

  18. Misrepresenting Religious Education's Past and Present in Looking Forward: Gearon Using Kuhn's Concepts of Paradigm, Paradigm Shift and Incommensurability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Robert

    2015-01-01

    In looking to the future, some writers on religious education (RE) have attempted to evaluate current approaches to the subject. Some have characterised any significant change in approach as a "paradigm shift", a term derived from Thomas Kuhn's work in the philosophy of science. This article examines the uses of the terms…

  19. The Risk-Benefit Paradigm vs the Causal Exposure Paradigm: LDL as a primary cause of vascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Peter P; Thanassoulis, George; Williams, Ken; Furberg, Curt D; Sniderman, Allan

    2014-01-01

    All current guidelines use the 10-year risk of a cardiovascular event to select subjects for statin primary preventive therapy. Benefit from therapy is stated to be determined by risk with the result that statin primary preventive therapy is initiated only when the risk of a cardiovascular event over the next decade exceeds a specified level. Thus all current guidelines are based primarily on the Risk-Benefit paradigm of primary prevention. The recent American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology guidelines differ from others in basing selection for statin therapy virtually exclusively on risk except for those few subjects with markedly elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). The Causal Exposure paradigm differs from the Risk-Benefit paradigm in that the objective of therapy is to prevent the anatomic disease within arterial walls that produces cardiovascular risk. Moreover, the anatomic disease and, therefore, the cardiovascular risk, is a function of the injurious action of the causal factors of vascular disease, such as blood pressure and LDL, on the arterial wall over long periods. In this article, we explain the strengths and weaknesses of both paradigms to provide a more secure framework to compare the strengths and weaknesses in the different cholesterol guidelines with particular emphasis on the evidence that the cardiovascular risk and the benefit from statin therapy is related to the level of LDL. Copyright © 2014 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Stroke mimics under the drip-and-ship paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Sonal; Vora, Nirav; Edgell, Randall C; Allam, Hesham; Alawi, Aws; Koehne, Jennifer; Kumar, Abhay; Feen, Eliahu; Cruz-Flores, Salvador; Alshekhlee, Amer

    2014-01-01

    Recent reports suggested better outcomes associated with the drip-and-ship paradigm for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) treated with thrombolysis. We hypothesized that a higher rate of stroke mimics (SM) among AIS treated in nonspecialized stroke centers that are transferred to comprehensive centers is responsible for such outcomes. Consecutive patients treated with thrombolysis according to the admission criteria were reviewed in a single comprehensive stroke center over 1 academic year (July 1, 2011 to June 30, 2012). Information on the basic demographic, hospital complications, psychiatric diagnoses, and discharge disposition was collected. We identified those patients who were treated at a facility and then transferred to the tertiary center (ie, drip-and-ship paradigm). In addition to comparative and adjusted analysis to identify predictors for SM, a stratified analysis by the drip-and-ship status was performed. One hundred twenty patients were treated with thrombolysis for AIS included in this analysis; 20 (16.7%) were discharged with the final diagnosis of SM; 14 of those had conversion syndrome and 6 patients had other syndromes (seizures, migraine, and hypoglycemia). Patients with SM were younger (55.6 ± 15.0 versus 69.4 ± 14.9, P = .0003) and more likely to harbor psychiatric diagnoses (45% versus 9%; P ≤ .0001). Eighteen of 20 SM patients (90%) had the drip-and-ship treatment paradigm compared with 65% of those with AIS (P = .02). None of the SM had hemorrhagic complications, and all were discharged to home. Predictors of SM on adjusted analysis included the drip-and-ship paradigm (odds ratio [OR] 12.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.78, 92.1) and history of any psychiatric illness (OR 12.08; 95% CI 3.14, 46.4). Eighteen of 83 drip-and-ship patients (21.7%) were diagnosed with SM compared with 2 of 37 patients (5.4%) presented directly to the hub hospital (P = .02). The drip-and-ship paradigm and any psychiatric history predict the diagnosis of

  1. Much Pain, Little Gain? Paradigm-Specific Models and Methods in Experimental Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiser, Thorsten

    2011-03-01

    Paradigm-oriented research strategies in experimental psychology have strengths and limitations. On the one hand, experimental paradigms play a crucial epistemic and heuristic role in basic psychological research. On the other hand, empirical research is often limited to the observed effects in a certain paradigm, and theoretical models are frequently tied to the particular features of the given paradigm. A paradigm-driven research strategy therefore jeopardizes the pursuit of research questions and theoretical models that go beyond a specific paradigm. As one example of a more integrative approach, recent research on illusory and spurious correlations has attempted to overcome the limitations of paradigm-specific models in the context of biased contingency perception and social stereotyping. Last but not least, the use of statistical models for the analysis of elementary cognitive functions is a means toward a more integrative terminology and theoretical perspective across different experimental paradigms and research domains. © The Author(s) 2011.

  2. Are Nurse Leaders Prepared to Lead Across the Continuum of Care in the New Paradigm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, O Ed; Malin, Shelly

    2017-05-01

    The movement toward linking reimbursement with outcomes necessitates providing care across a continuum of settings, leading to the need for a new healthcare paradigm. Issues related to shifting to this new paradigm include disagreement about what this paradigm encompasses, the fragmentation of the healthcare system, and overreliance on the medical model as a framework for driving health policy decisions. We advocate for nurse leaders to guide the development of this new paradigm.

  3. Visualization by Demonstration: An Interaction Paradigm for Visual Data Exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saket, Bahador; Kim, Hannah; Brown, Eli T; Endert, Alex

    2017-01-01

    Although data visualization tools continue to improve, during the data exploration process many of them require users to manually specify visualization techniques, mappings, and parameters. In response, we present the Visualization by Demonstration paradigm, a novel interaction method for visual data exploration. A system which adopts this paradigm allows users to provide visual demonstrations of incremental changes to the visual representation. The system then recommends potential transformations (Visual Representation, Data Mapping, Axes, and View Specification transformations) from the given demonstrations. The user and the system continue to collaborate, incrementally producing more demonstrations and refining the transformations, until the most effective possible visualization is created. As a proof of concept, we present VisExemplar, a mixed-initiative prototype that allows users to explore their data by recommending appropriate transformations in response to the given demonstrations.

  4. [The clinician-scientist: proposal for a new paradigm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibovici, Leonard; Paul, Mical

    2010-10-01

    The decline in the attraction and prestige of the clinician-scientist paradigm is due to the dissonance between clinical work and conducting research in basic science. Medicine entails alleviating distress and prolonging life. Thus, medical research deals directly with the questions: what ails our patients and what shortens their lives? How can it be prevented? How can we alleviate suffering and prolong life? Research designs that fit these questions are: researcher (or patient) initiated randomized controlled trials; systematic reviews and meta-analysis; high-quality observational studies that address risk factors, natural history of disease, side-effects, and efficiency of treatment; research in ethics; and qualitative research. The clinician-scientist should perform medical research. Investing in this paradigm wilt encourage young doctors to conduct research directly oriented to benefit their patients.

  5. Towards a new paradigm: Activity level balanced sustainability reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samudhram, Ananda; Siew, Eu-Gene; Sinnakkannu, Jothee; Yeow, Paul H P

    2016-11-01

    Technoeconomic paradigms based economic growth theories suggest that waves of technological innovations drove the economic growth of advanced economies. Widespread economic degradation and pollution is an unintended consequence of such growth. Tackling environmental and social issues at firm levels would help us to overcome such issues at macro-levels. Consequently, the Triple Bottom Line (TBL) reporting approach promotes firm level economic, environmental and social performances. Incorporating Zink's (2014) 3-pillar presentation model, this paper indicates that economic, social and environmental performances tend to be reported at firm level. All three pillars are not covered evenly at the activity levels. Thus, a loophole is identified whereby excellent environmental performance at activity levels could potentially leave poor social performance undisclosed. A refinement of the TBL paradigm, whereby all three pillars are covered at the activity level, is suggested, to enhance sustainability reporting.

  6. Compressive sensing as a paradigm for building physics models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Lance J.; Hart, Gus L. W.; Zhou, Fei; Ozoliņš, Vidvuds

    2013-01-01

    The widely accepted intuition that the important properties of solids are determined by a few key variables underpins many methods in physics. Though this reductionist paradigm is applicable in many physical problems, its utility can be limited because the intuition for identifying the key variables often does not exist or is difficult to develop. Machine learning algorithms (genetic programming, neural networks, Bayesian methods, etc.) attempt to eliminate the a priori need for such intuition but often do so with increased computational burden and human time. A recently developed technique in the field of signal processing, compressive sensing (CS), provides a simple, general, and efficient way of finding the key descriptive variables. CS is a powerful paradigm for model building; we show that its models are more physical and predict more accurately than current state-of-the-art approaches and can be constructed at a fraction of the computational cost and user effort.

  7. Paradigm shift from cartography to geo-communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Lars

    2007-01-01

    -defined to be a communication discipline. The major argument for this position is that no information is ever recorded and stored just for its own purpose. There is always the purpose that any type of geo-information is recorded and stored for usage by someone. Always! Identification and registration of geo......-information is actually not possible at all without having a usage (a project identity and a purpose) in mind. Objective and neutral geo-information does not exist. Therefore the overall philosophy of the geo-domain will be that it is a communication discipline.......This paper argues that the domain of GIS, cartography, geo-information etc. is facing a paradigm shift. The implication of a paradigm shift is a complete and necessary re-definition of e.g. the philosophical foundation of the system, as well as with a major upgrade and readjustment of procedures...

  8. E-learning paradigmer og e-learning strategiudvikling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duus, Henrik Johannsen

    2003-01-01

    E-learning området er meget varieret hvad angår produkter, holdninger ogmeninger, og indeholder også en del 'støj' og mytedannelser, som afspejles i såvel denakademisk-videnskabelige som den journalistisk-offentlige debat om området. Dennevariation i såvel produkter som udtrykte meninger søges...... systematiseret og ordnet i fireidealtypiske paradigmer. Det vises, hvorledes disse fire paradigmer har hver sinebestemte karakteristika og udviklingsgrænser. Dette har afgørende strategisk betydningfor virksomheders og læreanstalters udvikling af e-learning, idet forkerte paradigmevalgvil hæmme udviklingen....

  9. Perception gustative des lipides alimentaires : paradigme et paradoxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaillard Dany

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Origin of spontaneous fat preference in mammals remains elusive. It is clearly a multimodal system resulting from the integration of orosensory and post-ingestive signals. For a long time, dietary lipids were thought to be only sensed in the oral cavity through their textural and olfactory cues. Recent data strongly suggest that the sense of taste also plays a significant role in the preference for lipid-rich foods and in lipid-mediated induction of cephalic phase of the digestion in rodents and in humans. Molecular and physiological mechanisms of this new paradigm become known. Some of these data were not fully expected and might be considered, as first sight, as paradoxical. The « fatty taste » paradigm and paradoxes are analyzed in this minireview.

  10. Developing sustainable software solutions for bioinformatics by the " Butterfly" paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Zeeshan; Zeeshan, Saman; Dandekar, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Software design and sustainable software engineering are essential for the long-term development of bioinformatics software. Typical challenges in an academic environment are short-term contracts, island solutions, pragmatic approaches and loose documentation. Upcoming new challenges are big data, complex data sets, software compatibility and rapid changes in data representation. Our approach to cope with these challenges consists of iterative intertwined cycles of development (" Butterfly" paradigm) for key steps in scientific software engineering. User feedback is valued as well as software planning in a sustainable and interoperable way. Tool usage should be easy and intuitive. A middleware supports a user-friendly Graphical User Interface (GUI) as well as a database/tool development independently. We validated the approach of our own software development and compared the different design paradigms in various software solutions.

  11. Environmental Radiation Effects: A Need to Question Old Paradigms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinton, T.G.; Bedford, J.; Ulsh, B.; Whicker, F. Ward

    2003-03-27

    A historical perspective is given of the current paradigm that does not explicitly protect the environment from radiation, but instead, relies on the concept that if dose limits are set to protect humans then the environment is automatically protected as well. We summarize recent international questioning of this paradigm and briefly present three different frameworks for protecting biota that are being considered by the U.S. DOE, the Canadian government and the International Commission on Radiological Protection. We emphasize that an enhanced collaboration is required between what has traditionally been separated disciplines of radiation biology and radiation ecology if we are going to properly address the current environmental radiation problems. We then summarize results generated from an EMSP grant that allowed us to develop a Low Dose Irradiation Facility that specifically addresses effects of low-level, chronic irradiation on multiple levels of biological organization.

  12. fMRI paradigm designing and post-processing tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jija S James

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we first review some aspects of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI paradigm designing for major cognitive functions by using stimulus delivery systems like Cogent, E-Prime, Presentation, etc., along with their technical aspects. We also review the stimulus presentation possibilities (block, event-related for visual or auditory paradigms and their advantage in both clinical and research setting. The second part mainly focus on various fMRI data post-processing tools such as Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM and Brain Voyager, and discuss the particulars of various preprocessing steps involved (realignment, co-registration, normalization, smoothing in these software and also the statistical analysis principles of General Linear Modeling for final interpretation of a functional activation result.

  13. Bridging Scales and Paradigms in Natural Systems Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Ferdinando

    I present a new modeling formalism that enables multiple-scale, multiple-paradigm, and modular modeling. The formalism starts with a generalization of the semantics of scientific observations, where specialized observation classes compute their states by running models, using the states of the dependent observations as input, inheriting, intersecting and harmonizing their topologies of time and space. This formalism, called semantic meta-modeling, offers a uniform and cohesive approach that encompasses data management, storage, querying and many aspects of traditional modeling. I will show how simple, elegant model specifications can be rewritten into queries that can be run on a semantic database to produce semantically annotated model results. The algorithm automatically operates context translation, matching probabilistic with deterministic data and models, performing data-driven structural transformations of model structure as required by the context, and seamlessly mixing traditionally isolated paradigms such as agent-based with process-based or temporally- with spatially-explicit.

  14. Affordability and Paradigms in Agent-Based Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boldur E. Barbat

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at substantiating that in universities with scarce resources, applied Information Technologies (IT research is affordable, even in most advanced and dynamic sub-domains. This target is split into four specific objectives: a to set up a framework for IT research affordability in universities representative for current East-European circumstances; b to outline a workable approach based on synergistic leverage and to assess the paradigms prevalent in modern artificial intelligence through this ``affordability filter''; c to describe the evolution and the current stages of two undertakings exploiting paradigms founded on emergence (the sub-domains are stigmergic coordination and agent self-awareness; d to summarise for both sub domains the mechanisms and the architectonics (the focus is on computer science aspects; implementation details will be given in future papers. The results in both directions appear as promising and reveal significant potential for transdisciplinarity. From this perspective, the paper is a call to improved cooperation.

  15. Philosophy of science and the emerging paradigm: implications for hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osowiec, Darlene A

    2014-01-01

    Within the hypnosis field, there is a disparity between clinical and research worldviews. Clinical practitioners work with patients who are dealing with serious, often unique, real-world problems-lived experience. Researchers adhere to objective measurements, standardization, data, and statistics. Although there is overlap, an ongoing divergence can be counterproductive to the hypnosis field and to the larger professional and social contexts. The purpose of this article is: (1) to examine some of the major assumptions, the history, and the philosophy that undergird the definition of science, which was constructed in the mid-17th century; (2) to discover how science is a product of prevailing social forces and is undergoing a paradigm shift; and (3) to understand the more encompassing, holistic paradigm with implications for the hypnosis field.

  16. Different Research Paradigms Concerning Giftedness and Gifted Education: Shall Ever They Meet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Kurt A.

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge regarding giftedness and gifted education is supplied by different sources of information and different research paradigms. Particularly relevant approaches are here the psychometric paradigm, the expert-novice paradigm, and the explanatory approaches from cognitive sciences, also the quasi-experimental social and developmental studies…

  17. THEORIES OF CONSUMER’S SATISFACTION AND THE OPERATIONALIZATION OF THE EXPECTATION DISCONFIRMATION PARADIGM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLORIN LUCIAN ISAC

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The main paradigm that marks the literature dedicated to consumer’s satisfaction is the Expectation Disconfirmation Paradigm. A lot of theories explaining the nature and the development of consumer’s satisfaction from various perspectives fall under the umbrella of this paradigm

  18. A Paradigm for Student Learning Outcome Assessment in Information Systems Education: Continuous Improvement or Chasing Rainbows?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saulnier, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    A paradigm is presented for student learning outcome assessment in information systems education. Successful deployment of the paradigm is illustrated using the author's home institution. The paradigm is consistent with both the scholarship of teaching and learning and the scholarship of assessment. It is concluded that the deployment of the…

  19. The Minimal Group Paradigm and its maximal impact in research on social categorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    One of the most influential paradigms in research on intergroup relations is the Minimal Group Paradigm. Initially motivated by an interest in understanding the basic determinants of social discrimination, this paradigm investigates the impact of social categorization on intergroup relations in the

  20. Too Hard, Too Soft or Just about Right: Paradigms in Music Teachers' Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Tim

    2012-01-01

    This article considers some paradigms of educational research, and their relation to teachers' action research in their classrooms or studios. The positivist/scientific paradigm and the interpretive/naturalist paradigm are examined, with reference to two cases of music teachers' action research studies. These studies are found to be flawed because…

  1. The Minimal Group Paradigm and its maximal impact in research on social categorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    One of the most influential paradigms in research on intergroup relations is the Minimal Group Paradigm. Initially motivated by an interest in understanding the basic determinants of social discrimination, this paradigm investigates the impact of social categorization on intergroup relations in the

  2. An evaluation of the public health paradigm: a view of social work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashcroft, Rachelle

    2014-01-01

    This article engages in a critical review of the public health paradigm to determine the compatibility with social work's guiding value of social justice. This critical examination explores the history, epistemology, and view of health underlying the public health paradigm. Implications of the public health paradigm's view of health on social work practice and discourse is examined.

  3. Too Hard, Too Soft or Just about Right: Paradigms in Music Teachers' Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Tim

    2012-01-01

    This article considers some paradigms of educational research, and their relation to teachers' action research in their classrooms or studios. The positivist/scientific paradigm and the interpretive/naturalist paradigm are examined, with reference to two cases of music teachers' action research studies. These studies are found to be flawed because…

  4. Limitations of the Standard Gravitational Perfect Fluid Paradigm

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, David; O'Brien, James

    2009-01-01

    We show that the standard perfect fluid paradigm is not necessarily a valid description of a steady state gravitational source unless the background geometry has very high symmetry. By incoherently averaging over a compete set of modes of a scalar field propagating in a curved background, we show that for a static, spherically symmetric geometry the energy-momentum tensor that ensues will in general be of the form $T_{\\mu\

  5. Attention shifts the language network reflecting paradigm presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin eKollndorfer

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI is a reliable and non-invasive method with which to localize language function in pre-surgical planning. In clinical practice, visual stimulus presentation is often difficult or impossible, due to the patient’s restricted language or attention abilities. Therefore, our aim was to investigate modality-specific differences in visual and auditory stimulus presentation.Methods: Ten healthy subjects participated in an fMRI study comprising two experiments with visual and auditory stimulus presentation. In both experiments, two language paradigms (one for language comprehension and one for language production used in clinical practice were investigated. In addition to standard data analysis by the means of the general linear model (GLM, independent component analysis (ICA was performed to achieve more detailed information on language processing networks.Results: GLM analysis revealed modality-specific brain activation for both language paradigms for the contrast visual > auditory in the area of the intraparietal sulcus and the hippocampus, two areas related to attention and working memory. Using group ICA, a language network was detected for both paradigms independent of stimulus presentation modality. The investigation of language lateralization revealed no significant variations. Visually presented stimuli further activated an attention-shift network, which could not be identified for the auditory presented language.Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that the visually presented language stimuli additionally activate an attention-shift network. These findings will provide important information for pre-surgical planning in order to preserve reading abilities after brain surgery, significantly improving surgical outcomes. Our findings suggest that the presentation modality for language paradigms should be adapted on behalf of individual indication.

  6. Exploring paradigms of crime reduction: An empirical longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soothill, University of Lancaster, Keith; Christoffersen, Mogens; Azhar, Hussain

    Using Danish registers for a 1980 birth cohort of 29,944 males with parental information and following up these cases for 24 years, the study considers four paradigms of crime reduction (parental child-rearing, structural factors around adolescence, locality and individual resources). Focusing...... more widespread benefits, but the assumed causal links need to be further explored. The use of population registers, under controlled conditions, provides an important window on criminal careers....

  7. Risk perception of festival audience: an application of psychometric paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Ahi, Julide Ceren

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceived risk level indicated by audiences for six contemporary hazards in an open door music festival, seeing as it is an overlooked issue in the literature. In order to measure the risk perceptions of participants The Psychometric Paradigm Model was utilized together with the perceived controllability arguments of Optimism Bias Theory. The data was collected from 230 participants of Landstreff 2013 Stavanger through online survey in coope...

  8. Risk Perception and Terrorism: Applying the Psychometric Paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkin, Clinton M.

    2006-01-01

    This article appeared in Homeland Security Affairs (July 2006), v.2 no.2 While expert risk analyses are based on calculations of probability and damage, public estimates of risk are more often based on qualitative factors. It is important to understand how the public, not just homeland security experts, perceive and react to the threat of terrorism. Risk perception research in general, and the psychometric paradigm in particular, offer a basis for empirically examining attitudes toward pot...

  9. Happiness and the Family 2.0 Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocan, Rodica; Racorean, Stefana

    Does new media technology have the potential to make us happier? This paper explores the influence of new information communication technologies on family life satisfaction while analyzing some of the factors that determine changes in the way we live our lives in the information age. Family 2.0 is the new paradigm of family life and the emergence of Web 2.0 type of applications is at the very core of its existence.

  10. Analysis of the Paradigm Evolution of Digital Libraries in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Sun

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors analyze the developmental framework of digital libraries in China and point out their current demand characteristics, development requirements, and developmental period. They then conclude that it is necessary to start up a new paradigm evolution of a digital library, from a traditional digital library to a virtual digital library. On that basis, they describe in detail several problems and developmental approaches that developing a virtual digital library must deal with, drawing lessons from the prototype DILIGENT.

  11. Agua Para Todos: A New Regionalist Hydraulic Paradigm in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Lopez-Gunn

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the hydraulic paradigm in Spain and its evolution over the last 100 years to the current decentralisation process of "agua para todos", i.e. where different regional governments vie for control over 'scarce' water resources and defining the concept of hydro-solidarity between regions. Recent events seem to point to a new hydraulic bureaucracy at the sub-national level due to the political devolution currently taking place in Spain, where water has an increased political value in electoral terms. Water has strategic importance in single-issue politics and territorial identity, as compared to traditional left/right ideological politics for both national and regional parties in the Spanish multilevel electoral system. This refers to an important aspect of water politics – openly discussed in Spain but rarely analysed – namely the 'political returns' on water (or 'political rent-seeking'. This also points to spatial dimensions of the definition of state, identity, and access to resources in a semiarid country. This historical process of decentralisation of water is highlighted with particular reference to key events in recent Spanish history, including the Hydraulic Plan of the 1930s, its reappearance in the 1993 National Hydrological Plan, a revised version in the year 2001, and a final change in paradigm in 2005 at the national level. This suggests that the hydraulic paradigm is re-enacted at the regional government level. It is argued that a multi-scalar analysis of Spanish water decentralisation is essential in order to understand change and stasis in public policy paradigms related to water.

  12. The Predictive Processing Paradigm Has Roots in Kant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Link Ray Swanson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Predictive processing is a paradigm in computational and cognitive neuroscience that has recently attracted significant attention across domains, including psychology, robotics, artificial intelligence, and philosophy. It is often regarded as a fresh and possibly revolutionary paradigm shift, yet a handful of authors have remarked that aspects of predictive processing seem reminiscent of the work of 18th century philosopher Immanuel Kant. To date there have not been any substantive discussions of how exactly predictive processing links back to Kant. In this article I argue that several core aspects of predictive processing were anticipated by Kant in his 1781-87 works on perception and cognition. Themes from Kant active in predictive processing include (1 the emphasis on ‘top-down’ generation of percepts, (2 the role of ‘hyperpriors’, (3 the general function of ‘generative models’, (4 the process of ‘analysis-by-synthesis’, and (5 the crucial role of imagination in perception. In addition to these, I also point out that predictive processing echoes Kant’s general project in that it aims to explain how minds track causal structure in the world using only sensory data, and that it uses a reverse-engineer or ‘top-down’ method of analysis. I then locate a possible source of Kant’s influence on predictive processing by tracing the paradigm back to Hermann von Helmholtz, who saw himself as providing a scientific implementation of Kant’s conclusions. I conclude by arguing that predictive processing should not be regarded as a new paradigm but is more appropriately understood as the latest incarnation of an approach to perception and cognition initiated by Kant and refined by Helmholtz.

  13. Reasoning About a Service-oriented Programming Paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio Guidi; Fabrizio Montesi

    2009-01-01

    This paper is about a new way for programming distributed applications: the service-oriented one. It is a concept paper based upon our experience in developing a theory and a language for programming services. Both the theoretical formalization and the language interpreter showed us the evidence that a new programming paradigm exists. In this paper we illustrate the basic features it is characterized by.

  14. A donor-nanotube paradigm for nonlinear optical materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Dequan; Bulat, Felipe A; Yang, Weitao; Beratan, David N

    2008-09-01

    Studies of the nonlinear electronic response of donor/acceptor substituted nanotubes suggest a behavior that is both surprising and qualitatively distinct from that in conventional conjugated organic species. We find that the carbon nanotubes serve as both electronic bridges and acceptors, leading to a donor-nanotube paradigm for the effective design of large first hyperpolarizabilities. We also find that tuning the donor orientation, relative to the nanotube, can significantly enhance the first hyperpolarizability.

  15. Charge Transport in Nonaqueous Liquid Electrolytes: A Paradigm Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-18

    Partners Place, Suite 150 Norman , OK 73019 -5715 31-Aug-2014 ABSTRACT Final Report: Charge Transport in Nonaqueous Liquid Electrolytes: A Paradigm...7 This was the first step in a comparative study of low permittivity liquids and electrolytes. Acetates and their electrolyte solutions have low ...wisdom, based on a hydrodynamic picture of ion transport, states that the conductivity in propylene carbonate is relatively low because the

  16. Maximum-entropy principle as Galerkin modelling paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noack, Bernd R.; Niven, Robert K.; Rowley, Clarence W.

    2012-11-01

    We show how the empirical Galerkin method, leading e.g. to POD models, can be derived from maximum-entropy principles building on Noack & Niven 2012 JFM. In particular, principles are proposed (1) for the Galerkin expansion, (2) for the Galerkin system identification, and (3) for the probability distribution of the attractor. Examples will illustrate the advantages of the entropic modelling paradigm. Partially supported by the ANR Chair of Excellence TUCOROM and an ADFA/UNSW Visiting Fellowship.

  17. The neoliberal policy paradigm and the great recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stein Howard

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the relationship between neoliberal policies and the Great Recession with a focus on the persistence of the policy paradigm in spite of overwhelming evidence of its role in creating the crisis. These economic problems are only the latest that have arisen in the wake of the three long decade experiment with these policy packages. The paper investigates the ideological, methodological, historical, theoretical, political and economic interests underlying the perpetuation of neoliberalism.

  18. Reliability and Validity of Qualitative and Operational Research Paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Both qualitative and quantitative paradigms try to find the same result; the truth. Qualitative studies are tools used in understanding and describing the world of human experience. Since we maintain our humanity throughout the research process, it is largely impossible to escape the subjective experience, even for the most experienced of researchers. Reliability and Validity are the issue that has been described in great deal by advocates of quantitative researchers. The validity an...

  19. Pathology residency training: time for a new paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domen, Ronald E; Baccon, Jennifer

    2014-06-01

    The exponential growth of the field of pathology over the past several decades has created challenges for residency training programs. These challenges include the ability to train competent pathologists in 4 years, an increased demand for fellowship training, and the structuring and completion of maintenance of certification. The authors feel that pathology residency training has reached a critical point and that a new paradigm for training is required.

  20. LOD wars: The affected-sib-pair paradigm strikes back!

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrall, M. [Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    1997-03-01

    In a recent letter, Greenberg et al. aired their concerns that the affected-sib-pair (ASP) approach was becoming excessively popular, owing to misconceptions and ignorance of the properties and limitations of both the ASP and the classic LOD-score approaches. As an enthusiast of using the ASP approach to map susceptibility genes for multifactorial traits, I would like to contribute a few comments and explanatory notes in defense of the ASP paradigm. 18 refs.

  1. Testing paradigms of ecosystem change under climate warming in Antarctica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Melbourne-Thomas

    Full Text Available Antarctic marine ecosystems have undergone significant changes as a result of human activities in the past and are now responding in varied and often complicated ways to climate change impacts. Recent years have seen the emergence of large-scale mechanistic explanations-or "paradigms of change"-that attempt to synthesize our understanding of past and current changes. In many cases, these paradigms are based on observations that are spatially and temporally patchy. The West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP, one of Earth's most rapidly changing regions, has been an area of particular research focus. A recently proposed mechanistic explanation for observed changes in the WAP region relates changes in penguin populations to variability in krill biomass and regional warming. While this scheme is attractive for its simplicity and chronology, it may not account for complex spatio-temporal processes that drive ecosystem dynamics in the region. It might also be difficult to apply to other Antarctic regions that are experiencing some, though not all, of the changes documented for the WAP. We use qualitative network models of differing levels of complexity to test paradigms of change for the WAP ecosystem. Importantly, our approach captures the emergent effects of feedback processes in complex ecological networks and provides a means to identify and incorporate uncertain linkages between network elements. Our findings highlight key areas of uncertainty in the drivers of documented trends, and suggest that a greater level of model complexity is needed in devising explanations for ecosystem change in the Southern Ocean. We suggest that our network approach to evaluating a recent and widely cited paradigm of change for the Antarctic region could be broadly applied in hypothesis testing for other regions and research fields.

  2. Developing the New Educational Paradigm in Russian Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Verbitsky

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The mission of education is changing according to the changing system of social values. Developed concepts related to the conformities of human growth determine the content, education and upbringing methods, pedagogic position and thinking, and way of life in educational institutions.The paper looks at the problems regarding the transition to the new educational paradigm. The author has conducted the historical review and retrospective analysis of the existing over the centuries educational paradigms: natural, civil, Christian, anthropological, and classical. The main emphasis is placed on the latter paradigm based on the principle of conformity to nature and learner’s perception and memorization of the ready-made educational material, since that out-of-date explanatory and illustrative traditional method still remains the most popular in pedagogic environment and dominating over the last three centuries in the world education. Lecture–workshop system of higher education appears to be its specific version based on the same theoretical principles. Most school teachers and academic staff at universities, colleges and vocational schools – some of them without special pedagogic education – work successfully according to Komensky, the founder of the class-lesson system of education. The comparison between the above mentioned classical paradigm and developing modern one in Russian educational system is given. The most significant contro- versies between the two educational models, preventing the implementation of the perspective innovations, are examined. It is emphasized that they can be solved on the theoretical and technological basis of the context teaching. 

  3. Religion, Science, and Culture: An Integrated, Interconnected Paradigm of Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Amin Abdullah

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Discussing the paradigm of dialogue and integration in the Islamic science of religion is important since the practice of religious education still applies the paradigm of conflict and independence. These paradigms have a great influence on the formation of socio-religious and cultural ways of thinking. The relationship between Islamic religiousc and natural, social, as well as cultural sciences, needs patterns of integrated, interconnected relations and dialogues. Islamic Studies requires a multidisciplinary approach, that is, interdisciplinarity and transdisciplinarity. Scientific linearity, in which science is narrowly defined and mono-disciplinary, will lead to an understanding of religion and religious interpretations that has no contact with and relevance to the context in which it is studied. New types of religious thought that encourage independent discussion and dialogue on the subjective, objective and intersubjective aspects of science and religion will create the emergence of a new type of religiosity in the multicultural era. All of this requires more effort to undertake a serious reconstruction of scientific methodologies and the methodologies of scientific studies of religion.[Penerapan paradigma dialog dan integrasi dalam ilmu-ilmu keislaman masih penting untuk didiskusikan mengingat praktik pendidikan agama masih menerapkan paradigm konflik dan independen. Paradigma-paradigma ini memiliki pengaruh yang besar dalam pembentukan cara pandang keagamaan, baik sosial maupun kultural. Hubungan antara ilmu-ilmu keislaman di satu sisi dengan ilmu-ilmu alam, sosial, dan budaya di sisi lain, memerlukan pola hubungan dan dialog yang terintegrasi-interkoneksi. Studi Islam mensyaratkan pendekatan multi disiplin, baik interdisipliner maupun transdisipliner. Linearitas keilmuan yang membatasi bidang ilmu secara sempit dan mono-disiplin akan menggiring pemahaman agama dan tafsir keagamaan yang tidak terkait dan tidak relevan dengan konteks

  4. The Predictive Processing Paradigm Has Roots in Kant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Link R.

    2016-01-01

    Predictive processing (PP) is a paradigm in computational and cognitive neuroscience that has recently attracted significant attention across domains, including psychology, robotics, artificial intelligence and philosophy. It is often regarded as a fresh and possibly revolutionary paradigm shift, yet a handful of authors have remarked that aspects of PP seem reminiscent of the work of 18th century philosopher Immanuel Kant. To date there have not been any substantive discussions of how exactly PP links back to Kant. In this article, I argue that several core aspects of PP were anticipated by Kant (1996/1787) in his works on perception and cognition. Themes from Kant active in PP include: (1) the emphasis on “top-down” generation of percepts; (2) the role of “hyperpriors”; (3) the general function of “generative models”; (4) the process of “analysis-by-synthesis”; and (5) the crucial role of imagination in perception. In addition to these, I also point out that PP echoes Kant’s general project in that it aims to explain how minds track causal structure in the world using only sensory data, and that it uses a reverse-engineer or “top-down” method of analysis. I then locate a possible source of Kant’s influence on PP by tracing the paradigm back to Hermann von Helmholtz, who saw himself as providing a scientific implementation of Kant’s conclusions. I conclude by arguing that PP should not be regarded as a new paradigm, but is more appropriately understood as the latest incarnation of an approach to perception and cognition initiated by Kant and refined by Helmholtz. PMID:27777555

  5. Change of economic paradigm and E-business

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Tae Chang [Korea Institute for Electronic Commerce, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    With an expansion of infrastructure and rapid increase of internet use due to the development of information and telecommunication technology, the world is reorganizing to a unlimited competition era without boundaries. These changes, so called a digital revolution, give influence on the whole lifestyle over every sector and its ripple effect is massive. In this study, it examines a change of economic paradigm and E-business and it discusses on the reactions of business sector.

  6. Paradigm shift: Can TQM save DOD's procurement process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Ross V.

    1992-11-01

    The Department of Defense's (DOD) ambitious introduction of total quality management (TQM) will fail, unless they change their paradigm and reengineer how they do business. TQM implementation in the defense department and possibilities for reengineering DOD's management structure were investigated. This paper uses a case study to investigate DOD's procurement efficiency and effectiveness with information technology. The findings show DOD is faced with its greatest challenge since WWII in meeting the rapidly evolving environment of the 1990s and the 21st century.

  7. The biocultural paradigm: the neural connection between science and mysticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Nicolas, A T

    1998-01-01

    New discoveries in perceptual psychology, brain chemistry, brain evolution, brain development, ethology, cultural anthropology, the more recent work of MacLean on the structure of the brains and the discovery by Gazzaniga of the role of the, so-called, "interpreter module," are the foundations of a new paradigm on human cortical information processing, called by its discoverer, Dr. M. Colavito, the "biocultural paradigm." This paradigm shows that biology and culture act on one another as the conditioning parameters of neurocultural information. Through mutual interaction biology in humans becomes culture, and vice versa, culture opens and stimulates the neural passages of the brains, accounting thus for the varieties of brains in humans, and for cultural diversity. Culture conditions and stimulates biology, while biology conditions and makes culture possible. Cultures and brains may be distinguished from one another through identification with certain functions or combination of functions that are exercised habitually, or become neural hard-wire through repetition or habit. This new model has replaced older and simpler models of the nature/ nurture controversy, such as the unextended rational substance of Descartes, the tabula rasa of Locke, the associated-matrix of Hume, the passive, reinforcement-driven animal of Skinner, and the genetically hard-wired robot of the sociobiologists. However, elements of these earlier models are included in the new one, but the conversation about human experience has changed, and, therefore, the human images of ourselves. This change was forced on scientists by the importance of the conditionality of the experience of "I" and "not-I" as described by Alex Comfort in his book I and That, and was introduced in the conversations some of us already had with each other. This article focuses on the "I" and "not-I" experiences with a description of the "not-I" or "oceanic" or "mystical" experience to clarify the new paradigm of

  8. Minimally invasive dentistry: paradigm shifts in preparation design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeSage, Brian P

    2009-01-01

    While the concept of minimally invasive dentistry has long been considered a rational, viable approach to restorative care, preparation design, material science, and long-term evidentiary support have only recently begun to provide the foundation necessary to support such treatment in the everyday practice. This article reviews the fundamental paradigm shift evidenced in contemporary prosthodontics as required to facilitate the emerging interest in delivering conservative restorative alternatives.

  9. Service Composition Scenarios in the Internet of Things Paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Stelmach, Paweł

    2013-01-01

    Part 3: Service Orientation; International audience; In this work the topic of service composition scenarios is introduced and discussed with the use of leading example of service composition in the transport domain. The example is used to visualize the connection to the Internet of Things paradigm. The service composition itself is defined with a holistic approach, describing all steps of the proposed composition process like: requirements definition, requirements decomposition or aggregatio...

  10. The Predictive Processing Paradigm Has Roots in Kant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Link R

    2016-01-01

    Predictive processing (PP) is a paradigm in computational and cognitive neuroscience that has recently attracted significant attention across domains, including psychology, robotics, artificial intelligence and philosophy. It is often regarded as a fresh and possibly revolutionary paradigm shift, yet a handful of authors have remarked that aspects of PP seem reminiscent of the work of 18th century philosopher Immanuel Kant. To date there have not been any substantive discussions of how exactly PP links back to Kant. In this article, I argue that several core aspects of PP were anticipated by Kant (1996/1787) in his works on perception and cognition. Themes from Kant active in PP include: (1) the emphasis on "top-down" generation of percepts; (2) the role of "hyperpriors"; (3) the general function of "generative models"; (4) the process of "analysis-by-synthesis"; and (5) the crucial role of imagination in perception. In addition to these, I also point out that PP echoes Kant's general project in that it aims to explain how minds track causal structure in the world using only sensory data, and that it uses a reverse-engineer or "top-down" method of analysis. I then locate a possible source of Kant's influence on PP by tracing the paradigm back to Hermann von Helmholtz, who saw himself as providing a scientific implementation of Kant's conclusions. I conclude by arguing that PP should not be regarded as a new paradigm, but is more appropriately understood as the latest incarnation of an approach to perception and cognition initiated by Kant and refined by Helmholtz.

  11. An Extended Marketing Paradigm for Implementing Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Warnakulasooriya, Bernard Neville F.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the shortcomings of the existing marketing paradigm and to identify the extended role of marketing in successful implementation of the supply chain management. The study is basically a 'theoretical prescriptive' one, which is mainly based upon the review of representative literature from relevant disciplines such as marketing, strategic marketing management, strategic management and supply chain management. The study explores the generally accepted para...

  12. Defense Exportability Features Initiative: A New Paradigm for International Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    exportability process. Consequently DEF should en- hance these traditional benefits in two important ways: • By providing advanced capability to allies and...Defense AT&L: January–February 2015 24 Defense Exportability Features Initiative A New Paradigm for International Cooperation Frank D. Kenlon n...Jay Mandelbaum Kenlon is a professor of international acquisition management (intermittent) in the Defense Systems Management College’s International

  13. Degrading emotional memories induced by a virtual reality paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuperus, Anne A; Laken, Maarten; van den Hout, Marcel A; Engelhard, Iris M

    2016-09-01

    In Eye Movement and Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy, a dual-task approach is used: patients make horizontal eye movements while they recall aversive memories. Studies showed that this reduces memory vividness and/or emotionality. A strong explanation is provided by working memory theory, which suggests that other taxing dual-tasks are also effective. Experiment 1 tested whether a visuospatial task which was carried out while participants were blindfolded taxes working memory. Experiment 2 tested whether this task degrades negative memories induced by a virtual reality (VR) paradigm. In experiment 1, participants responded to auditory cues with or without simultaneously carrying out the visuospatial task. In experiment 2, participants recalled negative memories induced by a VR paradigm. The experimental group simultaneously carried out the visuospatial task, and a control group merely recalled the memories. Changes in self-rated memory vividness and emotionality were measured. The slowing down of reaction times due to the visuospatial task indicated that its cognitive load was greater than the load of the eye movements task in previous studies. The task also led to reductions in emotionality (but not vividness) of memories induced by the VR paradigm. Weaknesses are that only males were tested in experiment 1, and the effectiveness of the VR fear/trauma induction was not assessed with ratings of mood or intrusions in experiment 2. The results suggest that the visuospatial task may be applicable in clinical settings, and the VR paradigm may provide a useful method of inducing negative memories. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Dunning’s eclectic paradigm applied on Jotun Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Minde, Nina

    2000-01-01

    This report is written both as an independent thesis and as part of the SNF research project “The multinational activities of Norwegian shipowning companies”, financed by the Research Council of Norway and the Norwegian Shipowners Association. The purpose of the report is to apply one of the main theories on international production, Dunning’s eclectic paradigm, on Jotun’s investment in Thailand. Jotun is one of a handful of Norwegian companies that had established affiliates in Thailand befo...

  15. Holistic scientifically artistic paradigm of education in society of knowledges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олена Миколаївна Отич

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Human-center measuring of society education are required by claims of new holistic educational paradigm, which becomes the source of conceptual ideas on providing integral influence of education on intellectual and emotional and sensual spheres of personality with the purpose of its harmonious general and professional development, forming of integral worldview which consists of scientific and artistic worldviews, each of which is valuable

  16. The Emergence of a New Paradigm in Ape Language Research

    OpenAIRE

    Shanker, Stuart; King, Barbara

    2000-01-01

    In place of the information-processing model that has hitherto dominated ape language research, we argue that it is imperative that we now shift to a dynamic systems paradigm, which places the emphasis on the dyad rather than the isolated individual; which sees ape communication as a co-regulated process, rather than a linear and discrete sequence; which focuses on the variability of ape communicative behaviours, rather than treating them as phenotypic traits; and which is thus better able to...

  17. What is the new paradigm in product quality?

    OpenAIRE

    Robotham, AJ; Guldbrandsen, M

    2000-01-01

    The current product quality paradigm is founded upon a customer-focused product development process, in which the functionality and behaviour of a product are designed to fulfil the needs of customers, and technological innovation is used to expand the capability and enhance the performance of the product. However, this view of product quality does not reflect the current practices of today's leading manufacturers, who now offer "total solutions" based upon an integrated package of products a...

  18. Turbomachinery computational fluid dynamics: asymptotes and paradigm shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawes, W N

    2007-10-15

    This paper reviews the development of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) specifically for turbomachinery simulations and with a particular focus on application to problems with complex geometry. The review is structured by considering this development as a series of paradigm shifts, followed by asymptotes. The original S1-S2 blade-blade-throughflow model is briefly described, followed by the development of two-dimensional then three-dimensional blade-blade analysis. This in turn evolved from inviscid to viscous analysis and then from steady to unsteady flow simulations. This development trajectory led over a surprisingly small number of years to an accepted approach-a 'CFD orthodoxy'. A very important current area of intense interest and activity in turbomachinery simulation is in accounting for real geometry effects, not just in the secondary air and turbine cooling systems but also associated with the primary path. The requirements here are threefold: capturing and representing these geometries in a computer model; making rapid design changes to these complex geometries; and managing the very large associated computational models on PC clusters. Accordingly, the challenges in the application of the current CFD orthodoxy to complex geometries are described in some detail. The main aim of this paper is to argue that the current CFD orthodoxy is on a new asymptote and is not in fact suited for application to complex geometries and that a paradigm shift must be sought. In particular, the new paradigm must be geometry centric and inherently parallel without serial bottlenecks. The main contribution of this paper is to describe such a potential paradigm shift, inspired by the animation industry, based on a fundamental shift in perspective from explicit to implicit geometry and then illustrate this with a number of applications to turbomachinery.

  19. The paradigm of unity in science and culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grochmal Stanislaw

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paradigm of unity is a response to the contemporary needs of society; it shows a new way of looking at social and cultural processes, in positive and creative aspects, giving the hope to solve many problems of the modern world. It constitutes a methodological basis for building both the theoretical models and application schemas, also reveals the directions of the empirical research (Biela, 1996.

  20. MOBILE POLLINATION AS A PARADIGM FOR INDUSTRIAL BEEKEEPING

    OpenAIRE

    Komlatskiy V. I.

    2016-01-01

    The article analyzes the state of the domestic beekeeping. It is proposed, as a paradigm of the industrial beekeeping, to use honey and pollination systems. Over the past 25 years, because the hard economic reforms in the public sector, there was almost double reduction of honey collection. Russian beekeeping is in the hard situation because of the low yields and the use of outdated technologies. Russia's share in the global honey market does not exceed 1 %. A more viable was apiaries of priv...