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Sample records for twip terminal weather

  1. Springback prediction of TWIP automotive sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Kanghwan; Yoo, Donghoon; Seo, Min Hong; Park, Sung-Ho; Chung, Kwansoo

    2009-08-01

    In an effort to reduce the weight of vehicles, automotive companies are replacing conventional steel parts with light weight alloys and/or with advanced high strength steels (AHSS) such as dual-phase (DP), twinning induced plasticity (TWIP), and transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steels. The main objective of this work is to experimentally and numerically evaluate the macro-performance of the automotive TWIP sheet in conjunction with springback. In order to characterize the mechanical properties, simple tension and tension-compression tests were performed to determine anisotropic properties, as well as the Bauschinger, transient, and permanent softening behaviors during reverse loading. For numerical simulations, the anisotropic yield function Yld2000-2d was utilized along with the combined isotropic-kinematic hardening law based on the modified Chaboche model. Springback verification was performed for the unconstrained cylindrical bending and 2D draw bending tests.

  2. Impact of Weather Conditions on the Construction of the Terminal - Monte Carlo Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Stanivuk

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A simulation model is developed for the potential planned Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego terminals. The purpose is to identify reliability and availability of loading operations at the terminal. The harsh weather conditions, technical reliability and concurrent traffic affect LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas Carriers during approaching or loading. Probabilistic simulation method is created and Monte Carlo simulations are carried out for several cases, with varied production, number of jetties and terminal storage. The results indicate high importance of weather restrictions and are used to present a recommendation with two loading jetties and a larger volume of storage capacity.

  3. Tensile Properties of TWIP Steel at High Strain Rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Rong-gang; FU Ren-yu; SU Yu; LI Qian; WEI Xi-cheng; LI Lin

    2009-01-01

    Tensile tests of TWIP steels of two compositions are performed in the strain rate range of 10-5 -103 s-1.Results indicate that steel 1# does not exhibit TWIP effect but deformation-induced martensitic transformation appears only.There exists TWIP effect in steel 3#.Tensile properties at room temperature are sensitive to strain rate in the studied strain rate ranges.Analysis on the relationship between strain-hardening exponent and strain rates shows that strain-induced martensitic transformation and formation of twins during deformation have significant influence on their strain-hardening behavior.

  4. Conformabilidad en caliente de aceros Twip

    OpenAIRE

    Pineda huitrón, Rosa M.

    2009-01-01

    En el presente proyecto de investigación, se trabajó con un acero de alto contenido en manganeso austenitico, TWIP, este acero se clasifica dentro de los aceros denominados: Aceros Avanzados de Alta Resistencia mecánica (AHSS). En este estudio se pretende estudiar las condiciones de trabajo en caliente óptimas para este acero, de modo que se pueda potenciar al máximo su resistencia sin penalizar su ductilidad. Para ello se efectuarán ensayos de compresión en caliente bajo difer...

  5. Mechanical behaviour of TWIP steel under shear loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincze, G.; Butuc, M. C.; Barlat, F.

    2016-08-01

    Twinning induced plasticity steels (TWIP) are very good candidate for automotive industry applications because they potentially offer large energy absorption before failure due to their exceptional strain hardening capability and high strength. However, their behaviour is drastically influenced by the loading conditions. In this work, the mechanical behaviour of a TWIP steel sheet sample was investigated at room temperature under monotonic and reverse simple shear loading. It was shown that all the expected features of load reversal such as Bauschinger effect, transient strain hardening with high rate and permanent softening, depend on the prestrain level. This is in agreement with the fact that these effects, which occur during reloading, are related to the rearrangement of the dislocation structure induced during the predeformation. The homogeneous anisotropic hardening (HAH) approach proposed by Barlat et al. (2011) [1] was successfully employed to predict the experimental results.

  6. Recovery of soil base saturation following termination of N deposition: Increased biological weathering?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, R. W.; Högberg, P.

    2012-12-01

    have been an increase in the weathering rate of base cations following the termination of N addition. Such an increase may be biologically mediated by the soil microbial community receiving increased allocation of recent photosynthate below ground following the termination of N addition and is not accounted for in current biogeochemical models.

  7. Tensile property improvement of TWIP-cored three-layer steel sheets fabricated by hot-roll-bonding with low-carbon steel or interstitial-free steel

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jaeyeong; Kim, Jung-Su; Kang, Minju; Sohn, Seok Su; Cho, Won Tae; Kim, Hyoung Seop; Lee, Sunghak

    2017-01-01

    TWIP-cored three-layer steel sheets were newly fabricated by hot rolling of TWIP steel sheet surrounded by low-carbon (LC) or interstitial-free (IF) steel sheets. TWIP/LC or TWIP/IF interfaces were well bonded without pores or voids, while a few pearlites were thinly formed along the interfaces. The strengths and elongation of the TWIP-cored sheets increased as the volume fraction of TWIP-cored region increased, and were also well matched with the ones calculated by a rule of mixtures based o...

  8. Characterization of micro machined surface from TRIP/TWIP steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smaga M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution micro machining induced changes in surface morphology, including phase transformation from fcc-austenite into hcp- and bcc-martensite as well as defined surface topography of TRIP/TWIP steel was characterized by scanning electron microscopy using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD technique. For this, applying micro milling and micro grinding processes with tool diameter of 45 µm, structures were machined into flat specimen surfaces of X30MnAl17–1 steel in defined areas previously characterized by EBSD.

  9. Numerical and Experimental Applications of TWIP Steel in Automotive Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. W.; Lim, J. H.; Choi, J. B.; Oh, P. Y.

    2011-08-01

    Modern automotive design has been faced with the weight reduction problem to meet the CO2 emissions standard while achieving high safety and compact design. Such being the case, most car makers want to use the ultra high strength steels (UHSS). But there are several problems when such steels are used, due to presumed lack of formability. Since the disadvantage such as above, it has been suggested that UHSS need special forming methods or it should be used only limited process like simple bending, by many automotive research institutes. To overcome these shortcomings, Twinning Induced Plasticity (TWIP) steel for improved strength and formability has been developed by steel making company, including POSCO, Korea. Because of its characteristics, it is expected to be widely used in automotive parts. This paper aims at finding out several ways how to make effective use of TWIP steel in automotive parts. Especially, comprising about from 15 to 18% manganese and from 1.5 to 2% aluminum which was developed by POSCO for application of the automotive parts will be considered.

  10. Strain hardening rate sensitivity and strain rate sensitivity in TWIP steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bintu, Alexandra [TEMA, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 (Portugal); Vincze, Gabriela, E-mail: gvincze@ua.pt [TEMA, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 (Portugal); Picu, Catalin R. [Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180 (United States); Lopes, Augusto B. [CICECO, Department of Materials and Ceramic Engineering, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 (Portugal); Grácio, Jose J. [TEMA, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 (Portugal); Barlat, Frederic [Materials Mechanics Laboratory, Graduate Institute of Ferrous Technology, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-01

    TWIP steels are materials with very high strength and exceptional strain hardening capability, parameters leading to large energy absorption before failure. However, TWIP steels also exhibit reduced (often negative) strain rate sensitivity (SRS) which limits the post-necking deformation. In this study we demonstrate for an austenitic TWIP steel with 18% Mn a strong dependence of the twinning rate on the strain rate, which results in negative strain hardening rate sensitivity (SHRS). The instantaneous component of SHRS is large and negative, while its transient is close to zero. The SRS is observed to decrease with strain, becoming negative for larger strains. Direct observations of the strain rate dependence of the twinning rate are made using electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction, which substantiate the proposed mechanism for the observed negative SHRS.

  11. Advanced high strength steel (AHSS) TWIP: A door to the future in metal forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pla-Ferrando, R.; Sánchez-Caballero, S.; Reig, M. J.; Pla, R.; Sellés, M. A.; Seguí, V. J.

    2012-04-01

    The last decades have been characterized by a fast evolution of cars. This work shows the evolution of vehicle weight. It shows the response of car manufacturers using new materials and production methods that allow lighter vehicles with lower consumption, cheaper and with lower influence on the greenhouse effect. One of the materials which means a most interesting change is the TWIP steel. This material is characterized by its high strength, his exceptional strain and excellent formability as well as lower energy consumption in their manufacture. TWIP steel are changing towards cheaper compositions and higher performance, and it's going to be great influence in the vehicle weight reduction in the next years.

  12. Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Fe-Mn-(Al, Si) TRIP/TWIP Steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Hua; TANG Zheng-You; LI Wei; WANG Mei; SONG Dan

    2006-01-01

    The mechanical properties and microstructure of two low carbon high manganese steels with 23.8% (No.1) and 33% (No.2) (mass percent) of manganese were investigated. The results showed that No.1 steel possesses high strength and high plasticity, and No.2 steel has a relatively high strength and extraordinary plasticity. The No.1 steel exhibits both TRIP (transformation induced plasticity) and TWIP (twin induced plasticity) effects during the deformation; while only TWIP effect appeared under the same deformation condition for No.2 steel. The comparison between the microstructures and mechanical properties of two steels was made, and the strengthening mechanisms were also analyzed.

  13. Tensile property improvement of TWIP-cored three-layer steel sheets fabricated by hot-roll-bonding with low-carbon steel or interstitial-free steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jaeyeong; Kim, Jung-Su; Kang, Minju; Sohn, Seok Su; Cho, Won Tae; Kim, Hyoung Seop; Lee, Sunghak

    2017-01-01

    TWIP-cored three-layer steel sheets were newly fabricated by hot rolling of TWIP steel sheet surrounded by low-carbon (LC) or interstitial-free (IF) steel sheets. TWIP/LC or TWIP/IF interfaces were well bonded without pores or voids, while a few pearlites were thinly formed along the interfaces. The strengths and elongation of the TWIP-cored sheets increased as the volume fraction of TWIP-cored region increased, and were also well matched with the ones calculated by a rule of mixtures based on volume fraction or force fraction. According to digital image correlation and electron back-scatter diffraction analyses, very high strain hardening effect in the initial deformation stage and active twin formation in the interfacial region beneficially affected the overall homogeneous deformation in the TWIP-cored sheets without any yield point phenomenon occurring in the LC sheet and serrations occurring in the TWIP sheet, respectively. These TWIP-cored sheets can cover a wide range of yield strength, tensile strength, and ductility levels, e.g., 320~498 MPa, 545~878 MPa, and 48~54%, respectively, by controlling the volume fraction of TWIP-cored region, and thus present new applications to multi-functional automotive steel sheets requiring excellent properties. PMID:28067318

  14. Tensile property improvement of TWIP-cored three-layer steel sheets fabricated by hot-roll-bonding with low-carbon steel or interstitial-free steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jaeyeong; Kim, Jung-Su; Kang, Minju; Sohn, Seok Su; Cho, Won Tae; Kim, Hyoung Seop; Lee, Sunghak

    2017-01-01

    TWIP-cored three-layer steel sheets were newly fabricated by hot rolling of TWIP steel sheet surrounded by low-carbon (LC) or interstitial-free (IF) steel sheets. TWIP/LC or TWIP/IF interfaces were well bonded without pores or voids, while a few pearlites were thinly formed along the interfaces. The strengths and elongation of the TWIP-cored sheets increased as the volume fraction of TWIP-cored region increased, and were also well matched with the ones calculated by a rule of mixtures based on volume fraction or force fraction. According to digital image correlation and electron back-scatter diffraction analyses, very high strain hardening effect in the initial deformation stage and active twin formation in the interfacial region beneficially affected the overall homogeneous deformation in the TWIP-cored sheets without any yield point phenomenon occurring in the LC sheet and serrations occurring in the TWIP sheet, respectively. These TWIP-cored sheets can cover a wide range of yield strength, tensile strength, and ductility levels, e.g., 320~498 MPa, 545~878 MPa, and 48~54%, respectively, by controlling the volume fraction of TWIP-cored region, and thus present new applications to multi-functional automotive steel sheets requiring excellent properties.

  15. Nursing's role in the nutritional care of the terminally ill: weathering the storm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baack, C M

    1993-01-01

    The role of the nurse in nutritional care of the terminally ill is first, to come to terms with personal, psychological, and moral and ethical issues surrounding nutrition and hydration on an individual level; and second, to enter into a partnership with the patient and family and guide them through the storm of emotions and questions using a framework based on principles of ethics, crisis intervention, and effective communication. The nurse's ability to be present with the patient and family during this time is his/her primary tool as the nurse helps them maintain wellness and equilibrium.

  16. Some Aspects of High Manganese Twinning-Induced Plasticity (TWIP) Steel, A Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liqing CHEN; Yang ZHAO; Xiaomei QIN

    2013-01-01

    High manganese twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) steel is a new kind of structural material and possesses both high strength and superior plasticity and can meet the weight-lightening requirement for manufacturing vehicle body.The excellent formability of the TWIP steel comes from the extraordinary strain hardening effect during plastic deformation.The reduction of specific weight by aluminum alloying and strain hardening effect can lead to an effective weight reduction of the steel components,and provide a better choice for materials in vehicle body design.The TWIP effect in high Mn steels is generally associated with the successive workhardening generated by twins and influenced by some factors,such as Mn content,AI addition revealed by stacking fault energy (SFE),grain size,deformation temperature and strain rate.The present review introduces some aspects of the TWIP steels relating to their physical metallurgy,influencing factors associated with their deformation mechanisms,and a prospect for the future investigation is also described.Moreover,as a potential candidate for replacing Ni-Cr austenitic stainless steel,researches on the oxidation behavior and corrosion resistance of Fe-Mn-AI-C system steels are also reviewed.

  17. State-of-the-Science of High Manganese TWIP Steels for Automotive Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cooman, B. C.; Chen, L.; Kim, Han Soo; Estrin, Y.; Kim, S. K.; Voswinckel, H.

    Recent trends in automotive industry towards improved passenger safety and reduced weight have led to a great interest in AHSS (Advanced High Strength Steel), and DP, TRIP, CP, MA and high-Mn TWIP (TWinning Induced Plasticity) steels are particularly promising due to their superior toughness and ductility. The properties of low SFE (Stacking Fault Energy) austenitic high Mn FeMnC steel exhibiting twinning-induced plasticity have recently been analyzed in detail. It is argued that although the mechanical properties of TRIP and TWIP steels are often assumed to be solely due to effects related to straininduced transformation and deformation twinning, respectively, other mechanisms may also play an essential role such as point-defect cluster formation, planar glide, pseudo-twinning, short range ordering, and dynamic strain ageing, e.g. in the case of TWIP steel. At low strain rates, the plastic deformation of TWIP steels is often controlled by the movement of very few well-defined localized deformation bands. The formation and propagation of these Portevin-LeChatelier (PLC) bands lead to serrated stress-strain curves, exhibiting a small negative strain rate sensitivity.

  18. Multi objective Taguchi optimization approach for resistance spot welding of cold rolled TWIP steel sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutar, Mumin; Aydin, Hakan; Bayram, Ali

    2017-08-01

    Formability and energy absorption capability of a steel sheet are highly desirable properties in manufacturing components for automotive applications. TWinning Induced Plastisity (TWIP) steels are, new generation high Mn alloyed steels, attractive for the automotive industry due to its outstanding elongation (%40-45) and tensile strength (~1000MPa). So, TWIP steels provide excellent formability and energy absorption capability. Another required property from the steel sheets is suitability for manufacturing methods such as welding. The use of the steel sheets in the automotive applications inevitably involves welding. Considering that there are 3000-5000 welded spots on a vehicle, it can be interpreted that one of the most important manufacturing method is Resistance Spot Welding (RSW) for the automotive industry. In this study; firstly, TWIP steel sheet were cold rolled to 15% reduction in thickness. Then, the cold rolled TWIP steel sheets were welded with RSW method. The welding parameters (welding current, welding time and electrode force) were optimized for maximizing the peak tensile shear load and minimizing the indentation of the joints using a Taguchi L9 orthogonal array. The effect of welding parameters was also evaluated by examining the signal-to-noise ratio and analysis of variance (ANOVA) results.

  19. Simulating Virtual Terminal Area Weather Data Bases for Use in the Wake Vortex Avoidance System (Wake VAS) Prediction Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Michael L.; Lin, Yuh-Lang

    2004-01-01

    During the research project, sounding datasets were generated for the region surrounding 9 major airports, including Dallas, TX, Boston, MA, New York, NY, Chicago, IL, St. Louis, MO, Atlanta, GA, Miami, FL, San Francico, CA, and Los Angeles, CA. The numerical simulation of winter and summer environments during which no instrument flight rule impact was occurring at these 9 terminals was performed using the most contemporary version of the Terminal Area PBL Prediction System (TAPPS) model nested from 36 km to 6 km to 1 km horizontal resolution and very detailed vertical resolution in the planetary boundary layer. The soundings from the 1 km model were archived at 30 minute time intervals for a 24 hour period and the vertical dependent variables as well as derived quantities, i.e., 3-dimensional wind components, temperatures, pressures, mixing ratios, turbulence kinetic energy and eddy dissipation rates were then interpolated to 5 m vertical resolution up to 1000 m elevation above ground level. After partial validation against field experiment datasets for Dallas as well as larger scale and much coarser resolution observations at the other 8 airports, these sounding datasets were sent to NASA for use in the Virtual Air Space and Modeling program. The application of these datasets being to determine representative airport weather environments to diagnose the response of simulated wake vortices to realistic atmospheric environments. These virtual datasets are based on large scale observed atmospheric initial conditions that are dynamically interpolated in space and time. The 1 km nested-grid simulated datasets providing a very coarse and highly smoothed representation of airport environment meteorological conditions. Details concerning the airport surface forcing are virtually absent from these simulated datasets although the observed background atmospheric processes have been compared to the simulated fields and the fields were found to accurately replicate the flows

  20. Microstructural Evolution of Surface Layer of TWIP Steel Deformed by Mechanical Attrition Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    A nanocrystalline layer was synthesized on the surface of TWIP steel samples by surface mechanical attri- tion treatment (SMAT) under varying durations. Microhardness variation was examined along the depth of the de- formation layer. Microstructural characteristics of the surface at the TWIP steel SMATed for 90 min were observed and analyzed by optical microscope, x-ray diffraction, transmission and high-resolution electron microscope. The re- sults show that the orientation of austenite grains weakens, and a-martensite transformation occurs during SMAT. During the process of SMAT, the deformation twins generate and divide the austenite grains firstly~ then a-martens- ite transformation occurs beside and between the twin bundles~ after that the martensite and austenite grains rotate to accommodate deformation, and the orientations of martensite and between martensite and residual austenite increase; lastly the randomly oriented and uniform-sized nanocrystallir~e layers are formed under continuous deformation.

  1. Advanced high strength steel (AHSS) TWIP: A door to the future in metal forming

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The last decades have been characterized by a fast evolution of cars. This work shows the evolution of vehicle weight. It shows the response of car manufacturers using new materials and production methods that allow lighter vehicles with lower consumption, cheaper and with lower influence on the greenhouse effect. One of the materials which means a most interesting change is the TWIP steel. This material is characterized by its high strength, his exceptional strain and excellent formability a...

  2. High-Strength and High-Plasticity TWIP Steel for Modern Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenli MI; Di TANG; Ling YAN; Jin GUO

    2005-01-01

    In this paper new high-strength and high-plasticity twinning induced plasticity (TWIP) steel for modern automobile body was investigated. Some basic experimental results were given. The results indicate the TWlP steel has excellent properties. It exhibits high ultimate tensile strength (600~1100 MPa) and extremely large elongation of 60% to 90%. In the future it would be capable of satisfying the requirements of new generation of vehicle.

  3. High-cycle fatigue behavior of ultrafine-grained austenitic stainless and TWIP steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, A.S. [Materials Engineering Laboratory (4KOMT), Box 4200, University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu (Finland); Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, Faculty of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, Suez Canal University, Box 43721, Suez (Egypt); Karjalainen, L.P., E-mail: pentti.karjalainen@oulu.fi [Materials Engineering Laboratory (4KOMT), Box 4200, University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu (Finland)

    2010-08-20

    High-cycle fatigue behavior of ultrafine-grained (UFG) 17Cr-7Ni Type 301LN austenitic stainless and high-Mn Fe-22Mn-0.6C TWIP steels were investigated in a reversed plane bending fatigue and compared to the behavior of steels with conventional coarse grain (CG) size. Optical, scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used to examine fatigue damage mechanisms. Testing showed that the fatigue limits leading to fatigue life beyond 4 x 10{sup 6} cycles were about 630 MPa for 301LN while being 560 MPa for TWIP steel, and being 0.59 and 0.5 of the tensile strength respectively. The CG counterparts were measured to have the fatigue limits of 350 and 400 MPa. The primary damage caused by fatigue took place by grain boundary cracking in UFG 301LN, while slip band cracking occurred in CG 301LN. However, in the case of TWIP steel, the fatigue damage mechanism is similar in spite of the grain size. In the course of cycling neither the formation of a martensite structure nor mechanical twinning occurs, but intense slip bands are created with extrusions and intrusions. Fatigue crack initiates preferentially on grain and twin boundaries, and especially in the intersection sites of slip bands and boundaries.

  4. Tensile properties and strengthening mechanisms of a TWIP steel at high strain rate: Hall-Petch relationship; Propiedades mecanicas a traccion y mecanismos de endurecimiento de un acero TWIP a altas velocidades de deformacion: relacion de Hall-Petch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuevas, F. de las; Ferraiuolo, A.; Pentti Karjalainen, L.; Gil Sevillano, J.

    2014-07-01

    The influence of strain rate and grain size on the mechanical properties of a 22% Mn, 0.6% C (mass %) austenitic TWIP steel has been studied. A typical quasi-linear stress-strain behaviour of TWIP steels that deform by twinning has been observed at strain rates of 9.4 s-1 and 265 s-1 and room temperature. At high strain rates, the constant work - hardening rate region typically observed in TWIP steel clearly shortens. In addition, the Hall-Petch relationship has been obtained for each strain rate. The Hall-Petch slope KHP increases as a function of strain in all cases. The dependence of the KHP on the strain rate could be adiabatic heating. (Author)

  5. Weather Radar Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — These data represent Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) and Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) weather radar stations within the US. The NEXRAD radar stations are...

  6. Atomistic simulation for deforming complex alloys with application toward TWIP steel and associated physical insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Xu, Shaofeng; Liu, Jiabin; Li, Xiaoyan; Wei, Yujie; Wang, Hongtao; Gao, Huajian; Yang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    The interest in promoting deformation twinning for plasticity is mounting for advanced materials. In contrast to disordered grain boundaries, highly organized twin boundaries are beneficial to promoting strength-ductility combination. Twinning deformation typically involves the kinetics of stacking faults, its interplay with dislocations, as well as the interactions between dislocations and twin boundaries. While the latter has been intensively studied, the dynamics of stacking faults has been rarely touched upon. In this work, we report new physical insights on the stacking fault dynamics in twin induced plasticity (TWIP) steels. The atomistic simulation is made possible by a newly introduced approach: meta-atom molecular dynamics simulation. The simulation suggests that the stacking fault interactions are dominated by dislocation reactions that take place spontaneously, different from the existing mechanisms. Whether to generate a single stacking fault, or a twinning partial and a trailing partial dislocation, depends upon a unique parameter, namely the stacking fault energy. The latter in turn determines the deformation twinning characteristics. The complex twin-slip and twin-dislocation interactions demonstrate the dual role of deformation twins as both the dislocation barrier and dislocation storage. This duality contributes to the high strength and high ductility of TWIP steels.

  7. Advanced computer technology - An aspect of the Terminal Configured Vehicle program. [air transportation capacity, productivity, all-weather reliability and noise reduction improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkstresser, B. K.

    1975-01-01

    NASA is conducting a Terminal Configured Vehicle program to provide improvements in the air transportation system such as increased system capacity and productivity, increased all-weather reliability, and reduced noise. A typical jet transport has been equipped with highly flexible digital display and automatic control equipment to study operational techniques for conventional takeoff and landing aircraft. The present airborne computer capability of this aircraft employs a multiple computer simple redundancy concept. The next step is to proceed from this concept to a reconfigurable computer system which can degrade gracefully in the event of a failure, adjust critical computations to remaining capacity, and reorder itself, in the case of transients, to the highest order of redundancy and reliability.

  8. INFLUENCE OF COLD ROLLING REDUCTION ON MICROSTRUCTURE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF TWIP STEEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z.L. Mi; D. Tang; Y.J. Dai; H.Q. Wang; S.S. Li

    2007-01-01

    The influence of cold rolling reduction on microstructure and mechanical properties of the TWIP (ttwinning induced plasticity) steel was investigated. The results indicated that the steel had better comprehensive mechanical properties when cold rolling reduction was about 65.0% and the annealing temperature was 1000℃. The tensile strength of the steel is about 640MPa and the yield strength is higher than 255MPa, while the elongation is above 82%. The microstructure is composed of austenitic matrix and annealing twins at room temperature, at the same time, a significant amount of annealing twins and stacking faults are observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Mechanical twins play a dominant role during deformation, and result in excellent mechanical properties.

  9. Microstructure evolution during isochronal annealing of a 42% cold rolled TRIP-TWIP steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanik, S.; Saleh, A. A.; Santos, D. B.; Pereloma, E. V.; Gazder, A. A.

    2015-08-01

    A high manganese TRIP-TWIP steel was cold rolled to 42% thickness reduction and isochronally annealed between 600 to 900 °C for 300 s. The microstructural evolution during annealing was studied by high resolution electron back-scattering diffraction. After cold rolling, the steel comprised predominant fraction of α'-martensite, a small fraction of blocky ε-martensite and a trace fraction of retained austenite (γ). During annealing, the reversion of ε and α' martensite to γ was followed by the recrystallisation of γ. While the processes of reversion to and recrystallisation of γ were completed by 700 °C, further annealing between 750 to 900 °C led to γ grain growth. A novel method to delineate the γ-γ grain boundaries was developed in order to accurately quantify γ grain size and subsequently the activation energy for γ grain growth.

  10. The influence of drawing parameters on the properties high-manganese TWIP steel wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Muskalski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an experimental analysis of the effect of single draft magnitude in the multi-stage drawing process on the mechanical properties of the wire, and a theoretical process analysis aimed at identifying the causes of the variations in mechanical properties, made using Drawing 2D, a FEM-relying software program of high manganese TWIP steel rolling and stamping processes. It was found that wires drawn with small partial drafts (Gp%=11 % had a larger plasticity reserve, as defined by the R0.2/Rm ratio, as compared with wires drawn with large partial drafts (Gp = 26 %. A drop both in tensile strength Rm and in proof stress R0.2 was also found to occur after a total draft of Gc = 80 % had been exceeded, which was caused by the “strain softening” phenomenon.

  11. Heat-affected zone liquation crack on resistance spot welded TWIP steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, Dulal Chandra [Department of Advanced Materials Engineering, Dong-Eui University, 995 Eomgwangno, Busanjin-gu, Busan 614-714 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, InSung [Automotive Production Development Division, Hyundai Motor Company (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yeong-Do, E-mail: ypark@deu.ac.kr [Department of Advanced Materials Engineering, Dong-Eui University, 995 Eomgwangno, Busanjin-gu, Busan 614-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    In this study, the heat affected zone (HAZ) liquation crack and segregation behavior of the resistance spot welded twinning induced plasticity (TWIP) steel have been reported. Cracks appeared in the post-welded joints that originated at the partially melted zone (PMZ) and propagated from the PMZ through the heat affected zone (HAZ) to the base metal (BM). The crack length and crack opening widths were observed increasing with heat input; and the welding current was identified to be the most influencing parameter for crack formation. Cracks appeared at the PMZ when nugget diameter reached at 4.50 mm or above; and the liquation cracks were found to occur along two sides of the notch tip in the sheet direction rather than in the electrode direction. Cracks were backfilled with the liquid films which has lamellar structure and supposed to be the eutectic constituent. Co-segregation of alloy elements such as, C and Mn were detected on the liquid films by electron-probe microanalysis (EPMA) line scanning and element map which suggests that the liquid film was enrich of Mn and C. The eutectic constituent was identified by analyzing the calculated phase diagram along with thermal temperature history of finite element simulation. Preliminary experimental results showed that cracks have less/no significant effect on the static cross-tensile strength (CTS) and the tensile-shear strength (TSS). In addition, possible ways to avoid cracking were discussed. - Highlights: • The HAZ liquation crack during resistance spot welding of TWIP steel was examined. • Cracks were completely backfilled and healed with divorced eutectic secondary phase. • Co-segregation of C and Mn was detected in the cracked zone. • Heat input was the most influencing factor to initiate liquation crack. • Cracks have less/no significant effect on static tensile properties.

  12. Microstructural evolution and deformation behavior of twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) steel during wire drawing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Joong-Ki [Graduate Institute of Ferrous Technology, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Steel Products Research Group, Technical Research Laboratories, POSCO, Pohang 790-785 (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Il-Cheol [Graduate Institute of Ferrous Technology, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Son, Il-Heon; Yoo, Jang-Yong [Steel Products Research Group, Technical Research Laboratories, POSCO, Pohang 790-785 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byoungkoo [Materials Technology Development Team, DHIC, Changwon 642-792 (Korea, Republic of); Zargaran, A. [Graduate Institute of Ferrous Technology, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Nack J., E-mail: njkim@postech.ac.kr [Graduate Institute of Ferrous Technology, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-17

    The effect of wire drawing on the microstructural evolution and deformation behavior of Fe–Mn–Al–C twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) steel has been investigated. The inhomogeneities of the stress state, texture, microstructure, and mechanical properties were clarified over the cross section of drawn wire with the aid of numerical simulation, Schmid factor analysis, and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) techniques. The analysis of texture in drawn wire shows that a mixture of <111> and <100> fiber texture was developed with strain; however, the distribution of <111> and <100> fibers was inhomogeneous along the radial direction of wire due to uneven strain distribution and different stress state along the radial direction. It has also been shown that the morphology, volume fraction, and variant system of twins as well as twinning rate were dependent on the imposed stress state. The surface area was subjected to larger strain and more complex stress state involving compression, shear, and tension than the center area, resulting in a larger twin volume fraction and more twin variants in the former than in the latter at all the strain levels. While the surface area was saturated with twins at an early stage of drawing, the center area was not saturated with twins even at fracture, implying that the fracture of wire were initiated at the surface area because of the exhaustion of ductility due to twinning. Based on these results, it is suggested that imposing a uniform strain distribution along the radial direction of wire by the control of processing conditions such as die angle and amount of reduction per pass is necessary to increase the drawing limit of TWIP steel.

  13. Serration Phenomena Occurring During Tensile Tests of Three High-Manganese Twinning-Induced Plasticity (TWIP) Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seokmin; Shin, Sang Yong; Lee, Junghoon; Ahn, Dong-Hyun; Kim, Hyoung Seop; Kim, Sung-Kyu; Chin, Kwang-Geun; Lee, Sunghak

    2014-02-01

    In this study, the serration phenomena of two high-Mn TWIP steels and an Al-added TWIP steel were examined by tensile tests, and were explained by the microstructural evolution including formation of localized Portevin-Le Chatelier deformation bands and twins. In stress-strain curves of the high-Mn steels, serrations started in a fine and short shape, and their height and periodic interval increased with increasing strain, whereas the Al-added steel did not show any serrations. According to digital images of strain rate and strain obtained from a vision strain gage system, deformation bands were initially formed at the upper region of the gage section, and moved downward along the tensile loading direction. The time when the band formation started was matched with the time when one serration occurred in the stress-time curve. This serration behavior was generally explained by dynamic strain aging, which was closely related with the formation of deformation bands.

  14. Observation of the TWIP + TRIP Plasticity-Enhancement Mechanism in Al-Added 6 Wt Pct Medium Mn Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seawoong; Lee, Kyooyoung; De Cooman, Bruno C.

    2015-06-01

    The intercritically annealed Fe-0.15 pctC-6.0 pctMn-1.5 pctSi-3.0 pctAl and Fe-0.30 pctC-6.0 pctMn-1.5 pctSi-3.0 pctAl medium Mn steels were found to have improved mechanical properties due to the TWIP and TRIP plasticity-enhancing mechanisms being activated in succession during tensile deformation. The increase of the C content from 0.15 to 0.30 pct resulted in ultra-high strength properties and a strength-ductility balance of approximately 65,000 MPa-pct, i.e., equivalent to the strength-ductility balance of high Mn TWIP steel with a fully austenitic microstructure.

  15. On deformation twinning in a 17.5% Mn-TWIP steel: A physically based phenomenological model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soulami, A.; Choi, K.S. [Computational Science and Mathematics Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Shen, Y.F. [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials (MOE), Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Liu, W.N. [Computational Science and Mathematics Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Sun, X., E-mail: xin.sun@pnl.gov [Computational Science and Mathematics Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Khaleel, M.A. [Computational Science and Mathematics Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2011-01-25

    Research highlights: {yields} Physically based phenomenological model (dislocations, SFE, twin volume fraction). {yields} Twins nucleation and evolution is modeled based on physical considerations. {yields} The model is able to capture the exceptional work hardening of TWIP steel. {yields} SEM and TEM observations are used to support the model predictions. - Abstract: TWinning Induced Plasticity (TWIP) steel is a typical representative of the 2nd generation advanced high strength steels (AHSS) which exhibits a combination of high strength and excellent ductility due to the deformation twinning mechanisms. This paper discusses the principal features of deformation twinning in faced-centered cubic austenitic steels and shows how a physically based macroscopic model can be derived from microscopic-level considerations. In fact, a dislocation-based phenomenological model, with internal state variables including dislocation density and micro-twins volume fraction describing the microstructure evolution during deformation process, is proposed to model the deformation behavior of TWIP steels. The originality of this work lies in the incorporation of a physically based model on twin nucleation and volume fraction evolution in a conventional dislocation-based approach. Microstructural level experimental observations with scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) techniques together with the macroscopic quasi-static tensile test, for the TWIP steel Fe-17.5 wt.% Mn-1.4 wt.% Al-0.56 wt.% C, are used to validate and verify the modeling assumptions. The model could be regarded as a semi-phenomenological approach with sufficient links between microstructure and the overall mechanical properties, and therefore offers good predictive capabilities. Its simplicity also allows a modular implementation in finite element-based metal forming simulations.

  16. Improvement of Castability and Surface Quality of Continuously Cast TWIP Slabs by Molten Mold Flux Feeding Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jung-Wook; Yoo, Shin; Park, Min-Seok; Park, Joong-Kil; Moon, Ki-Hyeon

    2016-10-01

    An innovative continuous casting process named POCAST (POSCO's advanced CASting Technology) was developed based on molten mold flux feeding technology to improve both the productivity and the surface quality of cast slabs. In this process, molten mold flux is fed into the casting mold to enhance the thermal insulation of the meniscus and, hence, the lubrication between the solidifying steel shell and the copper mold. Enhancement of both the castability and the surface quality of high-aluminum advanced high-strength steel (AHSS) slabs is one of the most important advantages when the new process has been applied into the commercial continuous casting process. A trial cast of TWIP steel has been carried out using a 10-ton scale pilot caster and 100-ton scale and 250-ton scale commercial casters. The amount of mold flux consumption was more than 0.2 kg/m2 in the new process, which is much larger than that in the conventional powder casting. Trial TWIP castings at both the pilot and the plant caster showed stable mold performances such as mold heat transfer. Also, cast slabs showed periodic/sound oscillation marks and little defects. The successful casting of TWIP steel has been attributed to the following characteristics of POCAST: dilution of the reactant by increasing the slag pool depth, enlargement of channel for slag film infiltration at meniscus by elimination of the slag bear, and decrease of apparent viscosity of the mold slag at meniscus by increasing the slag temperature.

  17. On deformation twinning in a 17.5%Mn-TWIP steel: A physically-based phenomenological model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soulami, Ayoub; Choi, Kyoo Sil; Shen, Y. F.; Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2011-01-25

    TWinning Induced Plasticity (TWIP) steel is a typical representative of the 2nd generation of advanced high strength steel (AHSS) which exhibits a combination of high strength and excellent ductility due to the twinning mechanisms. This paper discusses the principal features of deformation twinning in faced-centered cubic austenitic steels and shows how a physiscally-based macroscopic model can be derived from microscopic considerations. In fact, a dislocation-based phenomenological model, with internal state variables such as dislocation density and micro-twins volume fraction representing the microstructure evolution during deformation process, is proposed to describe the deformation behavior of TWIP steels. The contribution of this work is the incorporation of a physically-based twin’s nucleation and volume fraction evolution model in a conventional dislocation-based approach. Microstructural level investigations, using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) techniques, for the TWIP steel Fe–17.5 wt.% Mn–1.4 wt.% Al- 0.56 wt.% C, are used to validate and verify modeling assumptions. The model could be regarded as a semi-phenomenological approach with sufficient links between microstructure and overall properties and therefore offers good predictive capabilities. Its simplicity also allows a modular implementation in finite element-based metal forming simulations.

  18. Improvement of Castability and Surface Quality of Continuously Cast TWIP Slabs by Molten Mold Flux Feeding Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jung-Wook; Yoo, Shin; Park, Min-Seok; Park, Joong-Kil; Moon, Ki-Hyeon

    2017-02-01

    An innovative continuous casting process named POCAST (POSCO's advanced CASting Technology) was developed based on molten mold flux feeding technology to improve both the productivity and the surface quality of cast slabs. In this process, molten mold flux is fed into the casting mold to enhance the thermal insulation of the meniscus and, hence, the lubrication between the solidifying steel shell and the copper mold. Enhancement of both the castability and the surface quality of high-aluminum advanced high-strength steel (AHSS) slabs is one of the most important advantages when the new process has been applied into the commercial continuous casting process. A trial cast of TWIP steel has been carried out using a 10-ton scale pilot caster and 100-ton scale and 250-ton scale commercial casters. The amount of mold flux consumption was more than 0.2 kg/m2 in the new process, which is much larger than that in the conventional powder casting. Trial TWIP castings at both the pilot and the plant caster showed stable mold performances such as mold heat transfer. Also, cast slabs showed periodic/sound oscillation marks and little defects. The successful casting of TWIP steel has been attributed to the following characteristics of POCAST: dilution of the reactant by increasing the slag pool depth, enlargement of channel for slag film infiltration at meniscus by elimination of the slag bear, and decrease of apparent viscosity of the mold slag at meniscus by increasing the slag temperature.

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  1. ksat Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  5. khnd Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  6. ksaf Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  7. kdec Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  8. ktvl Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  10. kluk Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  18. paun Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  19. keat Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  20. pasc Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  1. koun Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  3. kiag Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  7. kiln Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  10. pahn Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  19. Investigation of Deformation Mechanisms in Deep-Drawn and Tensile-Strained Austenitic Mn-Based Twinning Induced Plasticity (TWIP) Steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Tol, R.T.; Zhao, L.; Schut, H.; Sietsma, J.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of strain on the deformation mechanisms in an austenitic Mn-based twinning induced plasticity (TWIP) steel is investigated using magnetic measurements, XRD, positron beam Doppler spectroscopy, and finite element method simulations. The experimental observations reveal the formation of a0-

  20. Influence of Al on the fatigue crack growth behavior of Fe–22Mn–(3Al)–0.6C TWIP steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Penghui [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Equipment and Technology of Cold Strip Rolling, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Qian, Lihe, E-mail: dlhqian@yahoo.com [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Equipment and Technology of Cold Strip Rolling, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Meng, Jiangying [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Liu, Shuai; Zhang, Fucheng [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Equipment and Technology of Cold Strip Rolling, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)

    2015-10-01

    The influence of Al on fatigue crack growth (FCG) behavior of the high-Mn austenitic twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) steel was investigated by conducting FCG tests on Fe–22Mn–0Al–0.6C and Fe–22Mn–3Al–0.6C TWIP steels (hereafter, referred to as 0Al and 3Al TWIP steel, respectively). The FCG tests were performed at stress ratio of 0.1 under the control of stress intensity factor range using three-point bending specimens. Excepting that the traditional two-dimensional (2D) observation methods (optical, scanning and transmission electron microscopes) were used to observe the crack paths, fracture surfaces and microstructure features, a high-resolution synchrotron X-ray computed tomography was also applied to observe the three-dimensional (3-D) crack morphology. The results indicate that the FCG resistance of the 0Al TWIP steel is superior to that of 3Al TWIP steel in the near threshold regime. Observed from the 2D crack paths and 3D crack morphologies, it can be found that the crack surface roughness and crack deflection of the 0Al steel are greater than those of 3Al steel. It is suggested that the degree of roughness-induced crack closure decreases with the addition of Al. And the 0Al steel shows much larger plastic zone sizes ahead of the crack tip than the 3Al steel, suggesting that plasticity-induced crack closure may also play an important role in decreasing the FCG rate in the 0Al steel. By excluding the crack closure effects, the 0Al steel still exhibits a higher effective crack growth threshold value than the 3Al steel; this is considered to be due to the higher planarity of slip in the 0Al steel than in the 3Al steel, and the mechanical twins generated in the 0Al steel reduce the stress concentration at crack tip.

  1. Liquid Metal Embrittlement in Resistance Spot Welding and Hot Tensile Tests of Surface-refined TWIP Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthelmie, J.; Schram, A.; Wesling, V.

    2016-03-01

    Automotive industry strives to reduce vehicle weight and therefore fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emissions. Especially in the auto body, material light weight construction is practiced, but the occupant safety must be ensured. These requirements demand high-strength steels with good forming and crash characteristics. Such an approach is the use of high- manganese-content TWIP steels, which achieve strengths of around 1,000 MPa and fracture strains of more than 60%. Welding surface-refined TWIP steels reduces their elongation at break and produces cracks due to the contact with liquid metal and the subsequent liquid metal embrittlement (LME). The results of resistance spot welds of mixed joints of high-manganese- content steel in combination with micro-alloyed ferritic steel and hot tensile tests are presented. The influence of different welding parameters on the sensitivity to liquid metal embrittlement is investigated by means of spot welding. In a high temperature tensile testing machine, the influence of different parameters is determined regardless of the welding process. Defined strains just below or above the yield point, and at 25% of elongation at break, show the correlation between the applied strain and liquid metal crack initiation. Due to the possibility to carry out tensile tests on a wide range of temperatures, dependencies of different temperatures of the zinc coating to the steel can be identified. Furthermore, the attack time of the zinc on the base material is investigated by defined heating periods.

  2. Dependence of Deformation Twinning on Grain Orientation and Texture Evolution of High Manganese TWIP Steels at Different Deformation Temperatures%Dependence of Deformation Twinning on Grain Orientation and Texture Evolution of High Manganese TWIP Steels at Different Deformation Temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Xiu-hui; YANG Ping; LU Fa-yun; MENG Li

    2011-01-01

    Mechanical properties, microstructure and texture evolution were studied in two tensile-deformed high manganese TWIP steels at different temperatures. Special attention was paid to the effects of deformation tempera- ture and grain orientation on twinning behavior. The results showed that, at --70 ℃ and at room temperature, both twins and hexagonal martensite were found in a lower manganese steel of 26Mn. With deformation temperature ris- ing, twins became less and they disappeared at 500 ℃. Strong 〈111〉 texture appeared at 300 ℃, while it weakened at 500 ℃ due to the low strain rate and higher stacking fault energy. EBSD measurement revealed the dependence of deformation twinning on grain orientation at all test temperatures.

  3. Avaliação do processamento de aço trip-twip em escala piloto

    OpenAIRE

    Julio Cezar de Sousa Zorzi

    2014-01-01

    Atualmente, a estrutura dos automóveis é composta por diferentes tipos de aços, de acordo com a função específica de cada componente. As peças que exigem elevada resistência mecânica são produzidas com aços convencionais de alta resistência (HSLA, CMn, IF-HSS etc.) ou com a primeira geração de aços avançados de alta resistência (AHSS - Dual phase, TRIP, Complex Phase etc.). A segunda geração desses aços, na qual se inclui o aço TWIP, é caracterizada por uma combinação de alta resistência com ...

  4. Influences of silicon on the work hardening behavior and hot deformation behavior of Fe–25 wt%Mn–(Si, Al) TWIP steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Dejun, E-mail: lidejun352@163.com [CNPC Tubular Goods Research Institute, Xi’an 710077 (China); The Key Lab for Petroleum Tubular Goods Engineering, CNPC, Xi’an 710077 (China); Feng, Yaorong; Song, Shengyin; Liu, Qiang; Bai, Qiang [CNPC Tubular Goods Research Institute, Xi’an 710077 (China); The Key Lab for Petroleum Tubular Goods Engineering, CNPC, Xi’an 710077 (China); Ren, Fengzhang [School of Material Science and Engineering, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471023 (China); Shangguan, Fengshou [CNPC Tubular Goods Research Institute, Xi’an 710077 (China); The Key Lab for Petroleum Tubular Goods Engineering, CNPC, Xi’an 710077 (China)

    2015-01-05

    Highlights: • Influence of Si on work hardening behavior of Fe–25 wt%Mn TWIP steel was investigated. • Influence of Si on hot deformation behavior of Fe–25 wt%Mn TWIP steel was studied. • Si blocks dislocation glide and favors mechanical twinning in Fe–25 wt%Mn TWIP steel. • The addition of Si increases the hot deformation activation energy of Fe–25 wt%Mn TWIP steel. • The addition of Si retards the nucleation and growth of DRX grains of Fe–25 wt%Mn TWIP steel. - Abstract: The influence of silicon on mechanical properties and hot deformation behavior of austenitic Fe–25 wt%Mn TWIP steel was investigated by means of the comparison research between 25Mn3Al and 25Mn3Si3Al steel. The results show that the 25Mn3Si3Al steel has higher yield strength and higher hardness than that of 25Mn3Al steel because of the solution strengthening caused by Si atoms and possesses higher uniform deformation ability and tensile strength than that of 25Mn3Al steel due to the higher work hardening ability of 25Mn3Si3Al steel. 25Mn3Si3Al steel presents a clear four-stage curve of work hardening rate in course of cold compression. Quite the opposite, the 25Mn3Al steel presents a monotonic decline curve of work hardening rate. The difference of the work hardening behavior between 25Mn3Al and 25Mn3Si3Al steel can be attributed to the decline of stacking fault energy (SFE) caused by the addition of 3 wt% Si. The dislocation glide plays an important role in the plastic deformation of 25Mn3Al steel even though the mechanical twinning is still one of the main deformation mechanisms. The 3 wt% Si added into the 25Mn3Al steel blocks the dislocation glide and promotes the mechanical twinning, and then the dislocation glide characteristics cannot be observed in cold deformed microstructure of 25Mn3Si3Al steel. The hot compression tests reveal that the hot deformation resistance of the 25Mn3Si3Al steel is significantly higher than that of the 25Mn3Al steel due to the solid

  5. Convective Weather Avoidance with Uncertain Weather Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahan, Sinan; Windhorst, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    Convective weather events have a disruptive impact on air traffic both in terminal area and in en-route airspaces. In order to make sure that the national air transportation system is safe and efficient, it is essential to respond to convective weather events effectively. Traffic flow control initiatives in response to convective weather include ground delay, airborne delay, miles-in-trail restrictions as well as tactical and strategic rerouting. The rerouting initiatives can potentially increase traffic density and complexity in regions neighboring the convective weather activity. There is a need to perform rerouting in an intelligent and efficient way such that the disruptive effects of rerouting are minimized. An important area of research is to study the interaction of in-flight rerouting with traffic congestion or complexity and developing methods that quantitatively measure this interaction. Furthermore, it is necessary to find rerouting solutions that account for uncertainties in weather forecasts. These are important steps toward managing complexity during rerouting operations, and the paper is motivated by these research questions. An automated system is developed for rerouting air traffic in order to avoid convective weather regions during the 20- minute - 2-hour time horizon. Such a system is envisioned to work in concert with separation assurance (0 - 20-minute time horizon), and longer term air traffic management (2-hours and beyond) to provide a more comprehensive solution to complexity and safety management. In this study, weather is dynamic and uncertain; it is represented as regions of airspace that pilots are likely to avoid. Algorithms are implemented in an air traffic simulation environment to support the research study. The algorithms used are deterministic but periodically revise reroutes to account for weather forecast updates. In contrast to previous studies, in this study convective weather is represented as regions of airspace that pilots

  6. Microstructural characterization of a Fe-20Mn-0.6C high Mn TRIP/TWIP steel%Fe-20Mn-0.6C 高锰 TRIP/TWIP 钢微观组织表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱从怀; 申勇峰; 薛文颖; 王沿东

    2013-01-01

      设计出一种 Fe-Mn-C 系 TRIP/TWIP 钢,通过静态拉伸测试热轧钢力学性能,并利用 EBSD、XRD、SEM 分析其拉伸变形后的微观组织变化.结果表明:Fe-20Mn-0.6C 钢板热轧后表现出优异的力学性能,真应变可达到0.59,抗拉强度为1631 MPa.热轧后组织为全奥氏体组织,晶粒尺寸较大并且伴有大量的退火孪晶,变形后出现孪生变形和马氏体相变;变形量较小时,马氏体相变并不明显,较大变形量时大量的马氏体在孪晶界和晶界附近弥散分布;并且随着应变量增大晶粒内出现二次孪生,并与一次孪生呈现多种交割方式.%  Tensile tests were carried out to explore the mechanical properties of a designed TRIP /TWIP steel, and the microstructures of the hot rolled steel before and after deformation have been investigated by using the electron -backscattering diffraction (EBSD), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron micrograph (SEM).The re-sults indicated that the steel after hot rolling exhibited attractively mechanical properties , while the true strain rea-ches 0.59 and the true stress is 1631MPa.The microstructure of the hot-rolled steel mainly contains the austenitic matrix with large grain sizes and lots of annealing twins .Twins and martensitic plates are occurred after tensile de -formation.The martensite phase increases with increasing strain and occurs at the vicinity of twin boundaries and /or grain boundaries, and the second twinning systems have been observed with increasing strain ,which intersected with the first twinning systems by different styles .

  7. Influences of Thermal Martensites and Grain Orientations on Strain-induced Martensites in High Manganese TRIP/TWIP Steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fayun Lu; Ping Yang; Li Meng; Fenge Cui; Hua Ding

    2011-01-01

    Strain-induced martensites in high manganese TRIP/TWIP steels were investigated in the presence of thermal martensites and under the influence of austenitic grain orientation by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD). Before deformation, the morphology of α′-M depended mainly on the number of variants and growing period. Regardless of martensite morphologies and deformation, the Kurdjumov-Sachs (K-S) orientation relationships always maintained. The 6 α′-M variants formed from a plate of ε-M were of 3 pairs of twins with a common axis <110>α′ parallel to the normal of {111}γ habit plane to minimize transformation strain. When α′-M could be formed only by deformation, it nucleated at the intersection of ε-M variants and grew mainly in thick ε-M plates. Thick ε plates promoted significantly the α′-M and weakened the influence of grain orientations. During tension, the transformation in <100>-oriented grains was observed to be slower than that in <111>-oriented grains. Deformation twins promoted ε-M formation slightly and had no apparent effect on α′-M. Deformation increased the number of ε-M variants, but reduced that of α′-M variants.

  8. Design and Implementation of Weather Modification Intelligent Terminal Based on Android%基于Android人工影响天气智能终端的研制与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    池文羽; 周杰; 杜景林

    2013-01-01

    In order to realize the response of artificial weather modification conveniently and accurately,a intelligent mobile terminal based on Android was proposed.The overall frame,main function and operation process of the system was introduced in detail.Meanwhile,some of the key technology of sending and receiving of basic instructions,application of mobile GIS platform,video information transmission,such as self-adaptive heartbeat bag,raster data transmission and display,terminal GIS coordinate transformation,cutting and optimization of video encoder,stream media transmission optimization and error control were emphasized.The result of preliminary application tests showed that the features and superiorities of this system were all obvious.%为了快速、准确地实现对人工影响天气作业的响应,建立了一种基于Android的智能移动作业终端系统,详细介绍了该系统的总体框架、主要功能、操作流程,并重点围绕基本指令信息收发、移动GIS平台应用、视频传输应用3个方面,分别就其中的一些关键技术点如自适应心跳包、矢量栅格数据的传输及显示、终端GIS坐标转换、视频编码器的裁剪和优化、流媒体传输优化及差错控制进行了阐述.初步试验结果表明,该系统的特点及优势均较明显.

  9. Wacky Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabarre, Amy; Gulino, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    What do a leaf blower, water hose, fan, and ice cubes have in common? Ask the students who participated in an integrative science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (I-STEM) education unit, "Wacky Weather," and they will tell say "fun and severe weather"--words one might not have expected! The purpose of the unit…

  10. Wacky Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabarre, Amy; Gulino, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    What do a leaf blower, water hose, fan, and ice cubes have in common? Ask the students who participated in an integrative science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (I-STEM) education unit, "Wacky Weather," and they will tell say "fun and severe weather"--words one might not have expected! The purpose of the unit…

  11. Propiedades mecánicas a tracción y mecanismos de endurecimiento de un acero TWIP a altas velocidades de deformación: relación de Hall-Petch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de las Cuevas, Fernando

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of strain rate and grain size on the mechanical properties of a 22% Mn, 0.6% C (mass % austenitic TWIP steel has been studied. A typical quasi-linear stress-strain behaviour of TWIP steels that deform by twinning has been observed at strain rates of 9.4 s−1 and 265 s−1 and room temperature. At high strain rates, the constant work - hardening rate region typically observed in TWIP steel clearly shortens. In addition, the Hall-Petch relationship has been obtained for each strain rate. The Hall-Petch slope KHP increases as a function of strain in all cases. The dependence of the KHP on the strain rate could be adiabatic heating.Se ha estudiado la influencia de la velocidad de deformación y tamaño de grano en las propiedades mecánicas de un acero TWIP austenítico de composición 22% Mn, 0,6% C (% en masa. Para las velocidades de deformación de 9,4 s−1 y 265 s−1 a temperatura ambiente, se ha observado un comportamiento cuasi-lineal en las curvas tensión-deformación, típico en estos materiales que deforman por maclaje. Se ha mostrado que a altas velocidades de deformación la región con tasa de endurecimiento constante observada en aceros TWIP disminuye notablemente. Además, se ha obtenido la relación de Hall-Petch para cada velocidad de deformación. La pendiente de Hall-Petch KHP incrementa en función de la deformación en todos los casos. La dependencia de KHP con la velocidad de deformación podría ser causada por el calentamiento adiabático.

  12. Mirador - Weather

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Earth Science data access made simple. Our weather system includes the dynamics of the atmosphere and its interaction with the oceans and land. The improvement of...

  13. Twins of TWIP Steel and Its Effect on Hall-Petch Relationship%TWIP钢的孪晶及其对Hall-Petch关系的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍翠兰; 艾倍倍; 谢盼; 陈汪林; 李久茂

    2013-01-01

    The effect of annealing temperature on the microstructures and mechanical properties of the cold-rolled Fe-25Mn-3Al-3Si TWIP was studied by means of electron backscatter diffraction technology,transmission electron microscope and tensile test.The Hall-Petch relationship was analyzed in detail.The results have shown that the microstructure of the fully recrystallized samples consists of equiaxed grains and annealing twins.With the increase of the annealing temperature,the grain size is continuously increasing while the fraction of Σ3 grain boundaries is fluctuantly increasing.After annealed at 850 ℃ for 1 h,the Σ3 grain boundaries reach 44%.In the tensile process,the relationship of strength and grain size obeys the Hall-Petch relationship,but twin boundaries affect the slope K of the Hall-Petch relationship.The K(ε)-ε relationship of the TWIP steel is different from that of general steels at room temperature,in which K(ε) monotonically increases with the strain ε.The K(ε) of the TWIP steel increases first,then,keeps unchanged and finally decreases with the strain ε.%采用背散射电子衍射、透射电子显微镜和拉伸实验等研究了退火温度对冷轧态Fe-25Mn-3A1-3Si TWIP钢微观组织及力学性能的影响,并分析了Hall-Petch关系.结果表明,完全再结晶组织由等轴晶和退火孪晶组成,再结晶晶粒平均尺寸随退火温度的升高单调增大,∑3晶界面积分数随退火温度升高而呈现波动增加,850℃退火1h后∑3晶界面积分数达到44%.拉伸过程中强度与晶粒大小都服从Hall-Petch关系,但孪晶界影响Hall-Petch关系斜率K(ε)的大小.TWIP钢K(ε)-ε关系不同于一般钢材常温下的K(ε)随ε增加单调上升,TWIP钢K(ε)随着ε的增加逐渐增大,然后出现平台,最后下降.

  14. TWIP钢孪晶晶界特征及其对材料塑性的影响%Characteristics of twin boundaries and their effect on plasticity of TWIP steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊平; 段先锋; 史子木; 韩福生

    2014-01-01

    利用高分辨透射电镜及电子背散射衍射技术,对TWIP钢退火孪晶和变形孪晶晶界的形貌、取向进行观察,并对其在材料塑性变形中的作用进行了分析。结果表明:退火孪晶界以∑3型为主,与晶粒之间满足60°的取向关系,是TWIP钢产生孪生的基础条件;形变孪晶与基体晶粒也满足60°的取向关系,亦为∑3 CSL型。孪晶对TWIP钢塑性的贡献主要是通过调节晶体取向、激发进一步滑移、促使滑移与孪生交替进行而实现的。%The morphologies and orientations of annealing and deformation twin boundaries in TWIP steel were observed by use of high resolution TEM and EBSD technique,and the contributions of these boundaries to the plastic deformation of TWIP steel were investigated. It is found that the annealing twin boundaries are mainly ∑3 type and meet the orientation relationship of60° with grains,giving an essential condition for the twinning of TWIP steels. Similarly, the deformation twin boundaries are also∑3 type and follow the60° relationship with grains. It is suggested that the contributions of twins to the plasticity of TWIP steels are realized by adjusting the orientation of grains, stimulating further slips and promoting the alternative occurrences of twining and slip.

  15. Combination of Different In Situ Characterization Techniques and Scanning Electron Microscopy Investigations for a Comprehensive Description of the Tensile Deformation Behavior of a CrMnNi TRIP/TWIP Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidner, Anja; Biermann, Horst

    2015-08-01

    The class of low-carbon, high-alloy CrMnNi steels exhibits outstanding mechanical properties with respect to high strength and ductility due to either transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) or twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) effect depending on chemical composition and deformation temperature. However, the ongoing deformation mechanisms like the formation of stacking faults, martensitic phase transformation or deformation-induced twinning are overlapping and the kinetics of the microstructure evolution are quite complex. Therefore, in addition to macroscopic deformation tests and microstructural investigations by scanning electron microscopy, a combination of several in situ characterization techniques with either high lateral and/or temporal resolution as well as providing integral volume information were chosen in order to give a thoroughly and comprehensive description of the deformation behavior of CrMnNi TRIP/TWIP steels. In addition, the complementary in situ techniques like in situ nanoindentation, micro-digital image correlation, and acoustic emission measurements provide excellent possibility for description of materials behavior on a multiscale level from the submicrometer scale up to the macroscopic range. The results obtained by the complementary techniques can support the future modeling of the deformation behavior of TRIP/TWIP steels dependent on chemical composition, temperature, grain size and grain orientation.

  16. Stormy Weather

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Inspired by the deep abyss of the unknown; a constant source for investigation and discovery, heating and destruction, all simultaneously. Beneath the deep darkness, millions of species vibrantly thrive in another universe wholly untouched by human hands, though affected by their choices. The weathered pieces and people associated with seaside villages, the deep wrinkles that tell a story of one's life and experiences like

  17. Federal Weather Radar Stations in the United States as of September 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) and Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) weather radar stations within the US. The NEXRAD radar stations are...

  18. Termination Documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Mike; Hill, Jillian

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examined 11 workplaces to determine how they handle termination documentation, an empirically unexplored area in technical communication and rhetoric. We found that the use of termination documentation is context dependent while following a basic pattern of infraction, investigation, intervention, and termination. Furthermore,…

  19. Micro-scale measurements of plastic strain field, and local contributions of slip and twinning in TWIP steels during in situ tensile tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, H.K. [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Laboratoire de Mécanique des Solides, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS UMR7649, Université Paris-Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Doquet, V., E-mail: doquet@lms.polytechnique.fr [Laboratoire de Mécanique des Solides, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS UMR7649, Université Paris-Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Zhang, Z.F. [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2016-08-30

    In-situ tensile tests were carried out on Fe22Mn0.6C and Fe22Mn0.6C3Al (wt%) twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) steels specimens covered with gold micro-grids. High resolution atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) images were periodically captured. The latter were used for measurements of the plastic strain field, using digital image correlation (DIC). Although no meso-scale localization bands appeared, some areas were deformed three times more than average. Plastic deformation inside the grains was more heterogeneous in Fe22Mn0.6C, but at meso-scale, the degree of strain heterogeneity was not higher, at least up to 12% strain. Plastic deformation started from grain boundaries or annealing twin boundaries in both materials, due to a high elastic anisotropy of the grains. An original method based on DIC was developed to estimate the twin fraction in grains that exhibit a single set of slip/twin bands. Deformation twinning accommodated 60–80% of the plastic strain in some favorably oriented grains, from the onset of plastic flow in Fe22Mn0.6C, but was not observed in the Al-bearing steel until 12% strain. The back stress was important in both materials, but significantly higher in Fe22Mn0.6C.

  20. Martensite reversion and texture formation in 17Mn-0.06C TRIP/TWIP steel after hot cold rolling and annealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Pérez Escobar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available High Mn steels with Si and Al present great plasticity when deformed due to the TRIP/TWIP effect. This work evaluated the microstructural evolution and texture formation of a 17Mn-0.06C steel after hot rolling, cold rolling to 45% of thickness reduction and annealing at 700 °C for different times. The microstructural analysis was performed by means of dilatometry, X-ray diffraction (XRD, optical (OM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, electron backscattering diffraction EBSD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. It was found that during the cooling process, after the steel is annealed, the athermal ɛ and α′ martensites are formed. Tensile test results showed that the steel exhibits yield and tensile strength around 650 and 950 MPa with a total elongation around 45%. The austenite texture contains brass, copper and Goss components while the α′ and ɛ martensites textures contain rotated cube and prismatic and pyramidal fibers, respectively.

  1. Monthly Weather Review

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Supplements to the Monthly Weather Review publication. The Weather Bureau published the Monthly weather review Supplement irregularly from 1914 to 1949. The...

  2. Weather Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacmeister, Julio T.

    Awareness of weather and concern about weather in the proximate future certainly must have accompanied the emergence of human self-consciousness. Although weather is a basic idea in human existence, it is difficult to define precisely.

  3. Weather in Your Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannegieter, Sandy; Wirkler, Linda

    Facts and activities related to weather and meteorology are presented in this unit. Separate sections cover the following topics: (1) the water cycle; (2) clouds; (3) the Beaufort Scale for rating the speed and force of wind; (4) the barometer; (5) weather prediction; (6) fall weather in Iowa (sleet, frost, and fog); (7) winter weather in Iowa…

  4. AWE: Aviation Weather Data Visualization Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirkovska, Lilly; Lodha, Suresh K.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Weather is one of the major causes of aviation accidents. General aviation (GA) flights account for 92% of all the aviation accidents, In spite of all the official and unofficial sources of weather visualization tools available to pilots, there is an urgent need for visualizing several weather related data tailored for general aviation pilots. Our system, Aviation Weather Data Visualization Environment AWE), presents graphical displays of meteorological observations, terminal area forecasts, and winds aloft forecasts onto a cartographic grid specific to the pilot's area of interest. Decisions regarding the graphical display and design are made based on careful consideration of user needs. Integral visual display of these elements of weather reports is designed for the use of GA pilots as a weather briefing and route selection tool. AWE provides linking of the weather information to the flight's path and schedule. The pilot can interact with the system to obtain aviation-specific weather for the entire area or for his specific route to explore what-if scenarios and make "go/no-go" decisions. The system, as evaluated by some pilots at NASA Ames Research Center, was found to be useful.

  5. General-aviation's view of progress in the aviation weather system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Douglas J.

    1988-01-01

    For all its activity statistics, general-aviation is the most vulnerable to hazardous weather. Of concern to the general aviation industry are: (1) the slow pace of getting units of the Automated Weather Observation System (AWOS) to the field; (2) the efforts of the National Weather Service to withdraw from both the observation and dissemination roles of the aviation weather system; (3) the need for more observation points to improve the accuracy of terminal and area forecasts; (4) the need for improvements in all area forecasts, terminal forecasts, and winds aloft forecasts; (5) slow progress in cockpit weather displays; (6) the erosion of transcribed weather broadcasts (TWEB) and other deficiencies in weather information dissemination; (7) the need to push to make the Direct User Access Terminal (DUAT) a reality; and (7) the need to improve severe weather (thunderstorm) warning systems.

  6. A study on the geometry of dislocation patterns in the surrounding of nanoindents in a TWIP steel using electron channeling contrast imaging and discrete dislocation dynamics simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, J.-I.; Zaefferer, S., E-mail: s.zaefferer@mpie.de; Raabe, D.

    2015-06-11

    Electron channeling contrast imaging under controlled diffraction conditions (cECCI) enables observation of crystal defects, especially dislocations, stacking faults and nano-twins, close to the surface of bulk samples. In this work cECCI has been employed to observe defects around nanoindents into the surface of {100}-, {110}-, {111}-oriented grains in a Fe–22Mn–0.65C (wt%) TWIP steel sample (fcc crystal structure, stacking fault energy ~20 mJ/m²) using a cone-spherical indenter. The dislocation patterns show four- and two-fold symmetries for the {100}- and {110}-orientation, and a three-fold symmetry for the {111}-orientation which is, however, difficult to observe. Discrete dislocation dynamics (DDD) simulations of the indentation were carried out to complement the static experimental investigations. The simulations were carried out with both, cross-slip disabled and enabled conditions, where the former were found to match to the experimental results better, as may be expected for an fcc material with low stacking fault energy. The 3-dimensional geometry of the dislocation patterns of the different indents was analysed and discussed with respect to pattern formation mechanisms. The force–displacement curves obtained during indentation showed a stronger strain hardening for the {111} oriented crystal than that for the other orientations. This is in contrast to the behaviour of, for example, copper and is interpreted to be due to planar slip. Irrespective of orientation and indentation depth the radius of the plastically deformed area was found to be approximately 4 times larger than that of the indenter contact area.

  7. Weather radar to prevent air crashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Susan M.

    An operational demonstration of Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) at Stapleton International Airport, Denver, finishes August 31. For 2 months, TDWR has been used to detect wind shear and other hazardous weather around air terminals and to provide warnings to air traffic controllers and pilots in time to avert accidents.The biggest hazard for aircraft approaching or departing terminals is the microburst, a form of wind shear. Microbursts are produced by a small-scale, powerful downdraft of cold, heavy air occurring beneath a thunderstorm, rain shower, or cumulus cloud. As the downdraft reaches Earth's surface, it spreads out horizontally (see Figure 1). An aircraft flying through a microburst at low-altitude encounters a strong headwind, then a downdraft, and finally a tailwind that causes a sharp reduction in speed and loss of lift. This deadly sequence of events has caused at least 30 accidents and 500 deaths in the United States since the mid-1960s.

  8. Land Surface Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — METAR is the international standard code format for hourly surface weather observations. The acronym roughly translates from French as Aviation Routine Weather...

  9. Project Weather and Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Pal J. Kirkeby

    2000-01-01

    Introduces Project Weather and Water with the goal of developing and testing ideas of how to implement weather topics and water physics in an integrated way. Discusses teacher preparation, implementation, and evaluation of this project. (ASK)

  10. Pilot Weather Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aviation weather reports relayed from pilots to FAA air traffic controllers or National Weather Service personnel. Elements include sky cover, turbulence, wind...

  11. Natural Weathering Exposure Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Corps of Engineers' Treat Island Natural Weathering Exposure Station is a long-term natural weathering facility used to study concrete durability. Located on the...

  12. Surface Weather Observations Hourly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard hourly observations taken at Weather Bureau/National Weather Service offices and airports throughout the United States. Hourly observations began during the...

  13. Surface Weather Observing Manuals

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Manuals and instructions for taking weather observations. Includes the annual Weather Bureau 'Instructions for Preparing Meteorological Forms...' and early airways...

  14. Daily Weather Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These daily weather records were compiled from a subset of stations in the Global Historical Climatological Network (GHCN)-Daily dataset. A weather record is...

  15. Winter Weather Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severe winter weather can lead to health and safety challenges. You may have to cope with Cold related health problems, including ... there are no guarantees of safety during winter weather emergencies, you can take actions to protect yourself. ...

  16. National Convective Weather Diagnostic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current convective hazards identified by the National Convective Weather Detection algorithm. The National Convective Weather Diagnostic (NCWD) is an automatically...

  17. Internet Weather Source

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Weather Service (NWS) National Telecommunications Gateway provides weather, hydrologic, and climate forecasts and warnings for the United States, its...

  18. NPOESS Field Terminal Updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckmann, G.; Route, G.

    2009-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Defense (DoD), and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation weather and environmental satellite system; the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). NPOESS replaces the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) managed by the DoD. The NPOESS satellites carry a suite of sensors that collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere, and space. The ground data processing segment for NPOESS is the Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS), developed by Raytheon Intelligence and Information Systems. The IDPS processes NPOESS satellite data to provide environmental data products (aka, Environmental Data Records or EDRs) to NOAA and DoD processing centers operated by the United States government. The IDPS will process EDRs beginning with the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) and continuing through the lifetime of the NPOESS system. IDPS also provides the software and requirements for the Field Terminal Segment (FTS). NPOESS provides support to deployed field terminals by providing mission data in the Low Rate and High Rate downlinks (LRD/HRD), mission support data needed to generate EDRs and decryption keys needed to decrypt mission data during Selective data Encryption (SDE). Mission support data consists of globally relevant data, geographically constrained data, and two line element sets. NPOESS provides these mission support data via the Internet accessible Mission Support Data Server and HRD/LRD downlinks. This presentation will illustrate and describe the NPOESS capabilities in support of Field Terminal users. This discussion will include the mission support data available to Field Terminal users, content of the direct broadcast HRD and LRD

  19. The power of weather

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Huurman; Francesco Ravazzolo; Chen Zhou

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the predictive power of weather for electricity prices in day ahead markets in real time. We find that next-day weather forecasts improve the forecast accuracy of Scandinavian day-ahead electricity prices substantially in terms of point forecasts, suggesting that weather forecasts can price the weather premium. This improvement strengthens the confidence in the forecasting model, which results in high center-mass predictive densities. In density forecast, such a predictive...

  20. Weather Fundamentals: Meteorology. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998

    The videos in this educational series, for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes) looks at how meteorologists gather and interpret current weather data collected from sources…

  1. Cold-Weather Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Cold-Weather Sports KidsHealth > For Teens > Cold-Weather Sports A A A What's in this article? ... Equipment Ahh, winter! Shorter days. Frigid temperatures. Foul weather. What better time to be outdoors? Winter sports ...

  2. Weather Conditions, Weather Information and Car Crashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriaan Perrels

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic safety is the result of a complex interaction of factors, and causes behind road vehicle crashes require different measures to reduce their impacts. This study assesses how strongly the variation in daily winter crash rates associates with weather conditions in Finland. This is done by illustrating trends and spatiotemporal variation in the crash rates, by showing how a GIS application can evidence the association between temporary rises in regional crash rates and the occurrence of bad weather, and with a regression model on crash rate sensitivity to adverse weather conditions. The analysis indicates that a base rate of crashes depending on non-weather factors exists, and some combinations of extreme weather conditions are able to substantially push up crash rates on days with bad weather. Some spatial causation factors, such as variation of geophysical characteristics causing systematic differences in the distributions of weather variables, exist. Yet, even in winter, non-spatial factors are normally more significant. GIS data can support optimal deployment of rescue services and enhance in-depth quantitative analysis by helping to identify the most appropriate spatial and temporal resolutions. However, the supportive role of GIS should not be inferred as existence of highly significant spatial causation.

  3. Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program - Weatherization Assistance Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Weatherization Assistance Program reduces energy costs for low-income households by increasing the energy efficiency of their homes, while ensuring their health and safety.

  4. Terminal structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Frank; Allais, Arnaud; Mirebeau, Pierre; Ganhungu, Francois; Lallouet, Nicolas

    2009-10-20

    A terminal structure (2) for a superconducting cable (1) is described. It consists of a conductor (2a) and an insulator (2b) that surrounds the conductor (2a), wherein the superconducting cable (1) has a core with a superconducting conductor (5) and a layer of insulation that surrounds the conductor (5), and wherein the core is arranged in such a way that it can move longitudinally in a cryostat. The conductor (2a) of the terminal structure (2) is electrically connected with the superconducting conductor (5) or with a normal conductor (6) that is connected with the superconducting conductor (5) by means of a tubular part (7) made of an electrically conductive material, wherein the superconducting conductor (5) or the normal conductor (6) can slide in the part (7) in the direction of the superconductor.

  5. Benign Weather Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    operational interest in modifying weather to support combat operations increased, ultimately leading to a multi-service effort called PROJECT POPEYE . The goal...This, coupled with the revelations concerning weather modification use in the Vietnam War (PROJECT POPEYE ), was a double blow to weather modification...AWS-TR-74-247, June 1984. Cobb, James T., Jr., et. al. Project Popeye : Final Report. China Lake, CA: Naval Weapons Center, 1967. Langmuir, Irving

  6. Is Weather Chaotic?

    CERN Document Server

    Raidl, A

    1998-01-01

    The correlation dimension and K2-entropy are estimated from meteorological time- series. The results lead us to claim that seasonal variability of weather is under influence of low dimensional dynamics, whereas changes of weather from day to day are governed by high dimensional system(s). Error-doubling time of this system is less than 3 days. We suggest that the outstanding feature of the weather dynamics is deterministic chaos.

  7. Termination unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traeholt, Chresten; Willen, Dag; Roden, Mark; Tolbert, Jerry C.; Lindsay, David; Fisher, Paul W.; Nielsen, Carsten Thidemann

    2016-05-03

    Cable end section comprises end-parts of N electrical phases/neutral, and a thermally-insulation envelope comprising cooling fluid. The end-parts each comprises a conductor and are arranged with phase 1 innermost, N outermost surrounded by the neutral, electrical insulation being between phases and N and neutral. The end-parts comprise contacting surfaces located sequentially along the longitudinal extension of the end-section. A termination unit has an insulating envelope connected to a cryostat, special parts at both ends comprising an adapter piece at the cable interface and a closing end-piece terminating the envelope in the end-section. The special parts houses an inlet and/or outlet for cooling fluid. The space between an inner wall of the envelope and a central opening of the cable is filled with cooling fluid. The special part at the end connecting to the cryostat houses an inlet or outlet, splitting cooling flow into cable annular flow and termination annular flow.

  8. Space Weather Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Space Weather Computational Laboratory is a Unix and PC based modeling and simulation facility devoted to research analysis of naturally occurring electrically...

  9. Space Weather Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Space Weather Analysis archives are model output of ionospheric, thermospheric and magnetospheric particle populations, energies and electrodynamics

  10. Weather and emotional state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spasova, Z.

    2010-09-01

    Introduction Given the proven effects of weather on the human organism, an attempt to examine its effects on a psychic and emotional level has been made. Emotions affect the bio-tonus, working ability and concentration, hence their significance in various domains of economic life, such as health care, education, transportation, tourism, etc. Data and methods The research has been made in Sofia City within a period of 8 months, using 5 psychological methods (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Test for Self-assessment of the emotional state (developed by Wessman and Ricks), Test for evaluation of moods and Test "Self-confidence - Activity - Mood" (developed by the specialists from the Military Academy in Saint Petersburg). The Fiodorov-Chubukov's complex-climatic method was used to characterize meteorological conditions because of the purpose to include in the analysis a maximal number of meteorological elements. 16 weather types are defined in dependence of the meteorological elements values according to this method. Abrupt weather changes from one day to another, defined by the same method, were considered as well. Results and discussions The results obtained by t-test show that the different categories of weather lead to changes in the emotional status, which indicates a character either positive or negative for the organism. The abrupt weather changes, according to expectations, have negative effect on human emotions but only when a transition to the cloudy weather or weather type, classified as "unfavourable" has been realized. The relationship between weather and human emotions is rather complicated since it depends on individual characteristics of people. One of these individual psychological characteristics, marked by the dimension "neuroticism", has a strong effect on emotional reactions in different weather conditions. Emotionally stable individuals are more "protected" to the weather influence on their emotions

  11. Evaporation and weather

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, H.A.R. de; Feddes, R.A.; Holtslag, A.A.M.; Lablans, W.N.; Schuurmans, C.J.E.; Shuttleworth, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    Data on evaporation to be used in agriculture, hydrology, forestry, etc. are usually supplied by meteorologists. Meteorologists themselves also use evaporation data. Air mass properties determining weather are strongly dependent on the input of water vapour from the surface. So for weather

  12. Designing a Weather Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    The collection and analysis of weather data is crucial to the location of alternate energy systems like solar and wind. This article presents a design challenge that gives students a chance to design a weather station to collect data in advance of a large wind turbine installation. Data analysis is a crucial part of any science or engineering…

  13. Evaporation and weather

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, H.A.R. de; Feddes, R.A.; Holtslag, A.A.M.; Lablans, W.N.; Schuurmans, C.J.E.; Shuttleworth, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    Data on evaporation to be used in agriculture, hydrology, forestry, etc. are usually supplied by meteorologists. Meteorologists themselves also use evaporation data. Air mass properties determining weather are strongly dependent on the input of water vapour from the surface. So for weather predictio

  14. Weather and road capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Christian

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents estimations of the effect of bad weather on the observed speed on a Danish highway section; Køge Bugt Motorvejen. The paper concludes that weather, primarily precipitation and snow, has a clear negative effect on speed when the road is not in hypercongestion mode. Furthermore......, the capacity of the highway seems to be reduced in bad weather and there are indications that travel time variability is also increased, at least in free-flow conditions. Heavy precipitation reduces speed and capacity by around 5-8%, whereas snow primarily reduces capacity. Other weather variables......-parametrically against traffic density and in step 2 the residuals from step 1 are regressed linearly against the weather variables. The choice of a non-parametric method is made to avoid constricting ties from a parametric specification and because the focus here is not on the relationship between traffic flow...

  15. Weather in Mountainous Terrain (Overcoming Scientific Barriers to Weather Support)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    Weather in Mountainous Terrain (Overcoming Scientific Barriers to Weather Support) Fiesta Resort & Conference Center Tempe, AZ February 1...Meteorology Overcoming Scientific Barriers to Weather Support Fiesta Resort & Conference Center Tempe, AZ February 1 & 2, 2010 Hosted by University

  16. Terminal ballistics

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Zvi

    2016-01-01

    This book comprehensively discusses essential aspects of terminal ballistics, combining experimental data, numerical simulations and analytical modeling. Employing a unique approach to numerical simulations as a measure of sensitivity for the major physical parameters, the new edition also includes the following features: new figures to better illustrate the problems discussed; improved explanations for the equation of state of a solid and for the cavity expansion process; new data concerning the Kolsky bar test; and a discussion of analytical modeling for the hole diameter in a thin metallic plate impacted by a shaped charge jet. The section on thick concrete targets penetrated by rigid projectiles has now been expanded to include the latest findings, and two new sections have been added: one on a novel approach to the perforation of thin concrete slabs, and one on testing the failure of thin metallic plates using a hydrodynamic ram.

  17. Oil Rig Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weather observations taken at offshore platforms along the United States coastlines. The majority are located in oil-rich areas of the Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of...

  18. Uruguay - Surface Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface weather observation forms for 26 stations in Uruguay. Period of record 1896-2005, with two to eight observations per day. Files created through a...

  19. Cape Kennedy Weather Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Digitized data taken from original weather observations taken at Cape Kennedy Air Force Station, Florida. Elements recorded are wind speed and direction,...

  20. Monthly Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface Weather Observation 1001 Forms is a set of historical manuscript records for the period 1893-1948. The collection includes two very similar form types: Form...

  1. Daily Weather Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Several different government offices have published the Daily weather maps over its history. The publication has also gone by different names over time. The U.S....

  2. Weather Information Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Science Communications International (SCI), formerly General Science Corporation, has developed several commercial products based upon experience acquired as a NASA Contractor. Among them are METPRO, a meteorological data acquisition and processing system, which has been widely used, RISKPRO, an environmental assessment system, and MAPPRO, a geographic information system. METPRO software is used to collect weather data from satellites, ground-based observation systems and radio weather broadcasts to generate weather maps, enabling potential disaster areas to receive advance warning. GSC's initial work for NASA Goddard Space Flight Center resulted in METPAK, a weather satellite data analysis system. METPAK led to the commercial METPRO system. The company also provides data to other government agencies, U.S. embassies and foreign countries.

  3. Space Weather Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of space weather datasets from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and from the World Data Service for Geophysics,...

  4. Genetically optimizing weather predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, S. B.; Staats, Kai; Romero-Colmenero, Encarni

    2016-07-01

    humidity, air pressure, wind speed and wind direction) into a database. Built upon this database, we have developed a remarkably simple approach to derive a functional weather predictor. The aim is provide up to the minute local weather predictions in order to e.g. prepare dome environment conditions ready for night time operations or plan, prioritize and update weather dependent observing queues. In order to predict the weather for the next 24 hours, we take the current live weather readings and search the entire archive for similar conditions. Predictions are made against an averaged, subsequent 24 hours of the closest matches for the current readings. We use an Evolutionary Algorithm to optimize our formula through weighted parameters. The accuracy of the predictor is routinely tested and tuned against the full, updated archive to account for seasonal trends and total, climate shifts. The live (updated every 5 minutes) SALT weather predictor can be viewed here: http://www.saao.ac.za/ sbp/suthweather_predict.html

  5. Cockpit weather information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Jeffrey Chen-Yu (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Weather information, periodically collected from throughout a global region, is periodically assimilated and compiled at a central source and sent via a high speed data link to a satellite communication service, such as COMSAT. That communication service converts the compiled weather information to GSDB format, and transmits the GSDB encoded information to an orbiting broadcast satellite, INMARSAT, transmitting the information at a data rate of no less than 10.5 kilobits per second. The INMARSAT satellite receives that data over its P-channel and rebroadcasts the GDSB encoded weather information, in the microwave L-band, throughout the global region at a rate of no less than 10.5 KB/S. The transmission is received aboard an aircraft by means of an onboard SATCOM receiver and the output is furnished to a weather information processor. A touch sensitive liquid crystal panel display allows the pilot to select the weather function by touching a predefined icon overlain on the display's surface and in response a color graphic display of the weather is displayed for the pilot.

  6. Aging, Terminal Decline, and Terminal Drop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmore, Erdman; Cleveland, William

    1976-01-01

    Data from a 20-year longitudinal study of persons over 60 were analyzed by step-wise multiple regression to test for declines in function with age, for terminal decline (linear relationship to time before death), and for terminal drop (curvilinear relationship to time before death). There were no substantial terminal drop effects. (Author)

  7. Space weather & telecommunications

    CERN Document Server

    Goodman, John M

    2006-01-01

    This book is both a survey of practical concepts for forecasting the performance of various telecommunication systems as well as a balanced treatment of space-weather phenomena that give rise to telecommunication impairment episodes. It bridges the gap in the relationship that exists between the following two disciplines: space weather and telecommunication system performance. There are a number of books that address one of the two disciplines in some detail, but only merely mention the other as an afterthought. In this book the author has married the two disciplines so that the readership can

  8. Dress for the Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glen, Nicole J.; Smetana, Lara K.

    2010-01-01

    "If someone were traveling to our area for the first time during this time of year, what would you tell them to bring to wear? Why?" This question was used to engage students in a guided-inquiry unit about how climate differs from weather. In this lesson, students explored local and national data sets to give "travelers" advice…

  9. Microbial Weathering of Olivine

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, D. S.; Longazo, T. G.; Wentworth, S. J.; Southam, G.

    2002-01-01

    Controlled microbial weathering of olivine experiments displays a unique style of nanoetching caused by biofilm attachment to mineral surfaces. We are investigating whether the morphology of biotic nanoetching can be used as a biosignature. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  10. Winter Weather: Indoor Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Part 3 of 3) Hot Weather Tips Heat Stress in Older Adults FAQs Extreme Heat PSAs Related Links MMWR Bibliography CDC's Program Floods Flood Readiness Personal Hygiene After a Disaster Cleanup of Flood Water After a Flood Worker Safety Educational Materials Floods ...

  11. Winter Weather: Frostbite

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Part 3 of 3) Hot Weather Tips Heat Stress in Older Adults FAQs Extreme Heat PSAs Related Links MMWR Bibliography CDC's Program Floods Flood Readiness Personal Hygiene After a Disaster Cleanup of Flood Water After a Flood Worker Safety Educational Materials Floods ...

  12. Winter Weather Checklists

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Part 3 of 3) Hot Weather Tips Heat Stress in Older Adults FAQs Extreme Heat PSAs Related Links MMWR Bibliography CDC's Program Floods Flood Readiness Personal Hygiene After a Disaster Cleanup of Flood Water After a Flood Worker Safety Educational Materials Floods ...

  13. Weather at LANL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruggeman, David Alan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-04-19

    This report gives general information about how to become a meteorologist and what kinds of jobs exist in that field. Then it goes into detail about why weather is monitored at LANL, how it is done, and where the data can be accessed online.

  14. Cold Weather Pet Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... they can be knocked over, potentially starting a fire. Check your furnace before the cold weather sets in to make ... avoided because of the risk of burns or fire. Heated pet mats should also be used ... to burrow, get them back inside quickly because they are showing signs of ...

  15. Dress for the Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glen, Nicole J.; Smetana, Lara K.

    2010-01-01

    "If someone were traveling to our area for the first time during this time of year, what would you tell them to bring to wear? Why?" This question was used to engage students in a guided-inquiry unit about how climate differs from weather. In this lesson, students explored local and national data sets to give "travelers" advice…

  16. 'Is it the weather?'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Jacobsen (Ben); W.A. Marquering (Wessel)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractWe show that results in the recent strand of the literature that tries to explain stock returns by weather induced mood shifts of investors might be data-driven inference. More specifically, we consider two recent studies (Kamstra, Kramer and Levi, 2003a and Cao and Wei, 2004) that claim

  17. Weatherization Works: An interim report of the National Weatherization Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Berry, L.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kinney, L.F. [Synertech Systems Corp., Syracuse, NY (United States)

    1993-11-01

    The National Weatherization Evaluation is the first comprehensive evaluation of the Weatherization Assistance Program since 1984. The evaluation was designed to accomplish the following goals: Estimate energy savings and cost effectiveness; Assess nonenergy impacts; Describe the weatherization network; Characterize the eligible population and resources; and Identify factors influencing outcomes and opportunities for the future. As a national program, weatherization incorporates considerable diversity due to regional differences. Therefore, evaluation results are presented both in aggregate and for three climate regions: cold, moderate and hot.

  18. Weatherization Works: An interim report of the National Weatherization Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Berry, L.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kinney, L.F. [Synertech Systems Corp., Syracuse, NY (United States)

    1993-11-01

    The National Weatherization Evaluation is the first comprehensive evaluation of the Weatherization Assistance Program since 1984. The evaluation was designed to accomplish the following goals: Estimate energy savings and cost effectiveness; Assess nonenergy impacts; Describe the weatherization network; Characterize the eligible population and resources; and Identify factors influencing outcomes and opportunities for the future. As a national program, weatherization incorporates considerable diversity due to regional differences. Therefore, evaluation results are presented both in aggregate and for three climate regions: cold, moderate and hot.

  19. North America Synoptic Weather Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Series of Synoptic Weather Maps. Maps contains a surface analysis comprised of plotted weather station observations, isobars indicating low and high-pressure...

  20. Severe Weather Data Inventory (SWDI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Severe Weather Data Inventory (SWDI) is an integrated database of severe weather records for the United States. SWDI enables a user to search through a variety...

  1. What characterizes planetary space weather?

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Space weather has become a mature discipline for the Earth space environment. With increasing efforts in space exploration, it is becoming more and more necessary to understand the space environments of bodies other than Earth. This is the background for an emerging aspect of the space weather discipline: planetary space weather. In this article, we explore what characterizes planetary space weather, using some examples throughout the solar system. We consider energy s...

  2. Severe Weather Planning for Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Barbara McNaught; Strong, Christopher; Bunting, Bill

    2008-01-01

    Flash floods, severe thunderstorms, and tornadoes occur with rapid onset and often no warning. Decisions must be made quickly and actions taken immediately. This paper provides tips for schools on: (1) Preparing for Severe Weather Emergencies; (2) Activating a Severe Weather Plan; (3) Severe Weather Plan Checklist; and (4) Periodic Drills and…

  3. Whether weather affects music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aplin, Karen L.; Williams, Paul D.

    2012-09-01

    The creative output of composers, writers, and artists is often influenced by their surroundings. To give a literary example, it has been claimed recently that some of the characters in Oliver Twist and A Christmas Carol were based on real-life people who lived near Charles Dickens in London [Richardson, 2012]. Of course, an important part of what we see and hear is not only the people with whom we interact but also our geophysical surroundings. Of all the geophysical phenomena to influence us, the weather is arguably the most significant because we are exposed to it directly and daily. The weather was a great source of inspiration for artists Claude Monet, John Constable, and William Turner, who are known for their scientifically accurate paintings of the skies [e.g., Baker and Thornes, 2006].

  4. The Weather Man

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋涵毅

    2009-01-01

    Secondly. the weather man一定会告诉我们每天的最高和最低温度(the highest and the lowest temperature)。我们用℃来表示摄氏度,有的地方则用°F,那是华氏温度。°F=9/5×℃+32

  5. Tactical Weather Expert System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this project was to assess the feasibility of developing an expert system for tactical weather prediction. Using WILLARD, an expert ...indicate that intelligent interpretations of cloud formations can be made. These inferences can then be automatically passed to the expert system for...processing as another piece of information. It is anticipated that this technology will significantly reduce the dependence of the expert system on a

  6. Space Weather Ballooning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Tony; Johnson, Sam; Koske-Phillips, Amelia; White, Michael; Yarborough, Amelia; Lamb, Aaron; Herbst, Anna; Molina, Ferris; Gilpin, Justin; Grah, Olivia; Perez, Ginger; Reid, Carson; Harvey, Joey; Schultz, Jamie

    2016-10-01

    We have developed a "Space Weather Buoy" for measuring upper atmospheric radiation from cosmic rays and solar storms. The Buoy, which is carried to the stratosphere by helium balloons, is relatively inexpensive and uses off-the-shelf technology accessible to small colleges and high schools. Using this device, we have measured two Forbush Decreases and a small surge in atmospheric radiation during the St. Patrick's Day geomagnetic storm of March 2015.

  7. Weathering the financial storm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ólafsson, Tjörvi; Pétursson, Thórarinn G.

    2011-01-01

    to explain a significant share of the cross-country variation in the depth and duration of the crisis and provide quite sharp predictions of the incidence of banking and currency crises. This suggests that country-specific initial conditions played an important role in determining the economic impact...... of the crisis and, in particular, that countries with sound fundamentals and flexible economic frameworks were better able to weather the financial storm....

  8. Areosynchronous weather imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puschell, Jeffery J.; Lock, Robert

    2016-09-01

    Mars is characterized by rapidly changing, poorly understood weather that is a concern for future human missions. Future Areosynchronous Mars Orbit (AMO) communication satellites offer possible platforms for Mars weather imagers similar to the geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO) weather imagers that have been observing Earth since 1966. This paper describes an AReosynchronous Environmental Suite (ARES) that includes two imagers: one with two emissive infrared bands (10.8 μm and 12.0 μm) at 4 km resolution and the other with three VNIR bands (500 nm, 700 nm, 900 nm) at 1 km resolution. ARES stares at Mars and provides full disk coverage as fast as every 40 sec in the VNIR bands and every 2 min in the emissive bands with good sensitivity (SNR 200 in the VNIR for typical radiances and NEDT 0.2K at 180 K scene temperature in the emissive infrared). ARES size, mass, power and data rate characteristics are compatible with expectations for hosted payloads onboard future AMO communication satellites. Nevertheless, more work is needed to optimize ARES for future missions, especially in terms of trades between data rate, full disk coverage rate, sensitivity, number of spectral bands and spatial resolution and in study of approaches for maintaining accurate line of sight knowledge during data collection.

  9. Weather Monitoring Station: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Dipak V. Sose

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Weather monitoring plays a very important role in human life hence study of weather system is necessary. Currently there are two types of the weather monitoring stations available i.e. wired and wireless. Wireless system has some advantages over the wired one hence popular now a days. The parameters are include in weather monitoring usually temperature, humidity atmospheric pressure, light intensity, rainfall etc. There are many techniques existed using different processor such as PIC, AVR, ARM etc. Analog to digital channel are used to fetch the analog output of the sensors. The wireless techniques used in the weather monitoring having GSM, FM channel, Zigbee, RF etc Protocols

  10. Can the Weather Affect My Child's Asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Year-Old Can the Weather Affect My Child's Asthma? KidsHealth > For Parents > Can the Weather Affect My ... empeorar el asma de mi hijo? Weather and Asthma The effect of weather on asthma symptoms isn' ...

  11. Space Weather Services of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, K.; Hong, S.; Jangsuk, C.; Dong Kyu, K.; Jinyee, C.; Yeongoh, C.

    2016-12-01

    The Korean Space Weather Center (KSWC) of the National Radio Research Agency (RRA) is a government agency which is the official source of space weather information for Korean Government and the primary action agency of emergency measure to severe space weather condition. KSWC's main role is providing alerts, watches, and forecasts in order to minimize the space weather impacts on both of public and commercial sectors of satellites, aviation, communications, navigations, power grids, and etc. KSWC is also in charge of monitoring the space weather condition and conducting research and development for its main role of space weather operation in Korea. In this study, we will present KSWC's recent efforts on development of application-oriented space weather research products and services on user needs, and introduce new international collaborative projects, such as IPS-Driven Enlil model, DREAM model estimating electron in satellite orbit, global network of DSCOVR and STEREO satellites tracking, and ARMAS (Automated Radiation Measurement for Aviation Safety).

  12. Space Weather Services of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, KiChang; Kim, Jae-Hun; Kim, Young Yun; Kwon, Yongki; Wi, Gwan-sik

    2016-07-01

    The Korean Space Weather Center (KSWC) of the National Radio Research Agency (RRA) is a government agency which is the official source of space weather information for Korean Government and the primary action agency of emergency measure to severe space weather condition. KSWC's main role is providing alerts, watches, and forecasts in order to minimize the space weather impacts on both of public and commercial sectors of satellites, aviation, communications, navigations, power grids, and etc. KSWC is also in charge of monitoring the space weather condition and conducting research and development for its main role of space weather operation in Korea. In this study, we will present KSWC's recent efforts on development of application-oriented space weather research products and services on user needs, and introduce new international collaborative projects, such as IPS-Driven Enlil model, DREAM model estimating electron in satellite orbit, global network of DSCOVR and STEREO satellites tracking, and ARMAS (Automated Radiation Measurement for Aviation Safety).

  13. Municipalities' Preparedness for Weather Hazards and Response to Weather Warnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehiriz, Kaddour; Gosselin, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The study of the management of weather-related disaster risks by municipalities has attracted little attention even though these organizations play a key role in protecting the population from extreme meteorological conditions. This article contributes to filling this gap with new evidence on the level and determinants of Quebec municipalities’ preparedness for weather hazards and response to related weather warnings. Using survey data from municipal emergency management coordinators and secondary data on the financial and demographic characteristics of municipalities, the study shows that most Quebec municipalities are sufficiently prepared for weather hazards and undertake measures to protect the population when informed of imminent extreme weather events. Significant differences between municipalities were noted though. Specifically, the level of preparedness was positively correlated with the municipalities’ capacity and population support for weather-related disaster management policies. In addition, the risk of weather-related disasters increases the preparedness level through its effect on population support. We also found that the response to weather warnings depended on the risk of weather-related disasters, the preparedness level and the quality of weather warnings. These results highlight areas for improvement in the context of increasing frequency and/or severity of such events with current climate change. PMID:27649547

  14. The Weather in Richmond

    OpenAIRE

    Harless, William Edwin

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The Weather in Richmond is a short documentary about the Oilers, the football team at Richmond High School in downtown Richmond, California, as they struggle in 2012 with the legacy of winning no games, with the exception of a forfeit, in two years. The video documents the city of Richmond’s poverty and violence, but it also is an account of the city’s cultural diversity, of the city’s industrial history and of the hopes of some of the people who grow up there. The...

  15. Combating bad weather

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Sudipta

    2015-01-01

    Every year lives and properties are lost in road accidents. About one-fourth of these accidents are due to low vision in foggy weather. At present, there is no algorithm that is specifically designed for the removal of fog from videos. Application of a single-image fog removal algorithm over each video frame is a time-consuming and costly affair. It is demonstrated that with the intelligent use of temporal redundancy, fog removal algorithms designed for a single image can be extended to the real-time video application. Results confirm that the presented framework used for the extension of the

  16. Severe Weather Forecast Decision Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, William H., III; Wheeler, Mark M.; Short, David A.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents a 15-year climatological study of severe weather events and related severe weather atmospheric parameters. Data sources included local forecast rules, archived sounding data, Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Surveillance System (CGLSS) data, surface and upper air maps, and two severe weather event databases covering east-central Florida. The local forecast rules were used to set threat assessment thresholds for stability parameters that were derived from the sounding data. The severe weather events databases were used to identify days with reported severe weather and the CGLSS data was used to differentiate between lightning and non-lightning days. These data sets provided the foundation for analyzing the stability parameters and synoptic patterns that were used to develop an objective tool to aid in forecasting severe weather events. The period of record for the analysis was May - September, 1989 - 2003. The results indicate that there are certain synoptic patterns more prevalent on days with severe weather and some of the stability parameters are better predictors of severe weather days based on locally tuned threat values. The results also revealed the stability parameters that did not display any skill related to severe weather days. An interactive web-based Severe Weather Decision Aid was developed to assist the duty forecaster by providing a level of objective guidance based on the analysis of the stability parameters, CGLSS data, and synoptic-scale dynamics. The tool will be tested and evaluated during the 2005 warm season.

  17. Terminated Multifamily Mortgages Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Includes all terminated HUD Multifamily insured mortgages. It includes the Holder and Servicer at the time the mortgage was terminated. The data is good as of...

  18. Terminated Multifamily Mortgages Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This Excel 2010 file includes all terminated HUD Multifamily insured mortgages. It includes the Holder and Servicer at the time the mortgage was terminated. The data...

  19. NASA Space Weather Center Services: Potential for Space Weather Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yihua; Kuznetsova, Masha; Pulkkinen, Antti; Taktakishvili, A.; Mays, M. L.; Chulaki, A.; Lee, H.; Hesse, M.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Space Weather Center's primary objective is to provide the latest space weather information and forecasting for NASA's robotic missions and its partners and to bring space weather knowledge to the public. At the same time, the tools and services it possesses can be invaluable for research purposes. Here we show how our archive and real-time modeling of space weather events can aid research in a variety of ways, with different classification criteria. We will list and discuss major CME events, major geomagnetic storms, and major SEP events that occurred during the years 2010 - 2012. Highlights of major tools/resources will be provided.

  20. Road Weather and Connected Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisano, P.; Boyce, B. C.

    2015-12-01

    On average, there are over 5.8 M vehicle crashes each year of which 23% are weather-related. Weather-related crashes are defined as those crashes that occur in adverse weather or on slick pavement. The vast majority of weather-related crashes happen on wet pavement (74%) and during rainfall (46%). Connected vehicle technologies hold the promise to transform road-weather management by providing improved road weather data in real time with greater temporal and geographic accuracy. This will dramatically expand the amount of data that can be used to assess, forecast, and address the impacts that weather has on roads, vehicles, and travelers. The use of vehicle-based measurements of the road and surrounding atmosphere with other, more traditional weather data sources, and create road and atmospheric hazard products for a variety of users. The broad availability of road weather data from mobile sources will vastly improve the ability to detect and forecast weather and road conditions, and will provide the capability to manage road-weather response on specific roadway links. The RWMP is currently demonstrating how weather, road conditions, and related vehicle data can be used for decision making through an innovative Integrated Mobile Observations project. FHWA is partnering with 3 DOTs (MN, MI, & NV) to pilot these applications. One is a mobile alerts application called the Motorists Advisories and Warnings (MAW) and a maintenance decision support application. These applications blend traditional weather information (e.g., radar, surface stations) with mobile vehicle data (e.g., temperature, brake status, wiper status) to determine current weather conditions. These weather conditions, and other road-travel-relevant information, are provided to users via web and phone applications. The MAW provides nowcasts and short-term forecasts out to 24 hours while the EMDSS application can provide forecasts up to 72 hours in advance. The three DOTs have placed readers and external

  1. Rough weather rescue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This report, which was commissioned by the Offshore Division of the Health and Safety Executive, reviews the type of equipment and techniques used to rescue people from the water around offshore platforms in rough weather. It also examines the limitations of the equipment in extreme conditions and reports the views of the various industry sectors (as determined by a questionnaire survey). The type of incidents covered by the report include: man overboard; helicopter ditching; and evacuation from totally enclosed motor propelled survival craft (TEMPSC) and life rafts. The report considers: the approach taken by other oil-producing countries; current escape, evacuation and rescue (EER) practices for the UK Continental Shelf (UKCS); environmental limits; methods for rescue and recovery from the water and TEMPSC; launch and recovery systems; fast rescue craft (FSC) and daughter craft; emergency response and rescue vessels; helicopters; casualty personal protection equipment; claimed versus actual equipment performance; training and practice procedures; attitudes to environmental limits; lessons learnt from incidents; mechanical recovery devices; equipment design and use in rough weather; and recommendations for improvements.

  2. Weatherization Apprenticeship Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Eric J

    2012-12-18

    Weatherization improvement services will be provided to Native people by Native people. The proposed project will recruit, train and hire two full-time weatherization technicians who will improve the energy efficiency of homes of Alaska Natives/American Indians residing in the Indian areas, within the Cook Inlet Region of Alaska. The Region includes Anchorage as well as 8 small tribal villages: The Native Villages of Eklutna, Knik, Chickaloon, Seldovia, Ninilchik, Kenaitze, Salamatof, and Tyonek. This project will be a partnership between three entities, with Cook Inlet Tribal Council (CITC) as the lead agency: CITCA's Employment and Training Services Department, Cook Inlet Housing Authority and Alaska Works Partnership. Additionally, six of the eight tribal villages within the Cook Inlet Region of Alaska have agreed to work with the project in order to improve the energy efficiency of their tribally owned buildings and homes. The remaining three villages will be invited to participate in the establishment of an intertribal consortium through this project. Tribal homes and buildings within Anchorage fall under Cook Inlet Region, Inc. (CIRI) tribal authority.

  3. Weathering of rock 'Ginger'

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    One of the more unusual rocks at the site is Ginger, located southeast of the lander. Parts of it have the reddest color of any material in view, whereas its rounded lobes are gray and relatively unweathered. These color differences are brought out in the inset, enhanced at the upper right. In the false color image at the lower right, the shape of the visible-wavelength spectrum (related to the abundance of weathered ferric iron minerals) is indicated by the hue of the rocks. Blue indicates relatively unweathered rocks. Typical soils and drift, which are heavily weathered, are shown in green and flesh tones. The very red color in the creases in the rock surface correspond to a crust of ferric minerals. The origin of the rock is uncertain; the ferric crust may have grown underneath the rock, or it may cement pebbles together into a conglomerate. Ginger will be a target of future super-resolution studies to better constrain its origin.Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  4. Space Weather- Physics and Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Bothmer, Volker

    2007-01-01

    This book is a state-of-the-art review on the physics of space weather and on space weather impacts on human technology, including manned spaceflight. With contributions from a team of international experts, this comprehensive work covers all aspects of space weather physical processes, and all known aspects of space hazards from humans, both in space and on Earth. Space Weather - Physics and Effects provides the first comprehensive, scientific background of space storms caused by the sun and its impact on geospace focuses on weather issues that have become vital for the development of nationwide technological infrastructures explains magnetic storms on Earth, including the effects of EUV radiation on the atmosphere is an invaluable aid in establishing real-time weather forecasts details the threat that solar effects might have on modern telecommunication systems, including national power grid systems, aircraft and manned spaceflight.

  5. Weather Forecasting Systems and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecikalski, John (Inventor); MacKenzie, Wayne M., Jr. (Inventor); Walker, John Robert (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A weather forecasting system has weather forecasting logic that receives raw image data from a satellite. The raw image data has values indicative of light and radiance data from the Earth as measured by the satellite, and the weather forecasting logic processes such data to identify cumulus clouds within the satellite images. For each identified cumulus cloud, the weather forecasting logic applies interest field tests to determine a score indicating the likelihood of the cumulus cloud forming precipitation and/or lightning in the future within a certain time period. Based on such scores, the weather forecasting logic predicts in which geographic regions the identified cumulus clouds will produce precipitation and/or lighting within during the time period. Such predictions may then be used to provide a weather map thereby providing users with a graphical illustration of the areas predicted to be affected by precipitation within the time period.

  6. 49 CFR 1242.27 - Coal marine terminals, ore marine terminals, TOFC/COFC terminals, other marine terminals, motor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coal marine terminals, ore marine terminals, TOFC/COFC terminals, other marine terminals, motor vehicle loading and distribution facilities, and... Structures § 1242.27 Coal marine terminals, ore marine terminals, TOFC/COFC terminals, other marine...

  7. Small Sensors for Space Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    The Naval Research Laboratory is actively pursuing enhancing the nation's space weather sensing capability. One aspect of this plan is the concept of flying Space Weather sensor suites on host spacecraft as secondary payloads. The emergence and advancement of the CubeSat spacecraft architecture has produced a viable platform for scientifically and operationally relevant Space Weather sensing. This talk will provide an overview of NRL's low size weight and power sensor technologies targeting Space Weather measurements. A summary of on-orbit results of past and current missions will be presented, as well as an overview of future flights that are manifested and potential constellation missions.

  8. Bishop Paiute Weatherization Training Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlos Hernandez

    2010-01-28

    The DOE Weatherization Training Grant assisted Native American trainees in developing weatherization competencies, creating employment opportunities for Bishop Paiute tribal members in a growing field. The trainees completed all the necessary training and certification requirements and delivered high-quality weatherization services on the Bishop Paiute Reservation. Six tribal members received all three certifications for weatherization; four of the trainees are currently employed. The public benefit includes (1) development of marketable skills by low-income Native individuals, (2) employment for low-income Native individuals in a growing industry, and (3) economic development opportunities that were previously not available to these individuals or the Tribe.

  9. Organizational Relationship Termination Competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Thomas; Geersbro, Jens

    2011-01-01

    that a firm's percentage of unwanted customers decreases significantly as acceptance of termination increases, if the firm's definition of unwanted customers is well understood, and if a firm has clear termination routines. In addition, general focus on profitability and external constraints on relationship...... termination are found to significantly affect a firm's relationship termination competence. The findings suggest that managers should regard termination as a legitimate option in customer relationship management. In order to decrease the number of unwanted customers, managers must accept termination......Most firms are involved in a number of customer relationships that drain the firm's resources. However, many firms are hesitant to address this problem. This paper investigates customer relationship termination at the organizational level. We develop and analyze the organizational dimensions...

  10. Using Forecasting to Teach Weather Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubota, Y.; Takahashi, T.

    2009-09-01

    Weather affects our lives and hence, is a popular topic in daily conversations and in the media. Therefore, it is not only important to teach weather, but is also a good idea to use 'weather' as a topic in science teaching. Science education has two main objectives: to acquire scientific concepts and methods. Weather forecasting is an adequate theme to teach scientific methods because it is dependent on observation. However, it is not easy to forecast weather using only temporal observation. We need to know the tendency of 'weather change' via consecutive and/or continuous weather observation. Students will acquire scientific-observation skills through weather observation. Data-processing skills would be enhanced through a weather-forecasting contest. A contest should be announced within 5 days of school events, such as a school excursion and field day. Students submit their own weather forecast by gathering weather information through the internet, news paper and so on. A weather-forecasting contest compels the student to observe the weather more often. We currently have some different weather forecasts. For example, American weather-related companies such as ACCU weather and Weather Channel provide weather forecast for the many locations all over the world. Comparing these weather forecasting with actual weather, participants such as students could evaluate the differences between forecasted and actual temperatures. Participants will judge the best weather forecast based on the magnitude of the difference. Also, participants evaluate the 'hitting ratio' of each weather forecast. Students can learn elementary statistics by comparing various weather forecasts. We have developed our weather web-site that provides our own weather forecasting and observation. Students acquire science skills using our weather web-site. We will report our lessen plans and explain our weather web-site.

  11. Weather Fundamentals: Hurricanes & Tornadoes. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998

    The videos in this educational series, for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes) features information on the deadliest and most destructive storms on Earth. Through satellite…

  12. Tibetan History of Weather Monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Modem weather monitoring began in Tibet at the end of the 19th century. In 1894, the British set up a weather monitoting station in Chunpei of Yadong,which continued to operate until August 1956. In the 1940s, the Nationalist Govemment's Ministry of Communications set up a rainfall measuring station in Qamdo, Xikang Province.

  13. Weather Modification: Finding Common Ground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garstang, Michael; Bruintjes, Roelof; Serafin, Robert; Orville, Harold; Boe, Bruce; Cotton, William; Warburton, Joseph

    2005-05-01

    Research and operational approaches to weather modification expressed in the National Research Council's 2003 report on “Critical Issues in Weather Modification Research” and in the Weather Modification Association's response to that report form the basis for this discussion. There is agreement that advances in the past few decades over a broad front of understanding physical processes and in technology have not been comprehensively applied to weather modification. Such advances need to be capitalized upon in the form of a concerted and sustained national effort to carry out basic and applied research in weather modification. The need for credible scientific evidence and the pressure for action should be resolved. Differences in the perception of current knowledge, the utility of numerical models, and the specific needs of research and operations in weather modification must be addressed. The increasing demand for water and the cost to society inflicted by severe weather require that the intellectual, technical, and administrative resources of the nation be combined to resolve whether and to what degree humans can influence the weather.The National Center for Atmospheric Research is sponsored by the National Science Foundation

  14. Japanese space weather research activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, M.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present existing and planned Japanese space weather research activities. The program consists of several core elements, including a space weather prediction system using numerical forecasts, a large-scale ground-based observation network, and the cooperative framework "Project for Solar-Terrestrial Environment Prediction (PSTEP)" based on a Grant-in Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas.

  15. Weather to Make a Decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyle, Julie E.; Mjelde, James W.; Litzenberg, Kerry K.

    2006-01-01

    DECIDE is a teacher-friendly, integrated approach designed to stimulate learning by allowing students to make decisions about situations they face in their lives while using scientific weather principles. This learning unit integrates weather science, decision theory, mathematics, statistics, geography, and reading in a context of decision…

  16. Cool Stars and Space Weather

    CERN Document Server

    Vidotto, A A; Cameron, A C; Morin, J; Villadsen, J; Saar, S; Alvarado, J; Cohen, O; Holzwarth, V; Poppenhaeger, K; Reville, V

    2014-01-01

    Stellar flares, winds and coronal mass ejections form the space weather. They are signatures of the magnetic activity of cool stars and, since activity varies with age, mass and rotation, the space weather that extra-solar planets experience can be very different from the one encountered by the solar system planets. How do stellar activity and magnetism influence the space weather of exoplanets orbiting main-sequence stars? How do the environments surrounding exoplanets differ from those around the planets in our own solar system? How can the detailed knowledge acquired by the solar system community be applied in exoplanetary systems? How does space weather affect habitability? These were questions that were addressed in the splinter session "Cool stars and Space Weather", that took place on 9 Jun 2014, during the Cool Stars 18 meeting. In this paper, we present a summary of the contributions made to this session.

  17. Detection of Weather Radar Clutter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøvith, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Weather radars provide valuable information on precipitation in the atmosphere but due to the way radars work, not only precipitation is observed by the weather radar. Weather radar clutter, echoes from non-precipitating targets, occur frequently in the data, resulting in lowered data quality....... Especially in the application of weather radar data in quantitative precipitation estimation and forecasting a high data quality is important. Clutter detection is one of the key components in achieving this goal. This thesis presents three methods for detection of clutter. The methods use supervised...... and precipitating and non-precipitating clouds. Another method uses the difference in the motion field of clutter and precipitation measured between two radar images. Furthermore, the direction of the wind field extracted from a weather model is used. The third method uses information about the refractive index...

  18. Microstructure of laser-welded joints of Fe-Mn-Al-Si TRIP/TWIP steels%Fe-Mn-Al-Si系TRIP/TWIP钢激光焊接接头的微观组织研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢盼; 伍翠兰; 艾倍倍; 陈汪林; 陈燕; 陈亚

    2013-01-01

    采用光纤激光器对两种锰含量分别为20wt.%和29wt.%的Fe-Mn-Al-Si系TRIP/TWIP钢进行激光焊接.利用扫描电子显微镜(SEM)、能谱仪(EDS)、电子背散射衍射仪(EBSD)和透射电子显微镜(TEM)对接头的显微组织进行研究.结果表明:靠近熔合线的焊缝组织以柱状晶为主,而焊缝心部为细小的等轴晶且出现大量AlN纳米颗粒;焊缝组织的孪晶界比例比母材的大幅度降低,但仍然达到了15.8%;熔合线宽1 μm,富Fe、Mn而贫Al、Si;焊缝在凝固过程中,先形成γ-奥氏体,当遇到应力集中时发生局部ε-马氏体的相变来缓解应力,避免裂纹形成.%Two types of Fe-Mn-Al-Si TRIP/TWIP steels with different Mn concentrations,which are respectively 20 wt% and 29 wt%,were welded by fiber laser welding technique.The microstructures of the weld joints were investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM),X-ray energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS),electron backscatter diffraction technology (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).The results show that the fusion zone (FZ) adjacent to the fusion lines was made up of columnar grains while the centre of the FZ consisted of equiaxed grains,in which a great deal of AlN nano-particles were formed.The fraction of twin boundaries of FZ is about 15.8% although the twin boundaries have decreased greatly compared with that of the base materials.The fusion lines are rich in Fe and Mn but lack of Al and Si.In the process of solidification of the FZ,the austenite first formed and some austenite transformed into ε-martensite at the stress concentration regions,which can relieve some stress and prevent formation cracks.

  19. 耦合孪生的TWIP钢多晶体塑性变形行为研究%INVESTIGATION OF PLASTIC DEFORMATION BEHAVIOR ON COUPLING TWINNING OF POLYCRYSTAL TWIP STEEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙朝阳; 郭祥如; 郭宁; 杨竞; 黄杰

    2015-01-01

    基于己建立的单晶体塑性模型,建立了耦合孪生的孪生诱发塑性(TWIP)钢多晶体塑性模型,该模型采用有限元多晶均匀化处理相邻晶粒间的几何协调和应力平衡条件,获得了单晶体与多晶体状态变量的关系,开发了基于ABAQUS/UMAT的计算程序.采用EBSD研究了TWIP钢拉伸应变分别为0.27和0.6时的织构变化,并对模型进行了应力应变及织构演化的验证.用该本构模型分别建立了拉伸、压缩和扭转3种简单加载条件下的有限元模型,分析了不同变形条件下的宏观力学响应及织构演化规律.结果表明:拉伸变形过程中,应变硬化现象和织构密度水平随应变增加而增强;在压缩过程中,织构类型随应变增加而发生变化,但是织构密度水平基本不变;而在扭转过程中,当扭转应变较小时,基本无织构形成,随着应变增加,织构逐渐显现出来,这是因为变形较小时,圆柱沿径向方向内部变形量较小,故织构不明显.

  20. Artificial weathering of granite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Hermo, B.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes a series of artificial weathering tests run on granite designed to: simulate the action of weathering agents on buildings and identify the underlying mechanisms, determine the salt resistance of different types of rock; evaluate consolidation and water-repellent treatment durability; and confirm hypotheses about the origin of salts such as gypsum that are often found in granite buildings. Salt crystallization tests were also conducted, using sodium chloride, sodium sulphate, calcium sulphate and seawater solutions. One of these tests was conducted in a chamber specifically designed to simulate salt spray weathering and another in an SO2 chamber to ascertain whether granite is subject to sulphation. The test results are analyzed and discussed, along with the shortcomings of each type of trial as a method for simulating the decay observed in monuments. The effect of factors such as wet-dry conditions, type of saline solution and the position of the planes of weakness on the type of decay is also addressed.En este trabajo se hace una síntesis de varios ensayos de alteración artificial realizados con rocas graníticas. Estos ensayos tenían distintos objetivos: reproducir las formas de alteración encontradas en los edificios para llegar a conocer los mecanismos que las generan, determinar la resistencia de las diferentes rocas a la acción de las sales, evaluar la durabilidad de tratamientos de consolidación e hidrofugación y constatar hipótesis acerca del origen de algunas sales, como el yeso, que aparecen frecuentemente en edificios graníticos. En los ensayos de cristalización de sales se utilizaron disoluciones de cloruro de sodio, sulfato de sodio, sulfato de calcio y agua de mar. Uno de estos ensayos se llevó a cabo en una cámara especialmente diseñada para reproducir la alteración por aerosol marino y otro se realizó en una cámara de SO2, con el objeto de comprobar si en rocas graníticas se puede producir

  1. CONTAINER TERMINALS IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart W. WIEGMANS

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to address the linkage between logistics (in particular, the management of marketing channel flows and transport markets, while also the interaction between these two markets and intermodal container terminals is analysed. The marketing channel theory is used to describe all relevant actors and flows that run through marketing channels, starting with customer needs and ending with customer satisfaction. Porter's theory of competitive advantages is used to review competitive forces in both markets. Finally, a competitor analysis is performed for the logistics and transport market. These theories are applied so as to be able to determine the competitive position of intermodal container terminals with a view to the management of marketing channel flows and the physical transport of freight flows. Hence, the central question of this paper is: Which markets are served by intermodal container terminals and with whom are they competing? At present, neither the maritime container terminals nor the continental container terminals appear to have a significant influence in the logistics service market; they concentrate mainly on the physical movement of containers (transshipment. Furthermore, maritime container terminals and continental container terminals are not dominant players in the transport service market. Our conclusion is that continental terminals are predominantly competing with unimodal road transport, with neighbouring continental terminals and with barge transport companies.

  2. Space weathering of asteroids

    CERN Document Server

    Shestopalov, D I; Cloutis, E A

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of laboratory experiments simulating space weathering optical effects on atmosphereless planetary bodies reveals that the time needed to alter the spectrum of an ordinary chondrite meteorite to resemble the overall spectral shape and slope of an S-type asteroid is about ~ 0.1 Myr. The time required to reduce the visible albedo of samples to ~ 0.05 is ~ 1 Myr. Since both these timescales are much less than the average collisional lifetime of asteroids larger than several kilometers in size, numerous low-albedo asteroids having reddish spectra with subdued absorption bands should be observed instead of an S-type dominated population. It is not the case because asteroid surfaces cannot be considered as undisturbed, unlike laboratory samples. We have estimated the number of collisions occurring in the time of 105 yr between asteroids and projectiles of various sizes and show that impact-activated motions of regolith particles counteract the progress of optical maturation of asteroid surfaces. Continual r...

  3. Cold-Weather Sports and Your Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Cold-Weather Sports and Your Family KidsHealth > For Parents > Cold- ... once the weather turns frosty. Beating the Cold-Weather Blahs Once a chill is in the air, ...

  4. Space weathering on airless bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, Carle M.; Noble, Sarah K.

    2016-10-01

    Space weathering refers to alteration that occurs in the space environment with time. Lunar samples, and to some extent meteorites, have provided a benchmark for understanding the processes and products of space weathering. Lunar soils are derived principally from local materials but have accumulated a range of optically active opaque particles (OAOpq) that include nanophase metallic iron on/in rims formed on individual grains (imparting a red slope to visible and near-infrared reflectance) and larger iron particles (which darken across all wavelengths) such as are often found within the interior of recycled grains. Space weathering of other anhydrous silicate bodies, such as Mercury and some asteroids, produces different forms and relative abundance of OAOpq particles depending on the particular environment. If the development of OAOpq particles is minimized (such as at Vesta), contamination by exogenic material and regolith mixing become the dominant space weathering processes. Volatile-rich bodies and those composed of abundant hydrous minerals (dwarf planet Ceres, many dark asteroids, and outer solar system satellites) are affected by space weathering processes differently than the silicate bodies of the inner solar system. However, the space weathering products of these bodies are currently poorly understood and the physics and chemistry of space weathering processes in different environments are areas of active research.

  5. Space Weather Forecasting: An Enigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojka, J. J.

    2012-12-01

    The space age began in earnest on October 4, 1957 with the launch of Sputnik 1 and was fuelled for over a decade by very strong national societal concerns. Prior to this single event the adverse effects of space weather had been registered on telegraph lines as well as interference on early WWII radar systems, while for countless eons the beauty of space weather as mid-latitude auroral displays were much appreciated. These prior space weather impacts were in themselves only a low-level science puzzle pursued by a few dedicated researchers. The technology boost and innovation that the post Sputnik era generated has almost single handedly defined our present day societal technology infrastructure. During the decade following Neil's walk on the moon on July 21, 1969 an international thrust to understand the science of space, and its weather, was in progress. However, the search for scientific understand was parsed into independent "stove pipe" categories: The ionosphere-aeronomy, the magnetosphere, the heliosphere-sun. The present day scientific infrastructure of funding agencies, learned societies, and international organizations are still hampered by these 1960's logical divisions which today are outdated in the pursuit of understanding space weather. As this era of intensive and well funded scientific research progressed so did societies innovative uses for space technologies and space "spin-offs". Well over a decade ago leaders in technology, science, and the military realized that there was indeed an adverse side to space weather that with each passing year became more severe. In 1994 several U.S. agencies established the National Space Weather Program (NSWP) to focus scientific attention on the system wide issue of the adverse effects of space weather on society and its technologies. Indeed for the past two decades a significant fraction of the scientific community has actively engaged in understanding space weather and hence crossing the "stove

  6. Extreme Weather and Natural Disasters

    CERN Document Server

    Healey, Justin

    2012-01-01

    Australia is a vast land in which weather varies significantly in different parts of the continent. Recent extreme weather events in Australia, such as the Queensland floods and Victorian bushfires, are brutal reminders of nature's devastating power. Is global warming increasing the rate of natural disasters? What part do La Niña and El Niño play in the extreme weather cycle? Cyclones, floods, severe storms, bushfires, landslides, earthquakes, tsunamis - what are the natural and man-made causes of these phenomena, how predictable are they, and how prepared are we for the impacts of natural dis

  7. STEREO Space Weather and the Space Weather Beacon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesecker, D. A.; Webb, D F.; SaintCyr, O. C.

    2007-01-01

    The Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) is first and foremost a solar and interplanetary research mission, with one of the natural applications being in the area of space weather. The obvious potential for space weather applications is so great that NOAA has worked to incorporate the real-time data into their forecast center as much as possible. A subset of the STEREO data will be continuously downlinked in a real-time broadcast mode, called the Space Weather Beacon. Within the research community there has been considerable interest in conducting space weather related research with STEREO. Some of this research is geared towards making an immediate impact while other work is still very much in the research domain. There are many areas where STEREO might contribute and we cannot predict where all the successes will come. Here we discuss how STEREO will contribute to space weather and many of the specific research projects proposed to address STEREO space weather issues. We also discuss some specific uses of the STEREO data in the NOAA Space Environment Center.

  8. KZBW Center Weather Advisory (CWA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CWA is an aviation weather warning for conditions meeting or approaching national in-flight advisory (AIRMET, SIGMET or SIGMET for convection) criteria. CWAs are...

  9. Fish Springs weather CY 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Weather data for calendar year 2011 at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. Data is provided for each month and includes maximum temperature, minimum temperature,...

  10. Fish Springs weather CY 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Weather data for calendar year 2010 at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. Data is provided for each month and includes maximum temperature, minimum temperature,...

  11. The science of space weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, Jonathan P

    2008-12-13

    The basic physics underpinning space weather is reviewed, beginning with a brief overview of the main causes of variability in the near-Earth space environment. Although many plasma phenomena contribute to space weather, one of the most important is magnetic reconnection, and recent cutting edge research in this field is reviewed. We then place this research in context by discussing a number of specific types of space weather in more detail. As society inexorably increases its dependence on space, the necessity of predicting and mitigating space weather will become ever more acute. This requires a deep understanding of the complexities inherent in the plasmas that fill space and has prompted the development of a new generation of scientific space missions at the international level.

  12. KZOA Center Weather Advisory (CWA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CWA is an aviation weather warning for conditions meeting or approaching national in-flight advisory (AIRMET, SIGMET or SIGMET for convection) criteria. CWAs are...

  13. KZSE Center Weather Advisory (CWA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CWA is an aviation weather warning for conditions meeting or approaching national in-flight advisory (AIRMET, SIGMET or SIGMET for convection) criteria. CWAs are...

  14. KZMA Center Weather Advisory (CWA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CWA is an aviation weather warning for conditions meeting or approaching national in-flight advisory (AIRMET, SIGMET or SIGMET for convection) criteria. CWAs are...

  15. US Weather Bureau Storm Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weather Bureau and US Army Corps and other reports of storms from 1886-1955. Hourly precipitation from recording rain gauges captured during heavy rain, snow,...

  16. Surface Weather Observations (Pre-1893)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly weather records from U.S. Army Forts stations (~1820-1871), U.S. Army Signal Service Stations (1871-1892), Smithsonian Institution voluntary observer network...

  17. KZLC Center Weather Advisory (CWA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CWA is an aviation weather warning for conditions meeting or approaching national in-flight advisory (AIRMET, SIGMET or SIGMET for convection) criteria. CWAs are...

  18. Weather data communication and utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcfarland, R. H.; Nickum, J. D.; Mccall, D. L.

    1983-01-01

    The communication of weather data to aircraft is discussed. Problems encountered because of the great quantities of data available and the limited capacity to transfer this via radio link to an aircraft are discussed. Display devices are discussed.

  19. Practical Weathering for Geology Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodder, A. Peter

    1990-01-01

    The design and data management of an activity to study weathering by increasing the rate of mineral dissolution in a microwave oven is described. Data analysis in terms of parabolic and first-order kinetics is discussed. (CW)

  20. WARP Weather Information Network Server

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — WINS is the dissemination module of the WARP system that provides an interface to various NAS Users/systems that require weather data/products/information from WARP...

  1. Northern Hemisphere Synoptic Weather Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Daily Series of Synoptic Weather Maps. Part I consists of plotted and analyzed daily maps of sea-level and 500-mb maps for 0300, 0400, 1200, 1230, 1300, and 1500...

  2. Titan: Callisto With Weather?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J. M.; Pappalardo, R. T.

    2008-12-01

    , Titan might have accreted relatively cold. Without being in a forced resonance, Titan's interior may have never undergone significant tidal heating. Analogous to Callisto's tenuous CO2 atmosphere, believed to be generated by sublimation of interior ices, interior clathrated methane within Titan may slowly diffuse outward from the cold interior, rather than the atmosphere being replenished by cryovolcanism. The hypothesis that Titan is "Callisto with weather" -- with geological processes that are principally exogenic -- can be tested through geophysical and thermal modeling, and by modeling the evolution of landscapes that are shaped by exogenic processes alone.

  3. Terminated Multifamily Mortgages Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This dataset includes all terminated HUD Multifamily mortgages except those from the Hospital Mortgage Insurance Program. It includes the Holder and Servicer at the...

  4. Coal terminal directory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-06-15

    The directory gives a comprehensive listing of the world's coal terminals, in a total of 50 countries including information on throughput, facilities, storage capacity, and vessel size limitation.

  5. Quantitative Chemical Indices of Weathered Igneous Rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of different weathering indices for characterising weathered igneous rocks of Hong Kong. Among eight chemical indices evaluated in this study, the Parker index has been found most suitable for a quantitative description of state of weathering. Based on geochemical results of 174 samples, the index decreases almost linearly with an increasing extent of weathering. The results enable a better understanding of the modification of geotechnical properties of igneous rocks associated with weathering processes.

  6. Space Weather - the Economic Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisi, M. M.; Gibbs, M.

    2015-12-01

    Following on from the UK Government's placement of space weather on it's National Risk Register, in 2011, and the Royal Academy of Engineering's study into the impacts of a severe space weather event, the next piece of key evidence, to underpin future investment decisions, is understanding the socio-economic impact of space weather This poster outlines a study, funded by the UK Space Agency, which will assess the socio-economic cost of space weather, both severe events, such as 1989 & a modern day repeat of the Carrington storm and also the cost of day-to-day impacts. The study will go on to estimate the cost benefit of forecasting and also investigate options for an operational L5 spacecraft mission and knowledge exchange activities with the South African Space Agency. The findings from the initial space weather socio-economic literature review will be presented along with other findings to date and sets out the tasks for the remainder of this programme of work.

  7. Space Weather Research: Indian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Anil; Pant, Tarun Kumar; Choudhary, R. K.; Nandy, Dibyendu; Manoharan, P. K.

    2016-12-01

    Space weather, just like its meteorological counterpart, is of extreme importance when it comes to its impact on terrestrial near- and far-space environments. In recent years, space weather research has acquired an important place as a thrust area of research having implications both in space science and technology. The presence of satellites and other technological systems from different nations in near-Earth space necessitates that one must have a comprehensive understanding not only of the origin and evolution of space weather processes but also of their impact on technology and terrestrial upper atmosphere. To address this aspect, nations across the globe including India have been investing in research concerning Sun, solar processes and their evolution from solar interior into the interplanetary space, and their impact on Earth's magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere system. In India, over the years, a substantial amount of work has been done in each of these areas by various agencies/institutions. In fact, India has been, and continues to be, at the forefront of space research and has ambitious future programs concerning these areas encompassing space weather. This review aims at providing a glimpse of this Indian perspective on space weather research to the reader and presenting an up-to-date status of the same.

  8. Space Weather, Environment and Societies

    CERN Document Server

    Lilensten, Jean

    2006-01-01

    Our planet exists within a space environment affected by constantly changing solar atmosphere producing cosmic particles and electromagnetic waves. This "space weather" profoundly influences the performance of our technology because we primarily use two means for transmitting information and energy; namely, electromagnetic waves and electricity. On an everyday basis, we have developed methods to cope with the normal conditions. However, the sun remains a fiery star whose 'angry' outbursts can potentially destroy spacecrafts, kill astronauts, melt electricity transformers, stop trains, and generally wreak havoc with human activities. Space Weather is the developing field within astronomy that aims at predicting the sun’s violent activity and minimizing the impacts on our daily lives. Space Weather, Environment, and Societies explains why our technological societies are so dependent on solar activity and how the Sun disturbs the transmission of information and energy. Footnotes expand specific points and the ...

  9. Documents from malicious terminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berta, Istvan Z.; Vajda, Istvan

    2003-04-01

    The user wishes to communicate with a remote partner over an insecure network. Since the user is a human being, a terminal is needed for communication. Cryptographic algorithms running on the terminal may provide authenticity for the user's messages. In this paper the problem of sending authentic messages from insecure or untrusted terminals is analyzed. In this case attackers are able to gain total control over the terminal, so the user must consider the terminal a potential attacker. Smart cards are often considered the ultimate tool for secure messaging from untrusted terminals. However, their lack of user interface enables man-in-the middle attack from the terminal. The authors assume, that user is a human being with limited memory and computational power, and also makes mistakes in his calculations. They demnostrate, that only exceptional useres are able to authenticate messages without a trusted device. Several biometric media encapsulate the content of the message and the identity of the sender, such as speech, video and handwriting. The authors suggest, that such media is far more difficult to counterfeit than plaintext. Thus, the user must rely on his other resources, like biometric ones. In the protocol proposed by the authors, the user sends messages in a biometric format, strengthened by simple algorithmic authenticators. The smart card functions as a secure time gate ensuring, that the attacker has extremely little time to counterfeit both the biometric and the algorithmic protection on the message. The authors claim, that with the proper calibration of the biometric method and the time gate of the smart card, their protocol is strong enough for practical use.

  10. Local Termination: theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Endrullis, Joerg; Waldmann, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    The characterisation of termination using well-founded monotone algebras has been a milestone on the way to automated termination techniques, of which we have seen an extensive development over the past years. Both the semantic characterisation and most known termination methods are concerned with global termination, uniformly of all the terms of a term rewriting system (TRS). In this paper we consider local termination, of specific sets of terms within a given TRS. The principal goal of this paper is generalising the semantic characterisation of global termination to local termination. This is made possible by admitting the well-founded monotone algebras to be partial. We also extend our approach to local relative termination. The interest in local termination naturally arises in program verification, where one is probably interested only in sensible inputs, or just wants to characterise the set of inputs for which a program terminates. Local termination will be also be of interest when dealing with a specif...

  11. Verification of Space Weather Forecasts using Terrestrial Weather Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, E.; Murray, S.; Pope, E.; Stephenson, D.; Sharpe, M.; Bingham, S.; Jackson, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Met Office Space Weather Operations Centre (MOSWOC) provides a range of 24/7 operational space weather forecasts, alerts, and warnings, which provide valuable information on space weather that can degrade electricity grids, radio communications, and satellite electronics. Forecasts issued include arrival times of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), and probabilistic forecasts for flares, geomagnetic storm indices, and energetic particle fluxes and fluences. These forecasts are produced twice daily using a combination of output from models such as Enlil, near-real-time observations, and forecaster experience. Verification of forecasts is crucial for users, researchers, and forecasters to understand the strengths and limitations of forecasters, and to assess forecaster added value. To this end, the Met Office (in collaboration with Exeter University) has been adapting verification techniques from terrestrial weather, and has been working closely with the International Space Environment Service (ISES) to standardise verification procedures. We will present the results of part of this work, analysing forecast and observed CME arrival times, assessing skill using 2x2 contingency tables. These MOSWOC forecasts can be objectively compared to those produced by the NASA Community Coordinated Modelling Center - a useful benchmark. This approach cannot be taken for the other forecasts, as they are probabilistic and categorical (e.g., geomagnetic storm forecasts give probabilities of exceeding levels from minor to extreme). We will present appropriate verification techniques being developed to address these forecasts, such as rank probability skill score, and comparing forecasts against climatology and persistence benchmarks. As part of this, we will outline the use of discrete time Markov chains to assess and improve the performance of our geomagnetic storm forecasts. We will also discuss work to adapt a terrestrial verification visualisation system to space weather, to help

  12. Creating a Realistic Weather Environment for Motion-Based Piloted Flight Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Taumi S.; Schaffner, Philip R.; Evans, Emory T.; Neece, Robert T.; Young, Steve D.

    2012-01-01

    A flight simulation environment is being enhanced to facilitate experiments that evaluate research prototypes of advanced onboard weather radar, hazard/integrity monitoring (HIM), and integrated alerting and notification (IAN) concepts in adverse weather conditions. The simulation environment uses weather data based on real weather events to support operational scenarios in a terminal area. A simulated atmospheric environment was realized by using numerical weather data sets. These were produced from the High-Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR) model hosted and run by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). To align with the planned flight simulation experiment requirements, several HRRR data sets were acquired courtesy of NOAA. These data sets coincided with severe weather events at the Memphis International Airport (MEM) in Memphis, TN. In addition, representative flight tracks for approaches and departures at MEM were generated and used to develop and test simulations of (1) what onboard sensors such as the weather radar would observe; (2) what datalinks of weather information would provide; and (3) what atmospheric conditions the aircraft would experience (e.g. turbulence, winds, and icing). The simulation includes a weather radar display that provides weather and turbulence modes, derived from the modeled weather along the flight track. The radar capabilities and the pilots controls simulate current-generation commercial weather radar systems. Appropriate data-linked weather advisories (e.g., SIGMET) were derived from the HRRR weather models and provided to the pilot consistent with NextGen concepts of use for Aeronautical Information Service (AIS) and Meteorological (MET) data link products. The net result of this simulation development was the creation of an environment that supports investigations of new flight deck information systems, methods for incorporation of better weather information, and pilot interface and operational improvements

  13. Integration of Weather Data into Airspace and Traffic Operations Simulation (ATOS) for Trajectory- Based Operations Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Mark; Boisvert, Ben; Escala, Diego

    2009-01-01

    Explicit integration of aviation weather forecasts with the National Airspace System (NAS) structure is needed to improve the development and execution of operationally effective weather impact mitigation plans and has become increasingly important due to NAS congestion and associated increases in delay. This article considers several contemporary weather-air traffic management (ATM) integration applications: the use of probabilistic forecasts of visibility at San Francisco, the Route Availability Planning Tool to facilitate departures from the New York airports during thunderstorms, the estimation of en route capacity in convective weather, and the application of mixed-integer optimization techniques to air traffic management when the en route and terminal capacities are varying with time because of convective weather impacts. Our operational experience at San Francisco and New York coupled with very promising initial results of traffic flow optimizations suggests that weather-ATM integrated systems warrant significant research and development investment. However, they will need to be refined through rapid prototyping at facilities with supportive operational users We have discussed key elements of an emerging aviation weather research area: the explicit integration of aviation weather forecasts with NAS structure to improve the effectiveness and timeliness of weather impact mitigation plans. Our insights are based on operational experiences with Lincoln Laboratory-developed integrated weather sensing and processing systems, and derivative early prototypes of explicit ATM decision support tools such as the RAPT in New York City. The technical components of this effort involve improving meteorological forecast skill, tailoring the forecast outputs to the problem of estimating airspace impacts, developing models to quantify airspace impacts, and prototyping automated tools that assist in the development of objective broad-area ATM strategies, given probabilistic

  14. Tomorrow's Forecast: Oceans and Weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smigielski, Alan

    1995-01-01

    This issue of "Art to Zoo" focuses on weather and climate and is tied to the traveling exhibition Ocean Planet from the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History. The lessons encourage students to think about the profound influence the oceans have on planetary climate and life on earth. Sections of the lesson plan include: (1) "Ocean…

  15. Winter Weather Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Part 3 of 3) Hot Weather Tips Heat Stress in Older Adults FAQs Extreme Heat PSAs Related Links MMWR Bibliography CDC's Program Floods Flood Readiness Personal Hygiene After a Disaster Cleanup of Flood Water After a Flood Worker Safety Educational Materials Floods ...

  16. Dynamic Weather Routes Architecture Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Hassan; Eshow, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic Weather Routes Architecture Overview, presents the high level software architecture of DWR, based on the CTAS software framework and the Direct-To automation tool. The document also covers external and internal data flows, required dataset, changes to the Direct-To software for DWR, collection of software statistics, and the code structure.

  17. Mexican Space Weather Service (SCIESMEX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Esparza, A.; De la Luz, V.; Mejia-Ambriz, J. C.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Corona-Romero, P.; Gonzalez, L. X.

    2015-12-01

    Recent modifications of the Civil Protection Law in Mexico include now specific mentions to space hazards and space weather phenomena. During the last few years, the UN has promoted international cooperation on Space Weather awareness, studies and monitoring. Internal and external conditions motivated the creation of a Space Weather Service in Mexico (SCIESMEX). The SCIESMEX (www.sciesmex.unam.mx) is operated by the Geophysics Institute at the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM). The UNAM has the experience of operating several critical national services, including the National Seismological Service (SSN); besides that has a well established scientific group with expertise in space physics and solar- terrestrial phenomena. The SCIESMEX is also related with the recent creation of the Mexican Space Agency (AEM). The project combines a network of different ground instruments covering solar, interplanetary, geomagnetic, and ionospheric observations. The SCIESMEX has already in operation computing infrastructure running the web application, a virtual observatory and a high performance computing server to run numerical models. SCIESMEX participates in the International Space Environment Services (ISES) and in the Inter-progamme Coordination Team on Space Weather (ICTSW) of the Word Meteorological Organization (WMO).

  18. Weather-Corrected Performance Ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierauf, T.; Growitz, A.; Kurtz, S.; Cruz, J. L. B.; Riley, E.; Hansen, C.

    2013-04-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) system performance depends on both the quality of the system and the weather. One simple way to communicate the system performance is to use the performance ratio (PR): the ratio of the electricity generated to the electricity that would have been generated if the plant consistently converted sunlight to electricity at the level expected from the DC nameplate rating. The annual system yield for flat-plate PV systems is estimated by the product of the annual insolation in the plane of the array, the nameplate rating of the system, and the PR, which provides an attractive way to estimate expected annual system yield. Unfortunately, the PR is, again, a function of both the PV system efficiency and the weather. If the PR is measured during the winter or during the summer, substantially different values may be obtained, making this metric insufficient to use as the basis for a performance guarantee when precise confidence intervals are required. This technical report defines a way to modify the PR calculation to neutralize biases that may be introduced by variations in the weather, while still reporting a PR that reflects the annual PR at that site given the project design and the project weather file. This resulting weather-corrected PR gives more consistent results throughout the year, enabling its use as a metric for performance guarantees while still retaining the familiarity this metric brings to the industry and the value of its use in predicting actual annual system yield. A testing protocol is also presented to illustrate the use of this new metric with the intent of providing a reference starting point for contractual content.

  19. OpenWeather: a peer-to-peer weather data transmission protocol

    CERN Document Server

    Yanes, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    The study of the weather is performed using instruments termed weather stations. These weather stations are distributed around the world, collecting the data from the different phenomena. Several weather organizations have been deploying thousands of these instruments, creating big networks to collect weather data. These instruments are collecting the weather data and delivering it for later processing in the collections points. Nevertheless, all the methodologies used to transmit the weather data are based in protocols non adapted for this purpose. Thus, the weather stations are limited by the data formats and protocols used in them, not taking advantage of the real-time data available on them. We research the weather instruments, their technology and their network capabilities, in order to provide a solution for the mentioned problem. OpenWeather is the protocol proposed to provide a more optimum and reliable way to transmit the weather data. We evaluate the environmental factors, such as location or bandwi...

  20. Modeling Terminal Velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Neal; Quintanilla, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Using a simultaneously falling softball as a stopwatch, the terminal velocity of a whiffle ball can be obtained to surprisingly high accuracy with only common household equipment. This classroom activity engages students in an apparently daunting task that nevertheless is tractable, using a simple model and mathematical techniques at their…

  1. Making Wireless Terminals Simpler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren Skovgaard; Popovski, Petar; De Carvalho, Elisabeth

    2005-01-01

    The exponential growth of user demands and the limitations of 3G systems have brought researchers and industry to propose solutions for the next generation. Among the requirements are higher bit rates and cheaper deployment. In this paper we focus on a terminal complexity problem related to chann...

  2. Fire Danger and Fire Weather Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Weather Service (formerly Weather Bureau) and Forest Service developed a program to track meteorological conditions conducive to forest fires, resulting...

  3. SIGWX Charts - High Level Significant Weather

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — High level significant weather (SIGWX) forecasts are provided for the en-route portion of international flights. NOAA's National Weather Service Aviation Center...

  4. Integrating Sphere-based Weathering Device

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:In the artificial ultraviolet (UV) weathering of materials, a need exists for weathering devices that can uniformly illuminate test specimens with a high...

  5. NOAA Weather and Climate Toolkit (WCT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Weather and Climate Toolkit is an application that provides simple visualization and data export of weather and climatological data archived at NCDC. The...

  6. Newspaper Clippings and Articles (Weather-related)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weather-related newspaper articles and photos, almost exclusively from Baltimore, MD and nearby areas. Includes storm damage, rainfall reports, and weather's affect...

  7. Rainmakers: why bad weather means good productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jooa Julia; Gino, Francesca; Staats, Bradley R

    2014-05-01

    People believe that weather conditions influence their everyday work life, but to date, little is known about how weather affects individual productivity. Contrary to conventional wisdom, we predict and find that bad weather increases individual productivity and that it does so by eliminating potential cognitive distractions resulting from good weather. When the weather is bad, individuals appear to focus more on their work than on alternate outdoor activities. We investigate the proposed relationship between worse weather and higher productivity through 4 studies: (a) field data on employees' productivity from a bank in Japan, (b) 2 studies from an online labor market in the United States, and (c) a laboratory experiment. Our findings suggest that worker productivity is higher on bad-, rather than good-, weather days and that cognitive distractions associated with good weather may explain the relationship. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of our research.

  8. National Weather Service County Warning Area Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains polygons corresponding to the County Warning Areas (CWAs) of each Weather Forecast Office (WFO) in the National Weather Service (NWS).

  9. National Weather Service: Watch, Warning, Advisory Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    weather.gov Site Map News Organization Search for: SPC NCEP All NOAA Search by city or zip ... Fire Wx Outlooks RSS Feeds E-Mail Alerts Weather Information Storm Reports Storm Reports Dev. NWS Hazards ...

  10. Adaptive Weather Forecasting using Local Meteorological Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doeswijk, T.G.; Keesman, K.J.

    2005-01-01

    In general, meteorological parameters such as temperature, rain and global radiation are important for agricultural systems. Anticipating on future conditions is most often needed in these systems. Weather forecasts then become of substantial importance. As weather forecasts are subject to

  11. Weather Derivatives – Origin, Types and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Binkowski

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The number of companies that are exposed to the revenues loss risk caused by weather variability is still increasing. The businesses that are mostly exposed to weather risk are following: energy, agriculture, constructions and transport. That situation has initiated dynamic growth of weather derivatives markets as well as the awareness of the weather risk among the market participants. Presently, the weather derivatives markets evaluate rapidly in all the mature economies: USA, Asia and Europe. Constructing weather derivatives relies on qu- antifying climate factors in the form of indexes, what is quite simple task, more difficultly can be gathering precise historical data of required climate factors. Taking into consideration so far development of derivatives ñ especially the financial derivatives based on different types of indexes ñ financial market has at disposal wide range of different types of proved derivatives (futures, forward, options, swaps, which can be successfully utilised on the weather-driven markets both for hedging weather risk and speculating.

  12. World War II Weather Record Transmittances

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World War II Weather Record Transmittances are a record of the weather and meteorological data observed during World War II and transferred to the archive. It...

  13. Decision Making Models Using Weather Forecast Information

    OpenAIRE

    Hiramatsu, Akio; Huynh, Van-Nam; Nakamori, Yoshiteru

    2007-01-01

    The quality of weather forecast has gradually improved, but weather information such as precipitation forecast is still uncertainty. Meteorologists have studied the use and economic value of weather information, and users have to translate weather information into their most desirable action. To maximize the economic value of users, the decision maker should select the optimum course of action for his company or project, based on an appropriate decision strategy under uncertain situations. In...

  14. Complete Decoding and Reporting of Aviation Routine Weather Reports (METARs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Man-Cheung Max

    2014-01-01

    Aviation Routine Weather Report (METAR) provides surface weather information at and around observation stations, including airport terminals. These weather observations are used by pilots for flight planning and by air traffic service providers for managing departure and arrival flights. The METARs are also an important source of weather data for Air Traffic Management (ATM) analysts and researchers at NASA and elsewhere. These researchers use METAR to correlate severe weather events with local or national air traffic actions that restrict air traffic, as one example. A METAR is made up of multiple groups of coded text, each with a specific standard coding format. These groups of coded text are located in two sections of a report: Body and Remarks. The coded text groups in a U.S. METAR are intended to follow the coding standards set by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). However, manual data entry and edits made by a human report observer may result in coded text elements that do not follow the standards, especially in the Remarks section. And contrary to the standards, some significant weather observations are noted only in the Remarks section and not in the Body section of the reports. While human readers can infer the intended meaning of non-standard coding of weather conditions, doing so with a computer program is far more challenging. However such programmatic pre-processing is necessary to enable efficient and faster database query when researchers need to perform any significant historical weather analysis. Therefore, to support such analysis, a computer algorithm was developed to identify groups of coded text anywhere in a report and to perform subsequent decoding in software. The algorithm considers common deviations from the standards and data entry mistakes made by observers. The implemented software code was tested to decode 12 million reports and the decoding process was able to completely interpret 99.93 of the reports. This

  15. Space Weather Receives First "Impact Rating"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzerotti, Louis J.

    2007-08-01

    Journal Citation Reports, published by Thomson Scientific (http://scientific.thomson.com/isi/), has issued its first impact factor for Space Weather. It is 1.610. I consider this number to be very good, strongly validating the impact that Space Weather has already made in its short life within the community of space weather professionals.

  16. Space Weather Effects on Range Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    www.windows2universe.org/space_weather/space_weather.html What are scientists talking about when they say “space weather”? How is it like weather on...particle events observed by ground level, high latitude neutron monitors and the Concorde observations are summarised in Table 1 (Refs. 12 & 13), which

  17. Reducing prediction uncertainty of weather controlled systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doeswijk, T.G.

    2007-01-01

    In closed agricultural systems the weather acts both as a disturbance and as a resource. By using weather forecasts in control strategies the effects of disturbances can be minimized whereas the resources can be utilized. In this situation weather forecast uncertainty and model based control are cou

  18. 49 CFR 195.224 - Welding: Weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Welding: Weather. 195.224 Section 195.224 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Construction § 195.224 Welding: Weather. Welding must be protected from weather conditions...

  19. Efficient Ways to Learn Weather Radar Polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qing; Yeary, M. B.; Zhang, Guifu

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. weather radar network is currently being upgraded with dual-polarization capability. Weather radar polarimetry is an interdisciplinary area of engineering and meteorology. This paper presents efficient ways to learn weather radar polarimetry through several basic and practical topics. These topics include: 1) hydrometeor scattering model…

  20. The Early Years: The Wonders of Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on the wonders of winter weather, as it often inspires teachers' and students' interest in collecting weather data, especially if snow falls. Beginning weather data collection in preschool will introduce children to the concepts of making regular observations of natural phenomena, recording the observations (data),…