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Sample records for twitch potentiation produced

  1. Recovery of Action Potentials and Twitches after K-contractures in Frog Skeletal Muscle(Physiology)

    OpenAIRE

    Atsuko, Suzuki; Ibuki, Shirakawa; Kazunari, Noguchi; Hirohiko, Kishi; Haruo, Sugi; Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Teikyo University:(Present office)Department of Physical Therapy, Health Science University; Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Teikyo University; Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Teikyo University; Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Teikyo University; Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Teikyo University

    2004-01-01

    To give information about intracellular Ca^ translocation during and after K-contractures in vertebrate skeletal muscle fibers, we examined recovery of action potentials and twitches after interruption and spontaneous relaxation of K-contractures at low temperature (3℃) that greatly reduced the rate of Ca^ reuptake by the sarcoplasmic reticulum. On membrane repolarization interrupting K-contractures, the amplitude of both action potentials and twitches recovered quickly, while the falling pha...

  2. Sarcomere length-dependence of activity-dependent twitch potentiation in mouse skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacIntosh Brian R

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been reported that potentiation of a skeletal muscle twitch response is proportional to muscle length with a negative slope during staircase, and a positive slope during posttetanic potentiation. This study was done to directly compare staircase and posttetanic responses with measurement of sarcomere length to compare their length-dependence. Methods Mouse extensor digitorum longus (EDL muscles were dissected to small bundles of fibers, which permit measurement of sarcomere length (SL, by laser diffraction. In vitro fixed-end contractions of EDL fiber bundles were elicited at 22°C and 35°C at sarcomere lengths ranging from 2.35 μm to 3.85 μm. Twitch contractions were assessed before and after 1.5 s of 75 Hz stimulation at 22°C or during 10 s of 10 Hz stimulation at 22°C or 35°C. Results Staircase potentiation was greater at 35°C than 22°C, and the relative magnitude of the twitch contraction (Pt*/Pt was proportional to sarcomere length with a negative slope, over the range 2.3 μm – 3.7 μm. Linear regression yielded the following: Pt*/Pt = -0.59·SL+3.27 (r2 = 0.74; Pt*/Pt = -0.39·SL+2.34 (r2 = 0.48; and Pt*/Pt = -0.50·SL+2.45 (r2 = 0.80 for staircase at 35°C, and 22°C and posttetanic response respectively. Posttetanic depression rather than potentiation was present at long SL. This indicates that there may be two processes operating in these muscles to modulate the force: one that enhances and a second that depresses the force. Either or both of these processes may have a length-dependence of its mechanism. Conclusion There is no evidence that posttetanic potentiation is fundamentally different from staircase in these muscles.

  3. β2-Adrenergic Receptor Activation Suppresses the Rat Phenethylamine Hallucinogen-Induced Head Twitch Response: Hallucinogen-Induced Excitatory Post-synaptic Potentials as a Potential Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Gerard J.; Ramos, Brian P.

    2018-01-01

    5-Hydroxytryptamine2A (5-HT2A) receptors are enriched in layers I and Va of the rat prefrontal cortex and neocortex and their activation increases the frequency of glutamatergic excitatory post-synaptic potentials/currents (EPSP/Cs) onto layer V pyramidal cells. A number of other G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are also enriched in cortical layers I and Va and either induce (α1-adrenergic and orexin2) or suppress (metabotropic glutamate2 [mGlu2], adenosine A1, μ-opioid) both 5-HT-induced EPSCs and head twitches or head shakes induced by the phenethylamine hallucinogen 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI). Another neurotransmitter receptor also localized to apparent thalamocortical afferents to layers I and Va of the rat prefrontal cortex and neocortex is the β2-adrenergic receptor. Therefore, we conducted preliminary electrophysiological experiments with rat brain slices examining the effects of epinephrine on electrically-evoked EPSPs following bath application of DOI (3 μM). Epinephrine (0.3–10 μM) suppressed the late EPSPs produced by electrical stimulation and DOI. The selective β2-adrenergic receptor antagonist ICI-118,551 (300 nM) resulted in a rightward shift of the epinephrine concentration-response relationship. We also tested the selective β2-adrenergic receptor agonist clenbuterol and the antagonist ICI-118,551 on DOI-induced head twitches. Clenbuterol (0.3–3 mg/kg, i.p.) suppressed DOI (1.25 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced head twitches. This clenbuterol effect appeared to be at least partially reversed by the selective β2-adrenergic receptor antagonist ICI-118,553 (0.01–1 mg/kg, i.p.), with significant reversal at doses of 0.1 and 1 mg/kg. Thus, β2-adrenergic receptor activation reverses the effects of phenethylamine hallucinogens in the rat prefrontal cortex. While Gi/Go-coupled GPCRs have previously been shown to suppress both the electrophysiological and behavioral effects of 5-HT2A receptor activation in the mPFC, the present work appears

  4. Time-related changes in firing rates are influenced by recruitment threshold and twitch force potentiation in the first dorsal interosseous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jonathan D; Herda, Trent J; Trevino, Michael A; Sterczala, Adam J; Ciccone, Anthony B

    2017-08-01

    What is the central question of this study? The influences of motor unit recruitment threshold and twitch force potentiation on the changes in firing rates during steady-force muscular contractions are not well understood. What is the main finding and its importance? The behaviour of motor units during steady force was influenced by recruitment threshold, such that firing rates decreased for lower-threshold motor units but increased for higher-threshold motor units. In addition, individuals with greater changes in firing rates possessed greater twitch force potentiation. There are contradictory reports regarding changes in motor unit firing rates during steady-force contractions. Inconsistencies are likely to be the result of previous studies disregarding motor unit recruitment thresholds and not examining firing rates on a subject-by-subject basis. It is hypothesized that firing rates are manipulated by twitch force potentiation during contractions. Therefore, in this study we examined time-related changes in firing rates at steady force in relationship to motor unit recruitment threshold in the first dorsal interosseous and the influence of twitch force potentiation on such changes in young versus aged individuals. Subjects performed a 12 s steady-force contraction at 50% maximal voluntary contraction, with evoked twitches before and after the contraction to quantify potentiation. Firing rates, in relationship to recruitment thresholds, were determined at the beginning, middle and end of the steady force. There were no firing rate changes for aged individuals. For the young, firing rates decreased slightly for lower-threshold motor units but increased for higher-threshold motor units. Twitch force potentiation was greater for young than aged subjects, and changes in firing rates were correlated with twitch force potentiation. Thus, individuals with greater increases in firing rates of higher-threshold motor units and decreases in lower-threshold motor units

  5. Sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium release compared in slow-twitch and fast-twitch fibres of mouse muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylor, S M; Hollingworth, S

    2003-08-15

    Experiments were carried out to compare the amplitude and time course of Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) in intact slow-twitch and fast-twitch mouse fibres. Individual fibres within small bundles were injected with furaptra, a low-affinity, rapidly responding Ca2+ indicator. In response to a single action potential at 16 degrees C, the peak amplitude and half-duration of the change in myoplasmic free [Ca2+] (Delta[Ca2+]) differed significantly between fibre types (slow-twitch: peak amplitude, 9.4 +/- 1.0 microM (mean +/- S.E.M.); half-duration, 7.7 +/- 0.6 ms; fast-twitch: peak amplitude 18.5 +/- 0.5 microM; half-duration, 4.9 +/- 0.3 ms). SR Ca2+ release was estimated from Delta[Ca2+] with a computational model that calculated Ca2+ binding to the major myoplasmic Ca2+ buffers (troponin, ATP and parvalbumin); buffer concentrations and reaction rate constants were adjusted to reflect fibre-type differences. In response to an action potential, the total concentration of released Ca2+ (Delta[CaT]) and the peak rate of Ca2+ release ((d/dt)Delta[CaT]) differed about 3-fold between the fibre types (slow-twitch: Delta[CaT], 127 +/- 7 microM; (d/dt)Delta[CaT], 70 +/- 6 microM ms-1; fast-twitch: Delta[CaT], 346 +/- 6 microM; (d/dt)Delta[CaT], 212 +/- 4 microM ms-1). In contrast, the half-duration of (d/dt)Delta[CaT] was very similar in the two fibre types (slow-twitch, 1.8 +/- 0.1 ms; fast-twitch, 1.6 +/- 0.0 ms). When fibres were stimulated with a 5-shock train at 67 Hz, the peaks of (d/dt)Delta[CaT] in response to the second and subsequent shocks were much smaller than that due to the first shock; the later peaks, expressed as a fraction of the amplitude of the first peak, were similar in the two fibre types (slow-twitch, 0.2-0.3; fast-twitch, 0.1-0.3). The results support the conclusion that individual SR Ca2+ release units function similarly in slow-twitch and fast-twitch mammalian fibres.

  6. Twitching in sensorimotor development from sleeping rats to robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Mark S; Marques, Hugo Gravato; Iida, Fumiya

    2013-06-17

    It is still not known how the 'rudimentary' movements of fetuses and infants are transformed into the coordinated, flexible and adaptive movements of adults. In addressing this important issue, we consider a behavior that has been perennially viewed as a functionless by-product of a dreaming brain: the jerky limb movements called myoclonic twitches. Recent work has identified the neural mechanisms that produce twitching as well as those that convey sensory feedback from twitching limbs to the spinal cord and brain. In turn, these mechanistic insights have helped inspire new ideas about the functional roles that twitching might play in the self-organization of spinal and supraspinal sensorimotor circuits. Striking support for these ideas is coming from the field of developmental robotics: when twitches are mimicked in robot models of the musculoskeletal system, the basic neural circuitry undergoes self-organization. Mutually inspired biological and synthetic approaches promise not only to produce better robots, but also to solve fundamental problems concerning the developmental origins of sensorimotor maps in the spinal cord and brain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Potential biosurfactant producing endophytic and epiphytic fungi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potential biosurfactant producing endophytic and epiphytic fungi, isolated from macrophytes in the Negro River in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. ... Solms and Cyperus ligularis L., macrophytes collected from oil-contaminated waters, were studied to assess their potential for producing biosurfactants; the most promising ones ...

  8. Bacillus subtilis as potential producer for polyhydroxyalkanoates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Sanjay KS

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs are biodegradable polymers produced by microbes to overcome environmental stress. Commercial production of PHAs is limited by the high cost of production compared to conventional plastics. Another hindrance is the brittle nature and low strength of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB, the most widely studied PHA. The needs are to produce PHAs, which have better elastomeric properties suitable for biomedical applications, preferably from inexpensive renewable sources to reduce cost. Certain unique properties of Bacillus subtilis such as lack of the toxic lipo-polysaccharides, expression of self-lysing genes on completion of PHA biosynthetic process – for easy and timely recovery, usage of biowastes as feed enable it to compete as potential candidate for commercial production of PHA.

  9. Bacillus subtilis as potential producer for polyhydroxyalkanoates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mamtesh; Patel, Sanjay Ks; Kalia, Vipin C

    2009-07-20

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are biodegradable polymers produced by microbes to overcome environmental stress. Commercial production of PHAs is limited by the high cost of production compared to conventional plastics. Another hindrance is the brittle nature and low strength of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), the most widely studied PHA. The needs are to produce PHAs, which have better elastomeric properties suitable for biomedical applications, preferably from inexpensive renewable sources to reduce cost. Certain unique properties of Bacillus subtilis such as lack of the toxic lipo-polysaccharides, expression of self-lysing genes on completion of PHA biosynthetic process - for easy and timely recovery, usage of biowastes as feed enable it to compete as potential candidate for commercial production of PHA.

  10. The effects of beta-adrenoceptor activation on contraction in isolated fast- and slow-twitch skeletal muscle fibres of the rat.

    OpenAIRE

    Cairns, S. P.; Dulhunty, A. F.

    1993-01-01

    1. The aim of the experiments was to examined the effects of beta-adrenoceptor activation on twitch and tetanic contractions in fast- and slow-twitch mammalian skeletal muscle fibres. Isometric force was recorded from bundles of intact fibres isolated from the normal and denervated slow-twitch soleus and normal fast-twitch sternomastoid muscles of the rat. 2. Terbutaline (10 microM), a beta 2-adrenoceptor agonist, induced an average 15% potentiation of peak twitch and peak tetanic force in no...

  11. Potential biosurfactant producing endophytic and epiphytic fungi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    João Marcelo Lima

    2016-06-15

    Jun 15, 2016 ... L., macrophytes collected from oil-contaminated waters, were studied to assess their potential for ... personal hygiene products and food processing, among ... Biosurfactant production was undertaken in 50 mL of culture.

  12. Potential producers of aflatoxin in working environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesenska, Z.; Polakova, O.; Polster, M.; Koskova, L.; Vaszilkova, A.

    1981-01-01

    It has been investigated the amount of the viable germs of A. flavus in the environment of the food-stuff establishment, where peanuts and hazel nuts, almonds, crushed coconuts, tea and other food-stuffs, imported from tropical and subtropical countries, were processed and packed. In the air of the store-hall have occurred the most 3.73 x 10(2) and in the air of the working-halls, where they were manipulating with food-stuffs - the most 6.2 x 10(3) germs of A. flavus/m3. From the samples of the sedimented dust were isolated at least 0.4 x 10(1), the most 1.3 x 10(4) colonies of A. flavus/g. From 57 investigated strains produced aflatoxin B1 64.9%. The authors are discussing about a professional risk for the workers of some establishments during the manipulation with food-stuffs or feeds, which are contaminated with germs of toxinogenic moulds and with mycotoxins.

  13. Identification of an operon, Pil-Chp, that controls twitching motility and virulence in Xylella fastidiosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cursino, Luciana; Galvani, Cheryl D; Athinuwat, Dusit; Zaini, Paulo A; Li, Yaxin; De La Fuente, Leonardo; Hoch, Harvey C; Burr, Thomas J; Mowery, Patricia

    2011-10-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is an important phytopathogenic bacterium that causes many serious plant diseases, including Pierce's disease of grapevines. Disease manifestation by X. fastidiosa is associated with the expression of several factors, including the type IV pili that are required for twitching motility. We provide evidence that an operon, named Pil-Chp, with genes homologous to those found in chemotaxis systems, regulates twitching motility. Transposon insertion into the pilL gene of the operon resulted in loss of twitching motility (pilL is homologous to cheA genes encoding kinases). The X. fastidiosa mutant maintained the type IV pili, indicating that the disrupted pilL or downstream operon genes are involved in pili function, and not biogenesis. The mutated X. fastidiosa produced less biofilm than wild-type cells, indicating that the operon contributes to biofilm formation. Finally, in planta the mutant produced delayed and less severe disease, indicating that the Pil-Chp operon contributes to the virulence of X. fastidiosa, presumably through its role in twitching motility.

  14. Dietary nitrate increases tetanic [Ca2+]i and contractile force in mouse fast-twitch muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Andrés; Schiffer, Tomas A; Ivarsson, Niklas; Cheng, Arthur J; Bruton, Joseph D; Lundberg, Jon O; Weitzberg, Eddie; Westerblad, Håkan

    2012-08-01

    Dietary inorganic nitrate has profound effects on health and physiological responses to exercise. Here, we examined if nitrate, in doses readily achievable via a normal diet, could improve Ca(2+) handling and contractile function using fast- and slow-twitch skeletal muscles from C57bl/6 male mice given 1 mm sodium nitrate in water for 7 days. Age matched controls were provided water without added nitrate. In fast-twitch muscle fibres dissected from nitrate treated mice, myoplasmic free [Ca(2+)] was significantly greater than in Control fibres at stimulation frequencies from 20 to 150 Hz, which resulted in a major increase in contractile force at ≤ 50 Hz. At 100 Hz stimulation, the rate of force development was ∼35% faster in the nitrate group. These changes in nitrate treated mice were accompanied by increased expression of the Ca(2+) handling proteins calsequestrin 1 and the dihydropyridine receptor. No changes in force or calsequestrin 1 and dihydropyridine receptor expression were measured in slow-twitch muscles. In conclusion, these results show a striking effect of nitrate supplementation on intracellular Ca(2+) handling in fast-twitch muscle resulting in increased force production. A new mechanism is revealed by which nitrate can exert effects on muscle function with applications to performance and a potential therapeutic role in conditions with muscle weakness.

  15. Age-related differences in twitch properties and muscle activation of the first dorsal interosseous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jonathan D; Herda, Trent J; Trevino, Michael A; Sterczala, Adam J; Ciccone, Anthony B; Nicoll, Justin X

    2017-06-01

    To examine twitch force potentiation and twitch contraction duration, as well as electromyographic amplitude (EMG RMS ) and motor unit mean firing rates (MFR) at targeted forces between young and old individuals in the first dorsal interosseous (FDI). Ultrasonography was used to assess muscle quality. Twenty-two young (YG) (age=22.6±2.7years) and 14 older (OD) (age=62.1±4.7years) individuals completed conditioning contractions at 10% and 50% maximal voluntary contraction, (MVC) during which EMG RMS and MFRs were assessed. Evoked twitches preceded and followed the conditioning contractions. Ultrasound images were taken to quantify muscle quality (cross-sectional area [CSA] and echo intensity [EI]). No differences were found between young and old for CSA, pre-conditioning contraction twitch force, or MFRs (P>0.05). However, OD individuals exhibited greater EI and contraction duration (PMFRs. Ultrasonography suggested age-related changes in muscle structure contributed to altered contractile properties in the OD. Greater muscle activation requirements can have negative implications on fatigue resistance at low to moderate intensities in older individuals. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Herbicidal potential of ophiobolins produced by Drechslera gigantea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evidente, Antonio; Andolfi, Anna; Cimmino, Alessio; Vurro, Maurizio; Fracchiolla, Mariano; Charudattan, Raghavan

    2006-03-08

    Drechslera gigantea, a potential mycoherbicide of grass weeds, was isolated in Florida from naturally infected large crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis); it produces phytotoxic metabolites in liquid culture. The main metabolite was identified by spectroscopic methods and optical properties as ophiobolin A (1), a well-known phytotoxic sesterterpene produced by several phytopathogenic fungi of important crops and already extensively studied for its interesting biological activities. The other three minor metabolites proved to be related to ophiobolin A and were identified using the same techniques as 6-epi-ophiobolin A and 3-anhydro-6-epi-ophiobolin A (2 and 3) and ophiobolin I (4). Assayed on punctured detached leaves of several grass and dicotyledon weeds, ophiobolin A proved to be on average more phytotoxic as compared to the other related compounds. Some structural features appear to be important for the phytoxicity, such as the hydroxy group at C-3, the stereochemistry at C-6, and the aldehyde group at C-7. Furthermore, grass weeds usually proved to be more sensitive to the phytotoxins than dicotyledons, on which ophiobolin A caused the appearance of large necrosis even at the lowest concentration assayed. This is the first report about the production of ophiobolins from D. gigantea and of the proposed use as potential natural herbicides against grass weeds.

  17. Lantibiotics produced by Actinobacteria and their potential applications (a review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Karen Machado; Duarte, Rafael Silva; de Freire Bastos, Maria do Carmo

    2017-02-01

    The phylum Actinobacteria, which comprises a great variety of Gram-positive bacteria with a high G+C content in their genomes, is known for its large production of bioactive compounds, including those with antimicrobial activity. Among the antimicrobials, bacteriocins, ribosomally synthesized peptides, represent an important arsenal of potential new drugs to face the increasing prevalence of resistance to antibiotics among microbial pathogens. The actinobacterial bacteriocins form a heterogeneous group of substances that is difficult to adapt to most proposed classification schemes. However, recent updates have accommodated efficiently the diversity of bacteriocins produced by this phylum. Among the bacteriocins, the lantibiotics represent a source of new antimicrobials to control infections caused mainly by Gram-positive bacteria and with a low propensity for resistance development. Moreover, some of these compounds have additional biological properties, exhibiting activity against viruses and tumour cells and having also potential to be used in blood pressure or inflammation control and in pain relief. Thus, lantibiotics already described in Actinobacteria exhibit potential practical applications in medical settings, food industry and agriculture, with examples at different stages of pre-clinical and clinical trials.

  18. Preliminary analysis of biomass potentially useful for producing biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrera Cifuentes, Gerardo; Burbano Jaramillo, Juan Carlos; Garcia Melo, Jose Isidro

    2011-01-01

    Given that biodiesel is emerging as a viable solution for some energy and environmental problems, research on raw materials appropriate for its production is a matter of growing interest. In this study we present the results of research devoted to preliminary analysis on several vegetable (biomass) species potentially useful for producing biodiesel. The bioprospection zone is a region on the Colombian Pacific coast. The candidate species collected underwent different standardized ASTM tests in order for us to define properties that facilitate their evaluation. Some of the species underwent a transesterification process. Comparisons between the thermo-physical properties of the biofuels obtained and the properties of commercial diesel were carried out. Also, performance tests for these biofuels were conducted in compression ignition engines, particularly evaluating efficiency, fuel consumption, and potency at different RPMs.

  19. Potential ecological roles of artemisinin produced by Artemisia annua L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsmark Jessing, Karina; Duke, Stephen O; Cedergreeen, Nina

    2014-02-01

    Artemisia annua L. (annual wormwood, Asteraceae) and its secondary metabolite artemisinin, a unique sesquiterpene lactone with an endoperoxide bridge, has gained much attention due to its antimalarial properties. Artemisinin has a complex structure that requires a significant amount of energy for the plant to synthesize. So, what are the benefits to A. annua of producing this unique compound, and what is the ecological role of artemisinin? This review addresses these questions, discussing evidence of the potential utility of artemisinin in protecting the plant from insects and other herbivores, as well as pathogens and competing plant species. Abiotic factors affecting the artemisinin production, as well as mechanisms of artemisinin release to the surroundings also are discussed, and new data are provided on the toxicity of artemisinin towards soil and aquatic organisms. The antifungal and antibacterial effects reported are not very pronounced. Several studies have reported that extracts of A. annua have insecticidal effects, though few studies have proven that artemisinin could be the single compound responsible for the observed effects. However, the pathogen(s) or insect(s) that may have provided the selection pressure for the evolution of artemisinin synthesis may not have been represented in the research thus far conducted. The relatively high level of phytotoxicity of artemisinin in soil indicates that plant/plant allelopathy could be a beneficial function of artemisinin to the producing plant. The release routes of artemisinin (movement from roots and wash off from leaf surfaces) from A. annua to the soil support the rationale for allelopathy.

  20. Reduced phrenic motoneuron recruitment during sustained inspiratory threshold loading compared to single-breath loading: a twitch interpolation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Raux

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In humans, inspiratory constraints engage cortical networks involving the supplementary motor area. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI shows that the spread and intensity of the corresponding respiratory-related cortical activation dramatically decrease when a discrete load becomes sustained. This has been interpreted as reflecting motor cortical reorganisation and automatisation, but could proceed from sensory and/or affective habituation. To corroborate the existence of motor reorganisation between single-breath and sustained inspiratory loading (namely changes in motor neurones recruitment, we conducted a diaphragm twitch interpolation study based on the hypothesis that motor reorganisation should result in changes in the twitch interpolation slope. Fourteen healthy subjects (age: 21 – 40 years were studied. Bilateral phrenic stimulation was delivered at rest, upon prepared and targeted voluntary inspiratory efforts (vol, upon unprepared inspiratory efforts against a single-breath inspiratory threshold load (single-breath, and upon sustained inspiratory efforts against the same type of load (continuous. The slope of the relationship between diaphragm twitch transdiaphragmatic pressure and the underlying transdiaphragmatic pressure was –1.1 ± 0.2 during vol, –1.5 ± 0.7 during single-breath, and -0.6 ± 0.4 during continuous (all slopes expressed in percent of baseline.percent of baseline-1 all comparisons significant at the 5% level. The contribution of the diaphragm to inspiration, as assessed by the gastric pressure to transdiaphragmatic pressure ratio, was 31 ± 17 % during vol, 22 ± 16 % during single-breath (p=0.13, and 19 ± 9 % during continuous (p = 0.0015 vs. vol. This study shows that the relationship between the amplitude of the transdiaphragmatic pressure produced by a diaphragm twitch and its counterpart produced by the underlying diaphragm contraction is not unequivocal. If twitch interpolation is interpreted as

  1. Screening of potential biosurfactant-producing bacteria isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seawater represents a specific environment harboring complex bacterial community which is adapted to harsh conditions. Hence, biosurfactant produced by these bacteria under these conditions have interesting proprieties. The screening of biosurfactant producing strains isolated from seawater biofilm was investigated.

  2. Twitch interpolation technique in testing of maximal muscle strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, P M; Nørregaard, J; Danneskiold-Samsøe, B

    1993-01-01

    The aim was to study the methodological aspects of the muscle twitch interpolation technique in estimating the maximal force of contraction in the quadriceps muscle utilizing commercial muscle testing equipment. Six healthy subjects participated in seven sets of experiments testing the effects...

  3. Aflatoxin B1 producing potential of Aspergillus flavus strains isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-20

    Jul 20, 2009 ... consumption of aflatoxin contaminated food and feed. (Reddy and ..... intervals by artificial inoculation of A. parasiticus on rice grains. ... additive for culture media for rapid identification of aflatoxin producing. Aspergillus strains ...

  4. Decrease in sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium content, not myofilament function, contributes to muscle twitch force decline in isolated cardiac trabeculae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani-Nejad, Nima; Brunello, Lucia; Gyorke, Sándor; Janssen, Paul M.L.

    2014-01-01

    We set out to determine the factors responsible for twitch force decline in isolated intact rat cardiac trabeculae. The contractile force of trabeculae declined over extended periods of isometric twitch contractions. The force-frequency relationship within the frequency range of 4–8 Hz, at 37 °C, became more positive and the frequency optimum shifted to higher rates with this decline in baseline twitch tensions. The post-rest potentiation (37 °C), a phenomenon highly dependent on calcium handling mechanisms, became more pronounced with decrease in twitch tensions. We show that the main abnormality during muscle run-down was not due to a deficit in the myofilaments; maximal tension achieved using a K+ contracture protocol was either unaffected or only slightly decreased. Conversely, the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) calcium content, as assessed by rapid cooling contractures (from 27 °C to 0 °C), decreased, and had a close association with the declining twitch tensions (R2 ~ 0.76). SR Ca2+-ATPase, relative to Na+/Ca2+ exchanger activity, was not altered as there was no significant change in paired rapid cooling contracture ratios. Furthermore, confocal microscopy detected no abnormalities in the overall structure of the cardiomyocytes and t-tubules in the cardiac trabeculae (~23 °C). Overall, the data indicates that the primary mechanism responsible for force run-down in multi-cellular cardiac preparations is a decline in the SR calcium content and not the maximal tension generation capability of the myofilaments. PMID:25056841

  5. Irritant and allergenic potential of some latex producing Indian plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J S Pasricha

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available The iatex exuding from the freshly sliced stems/leaves of 11 Indian plants was tested on 10 volunteers each by the open patch test and in 5 volunteers each by the 48 hour occluded patch test technique. In the open patch test, there was no reaction with (1 calotropis procera, (2 Alstonia scholaris,(3 Euphorbia splendens, (4 Euphorbia clarkina (5 Nerium indicum, and (6 Padilanthus tithymaloides (Green and white leaf variety, while mild reactions were observed with Euphorbia pulcherrima in 3 volunteers, Ficus elastida in 2 volunteers, and Pedilanthus tithymaloidas (Green leaf variety and Plumeria indica in one volunteer each Sapium sebiferum on the other hand produced severe itching, burning and erythema in all the 10 volunteers. The 48 hour occluded patch test produced definite reactions with Pedilanthus tithymaloides (Green leaf varietyin 2 cases and calotropis procera and Euphorbia clarkina in 1 case each. Sapium sebiferum on the other hand produced cauterization type of reactions in all the cases.

  6. Lipase-producing fungi for potential wastewater treatment and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    2016-05-04

    May 4, 2016 ... food, chemical, and pharmaceutical industry means the current global ... be the most convenient biosystem for industrial applications ... Fungi are capable of producing several enzymes for ... strains, and the process results in losses to the isolation ..... technical and economic burdens of lipase production.

  7. Aspects of chlorination and its potential to produce niobium pentoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brocchi, E.A.; Jeffes, J.H.E.

    1984-01-01

    Reduction chlorination of niobium pentoxide were carried out under different experimental conditions in order to study the effects of some variables of the process. In order to evaluate the efficiency of the recovery of niobium pentoxide which could be obtained as condensed material a group of experiments were also carried out with pyrochlore concentrate. The results showed that a balance of factors such as temperature, percentage of carbon in the initial charge and porosity cause the progress of the reaction to be controlled by different mechanisms and indicate that chlorination can be used to produce niobium pentoxide-especially if applied on rich starting material. (Author) [pt

  8. Ready or Not: Namibia As a Potentially Successful Oil Producer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Polus

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this paper is to assess whether Namibia is ready to become an oil producer. The geological estimates suggest that the country may possess the equivalent of as many as 11 billion barrels of crude oil. If the numbers are correct, Namibia would be sitting on the second-largest oil reserves in sub-Saharan Africa, and exploitation could start as soon as 2017. This clearly raises the question of whether Namibia is next in line to become a victim of the notorious “resource curse.” On the basis of critical discourse analysis and findings from field research, the authors have selected six dimensions of the resource curse and contextualised them within the spheres of Namibian politics and economy. While Namibia still faces a number of important challenges, our findings offer little evidence that the oil will have particularly disruptive effects.

  9. Potential hydrocarbon producing species of Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustus, G.D.P.S.; Jayabalan, M.; Rajarathinam, K. [Research Centre in Bombay, V.H.N.S.N. College, Virudhunagar (India); Ray, A.K. [Sardar Patel Univ., Anand (India). Dept. of Chemistry; Seiler, G.J. [USDA, ARS, Northern Crop Science Lab., Fargo, ND (United States)

    2002-09-01

    The decline in the world supplies of hydrocarbons has led to the search for alternate sources of fuel and chemicals. Plant species are potential sources of hydrocarbons. Large-scale screening of plants growing in the Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India was conducted to assess the hydrocarbon production and the type of isoprene compound(s) present. Three species contained more than 3% hydrocarbon. Sarcostemma brevistigma had the highest concentration of hydrocarbon with 3.6%. Seven species contained more than 2% of hydrocarbons among the plant species screened. The hydrocarbon fraction of Ficus elastica (leaf) had a gross heat value of 9834 cal/g (41.17 MJ/kg), which is close to the caloric value of fuel oil. Six hydrocarbon fractions contained gross heat values of more than 9000 cal/g (37.68 MJ/kg). Of the 13 species hydrocarbon fraction analysed, seven species contained cis-polyisoprene compounds, while two species contained trans-polyisoprenes. Cis and trans polyisoprenes are potential alternative energy sources for fuel and/or as industrial raw materials. (author)

  10. MIB-producing cyanobacteria (Planktothrix sp.) in a drinking water reservoir: distribution and odor producing potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ming; Yu, Jianwei; Zhang, Junzhi; Chen, Hui; An, Wei; Vogt, Rolf D; Andersen, Tom; Jia, Dongmin; Wang, Jingshi; Yang, Min

    2015-01-01

    The production of odorant 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) in water bodies by Planktothrix sp. have not been understood very well. Through a four-year investigation in Miyun Reservoir, a huge mesotrophic drinking water reservoir known to have the MIB episodes, we found that the Planktothrix sp. bloomed during September and October causing the high levels of MIB in the reservoir. The concentration of MIB and the biomass of MIB-producing cyanobacteria Planktothrix were measured (n = 887) at different sites and depths during different seasons. The results indicated that the shallow region of the reservoir is the major habitat for Planktothrix sp. due to that the light is able to penetrate down to the relatively high concentrations of nutrients close to the sediments. Quantile regression analysis between Planktothrix biomass and MIB concentration shows that the risk of MIB exceeding the odor threshold (15 ng L⁻¹) in water was as high as 90% when the Planktothrix density was more than 4.0 × 10⁵ cells L⁻¹, while the risk was reduced to 10% when the Planktothrix density remained below 1.6 × 10⁴ cells L⁻¹. This study will improve the understanding of the environmental behaviors of Planktothrix sp., and can provide useful information for better management of drinking water lakes/reservoirs experiencing the taste and odor (T&O) problems caused by deep living cyanobacterial species.

  11. Properties of slow- and fast-twitch muscle fibres in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkin, Julie D; Scott, Rachel L; West, Jan M; Lopes, Elizabeth; Quah, Alvin K J; Cheema, Surindar S

    2005-05-01

    This investigation was undertaken to determine if there are altered histological, pathological and contractile properties in presymptomatic or endstage diseased muscle fibres from representative slow-twitch and fast-twitch muscles of SOD1 G93A mice in comparison to wildtype mice. In presymptomatic SOD1 G93A mice, there was no detectable peripheral dysfunction, providing evidence that muscle pathology is secondary to motor neuronal dysfunction. At disease endstage however, single muscle fibre contractile analysis demonstrated that fast-twitch muscle fibres and neuromuscular junctions are preferentially affected by amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-induced denervation, being unable to produce the same levels of force when activated by calcium as muscle fibres from their age-matched controls. The levels of transgenic SOD1 expression, aggregation state and activity were also examined in these muscles but there no was no preference for muscle fibre type. Hence, there is no simple correlation between SOD1 protein expression/activity, and muscle fibre type vulnerability in SOD1 G93A mice.

  12. The twitch interpolation technique for study of fatigue of human quadriceps muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, P M; Nørregaard, J; Mehlsen, J

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine if the twitch interpolation technique could be used to objectively measure fatigue in the quadriceps muscle in subjects performing submaximally. The 'true' maximum isometric quadriceps torque was determined in 21 healthy subject using the twitch interpolation...... technique. Then an endurance test was performed in which the subjects made repeated isometric contractions at 50% of the 'true' maximum torque for 4 s, separated by 6 s rest periods. During the test, the force response to single electrical stimulation (twitch amplitude) was measured at 50% and 25......). In conclusion, the twitch technique can be used for objectively measuring fatigue of the quadriceps muscle....

  13. TWITCH PARAMETERS IN TRANSVERSAL AND LONGITUDINAL BICEPS BRACHII RESPONSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boštjan Šimunič

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of the contractile properties of skeletal muscles is continuing to be an important issue and a difficult task methodologically. Longitudinal direction of skeletal muscle contraction blurs intrinsic muscle belly contractile properties with many factors. This study evaluates and explains contractile properties such as: delay time (Td, contraction time (Tc, half relaxation time (Tr and maximal amplitude (Dm extracted from twitch transversal response and compare them with torque response. In fifteen healthy males (age 23.7 ± 3.4 years isometric twitch transversal and torque responses were simultaneously recorded during graded electrically elicited contractions in the biceps brachii muscle. The amplitude of electrical stimulation was increased in 5 mA steps from a threshold up to a maximal response. The muscles’ belly transversal response was measured by a high precision mechanical displacement sensor while elbow joint torque was calculated from force readings. Results indicate a parabolic relation between the transversal displacement and the torque Dm. A significantly shorter Tc was found in transversal response without being correlated to torque Tc (r = -0.12; > 0.05. A significant correlation was found between torque Tc and the time occurrence of the second peak in the transversal response (r = 0.83; < 0.001. Electrical stimulation amplitude dependant variation of the Tc was notably different in transversal than in torque response. Td was similar at submaximal and maximal responses but larger in transversal at just above threshold contractions. Tr has a similar linear trend in both responses, however, the magnitude and the slope are much larger in the transversal response. We could conclude that different mechanisms affect longitudinal and transversal twitch skeletal muscle deformations. Contractile properties extracted from the transversal response enable alternative insights into skeletal muscle contraction mechanics.

  14. Cyclosporin A preferentially attenuates skeletal slow-twitch muscle regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyabara E.H.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcineurin, a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent phosphatase, is associated with muscle regeneration via NFATc1/GATA2-dependent pathways. However, it is not clear whether calcineurin preferentially affects the regeneration of slow- or fast-twitch muscles. We investigated the effect of a calcineurin inhibitor, cyclosporin A (CsA, on the morphology and fiber diameter of regenerating slow- and fast-twitch muscles. Adult Wistar rats (259.5 ± 9 g maintained under standard conditions were treated with CsA (20 mg/kg body weight, ip for 5 days, submitted to cryolesion of soleus and tibialis anterior (TA muscles on the 6th day, and then treated with CsA for an additional 21 days. The muscles were removed, weighed, frozen, and stored in liquid nitrogen. Cryolesion did not alter the body weight gain of the animals after 21 days of regeneration (P = 0.001 and CsA significantly reduced the body weight gain (15.5%; P = 0.01 during the same period. All treated TA and soleus muscles showed decreased weights (17 and 29%, respectively, P < 0.05. CsA treatment decreased the cross-sectional area of both soleus and TA muscles of cryoinjured animals (TA: 2108 ± 930 vs 792 ± 640 µm²; soleus: 2209 ± 322 vs 764 ± 439 m²; P < 0.001. Histological sections of both muscles stained with Toluidine blue revealed similar regenerative responses after cryolesion. In addition, CsA was able to minimize these responses, i.e., centralized nuclei and split fibers, more efficiently so in TA muscle. These results indicate that calcineurin preferentially plays a role in regeneration of slow-twitch muscle.

  15. Evidence that the Na+-K+ leak/pump ratio contributes to the difference in endurance between fast- and slow-twitch muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, T; Overgaard, K; Nielsen, O B

    2004-02-01

    Muscles containing predominantly fast-twitch (type II) fibres [ext. dig. longus (EDL)] show considerably lower contractile endurance than muscles containing mainly slow-twitch (type I) fibres (soleus). To assess whether differences in Na+-K+ fluxes and excitability might contribute to this phenomenon, we compared excitation-induced Na+-K+ leaks, Na+ channels, Na+-K+ pump capacity, force and compound action potentials (M-waves) in rat EDL and soleus muscles. Isolated muscles were mounted for isometric contractions in Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffer and exposed to direct or indirect continuous or intermittent electrical stimulation. The time-course of force decline and concomitant changes in Na+-K+ exchange and M-waves were recorded. During continuous stimulation at 60-120 Hz, EDL showed around fivefold faster rate of force decline than soleus. This was associated with a faster loss of excitability as estimated from the area and amplitude of the M-waves. The net uptake of Na+ and the release of K+ per action potential were respectively 6.5- and 6.6-fold larger in EDL than in soleus, which may in part be due to the larger content of Na+ channels in EDL. During intermittent stimulation with 1 s 60 Hz pulse trains, EDL showed eightfold faster rate of force decline than soleus. The considerably lower contractile endurance of fast-twitch compared with slow-twitch muscles reflects differences in the rate of excitation-induced loss of excitability. This is attributed to the much larger excitation-induced Na+ influx and K+ efflux, leading to a faster rise in [K+]o in fast-twitch muscles. This may only be partly compensated by the concomitant activation of the Na+-K+ pumps, in particular in fibres showing large passive Na+-K+ leaks or reduced content of Na+-K+ pumps. Thus, endurance depends on the leak/pump ratio for Na+ and K+.

  16. Altered fast- and slow-twitch muscle fibre characteristics in female mice with a (S248F) knock-in mutation of the brain neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannata, David J; Finkelstein, David I; Gantois, Ilse; Teper, Yaroslav; Drago, John; West, Jan M

    2009-01-01

    We generated a mouse line with a missense mutation (S248F) in the gene (CHRNA4) encoding the alpha4 subunit of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). Mutant mice demonstrate brief nicotine induced dystonia that resembles the clinical events seen in patients with the same mutation. Drug-induced dystonia is more pronounced in female mice, thus our aim was to determine if the S248F mutation changed the properties of fast- and slow-twitch muscle fibres from female mutant mice. Reverse transcriptase-PCR confirmed CHRNA4 gene expression in the brain but not skeletal muscles in normal and mutant mice. Ca(2+) and Sr(2+) force activation curves were obtained using skinned muscle fibres prepared from slow-twitch (soleus) and fast-twitch (EDL) muscles. Two significant results were found: (1) the (pCa(50) - pSr(50)) value from EDL fibres was smaller in mutant mice than in wild type (1.01 vs. 1.30), (2) the percentage force produced at pSr 5.5 was larger in mutants than in wild type (5.76 vs. 0.24%). Both results indicate a shift to slow-twitch characteristics in the mutant. This conclusion is supported by the identification of the myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms. Mutant EDL fibres expressed MHC I (usually only found in slow-twitch fibres) as well as MHC IIa. Despite the lack of spontaneous dystonic events, our findings suggest that mutant mice may be having subclinical events or the mutation results in a chronic alteration to muscle neural input.

  17. Postactivation Potentiation of the Plantar Flexors Does Not Directly Translate to Jump Performance in Female Elite Young Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf Prieske

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available High-intensity muscle actions have the potential to temporarily improve muscle contractile properties (i.e., postactivation potentiation, PAP thereby inducing acute performance enhancements. There is evidence that balance training can improve performance during strength exercises. Taking these findings together, the purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of a combined balance and strength (B+S exercise vs. a strength only (S exercise on twitch contractile properties, maximum voluntary strength, and jump performance in young athletes. Female elite young soccer players (N = 12 aged 14–15 years conducted three experimental conditions in randomized order: S included 3 sets of 8–10 dynamic leg extensions at 80% of the 1-repetition maximum, B+S consisted of 3 sets of 40 s double-leg stances on a balance board prior to leg extensions (same as S, and a resting control period. Before and 7 min after exercise, participants were tested for their electrically-evoked isometric twitches (i.e., twitch peak torque, twitch rate of torque development and maximal voluntary contraction (MVC torque of the plantar flexor muscles. Additionally, countermovement (CMJ and drop jump (DJ performances (i.e., CMJ/DJ height, DJ ground contact time were assessed. Significant effects of condition on twitch contractile properties (p < 0.05, d = 1.1 and jump performance outputs (p < 0.05, 1.1 ≤ d ≤ 1.2 were found. Post-hoc tests revealed that S compared to control produced larger PAP for twitch peak torques by trend (p = 0.07, d = 1.8, 33 vs. 21% and significantly larger PAP for twitch rate of torque development (p < 0.05, d = 2.4, 55 vs. 43%. Following B+S compared to control, significant improvements in CMJ height (p < 0.01, d = 1.9, 3% and DJ contact time were found (p < 0.01, d = 2.0, 10%. This study revealed protocol-specific acute performance improvements. While S resulted in significant increases in twitch contractile properties, B+S produced

  18. Hydrogen peroxide increases depolarization-induced contraction of mechanically skinned slow twitch fibres from rat skeletal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, David R; Lynch, Gordon S; Williams, David A

    2002-03-15

    The effect of exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) on excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) function was compared in mechanically skinned slow twitch fibres (prepared from the soleus muscles) and fast twitch fibres (prepared from the extensor digitorum longus; EDL muscles) of adult rats. Equilibration (5 min) with 1 mM H(2)O(2) diminished the ability of the Ca(2+)-depleted SR to reload Ca(2+) in both slow (P fast twitch fibres (P fast twitch fibres by 24 +/- 5 % (P slow twitch fibres. Treatment with 1 mM H(2)O(2) also increased the peak force of low [caffeine] contracture by approximately 45% in both fibre types compared to control (P slow twitch fibres, compared to control (no H(2)O(2); P fast twitch fibres was not altered by 1 mM H(2)O(2) treatment. Equilibration with 5 mM H(2)O(2) induced a spontaneous force response in both slow and fast twitch fibres, which could be partly reversed by 2 min treatment with 10 mM DTT. Peak DICR was also increased approximately 40% by 5 mM H(2)O(2) in slow twitch fibres compared to control (no H(2)O(2); P slow but not fast twitch fibres. The increase in depolarization-induced contraction in slow twitch fibres might be mediated by an increased SR Ca(2+) release during contraction and/or an increase in Ca(2+) sensitivity.

  19. Comparison of collagen fibre architecture between slow-twitch cranial and fast-twitch caudal parts of broiler M. latissimus dorsi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Y N; Iwamoto, H; Tabata, S; Ono, Y

    2003-07-01

    1. Collagen fibre architectures of perimysium and endomysium in the slow-twitch cranial and fast-twitch caudal parts of broiler M. latissimus dorsi were compared. 2. Type I and III collagens were distributed in both perimysium and endomysium as indicated by their positive immunohistochemical reactions to polyclonal antibodies. 3. Cells invested by endomysium with no myofibres were larger in the cranial part because of the presence of larger slow-twitch myofibres. The honeycomb structure of endomysium was divided into several parts by thick perimysium. 4. The thick perimysial collagen fibres with parallel fibrils, which were interconnected by the loose reticular fibrils and thin fibres, were more numerous and thicker in the cranial part than the caudal. 5. Thick endomysial sidewall of cells in the cranial part was composed of a rougher reticulum of slightly thicker collagen fibrils compared with the thin sidewall in the caudal part. 6. These results indicated that both perimysial constitutions of collagen fibres and endomysial collagen fibrils had attained much larger growth in the slow-twitch cranial part than the fast-twitch caudal in broiler latissimus dorsi muscle.

  20. THE OCCURRENCE OF MICROMYCETES IN APPLES AND THEIR POTENTIAL ABILITY TO PRODUCE MYCOTOXINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Tančinová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determinate microscopic fungi involved in rot of apples in market and to test isolated potentially toxigenic species for ability to produce chosen mycotoxins in conditions in vitro. From 30 apples with rotting were isolated and identificated 8 genera (Penicillium, Monilinia, Botrytis, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Fusarium and Geotrichum of filamentous fungi. The most frequent (40% rot apples was Penicillium expansum, the most important producer of rotting during storage of apples. For the ability to produce mycotoxins in vitro were tested isolates, potential producers of mycotoxins. All tested isolates were determinated as producers of mycotoxins: Penicillium expansum (patulin and citrinin, 12 isolates, Penicillium citrinum (citrinin, 1 isolate, Penicillium roqueforti (roquefotin C, 1 isolate and Aspergillus versicolor (sterigmatocystin, 1 isolate.

  1. Energy-producing system of the membrane potential generation in γ-irradiated Streptococcus faecalis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fomenko, B.S.

    1976-01-01

    γ-irradiated (20-100 krads) Str. faecalis cells exhibited increased glycolytic and ATPase activity whereas the ATP level remained unaffected by radiation. It is concluded that the radiation-induced reduction of the membrane potential in Str. faecalis, that has been earlier described, is not connected with the impairment of the energy-producing system of the potential generation

  2. Staphylococcus haemolyticus as a potential producer of biosurfactants with antimicrobial, anti-adhesive and synergistic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, C C; Santos-Gandelman, J F; Barros, E M; Alvarez, V M; Laport, M S; Giambiagi-deMarval, M

    2016-09-01

    Staphylococcus haemolyticus is an opportunistic human pathogen that usually gains entry into the host tissue in association with medical device contamination. Biofilm formation is a key factor for the establishment of this bacterium and its arrangement and dynamics can be influenced by the synthesis of biosurfactants. Biosurfactants are structurally diverse amphiphilic molecules with versatile biotechnological applications, but information on their production by staphylococci is still scarce. In this work, two Staph. haemolyticus strains, showing high potential for biosurfactant production - as observed by four complementary methods - were investigated. Biosurfactant extracts were produced and studied for their capacity to inhibit the growth and biofilm formation by other bacterial human pathogens. The biosurfactant produced by the one of the strains inhibited the growth of most bacteria tested and subinhibitory concentrations of the biosurfactant were able to decrease biofilm formation and showed synergistic effects with tetracycline. Because these results were also positive when the biosurfactants were tested against the producing strains, it is likely that biosurfactant production by Staph. haemolyticus may be an unexplored virulence factor, important for competition and biofilm formation by the bacterium, in addition to the biotechnological potential. This work is the first to show the production of biosurfactants by Staphylococcus haemolyticus strains. Extracts showed antimicrobial, anti-adhesive and synergistic properties against a variety of relevant human pathogens, including the producing strains. In addition to the biotechnological potential, biosurfactants produced by Staph. haemolyticus are potentially undescribed virulence determinants in their producing strains. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. THE EFFECT OF STIMULUS ANTICIPATION ON THE INTERPOLATED TWITCH TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duane C. Button

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of expected and unexpected interpolated stimuli (IT during a maximum voluntary contraction on quadriceps force output and activation. Two groups of male subjects who were either inexperienced (MI: no prior experience with IT tests or experienced (ME: previously experienced 10 or more series of IT tests received an expected or unexpected IT while performing quadriceps isometric maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs. Measurements included MVC force, quadriceps and hamstrings electromyographic (EMG activity, and quadriceps inactivation as measured by the interpolated twitch technique (ITT. When performing MVCs with the expectation of an IT, the knowledge or lack of knowledge of an impending IT occurring during a contraction did not result in significant overall differences in force, ITT inactivation, quadriceps or hamstrings EMG activity. However, the expectation of an IT significantly (p < 0.0001 reduced MVC force (9.5% and quadriceps EMG activity (14.9% when compared to performing MVCs with prior knowledge that stimulation would not occur. While ME exhibited non-significant decreases when expecting an IT during a MVC, MI force and EMG activity significantly decreased 12.4% and 20.9% respectively. Overall, ME had significantly (p < 0.0001 higher force (14.5% and less ITT inactivation (10.4% than MI. The expectation of the noxious stimuli may account for the significant decrements in force and activation during the ITT

  4. Potential of photosynthetically produced organic matter as an energy feedstock. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spedding, C.R.W.; Walsingham, J.M.; McDougall, V.D.; Shiels, L.A.; Carruthers, S.P.

    1982-01-01

    The following aspects of biomass as an energy source are discussed: fuel supplies, land resources, sources of biomass for fuel, utilization processes, energy cost of producing energy, and potential energy savings. Included in an appendix are fossil fuel energy budgets for crops grown in the United Kingdom.

  5. Salmonellosis outbreaks in the United States due to fresh produce: sources and potential intervention measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanning, Irene B; Nutt, J D; Ricke, Steven C

    2009-01-01

    Foodborne Salmonella spp. is a leading cause of foodborne illness in the United States each year. Traditionally, most cases of salmonellosis were thought to originate from meat and poultry products. However, an increasing number of salmonellosis outbreaks are occurring as a result of contaminated produce. Several produce items specifically have been identified in outbreaks, and the ability of Salmonella to attach or internalize into vegetables and fruits may be factors that make these produce items more likely to be sources of Salmonella. In addition, environmental factors including contaminated water sources used to irrigate and wash produce crops have been implicated in a large number of outbreaks. Salmonella is carried by both domesticated and wild animals and can contaminate freshwater by direct or indirect contact. In some cases, direct contact of produce or seeds with contaminated manure or animal wastes can lead to contaminated crops. This review examines outbreaks of Salmonella due to contaminated produce, the potential sources of Salmonella, and possible control measures to prevent contamination of produce.

  6. A Reduction in Selenoprotein S Amplifies the Inflammatory Profile of Fast-Twitch Skeletal Muscle in the mdx Dystrophic Mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Robert Wright

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive inflammation is a hallmark of muscle myopathies, including Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD. There is interest in characterising novel genes that regulate inflammation due to their potential to modify disease progression. Gene polymorphisms in Selenoprotein S (Seps1 are associated with elevated proinflammatory cytokines, and in vitro SEPS1 is protective against inflammatory stress. Given that SEPS1 is highly expressed in skeletal muscle, we investigated whether the genetic reduction of Seps1 exacerbated inflammation in the mdx mouse. F1 male mdx mice with a heterozygous Seps1 deletion (mdx:Seps1−/+ were generated. The mdx:Seps1−/+ mice had a 50% reduction in SEPS1 protein expression in hindlimb muscles. In the extensor digitorum longus (EDL muscles, mRNA expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (Mcp-1 (P=0.034, macrophage marker F4/80 (P=0.030, and transforming growth factor-β1 (Tgf-β1 (P=0.056 were increased in mdx:Seps1−/+ mice. This was associated with a reduction in muscle fibre size; however, ex vivo EDL muscle strength and endurance were unaltered. In dystrophic slow twitch soleus muscles, SEPS1 reduction had no effect on the inflammatory profile nor function. In conclusion, the genetic reduction of Seps1 appears to specifically exacerbate the inflammatory profile of fast-twitch muscle fibres, which are typically more vulnerable to degeneration in dystrophy.

  7. A Reduction in Selenoprotein S Amplifies the Inflammatory Profile of Fast-Twitch Skeletal Muscle in the mdx Dystrophic Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Craig Robert; Allsopp, Giselle Larissa; Addinsall, Alex Bernard; McRae, Natasha Lee; Andrikopoulos, Sofianos; Stupka, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    Excessive inflammation is a hallmark of muscle myopathies, including Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). There is interest in characterising novel genes that regulate inflammation due to their potential to modify disease progression. Gene polymorphisms in Selenoprotein S ( Seps1 ) are associated with elevated proinflammatory cytokines, and in vitro SEPS1 is protective against inflammatory stress. Given that SEPS1 is highly expressed in skeletal muscle, we investigated whether the genetic reduction of Seps1 exacerbated inflammation in the mdx mouse. F1 male mdx mice with a heterozygous Seps1 deletion ( mdx : Seps1 -/+ ) were generated. The mdx:Seps1 -/+ mice had a 50% reduction in SEPS1 protein expression in hindlimb muscles. In the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles, mRNA expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 ( Mcp-1 ) ( P = 0.034), macrophage marker F4/80 ( P = 0.030), and transforming growth factor-β1 ( Tgf-β1 ) ( P = 0.056) were increased in mdx:Seps1 -/+ mice. This was associated with a reduction in muscle fibre size; however, ex vivo EDL muscle strength and endurance were unaltered. In dystrophic slow twitch soleus muscles, SEPS1 reduction had no effect on the inflammatory profile nor function. In conclusion, the genetic reduction of Seps1 appears to specifically exacerbate the inflammatory profile of fast-twitch muscle fibres, which are typically more vulnerable to degeneration in dystrophy.

  8. Ischemia Increases the Twitch Latent Period in the Soleus and Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Muscles from Adult Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Camilo; Fierro, Leonardo

    2017-10-01

    Complete ischemia and reperfusion effects on twitch force (∫(F·t)), twitch latent period (TLP), maximal rate of rise of twitch tension (δF/δt) max , and twitch maximum relaxation rate (TMRR) were assessed. We divided 36 adult rats into four groups; two control groups (n = 9), a group undergoing 1 hour of ischemia followed by 1 hour of reperfusion (n = 9), and one group exposed to 2 hours of ischemia followed by 1 hour of reperfusion (n = 9). We have induced twitch contractions every 10 minutes in the soleus and the extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL). Twitch contractions were recorded and then analyzed for ∫(F·t), TLP, (δF/δt) max , and TMRR. During 1 hour and 40 minutes of ischemia, TLP increased to 179 ± 24% (p values.

  9. Incubating Isolated Mouse EDL Muscles with Creatine Improves Force Production and Twitch Kinetics in Fatigue Due to Reduction in Ionic Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Stewart I.; Greenaway, Bronwen; Chan, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Background Creatine supplementation can improve performance during high intensity exercise in humans and improve muscle strength in certain myopathies. In this present study, we investigated the direct effects of acute creatine incubation on isolated mouse fast-twitch EDL muscles, and examined how these effects change with fatigue. Methods and Results The extensor digitorum longus muscle from mice aged 12–14 weeks was isolated and stimulated with field electrodes to measure force characteristics in 3 different states: (i) before fatigue; (ii) immediately after a fatigue protocol; and (iii) after recovery. These served as the control measurements for the muscle. The muscle was then incubated in a creatine solution and washed. The measurement of force characteristics in the 3 different states was then repeated. In un-fatigued muscle, creatine incubation increased the maximal tetanic force. In fatigued muscle, creatine treatment increased the force produced at all frequencies of stimulation. Incubation also increased the rate of twitch relaxation and twitch contraction in fatigued muscle. During repetitive fatiguing stimulation, creatine-treated muscles took 55.1±9.5% longer than control muscles to lose half of their original force. Measurement of weight changes showed that creatine incubation increased EDL muscle mass by 7%. Conclusion Acute creatine application improves force production in isolated fast-twitch EDL muscle, and these improvements are particularly apparent when the muscle is fatigued. One likely mechanism for this improvement is an increase in Ca2+ sensitivity of contractile proteins as a result of ionic strength decreases following creatine incubation. PMID:21850234

  10. Incubating isolated mouse EDL muscles with creatine improves force production and twitch kinetics in fatigue due to reduction in ionic strength.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart I Head

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Creatine supplementation can improve performance during high intensity exercise in humans and improve muscle strength in certain myopathies. In this present study, we investigated the direct effects of acute creatine incubation on isolated mouse fast-twitch EDL muscles, and examined how these effects change with fatigue. METHODS AND RESULTS: The extensor digitorum longus muscle from mice aged 12-14 weeks was isolated and stimulated with field electrodes to measure force characteristics in 3 different states: (i before fatigue; (ii immediately after a fatigue protocol; and (iii after recovery. These served as the control measurements for the muscle. The muscle was then incubated in a creatine solution and washed. The measurement of force characteristics in the 3 different states was then repeated. In un-fatigued muscle, creatine incubation increased the maximal tetanic force. In fatigued muscle, creatine treatment increased the force produced at all frequencies of stimulation. Incubation also increased the rate of twitch relaxation and twitch contraction in fatigued muscle. During repetitive fatiguing stimulation, creatine-treated muscles took 55.1±9.5% longer than control muscles to lose half of their original force. Measurement of weight changes showed that creatine incubation increased EDL muscle mass by 7%. CONCLUSION: Acute creatine application improves force production in isolated fast-twitch EDL muscle, and these improvements are particularly apparent when the muscle is fatigued. One likely mechanism for this improvement is an increase in Ca(2+ sensitivity of contractile proteins as a result of ionic strength decreases following creatine incubation.

  11. Matching of sarcoplasmic reticulum and contractile properties in rat fast- and slow-twitch muscle fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Huong H; Lamb, Graham D

    2006-07-01

    1. The twitch characteristics (fast-twitch or slow-twitch) of skeletal muscle fibres are determined not only by the contractile apparatus properties of the fibre, but also by the time-course of Ca2+ release and re-uptake by the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). The present study examined, in individual fibres from non-transforming muscle of the rat, whether particular SR properties are matched to the contractile apparatus properties of the fibre, in particular in the case of fibres with fast-twitch contractile apparatus located in a slow-twitch muscle, namely the soleus. 2. Force was recorded in single, mechanically skinned fibres from extensor digitorum longus (EDL), gastrocnemius, peroneus longus and soleus muscles. Using repeated cycles in which the SR was emptied of all releasable Ca2+ and then reloaded, it was possible to determine the relative amount of Ca2+ present in the SR endogenously, the maximum SR capacity and the rate of Ca2+ loading. The sensitivity of the contractile apparatus to Ca2+ and Sr2+ was used to classify the fibres as fast-twitch (FT), slow-twitch (ST) or mixed (fibres examined) and thereby identify the likely troponin C and myosin heavy chain types present. 3. There was no significant difference in SR properties between the groups of FT fibres obtained from the four different muscles, including soleus. Despite some overlap in the SR properties of individual fibres between the FT and ST groups, the properties of the FT fibres in all four muscles studied were significantly different from those of the ST and mixed fibres. 4. In general, in FT fibres the SR had a larger capacity and the endogenous Ca2+ content was a relatively lower percentage of maximum compared with ST fibres. Importantly, in terms of their SR properties, FT fibres from soleus muscle more closely resembled FT fibres from other muscles than they did ST fibres from soleus muscle.

  12. The role of Six1 in muscle progenitor cells and the establishment of fast-twitch muscle fibres

    OpenAIRE

    Nord, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    Myogenesis is the process of skeletal muscle tissue formation where committed muscle progenitor cells differentiate into skeletal muscle fibres. Depending on the instructive cues the muscle progenitor cells receive they will differentiate into specific fibre types with different properties. The skeletal muscle fibres can be broadly classified as fast-twitch fibres or slow-twitch fibres, based on their contractile speed. However, subgroups of fast- and slow-twitch fibres with different metabol...

  13. Visualization of Twitching Motility and Characterization of the Role of the PilG in Xylella fastidiosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiangyang; Lin, Hong

    2016-04-08

    Xylella fastidiosa is a Gram-negative non-flagellated bacterium that causes a number of economically important diseases of plants. The twitching motility provides X. fastidiosa a means for long-distance intra-plant movement and colonization, contributing toward pathogenicity in X. fastidiosa. The twitching motility of X. fastidiosa is operated by type IV pili. Type IV pili of Xylella fastidiosa are regulated by pilG, a chemotaxis regulator in Pil-Chp operon encoding proteins that are involved with signal transduction pathways. To elucidate the roles of pilG in the twitching motility of X. fastidiosa, a pilG-deficient mutant XfΔpilG and its complementary strain XfΔpilG-C containing native pilG were developed. A microfluidic chambers integrated with a time-lapse image recording system was used to observe twitching motility in XfΔpilG, XfΔpilG-C and its wild type strain. Using this recording system, it permits long-term spatial and temporal observations of aggregation, migration of individual cells and populations of bacteria via twitching motility. X. fastidiosa wild type and complementary XfΔpilG-C strain showed typical twitching motility characteristics directly observed in the microfluidic flow chambers, whereas mutant XfΔpliG exhibited the twitching deficient phenotype. This study demonstrates that pilG contributes to the twitching motility of X. fastidiosa. The microfluidic flow chamber is used as a means for observing twitching motility.

  14. Oil and gas technology transfer activities and potential in eight major producing states. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    In 1990, the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (the Compact) performed a study that identified the structure and deficiencies of the system by which oil and gas producers receive information about the potential of new technologies and communicate their problems and technology needs back to the research community. The conclusions of that work were that major integrated companies have significantly more and better sources of technology information than independent producers. The majors also have significantly better mechanisms for communicating problems to the research and development (R&D) community. As a consequence, the Compact recommended analyzing potential mechanisms to improve technology transfer channels for independents and to accelerate independents acceptance and use of existing and emerging technologies. Building on this work, the Compact, with a grant from the US Department Energy, has reviewed specific technology transfer organizations in each of eight major oil producing states to identify specific R&D and technology transfer organizations, characterize their existing activities, and identify potential future activities that could be performed to enhance technology transfer to oil and gas producers. The profiles were developed based on information received from organizations,follow-up interviews, site visit and conversations, and participation in their sponsored technology transfer activities. The results of this effort are reported in this volume. In addition, the Compact has also developed a framework for the development of evaluation methodologies to determine the effectiveness of technology transfer programs in performing their intended functions and in achieving desired impacts impacts in the producing community. The results of that work are provided in a separate volume.

  15. Ecological aspects of distribution of potential toxin-producing micromycetes on stored apple fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Valiuškaitė, Alma; Survilienė, Elena; Lugauskas, Albinas; Levinskaitė, Loreta

    2006-01-01

    The effect of ecological aspects of distribution of potential toxin-producing micromycetes on stored apple fruit was investigated at the Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture and Institute of Botany in 2004–2005. Fungi of twenty species belonging to eight genera were isolated from rotten and healthy apple fruits. Penicillium expansum and Penicillium italicum showed a high frequency of occurrence and were isolated from 50% and 17% healthy apples and from 83% and 67% of rotten fruits respectivel...

  16. Analysis of potential fumonisin-producing Fusarium species in corn products from three main maize-producing areas in eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liping; Wang, Jiansheng; Zhang, Chulong; Wang, Qiaomei

    2013-02-01

    Fusarium species are common fungal contaminants of maize and a number of them can produce mycotoxin fumonisins. China is one of the largest maize producers in the world. This study investigated the contamination of maize samples from three areas in eastern China by Fusarium and fumonisin-producing fungi as well as their fumonisin-producing potential. A total of 22 Fusarium strains were isolated, 19 of which were able to produce fumonisin. Among the 19 strains, 16 belonged to F. verticillioides, two to F. subglutinans and one to F. proliferatum. The majority (17/19) of the fumonisin-forming strains were high FB(1) producers, which is a potential health risk for the population in these areas. Fusarium contamination in samples from the mideastern area was the most serious (11 Fusarium strains, with nine producing fumonisin, isolated from 24 samples), followed by the northeastern area (nine Fusarium strains, with all nine producing fumonisin, isolated from 21 samples) and the southeastern area (two Fusarium strains, with one producing fumonisin, isolated from 19 samples). Although the overall levels of FBs and contamination by fumonisin-producing fungi in corn samples were not serious, the contaminating Fusarium strains possessed fairly strong toxicogenic ability and potential risk for food safety. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Investigation of the potential influence of production treatment chemicals on produced water toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stine, E.R.; Gala, W.R.; Henry, L.R.

    1993-01-01

    Production treatment chemicals represent a diverse collection of chemical classes, added at various points from the wellhead to the final flotation cell, to prevent operational upsets and enhance the separation of oil from water. Information in the literature indicates that while many treatment chemicals are thought to partition into oil and not into the produced water, there are cases where a sufficiently water soluble treatment chemical is added at high enough concentrations to suggest that the treatment chemical may add to the aquatic toxicity of the produced water. A study was conducted to evaluate the potential effect of production treatment chemicals on the toxicity of produced waters using the US EPA Seven-day Mysidopsis bahia Survival, Growth and Fecundity Test. Samples of produced water were collected and tested for toxicity from three platforms under normal operating conditions, followed by repeated sampling and testing after a 72-hour period in which treatment chemical usage was discontinued, to the degree possible. Significant reductions in produced water toxicity were observed for two of the three platforms tested following either cessation of treatment chemical usage, or by comparing the toxicity of samples collected upstream and downstream of the point of treatment chemical addition

  18. Field Validation of Toxicity Tests to Evaluate the Potential for Beneficial Use of Produced Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Bidwell; Jonathan Fisher; Naomi Cooper

    2008-03-31

    This study investigated potential biological effects of produced water contamination derived from occasional surface overflow and possible subsurface intrusion at an oil production site along the shore of Skiatook Lake, Oklahoma. We monitored basic chemistry and acute toxicity to a suite of standard aquatic test species (fathead minnow-Pimephales promelas, Daphnia pulex, Daphnia magna, and Ceriodaphnia dubia) in produced water and in samples taken from shallow groundwater wells on the site. Toxicity identification evaluations and ion toxicity modeling were used to identify toxic constituents in the samples. Lake sediment at the oil production site and at a reference site were also analyzed for brine intrusion chemically and by testing sediment toxicity using the benthic invertebrates, Chironomus dilutus, and Hyallela azteca. Sediment quality was also assessed with in situ survival and growth studies with H. azteca and the Asian clam, Corbicula fluminea, and by benthic macroinvertebrate community sampling. The produced water was acutely toxic to the aquatic test organisms at concentrations ranging from 1% to 10% of the whole produced water sample. Toxicity identification evaluation and ion toxicity modeling indicated major ion salts and hydrocarbons were the primary mixture toxicants. The standardized test species used in the laboratory bioassays exhibited differences in sensitivity to these two general classes of contaminants, which underscores the importance of using multiple species when evaluating produced water toxicity. Toxicity of groundwater was greater in samples from wells near a produced water injection well and an evaporation pond. Principle component analyses (PCA) of chemical data derived from the groundwater wells indicated dilution by lake water and possible biogeochemical reactions as factors that ameliorated groundwater toxicity. Elevated concentrations of major ions were found in pore water from lake sediments, but toxicity from these ions was

  19. Rhamnolipids Produced by Indigenous Acinetobacter junii from Petroleum Reservoir and its Potential in Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hao; Xia, Wenjie; Dong, Honghong; She, Yuehui; Zhu, Panfeng; Liang, Kang; Zhang, Zhongzhi; Liang, Chuanfu; Song, Zhaozheng; Sun, Shanshan; Zhang, Guangqing

    2016-01-01

    Biosurfactant producers are crucial for incremental oil production in microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) processes. The isolation of biosurfactant-producing bacteria from oil reservoirs is important because they are considered suitable for the extreme conditions of the reservoir. In this work, a novel biosurfactant-producing strain Acinetobacter junii BD was isolated from a reservoir to reduce surface tension and emulsify crude oil. The biosurfactants produced by the strain were purified and then identified via electrospray ionization-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI FT-ICR-MS). The biosurfactants generated by the strain were concluded to be rhamnolipids, the dominant rhamnolipids were C26H48O9, C28H52O9, and C32H58O13. The optimal carbon source and nitrogen source for biomass and biosurfactant production were NaNO3 and soybean oil. The results showed that the content of acid components increased with the progress of crude oil biodegradation. A glass micromodel test demonstrated that the strain significantly increased oil recovery through interfacial tension reduction, wettability alteration and the mobility of microorganisms. In summary, the findings of this study indicate that the newly developed BD strain and its metabolites have great potential in MEOR. PMID:27872613

  20. Rhamnolipids produced by indigenous Acinetobacter junii from petroleum reservoir and its potential in enhanced oil recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Dong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactant producers are crucial for incremental oil production in microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR processes. The isolation of biosurfactant-producing bacteria from oil reservoirs is important because they are considered suitable for the extreme conditions of the reservoir. In this work, a novel biosurfactant-producing strain Acinetobacter junii BD was isolated from a reservoir to reduce surface tension and emulsify crude oil. The biosurfactants produced by the strain were purified and then identified via electrospray ionization-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI FT-ICR-MS. The biosurfactants generated by the strain were concluded to be rhamnolipids, the dominant rhamnolipids were C26H48O9, C28H52O9 and C32H58O13. The optimal carbon source and nitrogen source for biomass and biosurfactant production were NaNO3 and soybean oil. The results showed that the content of acid components increased with the progress of crude oil biodegradation. A glass micromodel test demonstrated that the strain significantly increased oil recovery through interfacial tension reduction, wettability alteration and the mobility of microorganisms. In summary, the findings of this study indicate that the newly developed BD strain and its metabolites have great potential in MEOR.

  1. Rhamnolipids Produced by Indigenous Acinetobacter junii from Petroleum Reservoir and its Potential in Enhanced Oil Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hao; Xia, Wenjie; Dong, Honghong; She, Yuehui; Zhu, Panfeng; Liang, Kang; Zhang, Zhongzhi; Liang, Chuanfu; Song, Zhaozheng; Sun, Shanshan; Zhang, Guangqing

    2016-01-01

    Biosurfactant producers are crucial for incremental oil production in microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) processes. The isolation of biosurfactant-producing bacteria from oil reservoirs is important because they are considered suitable for the extreme conditions of the reservoir. In this work, a novel biosurfactant-producing strain Acinetobacter junii BD was isolated from a reservoir to reduce surface tension and emulsify crude oil. The biosurfactants produced by the strain were purified and then identified via electrospray ionization-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI FT-ICR-MS). The biosurfactants generated by the strain were concluded to be rhamnolipids, the dominant rhamnolipids were C 26 H 48 O 9 , C 28 H 52 O 9 , and C 32 H 58 O 13 . The optimal carbon source and nitrogen source for biomass and biosurfactant production were NaNO 3 and soybean oil. The results showed that the content of acid components increased with the progress of crude oil biodegradation. A glass micromodel test demonstrated that the strain significantly increased oil recovery through interfacial tension reduction, wettability alteration and the mobility of microorganisms. In summary, the findings of this study indicate that the newly developed BD strain and its metabolites have great potential in MEOR.

  2. The Economic Potential of Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid Energy Systems Producing Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cutler, Dylan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Flores-Espino, Francisco [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stark, Greg [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-04-01

    This report is one in a series of reports that Idaho National Laboratory and the Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis are publishing that address the technical and economic aspects of nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems (N-R HESs). This report discusses an analysis of the economic potential of a tightly coupled N-R HES that produces electricity and hydrogen. Both low and high temperature electrolysis options are considered in the analysis. Low-temperature electrolysis requires only electricity to convert water to hydrogen. High temperature electrolysis requires less electricity because it uses both electricity and heat to provide the energy necessary to electrolyze water. The study finds that, to be profitable, the examined high-temperature electrosis and low-temperature electrosis N-R HES configurations that produce hydrogen require higher electricity prices, more electricity price volatility, higher natural gas prices, or higher capacity payments than the reference case values of these parameters considered in this analysis.

  3. Potential of volatile compounds produced by fungi to influence sensory quality of coffee beverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iamanaka, B. T.; Teixeira, A. A.; Teixeira, A. R. R.

    2014-01-01

    Fungi are known producers of a large number of volatile compounds (VCs). Several VCs such as 2,4,6 trichloroanisole (TCA), geosmin and terpenes have been found in coffee beverages, and these compounds can be responsible for off-flavor development. However, few studies have related the fungal...... contamination of coffee with the sensory characteristics of the beverage. The aim of this research was to investigate the production of VCs by fungi isolated from coffee and their potential as modifiers of the sensory coffee beverage quality. Three species were isolated from coffee from the southwest of São...... Paulo state and selected for the study: Penicillium brevicompactum, Aspergillus luchuensis (belonging to section Nigri) and Penicillium sp. nov. (related to Penicillium crustosum). VCs produced by the fungal inoculated in raw coffee beans were extracted and tentatively identified by SPME...

  4. Twitching motility and biofilm formation are associated with tonB1 in Xylella fastidiosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cursino, Luciana; Li, Yaxin; Zaini, Paulo A; De La Fuente, Leonardo; Hoch, Harvey C; Burr, Thomas J

    2009-10-01

    A mutation in the Xylella fastidiosa tonB1 gene resulted in loss of twitching motility and in significantly less biofilm formation as compared with a wild type. The altered motility and biofilm phenotypes were restored by complementation with a functional copy of the gene. The mutation affected virulence as measured by Pierce's disease symptoms on grapevines. The role of TonB1 in twitching and biofilm formation appears to be independent of the characteristic iron-uptake function of this protein. This is the first report demonstrating a functional role for a tonB homolog in X. fastidiosa.

  5. Twitching motility and biofilm formation are associated with tonB1 in Xylella fastidiosa

    OpenAIRE

    Cursino, Luciana; Li, Yaxin; Zaini, Paulo A.; De La Fuente, Leonardo; Hoch, Harvey C.; Burr, Thomas J.

    2017-01-01

    A mutation in the Xylella fastidiosa tonB1 gene resulted in loss of twitching motility and in significantly less biofilm formation as compared with a wild type. The altered motility and biofilm phenotypes were restored by complementation with a functional copy of the gene. The mutation affected virulence as measured by Pierce's disease symptoms on grapevines. The role of TonB1 in twitching and biofilm formation appears to be independent of the characteristic iron-uptake function of this prote...

  6. The effects of tetracaine on charge movement in fast twitch rat skeletal muscle fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingworth, S; Marshall, M W; Robson, E

    1990-02-01

    1. The effects of tetracaine, a local anaesthetic that inhibits muscle contraction, on membrane potential and intramembrane charge movements were investigated in fast twitch rat muscle fibres (extensor digitorum longus). 2. The resting membrane potentials of surface fibres from muscles bathed in isotonic Ringer solution containing 2 mM-tetracaine were well maintained, but higher concentrations of tetracaine caused a time-dependent fall of potential. Muscle fibres bathed in hypertonic solutions containing 2 mM-tetracaine were rapidly depolarized. In both isotonic and hypertonic solutions, the depolarizing effect of tetracaine could not be reversed. 3. Charge movement measurements were made using the middle-of-the-fibre voltage clamp technique. The voltage dependence of charge movements measured in cold isotonic solutions was well fitted by a Boltzmann distribution (Q(V) = Qmax/(1 + exp(-(V-V)/k] where Qmax = 37.3 +/- 2.8 nC muF-1, V = -17.9 +/- 1.2 mV and k = 12.6 +/- 0.8 mV (n = 6, 2 degrees C; means +/- S.E. of means). Similar values were obtained when 2 mM-tetracaine was added to the isotonic bathing fluid (Qmax = 40.6 +/- 2.3 nC microF-1, V = -14.1 +/- 1.3 mV, k = 15.3 +/- 0.8 mV; n = 8, 2 degrees C). 4. Charge movements measured around mechanical threshold in muscle fibres bathed in hypertonic solutions were reduced when 2 mM-tetracaine was added to the bathing fluid. The tetracaine-sensitive component of charge was well fitted with an unconstrained Boltzmann distribution which gave: Qmax = 7.5 nC microF-1, V = -46.5 mV, k = 5.5 mV. The e-fold rise of the foot of the curve was 9.3 mV.

  7. Combined administration of MK-801 and cycloheximide produces a delayed potentiation of fear discrimination memory extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochli, Daniel E; Campbell, Tiffany L; Hollingsworth, Ethan W; Lab, Rain S; Postle, Abagail F; Perry, Megan M; Mordzinski, Victoria M; Quinn, Jennifer J

    2018-04-01

    Mixed evidence exists regarding the role of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in memory reconsolidation. We provide no evidence that NMDA receptors are involved with memory reconsolidation, but instead demonstrate that prereactivation systemic MK-801 injection, combined with postreactivation intrabasolateral amygdala (BLA) cycloheximide infusion, produces a delayed potentiation of extinction learning. These data suggest that an interaction between NMDA antagonism and protein synthesis inhibition may enhance extinction by exerting effects outside of the intended reconsolidation manipulation window. The present work demonstrates a novel pharmacological enhancement of extinction, and underscores the importance of employing proper control procedures in reconsolidation research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Value-Creation Potential from Multi-Market Trading for a Hydropower Producer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marte Fodstad

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We study a hydropower producer’s potential for value-creation from multi-market trading given the price variations in the markets and the flexibility provided through access to hydro reservoirs. We use a perfect foresight optimization model for a price-taking hydropower producer co-optimizing his trades in the day-ahead, intra-day and balancing markets. The model is used on real market data from Norway, Sweden and Germany. The study shows a theoretical potential for added value when selling energy in multiple markets relative to optimal day-ahead sale. Most of this value is achievable also when the perfect foresight is limited to the period from day-ahead bidding until operation. Flexible production plants achieve the largest relative added values for multi-market sales, and has the largest benefit from a long horizon with perfect foresight.

  9. Type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase levels are higher in slow-twitch than fast-twitch mouse skeletal muscle and are increased in hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsili, Alessandro; Ramadan, Waile; Harney, John W; Mulcahey, Michelle; Castroneves, Luciana Audi; Goemann, Iuri Martin; Wajner, Simone Magagnin; Huang, Stephen A; Zavacki, Ann Marie; Maia, Ana Luiza; Dentice, Monica; Salvatore, Domenico; Silva, J Enrique; Larsen, P Reed

    2010-12-01

    Because of its large mass, relatively high metabolic activity and responsiveness to thyroid hormone, skeletal muscle contributes significantly to energy expenditure. Despite the presence of mRNA encoding the type 2 iodothyronine-deiodinase (D2), an enzyme that activates T(4) to T3, very low or undetectable activity has been reported in muscle homogenates of adult humans and mice. With a modified D2 assay, using microsomal protein, overnight incubation and protein from D2 knockout mouse muscle as a tissue-specific blank, we examined slow- and fast-twitch mouse skeletal muscles for D2 activity and its response to physiological stimuli. D2 activity was detectable in all hind limb muscles of 8- to 12-wk old C57/BL6 mice. Interestingly, it was higher in the slow-twitch soleus than in fast-twitch muscles (0.40 ± 0.06 vs. 0.076 ± 0.01 fmol/min · mg microsomal protein, respectively, P Hypothyroidism caused a 40% (P hypothyroidism argue for a more important role for D2-generated T(3) in skeletal muscle physiology than previously assumed.

  10. Study of the biomass potential that can be used for producing biogas in Burkina Faso

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-10-01

    The introduction of biogas to Burkina Faso was done in 1976 through program of research and development. Agricultural and Animal waste is the principal substrates and the produced gas is useful principally to satisfy the domestic energy needs. The technological outputs go from 200 has 300 liters per m 3 of tank whereas the biological outputs are of 100 has 300 liters per kilogram of dry matter. The cost of the installations vary from 12000 to 100000 Fcfa per m 3 of tank according to the type of digester. In August 1998, only the installation of biogas of the School of Water and Drill of Dinderesso (Bobo-Dioulasso) produced biogas. According to the estimates, Burkina Faso respectively has an annual average potential of production theoretical and accessible about 4694 million and 2790 million m 3 of biogas coming by order from importance from livestock wastes, farming, human and urban. By taking a coefficient of 60% to take account of the imperfections of technology and implementation, 1674 million m 3 of biogas (accessible) could have been produced from the biomass over the period 1990-1996. For the same period, this quantity of biogas could have generated annually 2000 to 2344 GWh of electricity (cogeneration) against 218 GWh for the SONABEL [fr

  11. Quantifying Ca2+ release and inactivation of Ca2+ release in fast- and slow-twitch muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, C J

    2012-12-01

    The aims of this study were to quantify the Ca(2+) release underlying twitch contractions of mammalian fast- and slow-twitch muscle and to comprehensively describe the transient inactivation of Ca(2+) release following a stimulus. Experiments were performed using bundles of fibres from mouse extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus muscles. Ca(2+) release was quantified from the amount of ATP used to remove Ca(2+) from the myoplasm following stimulation. ATP turnover by crossbridges was blocked pharmacologically (N-benzyl-p-toluenesulphonamide for EDL, blebbistatin for soleus) and muscle heat production was used as an index of Ca(2+) pump ATP turnover. At 20°C, Ca(2+) release in response to a single stimulus was 34 and 84 μmol (kg muscle)(-1) for soleus and EDL, respectively, and increased with temperature (30°C: soleus, 61 μmol kg(-1); EDL, 168 μmol kg(-1)). Delivery of another stimulus within 100 ms of the first produced a smaller Ca(2+) release. The maximum magnitude of the decrease in Ca(2+) release was greater in EDL than soleus. Ca(2+) release recovered with an exponential time course which was faster in EDL (mean time constant at 20°C, 32.1 ms) than soleus (65.6 ms) and faster at 30°C than at 20°C. The amounts of Ca(2+) released and crossbridge cycles performed are consistent with a scheme in which Ca(2+) binding to troponin-C allowed an average of ∼1.7 crossbridge cycles in the two muscles.

  12. Calcium Increases Xylella fastidiosa Surface Attachment, Biofilm Formation, and Twitching Motility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Luisa F.; Cobine, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a plant-pathogenic bacterium that forms biofilms inside xylem vessels, a process thought to be influenced by the chemical composition of xylem sap. In this work, the effect of calcium on the production of X. fastidiosa biofilm and movement was analyzed under in vitro conditions. After a dose-response study with 96-well plates using eight metals, the strongest increase of biofilm formation was observed when medium was supplemented with at least 1.0 mM CaCl2. The removal of Ca by extracellular (EGTA, 1.5 mM) and intracellular [1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid acetoxymethyl ester (BAPTA/AM), 75 μM] chelators reduced biofilm formation without compromising planktonic growth. The concentration of Ca influenced the force of adhesion to the substrate, biofilm thickness, cell-to-cell aggregation, and twitching motility, as shown by assays with microfluidic chambers and other assays. The effect of Ca on attachment was lost when cells were treated with tetracycline, suggesting that Ca has a metabolic or regulatory role in cell adhesion. A double mutant (fimA pilO) lacking type I and type IV pili did not improve biofilm formation or attachment when Ca was added to the medium, while single mutants of type I (fimA) or type IV (pilB) pili formed more biofilm under conditions of higher Ca concentrations. The concentration of Ca in the medium did not significantly influence the levels of exopolysaccharide produced. Our findings indicate that the role of Ca in biofilm formation may be related to the initial surface and cell-to-cell attachment and colonization stages of biofilm establishment, which rely on critical functions by fimbrial structures. PMID:22194297

  13. Blood flow response to electrically induced twitch and tetanic lower-limb muscle contractions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, T.W.; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the effect of electric stimulation (ES)-induced twitch with tetanic leg muscle contractions on blood flow responses and to assess blood flow responses in the contralateral inactive leg. DESIGN: Intervention with within-subject comparisons. SETTING: University research

  14. Differences between glycogen biogenesis in fast- and slow-twitch rabbit muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cussó, R; Lerner, L R; Cadefau, J

    2003-01-01

    Skeletal muscle glycogen is an essential energy substrate for muscular activity. The biochemical properties of the enzymes involved in de novo synthesis of glycogen were analysed in two types of rabbit skeletal muscle fiber (fast- and slow-twitch). Glycogen concentration was higher in fast...

  15. MAGNETIC VERSUS ELECTRICAL STIMULATION IN THE INTERPOLATION TWITCH TECHNIQUE OF ELBOW FLEXORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia I. Lampropoulou

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study compared peripheral magnetic with electrical stimulation of the biceps brachii m. (BB in the single pulse Interpolation Twitch Technique (ITT. 14 healthy participants (31±7 years participated in a within-subjects repeated-measures design study. Single, constant-current electrical and magnetic stimuli were delivered over the motor point of BB with supramaximal intensity (20% above maximum at rest and at various levels of voluntary contraction. Force measurements from right elbow isometric flexion and muscle electromyograms (EMG from the BB, the triceps brachii m. (TB and the abductor pollicis brevis m. (APB were obtained. The twitch forces at rest and maximal contractions, the twitch force-voluntary force relationship, the M-waves and the voluntary activation (VA of BB between magnetic and electrical stimulation were compared. The mean amplitude of the twitches evoked at MVC was not significantly different between electrical (0.62 ± 0.49 N and magnetic (0.81 ± 0.49 N stimulation (p > 0.05, and the maximum VA of BB was comparable between electrical (95% and magnetic (93% stimulation (p > 0. 05. No differences (p >0.05 were revealed in the BB M-waves between electrical (13.47 ± 0.49 mV.ms and magnetic (12.61 ± 0.58 mV.ms stimulation. The TB M-waves were also similar (p > 0.05 but electrically evoked APB M-waves were significantly larger than those evoked by magnetic stimulation (p < 0.05. The twitch-voluntary force relationship over the range of MVCs was best described by non-linear functions for both electrical and magnetic stimulation. The electrically evoked resting twitches were consistently larger in amplitude than the magnetically evoked ones (mean difference 3.1 ± 3.34 N, p < 0.05. Reduction of the inter-electrodes distance reduced the twitch amplitude by 6.5 ± 6.2 N (p < 0.05. The fundamental similarities in voluntary activation assessment of BB with peripheral electrical and magnetic stimulation point towards a promising

  16. THE OCCURRENCE OF MICROMYCETES IN THE BREAD SAMPLES AND THEIR POTENTIAL ABILITY PRODUCE MYCOTOXINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Císarová

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determinate microscopic fungi that can cause occurrence of mould in bread. We used breads from experimental baking with different addition of walnuts (0 - 15% as model samples. Bread samples were stored in the fridge, in plastic bags and in the bread box. After three days of storage 25% of samples were moldy. The middle parts of breads (4 pieces, that were not moldy, were stored on DRBC and cultured at 25±1oC for three days. All the colonies of micromycets were inserted on identification agar. Molding of bread samples was caused by species of genera: Aspergillus, Penicillium, Cladosporium and Rhizopus. 28 strains of potentially toxigenic species of genera Aspergillus and Penicillium were tested by TLC method for the ability to produce chosen mycotoxins in conditions in vitro. We discovered the production of cyclopiazonic acid, penitrem A and roquefortin C using mentioned method.

  17. Potential for Producing Biogas from Agricultural Waste in Rural Plants in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Muradin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article is an overview of the current situation as well as future prospects for biogas production in rural plants in Poland. Our research has focused on the management of agricultural waste. While Poland’s agriculture and its local food industry have substantial potential, many barriers persist to the development not only of biogas plants but also in every other renewable source of energy. The main obstacles have to do with politically motivated economic factors. Our interest has been in larger plants having sufficient capacities to produce in excess of 500 kW of electricity. The paper also presents a case study of a biogas plant supply by organic, agrifood waste mixed with silage.

  18. Potential in a single cancer cell to produce heterogeneous morphology, radiosensitivity and gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban, Sadayuki; Ishikawa, Ken-ichi; Kawai, Seiko; Koyama-Saegusa, Kumiko; Ishikawa, Atsuko; Imai, Takashi; Shimada, Yutaka; Inazawa, Johji

    2005-01-01

    Morphologically heterogeneous colonies were formed from a cultured cell line (KYSE70) established from one human esophageal carcinoma tissue. Two subclones were separated from a single clone (clone 13) of KYSE70 cells. One subclone (clone 13-3G) formed mainly mounding colonies and the other (clone 13-6G) formed flat, diffusive colonies. X-irradiation stimulated the cells to dedifferentiate from the mounding state to the flat, diffusive state. Clone 13-6G cells were more radiosensitive than the other 3 cell lines. Clustering analysis for gene expression level by oligonucleotide microarray demonstrated that in the radiosensitive clone 13-6G cells, expression of genes involved in cell adhesion was upregulated, but genes involved in the response to DNA damage stimulus were downregulated. The data demonstrated that a single cancer cell had the potential to produce progeny heterogeneous in terms of morphology, radiation sensitivity and gene expression, and irradiation enhanced the dedifferentiation of cancer cells. (author)

  19. Potential of siderophore-producing bacteria for improving heavy metal phytoextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Mani; Ae, Noriharu; Prasad, Majeti Narasimha Vara; Freitas, Helena

    2010-03-01

    Phytoremediation holds promise for in situ treatment of heavy metal contaminated soils. Recently, the benefits of combining siderophore-producing bacteria (SPB) with plants for metal removal from contaminated soils have been demonstrated. Metal-resistant SPB play an important role in the successful survival and growth of plants in contaminated soils by alleviating the metal toxicity and supplying the plant with nutrients, particularly iron. Furthermore, bacterial siderophores are able to bind metals other than iron and thus enhance their bioavailability in the rhizosphere of plants. Overall, an increase in plant growth and metal uptake will further enhance the effectiveness of phytoremediation processes. Here, we highlight the diversity and ecology of metal resistant SPB and discuss their potential role in phytoremediation of heavy metals.

  20. Metrological Aspects of Surface Topographies Produced by Different Machining Operations Regarding Their Potential Functionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żak Krzysztof

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comprehensive methodology for measuring and characterizing the surface topographies on machined steel parts produced by precision machining operations. The performed case studies concern a wide spectrum of topographic features of surfaces with different geometrical structures but the same values of the arithmetic mean height Sa. The tested machining operations included hard turning operations performed with CBN tools, grinding operations with Al2O3 ceramic and CBN wheels and superfinish using ceramic stones. As a result, several characteristic surface textures with the Sa roughness parameter value of about 0.2 μm were thoroughly characterized and compared regarding their potential functional capabilities. Apart from the standard 2D and 3D roughness parameters, the fractal, motif and frequency parameters were taken in the consideration.

  1. Effect of ADP on slow-twitch muscle fibres of the rat: implications for muscle fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, W A; Stephenson, D G

    2006-05-15

    Slow-twitch mechanically skinned fibres from rat soleus muscle were bathed in solutions mimicking the myoplasmic environment but containing different [ADP] (0.1 microm to 1.0 mm). The effect of ADP on sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+-content was determined from the magnitude of caffeine-induced force responses, while temporal changes in SR Ca2+-content allowed determination of the effective rates of the SR Ca2+-pump and of the SR Ca2+-leak. The SR Ca2+-pump rate, estimated at pCa (-log10[Ca2+]) 7.8, was reduced by 20% as the [ADP] was increased from 0.1 to 40 microm, with no further alteration when the [ADP] was increased to 1.0 mm. The SR Ca2+-leak rate constant was not altered by increasing [ADP] from 0.1 to 40 microm, but was increased by 26% when the [ADP] was elevated to 1.0 mm. This ADP-induced SR Ca2+-leak was insensitive to ruthenium red but was abolished by 2,5-di(tert-butyl)-1,4-hydroquinone (TBQ), indicating that the leak pathway is via the SR Ca2+-pump and not the SR Ca2+-release channel. The decrease in SR Ca2+-pump rate and SR Ca2+-leak rate when [ADP] was increased led to a 40% decrease in SR Ca2+-loading capacity. Elevation of [ADP] had only minor direct effects on the contractile apparatus of slow-twitch fibres. These results suggest that ADP has only limited depressing effects on the contractility of slow-twitch muscle fibres. This is in contrast to the marked effects of ADP on force responses in fast-twitch muscle fibres and may contribute to the fatigue-resistant nature of slow-twitch muscle fibres.

  2. Moving People from Science Adjacent to Science Doers with Twitch.tv

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Pamela L.; CosmoQuest

    2017-10-01

    The CosmoQuest community is testing the ability to attract people from playing online videogames to doing fully online citizen science by engaging people through the Twitch.tv streaming platform. Twitch.tv launched in 2011 as an online platform for video gamers to stream their gameplay while providing narrative. In its six years of regular growth, the platform has added support for people playing non-video games, and for those participating in non-game activities. As part of their expansion, in April 2017, Twitch.tv hosted a science week during which they streamed the Cosmos series and allowed different feeds provide real-time commentary. They also hosted panel discussions on a variety of science topics. CosmoQuest participated in this event and used it as a jumping off point for beginning to interact with Twitch.tv community members online. With CosmoQuest’s beta launch of Image Detectives, they expanded their use of this streaming platform to include regular “office hours”, during which team members did science with CosmoQuest’s online projects, took questions from community members, and otherwise promoted the CosmoQuest community. This presentation examines this case study, and looks at how well different kinds of Twitter engagements attracted audiences, the conversion rate from viewer to subscriber, and at how effectively CosmoQuest was able to migrate users from viewing citizen science on Twitch.tv to participating in citizen science on CosmoQuest.org.This project was supported through NASA cooperative agreement NNX17AD20A.

  3. High value added lipids produced by microorganisms: a potential use of sugarcane vinasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Bruna Soares; Vieira, João Paulo Fernandes; Contesini, Fabiano Jares; Mantelatto, Paulo Eduardo; Zaiat, Marcelo; Pradella, José Geraldo da Cruz

    2017-12-01

    This review aims to present an innovative concept of high value added lipids produced by heterotrophic microorganisms, bacteria and fungi, using carbon sources, such as sugars, acids and alcohols that could come from sugarcane vinasse, which is the main byproduct from ethanol production that is released in the distillation step. Vinasse is a rich carbon source and low-cost feedstock produced in large amounts from ethanol production. In 2019, the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply estimates that growth of ethanol domestic consumption will be 58.8 billion liters, more than double the amount in 2008. This represents the annual production of more than 588 billion liters of vinasse, which is currently used as a fertilizer in the sugarcane crop, due to its high concentration of minerals, mainly potassium. However, studies indicate some disadvantages such as the generation of Greenhouse Gas emission during vinasse distribution in the crop, as well as the possibility of contaminating the groundwater and soil. Therefore, the development of programs for sustainable use of vinasse is a priority. One profitable alternative is the fermentation of vinasse, followed by an anaerobic digester, in order to obtain biomaterials such as lipids, other byproducts, and methane. Promising high value added lipids, for instance carotenoids and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAS), with a predicted market of millions of US$, could be produced using vinasse as carbon source, to guide an innovative concept for sustainable production. Example of lipids obtained from the fermentation of compounds present in vinasse are vitamin D, which comes from yeast sucrose fermentation and Omega 3, which can be obtained by bacteria and fungi fermentation. Additionally, several other compounds present in vinasse can be used for this purpose, including sucrose, ethanol, lactate, pyruvate, acetate and other carbon sources. Finally, this paper illustrates the potential market and

  4. Potential usefulness of a video printer for producing secondary images from digitized chest radiographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Robert M.; MacMahon, Heber; Doi, Kunio; Bosworth, Eric

    1991-05-01

    Communication between radiologists and clinicians could be improved if a secondary image (copy of the original image) accompanied the radiologic report. In addition, the number of lost original radiographs could be decreased, since clinicians would have less need to borrow films. The secondary image should be simple and inexpensive to produce, while providing sufficient image quality for verification of the diagnosis. We are investigating the potential usefulness of a video printer for producing copies of radiographs, i.e. images printed on thermal paper. The video printer we examined (Seikosha model VP-3500) can provide 64 shades of gray. It is capable of recording images up to 1,280 pixels by 1,240 lines and can accept any raster-type video signal. The video printer was characterized in terms of its linearity, contrast, latitude, resolution, and noise properties. The quality of video-printer images was also evaluated in an observer study using portable chest radiographs. We found that observers could confirm up to 90 of the reported findings in the thorax using video- printer images, when the original radiographs were of high quality. The number of verified findings was diminished when high spatial resolution was required (e.g. detection of a subtle pneumothorax) or when a low-contrast finding was located in the mediastinal area or below the diaphragm (e.g. nasogastric tubes).

  5. Bacteriocin-Producing Enterococcus faecium LCW 44: A High Potential Probiotic Candidate from Raw Camel Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimont, Allison; Fernandez, Benoît; Hammami, Riadh; Ababsa, Ahlem; Daba, Hocine; Fliss, Ismaïl

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial isolates from raw camel milk were screened for antibacterial activity using the agar diffusion assay. Ten isolates selected for their inhibition of Gram-positive bacteria were identified by 16S sequencing as Enterococcus faecium or durans . An isolate named E. faecium LCW 44 exhibited the broadest antibacterial spectrum with an inhibitory activity against several Gram-positive strains belonging to the genera Clostridium , Listeria , Staphylococcus , and Lactobacillus. E. faecium LCW 44 was shown to produce N-formylated enterocins L50A and L50B, as revealed by mass spectrometry and PCR analyses. This isolate did not harbor any of the virulence factors tested and was shown to be sensitive to all tested antibiotics. It showed high resistance to gastric and intestinal conditions (78 ± 4% survival). Its adhesion index was evaluated at 176 ± 86 and 24 ± 86 on Caco-2 cells and HT-29 cells, respectively, and it significantly reduced adhesion of Listeria monocytogenes by 65 and 49%, respectively. In Macfarlane broth (simulating the nutrient content of the colon), counts of L. monocytogenes were reduced by 2 log 10 cycles after 24 h in co-culture with E. faecium LCW 44, compared to the increase of 4 log 10 cycles when cultured alone. Comparison with a bacteriocin-non-producing mutant of E. faecium LCW 44 strongly suggests that inhibition of L. monocytogenes was due to bacteriocin production. Altogether, E. faecium LCW 44 thus has potential for use as a probiotic for humans and veterinary medicine.

  6. Discovering potential Streptomyces hormone producers by using disruptants of essential biosynthetic genes as indicator strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thao, Nguyen B; Kitani, Shigeru; Nitta, Hiroko; Tomioka, Toshiya; Nihira, Takuya

    2017-10-01

    Autoregulators are low-molecular-weight signaling compounds that control the production of many secondary metabolites in actinomycetes and have been referred to as 'Streptomyces hormones'. Here, potential producers of Streptomyces hormones were investigated in 40 Streptomyces and 11 endophytic actinomycetes. Production of γ-butyrolactone-type (IM-2, VB) and butenolide-type (avenolide) Streptomyces hormones was screened using Streptomyces lavendulae FRI-5 (ΔfarX), Streptomyces virginiae (ΔbarX) and Streptomyces avermitilis (Δaco), respectively. In these strains, essential biosynthetic genes for Streptomyces hormones were disrupted, enabling them to respond solely to the externally added hormones. The results showed that 20% of each of the investigated strains produced IM-2 and VB, confirming that γ-butyrolactone-type Streptomyces hormones are the most common in actinomycetes. Unlike the γ-butyrolactone type, butenolide-type Streptomyces hormones have been discovered in recent years, but their distribution has been unclear. Our finding that 24% of actinomycetes (12 of 51 strains) showed avenolide activity revealed for the first time that the butenolide-type Streptomyces hormone is also common in actinomycetes.

  7. Bacteriocin-Producing Enterococcus faecium LCW 44: A High Potential Probiotic Candidate from Raw Camel Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Vimont

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial isolates from raw camel milk were screened for antibacterial activity using the agar diffusion assay. Ten isolates selected for their inhibition of Gram-positive bacteria were identified by 16S sequencing as Enterococcus faecium or durans. An isolate named E. faecium LCW 44 exhibited the broadest antibacterial spectrum with an inhibitory activity against several Gram-positive strains belonging to the genera Clostridium, Listeria, Staphylococcus, and Lactobacillus. E. faecium LCW 44 was shown to produce N-formylated enterocins L50A and L50B, as revealed by mass spectrometry and PCR analyses. This isolate did not harbor any of the virulence factors tested and was shown to be sensitive to all tested antibiotics. It showed high resistance to gastric and intestinal conditions (78 ± 4% survival. Its adhesion index was evaluated at 176 ± 86 and 24 ± 86 on Caco-2 cells and HT-29 cells, respectively, and it significantly reduced adhesion of Listeria monocytogenes by 65 and 49%, respectively. In Macfarlane broth (simulating the nutrient content of the colon, counts of L. monocytogenes were reduced by 2 log10 cycles after 24 h in co-culture with E. faecium LCW 44, compared to the increase of 4 log10 cycles when cultured alone. Comparison with a bacteriocin-non-producing mutant of E. faecium LCW 44 strongly suggests that inhibition of L. monocytogenes was due to bacteriocin production. Altogether, E. faecium LCW 44 thus has potential for use as a probiotic for humans and veterinary medicine.

  8. Potential of producing renewable hydrogen from livestock animal waste. Paper no. IGEC-1-143

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, F.

    2005-01-01

    Hydrogen economy and fuel cell technology have become increasingly recognized as means for maintaining a sustainable energy supply as well as a sustainable environment. Simultaneously, solutions are being sought to effectively manage the animal wastes from livestock farming of cattle, cow, hog, and poultry to ensure an environmentally sustainable method of food production. This discussion examines the potential of producing hydrogen from livestock waste on a scale that can effectively solve a waste management problem for the livestock industry and provide significant quantities of renewable hydrogen to the clean energy industry. The green energy derived from animal waste is considered to be carbon-neutral because animal feed is largely grown from photosynthesis of carbon dioxide. Electricity and heat thus generated will offset those generated from fossil fuels and can be rewarded with greenhouse gas emission reduction credits. Two groups of well proven technologies: biochemical processes such as anaerobic digestion (AD), and thermochemical processes such as gasification are considered in this paper. A theoretical analysis of the potential of reforming the biogas and syngas from these reactions has been conducted using mathematical models of AD, gasification, steam reforming and water-gas shift reactions, and the results indicate that significant quantities of renewable hydrogen can be generated to fuel clean energy technologies such as the fuel cell. Practical considerations are presented to complement the theoretical analysis and future research directions are also discussed. (author)

  9. The environmental and medical geochemistry of potentially hazardous materials produced by disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Morman, Suzette A.; Meeker, G.P.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Hageman, Philip L.; Wolf, Ruth E.

    2014-01-01

    Many natural or human-caused disasters release potentially hazardous materials (HM) that may pose threats to the environment and health of exposed humans, wildlife, and livestock. This chapter summarizes the environmentally and toxicologically significant physical, mineralogical, and geochemical characteristics of materials produced by a wide variety of recent disasters, such as volcanic eruptions, hurricanes and extreme storms, spills of mining/mineral-processing wastes or coal extraction by-products, and the 2001 attacks on and collapse of the World Trade Center towers. In describing these characteristics, this chapter also illustrates the important roles that geochemists and other earth scientists can play in environmental disaster response and preparedness. In addition to characterizing in detail the physical, chemical, and microbial makeup of HM generated by the disasters, these roles also include (1) identifying and discriminating potential multiple sources of the materials; (2) monitoring, mapping, and modeling dispersal and evolution of the materials in the environment; (3) understanding how the materials are modified by environmental processes; (4) identifying key characteristics and processes that influence the materials' toxicity to exposed humans and ecosystems; (5) estimating shifts away from predisaster environmental baseline conditions; and (6) using geochemical insights learned from past disasters to help estimate, prepare for, and increase societal resilience to the environmental and related health impacts of future disasters.

  10. Trichoderma harzianum Produces a New Thermally Stable Acid Phosphatase, with Potential for Biotechnological Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Amanda Araújo; Leitão, Vanessa Oliveira; Ramada, Marcelo Henrique; Mehdad, Azadeh; Georg, Raphaela de Castro; Ulhôa, Cirano José; de Freitas, Sonia Maria

    2016-01-01

    Acid phosphatases (ACPases) are produced by a variety of fungi and have gained attention due their biotechnological potential in industrial, diagnosis and bioremediation processes. These enzymes play a specific role in scavenging, mobilization and acquisition of phosphate, enhancing soil fertility and plant growth. In this study, a new ACPase from Trichoderma harzianum, named ACPase II, was purified and characterized as a glycoprotein belonging to the acid phosphatase family. ACPase II presents an optimum pH and temperature of 3.8 and 65 °C, respectively, and is stable at 55 °C for 120 min, retaining 60% of its activity. The enzyme did not require metal divalent ions, but was inhibited by inorganic phosphate and tungstate. Affinity for several phosphate substrates was observed, including phytate, which is the major component of phosphorus in plant foods. The inhibition of ACPase II by tungstate and phosphate at different pH values is consistent with the inability of the substrate to occupy its active site due to electrostatic contacts that promote conformational changes, as indicated by fluorescence spectroscopy. A higher affinity for tungstate rather than phosphate at pH 4.0 was observed, in accordance with its highest inhibitory effect. Results indicate considerable biotechnological potential of the ACPase II in soil environments.

  11. Global Warming Potential and Eutrophication Potential of Biofuel Feedstock Crops Produced in Florida, Measured Under Different Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izursa, Jose-Luis; Hanlon, Edward; Amponsah, Nana; Capece, John

    2013-02-15

    The agriculture sector is in a growing need to develop greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation techniques to reduce the enhanced greenhouse effect. The challenge to the sector is not only to reduce net emissions but also increase production to meet growing demands for food, fiber, and biofuel. This study focuses on the changes in the GHG balance of three biofuel feedstock (biofuel sugarcane, energy-cane and sweet sorghum) considering changes caused by the adoption of conservationist practices such as reduced tillage, use of controlled-release fertilizers or when cultivation areas are converted from burned harvest to green harvest. Based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2006) balance and the Tools for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and Other Environmental Impacts (TRACI) characterization factors published by the EPA, the annual emission balance includes use energy (diesel and electricity), equipment, and ancillary materials, according to the mean annual consumption of supplies per hectare. The total amounts of GWP were 2740, 1791, and 1910 kg CO2e ha-1 y-1 for biofuel sugarcane, energy-cane and sweet sorghum, respectively, when produced with conventional tillage and sugarcane was burned prior to harvesting. Applying reduced tillage practices, the GHG emissions reduced to 13% for biofuel sugarcane, 23% for energy-cane and 8% for sweet sorghum. A similar decrease occurs when a controlled-release fertilizer practice is adopted, which helps reduce the total emission balance in 5%, 12% and 19% for biofuel sugarcane, energy-cane and sweet sorghum, respectively and a 31% average reduction in eutrophication potential. Moreover, the GHG emissions for biofuel sugarcane, with the adoption of green harvest, would result in a smaller GHG balance of 1924 kg CO2e ha-1 y-1, providing an effect strategy for GHG mitigation while still providing a profitable yield in Florida.

  12. Myosin phosphorylation improves contractile economy of mouse fast skeletal muscle during staircase potentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunda, Jordan; Gittings, William; Vandenboom, Rene

    2018-01-30

    Phosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) by skeletal myosin light chain kinase (skMLCK) potentiates rodent fast twitch muscle but is an ATP-requiring process. Our objective was to investigate the effect of skMLCK-catalyzed RLC phosphorylation on the energetic cost of contraction and the contractile economy (ratio of mechanical output to metabolic input) of mouse fast twitch muscle in vitro (25°C). To this end, extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles from wild-type (WT) and from skMLCK-devoid (skMLCK -/- ) mice were subjected to repetitive low-frequency stimulation (10 Hz for 15 s) to produce staircase potentiation of isometric twitch force, after which muscles were quick frozen for determination of high-energy phosphate consumption (HEPC). During stimulation, WT muscles displayed significant potentiation of isometric twitch force while skMLCK -/- muscles did not (i.e. 23% versus 5% change, respectively). Consistent with this, RLC phosphorylation was increased ∼3.5-fold from the unstimulated control value in WT but not in skMLCK -/- muscles. Despite these differences, the HEPC of WT muscles was not greater than that of skMLCK -/- muscles. As a result of the increased contractile output relative to HEPC, the calculated contractile economy of WT muscles was greater than that of skMLCK -/- muscles. Thus, our results suggest that skMLCK-catalyzed phosphorylation of the myosin RLC increases the contractile economy of WT mouse EDL muscle compared with skMLCK -/- muscles without RLC phosphorylation. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. Cellulolytic and xylanolytic potential of high β-glucosidase-producing Trichoderma from decaying biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeke, Benedict C

    2014-10-01

    Availability, cost, and efficiency of microbial enzymes for lignocellulose bioconversion are central to sustainable biomass ethanol technology. Fungi enriched from decaying biomass and surface soil mixture displayed an array of strong cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities. Strains SG2 and SG4 produced a promising array of cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes including β-glucosidase, usually low in cultures of Trichoderma species. Nucleotide sequence analysis of internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region of rRNA gene revealed that strains SG2 and SG4 are closely related to Trichoderma inhamatum, Trichoderma piluliferum, and Trichoderma aureoviride. Trichoderma sp. SG2 crude culture supernatant correspondingly displayed as much as 9.84 ± 1.12, 48.02 ± 2.53, and 30.10 ± 1.11 units mL(-1) of cellulase, xylanase, and β-glucosidase in 30 min assay. Ten times dilution of culture supernatant of strain SG2 revealed that total activities were about 5.34, 8.45, and 2.05 orders of magnitude higher than observed in crude culture filtrate for cellulase, xylanase, and β-glucosidase, respectively, indicating that more enzymes are present to contact with substrates in biomass saccharification. In parallel experiments, Trichoderma species SG2 and SG4 produced more β-glucosidase than the industrial strain Trichoderma reesei RUT-C30. Results indicate that strains SG2 and SG4 have potential for low cost in-house production of primary lignocellulose-hydrolyzing enzymes for production of biomass saccharides and biofuel in the field.

  14. Characterization of high exopolysaccharide-producing Lactobacillus strains isolated from mustard pickles for potential probiotic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing-Yao; Kao, Cheng-Yen; Liu, We-Sin; Fang, Tony J

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize high exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from mustard pickles in Taiwan for potential probiotic applications. Among 39 collected LAB strains, four most productive EPS-producing strains were selected for further analysis. Comparative analyses of 16S rDNA genes rpoA and pheS sequences demonstrated that these strains were members of Lactobacillus plantarum-group (LPG). NCD 2, NLD 4, SLC 13, and NLD 16 showed survival rates of 95.83% ± 0.49%, 95.07% ± 0.64%, 105.84% ± 0.82%, and 99.65% ± 0.31% under simulated gastrointestinal conditions, respectively. No cytotoxic effects on macrophage RAW 264.7 cells were observed when they were treated with a low dose (1 μg/ml) of stimulants extracted from the tested LAB strains. The production of nitric oxide in RAW 264.7 cells incubated with various LAB stimulants showed a dose-dependent increase. Among the four strains, SLC 13 showed higher inhibitory activity on growth of Enterococcus faecalis (BCRC 12302) and Yersinia enterocolitica (BCRC 10807). NLD 4 showed strong inhibitory activity against Escherichia coli O157:H7 (ATCC 43894) as compared with the other three strains. In summary, our results suggest that Lactobacillus pentosus SLC 13 may be a good candidate for probiotic applications and for development of antibacterial compounds. [Int Microbiol 20(2):75-84 (2017)]. Copyright© by the Spanish Society for Microbiology and Institute for Catalan Studies.

  15. Effects of produced water discharges on the colonization potential of Macrocystis pyrifera spores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, R.J.; Reed, D.C.

    1993-01-01

    Point sources of pollution (e.g. industrial outfalls) may produce ecological impacts at distant locations if pollutants affect dispersive propagules. The authors used laboratory experiments to determine how exposure to produced water (PW; aqueous fraction of petroleum production that is typically discharged into coastal waters) in the water column influences the colonization potential of giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera) spores on the bottom. Spores were maintained in suspension in 18 L containers and exposed to one of five concentrations of PW (0 to 10%) for varying amounts of time. Spore swimming generally decreased with increasing PW concentration and exposure duration, with the specific pattern of decrease differing between experimental trials done at different dates. The effect of exposure duration in the water column on the ability of swimming spores to attach to plastic dishes placed the bottom varied with PW concentration. Spores placed in 1 and 10% PW showed a steady decline in their ability to attach with increased exposure; lower concentrations of PW had no such effects. The proportion of spores that germinated after attachment varied tremendously with exposure duration and date of experimental trial. A low proportion of spores that settled during the first 12 h germinated, indicative of a short period of precompetency. Surprisingly, water column exposure to high concentrations of PW during the first 12 h reduced this precompetent period and greatly improved germination success. The magnitude of this enhancement, however, varied among dates. Delayed expression of PW effects were not observed in developing gametophytes; survival of individuals that successfully germinated and gamete production was not affected by previous exposure to PW as a spore

  16. Diversity of Micromonospora strains from the deep Mediterranean Sea and their potential to produce bioactive compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Gärtner

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available During studies on bacteria from the Eastern Mediterranean deep-sea, incubation under in situ conditions (salinity, temperature and pressure and heat treatment were used to selectively enrich representatives of Micromonospora. From sediments of the Ierapetra Basin (4400 m depth and the Herodotos Plain (2800 m depth, 21 isolates were identified as members of the genus Micromonospora. According to phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, the Micromonospora isolates could be assigned to 14 different phylotypes with an exclusion limit of ≥ 99.5% sequence similarity. They formed 7 phylogenetic clusters. Two of these clusters, which contain isolates obtained after enrichment under pressure incubation and phylogenetically are distinct from representative reference organism, could represent bacteria specifically adapted to the conditions in situ and to life in these deep-sea sediments. The majority of the Micromonospora isolates (90% contained at least one gene cluster for biosynthesis of secondary metabolites for non-ribosomal polypeptides and polyketides (polyketide synthases type I and type II. The determination of biological activities of culture extracts revealed that almost half of the strains produced substances inhibitory to the growth of Gram-positive bacteria. Chemical analyses of culture extracts demonstrated the presence of different metabolite profiles also in closely related strains. Therefore, deep-sea Micromonospora isolates are considered to have a large potential for the production of new antibiotic compounds.

  17. Assessing the potential of fatty acids produced by filamentous fungi as feedstock for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivaldi, Juan Daniel; Carvalho, Ana Karine F; da Conceição, Leyvison Rafael V; de Castro, Heizir F

    2017-11-26

    Increased costs and limited availability of traditional lipid sources for biodiesel production encourage researchers to find more sustainable feedstock at low prices. Microbial lipid stands out as feedstock replacement for vegetable oil to convert fatty acid esters. In this study, the potential of three isolates of filamentous fungi (Mucor circinelloides URM 4140, M. hiemalis URM 4144, and Penicillium citrinum URM 4126) has been assessed as single-cell oil (SCO) producers. M. circinelloides 4140 had the highest biomass concentration with lipid accumulation of up to 28 wt% at 120 hr of cultivation. The profile of fatty acids revealed a high content of saturated (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), including palmitic (C16:0, 33.2-44.1 wt%) and oleic (C18:1, 20.7-31.2 wt%) acids, with the absence of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) having more than four double bonds. Furthermore, the predicted properties of biodiesel generated from synthesized SCOs have been estimated by using empirical models which were in accordance with the limits imposed by the USA (ASTM D6715), European Union (EN 14214), and Brazilian (ANP 45/2014) standards. These results suggest that the assessed filamentous fungus strains can be considered as alternative feedstock sources for high-quality biofuel production.

  18. Produce from Africa’s Gardens: Potential for Leafy Vegetable and Fruit Fermentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntoyinbo, Folarin A.; Fusco, Vincenzina; Cho, Gyu-Sung; Kabisch, Jan; Neve, Horst; Bockelmann, Wilhelm; Huch, Melanie; Frommherz, Lara; Trierweiler, Bernhard; Becker, Biserka; Benomar, Nabil; Gálvez, Antonio; Abriouel, Hikmate; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H.; Franz, Charles M. A. P.

    2016-01-01

    A rich variety of indigenous fruits and vegetables grow in Africa, which contribute to the nutrition and health of Africa’s populations. Fruits and vegetables have high moisture and are thus inherently prone to accelerated spoilage. Food fermentation still plays a major role in combating food spoilage and foodborne diseases that are prevalent in many of Africa’s resource disadvantaged regions. Lactic acid fermentation is probably the oldest and best-accepted food processing method among the African people, and is largely a home-based process. Fermentation of leafy vegetables and fruits is, however, underutilized in Africa, although such fermented products could contribute toward improving nutrition and food security in this continent, where many are still malnourished and suffer from hidden hunger. Fermentation of leafy vegetables and fruits may not only improve safety and prolong shelf life, but may also enhance the availability of some trace minerals, vitamins and anti-oxidants. Cassava, cow-peas, amaranth, African nightshade, and spider plant leaves have a potential for fermentation, as do various fruits for the production of vinegars or fruit beers and wines. What is needed to accelerate efforts for production of fermented leaves and vegetables is the development of fermentation protocols, training of personnel and scale-up of production methods. Furthermore, suitable starter cultures need to be developed and produced to guarantee the success of the fermentations. PMID:27458430

  19. The role of glomalin, a protein produced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, in sequestering potentially toxic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Chavez, M.C.; Carrillo-Gonzalez, R.; Wright, S.F.; Nichols, K.A.

    2004-01-01

    Naturally occurring soil organic compounds stabilize potentially toxic elements (PTEs) such as Cu, Cd, Pb, and Mn. The hypothesis of this work was that an insoluble glycoprotein, glomalin, produced in copious amounts on hyphae of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) sequesters PTEs. Glomalin can be extracted from laboratory cultures of AMF and from soils. Three different experiments were conducted. Experiment 1 showed that glomalin extracted from two polluted soils contained 1.6-4.3 mg Cu, 0.02-0.08 mg Cd, and 0.62-1.12 mg Pb/g glomalin. Experiment 2 showed that glomalin from hyphae of an isolate of Gigaspora rosea sequestered up to 28 mg Cu/g in vitro. Experiment 3 tested in vivo differences in Cu sequestration by Cu-tolerant and non-tolerant isolates of Glomus mosseae colonizing sorghum. Plants were fed with nutrient solution containing 0.5, 10 or 20 μM of Cu. Although no differences between isolates were detected, mean values for the 20 μM Cu level were 1.6, 0.4, and 0.3 mg Cu/g for glomalin extracted from hyphae, from sand after removal of hyphae and from hyphae attached to roots, respectively. Glomalin should be considered for biostabilization leading to remediation of polluted soils. - Glomalin may be useful in remediation of toxic elements in soils

  20. The role of glomalin, a protein produced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, in sequestering potentially toxic elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Chavez, M.C.; Carrillo-Gonzalez, R.; Wright, S.F.; Nichols, K.A

    2004-08-01

    Naturally occurring soil organic compounds stabilize potentially toxic elements (PTEs) such as Cu, Cd, Pb, and Mn. The hypothesis of this work was that an insoluble glycoprotein, glomalin, produced in copious amounts on hyphae of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) sequesters PTEs. Glomalin can be extracted from laboratory cultures of AMF and from soils. Three different experiments were conducted. Experiment 1 showed that glomalin extracted from two polluted soils contained 1.6-4.3 mg Cu, 0.02-0.08 mg Cd, and 0.62-1.12 mg Pb/g glomalin. Experiment 2 showed that glomalin from hyphae of an isolate of Gigaspora rosea sequestered up to 28 mg Cu/g in vitro. Experiment 3 tested in vivo differences in Cu sequestration by Cu-tolerant and non-tolerant isolates of Glomus mosseae colonizing sorghum. Plants were fed with nutrient solution containing 0.5, 10 or 20 {mu}M of Cu. Although no differences between isolates were detected, mean values for the 20 {mu}M Cu level were 1.6, 0.4, and 0.3 mg Cu/g for glomalin extracted from hyphae, from sand after removal of hyphae and from hyphae attached to roots, respectively. Glomalin should be considered for biostabilization leading to remediation of polluted soils. - Glomalin may be useful in remediation of toxic elements in soils.

  1. Charge Movement in a Fast Twitch Skeletal Muscle from Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, B. J.; Beam, K. G.

    1983-01-01

    Voltage-dependent charge movement in the rat omohyoid muscle was investigated using the three microelectrode voltage clamp technique. The charge that moved during a depolarization from the holding potential (-90 mV) to the test potential, V, increased with increasing V, saturating around 0 mV. The charge vs. voltage relationship was well fitted by Q = Qmax/{1 + exp[-(V - V)/k]}, with Qmax = 28.5 nC/μF, V = -34.2 mV, and k = 8.7 mV. Repolarization of the fiber from the test potential back to t...

  2. Effect of tibial bone resection on the development of fast- and slow-twitch skeletal muscles in foetal sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, J M; Williams, N A; Luff, A R; Walker, D W

    2000-04-01

    To determine if longitudinal bone growth affects the differentiation of fast- and slow-twitch muscles, the tibial bone was sectioned at 90 days gestation in foetal sheep so that the lower leg was permanently without structural support. At 140 days (term is approximately 147 days) the contractile properties of whole muscles, activation profiles of single fibres and ultrastructure of fast- and slow-twitch muscles from the hindlimbs were studied. The contractile and activation profiles of the slow-twitch soleus muscles were significantly affected by tibial bone resection (TIBX). The soleus muscles from the TIBX hindlimbs showed: (1) a decrease in the time to peak of the twitch responses from 106.2 +/- 10.7 ms (control, n = 4) to 65.1 +/- 2.48 ms (TIBX, n = 5); (2) fatigue profiles more characteristic of those observed in the fast-twitch muscles: and (3) Ca2+ - and Sr2+ -activation profiles of skinned fibres similar to those from intact hindlimbs at earlier stages of gestation. In the FDL, TIBX did not significantly change whole muscle twitch contraction time, the fatigue profile or the Ca2+ - and Sr2+ -activation profiles of skinned fibres. Electron microscopy showed an increased deposition of glycogen in both soleus and FDL muscles. This study shows that the development of the slow-twitch phenotype is impeded in the absence of the physical support normally provided by the tibial bone. We suggest that longitudinal stretch is an important factor in allowing full expression of the slow-twitch phenotype.

  3. The relationship between passive stiffness and evoked twitch properties: the influence of muscle CSA normalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, E D; Thompson, B J; Sobolewski, E J; Herda, T J; Costa, P B; Walter, A A; Cramer, J T

    2011-01-01

    Passive stiffness measurements are often used as a clinical tool to examine a muscle's passive lengthening characteristics. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between passive stiffness and evoked twitch properties prior to and following normalization of passive stiffness to muscle cross-sectional area (CSA). Ten healthy volunteers (mean ± SD age = 23 ± 3 year) performed passive range of motion, evoked twitch, and muscle CSA assessments of the plantar flexor muscles. Passive stiffness was determined from the slope of the final 5° of the angle–torque curve. Peak twitch torque (PTT) and rate of torque development (RTD) were determined via transcutaneous electrical stimulation, and muscle CSA was assessed using a peripheral quantitative computed tomography scanner. Pearson product moment correlation coefficients (r) were used to assess the relationships between passive stiffness and PTT and RTD and normalized passive stiffness (passive stiffness . muscle CSA −1 ) and PTT and RTD. Significant positive relationships were observed between passive stiffness and PTT (P = 0.003, r = 0.828) and RTD (P = 0.003, r = 0.825). There were no significant relationships between normalized passive stiffness and PTT (P = 0.290, r = 0.372) or RTD (P = 0.353, r = 0.329) demonstrating that stiffness did not account for a significant portion of the variance in twitch properties. Passive stiffness was largely influenced by the amount of muscle tissue in this study. Future studies that examine muscle stiffness and its relationship with performance measures, among different populations, and following various interventions may consider normalizing stiffness measurements to muscle CSA

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Hoeflea sp. Strain BAL378, a Potential Producer of Bioactive Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzon-Tilia, Mikkel; Riemann, Lasse; Gram, Lone

    2014-01-01

    Some phytoplankton-associated marine bacteria produce bioactive compounds. Members of the genus Hoeflea may be examples of such bacteria; however, data describing their metabolisms are scarce. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Hoeflea sp. strain BAL378, a putative producer of bacterioc......Some phytoplankton-associated marine bacteria produce bioactive compounds. Members of the genus Hoeflea may be examples of such bacteria; however, data describing their metabolisms are scarce. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Hoeflea sp. strain BAL378, a putative producer...

  5. The organellar genome and metabolic potential of the hydrogen- producing mitochondrion of Nyctotherus ovalis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H.P. Hackstein (Johannes); C. Burgtorf; B.E. Dutilh (Bas); I. Duarte (Isabel); G.W.M. van der Staay (Georg); R.M. de Graaf (Rob); J.W.P. Kuiper (Jan); M. Huynen (Martijn); T.A. van Alen (Theo); G. Ricard (Guenola); A.G.M. Tielens (Aloysius)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAbstract It is generally accepted that hydrogenosomes (hydrogen-producing organelles) evolved from a mitochondrial ancestor. However, until recently, only indirect evidence for this hypothesis was available. Here, we present the almost complete genome of the hydrogen-producing

  6. Bacillus subtilis UBTn7, a potential producer of L - Methioninase isolated from mangrove, Rhizophora mucronata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prihanto, A. A.

    2018-04-01

    L-methioninase is an enzyme that degrades sulfur-containing amino acids to α-keto acids, ammonia, and thiols. L-methioninase could be found in plants, bacteria, and fungi. The aims of this study was to obtain L-methioninase-producing endophytic bacteria isolated from mangrove Rhizophora mucronata. The mangrove was collected from Jenu Beach, Tuban, East Java, Indonesia. The samples were roots, stems, and leaves of Rhizophora mucronata. Endophytic bacteria were pure isolated using LB agar medium. Each bacteria were screened its capability to produce L-methioninase using selective media namely modified Czapek Dox agar. The best producer of enzyme was further identified with morphological and biochemical analysis. The result showed that three bacteria produced L-methioninase. Based on the result of morphological and biochemical analysis, the best producer was Bacillus subtilis UBTn7.

  7. Mycotoxin producing potential of some isolates of Aspergillus flavus and Eurotium groups from meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Kady, I; el-Maraghy, S; Zohri, A N

    1994-09-01

    All strains (92) of A. flavus group proved to be positive for production of aflatoxin (45 to 1200 micrograms/50 ml medium) on potato dextrose liquid medium, while 59 strains only proved to be positive (35-310 micrograms/50 ml) on 15% NaCl potato-dextrose liquid medium. Most of the strains tested of A. flavus, A. flavus var. columnaris and A. oryzae produced aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 & G2. All positive strains of A. tamarii produced aflatoxins G1 & G2 while the tested isolate of A. zonatus produced aflatoxins B1 & G1. Of 95 strains tested of Eurotium, aflatoxins B1 & G1 were produced by one strain of each of E. chevalieri var. intermedium, E. repens and E. rubrum. Gliotoxin was detected in the extract of two strains of E. chevalieri and one strain of each of E. chevalieri var. intermedium and E. pseudoglaucum on the salt-free medium, and two strains of each of E. chevalieri, E. chevalieri var. intermedium and one of E. pseudoglaucum on 15% NaCl medium. Sterigmatocystin was produced by some strains of E. chevalieri, E. chevalieri var. intermedium, E. amstelodami, E. pseudoglaucum and E. rubrum on the two experimental media. One strain only of E. repens produced ochratoxin A while citrinin was detected in the extract of one strain of E. pseudoglaucum.

  8. The Major Outer Membrane Protein MopB Is Required for Twitching Movement and Affects Biofilm Formation and Virulence in Two Xylella fastidiosa strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongyu; Kandel, Prem P; Cruz, Luisa F; Cobine, Paul A; De La Fuente, Leonardo

    2017-11-01

    MopB is a major outer membrane protein (OMP) in Xylella fastidiosa, a bacterial plant pathogen that causes losses on many economically important crops. Based on in silico analysis, the uncharacterized MopB protein of X. fastidiosa contains a β-barrel structure with an OmpA-like domain and a predicted calcium-binding motif. Here, MopB function was studied by mutational analysis taking advantage of the natural competence of X. fastidiosa. Mutants of mopB were constructed in two different X. fastidiosa strains, the type strain Temecula and the more virulent WM1-1. Deletion of the mopB gene impaired cell-to-cell aggregation, surface attachment, and biofilm formation in both strains. Interestingly, mopB deletion completely abolished twitching motility. Electron microscopy of the bacterial cell surface revealed that mopB deletion eliminated type IV and type I pili formation, potentially caused by destabilization of the outer membrane. Both mopB mutants showed reduced virulence using tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) as a host under greenhouse conditions. These results suggest that MopB has pleiotropic functions in biofilm formation and twitching motility and is important for virulence of X. fastidiosa.

  9. Prdm1a and miR-499 act sequentially to restrict Sox6 activity to the fast-twitch muscle lineage in the zebrafish embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, XinGang; Ono, Yosuke; Tan, Swee Chuan; Chai, Ruth JinFen; Parkin, Caroline; Ingham, Philip W

    2011-10-01

    Sox6 has been proposed to play a conserved role in vertebrate skeletal muscle fibre type specification. In zebrafish, sox6 transcription is repressed in slow-twitch progenitors by the Prdm1a transcription factor. Here we identify sox6 cis-regulatory sequences that drive fast-twitch-specific expression in a Prdm1a-dependent manner. We show that sox6 transcription subsequently becomes derepressed in slow-twitch fibres, whereas Sox6 protein remains restricted to fast-twitch fibres. We find that translational repression of sox6 is mediated by miR-499, the slow-twitch-specific expression of which is in turn controlled by Prdm1a, forming a regulatory loop that initiates and maintains the slow-twitch muscle lineage.

  10. Potential use of produced oil sample analysis to monitor SAGD performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Z. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Canadian Section, Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[Nexen Petroleum International, Calgary, AB (Canada); Wollen, C. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Canadian Section, Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[OPTI-Nexen Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Yang, P.; Fustic, M. [Nexen Petroleum International, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    Oil viscosity and compositional gradients can affect the performance of steam injection recovery processes. In this study, reservoir simulations were conducted to investigate the effects of viscosity variation with depth on steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) processes and produced oil characteristics. The 2-D reservoir model consisted of a reservoir with a 40 m clean sand matrix, overtopped with interbedded shales and sand. The oil phase was comprised of 2 pseudo-components representing top and bottom bitumens. Viscosities and concentrations of the pseudo-components were calculated using linear mixing rules. Four different viscosity distribution scenarios were examined. Conceptual 3-D models were then constructed to examine the characteristics of produced oil samples in scenarios with shale barriers extending down the well directions and blocking parts of the reservoir. Results from the simulations showed that produced oil characteristics are related to the in situ profiles of reservoir flow barriers. Produced oil characteristics can be used in conjunction with oil rates, surface heave and other data to predict steam chamber development and detect the presence of baffles and barriers. The relationship between the SAGD steam chamber and variations in produced fluid characteristics were accurately characterized by the simulations. It was concluded that the approach can be used to monitor SAGD steam chamber growth. 10 refs., 1 tab., 19 figs.

  11. Potential of Bacillus spp produces siderophores insuppressing thewilt disease of banana plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesaulya, H.; Hasinu, J. V.; Tuhumury, G. NC

    2018-01-01

    In nature, different types of siderophore such as hydroxymate, catecholets and carboxylate, are produced by different bacteria. Bacillus spp were isolated from potato rhizospheric soil can produce siderophore of both catecholets and salicylate type with different concentrations. Various strains of Bacillus spp were tested for pathogen inhibition capability in a dual culture manner. The test results showed the ability of inhibition of pathogen isolated from banana wilt disease. From the result tested were found Bacillus niabensis Strain PT-32-1, Bacillus subtilis Strain SWI16b, Bacillus subtilis Strain HPC21, Bacillus mojavensis Strain JCEN3, and Bacillus subtilis Strain HPC24 showed different capabilities in suppressing pathogen.

  12. Characterisation of the exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing Lactobacillus paraplantarum BGCG11 and its non-EPS producing derivative strains as potential probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolic, Milica; López, Patricia; Strahinic, Ivana; Suárez, Ana; Kojic, Milan; Fernández-García, María; Topisirovic, Ljubisa; Golic, Natasa; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia

    2012-08-17

    Traditional fermented foods are the best source for the isolation of strains with specific traits to act as functional starters and to keep the biodiversity of the culture collections. Besides, these strains could be used in the formulation of foods claimed to promote health benefits, i.e. those containing probiotic microorganisms. For the rational selection of strains acting as probiotics, several in vitro tests have been proposed. In the current study, we have characterized the probiotic potential of the strain Lactobacillus paraplantarum BGCG11, isolated from a Serbian soft, white, homemade cheese, which is able to produce a "ropy" exopolysaccharide (EPS). Three novobiocin derivative strains, which have lost the ropy phenotype, were characterized as well in order to determine the putative role of the EPS in the probiotic potential. Under chemically gastrointestinal conditions, all strains were able to survive around 1-2% (10(6)-10(7)cfu/ml cultivable bacteria) only when they were included in a food matrix (1% skimmed milk). The strains were more resistant to acid conditions than to bile salts and gastric or pancreatic enzymes, which could be due to a pre-adaptation of the parental strain to acidic conditions in the cheese habitat. The ropy EPS did not improve the survival of the producing strain. On the contrary, the presence of an EPS layer surrounding the strain BGCG11 hindered its adhesion to the three epithelial intestinal cell lines tested, since the adhesion of the three non-ropy derivatives was higher than the parental one and also than that of the reference strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Aiming to propose a potential target application of these strains as probiotics, the cytokine production of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was analyzed. The EPS-producing L. paraplantarum BGCG11 strain showed an anti-inflammatory or immunosuppressor profile whereas the non-ropy derivative strains induced higher pro-inflammatory response. In addition, when

  13. Comparative studies of various hyaluronic acids produced by microbial fermentation for potential topical ophthalmic applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guillaumie, Fanny; Furrer, Pascal; Felt-Baeyens, Olivia

    2010-01-01

    This work presents a comparative study of various hyaluronic acids (HA) produced by fermentation of either Bacillus subtilis or Streptococcus towards the selection of an optimal molecular weight (MW) HA for the preparation of topical ophthalmic formulations. The influence of HA MW on water binding...

  14. Study of Potential and Real Seed Producing Capacity in Some Romanian Varieties of Legumes and Perennial Gramineae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neculai Dragomir

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the potential and real seed producing capacity in some Romanian varieties of legumes and perennial gramineae: Trifolium repens, Lotus corniculatus, Lolium perenne, Festuca pratensis, Festuca arundinacea and Dactylis glomerata. To calculate the potential production, we performed determinations and analyses on each variety, regarding floral apparatus’ morphological and anatomic structure (number of inflorescences, number of flowers, number of ovules/ovary, and the real production was determined „in situ”.

  15. Identification of innovative potential quality markers in rocket and melon fresh-cut produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaiuolo, Marina; Cocetta, Giacomo; Bulgari, Roberta; Spinardi, Anna; Ferrante, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Ready-to-eat fresh cut produce are exposed to pre- and postharvest abiotic stresses during the production chain. Our work aimed to identify stress responsive genes as new molecular markers of quality that can be widely applied to leaves and fruits and easily determined at any stage of the production chain. Stress responsive genes associated with quality losses were isolated in rocket and melon fresh-cut produce and their expression levels analyzed by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) at different time points after harvest at 20 °C and 4 °C. qRT-PCR results were supported by correlation analysis with physiological and biochemical determinations evaluated at the same conditions such as chlorophyll a fluorescence indices, total, reducing sugars, sucrose, ethylene, ascorbic acid, lipid peroxidation and reactive oxygen species. In both species the putative molecular markers increased their expression soon after harvest suggesting a possible use as novel and objective quality markers of fresh-cut produces. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Etalon (standard) for surface potential distribution produced by electric activity of the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szathmáry, V; Ruttkay-Nedecký, I

    1981-01-01

    The authors submit etalon (standard) equipotential maps as an aid in the evaluation of maps of surface potential distributions in living subjects. They were obtained by measuring potentials on the surface of an electrolytic tank shaped like the thorax. The individual etalon maps were determined in such a way that the parameters of the physical dipole forming the source of the electric field in the tank corresponded to the mean vectorcardiographic parameters measured in a healthy population sample. The technique also allows a quantitative estimate of the degree of non-dipolarity of the heart as the source of the electric field.

  17. YouTube Live and Twitch: A Tour of User-Generated Live Streaming Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Pires , Karine; SIMON , Gwendal

    2015-01-01

    International audience; User-Generated live video streaming systems are services that allow anybody to broadcast a video stream over the Internet. These Over-The-Top services have recently gained popularity, in particular with e-sport, and can now be seen as competitors of the traditional cable TV. In this paper, we present a dataset for further works on these systems. This dataset contains data on the two main user-generated live streaming systems: Twitch and the live service of YouTube. We ...

  18. Occurrence and fumonisin B2 producing potential of Aspergillus section Nigri in Brazil nuts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferranti, Larissa S.; Correa, Benedito; Fungaro, Maria Helena P.

    2017-01-01

    and to verify the toxigenic potential for fumonisin B2 (FB2) production of these isolates along with the presence of this mycotoxin in Brazil nut samples. The fungal infection ranged from 0 to 80% at the different stages of the harvest and processing chain and the water activity of the nuts from 0.273 to 0...

  19. Identification and evaluation of bioremediation potential of laccase isoforms produced by Cyathus bulleri on wheat bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vats, Arpita; Mishra, Saroj

    2018-02-15

    Multiplicity in laccases among lignin degrading fungal species is of interest as it confers the ability to degrade several types of lignocellulosics. The combination of laccases produced on such substrates could be beneficial for treatment of complex aromatics, including dyes. In this study, we report on production of high units (679.6Ug -1 substrate) of laccase on solid wheat bran (WB) by Cyathus bulleri. Laccase, purified from the culture filtrates of WB grown fungus, was effective for oxidation of veratryl alcohol, Reactive blue 21 and textile effluent without assistance of externally added mediators. De novo sequencing of the 'purified' laccase lead to identification of several peptides that originated from different laccase genes. Transcriptome analysis of the fungus, cultivated on WB, confirmed presence of 8 isozymes, that were re-amplified and sequenced from the cDNA prepared from WB grown fungus. The 8 isozymes were grouped into 3 classes, based on their sequence relationship with other basidiomycete laccases. The isoforms produced on WB decolorized (by ∼57%) and degraded textile effluent far more effectively, compared to laccase obtained from Basal salt cultivated fungus. The decolorization and degradation was also accompanied by more than 95% reduction in phytotoxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization of extracellular vitamin B12 producing Lactobacillus plantarum strains and assessment of the probiotic potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Gu, Qing; Yang, Lanlan; Yu, Yue; Wang, Yuejiao

    2017-11-01

    We investigated extracellular vitamin B 12 -producing Lactobacillus strains and their characteristics in tolerance to environmental stresses, gastric acid and bile salts. Two isolates, Lactobacillus plantarum LZ95 and CY2, showed high extracellular B 12 production, 98±15μg/L and 60±9μg/L respectively. Extracellular B 12 from LZ95 were identified as adenosylcobalamin and methylcobalamin using a combination of solid phase extraction and reverse-phase HPLC, while that from CY2 was adenosylcobalamin. Both strains grew under environmental stresses, and LZ95 exhibited better tolerance to low temperature and high ethanol concentration. LZ95 also showed good viability when exposed to gastric acid (pH 2.0 and 3.0) and bile salts (0.3%) as well as good adhesion to Caco-2 cells. The viability of CY2 was significantly reduced under low pH and exposure to bile salt. Together, extracellular B 12 producer LZ95 with good probiotic properties might be a candidate for in situ B 12 fortification in the food industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Marine actinobacteria associated with marine organisms and their potentials in producing pharmaceutical natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valliappan, Karuppiah; Sun, Wei; Li, Zhiyong

    2014-09-01

    Actinobacteria are ubiquitous in the marine environment, playing an important ecological role in the recycling of refractory biomaterials and producing novel natural products with pharmic applications. Actinobacteria have been detected or isolated from the marine creatures such as sponges, corals, mollusks, ascidians, seaweeds, and seagrass. Marine organism-associated actinobacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences, i.e., 3,003 sequences, deposited in the NCBI database clearly revealed enormous numbers of actinobacteria associated with marine organisms. For example, RDP classification of these sequences showed that 112 and 62 actinobacterial genera were associated with the sponges and corals, respectively. In most cases, it is expected that these actinobacteria protect the host against pathogens by producing bioactive compounds. Natural products investigation and functional gene screening of the actinobacteria associated with the marine organisms revealed that they can synthesize numerous natural products including polyketides, isoprenoids, phenazines, peptides, indolocarbazoles, sterols, and others. These compounds showed anticancer, antimicrobial, antiparasitic, neurological, antioxidant, and anti-HIV activities. Therefore, marine organism-associated actinobacteria represent an important resource for marine drugs. It is an upcoming field of research to search for novel actinobacteria and pharmaceutical natural products from actinobacteria associated with the marine organisms. In this review, we attempt to summarize the present knowledge on the diversity and natural products production of actinobacteria associated with the marine organisms, based on the publications from 1991 to 2013.

  2. Complete genome sequence of probiotic Bacillus coagulans HM-08: A potential lactic acid producer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Guoqiang; Gao, Pengfei; Zhang, Wenyi

    2016-06-20

    Bacillus coagulans HM-08 is a commercialized probiotic strain in China. Its genome contains a 3.62Mb circular chromosome with an average GC content of 46.3%. In silico analysis revealed the presence of one xyl operon as well as several other genes that are correlated to xylose utilization. The genetic information provided here may help to expand its future biotechnology potential in lactic acid production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Study of the Anti-Staphylococcal Potential of Honeys Produced in Northern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Grecka

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of 144 samples of honeys including 95 products from apiaries located in Northern Poland was evaluated. The antibacterial activity of those natural products, their thermal stability, and activity in the presence of catalase was investigated by microdilution assays in titration plates. The MTT assay was performed for the determination of anti-biofilm activity. Spectrophotometric assays were used for the determination of antioxidant potential, total phenolic content, and ability to generate hydrogen peroxide. Some of the investigated honeys exhibited surprisingly high antimicrobial, especially anti-staphylococcal, potential, with Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC values of only 1.56% (v/v. Much higher resistance was observed in the case of staphylococci growing as biofilms. Lower concentrations of the product, up to 12.5% (v/v stimulated its growth and effective eradication of biofilm required concentration of at least 25% (v/v. Hydrogen peroxide has been identified as a crucial contributor to the antimicrobial activity of honeys supplied by Polish beekeepers. However, some of the results suggest that phytochemicals, especially polyphenols, play an important role depending on botanical source (both positive, e.g., in the case of buckwheat honeys as well as negative, e.g., in the case of some rapeseed honeys in their antimicrobial potential.

  4. Fermented goats' milk produced with selected multiple starters as a potentially functional food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minervini, Fabio; Bilancia, Maria Teresa; Siragusa, Sonya; Gobbetti, Marco; Caponio, Francesco

    2009-09-01

    A screening among five lactic acid bacteria, used alone or in combination, led to select a mixed starter (Streptococcus thermophilus CR12, Lactobacillus casei LC01, Lactobacillus helveticus PR4, Lactobacillus plantarum 1288) capable to produce a fermented goats' milk containing gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory peptides. The fermented milk was characterized by cell counts of lactic acid bacteria not lower than 7.0 log cfu g(-1), even after 45 days of storage at 4 degrees C. Fermentation of goats' milk resulted in the production of ca. 28 mg kg(-1) of GABA. Furthermore the fermented goats' milk had an in vitro ACE-inhibitory activity of ca. 73%. Prolonged cold storage did not significantly affect both the concentration of GABA and the ACE-inhibitory activity. Moreover, the taurine content did not significantly vary during both fermentation and the entire storage period.

  5. Prolonged carriage and potential onward transmission of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Dutch travelers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hattem, Jarne M; Arcilla, Maris S; Bootsma, Martin Cj; van Genderen, Perry J; Goorhuis, Abraham; Grobusch, Martin P; Molhoek, Nicky; Oude Lashof, Astrid Ml; Schultsz, Constance; Stobberingh, Ellen E; Verbrugh, Henri A; de Jong, Menno D; Melles, Damian C; Penders, John

    2016-07-01

    The aim was to study acquisition and persistence of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) among travelers. Stools from 2001 travelers and 215 nontraveling household members, collected before and immediately post-travel as well as 1, 3, 6 and 12 months upon return, were screened for CPE. Five travelers, all visiting Asia outside the Indian subcontinent, acquired CPE. One traveler persistently carried the same OXA-244 CPE up to 6 months post-travel. Three months after travel, her co-traveling spouse also became positive for this OXA-244 CPE strain, suggesting clonal transmission within this household. Acquisition of CPE is not restricted to travelers to the Indian subcontinent and/or to travelers seeking healthcare during travel and can persist up to at least 6 months post-travel.

  6. Temporal characterization and statistical analysis of flowback and produced waters and their potential for reuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oetjen, Karl; Chan, Kevin E; Gulmark, Kristoffer

    2018-01-01

    organic and inorganic chemistry, and can pose a health risk if not handled correctly. Therefore, these waters must be treated or disposed of properly. However, the variability of these waters' chemical composition over time is poorly understood and likely limits the applicability of their reuse......), alkyl ethoxylates (AEOs), and polyethylene glycols (PEGs), as well as geogenic components present in flowback and produced waters, their overall temporal pattern, and variables affecting the reuse of these waters. Observations indicate that alkalinity and iron may limit the reuse of these waters in HF......Hydraulic fracturing (HF) has allowed for the utilization of previously unattainable shale oil and gas (O&G) resources. After HF is complete, the waters used to increase the facies' permeability return uphole as wastewaters. When these waters return to the surface, they are characterized by complex...

  7. Temporal characterization and statistical analysis of flowback and produced waters and their potential for reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oetjen, Karl; Chan, Kevin E; Gulmark, Kristoffer; Christensen, Jan H; Blotevogel, Jens; Borch, Thomas; Spear, John R; Cath, Tzahi Y; Higgins, Christopher P

    2018-04-01

    Hydraulic fracturing (HF) has allowed for the utilization of previously unattainable shale oil and gas (O&G) resources. After HF is complete, the waters used to increase the facies' permeability return uphole as wastewaters. When these waters return to the surface, they are characterized by complex organic and inorganic chemistry, and can pose a health risk if not handled correctly. Therefore, these waters must be treated or disposed of properly. However, the variability of these waters' chemical composition over time is poorly understood and likely limits the applicability of their reuse. This study examines the water chemistry of a hydraulically fractured site in the Niobrara formation throughout the flowback period. Samples were collected every other day for the first 18days, then on a regular basis for three months. We identified HF fluid additives, including benzalkonium chlorides (BACs), alkyl ethoxylates (AEOs), and polyethylene glycols (PEGs), as well as geogenic components present in flowback and produced waters, their overall temporal pattern, and variables affecting the reuse of these waters. Observations indicate that alkalinity and iron may limit the reuse of these waters in HF, while chloride and alkalinity may limit the use of these waters for well-casing cement. The presence of numerous surfactant homologs, including biocides, was also observed, with the highest levels at the beginning of the flowback period. Principal component analysis identified three unique groupings in the chemical data that correspond to different stages in the flowback period: (1) the flowback stage (days 1-2); (2) the transition stage (days 6-21); and (3) the produced water stage (days 21-87). Results from this study will be important when designing decision frameworks for assessing water treatment options, particularly if onsite treatment is attempted. Successful reclamation of these waters may alleviate stress on water resources that continues to negatively impact the U. S

  8. Potential formation in a collisionless plasma produced in an open magnetic field in presence of volume negative ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phukan, Ananya; Goswami, K. S.; Bhuyan, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    The electric potential near a wall for a multi-species plasma with volume produced negative ions in presence of axially varying magnetic field is studied following an analytical-numerical approach. A constant negative ion source is assumed throughout the plasma volume, along with finite temperature positive ions and Boltzmann electrons. The particles are assumed to be guided by an open magnetic field that has its maximum at the centre, and field strength decreasing towards the walls. The one dimensional (1D) Poisson equation is derived using an analytical approach, and then solved numerically to study the potential profiles. Effect of (a) negative ion production rate, (b) magnetic field profile, and (c) negative ion temperature on the potential profile has been investigated. A potential peak appears near the wall when the negative ion temperature and density are sufficiently high. Also, the presence of negative ions further decreases the potential in the plasma region for a finite Debye Length (λ D )

  9. Assessment of the potential of biomethane produced from the French municipal sludge. Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theobald, Olivier; CHARLOT, Marie-Laure

    2014-09-01

    To achieve the goals of renewable energy production by 23% in 2020 and by 32% in 2030 (Law project on energy transition), the French Government is committed to strongly support all the local renewable energy sectors and in particular the anaerobic digestion. This sector can recycle organic waste into renewable energy while respecting local needs and issues. The objective of this study is to consider the potential of biomethane injectable into the gas grid from Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) sludge in 2020 and in 2050. Wastewater is all sewage from the population but also industrial and commercial activities. The wastewater treatment can be achieved collectively in a wastewater treatment plant or individually (independent sanitation). The organic pollution in wastewater is usually expressed in Population Equivalent. Metropolitan France has 19,521 active wastewater treatment plants (data from portal sanitation, 2014) out of which 85 currently have an anaerobic digestion plant on site for sludge treatment. The entire theoretical methanogenic potential from all the sludge WWTP is 2.13 TWh/year. To estimate the wastewater treatment plants liable to digest sludge, the approach used in this study is to determine the breakeven points of an anaerobic digestion plant installed on different sectors-types of wastewater treatment. The different ways of biogas recovery are sized and compared. It is considered that a case is profitable if its internal rate of return is at least 10 % (compared to a reference case). This approach is characterized by: - A literature review of technical and economic characteristics of the various treatments found at a WWTP including anaerobic digestion and biogas recovery associated, - A return of experience and collect of opinions from various experts in the field of sanitation, - A technical and economic analysis of the various defined cases in relation to a reference case (without anaerobic digestion plant). According to the technical and

  10. Cooling of ions trapped in potential wells produced by electromagnetic radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobehart, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    The probability distributions for the ground state and the excited state of a two-level ion trapped in an harmonic potential well are studied. The ion is excited by electromagnetic radiation and relaxes back due to either spontaneous or stimulated emission. The photon statistics is considered Poissonian and the momentum transfer between the electromagnetic field and the ion is assumed discrete. The present results are closely related to the quantum treatment in the heavy particle limit as well as to those derived from previous semiclassical models. (Author) [es

  11. Availability of pearl producing marine bivalves in south-eastern coast of Bangladesh and culture potentialities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Ataur Rahman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted during September 2014 to July 2015 to identify the pearl bearing bivalves in south-eastern coast of Bangladesh and culture potentialities of marine oyster in captivity based on field investigation. A total of 7 pearl bearing bivalve species were identified in the coast with a salinity of 18-34 ppt, pH 8.1-8.3 and water depth ranged 0.2-2.0 meter in their habitat. From the collected bivalves, most abundant oyster species windowpane oyster, Placuna placenta (Linnaeus, 1758 was reared in fiber glass tanks with seawater for a period of 6 months. During rearing highest survival rate of 88% was observed in T1 with sandy and gravel substratum and lowest survival rate of 78% was found in T2 with muddy substratum. Average temperature and salinity were varied between 24 °C-25 °C and 21-26 ppt respectively. From the reared oyster, highest 54 nos. small pearls in the month of April and lowest 7 pearls in December from a single P. placenta were obtained. The study proved that pearls can be obtained from the marine oysters in captivity in Bangladesh, and this offers large scale culture potentialities in our coast.

  12. Engineered BDNF producing cells as a potential treatment for neurologic disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Peter; Anderson, Johnathon D.; Yu, Abigail S.; Annett, Geralyn; Fink, Kyle D.; Nolta, Jan A.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been implicated in wide range of neurological diseases and injury. This neurotrophic factor is vital for neuronal health, survival, and synaptic connectivity. Many therapies focus on the restoration or enhancement of BDNF following injury or disease progression. Areas covered The present review will focus on the mechanisms in which BDNF exerts its beneficial functioning, current BDNF therapies, issues and potential solutions for delivery of neurotrophic factors to the central nervous system, and other disease indications that may benefit from overexpression or restoration of BDNF. Expert opinion Due to the role of BDNF in neuronal development, maturation, and health, BDNF is implicated in numerous neurological diseases making it a prime therapeutic agent. Numerous studies have shown the therapeutic potential of BDNF in a number of neurodegenerative disease models and in acute CNS injury, however clinical translation has fallen short due to issues in delivering this molecule. The use of MSC as a delivery platform for BDNF holds great promise for clinical advancement of neurotrophic factor restoration. The ease with which MSC can be engineered opens the door to the possibility of using this cell-based delivery system to advance a BDNF therapy to the clinic. PMID:27159050

  13. [Visual evoked potentials produced by monocular flash stimuli in the cerebral cortex of the rabbit. I. Typography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Cobo, J C; Ruiz-Beramendi, M; Pérez-Arroyo, M

    1990-12-01

    The visually evoked potentials in the hemisphere contralateral to the stimulated eye in rabbit, can be described topographically as follows. While a positive wave (P1) begins forming in the anterior zones and in the V I binocular zone, the N0 wave, at times very large, is produced in a more occipital zone, which corresponds to the visual streak. Immediately afterwards, the positivity, P1, practically invades the whole of the hemisphere. After this, the N1 wave which is produced in the most posterior parts of the V I, begins forming. The whole phenomenon comes to an end when the P2 wave is generated in the most occipital zones.

  14. Potential for producing bio-fuel in the Amazon deforested areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Ricardo Cunha da [Banco Nacional de Desenvolvimento Economico e Social (BNDES), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-05-01

    This paper analyzes the possibility of producing bio-fuel in the Amazon degraded lands. The aim here is to combine environmental concerns with an improvement of local people well-being. Firstly, a historical analysis is conducted in order to figure out the major deforestation driving forces in Amazon and to help to arrive at a feasible energy choice. Secondly, the geographical area is chosen. It is the spatial boundaries of Carajas Iron Ore Program in the southeastern Amazon where most of the deforestation has taken place in the last few decades. For this specific context, palm oil is chosen as a technological energy alternative due to its social production structure, its environmental benefits and its productivity . A quantified analysis is realized in terms of income generation (2000-3000 US dollars/family/yr), job creation (200,000-300,000 families settled), land required and restored (2-3.2 million ha), and carbon emission from fossil fuel avoided (13.1 Mt C). Some recommendations related to institutional and economic barriers are proposed in order to encourage the technology penetration in the market. (Author)

  15. Price (slump) forecast : the potential impact on pipelines, producers and marketers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, J.

    2002-01-01

    Throughout this presentation, the speaker answers three basic questions: (1) why are the prices of natural gas so high?, (2) why were the prices of natural gas so high? and (3) will prices for natural gas ever go that high again? The evolution of gas supply and demand including the Canadian supply picture is briefly reviewed. The winter of 2000 and the paradox it presented was discussed, providing a history lesson of an industry taken for granted. The cold winter of 2000 saw industry players scrambling to determine where they would get gas, and the winter of 2001 witnessed them wondering where to put this gas. The new character of the market and the players is discussed, looking at the producer, pipeline expansion projects, and the end user. Neglected investment in the sector and its consequences are dealt with in the next stage of the presentation. The synthetic supply and demand theory are examined. The author concludes the presentation by discussing the factors affecting the market today, such as storage inventory creating volatility, decrease in production and imports due to lag in time when prices are depressed, increased participation by speculators due to increased uncertainty in the stock market, recent weather questions that magnify price movements, and the environment. figs

  16. Fast-twitch glycolytic skeletal muscle is predisposed to age-induced impairments in mitochondrial function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobs, Robert A; Díaz, Víctor; Soldini, Lavinia

    2013-01-01

    The etiology of mammalian senescence is suggested to involve the progressive impairment of mitochondrial function; however, direct observations of age-induced alterations in actual respiratory chain function are lacking. Accordingly, we assessed mitochondrial function via high-resolution respirom......The etiology of mammalian senescence is suggested to involve the progressive impairment of mitochondrial function; however, direct observations of age-induced alterations in actual respiratory chain function are lacking. Accordingly, we assessed mitochondrial function via high......-resolution respirometry and mitochondrial protein expression in soleus, quadricep, and lateral gastrocnemius skeletal muscles, which represent type 1 slow-twitch oxidative muscle (soleus) and type 2 fast-twitch glycolytic muscle (quadricep and gastrocnemius), respectively, in young (10-12 weeks) and mature (74-76 weeks......) mice. Electron transport through mitochondrial complexes I and III increases with age in quadricep and gastrocnemius, which is not observed in soleus. Mitochondrial coupling efficiency during respiration through complex I also deteriorates with age in gastrocnemius and shows a tendency (p = .085...

  17. Transcriptional co-activator PGC-1 alpha drives the formation of slow-twitch muscle fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiandie; Wu, Hai; Tarr, Paul T; Zhang, Chen-Yu; Wu, Zhidan; Boss, Olivier; Michael, Laura F; Puigserver, Pere; Isotani, Eiji; Olson, Eric N; Lowell, Bradford B; Bassel-Duby, Rhonda; Spiegelman, Bruce M

    2002-08-15

    The biochemical basis for the regulation of fibre-type determination in skeletal muscle is not well understood. In addition to the expression of particular myofibrillar proteins, type I (slow-twitch) fibres are much higher in mitochondrial content and are more dependent on oxidative metabolism than type II (fast-twitch) fibres. We have previously identified a transcriptional co-activator, peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor-gamma co-activator-1 (PGC-1 alpha), which is expressed in several tissues including brown fat and skeletal muscle, and that activates mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative metabolism. We show here that PGC-1 alpha is expressed preferentially in muscle enriched in type I fibres. When PGC-1 alpha is expressed at physiological levels in transgenic mice driven by a muscle creatine kinase (MCK) promoter, a fibre type conversion is observed: muscles normally rich in type II fibres are redder and activate genes of mitochondrial oxidative metabolism. Notably, putative type II muscles from PGC-1 alpha transgenic mice also express proteins characteristic of type I fibres, such as troponin I (slow) and myoglobin, and show a much greater resistance to electrically stimulated fatigue. Using fibre-type-specific promoters, we show in cultured muscle cells that PGC-1 alpha activates transcription in cooperation with Mef2 proteins and serves as a target for calcineurin signalling, which has been implicated in slow fibre gene expression. These data indicate that PGC-1 alpha is a principal factor regulating muscle fibre type determination.

  18. Burkholderia: an update on taxonomy and biotechnological potential as antibiotic producers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depoorter, Eliza; Bull, Matt J; Peeters, Charlotte; Coenye, Tom; Vandamme, Peter; Mahenthiralingam, Eshwar

    2016-06-01

    Burkholderia is an incredibly diverse and versatile Gram-negative genus, within which over 80 species have been formally named and multiple other genotypic groups likely represent new species. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence and core genome ribosomal multilocus sequence typing analysis indicates the presence of at least three major clades within the genus. Biotechnologically, Burkholderia are well-known for their bioremediation and biopesticidal properties. Within this review, we explore the ability of Burkholderia to synthesise a wide range of antimicrobial compounds ranging from historically characterised antifungals to recently described antibacterial antibiotics with activity against multiresistant clinical pathogens. The production of multiple Burkholderia antibiotics is controlled by quorum sensing and examples of quorum sensing pathways found across the genus are discussed. The capacity for antibiotic biosynthesis and secondary metabolism encoded within Burkholderia genomes is also evaluated. Overall, Burkholderia demonstrate significant biotechnological potential as a source of novel antibiotics and bioactive secondary metabolites.

  19. Events of potential learning: how preschoolers produce curriculum at the computer during free play periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Bevemyr

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Swedish preschool curriculum emphasizes children’s learning through play. This means that children’s learning in everyday practice is accomplished through a complex mixture of teacher-led activities and activities the children themselves initiate. When learning is viewed as situated and constituted through social interaction (Lave & Wenger, 1991, almost all social events have learning potential. Consequently, from an educational and a curriculum point of view it is important to raise the question of how children’s learning can be made visible, and determine what kind of learning children’s own initiated (play activities imply. The focus of the paper is on children’s (aged 3-5 years “communities of practice” at the computer during “free play” period in two various Swedish preschools settings. Events of peer interaction are analyzed in detail to illustrate what kind of learning activities are going on at the computer, and to discuss these events of potential learning in relation to the curriculum goals and the educational practice. From a curriculum point of view, the analyses show that the children’s activities at the computer involve a variety of events that might provides for learning that can be viewed as goal-oriented. From the children’s point of view, the project of socialization seems to be the most prominent goal. A crucial point for educational success, however, is to understand not only what the object of learning is, rather what motivates children’s play apprenticeship in their own “communities of practice”.

  20. Developmental changes in the activation properties and ultrastructure of fast- and slow-twitch muscles from fetal sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, J M; Barclay, C J; Luff, A R; Walker, D W

    1999-04-01

    At early stages of muscle development, skeletal muscles contract and relax slowly, regardless of whether they are destined to become fast- or slow-twitch. In this study, we have characterised the activation profiles of developing fast- and slow-twitch muscles from a precocial species, the sheep, to determine if the activation profiles of the muscles are characteristically slow when both the fast- and slow-twitch muscles have slow isometric contraction profiles. Single skinned muscle fibres from the fast-twitch flexor digitorum longus (FDL) and slow-twitch soleus muscles from fetal (gestational ages 70, 90, 120 and 140 days; term 147 days) and neonatal (8 weeks old) sheep were used to determine the isometric force-pCa (pCa = -log10[Ca2+]) and force-pSr relations during development. Fast-twitch mammalian muscles generally have a greatly different sensitivity to Ca2+ and Sr2+ whereas slow-twitch muscles have a similar sensitivity to these divalent cations. At all ages studied, the force-pCa and force-pSr relations of the FDL muscle were widely separated. The mean separation of the mid-point of the curves (pCa50-pSr50) was approximately 1.1. This is typical of adult fast-twitch muscle. The force-pCa and force-pSr curves for soleus muscle were also widely separated at 70 and 90 days gestation (pCa50-pSr50 approximately 0.75); between 90 days and 140 days this separation decreased significantly to approximately 0.2. This leads to a paradoxical situation whereby at early stages of muscle development the fast muscles have contraction dynamics of slow muscles but the slow muscles have activation profiles more characteristic of fast muscles. The time course for development of the FDL and soleus is different, based on sarcomere structure with the soleus muscle developing clearly defined sarcomere structure earlier in gestation than the FDL. At 70 days gestation the FDL muscle had no clearly defined sarcomeres. Force (N cm-2) increased almost linearly between 70 and 140 days

  1. Purification and characterization of a beta-Glucanase produced by Trichoderma harzianum showing biocontrol potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Lisboa de Marco

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A beta-1,3-glucanase was produced by Trichoderma harzianum in cultures containing chitin as the sole substrate. Two proteins showing beta-1,3-glucanase activity were purified to apparent homogeneity by hydrophobic chromatography. The molecular masses of these proteins were 29 and 36 kDa. The 36 kDa protein was further characterized. It was active on a broad pH range, and maximal activity was detected at pH 5.0. The optimum temperature of the 36 kDa beta-1,3-glucanase was 50ºC, but the purified enzyme was very sensitive to temperature. It lost about 60% or more of the activity after incubation for 30 min at 45, 50 and 60ºC. The apparent K M and Vmax for hydrolysis of laminarin at pH 5.0 and 37ºC, were 0.099 mg of reducing sugar/mL and 0.3 mg of reducing sugar/min.mL, respectively. The enzyme was insensitive to organic compound and metal ions, except for the ferric ion which inhibited about 100% of the original activity at the concentration of 1 mM. In contrast to other hydrolytic enzymes (a chitinase and a protease produced by the same T. harzianum isolate (1051, the beta-1,3-glucanase showed no effect on the cell wall of the phytopathogenic fungus Crinipellis perniciosa.Uma beta-1,3-glucanase foi produzida por Trichoderma harzianum em cultura contendo quitina como fonte de carbono. Duas proteínas com atividade de beta-1,3-glucanase foram purificadas através de cromatografia de interação hidrofóbica. As massas moleculares destas proteínas foram de 29 kDa e 36 kDa. A proteína de 36 kDa foi caracterizada quanto à influência das condições de pH e temperatura. A atividade máxima foi encontrada em pH 5,0 e temperatura de 50ºC. A proteína purificada mostrou-se muito sensível à temperatura. Aproximadamente 60% da atividade original foi perdida por incubação da proteína a 45ºC, 50ºC e 60ºC, por 30 min. O K M aparente e a Vmax para hidrólise de laminarina em pH 5,0 à 37ºC, foram de 0,099 mg de açúcar redutor/mL e 0,3 mg de a

  2. Characterization of Biosurfactant Produced by Bacillus licheniformis TT42 Having Potential for Enhanced Oil Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthar, Harish; Nerurkar, Anuradha

    2016-09-01

    Bacillus licheniformis TT42 produced a low-molecular weight anionic biosurfactant that reduced the surface tension of water from 72 to 27 mN/m and the interfacial tension from 12 to 0.05 mN/m against crude oil. We have earlier reported significant enhancement in oil recovery in laboratory sand pack columns and core flood studies, by biosurfactant-TT42 compared to standard strain, Bacillus mojavensis JF2. In the context of this application of the biosurfactant-TT42, its characterization was deemed important. In the preliminary studies, the biosurfactant-TT42 was found to be functionally stable at under conditions of temperature, pH, and salinity generally prevalent in oil reservoirs. Furthermore, the purified biosurfactant-TT42 was found to have a CMC of 22 mg/l. A newly developed activity staining TLC method was used for the purification of biosurfactant-TT42. Structural characterization of biosurfactant-TT42 using TLC, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), GC-MS, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF)/TOF suggested that it was a mixture of lipopeptide species, all having a common hydrophilic cyclic heptapeptide head with the sequence, Gln-Leu/Ileu-Leu/Ileu-Val-Asp-Leu/Ileu-Leu/Ileu linked to hydrophobic tails of different lengths of 3β-OH-fatty acids bearing 1043, 1057 and 1071 Da molecular weight, where 3β-OH-C19 fatty acid was predominant. This is the longest chain length of fatty acids reported in a lipopeptide.

  3. Time-resolved X-ray diffraction studies of frog skeletal muscle isometrically twitched by two successive stimuli using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Hidehiro; Kobayashi, Takakazu; Wakabayashi, Katsuzo

    1986-01-01

    In order to clarify the delay between muscular structural changes and mechanical responses, the intensity changes of the equatorial and myosin layer-line reflections were studied by a time-resolved X-ray diffraction technique using synchrotron radiation. The muscle was stimulated at 12-13 0 C by two successive stimuli at an interval during which the second twitch started while tension was still being exerted by the muscle. At the first twitch, the intensity changes of the 1,0 and 1,1 equatorial reflections reached 65 and 200% of the resting values, and further changes to 55 and 220% were seen at the second twitch, respectively. Although the second twitch decreased not only the time to peak tension but also that to the maximum intensity changes of the equatorial reflections, the delay between the intensity changes and the development of tension at the first twitch were still observed at the second twitch. On the other hand, the intensities of the 42.9 nm off-meridional and the 21.5 nm meridional myosin reflections decreased at the first twitch to the levels found when a muscle was isometrically tetanized, and no further decrease in their intensities was observed at the second twitch. These results indicate that a certain period of time is necessary for myosin heads to contr0116e to tension development after their arrival in the vicinity of the thin filaments during contraction. (Auth.)

  4. Potential Role of Curcumin Against Biofilm-Producing Organisms on the Skin: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Alexandra R; Haas, Kelly N; Burney, Waqas; Andersen, Erich; Clark, Ashley K; Crawford, Robert; Sivamani, Raja K

    2017-12-01

    Turmeric root (Curcuma longa) is predominantly used as a spice, but has also long been known to possess antimicrobial, analgesic, antiinflammatory, and anticancer properties. One predominant group of active compounds in turmeric are curcuminoids, namely bright yellow-pigmented curcumin. While modern science has yet to fully investigate the therapeutic claims of turmeric and its derivatives, results have proven promising in decreasing pain and inflammation in arthritis, improving insulin sensitivity in diabetes, and even curing a variety of infections. The purpose of this review is to discuss the potential for curcumin as an agent against microbial infections, with a special focus on the skin and in the development of bacterial biofilms. Curcumin has demonstrated bactericidal efficacy against a variety of infections when administered with antibiotics in several clinical studies, with consistent antimicrobial activity demonstrated in vitro, as well as in urinary tract infections, gingival infections, and chronic wound infections. Hypothesized mechanisms of action include curcumin's ability to perturb bacterial membranes, disturb protofillament assembly, and even impair bacterial virulence factors. Further investigation is needed to fully understand which organisms are most susceptible to the effects of curcumin and how curcumin can be implemented in dermatology to treat skin conditions such as chronic wounds and acne vulgaris. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. POTENTIAL TO PRODUCE Jatropha curcas L. AS FEEDSTOCK FOR BIODIESEL IN THE STATE OF VERACRUZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Daniel Inurreta-Aguirre

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available There is great interest to use from Jatropha curcas L. (J. curcas Las feedstock for biodiesel. In order to increase energy and economic efficiency, it is necessary to identify areas with optimal agroecological conditions for its cultivation and to determine its productivity in marginal areas to avoid competition with food production. The aim of this study was to determine the variation of the productive potential of J. curcas in response to different soil and climatic conditions of the state of Veracruz. The model used to simulate the seed yield of J. curcas was the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT. The units of calculation were the Hydrologic Response Units (HRU; the weather was extracted from 95 weather stations; Crop physiological parameters were taken from the literature. The simulated seed yield of J. curcas ranged from 0.16 to 5.74 t ha-1 and was mapped by grouping in 5 intervals. Superficies was quantified for each interval and related to the current land use. There were Identified 872 thousand hectares with seed yield higher than 3.63 t ha-1 in grasslands. The seed yield showed the most sensitivity to soil depth, followed by the mean annual temperature and annual total rainfall.

  6. Potential damage of GM crops to the country image of the producing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, John G; Clark, Allyson; Mather, Damien W

    2013-01-01

    Frequently heard within New Zealand are arguments that release of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) into the environment will harm the "clean green" image of the country, and therefore do irreparable harm to export markets for food products and also to the New Zealand tourism industry. But where is the evidence? To investigate the likelihood of harmful effects on New Zealand's clean green image in relation to food exports, we have previously used face-to-face interviews with gatekeepers in the food distribution channel in five countries in Europe, in China, and in India. To investigate potential impacts on the New Zealand tourism sector, we have surveyed first-time visitors to New Zealand at Auckland International Airport soon after arrival. We conclude that it is highly unlikely that introduction of GM plants into New Zealand would have any long-term deleterious effect on perceptions in overseas markets of food products sourced from New Zealand. Furthermore it is highly unlikely that New Zealand's image as a tourist destination would suffer if GM plants were introduced.

  7. Complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum LZ95, a potential probiotic strain producing bacteriocins and B-group vitamin riboflavin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Gu, Qing

    2016-07-10

    Lactobacillus plantarum LZ95 is a potential probiotic isolated from newborn infant fecal and it is identified to produce riboflavin with great antimicrobial activity. The complete genome sequence of this strain was reported in the present study. The genome contains a 3,261,418-bp chromosome and two plasmids. Genes, related to the biosynthesis of bacteriocins and riboflavin, were identified. This work will facilitate to reveal the biosynthetic mechanism of bacteriocins and B-group vitamins in lactic acid bacteria and provide evidence for its potential application in food industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Flapping tail membrane in bats produces potentially important thrust during horizontal takeoffs and very slow flight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick A Adams

    Full Text Available Historically, studies concerning bat flight have focused primarily on the wings. By analyzing high-speed video taken on 48 individuals of five species of vespertilionid bats, we show that the capacity to flap the tail-membrane (uropatagium in order to generate thrust and lift during takeoffs and minimal-speed flight (<1 m (s-1 was largely underestimated. Indeed, bats flapped the tail-membrane by extensive dorso-ventral fanning motions covering as much as 135 degrees of arc consistent with thrust generation by air displacement. The degree of dorsal extension of the tail-membrane, and thus the potential amount of thrust generated during platform launches, was significantly correlated with body mass (P = 0.02. Adduction of the hind limbs during upstrokes collapsed the tail-membrane thereby reducing its surface area and minimizing negative lift forces. Abduction of the hind limbs during the downstroke fully expanded the tail-membrane as it was swept ventrally. The flapping kinematics of the tail-membrane is thus consistent with expectations for an airfoil. Timing offsets between the wings and tail-membrane during downstrokes was as much as 50%, suggesting that the tail-membrane was providing thrust and perhaps lift when the wings were retracting through the upstoke phase of the wing-beat cycle. The extent to which the tail-membrane was used during takeoffs differed significantly among four vespertilionid species (P = 0.01 and aligned with predictions derived from bat ecomorphology. The extensive fanning motion of the tail membrane by vespertilionid bats has not been reported for other flying vertebrates.

  9. Antibiotic Producing Potentials of Three Freshwater Actinomycetes Isolated from the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Sibanda

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Crude extracts of three actinomycetes species belonging to Saccharopolyspora (TR 046 and TR 039 and Actinosynnema (TR 024 genera were screened for antibacterial activities against a panel of several bacterial strains. The extracts showed antibacterial activities against both gram-negative and gram-positive test bacteria with inhibition zones ranging from 8 to 28 mm (TR 046; 8 to15 mm (TR 039; and 10 to 13 mm (TR 024. The minimum inhibitory concentrations ranged from 0.078 to 10 mg/mL (TR 046; 5 to >10 mg/mL (TR 039; and 1.25 to 5 mg/mL (TR 024. Time-kill studies revealed that crude extract of TR 046 showed strong bactericidal activity against Bacillus pumilus (ATCC14884, reducing the bacterial load by 104 cfu/mL and 102 cfu/mL at 4× MIC and 2× MIC, respectively, after 6 h of exposure. Similarly, against Proteus vulgaris (CSIR 0030, crude extract of TR 046 achieved a 0.9log10 and 0.13log10 cfu/mL reduction at 5 mg/mL (4× MIC and 1.25 mg/mL (2× MIC after 12 h of exposure. The extract was however weakly bactericidal against two environmental bacterial strains (Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus epidermidis; and against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 19582: the extract showed bacteriostatic activities at all concentrations tested. These freshwater actinomycetes appear to have immense potential as a source of new antibacterial compound(s.

  10. Accumulation of ceramide in slow-twitch muscle contributes to the development of insulin resistance in the obese JCR:LA-cp rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillmore, Natasha; Keung, Wendy; Kelly, Sandra E; Proctor, Spencer D; Lopaschuk, Gary D; Ussher, John R

    2015-06-01

    What is the central question of this study? The aim was to determine whether the accumulation of ceramide contributes to skeletal muscle insulin resistance in the JCR obese rat. What is the main finding and its importance? Our main new finding is that ceramides accumulate only in slow-twitch skeletal muscle in the JCR obese rat and that reducing ceramide content in this muscle type by inhibition of serine palmitoyl transferase-1 halts the progression of insulin resistance in this rat model predisposed to early development of type 2 diabetes. Our findings highlight the importance of assessing insulin signalling/sensitivity and lipid intermediate accumulation in different muscle fibre types. It has been postulated that insulin resistance results from the accumulation of cytosolic lipid metabolites (i.e. diacylglycerol/ceramide) that impede insulin signalling and impair glucose homeostasis. De novo ceramide synthesis is catalysed by serine palmitoyl transferase-1. Our aim was to determine whether de novo ceramide synthesis plays a role during development of insulin resistance in the JCR:LA-cp obese rat. Ten-week-old JCR:LA-cp obese rats were supplemented with either vehicle or the serine palmitoyl transferase-1 inhibitor l-cycloserine (360 mg l(-1) ) in their drinking water for a 2 week period, and glycaemia was assessed by meal tolerance testing. Treatment of JCR:LA-cp obese rats with l-cycloserine improved their plasma glucose and insulin levels during a meal tolerance test. Examination of muscle lipid metabolites and protein phosphorylation patterns revealed differential signatures in slow-twitch (soleus) versus fast-twitch muscle (gastrocnemius), in that ceramide levels were increased in soleus but not gastrocnemius muscles of JCR:LA-cp obese rats. Likewise, improved glycaemia in l-cycloserine-treated JCR:LA-cp obese rats was associated with enhanced Akt and pyruvate dehydrogenase signalling in soleus but not gastrocnemius muscles, probably as a result of l

  11. Logarithmic correction in the deformed AdS5 model to produce the heavy quark potential and QCD beta function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Song; Huang Mei; Yan Qishu

    2011-01-01

    We study the holographic QCD model, which contains a quadratic term -σz 2 and a logarithmic term -c 0 log[(z IR -z)/z IR ] with an explicit infrared cutoff z IR in the deformed AdS 5 warp factor. We investigate the heavy-quark potential for three cases, i.e., with only a quadratic correction, with both quadratic and logarithmic corrections, and with only a logarithmic correction. We solve the dilaton field and dilation potential from the Einstein equation and investigate the corresponding beta function in the Guersoy-Kiritsis-Nitti framework. Our studies show that in the case with only a quadratic correction, a negative σ or the Andreev-Zakharov model is favored to fit the heavy-quark potential and to produce the QCD beta function at 2-loop level; however, the dilaton potential is unbounded in the infrared regime. One interesting observation for the case of positive σ is that the corresponding beta function exists in an infrared fixed point. In the case with only a logarithmic correction, the heavy-quark Cornell potential can be fitted very well, the corresponding beta function agrees with the QCD beta function at 2-loop level reasonably well, and the dilaton potential is bounded from below in the infrared. At the end, we propose a more compact model which has only a logarithmic correction in the deformed warp factor and has less free parameters.

  12. Calcium-Enhanced Twitching Motility in Xylella fastidiosa Is Linked to a Single PilY1 Homolog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Luisa F; Parker, Jennifer K; Cobine, Paul A; De La Fuente, Leonardo

    2014-12-01

    The plant-pathogenic bacterium Xylella fastidiosa is restricted to the xylem vessel environment, where mineral nutrients are transported through the plant host; therefore, changes in the concentrations of these elements likely impact the growth and virulence of this bacterium. Twitching motility, dependent on type IV pili (TFP), is required for movement against the transpiration stream that results in basipetal colonization. We previously demonstrated that calcium (Ca) increases the motility of X. fastidiosa, although the mechanism was unknown. PilY1 is a TFP structural protein recently shown to bind Ca and to regulate twitching and adhesion in bacterial pathogens of humans. Sequence analysis identified three pilY1 homologs in X. fastidiosa (PD0023, PD0502, and PD1611), one of which (PD1611) contains a Ca-binding motif. Separate deletions of PD0023 and PD1611 resulted in mutants that still showed twitching motility and were not impaired in attachment or biofilm formation. However, the response of increased twitching at higher Ca concentrations was lost in the pilY1-1611 mutant. Ca does not modulate the expression of any of the X. fastidiosa PilY1 homologs, although it increases the expression of the retraction ATPase pilT during active movement. The evidence presented here suggests functional differences between the PilY1 homologs, which may provide X. fastidiosa with an adaptive advantage in environments with high Ca concentrations, such as xylem sap. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. L-carnitine pretreatment protects slow-twitch skeletal muscles in a rat model of ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, Mert; Kaya, Burak; Cerkez, Cem; Ertunc, Mert; Sara, Yildirim

    2013-10-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury negatively affects the outcome of surgical interventions for amputated or severely traumatized extremities. This study aimed to evaluate the protective role of l-carnitine on the contractile properties of fast-twitch (extensor digitorum longus [EDL]) and slow-twitch (soleus [SOL]) skeletal muscles following I/R-induced injury in a rat model. Rats were divided into 4 groups (1) saline pretreatment, (2) l-carnitine pretreatment, (3) saline pretreatment and I/R, and (4) l-carnitine pretreatment and I/R. Twitch and tetanic contractions in the EDL and SOL muscles in each group were recorded. Additionally, a fatigue protocol was performed in these muscles. Twitch and tetanic contraction amplitudes were lower in the EDL and SOL muscles in which I/R was induced (P contraction amplitude in the SOL muscles following I/R (P muscles. l-Carnitine pretreatment did not alter the fatigue response in any of the muscles.

  14. Can fast-twitch muscle fibres be selectively recruited during lengthening contractions? Review and applications to sport movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Gordon R

    2008-01-01

    Literature examining the recruitment order of motor units during lengthening (eccentric) contractions was reviewed to determine if fast-twitch motor units can be active while lower threshold slow-twitch motor units are not active. Studies utilizing surface electromyogram (EMG) amplitude, single motor unit activity, spike amplitude-frequency analyses, EMG power spectrum, mechanomyographic, and phosphocreatine-to-creatine ratio (PCr/Cr) techniques were reviewed. Only single motor unit and PCr/Cr data were found to be suitable to address the goals of this review. Nine of ten single motor unit studies, examining joint movement velocities up to 225 degrees/s and forces up to 53% of a maximum voluntary contraction, found that the size principle of motor unit recruitment applied during lengthening contractions. Deviation from the size principle was demonstrated by one study examining movements within a small range of low velocities and modest forces, although other studies examining similar low forces and lengthening velocities reported size-ordered recruitment. The PCr/Cr data demonstrated the activation of all fibre types in lengthening maximal contractions. Most evidence indicates that for lengthening contractions of a wide range of efforts and speeds, fast-twitch muscle fibres cannot be selectively recruited without activity of the slow-twitch fibres of the same muscle.

  15. An Active Learning Mammalian Skeletal Muscle Lab Demonstrating Contractile and Kinetic Properties of Fast- and Slow-Twitch Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, S. I.; Arber, M. B.

    2013-01-01

    The fact that humans possess fast and slow-twitch muscle in the ratio of approximately 50% has profound implications for designing exercise training strategies for power and endurance activities. With the growth of exercise and sport science courses, we have seen the need to develop an undergraduate student laboratory that demonstrates the basic…

  16. Cephem Potentiation by Inactivation of Nonessential Genes Involved in Cell Wall Biogenesis of beta-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Kristin R.; Sigurdardottir, Helga Høeg; Jana, Bimal

    2017-01-01

    Reversal of antimicrobial resistance is an appealing and largely unexplored strategy in drug discovery. The objective of this study was to identify potential targets for “helper” drugs reversing cephem resistance in Escherichia coli strains producing β-lactamases. A CMY-2-encoding plasmid...... was transferred by conjugation to seven isogenic deletion mutants exhibiting cephem hypersusceptibility. The effect of each mutation was evaluated by comparing the MICs in the wild type and the mutant harboring the same plasmid. Mutation of two genes encoding proteins involved in cell wall biosynthesis, dap...... for all three drugs. Individual deletion of dapF and mrcB in a clinical isolate of CTX-M-15-producing E. coli sequence type 131 (ST131) resulted in partial reversal of ceftazidime and cefepime resistance but did not reduce MICs below susceptibility breakpoints. Growth curve analysis indicated no fitness...

  17. Effects of resistance training on fast- and slow-twitch muscles in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Umnova

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of resistance training (RT on muscle strength, the dependence of that on the fast-twitch (FT and slow-twitch (ST fibers hypertrophy, nuclear domain size, synthesis and degradation rate of contractile proteins and on the expression of myosin isoforms’. 16 weeks old Wistar rats were trained on a vertical treadmill for six days a week during six weeks. The power of exercise increased 4.9% per session. In RT group the mass of studied muscles increased about 10%, hindlimb grip strength increased from 5.20±0.27 N/100g bw to the 6.05±0.29 N/100g bw (p<0.05. Cross-sectional area and number of myonuclei of FT and ST fibers in plantaris (Pla and soleus (Sol muscles increased, myonuclear domain size did not change significantly. RT increased the MyHC IId isoforms relative content and decreased that of IIb and IIa isoforms in Pla muscle, in Sol muscle increased only IIa isoform. In Pla muscle the relative content of myosin light chain (MyLC 1slow and 2slow isoforms decreased and that of MyLC 2fast isoforms increased during RT. MyLC 3 and MyLC 2 ratio did not change significantly in Pla but increased in Sol muscle by 14.3±3.4�0(p<0.01. The rat RT programme caused hypertrophy of FT and ST muscle fibers, increase of myonuclear number via fusion of satellite cells with damaged fibers or formation of new muscle fibers as a result of myoblast fusion and myotubes formation, maintaining myonuclear domain size.

  18. Cycle Training Increased GLUT4 and Activation of mTOR in Fast Twitch Muscle Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Charles A.; Howell, Mary E.A.; Baker, Jonathan D.; Dykes, Rhesa J.; Duffourc, Michelle M.; Ramsey, Michael W.; Stone, Michael H.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To determine if cycle training of sedentary subjects would increase the expression of the principle muscle glucose transporters, six volunteers completed six weeks of progressively increasing intensity stationary cycle cycling. Methods In vastus lateralis muscle biopsies, changes in expression of GLUT1, GLUT4, GLUT5, and GLUT12 were compared using quantitative immunoblots with specific protein standards. Regulatory pathway components were evaluated by immunoblots of muscle homogenates and immunohistochemistry of microscopic sections. Results GLUT1 was unchanged, GLUT4 increased 66%, GLUT12 increased 104%, and GLUT5 decreased 72%. A mitochondrial marker (cytochrome c) and regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis (PGC-1α and phospho-AMPK) were unchanged, but the muscle hypertrophy pathway component, phospho-mTOR increased 83% after the exercise program. In baseline biopsies, GLUT4 by immunohistochemical techniques was 37% greater in Type I (slow twitch, red) muscle fibers, but the exercise training increased GLUT4 expression in Type II (fast twitch, white) fibers by 50%, achieving parity with the Type I fibers. Baseline phospho-mTOR expression was 50% higher in Type II fibers and increased more in Type II fibers (62%) with training, but also increased in Type I fibers (34%). Conclusion Progressive intensity stationary cycle training of previously sedentary subjects increased muscle insulin-responsive glucose transporters (GLUT4 and GLUT12) and decreased the fructose transporter (GLUT5). The increase in GLUT4 occurred primarily in Type II muscle fibers and this coincided with activation of the mTOR muscle hypertrophy pathway. There was little impact on Type I fiber GLUT4 expression and no evidence of change in mitochondrial biogenesis. PMID:20010125

  19. Time-resolved x-ray diffraction from frog skeletal muscle during an isotonic twitch under a small load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugi, Haruo; Amemiya, Yoshiyuki; Hashizume, Hiroo.

    1978-01-01

    A time-resolved x-ray diffraction technique was used to study the time course of change in the intensity ratio Isub(1,0)/Isub(1,1) during isotonic twitch (initial sarcomere, 2.4 μm) under a small load and to determine the kinetic properties of the crossbridges responsible for muscle contraction. Isotonic twitches in four other preparations with an initial sarcomere of 2.4 μm and in two with an initial sarcomere of 2.3 μm and 2.2 μm, respectively, were examined. In each case, the intensity ratio started to decrease at stimulation, reached a minimum value of 0.8 - 1.0 within the first 20 - 30% of the shortening phase, and maintained this value until the beginning of the relaxation phase. Gradual recovery of the intensity ratio to the resting value was seen during the relaxation phase. During the recovery phase, the intensity ratio appeared to exhibit oscillatory changes. Though the extent of shortening was reduced by about 30% at the end of each experiment, the duration of the shortening phase remained almost unchanged in all the preparations examined. The time course of change in the intensity ratio was also examined during an isometric twitch in four preparations (sarcomere, 2.4 μm) with the tibial end connected to a strain gauge. The extent of internal shortening of muscle fibres against the tendons and the recording system during an isometric twitch or a tetanus at low temperatures was estimated. The intensity ratio decreased to a minimum value of 0.5 - 0.6 during the rising phase of isometric tension and started to return to the resting value after the beginning of relaxation. In both isotonic and isometric twitches, a decrease in the intensity ratio resulted from both a decrease in the 1,0 intensity and an increase in the 1,1 intensity. (J.P.N.)

  20. Observation of the molecular organization of calcium release sites in fast- and slow-twitch skeletal muscle with nanoscale imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinghe, Isuru D; Munro, Michelle; Baddeley, David; Launikonis, Bradley S; Soeller, Christian

    2014-10-06

    Localization microscopy is a fairly recently introduced super-resolution fluorescence imaging modality capable of achieving nanometre-scale resolution. We have applied the dSTORM variation of this method to image intracellular molecular assemblies in skeletal muscle fibres which are large cells that critically rely on nanoscale signalling domains, the triads. Immunofluorescence staining in fixed adult rat skeletal muscle sections revealed clear differences between fast- and slow-twitch fibres in the molecular organization of ryanodine receptors (RyRs; the primary calcium release channels) within triads. With the improved resolution offered by dSTORM, abutting arrays of RyRs in transverse view of fast fibres were observed in contrast to the fragmented distribution on slow-twitch muscle that were approximately 1.8 times shorter and consisted of approximately 1.6 times fewer receptors. To the best of our knowledge, for the first time, we have quantified the nanometre-scale spatial association between triadic proteins using multi-colour super-resolution, an analysis difficult to conduct with electron microscopy. Our findings confirm that junctophilin-1 (JPH1), which tethers the sarcoplasmic reticulum ((SR) intracellular calcium store) to the tubular (t-) system at triads, was present throughout the RyR array, whereas JPH2 was contained within much smaller nanodomains. Similar imaging of the primary SR calcium buffer, calsequestrin (CSQ), detected less overlap of the triad with CSQ in slow-twitch muscle supporting greater spatial heterogeneity in the luminal Ca2+ buffering when compared with fast twitch muscle. Taken together, these nanoscale differences can explain the fundamentally different physiologies of fast- and slow-twitch muscle. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  1. Train-of-four recovery precedes twitch recovery during reversal with sugammadex in pediatric patients: A retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira Carlos, Ricardo; Luis Abramides Torres, Marcelo; de Boer, Hans Donald

    2018-04-01

    After reversal of a rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade with sugammadex, the recovery of train-of-four ratio to 0.9 is faster than recovery of first twitch of the train-of-four to 90% in adults. These findings after reversal of neuromuscular blockade with sugammadex have not yet been investigated in pediatric patients. The aim of this retrospective analysis was to investigate the relationship of the recovery of first twitch of the train-of-four height and train-of-four ratio after reversal of rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade with sugammadex in pediatric patients. Patients ASA I-III, aged 2-11 years, and who underwent abdominal and/or perineal surgery were included in the analysis. After extracting the necessary data from the hospital database, the patients were divided into 2 groups based on the dose of sugammadex received: group A: 2 mg.kg -1 for reversal of moderate neuromuscular blockade and group B: 4 mg.kg -1 for reversal of deep neuromuscular blockade. The relationship of the recovery of first twitch of the train-of-four height and train-of-four ratio in these 2 groups were analyzed. Data from 43 pediatric patients aged 2-11 years could be analyzed. The first twitch of the train-of-four height at the recovery of train-of-four ratio to 0.9 in group B was statistically significantly lower compared with group A. This height 3 and 5 minutes after the train-of-four ratio reached 0.9 showed no statistically significant differences between groups. The results were in line with the results found in adults and showed that the train-of-four ratio recovered to 0.9 was faster than first twitch of the train-of-four height recovered to the same level. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Organic Pollutants in Shale Gas Flowback and Produced Waters: Identification, Potential Ecological Impact, and Implications for Treatment Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Organic contaminants in shale gas flowback and produced water (FPW) are traditionally expressed as total organic carbon (TOC) or chemical oxygen demand (COD), though these parameters do not provide information on the toxicity and environmental fate of individual components. This review addresses identification of individual organic contaminants in FPW, and stresses the gaps in the knowledge on FPW composition that exist so far. Furthermore, the risk quotient approach was applied to predict the toxicity of the quantified organic compounds for fresh water organisms in recipient surface waters. This resulted in an identification of a number of FPW related organic compounds that are potentially harmful namely those compounds originating from shale formations (e.g., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phthalates), fracturing fluids (e.g., quaternary ammonium biocides, 2-butoxyethanol) and downhole transformations of organic compounds (e.g., carbon disulfide, halogenated organic compounds). Removal of these compounds by FPW treatment processes is reviewed and potential and efficient abatement strategies are defined. PMID:28376616

  3. The potential of using organic side-streams produced in Ghana for generation of bio-fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laryea, G. N; Abdul-Samii, R.; Tottimeh, G.

    2014-01-01

    Bio-fuel can be generated from organic side-streams of maize, rice, millet, sorghum and groundnut by using fast pyrolysis technology. Data on side-streams of these crops were obtained from the Ministry of Food and Agriculture (MoFA) in 2010 for the study. The study shows that the estimated total crop side-streams generated was 3,475,413 t of which 2,345,903.5 of bio-fuel can be produced, given a potential energy equivalent of 42,226 PJ/y. The result shows a growth rate of 12.9 per cent in energy equivalent potential for synthetic fuel production as compared to the estimated production in 2009. Northern Region had the highest energy potential of 9,676 PJ/y (22.91%) of the total energy equivalent of bio-fuel, whereas, Greater Accra Region had the lowest with 183 PJ/y (0.43%). It is recommended that the available energy potential at the three northern regions of Ghana be utilised effectively when renewable energy policy is improved for a wider applications of side-streams from crops.(au)

  4. Potential of bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria for safety improvements of traditional Thai fermented meat and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swetwiwathana, Adisorn; Visessanguan, Wonnop

    2015-11-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are very important in converting of agricultural products into safe, delicious and shelf stable foods for human consumption. The preservative activity of LAB in foods is mainly attributed to the production of anti-microbial metabolites such as organic acids and bacteriocins which enables them to grow and control the growth of pathogens and spoilage microorganisms. Besides ensuring safety, bacteriocin-producing LAB with their probiotic potentials could also be emerging as a means to develop functional meat products with desirable health benefits. Nevertheless, to be qualified as a candidate probiotic culture, other prerequisite probiotic properties of bacteriocin-producing LAB have to be assessed according to regulatory guidelines for probiotics. Nham is an indigenous fermented sausage of Thailand that has gained popularity and acceptance among Thais. Since Nham is made from raw meat and is usually consumed without cooking, risks due to undesirable microorganisms such as Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes, are frequently observed. With an ultimate goal to produce safer and healthier product, our research attempts on the development of a variety of new Nham products are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Potential of hot water extraction of birch wood to produce high-purity dissolving pulp after alkaline pulping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrega, Marc; Tolonen, Lasse K; Bardot, Fanny; Testova, Lidia; Sixta, Herbert

    2013-05-01

    The potential of hot water extraction of birch wood to produce highly purified dissolving pulp in a subsequent soda-anthraquinone pulping process was evaluated. After intermediate extraction intensities, pulps with low xylan content (3-5%) and high cellulose yield were successfully produced. Increasing extraction intensity further decreased the xylan content in pulp. However, below a xylan content of 3%, the cellulose yield dramatically decreased. This is believed to be due to cleavage of glycosidic bonds in cellulose during severe hot water extractions, followed by peeling reactions during alkaline pulping. Addition of sodium borohydride as well as increased anthraquinone concentration in the pulping liquor increased the cellulose yield, but had no clear effects on pulp purity and viscosity. The low intrinsic viscosity of pulps produced after severe extraction intensities and soda-anthraquinone pulping corresponded to the viscosity at the leveling-off degree of polymerization, suggesting that nearly all amorphous cellulose had been degraded. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Butyricicoccus pullicaecorum, a butyrate producer with probiotic potential, is intrinsically tolerant to stomach and small intestine conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geirnaert, Annelies; Steyaert, Alix; Eeckhaut, Venessa; Debruyne, Bo; Arends, Jan B A; Van Immerseel, Filip; Boon, Nico; Van de Wiele, Tom

    2014-12-01

    Butyrate has several beneficial properties that are essential to maintain gastrointestinal health. Therefore butyrate-producing bacteria are seen as the next generation of probiotics. The butyrate-producing bacterium Butyricicoccus pullicaecorum (a clostridial cluster IV strain) is such a promising probiotic candidate for people suffering from inflammatory bowel disease. To exert its beneficial properties, it is crucial that B. pullicaecorum survives the harsh conditions of the upper gastrointestinal tract to arrive in the colon in a viable and metabolically active state. Before developing a stable formulation of B. pullicaecorum for oral administration, it is important to know its intrinsic acid and bile tolerance. We monitored the survival during and short chain fatty acid production after incubation in conditions simulating the stomach and small intestine using in vitro batch experiments. In case of acid conditions (pH 2 and pH 3), B. pullicaecorum was viable and active but not cultivable. Cultivability was restored during subsequent small intestine conditions. Importantly, bile and pancreatic juice had no lethal effect. Milk, as a suspension medium, only had a protective effect on the cultivability during the first hour at pH 2. B. pullicaecorum was still metabolically active after upper gastrointestinal conditions and produced short chain fatty acids, but a shift from butyrate to acetate production was observed. Although the butyrate-producing anaerobe B. pullicaecorum showed good intrinsic acid and bile tolerance in terms of viability and metabolic activity, colonization efficiency and butyrate production under colon conditions is needed to further evaluate its probiotic potential. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Oxidative potential of secondary organic aerosols produced from photooxidation of different hydrocarbons using outdoor chamber under ambient sunlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Huanhuan; Jang, Myoseon; Sabo-Attwood, Tara; Robinson, Sarah E.

    2016-04-01

    The oxidative potential of various secondary organic aerosols (SOA) was measured using dithiothreitol (DTT) assay to understand how organic aerosols react with cellular materials. SOA was produced via the photooxidation of four different hydrocarbons (toluene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene, isoprene and α-pinene) in the presence of NOx using a large outdoor photochemical smog chamber. The DTT consumption rate was normalized by the aerosol mass, which is expressed as DTTmass. Toluene SOA and isoprene SOA yielded higher DTTmass than 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene SOA or α-pinene SOA. In order to discover the correlation between the molecular structure and oxidative potential, the DTT responses of selected model compounds were also measured. Among them, conjugated aldehydes, quinones, and H2O2 showed considerable DTT response. To investigate the correlation between DTT response and cell responses in vitro, the expression of biological markers, i.e. IL-6, IL-8, and HMOX-1 were studied using small airway epithelial cells. Higher cellular expression of IL-8 was observed with toluene SOA exposure compared to 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene SOA exposure, which aligned with the results from DTT assay. Our study also suggests that within the urban atmosphere, the contribution of toluene SOA and isoprene SOA to the oxidative potential of ambient SOA will be more significant than that of α-pinene SOA.

  8. Evaluation of the functional food potential of bamirad (a ginger-spiced) cheese produced in the western highlands of cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dung, M.S.; Anyangwe, F.F.; Anselme, K.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, cheese was modified to enhance its functional characteristics thereby encouraging its consumption. Consequently, a ginger-spiced cheese (Ramirad) was produced and the effects of feed supplementation with cheese on blood lipid profile were evaluated using 36 male Wistar rats in four groups. Total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triacylglycerols were determined. There were significant (P<0.05) changes indicating: weekly increases of triacylglycerols for all treatments, higher total cholesterol for the 0.0 % ginger treatment, and a decline of low-density lipoprotein for 1.0 % ginger treatment. The LDL/HDL ratio was very low, indicating that this cheese is a functional food, a potential exploitable for the well-being of the consumer. (author)

  9. Carbon coated Fe, Co and Ni Nanoparticles produced by high pressure CVD and their potential for medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Gendy, A.A.; Ibrahim, E.M.M.; Khavrus, V.; Krupskaya, Y.; Leonhardt, A.; Klingeler, R.; Buechner, B. [Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research (IFW), Dresden (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Fe rate at C, Co rate at C and Ni rate at C nanocapsules have been produced by high pressure chemical vapour deposition (HPCVD). Scanning electron microscopy images prove that most of the particles are coated with carbon. High resolution transmission electron microscopy imaging confirms that these particles have a broad size distribution and a core/shell structure. In addition, individual nanoparticles are found inside a carbon capsule as well as several particles together in one shell. X-ray diffraction confirms the phases and allows calculating the average particle size from the width of the peaks. Our magnetisation studies confirm that the coated particles are ferromagnetic up to 400 K. AC magnetic heating studies have been performed which imply the potential of carbon coated nanomagnets for applications in hyperthermia therapies.

  10. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens TSBSO 3.8, a biosurfactant-producing strain with biotechnological potential for microbial enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Vanessa Marques; Jurelevicius, Diogo; Marques, Joana Montezano; de Souza, Pamella Macedo; de Araújo, Livia Vieira; Barros, Thalita Gonçalves; de Souza, Rodrigo Octavio Mendonça Alves; Freire, Denise Maria Guimarães; Seldin, Lucy

    2015-12-01

    A screening for biosurfactant-producing bacteria was conducted with 217 strains that were isolated from environmental samples contaminated with crude oil and/or petroleum derivatives. Although 19 promising biosurfactant producers were detected, strain TSBSO 3.8, which was identified by molecular methods as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, drew attention for its production of a high-activity compound that presented an emulsification activity of 63% and considerably decreased surface (28.5 mN/m) and interfacial (11.4 mN/m) tensions in Trypticase Soy Broth culture medium. TSBSO 3.8 growth and biosurfactant production were tested under different physical and chemical conditions to evaluate its biotechnological potential. Biosurfactant production occurred between 0.5% and 7% NaCl, at pH values varying from 6 to 9 and temperatures ranging from 28 to 50 °C. Moreover, biosurfactant properties remained the same after autoclaving at 121 °C for 15 min. The biosurfactant was also successful in a test to simulate microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). Mass spectrometry analysis showed that the surface active compound was a surfactin, known as a powerful biosurfactant that is commonly produced by Bacillus species. The production of a high-efficiency biosurfactant, under some physical and chemical conditions that resemble those experienced in an oil production reservoir, such as high salinities and temperatures, makes TSBSO 3.8 an excellent candidate and creates good expectations for its application in MEOR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Chemical Structure, Property and Potential Applications of Biosurfactants Produced by Bacillus subtilis in Petroleum Recovery and Spill Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin-Feng; Mbadinga, Serge Maurice; Yang, Shi-Zhong; Gu, Ji-Dong; Mu, Bo-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Lipopeptides produced by microorganisms are one of the five major classes of biosurfactants known and they have received much attention from scientific and industrial communities due to their powerful interfacial and biological activities as well as environmentally friendly characteristics. Microbially produced lipopeptides are a series of chemical structural analogues of different families and, among them, 26 families covering about 90 lipopeptide compounds have been reported in the last two decades. This paper reviews the chemical structural characteristics and molecular behaviors of surfactin, one of the representative lipopeptides of the 26 families. In particular, two novel surfactin molecules isolated from cell-free cultures of Bacillus subtilis HSO121 are presented. Surfactins exhibit strong self-assembly ability to form sphere-like micelles and larger aggregates at very low concentrations. The amphipathic and surface properties of surfactins are related to the existence of the minor polar and major hydrophobic domains in the three 3-D conformations. In addition, the application potential of surfactin in bioremediation of oil spills and oil contaminants, and microbial enhanced oil recovery are discussed. PMID:25741767

  12. Biochar produced from biosolids using a single-mode microwave: Characterisation and its potential for phosphorus removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Elsa; Schumann, James; Brodie, Graham; Jacob, Mohan V; Schneider, Philip A

    2017-07-01

    The amount of biosolids increases every year, and social and environmental concerns are also rising due to heavy metals and pathogen contamination. Even though biosolids are considered as a waste material, they could be used as a precursor in several applications, especially in agriculture due to the presence of essential nutrients. Microwave assisted pyrolysis (MWAP) is a promising technology to safely manage biosolids, while producing value-added products, such as biochar, that can be used to improve soil fertility. This study examined the impact of pyrolysis temperature between 300 °C and 800 °C on the chemical and physical properties of biochar obtained from biosolids via MWAP. Preliminary phosphorus adsorption tests were carried out with the biochar produced from biosolids. This research demonstrated that pyrolysis temperature affects biochar specific surface area, ash and volatiles content, but does not impact heavily on the pH, chemical composition and crystalline phases of the resultant biochar. Biochar yield decreases as the pyrolysis temperature increases. Phosphorus adsorption capacity of biochar was approximately around 15 mg/g of biochar. Biochar resulting from MWAP is a potential candidate for land application with an important role in water and nutrient retention, due to the high surface area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Chemical Structure, Property and Potential Applications of Biosurfactants Produced by Bacillus subtilis in Petroleum Recovery and Spill Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Feng Liu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Lipopeptides produced by microorganisms are one of the five major classes of biosurfactants known and they have received much attention from scientific and industrial communities due to their powerful interfacial and biological activities as well as environmentally friendly characteristics. Microbially produced lipopeptides are a series of chemical structural analogues of different families and, among them, 26 families covering about 90 lipopeptide compounds have been reported in the last two decades. This paper reviews the chemical structural characteristics and molecular behaviors of surfactin, one of the representative lipopeptides of the 26 families. In particular, two novel surfactin molecules isolated from cell-free cultures of Bacillus subtilis HSO121 are presented. Surfactins exhibit strong self-assembly ability to form sphere-like micelles and larger aggregates at very low concentrations. The amphipathic and surface properties of surfactins are related to the existence of the minor polar and major hydrophobic domains in the three 3-D conformations. In addition, the application potential of surfactin in bioremediation of oil spills and oil contaminants, and microbial enhanced oil recovery are discussed.

  14. Potentiation of the Cytotoxic Activity of Copper by Polyphosphate on Biofilm-Producing Bacteria: A Bioinspired Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz C. Schröder

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Adhesion and accumulation of organic molecules represent an ecologically and economically massive problem. Adhesion of organic molecules is followed by microorganisms, unicellular organisms and plants together with their secreted soluble and structure-associated byproducts, which damage unprotected surfaces of submerged marine structures, including ship hulls and heat exchangers of power plants. This is termed biofouling. The search for less toxic anti-biofilm strategies has intensified since the ban of efficient and cost-effective anti-fouling paints, enriched with the organotin compound tributyltin, not least because of our finding of the ubiquitous toxic/pro-apoptotic effects displayed by this compound [1]. Our proposed bio-inspired approach for controlling, suppressing and interfluencing the dynamic biofouling complex uses copper as one component in an alternative anti-fouling system. In order to avoid and overcome the potential resistance against copper acquired by microorganisms we are using the biopolymer polyphosphate (polyP as a further component. Prior to being functionally active, polyP has to be hydrolyzed to ortho-phosphate which in turn can bind to copper and export the toxic compound out of the cell. It is shown here that inhibition of the hydrolysis of polyP by the bisphosphonate DMDP strongly increases the toxic effect of copper towards the biofilm-producing Streptococcus mutans in a synergistic manner. This bisphosphonate not only increases the copper-caused inhibition of cell growth but also of biofilm production by the bacteria. The defensin-related ASABF, a marine toxin produced by the sponge Suberites domuncula, caused only an additive inhibitory effect in combination with copper. We conclude that the new strategy, described here, has a superior anti-biofilm potential and can be considered as a novel principle for developing bio-inspired antifouling compounds, or cocktails of different compounds, in the future.

  15. The Potential Feed Value, Mode of Use and Limitations of Locally Produced Spent Brewers' Grains Fed to Dairy Cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owango, M.O.; Sanda, I.A.; Lukuyu, B.A.; Omolo, J.O.; Masibili, M.

    1999-01-01

    A diagnostic survey and participatory rural appraisal were conducted to determine the potential feed value, mode of and constraints to the use of locally produced wet spent brewers' grains fed to dairy cattle. Structured questionnaire instruments, covering, household characteristics, dairy production, feeds and feeding and extension services were used. The survey was conducted by trained enumerators. The tools used in participatory rural appraisal were; semi-structured interview, ranking seasonal calendars labour profile and gender responsibilities.The main feed resources were Napier grass, green and dry maize stover, public land grasses and supplements consisting of Dairy meal, milling and agroindustrial by-products.Wet spent brewers' grain is one of the by-products.The main sources were Kenya Breweries Limited, Kuguru Food Processors and 'Busaa' dregs from the traditional brews. It was fed to dairy cows by (96.8%) of the households interviewed, either at milking in the mornings or evenings. Spent brewers grains was stored after collection from the sources by (87.2%) and (12.8%) of the households for one or more weeks respectively. Households interviewed perceived spent brewers grains to be comparable to available dairy meal and other energy feeds, and all the households feeding spent brewers grains reported that it increased milk yield in lactating cows. The farmers therefore, preferentially fed spent brewers grains to lactating and dry cows, heifers, calves and bulls respectively. However, only (1.7%)of the households interviewed received extension advice on the use of spent brewers' grains. The perception of the farmers/household was that spent brewers' grains is a valuable feed for dairy cattle and increased milk yield production, and maintained good body condition. However,limited information is available on the potential, mode of and constraints to the use of locally produced spent brewers' grains

  16. Neuromuscular blockade of slow twitch muscle fibres elevates muscle oxygen uptake and energy turnover during submaximal exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Peter; Secher, Niels; Relu, Mihai U.

    2008-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that a greater activation of fast-twitch (FT) fibres during dynamic exercise leads to a higher muscle oxygen uptake (VO2 ) and energy turnover as well as a slower muscle on-kinetics. Subjects performed one-legged knee-extensor exercise for 10 min at an intensity of 30 W...... without (CON) and with (CUR) arterial injections of the non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent cisatracurium. In CUR, creatine phosphate (CP) was unaltered in slow twitch (ST) fibres and decreased (P fibres, whereas in CON, CP decreased (P ... at a contraction frequency of 1 Hz, and that the muscle VO2 kinetics is slowed by FT fibre activation....

  17. Release potential of single-wall carbon nanotubes produced by super-growth method during manufacturing and handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogura, Isamu; Sakurai, Hiromu; Mizuno, Kohei; Gamo, Masashi

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the release potential of single-wall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) produced by the super-growth method during their manufacturing and handling processes at a research facility. We generally sampled air at points both outside and inside of protective enclosures such as a glove box and fume hood. Sampling the air outside of the enclosures was intended to evaluate the actual exposure of workers to CNTs, while sampling the air inside the enclosures was performed to quantify the release of CNTs to the air in order to estimate the potential exposure of workers without protection. The results revealed that airborne CNTs were generated when (1) CNTs were separated from the substrates using a spatula and placed in a container in a glove box; (2) an air gun was used to clean the air filters (containing dust that included CNTs) of a vacuum cleaner; (3) a vacuum cleaner was used to collect CNTs (emission with exhaust air from the cleaner); (4) the container of CNTs was opened; and (5) CNTs in the bin of the cleaner were transferred to a container. In these processes, airborne CNTs were only found inside the enclosures, except for a small amount of CNTs released from the glove box when it was opened. Electron microscopic observations of aerosol particles found CNT clusters, which were fragments of CNT forests, with sizes ranging from submicrometers to tens of micrometers.

  18. QSARs for phenols and phenolates: oxidation potential as a predictor of reaction rate constants with photochemically produced oxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, William A; Oueis, Yan; O'Connor, Meghan; Rinaman, Johanna E; Taggart, Miranda G; McCarthy, Rachel E; Foster, Kimberley A; Latch, Douglas E

    2017-03-22

    Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) for prediction of the reaction rate constants of phenols and phenolates with three photochemically produced oxidants, singlet oxygen, carbonate radical, and triplet excited state sensitizers/organic matter, are developed. The predictive variable is the one-electron oxidation potential (E 1 ), which is calculated for each species using density functional theory. The reaction rate constants are obtained from the literature, and for singlet oxygen, are augmented with new experimental data. Calculated E 1 values have a mean unsigned error compared to literature values of 0.04-0.06 V. For singlet oxygen, a single linear QSAR that includes both phenols and phenolates is developed that predicts experimental rate constants, on average, to within a factor of three. Predictions for only 6 out of 87 compounds are off by more than a factor of 10. A more limited data set for carbonate radical reactions with phenols and phenolates also gives a single linear QSAR with prediction of rate constant being accurate to within a factor of three. The data for the reactions of phenols with triplet state sensitizers demonstrate that two sensitizers, 2-acetonaphthone and methylene blue, most closely predict the reactivity trend of triplet excited state organic matter with phenols. Using sensitizers with stronger reduction potentials could lead to overestimation of rate constants and thus underestimation of phenolic pollutant persistence.

  19. Potential nephrotoxic effects produced by steroidal saponins from hydro alcoholic extract of Tribulus terrestris in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Sonia; Srinivasan, B P; Akarte, Atul S

    2013-09-01

    Chronic hyperglycemia leads to the development of microvascular complications like diabetic nephropathy. The present study investigated the potential effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of Tribulus terrestris, a plant of Zygophyllaceae family, on the renal complications in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by administering STZ (90 mg/kg) to the 2-days old neonates. After 6 weeks of induction, diabetic rats were treated with 50 mg/kg hydroalcoholic extract of T. terrestris for 8 weeks. The anti-hyperglycaemic nature was confirmed by reduction in blood glucose and improvement in insulin levels. Diabetic renal injury associated with decrease in total proteins and albumin levels was observed to be improved by T. terrestris extract. Glomerular filtration rate along with inflammatory and growth factors, adiponectin and erythropoietin were also improved by the treatment, though the findings were not significant. However, the beneficial antidiabetic effects of T. terrestris extract in plasma were not observed in kidney histopathology. This was confirmed by the quantitative estimation of unhydrolyzed fraction of saponins (major component: protodioscin) in plasma and kidney samples of normal and diabetic rats. Hence, it can be concluded that 8 weeks treatment with T. terrestris extract produces potential toxic effects in kidney, which are independent of its anti-diabetic action.

  20. Juxtaposition of the changes in intracellular calcium and force during staircase potentiation at 30 and 37°C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenboom, Rene

    2014-01-01

    Ca2+ entry during the action potential stimulates muscle contraction. During repetitive low frequency stimulation, skeletal muscle undergoes staircase potentiation (SP), a progressive increase in the peak twitch force induced by each successive stimulus. Multiple mechanisms, including myosin regulatory light chain phosphorylation, likely contribute to SP, a temperature-dependent process. Here, we used the Ca2+-sensitive fluorescence indicators acetoxymethyl (AM)-furaptra and AM-fura-2 to examine the intracellular Ca2+ transient (ICT) and the baseline Ca2+ level at the onset of each ICT during SP at 30 and 37°C in mouse lumbrical muscle. The stimulation protocol, 8 Hz for 8 s, resulted in a 27 ± 3% increase in twitch force at 37°C and a 7 ± 2% decrease in twitch force at 30°C (P < 0.05). Regardless of temperature, the peak rate of force production (+df/dt) was higher in all twitches relative to the first twitch (P < 0.05). Consistent with the differential effects of stimulation on twitch force at the two temperatures, raw ICT amplitude decreased during repetitive stimulation at 30°C (P < 0.05) but not at 37°C. Cytosolic Ca2+ accumulated during SP such that baseline Ca2+ at the onset of ICTs occurring late in the train was higher (P < 0.05) than that of those occurring early in the train. ICT duration increased progressively at both temperatures. This effect was not entirely proportional to the changes in twitch duration, as twitch duration characteristically decreased before increasing late in the protocol. This is the first study identifying a changing ICT as an important, and temperature-sensitive, modulator of muscle force during repetitive stimulation. Moreover, we extend previous observations by demonstrating that contraction-induced increases in baseline Ca2+ coincide with greater +df/dt but not necessarily with higher twitch force. PMID:25422504

  1. American football and other sports injuries may cause migraine/persistent pain decades later and can be treated successfully with electrical twitch-obtaining intramuscular stimulation (ETOIMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, J; McNally, S; Bruyninckx, F; Neuhauser, D

    2017-04-01

    Autonomous twitch elicitation at myofascial trigger points from spondylotic radiculopathies-induced denervation supersensitivity can provide favourable pain relief using electrical twitch-obtaining intramuscular stimulation (ETOIMS). To provide objective evidence that ETOIMS is safe and efficacious in migraine and persistent pain management due to decades-old injuries to head and spine from paediatric American football. An 83-year-old mildly hypertensive patient with 25-year history of refractory migraine and persistent pain self-selected to regularly receive fee-for-service ETOIMS 2/week over 20 months. He had 180 sessions of ETOIMS. Pain levels, blood pressure (BP) and heart rate/pulse were recorded before and immediately after each treatment alongside highest level of clinically elicitable twitch forces/session, session duration and intervals between treatments. Twitch force grades recorded were from 1 to 5, grade 5 twitch force being strongest. Initially, there was hypersensitivity to electrical stimulation with low stimulus parameters (500 µs pulse-width, 30 mA stimulus intensity, frequency 1.3 Hz). This resolved with gradual stimulus increments as tolerated during successive treatments. By treatment 27, autonomous twitches were noted. Spearman's correlation coefficients showed that pain levels are negatively related to twitch force, number of treatments, treatment session duration and directly related to BP and heart rate/pulse. Treatment numbers and session durations directly influence twitch force. At end of study, headaches and quality of life improved, hypertension resolved and antihypertensive medication had been discontinued. Using statistical process control methodology in an individual patient, we showed long-term safety and effectiveness of ETOIMS in simultaneous diagnosis, treatment, prognosis and prevention of migraine and persistent pain in real time obviating necessity for randomised controlled studies.

  2. Observation of the molecular organization of calcium release sites in fast- and slow-twitch skeletal muscle with nanoscale imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Jayasinghe, Isuru D.; Munro, Michelle; Baddeley, David; Launikonis, Bradley S.; Soeller, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Localization microscopy is a fairly recently introduced super-resolution fluorescence imaging modality capable of achieving nanometre-scale resolution. We have applied the dSTORM variation of this method to image intracellular molecular assemblies in skeletal muscle fibres which are large cells that critically rely on nanoscale signalling domains, the triads. Immunofluorescence staining in fixed adult rat skeletal muscle sections revealed clear differences between fast- and slow-twitch fibres...

  3. Sarcoplasmic reticulum function in slow- and fast-twitch skeletal muscles from mdx mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divet, Alexandra; Huchet-Cadiou, Corinne

    2002-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to establish whether alterations in sarcoplasmic reticulum function are involved in the abnormal Ca(2+) homeostasis of skeletal muscle in mice with muscular dystrophy ( mdx). The properties of the sarcoplasmic reticulum and contractile proteins of fast- and slow-twitch muscles were therefore investigated in chemically skinned fibres isolated from the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus muscles of normal (C57BL/10) and mdx mice at 4 and 11 weeks of development. Sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) uptake, estimated by the Ca(2+) release following exposure to caffeine, was significantly slower in mdx mice, while the maximal Ca(2+) quantity did not differ in either type of skeletal muscle at either stage of development. In 4-week-old mice spontaneous sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) leakage was observed in EDL and soleus fibres and this was more pronounced in mdx mice. In addition, the maximal Ca(2+)-activated tension was smaller in mdx than in normal fibres, while the Ca(2+) sensitivity of the contractile apparatus was not significantly different. These results indicate that mdx hindlimb muscles are affected differently by the disease process and suggest that a reduced ability of the Ca(2+)-ATPase to load Ca(2+) and a leaky sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane may be involved in the altered intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis.

  4. Trophic transfer potential of aluminium oxide nanoparticles using representative primary producer (Chlorella ellipsoides) and a primary consumer (Ceriodaphnia dubia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakrashi, Sunandan; Dalai, Swayamprava; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan; Mukherjee, Amitava, E-mail: amit.mookerjea@gmail.com

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • Trophic transfer of alumina nanoparticles using Chlorella ellipsoides and Ceriodaphnia dubia. • Subtle alterations in the feeding behaviour of the daphnids. • Disruption the energy flow through the food chain. • Transmission electron microscopy validated the disrupted feeding behaviour. - Abstract: The transfer of nanoparticles through the food chain can lead to bioaccumulation and biomagnification resulting in a long term negative impact on the ecosystem functions. The primary objective of this study was evaluation of aluminium oxide nanoparticles transfer from primary producers to primary consumers. A simple set up consisting of a primary producer (Chlorella ellipsoides) and a primary consumer (Ceriodaphnia dubia) was used. Here, C. ellipsoides were exposed to the varying concentrations of the nanoparticles ranging from 20 to 120 μg/mL (196 to 1176 μM) for 48 h and the infested algal cells were used as the feed to C. dubia. The bioaccumulation of the nanoparticles into the daphnids was noted and the biomagnification factors were computed. The exposure was noted to cause subtle alterations in the feeding behaviour of the daphnids. This might have long term consequences in the energy flow through the food chain. The reproductive behaviour of the daphnids remained unaffected upon exposure to nanoparticle infested algal feed. Distinct observations at ultra-structural scale using transmission electron microscopy provided visual evidences for the disrupted feeding behaviour upon exposure to nanoparticle treated algae. Internalization of nanoparticle like inclusion bodies in the intracellular space of algae was also detected. The findings were further substantiated by a detailed analysis of hydrodynamic stability, bioavailability and dissolution of ions from the nanoparticles over the exposure period. Altogether, the study brings out the first of its kind of observation of trophic transfer potential/behaviour of aluminium oxide nanoparticles and

  5. Trophic transfer potential of aluminium oxide nanoparticles using representative primary producer (Chlorella ellipsoides) and a primary consumer (Ceriodaphnia dubia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakrashi, Sunandan; Dalai, Swayamprava; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Trophic transfer of alumina nanoparticles using Chlorella ellipsoides and Ceriodaphnia dubia. • Subtle alterations in the feeding behaviour of the daphnids. • Disruption the energy flow through the food chain. • Transmission electron microscopy validated the disrupted feeding behaviour. - Abstract: The transfer of nanoparticles through the food chain can lead to bioaccumulation and biomagnification resulting in a long term negative impact on the ecosystem functions. The primary objective of this study was evaluation of aluminium oxide nanoparticles transfer from primary producers to primary consumers. A simple set up consisting of a primary producer (Chlorella ellipsoides) and a primary consumer (Ceriodaphnia dubia) was used. Here, C. ellipsoides were exposed to the varying concentrations of the nanoparticles ranging from 20 to 120 μg/mL (196 to 1176 μM) for 48 h and the infested algal cells were used as the feed to C. dubia. The bioaccumulation of the nanoparticles into the daphnids was noted and the biomagnification factors were computed. The exposure was noted to cause subtle alterations in the feeding behaviour of the daphnids. This might have long term consequences in the energy flow through the food chain. The reproductive behaviour of the daphnids remained unaffected upon exposure to nanoparticle infested algal feed. Distinct observations at ultra-structural scale using transmission electron microscopy provided visual evidences for the disrupted feeding behaviour upon exposure to nanoparticle treated algae. Internalization of nanoparticle like inclusion bodies in the intracellular space of algae was also detected. The findings were further substantiated by a detailed analysis of hydrodynamic stability, bioavailability and dissolution of ions from the nanoparticles over the exposure period. Altogether, the study brings out the first of its kind of observation of trophic transfer potential/behaviour of aluminium oxide nanoparticles and

  6. Examination of the potential for diversion or clandestine dual use of a pebble-bed reactor to produce plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ougouag, A.M.; Terry, W.K.; Gougar, H.D.

    2002-01-01

    This paper explores the susceptibility of Pebble-Bed Reactors (PBRs) to be used overtly or covertly for the production of plutonium for nuclear weapons. The basic assumption made for the consideration of overt production is that a country would purchase a PBR with the ostensible motive of producing electric power; then, after the power plant was built, the country would divert the facility entirely to the production of weapons material. It is assumed that the country would then have to manufacture production pebbles from natural uranium. The basic assumption made for covert production is that the country would obtain and use a PBR for power production, but that it would clandestinely feed plutonium production pebbles through the reactor in such small numbers that the perturbation on power plant operation would be very difficult to detect. This paper shows the potential rate of plutonium production under such constraints. It is demonstrated that the PBR is a very poor choice for either form of proliferation-intent use. (author)

  7. High protein- and high lipid-producing microalgae from Outback Australia as potential feedstock for animal feed and biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Thang eDuong

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Microalgal biomass can be used for biodiesel, feed and food production. Collection and identification of local microalgal strains in the Northern Territory – Australia was conducted to identify strains with high protein and lipid contents as potential feedstock for animal feed and biodiesel production, respectively. A total of 36 strains were isolated from 13 samples collected from a variety of freshwater locations, such as dams, ponds and streams and subsequently classified by 18S rDNA sequencing. All of the strains were green microalgae and predominantly belong to Chlorella sp., Scenedesmus sp., Desmodesmus sp., Chlamydomonas sp., Pseudomuriella sp., Tetraedron caudatum, Graesiella emersonii and Mychonastes timauensis. Among the fastest growing strains, Scenedesmus sp. NT1d possessed the highest content of protein; reaching up to 33% of its dry weight. In terms of lipid production, Chlorella sp. NT8a and Scenedesmus dimorphus NT8e produced the highest triglyceride contents of 116.9 µg mL-1 culture and 99.13 µg mL-1, respectively, as measured by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs. These strains may present suitable candidates for biodiesel production after further optimization of culturing conditions, while their protein-rich biomass could be used for animal feed.

  8. Outcome producing potential influences twelve-month-olds' interpretation of a novel action as goal-directed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biro, Szilvia; Verschoor, Stephan; Coalter, Esther; Leslie, Alan M

    2014-11-01

    Learning about a novel, goal-directed action is a complex process. It requires identifying the outcome of the action and linking the action to its outcome for later use in new situations to predict the action or to anticipate its outcome. We investigated the hypothesis that linking a novel action to a salient change in the environment is critical for infants to assign a goal to the novel action. We report a study in which we show that 12-month-old infants, who were provided with prior experience with a novel action accompanied with a salient visible outcome in one context, can interpret the same action as goal-directed even in the absence of the outcome in another context. Our control condition shows that prior experience with the action, but without the salient effect, does not lead to goal-directed interpretation of the novel action. We also found that, for the case of 9-month-olds infants, prior experience with the outcome producing potential of the novel action does not facilitate a goal-directed interpretation of the action. However, this failure was possibly due to difficulties with generalizing the learnt association to another context rather than with linking the action to its outcome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Identification of Potential Plants Producing Tannin-protein Complex for a-amylase as Botanical Pesticide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asriyah Firdausi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Research  on  the  development  of  botanical  pesticides  should  be developed  through  new  methods,  such  as  by  inhibiting the  activity  of  digestive enzymes  by  secondary  metabolites.  The  aim  of  this  study  was  to  identify some  of  potential  plants  as  a  source  of  tannin-protein  complexes  to  inhibitthe  activity  of  - amylase.  The  study  of  identification  of  potential  plants producing  the  active  ingredient  tannin-protein  complex  was  divided  into  three stages,  1  identification  of  potential  plants  producing  tannin,  2  isolation  of tannin-protein  complexes,  and  3  in  vitro  test  of  tannin-protein  complexes effect  of  the  -amylase activity.  Some  of  the observed  plants  were  sidaguri  leaf (Sida rhombifolia, melinjo leaf (Gnetum gnemon, gamal leaf (Gliricidia sepium,lamtoro  leaf  (Leucaena  leucocephala ,  betel  nut  (Areca  catechu ,  and  crude gambier  (Uncaria  gambir a s  a  source of  tannins  and  melinjo  seed was  used  asprotein  source.  Betel  nut  and  melinjo  seed  were  the  best  source  of  tannin-protein  complex,  tannin  content  1.77  mg  TAE/mL  with  antioxidant  activity  of  90%,the  ability  to  inhibit  the  activity  of  -amylase by  95%  with  IC 50  values  of 10 mg/mL.Key words: Tannin, protein, -amylase, botanical pesticides,Areca catechu, Gnetum gnemon.

  10. Dysregulated corticostriatal activity in open-field behavior and the head-twitch response induced by the hallucinogen 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel-Barajas, Claudia; Estrada-Sánchez, Ana María; Barton, Scott J; Luedtke, Robert R; Rebec, George V

    2017-02-01

    The substituted amphetamine, 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI), is a hallucinogen that has been used to model a variety of psychiatric conditions. Here, we studied the effect of DOI on neural activity recorded simultaneously in the primary motor cortex (M1) and dorsal striatum of freely behaving FvB/N mice. DOI significantly decreased the firing rate of individually isolated neurons in M1 and dorsal striatum relative to pre-drug baseline. It also induced a bursting pattern of activity by increasing both the number of spikes within a burst and burst duration. In addition, DOI increased coincident firing between simultaneously recorded neuron pairs within the striatum and between M1 and dorsal striatum. Local field potential (LFP) activity also increased in coherence between M1 and dorsal striatum after DOI in the low frequency gamma band (30-50 Hz), while corticostriatal coherence in delta, theta, alpha, and beta activity decreased. We also assessed corticostriatal LFP activity in relation to the DOI-induced head-twitch response (HTR), a readily identifiable behavior used to assess potential treatments for the conditions it models. The HTR was associated with increased delta and decreased theta power in both M1 and dorsal striatum. Together, our results suggest that DOI dysregulates corticostriatal communication and that the HTR is associated with this dysregulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Isolation and Identification of Bacteria That Has Potential as Producer of Protease Enzyme in the Tannery Industry, PT. Adi Satria Abadi (ASA), YOGYAKARTA

    OpenAIRE

    Said, M. I; Likadja, J. C

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria are one of the microorganisms that have the potential as a producer of protease enzyme. Tannery industrial waste is one of the media predicted to contain a number of proteolytic bacteria because of the waste generated is composed largely of protein and fat which are good as growing medium for bacteria. This study aimed to isolate and identify bacteria that have the potential as a producer of protease enzyme. Research conducted at the waste water processing installation (WWPI), tanner...

  12. Attenuated fatigue in slow twitch skeletal muscle during isotonic exercise in rats with chronic heart failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Munkvik

    Full Text Available During isometric contractions, slow twitch soleus muscles (SOL from rats with chronic heart failure (chf are more fatigable than those of sham animals. However, a muscle normally shortens during activity and fatigue development is highly task dependent. Therefore, we examined the development of skeletal muscle fatigue during shortening (isotonic contractions in chf and sham-operated rats. Six weeks following coronary artery ligation, infarcted animals were classified as failing (chf if left ventricle end diastolic pressure was >15 mmHg. During isoflurane anaesthesia, SOL with intact blood supply was stimulated (1s on 1s off at 30 Hz for 15 min and allowed to shorten isotonically against a constant afterload. Muscle temperature was maintained at 37°C. In resting muscle, maximum isometric force (F(max and the concentrations of ATP and CrP were not different in the two groups. During stimulation, F(max and the concentrations declined in parallel sham and chf. Fatigue, which was evident as reduced shortening during stimulation, was also not different in the two groups. The isometric force decline was fitted to a bi-exponential decay equation. Both time constants increased transiently and returned to initial values after approximately 200 s of the fatigue protocol. This resulted in a transient rise in baseline tension between stimulations, although this effect which was less prominent in chf than sham. Myosin light chain 2s phosphorylation declined in both groups after 100 s of isotonic contractions, and remained at this level throughout 15 min of stimulation. In spite of higher energy demand during isotonic than isometric contractions, both shortening capacity and rate of isometric force decline were as well or better preserved in fatigued SOL from chf rats than in sham. This observation is in striking contrast to previous reports which have employed isometric contractions to induce fatigue.

  13. Denervation in murine fast-twitch muscle: short-term physiological changes and temporal expression profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffaello, Anna; Laveder, Paolo; Romualdi, Chiara; Bean, Camilla; Toniolo, Luana; Germinario, Elena; Megighian, Aram; Danieli-Betto, Daniela; Reggiani, Carlo; Lanfranchi, Gerolamo

    2006-03-13

    Denervation deeply affects muscle structure and function, the alterations being different in slow and fast muscles. Because the effects of denervation on fast muscles are still controversial, and high-throughput studies on gene expression in denervated muscles are lacking, we studied gene expression during atrophy progression following denervation in mouse tibialis anterior (TA). The sciatic nerve was cut close to trochanter in adult CD1 mice. One, three, seven, and fourteen days after denervation, animals were killed and TA muscles were dissected out and utilized for physiological experiments and gene expression studies. Target cDNAs from TA muscles were hybridized on a dedicated cDNA microarray of muscle genes. Seventy-one genes were found differentially expressed. Microarray results were validated, and the expression of relevant genes not probed on our array was monitored by real-time quantitative PCR (RQ-PCR). Nuclear- and mitochondrial-encoded genes implicated in energy metabolism were consistently downregulated. Among genes implicated in muscle contraction (myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic reticulum), genes typical of fast fibers were downregulated, whereas those typical of slow fibers were upregulated. Electrophoresis and Western blot showed less pronounced changes in myofibrillar protein expression, partially confirming changes in gene expression. Isometric tension of skinned fibers was little affected by denervation, whereas calcium sensitivity decreased. Functional studies in mouse extensor digitorum longus muscle showed prolongation in twitch time parameters and shift to the left in force-frequency curves after denervation. We conclude that, if studied at the mRNA level, fast muscles appear not less responsive than slow muscles to the interruption of neural stimulation.

  14. Cytokine-free directed differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells efficiently produces hemogenic endothelium with lymphoid potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galat, Yekaterina; Dambaeva, Svetlana; Elcheva, Irina; Khanolkar, Aaruni; Beaman, Kenneth; Iannaccone, Philip M; Galat, Vasiliy

    2017-03-17

    The robust generation of human hematopoietic progenitor cells from induced or embryonic pluripotent stem cells would be beneficial for multiple areas of research, including mechanistic studies of hematopoiesis, the development of cellular therapies for autoimmune diseases, induced transplant tolerance, anticancer immunotherapies, disease modeling, and drug/toxicity screening. Over the past years, significant progress has been made in identifying effective protocols for hematopoietic differentiation from pluripotent stem cells and understanding stages of mesodermal, endothelial, and hematopoietic specification. Thus, it has been shown that variations in cytokine and inhibitory molecule treatments in the first few days of hematopoietic differentiation define primitive versus definitive potential of produced hematopoietic progenitor cells. The majority of current feeder-free, defined systems for hematopoietic induction from pluripotent stem cells include prolonged incubations with various cytokines that make the differentiation process complex and time consuming. We established that the application of Wnt agonist CHIR99021 efficiently promotes differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells in the absence of any hematopoietic cytokines to the stage of hemogenic endothelium capable of definitive hematopoiesis. The hemogenic endothelium differentiation was accomplished in an adherent, serum-free culture system by applying CHIR99021. Hemogenic endothelium progenitor cells were isolated on day 5 of differentiation and evaluated for their endothelial, myeloid, and lymphoid potential. Monolayer induction based on GSK3 inhibition, described here, yielded a large number of CD31 + CD34 + hemogenic endothelium cells. When isolated and propagated in adherent conditions, these progenitors gave rise to mature endothelium. When further cocultured with OP9 mouse stromal cells, these progenitors gave rise to various cells of myeloid lineages as well as natural killer lymphoid, T

  15. Assessment of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolates from wildlife meat as potential pathogens for humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miko, Angelika; Pries, Karin; Haby, Sabine; Steege, Katja; Albrecht, Nadine; Krause, Gladys; Beutin, Lothar

    2009-10-01

    A total of 140 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains from wildlife meat (deer, wild boar, and hare) isolated in Germany between 1998 and 2006 were characterized with respect to their serotypes and virulence markers associated with human pathogenicity. The strains grouped into 38 serotypes, but eight O groups (21, 146, 128, 113, 22, 88, 6, and 91) and four H types (21, 28, 2, and 8) accounted for 71.4% and 75.7% of all STEC strains from game, respectively. Eighteen of the serotypes, including enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) O26:[H11] and O103:H2, were previously found to be associated with human illness. Genes linked to high-level virulence for humans (stx(2), stx(2d), and eae) were present in 46 (32.8%) STEC strains from game. Fifty-four STEC isolates from game belonged to serotypes which are frequently found in human patients (O103:H2, O26:H11, O113:H21, O91:H21, O128:H2, O146:H21, and O146:H28). These 54 STEC isolates were compared with 101 STEC isolates belonging to the same serotypes isolated from farm animals, from their food products, and from human patients. Within a given serotype, most STEC strains were similar with respect to their stx genotypes and other virulence attributes, regardless of origin. The 155 STEC strains were analyzed for genetic similarity by XbaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. O103:H2, O26:H11, O113:H21, O128:H2, and O146:H28 STEC isolates from game were 85 to 100% similar to STEC isolates of the same strains from human patients. By multilocus sequence typing, game EHEC O103:H2 strains were attributed to a clonal lineage associated with hemorrhagic diseases in humans. The results from our study indicate that game animals represent a reservoir for and a potential source of human pathogenic STEC and EHEC strains.

  16. Assessment of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Isolates from Wildlife Meat as Potential Pathogens for Humans▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miko, Angelika; Pries, Karin; Haby, Sabine; Steege, Katja; Albrecht, Nadine; Krause, Gladys; Beutin, Lothar

    2009-01-01

    A total of 140 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains from wildlife meat (deer, wild boar, and hare) isolated in Germany between 1998 and 2006 were characterized with respect to their serotypes and virulence markers associated with human pathogenicity. The strains grouped into 38 serotypes, but eight O groups (21, 146, 128, 113, 22, 88, 6, and 91) and four H types (21, 28, 2, and 8) accounted for 71.4% and 75.7% of all STEC strains from game, respectively. Eighteen of the serotypes, including enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) O26:[H11] and O103:H2, were previously found to be associated with human illness. Genes linked to high-level virulence for humans (stx2, stx2d, and eae) were present in 46 (32.8%) STEC strains from game. Fifty-four STEC isolates from game belonged to serotypes which are frequently found in human patients (O103:H2, O26:H11, O113:H21, O91:H21, O128:H2, O146:H21, and O146:H28). These 54 STEC isolates were compared with 101 STEC isolates belonging to the same serotypes isolated from farm animals, from their food products, and from human patients. Within a given serotype, most STEC strains were similar with respect to their stx genotypes and other virulence attributes, regardless of origin. The 155 STEC strains were analyzed for genetic similarity by XbaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. O103:H2, O26:H11, O113:H21, O128:H2, and O146:H28 STEC isolates from game were 85 to 100% similar to STEC isolates of the same strains from human patients. By multilocus sequence typing, game EHEC O103:H2 strains were attributed to a clonal lineage associated with hemorrhagic diseases in humans. The results from our study indicate that game animals represent a reservoir for and a potential source of human pathogenic STEC and EHEC strains. PMID:19700552

  17. Swimming, swarming, twitching, and chemotactic responses of Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 and Pseudomonas putida mt2 in the presence of cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Saba; Rehman, Abdul; Qazi, Mahmood Hussain

    2014-04-01

    To use of microorganisms for bioremediation purposes, the study of their motility behavior toward metals is essential. In the present study, Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 and Pseudomonas putida mt2 were used as cadmium (Cd)-resistant and -sensitive bacteria, respectively, to evaluate the effects of Cd on their motility behaviors. Potassium morpholinopropane sulfonate (MOPS) buffer was used to observe the motility behavior of both isolates. Movement of mt2 was less in MOPS buffer compared with CH34, likely reflecting the mono-flagellated nature of mt2 and the peritrichous nature of CH34. The swimming, swarming, twitching, and chemotaxis behaviors of mt2 were greater in the presence of glucose than that of Cd. mt2 exhibited negative motility behaviors when exposed to Cd, but the opposite effect was seen in CH34. Cd was found to be a chemorepellent for mt2 but a chemoattractant for CH34, suggesting that CH34 is a potential candidate for metal (Cd) bioremediation.

  18. Characterization of a novel biosurfactant produced by Staphylococcus sp. strain 1E with potential application on hydrocarbon bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddouaouda, Kamel; Mnif, Sami; Badis, Abdelmalek; Younes, Sonia Ben; Cherif, Slim; Ferhat, Samira; Mhiri, Najla; Chamkha, Mohamed; Sayadi, Sami

    2012-08-01

    A biosurfactant-producing bacterium (Staphylococcus sp. strain 1E) was isolated from an Algerian crude oil contaminated soil. Biosurfactant production was tested with different carbon sources using the surface tension measurement and the oil displacement test. Olive oil produced the highest reduction in surface tension (25.9 dynes cm(-1)). Crude oil presented the best substrate for 1E biosurfactant emulsification activity. The biosurfactant produced by strain 1E reduced the growth medium surface tension below 30 dynes cm(-1). This reduction was also obtained in cell-free filtrates. Biosurfactant produced by strain 1E showed stability in a wide range of pH (from 2 to 12), temperature (from 4 to 55 °C) and salinity (from 0 to 300 g l(-1)) variations. The biosurfactant produced by strain 1E belonged to lipopeptide group and also constituted an antibacterial activity againt the pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis. Phenanthrene solubility in water was enhanced by biosurfactant addition. Our results suggest that the 1E biosurfactant has interesting properties for its application in bioremediation of hydrocarbons contaminated sites. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Quorum sensing signals are produced by Aeromonas salmonicida and quorum sensing inhibitors can reduce production of a potential virulence factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Maria; Kastbjerg, Vicky Gaedt; Bruhn, Jesper Bartholin

    2007-01-01

    Many pathogens control production of virulence factors by self-produced signals in a process called quorum sensing (QS). We demonstrate that acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) signals, which enable bacteria to express certain phenotypes in relation to cell density, are produced by a wide spectrum...... of Aeromonas salmonicida strains. All 31 typical strains were AHL producers as were 21 of 26 atypical strains, but on a strain population basis, production of virulence factors such as protease, lipase, A-layer or pigment did not correlate with the production and accumulation of AHLs in the growth medium...... of Aeromonas salmonicida. The most efficient compound N-(heptylsulfanylacetyl)-L-homoserine lactone (HepS-AHL), reduced protease production by a factor of 10. Five extracellular proteases were detected on gelatin-containing sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) gels and 3...

  20. The stimulation of EL-4 cells to produce interleukin-2 and its potential use in immunocytotoxicity testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasek, W.; Steer, S.; Clothier, R.; Balls, M.

    1989-01-01

    The ability of EL-4 thymoma cells to produce interleukin-2 (IL-2) following exposure to phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and Concanavalin A (Con A) has been studied in vitro using medium containing either 10% or 1% fetal calf serum (FCS). The potent stimulatory effect of PMA on IL-2 production by EL-4 cells has been confirmed by measuring 3H-thymidine incorporation by the IL-2-dependent T cell line, CTLL-2, in the presence of conditioned medium (CM) from stimulated cultures. EL-4 cells produced several times more IL-2 when cultured in medium containing 10% FCS than when only 1% FCS was present. Added together, PMA and Con A acted synergistically in some EL-4 cell cultures. The ability of E:-4 cells to produce IL-2 was maintained after further incubation without stimulants. CM with IL-2 activity from stimulated EL-4 cells could prove useful in immunotoxicity testing

  1. Organic pollutants in shale gas flowback and produced waters : identification, potential ecological impact and implications for treatment strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butkovskyi, Andrii; Bruning, Harry; Kools, Stefan A E; Rijnaarts, Huub H M; van Wezel, Annemarie P

    2017-01-01

    Organic contaminants in shale gas flowback and produced water (FPW) are traditionally expressed as total organic carbon (TOC) or chemical oxygen demand (COD), though these parameters do not provide information on the toxicity and environmental fate of individual components. This review addresses

  2. Surface disposal of produced waters in western and southwestern Pennsylvania: potential for accumulation of alkali-earth elements in sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalak, Katherine J.; Engle, Mark A.; Rowan, Elisabeth L.; Jolly, Glenn D.; Conko, Kathryn M.; Benthem, Adam J.; Kraemer, Thomas F.

    2014-01-01

    Waters co-produced with hydrocarbons in the Appalachian Basin are of notably poor quality (concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS) and total radium up to and exceeding 300,000 mg/L and 10,000 pCi/L, respectively). Since 2008, a rapid increase in Marcellus Shale gas production has led to a commensurate rise in associated wastewater while generation of produced water from conventional oil and gas activities has continued. In this study, we assess whether disposal practices from treatment of produced waters from both shale gas and conventional operations in Pennsylvania could result in the accumulation of associated alkali earth elements. The results from our 5 study sites indicate that there was no increase in concentrations of total Ra (Ra-226) and extractable Ba, Ca, Na, or Sr in fluvial sediments downstream of the discharge outfalls (p > 0.05) of publicly owned treatment works (POTWs) and centralized waste treatment facilities (CWTs). However, the use of road spreading of brines from conventional oil and gas wells for deicing resulted in accumulation of Ra-226 (1.2 ×), and extractable Sr (3.0 ×), Ca (5.3 ×), and Na (6.2 ×) in soil and sediment proximal to roads (p < 0.05). Although this study is an important initial assessment of the impacts of these disposal practices, more work is needed to consider the environmental consequences of produced waters management.

  3. Autonomic components of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) are favourably affected by Electrical Twitch-Obtaining Intramuscular Stimulation (ETOIMS): effects on blood pressure and heart rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Jennifer; Bruyninckx, Frans; Neuhauser, Duncan V

    2017-07-01

    Favourable pain relief results on evoking autonomous twitches at myofascial trigger points with Electrical Twitch Obtaining Intramuscular Stimulation (ETOIMS). To document autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) from blood pressure (BP) and pulse/heart rate changes with ETOIMS. A patient with persistent pain regularly received serial ETOIMS sessions of 60, 90, 120 or ≥150 min over 24 months. Outcome measures include BP: systolic, diastolic, pulse pressure and pulse/heart rate, pre-session/immediate-post-session summed differences (SDPPP index), and pain reduction. His results were compared with that of two other patients and one normal control. Each individual represented the following maximal elicitable twitch forces (TWF) graded 1-5: maximum TWF2: control subject; maximum TWF3: CRPS patient with suspected ANS dysfunction; and maximum TWF4 and TWF5: two patients with respective slow-fatigue and fast-fatigue twitches who during ETOIMS had autonomous twitching at local and remote myotomes simultaneously from denervation supersensitivity. ETOIMS results between TWFs were compared using one-way analysis of variance test. The patients showed immediate significant pain reduction, BP and pulse/heart rate changes/reduction(s) except for diastolic BP in the TWF5 patient. TWF2 control subject had diastolic BP reduction with ETOIMS but not with rest. Linear regression showed TWF grade to be the most significant variable in pain reduction, more so than the number of treatments, session duration and treatment interval. TWF grade was the most important variable in significantly reducing outcome measures, especially pulse/heart rate. Unlike others, the TWF3 patient had distinctive reductions in SDPPP index. Measuring BP and pulse/heart rate is clinically practical for alerting ANS dysfunction maintained CRPS. SDPPP index (≥26) and pulse/heart rate (≥8) reductions with almost every ETOIMS treatment, plus inability to evoke

  4. EXERCISE, MANUAL THERAPY AND POSTURAL RE-EDUCATION FOR UNCONTROLLED EAR TWITCHING AND RELATED IMPAIRMENTS AFTER WHIPLASH INJURY: A CASE REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanders, Kelsey; Feldner, Heather

    2017-10-01

    Whiplash Associated Disorders and the interventions used to remediate them are well documented in physical therapy literature. However, specific interventions for spasms of the neck musculature that also involve constant ear twitching have yet to be addressed. The purpose of this case report is twofold. First, to describe comprehensive physical therapy management and outcomes for a subject with uncontrolled ear twitching and related musculoskeletal impairments, and second, to discuss the physical therapist's approach to evidence-based care when faced with a paucity of literature addressing physical therapy interventions for subjects with uncontrolled ear twitching. The subject was a 14-year-old female who sustained a right anterolateral whiplash injury when struck in the head by a volleyball seven months prior to physical therapy. Beginning five months after that injury, she experienced uncontrolled and constant superior/inferior movement of her right ear (hereafter described in this report as a twitch) in addition to facial and cervical pain from her initial injury. She was unable to participate in high school athletics due to her pain. A multimodal treatment approach including exercise, manual therapy, and postural reeducation was utilized during the subject's episode of care. After eight treatment sessions, the subjects's cervical range of motion and upper extremity strength improved. The reported frequency of ear twitching decreased, as did reports of neck and shoulder pain. In addition, her Neck Disability Index improved from a score of 22, indicating moderate disability, to 9, indicating mild disability and she was able to return to sport activity. With limited research to direct intervention, clinical reasoning was utilized to formulate an effective therapeutic intervention. A combination of manual therapy, exercise, and postural reeducation intervention was effective for this subject and could assist in guiding interventions for similarly unique clinical

  5. Type IV Pili are required for virulence, twitching motility, and biofilm formation of acidovorax avenae subsp. Citrulli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahar, Ofir; Goffer, Tal; Burdman, Saul

    2009-08-01

    Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli is the causal agent of bacterial fruit blotch (BFB), a threatening disease of watermelon, melon, and other cucurbits. Despite the economic importance of BFB, relatively little is known about basic aspects of the pathogen's biology and the molecular basis of its interaction with host plants. To identify A. avenae subsp. citrulli genes associated with pathogenicity, we generated a transposon (Tn5) mutant library on the background of strain M6, a group I strain of A. avenae subsp. citrulli, and screened it for reduced virulence by seed-transmission assays with melon. Here, we report the identification of a Tn5 mutant with reduced virulence that is impaired in pilM, which encodes a protein involved in assembly of type IV pili (TFP). Further characterization of this mutant revealed that A. avenae subsp. citrulli requires TFP for twitching motility and wild-type levels of biofilm formation. Significant reductions in virulence and biofilm formation as well as abolishment of twitching were also observed in insertional mutants affected in other TFP genes. We also provide the first evidence that group I strains of A. avenae subsp. citrulli can colonize and move through host xylem vessels.

  6. Neuromuscular blockade of slow twitch muscle fibres elevates muscle oxygen uptake and energy turnover during submaximal exercise in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krustrup, Peter; Secher, Niels H; Relu, Mihai U; Hellsten, Ylva; Söderlund, Karin; Bangsbo, Jens

    2008-12-15

    We tested the hypothesis that a greater activation of fast-twitch (FT) fibres during dynamic exercise leads to a higher muscle oxygen uptake (VO2 ) and energy turnover as well as a slower muscle on-kinetics. Subjects performed one-legged knee-extensor exercise for 10 min at an intensity of 30 W without (CON) and with (CUR) arterial injections of the non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent cisatracurium. In CUR, creatine phosphate (CP) was unaltered in slow twitch (ST) fibres and decreased (P fibres, whereas in CON, CP decreased (P fibres, respectively. From 127 s of exercise, muscle VO2 was higher (P muscle VO2 response was slower (P muscle homogenate CP was lowered (P muscle lactate production was similar in CUR and CON (37.8 +/- 4.1 versus 35.2 +/- 6.2 mmol). Estimated total muscle ATP turnover was 19% higher (P fibres are less efficient than ST fibres in vivo at a contraction frequency of 1 Hz, and that the muscle VO2 kinetics is slowed by FT fibre activation.

  7. Potential aquaculture probiont Lactococcus lactis TW34 produces nisin Z and inhibits the fish pathogen Lactococcus garvieae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequeiros, Cynthia; Garcés, Marisa E; Vallejo, Marisol; Marguet, Emilio R; Olivera, Nelda L

    2015-04-01

    Bacteriocin-producing Lactococcus lactis TW34 was isolated from marine fish. TW34 bacteriocin inhibited the growth of the fish pathogen Lactococcus garvieae at 5 AU/ml (minimum inhibitory concentration), whereas the minimum bactericidal concentration was 10 AU/ml. Addition of TW34 bacteriocin to L. garvieae cultures resulted in a decrease of six orders of magnitude of viable cells counts demonstrating a bactericidal mode of action. The direct detection of the bacteriocin activity by Tricine-SDS-PAGE showed an active peptide with a molecular mass ca. 4.5 kDa. The analysis by MALDI-TOF-MS detected a strong signal at m/z 2,351.2 that corresponded to the nisin leader peptide mass without the initiating methionine, whose sequence STKDFNLDLVSVSKKDSGASPR was confirmed by MS/MS. Sequence analysis of nisin structural gene confirmed that L. lactis TW34 was a nisin Z producer. This nisin Z-producing strain with probiotic properties might be considered as an alternative in the prevention of lactococcosis, a global disease in aquaculture systems.

  8. Methods for calculations of potential and producible associated with marine energies: case studies in the Channel - Atlantic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledoux, Sebastien; Chotard, David; Mazeiraud, Vincent; Garcia, Nicolas; Saillard, Thibault; Mensencal, Yvon; Mouslim, Hakim

    2015-01-01

    Faced with the development of Marine Renewable Energy (MRE) in recent years and demand from regional public authorities to evaluate the energy potential of their coastal domains, it was necessary to design an integrated tool for determining, at the scale of a site and then a region, first the gross resource per energy type and then its technical potential followed by its technico-economic potential. In response to this need, Artelia mobilised its experts in maritime and river hydraulics and in energy with the aim of developing a tool dedicated to calculating MRE production capacities. With this operational objective in mind, ARTELIA undertook R and D actions in order to determine the state of the art in calculation methods and in tools already developed and in use in other European countries spearheading this activity, especially the United Kingdom (Atlas of UK Marine Renewable Energy Resources, ABPmer,) and the United States (in particular the work of the EPRI (Electric Power Research Institute)). The tool was then developed and applied successively in the framework of calculating the MRE potential of the coastal domain of the Poitou-Charentes region (client: Poitou-Charentes regional council), then through study assessments performed on the marine current power potential of Lower Normandy (client: DREAL Basse-Normandie) and on the MRE potential of the Aquitaine coast (client: Aquitaine regional council - GIP Littoral Aquitain). The tool allows for the assessment of the resources, technical and techno-economic potentials It has been applied to the following topics: marine current power (offshore and in estuaries and rivers), wave power (offshore, near-shore and coastal) and wind power (offshore and floating turbines). This article provides a brief summary of the various aspects of the tool implemented, illustrated through a few examples drawn from the studies referred to above. (authors)

  9. Bone ingrowth potential of electron beam and selective laser melting produced trabecular-like implant surfaces with and without a biomimetic coating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemond, J.E.; Hannink, G.; Verdonschot, Nicolaas Jacobus Joseph; Buma, P.

    2013-01-01

    The bone ingrowth potential of trabecular-like implant surfaces produced by either selective laser melting (SLM) or electron beam melting (EBM), with or without a biomimetic calciumphosphate coating, was examined in goats. For histological analysis and histomorphometry of bone ingrowth depth and

  10. Dorsal root potential produced by a TTX-insensitive micro-circuitry in the turtle spinal cord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Russo, R E; Delgado-Lezama, R; Hounsgaard, J

    2000-01-01

    1, The mechanisms underlying the dorsal root potential (DRP) were studied in transverse slices of turtle spinal cord. DRPs were evoked by stimulating one filament in a dorsal root and were recorded from another such filament. 2. The DRP evoked at supramaximal stimulus intensity was reduced....... 5. Our results show that part of the DRP is generated by a TTX-resistant, probably non-spiking micro-circuit with separate components mediated by GABA and glutamate....

  11. High Protein- and High Lipid-Producing Microalgae from Northern Australia as Potential Feedstock for Animal Feed and Biodiesel

    OpenAIRE

    Duong, Van Thang; Ahmed, Faruq; Thomas-Hall, Skye R.; Quigley, Simon; Nowak, Ekaterina; Schenk, Peer M.

    2015-01-01

    Microalgal biomass can be used for biodiesel, feed, and food production. Collection and identification of local microalgal strains in the Northern Territory, Australia was conducted to identify strains with high protein and lipid contents as potential feedstock for animal feed and biodiesel production, respectively. A total of 36 strains were isolated from 13 samples collected from a variety of freshwater locations, such as dams, ponds, and streams and subsequently classified by 18S rDNA sequ...

  12. High protein- and high lipid-producing microalgae from Outback Australia as potential feedstock for animal feed and biodiesel

    OpenAIRE

    Van Thang eDuong; Faruq eAhmed; Skye R Thomas-Hall; Katia eNowak; Peer M Schenk

    2015-01-01

    Microalgal biomass can be used for biodiesel, feed and food production. Collection and identification of local microalgal strains in the Northern Territory – Australia was conducted to identify strains with high protein and lipid contents as potential feedstock for animal feed and biodiesel production, respectively. A total of 36 strains were isolated from 13 samples collected from a variety of freshwater locations, such as dams, ponds and streams and subsequently classified by 18S rDNA seque...

  13. Citridones, new potentiators of antifungal miconazole activity, produced by Penicillium sp. FKI-1938. I. Taxonomy, fermentation, isolation and biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Yuichi; Masuma, Rokuro; Tomoda, Hiroshi; Omura, Satoshi

    2005-05-01

    New phenylfuropyridinones and related compounds, designated citridones A, B, B' and C, were isolated along with known CJ-16,173, from the culture broth of Penicillium sp. FKI-1938 by solvent extraction, silica gel column chromatography and HPLC. Citridones (75 microM) potentiate the miconazole activity against Candida albicans, decreasing the IC50 value of miconazole from 14.5 nM to 3.5 to approximately 6.3 nM.

  14. The fungus-growing termite Macrotermes natalensis harbors bacillaene-producing Bacillus sp. that inhibit potentially antagonistic fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Um, Soohyun; Fraimout, Antoine; Sapountzis, Panagiotis

    2013-01-01

    colonies produce a single major antibiotic, bacillaene A (1), which selectively inhibits known and putatively antagonistic fungi of Termitomyces. Comparative analyses of the genomes of symbiotic Bacillus strains revealed that they are phylogenetically closely related to Bacillus subtilis, their genomes...... have high homology with more than 90% of ORFs being 100% identical, and the sequence identities across the biosynthetic gene cluster for bacillaene are higher between termite-associated strains than to the cluster previously reported in B. subtilis. Our findings suggest that this lineage of antibiotic......The ancient fungus-growing termite (Mactrotermitinae) symbiosis involves the obligate association between a lineage of higher termites and basidiomycete Termitomyces cultivar fungi. Our investigation of the fungus-growing termite Macrotermes natalensis shows that Bacillus strains from M. natalensis...

  15. In situ hybridisation of a large repertoire of muscle-specific transcripts in fish larvae: the new superficial slow-twitch fibres exhibit characteristics of fast-twitch differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvigné, F; Ralliere, C; Cauty, C; Rescan, P Y

    2006-01-01

    Much of the present information on muscle differentiation in fish concerns the early embryonic stages. To learn more about the maturation and the diversification of the fish myotomal fibres in later stages of ontogeny, we investigated, by means of in situ hybridisation, the developmental expression of a large repertoire of muscle-specific genes in trout larvae from hatching to yolk resorption. At hatching, transcripts for fast and slow muscle protein isoforms, namely myosins, tropomyosins, troponins and myosin binding protein C were present in the deep fast and the superficial slow areas of the myotome, respectively. During myotome expansion that follows hatching, the expression of fast isoforms became progressively confined to the borders of the fast muscle mass, whereas, in contrast, slow muscle isoform transcripts were uniformly expressed in all the slow fibres. Transcripts for several enzymes involved in oxidative metabolism such as citrate synthase, cytochrome oxidase component IV and succinate dehydrogenase, were present throughout the whole myotome of hatching embryos but in later stages became concentrated in slow fibre as well as in lateral fast fibres. Surprisingly, the slow fibres that are added externally to the single superficial layer of the embryonic (original) slow muscle fibres expressed not only slow twitch muscle isoforms but also, transiently, a subset of fast twitch muscle isoforms including MyLC1, MyLC3, MyHC and myosin binding protein C. Taken together these observations show that the growth of the myotome of the fish larvae is associated with complex patterns of muscular gene expression and demonstrate the unexpected presence of fast muscle isoform-expressing fibres in the most superficial part of the slow muscle.

  16. Expression of multiple slow myosin heavy chain genes reveals a diversity of zebrafish slow twitch muscle fibres with differing requirements for Hedgehog and Prdm1 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elworthy, Stone; Hargrave, Murray; Knight, Robert; Mebus, Katharina; Ingham, Philip W

    2008-06-01

    The zebrafish embryo develops a series of anatomically distinct slow twitch muscle fibres that characteristically express genes encoding lineage-specific isoforms of sarcomeric proteins such as MyHC and troponin. We show here that different subsets of these slow fibres express distinct members of a tandem array of slow MyHC genes. The first slow twitch muscle fibres to differentiate, which are specified by the activity of the transcription factor Prdm1 (also called Ubo or Blimp1) in response to Hedgehog (Hh) signalling, express the smyhc1 gene. Subsequently, secondary slow twitch fibres differentiate in most cases independently of Hh activity. We find that although some of these later-forming fibres also express smyhc1, others express smyhc2 or smyhc3. We show that the smyhc1-positive fibres express the ubo (prdm1) gene and adopt fast twitch fibre characteristics in the absence of Prdm1 activity, whereas those that do not express smyhc1 can differentiate independently of Prdm1 function. Conversely, some smyhc2-expressing fibres, although independent of Prdm1 function, require Hh activity to form. The adult trunk slow fibres express smyhc2 and smyhc3, but lack smyhc1 expression. The different slow fibres in the craniofacial muscles variously express smyhc1, smyhc2 and smyhc3, and all differentiate independently of Prdm1.

  17. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-sensitive Ca2+ release in rat fast- and slow-twitch skinned muscle fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talon, S; Huchet-Cadiou, C; Léoty, C

    1999-11-01

    Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3), an intracellular messenger, induces Ca2+ release in various types of cells, particularly smooth muscle cells. Its role in skeletal muscle, however, is controversial. The present study shows that the application of InsP3 to rat slow- and fast-twitch saponin-skinned fibres induced contractile responses that were not related to an effect of InsP3 on the properties of the contractile proteins. The amplitude of the contractures was dependent upon the Ca(2+)-loading period, and was larger in slow- than in fast-twitch muscle. In both types of skeletal muscle, these responses, unlike caffeine contractures, were not inhibited by ryanodine (100 microM), but were abolished by heparin (20 micrograms.ml-1). In soleus muscle, the concentration of heparin required to inhibit the response by 50% (IC50) was 5.7 micrograms.ml-1, a similar value to that obtained previously in smooth muscle. Furthermore, the results show that in slow-twitch muscle, the InsP3 contractures have a "bell-shaped" dependency on the intracellular Ca2+ concentration. These results show that InsP3 receptors should be present in skeletal muscle. Thus, it is possible that InsP3 participates in the regulation of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release in skeletal muscle, particularly in slow-twitch fibres.

  18. Characterization of dust particles produced in an all-tungsten wall tokamak and potentially mobilized by airflow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rondeau, A., E-mail: anthony.rondeau@irsn.fr [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), PSN-RES, SCA, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Peillon, S.; Roynette, A.; Sabroux, J.-C.; Gelain, T.; Gensdarmes, F. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), PSN-RES, SCA, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Rohde, V. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Grisolia, C. [CEA, IRFM, 13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Chassefière, E. [Laboratoire Géosciences Paris Sud (GEOPS), UMR 8148, Université Paris Sud, 91403 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2015-08-15

    At the starting of the shutdown of the AUG (ASDEX Upgrade: Axially Symmetric Divertor EXperiment) German tokamak, we collected particles deposited on the divertor surfaces by means of a dedicated device called “Duster Box”. This device allows to collect the particles using a controlled airflow with a defined shear stress. Consequently, the particles collected correspond to a potentially mobilizable fraction, by an airflow, of deposited dust. A total of more than 70,000 tungsten particles was, analysed showing a bimodal particle size distribution with a mode composed of flakes at 0.6 μm and a mode composed of spherical particles at 1.8 μm.

  19. The influence of D2O, perchlorate, and variation in temperature on the potential-dependent contractile function of frog skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foulks, J.G.; Morishita, L.

    1985-01-01

    D 2 O and perchlorate manifest opposing effects on the contractile function of skeletal muscle (amplitude of twitches and maximum K contractures, potential dependence of contraction and inactivation), and when combined the influence of one may effectively antagonize that of the other. The ratio of perchlorate concentrations required to produce effects of equal intensity, (e.g., twitch enhancement and restoration of maximum K contractures in media lacking divalent cations or containing a depressant concentration of a cationic amphipath) in H 2 O and D 2 O solutions was generally rather constant. These findings are compatible with the view that both agents can influence contractile function by virtue of their effects on solvent structure. In the absence of divalent cations, the effects of reduced temperature resemble those of D 2 O whereas the effects of increased temperature resemble those of the chaotropic anion. However, in other media, variation in temperature was found to result in additional nonsolvent effects so that low temperature could oppose rather than enhance the effects of D 2 O. These observations are discussed in terms of a model which postulates a role for solvent influences on the kinetics of two separate potential-dependent conformational transitions of membrane proteins which mediate the activation and inactivation of contraction in skeletal muscle

  20. Fumonisin detection and analysis of potential fumonisin-producing Fusarium spp. in asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) in Zhejiang Province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiansheng; Wang, Xiaoping; Zhou, Ying; Du, Liangcheng; Wang, Qiaomei

    2010-04-15

    Fumonisins are mycotoxins produced by a number of Fusarium species, including several pathogens of asparagus plants. China is one of the largest asparagus producers in the world. In this study, we analysed the contamination of fumonisins and fumonisin-producing fungi in asparagus spear samples from Zhejiang Province, the major asparagus production province in China. The asparagus did not contain a detectable level of fumonisins. However, the recovery of Fusarium in asparagus was 72.7%, including F. proliferatum (40.9%), F. oxysporum (22.7%), F. acuminatum (4.55%) and F. equesti (4.55%). A multiplex PCR targeting the internal transcribed spacer sequence (ITS), translation elongation factor 1-alpha (TEF), and key biosynthetic genes FUM1 and FUM8, was used to simultaneously determine the identity and the biosynthetic ability of the fungal isolates. Fungal isolates containing the FUM genes also produced fumonisins in cultures, ranging from 28 to 4204 microg g(-1). F. proliferatum was the only fumonisin-producing Fusarium species in asparagus. Although no fumonisin contamination was detected in asparagus in the current survey, we found that the majority of samples contained Fusarium spp. Because F. proliferatum is a high fumonisin-producing species, potential health risks for human consumption of asparagus exist, if the appropriate environmental conditions are present for this fungus. (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. A quantitative description of tubular system Ca2+ handling in fast‐ and slow‐twitch muscle fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cully, Tanya R.; Edwards, Joshua N.; Murphy, Robyn M.

    2016-01-01

    Key points Current methods do not allow a quantitative description of Ca2+ movements across the tubular (t‐) system membrane without isolating the membranes from their native skeletal muscle fibre.Here we present a fluorescence‐based method that allows determination of the t‐system [Ca2+] transients and derivation of t‐system Ca2+ fluxes in mechanically skinned skeletal muscle fibres. Differences in t‐system Ca2+‐handling properties between fast‐ and slow‐twitch fibres from rat muscle are resolved for the first time using this new technique.The method can be used to study Ca2+ handling of the t‐system and allows direct comparisons of t‐system Ca2+ transients and Ca2+ fluxes between groups of fibres and fibres from different strains of animals. Abstract The tubular (t‐) system of skeletal muscle is an internalization of the plasma membrane that maintains a large Ca2+ gradient and exchanges Ca2+ between the extracellular and intracellular environments. Little is known of the Ca2+‐handling properties of the t‐system as the small Ca2+ fluxes conducted are difficult to resolve with conventional methods. To advance knowledge in this area we calibrated t‐system‐trapped rhod‐5N inside skinned fibres from rat and [Ca2+]t‐sys, allowing confocal measurements of Ca2+‐dependent changes in rhod‐5N fluorescence during rapid changes in the intracellular ionic environment to be converted to [Ca2+] transients in the t‐system ([Ca2+]t‐sys (t)). Furthermore, t‐system Ca2+‐buffering power was determined so that t‐system Ca2+ fluxes could be derived from [Ca2+]t‐sys (t). With this new approach, we show that rapid depletion of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ induced a robust store‐operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) in fast‐ and slow‐twitch fibres, reducing [Ca2+]t‐sys to fibre types. Abruptly introducing internal solutions with 1 mm Mg2+ and [Ca2+]cyto (28 nm–1.3 μm) to Ca2+‐depleted fibres generated t‐system Ca2+ uptake rates

  2. A quantitative description of tubular system Ca(2+) handling in fast- and slow-twitch muscle fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cully, Tanya R; Edwards, Joshua N; Murphy, Robyn M; Launikonis, Bradley S

    2016-06-01

    Current methods do not allow a quantitative description of Ca(2+) movements across the tubular (t-) system membrane without isolating the membranes from their native skeletal muscle fibre. Here we present a fluorescence-based method that allows determination of the t-system [Ca(2+) ] transients and derivation of t-system Ca(2+) fluxes in mechanically skinned skeletal muscle fibres. Differences in t-system Ca(2+) -handling properties between fast- and slow-twitch fibres from rat muscle are resolved for the first time using this new technique. The method can be used to study Ca(2+) handling of the t-system and allows direct comparisons of t-system Ca(2+) transients and Ca(2+) fluxes between groups of fibres and fibres from different strains of animals. The tubular (t-) system of skeletal muscle is an internalization of the plasma membrane that maintains a large Ca(2+) gradient and exchanges Ca(2+) between the extracellular and intracellular environments. Little is known of the Ca(2+) -handling properties of the t-system as the small Ca(2+) fluxes conducted are difficult to resolve with conventional methods. To advance knowledge in this area we calibrated t-system-trapped rhod-5N inside skinned fibres from rat and [Ca(2+) ]t-sys , allowing confocal measurements of Ca(2+) -dependent changes in rhod-5N fluorescence during rapid changes in the intracellular ionic environment to be converted to [Ca(2+) ] transients in the t-system ([Ca(2+) ]t-sys (t)). Furthermore, t-system Ca(2+) -buffering power was determined so that t-system Ca(2+) fluxes could be derived from [Ca(2+) ]t-sys (t). With this new approach, we show that rapid depletion of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) induced a robust store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) in fast- and slow-twitch fibres, reducing [Ca(2+) ]t-sys to fibre types. Abruptly introducing internal solutions with 1 mm Mg(2+) and [Ca(2+) ]cyto (28 nm-1.3 μm) to Ca(2+) -depleted fibres generated t-system Ca(2+) uptake rates dependent on [Ca(2

  3. Neosartorya glabra polygalacturonase produced from fruit peels as inducers has the potential for application in passion fruit and apple juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Elisa Pinheiro

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary Polygalacturonases are enzymes with the biotechnological potential for use in fruit juice clarification and for the enhancement of filtration efficiency. The aim of this work was to assess the production of polygalacturonase by the fungus Neosartorya glabra by means of solid-state and submerged fermentation using fruit peel residues as the carbon source, and also apply the enzyme in the clarification and decrease in viscosity of passion fruit and apple juices. The highest polygalacturonase (4.52 U/g/h production was obtained by means of submerged fermentation in Vogel´s medium (1964 containing orange peel – Bahia variety (Citrus sinensis, at a concentration of 1.5% (w/v, dried mass at 30-35°C for 72 h. The polygalacturonase of the crude extract presented optimal activity at 60°C and pH 5.5. The enzyme retained around 90% of the initial activity after 180 minutes at 40°C, and 50% of the initial activity after 150 minutes at 50°C. The enzyme was shown to be stable at acid pH values (3.0-6.5 after 120 minutes at 25oC. All these favourable enzymatic properties make the polygalacturonase attractive for potential uses in the industry of pectin-rich fruit juices, since the application of the crude extract to passion fruit (Passiflora edulis juice caused an 80% reduction in viscosity and 75% decrease in light absorbance. In the processing of apple pulp juice (Malus domestica, there was a 50% reduction in viscosity and 78% decrease in light absorbance.

  4. Hydrogen peroxide modulates Ca2+-activation of single permeabilized fibres from fast- and slow-twitch skeletal muscles of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, D R; Lynch, G S; Williams, D A

    2000-01-01

    We examined the effects of redox modulation on single membrane-permeabilized fibre segments from the fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and slow-twitch soleus muscles of adult rats to determine whether the contractile apparatus was the redox target responsible for the increased contractility of muscles exposed to low concentrations of H2O2. The effects of H2O2 on maximum Ca2+-activated force were dose-dependent with 30 min exposure to 5 mM H2O2 causing a progressive decrease by 22+/-3 and 13+/-2% in soleus and EDL permeabilized muscle fibres, respectively. Lower concentrations of exogenous H2O2 (100 microM and 1 mM) had no effect on maximum Ca2+-activated force. Subsequent exposure to the reductant dithiothreitol (DTT, 10 mM, 10 min) fully reversed the H2O2-induced depression of force in EDL, but not in soleus muscle fibres. Incubation with DTT alone for 10 min did not alter Ca2+-activated force in either soleus or EDL muscle fibres. The sensitivity of the contractile filaments to Ca2+ (pCa50) was not altered by exposure to any concentration of exogenous H2O2. However, all concentrations of H2O2 diminished the Hill coefficient in permeabilized fibres from the EDL muscle, indicating that the cooperativity of Ca2+ binding to troponin is altered. H2O2 (5 mM) did not affect rigor force, which indicates that the number of crossbridges participating in contraction was not reduced. In conclusion, H2O2 may reduce the maximum Ca2+ activated force production in skinned muscle fibres by decreasing the force per crossbridge.

  5. First Report of Pseudobodo sp, a New Pathogen for a Potential Energy-Producing Algae: Chlorella vulgaris Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bangzhou; Yang, Luxi; Zhang, Huajun; Zhang, Jingyan; Li, Yi; Zheng, Wei; Tian, Yun; Liu, Jingwen; Zheng, Tianling

    2014-01-01

    Chlorella vulgaris, is a kind of single-celled green algae, which could serve as a potential source of food and energy because of its photosynthetic efficiency. In our study, a pathogenic organism targeting C. vulgaris was discovered. The algae-lytic activity relates to a fraction from lysates of infected C. vulgaris that was blocked upon filtration through a 3 µm filter. 18S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that it shared 99.0% homology with the protist Pseudobodo tremulans. Scanning electron microscope analysis showed that Pseudobodo sp. KD51 cells were approximately 4–5 µm long, biflagellate with an anterior collar around the anterior part of the cell in unstressed feeding cells. Besides the initial host, Pseudobodo sp. KD51 could also kill other algae, indicating its relatively wide predatory spectrum. Heat stability, pH and salinity tolerance experiments were conducted to understand their effects on its predatory activities, and the results showed that Pseudobodo sp. KD51 was heat-sensitive, and pH and salinity tolerant. PMID:24599263

  6. First report of Pseudobodo sp, a new pathogen for a potential energy-producing algae: Chlorella vulgaris cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhangran Chen

    Full Text Available Chlorella vulgaris, is a kind of single-celled green algae, which could serve as a potential source of food and energy because of its photosynthetic efficiency. In our study, a pathogenic organism targeting C. vulgaris was discovered. The algae-lytic activity relates to a fraction from lysates of infected C. vulgaris that was blocked upon filtration through a 3 µm filter. 18S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that it shared 99.0% homology with the protist Pseudobodo tremulans. Scanning electron microscope analysis showed that Pseudobodo sp. KD51 cells were approximately 4-5 µm long, biflagellate with an anterior collar around the anterior part of the cell in unstressed feeding cells. Besides the initial host, Pseudobodo sp. KD51 could also kill other algae, indicating its relatively wide predatory spectrum. Heat stability, pH and salinity tolerance experiments were conducted to understand their effects on its predatory activities, and the results showed that Pseudobodo sp. KD51 was heat-sensitive, and pH and salinity tolerant.

  7. Isolation of a novel alginate lyase-producing Bacillus litoralis strain and its potential to ferment Sargassum horneri for biofertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingpeng; Chen, Lei; Liu, Zhengyi; Zhang, Zhaojie; Qin, Song; Yan, Peisheng

    2016-12-01

    Algae have long been used to augment plant productivity through their beneficial effects. Alginate oligosaccharide is believed to be one of the important components to enhance growth and crop yield. In this study, we isolated and characterized a Bacillus litoralis strain, named Bacillus M3, from decayed kelps. We further demonstrated that the M3 strain could secrete alginate lyase to degrade alginate. The crude enzyme exhibited the highest activity (33.74 U/mg) at pH 7.0 and 50°C. The M3 strain was also able to ferment the brown alga Sargassum horneri. Fermentation results revealed that a fermentation period of 8-12 hr was the best harvest time with the highest level of alginate oligosaccharides. Plant growth assay showed that the seaweed fermentation extract had an obvious promotion effect on root and seedling growth of Lycopersicon eseulentum L. Our results suggest that fermentation extract of Sargassum horneri by the novel strain of Bacillus litoralis M3 has significant development potential for biofertilizer production and agriculture application. © 2016 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Composition, characterization and atherogenic potential of oils, fats and other by products produced or marketed in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro Bolanos, Monserrat; Herrera Ramirez, Carlos H.; Lutz Cruz, Giselle

    2005-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are very common among Costa Rican people. They are related to diets high in lipids that cause arterial damage. The present study was undertaken to determine the quality of fats and oils consumed more frequently in our country. 15 different brands of butter and margarines (A, B, D1 to D11), 7 types of vegetable fat (E1 to E7) and 14 different brands of sunflower oil (EG1 to EG3), corn oil (EM1 to EM3), olive oil (EO1 to EO4), soy oil (ES1 to ES3) and palm oil (EV) were collected and identified. 67 percent of the products were made in Costa Rica, 33% were imported products. Using gas chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques, fatty acid composition, iodine and saponification number, average molecular weight, carbon-carbon double bond number, allyl and double aryl hydrogens were determined in the lipid fraction of the 36 different products. Two types of butter and one type of oil were found adulterated with triacylglycerols of different kind or source. Susceptibility of the products to lipid oxidation was determined only in terms of double bond number and allyl and double alryl hydrogens. Sunflower, corn and olive oils were the most susceptible products. Through polyunsaturated fatty acids / saturated fatty acids relation and atherogenic index the atherogenic potential of the products was evaluated. The findings were that 2 types of butter and 5 types of vegetable fat were the most injurious ones. (author) [es

  9. Polysaccharides and lignin based hydrogels with potential pharmaceutical use as a drug delivery system produced by a reactive extrusion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, Wissam; Venditti, Richard; Mignard, Nathalie; Taha, Mohamed; Becquart, Frederic; Ayoub, Ali

    2017-11-01

    Currently, there is very strong interest to replace synthetic polymers with biological macromolecules of natural source for applications that interact with humans or the environment. This research describes the development of drug delivery hydrogels from natural polymers, starch, lignin and hemicelluloses by means of reactive extrusion. The hydrogels show a strong swelling ability dependent on pH which may be used to control diffusion rates of water and small molecules in and out of the gel. Also the hydrogels degradation rates were studied in a physiological solution (pH 7.4) for 15days. The results indicated that for all three macromolecules, lower molecular weight and higher level of plasticizer both increase the rate of weight loss of the hydrogels. The degradation was extremely reduced when the polymers were extruded in the presence of a catalyst. Finally the dynamic mechanical analysis revealed that the degradation of the hydrogels induce a significant reduction in the compressive modulus. This study demonstrates the characteristics and potential of natural polymers as a drug release system. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Endophytes from medicinal plants and their potential for producing indole acetic acid, improving seed germination and mitigating oxidative stress* #

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdul Latif; Gilani, Syed Abdullah; Waqas, Muhammad; Al-Hosni, Khadija; Al-Khiziri, Salima; Kim, Yoon-Ha; Ali, Liaqat; Kang, Sang-Mo; Asaf, Sajjad; Shahzad, Raheem; Hussain, Javid; Lee, In-Jung; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Medicinal plants have been used by marginal communities to treat various ailments. However, the potential of endophytes within these bio-prospective medicinal plants remains unknown. The present study elucidates the endophytic diversity of medicinal plants (Caralluma acutangula, Rhazya stricta, and Moringa peregrina) and the endophyte role in seed growth and oxidative stress. Various organs of medicinal plants yielded ten endophytes, which were identified as Phoma sp. (6 isolates), Alternaria sp. (2), Bipolaris sp. (1), and Cladosporium sp. (1) based on 18S rDNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The culture filtrates (CFs; 25%, 50%, and 100% concentrations) from these endophytes were tested against the growth of normal and dwarf mutant rice lines. Endophytic CF exhibited dose-dependent growth stimulation and suppression effects. CF (100%) of Phoma sp. significantly increased rice seed germination and growth compared to controls and other endophytes. This growth-promoting effect was due to the presence of indole acetic acid in endophytic CF. The gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis showed the highest indole acetic acid content ((54.31±0.21) µmol/L) in Bipolaris sp. In addition, the isolate of Bipolaris sp. exhibited significantly higher radical scavenging and anti-lipid peroxidation activity than the other isolates. Bipolaris sp. and Phoma sp. also exhibited significantly higher flavonoid and phenolic contents. The medicinal plants exhibited the presence of bio-prospective endophytic strains, which could be used for the improvement of crop growth and the mitigation of oxidative stresses. PMID:28124841

  11. Endophytes from medicinal plants and their potential for producing indole acetic acid, improving seed germination and mitigating oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdul Latif; Gilani, Syed Abdullah; Waqas, Muhammad; Al-Hosni, Khadija; Al-Khiziri, Salima; Kim, Yoon-Ha; Ali, Liaqat; Kang, Sang-Mo; Asaf, Sajjad; Shahzad, Raheem; Hussain, Javid; Lee, In-Jung; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed

    Medicinal plants have been used by marginal communities to treat various ailments. However, the potential of endophytes within these bio-prospective medicinal plants remains unknown. The present study elucidates the endophytic diversity of medicinal plants (Caralluma acutangula, Rhazya stricta, and Moringa peregrina) and the endophyte role in seed growth and oxidative stress. Various organs of medicinal plants yielded ten endophytes, which were identified as Phoma sp. (6 isolates), Alternaria sp. (2), Bipolaris sp. (1), and Cladosporium sp. (1) based on 18S rDNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The culture filtrates (CFs; 25%, 50%, and 100% concentrations) from these endophytes were tested against the growth of normal and dwarf mutant rice lines. Endophytic CF exhibited dose-dependent growth stimulation and suppression effects. CF (100%) of Phoma sp. significantly increased rice seed germination and growth compared to controls and other endophytes. This growth-promoting effect was due to the presence of indole acetic acid in endophytic CF. The gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis showed the highest indole acetic acid content ((54.31±0.21) µmol/L) in Bipolaris sp. In addition, the isolate of Bipolaris sp. exhibited significantly higher radical scavenging and anti-lipid peroxidation activity than the other isolates. Bipolaris sp. and Phoma sp. also exhibited significantly higher flavonoid and phenolic contents. The medicinal plants exhibited the presence of bio-prospective endophytic strains, which could be used for the improvement of crop growth and the mitigation of oxidative stresses.

  12. The Self-Potential Anomaly Produced by a Subsurface Flow at the Contact of Two Horizontal Layers and Its Quantitative Interpretation

    OpenAIRE

    Skianis, Georgios Aim.

    2012-01-01

    In the present paper the problem of a polarized cylinder with a small cross-section, which is located at the contact of two horizontal layers with different resistivities, is studied. Such a polarization geometry simulates the self-potential (SP) field produced by a horizontal flow at the contact between the two layers. First, the expression of the self potential at the space domain is derived, applying the image technique. Then, the expression for the Fourier transform of the SP anomaly is f...

  13. Inducing a long-term potentiation in the dentate gyrus is sufficient to produce rapid antidepressant-like effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanzari, A; Bourcier-Lucas, C; Freyssin, A; Abrous, D N; Haddjeri, N; Lucas, G

    2018-03-01

    Recent hypotheses propose that one prerequisite to obtain a rapid antidepressant (AD) effect would reside in processes of synaptic reinforcement occurring within the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus independently from neurogenesis. However, to date no relationship has been established between an increased DG synaptic plasticity, and rapid AD-like action. To the best of our knowledge, this study shows for the first time that inducing a long-term potentiation (LTP) within the DG by stimulating the perforant pathway (PP) is sufficient to induce such effects. Thus, Sprague-Dawley rats having undergone a successful LTP displayed a significant reduction of immobility when passed acutely 3 days thereafter in the forced swimming test (FST). Further, in a longitudinal paradigm using the pseudo-depressed Wistar-Kyoto rat strain, LTP elicited a decrease of FST immobility after only 2 days, whereas the AD desipramine was not effective before 16 days. In both models, the influence of LTP was transient, as it was no more observed after 8-9 days. No effects were observed on the locomotor activity or on anxiety-related behavior. Theta-burst stimulation of a brain region anatomically adjacent to the PP remained ineffective in the FST. Immunoreactivity of DG cells for phosphorylated histone H3 and doublecortin were not modified three days after LTP, indicating a lack of effect on both cell proliferation and neurogenesis. Finally, depleting brain serotonin contents reduced the success rate of LTP but did not affect its subsequent AD-like effects. These results confirm the 'plastic DG' theory of rapid AD efficacy. Beyond, they point out stimulations of the entorhinal cortex, from which the PP originates, as putative new approaches in AD research.

  14. Characterization and Potential Applications of a Selenium Nanoparticle Producing and Nitrate Reducing Bacterium Bacillus oryziterrae sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Peng; Xiao, Ke-Qing; Wang, Hui-Jiao; Xu, Hao; Xu, Peng-Peng; Jia, Yan; Häggblom, Max M.; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2016-09-01

    A novel nitrate- and selenite reducing bacterium strain ZYKT was isolated from a rice paddy soil in Dehong, Yunnan, China. Strain ZYKT is a facultative anaerobe and grows in up to 150, 000 ppm O2. The comparative genomics analysis of strain ZYKT implies that it shares more orthologues with B. subtilis subsp. subtilis NCIB 3610T (ANIm values, 85.4-86.7%) than with B. azotoformans NBRC 15712T (ANIm values, 84.4-84.7%), although B. azotoformans NBRC 15712T (96.3% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) is the closest Bacillus species according to 16S rRNA gene comparison. The major cellular fatty acids of strain ZYKT were iso-C14:0 (17.8%), iso-C15:0 (17.8%), and C16:0 (32.0%). The polar lipid profile consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and an unidentified aminophospholipid. Based on physiological, biochemical and genotypic properties, the strain was considered to represent a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus oryziterrae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is ZYKT (=DSM 26460T =CGMCC 1.5179T). Strain ZYKT can reduce nitrate to nitrite and ammonium and possesses metabolic genes for nitrate reduction including nar, nap and nrf. Biogenic selenium nanoparticles of strain ZYKT show a narrow size distribution and agree with the gaussian distribution. These selenium nanoparticles show significant dose-dependent inhibition of the lung cancer cell line H157, which suggests potential for application in cancer therapy.

  15. NUTRIMENTAL POTENTIAL OF RED DOLICHOS, BROWN DOLICHOS AND COWPEA FOR GREEN MANURE PRODUCED UNDER THREE TILLAGE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Alfredo Beltran-Morales

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The nutrimental content of N, NO3-N, P, K, Mg, Ca, Mn, Zn, Cu, Fe, and B, was evaluated in three bean cultivars of two species with potential to be used as green manure. Cultivars were the red lab-lab bean (RL (Lablab purpureus, brown lab-lab bean (BL (L. purpureus and cowpea (CW (Vigna unguiculata. Three tillage systems were assayed: conventional tillage (CT, minimum tillage (MT and optimal tillage (OT. Results showed that the nutrimental content of N, NO3, P, K did not evidence statistical differences (P≤0.05 among bean cultivars and tillage systems. However, the greater content of N was in BL-CT with 4.85%. The content of P varied from 0.38 to 0.41% and the concentration of K from 2.40 to 2.84%. Ca showed the highest concentration in RL-OT with 2.88%, while the lowest percentage was evidenced by CW-CT, with 2.12% (P≤0.05. The highest percentage of Mg appeared in CW-OT with 0.89% and the lowest concentration was registered for BL-CT, showing 0.52% (P≤0.05. The highest Fe concentration was observed in RL-OT with 0.15% and the lowest in BL-CT and RL-CT, with 0.10%. The Mn content was significantly greater in CW without concerning the tillage system with 0.39% and the smallest concentration was obtained in RL-MT with 0.17%. The greatest percentage content of nutriment B was observed in BL-OT, RL-CT, CW-MT and CW-OT, from 0.024 to 0.030%. In contrast, the lowest content of B was found in RL-MT with 0.015%. The content of Zn did not showed statistical differences respect to the cropping system; the lowest concentration of Zn was observed in CW-OT with 0.0026% and the highest percentage in BL-OT with 0.0040. Cu was significantly highest in BL-CT, BL-MT, BL-OT, RL-CT, RL-MT, RL-OT and CW-OT, being BL-MT and BL-OT the combinations with the highest concentration (0.0061%, while the lowest concentration was observed in CW-MT and CW-CT, with 0.0048% and 0.0044%, respectively.

  16. Ethyl nitrite is produced in the human stomach from dietary nitrate and ethanol, releasing nitric oxide at physiological pH: potential impact on gastric motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Bárbara S; Gago, Bruno; Barbosa, Rui M; Cavaleiro, Carlos; Laranjinha, João

    2015-05-01

    Nitric oxide ((∙)NO), a ubiquitous molecule involved in a plethora of signaling pathways, is produced from dietary nitrate in the gut through the so-called nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway. In the stomach, nitrite derived from dietary nitrate triggers a network of chemical reactions targeting endogenous and exogenous biomolecules, thereby producing new compounds with physiological activity. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether compounds with physiological relevance are produced in the stomach upon consumption of nitrate- and ethanol-rich foods. Human volunteers consumed a serving of lettuce (source of nitrate) and alcoholic beverages (source of ethanol). After 15 min, samples of the gastric headspace were collected and ethyl nitrite was identified by GC-MS. Wistar rats were used to study the impact of ethyl nitrite on gastric smooth muscle relaxation at physiological pH. Nitrogen oxides, produced from nitrite in the stomach, induce nitrosation of ethanol from alcoholic beverages in the human stomach yielding ethyl nitrite. Ethyl nitrite, a potent vasodilator, is produced in vivo upon the consumption of lettuce with either red wine or whisky. Moreover, at physiological pH, ethyl nitrite induces gastric smooth muscle relaxation through a cGMP-dependent pathway. Overall, these results suggest that ethyl nitrite is produced in the gastric lumen and releases (∙)NO at physiological pH, which ultimately may have an impact on gastric motility. Systemic effects may also be expected if ethyl nitrite diffuses through the gastric mucosa reaching blood vessels, therefore operating as a (∙)NO carrier throughout the body. These data pinpoint posttranslational modifications as an underappreciated mechanism for the production of novel molecules with physiological impact locally in the gut and highlight the notion that diet may fuel compounds with the potential to modulate gastrointestinal welfare. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Molecular and biochemical characterization of Iranian surfactin-producing Bacillus subtilis isolates and evaluation of their biocontrol potential against Aspergillus flavus and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadipour, Matin; Mousivand, Maryam; Salehi Jouzani, Gholamreza; Abbasalizadeh, Saeed

    2009-04-01

    The characterization of surfactin-producing Bacillus subtilis isolates collected from different ecological zones of Iran is presented. Characterization was performed using blood agar, PCR, drop-collapse, and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses, and the isolates' biocontrol effects against the aflatoxin-producing agent Aspergillus flavus and the citrus antracnosis agent Colletotrichum gloeosporioides were studied. In total, 290 B. subtilis isolates were isolated from phylosphere and rhizosphere samples collected from fields and gardens of 5 provinces of Iran. Blood agar assays showed that 185 isolates produced different biosurfactants. Isolates containing the sfp gene, coding for surfactin, were detected using the PCR method. It was found that 14 different isolates contained the sfp gene. Drop-collapse assays, which detect isolates with high production of surfactin, showed that 7 isolates produced high levels of surfactin. It was found from HPLC analysis that the isolates containin the sfp gene produced between 55 and 1610 mg of surfactin per litre of broth medium. Four isolates, named BS119m, BS116l, N3dn, and BS113c, produced more than 1000 mg of surfactin per litre of broth. The highest surfactin production level was observed for isolate BS119m (1610 mg/L). The antagonistic potential of the sfp gene-containing isolates was determined using dual culture and chloroform vapour methods. Our bioassay results indicated that isolate BS119m showed high inhibitory effects against A. flavus (100%) and C. gloeosporioides (88%). Furthermore, the effect of purified surfactin on the growth of A. flavus was evaluated. Mycelia growth was considerably reduced with increasing concentration of surfactin, and 36%, 54%, 84%, and 100% inhibitions of mycelia growth were, respectively, observed at 20, 40, 80, and 160 mg/L after 7 days of incubation.

  18. Bone ingrowth potential of electron beam and selective laser melting produced trabecular-like implant surfaces with and without a biomimetic coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biemond, J E; Hannink, G; Verdonschot, N; Buma, P

    2013-03-01

    The bone ingrowth potential of trabecular-like implant surfaces produced by either selective laser melting (SLM) or electron beam melting (EBM), with or without a biomimetic calciumphosphate coating, was examined in goats. For histological analysis and histomorphometry of bone ingrowth depth and bone implant contact specimens were implanted in the femoral condyle of goats. For mechanical push out tests to analyse mechanical implant fixation specimens were implanted in the iliac crest. The follow up periods were 4 (7 goats) and 15 weeks (7 goats). Both the SLM and EBM produced trabecular-like structures showed a variable bone ingrowth after 4 weeks. After 15 weeks good bone ingrowth was found in both implant types. Irrespective to the follow up period, and the presence of a coating, no histological differences in tissue reaction around SLM and EBM produced specimens was found. Histological no coating was detected at 4 and 15 weeks follow up. At both follow up periods the mechanical push out strength at the bone implant interface was significantly lower for the coated SLM specimens compared to the uncoated SLM specimens. The expected better ingrowth characteristics and mechanical fixation strength induced by the coating were not found. The lower mechanical strength of the coated specimens produced by SLM is a remarkable result, which might be influenced by the gross morphology of the specimens or the coating characteristics, indicating that further research is necessary.

  19. "Positive people always win" : en studie av hur kvinnor som livestreamar på Twitch.tv upplever interaktionen med sina tittare i kanalchatten

    OpenAIRE

    Thoresen, Josef; Elfwendahl, Sofia

    2017-01-01

    I denna studie har vi undersökt kvinnor som livestreamar sitt datorspelande på hemsidan Twitch.tv och deras erfarenheter gällande chattkommentarer på deras livesändningar. Vi har främst fokuserat på negativa chattkommentarer och hur dessa påverkar kvinnorna, då tidigare forskning redan har visat på att kvinnor utsätts för fler trakasserier än män, både generellt på internet och på Twitch.tv (Nakandala, Ciampaglia, Su & Ahn. 2016). Vidare ville vi också se hur kvinnorna hanterar dessa nega...

  20. The Bioactivity and Photocatalytic Properties of Titania Nanotube Coatings Produced with the Use of the Low-Potential Anodization of Ti6Al4V Alloy Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Aleksandra; Kozak, Wiesław; Sadowska, Beata; Więckowska-Szakiel, Marzena; Szubka, Magdalena; Talik, Ewa; Pleth Nielsen, Lars; Piszczek, Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Titania nanotube (TNT) coatings were produced using low-potential anodic oxidation of Ti6Al4V substrates in the potential range 3–20 V. They were analysed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The wettability was estimated by measuring the contact angle when applying water droplets. The bioactivity of the TNT coatings was established on the basis of the biointegration assay (L929 murine fibroblasts adhesion and proliferation) and antibacterial tests against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 29213). The photocatalytic efficiency of the TNT films was studied by the degradation of methylene blue under UV irradiation. Among the studied coatings, the TiO2 nanotubes obtained with the use of 5 V potential (TNT5) were found to be the most appropriate for medical applications. The TNT5 sample possessed antibiofilm properties without enriching it by additional antimicrobial agent. Furthermore, it was characterized by optimal biocompatibility, performing better than pure Ti6Al4V alloy. Moreover, the same sample was the most photocatalytically active and exhibited the potential for the sterilization of implants with the use of UV light and for other environmental applications. PMID:28933732

  1. The Bioactivity and Photocatalytic Properties of Titania Nanotube Coatings Produced with the Use of the Low-Potential Anodization of Ti6Al4V Alloy Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Aleksandra; Topolski, Adrian; Jędrzejewski, Tomasz; Kozak, Wiesław; Sadowska, Beata; Więckowska-Szakiel, Marzena; Szubka, Magdalena; Talik, Ewa; Pleth Nielsen, Lars; Piszczek, Piotr

    2017-07-26

    Titania nanotube (TNT) coatings were produced using low-potential anodic oxidation of Ti6Al4V substrates in the potential range 3-20 V. They were analysed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The wettability was estimated by measuring the contact angle when applying water droplets. The bioactivity of the TNT coatings was established on the basis of the biointegration assay (L929 murine fibroblasts adhesion and proliferation) and antibacterial tests against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 29213). The photocatalytic efficiency of the TNT films was studied by the degradation of methylene blue under UV irradiation. Among the studied coatings, the TiO₂ nanotubes obtained with the use of 5 V potential (TNT5) were found to be the most appropriate for medical applications. The TNT5 sample possessed antibiofilm properties without enriching it by additional antimicrobial agent. Furthermore, it was characterized by optimal biocompatibility, performing better than pure Ti6Al4V alloy. Moreover, the same sample was the most photocatalytically active and exhibited the potential for the sterilization of implants with the use of UV light and for other environmental applications.

  2. Assessing the aromatic potential of Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot musts used to produce rose wine by assaying the cysteinylated precursor of 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murat, M L; Tominaga, T; Dubourdieu, D

    2001-11-01

    The development of a method for assaying S-3-(hexan-1-ol)-L-cysteine, the cysteinylated precursor of 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol (P-3MH), in must has made it possible to study its impact on the aromatic potential of Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon grape varieties used to produce rose wines in Bordeaux. The original feature of this method is the purification of very small volumes of must (500 microL) containing P-3MH by affinity chromatography and gas-phase chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry of the purified precursor in trimethylsilylated derivative form. Assays of the cysteinylated precursor in Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon grapes showed that it was mainly located in the grape skins (60%). Prolonged juice-skin contact increased the must's P-3MH content, and this phenomenon was more marked at higher temperatures. Assessment of the aromatic potential of must used to produce rose wines by chemical analysis of an S-cysteine conjugate is mentioned for the first time.

  3. Comparison of dairy desserts produced with a potentially probiotic mixed culture and dispersions obtained from Gracilaria birdiae and Gracilaria domingensis seaweeds used as thickening agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares Estevam, Adriana Carneiro; de Almeida, Michele Correia; de Oliveira, Tiago Almeida; Florentino, Eliane Rolim; Alonso Buriti, Flávia Carolina; Porto, Ana Lúcia Figueiredo

    2017-09-20

    Dairy desserts have emerged as interesting options for the incorporation of probiotics, bioactive ingredients and alternative sources of thickeners. This shows an opportunity to investigate the use of Gracilaria seaweeds in the formulation of potentially probiotic dairy desserts. This study aimed to compare the effects of dispersions obtained from Gracilaria domingensis and Gracilaria birdiae used as thickening agents on texture properties of dairy desserts fermented with SAB 440-A, composed of the starter Streptococcus thermophilus and the potential probiotics Bifidobacterium animalis and Lactobacillus acidophilus, and also to study their physicochemical characteristics, microbial viability and sensory acceptability. No significant differences between desserts with G. birdiae or G. domingensis dispersions regarding total solids, ash and fat content, as well as pH, titratable acidity, the viability of the microorganisms of the mixed culture and sensory acceptability were verified (P > 0.05). Nonetheless, the dessert with G. domingensis dispersion showed higher dietary fibre content and significantly increased firmness than the one produced with G. birdiae (P desserts, in the presence of either G. birdiae or G. domingensis dispersions, despite the fact that L. acidophilus has shown low viability in the final products. Therefore, the G. domingensis dispersion is suitable to be used as a thickening agent to produce dairy desserts with enhanced firmness and good sensory acceptability, it being also advisable to use only B. animalis as a probiotic for this product.

  4. Partial fast-to-slow conversion of regenerating rat fast-twitch muscle by chronic low-frequency stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pette, Dirk; Sketelj, Janez; Skorjanc, Dejan; Leisner, Elmi; Traub, Irmtrud; Bajrović, Fajko

    2002-01-01

    Chronic low-frequency stimulation (CLFS) of rat fast-twitch muscles induces sequential transitions in myosin heavy chain (MHC) expression from MHCIIb --> MHCIId/x --> MHCIIa. However, the 'final' step of the fast-to-slow transition, i.e., the upregulation of MHCI, has been observed only after extremely long stimulation periods. Assuming that fibre degeneration/regeneration might be involved in the upregulation of slow myosin, we investigated the effects of CLFS on extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles regenerating after bupivacaine-induced fibre necrosis. Normal, non-regenerating muscles responded to both 30- and 60-day CLFS with fast MHC isoform transitions (MHCIIb --> MHCIId --> MHCIIa) and only slight increases in MHCI. CLFS of regenerating EDL muscles caused similar transitions among the fast isoforms but, in addition, caused significant increases in MHCI (to approximately 30% relative concentration). Stimulation periods of 30 and 60 days induced similar changes in the regenerating bupivacaine-treated muscles, indicating that the upregulation of slow myosin was restricted to regenerating fibres, but only during an early stage of regeneration. These results suggest that satellite cells and/or regenerating fast rat muscle fibres are capable of switching directly to a slow program under the influence of CLFS and, therefore, appear to be more malleable than adult fibres.

  5. Percent voluntary inactivation and peak force predictions with the interpolated twitch technique in individuals with high ability of voluntary activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herda, Trent J; Walter, Ashley A; Hoge, Katherine M; Stout, Jeffrey R; Costa, Pablo B; Ryan, Eric D; Cramer, Joel T

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the sensitivity and peak force prediction capability of the interpolated twitch technique (ITT) performed during submaximal and maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) in subjects with the ability to maximally activate their plantar flexors. Twelve subjects performed two MVCs and nine submaximal contractions with the ITT method to calculate percent voluntary inactivation (%VI). Additionally, two MVCs were performed without the ITT. Polynomial models (linear, quadratic and cubic) were applied to the 10–90% VI and 40–90% VI versus force relationships to predict force. Peak force from the ITT MVC was 6.7% less than peak force from the MVC without the ITT. Fifty-eight percent of the 10–90% VI versus force relationships were best fit with nonlinear models; however, all 40–90% VI versus force relationships were best fit with linear models. Regardless of the polynomial model or the contraction intensities used to predict force, all models underestimated the actual force from 22% to 28%. There was low sensitivity of the ITT method at high contraction intensities and the predicted force from polynomial models significantly underestimated the actual force. Caution is warranted when interpreting the % VI at high contraction intensities and predicted peak force from submaximal contractions

  6. Twitching motility of bacteria with type-IV pili: Fractal walks, first passage time, and their consequences on microcolonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisht, Konark; Klumpp, Stefan; Banerjee, Varsha; Marathe, Rahul

    2017-11-01

    A human pathogen, Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), moves on surfaces by attaching and retracting polymeric structures called Type IV pili. The tug-of-war between the pili results in a two-dimensional stochastic motion called twitching motility. In this paper, with the help of real-time NG trajectories, we develop coarse-grained models for their description. The fractal properties of these trajectories are determined and their influence on first passage time and formation of bacterial microcolonies is studied. Our main observations are as follows: (i) NG performs a fast ballistic walk on small time scales and a slow diffusive walk over long time scales with a long crossover region; (ii) there exists a characteristic persistent length lp*, which yields the fastest growth of bacterial aggregates or biofilms. Our simulations reveal that lp*˜L0.6 , where L ×L is the surface on which the bacteria move; (iii) the morphologies have distinct fractal characteristics as a consequence of the ballistic and diffusive motion of the constituting bacteria.

  7. Novel pre-treatment of zeolite materials for the removal of sodium ions: potential materials for coal seam gas co-produced wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Oscar; Walsh, Kerry; Kele, Ben; Gardner, Edward; Chapman, James

    2016-01-01

    Coal seam gas (CSG) is the extraction of methane gas that is desorbed from the coal seam and brought to the surface using a dewatering and depressurisation process within the saturated coalbed. The extracted water is often referred to as co-produced CSG water. In this study, co-produced water from the coal seam of the Bowen Basin (QLD, Australia) was characterised by high concentration levels of Na(+) (1156 mg/L), low concentrations of Ca(2+) (28.3 mg/L) and Mg(2+) (5.6 mg/L), high levels of salinity, which are expected to cause various environmental problems if released to land or waters. The potential treatment of co-produced water using locally sourced natural ion exchange (zeolite) material was assessed. The zeolite material was characterized for elemental composition and crystal structure. Natural, untreated zeolite demonstrated a capacity to adsorb Na(+) ions of 16.16 mEq/100 g, while a treated zeolite using NH4 (+) using a 1.0 M ammonium acetate (NH4C2H3O2) solution demonstrated an improved 136 % Na(+) capacity value of 38.28 mEq/100 g after 720 min of adsorption time. The theoretical exchange capacity of the natural zeolite was found to be 154 mEq/100 g. Reaction kinetics and diffusion models were used to determine the kinetic and diffusion parameters. Treated zeolite using a NH4 (+) pre-treatment represents an effective treatment to reduce Na(+) concentration in coal seam gas co-produced waters, supported by the measured and modelled kinetic rates and capacity.

  8. Potentialities of energy generation from waste and feedstock produced by the agricultural sector in Brazil: The case of the State of Paraná

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Maria de Fátima dos Santos; Raiher, Augusta Pelinski

    2013-01-01

    The State of Paraná contributes significantly for the Brazilian production of sugar cane, ethanol, soybeans and pigs. In addition to the current production of ethanol, the State has a huge potential for electricity, biodiesel and biogas production. This paper presents an overview of the current situation regarding energy generation from the agricultural sector in the State, an assessment of the potentialities of energy generation from sugar cane residues and pig agricultural chains, as well as an analysis of the socioeconomic factors underlying the availability of feedstock for biodiesel production. This study has shown that it is possible to expand the energy supply in the State using residual biomass from the sugar cane and pig production. On the other side, the biodiesel production increase in the State will depend on the expansion in the consumption of products that use the cake as raw material; the increase in the feedstock availability other than canola, castor beans and sunflower; the increase of the number of family farmers as feedstock providers, so as to ensure access for biodiesel producers to the Social Fuel Stamp. - Highlights: • Potentialities of energy generation from agriculture at Paraná State were assessed. • Energy offer from the sugar cane sector will triple if residual biomass is used. • The use of pig production wastes can increase energy offer up to 103 GW h. • Paraná produces 25% of oil seeds and only 3% of the biodiesel in Brazil. • Economic factors explaining the low share of biodiesel production are pointed out

  9. Isolation of bacteriophages against non-O157 and O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) from composting of non-fecal materials and the potential impact on produce safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Composting is a complex process to produce fertilizers used to improve crop yields. A complete composting process usually confers bactericidal effect due to change of temperature and pH However, some produce outbreaks associated with Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) contamination were linked to ...

  10. Association of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) elements with specific serotypes and virulence potential of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, Magaly; Cao, Guojie; Ju, Wenting; Allard, Marc; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Zhao, Shaohua; Brown, Eric; Meng, Jianghong

    2014-02-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains (n = 194) representing 43 serotypes and E. coli K-12 were examined for clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) arrays to study genetic relatedness among STEC serotypes. A subset of the strains (n = 81) was further analyzed for subtype I-E cas and virulence genes to determine a possible association of CRISPR elements with potential virulence. Four types of CRISPR arrays were identified. CRISPR1 and CRISPR2 were present in all strains tested; 1 strain also had both CRISPR3 and CRISPR4, whereas 193 strains displayed a short, combined array, CRISPR3-4. A total of 3,353 spacers were identified, representing 528 distinct spacers. The average length of a spacer was 32 bp. Approximately one-half of the spacers (54%) were unique and found mostly in strains of less common serotypes. Overall, CRISPR spacer contents correlated well with STEC serotypes, and identical arrays were shared between strains with the same H type (O26:H11, O103:H11, and O111:H11). There was no association identified between the presence of subtype I-E cas and virulence genes, but the total number of spacers had a negative correlation with potential pathogenicity (P CRISPR-cas system and potential virulence needs to be determined on a broader scale, and the biological link will need to be established.

  11. Interaction of Mechanical Load with Growth Hormone (GH) and Insulin-Like Growth Factor I (IGF-I) on Slow-Twitch Skeletal Muscle and Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linderman, Jon K.; Gosselink, Kristin L.; Wang, Tommy J.; Mukku, Venkat R.; Grindeland, Richard E.

    1994-01-01

    Exogenous humoral growth factors, combined with increased mechanical loading, reportedly induce hypertrophy of fast-, but not slow-twitch skeletal muscles, and have little effect in attenuating atrophy of slow-twitch muscle associated with exposure to microgravity in animals with intact neuroendocrine systems. These observations suggest that anabolic adjuvants and muscle tension do not interact to stimulate growth or maintenance of slow-twitch skeletal muscle. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether a chronic increase in mechanical loading (synergistic ablation) or hindlimb unweighting (hindlimb suspension) interact with exogenous GH and IGF-I (Genentech, So San Francisco, CA) in the slow-twitch soleus muscles of female rats (approx. 250 g). Bilateral ablation of the plantaris and gastrocnemius muscles induced 38% and 40% increases in the absolute (mg/pair) and relative (mg/100 g body weight) weights of the soleus, respectively (p less than or = 0.05), in ambulatory rats. GH and IGF-I interacted with chronic loading to increase absolute soleus mass an additional 20% (p less than or = 0.05), and mixed and myofibrillar protein contents an additional 12% and 7%, respectively (NS). In contrast, hindlimb suspension (HLS) resulted in 20% and 18% decreases in the absolute and relative weights of the soleus, respectively (p less than or = 0.05); GH and IGF-I did not spare loss of soleus mass or protein content in HLS rats. HLS decreased tibial plate thickness approx. 11% (p less than or = 0.05), but not weights of the tibia or femus. GH and IGF-I increased tibial plate thickness approx. 30% (p less than or = 0.05), in ambulatory and HLS rats, and increased femur and tibial weights 12% (p less than or = 0.05) and 8% (NS), respectively, in ambulatory rats, but had no effect in HLS rats. Results of the present investigation suggest that GH and IGF-I can stimulate hypertrophy of slow-twitch skeletal muscle when chronically overloaded, but can also stimulate

  12. Isolation, identification and toxigenic potential of ochratoxin A-producing Aspergillus species from coffee beans grown in two regions of Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noonim, P.; Mahakarnchanakul, W.; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    2008-01-01

    In 2006 and 2007, 32 Thai dried coffee bean samples (Coffea arabica) from two growing sites of Chiang Mai Province, and 32 Thai dried coffee bean samples (Coffea canephora var. robusta) from two growing sites of Chumphon Province, Thailand, were collected and assessed for the distribution of fungi...... with the potential to produce ochratoxin A (OTA). The overall percentage of fungal contamination in coffee was 98% and reduced to 60% after surface disinfection. There were remarkable ecological differences in the composition of ochratoxigenic species present in these two regions. Arabica coffee bean samples from...... the North had an average of 78% incidence of colonization with Aspergillus of section Circumdati with Aspergillus westerdijkiae and A. melleus as the predominant species. Aspergillus spp. of section Nigri were found in 75% of the samples whereas A. ochraceus was not detected. Robusta coffee beans from...

  13. Characterization of hydrocarbon-degrading and biosurfactant-producing Pseudomonas sp. P-1 strain as a potential tool for bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacwa-Płociniczak, Magdalena; Płaza, Grażyna Anna; Poliwoda, Anna; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia

    2014-01-01

    The Pseudomonas sp. P-1 strain, isolated from heavily petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil, was investigated for its capability to degrade hydrocarbons and produce a biosurfactant. The strain degraded crude oil, fractions A5 and P3 of crude oil, and hexadecane (27, 39, 27 and 13% of hydrocarbons added to culture medium were degraded, respectively) but had no ability to degrade phenanthrene. Additionally, the presence of gene-encoding enzymes responsible for the degradation of alkanes and naphthalene in the genome of the P-1 strain was reported. Positive results of blood agar and methylene blue agar tests, as well as the presence of gene rhl, involved in the biosynthesis of rhamnolipid, confirmed the ability of P-1 for synthesis of glycolipid biosurfactant. 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared spectrum and mass spectrum analyses indicated that the extracted biosurfactant was affiliated with rhamnolipid. The results of this study indicate that the P-1 and/or biosurfactant produced by this strain have the potential to be used in bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils.

  14. Temperature-dependent changes in the viscoelasticity of intact resting mammalian (rat) fast- and slow-twitch muscle fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutungi, G; Ranatunga, K W

    1998-04-01

    1. The tension and sarcomere length responses induced by ramp stretches (at amplitudes of 1-3 % fibre length (Lo) and speeds of 0.01-12 Lo s-1) were examined at different temperatures (range, 10-35 degrees C) in resting intact muscle fibre bundles isolated from the soleus (a slow-twitch muscle) and extensor digitorum longus (a fast-twitch muscle) of the rat. Some observations are also presented on the effects of chemical skinning on passive viscoelasticity at 10 degrees C. 2. As previously reported, the tension response to a ramp stretch, in different preparations and under various conditions, could be resolved into a viscous (P1), a viscoelastic (P2) and an elastic (P3) component and showed characteristic differences between slow and fast muscle fibres. 3. Chemical skinning of the muscle fibres led to a decrease in the amplitude of all three tension components. However, the fast-slow fibre differences remained after skinning. For example, the viscosity coefficient derived from P1 tension data decreased from 0.84 +/- 0.06 before skinning to 0.44 +/- 0.06 kN s m-2 after skinning in fast fibres; the corresponding values in slow fibres were 2.1 +/- 0.08 and 0.87 +/- 0.09 kN s m-2, respectively. 4. Increasing the experimental temperature from 10 to 35 degrees C led to a decrease in all the tension components in both fast and slow muscle fibre bundles. The decrease of P1 (viscous) tension was such that the viscosity coefficient calculated using P1 data was reduced from 0.84 +/- 0.1 to 0.43 +/- 0.05 kN s m-2 in fast fibres and from 2.0 +/- 0.1 to 1.0 +/- 0.1 kN s m-2 in slow fibres (Q10 of approximately 1.3 in both). 5. In both fast and slow muscle fibre preparations, the plateau tension of the viscoelastic component (P2) decreased by 60-80 % as the temperature was increased from 10 to 35 degrees C giving P2 tension a Q10 of approximately 1.4 in slow fibres and approximately 1.7 in the fast fibres. Additionally, the relaxation time of the viscoelasticity decreased from

  15. The Self-Potential Anomaly Produced by a Subsurface Flow at the Contact of Two Horizontal Layers and Its Quantitative Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Aim. Skianis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper the problem of a polarized cylinder with a small cross-section, which is located at the contact of two horizontal layers with different resistivities, is studied. Such a polarization geometry simulates the self-potential (SP field produced by a horizontal flow at the contact between the two layers. First, the expression of the self potential at the space domain is derived, applying the image technique. Then, the expression for the Fourier transform of the SP anomaly is found and the behavior of the amplitude spectrum is studied. Based on this study, a direct interpretation method at the spatial frequency domain is proposed, in order to calculate the depth of the flow and the reflection coefficient of the stratified medium. Experimentation with a synthetic model shows that the method works well (small deviations between true and calculated values. When the SP curve contains noise, deviations between calculated and true depths are smaller than those between calculated and true reflection coefficients. The proposed method, which is also applied on SP data from a geothermal system (Mauri et al., 2010, may be useful in detecting underground water or heat flows.

  16. Connexin 39.9 Protein Is Necessary for Coordinated Activation of Slow-twitch Muscle and Normal Behavior in Zebrafish*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Hiromi; Wen, Hua; Kawakami, Yu; Naganawa, Yuriko; Ogino, Kazutoyo; Yamada, Kenta; Saint-Amant, Louis; Low, Sean E.; Cui, Wilson W.; Zhou, Weibin; Sprague, Shawn M.; Asakawa, Kazuhide; Muto, Akira; Kawakami, Koichi; Kuwada, John Y.

    2012-01-01

    In many tissues and organs, connexin proteins assemble between neighboring cells to form gap junctions. These gap junctions facilitate direct intercellular communication between adjoining cells, allowing for the transmission of both chemical and electrical signals. In rodents, gap junctions are found in differentiating myoblasts and are important for myogenesis. Although gap junctions were once believed to be absent from differentiated skeletal muscle in mammals, recent studies in teleosts revealed that differentiated muscle does express connexins and is electrically coupled, at least at the larval stage. These findings raised questions regarding the functional significance of gap junctions in differentiated muscle. Our analysis of gap junctions in muscle began with the isolation of a zebrafish motor mutant that displayed weak coiling at day 1 of development, a behavior known to be driven by slow-twitch muscle (slow muscle). We identified a missense mutation in the gene encoding Connexin 39.9. In situ hybridization found connexin 39.9 to be expressed by slow muscle. Paired muscle recordings uncovered that wild-type slow muscles are electrically coupled, whereas mutant slow muscles are not. The further examination of cellular activity revealed aberrant, arrhythmic touch-evoked Ca2+ transients in mutant slow muscle and a reduction in the number of muscle fibers contracting in response to touch in mutants. These results indicate that Connexin 39.9 facilitates the spreading of neuronal inputs, which is irregular during motor development, beyond the muscle cells and that gap junctions play an essential role in the efficient recruitment of slow muscle fibers. PMID:22075003

  17. Calcium currents in a fast-twitch skeletal muscle of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, P L; Beam, K G

    1983-10-01

    Slow ionic currents were measured in the rat omohyoid muscle with the three-microelectrode voltage-clamp technique. Sodium and delayed rectifier potassium currents were blocked pharmacologically. Under these conditions, depolarizing test pulses elicited an early outward current, followed by a transient slow inward current, followed in turn by a late outward current. The early outward current appeared to be a residual delayed rectifier current. The slow inward current was identified as a calcium current on the basis that (a) its magnitude depended on extracellular calcium concentration, (b) it was blocked by the addition of the divalent cations cadmium or nickel, and reduced in magnitude by the addition of manganese or cobalt, and (c) barium was able to replace calcium as an inward current carrier. The threshold potential for inward calcium current was around -20 mV in 10mM extracellular calcium and about -35 mV in 2 mM calcium. Currents were net inward over part of their time course for potentials up to at least +30 mV. At temperatures of 20-26 degrees C, the peak inward current (at approximately 0 mV) was 139 +/- 14 microA/cm2 (mean +/- SD), increasing to 226 +/- 28 microA/cm2 at temperatures of 27-37 degrees C. The late outward current exhibited considerable fiber-to-fiber variability. In some fibers it was primarily a time-independent, nonlinear leakage current. In other fibers it was primarily a time-independent, nonlinear leakage current. In other fibers it appeared to be the sum of both leak and a slowly activated outward current. The rate of activation of inward calcium current was strongly temperature dependent. For example, in a representative fiber, the time-to-peak inward current for a +10-mV test pulse decreased from approximately 250 ms at 20 degrees C to 100 ms at 30 degrees C. At 37 degrees C, the time-to-peak current was typically approximately 25 ms. The earliest phase of activation was difficult to quantify because the ionic current was partially

  18. Mexican unpasteurised fresh cheeses are contaminated with Salmonella spp., non-O157 Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli and potential uropathogenic E. coli strains: A public health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Hernandez, Rosa; Contreras-Rodriguez, Araceli; Hernandez-Velez, Rosa; Perez-Martinez, Iza; Lopez-Merino, Ahide; Zaidi, Mussaret B; Estrada-Garcia, Teresa

    2016-11-21

    Fresh cheeses are a main garnish of Mexican food. Consumption of artisanal fresh cheeses is very common and most of them are made from unpasteurised cow milk. A total of 52 fresh unpasteurised cheeses of five different types were purchased from a variety of suppliers from Tabasco, Mexico. Using the most probable number method, 67% and 63% of samples were positive for faecal coliforms and E. coli, respectively; revealing their low microbiological quality. General hygienic conditions and practices of traditional cheese manufacturers were poor; most establishments had unclean cement floors, all lacked windows and doors screens, and none of the food-handlers wore aprons, surgical masks or bouffant caps. After analysing all E. coli isolates (121 strains) for the presence of 26 virulence genes, results showed that 9 (17%) samples were contaminated with diarrheagenic E. coli strains, 8 harboured non-O157 Shiga toxin producing E. coli (STEC), and one sample contained both STEC and diffusely adherent E. coli strains. All STEC strains carried the stx1 gene. Potential uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) strains were isolated from 15 (29%) samples; the most frequent gene combination was fimA-agn43. Two samples were contaminated with Salmonella. The results demonstrated that unpasteurised fresh cheeses produced in Tabasco are of poor microbiological quality and may frequently harbour foodborne pathogens. Food safety authorities in Mexico need to conduct more rigorous surveillance of fresh cheeses. Furthermore, simple and inexpensive measures as establishing programs emphasizing good hand milking practices and hygienic manufacturing procedures may have a major effect on improving the microbiological quality of these food items. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. PRESERVATIVE POTENTIAL OF PURIFIED BACTERIOCIN PRODUCED FROM BREVIBACILLUS BORSTELENSIS AG1 ISOLATED FROM MARCHA – A TRADITIONAL WINE STARTER CULTURE CAKE IN TOMATO PASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupama Gupta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purified bacteriocin produced from Brevibacillus borstelensis AG1 isolated from Marcha a local wine starter herbal cake, was used to enhance the shelf life of tomato paste. Preservative effect of purified bacteriocin was studied for nine days in tomato paste inoculated with food borne pathogens and was compared to commercial biopreservative – nisin and chemical preservative – sodium benzoate. The indicator strains i.e. Listeria monocytogenes MTCC839, Bacillus subtilis CRI and Clostridium perfringens MTCC1739 were used at the amount 8.16, 8.13 and 8.18 log CFU/ml. Viable cells were counted periodically and a consistent reduction in number of viable cells of each tested pathogen was observed. It was found antagonistic against L. monocytogenes MTCC839, B. subtilis CRI and C. perfringes MTCC1739 which are the most challengeable and food borne pathogens found in processed vegetables products. Purified bacteriocin was found active over a wide pH range i.e. 3.0 to 11.0 and was able to withstand temperature up to 100oC. It showed a better preservative potential by reducing pathogenic load of the tested strains (by 2.02, 2.05 and 2.02 log cycles (CFU/ml of L. monocytogenes MTCC839, B. subtilis CRI and C. perfringes MTCC1739, respectively in tomato paste as compared to control (without bacteriocin. This proves efficiency of bacteriocin produced by B. borstelensis AG1 as biopreservative to enhance the safety and shelf life of acidic foods.

  20. Purification and characterization of enterocin 62-6, a two-peptide bacteriocin produced by a vaginal strain of Enterococcus faecium: Potential significance in bacterial vaginosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezwaan, Diane C.; Mequio, Michael J.; Littell, Julia S.; Allen, Jonathan P.; Rossbach, Silvia; Pybus, Vivien

    2009-01-01

    A bacteriocin produced by a vaginal isolate of Enterococcus faecium strain 62-6, designated enterocin 62-6, was characterized following purification and DNA sequence analysis and compared to previously described bacteriocins. Enterocin 62-6 was isolated from brain heart infusion (BHI) culture supernatants using ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by elution from a Sepharose cation exchange column using a continuous salt gradient (0.1–0.7 M NaCl). SDS-PAGE of an active column fraction resulted in an electrophoretically pure protein, which corresponded to the growth inhibition of the sensitive Lactobacillus indicator strain in the gel overlay assay. Purified enterocin 62-6 was shown to be heat- and pH-stable, and sensitive to the proteolytic enzymes α-chymotrypsin and pepsin. Results from mass spectrometry suggested that it comprised two peptides of 5206 and 5219±1 Da, which was confirmed by DNA sequence analysis. The characteristics of enterocin 62-6 as a small, heat- and pH-stable, cationic, hydrophobic, two-peptide, plasmid-borne bacteriocin, with an inhibitory spectrum against a broad range of Gram-positive but not Gram-negative bacteria, were consistent with its classification as a class IIc bacteriocin. Furthermore, its wide spectrum of growth inhibitory activity against Gram-positive bacteria of vaginal origin including lactobacilli, and stability under the acidic conditions of the vagina, are consistent with our hypothesis that it could have potential significance in disrupting the ecology of the vaginal tract and pave the way for the establishment of the abnormal microbiota associated with the vaginal syndrome bacterial vaginosis. This is the first class IIc bacteriocin produced by a strain of E. faecium of vaginal origin to be characterized. PMID:19578555

  1. Biogeographical distribution analysis of hydrocarbon degrading and biosurfactant producing genes suggests that near-equatorial biomes have higher abundance of genes with potential for bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Jorge S; Araújo, Wydemberg J; Figueiredo, Ricardo M; Silva-Portela, Rita C B; de Brito Guerra, Alaine; da Silva Araújo, Sinara Carla; Minnicelli, Carolina; Carlos, Aline Cardoso; de Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza Ribeiro; Freitas, Ana Teresa; Agnez-Lima, Lucymara F

    2017-07-27

    Bacterial and Archaeal communities have a complex, symbiotic role in crude oil bioremediation. Their biosurfactants and degradation enzymes have been in the spotlight, mainly due to the awareness of ecosystem pollution caused by crude oil accidents and their use. Initially, the scientific community studied the role of individual microbial species by characterizing and optimizing their biosurfactant and oil degradation genes, studying their individual distribution. However, with the advances in genomics, in particular with the use of New-Generation-Sequencing and Metagenomics, it is now possible to have a macro view of the complex pathways related to the symbiotic degradation of hydrocarbons and surfactant production. It is now possible, although more challenging, to obtain the DNA information of an entire microbial community before automatically characterizing it. By characterizing and understanding the interconnected role of microorganisms and the role of degradation and biosurfactant genes in an ecosystem, it becomes possible to develop new biotechnological approaches for bioremediation use. This paper analyzes 46 different metagenome samples, spanning 20 biomes from different geographies obtained from different research projects. A metagenomics bioinformatics pipeline, focused on the biodegradation and biosurfactant-production pathways, genes and organisms, was applied. Our main results show that: (1) surfactation and degradation are correlated events, and therefore should be studied together; (2) terrestrial biomes present more degradation genes, especially cyclic compounds, and less surfactation genes, when compared to water biomes; and (3) latitude has a significant influence on the diversity of genes involved in biodegradation and biosurfactant production. This suggests that microbiomes found near the equator are richer in genes that have a role in these processes and thus have a higher biotechnological potential. In this work we have focused on the

  2. Altered myoplasmic Ca(2+) handling in rat fast-twitch skeletal muscle fibres during disuse atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Norbert; Andrianjafiniony, Tina; Dupré-Aucouturier, Sylvie; Pouvreau, Sandrine; Desplanches, Dominique; Jacquemond, Vincent

    2010-03-01

    Calcium-dependent signalling pathways are believed to play an important role in skeletal muscle atrophy, but whether intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis is affected in that situation remains obscure. We show here that there is a 20% atrophy of the fast-type flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) muscle in rats hind limb unloaded (HU) for 2 weeks, with no change in fibre type distribution. In voltage-clamp experiments, the amplitude of the slow Ca(2+) current was found similar in fibres from control and HU animals. In fibres loaded with the Ca(2+) dye indo-1, the value for the rate of [Ca(2+)] decay after the end of 5-100-ms-long voltage-clamp depolarisations from -80 to +10 mV was found to be 30-50% lower in fibres from HU animals. This effect was consistent with a reduced contribution of both saturable and non-saturable components of myoplasmic Ca(2+) removal. However, there was no change in the relative amount of parvalbumin, and type 1 sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase was increased by a factor of three in the atrophied muscles. Confocal imaging of mitochondrial membrane potential showed that atrophied FDB fibres had significantly depolarized mitochondria as compared to control fibres. Depolarization of mitochondria in control fibres with carbonyl cyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone induced a slowing of the decay of [Ca(2+)] transients accompanied by an increase in resting [Ca(2+)] and a reduction of the peak amplitude of the transients. Overall results provide the first functional evidence for severely altered intracellular Ca(2+) removal capabilities in atrophied fast-type muscle fibres and highlight the possible contribution of reduced mitochondrial polarisation.

  3. Oceanographic, Air-sea Interaction, and Environmental Aspects of Artificial Upwelling Produced by Wave-Inertia Pumps for Potential Hurricane Intensity Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloviev, A.; Dean, C.

    2017-12-01

    The artificial upwelling system consisting of the wave-inertia pumps driven by surface waves can produce flow of cold deep water to the surface. One of the recently proposed potential applications of the artificial upwelling system is the hurricane intensity mitigation. Even relatively small reduction of intensity may provide significant benefits. The ocean heat content (OHC) is the "fuel" for hurricanes. The OHC can be reduced by mixing of the surface layer with the cold water produced by wave-inertia pumps. Implementation of this system for hurricane mitigation has several oceanographic and air-sea interaction aspects. The cold water brought to the surface from a deeper layer has higher density than the surface water and, therefore, tends to sink back down. The mixing of the cold water produced by artificial upwelling depends on environmental conditions such as stratification, regional ocean circulation, and vertical shear. Another aspect is that as the sea surface temperature drops below the air temperature, the stable stratification develops in the atmospheric boundary layer. The stable atmospheric stratification suppresses sensible and latent heat air-sea fluxes and reduces the net longwave irradiance from the sea surface. As a result, the artificial upwelling may start increasing the OHC (though still reducing the sea surface temperature). In this work, the fate of the cold water in the stratified environment with vertical shear has been studied using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools. A 3D large eddy simulation model is initialized with observational temperature, salinity, and current velocity data from a sample location in the Straits of Florida. A periodic boundary condition is set along the direction of the current, which allows us to simulate infinite fetch. The model results indicate that the cold water brought to the sea surface by a wave-inertia pump forms a convective jet. This jet plunges into the upper ocean mixed layer and penetrates the

  4. Imported chicken meat as a potential source of quinolone-resistant Escherichia coli producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, R E; Ensor, V M; O'Neill, P; Butler, V; Taylor, J; Nye, K; Harvey, M; Livermore, D M; Woodford, N; Hawkey, P M

    2008-03-01

    Escherichia coli producing CTX-M-15 enzyme began to rapidly spread in the UK from around 2003 but other types also occur, notably CTX-M-14. We examined breasts from UK-reared (n = 62) and imported (n = 27) chickens as potential sources of quinolone-resistant E. coli with bla(CTX-M) genes. A further 40 samples for which the country of rearing could not be identified were examined. During 2006, 129 fresh and frozen chicken breast fillets were purchased from retail outlets in the West Midlands. These were cultured for E. coli on CLED agar containing 8 mg/L ciprofloxacin and carrying a 10 microg cefpodoxime disc. Resistant isolates were identified and typed by RAPD fingerprinting; bla(CTX-M) was identified by PCR and genotyped by reverse-line hybridization. The country of rearing was identified from the packaging for 89 of 129 purchased samples. Only one of the 62 UK-reared chicken samples carried E. coli producing a CTX-M-1 enzyme, whereas 10 of 27 samples reared overseas had E. coli with CTX-M enzymes. Specifically, 4/10 Brazilian, 3/4 Brazilian/Polish/French, and 2/2 Dutch samples had E. coli with CTX-M-2 enzymes. Six of 40 samples for which the country of rearing was not known had producers of CTX-M enzymes, 5 of them with CTX-M-14. Quinolone-resistant E. coli with various CTX-M beta-lactamase genes that are common in human infections worldwide were found in imported chicken breasts, indicating a possible source for gut colonization. Samples from Brazil were commonly positive for E. coli with CTX-M-2, the dominant bla(CTX-M) genotype from human infections in South America, which is currently rare in clinical infections in the UK. CTX-M-15, the dominant CTX-M type in human infections in the UK, was not found in chicken isolates, suggesting that the UK-reared chickens are not a reservoir of CTX-M-15.

  5. Purification and characterization of enterocin MC13 produced by a potential aquaculture probiont Enterococcus faecium MC13 isolated from the gut of Mugil cephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satish Kumar, R; Kanmani, P; Yuvaraj, N; Paari, K A; Pattukumar, V; Arul, V

    2011-12-01

    A bacteriocin producer strain MC13 was isolated from the gut of Mugil cephalus (grey mullet) and identified as Enterococcus faecium. The bacteriocin of E. faecium MC13 was purified to homogeneity, as confirmed by Tricine sodium dodecyl sulphate - polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed a single active fraction eluted at 26 min, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry analysis showed the molecular mass to be 2.148 kDa. The clear zone in native PAGE corresponding to enterocin MC13 band further substantiated its molecular mass. A dialyzed sample (semicrude preparation) of enterocin MC13 was broad spectrum in its action and inhibited important seafood-borne pathogens: Listeria monocytogenes , Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Vibrio vulnificus. This antibacterial substance was sensitive to proteolytic enzymes: trypsin, protease, and chymotrypsin but insensitive to catalase and lipase, confirming that inhibition was due to the proteinaceous molecule, i.e., bacteriocin, and not due to hydrogen peroxide. Enterocin MC13 tolerated heat treatment (up to 90 °C for 20 min). Enterococcus faecium MC13 was effective in bile salt tolerance, acid tolerance, and adhesion to the HT-29 cell line. These properties reveal the potential of E. faecium MC13 to be a probiotic bacterium. Enterococcus faecium MC13 could be used as potential fish probiotic against pathogens such as V. parahaemolyticus, Vibrio harveyi, and Aeromonas hydrophila in fisheries. Also, this could be a valuable seafood biopreservative against L. monocytogenes.

  6. Quantitative determination of caffeine and alcohol in energy drinks and the potential to produce positive transdermal alcohol concentrations in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Jessica; Simons, Kelsie; Kerrigan, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether non-alcoholic energy drinks could result in positive "alcohol alerts" based on transdermal alcohol concentration (TAC) using a commercially available electrochemical monitoring device. Eleven energy drinks were quantitatively assayed for both ethanol and caffeine. Ethanol concentrations for all of the non-alcoholic energy drinks ranged in concentration from 0.03 to 0.230% (w/v) and caffeine content per 8-oz serving ranged from 65 to 126 mg. A total of 15 human subjects participated in the study. Subjects consumed between 6 and 8 energy drinks over an 8-h period. The SCRAM II monitoring device was used to determine TACs every 30 min before, during, and after the study. None of the subjects produced TAC readings that resulted in positive "alcohol alerts". TAC measurements for all subjects before, during and after the energy drink study period (16 h total) were study consumed a quantity of non-alcoholic energy drink that greatly exceeds what would be considered typical. Based on these results, it appears that energy drink consumption is an unlikely explanation for elevated TACs that might be identified as potential drinking episodes or "alcohol alerts" using this device.

  7. The potential of bacteria isolated from ruminal contents of seaweed-eating North Ronaldsay sheep to hydrolyse seaweed components and produce methane by anaerobic digestion in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Allan G; Withers, Susan; Sutherland, Alastair D

    2013-01-01

    The production of methane biofuel from seaweeds is limited by the hydrolysis of polysaccharides. The rumen microbiota of seaweed-eating North Ronaldsay sheep was studied for polysaccharidic bacterial isolates degrading brown-seaweed polysaccharides. Only nine isolates out of 65 utilized >90% of the polysaccharide they were isolated on. The nine isolates (eight Prevotella spp. and one Clostridium butyricum) utilized whole Laminaria hyperborea extract and a range of seaweed polysaccharides, including alginate (seven out of nine isolates), laminarin and carboxymethylcellulose (eight out of nine isolates); while two out of nine isolates additionally hydrolysed fucoidan to some extent. Crude enzyme extracts from three of the isolates studied further had diverse glycosidases and polysaccharidase activities; particularly against laminarin and alginate (two isolates were shown to have alginate lyase activity) and notably fucoidan and carageenan (one isolate). In serial culture rumen microbiota hydrolysed a range of seaweed polysaccharides (fucoidan to a notably lesser degree) and homogenates of L. hyperborea, mixed Fucus spp. and Ascophyllum nodosum to produce methane and acetate. The rumen microbiota and isolates represent potential adjunct organisms or enzymes which may improve hydrolysis of seaweed components and thus improve the efficiency of seaweed anaerobic digestion for methane biofuel production. © 2012 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Tetanic Ca2+ transient differences between slow- and fast-twitch mouse skeletal muscle fibres: a comprehensive experimental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, Juan C; Bolaños, Pura; Caputo, Carlo

    2014-12-01

    One hundred and eighty six enzymatically dissociated murine muscle fibres were loaded with Mag-Fluo-4 AM, and adhered to laminin, to evaluate the effect of modulating cytosolic Ca(2+) buffers and sarcoendoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase (SERCA), mitochondria, and Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX) on the differential tetanic Ca(2+) transient kinetics found in different fibre types. Tetanic Ca(2+) transients were classified as morphology type I (MT-I) or type II (MT-II) according to their shape. The first peak of the MT-I (n = 25) and MT-II (n = 23) tetanic Ca(2+) transients had an amplitude (∆F/F) of 0.41 ± 0.03 and 0.83 ± 0.05 and a rise time (ms) of 1.35 and 0.98, respectively. MT-I signals had a time constant of decay (τ1, ms) of 75.9 ± 4.2 while MT-II transients showed a double exponential decay with time constants of decay (τ1 and τ2, ms) of 18.3 ± 1.4 and 742.2 ± 130.3. Sarcoendoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase inhibition demonstrated that the decay phase of the tetanic transients mostly rely on SERCA function. Adding Ca(2+) chelators in the AM form to MT-I fibres changed the morphology of the initial five peaks to a MT-II one, modifying the decay phase of the signal in a dose-dependent manner. Mitochondria and NCX function have a minor role in explaining differences in tetanic Ca(2+) transients among fibre types but still help in removing Ca(2+) from the cytosol in both MT-I and MT-II fibres. Cytoplasmic Ca(2+) buffering capacity and SERCA function explain most of the different kinetics found in tetanic Ca(2+) transients from different fibre types, but mitochondria and NCX have a measurable role in shaping tetanic Ca(2+) responses in both slow and fast-twitch muscle fibre types. We provided experimental evidence on the mechanisms that help understand the kinetics of tetanic Ca(2+) transients themselves and explain kinetic differences found among fibre types.

  9. Coexistence of potentiation and fatigue in skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.E. Rassier

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Twitch potentiation and fatigue in skeletal muscle are two conditions in which force production is affected by the stimulation history. Twitch potentiation is the increase in the twitch active force observed after a tetanic contraction or during and following low-frequency stimulation. There is evidence that the mechanism responsible for potentiation is phosphorylation of the regulatory light chains of myosin, a Ca2+-dependent process. Fatigue is the force decrease observed after a period of repeated muscle stimulation. Fatigue has also been associated with a Ca2+-related mechanism: decreased peak Ca2+ concentration in the myoplasm is observed during fatigue. This decrease is probably due to an inhibition of Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Although potentiation and fatigue have opposing effects on force production in skeletal muscle, these two presumed mechanisms can coexist. When peak myoplasmic Ca2+ concentration is depressed, but myosin light chains are relatively phosphorylated, the force response can be attenuated, not different, or enhanced, relative to previous values. In circumstances where there is interaction between potentiation and fatigue, care must be taken in interpreting the contractile responses.

  10. S-glutathionylation of troponin I (fast) increases contractile apparatus Ca2+ sensitivity in fast-twitch muscle fibres of rats and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollica, J P; Dutka, T L; Merry, T L; Lamboley, C R; McConell, G K; McKenna, M J; Murphy, R M; Lamb, G D

    2012-03-15

    Oxidation can decrease or increase the Ca2+ sensitivity of the contractile apparatus in rodent fast-twitch (type II) skeletal muscle fibres, but the reactions and molecular targets involved are unknown. This study examined whether increased Ca2+ sensitivity is due to S-glutathionylation of particular cysteine residues. Skinned muscle fibres were directly activated in heavily buffered Ca2+ solutions to assess contractile apparatus Ca2+ sensitivity. Rat type II fibres were subjected to S-glutathionylation by successive treatments with 2,2′-dithiodipyridine (DTDP) and glutathione (GSH), and displayed a maximal increase in pCa50 (−log10 [Ca2+] at half-maximal force) of ∼0.24 pCa units, with little or no effect on maximum force or Hill coefficient. Partial similar effect was produced by exposure to oxidized gluthathione (GSSG, 10 mM) for 10 min at pH 7.1, and near-maximal effect by GSSG treatment at pH 8.5. None of these treatments significantly altered Ca2+ sensitivity in rat type I fibres. Western blotting showed that both the DTDP–GSH and GSSG–pH 8.5 treatments caused marked S-glutathionylation of the fast troponin I isoform (TnI(f)) present in type II fibres, but not of troponin C (TnC) or myosin light chain 2. Both the increased Ca2+ sensitivity and glutathionylation of TnI(f) were blocked by N-ethylmaleimide (NEM). S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) also increased Ca2+ sensitivity, but only in conditions where it caused S-glutathionylation of TnI(f). In human type II fibres from vastus lateralis muscle, DTDP–GSH treatment also caused similar increased Ca2+ sensitivity and S-glutathionylation of TnI(f). When the slow isoform of TnI in type I fibres of rat was partially substituted (∼30%) with TnI(f), DTDP–GSH treatment caused a significant increase in Ca2+ sensitivity (∼0.08 pCa units). TnIf in type II fibres from toad and chicken muscle lack Cys133 present in mammalian TnIf, and such fibres showed no change in Ca2+ sensitivity with DTDP–GSH nor any S

  11. The functional potential of microbial communities in hydraulic fracturing source water and produced water from natural gas extraction characterized by metagenomic sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Murali Mohan

    Full Text Available Microbial activity in produced water from hydraulic fracturing operations can lead to undesired environmental impacts and increase gas production costs. However, the metabolic profile of these microbial communities is not well understood. Here, for the first time, we present results from a shotgun metagenome of microbial communities in both hydraulic fracturing source water and wastewater produced by hydraulic fracturing. Taxonomic analyses showed an increase in anaerobic/facultative anaerobic classes related to Clostridia, Gammaproteobacteria, Bacteroidia and Epsilonproteobacteria in produced water as compared to predominantly aerobic Alphaproteobacteria in the fracturing source water. The metabolic profile revealed a relative increase in genes responsible for carbohydrate metabolism, respiration, sporulation and dormancy, iron acquisition and metabolism, stress response and sulfur metabolism in the produced water samples. These results suggest that microbial communities in produced water have an increased genetic ability to handle stress, which has significant implications for produced water management, such as disinfection.

  12. Definition of a Standard Protocol to Determine the Growth Potential of Listeria Monotgenes and Yersinia Enterocolitica in Pork Sausage Produced in Abruzzo Region, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperandii, Anna Franca; Neri, Diana; Romantini, Romina; Santarelli, Gino Angelo; Prencipe, Vincenza

    2015-11-02

    Pork meat products consumed raw or after a short period of fermentation can be considered at risk for food safety. Sausages (fresh sausage made from pork meat) are produced in several Italian regions, with variation in ingredients. In some Italian Regions, including Abruzzo, these products are frequently consumed raw or undercooked, after a variable period of fermentation. The European Community food regulation promotes the use of challenge tests to determine safety levels. This study is aimed to ensure safety of Abruzzo's sausages, compared with growth potential (δ) of Listeria monocytogenes and Yersinia enterocolitica , and also aims to define an experimental standard protocol document to carry out challenge tests. Guidelines classify ready-to-eat foods in categories that are able to support (δ>0.5 log 10 ufc/g) and not support (δ≤0.5 log 10 ufc/g) the growth of Listeria monocytogenes. The products were manufactured according to traditional recipes and were contaminated in laboratory. Results from the experiment yielded information useful to assess the ability of these products to support the growth of pathogenic microorganisms. The batches of sausages were stored at 8, 12, 18 and 20°C to get statistical evaluation. The results showed that, despite the conditioning of the storage temperature and the level of water activity, both organisms remain in the product in concentrations similar to those leading or being able to increase its charge. In particular, the period of greatest consumption of this product (7/8 days of preparation) corresponds to the period of greatest growth of pathogenic microorganisms studied, except for those stored at a temperature of 8°C, which are safer for the consumer.

  13. Development of producing equipment of mixed butane-air with low dew point. Energy saving dewatering apparatus and 6A-Gas producing apparatus utilizing vaporization latent heat of butane and potential heat of air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komine, Jin; Okada, Hiroto; Taniue, Nobuo; Tanoue, Keiju; Yamada, Tatsuhiko; Maekawa, Hisami; Murakami, Keiji

    1988-02-10

    A producing equipment of mixed butane-air with low dew point was developed. The dewatering was made during the period from the middle of May to the middle of October with high atmospheric humidity. The production capacity of the mixed gas is 3000 Nm/sup 3/ of 22% of butane and 78% of air per hour. The designed dew point is 18/sup 0/C or less under the pressure of 0.7 kg/cm/sup 2/G. The saturation temperature is 7.5/sup 0/C after the liquid butane is evacuated by a regulating valve. The air introduced into the dehumidifier through finned tubes is cooled to dewater based on those data. The partially vaporized butane is completely gasified by hot water in a vaporizer and mixed with the dewatered air by a venture mixer to produce the mixed butane-air. When the dewatering is incomplete, the spray nozzle must be just exchanged. The dew point of the produced gas was sufficiently below the designed value. The investment cost is low. The total operating cost is reduced by the remarkably decreased fuel cost though the power cost is increased. The noise level is low and the heat control is easy. (11 figs, 4 tabs, 1 photo)

  14. AMPK alpha1 activation is required for stimulation of glucose uptake by twitch contraction, but not by H2O2, in mouse skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Elbenhardt; Schjerling, Peter; Viollet, Benoit

    2008-01-01

    into muscle by certain stimuli. In contrast, no clear function has yet been determined for alpha(1) AMPK in skeletal muscle, possibly due to alpha-AMPK isoform signaling redundancy. By applying low-intensity twitch-contraction and H(2)O(2) stimulation to activate alpha(1) AMPK, but not alpha(2) AMPK......, in wildtype and alpha-AMPK transgenic mouse muscles, this study aimed to define conditions where alpha(1) AMPK is required to increase muscle glucose uptake. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Following stimulation with H(2)O(2) (3 mM, 20 min) or twitch-contraction (0.1 ms pulse, 2 Hz, 2 min), signaling and 2......-deoxyglucose uptake were measured in incubated soleus muscles from wildtype and muscle-specific kinase-dead AMPK (KD), alpha(1) AMPK knockout or alpha(2) AMPK knockout mice. H(2)O(2) increased the activity of both alpha(1) and alpha(2) AMPK in addition to Akt phosphorylation, and H(2)O(2)-stimulated glucose...

  15. Differentiation of the intracellular structure of slow- versus fast-twitch muscle fibers through evaluation of the dielectric properties of tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, B.; Li, J.; Bragos, R.; Rutkove, S. B.

    2014-05-01

    Slow-twitch (type 1) skeletal muscle fibers have markedly greater mitochondrial content than fast-twitch (type 2) fibers. Accordingly, we sought to determine whether the dielectric properties of these two fiber types differed, consistent with their distinct intracellular morphologies. The longitudinal and transverse dielectric spectrum of the ex vivo rat soleus (a predominantly type 1 muscle) and the superficial layers of rat gastrocnemius (predominantly type 2) (n = 15) were measured in the 1 kHz-10 MHz frequency range and modeled to a resistivity Cole-Cole function. Major differences were especially apparent in the dielectric spectrum in the 1 to 10 MHz range. Specifically, the gastrocnemius demonstrated a well-defined, higher center frequency than the soleus muscle, whereas the soleus muscle showed a greater difference in the modeled zero and infinite resistivities than the gastrocnemius. These findings are consistent with the fact that soleus tissue has larger and more numerous mitochondria than gastrocnemius. Evaluation of tissue at high frequency could provide a novel approach for assessing intracellular structure in health and disease.

  16. Influence of fast and slow alkali myosin light chain isoforms on the kinetics of stretch-induced force transients of fast-twitch type IIA fibres of rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andruchov, Oleg; Galler, Stefan

    2008-03-01

    This study contributes to understand the physiological role of slow myosin light chain isoforms in fast-twitch type IIA fibres of skeletal muscle. These isoforms are often attached to the myosin necks of rat type IIA fibres, whereby the slow alkali myosin light chain isoform MLC1s is much more frequent and abundant than the slow regulatory myosin light chain isoform MLC2s. In the present study, single-skinned rat type IIA fibres were maximally Ca(2+) activated and subjected to stepwise stretches for causing a perturbation of myosin head pulling cycles. From the time course of the resulting force transients, myosin head kinetics was deduced. Fibres containing MLC1s exhibited slower kinetics independently of the presence or absence of MLC2s. At the maximal MLC1s concentration of about 75%, the slowing was about 40%. The slowing effect of MLC1s is possibly due to differences in the myosin heavy chain binding sites of the fast and slow alkali MLC isoforms, which changes the rigidity of the myosin neck. Compared with the impact of myosin heavy chain isoforms in various fast-twitch fibre types, the influence of MLC1s on myosin head kinetics of type IIA fibres is much smaller. In conclusion, the physiological role of fast and slow MLC isoforms in type IIA fibres is a fine-tuning of the myosin head kinetics.

  17. Differentiation of the intracellular structure of slow- versus fast-twitch muscle fibers through evaluation of the dielectric properties of tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, B; Li, J; Rutkove, S B; Bragos, R

    2014-01-01

    Slow-twitch (type 1) skeletal muscle fibers have markedly greater mitochondrial content than fast-twitch (type 2) fibers. Accordingly, we sought to determine whether the dielectric properties of these two fiber types differed, consistent with their distinct intracellular morphologies. The longitudinal and transverse dielectric spectrum of the ex vivo rat soleus (a predominantly type 1 muscle) and the superficial layers of rat gastrocnemius (predominantly type 2) (n = 15) were measured in the 1 kHz–10 MHz frequency range and modeled to a resistivity Cole–Cole function. Major differences were especially apparent in the dielectric spectrum in the 1 to 10 MHz range. Specifically, the gastrocnemius demonstrated a well-defined, higher center frequency than the soleus muscle, whereas the soleus muscle showed a greater difference in the modeled zero and infinite resistivities than the gastrocnemius. These findings are consistent with the fact that soleus tissue has larger and more numerous mitochondria than gastrocnemius. Evaluation of tissue at high frequency could provide a novel approach for assessing intracellular structure in health and disease. (paper)

  18. The age related slow and fast contributions to the overall changes in tibialis anterior contractile features disclosed by maximal single twitch scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orizio, Claudio; Cogliati, Marta; Bissolotti, Luciano; Diemont, Bertrand; Gobbo, Massimiliano; Celichowski, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This work aimed to verify if maximal electrically evoked single twitch (STmax) scan discloses the relative functional weight of fast and slow small bundles of fibres (SBF) in determining the contractile features of tibialis anterior (TA) with ageing. SBFs were recruited by TA main motor point stimulation through 60 increasing levels of stimulation (LS): 20 stimuli at 2Hz for each LS. The lowest and highest LS provided the least ST and STmax, respectively. The scanned STmax was decomposed into individual SBF STs. They were identified when twitches from adjacent LS were significantly different and then subtracted from each other. Nine young (Y) and eleven old (O) subjects were investigated. Contraction time (CT) and STarea/STpeak (A/PT) were calculated per each SBF ST. 143 and 155 SBF STs were obtained in Y and O, respectively. Y: CT and A/PT range: 45-105ms and 67-183mNs/mN, respectively. Literature data set TA fast fibres at 34% so, from the arrays of CT and A/PT, 65ms and 100mNs/mN were identified as the upper limit for SBF fast ST classification. O: no SBF ST could be classified as fast. STmax scan reveals age-related changes in the relative contribution of fast and slow SBFs to the overall muscle mechanics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. An in vivo model for studying the dynamics of intracellular free calcium changes in slow- and fast-twitch muscle fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bátkai, S; Rácz, I B; Ivanics, T; Tóth, A; Hamar, J; Slaaf, D W; Reneman, R S; Ligeti, L

    1999-10-01

    The understanding of the regulation of the free cytosolic [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]i) in skeletal muscle is hampered by the lack of techniques for quantifying free [Ca2+]i in muscle fibres in situ. We describe a model for studying the dynamics of free [Ca2+]i in the fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and the slow-twitch soleus (SOL) muscles of the rat in vivo using caffeine superfusion to induce changes in free [Ca2+]i. We assumed that differences in sensitivity between the two muscle types for this substance reflect differences in intracellular Ca2+ handling in the fibres of which these muscles consist. The Indo-1 ratiometric method, using intravital microscopy with incident light, was adapted to measure free [Ca2+]i in vivo. Fluorescence images were collected by means of a digital camera. Caffeine superfusion at 37 degrees C for 2 min, at concentrations of 1, 2, 5, 10 or 20 mmol/l, induced a concentration-dependent increase in free [Ca2+]i and revealed differences in caffeine sensitivity between the muscle types, with the SOL being more sensitive. In a separate set of experiments the contracture threshold, as assessed by topical application of caffeine, was determined in both muscle types. EDL had a higher threshold for developing contracture than SOL. These finding are in agreement with previous in vitro studies. We may conclude that the dynamics of free [Ca2+]i can be assessed reliably in intact mammalian muscle in vivo.

  20. Presence of acylated homoserine lactones (AHLs) and AHL-producing bacteria in meat and potential role of AHL in spoilage of meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Jesper Bartholin; Christensen, Allan Beck; Flodgaard, Lars

    2004-01-01

    Quorum-sensing (QS) signals (N-acyl homoserine lactones [AHLs]) were extracted and detected from five commercially produced vacuum-packed meat samples. Ninety-six AHL-producing bacteria were isolated, and 92 were identified as Enterobacteriaceae. Hafnia alvei was the most commonly identified AHL......-producing bacterium. Thin-layer chromatographic profiles of supernatants from six H. alvei isolates and of extracts from spoiling meat revealed that the major AHL species had an R-f value and shape similar to N-3-oxo-hexanoyl homoserine lactone (OHHL). Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (MS) (high-resolution MS...

  1. 12 WEEK EXPOSURE TO CARBONYL SULFIDE PRODUCES BRAIN LESIONS AND CHANGES IN BRAINSTEM AUDITORY (BAER) AND SOMATOSENAORY (SEP) EVOKED POTENTIALS IN FISCHER 344N RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS) is a chemical intermediate in the production of pesticides and herbicides, is a metabolite of carbon disulfide, is produced by the combustion of organic material, and is found occurring in nature. COS was included in a Toxic Substances Control Act request f...

  2. Characterization of free lytic bacteriophages isolated from compost against O145 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) as a potential biocontrol agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), one of the most prevalent foodborne pathogens, are notorious for hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and causing high mortality among children and the elder population after infection. Besides O157 STEC, non-O157 STEC—particularly serogroup O145—is commonly associat...

  3. Differential expression of FGF receptors and of myogenic regulatory factors in primary cultures of satellite cells originating from fast (EDL) and slow (Soleus) twitch rat muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelly, I; Soulet, L; Bonnavaud, S; Cebrian, J; Gautron, J; Barritault, D

    2000-11-01

    In the rat, the fast and slow twitch muscles respectively Extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and Soleus present differential characteristics during regeneration. This suggests that their satellite cells responsible for muscle growth and repair represent distinct cellular populations. We have previously shown that satellite cells dissociated from Soleus and grown in vitro proliferate more readily than those isolated from EDL muscle. Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are known as regulators of myoblast proliferation and several studies have revealed a relationship between the response of myoblasts to FGF and the expression of myogenic regulatory factors (MRF) of the MyoD family by myoblasts. Therefore, we presently examined the possibility that the satellite cells isolated from EDL and Soleus muscles differ in the expression of FGF receptors (FGF-R) and of MRF expression. FGF-R1 and -R4 were strongly expressed in proliferating cultures whereas FGF-R2 and R3 were not detected in these cultures. In differentiating cultures, only -R1 was present in EDL satellite cells while FGF-R4 was also still expressed in Soleus cells. Interestingly, the unconventional receptor for FGF called cystein rich FGF receptor (CFR), of yet unknown function, was mainly detected in EDL satellite cell cultures. Soleus and EDL satellite cell cultures also differed in the expression MRFs. These results are consistent with the notion that satellite cells from fast and slow twitch muscles belong to different types of myogenic cells and suggest that satellite cells might play distinct roles in the formation and diversification of fast and slow fibres.

  4. PRESERVATIVE POTENTIAL OF PURIFIED BACTERIOCIN PRODUCED FROM BREVIBACILLUS BORSTELENSIS AG1 ISOLATED FROM MARCHA – A TRADITIONAL WINE STARTER CULTURE CAKE IN TOMATO PASTE

    OpenAIRE

    Anupama Gupta; Nivedita Sharma; Neha Gautam

    2015-01-01

    Purified bacteriocin produced from Brevibacillus borstelensis AG1 isolated from Marcha a local wine starter herbal cake, was used to enhance the shelf life of tomato paste. Preservative effect of purified bacteriocin was studied for nine days in tomato paste inoculated with food borne pathogens and was compared to commercial biopreservative – nisin and chemical preservative – sodium benzoate. The indicator strains i.e. Listeria monocytogenes MTCC839, Bacillus subtilis CRI and Clostridium perf...

  5. Valorization of the energy potential of fossil and fissile fuels for heat production: dual-purpose power plants and heat-producing nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavite, Michel.

    1975-07-01

    The heat market is analyzed briefly within the French context: present structures and characteristics of the market, current means of heat production, predictable trend of the demand. The possible applications of nuclear energy to heat production, through the agency of combined electricity-steam stations or heat-producing stations, are then examined. Nuclear solutions are compared with others from the technico-economic and ecological wiewpoints and an estimate fo their respective impacts on the energy balance is attempted [fr

  6. EFFECTS OF THE APPLICATION OF A MINERAL-AND-ORGANIC FERTILISER PRODUCED FROM BROWN COAL ON THE OCCURRENCE AND INFECTIOUS POTENTIAL OF ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGI IN SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Majchrowska-Safaryan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the species composition and rate of entomopathogenic fungi occurrence in cultivable soil following the application of a mineral-and-organic fertiliser produced from brown coal. The material for testing consisted of soil samples collected in the second year of the experiment on two dates in 2015 (spring and autumn. The experiment was carried out on the following plots: control plot (no fertilisation; a plot fertilised with mineral fertilisers NPK presowing + N60 for top dressing; a plot fertilised with NPK presowing + manure; a plot fertilised with a fertiliser produced from brown coal at a dose of 1 t/ha NPK presowing + N20 for top dressing; and a plot fertilised with a fertiliser produced from brown coal at a dose of 5 t/ha NPK presowing + N40 for top dressing. Entomopathogenic fungi were isolated from soil of particular fertilisation experiment plots using insect traps (Galleria mellonella larvae as well as a selective medium. Three species of entomopathogenic fungi, i.e. Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae s.l. and Isaria fumosorosea, were isolated using two methods, from the soil samples collected from particular fertilisation experiment plots on two dates, i.e. spring and autumn. Fungus M. anisopliae s.l. proved to be the predominant species in the tested soil samples. The addition of the mineral-and-organic fertiliser, produced based on brown coal, to the soil at both applied doses contributed to an increase in the number of infectious units (CFUs of entomopathogenic fungi formed in relation to the control plot.

  7. Physiological and Molecular Characterization of Biosurfactant Producing Endophytic Fungi Xylaria regalis from the Cones of Thuja plicata as a Potent Plant Growth Promoter with Its Potential Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Adnan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there is an absolute concern for all nations in agricultural productivity to meet growing demands of human population. In recent time, biosurfactants produced by diverse group of microorganisms are used to achieve such demands as it is known for its ecofriendly use in elimination of plant pathogens and for increasing the bioavailability of nutrients for plants. Endophytic fungi are the important source of secondary metabolites and novel bioactive compounds for different biological applications. In the present study, endophytic fungi Xylaria regalis (X. regalis recovered from the cones of Thuja plicata was evaluated for its biosurfactant producing ability and plant growth-promoting abilities through various screening methods and also via its antagonistic activity against phytopathogens like Fusarium oxysporum and Aspergillus niger. In addition, X. regalis was also tested in vivo for a various range of growth parameters in chilli under greenhouse conditions. Significant increase in shoot and root length, dry matter production of shoot and root, chlorophyll, nitrogen, and phosphorus contents of chilli seedlings was found, which reveals its ability to improve the growth of crop plants. Hence, this study suggests the possibility of biosurfactant producing endophytic fungi X. regalis as a source of novel green biosurfactant for sustainable agriculture to achieve growing demands.

  8. Extended-Spectrum-Beta-Lactamase- and Plasmid-Encoded Cephamycinase-Producing Enterobacteria in the Broiler Hatchery as a Potential Mode of Pseudo-Vertical Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Projahn, Michaela; Daehre, Katrin; Roesler, Uwe; Friese, Anika

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance through extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) and transferable (plasmid-encoded) cephamycinases (pAmpCs) represents an increasing problem in human and veterinary medicine. The presence of ESBL-/pAmpC-producing commensal enterobacteria in farm animals, such as broiler chickens, is considered one possible source of food contamination and could therefore also be relevant for human colonization. Studies on transmission routes along the broiler production chain showed that 1-day-old hatchlings are already affected. In this study, ESBL-/pAmpC-positive broiler parent flocks and their corresponding eggs, as well as various environmental and air samples from the hatchery, were analyzed. The eggs were investigated concerning ESBL-/pAmpC-producing enterobacteria on the outer eggshell surface (before/after disinfection), the inner eggshell surface, and the egg content. Isolates were analyzed concerning their species, their phylogroup in the case of Escherichia coli strains, the respective resistance genes, and the phenotypical antibiotic resistance. Of the tested eggs, 0.9% (n = 560) were contaminated on their outer shell surface. Further analyses using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed a relationship of these strains to those isolated from the corresponding parent flocks, which demonstrates a pseudo-vertical transfer of ESBL-/pAmpC-producing enterobacteria into the hatchery. Resistant enterobacteria were also found in environmental samples from the hatchery, such as dust or surfaces which could pose as a possible contamination source for the hatchlings. All 1-day-old chicks tested negative directly after hatching. The results show a possible entry of ESBL-/pAmpC-producing enterobacteria from the parent flocks into the hatchery; however, the impact of the hatchery on colonization of the hatchlings seems to be low. ESBL-/pAmpC-producing enterobacteria occur frequently in broiler-fattening farms. Recent studies investigated the prevalence and

  9. Producers and oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greaves, W.

    1993-01-01

    This article attempts an assessment of the potential use of futures by the Middle East oil producers. It focuses on Saudi Arabia since the sheer size of Saudi Arabian sales poses problems, but the basic issues discussed are similar for the other Middle East producers. (Author)

  10. Selection of Potential Therapeutic Bacteriophages that Lyse a CTX-M-15 Extended Spectrum β-Lactamase Producing Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi Strain from the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elene Kakabadze

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a Salmonella Typhi isolate producing CTX-M-15 extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL and with decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility was isolated in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. We have selected bacteriophages that show strong lytic activity against this isolate and have potential for phage-based treatment of S. Typhi, and Salmonella in general.

  11. Multilayered Films Produced by Layer-by-Layer Assembly of Chitosan and Alginate as a Potential Platform for the Formation of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cell aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Hatami

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The construction of multilayered films with tunable properties could offer new routes to produce biomaterials as a platform for 3D cell cultivation. In this study, multilayered films produced with five bilayers of chitosan and alginate (CHT/ALG were built using water-soluble modified mesyl and tosyl–CHT via layer-by-layer (LbL self-assembly. NMR results demonstrated the presences of mesyl (2.83 ppm and tosyl groups (2.39, 7.37 and 7.70 ppm in the chemical structure of modified chitosans. The buildup of multilayered films was monitored by quartz-crystal-microbalance (QCM-D and film thickness was estimated using the Voigt-based viscoelastic model. QCM-D results demonstrated that CHT/ALG films constructed using mesyl or tosyl modifications (mCHT/ALG were significantly thinner in comparison to the CHT/ALG films constructed with unmodified chitosan (p < 0.05. Adhesion analysis demonstrated that human adipose stem cells (hASCs did not adhere to the mCHT/ALG multilayered films and formed aggregates with sizes between ca. 100–200 µm. In vitro studies on cell metabolic activity and live/dead staining suggested that mCHT/ALG multilayered films are nontoxic toward hACSs. Multilayered films produced via LbL assembly of ALG and off-the-shelf, water-soluble modified chitosans could be used as a scaffold for the 3D aggregates formation of hASCs in vitro.

  12. Objectively Determining the Educational Potential of Computer and Video-Based Courseware; or, Producing Reliable Evaluations Despite the Dog and Pony Show.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Andrew J.; And Others

    The Center for Interactive Technology, Applications, and Research at the College of Engineering of the University of South Florida (Tampa) has developed objective and descriptive evaluation models to assist in determining the educational potential of computer and video courseware. The computer-based courseware evaluation model and the video-based…

  13. Estimation of the electric power potential using wastewater sludge produced from the Percy Steward Wastewater Treatment Works (PS-WWTW) in Mogale City local municipality

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mema, V

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available at PS-WWTW in Mogale City local municipality indicates that high energy savings potential compared to using energy from fossil fuels. Analysis of the annual energy (electricity) consumption at the PS-WWTW over the past 3 years (2011 – 2014) shows...

  14. Occurrence, production, and export of lipophilic compounds by hydrocarbonoclastic marine bacteria and their potential use to produce bulk chemicals from hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manilla-Pérez, Efraín; Lange, Alvin Brian; Hetzler, Stephan; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2010-05-01

    Petroleum (or crude oil) is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons. Annually, millions of tons of crude petroleum oil enter the marine environment from either natural or anthropogenic sources. Hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria (HDB) are able to assimilate and metabolize hydrocarbons present in petroleum. Crude oil pollution constitutes a temporary condition of carbon excess coupled to a limited availability of nitrogen that prompts marine oil-degrading bacteria to accumulate storage compounds. Storage lipid compounds such as polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), triacylglycerols (TAGs), or wax esters (WEs) constitute the main accumulated lipophilic substances by bacteria under such unbalanced growth conditions. The importance of these compounds as end-products or precursors to produce interesting biotechnologically relevant chemicals has already been recognized. In this review, we analyze the occurrence and accumulation of lipid storage in marine hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria. We further discuss briefly the production and export of lipophilic compounds by bacteria belonging to the Alcanivorax genus, which became a model strain of an unusual group of obligate hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria (OHCB) and discuss the possibility to produce neutral lipids using A. borkumensis SK2.

  15. Prebiotic potential of L-sorbose and xylitol in promoting the growth and metabolic activity of specific butyrate-producing bacteria in human fecal culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tadashi; Kusuhara, Shiro; Yokoi, Wakae; Ito, Masahiko; Miyazaki, Kouji

    2017-01-01

    Dietary low-digestible carbohydrates (LDCs) affect gut microbial metabolism, including the production of short-chain fatty acids. The ability of various LDCs to promote butyrate production was evaluated in in vitro human fecal cultures. Fecal suspensions from five healthy males were anaerobically incubated with various LDCs. L-Sorbose and xylitol markedly promoted butyrate formation in cultures. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analyses of these fecal cultures revealed a marked increase in the abundance of bacteria closely related to the species Anaerostipes hadrus or A. caccae or both, during enhanced butyrate formation from L-sorbose or xylitol. By using an agar plate culture, two strains of A. hadrus that produced butyrate from each substrate were isolated from the feces of two donors. Furthermore, of 12 species of representative colonic butyrate producers, only A. hadrus and A. caccae demonstrated augmented butyrate production from L-sorbose or xylitol. These findings suggest that L-sorbose and xylitol cause prebiotic stimulation of the growth and metabolic activity of Anaerostipes spp. in the human colon. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Salting of dry-cured meat – A potential cause of contamination with the ochratoxin A-producing species Penicillium nordicum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonjak, Silva; Ličen, Mia; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2011-01-01

    as the possible source of P. nordicum. In the present study contamination of meat products, air in the meat-processing plant and sea salt used for salting were analysed. When 50 g of salt sample from a sealed package was dissolved in sterile water and filtered, 12 colonies of P. nordicum were obtained on solid......Penicillium nordicum is a known contaminant of protein-rich foods and is primarily found on dry-cured meat products. It is an important producer of the mycotoxin ochratoxin A, which has nephrotoxic and cancerogenic activities. Recently a high number of P. nordicum strains was isolated from...... medium incubated at 15 °C, while a salt sample from an open vessel in the meat-processing area developed high, uncountable number of colonies. Amplified fragment length polymorphism analyses of P. nordicum isolates from different sources showed that contamination of meat products via salt was possible...

  17. Isolation and Characterization of Thermophilic Bacteria from Jordanian Hot Springs: Bacillus licheniformis and Thermomonas hydrothermalis Isolates as Potential Producers of Thermostable Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Balsam T; Al Daghistani, Hala I; Jaouani, Atef; Abdel-Latif, Saleh; Kennes, Christian

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was the isolation and characterization of thermophilic bacteria from hot springs in Jordan. Ten isolates were characterized by morphological, microscopic, biochemical, molecular, and physiological characteristics. Sequencing of the 16S rDNA of the isolates followed by BLAST search revealed that nine strains could be identified as Bacillus licheniformis and one isolate as Thermomonas hydrothermalis . This is the first report on the isolation of Thermomonas species from Jordanian hot springs. The isolates showed an ability to produce some thermostable enzymes such as amylase, protease, cellulose, gelatins, and lecithin. Moreover, the UPGMA dendrogram of the enzymatic characteristics of the ten isolates was constructed; results indicated a high phenotypic diversity, which encourages future studies to explore further industrial and environmental applications.

  18. Isolation and Characterization of Thermophilic Bacteria from Jordanian Hot Springs: Bacillus licheniformis and Thermomonas hydrothermalis Isolates as Potential Producers of Thermostable Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balsam T. Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the isolation and characterization of thermophilic bacteria from hot springs in Jordan. Ten isolates were characterized by morphological, microscopic, biochemical, molecular, and physiological characteristics. Sequencing of the 16S rDNA of the isolates followed by BLAST search revealed that nine strains could be identified as Bacillus licheniformis and one isolate as Thermomonas hydrothermalis. This is the first report on the isolation of Thermomonas species from Jordanian hot springs. The isolates showed an ability to produce some thermostable enzymes such as amylase, protease, cellulose, gelatins, and lecithin. Moreover, the UPGMA dendrogram of the enzymatic characteristics of the ten isolates was constructed; results indicated a high phenotypic diversity, which encourages future studies to explore further industrial and environmental applications.

  19. Metabolic engineering of a glycerol-oxidative pathway in Lactobacillus panis PM1 for utilization of bioethanol thin stillage: potential to produce platform chemicals from glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Tae Sun; Korber, Darren R; Tanaka, Takuji

    2014-12-01

    Lactobacillus panis PM1 has the ability to produce 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PDO) from thin stillage (TS), which is the major waste material after bioethanol production, and is therefore of significance. However, the fact that L. panis PM1 cannot use glycerol as a sole carbon source presents a considerable problem in terms of utilization of this strain in a wide range of industrial applications. Accordingly, L. panis PM1 was genetically engineered to directly utilize TS as a fermentable substrate for the production of valuable platform chemicals without the need for exogenous nutrient supplementation (e.g., sugars and nitrogen sources). An artificial glycerol-oxidative pathway, comprised of glycerol facilitator, glycerol kinase, glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, triosephosphate isomerase, and NADPH-dependent aldehyde reductase genes of Escherichia coli, was introduced into L. panis PM1 in order to directly utilize glycerol for the production of energy for growth and value-added chemicals. A pH 6.5 culture converted glycerol to mainly lactic acid (85.43 mM), whereas a significant amount of 1,3-propanediol (59.96 mM) was formed at pH 7.5. Regardless of the pH, ethanol (82.16 to 83.22 mM) was produced from TS fermentations, confirming that the artificial pathway metabolized glycerol for energy production and converted it into lactic acid or 1,3-PDO and ethanol in a pH-dependent manner. This study demonstrates the cost-effective conversion of TS to value-added chemicals by the engineered PM1 strain cultured under industrial conditions. Thus, application of this strain or these research findings can contribute to reduced costs of bioethanol production. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Primordial Germ Cell-Mediated Chimera Technology Produces Viable Pure-Line Houbara Bustard Offspring: Potential for Repopulating an Endangered Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernery, Ulrich; Liu, Chunhai; Baskar, Vijay; Guerineche, Zhor; Khazanehdari, Kamal A.; Saleem, Shazia; Kinne, Jörg; Wernery, Renate

    2010-01-01

    Background The Houbara bustard (Chlamydotis undulata) is a wild seasonal breeding bird populating arid sandy semi-desert habitats in North Africa and the Middle East. Its population has declined drastically during the last two decades and it is classified as vulnerable. Captive breeding programmes have, hitherto, been unsuccessful in reviving population numbers and thus radical technological solutions are essential for the long term survival of this species. The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of primordial germ cell-mediated chimera technology to produce viable Houbara bustard offspring. Methodology/Principal Findings Embryonic gonadal tissue was dissected from Houbara bustard embryos at eight days post-incubation. Subsequently, Houbara tissue containing gonadal primordial germ cells (gPGCs) was injected into White Leghorn chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) embryos, producing 83/138 surviving male chimeric embryos, of which 35 chimeric roosters reached sexual maturity after 5 months. The incorporation and differentiation of Houbara gPGCs in chimeric chicken testis were assessed by PCR with Houbara-specific primers and 31.3% (5/16) gonads collected from the injected chicken embryos showed the presence of donor Houbara cells. A total of 302 semen samples from 34 chimeric roosters were analyzed and eight were confirmed as germline chimeras. Semen samples from these eight roosters were used to artificially inseminate three female Houbara bustards. Subsequently, 45 Houbara eggs were obtained and incubated, two of which were fertile. One egg hatched as a male live born Houbara; the other was female but died before hatching. Genotyping confirmed that the male chick was a pure-line Houbara derived from a chimeric rooster. Conclusion This study demonstrates for the first time that Houbara gPGCs can migrate, differentiate and eventually give rise to functional sperm in the chimeric chicken testis. This approach may provide a promising tool for propagation

  1. Primordial germ cell-mediated chimera technology produces viable pure-line Houbara bustard offspring: potential for repopulating an endangered species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Wernery

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Houbara bustard (Chlamydotis undulata is a wild seasonal breeding bird populating arid sandy semi-desert habitats in North Africa and the Middle East. Its population has declined drastically during the last two decades and it is classified as vulnerable. Captive breeding programmes have, hitherto, been unsuccessful in reviving population numbers and thus radical technological solutions are essential for the long term survival of this species. The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of primordial germ cell-mediated chimera technology to produce viable Houbara bustard offspring.Embryonic gonadal tissue was dissected from Houbara bustard embryos at eight days post-incubation. Subsequently, Houbara tissue containing gonadal primordial germ cells (gPGCs was injected into White Leghorn chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus embryos, producing 83/138 surviving male chimeric embryos, of which 35 chimeric roosters reached sexual maturity after 5 months. The incorporation and differentiation of Houbara gPGCs in chimeric chicken testis were assessed by PCR with Houbara-specific primers and 31.3% (5/16 gonads collected from the injected chicken embryos showed the presence of donor Houbara cells. A total of 302 semen samples from 34 chimeric roosters were analyzed and eight were confirmed as germline chimeras. Semen samples from these eight roosters were used to artificially inseminate three female Houbara bustards. Subsequently, 45 Houbara eggs were obtained and incubated, two of which were fertile. One egg hatched as a male live born Houbara; the other was female but died before hatching. Genotyping confirmed that the male chick was a pure-line Houbara derived from a chimeric rooster.This study demonstrates for the first time that Houbara gPGCs can migrate, differentiate and eventually give rise to functional sperm in the chimeric chicken testis. This approach may provide a promising tool for propagation and conservation of endangered avian

  2. Efficacy of a potential trivalent vaccine based on Hc fragments of botulinum toxins A, B, and E produced in a cell-free expression system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zichel, R; Mimran, A; Keren, A; Barnea, A; Steinberger-Levy, I; Marcus, D; Turgeman, A; Reuveny, S

    2010-05-01

    Botulinum toxins produced by the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium botulinum are the most potent biological toxins in nature. Traditionally, people at risk are immunized with a formaldehyde-inactivated toxin complex. Second generation vaccines are based on the recombinant carboxy-terminal heavy-chain (Hc) fragment of the neurotoxin. However, the materialization of this approach is challenging, mainly due to the high AT content of clostridial genes. Herein, we present an alternative strategy in which the native genes encoding Hc proteins of botulinum toxins A, B, and E were used to express the recombinant Hc fragments in a cell-free expression system. We used the unique property of this open system to introduce different combinations of chaperone systems, protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), and reducing/oxidizing environments directly to the expression reaction. Optimized expression conditions led to increased production of soluble Hc protein, which was successfully scaled up using a continuous exchange (CE) cell-free system. Hc proteins were produced at a concentration of more than 1 mg/ml and purified by one-step Ni(+) affinity chromatography. Mice immunized with three injections containing 5 microg of any of the in vitro-expressed, alum-absorbed, Hc vaccines generated a serum enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) titer of 10(5) against the native toxin complex, which enabled protection against a high-dose toxin challenge (10(3) to 10(6) mouse 50% lethal dose [MsLD(50)]). Finally, immunization with a trivalent HcA, HcB, and HcE vaccine protected mice against the corresponding trivalent 10(5) MsLD(50) toxin challenge. Our results together with the latest developments in scalability of the in vitro protein expression systems offer alternative routes for the preparation of botulinum vaccine.

  3. Postactivation Potentiation of the Plantar Flexors Does Not Directly Translate to Jump Performance in Female Elite Young Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieske, Olaf; Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Granacher, Urs

    2018-01-01

    High-intensity muscle actions have the potential to temporarily improve muscle contractile properties (i.e., postactivation potentiation, PAP) thereby inducing acute performance enhancements. There is evidence that balance training can improve performance during strength exercises. Taking these findings together, the purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of a combined balance and strength (B+S) exercise vs. a strength only (S) exercise on twitch contractile properties, maximum voluntary strength, and jump performance in young athletes. Female elite young soccer players ( N = 12) aged 14-15 years conducted three experimental conditions in randomized order: S included 3 sets of 8-10 dynamic leg extensions at 80% of the 1-repetition maximum, B+S consisted of 3 sets of 40 s double-leg stances on a balance board prior to leg extensions (same as S), and a resting control period. Before and 7 min after exercise, participants were tested for their electrically-evoked isometric twitches (i.e., twitch peak torque, twitch rate of torque development) and maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) torque of the plantar flexor muscles. Additionally, countermovement (CMJ) and drop jump (DJ) performances (i.e., CMJ/DJ height, DJ ground contact time) were assessed. Significant effects of condition on twitch contractile properties ( p jump performance outputs ( p jump performance. It is concluded that PAP effects in the plantar flexors may not directly translate to improved jump performance in female elite young soccer players. Therefore, the observed gains in jump performance following B+S are most likely related to neuromuscular changes (e.g., intramuscular coordination) rather than improved contractile properties.

  4. The logic, experimental steps, and potential of heterologous natural product biosynthesis featuring the complex antibiotic erythromycin A produced through E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ming; Zhang, Haoran; Pfeifer, Blaine A

    2013-01-13

    The heterologous production of complex natural products is an approach designed to address current limitations and future possibilities. It is particularly useful for those compounds which possess therapeutic value but cannot be sufficiently produced or would benefit from an improved form of production. The experimental procedures involved can be subdivided into three components: 1) genetic transfer; 2) heterologous reconstitution; and 3) product analysis. Each experimental component is under continual optimization to meet the challenges and anticipate the opportunities associated with this emerging approach. Heterologous biosynthesis begins with the identification of a genetic sequence responsible for a valuable natural product. Transferring this sequence to a heterologous host is complicated by the biosynthetic pathway complexity responsible for product formation. The antibiotic erythromycin A is a good example. Twenty genes (totaling >50 kb) are required for eventual biosynthesis. In addition, three of these genes encode megasynthases, multi-domain enzymes each ~300 kDa in size. This genetic material must be designed and transferred to E. coli for reconstituted biosynthesis. The use of PCR isolation, operon construction, multi-cystronic plasmids, and electro-transformation will be described in transferring the erythromycin A genetic cluster to E. coli. Once transferred, the E. coli cell must support eventual biosynthesis. This process is also challenging given the substantial differences between E. coli and most original hosts responsible for complex natural product formation. The cell must provide necessary substrates to support biosynthesis and coordinately express the transferred genetic cluster to produce active enzymes. In the case of erythromycin A, the E. coli cell had to be engineered to provide the two precursors (propionyl-CoA and (2S)-methylmalonyl-CoA) required for biosynthesis. In addition, gene sequence modifications, plasmid copy number

  5. Enterocin B3A-B3B produced by LAB collected from infant faeces: potential utilization in the food industry for Listeria monocytogenes biofilm management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Seraih, Alaa; Belguesmia, Yanath; Baah, John; Szunerits, Sabine; Boukherroub, Rabah; Drider, Djamel

    2017-02-01

    Enterococcus faecalis B3A-B3B produces the bacteriocin B3A-B3B with activity against Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Clostridium perfringens, but apparently not against fungi or Gram-negative bacteria, except for Salmonella Newport. B3A-B3B enterocin has two different nucleotides but similar amino acid composition to the class IIb MR10A-MR10B enterocin. B3A-B3B consists of two peptides of predicted molecular mass of 5176.31 Da (B3A) and 5182.21 Da (B3B). Importantly, B3A-B3B impeded biofilm formation of the foodborne pathogen L. monocytogenes 162 grown on stainless steel. The antimicrobial treatment of stainless steel with nisin (1 or 16 mg ml -1 ) decreased the cell numbers by about 2 log CFU ml -1 , thereby impeding the biofilm formation by L. monocytogenes 162 or its nisin-resistant derivative strain L. monocytogenes 162R. Furthermore, the combination of nisin and B3A-B3B enterocin reduced the MIC required to inhibit this pathogen grown in planktonic or biofilm cultures.

  6. Poly-γ-glutamic acid produced from Bacillus licheniformis CGMCC 2876 as a potential substitute for polyacrylamide in the sugarcane industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shan; Yao, Haosheng; Chen, Zhen; Zeng, Shengquan; Xi, Xi; Wang, Yuanpeng; He, Ning; Li, Qingbiao

    2015-01-01

    As an environmentally friendly and industrially useful biopolymer, poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) from Bacillus licheniformis CGMCC 2876 was characterized by the high-resolution mass spectrometry and (1)H NMR. A flocculating activity of 11,474.47 U mL(-1) obtained with γ-PGA, and the effects of carbon sources, ions, and chemical properties (D-/L-composition and molecular weight) on the production and flocculating activity of γ-PGA were discussed. Being a bioflocculant in the sugar refinery process, the color and turbidity of the sugarcane juice was IU 1,877.36 and IU 341.41 with 0.8 ppm of γ-PGA, respectively, which was as good as the most widely used chemically synthesized flocculant in the sugarcane industry--polyacrylamide with 1 ppm. The γ-PGA produced from B. licheniformis CGMCC 2876 could be a promising alternate of chemically synthesized flocculants in the sugarcane industry. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  7. Characterisation of copolymer, poly (hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHB-co-PHV) produced by Halomonas campisalis (MCM B-1027), its biodegradability and potential application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Snehal O; Kanekar, Pradnya P; Jog, Jyoti P; Patil, Prashant A; Nilegaonkar, Smita S; Sarnaik, Seema S; Kshirsagar, Pranav R

    2011-06-01

    Characterisation of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) film produced by haloalkalitolerant Halomonas campisalis (MCM B-1027) in 14L SS fermenter revealed it to have composition of monomer units, HB:HV as 96:4 as analysed by (1)H NMR indicating the PHA as a co-polymer of PHB-co-PHV, molecular weight by gel permeation chromatography as 2.08 × 10(6), melting temperature 166.51°C, tensile strength 18.8 MPa; two relaxations namely beta transition corresponding to the glass rubber transition and alpha transition corresponding to crystalline relaxation by Dynamic Mechanical Thermal analysis and only one relaxation corresponding to MWS interfacial polarisation with activation energy of 129 kJ/mol by broadband dielectric spectroscopy. Optical microscopic studies showed typical Maltese-cross pattern of spherulites. The PHA film was found to be biodegradable by standard ASTM method as well as by soil burial method. The leak proof polymer bags prepared from the film could be used as a packaging material. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Nutritional value of locally produced foods and potential for developing age-appropriate complementary foods for children under 2 years of age in Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoya, Mohamed Ag; Kodio, Joseph; Iknane, Akory Ag; Sodjinou, Roger

    2010-09-01

    Promotion of dietary diversity using locally available nutritious foods is an effective approach in low-income areas to improve the quality of young children's diet and, hence, their growth and development. To identify the nutritional values of locally acceptable, feasible, affordable, and sustainable foods and develop a number of recipes that could be used to complement effectively nutrient intakes provided through breastfeeding to children 6 to 23 months of age in Bandiagara, Mali. Structured questionnaires were used to obtain lists of all locally available foods during village assembly meetings and identify the food basket of households and child feeding practices during interviews with mothers and fathers. The nutritional values of the foods were estimated, and the Malian food composition table was used to identify the combinations that would result in the most nutritious recipes. Breastfeeding was widely practiced, but the rate of exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 months of life was extremely low (7%). The practice of early introduction of water and complementary foods was a problem. Forty recipes for improved dishes, including puddings, drinks and juices, purees, salads, and soups, were proposed. The nutritional values of the 10 most nutritious of these recipes, the types and quantities of the ingredients, and the method of preparation of each recipe are described. Locally produced indigenous foods in rural Mali were used to develop energy- and nutrient-dense complementary foods for children. Further research is needed to test the short- and long-term effects of consuming these dishes on the nutritional status of children 6 to 23 months of age in Mali.

  9. African-American Men with Gleason Score 3+3=6 Prostate Cancer Produce Less Prostate Specific Antigen than Caucasian Men: A Potential Impact on Active Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryvenko, Oleksandr N; Balise, Raymond; Soodana Prakash, Nachiketh; Epstein, Jonathan I

    2016-02-01

    We assess the difference in prostate specific antigen production between African-American and Caucasian men with Gleason score 3+3=6 prostate cancer. We measured tumor volume in 414 consecutive radical prostatectomies from men with National Comprehensive Cancer Network(®) low risk prostate cancer (348 Caucasian, 66 African-American) who had Gleason score 3+3=6 disease at radical prostatectomy. We then compared clinical presentation, pathological findings, prostate specific antigen, prostate specific antigen density and prostate specific antigen mass (an absolute amount of prostate specific antigen in patient's circulation) between African-American and Caucasian men. The t-test and Wilcoxon rank sum were used for comparison of means. African-American and Caucasian men had similar clinical findings based on age, body mass index and prostate specific antigen. There were no statistically significant differences between the dominant tumor nodule volume and total tumor volume (mean 0.712 vs 0.665 cm(3), p=0.695) between African-American and Caucasian men. Prostates were heavier in African-American men (mean 55.4 vs 46.3 gm, p prostate tissue contributing to prostate specific antigen in African-American men, prostate specific antigen mass was not different from that of Caucasian men (mean 0.55 vs 0.558 μg, p=0.95). Prostate specific antigen density was significantly less in African-American men due to larger prostates (mean 0.09 vs 0.105, p prostate cancer produce less prostate specific antigen than Caucasian men. African-American and Caucasian men had equal serum prostate specific antigen and prostate specific antigen mass despite significantly larger prostates in African-American men with all other parameters, particularly total tumor volume, being the same. This finding has practical implications in T1c cases diagnosed with prostate cancer due to prostate specific antigen screening. Lowering the prostate specific antigen density threshold in African-American men may

  10. Impact of Coulomb potential on peak structures arising in momentum and low-energy photoelectron spectra produced in strong-field ionization of laser-irradiated atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyak, P. E.; Usachenko, V. I.

    2018-03-01

    The phenomenon of pronounced peak structure(s) of longitudinal momentum distributions as well as a spike-like structure of low-energy spectra of photoelectrons emitted from laser-irradiated Ar and Ne atoms in a single ionization process is theoretically studied in the tunneling and multiphoton regimes of ionization. The problem is addressed assuming only the direct above-threshold ionization (ATI) as a physical mechanism underlying the phenomenon under consideration (viz. solely contributing to observed photoelectron momentum distributions (PMD)) and using the Coulomb-Volkov (CV) ansatz within the frame of conventional strong-field approximation (SFA) applied in the length-gauge formulation. The developed CV-SFA approach also incorporates the density functional theory essentially exploited for numerical composition of initial (laser-free) atomic state(s) constructed from atomic orbitals of Gaussian type. Our presented CV-SFA based (and laser focal-volume averaged) calculation results proved to be well reproducing both the pronounced double-peak and/or ATI-like multi-peak structure(s) experimentally observed in longitudinal PMD under conditions of tunneling and/or multiphoton regime, respectively. In addition, our CV-SFA results presented for tunneling regime also suggest and remarkably reproduce a pronounced structure observed in relevant experiments as a ‘spike-like’ enhanced maximum arising in low-energy region (around the value of about 1 eV) of photoelectron spectra. The latter consistency allows to identify and interpret these results as the so-called low-energy structure (LES) since the phenomenon proved to appear as the most prominent if the influence of Coulomb potential on photoelectron continuum states is maximally taken into account under calculations (viz. if the parameter Z in CV’s functions is put equal to 1). Moreover, the calculated LES proved to correspond (viz., established as closely related) to the mentioned double-peak structure arising

  11. Juxtaposition of the changes in intracellular calcium and force during staircase potentiation at 30 and 37?C

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Ian C.; Vandenboom, Rene; Tupling, A. Russell

    2014-01-01

    Ca2+ entry during the action potential stimulates muscle contraction. During repetitive low frequency stimulation, skeletal muscle undergoes staircase potentiation (SP), a progressive increase in the peak twitch force induced by each successive stimulus. Multiple mechanisms, including myosin regulatory light chain phosphorylation, likely contribute to SP, a temperature-dependent process. Here, we used the Ca2+-sensitive fluorescence indicators acetoxymethyl (AM)-furaptra and AM-fura-2 to exam...

  12. Producing cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, E G

    1923-09-12

    A process and apparatus are described for producing Portland cement in which pulverized shale is successively heated in a series of inclined rotary retorts having internal stirrers and oil gas outlets, which are connected to condensers. The partially treated shale is removed from the lowermost retort by a conveyor, then fed separately or conjointly into pipes and thence into a number of vertically disposed retorts. Each of these retorts may be fitted interiorly with vertical arranged conveyors which elevate the shale and discharge it over a lip, from whence it falls to the bottom of the retorts. The lower end of each casing is furnished with an adjustable discharge door through which the spent shale is fed to a hopper, thence into separate trucks. The oil gases generated in the retorts are exhausted through pipes to condensers. The spent shale is conveyed to a bin and mixed while hot with ground limestone. The admixed materials are then ground and fed to a rotary kiln which is fired by the incondensible gases derived from the oil gases obtained in the previous retorting of the shale. The calcined materials are then delivered from the rotary kiln to rotary coolers. The waste gases from the kiln are utilized for heating the retorts in which the ground shale is heated for the purpose of extracting therefrom the contained hydrocarbon oils and gases.

  13. Myosin Binding Protein-C Slow Phosphorylation is Altered in Duchenne Dystrophy and Arthrogryposis Myopathy in Fast-Twitch Skeletal Muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Maegen A; Ward, Christopher W; Gurnett, Christina; Kontrogianni-Konstantopoulos, Aikaterini

    2015-08-19

    Myosin Binding Protein-C slow (sMyBP-C), encoded by MYBPC1, comprises a family of regulatory proteins of skeletal muscles that are phosphorylated by PKA and PKC. MYBPC1 missense mutations are linked to the development of Distal Arthrogryposis-1 (DA-1). Although structure-function details for this myopathy are evolving, function is undoubtedly driven by sequence variations and post-translational modifications in sMyBP-C. Herein, we examined the phosphorylation profile of sMyBP-C in mouse and human fast-twitch skeletal muscles. We used Flexor Digitorum Brevis (FDB) isolated from young (~2-months old) and old (~14-months old) wild type and mdx mice, and human Abductor Hallucis (AH) and gastrocnemious muscles carrying the DA-1 mutations. Our results indicate both constitutive and differential phosphorylation of sMyBP-C in aged and diseased muscles. We report a 7-35% reduction in the phosphorylation levels of select sites in old wild type and young or old mdx FDB mouse muscles, compared to young wild type tissue. Similarly, we observe a 30-70% decrease in the phosphorylation levels of all PKA and PKC phospho-sites in the DA-1 AH, but not gastrocnemius, muscle. Overall, our studies show that the phosphorylation pattern of sMyBP-C is differentially regulated in response to age and disease, suggesting that phosphorylation plays important roles in these processes.

  14. Unchanged content of oxidative enzymes in fast-twitch muscle fibers and V˙O2 kinetics after intensified training in trained cyclists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Møller; Gunnarsson, Thomas Gunnar Petursson; Thomassen, Martin

    2015-01-01

    perturbation during INT. Pulmonary V˙O2 kinetics was determined in eight trained male cyclists (V˙O2-max: 59 ± 4 (means ± SD) mL min(-1) kg(-1)) during MOD (205 ± 12 W ~65% V˙O2-max) and INT (286 ± 17 W ~85% V˙O2-max) exercise before and after a 7-week HIT period (30-sec sprints and 4-min intervals) with a 50...... DW(-1) min(-1)) of CS (56 ± 8 post-HIT vs. 59 ± 10 pre-HIT), HAD (27 ± 6 vs. 29 ± 3) and PFK (340 ± 69 vs. 318 ± 105) and the capillary to fiber ratio (2.30 ± 0.16 vs. 2.38 ± 0.20) was unaltered following HIT. V˙O2 kinetics was unchanged with HIT and the speed of the primary response did not differ...... of oxidative enzymes in fast-twitch fibers, and did not change V˙O2 kinetics....

  15. Immunohistochemical evidence for expression of fast-twitch type sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA1) in German shepherd dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerfield, Nuala; Peters, Mary E; Hercock, Carol A; Mobasheri, Ali; Young, Iain S

    2010-04-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is one of the most common acquired canine heart diseases. It is particularly common in large and giant breed dogs. Although a great deal is known about the clinical progression and manifestations of the disease, the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. One widely held belief is that calcium-handling abnormalities are critically involved in the disease process. This study investigates the changes in expression of the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA) isoforms in DCM myocardium from German shepherd dogs. Affected tissue samples were obtained from German shepherd dogs with DCM, euthanized for intractable congestive heart failure while normal myocardial tissue samples were obtained from German shepherd dogs, euthanized for non-cardiovascular reasons. Tissue microarrays containing normal and DCM myocardium samples were prepared, immunostained with SERCA1 and SERCA2 antibodies and analyzed. We were able to demonstrate, for the first time, that while there is little change in the expression of the cardiac isoform (SERCA2), there is clear expression of the fast-twitch skeletal muscle isoform SERCA1 in the myocardium of dogs diagnosed with DCM. We propose that SERCA1 expression is evidence of a natural adaptive response to the impaired Ca2+ handling thought to occur in German shepherd dogs with DCM and heart failure. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterization of potential ethylene-producing rhizosphere ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TonukariJ

    DNA fingerprint patterns of the three bacteria were markedly different when amplified with different primers. ... retarded their commercial development and widespread use. Research has shown that .... These findings could be. Table 1: Number of bands and percentage of DNA polymorphic bands in three bacteria isolates.

  17. Microspora floccosa; a potential biofuel producer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, A.A.S.; Pathan, A.A.

    2016-01-01

    The current study is focused on biofuel production from local specie of algae. Initially samples were observed to identify the algal specie. Afterward oil was extracted from algae by Soxhlet extraction method, retention time was optimized to improve the yield of oil at different intervals. The recovered oil from algae was subjected to qualitative analysis by Gas Chromatography. Four major peaks were appeared on GC chromatogram which correspond to methyl esters of dodecanoic acid, tetradecanoic acid, 8,11,14-Eicosadienoic acid and 9,10-dihydroxy octadecanoic. The results reflect that Microspora floccosa algae considered to be favorable for biofuel production. (author)

  18. Microspora Floccosa; A Potential Biofuel Producer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha Abdul Sattar Memon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The current study is focused on biofuel production from local specie of algae. Initially samples were observed to identify the algal specie. Afterward oil was extracted from algae by Soxhlet extraction method, retention time was optimized to improve the yield of oil at different intervals. The recovered oil from algae was subjected to qualitative analysis by Gas Chromatography. Four major peaks were appeared on GC chromatogram which correspond to methyl esters of Dodecanoic acid, Tetradecanoic acid, 8,11,14-Eicosadienoic acid and 9,10-Dihydroxy octadecanoic. The results reflect that Microspora floccosa algae considered to be favorable for biofuel production.

  19. Validation of jump squats as a practical measure of post-activation potentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nibali, Maria L; Chapman, Dale W; Robergs, Robert A; Drinkwater, Eric J

    2013-03-01

    To determine if post-activation potentiation (PAP) can augment sports performance, it is pertinent that researchers be confident that any enhancement in performance is attributable to the PAP phenomenon. However, obtaining mechanistic measures of PAP in the daily training environment of highly trained athletes is impractical. We sought to validate jump squats as a practical measure with ecological validity to sports performance against a mechanistic measure of PAP. We assessed the evoked muscle twitch properties of the knee extensors and jump squat kinetics of 8 physically trained males in response to a 5-repetition-maximum back squat conditioning stimulus (CS). Evoked muscle twitch, followed by 3 jump squats, was assessed before and at 4, 8, and 12 min post CS. Time intervals were assessed on separate occasions using a Latin square design. Linear regression was used to determine the relationship between post-pre changes in kinetic variables and muscle twitch peak force (Ft) and twitch rate of force development (RFDt). Large correlations were observed for both concentric relative and absolute mean power and Ft (r = 0.50 ± 0.30) and RFDt (r = 0.56 ± 0.27 and r = 0.58 ± 0.26). Concentric rate of force development (RFD) showed moderate correlations with Ft (r = 0.45 ± 0.33) and RFDt (r = 0.49 ± 0.32). Small-to-moderate correlations were observed for a number of kinetic variables (r = -0.42-0.43 ± 0.32-0.38). Jump squat concentric mean power and RFD are valid ecological measures of muscle potentiation, capable of detecting changes in athletic performance in response to the PAP phenomenon.

  20. Role of calpain in eccentric contraction-induced proteolysis of Ca2+-regulatory proteins and force depression in rat fast-twitch skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanzaki, Keita; Watanabe, Daiki; Kuratani, Mai; Yamada, Takashi; Matsunaga, Satoshi; Wada, Masanobu

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the in vivo effects of eccentric contraction (ECC) on calpain-dependent proteolysis of Ca 2+ -regulatory proteins and force production in fast-twitch skeletal muscles. Rat extensor digitorum longus muscles were exposed to 200 repeated ECC in situ and excised immediately [recovery 0 (REC0)] or 3 days [recovery 3 (REC3)] after cessation of ECC. Calpain inhibitor (CI)-treated rats were intraperitoneally injected with MDL-28170 before ECC and during REC3. Tetanic force was markedly reduced at REC0 and remained reduced at REC3. CI treatment ameliorated the ECC-induced force decline but only at REC3. No evidence was found for proteolysis of dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR), junctophilin (JP)1, JP2, ryanodine receptor (RyR), sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ -ATPase (SERCA)1a, or junctional face protein-45 at REC0. At REC3, ECC resulted in decreases in DHPR, JP1, JP2, RyR, and SERCA1a. CI treatment prevented the decreases in DHPR, JP1, and JP2, whereas it had little effect on RyR and SERCA1a. These findings suggest that DHPR, JP1, and JP2, but not RyR and SERCA1a, undergo calpain-dependent proteolysis in in vivo muscles subjected to ECC and that impaired function of DHPR and/or JP might cause prolonged force deficits with ECC. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Calpain-dependent proteolysis is one of the contributing factors to muscle damage that occurs with eccentric contraction (ECC). It is unclear, however, whether calpains account for proteolysis of Ca 2+ -regulatory proteins in in vivo muscles subjected to ECC. Here, we provide evidence that dihydropyridine receptor and junctophilin, but not ryanodine receptor and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ -ATPase, undergo calpain-dependent proteolysis. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  1. IGF-I treatment improves the functional properties of fast- and slow-twitch skeletal muscles from dystrophic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, G S; Cuffe, S A; Plant, D R; Gregorevic, P

    2001-04-01

    Although insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) has been proposed for use by patients suffering from muscle wasting conditions, few studies have investigated the functional properties of dystrophic skeletal muscle following IGF-I treatment. 129P1 ReJ-Lama2(dy) (129 ReJ dy/dy) dystrophic mice suffer from a deficiency in the structural protein, laminin, and exhibit severe muscle wasting and weakness. We tested the hypothesis that 4 weeks of IGF-I treatment ( approximately 2 mg/kg body mass, 50 g/h via mini-osmotic pump, subcutaneously) would increase the mass and force producing capacity of skeletal muscles from dystrophic mice. IGF-I treatment increased the mass of the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus muscles of dystrophic mice by 20 and 29%, respectively, compared with untreated dystrophic mice (administered saline-vehicle only). Absolute maximum force (P(o)) of the EDL and soleus muscle was increased by 40 and 32%, respectively, following IGF-I treatment. Specific P(o) (sP(o)) was increased by 23% in the EDL muscles of treated compared with untreated mice, but in the soleus muscle sP(o) was unchanged. IGF-I treatment increased the proportion of type IIB and type IIA fibres and decreased the proportion of type I fibres in the EDL muscles of dystrophic mice. In the soleus muscles of dystrophic mice, IGF-I treatment increased the proportion of type IIA fibres and decreased the proportion of type I fibres. Average fibre cross-sectional area was increased in the EDL and soleus muscles of treated compared with untreated mice. We conclude that IGF-I treatment ameliorates muscle wasting and improves the functional properties of skeletal muscles of dystrophic mice. The findings have important implications for the role of IGF-I in ameliorating muscle wasting associated with the muscular dystrophies.

  2. Sustained maximal voluntary contraction produces independent changes in human motor axons and the muscle they innervate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Milder

    Full Text Available The repetitive discharges required to produce a sustained muscle contraction results in activity-dependent hyperpolarization of the motor axons and a reduction in the force-generating capacity of the muscle. We investigated the relationship between these changes in the adductor pollicis muscle and the motor axons of its ulnar nerve supply, and the reproducibility of these changes. Ten subjects performed a 1-min maximal voluntary contraction. Activity-dependent changes in axonal excitability were measured using threshold tracking with electrical stimulation at the wrist; changes in the muscle were assessed as evoked and voluntary electromyography (EMG and isometric force. Separate components of axonal excitability and muscle properties were tested at 5 min intervals after the sustained contraction in 5 separate sessions. The current threshold required to produce the target muscle action potential increased immediately after the contraction by 14.8% (p<0.05, reflecting decreased axonal excitability secondary to hyperpolarization. This was not correlated with the decline in amplitude of muscle force or evoked EMG. A late reversal in threshold current after the initial recovery from hyperpolarization peaked at -5.9% at ∼35 min (p<0.05. This pattern was mirrored by other indices of axonal excitability revealing a previously unreported depolarization of motor axons in the late recovery period. Measures of axonal excitability were relatively stable at rest but less so after sustained activity. The coefficient of variation (CoV for threshold current increase was higher after activity (CoV 0.54, p<0.05 whereas changes in voluntary (CoV 0.12 and evoked twitch (CoV 0.15 force were relatively stable. These results demonstrate that activity-dependent changes in motor axon excitability are unlikely to contribute to concomitant changes in the muscle after sustained activity in healthy people. The variability in axonal excitability after sustained activity

  3. Effects of T cell depletion in radiation bone marrow chimeras. I. Evidence for a donor cell population which increases allogeneic chimerism but which lacks the potential to produce GVHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sykes, M.; Sheard, M.; Sachs, D.H.

    1988-01-01

    The opposing problems of graft-vs-host disease (GVHD) and failure of alloengraftment present major obstacles to the application of bone marrow transplantation (BMT) across complete MHC barriers. The addition of syngeneic T-cell-depleted (TCD) bone marrow (BM) to untreated fully allogeneic marrow inocula in lethally irradiated mice has been previously shown to provide protection from GVHD. We have used this model to study the effects of allogeneic T cells on levels of chimerism in recipients of mixed marrow inocula. The results indicate that T cells in allogeneic BM inocula eliminate both coadministered recipient-strain and radioresistant host hematopoietic elements to produce complete allogeneic chimerism without clinical GVHD. To determine the role of GVH reactivity in this phenomenon, we performed similar studies in an F1 into parent combination, in which the genetic potential for GVHD is lacking. The presence of T cells in F1 marrow inocula led to predominant repopulation with F1 lymphocytes in such chimeras, even when coadministered with TCD-recipient-strain BM. These results imply that the ability of allogeneic BM cells removed by T cell depletion to increase levels of allochimerism may be mediated by a population which is distinct from that which produces GVHD. These results may have implications for clinical BM transplantation

  4. Calsequestrin content and SERCA determine normal and maximal Ca2+ storage levels in sarcoplasmic reticulum of fast- and slow-twitch fibres of rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Robyn M; Larkins, Noni T; Mollica, Janelle P; Beard, Nicole A; Lamb, Graham D

    2009-01-15

    Whilst calsequestrin (CSQ) is widely recognized as the primary Ca2+ buffer in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) in skeletal muscle fibres, its total buffering capacity and importance have come into question. This study quantified the absolute amount of CSQ isoform 1 (CSQ1, the primary isoform) present in rat extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus fibres, and related this to their endogenous and maximal SR Ca2+ content. Using Western blotting, the entire constituents of minute samples of muscle homogenates or segments of individual muscle fibres were compared with known amounts of purified CSQ1. The fidelity of the analysis was proven by examining the relative signal intensity when mixing muscle samples and purified CSQ1. The CSQ1 contents of EDL fibres, almost exclusively type II fibres, and soleus type I fibres [SOL (I)] were, respectively, 36 +/- 2 and 10 +/- 1 micromol (l fibre volume)(-1), quantitatively accounting for the maximal SR Ca2+ content of each. Soleus type II [SOL (II)] fibres (approximately 20% of soleus fibres) had an intermediate amount of CSQ1. Every SOL (I) fibre examined also contained some CSQ isoform 2 (CSQ2), which was absent in every EDL and other type II fibre except for trace amounts in one case. Every EDL and other type II fibre had a high density of SERCA1, the fast-twitch muscle sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase isoform, whereas there was virtually no SERCA1 in any SOL (I) fibre. Maximal SR Ca2+ content measured in skinned fibres increased with CSQ1 content, and the ratio of endogenous to maximal Ca2+ content was inversely correlated with CSQ1 content. The relative SR Ca2+ content that could be maintained in resting cytoplasmic conditions was found to be much lower in EDL fibres than in SOL (I) fibres (approximately 20 versus >60%). Leakage of Ca2+ from the SR in EDL fibres could be substantially reduced with a SR Ca2+ pump blocker and increased by adding creatine to buffer cytoplasmic [ADP] at a higher level, both results

  5. Slow-tonic muscle fibers and their potential innervation in the turtle, Pseudemys (Trachemys) scripta elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callister, Robert J; Pierce, Patricia A; McDonagh, Jennifer C; Stuart, Douglas G

    2005-04-01

    fiber type, with the distribution of slow-tonic fibers paralleling that of the SO fibers. In the five test muscles, fiber cross-sectional area was usually ranked Fg > FOG > SO, and slow-twitch always > slow-tonic. In terms of weighted cross-sectional area, which provides a coarse-grain measure of each fiber type's potential contribution to whole muscle force, all five muscles exhibited a higher Fg and lower SO contribution to cross-sectional area than suggested by their corresponding fiber-type prevalence. This was also the case for the slow-twitch vs. slow-tonic fibers. We conclude that slow-tonic fibers are widespread in turtle muscle. The weighted cross-sectional area evidence suggested, however, that their contribution to force generation is minor except in highly oxidative muscles, with a special functional role, like TeC4. There is discussion of: 1) the relationship between the present results and previous work on homologous neck and hindlimb muscles in other nonmammalian species, and 2) the potential motoneuronal innervation of slow-tonic fibers in turtle hindlimb muscles. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Energetic evaluation of low potential biomass gasifier coupled with a burner of the produced gas for generation of heat; Avaliacao energetica de um gaseificador de biomassa de baixa potencia, associado a um combustor do gas produzido, para geracao de calor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Samuel [Universidade de Brasilia (FAV/UNB), DF (Brazil). Fac. de Agronomia e Medicina Veterinaria], email: samuelmartin@unb.nr; Silva, Jadir Nogueira [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola; Machado, Cassio Silva; Zanatta, Fabio Luis; Galvarro, Svetlana F.S. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    In the search of alternatives for sustainable socio-economic development, this study had the objective of evaluating the energetic performance of a concurrent flow biomass gasifier associated with a burner for the gas produced which was of low potential for air heating using a renewable energy source (substituting non-renewable). In this system 4 tests were performed using eucalyptus chips (tests 1 and 2) and logs (tests 3 and 4) as fuel, for the two fan motor frequencies of 60 and 50 hertz. Temperature in the combustion chamber was monitored, along with fuel consumption and other variables. In the tests, the average exhaust air temperature was maintained between 92.7 and 100.4 deg C, and the reduction in the motor frequency from 60 to 50 Hz caused an increase in the duration of the tests. The system presented the best energetic performance when utilizing a frequency of 60 Hz for both fuel types. However, the results of energy efficiency varied very little when comparing tests performed at the same fan frequency. Thus, the gasification process was little affected by variation in the physical characteristics of the tested fuels, and it was recommended that the equipment operate with a frequency of 60 Hz. (author)

  7. Identification of an antifungal metabolite produced by a potential biocontrol Actinomyces strain A01 Identificação de um metabólito antifúngico produzido pela cepa Actinomyces A01

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Ge Lu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Actinomyces strain A01 was isolated from soil of a vegetable field in the suburb of Beijing, China. According to the morphological, cultural, physiological and biochemical characteristics, and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, strain A01 was identified as Streptomyces lydicus. In the antimicrobial spectrum test strain A01 presented a stable and strong inhibitory activity against several plant pathogenic fungi such as Fusarium oxysporum, Botrytis cinerea, Monilinia laxa, etc. However, no antibacterial activity was found. In pot experiments in greenhouse, the development of tomato gray mold was markedly suppressed by treatment with the fermentation broth of the strain A01, and the control efficacy was higher than those of Pyrimethanil and Polyoxin. A main antifungal compound (purity 99.503% was obtained from the fermentation broth of strain A01 using column chromatography and HPLC. The chemical structural analysis with UV, IR, MS, and NMR confirmed that the compound produced by the strain A01 is natamycin, a polyene antibiotic produced by S. chattanovgensis, S. natalensis, and S. gilvosporeus, widely used as a natural biological preservative for food according to previous reports. The present study revealed a new producing strain of natamycin and its potential application as a biological control agent for fungal plant diseases.A cepa Actinomyces A01 foi isolada do solo de um campo agrícola no subúrbio de Beijing, China. De acordo com as características morfológicas, culturais, fisiológicas e bioquímicas, e análise da sequência 16S rDNA , a cepa A01 foi identificada como Streptomyces lydicus. Nos testes de espectro antimicrobiano, a cepa A01 apresentou atividade inibitória intensa e estável contra vários fungos patogênicos para plantas, como Fusarium oxysporum, Botrytis cinerea, Monilia laxa, etc. Entretanto, não foi encontrada atividade antibacteriana. Em experimentos em estufas, o desenvolvimento do fungo cinza do tomate foi fortemente

  8. Potencial herbicida da biomassa e de substâncias químicas produzidas pelo fungo endofítico Pestalotiopsis guepinii Herbicide potential of the biomass and chemical compounds produced by the fungus Pestalotiopsis guepinii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Santos

    2008-01-01

    .Many of the chemical compounds found in nature that are produced by plants or microorganisms can offer new and efficient ways of controlling pests in agriculture and agricultural practice, with the help of fungi. The objective of this work is to characterize the inhibitory potential for seed germination and the plantlet development of two weed species using extracts and compounds obtained from biomass produced by Pestalotiopsis guepinii, an endophytic fungus of the species Virola michelii. The bioassays were developed under controlled conditions at 25 ºC and 12-hour photoperiod for germination, and at 25 ºC and 12-hour photoperiod for root and hypocotyl development. The crude extracts were analyzed at a concentration of 1.0% (m/v. The results showed that the more polar extracts (MeOH-1 and MeOH-2 have the highest inhibitory potential, although the hexane and ethyl acetate extract effects were important, especially for seed germination. Comparatively, weed seed germination was more sensitive to the effects than plantlet development. Mimosa pudica was more affected by the inhibitory effects of the extracts. However, for seed germination of Senna obtusifolia, the extract MeOH-1 showed 100% inhibition. The compounds ergosterol and ergosterol peroxide showed an inhibitory potential always below 35%, not showing the inhibitory potential of the hexane extract from which they were isolated. When these compounds were tested together, little increase was observed in the inhibitory activity.

  9. Caffeine and length dependence of staircase potentiation in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassier, D E; Tubman, L A; MacIntosh, B R

    1998-01-01

    Skeletal muscle sensitivity to Ca2+ is greater at long lengths, and this results in an optimal length for twitch contractions that is longer than optimal length for tetanic contractions. Caffeine abolishes this length dependence of Ca2+ sensitivity. Muscle length (ML) also affects the degree of staircase potentiation. Since staircase potentiation is apparently caused by an increased Ca2+ sensitivity of the myofilaments, we tested the hypothesis that caffeine depresses the length dependence of staircase potentiation. In situ isometric twitch contractions of rat gastrocnemius muscle before and after 10 s of 10-Hz stimulation were analyzed at seven different lengths to evaluate the length dependence of staircase potentiation. In the absence of caffeine, length dependence of Ca2+ sensitivity was observed, and the degree of potentiation after 10-Hz stimulation showed a linear decrease with increased length (DT = 1.47 - 0.05 ML, r2 = 0.95, where DT is developed tension). Length dependence of Ca2+ sensitivity was decreased by caffeine when caffeine was administered in amounts estimated to result in 0.5 and 0.75 mM concentrations. Furthermore, the negative slope of the relationship between staircase potentiation and muscle length was diminished at the lower caffeine dose, and the slope was not different from zero after the higher dose (DT = 1.53 - 0.009 ML, r2 = 0.43). Our study shows that length dependence of Ca2+ sensitivity in intact skeletal muscle is diminished by caffeine. Caffeine also suppressed the length dependence of staircase potentiation, suggesting that the mechanism of this length dependence may be closely related to the mechanism for length dependence of Ca2+ sensitivity.

  10. Potencial fitotóxico de extratos foliares de Aloe arborescens Miller (Asphodelaceae produzidos em diferentes épocas do ano Analysis of the phytotoxic potential of Aloe arborescens Miller leaf extracts (Asphodelaceae produced at different times of the year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Murakami

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho visou analisar o potencial fitotóxico de extratos foliares de Aloe arborescens Miller sobre a germinação e crescimento de plântulas de alface (Lactuca sativa L.. Amostras de folhas foram coletadas nas quatro estações climáticas e maceradas em etanol P.A. por 28 dias. Os extratos produzidos foram fracionados em extratos etanólico e clorofórmico e tiveram as concentrações reduzidas a 1%. Os bioensaios de ação fitotóxica foram desenvolvidos em triplicata, sob luz constante e temperatura ambiente. Apenas o extrato clorofórmico de primavera mostrou forte atividade fitotóxica sobre a germinação das sementes de alface (16,67%. Todos os extratos reduziram significativamente a primeira contagem, índice de velocidade germinação (IVG e o crescimento do eixo hipocótiloradicular (EHR das plântulas de alface, porém os extratos clorofórmicos mostraram maior atividade fitotóxica, gerando alterações morfológicas mais intensas sobre as plântulas de alface e apresentaram maiores teores de compostos fenólicos. Apesar de todos os extratos clorofórmicos inibirem fortemente o crescimento das folhas cotiledonares das plântulas de alface, não se observaram neste último efeito, variações em função dos períodos de coleta.This study aimed to analyze seasonal variation in the phytotoxic potential of Aloe arborescens Miller leaf extract on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. germination and growth. Leaf samples were collected in the four seasons and were macerated in ethanol P.A. for 28 days. The extracts were fractionated into solutions made with ethanol and chloroform, and concentrations were reduced to 1%. Phytotoxic activity bioassays were carried out in triplicate, under constant light and ambient temperature. Only the spring chloroform extract showed strong phytotoxic activity on lettuce seed germination (16.67%. All extracts significantly reduced the first count, germination velocity index (GVI and growth of the hipocotyl

  11. Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Brookhaven Linac Isoptope Producer (BLIP)—positioned at the forefront of research into radioisotopes used in cancer treatment and diagnosis—produces commercially...

  12. Generation potential of electric power surplus with the biogas produced from anaerobic bio digestion of vinasse in Brazilian sugar-ethanol industry; Potencial de geracao de excedentes de energia eletrica com o biogas produzido a partir da biodigestao da vinhaca na industria sucro-alcooleira brasileira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamonica, Helcio Martins [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DE/FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia

    2006-07-01

    This work evaluates the electric power potential of the Brazilian sugarcane industry using the biogas produced by vinasse biodigestion in internal combustion engine driven generators. The electric power surplus based on crop 2004/05 ethanol production data is 9,292 TJ/year (2.6 TWh/year), 0.75% of the total electric power consumption in Brazil during the year of 2003. In spite of its considerable potential the determined minimum selling price for its produced energy of R$ 89.98/GJ (R$ 323.92/MWh) is expensive for present Brazilian electric power market price. (author)

  13. Producing charcoal from wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pogorelov, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental works to use wood wastes for producing charcoal are examined, which are being conducted in the Sverdlovsk assembly and adjustment administration of Soyuzorglestekhmontazh. A wasteless prototype installation for producing fine charcoal is described, along with its subsequent briqueting, which is made on the basis of units which are series produced by the factories of the country. The installation includes subassemblies for preparing and drying the raw material and for producing the charcoal briquets. In the opinion of specialists, the charcoal produced from the wastes may be effectively used in ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy and in the production of pipes.

  14. The potential role of microbiota for controlling the spread of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE in neonatal population [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibaud Delerue

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The spread of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE in the hospital and also the community is worrisome. Neonates particularly are exposed to the risk of ESBL-PE acquisition and, owing to the immaturity of their immune system, to a higher secondary risk of ESBL-PE-related infection. Reducing the risk of acquisition in the hospital is usually based on a bundle of measures, including screening policies at admission, improving hand hygiene compliance, and decreasing antibiotic consumption. However, recent scientific data suggest new prevention opportunities based on microbiota modifications.

  15. Differences in motor evoked potentials induced in rats by transcranial magnetic stimulation under two separate anesthetics: implications for plasticity studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Sykes

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS is primarily used in humans to change the state of corticospinal excitability. To assess the efficacy of different rTMS stimulation protocols, motor evoked potentials (MEPs are used as a readout due to their non-invasive nature. Stimulation of the motor cortex produces a response in a targeted muscle, and the amplitude of this twitch provides an indirect measure of the current state of the cortex. When applied to the motor cortex, rTMS can alter MEP amplitude, however results are variable between participants and across studies. In addition, the mechanisms underlying any change and its locus are poorly understood. In order to better understand these effects, MEPs have been investigated in vivo in animal models, primarily in rats. One major difference in protocols between rats and humans is the use of general anesthesia in animal experiments. Anesthetics are known to affect plasticity-like mechanisms and so may contaminate the effects of an rTMS protocol. In the present study, we explored the effect of anesthetic on MEP amplitude, recorded before and after intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS, a patterned rTMS protocol with reported facilitatory effects. MEPs were assessed in the brachioradialis muscle of the upper forelimb under two anesthetics: a xylazine/zoletil combination and urethane. We found MEPs could be induced under both anesthetics, with no differences in the resting motor threshold or the average baseline amplitudes. However, MEPs were highly variable between animals under both anesthetics, with the xylazine/zoletil combination showing higher variability and most prominently a rise in amplitude across the baseline recording period. Interestingly, application of iTBS did not facilitate MEP amplitude under either anesthetic condition. Although it is important to underpin human application of TMS with mechanistic examination of effects in animals, caution must be taken when

  16. Differences in Motor Evoked Potentials Induced in Rats by Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation under Two Separate Anesthetics: Implications for Plasticity Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Matthew; Matheson, Natalie A; Brownjohn, Philip W; Tang, Alexander D; Rodger, Jennifer; Shemmell, Jonathan B H; Reynolds, John N J

    2016-01-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is primarily used in humans to change the state of corticospinal excitability. To assess the efficacy of different rTMS stimulation protocols, motor evoked potentials (MEPs) are used as a readout due to their non-invasive nature. Stimulation of the motor cortex produces a response in a targeted muscle, and the amplitude of this twitch provides an indirect measure of the current state of the cortex. When applied to the motor cortex, rTMS can alter MEP amplitude, however, results are variable between participants and across studies. In addition, the mechanisms underlying any change and its locus are poorly understood. In order to better understand these effects, MEPs have been investigated in vivo in animal models, primarily in rats. One major difference in protocols between rats and humans is the use of general anesthesia in animal experiments. Anesthetics are known to affect plasticity-like mechanisms and so may contaminate the effects of an rTMS protocol. In the present study, we explored the effect of anesthetic on MEP amplitude, recorded before and after intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS), a patterned rTMS protocol with reported facilitatory effects. MEPs were assessed in the brachioradialis muscle of the upper forelimb under two anesthetics: a xylazine/zoletil combination and urethane. We found MEPs could be induced under both anesthetics, with no differences in the resting motor threshold or the average baseline amplitudes. However, MEPs were highly variable between animals under both anesthetics, with the xylazine/zoletil combination showing higher variability and most prominently a rise in amplitude across the baseline recording period. Interestingly, application of iTBS did not facilitate MEP amplitude under either anesthetic condition. Although it is important to underpin human application of TMS with mechanistic examination of effects in animals, caution must be taken when selecting an

  17. Biologically produced sulfur

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinjan, W.E.; Keizer, de A.; Janssen, A.J.H.

    2003-01-01

    Sulfur compound oxidizing bacteria produce sulfur as an intermediate in the oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfate. Sulfur produced by these microorganisms can be stored in sulfur globules, located either inside or outside the cell. Excreted sulfur globules are colloidal particles which are

  18. Consumers and Producers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Maira (Elisa)

    2018-01-01

    markdownabstractIn the last few decades, advances in information and communication technology have dramatically changed the way consumers and producers interact in the marketplace. The Internet and social media have torn down the information barrier between producers and consumers, leading to

  19. Producing liquid fuels from biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solantausta, Yrjo; Gust, Steven

    The aim of this survey was to compare, on techno-economic criteria, alternatives of producing liquid fuels from indigenous raw materials in Finland. Another aim was to compare methods under development and prepare a proposal for steering research related to this field. Process concepts were prepared for a number of alternatives, as well as analogous balances and production and investment cost assessments for these balances. Carbon dioxide emissions of the alternatives and the price of CO2 reduction were also studied. All the alternatives for producing liquid fuels from indigenous raw materials are utmost unprofitable. There are great differences between the alternatives. While the production cost of ethanol is 6 to 9 times higher than the market value of the product, the equivalent ratio for substitute fuel oil produced from peat by pyrolysis is 3 to 4. However, it should be borne in mind that the technical uncertainties related to the alternatives are of different magnitude. Production of ethanol from barley is of commercial technology, while biomass pyrolysis is still under development. If the aim is to reach smaller carbon dioxide emissions by using liquid biofuels, the most favorable alternative is pyrolysis oil produced from wood. Fuels produced from cultivated biomass are more expensive ways of reducing CO2 emissions. Their potential of reducing CO2 emissions in Finland is insignificant. Integration of liquid fuel production to some other production line is more profitable.

  20. SELEKSI DAN IDENTIFIKASI BAKTERI ENDOFIT POTENSIAL PENGHASIL ENZIM PROTEASE DARI TAMAN NASIONAL GUNUNG HALIMUN - (The Selection and Identification of Potential Endophyte Bacteria as Protease Enzyme Producer from Halimun Mount National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Melliawati

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic bacteria have an equal chance to bacteria that live outside the plant tissue as potential bacteria. The selection has done towards 326 bacterial endophyte isolates. This research aimed to find and identify proteolytic potential isolates. The proteolytic selection of endophytic bacteria had done using solid skim milk. The capability of endophytic bacteria to agglomerate milk was tested using liquid skim milk which incubated for 7 days at room temperature. Enzyme production of four selected isolates was made through fermentation in GYS medium. The results showed that 86 isolates have proteolytic potential. Isolate HL.29B.63 had highest protease enzymes activity (65.918 U/mL. Medium optimization was able to increase the enzyme activity into 89.94% (125.04 U/mL. The analysis used 16s rDNA showed that isolate HL.29B.63 was Bacillus amyloliquefacient subs. plantarum strain FZB42.Keywords: endophytic bacteria, fermentation, identification, protease, selection ABSTRAKBakteri endofit mempunyai peluang yang sama dengan bakteri yang hidup diluar jaringan tanaman sebagai bakteri potensial. Seleksi dilakukan terhadap 326 isolat bakteri endofit. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mencari isolat yang berpotensi proteolitik dan mengidentifikasinya. Seleksi proteolitik terhadap bakteri endofitik menggunakan skim milk padat. Uji kemampuan bakteri endofitik dalam menggumpalkan susu menggunakan medium skim milk cair yang diinkubasi selama 7 hari pada suhu ruang. Produksi enzim terhadap empat isolat terseleksi dilakukan melalui fermentasi dalam medium GYS. Hasilnya menunjukkan bahwa 86 isolat mempunyai potensi proteolitik. Isolat HL.29B.63 mempunyai aktif enzim protease tertinggi (65,918 U/mL. Optimasi medium dapat meningkatkan aktivitas enzim sebesar 89,94% (125,04 U/mL. Analisis menggunakan 16s rDNA menunjukkan bahwa isolat HL.29B.63 adalah Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subs. plantarum strain FZB42.Kata kunci: bakteri endofit, fermentasi, identifikasi, protease

  1. Producing the Spielberg Brand

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, J.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter looks at the manufacture of Spielberg’s brand, and the limits of its usage. Spielberg’s directorial work is well known, but Spielberg’s identity has also been established in other ways, and I focus particularly on his work as a producer. At the time of writing, Spielberg had produced (or executive produced) 148 movies and television series across a range of genres that takes in high budget blockbusters and low budget documentaries, with many more to come. In these texts, Spielber...

  2. Agricultural Producer Certificates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — A Certified Agricultural Producer, or representative thereof, is an individual who wishes to sell regionally-grown products in the public right-of-way. A Certified...

  3. Methods for producing diterpenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention discloses that by combining different di TPS enzymes of class I and class II different diterpenes may be produced including diterpenes not identified in nature. Surprisingly it is revealed that a di TPS enzyme of class I of one species may be combined with a di TPS enzyme...... of class II from a different species, resulting in a high diversity of diterpenes, which can be produced....

  4. Polysaccharide-producing microalgae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braud, J.P.; Chaumont, D.; Gudin, C.; Thepenier, C.; Chassin, P.; Lemaire, C.

    1982-11-01

    The production of extracellular polysaccharides is studied with Nostoc sp (cyanophycus), Porphiridium cruentum, Rhodosorus marinus, Rhodella maculata (rhodophyci) and Chlamydomonas mexicana (chlorophycus). The polysaccharides produced are separated by centrifugation of the culture then precipitation with alcohol. Their chemical structure was studied by infrared spectrometry and acid hydrolysis. By their rheological properties and especially their insensitivity to temperatrure and pH variations the polysaccharides produced by Porphryridium cruentum and Rhodella maculata appear as suitable candidates for industrial applications.

  5. Identification and assessment of products of biodiversity with commercial potential in an organized group of producers in the area of influence of the Eco-Archeological Corridor in the South of Huila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Cecilia Vinasco Guzmán

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In Colombia, despite the wide biodiversity, efforts to find the products that may be involved in bio-activities have been inadequate and communities have not been involved with this proposal for economic and social development. To contribute to the development of these initiatives, an investigation over three groups belonging to the Mashiramo Corporation (Pitalito’s municipalities of San Agustin and Acevedo was carried out since February to September 2010, in seeking of biodiversity products with commercial potential in the south area of Huila, using the methodology of Market Analysis and Development (MA & D. In phase 1, 17 products were selected and classified into 4 groups: forest products and byproducts (species of orchids, native flowers, forest species and seeds, Zoo-breeding (lepidopteron fauna, wild and hydro biological resources, native foods (two legume species and products and services (ecotourism, environmental services and sale of handicrafts. In phase 2 (identification of products, markets and ways of marketing 5 products were analized: ecotourism, incipient handicrafts, black fish farming (Astroblepus chapmani, a nursery of native forest species and Guatin Zoo-breeding (Dasyprocta punctata. In the third phase, the plan was formulated for ecotourism business with emphasis on bird watching. It was concluded that methodological appropriation is needed by the beneficiary community to ensure the development of activities to learn to make decisions based on market data and not for creating false expectations that generate negative experiences in communities.

  6. Leaders produce leaders and managers produce followers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshhal, Khalid I.; Guraya, Salman Y.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To elaborate the desired qualities, traits, and styles of physician’s leadership with a deep insight into the recommended measures to inculcate leadership skills in physicians. Methods: The databases of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library were searched for the full-text English-language articles published during the period 2000-2015. Further search, including manual search of grey literature, was conducted from the bibliographic list of all included articles. Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) keywords “Leadership” AND “Leadership traits” AND “Leadership styles” AND “Physicians’ leadership” AND “Tomorrow’s doctors” were used for the literature search. This search followed a step-wise approach defined by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). The retrieved bibliographic list was analyzed and non-relevant material such as abstracts, conference proceedings, letters to editor, and short communications were excluded. Finally, 21 articles were selected for this review. Results: The literature search showed a number of leadership courses and formal training programs that can transform doctors to physician leaders. Leaders can inculcate confidence by integrating diverse views and listening; supporting skillful conversations through dialogue and helping others assess their influence and expertise. In addition to their clinical competence, physician leaders need to acquire the industry knowledge (clinical processes, health-care trends, budget), problem-solving skills, and emotional intelligence. Conclusion: This review emphasizes the need for embedding formal leadership courses in the medical curricula for fostering tomorrow doctors’ leadership and organizational skills. The in-house and off-campus training programs and workshops should be arranged for grooming the potential candidates for effective leadership. PMID:27652355

  7. Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potential Produced by Bone-Conducted Stimuli: A Study on its Basics and Clinical Applications in Patients with Conductive and Sensorineural Hearing Loss and a Group with Vestibular Schawannoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi, Parvane; Amali, Amin; Pourbakht, Akram; Karimi Yazdi, Alireza; Bassam, Ali

    2013-06-01

    Vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) has recently been broadly studied in vestibular disorders. As it is evoked by loud sound stimulation, even mild conductive hearing loss may affect VEMP results. Bone-conducted (BC) stimulus is an alternative stimulation for evoking this response. This study aims to assess the characteristics of BC-VEMP in different groups of patients. We performed a cross sectional analysis on 20 healthy volunteers with normal pure-tone audiometry as a control group; and on a group of patients consisted of 20 participants with conductive hearing loss, five with bilateral sensorineural hearing loss and four with vestibular schawannoma. AC and BC-VEMP were performed in all participants. In control group the VEMP responses to both kinds of stimuli had an acceptable morphology and consisted of p13 and n23 waves. Latency value of these main components in each type of stimulus was not significantly different (P>0.05). However, the mean amplitude was larger in BC modality than AC stimulation (P=0.025). In the group with conductive hearing loss, the VEMP response was absent in fifteen (46.87%) of the 32 ears using the AC method, whereas all (100%) displayed positive elicitability of VEMP by BC method. Normal VEMP responses in both stimuli were evoked in all patients with sensorineural hearing loss. In patients with unilateral vestibular schwannomas (VS), 2 (50.00%) had neither AC-VEMP nor BC-VEMP. Auditory stimuli delivered by bone conduction can evoke VEMP response. These responses are of vestibular origin and can be used in vestibular evaluation of patients with conductive hearing loss.

  8. Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potential Produced by Bone-Conducted Stimuli: A Study on its Basics and Clinical Applications in Patients With Conductive and Sensorineural Hearing Loss and a Group With Vestibular Schawannoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvane Mahdi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP has recently been broadly studied in vestibular disorders. As it is evoked by loud sound stimulation, even mild conductive hearing loss may affect VEMP results. Bone-conducted (BC stimulus is an alternative stimulation for evoking this response. This study aims to assess the characteristics of BC-VEMP in different groups of patients.   Materials and Methods: We performed a cross sectional analysis on 20 healthy volunteers with normal pure-tone audiometry as a control group; and on a group of patients consisted of 20 participants with conductive hearing loss, five with bilateral sensorineural hearing loss and four with vestibular schawannoma. AC and BC-VEMP were performed in all participants.   Results: In control group the VEMP responses to both kinds of stimuli had an acceptable morphology and consisted of p13 and n23 waves. Latency value of these main components in each type of stimulus was not significantly different (P>0.05. However, the mean amplitude was larger in BC modality than AC stimulation (P=0.025. In the group with conductive hearing loss, the VEMP response was absent in fifteen (46.87% of the 32 ears using the AC method, whereas all (100% displayed positive elicitability of VEMP by BC method. Normal VEMP responses in both stimuli were evoked in all patients with sensorineural hearing loss. In patients with unilateral vestibular schwannomas (VS, 2 (50.00% had neither AC-VEMP nor BC-VEMP. Conclusion:  Auditory stimuli delivered by bone conduction can evoke VEMP response. These responses are of vestibular origin and can be used in vestibular evaluation of patients with conductive hearing loss.

  9. Producing metallurgic coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, T.; Isida, K.; Vada, Y.

    1982-11-18

    A mixture of power producing coals with coal briquets of varying composition is proposed for coking in horizontal chamber furnaces. The briquets are produced from petroleum coke, coal fines or semicoke, which make up less than 27 percent of the mixture to be briquetted and coals with a standard coking output of volatile substances and coals with high maximal Gizeler fluidity. The ratio of these coals in the mixture is 0.6 to 2.1 or 18 to 32 percent, respectively. Noncaking or poorly caking coals are used as the power producing coals. The hardness of the obtained coke is DJ15-30 = 90.5 to 92.7 percent.

  10. Energetic potential of biogas produced from cassava starch wastewater using a pilot scale two-stage anaerobic biodigester; Potencial energetico do biogas gerado no tratamento de aguas residuarias de fecularias em sistema piloto de biodigestao anaerobia com separacao de fases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feiden, Armin [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Marechal Candido Rondon, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias]. E-mail: armin_feiden@yahoo.com.br; Cereda, Marney Pascoli [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Centro de Raizes Tropicais

    2003-06-01

    Cassava starch is extracted in more of 70 units in west of Parana state, South of Brazil. Near the border of the Parana river there is a big concentration of this type of industry. The cassava starch extraction generates a great quantity of wastewater. The aim of this work was to evaluate the energetic potential of biogas generated in the anaerobic treatment of cassava. The pilot reactors were located at a cassava processing factory, with cassava roots grauding capacity of 250 metric ton day{sup -1} at the parallel 24 deg 09'18'' South latitude and meridian 54 deg 09'26'' West longitude of Grw. The treatment pilot system was consisted of two settling tanks with 500 L each, connected in series, followed by a two-stage anaerobic biodigester reactor. The acidogenic reactor had a capacity of 1,000 L and the methanogenic had a capacity of 3,000 L. The experiment was conducted at temperatures ranging from 23.9 deg C to 27.7 deg C, with a annual average of 25.8 deg C. It was not used the addition of nutrients nor pH correction. The best results were obtained at a flow rate of 901 L d{sup -1} with a TOC (total organic carbon) loading rate of 0.565 g L{sup -1} d{sup -1} and COD (chemical oxygen demand) of 2.49 g L{sup -1} d{sup -1}, and a hydraulic residence time of 4.4 days. At this loading rate, the system had an average biogas yield of 3.975 L L{sup -1} wastewater 0.895 L L{sup -1} reactor day{sup -1}, and 0.391 L g{sup -1} TOC removed. The net biogas yield was 16.10 m{sup 3} ton{sup -1} cassava roots processed, with 28.65% CO{sub 2}. By calculation it was found that the biogas production is enough to supply 30% of the heat necessity to steam production of the industry, 100% of the heat necessity of direct drying of cassava starch, or 50% of the general total electricity need of the factory. (author)

  11. Standards and producers' liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kretschmer, F.

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses the liability of producers and the diligence required, which has to come up to technical standards and the latest state of technology. The consequences of this requirement with regard to claims for damages are outlined and proposals for reforms are pointed out. (HSCH) [de

  12. Producing superhydrophobic roof tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrascosa, Luis A M; Facio, Dario S; Mosquera, Maria J

    2016-01-01

    Superhydrophobic materials can find promising applications in the field of building. However, their application has been very limited because the synthesis routes involve tedious processes, preventing large-scale application. A second drawback is related to their short-term life under outdoor conditions. A simple and low-cost synthesis route for producing superhydrophobic surfaces on building materials is developed and their effectiveness and their durability on clay roof tiles are evaluated. Specifically, an organic–inorganic hybrid gel containing silica nanoparticles is produced. The nanoparticles create a densely packed coating on the roof tile surface in which air is trapped. This roughness produces a Cassie–Baxter regime, promoting superhydrophobicity. A surfactant, n-octylamine, was also added to the starting sol to catalyze the sol–gel process and to coarsen the pore structure of the gel network, preventing cracking. The application of ultrasound obviates the need to use volatile organic compounds in the synthesis, thereby making a ‘green’ product. It was also demonstrated that a co-condensation process effective between the organic and inorganic species is crucial to obtain durable and effective coatings. After an aging test, high hydrophobicity was maintained and water absorption was completely prevented for the roof tile samples under study. However, a transition from a Cassie–Baxter to a Wenzel state regime was observed as a consequence of the increase in the distance between the roughness pitches produced by the aging of the coating. (paper)

  13. 药用植物内生菌对作物生长及氧化应激的作用%Endophytes from medicinal plants and their potential for producing indole acetic acid, improving seed germination and mitigating oxidative stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdul Latif KHAN; Syed Abdullah GILANI; Muhammad WAQAS; Khadija AL-HOSNI; Salima AL-KHIZIRI; Yoon-Ha KIM; Liaqat ALI

    2017-01-01

    目的:探讨药用植物内生菌的多样性及其在种子生长和氧化应激中的作用.方法:从三种药用植物(Caralluma acutangula、Rhazya stricta和Moringa peregrina)中提取内生菌;基于18S rDNA测序和系统发育分析鉴定分离得到的内生菌株;以正常和矮化突变体水稻品系为对照,比较不同浓度的内生菌培养滤液(CF)对水稻种子的发芽和生长的影响;通过气相色谱-质谱分析CF中的有效活性成分.结论:从药用植物中共获得10种内生菌,包括茎点霉属6株、链格孢属2株、双极霉属1株和枝孢霉属1株.CF表现出剂量依赖性的生长刺激和抑制作用.与对照和其他内生菌相比,100%的茎点霉菌CF显著促进了水稻种子的发芽和生长;双极霉中的吲哚乙酸含量最高,并表现出比其更高的自由基清除和抗脂质过氧化活性;双极霉菌和茎点霉菌的类黄酮和酚类成分较高.综上所述,药用植物中存在内生菌株,其可以用于改善作物生长和减轻氧化应激.%Medicinal plants have been used by marginal communities to treat various ailments. However, the po-tential of endophytes within these bio-prospective medicinal plants remains unknown. The present study elucidates the endophytic diversity of medicinal plants (Caraluma acutangula,Rhazya stricta, andMoringa peregrina) and the en-dophyte role in seed growth and oxidative stress. Various organs of medicinal plants yielded ten endophytes, which were identified asPhomasp. (6 isolates),Alternariasp.(2), Bipolarissp. (1),andCladosporiumsp. (1) based on 18S rDNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The culture filtrates (CFs; 25%, 50%, and 100% concentrations) from these endophytes were tested against the growth of normal and dwarf mutant rice lines. Endophytic CF exhibited dose-dependent growth stimulation and suppression effects. CF (100%) ofPhomasp. significantly increased rice seed germination and growth compared to controls and other endophytes. This

  14. Industrial system for producing iodine-123

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brantley, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    An industrial system to produce iodine-123 required a complex set of steps involving new approaches by the Food and Drug Administration, difficult distribution procedures, and evidence from potential users that either very pure iodine-123 or inexpensive iodine-123 is needed. Industry has shown its willingness to invest in new radionuclides but needs strong evidence as to product potential to justify those investments

  15. USA coal producer perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porco, J. [Alpha Natural Resources, Latrobe, PA (US). Alpha Energy Global Marketing

    2004-07-01

    The focus is on the Central Appalachian coal industry. Alpha Natural Resources was formed in 2002 from Pittston Coal's Virginia and Coastal operations. AMCI's U.S. operations and Mears Enterprises in Pennsylvania were acquired later. The company produces 20-21 million tonnes per year and sells 20 million tonnes of steam coal and 10 million tonnes of exports, including some coal that is brokered. Foundry coke is a major product. Capital investment has resulted in increased productivity. Central Appalachia is expected to continue as a significant coal-producing region for supplying metallurgical coke. Production is expected to stabilize, but not increase; so the mines will have a longer life. 31 slides/overheads are included.

  16. Dimuons produced by antineutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benvenuti, A.; Cline, D.; Ford, W.T.; Imlay, R.; Ling, T.Y.; Mann, A.K.; Orr, R.; Reeder, D.D.; Rubbia, C.; Stefanski, R.; Sulak, L.; Wanderer, P.

    1975-01-01

    In a run with a predominantly phi-bar beam we have observed seven dimuon events which show clearly that dimuons are produced by phi-bar as well as by phi. Using the signature of those events we tentatively identify twelve dimuon events from earlier runs as phi-bar-induced. The characteristics of the total sample support the explanation that dimuons arise from new hadron production

  17. Potentiation by substance P of contractions of the isolated vas deferens of the mouse elicited by electric field stimulation and by drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackwell, M.; James, T.A.; Starr, M.S.

    1978-01-01

    Isolated vasa deferentia from the mouse were opened longitudinally and suspended in Krebs solution at 37 0 C in an organ bath. Contractions of the muscle were elicited by electric field stimulation, noradrenaline (10 -6 M) and acetylcholine (10 -6 M). Continued transmural stimulation evoked a biphasic response comprising a rapid twitch followed by about 10 s later by a smaller, sustained rise in muscle tone. The amplitudes of nerve-mediated and drug-induced responses were considerably potentiated by substances P (SP) in the dose range 10 -12 to 10 -7 M. Higher concentrations of SP were directly spasmogenic. The sensitizing property of SP was dose-dependent and was usually well maintained, but always disappeared quickly on washing the preparation. In some experiments SP facilitated the twitch, but not the subsequent phase of the electrically-induced contraction or the response to externally applied noradrenaline. Phentolamine (10 -6 M) failed to block this effect of SP, but itself potentiated the nerve-mediated twitch, and completely abolished the sustained secondary contraction. Desmethylimipramine (10 -6 M) enhanced the delayed contraction but not the immediate contraction. The uptake of tritiated noradrenaline (3 x 10 -7 M) by vasa was inhibited by desmethylimipramine (10 -6 M) and increased by nialamide (3 x 10 -5 M), but was not modified by SP (10 -6 M). Nerve-mediated release of accumulated radioactivity was accelerated by phentolamine, but not by SP or desmethylimipramine. These findings suggest that SP sensitizes the muscle cells to depolarizing stimuli but that it has no facilitatory effect on sympathetic neural elements. (author)

  18. Lipase-producing fungi for potential wastewater treatment and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of fungal biomass as a lipase biocatalyst represents an attractive approach for the treatments of oil wastewater as well as for the production of biodiesel from oil and residual grease, due to its greater stability, possibility of reuse, and lower cost. In this work, 20 filamentous fungi were isolated from the grease trap ...

  19. PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS OF BIOMASS POTENTIALLY USEFUL FOR PRODUCING BIODIESEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GERARDO CABRERA CIFUENTES

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerando que el biodiesel se está convirtiendo en una solución viable para algunos problemas energéticos y medioambientales, la investigación de materias primas para su producción es un tema de creciente interés. Este estudio presenta los resultados de una investigación dedicada al análisis preliminar de varias especies vegetales (biomasa, potencialmente útiles para producir biodiesel. La zona de bioprospección es una región de la costa pacifica colombiana. Las especies promisorias recolectadas fueron sometidas a diferentes pruebas normalizadas ASTM para definir propiedades que faciliten su evaluación. Algunas de las especies fueron sometidas a un proceso de transesterificación. Adicionalmente, se realiza una comparación entre las propiedades termo-físicas de los biodiesel y las propiedades del diesel comercial. Las pruebas de rendimiento de estos biocombustibles en los motores de encendido por compresión, particularmente la eficiencia, el consumo y la potencia a diferentes RPM del motor, se presentan en este trabajo.

  20. Producing quality radiographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullinan, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    This book gives an overview of physics, equipment, imaging, and quality assurance in the radiology department. The chapters are laid out with generous use of subheads to allow for quick reference, Points are illustrated with clear, uncluttered line diagrams and well-produced images. The accompanying explanations are miniature lessons by themselves. Inserted at various points throughout the text are important notes that highlight key concepts. The chapter ''Image Evaluation and Application of Radiographic Principles'' present a systematic approach to evaluating radiographs and contains several sample radiographs to illustrate the points made

  1. Producing Nuclear Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childress, Vincent W.

    2009-01-01

    There is a potential crisis looming related to the world's need for energy. On the one hand, energy demands are growing every day, and could double by 2050. On the other hand, burning of traditional fossil fuels to generate electricity is contributing to the increase in greenhouse gases. Would it be advisable to increase the number of nuclear…

  2. Producing x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallozzi, P.J.; Epstein, H.M.; Jung, R.G.; Applebaum, D.C.; Fairand, B.P.; Gallagher, W.J.

    1977-01-01

    A method of producing x-rays by directing radiant energy from a laser onto a target is described. Conversion efficiency of at least about 3 percent is obtained by providing the radiant energy in a low-power precursor pulse of approximately uniform effective intensity focused onto the surface of the target for about 1 to 30 nanoseconds so as to generate an expanding unconfined coronal plasma having less than normal solid density throughout and comprising a low-density (underdense) region wherein the plasma frequency is less than the laser radiation frequency and a higher-density (overdense) region wherein the plasma frequency is greater than the laser radiation frequency and, about 1 to 30 nanoseconds after the precursor pulse strikes the target, a higher-power main pulse focused onto the plasma for about 10 -3 to 30 nanoseconds and having such power density and total energy that the radiant energy is absorbed in the underdense region and conducted into the overdense region to heat it and thus to produce x-rays therefrom with the plasma remaining substantially below normal solid density and thus facilitating the substantial emission of x-rays in the form of spectral lines arising from nonequilibrium ionization states

  3. The effects of inorganic phosphate and arsenate on both passive muscle visco-elasticity and maximum Ca2+ activated tension in chemically skinned rat fast and slow twitch muscle fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutungi, Gabriel

    2003-01-01

    The effects of adding either 25 mM inorganic phosphate (Pi) or its structural analogue arsenate (ASi) on both the maximum Ca2+ activated tension (Po) and passive muscle visco-elasticity (P2 tension) were investigated at 10 degrees C, using segments of single, chemically skinned rat muscle fibres. Whilst the results confirmed some previous findings on the effects of Pi on Po, they also showed that the addition of 25 mM ASi led to a large (approximately 50%) but completely reversible depression of Po in both the fast and slow twitch rat muscle fibres. Moreover, the depression of Po by ASi was greater at low than at high pH values. Examined in the presence of Dextran T-500, the passive tension and sarcomere length responses to a ramp stretch were found to be qualitatively and quantitatively similar to those previously reported in intact rat muscle fibres. Thus, the tension response to a ramp stretch, in the presence and absence of either 25 mM Pi or ASi, consisted of a viscous (P1), a visco-elastic (P2) and an elastic (P3) tension. However, the addition of either 25 mM Pi or ASi led to approximately 15-18% increase in the amplitude of the visco-elastic (P2) tension but had little or no effect on the amplitudes of the other two tension components (viscous, P1 and elastic, P3 tensions). Furthermore, neither compound significantly altered the relaxation rate of the passive muscle visco-elasticity (P2 tension). These results show that Po (arising from cycling cross-bridges) and passive muscle visco-elasticity (P2 tension) are affected differently by both Pi and ASi and suggest that they may not share a common structural basis. The possibility that passive muscle visco-elasticity (P2 tension) arises from the gap-(titin) filament (as suggested previously by Mutungi and Ranatunga, 1996b J Physiol 496: 827-837) and that Pi and ASi increase its amplitude by interacting with the PEVK region of the filament are discussed.

  4. Producing Dark Matter

    CERN Multimedia

    Marquit, Miranda

    2006-01-01

    "Colliders have been the tool of choice for particle physicists to look at smaller and smaller particles. All a suddent we are realizing that we can use them not only to understand things at smaller scales, but for understandng them as a whole." Jonathan Feng, an associate professor of physics at UC-Irvine, sees the potential the new CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) holds for understanding the make up of our universe." (1 page)

  5. Producing Civil Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt, Liv Egholm; Hein Jessen, Mathias

    Since the beginning of the 1990’s, civil society has attracted both scholarly and political interest as the ‘third sphere’ outside the state and the market not only a normatively privileged site of communication and ‘the public sphere’, but also as a resource for democratization processes...... and social cohesion, as well as a provider of welfare services from a welfare state in dire straits. However, such a view upholds a sharp distinction between the three sectors and their distinct logic. This article claims that the separation of spheres is a fundamental part of our ‘social imaginary......’ and as such dominates our way of thinking about civil society. Yet, this view hinders the understanding of how civil society is not a pre-existing or given sphere, but a sphere which is constantly produced both discursively, conceptually and practically. Through two examples; 1,the case of philanthropy in the beginning...

  6. When climate twitches, evolution takes great leaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    Earth's climate system has ridden a slow roller coaster for the past 60 million years. It warmed gradually until about 53 million years ago, reaching a peak that brought crocodiles to northern Canada; then it entered a long, undulating downgrade toward the ice-age world of the past few million years. Because the same span of time brought major evolutionary changes, including the rise of modern mammals, paleontologists have long assumed that these slow temperature changes helped spur the processes of evolution. But recent findings have suggested that another, more potent mechanisms was also at work: Abrupt climate excursions, superimposed on these long-term trends, have now been linked to rapid periods of mammal evolution. The evidence for short, sharp evolutionary shocks comes from studies of a pair of mirror-image climate shifts at opposite ends of the Eocene epoch, 55 million and 33.5 million years ago. In both cases, researchers studying the record of climate preserved in sea-floor sediments have found that a gradual climate change-warming in the first case, cooling in the second - suddenly steepened into a short-lived pulse of extreme warming or cooling. The short time scale of these events and their clear coincidence with turning points in the evolution of mammals are providing the tightest links yet between global climate change and evolution on land

  7. Power Producer Production Valuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kněžek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing developments in the electricity market, in particular the establishment of the Prague Energy Exchange (PXE and the associated transfer from campaign-driven sale to continuous trading, represent a significant change for power companies.  Power producing companies can now optimize the sale of their production capacities with the objective of maximizing profit from wholesale electricity and supporting services. The Trading Departments measure the success rate of trading activities by the gross margin (GM, calculated by subtracting the realized sales prices from the realized purchase prices and the production cost, and indicate the profit & loss (P&L to be subsequently calculated by the Control Department. The risk management process is set up on the basis of a business strategy defining the volumes of electricity that have to be sold one year and one month before the commencement of delivery. At the same time, this process defines the volume of electricity to remain available for spot trading (trading limits. 

  8. Antibiotics produced by Streptomyces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procópio, Rudi Emerson de Lima; Silva, Ingrid Reis da; Martins, Mayra Kassawara; Azevedo, João Lúcio de; Araújo, Janete Magali de

    2012-01-01

    Streptomyces is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria that grows in various environments, and its shape resembles filamentous fungi. The morphological differentiation of Streptomyces involves the formation of a layer of hyphae that can differentiate into a chain of spores. The most interesting property of Streptomyces is the ability to produce bioactive secondary metabolites, such as antifungals, antivirals, antitumorals, anti-hypertensives, immunosuppressants, and especially antibiotics. The production of most antibiotics is species specific, and these secondary metabolites are important for Streptomyces species in order to compete with other microorganisms that come in contact, even within the same genre. Despite the success of the discovery of antibiotics, and advances in the techniques of their production, infectious diseases still remain the second leading cause of death worldwide, and bacterial infections cause approximately 17 million deaths annually, affecting mainly children and the elderly. Self-medication and overuse of antibiotics is another important factor that contributes to resistance, reducing the lifetime of the antibiotic, thus causing the constant need for research and development of new antibiotics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. Cyclotron produced radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopicka, K.; Fiser, M.; Hradilek, P.; Hanc, P.; Lebeda, O.

    2003-01-01

    Some of the cyclotron-produced radionuclides may serve as important materials for the production of radiopharmaceuticals. This lecture deals with basic information relating to various aspects of these compounds. In comparison with radionuclides /compounds used for non-medical purposes, radiopharmaceuticals are subject to a broader scale of regulations, both from the safety and efficacy point of view; besides that, there are both radioactive and medical aspects that must be taken into account for any radiopharmaceutical. According to the regulations and in compliance with general rules of work with radioactivity, radiopharmaceuticals should only be prepared/manufactured under special conditions, using special areas and special equipment and applying special procedures (e.g. sterilisation, disinfection, aseptic work). Also, there are special procedures for cleaning and maintenance. Sometimes the requirements for the product safety clash with those for the safety of the personnel; several examples of solutions pertaining to these cases are given in the lecture. Also, the specific role of cyclotron radiopharmaceuticals is discussed. (author)

  10. Produced Water Management and Beneficial Use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Terry; Frost, Carol; Hayes, Thomas; Heath, Leo; Johnson, Drew; Lopez, David; Saffer, Demian; Urynowicz, Michael; Wheaton, John; Zoback, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Large quantities of water are associated with the production of coalbed methane (CBM) in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming. The chemistry of co-produced water often makes it unsuitable for subsequent uses such as irrigated agriculture. However, co-produced waters have substantial potential for a variety of beneficial uses. Achieving this potential requires the development of appropriate water management strategies. There are several unique characteristics of co-produced water that make development of such management strategies a challenge. The production of CBM water follows an inverse pattern compared to traditional wells. CBM wells need to maintain low reservoir pressures to promote gas production. This need renders the reinjection of co-produced waters counterproductive. The unique water chemistry of co-produced water can reduce soil permeability, making surface disposal difficult. Unlike traditional petroleum operations where co-produced water is an undesirable by-product, co-produced water in the PRB often is potable, making it a highly valued resource in arid western states. This research project developed and evaluated a number of water management options potentially available to CBM operators. These options, which focus on cost-effective and environmentally-sound practices, fall into five topic areas: Minimization of Produced Water, Surface Disposal, Beneficial Use, Disposal by Injection and Water Treatment. The research project was managed by the Colorado Energy Research Institute (CERI) at the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) and involved personnel located at CERI, CSM, Stanford University, Pennsylvania State University, the University of Wyoming, the Argonne National Laboratory, the Gas Technology Institute, the Montana Bureau of Mining and Geology and PVES Inc., a private firm

  11. Produced Water Management and Beneficial Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry Brown; Carol Frost; Thomas Hayes; Leo Heath; Drew Johnson; David Lopez; Demian Saffer; Michael Urynowicz; John Wheaton; Mark Zoback

    2007-10-31

    Large quantities of water are associated with the production of coalbed methane (CBM) in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming. The chemistry of co-produced water often makes it unsuitable for subsequent uses such as irrigated agriculture. However, co-produced waters have substantial potential for a variety of beneficial uses. Achieving this potential requires the development of appropriate water management strategies. There are several unique characteristics of co-produced water that make development of such management strategies a challenge. The production of CBM water follows an inverse pattern compared to traditional wells. CBM wells need to maintain low reservoir pressures to promote gas production. This need renders the reinjection of co-produced waters counterproductive. The unique water chemistry of co-produced water can reduce soil permeability, making surface disposal difficult. Unlike traditional petroleum operations where co-produced water is an undesirable by-product, co-produced water in the PRB often is potable, making it a highly valued resource in arid western states. This research project developed and evaluated a number of water management options potentially available to CBM operators. These options, which focus on cost-effective and environmentally-sound practices, fall into five topic areas: Minimization of Produced Water, Surface Disposal, Beneficial Use, Disposal by Injection and Water Treatment. The research project was managed by the Colorado Energy Research Institute (CERI) at the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) and involved personnel located at CERI, CSM, Stanford University, Pennsylvania State University, the University of Wyoming, the Argonne National Laboratory, the Gas Technology Institute, the Montana Bureau of Mining and Geology and PVES Inc., a private firm.

  12. The Ethics of Producing In Vitro Meat

    OpenAIRE

    Schaefer, G Owen; Savulescu, Julian

    2014-01-01

    The prospect of consumable meat produced in a laboratory setting without the need to raise and slaughter animals is both realistic and exciting. Not only could such in vitro meat become popular due to potential cost savings, but it also avoids many of the ethical and environmental problems with traditional meat productions. However, as with any new technology, in vitro meat is likely to face some detractors. We examine in detail three potential objections: 1) in vitro meat is disrespectful, e...

  13. Electron acceleration using laser produced plasmas

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Landua, Rolf

    2005-01-01

    Low density plasmas have long been of interest as a potential medium for particle acceleration since relativistic plasma waves are capable of supporting electric fields greater than 100 GeV/m. The physics of particle acceleration using plasmas will be reviewed, and new results will be discussed which have demonstrated that relatively narrow energy spread (<3%) beams having energies greater than 100 MeV can be produced from femtosecond laser plasma interactions. Future experiments and potential applications will also be discussed.

  14. Radiation produced biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosiak, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    radiation technique. Immobilization of biologically active species in hydrogel matrices, their use as drug delivery systems and enzyme traps as well as modification of material surfaces to improve their biocompatibility and ability to bond antigens and antibodies have been the main subject of their investigations. The rising interest in the field of application of radiation to bioengineering was also recognized by the International Atoimc Energy Agency, which has initiated the international programs relating to those studies. In these lectures some directions of investigations on the formation of hydrogels and their applications for biomedical purposes have been specified. Also, some examples of commercialized products being produced by means of radiation technique have been presented

  15. Sub-Sahara's second largest oil producer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, C

    1991-05-01

    With the prospects for peace in Angola following the settlement of the civil war, the oil producing potential for the country is briefly reviewed. Topics covered include the problems of economic growth and development because of the civil war and communist ideology, US foreign policy, production sharing, military expenditure and economic planning. (UK).

  16. Bacteriocin producers from traditional food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thonart P.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 220 strains of LAB isolated from 32 samples of traditional fermented food from Senegal were screened for bacteriocin production. Two bacteriocin producers, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Enterococcus faecium, were identified from 12 bacteriocin-producing isolates on the basis of phenotypic analyses and 16S rDNA sequence. Both bacteriocins produced by new isolates show antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus coagulans whereas only that produced by Lactococcus lactis has an activity against Bacillus cereus. Bacteriocin-producing Lactococcus lactis strains were found in a variety of traditional foods indicating a high potential of growth of this strain in variable ecological complex environment. Partial 16S rDNA of the two bacteriocin producers obtained in this study has been registered to Genbank databases under the accession number AY971748 for Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (named CWBI-B1410 and AY971749 for Enterococcus faecium (named CWBI-B1411. The new bacteriocin-producing Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis strain has been selected for identification and application of the bacteriocin to food preservation.

  17. Beneficial Reuse of San Ardo Produced Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert A. Liske

    2006-07-31

    This DOE funded study was performed to evaluate the potential for treatment and beneficial reuse of produced water from the San Ardo oilfield in Monterey County, CA. The potential benefits of a successful full-scale implementation of this project include improvements in oil production efficiency and additional recoverable oil reserves as well as the addition of a new reclaimed water resource. The overall project was conducted in two Phases. Phase I identified and evaluated potential end uses for the treated produced water, established treated water quality objectives, reviewed regulations related to treatment, transport, storage and use of the treated produced water, and investigated various water treatment technology options. Phase II involved the construction and operation of a small-scale water treatment pilot facility to evaluate the process's performance on produced water from the San Ardo oilfield. Cost estimates for a potential full-scale facility were also developed. Potential end uses identified for the treated water include (1) agricultural use near the oilfield, (2) use by Monterey County Water Resources Agency (MCWRA) for the Salinas Valley Water Project or Castroville Seawater Intrusion Project, (3) industrial or power plant use in King City, and (4) use for wetlands creation in the Salinas Basin. All of these uses were found to have major obstacles that prevent full-scale implementation. An additional option for potential reuse of the treated produced water was subsequently identified. That option involves using the treated produced water to recharge groundwater in the vicinity of the oil field. The recharge option may avoid the limitations that the other reuse options face. The water treatment pilot process utilized: (1) warm precipitation softening to remove hardness and silica, (2) evaporative cooling to meet downstream temperature limitations and facilitate removal of ammonia, and (3) reverse osmosis (RO) for removal of dissolved salts, boron

  18. MARKETING STRATEGIES OF SMARTPHONES PRODUCERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markova V.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Smartphones global market is one of the most dynamically developing markets that can be characterized by high level of competition. The growth of smartphones homogeneity, which is a reduction in difference between technical and functional parameters of smartphones produced by various manufacturers, can be considered the market’s specific feature. The unique situation of high-tech product homogeneity in a fast-growing market is scantily described in specialized literature. The article shows changeability of smartphones global market leaders and explains that the key success factor in such a mature market is marketing. Based on secondary information, marketing strategies of long standing market leader in sales Samsung and overtaking Apple companies are determined as well as strategies of contenders for leadership - Chinese companies Huawei and Lenovo. It is shown on Lenovo case that inexplicit positioning leads to a loss of the growing market share due to offensive marketing strategies of other Chinese companies. The research results broaden the knowledge of methodical potential of marketing strategies in companies’ activities in competitive markets of homogeneous high-tech products.

  19. Producers give prices a boost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Uranium producers came alive in August, helping spot prices crack the $8.00 barrier for the first time since March. The upper end of NUKEM's price range actually finished the month at $8.20. Scrambling to fulfill their long-term delivery contracts, producers dominate the market. In the span of three weeks, five producers came out for 2 million lbs U3O8, ultimately buying nearly 1.5 million lbs. One producer accounted for over half this volume. The major factor behind rising prices was that producers required specific origins to meet contract obligations. Buyers willing to accept open origins created the lower end of NUKEM's price range

  20. Length dependence of staircase potentiation: interactions with caffeine and dantrolene sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassier, D E; MacIntosh, B R

    2000-04-01

    In skeletal muscle, there is a length dependence of staircase potentiation for which the mechanism is unclear. In this study we tested the hypothesis that abolition of this length dependence by caffeine is effected by a mechanism independent of enhanced Ca2+ release. To test this hypothesis we have used caffeine, which abolishes length dependence of potentiation, and dantrolene sodium, which inhibits Ca2+ release. In situ isometric twitch contractions of rat gastrocnemius muscle before and after 20 s of repetitive stimulation at 5 Hz were analyzed at optimal length (Lo), Lo - 10%, and Lo + 10%. Potentiation was observed to be length dependent, with an increase in developed tension (DT) of 78 +/- 12, 51 +/- 5, and 34 +/- 9% (mean +/- SEM), at Lo - 10%, Lo, and Lo + 10%, respectively. Caffeine diminished the length dependence of activation and suppressed the length dependence of staircase potentiation, giving increases in DT of 65+/-13, 53 +/- 11, and 45 +/- 12% for Lo - 10%, Lo, and Lo + 10%, respectively. Dantrolene administered after caffeine did not reverse this effect. Dantrolene alone depressed the potentiation response, but did not affect the length dependence of staircase potentiation, with increases in DT of 58 +/- 17, 26 +/- 8, and 18 +/- 7%, respectively. This study confirms that there is a length dependence of staircase potentiation in mammalian skeletal muscle which is suppressed by caffeine. Since dantrolene did not alter this suppression of the length dependence of potentiation by caffeine, it is apparently not directly modulated by Ca2+ availability in the myoplasm.

  1. Produção animal e o meio ambiente: uma comparação entre potencial de emissão de metano dos dejetos e a quantidade de alimento produzido Animal production and environment: a comparison between potential of methane emission from waste and quantity of produced food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. P. Orrico Júnior

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi efetuar a comparação das principais espécies de interesse agropecuário, em relação à eficiência de conversão das dietas em produtos de origem animal (carne ou ovo, produção de resíduo e potencial de emissão de metano, a partir da fermentação dos resíduos. Para isso, foram selecionadas cinco espécies de animais durante a fase de produção: 1 suínos, do nascimento ao abate (peso vivo (PV final de 90 kg ; 2 bovinos, do desmame ao abate (PV: 520 kg; 3 caprinos, do desmame ao abate (PV: 30 kg; 4 aves, durante toda a fase de postura (14,7 kg de ovos; 5 frango de corte, do nascimento ao abate (PV: 3,1 kg. Para a estimativa dos parâmetros propostos, foram medidos os dados do desempenho e efetuou-se a biodigestão anaeróbia dos dejetos produzidos pelos animais. De maneira geral, os dejetos dos ruminantes apresentaram altas concentrações de fibra e baixos potenciais de produção de biogás; no entanto, o menor desempenho destes animais na conversão do alimento em produto e a maior produção de dejetos fizeram com que eles apresentassem maiores produções de metano por kg de alimento produzido.The aim of this study was to compare the main species of husbandry interest, in relation to the efficiency of food conversion into animal origin products (meat and egg, residue production and potential of methane emission from residue fermentation. This way, five species of animal during production phase were selected: 1 pigs, from birth to slaughter (final live weight (LW of 90 kg; 2 cattle, from weaning to slaughter (LW: 520 kg; 3 goat, from weaning to slaughter (LW: 30 kg; 4 poultry, during the complete phase of laying (14.7 kg of eggs; 5 broiler, from birth to slaughter (LW: 3.1 Kg. For estimating proposed parameters, data of performance were measured and anaerobic digestion of produced waste by animals was done. In a general way, ruminant waste showed height concentration of fiber and low potential of biogas

  2. [Distiller Yeasts Producing Antibacterial Peptides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klyachko, E V; Morozkina, E V; Zaitchik, B Ts; Benevolensky, S V

    2015-01-01

    A new method of controlling lactic acid bacteria contamination was developed with the use of recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains producing antibacterial peptides. Genes encoding the antibacterial peptides pediocin and plantaricin with codons preferable for S. cerevisiae were synthesized, and a system was constructed for their secretory expression. Recombinant S. cerevisiae strains producing antibacterial peptides effectively inhibit the growth of Lactobacillus sakei, Pediacoccus pentasaceus, Pediacoccus acidilactici, etc. The application of distiller yeasts producing antibacterial peptides enhances the ethanol yield in cases of bacterial contamination. Recombinant yeasts producing the antibacterial peptides pediocin and plantaricin can successfully substitute the available industrial yeast strains upon ethanol production.

  3. ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATER; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John R. Gallagher

    2001-01-01

    During the production of oil and gas, large amounts of water are brought to the surface and must be disposed of in an environmentally sensitive manner. This is an especially difficult problem in offshore production facilities where space is a major constraint. The chief regulatory criterion for produced water is oil and grease. Most facilities have little trouble meeting this criterion using conventional oil-water separation technologies. However, some operations have significant amounts of naphthenic acids in the water that behave as oil and grease but are not well removed by conventional technologies. Aerobic biological treatment of naphthenic acids in simulated-produced water has been demonstrated by others; however, the system was easily overloaded by the large amounts of low-molecular-weight organic acids often found in produced waters. The objective of this research was to determine the ability of an anaerobic biological system to treat these organic acids in a simulated produced water and to examine the potential for biodegradation of the naphthenic acids in the anaerobic environment. A small fixed-film anaerobic biological reactor was constructed and adapted to treat a simulated produced water. The bioreactor was tubular, with a low-density porous glass packing material. The inocula to the reactor was sediment from a produced-water holding pond from a municipal anaerobic digester and two salt-loving methanogenic bacteria. During start-up, the feed to the reactor contained glucose as well as typical produced-water components. When glucose was used, rapid gas production was observed. However, when glucose was eliminated and the major organic component was acetate, little gas was generated. Methane production from acetate may have been inhibited by the high salt concentrations, by sulfide, or because of the lack, despite seeding, of microbes capable of converting acetate to methane. Toluene, a minor component of the produced water (0.1 g/L) was removed in the

  4. ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John R. Gallagher

    2001-07-31

    During the production of oil and gas, large amounts of water are brought to the surface and must be disposed of in an environmentally sensitive manner. This is an especially difficult problem in offshore production facilities where space is a major constraint. The chief regulatory criterion for produced water is oil and grease. Most facilities have little trouble meeting this criterion using conventional oil-water separation technologies. However, some operations have significant amounts of naphthenic acids in the water that behave as oil and grease but are not well removed by conventional technologies. Aerobic biological treatment of naphthenic acids in simulated-produced water has been demonstrated by others; however, the system was easily overloaded by the large amounts of low-molecular-weight organic acids often found in produced waters. The objective of this research was to determine the ability of an anaerobic biological system to treat these organic acids in a simulated produced water and to examine the potential for biodegradation of the naphthenic acids in the anaerobic environment. A small fixed-film anaerobic biological reactor was constructed and adapted to treat a simulated produced water. The bioreactor was tubular, with a low-density porous glass packing material. The inocula to the reactor was sediment from a produced-water holding pond from a municipal anaerobic digester and two salt-loving methanogenic bacteria. During start-up, the feed to the reactor contained glucose as well as typical produced-water components. When glucose was used, rapid gas production was observed. However, when glucose was eliminated and the major organic component was acetate, little gas was generated. Methane production from acetate may have been inhibited by the high salt concentrations, by sulfide, or because of the lack, despite seeding, of microbes capable of converting acetate to methane. Toluene, a minor component of the produced water (0.1 g/L) was removed in the

  5. A method of producing hydroxymethyfurfural

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of producing 5-hydroxymethylfurfural by dehydration of fructose and/or glucose and/or mannose.......The present invention relates to a method of producing 5-hydroxymethylfurfural by dehydration of fructose and/or glucose and/or mannose....

  6. Producers' Complex Risk Management Choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, J.M.E.; Isengildina, O.; Irwin, S.H.; Garcia, P.; Good, D.L.

    2008-01-01

    Producers have a wide variety of risk management instruments available, making their choice(s) complex. The way producers deal with this complexity can vary and may influence the impact that the determinants, such as risk aversion, have on their choices. A recently developed choice bracketing

  7. Method of producing molybdenum-99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitcher, Eric John

    2013-05-28

    Method of producing molybdenum-99, comprising accelerating ions by means of an accelerator; directing the ions onto a metal target so as to generate neutrons having an energy of greater than 10 MeV; directing the neutrons through a converter material comprising techentium-99 to produce a mixture comprising molybdenum-99; and, chemically extracting the molybdenum-99 from the mixture.

  8. Tekna's produced water conference 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The conference has 22 presentations discussing topics on discharge reduction, produced water quality, produced water re-injection, chemicals particularly environmentally friendly ones, separation technology, reservoir souring, total water management systems, pollution, oil in water problems and platform operation. Various field tests and experiences particularly from the offshore petroleum sector are presented (tk)

  9. DOES ELECTRIC CAR PRODUCE EMISSIONS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír RIEVAJ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the comparison of the amount of emissions produced by vehicles with a combustion engine and electric cars. The comparison, which is based on the LCA factor results, indicates that an electric car produces more emissions than a vehicle with combustion engine. The implementation of electric cars will lead to an increase in the production of greenhouse gases.

  10. Wintertime Emissions from Produced Water Ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J.; Lyman, S.; Mansfield, M. L.

    2013-12-01

    Every year oil and gas drilling in the U.S. generates billions of barrels of produced water (water brought to the surface during oil or gas production). Efficiently disposing of produced water presents a constant financial challenge for producers. The most noticeable disposal method in eastern Utah's Uintah Basin is the use of evaporation ponds. There are 427 acres of produced water ponds in the Uintah Basin, and these were used to evaporate more than 5 million barrels of produced water in 2012, 6% of all produced water in the Basin. Ozone concentrations exceeding EPA standards have been observed in the Uintah Basin during winter inversion conditions, with daily maximum 8 hour average concentrations at some research sites exceeding 150 parts per billion. Produced water contains ozone-forming volatile organic compounds (VOC) which escape into the atmosphere as the water is evaporated, potentially contributing to air quality problems. No peer-reviewed study of VOC emissions from produced water ponds has been reported, and filling this gap is essential for the development of accurate emissions inventories for the Uintah Basin and other air sheds with oil and gas production. Methane, carbon dioxide, and VOC emissions were measured at three separate pond facilities in the Uintah Basin in February and March of 2013 using a dynamic flux chamber. Pond emissions vary with meteorological conditions, so measurements of VOC emissions were collected during winter to obtain data relevant to periods of high ozone production. Much of the pond area at evaporation facilities was frozen during the study period, but areas that actively received water from trucks remained unfrozen. These areas accounted for 99.2% of total emissions but only 9.5% of the total pond area on average. Ice and snow on frozen ponds served as a cap, prohibiting VOC from being emitted into the atmosphere. Emissions of benzene, toluene, and other aromatic VOCs averaged over 150 mg m-2 h-1 from unfrozen pond

  11. Producing colour pictures from SCAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robichaud, K.

    1982-01-01

    The computer code SCAN.TSK has been written for use on the Interdata 7/32 minicomputer which will convert the pictures produced by the SCAN program into colour pictures on a colour graphics VDU. These colour pictures are a more powerful aid to detecting errors in the MONK input data than the normal lineprinter pictures. This report is intended as a user manual for using the program on the Interdata 7/32, and describes the method used to produce the pictures and gives examples of JCL, input data and of the pictures that can be produced. (U.K.)

  12. Producing new radionuclides for medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaut, C.

    2009-01-01

    The Arronax cyclotron, a new particle accelerator dedicated to the production of radionuclides for medicine and research has been commissioned in Nantes (France). Because of its unique features: an energy of 70 MeV and an intensity of 750 μA, Arronax will produce radionuclides that can not be produce in present cyclotrons. Among others it will produce Strontium-82 and Germanium-68 that are the precursors for Rubidium-82 and Gallium-68 respectively. 20 per cent of the research works will be dedicated to other domains like radioactive wastes, the radiation biological damage and the radiation damage on electronic devices. (A.C.)

  13. Cellulase producing microorganism ATCC 55702

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dees, H. Craig

    1997-01-01

    Bacteria which produce large amounts of cellulase--containing cell-free fermentate have been identified. The original bacterium (ATCC 55703) was genetically altered using nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) treatment to produce the enhanced cellulase producing bacterium (ATCC 55702), which was identified through replicate plating. ATCC 55702 has improved characteristics and qualifies for the degradation of cellulosic waste materials for fuel production, food processing, textile processing, and other industrial applications. ATCC 55702 is an improved bacterial host for genetic manipulations using recombinant DNA techniques, and is less likely to destroy genetic manipulations using standard mutagenesis techniques.

  14. Methods of producing cesium-131

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meikrantz, David H; Snyder, John R

    2012-09-18

    Methods of producing cesium-131. The method comprises dissolving at least one non-irradiated barium source in water or a nitric acid solution to produce a barium target solution. The barium target solution is irradiated with neutron radiation to produce cesium-131, which is removed from the barium target solution. The cesium-131 is complexed with a calixarene compound to separate the cesium-131 from the barium target solution. A liquid:liquid extraction device or extraction column is used to separate the cesium-131 from the barium target solution.

  15. Changes in contractile properties and action potentials of motor units in the rat medial gastrocnemius muscle during maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrzynska, Z; Celichowski, J

    2016-02-01

    The early phase of development of muscles stops following the disappearance of embryonic and neonatal myosin and the elimination of polyneuronal innervation of muscle fibres with the formation of motor units (MUs), but later the muscle mass still considerably increases. It is unknown whether the three types are visible among newly formed MUs soon after the early postnatal period and whether their proportion is similar to that in adult muscle. Moreover, the processes responsible for MU-force regulation by changes in motoneuronal firing rate as well as properties of motor unit action potentials (MUAPs) during maturation are unknown. Three groups of Wistar rats were investigated - 1 month old, 2 months old and the adult, 9 months old. The basic contractile properties and action potentials of MUs in the medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle were analysed. The three types of MUs were distinguishable in all age groups, but higher proportion of slow MUs was noticed in young rats (29%, 18% and 11% in 1, 2 and 9 months rats, respectively). The fatigue index for fast fatigable MUs in 1 month old rats was about 2 times higher than in 9 months old rats. The twitch time parameters of fast MUs were shortened during the maturation; for these units, the force-frequency curves in young rats were shifted towards lower frequencies, which suggested that fast motoneurons of young animals generate lower firing rates. Higher twitch-to-tetanus ratios noted for the three MU types in young rats suggested the smaller role of rate coding in force regulation processes, and the higher role of MU recruitment in young rats. No significant differences in MUAP parameters between two groups of young and adult animals were observed. Concluding, the maturation process evokes deeper changes in fast MUs than in slow ones.

  16. Methods of producing transportation fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Vijay [Katy, TX; Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria [Houston, TX; Cherrillo, Ralph Anthony [Houston, TX; Bauldreay, Joanna M [Chester, GB

    2011-12-27

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method for producing transportation fuel is described herein. The method for producing transportation fuel may include providing formation fluid having a boiling range distribution between -5.degree. C. and 350.degree. C. from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process to a subsurface treatment facility. A liquid stream may be separated from the formation fluid. The separated liquid stream may be hydrotreated and then distilled to produce a distilled stream having a boiling range distribution between 150.degree. C. and 350.degree. C. The distilled liquid stream may be combined with one or more additives to produce transportation fuel.

  17. Salmonella in beef and produce from honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maradiaga, Martha; Miller, Mark F; Thompson, Leslie; Pond, Ansen; Gragg, Sara E; Echeverry, Alejandro; Garcia, Lyda G; Loneragan, Guy H; Brashears, Mindy M

    2015-03-01

    Salmonella continues to cause a considerable number of foodborne illnesses worldwide. The sources of outbreaks include contaminated meat and produce. The purpose of this study was to establish an initial investigation of the burden of Salmonella in produce and beef from Honduras by sampling retail markets and abattoirs. Retail produce samples (cantaloupes, cilantro, cucumbers, leafy greens, peppers, and tomatoes; n = 573) were purchased in three major cities of Honduras, and retail whole-muscle beef (n = 555) samples were also purchased in four major cities. Additionally, both hide and beef carcass (n = 141) samples were collected from two Honduran abattoirs. Whole-muscle beef samples were obtained using a sponge hydrated with buffered peptone water, and 10 ml of the buffered peptone water rinsate of each produce sample was collected with a dry sponge and placed in a bag to be transported back to the United States. Salmonella was detected using a commercially available, closeplatform PCR system, and positive samples were subjected to culture on selective media to obtain isolates. Overall, the prevalence of Salmonella-positive samples, based on PCR detection in Honduras (n = 555) retail beef was 10.1% (95% confidence interval = 7.8, 12.9), whereas 7.8% (n = 141) of beef carcass and hides samples were positive in both beef plants. The overall Salmonella prevalence for all produce samples (n = 573) collected was 2.1% (95% confidence interval = 1.2, 3.6). The most common serotypes identified in Honduras were Salmonella Typhimurium followed by Derby. These results provide an indication of Salmonella contamination of beef and produce in Honduras. Developing a Salmonella baseline for Latin America through an initial investigation like the one presented here contributes to a broader global understanding of the potential exposure through food, thus providing insight into the needs for control strategies.

  18. ebibliographical compilation of phd theses produced at the faculty

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2015-06-01

    Jun 1, 2015 ... comprehensive list of Ph.D theses produced by the following ... Science: Applied and Plant Biology, Micro-Biology, ... Communities. ... Water Purification Potentials and in-vivo ... Cultivation at Small-Hoiders Level in Semi.

  19. Persistent producer-scrounger relationships in bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harten, Lee; Matalon, Yasmin; Galli, Naama; Navon, Hagit; Dor, Roi; Yovel, Yossi

    2018-02-01

    Social foraging theory suggests that group-living animals gain from persistent social bonds, which lead to increased tolerance in competitive foraging and information sharing. Bats are among the most social mammals, often living in colonies of tens to thousands of individuals for dozens of years, yet little is known about their social foraging dynamics. We observed three captive bat colonies for over a year, quantifying >13,000 social foraging interactions. We found that individuals consistently used one of two foraging strategies, either producing (collecting) food themselves or scrounging it directly from the mouth of other individuals. Individual foraging types were consistent over at least 16 months except during the lactation period when females shifted toward producing. Scroungers intentionally selected whom to interact with when socially foraging, thus generating persistent nonrandom social relationships with two to three specific producers. These persistent producer-scrounger relationships seem to reduce aggression over time. Finally, scrounging was highly correlated with vigilance, and we hypothesize that vigilant-prone individuals turn to scrounging in the wild to mitigate the risk of landing on a potentially unsafe fruit tree. We find the bat colony to be a rich and dynamic social system, which can serve as a model to study the role that social foraging plays in the evolution of mammalian sociality. Our results highlight the importance of considering individual tendencies when exploring social behavior patterns of group-living animals. These tendencies further emphasize the necessity of studying social networks over time.

  20. Price satisfaction and producer loyalty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutonyi, Sarah; Beukel, Karin; Gyau, Amos

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate which dimensions of price satisfaction influence producers’ trust in buyers and assess the mediating role of such trust in the relationship between price satisfaction and producer loyalty in fresh fruit supply chains. Design/methodology/approach......Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate which dimensions of price satisfaction influence producers’ trust in buyers and assess the mediating role of such trust in the relationship between price satisfaction and producer loyalty in fresh fruit supply chains. Design...... reliability, and relative price are dimensions of price satisfaction that affect producers’ trust in the buyer. Moreover, trust between the producer and the buyer is found to be a strong mediator between price satisfaction and producer loyalty. The findings support recent studies about trust and its mediating...... between the multi-dimensional nature of price satisfaction and producer loyalty with trust as a mediating variable in the business-to-business (B2B) context. Although B2B relationships have been shown to be of great importance for smallholders in enhancing business performance with their buyers, little...

  1. Human body may produce bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerian, Alen J

    2017-06-01

    "Human body may produce bacteria" proposes that human body may produce bacteria and represent an independent source of infections contrary to the current paradigm of infectious disorders proposed by Louis Pasteur in 1880. The following observations are consistent with this hypothesis: A. Bidirectional transformations of both living and nonliving things have been commonly observed in nature. B. Complex multicellular organisms harbor the necessary properties to produce bacteria (water, nitrogen and oxygen). C. Physical laws suggest any previously observed phenomenon or action will occur again (life began on earth; a non living thing). D. Animal muscle cells may generate energy (fermentation). E. Sterilized food products (i.e. boiled eggs), may produce bacteria and fungus under special conditions and without any exposure to foreign living cells. "Human body may produce bacteria" may challenge the current medical paradigm that views human infectious disorders as the exclusive causative byproducts of invading foreign cells. It may also introduce new avenues to treat infectious disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Market outlook for Australian uranium producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsay, M.

    2001-01-01

    Recent improvements in the uranium market and political changes in Australia presented the uranium producers with their best opportunity in over 15 years. The removal of the well known 'three mines policy' by the current government has encouraged Australian producers to develop new development plans. With the expansion of the existing operations at Ranger and Olympic Dam, and the potential operations of Jabiluka, Kintyre, Koongara, Honeymoon and Beverley, Australia expects to increase annual production to 11630 t U 3 O 8 by the end of the decade. It will then join Canada as a major supplier of uranium to the world's nuclear power utilities in the 21st century. Uranium exploration, which has been virtually nonexistent over the past 15 years, has once again been reactivated. This occurred because of the change in the Government, but also because the Aboriginal groups are once more allowing exploration on their land. (author)

  3. Radioisotopes produced by neutron irradiation of food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, S; Seviour, R

    2016-04-01

    The use of neutrons for cargo interrogation has the potential to drastically improve threat detection. Previous research has focussed on the production of (24)Na, based on the isotopes produced in pharmaceuticals and medical devices. For both the total activity and the ingestion dose we show that a variety of isotopes contribute and that (24)Na is only dominant under certain conditions. The composition of the foods has a strong influence on the resulting activity and ingestion dose suggesting that the pharmaceuticals and medical devices considered initially are not a viable analogue for foodstuffs. There is an energy dependence to the isotopes produced due to the cross-sections of different reactions varying with neutron energy. We show that this results in different isotopes dominating the ingestion dose at different energies, which has not been considered in the previous literature. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Produced water - composition and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvernheim, Arne Lund

    1998-01-01

    Produced water can be defined as ''High volume waste-water separated from oil and gas that is produced from subsurface formations''. The water contains aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, particulate matter and soluble salts as well as elements originating from formations and from sea water injections. Residues of chemicals may also be present. The accepted North Sea discharge limit is 40 ppm. In this presentation the focus will be on the chemical composition of produced water and on the challenges involved in developing and implementing analytical methods. The focus will also be on the development of a new oil-in-water analytical method as a replacement for the Freon method. 7 refs., 1 tab

  5. Method of producing grouting mortar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelomov, I K; Alchina, S I; Dizer, E I; Gruzdeva, G A; Nikitinskii, V I; Sabirzyanov, A K

    1980-10-07

    A method of producing grouting mortar by mixing the cement with an aqueous salt solution is proposed. So as to increase the quality of the mortar through an acceleration of the time for hardening, the mixture is prepared in two stages, in the first of which 20-30% of the entire cement batch hardens, and in the second of which the remainder of the cement hardens; 1-3-% of an aqueous salt solution is used in quantities of 0.5/1 wt.-% of weight of the cement. The use of this method of producing grouting mortar helps to increase the flexural strength of the cement brick up to 50% after two days ageing by comparison with the strength of cement brick produced from grouting mortar by ordinary methods utilizing identical quantities of the initial components (cement, water, chloride).

  6. Apparatus for producing laser targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarboe, T.R.; Baker, W.R.

    1975-01-01

    This patent relates to an apparatus and method for producing deuterium targets or pellets of 25u to 75u diameter. The pellets are sliced from a continuously spun solid deuterium thread at a rate of up to 10 pellets/second. The pellets after being sliced from the continuous thread of deuterium are collimated and directed to a point of use, such as a laser activated combustion or explosion chamber wherein the pellets are imploded by laser energy or laser produced target plasmas for neutral beam injection

  7. Producing deep-water hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilenko, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    Several studies relate the history and progress made in offshore production from oil and gas fields in relation to reserves and the techniques for producing oil offshore. The intention herein is not to review these studies but rather to argue that the activities of prospecting and producing deep-water oil and gas call for a combination of technology and project management and, above all, of devotion and innovation. Without this sense of commitment motivating men and women in this industry, the human adventure of deep-water production would never have taken place

  8. Method for producing redox shuttles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pupek, Krzysztof Z.; Dzwiniel, Trevor L.; Krumdick, Gregory K.

    2015-03-03

    A single step method for producing a redox shuttle having the formula 2,5-di-tert-butyl-1,4-phenylene tetraethyl bis(phosphate) is provided, the method comprising phosphorylating tert butyl hydroquinone with a phosphate-containing reagent. Also provided is method for producing 2,5-di-tert-butyl-1,4-phenylene tetraethyl bis(phosphate), the method comprising solubilizing tert-butyl hydroquinone and tetrabutylammonium bromide with methyltetrahydrofuran to create a mixture; heating the mixture while adding base to the mixture in an amount to turn the mixture orange; and adding diethyl chlorophosphate to the orange mixture in an amount to phosphorylate the hydroquinone.

  9. Characterization of aerosols produced by surgical procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, H.C.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Lundgren, D.L.; Guilmette, R.A.; Snipes, M.B.; Jones, R.K. [Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Turner, R.S. [Lovelace Health Systems, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-07-01

    In many surgeries, especially orthopedic procedures, power tools such as saws and drills are used. These tools may produce aerosolized blood and other biological material from bone and soft tissues. Surgical lasers and electrocautery tools can also produce aerosols when tissues are vaporized and condensed. Studies have been reported in the literature concerning production of aerosols during surgery, and some of these aerosols may contain infectious material. Garden et al. (1988) reported the presence of papilloma virus DNA in the fumes produced from laser surgery, but the infectivity of the aerosol was not assessed. Moon and Nininger (1989) measured the size distribution and production rate of emissions from laser surgery and found that particles were generally less than 0.5 {mu}m diameter. More recently there has been concern expressed over the production of aerosolized blood during surgical procedures that require power tools. In an in vitro study, the production of an aerosol containing the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was reported when power tools were used to cut tissues with blood infected with HIV. Another study measured the size distribution of blood aerosols produced by surgical power tools and found blood-containing particles in a number of size ranges. Health care workers are anxious and concerned about whether surgically produced aerosols are inspirable and can contain viable pathogens such as HIV. Other pathogens such as hepatitis B virus (HBV) are also of concern. The Occupational Safety and Health funded a project at the National Institute for Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute to assess the extent of aerosolization of blood and other tissues during surgical procedures. This document reports details of the experimental and sampling approach, methods, analyses, and results on potential production of blood-associated aerosols from surgical procedures in the laboratory and in the hospital surgical suite.

  10. Marketing Hardwoods to Furniture Producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven A. Sinclair; Robert J. Bush; Philip A. Araman

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the many problems in developing marketing programs for small wood products manufacturers. It examines the problems of using price as a dominant means for getting and attracting customers. The marketing of hardwood lumber to furniture producers is then used as an example. Data from 36 furniture lumber buyers is presented to illustrate...

  11. Importance of producing impactful research

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nienaber, S

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available from the more pragmatic issue of funding. Funding agencies, organisational leadership and policymakers need scientists to prove that the science we produce makes enough of an impact to merit further funding in future. This emphasis and pressure around...

  12. Method of producing vegetable puree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    A process for producing a vegetable puree, comprising the sequential steps of: a)crushing, chopping or slicing the vegetable into pieces of 1 to 30 mm; b) blanching the vegetable pieces at a temperature of 60 to 90°C; c) contacted the blanched vegetable pieces with a macerating enzyme activity; d......) blending the macerated vegetable pieces and obtaining a puree....

  13. Potential Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lukeš, Jaroslav; Netuka, Ivan; Veselý, Jiří

    1988-01-01

    Within the tradition of meetings devoted to potential theory, a conference on potential theory took place in Prague on 19-24, July 1987. The Conference was organized by the Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, with the collaboration of the Institute of Mathematics, Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, the Department of Mathematics, Czech University of Technology, the Union of Czechoslovak Mathematicians and Physicists, the Czechoslovak Scientific and Technical Society, and supported by IMU. During the Conference, 69 scientific communications from different branches of potential theory were presented; the majority of them are in­ cluded in the present volume. (Papers based on survey lectures delivered at the Conference, its program as well as a collection of problems from potential theory will appear in a special volume of the Lecture Notes Series published by Springer-Verlag). Topics of these communications truly reflect the vast scope of contemporary potential theory. Some contributions deal...

  14. The Ethics of Producing In Vitro Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, G Owen; Savulescu, Julian

    2014-05-01

    The prospect of consumable meat produced in a laboratory setting without the need to raise and slaughter animals is both realistic and exciting. Not only could such in vitro meat become popular due to potential cost savings, but it also avoids many of the ethical and environmental problems with traditional meat productions. However, as with any new technology, in vitro meat is likely to face some detractors. We examine in detail three potential objections: 1) in vitro meat is disrespectful, either to nature or to animals; 2) it will reduce the number of happy animals in the world; and 3) it will open the door to cannibalism. While each objection has some attraction, we ultimately find that all can be overcome. The upshot is that in vitro meat production is generally permissible and, especially for ethical vegetarians, worth promoting.

  15. ADMINISTRATION OF POTENTIALLY ANTIANDROGENIC PESTICIDES (PROCYMIDONE, LINURON, IPRODIONE, CHLOZOLINATE, P,P'-DDE AND KETOCONAZOLE) AND TOXIC SUBSTANCES (DIBUTYL-AND DIETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE, PCB 169, AND ETHANE DIMETHANE SULPHONATE) DURING SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATION PRODUCES DIVERSE PROFILES OF REPRODUCTIVE MALFORMATIONS IN THE MALE RAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antiandrogenic chemicals alter sexual differentiation by a variety of mechanisms, and as a consequence, they induce different profiles of effects. For example, in utero treatment with the androgen receptor (AR) antagonist, flutamide, produces ventral prostate agenesis and testicu...

  16. Potential bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, P.L.; Tomio, L.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, relativistic confining potential models, endowed with bag constants associated to volume energy terms, are investigated. In contrast to the usual bag model, these potential bags are distinguished by having smeared bag surfaces. Based on the dynamical assumptions underlying the fuzzy bag model, these bag constants are derived from the corresponding energy-momentum tensor. Explicit expressions for the single-quark energies and for the nucleon bag constant are obtained by means of an improved analytical version of the saddle-point variational method for the Dirac equation with confining power-law potentials of the scalar plus vector (S + V) or pure scalar (S) type

  17. Method for producing carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jonathan [Santa Fe, NM; Perry, William L [Jemez Springs, NM; Chen, Chun-Ku [Albuquerque, NM

    2006-02-14

    Method for producing carbon nanotubes. Carbon nanotubes were prepared using a low power, atmospheric pressure, microwave-generated plasma torch system. After generating carbon monoxide microwave plasma, a flow of carbon monoxide was directed first through a bed of metal particles/glass beads and then along the outer surface of a ceramic tube located in the plasma. As a flow of argon was introduced into the plasma through the ceramic tube, ropes of entangled carbon nanotubes, attached to the surface of the tube, were produced. Of these, longer ropes formed on the surface portion of the tube located in the center of the plasma. Transmission electron micrographs of individual nanotubes revealed that many were single-walled.

  18. Nonlinear Pricing to Produce Information

    OpenAIRE

    David J. Braden; Shmuel S. Oren

    1994-01-01

    We investigate the firm's dynamic nonlinear pricing problem when facing consumers whose tastes vary according to a scalar index. We relax the standard assumption that the firm knows the distribution of this index. In general the firm should determine its marginal price schedule as if it were myopic, and produce information by lowering the price schedule; “bunching” consumers at positive purchase levels should be avoided. As a special case we also consider a market characterized by homogeneous...

  19. Method for producing metallic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jonathan; Perry, William L.; Kroenke, William J.

    2004-02-10

    Method for producing metallic nanoparticles. The method includes generating an aerosol of solid metallic microparticles, generating non-oxidizing plasma with a plasma hot zone at a temperature sufficiently high to vaporize the microparticles into metal vapor, and directing the aerosol into the hot zone of the plasma. The microparticles vaporize in the hot zone to metal vapor. The metal vapor is directed away from the hot zone and to the plasma afterglow where it cools and condenses to form solid metallic nanoparticles.

  20. Method for producing metallic microparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jonathan; Perry, William L.; Kroenke, William J.

    2004-06-29

    Method for producing metallic particles. The method converts metallic nanoparticles into larger, spherical metallic particles. An aerosol of solid metallic nanoparticles and a non-oxidizing plasma having a portion sufficiently hot to melt the nanoparticles are generated. The aerosol is directed into the plasma where the metallic nanoparticles melt, collide, join, and spheroidize. The molten spherical metallic particles are directed away from the plasma and enter the afterglow where they cool and solidify.

  1. Extended producer responsibility in oligopoly

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroaki Ino

    2007-01-01

    I investigate the optimal environmental tax under a policy based on extended producer responsibility (EPR) in oligopoly markets. I introduce the recycling market and explicitly consider how these policies affect the incentive for recycling. I derive the optimal tax rule, which depends on the weighted sum of the markup in the product market and the markdown in the recycling market. In contrast to the existing works that emphasize that the optimal tax rate is lower than the marginal external da...

  2. MARKETING STRATEGIES OF SMARTPHONES PRODUCERS

    OpenAIRE

    Markova V.; Tzinlin M.; Ge C.

    2017-01-01

    Smartphones global market is one of the most dynamically developing markets that can be characterized by high level of competition. The growth of smartphones homogeneity, which is a reduction in difference between technical and functional parameters of smartphones produced by various manufacturers, can be considered the market’s specific feature. The unique situation of high-tech product homogeneity in a fast-growing market is scantily described in specialized literature. The article shows ch...

  3. Bioethanol produced from Moringa oleifera seeds husk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, E. N.; Kemat, S. Z.

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents the potential of bioethanol production from Moringa oleifera seeds husk which contains lignocellulosic through Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF) process by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This paper investigates the parameters which produce optimum bioethanol yield. The husk was hydrolyzed using NaOH and fermented using Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast. Batch fermentation was performed with different yeast dosage of 1, 3, and 5 g/L, pH value was 4.5, 5.0 and 5.5, and fermentation time of 3, 6, 9 and 12 hours. The temperature of fermentation process in incubator shaker is kept constant at 32ºC. The samples are then filtered using a 0.20 μm nylon filter syringe. The yield of bioethanol produced was analysed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that the highest yield of 29.69 g/L was obtained at 3 hours of fermentation time at pH of 4.5 and using 1g/L yeast. This research work showed that Moringa oleifera seeds husk can be considered to produce bioethanol.

  4. Radioisotopes produced by neutron irradiation of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albright, S.; Seviour, R.

    2016-01-01

    The use of neutrons for cargo interrogation has the potential to drastically improve threat detection. Previous research has focussed on the production of "2"4Na, based on the isotopes produced in pharmaceuticals and medical devices. For both the total activity and the ingestion dose we show that a variety of isotopes contribute and that "2"4Na is only dominant under certain conditions. The composition of the foods has a strong influence on the resulting activity and ingestion dose suggesting that the pharmaceuticals and medical devices considered initially are not a viable analogue for foodstuffs. There is an energy dependence to the isotopes produced due to the cross-sections of different reactions varying with neutron energy. We show that this results in different isotopes dominating the ingestion dose at different energies, which has not been considered in the previous literature. - Highlights: • We show that neutron interrogation of food can produce many radioisotopes. • We show a strong dependance between food and certain radioisotopes. • Some isotopes are shown to have an energy dependence. • Previous claims that 24Na is the main threat is shown to only apply in special cases.

  5. Groundwater Potential

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    big timmy

    4Department of Geology, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. Corresponding ... integrated for the classification of the study area into different groundwater potential zones. .... table is mainly controlled by subsurface movement of water into ...

  6. Screening for novel laccase-producing microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiiskinen, L-L; Rättö, M; Kruus, K

    2004-01-01

    To discover novel laccases potential for industrial applications. Fungi were cultivated on solid media containing indicator compounds that enabled the detection of laccases as specific colour reactions. The indicators used were Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR), Poly R-478, guaiacol and tannic acid. The screening work resulted in isolation of 26 positive fungal strains. Liquid cultivations of positive strains confirmed that four efficient laccase producers were found in the screening. Biochemical characteristics of the four novel laccases were typical for fungal laccases in terms of molecular weight, pH optima and pI. The laccases showed good thermal stability at 60 degrees C. Plate-test screening based on polymeric dye compounds, guaiacol and tannic acid is an efficient way to discover novel laccase producers. The results indicated that screening for laccase activity can be performed with guaiacol and RBBR or Poly R-478. Laccases have many potential industrial applications including textile dye decolourization, delignification of pulp and effluent detoxification. It is essential to find novel, efficient enzymes to further develop these applications. This study showed that relatively simple plate test screening method can be used for discovery of novel laccases. Copyright 2004 The Society for Applied Microbiology

  7. Reduction of aerosols produced by ultrasonic scalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrel, S K; Barnes, J B; Rivera-Hidalgo, F

    1996-01-01

    There is concern with decreased air quality and potential aerosol contamination in the dental operatory. This problem has been addressed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, which recommends that all sources of blood-contaminated splatter and aerosols be minimized. One of the major sources of potential aerosol contamination in the dental setting is the ultrasonic scaler. This study looks at the use of a high volume evacuator attachment for the ultrasonic scaler handpiece. Artificial teeth were mock-scaled for 1 minute with and without the evacuator attachment. The mock scaling was performed within a plastic enclosure that had a 1 cm grid laid out on 4 sides. Scaling was performed 10 times each by 2 operators. An erythrosin solution was used for the ultrasonic scaler coolant with a coolant volume of 17.5 ml/min. The number of squares containing a red erythrosin spot were counted and considered to represent aerosol contamination. The high volume evacuator attachment produced a 93% reduction in the number of contaminated squares (chi squared significant at P < 0.05). There was no increase in heat transfer to a tooth analogue when the high volume evacuator attachment was used with the ultrasonic scaler as compared to the scaler without the evacuator attachment. It is felt that the high volume evacuator attachment is capable of significantly reducing the amount of aerosol contamination produced within the test system without increased heat transfer to the tooth.

  8. Pollution Impact and Alternative Treatment for Produced Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedar Yusran

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil and gas exploration and production are two of the activities that potentially cause pollution and environmental damage. The largest waste generated from this activity is produced water. Produced water contains hazardous pollutants of both organic and inorganic materials, so that the produced water of oil and gas production cannot be discharged directly to the environment. Uncontrolled discharge can lead to the environmental damage, killing the life of water and plants. The produced water needs to be handled and fulfill the quality standards before being discharged to the environment. Several studies to reduce the contaminants in the produced water were conducted by researchers. Among them were gravity based separation - flotation, separation technique based on filtration, and biological process treatment. Therefore, some of these methods can be used as an alternative waste handling of produced water.

  9. Pollution Impact and Alternative Treatment for Produced Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedar, Yusran; Budiyono

    2018-02-01

    Oil and gas exploration and production are two of the activities that potentially cause pollution and environmental damage. The largest waste generated from this activity is produced water. Produced water contains hazardous pollutants of both organic and inorganic materials, so that the produced water of oil and gas production cannot be discharged directly to the environment. Uncontrolled discharge can lead to the environmental damage, killing the life of water and plants. The produced water needs to be handled and fulfill the quality standards before being discharged to the environment. Several studies to reduce the contaminants in the produced water were conducted by researchers. Among them were gravity based separation - flotation, separation technique based on filtration, and biological process treatment. Therefore, some of these methods can be used as an alternative waste handling of produced water.

  10. Nonadiabatic Ponderomotive Potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodin IY, Fisch NJ

    2005-01-01

    An approximate integral of the Manley-Rowe type is found for a particle moving in a high-frequency field, which may interact resonantly with natural particle oscillations. An effective ponderomotive potential is introduced accordingly and can capture nonadiabatic particle dynamics. We show that nonadiabatic ponderomotive barriers can trap classical particles, produce cooling effect, and generate one-way walls for resonant species. Possible atomic applications are also envisioned

  11. Method of producing ethyl alcohol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philliskirk, G; Yates, H J

    1978-09-13

    Ethanol was produced from whey by removing protein from the whey by ultrafiltration, concentrating the deproteinized whey by reverse osmosis to a lactose content of at least 8 g/100 mL, fermenting with Candida pseudotropicalis NCYC 744, and distilling. E.g., milk whey was deproteinized to give a permeate containing 8.3 g lactose/100 mL. After fermentation, the final lactose content was 0.1 g/100 mL and the ethanol concentration was 3.55 g/100 mL, representing a 42% conversion of lactose to ethanol.

  12. Producing biofuels using polyketide synthases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Leonard; Fortman, Jeffrey L; Keasling, Jay D

    2013-04-16

    The present invention provides for a non-naturally occurring polyketide synthase (PKS) capable of synthesizing a carboxylic acid or a lactone, and a composition such that a carboxylic acid or lactone is included. The carboxylic acid or lactone, or derivative thereof, is useful as a biofuel. The present invention also provides for a recombinant nucleic acid or vector that encodes such a PKS, and host cells which also have such a recombinant nucleic acid or vector. The present invention also provides for a method of producing such carboxylic acids or lactones using such a PKS.

  13. Uranium producers foresee new boom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntyre, H.

    1979-01-01

    The status of uranium production in Canada is reviewed. Uranium resources in Saskatchewan and Ontario are described and the role of the Cluff Lake inquiry in securing a government decision in favour of further uranium development is mentioned. There have been other uranium strikes near Kelowna, British Columbia and in the Northwest Territories. Increasing uranium demand and favourable prices are making the development of northern resources economically attractive. In fact, all uranium currently produced has been committed to domestic and export contracts so that there is considerable room for expanding the production of uranium in Canada. (T.I.)

  14. Soybean biomass produced in Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Semino, Stella Maris; Paul, Helena; Tomei, Julia

    2009-01-01

    Soybean biomass for biodiesel, produced in Argentina amongst other places, is considered by some to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate climate change when compared with fossil fuel. To ensure that the production of biofuels is ‘sustainable', EU institutions and national governments...... are currently designing certification schemes for the sustainable production of biomass. This paper questions the validity of proposed environmental standards, using the production of Argentine soybean as a case study. The production of soybean production is associated with profound environmental impacts...

  15. Producing deuterium-enriched products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A method of producing an enriched deuterium product from a gaseous feed stream of mixed hydrogen and deuterium, comprises: (a) combining the feed stream with gaseous bromine to form a mixture of the feed stream and bromine and exposing the mixture to an electrical discharge effective to form deuterium bromide and hydrogen bromide with a ratio of D/H greater than the ratio of D/H in the feed stream; and (b) separating at least a portion of the hydrogen bromide and deuterium bromide from the mixture. (author)

  16. Fatty acid-producing hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleger, Brian F; Lennen, Rebecca M

    2013-12-31

    Described are hosts for overproducing a fatty acid product such as a fatty acid. The hosts include an exogenous nucleic acid encoding a thioesterase and, optionally, an exogenous nucleic acid encoding an acetyl-CoA carboxylase, wherein an acyl-CoA synthetase in the hosts are functionally delected. The hosts prefereably include the nucleic acid encoding the thioesterase at an intermediate copy number. The hosts are preferably recominantly stable and growth-competent at 37.degree. C. Methods of producing a fatty acid product comprising culturing such hosts at 37.degree. C. are also described.

  17. Methods of producing luminescent images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadhead, P.; Newman, G.A.

    1977-01-01

    A method is described for producing a luminescent image in a layer of a binding material in which is dispersed a thermoluminescent material. The layer is heated uniformly to a temperature of 80 to 300 0 C and is exposed to luminescence inducing radiation whilst so heated. The preferred exposing radiation is X-rays and preferably the thermoluminescent material is insensitive to electromagnetic radiation of wavelength longer than 300 mm. Information concerning preparation of the luminescent material is given in BP 1,347,672; this material has the advantage that at elevated temperatures it shows increased sensitivity compared with room temperature. At temperatures in the range 80 to 150 0 C the thermoluminescent material exhibits 'afterglow', allowing the image to persist for several seconds after the X-radiation has ceased, thus allowing the image to be retained for visual inspection in this temperature range. At higher temperatures, however, there is negligible 'afterglow'. The thermoluminescent layers so produced are particularly useful as fluoroscopic screens. The preferred method of heating the thermoluminescent material is described in BP 1,354,149. An example is given of the application of the method. (U.K.)

  18. Concrete produced with recycled aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. L. Tenório

    Full Text Available This paper presents the analysis of the mechanical and durable properties of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC for using in concrete. The porosity of recycled coarse aggregates is known to influence the fresh and hardened concrete properties and these properties are related to the specific mass of the recycled coarse aggregates, which directly influences the mechanical properties of the concrete. The recycled aggregates were obtained from construction and demolition wastes (CDW, which were divided into recycled sand (fine and coarse aggregates. Besides this, a recycled coarse aggregate of a specific mass with a greater density was obtained by mixing the recycled aggregates of the CDW with the recycled aggregates of concrete wastes (CW. The concrete was produced in laboratory by combining three water-cement ratios, the ratios were used in agreement with NBR 6118 for structural concretes, with each recycled coarse aggregates and recycled sand or river sand, and the reference concrete was produced with natural aggregates. It was observed that recycled aggregates can be used in concrete with properties for structural concrete. In general, the use of recycled coarse aggregate in combination with recycled sand did not provide good results; but when the less porous was used, or the recycled coarse aggregate of a specific mass with a greater density, the properties of the concrete showed better results. Some RAC reached bigger strengths than the reference concrete.

  19. Biogenic antimicrobial silver nanoparticles produced by fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Alexandre G; Ping, Liu Yu; Marcato, Priscyla D; Alves, Oswaldo L; Silva, Maria C P; Ruiz, Rita C; Melo, Itamar S; Tasic, Ljubica; De Souza, Ana O

    2013-01-01

    Aspergillus tubingensis and Bionectria ochroleuca showed excellent extracellular ability to synthesize silver nanoparticles (Ag NP), spherical in shape and 35 ± 10 nm in size. Ag NP were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, and photon correlation spectroscopy for particle size and zeta potential. Proteins present in the fungal filtrate and in Ag NP dispersion were analyzed by electrophoresis (sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis). Ag NP showed pronounced antifungal activity against Candida sp, frequently occurring in hospital infections, with minimal inhibitory concentration in the range of 0.11-1.75 μg/mL. Regarding antibacterial activity, nanoparticles produced by A. tubingensis were more effective compared to the other fungus, inhibiting 98.0 % of Pseudomonas. aeruginosa growth at 0.28 μg/mL. A. tubingensis synthesized Ag NP with surprisingly high and positive surface potential, differing greatly from all known fungi. These data open the possibility of obtaining biogenic Ag NP with positive surface potential and new applications.

  20. ICRF enhanced potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, B.A.

    1987-01-01

    Ion-confining potentials in the Phaedrus tandem mirror are shown to be enhanced over Boltzmann-relations predicted values by radio-frequency (rf) waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF). The ICRF enhanced potential is larger in the end cell with a lower passing density. Peak potential values decrease with increasing ion endloss current (or central cell density) for a constant rf capacitor bank voltage, and increase with increasing rf-capacitor bank voltage, for a constant ion endloss value (or central cell density). In fully axisymmetric operation, a potential peak is produced in an end cell by the central-cell rf, (with-out end-cell rf) and is found only in the end cell nearer the central-cell antenna. ICRF enhanced potentials are explained as an equilibrium between the electron-collisional filling-in rate and the electron pumping out rate provided by axial time-varying electric fields. Thermal barrier-like potential structures were found in the transition regions between the central cell and end cells, in the fully axisymmetric Phaedrus. Central-cell ICRF trapping effects combined with end-cell μΔ B forces create and pump the barrier potential wells

  1. How Mobility Systems Produce Inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richardson, Tim; Jensen, Ole B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores a crucial aspect of sustainable mobility: the production of social inequality in mobility systems. The approach taken is to focus on how, as new transit infrastructures create alternative ways of traveling in and accessing the city, they create changed conditions for the forma......This paper explores a crucial aspect of sustainable mobility: the production of social inequality in mobility systems. The approach taken is to focus on how, as new transit infrastructures create alternative ways of traveling in and accessing the city, they create changed conditions...... for the formation of subject identities. New types of travellers are realised in the newly engineered spaces of mobility. The paper argues that this focus on these emergent mobile subject types can be useful in investigating the social inequalities that can result from the introduction of new infrastructures...... are constructed and how social inequality is materially produced....

  2. Producing The New Regressive Left

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crone, Christine

    members, this thesis investigates a growing political trend and ideological discourse in the Arab world that I have called The New Regressive Left. On the premise that a media outlet can function as a forum for ideology production, the thesis argues that an analysis of this material can help to trace...... the contexture of The New Regressive Left. If the first part of the thesis lays out the theoretical approach and draws the contextual framework, through an exploration of the surrounding Arab media-and ideoscapes, the second part is an analytical investigation of the discourse that permeates the programmes aired...... becomes clear from the analytical chapters is the emergence of the new cross-ideological alliance of The New Regressive Left. This emerging coalition between Shia Muslims, religious minorities, parts of the Arab Left, secular cultural producers, and the remnants of the political,strategic resistance...

  3. Conducting nanofibres produced by electrospinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, S.; Davis, F. J.; Mitchell, G. R.; Robinson, E.

    2009-08-01

    Electrospun fibres based on polypyrrole have been prepared. The incorporation of preformed polypyrrole into fibres electrospun from a carrier polymer can only be achieved when materials are prepared with particulates smaller than the cross-section of the fibre; even so there are some problems, with the substantial loss of material from the electrode tip. As an alternative approach, soluble polypyrroles can be prepared but these are not of sufficient viscosity to prepare electrospun fibres, once again a carrier polymer must be employed. More effective loadings are gained by the process of coating the outer surface of a pre-spun fibre; in this way electrospun fibres coated with polypyrrole can be prepared. This approach has been adapted to produce silver coated polymer fibres by the use of copolymers of styrene and 3-vinyl benzaldehyde.

  4. Conducting nanofibres produced by electrospinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, S; Mitchell, G R; Robinson, E; Davis, F J

    2009-01-01

    Electrospun fibres based on polypyrrole have been prepared. The incorporation of preformed polypyrrole into fibres electrospun from a carrier polymer can only be achieved when materials are prepared with particulates smaller than the cross-section of the fibre; even so there are some problems, with the substantial loss of material from the electrode tip. As an alternative approach, soluble polypyrroles can be prepared but these are not of sufficient viscosity to prepare electrospun fibres, once again a carrier polymer must be employed. More effective loadings are gained by the process of coating the outer surface of a pre-spun fibre; in this way electrospun fibres coated with polypyrrole can be prepared. This approach has been adapted to produce silver coated polymer fibres by the use of copolymers of styrene and 3-vinyl benzaldehyde.

  5. Producer flexibility answers market forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Flatern, R.

    1996-01-01

    The petroleum industry was revolutionized in the 1980s when oil became a commodity and rising prices no longer ensured profits. Alliancing, partnering, integration and operator cooperation became economic responses to the 1990s market reality. The industry has long been a bastion of free-marketeering; competition among producers and service providers continues to control prices. But new, more efficient ways of doing business control costs in an industry buffeted by stagnant prices, a prolonged period of downsizing and increasingly difficult and remote operating environments. How long the new business atmosphere will last depends on industry needs and how well things work out. But based on the successes of the immediate past and the foreseeable future, the new cross-company business practices seem destined only to multiply

  6. Process for producing a polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshimura, M; Haruta, K; Matsuzaka, J; Terakado, H

    1969-02-13

    A novel polymer is produced by a novel polymerization or copolymerization process in the presence of a free radical-forming catalyst or radical-forming irradiation energy to provide a monomer of the general formula CH/sub 2/=C(R/sub 1/)(COO)-(R/sub 2/OOCR/sub 3/COO)sub(n)-R/sub 2/OH wherein R/sub 1/ is hydrogen, halogen or alkyl radical containing one or two atoms; R/sub 2/ is an epoxy compound residue; R/sub 3/ is a polybasic anhydride residue; and n is an integer. This polymer: (1) enables the cross-linking reaction, (2) improves the adhesiveness of adhesives, pigments, films and coatings; (3) is adjustable for mutual solubility and affinity when blending with other solvents and resins; (4) is resistant to yellowing and mechanically stronger than the benzene nucleus of styrene; (5) improves the textile dyeing affinity, adhesiveness and dispersion of pigments, and the dimensional stability of films and sheets; (6) is suitable as a molding material of synthetic resins, adhesives and coatings because of its three dimensional cross-linking construction; (7) can control the hardness, flexibility and rigidity of the molding materials; and (8) can lower the cost of production. In an example, 10 g of the monomer of the above mentioned formula wherein n=1, R/sub 1/=CH/sub 3/, R/sub 2/=-(CH/sub 2/)/sub 2/ and R/sub 3/ is ortho-substituted benzene, and 0.1 g of benzol peroxide, are added to ampoule, sealed and polymerized at 120/sup 0/C for 2 hours. Next the contents are precipitated in a large amount of benzene to produce a polymer having a molecular weight of 9,500. The products have good dimensional stability as molding materials.

  7. Violent Potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Henrik Hvenegaard; Søgaard, Thomas Friis

    2015-01-01

    ” plays a critical role in relation to Bugkalot men’s construction of hegemonic masculinity and the sustaining of complex egalitarian relations. The Bugkalot have a notoriously violent history; until the late 1970s more than half of the adult men engaged in ritual killings. While most Bugkalot men has...... that can also be used in other contexts to understand how men construct hegemonic masculinity by strategically adopting the interspace of civility and violence.......This article explores the social significance of violence as potentiality and performance among former headhunters. Taking its outset in an ethnographic study of violence and masculinity among the Philippine people known as the Bugkalot, we explore how violence as “performed violent potentiality...

  8. Potential theory

    CERN Document Server

    Helms, Lester L

    2014-01-01

    Potential Theory presents a clear path from calculus to classical potential theory and beyond, with the aim of moving the reader into the area of mathematical research as quickly as possible. The subject matter is developed from first principles using only calculus. Commencing with the inverse square law for gravitational and electromagnetic forces and the divergence theorem, the author develops methods for constructing solutions of Laplace's equation on a region with prescribed values on the boundary of the region. The latter half of the book addresses more advanced material aimed at those with the background of a senior undergraduate or beginning graduate course in real analysis. Starting with solutions of the Dirichlet problem subject to mixed boundary conditions on the simplest of regions, methods of morphing such solutions onto solutions of Poisson's equation on more general regions are developed using diffeomorphisms and the Perron-Wiener-Brelot method, culminating in application to Brownian motion. In ...

  9. Measurement of proton autoneutralization potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, M.

    1984-09-01

    A proton space charge having multi-MeV kinetic energy was injected through a thin ground plane to extract electrons and produce a time-dependent autoneutralization space potential. An electon-emitting floating-potential resistive divider was used to measure the space potential during 20 ns of the proton current pulse. During this time, proton kinetic energy fell from 10.6 MeV to 8.5 MeV and thus the space potential (taken as 1.09 x the floating potential) fell from 5.8 kV to 4.6 kV

  10. Plasma treatment for producing electron emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Don Mayo; Walter, Kevin Carl

    2001-01-01

    Plasma treatment for producing carbonaceous field emission electron emitters is disclosed. A plasma of ions is generated in a closed chamber and used to surround the exposed surface of a carbonaceous material. A voltage is applied to an electrode that is in contact with the carbonaceous material. This voltage has a negative potential relative to a second electrode in the chamber and serves to accelerate the ions toward the carbonaceous material and provide an ion energy sufficient to etch the exposed surface of the carbonaceous material but not sufficient to result in the implantation of the ions within the carbonaceous material. Preferably, the ions used are those of an inert gas or an inert gas with a small amount of added nitrogen.

  11. The economics of producing biodiesel from algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, Brian J. [Ecotonics Environmental Scientists, 1801 Century Park East, Suite 2400, Los Angeles, CA 90067 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Biodiesel is an alternative fuel for conventional diesel that is made from natural plant oils, animal fats, and waste cooking oils. This paper discusses the economics of producing biodiesel fuel from algae grown in open ponds. There is potential for large-scale production of biodiesel from algal farms on non-arable land; however, previous studies have failed to demonstrate an economically viable process that could be scalable to a commercialized industry. The problems include inconsistent and insufficient algal productivities, uncertain capital and operating costs, volatile market prices and unknown levels of government support. Although intensive work is being done on many technological issues, the economic studies and data are incomplete and out of date. This paper presents an updated financial analysis of the production and economic conditions that could have a profound effect on the success of this important alternative fuel production process. (author)

  12. Neutron filters for producing monoenergetic neutron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, J.A.; Hill, N.W.; Harvey, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    Neutron transmission measurements have been made on high-purity, highly-enriched samples of 58 Ni (99.9%), 60 Ni (99.7%), 64 Zn (97.9%) and 184 W (94.5%) to measure their neutron windows and to assess their potential usefulness for producing monoenergetic beams of intermediate energies from a reactor. Transmission measurements on the Los Alamos Sc filter (44.26 cm Sc and 1.0 cm Ti) have been made to determine the characteristics of the transmitted neutron beam and to measure the total cross section of Sc at the 2.0 keV minimum. When corrected for the Ti and impurities, a value of 0.35 +- 0.03 b was obtained for this minimum

  13. The economics of producing biodiesel from algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, Brian J.

    2011-01-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative fuel for conventional diesel that is made from natural plant oils, animal fats, and waste cooking oils. This paper discusses the economics of producing biodiesel fuel from algae grown in open ponds. There is potential for large-scale production of biodiesel from algal farms on non-arable land; however, previous studies have failed to demonstrate an economically viable process that could be scalable to a commercialized industry. The problems include inconsistent and insufficient algal productivities, uncertain capital and operating costs, volatile market prices and unknown levels of government support. Although intensive work is being done on many technological issues, the economic studies and data are incomplete and out of date. This paper presents an updated financial analysis of the production and economic conditions that could have a profound effect on the success of this important alternative fuel production process. (author)

  14. Isolation of Biosurfactant Producing Bacteria from Oil Reservoirs

    OpenAIRE

    A Tabatabaee, M Mazaheri Assadi, AA Noohi,VA Sajadian

    2005-01-01

    Biosurfactants or surface-active compounds are produced by microoaganisms. These molecules reduce surface tension both aqueous solutions and hydrocarbon mixtures. In this study, isolation and identification of biosurfactant producing bacteria were assessed. The potential application of these bacteria in petroleum industry was investigated. Samples (crude oil) were collected from oil wells and 45 strains were isolated. To confirm the ability of isolates in biosurfactant production, haemolysis ...

  15. Targeting development of incretin-producing cells increases insulin secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Natalia; Reimann, Frank; van Es, Johan H

    2015-01-01

    the number of intestinal L cells, which produce GLP-1, is an alternative strategy to augment insulin responses and improve glucose tolerance. Blocking the NOTCH signaling pathway with the γ-secretase inhibitor dibenzazepine increased the number of L cells in intestinal organoid-based mouse and human culture...... of the development of incretin-producing cells in the intestine has potential as a therapeutic strategy to improve glycemic control....

  16. Microbiology of organic and conventionally grown fresh produce

    OpenAIRE

    Maffei, Daniele F.; Batalha, Erika Y.; Landgraf, Mariza; Schaffner, Donald W.; Franco, Bernadette D.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Fresh produce is a generalized term for a group of farm-produced crops, including fruits and vegetables. Organic agriculture has been on the rise and attracting the attention of the food production sector, since it uses eco-agricultural principles that are ostensibly environmentally-friendly and provides products potentially free from the residues of agrochemicals. Organic farming practices such as the use of animal manure can however increase the risk of contamination by enteric pat...

  17. Adsorption of uranium on adsorbents produced from used tires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahramanlioglu, M.

    2003-01-01

    Potential use of adsorbents produced from used tires for the removal of uranium from aqueous solutions is investigated. Two different adsorbents were used including char and activated carbon produced from used tires. The surface area was larger on activated carbon. Adsorption experiments were carried out as a function of time, adsorbent concentration, pH and initial concentration of uranium. The adsorption kinetics was found to follow the Lagergren equation. The rate constants of intraparticle diffusion and mass transfer coefficients were calculated. It was shown that the equilibrium data could be fitted by the Langmuir and Freundlich equations. The adsorption of uranium in the presence of different cations were also studied and the results were correlated with the ionic potential of the cations. It was demonstrated that the activated carbon produced from used tires can be considered as an adsorbent that has a commercial potential for uranium removal. (author)

  18. Nickel aggregates produced by radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marignier, J.L.; Belloni, J.

    1988-01-01

    Nickel aggregates with subcolloidal size and stable in water have been synthesized by inhibiting the corrosion by the medium. The protective effect of the surfactant is discussed in relation with the characteristics of various types of polyvinyl alcohol studied. The reactivity of aggregates towards oxidizing compounds, nitro blue tetrazolium, methylene blue, silver ions, oxygen, methylviologen, enables an estimation of the redox potential of nickel aggregates (E = - 04 ± 0.05 V). It has been applied to quantitative analysis of the particles in presence of nickel ions. 55 refs [fr

  19. Beta-Lactamase Producing Escherichia coli Isolates in Imported and Locally Produced Chicken Meat from Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mette Marie; Opintan, Japheth A; Frimodt-Møller, Niels

    2015-01-01

    whether imported chicken meat and meat from locally reared chicken are potential sources for human exposure to multi resistant Escherichia coli isolates. 188 samples from imported and locally produced chicken meat were sampled and analyzed. 153 bacteria isolates were successfully cultured and identified...... phenotypically confirmed on all isolates showing resistance to cefpodoxime. Beta-lactamase producing (BLP) E. coli meat isolates were further genotyped. Antimicrobial resistance to four antibiotic markers with highest resistance was detected more frequently in isolates from local chickens compared to imported......The use of antibiotics in food animals is of public health concern, because resistant zoonotic pathogens can be transmitted to humans. Furthermore, global trade with food may rapidly spread multi-resistant pathogens between countries and even continents. The purpose of the study was to investigate...

  20. Manual for reactor produced radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    numerous new developments that have taken place since then. Hence in this manual it was decided to focus only on reactor produced radioisotopes. This manual contains procedures for 48 important reactor-produced isotopes. These were contributed by major radioisotope producers from different parts of the world and are based on their practical experience. In case of widely used radioisotopes such as 131 I, 32 P and 99 Mo, information from more than one centre is included so that the users can compare the procedures. As in the earlier two versions, a general introductory write-up is included covering basic information on related aspects such as target irradiation, handling facilities, radiation protection and transportation, but in less detail. Relevant IAEA publications on such matters, particularly related to radiation protection and transportation, should be referred to for guidelines. Similarly, the nuclear data contained in the manual are only indicative and the relevant databases should be referred to for more authentic values. It is hoped that the manual will be a useful source of information for those working in radioisotope production laboratories as well as those intending to initiate such activities

  1. Can student-produced video transform university teaching?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    as preparation for the two week intensive field course. The overall objective of the redesign was to modernize and improve the quality of the students learning experience, by exploring the potentials of video and online tools to create flexible, student-centered and student-activating education. The student...... produced three types of videos during the course: Video 1 was independently produced by the students, guided by online tasks and instructions. These videos were student produced learning material, showing cases from all over Europe. The videos was collected and presented in a "visual database" in Google...

  2. Producing tantalum or columbium powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rerat, C.F.

    1979-01-01

    A process is described for the production of tantalum or columbium powder with a high yield within a desired range of particle sizes. A molten salt bath of a double salt comprising either an alkali metal tantalum fluoride or an alkali metal columbium fluoride and a relatively large amount of alkali metal halide diluent salt to act as a heat sink is initially maintained at a temperature a little above the liquidus temperature of the salt mixture. A liquid alkali metal at a comparatively low temperature is added to the continuously stirred bath at a high mass flow rate, and reduces the double salt, producing tantalum or columbium. The reaction is exothermic and causes the temperature to rise rapidly to a desired final reaction temperature within the range 760 to 1000 0 . The liquid alkali metal is thereafter fed at a high mass flow rate to complete the reaction quickly at the final reaction temperature. Forced cooling at a heat extraction rate not less than 42 kilojoules/min./kg. of double salt is used during at least a portion of the reaction cycle at a rate sufficient to maintain the final reaction temperature within a desired range. (author)

  3. Sideways Force Produced During Disruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, H. R.; Paccagnella, R.; Breslau, J.; Jardin, S.; Sugiyama, L.

    2012-10-01

    We extend previous studies [1] of vertical displacement events (VDE) which can produce disruptions. The emphasis is on the non axisymmetric ``sideways'' wall force Fx. Simulations are performed using the M3D [2] code. A VDE expels magnetic flux through the resistive wall until the last closed flux surface has q VDE is presented. The wall force depends strongly on γτw, where γ is the mode growth rate and τw is the wall resistive penetration time. The force Fx is largest when γτw is a constant of order unity, which depends on the initial conditions. For large values of γτw, the wall force asymptotes to a relatively smaller value, well below the critical value ITER is designed to withstand. The principle of disruption mitigation by massive gas injection is to cause a disruption with large γτw. [4pt] [1] H. R. Strauss, R. Paccagnella, and J. Breslau,Phys. Plasmas 17, 082505 (2010) [2] W. Park, E.V. Belova, G.Y. Fu, X. Tang, H.R. Strauss, L.E. Sugiyama, Phys. Plasmas 6, 1796 (1999).

  4. Yeast: A new oil producer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beopoulos Athanasios

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand of plant oils or animal fat for biodiesel and specific lipid derivatives for the oleochemical field (such as lubricants, adhesives or plastics have created price imbalance in both the alimentary and energy field. Moreover, the lack of non-edible oil feedstock has given rise to concerns on land-use practices and on oil production strategies. Recently, much attention has been paid to the exploitation of microbial oils. Most of them present lipid profiles similar in type and composition to plants and could therefore have many advantages as are no competitive with food, have short process cycles and their cultivation is independent of climate factors. Among microorganisms, yeasts seem to be very promising as they can be easily genetically enhanced, are suitable for large-scale fermentation and are devoid of endotoxins. This review will focus on the recent understanding of yeasts lipid metabolism, the succeeding genetic engineering of the lipid pathways and the recent developments on fermentation techniques that pointed out yeasts as promising alternative producers for oil or plastic.

  5. Collision-produced atomic states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, N.; Copenhagen Univ.

    1988-01-01

    The last 10-15 years have witnessed the development of a new, powerful class of experimental techniques for atomic collision studies, allowing partial or complete determination of the state of the atoms after a collision event, i.e. the full set of quantum-mechanical scattering amplitudes or - more generally - the density matrix describing the system. Evidently, such studies, involving determination of alignment and orientation parameters, provide much more severe tests of state-of-the-art scattering theories than do total or differential cross section measurements which depend on diagonal elements of the density matrix. The off-diagonal elements give us detailed information about the shape and dynamics of the atomic states. Therefore, close studies of collision-produced atomic states are currently leading to deeper insights into the fundamental physical mechanisms governing the dynamics of atomic collision events. The first part of the lectures deals with the language used to describe atomic states, while the second part presents a selection of recent results for model systems which display fundamental aspects of the collision physics in particularly instructive ways. I shall here restrict myself to atom-atom collisions. The discussion will be focused on states decaying by photon emission though most of the ideas can be easily modified to include electron emission as well. (orig./AH)

  6. Engineering microbes to produce biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackett, Lawrence P

    2011-06-01

    The current biofuels landscape is chaotic. It is controlled by the rules imposed by economic forces and driven by the necessity of finding new sources of energy, particularly motor fuels. The need is bringing forth great creativity in uncovering new candidate fuel molecules that can be made via metabolic engineering. These next generation fuels include long-chain alcohols, terpenoid hydrocarbons, and diesel-length alkanes. Renewable fuels contain carbon derived from carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide is derived directly by a photosynthetic fuel-producing organism(s) or via intermediary biomass polymers that were previously derived from carbon dioxide. To use the latter economically, biomass depolymerization processes must improve and this is a very active area of research. There are competitive approaches with some groups using enzyme based methods and others using chemical catalysts. With the former, feedstock and end-product toxicity loom as major problems. Advances chiefly rest on the ability to manipulate biological systems. Computational and modular construction approaches are key. For example, novel metabolic networks have been constructed to make long-chain alcohols and hydrocarbons that have superior fuel properties over ethanol. A particularly exciting approach is to implement a direct utilization of solar energy to make a usable fuel. A number of approaches use the components of current biological systems, but re-engineer them for more direct, efficient production of fuels. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Producer responsibility and recycling solar photovoltaic modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, N.C.; Pearce, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Rapid expansion of the solar photovoltaic (PV) industry is quickly causing solar to play a growing importance in the energy mix of the world. Over the full life cycle, although to a smaller degree than traditional energy sources, PV also creates solid waste. This paper examines the potential need for PV recycling policies by analyzing existing recycling protocols for the five major types of commercialized PV materials. The amount of recoverable semiconductor material and glass in a 1 m 2 area solar module for the five types of cells is quantified both physically and the profit potential of recycling is determined. The cost of landfill disposal of the whole solar module, including the glass and semiconductor was also determined for each type of solar module. It was found that the economic motivation to recycle most PV modules is unfavorable without appropriate policies. Results are discussed on the need to regulate for appropriate energy and environmental policy in the PV manufacturing industry particularly for PV containing hazardous materials. The results demonstrate the need to encourage producer responsibility not only in the PV manufacturing sector but also in the entire energy industry.

  8. Reactor-produced therapeutic radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    2002-01-01

    The significant worldwide increase in therapeutic radioisotope applications in nuclear medicine, oncology and interventional cardiology requires the dependable production of sufficient levels of radioisotopes for these applications (Reba, 2000; J. Nucl. Med., 1998; Nuclear News, 1999; Adelstein and Manning, 1994). The issues associated with both accelerator- and reactor-production of therapeutic radioisotopes is important. Clinical applications of therapeutic radioisotopes include the use of both sealed sources and unsealed radiopharmaceutical sources. Targeted radiopharmaceutical agents include those for cancer therapy and palliation of bone pain from metastatic disease, ablation of bone marrow prior to stem cell transplantation, treatment modalities for mono and oligo- and polyarthritis, for cancer therapy (including brachytherapy) and for the inhibition of the hyperplastic response following coronary angioplasty and other interventional procedures (For example, see Volkert and Hoffman, 1999). Sealed sources involve the use of radiolabeled devices for cancer therapy (brachytherapy) and also for the inhibition of the hyperplasia which is often encountered after angioplasty, especially with the exponential increase in the use of coronary stents and stents for the peripheral vasculature and other anatomical applications. Since neutron-rich radioisotopes often decay by beta decay or decay to beta-emitting daughter radioisotopes which serve as the basis for radionuclide generator systems, reactors are expected to play an increasingly important role for the production of a large variety of therapeutic radioisotopes required for these and other developing therapeutic applications. Because of the importance of the availability of reactor-produced radioisotopes for these applications, an understanding of the contribution of neutron spectra for radioisotope production and determination of those cross sections which have not yet been established is important. This

  9. 7 CFR 1206.16 - Producer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... producing, or causing to be produced, mangos beyond the person's own family use and having value at first... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.16 Producer. Producer means...

  10. Violent potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Henrik Hvenegaard; Friis Søgaard, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    as ‘performed violent potentiality’ plays a critical role in relation to Bugkalot men’s construction of hegemonic masculinity and the sustaining of complex egalitarian relations. The Bugkalot have a notoriously violent history; until the late 1970s more than half of the adult men engaged in ritual killings...... provide general insights that can also be used in other contexts to understand how men construct hegemonic masculinity by strategically adopting the interspace of civility and violence.......This article explores the social significance of violence as potentiality and performance among former headhunters engaged in ritual killings. Taking its outset in an ethnographic study of violence and masculinity among the Philippine people known as the Bugkalot, we explore how violence...

  11. Mass-producing B mesons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleksan, Roy; Ali, Ahmed

    1993-06-15

    Since the discovery of the upsilon resonances in 1977 the physics of the fifth quark - beauty - has played a vital role in establishing and consolidating today's Standard Model of particle physics. In recent years, a wealth of data on B particle (containing the beauty quark) has emerged from the detectors ARGUS (at the DORIS ring, DESY, Hamburg) and CLEO (at the Cornell CESR ring) as well as from CERN's LEP electron-positron collider and the proton-antiproton colliders at CERN and Fermilab. But the most challenging goal of this physics is to explore the mystery of CP violation, so far only seen in neutral kaon decays. This subtle mechanism - a disregard for the combined symmetry of particle antiparticle switching and left-right reflection - possibly moulded the evolution of the Universe after the Big Bang, providing a world dominated by matter, rather than one where matter and antimatter play comparable roles. To fully explore CP violation in the laboratory needs a dedicated machine - a particle 'factory' - to mass produce B mesons. Only when this full picture of CP violation has been revealed will physicists finally be able to solve its mysteries. As well as major proposals in the US and Japan, several ideas have been launched in Europe. Over the years, many working groups have accumulated an impressive amount of data and knowledge on the physics as well as on the machine and detectors. The spearheads of experimental B physics are the ARGUS and CLEO collaborations. Highlights include the determination of the parameters of the (Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa, CKM) quark mixing matrix, testing the consistency of the Standard Model with six quarks and three leptons, and giving the first indirect hint that the as yet unseen sixth ('top') quark is very heavy, together with initial indications of how it should decay. Valuable complementary information has come from proton-antiproton collider data and particularly from the LEP experiments at the Z resonance. Experiments at

  12. Mass-producing B mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksan, Roy; Ali, Ahmed

    1993-01-01

    Since the discovery of the upsilon resonances in 1977 the physics of the fifth quark - beauty - has played a vital role in establishing and consolidating today's Standard Model of particle physics. In recent years, a wealth of data on B particle (containing the beauty quark) has emerged from the detectors ARGUS (at the DORIS ring, DESY, Hamburg) and CLEO (at the Cornell CESR ring) as well as from CERN's LEP electron-positron collider and the proton-antiproton colliders at CERN and Fermilab. But the most challenging goal of this physics is to explore the mystery of CP violation, so far only seen in neutral kaon decays. This subtle mechanism - a disregard for the combined symmetry of particle antiparticle switching and left-right reflection - possibly moulded the evolution of the Universe after the Big Bang, providing a world dominated by matter, rather than one where matter and antimatter play comparable roles. To fully explore CP violation in the laboratory needs a dedicated machine - a particle 'factory' - to mass produce B mesons. Only when this full picture of CP violation has been revealed will physicists finally be able to solve its mysteries. As well as major proposals in the US and Japan, several ideas have been launched in Europe. Over the years, many working groups have accumulated an impressive amount of data and knowledge on the physics as well as on the machine and detectors. The spearheads of experimental B physics are the ARGUS and CLEO collaborations. Highlights include the determination of the parameters of the (Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa, CKM) quark mixing matrix, testing the consistency of the Standard Model with six quarks and three leptons, and giving the first indirect hint that the as yet unseen sixth ('top') quark is very heavy, together with initial indications of how it should decay. Valuable complementary information has come from proton-antiproton collider data and particularly from the LEP experiments at the

  13. Producing zeolites from fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rayalu, S.; Labhestwar, N.K.; Biniwale, R.B.; Udhoji, J.S.; Meshram, S.U.; Khanna, P.

    1998-01-01

    Fly ash has virtually become a menace of thermal power generation, leading to its devastating effects on the environment. Development of alternate methods of its disposal - especially those with recourse to recovery of valuable materials-has thus become imperative. This paper deals with the utilisation of fly ash for the production of high value-added products, viz., commercial grade zeolites. The physico-chemical and morphological characteristics of fly ash based Zeolite-A (FAZ-A) compares well with commercial Zeolite-A. High calcium binding capacity, appropriate particle/pore size and other detergency characteristics of FAZ-A brings forth its potential as a substitute for phosphatic detergent builder. The technology is extremely versatile, and other products like Zeolite-X, Zeolite-Y, sodalite and mordenite are also amenable for cost effective production with modifications in certain reaction parameters. Low temperature operations, ready availability of major raw materials, simplicity of process and recycling of unused reactants and process water are special features of the process. (author)

  14. Occurrence of mycotoxin producing fungi in bee pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, G; Hinojo, M J; Mateo, R; Medina, A; Jiménez, M

    2005-11-15

    The natural mycobiota occurring in bee pollen is studied in the present report with special attention to analyze the incidence of fungal species that are potential producers of mycotoxins. A total of 90 ready-to-eat bee pollen samples were analyzed. Eighty-seven samples were collected in stores placed in different Spanish areas and three were from Buenos Aires (Argentina). The statistical results (ANOVA) showed that yeasts and Penicillium spp. were the predominant fungi. With regard to the potential mycotoxin producing species, Penicillium verrucosum, Aspergillus niger aggregate, Aspergillus carbonarius, Aspergillus ochraceus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus and Alternaria spp. were found. The last genus was isolated very frequently. The potential ability for producing ochratoxin A (OTA) and aflatoxins B(1), B(2), G(1) and G(2) was studied by culturing in vitro the isolates followed by analysis of these mycotoxins in culture extracts by HPLC with fluorescent detection. It was found that 100%, 53.3%, 33.3% and 25% of the isolates of A. carbonarius, A. ochraceus, P. verrucosum and A. niger aggregate, respectively, produced OTA. Moreover, 28.6% of the isolates from the A. flavus plus A. parasiticus group were able to produce aflatoxin B(1). Aflatoxin B(2) was detected in only 10% of the cultures. Aflatoxins G(1) and G(2) were not detected in cultures under the assayed conditions. This is the first report carried out on the natural mycobiota occurring in bee pollen in general and on the toxigenic capability of these isolates in particular.

  15. Health risk assessment for radium discharged in produced waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Meinhold, A.F.; Nagy, J.

    1991-01-01

    Produced water generated during the production of oil and gas can contain enhanced levels of radium. This naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is discharged into freshwater streams, estuarine, coastal and outer continental shelf waters. Large volumes of produced waters are discharged to coastal waters along the Gulf Coast of Louisiana. The Gulf of Mexico is an important producer of fish and shellfish, and there is concern that radium discharged to coastal Louisiana could contaminate fish and shellfish used by people for food, and present a significant increase in cancer risk. This paper describes a screening-level assessment of the potential cancer risks posed by radium discharged to coastal Louisiana in oil-field produced waters. This screening analysis was performed to determine if a more comprehensive and realistic assessment is necessary, and because of the conservative assumptions embedded in the analysis overestimates the risk associated with the discharge of radium in produced waters. Two isotopes of radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) are the radionuclides of most concern in produced water in terms of potential human health effects

  16. Energy Efficiency of Biogas Produced from Different Biomass Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begum, Shahida; Nazri, A H

    2013-01-01

    Malaysia has different sources of biomass like palm oil waste, agricultural waste, cow dung, sewage waste and landfill sites, which can be used to produce biogas and as a source of energy. Depending on the type of biomass, the biogas produced can have different calorific value. At the same time the energy, being used to produce biogas is dependent on transportation distance, means of transportation, conversion techniques and for handling of raw materials and digested residues. An energy systems analysis approach based on literature is applied to calculate the energy efficiency of biogas produced from biomass. Basically, the methodology is comprised of collecting data, proposing locations and estimating the energy input needed to produce biogas and output obtained from the generated biogas. The study showed that palm oil and municipal solid waste is two potential sources of biomass. The energy efficiency of biogas produced from palm oil residues and municipal solid wastes is 1.70 and 3.33 respectively. Municipal solid wastes have the higher energy efficiency due to less transportation distance and electricity consumption. Despite the inherent uncertainties in the calculations, it can be concluded that the energy potential to use biomass for biogas production is a promising alternative.

  17. Entrophy producing processes at phase boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampe, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    A thermodynamic theory for the treatment of transport phenomena in multiphase and multicomponent systems is presented. Starting point is a field theoretical description of interfacial systems. The interface in its three dimensional structure is described by new thermodynamic variables, namely the structure vectors a k of the components k. This offers the possibility to analyse processes related with a change of the three dimensional structure by means of the methods of irreversible thermodynamics. Compared to the well known theory of irreversible processes in single phase and membrane systems there are differences regarding the balance equations for component masses and momentum; additionally a balance equation for the structure vector has to be introduced to treat changes of the interfacial structure. The linear constitutive equations obtained from the production term of the entropy balance equation describe transport processes at every point of a multiphase system. - It is shown that in the interfacial region of multiphase systems there are other processes producing entropy than in the bulk of a single phase system. E.g. in the region of an interface Fickian diffusion is not allowed to occur due to a stability criterion. Instead of this a tensorial transport phenomenon due to the structural change of the interface sets in which is possible only at interfaces. By means of a thermodynamic coupling of this tensorial process with the tensorial momentum transport a thermodynamic explanation and description of the Marangoni-effect is obtained. - New expressions for entropy producing processes are also derived for generalized chemical reactions and transport of momentum. A discussion of potential ineractions between fluxes shows that the same cross-effects occurring in single phase systems cannot be supposed to occur in an interfacial region too. This results in new aspects for the thermodynamic explanation of active transport. (orig.)

  18. Pharmaceutical proteins produced in plant bioreactor in recent years ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant bioreactor, also called molecular farming, has enormous potential to produce recombinant proteins infinitely. Products expressed in plants have natural physico-chemical properties and bioactivities. Plant bioreactor could be a safe, economic and convenient production system, and can been widely applied in ...

  19. Supersymmetric approach for Killingbeck radial potential plus noncentral potential in Schrodinger equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cari, C.; Suparmi, A.; Yunianto, M.; Pratiwi, B. N.

    2016-01-01

    Killingbeck radial potential, which consists of harmonic oscillator, linier and Coulomb potentials, is combined with non-central potential. The solution of three dimensional Schrodinger equation for Killingbeck potential is combined with Poschl-Teller potential and Symmetrical Top non-central potentials are investigated using supersymmetry (SUSY) operator. The non-relativistic energy is obtained which is infuenced by potentials and the wave functions are produced by using SUSY operator. (paper)

  20. Sicilian potential biogas production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Comparetti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at predicting the Sicilian potential biogas production, using the Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (OFMSW, animal manure and food industry by-products, in a region where only one biogas plant using MSW and one co-digestion plant are nowadays available. The statistical data about OFMSW, the number of animals bred in medium and large farms and the amounts of by-products of food processing industries were evaluated, in order to compute the Sicilian potential biogas and energy production. The OFMSW produced in Sicily, that is 0.8 million tons ca. per year (37% of MSW, could be used in a bio-reactor, together with other raw materials, for Anaerobic Digestion (AD process, producing biogas and “digestate”. Moreover, 3.03 million tons ca. of manure, collected in medium and large animal husbandry farms (where cows, pigs and poultry are bred, and 350 thousand tons ca. of by-products, collected in food processing industries (pomace from olive oil mills and grape marc from wineries, might be used for AD process. The Sicilian potential biogas production from the AD of the above raw materials is 170.2 millions of m3, that is equal to 1023.4 GWh of energy per year, of which 484 GWh from animal manure, 303 GWh from OFMSW and 236.4 GWh from food industry by-products. The highest biogas production is in the province of Palermo (35.6 millions of m3, Ragusa (30.8 millions of m3 and Catania (22.8 millions of m3, having a potential energy production of 213.8, 185 and 137 GWh, respectively.

  1. Microbiology of organic and conventionally grown fresh produce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele F. Maffei

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Fresh produce is a generalized term for a group of farm-produced crops, including fruits and vegetables. Organic agriculture has been on the rise and attracting the attention of the food production sector, since it uses eco-agricultural principles that are ostensibly environmentally-friendly and provides products potentially free from the residues of agrochemicals. Organic farming practices such as the use of animal manure can however increase the risk of contamination by enteric pathogenic microorganisms and may consequently pose health risks. A number of scientific studies conducted in different countries have compared the microbiological quality of produce samples from organic and conventional production and results are contradictory. While some have reported greater microbial counts in fresh produce from organic production, other studies do not. This manuscript provides a brief review of the current knowledge and summarizes data on the occurrence of pathogenic microorganisms in vegetables from organic production.

  2. Produced water radionuclide hazard/risk assessment, Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Meinhold, A.F.; Nagy, J.

    1991-06-01

    Petroleum production may be accompanied by the production of saline water, called produced water.'' Produced water discharged into freshwater streams, estuaries, coastal and outer continental shelf waters can contained enhanced levels of radium isotopes. This document reports on the first phase of a study to estimate the risk to human health and the environment from radium discharged in produced water. The study involved five major steps: (1) evaluate the usefulness of available produced water outfall data for developing estimates of radium environmental concentrations; (2) review the literature on the bioaccumulation of radium by aquatic organism; (3) review the literature on the effects of radiation on aquatic organisms; (4) review the information available concerning the human health risks associated with exposure to Ra-226 and Ra-228 and (5) perform a conservative, screening-level assessment of the health and environmental risks posed by Ra-226 and Ra-228 discharged in produced waters. A screening-level analysis was performed to determine whether radium discharged to coastal Louisiana in produced waters presents potential health or environmental risks requiring further study. This conservative assessment suggested that no detectable impact on populations of fish, molluscs or crustaceans from radium discharged in produced waters is likely. The analysis also suggested that there is a potential for risk were an individual to ingest a large amount of seafood harvested near a produced water discharge point over a lifetime. The number of excess cancers predicted per year under a conservative scenario is comparable to those expected to result from background concentrations of radium.

  3. Produced water radionuclide hazard/risk assessment, Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Meinhold, A.F.; Nagy, J.

    1991-06-01

    Petroleum production may be accompanied by the production of saline water, called ``produced water.`` Produced water discharged into freshwater streams, estuaries, coastal and outer continental shelf waters can contained enhanced levels of radium isotopes. This document reports on the first phase of a study to estimate the risk to human health and the environment from radium discharged in produced water. The study involved five major steps: (1) evaluate the usefulness of available produced water outfall data for developing estimates of radium environmental concentrations; (2) review the literature on the bioaccumulation of radium by aquatic organism; (3) review the literature on the effects of radiation on aquatic organisms; (4) review the information available concerning the human health risks associated with exposure to Ra-226 and Ra-228 and (5) perform a conservative, screening-level assessment of the health and environmental risks posed by Ra-226 and Ra-228 discharged in produced waters. A screening-level analysis was performed to determine whether radium discharged to coastal Louisiana in produced waters presents potential health or environmental risks requiring further study. This conservative assessment suggested that no detectable impact on populations of fish, molluscs or crustaceans from radium discharged in produced waters is likely. The analysis also suggested that there is a potential for risk were an individual to ingest a large amount of seafood harvested near a produced water discharge point over a lifetime. The number of excess cancers predicted per year under a conservative scenario is comparable to those expected to result from background concentrations of radium.

  4. Produced water radionuclide hazard/risk assessment, Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Meinhold, A.F.; Nagy, J.

    1991-06-01

    Petroleum production may be accompanied by the production of saline water, called ''produced water.'' Produced water discharged into freshwater streams, estuaries, coastal and outer continental shelf waters can contained enhanced levels of radium isotopes. This document reports on the first phase of a study to estimate the risk to human health and the environment from radium discharged in produced water. The study involved five major steps: (1) evaluate the usefulness of available produced water outfall data for developing estimates of radium environmental concentrations; (2) review the literature on the bioaccumulation of radium by aquatic organism; (3) review the literature on the effects of radiation on aquatic organisms; (4) review the information available concerning the human health risks associated with exposure to Ra-226 and Ra-228 and (5) perform a conservative, screening-level assessment of the health and environmental risks posed by Ra-226 and Ra-228 discharged in produced waters. A screening-level analysis was performed to determine whether radium discharged to coastal Louisiana in produced waters presents potential health or environmental risks requiring further study. This conservative assessment suggested that no detectable impact on populations of fish, molluscs or crustaceans from radium discharged in produced waters is likely. The analysis also suggested that there is a potential for risk were an individual to ingest a large amount of seafood harvested near a produced water discharge point over a lifetime. The number of excess cancers predicted per year under a conservative scenario is comparable to those expected to result from background concentrations of radium

  5. Review of produced water recycle and beneficial reuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hum, F.; Tsang, P. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Tomographic Imaging and Porous Media Laboratory; Harding, T. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering; Kantzas, A. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Tomographic Imaging and Porous Media Laboratory]|[Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering

    2006-11-15

    Fresh water scarcity and increasing water demands are concerns facing jurisdictions around the world. A number of water management initiatives involving produced water recycling and reuse in Alberta and Canada will have a significant impact on sustainable development in Alberta. Produced water must first be treated to meet water quality requirements and regulatory guidelines for specific applications. This paper presented a comprehensive technical and economic review of commercially available water treatment technologies and discussed technical challenges in recycling produced water for steam generation and for commercial use. It provided an introduction to fresh water allocations and oil, gas and water production volumes in Alberta. In addition to research and development activities, the paper identified guidelines from Alberta Environment and the Energy and Utilities Board. Benefits of treated produced water were discussed. Desalination technologies include both distillation processes and membrane processes. The paper provided cost estimates based on a literature view and discussed the potential water treatment for south-east Alberta. The paper also offered a number of recommendations for further research. It was concluded that treating and recycling produced water for agriculture, irrigation, commercial and domestic uses are at early stages of research and development and that regulatory guidelines on water quality, health and safety for specific industries, ownership and transfer of produced water need to be developed in order to facilitate beneficial reuse of produced water. 57 refs., 7 tabs., 14 figs.

  6. Radiosensitizers: rationale and potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews agents that are capable of sensitizing hypoxic cells to radiation and chemotherapeutic agents. The first part is a synopsis of the development of hypoxic radiosensitizers, which concludes that misonidazole can be effective against human tumors. Unfortunately, neurotoxicity limits its effectiveness in humans because the dose that can be given in conjunction with daily fractionated radiation is five to ten times lower than is required for full radiosensitization of the hypoxic cells. The second part covers our recent efforts to develop a drug that does not produce such limiting neurotoxicity. The primary rationale of our program was to synthesize a drug with a short plasma half-life that was too hydrophilic to cross the blood-brain barrier but was able to penetrate tumors and radiosensitize hypoxic cells. From this program, a new drug, SR-2508, has been found that is as efficient as misonidazole in its radiosensitizing ability, but is four to ten times less toxic. Finally, the potential of radiosensitizers not only as agents that can sensitize tumor cells to radiation, but also as agents that can specifically sensitize tumors to chemotherapeutic agents, is discussed. In addition, these drugs may be potential cytotoxic agents that produce toxicity only in solid tumors

  7. 7 CFR 1212.19 - Producer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... producing, or causing to be produced, honey beyond personal use and having value at first point of sale. ... person who is engaged in the production and sale of honey in any State and who owns, or shares the...

  8. Genetic engineering of to produce Bacterial Polyhydroxyalkanotes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PHAs), in the sense of an environmental precaution appears meaningful and necessary. In order to more economically produce microbial products, this investigation was focused on suitable producers, like the yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe ...

  9. Characterization of bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus plantarum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization of bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus plantarum F1 and ... brevis OG1 isolated from Nigerian fermented food products, produced bacteriocins ... interest for food safety and may have future applications as food preservative.

  10. A semiclassical study of optical potentials - potential resonances -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.; Takigawa, N.; Marty, C.

    1977-01-01

    A semiclassical method is used to analyze resonances produced by complex potentials. The absorption plays a central role: when it is not too great, resonances manifest themselves by enhancement of cross sections near π. The reverse is not necessarily true, for instance the anomalous large angle scattering for α-Ca is due to a coherent superposition of many partial waves

  11. Ceramic residue for producing cements, method for the production thereof, and cements containing same

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez de Rojas, María Isabel; Frías, Moisés; Asensio, Eloy; Medina Martínez, César

    2014-01-01

    [EN] The invention relates to a ceramic residue produced from construction and demolition residues, as a puzzolanic component of cements. The invention also relates to a method for producing said ceramic residues and to another method of producing cements using said residues. This type of residue is collected in recycling plants, where it is managed. This invention facilitates a potential commercial launch.

  12. Membrane emulsification to produce perfume microcapsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xuemiao

    Microencapsulation is an efficient technology to deliver perfume oils from consumer products onto the surface of fabrics. Microcapsules having uniform size/mechanical strength, may provide better release performance. Membrane emulsification in a dispersion cell followed by in-situ polymerization was used to prepare narrow size distribution melamine-formaldehyde (MF) microcapsules containing several types of oil-based fragrances or ingredients. Investigated in this study are the parameters impacting to the size and size distribution of the droplets and final MF microcapsules. A pilot plant-scale cross-flow membrane system was also used to produce MF microcapsules, demonstrating that the membrane emulsification process has potential to be scaled up for industrial applications. In this study, health and environmental friendly poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) microcapsules with narrow size distribution were also prepared for the first time using the dispersion cell membrane emulsification system. Characterization methods previously used for thin-shell microcapsules were expanded to analyse microcapsules with thick shells. The intrinsic mechanical properties of thick shells were determined using a micromanipulation technique and finite element analysis (FEM). The microcapsules structure was also considered in the determination of the permeability and diffusivity of the perfume oils in good solvents..

  13. Beta-Lactamase Producing Escherichia coli Isolates in Imported and Locally Produced Chicken Meat from Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Mette Marie; Opintan, Japheth A; Frimodt-Møller, Niels; Styrishave, Bjarne

    2015-01-01

    The use of antibiotics in food animals is of public health concern, because resistant zoonotic pathogens can be transmitted to humans. Furthermore, global trade with food may rapidly spread multi-resistant pathogens between countries and even continents. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether imported chicken meat and meat from locally reared chicken are potential sources for human exposure to multi resistant Escherichia coli isolates. 188 samples from imported and locally produced chicken meat were sampled and analyzed. 153 bacteria isolates were successfully cultured and identified as E. coli using MALDI-ToF. Of these 109 isolates were from meat whereas the remaining 44 were isolated from the cloaca of locally reared live chickens. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was done on the identified E. coli isolates. Additionally, beta-lactamases production (ESBL and/or AmpC) were phenotypically confirmed on all isolates showing resistance to cefpodoxime. Beta-lactamase producing (BLP) E. coli meat isolates were further genotyped. Antimicrobial resistance to four antibiotic markers with highest resistance was detected more frequently in isolates from local chickens compared to imported chickens (tetracycline 88.9% vs. 57.5%, sulphonamide 75.0% vs. 46.6%, ampicillin 69.4% vs. 61.6% and trimethoprim 66.7% vs. 38.4%). Beta-lactamase production was found in 29 E. coli meat isolates, with 56.9% of them being multiple drug resistant (≥ 3). The predominant phylogroup identified was B1 followed by A and D, with similar distribution among the isolates from meat of locally reared chickens and imported chickens. Beta-lactamase producing genotype blaCTX-M-15 (50%; 10/20) was the most frequently drug resistant gene detected. More BLP E. coli isolates were found in imported chicken meat compared to locally reared chickens, demonstrating that these isolates may be spreading through food trade. In conclusion, both imported and locally produced chicken meats are potential

  14. Beta-Lactamase Producing Escherichia coli Isolates in Imported and Locally Produced Chicken Meat from Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Marie Rasmussen

    Full Text Available The use of antibiotics in food animals is of public health concern, because resistant zoonotic pathogens can be transmitted to humans. Furthermore, global trade with food may rapidly spread multi-resistant pathogens between countries and even continents. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether imported chicken meat and meat from locally reared chicken are potential sources for human exposure to multi resistant Escherichia coli isolates. 188 samples from imported and locally produced chicken meat were sampled and analyzed. 153 bacteria isolates were successfully cultured and identified as E. coli using MALDI-ToF. Of these 109 isolates were from meat whereas the remaining 44 were isolated from the cloaca of locally reared live chickens. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was done on the identified E. coli isolates. Additionally, beta-lactamases production (ESBL and/or AmpC were phenotypically confirmed on all isolates showing resistance to cefpodoxime. Beta-lactamase producing (BLP E. coli meat isolates were further genotyped. Antimicrobial resistance to four antibiotic markers with highest resistance was detected more frequently in isolates from local chickens compared to imported chickens (tetracycline 88.9% vs. 57.5%, sulphonamide 75.0% vs. 46.6%, ampicillin 69.4% vs. 61.6% and trimethoprim 66.7% vs. 38.4%. Beta-lactamase production was found in 29 E. coli meat isolates, with 56.9% of them being multiple drug resistant (≥ 3. The predominant phylogroup identified was B1 followed by A and D, with similar distribution among the isolates from meat of locally reared chickens and imported chickens. Beta-lactamase producing genotype blaCTX-M-15 (50%; 10/20 was the most frequently drug resistant gene detected. More BLP E. coli isolates were found in imported chicken meat compared to locally reared chickens, demonstrating that these isolates may be spreading through food trade. In conclusion, both imported and locally produced chicken meats

  15. 7 CFR 1131.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Handling Definitions § 1131.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent of components of skim milk) and butterfat in milk of a producer that is: (a) Received by the operator of a pool... percentage in paragraph (d)(2) of this section may be increased or decreased by the market administrator if...

  16. 7 CFR 1033.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Handling Definitions § 1033.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent of components of skim milk), including nonfat components, and butterfat in milk of a producer that is: (a... percentages in paragraph (d)(4) of this section may be increased or decreased by the market administrator if...

  17. 7 CFR 1001.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Handling Definitions § 1001.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent of components of skim milk) and butterfat contained in milk of a producer that is: (a) Received by the operator... be increased or decreased by the Market Administrator if the Market Administrator finds that such...

  18. 7 CFR 1126.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Handling Definitions § 1126.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent of components of skim milk), including nonfat components, and butterfat contained in milk of a producer that is...) of this section may be increased or decreased by the market administrator if there is a finding that...

  19. 7 CFR 1006.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Handling Definitions § 1006.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent of components of skim milk) and butterfat contained in milk of a producer that is: (a) Received by the operator... (d) (1) through (3) of this section may be increased or decreased by the market administrator if the...

  20. 29 CFR 780.213 - Produce business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Produce business. 780.213 Section 780.213 Labor Regulations... Specific Situations Hatchery Operations § 780.213 Produce business. In some instances, hatcheries also engage in the produce business as such and commingle with the culled eggs and chickens other eggs and...