WorldWideScience

Sample records for twin cities section

  1. Twin Cities Metro Hybrid Landcover 2000 (Raster)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The Hybrid Landcover is an attempt to clean up the University of Minnesota Remote Sensing Lab's 2000 LandSat Land Cover for the Twin Cities 7-county metropolitan...

  2. 77 FR 38780 - Proposed Reduction in Hours of Operation at the Mississippi River Twin Cities Locks Located in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... Operation at the Mississippi River Twin Cities Locks Located in Minneapolis, MN AGENCY: Department of the Army, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, DOD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The three locks in the Twin Cities... the Twin Cities locks is Section 4 of the River and Harbor Act of August 18, 1894 (28 Stat. 362), as...

  3. Prevalence and correlates of tobacco use amongst junior collegiates in twin cities of western Nepal: A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paudel Jagadish

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background College students are vulnerable to tobacco addiction. Tobacco industries often target college students for marketing. Studies about prevalence of tobacco use and its correlates among college students in Nepal are lacking. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out in two cities of western Nepal during January-March, 2007. A pre-tested, anonymous, self-administered questionnaire (in Nepali adapted from Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS and a World Bank study was administered to a representative sample of 1600 students selected from 13 junior colleges by two-stage stratified random sampling. Results Overall prevalence of 'ever users' of tobacco products was 13.9%. Prevalence among boys and girls was 20.5% and 2.9% respectively. Prevalence of 'current users' was 10.2% (cigarette smoking: 9.4%, smokeless products: 6.5%, and both forms: 5.7%. Median age at initiation of cigarette smoking and chewable tobacco was 16 and 15 years respectively. Among the current cigarette smokers, 58.7% (88/150 were smoking at least one cigarette per day. Most (67.8% 'Current users' purchased tobacco products by themselves from stores or got them from friends. Most of them (66.7% smoked in tea stalls or restaurants followed by other public places (13.2%. The average daily expenditure was 20 Nepalese rupees (~0.3 USD and most (59% students reported of having adequate money to buy tobacco products. Majority (82% of the students were exposed to tobacco advertisements through magazines/newspapers, and advertising hoardings during a period of 30 days prior to survey. The correlates of tobacco use were: age, gender, household asset score and knowledge about health risks, family members, teachers and friends using tobacco products, and purchasing tobacco products for family members. Conclusion School/college-based interventions like counseling to promote cessation among current users and tobacco education to prevent initiation are necessary

  4. FINANCING FARMLAND PRESERVATION: THE TWIN CITIES METROPOLITAN AREA EXPERIENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Greden, Leah R.; Taff, Steven J.

    1994-01-01

    Two farmland protection programs in the Twin Cities (Minnesota) Metropolitan Area--Green Acres and Agricultural Preserves-- together enrolled 608,331 acres in 1992. The principal financing tool was a provision common to both programs under which participating landowners paid reduced property taxes in exchange for certain non- development assurances. The resulting shift in property tax obligations to other taxpayers amounted to $7.6 million for the 1993 tax year, an average shift of $12.50 per...

  5. Cesarean Section for the Second Twin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelbrechtsen, Line; Nielsen, Elise Hoffmann; Perin, Trine

    2013-01-01

    deliveries. Data were extracted from medical records, a fetal medicine software program (Astraia), and the National Birth Registry. Short-term poor neonatal outcome was measured as a 5-minute Apgar score ≤ 7, umbilical cord pH ≤ 7.10, and admission to neonatal intensive care unit for more than 3 days....... RESULTS: Vertex-nonvertex fetal presentations were more prevalent in combined deliveries than vaginal deliveries (OR 4.4, 2.5-7.8). Nonvertex second twins born by combined delivery had a higher risk of Apgar score ≤ 7 and umbilical cord pH ≤ 7.10 compared with vaginal delivery, unadjusted OR 6.2 (2...

  6. 33 CFR 207.320 - Mississippi River, Twin City Locks and Dam, St. Paul and Minneapolis, Minn.; pool level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mississippi River, Twin City... § 207.320 Mississippi River, Twin City Locks and Dam, St. Paul and Minneapolis, Minn.; pool level. In... the Twin City Locks and Dam, Minneapolis, in the interest of navigation, and supersedes rules and...

  7. Access to destinations : annual accessibility measure for the Twin Cities Metropolitan Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    This report summarizes previous phases of the Access to Destinations project and applies the techniques developed : over the course of the project to conduct an evaluation of accessibility in the Twin Cities metropolitan region for : 2010. It describ...

  8. Cesarean section in twin pregnancies in two Danish counties with different cesarean section rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, T B; Sperling, Lene; Hedegaard, M

    1994-01-01

    for CS in twin pregnancies was made between two Danish counties, one with a high and one with a low overall CS rate in twin deliveries, taking into account the distribution of parity, mother's age, gestational age at birth, and birth weight. DESIGN: A population based, historic follow-up study based...... presentation. SECONDARY MEASURES: Perinatal and maternal outcome. RESULTS: The difference in CS rates between the two counties could not be explained by different distributions of background characteristics. Different attitudes were found towards CS in cases with previous CS, with twin A in breech presentation......OBJECTIVE: Based on a comparison of the clinical indications for cesarean section (CS) in two Danish counties and a review of the literature regarding this issue the aim of this study was to discuss possible explanations for variations in CS rates in twin pregnancies. The comparison of indications...

  9. Twin City - past 1823-2013 : EHTE ja Haaga-Helia ühisprojekt / Tiit Kask, Ain Hinsberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kask, Tiit

    2012-01-01

    Turismikoolide ühisprojektist "Twin City - Empowering & Designing Twin-Capital Destination - Past, Present and Future of Tourism in Greater-Helsinki and Greater-Tallinn Area", mille eesmärgiks on Tallinna ja Helsingi kui ühtse turismisihtkoha käsitluse loomine ja 26. aprillil Tallinnas toimunud seminarist "TwinCity Helsinki-Tallinn / Tallinn & Estonian tourism 1813-2013", mis kutsus üles tähistama Tallinna (Kadrioru) merekuurordi ja "Eesti Turismimajandus 200" juubelit 2013. aastal

  10. Anaestetic management of caesarean section for conjoint-twins: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deogaonkar Shrikrishna G, Aditya Prakash

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available At Pravara Rural Hospital a 29 year old patient was admitted for delivery. Patient had conjoint-twins diagnosed after sonography and was posted for elective caesarean section. Patient was managed under general anaesthesia after thorough preparation and under multi-disciplinary involvement. Both the twins females were living and were further managed by neonatologists. Though conjoint-twins are rare and patients coming for delivery with conjoint-twins are still rarer because of early diagnosis and termination, anaesthesiologists working in developing countries and working in remote areas may face such patients. There are very few publications for management of delivery in such patients, hence this case report.

  11. 77 FR 19718 - Ford Motor Company Twin Cities Assembly Plant Vehicle Operations Division Including On-Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-81,038] Ford Motor Company Twin... February 9, 2012, applicable to workers of Ford Motor Company, Twin Cities Assembly Plant, Vehicle..., and Pacer International were employed on-site at the St. Paul, Minnesota location of Ford Motor...

  12. Comparative Study on Educational Management in Public and Private Institutions in the Twin Cities of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwan Muhammad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research paper is to compare the quality of education delivered at the undergraduate level in the public and private institutions of the Twin Cities (Islamabad and Rawalpindi in Pakistan. Data is collected with the help of questionnaires from 246 students. The data was collected from three public and three private educational institutions of the Twin Cities, and the age of students ranged from 18 to 27 years. The research instrument used in this paper is the independent sample t-test to find the difference between the three private and three public educational institutions selected in Rawalpindi and Islamabad in terms of different variables that are very important in measuring the quality of education. For analysis, Levene’s test was adopted, which reflects the variations in educational quality with respect to academic staff availability in the twin cities. The differences in close supervision of students by academic staff between public and private sector educational institutions were also analysed, and the results reflected a difference between private and public educational institutions with respect to close supervision of students. The results also highlighted the factors that are involved in higher performance of students in private institutes as compared to that of students in public institutes. These factors can be implemented in the public sector to increase student performance.

  13. Cesarean section in twin pregnancies in two Danish counties with different cesarean section rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, T B; Sperling, Lene; Hedegaard, M

    1994-01-01

    for CS in twin pregnancies was made between two Danish counties, one with a high and one with a low overall CS rate in twin deliveries, taking into account the distribution of parity, mother's age, gestational age at birth, and birth weight. DESIGN: A population based, historic follow-up study based...... presentation. SECONDARY MEASURES: Perinatal and maternal outcome. RESULTS: The difference in CS rates between the two counties could not be explained by different distributions of background characteristics. Different attitudes were found towards CS in cases with previous CS, with twin A in breech presentation...... was seen. CONCLUSION: In order to understand and discuss regional variations in the use of CSs in twin deliveries the subjects must be addressed in different ways: the unequivocal indications related to fetal presentations and previous CS can be subjected to randomised controlled trials or large scaled...

  14. 77 FR 43146 - Twin Cities & Western Railroad Company, the Estate of Douglas M. Head, and the DMH Trust fbo...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. FD 35642] Twin Cities & Western Railroad Company, the Estate of Douglas M. Head, and the DMH Trust fbo Martha M. Head--Continuance... Class III rail carrier, and the Estate of Douglas M. Head (the Estate), a noncarrier, to continue in...

  15. Prevalence of High risk Human Papillomavirus in cervical dysplasia and cancer samples from twin cities in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana Gul

    2015-05-01

    Conclusion: Our results show a strong association between HPV infection and cervical cancer among women in twin cities of Pakistan. One way to minimize the disease burden in relation to HPV infection in Pakistani population is the use of prophylactic vaccines and routine screening. An early diagnosis of HPV infection will allow better health management to reduce the risk of developing cervical cancer.

  16. Quality of runoff from small watersheds in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota - A project plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, M.A.; Payne, G.A.; Oberts, Gary L.

    1980-01-01

    A program of water-quality sampling to define the relationships between land use, watershed characteristics, and the quantity, quality, and timing of runoff has been started for the Twin Cities metropolitan area of Minnesota. Ten major watersheds were chosen as representative of conditions in the metropolitan area. Each will be sampled at one location near the outlet. Six of the watersheds are agricultural and range in size from 14.3 to 82.9 square miles. The four remaining watersheds are urbanized and range in size from 1.22 to 31.7 square miles. In addition, seven urban subwatersheds, which range in size from 0.12 to 0.47 square miles and reflect a dominant land-use type, will be sampled.

  17. Reliability of twin-dependent triple junction distributions measured from a section plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, Graden B.; Field, David P.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies indicate polycrystalline triple junctions are independent microstructural features with distinct properties from their constituent grain boundaries. Despite the influence of triple junctions on material properties, it is impractical to characterize triple junctions on a large scale using current three-dimensional methods. This work demonstrates the ability to characterize twin-dependent triple junction distributions from a section plane by adopting a grain boundary plane stereology. The technique is validated through simulated distributions and simulated electron back-scatter diffraction (EBSD) data. Measures of validation and convergence are adopted to demonstrate the quantitative reliability of the technique as well as the convergence behavior of twin-dependent triple junction distributions. This technique expands the characterization power of EBSD and prepares the way for characterizing general triple junction distributions from a section plane. - Graphical abstract: The distribution of planes forming a triple junction with a given twin boundary is shown partially in the stereographic projections below from a given projection. The plot on the left shows the ideal/measured distribution and the plot on the right shows the distribution obtained from the stereological method presented here.

  18. Contributors to ozone episodes in three US/Mexico border twin-cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chune; Fernando, H J S; Yang, Jie

    2009-09-01

    The Process Analysis tools of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system together with back-trajectory analysis were used to assess potential contributors to ozone episodes that occurred during June 1-4, 2006, in three populated U.S.-Mexico border twin cities: San Diego/Tijuana, Imperial/Mexicali and El Paso/Ciudad Juárez. Validation of CMAQ output against surface ozone measurements indicates that the predictions are acceptable with regard to commonly recommended statistical standards and comparable to other reported studies. The mean normalized bias test (MNBT) and mean normalized gross error (MNGE) for hourly ozone fall well within the US EPA suggested range of +/-15% and 35%, respectively, except MNBT for El Paso. The MNBTs for maximum 8-h average ozone are larger than those for hourly ozone, but all the simulated maximum 8-h average ozone are within a factor of 2 of those measured in all three regions. The process and back-trajectory analyses indicate that the main sources of daytime ground-level ozone are the local photochemical production and regional transport. By integrating the effects of each process over the depth of the daytime planetary boundary layer (PBL), it is found that in the San Diego area (SD), chemistry and vertical advection contributed about 36%/48% and 64%/52% for June 2 and 3, respectively. This confirms the previous finding that high-altitude regional transport followed by fumigation contributes significantly to ozone in SD. The back-trajectory analysis shows that this ozone was mostly transported from the coastal area of southern California. For the episodes in Imperial Valley and El Paso, respectively, ozone was transported from the coastal areas of southern California and Mexico and from northern Texas and Oklahoma.

  19. Experiences of young smokers in quitting smoking in twin cities of Pakistan: a phenomenological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Kanwal; Oyebode, Oyinlola; Masud, Haleema

    2018-04-10

    Smoking is highly prevalent in Pakistan claiming the lives of over 100,000 individuals every year. A significant proportion of smokers (24.7%) make an attempt to quit each year but 97.4% fail to quit successfully. Little is known about the reasons for, and experiences of, failed quit attempts. This study was carried out to explore the experiences of young male smokers in quitting smoking in the twin cities of Pakistan METHOD: A qualitative study was carried out using a phenomenological approach in Rawalpindi and Islamabad. A total of 11 participants were interviewed. All study participants were male and had made at least one quit attempt. Study participants were a mix of smokers who failed to quit smoking, intermittent smokers and successful quitters. Streubert's (1991) method of phenomenology was followed during data analysis. The experiences of smokers while smoking "the smoking phase" have major effects on their journey towards quitting smoking. The smoking phase consists of three major stages: contact with initial smoking stimuli, the journey from first puff to enjoying smoking and then finally smoking becoming part of life. However, the journey towards quitting smoking is not as simple as the journey towards becoming a smoker. Instead, smokers get trapped in three overlapping cycles of smoking and quit attempts: smoking & forced quitting, smoking & intentional quitting, and smoking & intermittent smoking before successful quitting. Breaking the cycle is not easy in the presence of trapping factors (addiction, high availability, easy affordability, conducive social setup and low perceived risks of smoking). Three factors play a major role in breaking these cycles which are strong will power, continuous peer support and avoidance of smokers' company. A young smoker, during his experience of quitting smoking gets entrapped in several overlapping cycles of smoking & quit attempts before successful quitting. There are known entrapping factors as well as factors

  20. Associations Between Fast-Food Consumption and Body Mass Index: A Cross-Sectional Study in Adult Twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Cline, Hannah; Lau, Richard; Moudon, Anne V; Turkheimer, Eric; Duncan, Glen E

    2015-08-01

    Obesity is a substantial health problem in the United States, and is associated with many chronic diseases. Previous studies have linked poor dietary habits to obesity. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify the association between body mass index (BMI) and fast-food consumption among 669 same-sex adult twin pairs residing in the Puget Sound region around Seattle, Washington. We calculated twin-pair correlations for BMI and fast-food consumption. We next regressed BMI on fast-food consumption using generalized estimating equations (GEE), and finally estimated the within-pair difference in BMI associated with a difference in fast-food consumption, which controls for all potential genetic and environment characteristics shared between twins within a pair. Twin-pair correlations for fast-food consumption were similar for identical (monozygotic; MZ) and fraternal (dizygotic; DZ) twins, but were substantially higher in MZ than DZ twins for BMI. In the unadjusted GEE model, greater fast-food consumption was associated with larger BMI. For twin pairs overall, and for MZ twins, there was no association between within-pair differences in fast-food consumption and BMI in any model. In contrast, there was a significant association between within-pair differences in fast-food consumption and BMI among DZ twins, suggesting that genetic factors play a role in the observed association. Thus, although variance in fast-food consumption itself is largely driven by environmental factors, the overall association between this specific eating behavior and BMI is largely due to genetic factors.

  1. Statistical analysis of lake levels and field study of groundwater and surface-water exchanges in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, 2002 through 2015: Chapter A of Water levels and groundwater and surface-water exchanges in lakes of the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, 2002 through 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Perry M.; Trost, Jared J.; Diekoff, Aliesha L.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; White, Eric A.; Erickson, Melinda L.; Morel, Daniel L.; Heck, Jessica M.

    2016-10-19

    Water levels declined from 2003 to 2011 in many lakes in Ramsey and Washington Counties in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota; however, water levels in other northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes increased during the same period. Groundwater and surface-water exchanges can be important in determining lake levels where these exchanges are an important component of the water budget of a lake. An understanding of groundwater and surface-water exchanges in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area has been limited by the lack of hydrologic data. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Metropolitan Council and Minnesota Department of Health, completed a field and statistical study assessing lake-water levels and regional and local groundwater and surface-water exchanges near northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes. This report documents the analysis of collected hydrologic, water-quality, and geophysical data; and existing hydrologic and geologic data to (1) assess the effect of physical setting and climate on lake-level fluctuations of selected lakes, (2) estimate potential percentages of surface-water contributions to well water across the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, (3) estimate general ages for waters extracted from the wells, and (4) assess groundwater inflow to lakes and lake-water outflow to aquifers downgradient from White Bear Lake. Statistical analyses of lake levels during short-term (2002–10) and long-term (1925–2014) periods were completed to help understand lake-level changes across the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area. Comparison of 2002–10 lake levels to several landscape and geologic characteristics explained variability in lake-level changes for 96 northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes. Application of several statistical methods determined that (1) closed-basin lakes (without an active outlet) had larger lake-level declines than flow-through lakes with an outlet; (2

  2. Prevalence of High risk Human Papillomavirus in cervical dysplasia and cancer samples from twin cities in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Sana; Murad, Sheeba; Javed, Aneela

    2015-05-01

    Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is small DNA virus mostly infecting mucosa and cutaneous keratinocytes. So far, more than 200 Human papillomaviruses are known. HPV have been divided into high- and low-risk on the basis of their oncogenic potential. High risk HPV is considered to be the main etiological cause for cervical cancer. The current study was designed to screen the local cervical cancer patients from the twin cities of Pakistan for the occurance of high risk HPV. A total of 67 formalin fixed paraffin-embedded samples of cervical cancer biopsies were obtained from the government hospitals in Islamabad and Rawalpindi. Cervical cancer biopsies were examined for the presence of HPV DNA. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for the amplification of a region in the HPV-L1 gene for the general detection of the Papilloma virus and for the genotype specific detection of high risk HPV 16 and 18 using the GP5/GP6 primers and genotype specific primers, respectively. HPV DNA was detected in 59 out of 67 samples analyzed. 30 samples showed the presence of HPV16 while 22 samples were positive for HPV18. HPV subtype could not be determined in 7 samples. Our results show a strong association between HPV infection and cervical cancer among women in twin cities of Pakistan. One way to minimize the disease burden in relation to HPV infection in Pakistani population is the use of prophylactic vaccines and routine screening. An early diagnosis of HPV infection will allow better health management to reduce the risk of developing cervical cancer. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Relationship between refractive error and ocular biometrics in twin children: the Guangzhou Twin Eye Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Decai; Liu, Bin; Huang, Shengsong; Huang, Wenyong; He, Mingguang

    2014-09-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to explore the relationship between refractive error and ocular biometrics in children from the Guangzhou twin eye study. Twin participants aged 7-15 years were selected from Guangzhou Twin Eye Study. Ocular examinations included visual acuity measurement, ocular motility evaluation, autorefraction under cycloplegia, and anterior segment, media, and fundus examination. Axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth (ACD), and corneal curvature radius were measured using partial coherence laser interferometry. A multivariate linear regression model was used for statistical analysis. Twin children from Guangzhou city showed a decreased spherical equivalent with age, whereas both AL and ACD were increased and corneal curvature radius remained unchanged. When adjusted by age and gender, the data from 77% of twins presenting with spherical equivalent changes indicated that these were caused by predictable variables (R2 = 0.77, P biometrics. Refractive status is largely determined by axial length as the major factor.

  4. Atmospheric deposition of selected chemicals and their effect on nonpoint-source pollution in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R.G.

    1984-01-01

    Atmospheric deposition and subsequent runoff concentrations of total Kjeldahl nitrogen, dissolved nitrite-plus-nitrate nitrogen, total phosphorus, total sulfate (only for atmospheric deposition), total chloride, and total lead were studied from April 1 to October 31, 1980, in one rural and three urban watersheds in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota. Seasonal patterns of wetfall and dryfall generally were similar for all constituents except chloride in both rural and urban watersheds. Similarity between constituents and between rural and urban watersheds suggested that regional air masses transported from the Gulf of Mexico by frontal storm movements influence seasonal patterns of atmospheric deposition in the metropolitan area. Local influences such as industrial, agricultural, and vehicular air pollutants were found to influence the magnitude or rate of atmospheric deposition rather than the seasonal pattern. Chloride was primarily influenced by northwest frontal storms laden with coastal chloride. Local influences such as dust from road deicing salt dust are thought to have caused an increase in atmospheric chloride during June.

  5. Water levels and groundwater and surface-water exchanges in lakes of the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, 2002 through 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Perry M.; Trost, Jared J.; Erickson, Melinda L.

    2016-10-19

    OverviewThis study assessed lake-water levels and regional and local groundwater and surface-water exchanges near northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes applying three approaches: statistical analysis, field study, and groundwater-flow modeling.  Statistical analyses of lake levels were completed to assess the effect of physical setting and climate on lake-level fluctuations of selected lakes. A field study of groundwater and surface-water interactions in selected lakes was completed to (1) estimate potential percentages of surface-water contributions to well water across the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, (2) estimate general ages for waters extracted from the wells, and (3) assess groundwater inflow to lakes and lake-water outflow to aquifers downgradient from White Bear Lake.  Groundwater flow was simulated using a steady-state, groundwater-flow model to assess regional groundwater and surface-water exchanges and the effects of groundwater withdrawals, climate, and other factors on water levels of northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes.

  6. Preliminary United States-Mexico border watershed analysis, twin cities area of Nogales, Arizona and Nogales, Sonora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Laura Margaret; Gray, Floyd; Castaneda, Mario; Bultman, Mark; Bolm, Karen Sue

    2002-01-01

    The United States - Mexico border area faces the challenge of integrating aspects of its binational physical boundaries to form a unified or, at least, compatible natural resource management plan. Specified geospatial components such as stream drainages, mineral occurrences, vegetation, wildlife, and land-use can be analyzed in terms of their overlapping impacts upon one another. Watersheds have been utilized as a basic unit in resource analysis because they contain components that are interrelated and can be viewed as a single interactive ecological system. In developing and analyzing critical regional natural resource databases, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other federal and non-governmental agencies have adopted a ?watershed by watershed? approach to dealing with such complicated issues as ecosystem health, natural resource use, urban growth, and pollutant transport within hydrologic systems. These watersheds can facilitate the delineation of both large scale and locally important hydrologic systems and urban management parameters necessary for sustainable, diversified land-use. The twin border cities area of Nogales, Sonora and Nogales, Arizona, provide the ideal setting to demonstrate the utility and application of a complete, cross-border, geographic information systems (GIS) based, watershed analysis in the characterization of a wide range of natural resource as well as urban features and their interactions. In addition to the delineation of a unified, cross-border watershed, the database contains sewer/water line locations and status, well locations, geology, hydrology, topography, soils, geomorphology, and vegetation data, as well as remotely sensed imagery. This report is preliminary and part of an ongoing project to develop a GIS database that will be widely accessible to the general public, researchers, and the local land management community with a broad range of application and utility.

  7. USE OF HOTELS NETWORKS DATA IN GEOGRAPHICAL SEARCH: A CASE STUDY ON THE TWIN CITIES OF BRASILÉIA, EPITACIOLÂNDIA AND COBIJA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Luiz Silveira da Silva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to present the possibilities and challenges of the use of the hotel network data for geographic research and perhaps in related areas. The presentation takes place through the use of hotel data in a doctoral thesis about the twin cities of Brasiléia, Epitaciolândia and Cobija. The article shows the strength of such data for research in sub-disciplines of Urban Geography and Regional Geography. The hotels data allow the establishment of inferences as urban functions, mapping flows of various typologies, the regional, national or international influence of the cities, the dependence and interdependence relations between cities and finally, their role in urban networks. The article shows how the information was used in the doctoral thesis and presents the difficulties encountered, pretending to be useful for those who want to investigate urban and regional questions.

  8. «Goroda-bliznecy»: novaja forma prigranichnogo sotrudnichestva v Baltijskom regione? [Twin cities: a new form of cross-border cooperation in the Baltic Sea Region?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anishenko Anatoly

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper demonstrates the first attempt in Russian political studies to conduct a comprehensive analysis of the “twin city” movement as a form of cross-border cooperation in the Baltic region. This phenomenon emerged as a result of a global tendency towards more active involvement of municipal units in international cooperation, on the one hand, and aspirations of frontier cities and towns in the Baltic region to solve common problems together, on the other hand. This work is based on a comparative analysis method and a case study methodology. The authors consider four examples (city pairs: Tornio — Haparanda, Valga — Valka, Narva — Ivangorod and Imatra — Svetogorsk. The article specifies the terminological framework used in this field of research. The authors analyse achievements and failures of this type of international inter-municipal cooperation and emphasise that for twin cities it served not only as a means of survival in the difficult situation of the 1990s, but also as an experimental ground for new forms of crossborder cooperation. The authors arrive at the conclusion that this model proves to be promising for further development of integration processes in the Baltic region. This practice can be applied by Russian municipal, regional and federal authorities in promotion of cross-border cooperation not only in the Baltic region, but also in other regions of the country. Thus, influenced by the successful experience of Baltic frontier cities and towns, the Russian city of Nikel and the Norwegian city of Kirkenes decided to adopt this model for further development of their cooperation.

  9. Simulation and assessment of groundwater flow and groundwater and surface-water exchanges in lakes of the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, 2003 through 2013: Chapter B of Water levels and groundwater and surface-water exchanges in lakes of the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, 2002 through 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Perry M.; Roth, Jason L.; Trost, Jared J.; Christenson, Catherine A.; Diekoff, Aliesha L.; Erickson, Melinda L.

    2017-09-05

    Water levels during 2003 through 2013 were less than mean water levels for the period 1925–2013 for several lakes in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area in Minnesota. Previous periods of low lake-water levels generally were correlated with periods with less than mean precipitation. Increases in groundwater withdrawals and land-use changes have brought into question whether or not recent (2003–13) lake-water-level declines are solely caused by decreases in precipitation. A thorough understanding of groundwater and surface-water exchanges was needed to assess the effect of water-management decisions on lake-water levels. To address this need, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Metropolitan Council and the Minnesota Department of Health, developed and calibrated a three-dimensional, steady-state groundwater-flow model representing 2003–13 mean hydrologic conditions to assess groundwater and lake-water exchanges, and the effects of groundwater withdrawals and precipitation on water levels of 96 lakes in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area.Lake-water budgets for the calibrated groundwater-flow model indicated that groundwater is flowing into lakes in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area and lakes are providing water to underlying aquifers. Lake-water outflow to the simulated groundwater system was a major outflow component for Big Marine Lake, Lake Elmo, Snail Lake, and White Bear Lake, accounting for 45 to 64 percent of the total outflows from the lakes. Evaporation and transpiration from the lake surface ranged from 19 to 52 percent of the total outflow from the four lakes. Groundwater withdrawals and precipitation were varied from the 2003‒13 mean values used in the calibrated model (30-percent changes in groundwater withdrawals and 5-percent changes in precipitation) for hypothetical scenarios to assess the effects of groundwater withdrawals and precipitation on water budgets and levels in Big Marine Lake, Snail Lake

  10. [Adult twins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlemaine, Christiane

    2006-12-31

    This paper explores the deep roots of closeness that twins share in their youngest age and their effect on their destiny at the adult age. Psychologists believe the bond between twins begins in utero and develops throughout the twins' lives. The four patterns of twinship described show that the twin bond is determined by the quality of parenting that twins receive in their infancy and early childhood. Common problems of adult twins bring about difficulties to adapt in a non-twin world. The nature versus nurture controversy has taken on new life focusing on inter-twin differences and the importance of parent-child interaction as fundamental to the growth and development of personality.

  11. Twin RSA

    OpenAIRE

    Lenstra, Arjen K.; Weger, De; Benjamin, M. M.

    2005-01-01

    We introduce Twin RSA, pairs of RSA moduli (n, n+ 2), and formulate several questions related to it. Our main questions are: is Twin RSA secure, and what is it good for? © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005.

  12. Twin Delivery: Comparison of Incidence and Foetal Outcome in two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The incidence of twin delivery in Nigeria may have changed, in view of the worldwide increase in the rates of twinning attributed to increasing maternal age and use of fertility therapies. Objective: To determine the current incidence of twin delivery in Benin City and document the foetal outcome in twins.

  13. Oliver Sacks: Our Correspondence About Twins/Twin Research: Vanishing Twins Syndrome; Discordant Sex in MZ Twins; Pregnancy Outcomes in IVF and ICSI Conceived Twins/Print and Media: Superfetated Twins; Twins Discordant for Smoking; Twins in Fashion; Yale University Twin Hockey Players; Conjoined Twin-Visiting Professor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Nancy L

    2017-08-01

    The late neurologist and author, Oliver Sacks, published an insightful 1986 review of Marjorie Wallace's book, The Silent Twins, in the New York Times. Taking exception to his assertion about Sir Francis Galton, I wrote a letter to the Times' editor. The letter was unpublished, but it brought a wonderful response from Sacks himself that is reproduced and examined. Next, brief reviews of twin research concerning the vanishing twin syndrome (VTS), discordant sex in a monozygotic (MZ) twin pair, and multiple pregnancy outcomes from assisted reproductive technology (ART) are presented. This section is followed by popular coverage of superfetated twins, smoking-discordant co-twins, twins in fashion, Yale University twin hockey players, and a visiting professor who was a conjoined twin.

  14. Neonatal status of twins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božinović Dragica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple pregnancy is a pregnancy where more than one fetus develops simultaneously in the womb, as a result of the ovulation and fertilization of more than one egg. It is relatively rare in humans and represents the rest of the phylogenetic stages. The most common are twins and they indicate the development of two fetuses in the womb. The frequency of twin pregnancies is about 1%. Multiple pregnancies belong to a group of high-risk pregnancies because of the many complications that occur during the pregnancy: higher number of premature deliveries, bleeding, early neonatal complications and higher perinatal morbidity and mortality. Such pregnancies and infants require greater supervision and monitoring. The aim of this study was to determine the percentage of baby twins born at the maternity ward of the General Hospital in Prokuplje and their morbidity and mortality. Data on the total number of deliveries, number of twins, parity and maternal age, gestational age, body weight of twins, method of delivery, Apgar score and perinatal mortality were collected and statistically analyzed by means of retrospective analysis of operative birth and neonatal protocol for 6 years (2005 of 2010. Out of 4527 mothers who gave birth 43 were pairs of twins, or 0.95% of women gave birth to twins. These babies are more likely born by Caesarean section, but delivered with slightly lower birth weight.

  15. Sports pairs: insights on athletic talent; research reviews: twins with leukemia; parents and twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Nancy L

    2007-06-01

    Twin research exploring genetic and environmental influences on athletic interests and talents is reviewed. Illustrative examples of twin athletes representing a variety of sports activities are presented. This is followed by an overview of twin studies offering critical insights into the onset and progress of leukemia. In the last section, timely events involving twins and parents of twins will be described--each case provides a new look at an old question.

  16. Twin pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sperling, Lene; Tabor, A

    2001-01-01

    Determination of chorionicity is one of the most important issues in the management of twin pregnancy. Modern ultrasound equipment has made it possible to accurately assess placentation already in the first trimester with the lambda sign. With regard to prenatal diagnosis, it is important to know...... for clinicians caring for twin pregnancies....

  17. Estimation of Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus, and Different Clinical Parameters in the Thalassemic Population of Capital Twin Cities of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B and C are serious public health problems worldwide. Thalassemia patients are dependent on blood transfusions throughout their life and are at high risk of viral infections. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of hepatitis B/C infections and different clinical parameters in multitransfused thalassemia population. In this study, 262 multitransfused β-thalassemia patients were enrolled from the capital twin cities of Pakistan. The presence of hepatitis B virus (HBV/hepatitis C virus (HCV, alanine aminotransferase (ALT level, serum creatinine, serum ferritin, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, and splenectomy were analyzed. The overall prevalence of HBV and HCV was 3.08% and 55.73%, respectively, with 100% of patients older than 20 years had HCV infection. The ALT levels among HBV- and HCV-positive thalassemia patients were 92.62 ± 41.57 U/L and 98 ± 63.65 U/L, respectively; creatinine values observed were 0.4 ± 0.35 mg/dL (for HBV and 0.39 ± 0.24 mg/dL (for HCV, while serum ferritin levels were 6865.87 ± 1649.13 ng/dL (for HBV and 5445.95 ± 3059.28 ng/dL (for HCV. A total of 74.8% and 82.20% of HBV- and HCV-positive patients had hepatomegaly with an average increase in liver size of 4.17 and 4.33 cm, respectively. Splenomegaly was observed in 64.9% and 67.12% of HBV- and HCV-positive patients with an average increase in spleen size of 4 and 4.46 cm, respectively. Splenectomy was observed among 14.50% and 15.75% of HBV- and HCV-infected thalassemia patients. There is a strong need to properly screen blood before transfusions to reduce the future load of viral hepatitis from Pakistan.

  18. Successful Delivery of Twin Pregnancy in Class U3b/C2/V1 Uterus by Bilateral Caesarean Section after Spontaneous Conception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmine El-Masry

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of a 19-year-old female with class U3b/C2/V1 uterus conceived a twin pregnancy with a fetus in each horn after spontaneous conception. She referred to our department with presentation of premature rupture of membranes, with a history of cesarean delivery of a single full term living fetus a year and a half before this delivery. Examination revealed two completely separate uterine horns with a fetus in each horn, two distinct externally rounded cervices, and a single vagina with a short nonobstructing vaginal septum in the upper part of the vagina. And as the appropriate mode of delivery is still unclear, each case should be managed as the condition requires, and in our case urgent bilateral caesarean sections were performed.

  19. 75 FR 34983 - Order (1) Pursuant to Section 4(c) of the Commodity Exchange Act, Permitting the Kansas City...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... Act, Permitting the Kansas City Board of Trade Clearing Corporation To Clear Over-the-Counter Wheat Calendar Swaps and (2) Pursuant to Section 4d of the Commodity Exchange Act, Permitting Customer Positions... contract market, and its wholly- owned subsidiary corporation, the Kansas City Board of Trade Clearing...

  20. Assessment of implementation of COTPA-2003 in Bengaluru city, India: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Gururaj Habbu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tobacco as a slow and modern epidemic remains a serious public health problem for the country. Despite the existence of a comprehensive law to reduce tobacco burden, India still faces the uphill task of its acceptance and successful implementation. Aim: To assess the implementation of Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products Act 2003 (COTPA-2003 (Section 4, 6b, and 7 in public places of Bengaluru city and to assess the awareness of the head of these institutions/offices regarding COTPA-2003 and its enforcement in their premises. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 175 public places selected as sources of data using cluster random sampling. The tool in the form of a checklist was prepared based on the sections of COTPA-2003 (Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products' Act, and data were recorded through direct observation. A structured interview was conducted of the institutional heads regarding the implementation of COTPA-2003 in their premises. Informed consent was obtained from the institutional heads or in-charges of the public places. Results: Section 4 (Prohibition of smoking in public places was not complied by 58%. Only 16.7% educational institutions complied with the Section 6b (Prohibition of sale of tobacco products near educational institutions. More than 50% of the head of the institutions were unaware of their role in the implementation of this law. Conclusion: Although the law has been drafted comprehensively, it is implemented only to a certain extent. Hence, all concerned departments and ministries responsible for meeting the framework convention on tobacco control objectives and enforcing COTPA, at central and state levels, should act urgently and in coordination.

  1. Malnutrition among 3 to 5 Years Old Children in Baghdad City, Iraq: A Cross-sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ghazi, Hasanain Faisal; Mustafa, Jamsiah; Aljunid, Syed; Isa, Zaleha Md.; Abdalqader, Mohammed A.

    2013-01-01

    The unstable geopolitical situation in Iraq since 2003 still affects the health of people, especially children. Several factors may indirectly affect a child's nutritional status. The main aim of this study was to identify factors contributing to malnutrition among 3 to 5 years old children in Baghdad city, Iraq. Two hundred twenty children aged 3 to 5 years were chosen randomly from four kindergartens in Baghdad city according to the cross-sectional design. The nutritional status of the chil...

  2. Emergency separation of a xipho-omphalopagus twin in a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukla R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Female conjoined twins (thoraco-omphalopagus were delivered by emergency caesarean section in a private nursing home. On examination, one of the twins was dead and was threatening the survival of the surviving twin (twin A. An emergency separation was performed to salvage the surviving twin.

  3. 'Biracial'-Looking Twins: A New Twin Type?/Twin Research: Twins with Cystic Teratomas; Sleep Quality and Body Mass Index; Previable Membrane Rupture/Print and Online Reports: Twins Born to a Sister Surrogate; NASA Twin Study; African-Cosmopolitan Twin Fashion Inspirations; Triplet Hockey Stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Nancy L

    2017-06-01

    Dizygotic (DZ) co-twins born to mothers and fathers from different racial or ethnic backgrounds often resemble one parent much more than the other. As such, these pairs comprise a unique subset of twins for investigating how others' responses to their different looks may affect their personalities and self-esteem. This article describes some of these twin pairs and some challenges of raising them, and suggests ways they may be used in research. Next, recent twin research on cystic teratomas, relations between sleep quality and body mass index, and previable membrane rupture is described. The final section concerns twins, twin studies, and related events in the media, namely: twins born to a sister surrogate, the NASA twin investigation, inspiring African-Cosmopolitan twins in fashion, and triplet Hockey Stars.

  4. The Qingdao Twin Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duan, Haiping; Ning, Feng; Zhang, Dongfeng

    2013-01-01

    In 1998, the Qingdao Twin Registry was initiated as the main part of the Chinese National Twin Registry. By 2005, a total of 10,655 twin pairs had been recruited. Since then new twin cohorts have been sampled, with one longitudinal cohort of adolescent twins selected to explore determinants of me...

  5. Sodium intake in a cross-sectional, representative sample of New York City adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angell, Sonia Y; Yi, Stella; Eisenhower, Donna; Kerker, Bonnie D; Curtis, Christine J; Bartley, Katherine; Silver, Lynn D; Farley, Thomas A

    2014-12-01

    We estimated sodium intake, which is associated with elevated blood pressure, a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and assessed its association with related variables among New York City adults. In 2010 we conducted a cross-sectional, population-based survey of 1656 adults, the Heart Follow-Up Study, that collected self-reported health information, measured blood pressure, and obtained sodium, potassium, and creatinine values from 24-hour urine collections. Mean daily sodium intake was 3239 milligrams per day; 81% of participants exceeded their recommended limit. Sodium intake was higher in non-Hispanic Blacks (3477 mg/d) and Hispanics (3395 mg/d) than in non-Hispanic Whites (3066 mg/d; both P < .05). Higher sodium intake was associated with higher blood pressure in adjusted models, and this association varied by race/ethnicity. Higher sodium intake among non-Hispanic Blacks and Hispanics than among Whites was not previously documented in population surveys relying on self-report. These results demonstrate the feasibility of 24-hour urine collection for the purposes of research, surveillance, and program evaluation.

  6. Social responsibility of the hospitals in Isfahan city, Iran: Results from a cross-sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyvanara, Mahmoud; Sajadi, Haniye Sadat

    2015-01-01

    Background: Changes in modern societies develop the perception that the external environment is essential in organization’s practices, especially in the way they deal with aspects such as human rights, community needs, market demands and environmental interests. These issues are usually under the umbrella of the concept of social responsibility. Given the importance of this concept in the context of health care delivery, suggesting a new paradigm in hospital governance, the aim of this study was to measure the social responsibility in hospitals. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was employed to collect data from a sample of 946 hospital staff of Isfahan city. Data was obtained by structured and valid self-administrated questionnaire and analyzed by descriptive and analytic statistics using SPSS. Results: The mean score of hospitals’ social responsibility was 3.0 compared with the justified range from 1.0 to 5.0. Results showed that there was a significant relationship between social responsibility score and hospitals’ ownership (public or private). Also, there was no significant relationship between social responsibility and type of hospital specialty. Conclusion: It is recommended that hospital managers develop and apply appropriate policies and strategies to improve their hospitals’ social responsibility level, especially through concentrating on their staff’s working environment. PMID:26340391

  7. Effects of male literacy on family size: A cross sectional study conducted in Chakwal city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Humaira; Khan, Ziaullah; Masood, Sumaira

    2016-04-01

    To determine the effects of male education on family size, the desired family size, knowledge and use of contraception and opinion about female education. The cross-sectional study was carried out in Chakwal city, Punjab, Pakistan, from June to October 2009. A pre-tested questionnaire was used for data collection. The respondents were males and data on their demographics, age at marriage, actual and desired family size, knowledge about methods of contraception, and opinion about female education was collected. SPSS 15 was used for statistical analysis. Out of the 178 respondents, 52(29.2%) were illiterate and 126(70.8%) were educated. Among the educated, 97(77%) were in favour of small families compared to only 10(19.2%) of the uneducated males (pfamilies, while 67(37.6%) had other reasons, like trying to conceive. Among the uneducated males, 17(32.7%) didn't discuss any family planning issue with their wives compared to 14(11.3%) of educated males (pfamily size, contraceptive use and views in favour of female education.

  8. Social responsibility of the hospitals in Isfahan city, Iran: Results from a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyvanara, Mahmoud; Sajadi, Haniye Sadat

    2015-02-12

    Changes in modern societies develop the perception that the external environment is essential in organization's practices, especially in the way they deal with aspects such as human rights, community needs, market demands and environmental interests. These issues are usually under the umbrella of the concept of social responsibility. Given the importance of this concept in the context of health care delivery, suggesting a new paradigm in hospital governance, the aim of this study was to measure the social responsibility in hospitals. A cross-sectional survey was employed to collect data from a sample of 946 hospital staff of Isfahan city. Data was obtained by structured and valid self-administrated questionnaire and analyzed by descriptive and analytic statistics using SPSS. The mean score of hospitals' social responsibility was 3.0 compared with the justified range from 1.0 to 5.0. Results showed that there was a significant relationship between social responsibility score and hospitals' ownership (public or private). Also, there was no significant relationship between social responsibility and type of hospital specialty. It is recommended that hospital managers develop and apply appropriate policies and strategies to improve their hospitals' social responsibility level, especially through concentrating on their staff's working environment. © 2015 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  9. The effect on cross sections for Quad Cities by introducing control rod history in the assembly program LEWARD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonboel, E.

    1989-08-01

    This paper shows the effect on the 2-group neutron cross sections for the BWR reactor Quad Cities by introducing control rod ''history'' in the assembly program LEWARD. Control rod ''history'' is a concept which accounts for the movement of control rods during operation. (author)

  10. Comparing antibiotic self-medication in two socio-economic groups in Guatemala City: a descriptive cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramay, Brooke M; Lambour, Paola; Cerón, Alejandro

    2015-04-27

    Self-medication with antibiotics may result in antimicrobial resistance and its high prevalence is of particular concern in Low to Middle Income Countries (LMIC) like Guatemala. A better understanding of self-medication with antibiotics may represent an opportunity to develop interventions guiding the rational use of antibiotics. We aimed to compare the magnitude of antibiotic self-medication and the characteristics of those who self-medicate in two pharmacies serving disparate socio-economic communities in Guatemala City. We conducted a descriptive, cross-sectional study in one Suburban pharmacy and one City Center pharmacy in Guatemala City. We used a questionnaire to gather information about frequency of self-medication, income and education of those who self-medicate. We compared proportions between the two pharmacies, using two-sample z-test as appropriate. Four hundred and eighteen respondents completed the survey (221 in the Suburban pharmacy and 197 in the City Center pharmacy). Most respondents in both pharmacies were female (70%). The reported monthly income in the suburban pharmacy was between $1,250.00-$2,500.00, the city-center pharmacy reported a monthly income between $125.00- $625.00 (p Guatemala City. Additionally, self-medicating respondents were most often women and most commonly self-medicated with amoxicillin. Our findings support future public health interventions centered on the regulation of antibiotic sales and on the potential role of the pharmacist in guiding prescription with antibiotics in Guatemala.

  11. Modeling acardiac twin pregnancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Rosa; van den Wijngaard, Jeroen P. H. M.; Umur, Asli; Beek, Johan F.; Nikkels, Peter G. J.; van Gemert, Martin J. C.

    2007-01-01

    Acardiac twin pregnancies are a rare but severe complication of monochorionic twinning, where the acardiac twin lacks cardiac function but nevertheless grows during pregnancy because it is perfused by the pump twin through a set of placental arterioarterial and venovenous anastomoses. Because the

  12. Emergency separation of a xipho-omphalopagus twin in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emergency separation of a xipho-omphalopagus twin in a developing country. RM Shukla, B Mukhopadhyay, KC Mandal, K Saha, D Roy, PP Mukherjee. Abstract. Female conjoined twins (thoraco-omphalopagus) were delivered by emergency caesarean section in a private nursing home. On examination, one of the twins ...

  13. A Possible Twin: The 1960s Twin Study Revisited/Twin Research: Twin-to-Twin Heart Transplantation; Distinguishing Monozygotic Twins; Twin Conceptions via Oocyte Donation; Factors Affecting Craniofacial Traits/In the Media: Triplet Delivery in the UK; Conjoined Twins and the Concept of Self; Colombian Twin Trainers; Skin Grafting to Save an Identical Co-Twin; Lack of Physical Flaws in Dolly the Cloned Sheep; Possible Conjoined Twins of Opposite-Sex; Passing of the Remaining Twin From the World's Longest Separated Pair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Nancy L

    2018-04-01

    This article begins with the story of a 51-year-old Los Angeles, California man, Justin Goldberg, whose daughter caught a glimpse of his striking look-alike at a popular market. Many people have so-called doppelgängers, but this occurrence is especially intriguing - the individual in question, born in New York City in the mid-1960s to an unwed mother, was an adoptee placed by the Louise Wise Adoption Agency. This agency, under the guidance of a prominent psychiatrist, decided to place twins in separate homes. Some of these twin children were part of a controversial child development study that was hidden from them and their parents. Next, recent and current twin research on heart transplantation, distinguishing monozygotic co-twins, twin conceptions via oocyte donation and factors affecting craniofacial traits are summarized. The article concludes with highlights on twins in the media, specifically, a triplet delivery in the United Kingdom, self-concept and consciousness in conjoined twins, Colombian twin trainers, skin grafting to save an identical co-twin, lack of physical flaws in Dolly the cloned sheep, possible opposite-sex conjoined twins, and the passing of the remaining twin from the world's longest separated pair.

  14. Cultural Competence among Maternal Healthcare Providers in Bahir Dar City Administration, Northwest Ethiopia: Cross sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragaw, Amanu; Yigzaw, Tegbar; Tetemke, Desalegn; G/Amlak, Wubalem

    2015-09-24

    Cultural competency is now a core requirement for maternal health providers working in multicultural society. However, it has not yet received due attention in Ethiopia. This study aimed to determine the level of cultural competence and its associated factors among maternal health care providers in Bahir Dar City Administration, Northwest Ethiopia. Institution based cross-sectional study was carried out using both quantitative and qualitative methods. Maternal health care providers from all health facilities were our study participants. Structured Questionnaire with some modification of Campinha Bacote's tool was used to collect quantitative data from health workers and semi structured guide line was used for qualitative data among women. While quantitative data analysis was done using SPSS, qualitative data was analyzed using open code software. P-value of less than 0.05 was taken to determine statistical significance. Cronbach's alpha was used to test internal reliability and a factor loading of 0.3 or greater was the criterion used to retain items. Two hundred seventy four health workers and seven women were involved in the study. The overall competency level was 57.3 % thought vary in different subscales or stages. Of the cultural competent health workers near to three fourth (73.0 %) were in awareness stage which is the earliest stage of competence in which individuals were aware only their own culture but not the world view of their clients. The voices of mothers in the qualitative assessment also showed discordance in cultural competence with their healthcare providers. Female health workers almost six times [AOR,5.5; 2.71, 11.30] more competent than male providers and those who got in-service training related to maternal care provided services more culturally competent than their counter parts with [AOR,3.5; 1.4, 8.64]. Reliability Cronbach's α coefficient value of cultural competence subscales showed 0.672,0 .719, 0.658, 0.714, and 0.631 for cultural

  15. Bilingual Specialized Programs in New York City High Schools, 1988-89. OREA Evaluation Section Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berney, Tomi D.; Stern, Lucia

    The Bilingual Specialized Programs in New York City High Schools project was supported by tax-levy, Pupils with Compensatory Educational Needs, and state Categorical Aid to Bilingual Education funds. The program functioned in 15 high schools in Manhattan, Brooklyn, and Queens. The program's aim was to provide students of limited English…

  16. Monochorionic twin pregnancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hack, K.E.A.

    2008-01-01

    Following widespread application of assisted reproductive technology modalities and the increased age of motherhood, the incidence of twin gestations has increased markedly. Twins are either monozygotic or dizygotic. Dizygotic (i.e. fraternal) twins result from the fertilization of two different

  17. Malnutrition among 3 to 5 years old children in Baghdad city, Iraq: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazi, Hasanain Faisal; Mustafa, Jamsiah; Aljunid, Syed; Isa, Zaleha; Abdalqader, Mohammed A

    2013-09-01

    The unstable geopolitical situation in Iraq since 2003 still affects the health of people, especially children. Several factors may indirectly affect a child's nutritional status. The main aim of this study was to identify factors contributing to malnutrition among 3 to 5 years old children in Baghdad city, Iraq. Two hundred twenty children aged 3 to 5 years were chosen randomly from four kindergartens in Baghdad city according to the cross-sectional design. The nutritional status of the children was assessed using a weight-for-age z-score based on the World Health Organization 2007 cutoff points, in which any child with a z-score of malnutrition. There was no association between a family's movement from their house and childhood malnutrition (p=0.322). Living in an unsafe neighbourhood and having a family member killed during the past five years were significantly associated with childhood malnutrition (p=0.016 and 0.018 respectively). Childhood malnutrition is still a public-health concern in Baghdad city, especially after the war of 2003. Malnutrition is significantly associated with living in unsafe neighbourhoods and at least one family member having been killed during the past five years.

  18. Musical Interests and Talent: Twin Jazz Musicians and Twin Studies/Twin Research: Loss of a Preterm Multiple; Conjoined Twin Conception; Depression in Fathers of Twins; Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome/Twin News: High-Achieving Twins; Twin Children of a Tennis Star; Conjoined Twin Separation; Twin Delivery to a Giant Panda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Nancy L

    2017-12-01

    Findings from twin studies of musical interests and talent are reviewed as a backdrop to the lives and careers of twin jazz musicians, Peter and Will Anderson. The Anderson twins exemplify many aspects of twin research, namely their matched musical abilities, shared musical interests, and common career. This overview is followed by reviews of studies and case reports of bereavement in families who have lost a preterm multiple birth infant, the conception of conjoined twins following in vitro fertilization (IVF), depression in fathers of twins, and twin-to-twin transfusion incidence in monochorionic-diamniotic IVF twin pairs. Twins highlighted in the media include high-achieving identical female twins with nearly identical academic standing, tennis star Roger Federer's two sets of identical twin children, surgical separation of craniopagus conjoined twins, and the rare delivery of twins to a 23-year-old giant panda.

  19. Oral health status of battery factory workers in Kanpur city: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchi Khurana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The oral cavity is vulnerable to external agents and some occupational exposures are associated with oral changes in both hard and soft tissues. Objectives: To assess oral health status in battery factory workers of Kanpur city and to describe the prevalence and nature of oral health problems among workers. Materials and Methods: A total of 70 battery workers were enrolled and divided into study and control groups based on acid exposure. The data was recorded on a modified World Health Organization 1997 proforma. The data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 15.0. The categorical variables were compared using Chi-square test for proportions while the quantitative ordinal variables were compared using Mann-Whitney U-test. Quantitative continuous variables were compared using Independent samples t-test. Results: The mean age of all the workers surveyed was 36.24 years. Differences in the erosion, oral hygiene and gingival index scores among the two groups were highly significant (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Oral health status was poor and significantly associated with dental erosion.

  20. Correlates of illicit methadone use in New York City: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frye Victoria

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite growing concern about illicit methadone use in the US and other countries, there is little data about the prevalence and correlates of methadone use in large urban areas. We assessed the prevalence and examined correlates of lifetime and recent illicit methadone use in New York City (NYC. Methods 1,415 heroin, crack, and cocaine users aged 15–40 years were recruited in NYC between 2000 and 2004 to complete interviewer-administered questionnaires. Results In multivariable logistic regression, non-injection drug users who used illicit methadone were more likely to be heroin dependent, less than daily methamphetamine users and to have a heroin using sex partner in the last two months. Injection drug users who used illicit methadone were more likely to use heroin daily, share injection paraphernalia and less likely to have been in a detoxification program and to have not used marijuana in the last six months. Conclusion The results overall suggest that illicit (or street methadone use is likely not a primary drug of choice, but is instead more common in concert with other illicit drug use.

  1. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Women of Reproductive Age: A Cross-Sectional Study in a Northwestern Mexican City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Corella-Madueno, Maria Alba Guadalupe; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Rascon-Careaga, Antonio; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Martinez-Robinson, Karla Guadalupe; Aldana-Madrid, Maria Lourdes; Quizan-Plata, Trinidad; Canez-Carrasco, Maria Guadalupe; Perez-Martinez, Cinthia Jhovanna

    2018-01-01

    Background Through a cross-sectional survey, we determined the seroprevalence and correlates of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection in women of reproductive age in Hermosillo City, Mexico. Methods We studied 445 women of reproductive age in Hermosillo City in the northwestern Mexican state of Sonora. Women were enrolled in the University of Sonora. Sera of women were examined for IgG and IgM antibodies to T. gondii by commercially available enzyme immunoassays. The association of T. gondii seropositivity with the characteristics of the pregnant women was determined by bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results Of the 445 women (mean age: 22.18 ± 5.6 years) studied, 16 (3.6%) had IgG antibodies to T. gondii, and two (12.5%) were also positive for IgM antibodies to T. gondii. Of the 16 anti-T. gondii IgG-positive women, six (37.5%) had IgG levels higher than 150 IU/mL, four (25.0%) between 100 and 150 IU/mL, and six (37.5%) between 9 and 99 IU/mL. Multivariate analysis of socio-demographic and behavioral variables showed that T. gondii seropositivity was associated with older age (odds ratio (OR): 5.30; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.37 - 20.50; P = 0.01) and boar meat consumption (OR: 6.86; 95% CI: 1.27 - 37.07; P = 0.02). Conclusions Women of reproductive age in Hermosillo City had a low seroprevalence of T. gondii infection. However, this finding indicates that most of these women were susceptible to a primary infection. Factors associated with T. gondii infection found in this study may be useful for the optimal planning of preventive measures against T. gondii infection and its sequelae. PMID:29416579

  2. Harnessing Social Media to Explore Youth Social Withdrawal in Three Major Cities in China: Cross-Sectional Web Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lucia Lin; Li, Tim MH; Teo, Alan R; Kato, Takahiro A

    2018-01-01

    Background Socially withdrawn youth belong to an emerging subgroup of youth who are not in employment, education, or training and who have limited social interaction intention and opportunities. The use of the internet and social media is expected to be an alternative and feasible way to reach this group of young people because of their reclusive nature. Objective The aim of this study was to explore the possibility of using various social media platforms to investigate the existence of the phenomenon of youth social withdrawal in 3 major cities in China. Methods A cross-sectional open Web survey was conducted from October 2015 to May 2016 to identify and reach socially withdrawn youth in 3 metropolitan cities in China: Beijing, Shanghai, and Shenzhen. To advertise the survey, 3 social media platforms were used: Weibo, WeChat, and Wandianba, a social networking gaming website. Results In total, 137 participants completed the survey, among whom 13 (9.5%) were identified as belonging to the withdrawal group, 7 (5.1%) to the asocial group, and 9 (6.6%) to the hikikomori group (both withdrawn and asocial for more than 3 months). The cost of recruitment via Weibo was US $7.27 per participant. Conclusions Several social media platforms in China are viable and inexpensive tools to reach socially withdrawn youth, and internet platforms that specialize in a certain culture or type of entertainment appeared to be more effective in reaching socially withdrawn youth. PMID:29748164

  3. Tobacco and alcohol use among male dental and medical students studying in Davangere city: A cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M G Inderjit

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess and compare tobacco and alcohol usage among male medical and dental students among students belonging to dental and medical colleges in Davangere city. Materials and Methods: A self-designed questionnaire containing 20 close-ended questions was prepared to collect the required and relevant information pertaining to tobacco and alcohol consumption. The questionnaire was distributed among 400 students belonging to dental and medical colleges in Davangere city. Results: Among the 400 respondents, 48.5% were smokers and 45.75% of students were alcoholics. Among smokers, 55.70% were house surgeon students and 23.07% were 1 st year. Significant difference was found in the percentage of tobacco consumption among medical and dental house surgeon students. The main reason for smoking was examination preparation and workload. Among alcoholics, 51.67% were house surgeon students and 21.9% were 1 st year. The main reason for alcohol consumption was to get relief from tensions. Conclusions: Final year students and house surgeons had more influence of tobacco and alcohol consumption habits when compared to 1 st year students in both dental as well in medical college. Academic demand, work pressure, examination stress, and anxiety were found to be significantly influencing tobacco and alcohol habits among both medical and dental students.

  4. Overweight/Obesity and associated factors among preschool children in Gondar City, Northwest Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrie, Muluken Bekele; Yesuf, Melkie Edris; GebreMichael, Tsgehana GebreGyorgis

    2017-01-01

    Overweight and obesity among children has emerged as one of the most serious public health concerns in the 21st century, which is a predictor of adulthood obesity, morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of overweight /obesity and associated factors among preschool children. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in Gondar City from February 14 to March 4, 2016. Multi stage sampling technique was used to select a total of 504 preschool children. Data were collected using structured interviewer administered questionnaire and anthropometric measurements. Data were entered using Epidata version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 20 and WHO 2007 Anthro version 2.0.4 software. Both bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed to identify associated factors. P values 2hr/day [AOR = 4.01 (95%CI;2.22, 7.26)] and mother's education at secondary level [AOR = 0.35 (95% CI; 0.12, 0.96)] were associated with overweight/obesity among preschool children. Once considered a high income country problem, result of this study in urban city like Gondar reveals that overweight/obesity is on the rise in urban Ethiopia, which indicates the need for formulating preventive programs and policies during a child's early years.

  5. Overweight/Obesity and associated factors among preschool children in Gondar City, Northwest Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muluken Bekele Sorrie

    Full Text Available Overweight and obesity among children has emerged as one of the most serious public health concerns in the 21st century, which is a predictor of adulthood obesity, morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of overweight /obesity and associated factors among preschool children.A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in Gondar City from February 14 to March 4, 2016. Multi stage sampling technique was used to select a total of 504 preschool children. Data were collected using structured interviewer administered questionnaire and anthropometric measurements. Data were entered using Epidata version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 20 and WHO 2007 Anthro version 2.0.4 software. Both bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed to identify associated factors. P values 2hr/day [AOR = 4.01 (95%CI;2.22, 7.26] and mother's education at secondary level [AOR = 0.35 (95% CI; 0.12, 0.96] were associated with overweight/obesity among preschool children.Once considered a high income country problem, result of this study in urban city like Gondar reveals that overweight/obesity is on the rise in urban Ethiopia, which indicates the need for formulating preventive programs and policies during a child's early years.

  6. Perinatal hepatic infarction in twin-twin transfusion.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, M J

    2012-02-03

    We report a case of a twin pregnancy which was complicated by a twin-twin transfusion in which the recipient twin was noted to have an intra-abdominal echogenic mass. This twin died at two days of age of hepatic infarction. The donor twin was healthy at birth, at thirty weeks\\' gestation, and did not have any subsequent problems. Fetal intra-abdominal echogenicity may be a marker of hepatic infarction.

  7. The Brazilian Twin Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Paulo H; Oliveira, Vinicius C; Junqueira, Daniela R; Cisneros, Lígia C; Ferreira, Lucas C; Murphy, Kate; Ordoñana, Juan R; Hopper, John L; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci F

    2016-12-01

    The Brazilian Twin Registry (BTR) was established in 2013 and has impelled twin research in South America. The main aim of the initiative was to create a resource that would be accessible to the Brazilian scientific community as well as international researchers interested in the investigation of the contribution of genetic and environmental factors in the development of common diseases, phenotypes, and human behavior traits. The BTR is a joint effort between academic and governmental institutions from Brazil and Australia. The collaboration includes the Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG) in Brazil, the University of Sydney and University of Melbourne in Australia, the Australian Twin Registry, as well as the research foundations CNPq and CAPES in Brazil. The BTR is a member of the International Network of Twin Registries. Recruitment strategies used to register twins have been through participation in a longitudinal study investigating genetic and environmental factors for low back pain occurrence, and from a variety of sources including media campaigns and social networking. Currently, 291 twins are registered in the BTR, with data on demographics, zygosity, anthropometrics, and health history having been collected from 151 twins using a standardized self-reported questionnaire. Future BTR plans include the registration of thousands of Brazilian twins identified from different sources and collaborate nationally and internationally with other research groups interested on twin studies.

  8. Conjoined (Siamese) Twins in Zambia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    year-old Zambian multiparous mother gave birth to a set of twins with two heads ... (symmetric or mirror image) but one twin attached with an incomplete foetus is known as hetropagtrs. (asymmetrical). Thoracopagus twins (joined at the chest).

  9. Inner-city green space and its association with body mass index and prevalent type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study in an urban German city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Grit; Harhoff, Roland; Rahe, Corinna; Berger, Klaus

    2018-01-21

    The accessibility of green space is an important aspect of the urban residential environment and has been found to be beneficial for health and well-being. This study investigates the association between different indicators of green space and the outcomes body mass index (BMI) and prevalent type 2 diabetes in an urban population. Population-based cross-sectional study. Dortmund, a city located in the industrial Ruhr area in Western Germany. 1312 participants aged 25-74 years from the Dortmund Health Study. The participants' addresses were geocoded and shapefiles of statistical districts, road network and land use, as well as data on neighbourhood characteristics were obtained at baseline. Three indicators of green space were constructed using geographical information systems: proportion of green space, recreation location quotient (RLQ) weighted by population and distance to the next park or forest. Multilevel linear and logistic regression analyses on the association of green space with BMI and type 2 diabetes were performed, adjusted by individual-level characteristics and neighbourhood unemployment rate. The multilevel regression analyses showed no association between green space and BMI. In contrast, the three indicators of green space were significantly associated with type 2 diabetes. Residents of neighbourhoods with a low RLQ had a 2.44 (95% CI 1.01 to 5.93) times higher odds to have type 2 diabetes compared with residents of high RLQ neighbourhoods. Likewise, residing more than 0.8 km away from the nearest park or forest increased the odds of type 2 diabetes (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.05 to 2.77). This study indicates that green space and its spatial accessibility might play a role in the development of type 2 diabetes. Further research is needed to clarify this association. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Birth order, gestational age, and risk of delivery related perinatal death in twins: retrospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gordon C S; Pell, Jill P; Dobbie, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Objective To determine whether twins born second are at increased risk of perinatal death because of complications during labour and delivery. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Scotland, 1992 and 1997. Participants All twin births at or after 24 weeks' gestation, excluding twin pairs in which either twin died before labour or delivery or died during or after labour and delivery because of congenital abnormality, non-immune hydrops, or twin to twin transfusion syndrome. Main outcome measure Delivery related perinatal deaths (deaths during labour or the neonatal period). Results Overall, delivery related perinatal deaths were recorded for 23 first twins only and 23 second twins only of 1438 twin pairs born before 36 weeks (preterm) by means other than planned caesarean section (P>0.99). No deaths of first twins and nine deaths of second twins (P=0.004) were recorded among the 2436 twin pairs born at or after 36 weeks (term). Discordance between first and second twins differed significantly in preterm and term births (P=0.007). Seven of nine deaths of second twins at term were due to anoxia during the birth (2.9 (95% confidence interval 1.2 to 5.9) per 1000); five of these deaths were associated with mechanical problems with the second delivery following vaginal delivery of the first twin. No deaths were recorded among 454 second twins delivered at term by planned caesarean section. Conclusions Second twins born at term are at higher risk than first twins of death due to complications of delivery. Previous studies may not have shown an increased risk because of inadequate categorisation of deaths, lack of statistical power, inappropriate analyses, and pooling of data about preterm births and term births. What is already known on this topicIt is difficult to assess the wellbeing of second twins during labourDeliveries of second twins are at increased risk of mechanical problems, such as cord prolapse and malpresentation, after vaginal delivery of first twins

  11. Epidemiology of Child Tuberculosis (A Cross-Sectional Study at Pulmonary Health Center Semarang City, Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswati, L. D.; Ginandjar, P.; Widjanarko, B.; Puspitasari, R. A.

    2018-02-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an acid-resistant bacterium that caused tuberculosis. The children might suffer tuberculosis by direct transmission of adult smear positive. The analytic observational study with a cross sectional was conducted. Samples were pediatric patients from January 2015 until December 2016. The 344 subject as total sampling were included as samples. Data were obtained through interviews and direct observations then analyzed with Chi-Square method. The results of these study were the majority of subjects were 3 years old (51.7%), the majority were female (55.2%), already immunized BCG (82.6%), and had moderate nutritional status (40.7%). More than half subjects had no contact with adult smear positive (64.5%). Most of subject had house population density ≥ 8m2 per person (99.4%), the level of humidity 40-70% (99.4%), the presence of ventilation 10% from floor area (75.6%), and all the composition of the floor made from tiles. In contrary, the lighting levels were not qualified tuberculosis (98%), and almost respondents were housewives (89.5%) with family income above the minimum wage Semarang (53.4%). The results of Chi-Square test showed that there was a relationship between the gender of the child (OR = 0.445; 95%CI = 0.241-0.821) and the presence of smokers (OR = 2.007; 95%CI = 1.074-3.751). It was suggested to educate the parents about smoker as the risk factor of child tuberculosis.

  12. Hemoglobin Differences in Uncomplicated Monochorionic Twins in Relation to Birth Order and Mode of Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeek, Lianne; Zhao, Depeng P; Te Pas, Arjan B; Middeldorp, Johanna M; Hooper, Stuart B; Oepkes, Dick; Lopriore, Enrico

    2016-06-01

    To determine the differences in hemoglobin (Hb) levels in the first 2 days after birth in uncomplicated monochorionic twins in relation to birth order and mode of delivery. All consecutive uncomplicated monochorionic pregnancies with two live-born twins delivered at our center were included in this retrospective study. We recorded Hb levels at birth and on day 2, and analyzed Hb levels in association with birth order, mode of delivery, and time interval between delivery of twin 1 and 2. A total of 290 monochorionic twin pairs were analyzed, including 171 (59%) twins delivered vaginally and 119 (41%) twins born by cesarean section (CS). In twins delivered vaginally, mean Hb levels at birth and on day 2 were significantly higher in second-born twins compared to first-born twins: 17.8 versus 16.1 g/dL and 18.0 versus 14.8 g/dL, respectively (p < .01). Polycythemia was detected more often in second-born twins (12%, 20/166) compared to first-born twins (1%, 2/166; p < .01). Hb differences within twin pairs delivered by CS were not statistically or clinically significant. We found no association between inter-twin delivery time intervals and Hb differences. Second-born twins after vaginal delivery have higher Hb levels and more often polycythemia than their co-twin, but not when born by CS.

  13. Twin anemia polycythemia sequence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaghekke, Femke

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis we describe that Twin Anemia Polycythemia Sequence (TAPS) is a form of chronic feto-fetal transfusion in monochorionic (identical) twins based on a small amount of blood transfusion through very small anastomoses. For the antenatal diagnosis of TAPS, Middle Cerebral Artery – Peak

  14. The Danish Twin Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytthe, Axel; Ohm Kyvik, Kirsten; Vilstrup Holm, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The Danish Twin Registry is a unique source for studies of genetic, familial and environmental factors on life events, health conditions and diseases. Content: More than 85,000 twin pairs born 1870-2008 in Denmark. Validity and coverage: Four main ascertainment methods have been emp...

  15. A cross-sectional study of tobacco addiction among college students of Muzaffarnagar city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khursheed Muzammil

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco consumption in any form is the second major cause of death all over the globe. The mortality because of tobacco consumption is expected to double by the year 2025. Adolescents and college going students are the most vulnerable group that develop this bad habit of tobacco consumption. Every minute approximately 9-10 people die all over due to tobacco related diseases. Keeping all these in mind the research question of this study was set as -What is the prevalence of tobacco use amongst college students? Materials & Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out for a period of 2 months in the four colleges selected by simple random sampling. Prior permission was taken from all the head of the institutions of the respective colleges. A pre-tested self-structured questionnaire was filled by all the students present at the time of visit to their colleges.  At the end of the visit, students were explained about the harmful effects of tobacco use in any form. A total of 248 students were ultimately included for the purpose of the study and their responses were analyzed by using Epi info statistical package. Results: Prevalence of tobacco use in any form among study subjects has found to be 19.76%. 22.81% of the male subjects and 12.99% of the female subjects were using smokeless tobacco (SLT. Only male subjects were found to be smoker (4.09%. Gutkha was found to be used most by the boys (61.54%. Nearly 77.78% of the boys and 50.87% of the girls knew about the lung cancer and oral cancer as the consequences of tobacco smoking and chewing respectively and this finding when compared has found to be statistically significant. Majority of the boys (93.57% and girls (93.51% responded on the need of complete ban on the tobacco companies. Conclusions: Awareness generation through health education is one of the important aspects for the control of tobacco use. Government and general public should make joint efforts to stop the production

  16. Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Effects of Racism on Mental Health Among Residents of Black Neighborhoods in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Melody S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated the impact of reported racism on the mental health of African Americans at cross-sectional time points and longitudinally, over the course of 1 year. Methods. The Black Linking Inequality, Feelings, and the Environment (LIFE) Study recruited Black residents (n = 144) from a probability sample of 2 predominantly Black New York City neighborhoods during December 2011 to June 2013. Respondents completed self-report surveys, including multiple measures of racism. We conducted assessments at baseline, 2-month follow-up, and 1-year follow-up. Weighted multivariate linear regression models assessed changes in racism and health over time. Results. Cross-sectional results varied by time point and by outcome, with only some measures associated with distress, and effects were stronger for poor mental health days than for depression. Individuals who denied thinking about their race fared worst. Longitudinally, increasing frequencies of racism predicted worse mental health across all 3 outcomes. Conclusions. These results support theories of racism as a health-defeating stressor and are among the few that show temporal associations with health. PMID:25521873

  17. Cross-sectional and longitudinal effects of racism on mental health among residents of Black neighborhoods in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwate, Naa Oyo A; Goodman, Melody S

    2015-04-01

    We investigated the impact of reported racism on the mental health of African Americans at cross-sectional time points and longitudinally, over the course of 1 year. The Black Linking Inequality, Feelings, and the Environment (LIFE) Study recruited Black residents (n = 144) from a probability sample of 2 predominantly Black New York City neighborhoods during December 2011 to June 2013. Respondents completed self-report surveys, including multiple measures of racism. We conducted assessments at baseline, 2-month follow-up, and 1-year follow-up. Weighted multivariate linear regression models assessed changes in racism and health over time. Cross-sectional results varied by time point and by outcome, with only some measures associated with distress, and effects were stronger for poor mental health days than for depression. Individuals who denied thinking about their race fared worst. Longitudinally, increasing frequencies of racism predicted worse mental health across all 3 outcomes. These results support theories of racism as a health-defeating stressor and are among the few that show temporal associations with health.

  18. Pattern of tobacco use among primary school teachers in Belgaum city, India – A Cross Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Savadi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The consumption of tobacco related products by the school teachers is a bad habit because it sends a wrong signal to young minds of students. It is injurious to health and is a waste of money and also is a wrong role model for the students.Objectives To find out the prevalence of pattern of tobacco use among primary school teachers in Belgaum city and to determine the factors influencing the use of tobacco among primary school teachers.Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using random sampling technique among 400 teachers aged 21 to 60 years from 78 primary schools in Belgaum city during March to December 2009.Results Overall, prevalence of any form of tobacco use among primary school teachers was 14.50%. Only male teachers 46.03% used tobacco. 37.93% were using smoking type of tobacco, 46.56% used smokeless & 15.51%were using both types of tobacco products. Most of the users initiated tobacco use by 16 to 20 years of age. A substantial number of teachers initiated tobacco use for fun, imitation and peer pressure. 58.33% of the teachers were using tobacco due to un-satisfaction from profession, 37.50% due to family problems.Conclusion High proportion of male teachers used tobacco than female teachers, because of social norm. Almost all the teachers consciously avoided tobacco use in school premises. Students will be encouraged to start using tobacco, if they observe use of tobacco products by teachers who are the role models for students. It was concluded that it would be beneficial to conduct educational programs and seminars encouraging tobacco cessation to this professional group, along with school children.

  19. Harnessing Social Media to Explore Youth Social Withdrawal in Three Major Cities in China: Cross-Sectional Web Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lucia Lin; Li, Tim Mh; Teo, Alan R; Kato, Takahiro A; Wong, Paul Wc

    2018-05-10

    Socially withdrawn youth belong to an emerging subgroup of youth who are not in employment, education, or training and who have limited social interaction intention and opportunities. The use of the internet and social media is expected to be an alternative and feasible way to reach this group of young people because of their reclusive nature. The aim of this study was to explore the possibility of using various social media platforms to investigate the existence of the phenomenon of youth social withdrawal in 3 major cities in China. A cross-sectional open Web survey was conducted from October 2015 to May 2016 to identify and reach socially withdrawn youth in 3 metropolitan cities in China: Beijing, Shanghai, and Shenzhen. To advertise the survey, 3 social media platforms were used: Weibo, WeChat, and Wandianba, a social networking gaming website. In total, 137 participants completed the survey, among whom 13 (9.5%) were identified as belonging to the withdrawal group, 7 (5.1%) to the asocial group, and 9 (6.6%) to the hikikomori group (both withdrawn and asocial for more than 3 months). The cost of recruitment via Weibo was US $7.27 per participant. Several social media platforms in China are viable and inexpensive tools to reach socially withdrawn youth, and internet platforms that specialize in a certain culture or type of entertainment appeared to be more effective in reaching socially withdrawn youth. ©Lucia Lin Liu, Tim MH Li, Alan R Teo, Takahiro A Kato, Paul WC Wong. Originally published in JMIR Mental Health (http://mental.jmir.org), 10.05.2018.

  20. Pattern of tobacco use among primary school teachers in Belgaum city, India – A Cross Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Savadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The consumption of tobacco related products by the school teachers is a bad habit because it sends a wrong signal to young minds of students. It is injurious to health and is a waste of money and also is a wrong role model for the students. Objectives To find out the prevalence of pattern of tobacco use among primary school teachers in Belgaum city and to determine the factors influencing the use of tobacco among primary school teachers. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using random sampling technique among 400 teachers aged 21 to 60 years from 78 primary schools in Belgaum city during March to December 2009. Results Overall, prevalence of any form of tobacco use among primary school teachers was 14.50%. Only male teachers 46.03% used tobacco. 37.93% were using smoking type of tobacco, 46.56% used smokeless & 15.51%were using both types of tobacco products. Most of the users initiated tobacco use by 16 to 20 years of age. A substantial number of teachers initiated tobacco use for fun, imitation and peer pressure. 58.33% of the teachers were using tobacco due to un- satisfaction from profession, 37.50% due to family problems. Conclusion High proportion of male teachers used tobacco than female teachers, because of social norm. Almost all the teachers consciously avoided tobacco use in school premises. Students will be encouraged to start using tobacco, if they observe use of tobacco products by teachers who are the role models for students. It was concluded that it would be beneficial to conduct educational programs and seminars encouraging tobacco cessation to this professional group, along with school children.

  1. Attitudes, experiences, and barriers to research and publishing among dental postgraduate students of Bengaluru City: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Hegde

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research experience not only enhances understanding but also instills evidence-based practice and improves skills. A natural successor to research is academic publishing. Unfortunately, student research itself is plagued by a number of barriers. Aim: To identify the attitudes, experiences, and barriers to research and publishing among dental postgraduate students of Bangalore city. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey using purposive sampling technique was conducted among the dental postgraduate students of all specialties in Bengaluru city in the months of July–August 2015. A prevalidated, close-ended, self-administered questionnaire consisting of 26 questions was used. Data from 638 completed questionnaires were entered into and analyzed using Microsoft Excel 2013 and SPSS software version 14. Results: The majority of the students displayed a positive attitude towards research and stated that they would like more opportunities to take part in research (89%. Most students were positive toward publishing research; 94% agreed that it is important to publish, although only 43.7% had submitted an article for publication. The single most often stated barrier to conducting research was a lack of funding from the institution (15.7%, followed by workload and time constraints (15.0%. Lack of training and good mentorship was the most often (23.3% faced barrier to publishing, along with high publication fee for indexed journals (17.9%. Conclusion: Dental postgraduate students show an urge to conduct research and publish their results. Research-related workshops for teachers and students are suggestions for improving the status of research in dental colleges.

  2. Evaluation of the adverse events following immunizations surveillance system in Harare City, Zimbabwe, 2016: a descriptive cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvanaka, Sithole; Tsitsi, Juru; Chonzi, Prosper; Shambira, Gerald; Gombe, Notion Tafara; Tshimanga, Mufuta

    2017-01-01

    Vaccines safety are monitored by looking for Adverse Events Following Immunizations (AEFIs). A review of the 2014 Harare City consolidated monthly return form (T5) revealed that 28 AEFIs were seen in 2014. However, only 21 were reported through the system. We therefore evaluated the Harare City AEFI surveillance system to assess its usefulness. A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted. Twenty one of 41 clinics were randomly selected and 51 health workers were randomly recruited. Interviewer administered questionnaires were used to collect data. Epi info 7 was used to generate frequencies, means and proportions. Out of 51 respondents, 50 (98%) knew the purpose of AEFI system, 48 (94%) knew at least two presenting symptoms of AEFIs and 39 (77%) knew the correct date of form submission to the next level. Receiving no feedback 24 (47.1%), fear of victimisation 16 (31.4%) and work overload 11 (21.6%) were the major reasons for under reporting. Eighty six percent perceived the system to be simple and 43 (84%) were willing to continue participating. Fifty three percent (27) reported taking public health actions (such as awareness campaigns & making follow ups) basing on AEFI data collected. All 46 reviewed forms were completely filled and submitted in time. All 21 clinics had written AEFI guidelines and case definitions. Only 14 of 21 clinics had adequately stocked emergency drugs. The total cost for a single notification was estimated at US$22.30. The system was useful, simple, acceptable, timely, stable, representative but costly. The good performance of the system reported in this evaluation could be attributed to high health worker knowledge. Following this evaluation, replenishment of out of stock drugs and follow up of missing 2014 AEFI feedback from MCAZ were done. In addition, making the system electronic is recommended.

  3. Quality of life in unaffected twins discordant for affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Bech, Per; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The disability and hardship associated with affective disorder is shared by the family members of affective patients and might affect the family member's quality of life. METHOD: In a cross-sectional, high-risk, case-control study, monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins with (High......-Risk twins) and without (the control group/Low-Risk twins) a co-twin history of affective disorder were identified through nationwide registers. The aim of the present study was to investigate the hypothesis that a genetic liability to affective disorder is associated with a lower perception of quality...

  4. Quality of life in unaffected twins discordant for affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Bech, Per; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm

    2007-01-01

    -Risk twins) and without (the control group/Low-Risk twins) a co-twin history of affective disorder were identified through nationwide registers. The aim of the present study was to investigate the hypothesis that a genetic liability to affective disorder is associated with a lower perception of quality......BACKGROUND: The disability and hardship associated with affective disorder is shared by the family members of affective patients and might affect the family member's quality of life. METHOD: In a cross-sectional, high-risk, case-control study, monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins with (High...... of life. RESULTS: Univariate analyses showed that quality of life in all domains was impaired for the 121 High-Risk twins compared to the 84 Low-Risk twins. In multiple regression analyses, the differences remained significant after adjustment for sex, age, marital status and years of education. Adjusted...

  5. Twin Pregnancy with Gastroschisis in Both Twins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Fen Kao

    2007-12-01

    Conclusion: The cause of gastroschisis is unknown, although possible exogenous causes have been studied. The diagnosis of gastroschisis in twin pregnancy is always in late gestation. Therefore, maternal serum alpha feto-protein screening and a detailed prenatal ultrasound evaluation are recommended in multifetal pregnancies.

  6. Trends in the obstetric features and management of twin pregnancies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Smith, K E

    2010-03-01

    There are no reports outlining the trends in obstetric features and clinical management of twin pregnancies in an Irish obstetric population. The aim of this study was to investigate these factors for all twin pregnancies delivered during the 19 year period between 1989 and 2007, at Galway University Hospital (GUH). There were 52,199 infants delivered at GUH, of which 1594 infants (3.05% of births) were twins, related to 797 twin pregnancies. The overall incidence of twin pregnancies was 1.52%, increasing from 0.8%-1.0% in the early years of the study to 1.7-1.8% in the latter years of the study (P<0.001). There was a significant increase in incidence of twins born to mothers aged 30-39 years, alongside a significant reduction to mothers aged 20-29 years (P<0.01). The caesarean section rate overall was 41.5% (331\\/797), of which 54% (n=179) were elective, and 46% (n=152) were emergency, representing an emergency caesarean section rate of 19.1% of all twin pregnancies, and of 24.6% after exclusion of elective caesarean sections. The caesarean section rate for twins increased from 30% in 1989 to greater than 50% in the latter years of the study (P<0.01), related largely to a significant increase in elective caesarean sections (P<0.01). The combined vaginal-caesarean delivery rate was remarkably low at 0.75% of all twin pregnancies, and 1% after exclusion of elective caesarean sections. The preterm delivery rates were 4.1% (<32 weeks), and 16.3% (<36 weeks), with an overall perinatal mortality rate of 37 per 1000. These findings highlight the altered demographic and clinical aspects of twin pregnancies in an Irish obstetric population.

  7. SUSY meets her twin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, Andrey [Theory Division, CERN,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Département de Physique Théorique and Center for Astroparticle Physics (CAP),Université de Genève,24 quai Ansermet, CH-1211 Genève 4 (Switzerland); Mariotti, Alberto [Theoretische Natuurkunde and IIHE/ELEM, Vrije Universiteit Brussel,and International Solvay Institutes,Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Pokorski, Stefan [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw,ul. Pasteura 5, PL-02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Redigolo, Diego [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University,Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel); Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science,Rehovot 7610001 (Israel); Ziegler, Robert [Institute for Theoretical Particle Physics (TTP), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology,Engesserstraße 7, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2017-01-31

    We investigate the general structure of mirror symmetry breaking in the Twin Higgs scenario. We show, using the IR effective theory, that a significant gain in fine tuning can be achieved if the symmetry is broken hardly. We emphasize that weakly coupled UV completions can naturally accommodate this scenario. We analyze SUSY UV completions and present a simple Twin SUSY model with a tuning of around 10% and colored superpartners as heavy as 2 TeV. The collider signatures of general Twin SUSY models are discussed with a focus on the extended Higgs sectors.

  8. A cross-sectional study of risk factors for HIV among pregnant women in Guatemala City, Guatemala: lessons for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johri, M; Morales, R E; Hoch, J S; Samayoa, B E; Sommen, C; Grazioso, C F; Boivin, J-F; Barrios Matta, I J; Baide Diaz, E L; Arathoon, E G

    2010-12-01

    Although the Central American HIV epidemic is concentrated in high-risk groups, HIV incidence is increasing in young women. From 2005 to 2007, we conducted a cross-sectional study of pregnant women in a large public hospital and an HIV clinic in Guatemala City to describe risk factors for HIV infection and inform prevention strategies. For 4629 consenting patients, HIV status was laboratory-confirmed and participant characteristics were assessed by interviewer-administered questionnaires. Lifetime number of sexual partners ranged from 1 to 99, with a median (interquartile range) of 1 (1, 2). 2.6% (120) reported exchanging sex for benefits; 0.1% (3) were sex workers, 2.3% (106) had used illegal drugs, 31.1% (1421) planned their pregnancy and 31.8% (1455) experienced abuse. In logistic regression analyses, HIV status was predicted by one variable describing women's behaviour (lifetime sexual partners) and three variables describing partner risks (partner HIV+, migrant worker or suspected unfaithful). Women in our sample exhibited few behavioural risks for HIV but significant vulnerability via partner behaviours. To stem feminization of the epidemic, health authorities should complement existing prevention interventions in high-risk populations with directed efforts towards bridging populations such as migrant workers. We identify four locally adapted HIV prevention strategies.

  9. Preparing for Twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ribbon Commands Skip to main content Turn off Animations Turn on Animations Our Sponsors Log in | Register Menu Log in | ... challenges with twins. He also can suggest helpful reading material or refer you to organizations that help ...

  10. Postpartum Depressive Symptoms and Associated Factors in Married Women: A Cross-sectional Study in Danang City, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thang Van Vo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionPostpartum depression (PPD among women is a common mental health concern. It occurs at a time of major life change, coupled with the increased responsibilities associated with the care of a newborn infant. In Vietnam, the prevalence of depressive symptoms after giving birth has not been fully investigated. Research in the Northern provinces, in Ho Chi Minh City, and in Hue suggests postnatal depressive symptoms among women are common. This research aims to (1 estimate the prevalence of PPD symptoms among married women in one Vietnam city (Danang and (2 identify the social and personal factors associated with postpartum depressive symptoms.MethodsThis cross-sectional study was conducted from July 2013 to August 2014 in 10 wards of Hai Chau District, Danang. A total of 600 mothers who gave birth 4 weeks to 6 months prior to being interviewed were recruited. Interviews were conducted using structured questionnaires, which included several dimensions: demographics, family living arrangements, expectations of pregnancy, expectations of infant gender, the woman’s relationship with her husband, exercise after birth, infant health, and anxiety about matters other than the birth. The Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS was used to examine PPD symptoms, with a cutoff point of 12/13.ResultsEPDS scores indicated the prevalence of PPD symptoms was 19.3% (95% CI: 16.16–22.50. Among women with PPD symptoms, 37.9% had suicidal thoughts in the previous seven days. Multivariate logistic regression indicated that the following key factors were significantly associated with PPD symptoms: Not being able to rely on their husband for help, having a husband who does not spend time to discuss problems, having anxiety about matters other than the birth, not exercising after giving birth, and having an ill baby.ConclusionThese findings should be interpreted in relation to other recent research in Vietnam. A consistent pattern of prevalence

  11. The 16th International Twin Congress: Highlights from Madrid/Twin Research: Twin Study of Partner Aggression; ABO Incompatibility in Dizygotic Twins; Growth Discordance in a Monoamniotic Twin Pair; Quick Note on Twin Implantation/In the Media: Long-Lost Twins Found; NASA Twin Experiment; Twin Brothers and the Las Vegas Attack; Retired Twin Airline Pilots; Twin Film Clips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Nancy L

    2018-02-01

    Highlights from the 16th International Twin Congress, held in Madrid, Spain from November 16-18, 2017, are presented. The Twin Congress, formerly held every three years, now takes place biennially with a single-day meeting organized during the off years. This meeting is the largest gathering of scientific twin researchers, medical personnel, and representatives of multiple birth organizations in the world. This overview is followed by reviews of recent twin research and commentary concerning partner aggression, ABO incompatibility in dizygotic twins, growth discordance in a monoamniotic twin pair and twin implantation. The article closes with summaries of timely topics in the media, namely a father's finding of his long-lost twin children, early results from the NASA twin experiment, twin brothers at the center of the October 2017 Las Vegas attack, retired twin airline pilots, and clips from recent films with twin-based themes.

  12. Identical Twin Primigravid Sisters -Spontaneous Labour and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report 2 cases of identical twin sisters, the older sibling getting married 14 months earlier but both got pregnant for their first child at about the same time and were managed by the same Obstetrician and fell into spontaneous labour within a few hours of each other. Both were delivered by emergency caesarean section ...

  13. Cord entanglement in monoamniotic twin pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyndrup, J; Schouenborg, Lars Øland

    1987-01-01

    Monoamniotic twin pregnancy involves a heavy risk of fatal umbilical cord entanglement. Two cases are reported. In the first case, both twins were found dead in the 36th week, and the monoamnionicity was recognized at birth. In the second case, the monoamnionicity was discovered during an ultraso...... an ultrasound examination, and cord entanglement was suspected in the 35th week on the basis of a non-stress test (NST) with variable decelerations. Cesarean section was performed and two healthy children were delivered....

  14. Secular trends in gestational age and birthweight in twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gielen, M; van Beijsterveldt, C E M; Derom, C; Vlietinck, R; Nijhuis, J G; Zeegers, M P A; Boomsma, D I

    2010-09-01

    In recent decades, the overall rate of preterm births has increased. The aim of the present study was to examine whether this trend is also seen for multiple gestations. More specifically, we examined if there has been a decrease in gestational age for live born monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins and if there has been a simultaneous change in birthweight. The contributions of fertility treatments and Caesarean sections were taken into consideration. All analyses were carried out in two large European twin cohorts. Cross-sectional study of 6310 live born twin pairs, born between 1964-2007, from the Belgian East Flanders Prospective Twin Survey and 14,712 twin pairs, born between 1990-2006, from the Netherlands Twin Register. Multiple regression analyses were performed with gestational age as outcome variable, and multilevel analysis with birthweight as outcome variable. All analyses were performed with and without adjustment for zygosity, parity, maternal age, mode of conception and delivery and, for the analyses of birthweight, gestational age. Gestational age decreased in a linear fashion from 1964 to 2007 with a decrease of 0.25 days per year in a similar way for MZ and DZ twins. Changes in birthweight depended on gestational age: up to 32 weeks, birthweight decreased and after 32 weeks birthweight increased. The frequency of infertility treatment and Caesarean sections, primiparity and advanced maternal age increased over the years, but none of these factors influenced the secular trends in gestational age and birthweight. The decrease in gestational age and change in birthweight in twins are sources of concern, especially for very preterm twins, for whom birthweight decreased. For twins born after 32 weeks, an increase in birthweight was observed and this is very likely the explanation for the decrease in gestational age.

  15. The State of Ambient Air Quality in Two Ugandan Cities : A Pilot Cross-Sectional Spatial Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirenga, Bruce J.; Meng, Qingyu; van Gemert, Frederik; Aanyu-Tukamuhebwa, Hellen; Chavannes, Niels; Katamba, Achilles; Obai, Gerald; van der Molen, Thys; Schwander, Stephan; Mohsenin, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution is one of the leading global public health risks but its magnitude in many developing countries' cities is not known. We aimed to measure the concentration of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter

  16. Twin-twin transfusion syndrome: etiology, severity and rational management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gemert, M. J.; Umur, A.; Tijssen, J. G.; Ross, M. G.

    2001-01-01

    The twin-twin transfusion syndrome is a serious complication of monochorionic twin pregnancies. Partly as a result of an inadequate understanding of the pathophysiology of the syndrome, there is a lack of consensus in clinical management. We sought to review the available information on the etiology

  17. Salivary cortisol in unaffected twins discordant for affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Bennike, Bente; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm

    2008-01-01

    . In conclusion, a high genetic liability to affective disorder was associated with a higher evening cortisol level, but not with awakening cortisol level. Future prospective family, high-risk and twin studies are needed to decide whether abnormalities in the HPA axis can be identified as an endophenotype......Dysfunction in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been proposed as a biological endophenotype for affective disorders. In the present study the hypothesis that a high genetic liability to affective disorder is associated with higher cortisol levels was tested in a cross......-sectional high-risk study. Healthy monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins with (High-Risk twins) and without (Low-Risk twins) a co-twin history of affective disorder were identified through nationwide registers. Awakening and evening salivary cortisol levels were compared between the 190 High- and Low...

  18. Genetic susceptibility to bilateral tinnitus in a Swedish twin cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maas, Iris Lianne; Brüggemann, Petra; Requena, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Genetic contributions to tinnitus have been difficult to determine due to the heterogeneity of the condition and its broad etiology. Here, we evaluated the genetic and nongenetic influences on self-reported tinnitus from the Swedish Twin Registry (STR). METHODS: Cross-sectional data from...... the STR was obtained. Casewise concordance rates (the risk of one twin being affected given that his/her twin partner has tinnitus) were compared for monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs (N = 10,464 concordant and discordant twin pairs) and heritability coefficients (the proportion of the total...... variance attributable to genetic factors) were calculated using biometrical model fitting procedures. RESULTS: Stratification of tinnitus cases into subtypes according to laterality (unilateral versus bilateral) revealed that heritability of bilateral tinnitus was 0.56; however, it was 0.27 for unilateral...

  19. Anencephaly with incomplete twinning (diprosopus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccardi, V M; Bergmann, C A

    1977-10-01

    A case of diprosopus with anencephaly is presented. It is suggested that such concurrence of neural tube defects and incomplete twinning corroborates the notion that a single pathogenetic mechanism may be common to both neural tube defects and monozygotic twinning.

  20. Relativistic twins or sextuplets?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheldon, Eric

    2003-01-01

    A recent study of the relativistic twin 'paradox' by Soni in this journal affirmed that 'A simple solution of the twin paradox also shows anomalous behaviour of rigidly connected distant clocks' but entailed a pedagogic hurdle which the present treatment aims to surmount. Two scenarios are presented: the first 'flight-plan' is akin to that depicted by Soni, with constant-velocity segments, while the second portrays an alternative mission undertaken with sustained acceleration and deceleration, illustrated quantitatively for a two-way spacecraft flight from Earth to Polaris (465.9 light years distant) and back

  1. Relativistic twins or sextuplets?

    CERN Document Server

    Sheldon, E S

    2003-01-01

    A recent study of the relativistic twin 'paradox' by Soni in this journal affirmed that 'A simple solution of the twin paradox also shows anomalous behaviour of rigidly connected distant clocks' but entailed a pedagogic hurdle which the present treatment aims to surmount. Two scenarios are presented: the first 'flight-plan' is akin to that depicted by Soni, with constant-velocity segments, while the second portrays an alternative mission undertaken with sustained acceleration and deceleration, illustrated quantitatively for a two-way spacecraft flight from Earth to Polaris (465.9 light years distant) and back.

  2. Imaging of conjoined twins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHugh, Kieran [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Kiely, Edward M.; Spitz, Lewis [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Surgery, London (United Kingdom)

    2006-09-15

    The incidence of conjoined twins is estimated to be around 1 in 250,000 live births. There is a distinct female predominance. In this paper the imaging of conjoined twins both antenatally and postnatally is reviewed, in particular taking into consideration recent advances with multidetector CT. Accurate counselling of parents regarding the likely outcome of the pregnancy and the likelihood of successful separation is dependent on good prenatal imaging with ultrasound and MRI. Planning of postnatal surgical separation is aided by accurate preoperative imaging which, depending on the conjoined area, will encompass many imaging modalities, but often relies heavily on CT scanning. (orig.)

  3. Imaging of conjoined twins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHugh, Kieran; Kiely, Edward M.; Spitz, Lewis

    2006-01-01

    The incidence of conjoined twins is estimated to be around 1 in 250,000 live births. There is a distinct female predominance. In this paper the imaging of conjoined twins both antenatally and postnatally is reviewed, in particular taking into consideration recent advances with multidetector CT. Accurate counselling of parents regarding the likely outcome of the pregnancy and the likelihood of successful separation is dependent on good prenatal imaging with ultrasound and MRI. Planning of postnatal surgical separation is aided by accurate preoperative imaging which, depending on the conjoined area, will encompass many imaging modalities, but often relies heavily on CT scanning. (orig.)

  4. Monozygotic twins with CAPN5 autosomal dominant neovascular inflammatory vitreoretinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowell HA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Hannah A Rowell,1,2 Alexander G Bassuk,3,4 Vinit B Mahajan1,21Omics Laboratory, 2Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, 3Department of Pediatrics, 4Department of Neurology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USABackground: The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical findings in a set of monozygotic twins with autosomal dominant neovascular inflammatory vitreoretinopathy (ADNIV over a 23-year period.Methods: A pair of female twins were examined between 26 and 49 years of age. The concordance and discordance of their clinical features were determined. The CAPN5 gene was sequenced using genomic DNA.Results: Both twins of an affected father demonstrated Stage I ADNIV with mild vitreous cells and a negative b-wave on electroretinography. Genetic analysis confirmed a guanine to thymine nucleotide (c.728G>T, pArg243Leu mutation in the CAPN5 gene. Over the course of 23 years, each twin progressed to stage III disease, showing posterior uveitis, cystoid macular edema, intraocular fibrosis, early retinal neovascularization, retinal degeneration, and cataract. Disease progression varied moderately between each twin and was asymmetrical between eyes. Twin A had 20/70 and 20/125 in the right and left eye, respectively, and underwent vitrectomy surgery and intravitreal injections with bevacizumab for recurrent cystoid macular edema. Twin B maintained 20/20 and 20/40 in the right and left eye, respectively without intervention.Conclusion: There was asymmetry between the eyes and some discordance in the rate of disease progression in these monozygotic twins with ADNIV. The overall high disease concordance suggests genetic factors play a major role in clinical manifestations in CAPN5 vitreoretinopathy.Keywords: autosomal dominant neovascular inflammatory vitreoretinopathy, ADNIV, CAPN5, calpain-5, monozygotic twins

  5. The Placenta in Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome and Twin Anemia Polycythemia Sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couck, Isabel; Lewi, Liesbeth

    2016-06-01

    Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) and twin anemia polycythemia sequence (TAPS) are complications unique to monochorionic twin pregnancies and their shared circulation. Both are the result of the transfusion imbalance in the intertwin circulation. TTTS is characterized by an amniotic fluid discordance, whereas in TAPS, there is a severe discordance in hemoglobin levels. The article gives an overview of the typical features of TTTS and TAPS placentas.

  6. Dialysis for twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramkow, Ann-Maria; Aarup, Michael; Andersen, L. L. T.

    2014-01-01

    A 32-year-old woman with known stage-4 chronic kidney disease due to lupus nephritis presented with twin pregnancy after in vitro fertilization at a gestational age of 24 weeks + 3 days because of imminent preterm labour. Repeated ultrasound evaluations confirmed intrauterine growth restriction...

  7. Anaesthesia for conjoined twins

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    draw~ver patient system consisting of a paediatric. "Ambu" bag and "Paedivalven drawing oxygen-en- riched air through a halothane vaporiser. Oxygen was supplied from an electric oxygen concentrator which can give 2 litres of 95% oxygen per minute. This apparatus has been described I. Mter 3 minutes the Sa02 of Twin ...

  8. Sleep Terrors in Twins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to clarify the genetic and environmental causes of sleep terrors in childhood, reasearchers in Canada followed 390 pairs of monozygotic and dizygotic twins by assessing the frequency of sleep terrors at 18 and 30 months of age using a questionnaire administered to the biological mothers.

  9. Sleep Terrors in Twins

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-01-01

    In an attempt to clarify the genetic and environmental causes of sleep terrors in childhood, reasearchers in Canada followed 390 pairs of monozygotic and dizygotic twins by assessing the frequency of sleep terrors at 18 and 30 months of age using a questionnaire administered to the biological mothers.

  10. The USC Adult Twin Cohorts: International Twin Study and California Twin Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozen, Wendy; Hwang, Amie E; Cockburn, Myles G; Hamilton, Ann S; Zadnick, John; Mack, Thomas M

    2013-02-01

    The study of twin subjects permits the documentation of crude heritability and may promote the identification of specific causal alleles. We believe that at the current time, the chief research advantage of twins as subjects, especially monozygotic twins, is that the commonality of their genetic and cultural identity simplifies the interpretation of biological associations. In order to study genetic and environmental determinants of cancer and chronic diseases, we developed two twin registries, maintained at the University of Southern California: The International Twin Study (ITS) and the California Twin Program (CTP). The ITS is a volunteer registry of twins with cancer and chronic disease consisting of 17,245 twin pairs affected by cancer and chronic disease, respectively, ascertained by advertising in periodicals from 1980-1991. The CTP is a population-based registry of California-born twin pairs ascertained by linking the California birth records to the State Department of Motor Vehicles. Over 51,000 individual California twins representing 36,965 pairs completed and returned 16-page questionnaires. Cancer diagnoses in the California twins are updated by regular linkage to the California Cancer Registry. Over 5,000 cancer patients are represented in the CTP. Twins from both registries have participated extensively in studies of breast cancer, melanoma, lymphoma, multiple sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, diabetes mellitus type 1, mammographic density, smoking, and other traits and conditions.

  11. Twin-twin transfusion syndrome - diagnosis and prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajrić-Egić Amira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Twin-twin transfusion syndrome is a serious complication of monozygotic, monochorionic, diamniotic twins resulting from transplacental vascular communications. In this syndrome blood is thought to be shunted from one twin - donor,who develops anaemia,growth retardation and oligoamnios, to the other twin - recipient,who becomes plethoric,macrosomic and develops polyhydroamnios. The incidence of twin-twin transfusion syndrome ranges from 5-15% of all twin pregnancies. If this condition develops in the second trimester, it is usually associated with spontaneous abortion and death of one or both fetuses before viability. Developing the syndrome in the third trimester has better perinatal outcome. Mortality rates ranging from 56%-100%, depending on gestational age and severity of the syndrome. The ultrasound criterias for diagnosis, in this study,were the presence of twins of the same sex with discordant growth, with oligohydroamnios in one twin sac and polyhydroamnios in the other one, one placenta and thin membrane between twins. The present study shows clinical course of 14 cases and value of Doppler ultrasound to analyze the usefulness of umbilical artery blood flow velocimetry for predicting the risk of twin-twin transfusion syndrome. 14 twin pregnancies with twin-twin transfusion syndrome were diagnosed during the last four years period and prospectivelly followed. 9 cases were diagnosed before the completion od 28 weeks of gestation.The mean gestational age was 21,6_+4,2 weeks at diagnosis and 23,2+_3,6 weeks at delivery. 5 cases were diagnosed after 28 weeks of gestation. The mean gestational age in this group was 29,6+_2,1 weeks at diagnosis and 33+_3,3 weeks at delivery. The survival rate in this study was 29%(8/28.9 cases ended in spontaneous abortion between 18th and 27th weeks of pregnancy (table 1 and 5 in premature labor (table 2.There were 7 intrauterine death (5 at admission and 2 few days after admission and 13 neonatal deaths

  12. Road Rage Menace: A Cross-sectional Study to Assess Driver Anger Level in Public Motor Vehicle Drivers in a City in Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Dixit

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Road rage and aggressive driving is a prevalent condition in today’s society due to motorists’ frustrations during heavy traffic volumes. Objective: This study was done to assess the level of anger amongst the drivers of public transport vehicles in Indore, using Driving Anger Scale (DAS by Deffenbacher et. al. and various factors affecting it. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 135 drivers of Public transport vehicle drivers (Star bus, City-van and star cab drivers in Indore to assess their anger level using Driving Anger Scale. The participants were required to record the amount of anger they would experience in response to each item in the scale (1=not at all angry, 2=a little angry, 3=some anger, 4=much anger, 5=very much angry. Results: The mean DAS score in Indore was found to be 3.013 and in the three organizations namely Star bus drivers, City van drivers and Star cab drivers was 2.92, 3.08 and 3.04 respectively. The DAS score of drivers with respect to the 6 sub-scales were: hostile gestures (Star bus -3.42,City van -3.67,Star cab -3.38, slow driving (Star bus -2.73,City van driv-2.78,Star cab-3.17, traffic obstructions (Star bus-2.85,City van -3.25,Star cab-3.18, discourtesy (Star bus -3.23,City van-3.33,Star cab -3.25and police presence (Star bus -2.15,City van -1.99,Star cab -2.78, illegal driving (Star bus -3.04,City van -3.14,Star cab -2.89. The DAS scores of the drivers did not vary significantly with age group, experience, and educational qualification. Conclusion: Though DAS scores did not vary between the three groups of drivers, however average level anger for various given circumstances commonly found in the Indian traffic scenario was on the higher side.

  13. Risk factors for cesarean delivery and adverse neonatal outcome in twin pregnancies attempting vaginal delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachter-Safrai, Natali; Karavani, Gilad; Haj-Yahya, Rani; Ofek Shlomai, Noa; Porat, Shay

    2018-02-24

    Twin vaginal delivery presents a unique clinical challenge for obstetricians. The Twin Birth Study demonstrated the safety of planned vaginal delivery regarding neonatal outcomes. However, that study lacked a description of the risk factors associated with and the outcome of unplanned cesarean section. The aim of this study is to identify potential risk factors for cesarean section and delivery related neonatal morbidity and mortality in women with twin pregnancy attempting vaginal delivery. A retrospective cohort study including 1070 women with twin pregnancy that underwent a trial of labor between 2003 and 2015. The study population was divided according to the mode of delivery: vaginal delivery, combined vaginal-cesarean and intrapartum cesarean delivery of both twins. Several risk factors and neonatal outcomes were examined by both univariate analysis and multinomial logistic regression analysis. The rate of vaginal delivery of both twins was 88.3%, whereas the rates of combined vaginal cesarean and unplanned cesarean delivery were 4.6% and 7.1%, respectively. Nulliparity and nonvertex presentation of twin B were found to be independently associated with cesarean delivery for both twins. Additionally, nonvertex presentation of twin B was independently associated with combined vaginal-cesarean delivery. The proportion of neonates with Apgar score cesarean group compared with those delivered by the vaginal route alone. Nulliparity and nonvertex presentation of twin B were found to be associated with intrapartum cesarean delivery in twin pregnancies. © 2018 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  14. Public Awareness and Use of German Physician Ratings Websites: Cross-Sectional Survey of Four North German Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, Stuart; Strech, Daniel; Meyer, Andrea; Kahrass, Hannes

    2017-11-09

    Physician rating websites (PRWs) allow patients to rate, comment, and discuss physicians' quality. The ability of PRWs to influence patient decision making and health care quality is dependent, in part, on sufficient awareness and usage of PRWs. However, previous studies have found relatively low levels of awareness and usage of PRWs, which has raised concerns about the representativeness and validity of information on PRWs. The objectives of this study were to examine (1) participants' awareness, use, and contribution of ratings on PRWs and how this compares with other rating websites; (2) factors that predict awareness, use, and contribution of ratings on PRWs; and (3) participants' attitudes toward PRWs in relation to selecting a physician. A mailed cross-sectional survey was sent to a random sample (N=1542) from four North German cities (Nordhorn, Hildesheim, Bremen, and Hamburg) between April and July 2016. Survey questions explored respondents' awareness, use, and contribution of ratings on rating websites for service (physicians, hospitals, and hotels and restaurants) and products (media and technical) in general and the role of PRWs when searching for a new physician. A total of 280 completed surveys were returned (280/1542, 18.16% response rate), with the following findings: (1) Overall, 72.5% (200/276) of respondents were aware of PRWs. Of the respondents who were aware of PRWs, 43.6% (86/197) had used PRWs. Of the respondents who had used PRWs, 23% (19/83) had rated physicians at least once. Awareness, use, and contribution of ratings on PRWs were significantly lower in comparison with all other rating websites, except for hospital rating websites. (2) Except for the impact of responders' gender and marital status on the awareness of PRWs and responders' age on the use of PRWs, no other predictors had a relevant impact. (3) Whereas 31.8% (85/267) of the respondents reported that PRWs were a very important or somewhat important information source when

  15. Brazilian Twin Registry: A Bright Future for Twin Studies/Twin Research: Twin Study of Alcohol Consumption and Mortality; Oxygen Uptake in Adolescent Twins/In the News: Superfecundated Twins In Vietnam; Adolescent Twin Relations; Twin and Triplet Co-Workers; A Special Twin Ultrasound; Monozygotic Twins With Different Skin Color; Identical Twin Returns from Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Nancy L

    2016-06-01

    The establishment of the Brazilian Twin Registry for the study of genetic, social, and cultural influences on behavior is one of eleven newly funded projects in the Department of Psychology at the University of São Paulo. These 11 interrelated projects form the core of the university's Center for Applied Research on Well-Being and Human Behavior. An overview of the planned twin research and activities to date is presented. Next, two recent twin studies are reviewed, one on the relationship between alcohol consumption and mortality, and the other on factors affecting maximal oxygen uptake. Twins cited in the media include the first identified superfecundated twins in Vietnam, adolescent twin relations, twins and triplets who work together, monozygotic twins with different skin tones and a co-twin control study that addresses the effects of space travel.

  16. Visiting green space is associated with mental health and vitality: A cross-sectional study in four european cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Magdalena; van Poppel, Mireille; van Kamp, Irene; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Balseviciene, Birute; Cirach, Marta; Danileviciute, Asta; Ellis, Naomi; Hurst, Gemma; Masterson, Daniel; Smith, Graham; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Uzdanaviciute, Inga; de Wit, Puck; van Mechelen, Willem; Gidlow, Christopher; Grazuleviciene, Regina; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Kruize, Hanneke; Maas, Jolanda

    2016-03-01

    Many epidemiological studies have found that people living in environments with more green space report better physical and mental health than those with less green space. However, the association between visits to green space and mental health has seldom been studied. The current study explored the associations between time spent in green spaces by purposeful visits and perceived mental health and vitality in four different European cities, and to what extent gender, age, level of education, attitude towards nature and childhood nature experience moderate these associations. Data was gathered using a questionnaire administered in four European cities (total n=3748). Multilevel analyses showed significant positive associations between time spent visiting green spaces and mental health and vitality in the pooled data, as well as across the four cities. Significant effect modification was found for level of education and childhood nature experience. The findings confirm the hypothesis that more time spent in green space is associated with higher scores on mental health and vitality scales, independent of cultural and climatic contexts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Reared-Apart Chinese Twins: Chance Discovery/Twin-Based Research: Twin Study of Media Use; Twin Relations Over the Life Span; Breast-Feeding Opposite-Sex Twins/Print and Online Media: Twins in Fashion; Second Twin Pair Born to Tennis Star; Twin Primes; Twin Pandas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Nancy L

    2017-04-01

    A January 2017 reunion of 10-year-old reared-apart Chinese twin girls was captured live on ABC's morning talk show Good Morning America, and rebroadcast on their evening news program Nightline. The twins' similarities and differences, and their participation in ongoing research will be described. This story is followed by reviews of twin research concerning genetic and environmental influences on media use, twin relations across the lifespan and the breast-feeding of opposite-sex twins. Popular interest items include twins in fashion, the second twin pair born to an internationally renowned tennis star, twin primes and twin pandas.

  18. Thermodynamics of twinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, I.; Zak, G.

    1995-01-01

    The quasiplastic hysteresis occuring in shape memory alloys is associated with twinning in tension and compression, i.e. a conversion of one martensitic variant into antoher one. It shows the phenomena of internal elasticity and internal yield, heretofore studied extensively in pseudoelasticity. This paper presents experimental evidence of such phenomena and it offers partial explanation in identifying the onset of yield as an instability phenomenon due to coherency. That conjecture is motivated from a previous consideration of pseudoelasticity. (orig.)

  19. Monozygotic twins with discordant intestinal rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Vance L.; Nwomeh, Benedict C.; Long, Frederick

    2006-01-01

    Previous case reports have suggested a strong concordance of intestinal malrotation among identical twins. This has led to the recommendation that the asymptomatic twin undergo screening when malrotation is discovered in the identical sibling. We present a case of monozygotic twins in which one twin presented with intestinal malrotation with midgut volvulus while the other twin was found to have normal gastrointestinal anatomy. (orig.)

  20. Monozygotic twins with discordant intestinal rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Vance L.; Nwomeh, Benedict C. [Ohio State University College of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Pediatric Surgery, Columbus Children' s Hospital, Columbus, OH (United States); Long, Frederick [Ohio State University College of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Radiology, Columbus Children' s Hospital, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2006-04-15

    Previous case reports have suggested a strong concordance of intestinal malrotation among identical twins. This has led to the recommendation that the asymptomatic twin undergo screening when malrotation is discovered in the identical sibling. We present a case of monozygotic twins in which one twin presented with intestinal malrotation with midgut volvulus while the other twin was found to have normal gastrointestinal anatomy. (orig.)

  1. Birth weight, sex, and celiac disease: a nationwide twin study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuja-Halkola R

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ralf Kuja-Halkola,1 Benjamin Lebwohl,1,2 Jonas Halfvarson,3 Louise Emilsson,4–6 Patrik K Magnusson,1 Jonas F Ludvigsson1,2,7,8 1Department Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 2Department of Medicine, Celiac Disease Center, Columbia University Medical Center, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA; 3Department of Gastroenterology, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; 4Department of Health Management and Health Economy, Institute of Health and Society, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; 5Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA; 6Centre for Clinical Research, Vårdcentralen Värmlands Nysäter, County Council of Värmland, Värmland, 7Department of Pediatrics, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden; 8Division of Epidemiology and Public Health, School of Medicine, City Hospital, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK Objective: Earlier research suggests that birth weight may be associated with celiac disease (CD, but the direction of association has been unclear potentially due to confounding effect from genetic and intrafamilial factors. Through within-twin analyses, we aimed to minimize confounding effects such as twins that share genetic and early environmental exposures.Materials and methods: Using the Swedish Twin Registry, we examined the birth weight of 146,830 twins according to the CD status. CD was defined as having villous atrophy according to a small intestinal biopsy reports.Results: The prevalence of diagnosed CD was 0.5% (n=669, and we included 407 discordant pairs of CD–non-CD twins. Comparing the 669 CD patients with non-CD twins, the association between birth weight and future CD was not statistically significant (odds ratio [OR] per 1000 g increase in birth weight: 1.16; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.97–1.38. In males, the association was positive and statistically significant (OR=1.50; 95% CI

  2. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Electric Power Marketing. Draft environmental impact statement: Volume 2, Sections 1-16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The Salt Lake City Area Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Green, Gunnison, Rio Grande, and Colorado rivers and on Deer and Plateau creeks in the states of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams;) are influenced by Western power scheduling and transmission decisions. The EIS alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Westerns firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this environmental impact statement (EIS) include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action alternative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources.

  3. Illustrations of the twin paradox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebhan, E.

    1985-01-01

    In order to provide a more intuitive understanding of the twin paradox, several illustrations of this are presented. In one of these, each of the twins is equipped with a lamp whose monochromatic light can be observed by the other. In other illustrations the travelling twin uses an Einstein train instead of a space ship, all the cars of the train and all stations along the route of the train being equipped with clocks. (author)

  4. Prevalence and associated risk factors of dyslexic children in a middle-sized city of China: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhao; Zou, Li; Zhang, Jiajia; Mo, Shengnan; Shao, Shanshan; Zhong, Rong; Ke, Juntao; Lu, Xuzai; Miao, Xiaoping; Song, Ranran

    2013-01-01

    There are many discussions about dyslexia based on studies conducted in western countries, and some risk factors to dyslexia, such as gender and home literacy environment, have been widely accepted based on these studies. However, to our knowledge, there are few studies focusing on the risk factors of dyslexia in China. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence of dyslexia and its potential risk factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Qianjiang, a city in Hubei province, China. Two stages sampling strategy was applied to randomly selected 5 districts and 9 primary schools in Qianjiang. In total, 6,350 students participated in this study and there were 5,063 valid student questionnaires obtained for the final analyses. Additional questionnaires (such as Dyslexia Checklist for Chinese Children and Pupil Rating Scale) were used to identify dyslexic children. The chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression were employed to reveal the potential risk factors to dyslexia. Our study revealed that the prevalence of dyslexia was 3.9% in Qianjiang city, which is a middle-sized city in China. Among dyslexic children, the gender ratio (boys to girls) was nearly 3∶1. According to the P-value in the multivariate logistic regression, the gender (Pdyslexia. The prevalence rate of dyslexic children in middle-sized cities is 3.9%. The potential risk factors of dyslexic children revealed in this study will have a great impact on detecting and treating dyslexic children in China as early as possible, although more studies are still needed to further investigate the risk factors of dyslexic children in China.

  5. The State of Ambient Air Quality in Two Ugandan Cities: A Pilot Cross-Sectional Spatial Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce J. Kirenga

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is one of the leading global public health risks but its magnitude in many developing countries’ cities is not known. We aimed to measure the concentration of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <2.5 µm (PM2.5, nitrogen dioxide (NO2, sulfur dioxide (SO2, and ozone (O3 pollutants in two Ugandan cities (Kampala and Jinja. PM2.5, O3, temperature and humidity were measured with real-time monitors, while NO2 and SO2 were measured with diffusion tubes. We found that the mean concentrations of the air pollutants PM2.5, NO2, SO2 and O3 were 132.1 μg/m3, 24.9 µg/m3, 3.7 µg/m3 and 11.4 μg/m3, respectively. The mean PM2.5 concentration is 5.3 times the World Health Organization (WHO cut-off limits while the NO2, SO2 and O3 concentrations are below WHO cut-off limits. PM2.5 levels were higher in Kampala than in Jinja (138.6 μg/m3 vs. 99.3 μg/m3 and at industrial than residential sites (152.6 μg/m3 vs. 120.5 μg/m3 but residential sites with unpaved roads also had high PM2.5 concentrations (152.6 μg/m3. In conclusion, air pollutant concentrations in Kampala and Jinja in Uganda are dangerously high. Long-term studies are needed to characterize air pollution levels during all seasons, to assess related public health impacts, and explore mitigation approaches.

  6. The State of Ambient Air Quality in Two Ugandan Cities: A Pilot Cross-Sectional Spatial Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirenga, Bruce J; Meng, Qingyu; van Gemert, Frederik; Aanyu-Tukamuhebwa, Hellen; Chavannes, Niels; Katamba, Achilles; Obai, Gerald; van der Molen, Thys; Schwander, Stephan; Mohsenin, Vahid

    2015-07-15

    Air pollution is one of the leading global public health risks but its magnitude in many developing countries' cities is not known. We aimed to measure the concentration of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <2.5 µm (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and ozone (O3) pollutants in two Ugandan cities (Kampala and Jinja). PM2.5, O3, temperature and humidity were measured with real-time monitors, while NO2 and SO2 were measured with diffusion tubes. We found that the mean concentrations of the air pollutants PM2.5, NO2, SO2 and O3 were 132.1 μg/m3, 24.9 µg/m3, 3.7 µg/m3 and 11.4 μg/m3, respectively. The mean PM2.5 concentration is 5.3 times the World Health Organization (WHO) cut-off limits while the NO2, SO2 and O3 concentrations are below WHO cut-off limits. PM2.5 levels were higher in Kampala than in Jinja (138.6 μg/m3 vs. 99.3 μg/m3) and at industrial than residential sites (152.6 μg/m3 vs. 120.5 μg/m3) but residential sites with unpaved roads also had high PM2.5 concentrations (152.6 μg/m3). In conclusion, air pollutant concentrations in Kampala and Jinja in Uganda are dangerously high. Long-term studies are needed to characterize air pollution levels during all seasons, to assess related public health impacts, and explore mitigation approaches.

  7. Holographic twin Higgs model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Michael; Telem, Ofri

    2015-05-15

    We present the first realization of a "twin Higgs" model as a holographic composite Higgs model. Uniquely among composite Higgs models, the Higgs potential is protected by a new standard model (SM) singlet elementary "mirror" sector at the sigma model scale f and not by the composite states at m_{KK}, naturally allowing for m_{KK} beyond the LHC reach. As a result, naturalness in our model cannot be constrained by the LHC, but may be probed by precision Higgs measurements at future lepton colliders, and by direct searches for Kaluza-Klein excitations at a 100 TeV collider.

  8. Holographic Twin Higgs Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Michael; Telem, Ofri

    2015-05-01

    We present the first realization of a "twin Higgs" model as a holographic composite Higgs model. Uniquely among composite Higgs models, the Higgs potential is protected by a new standard model (SM) singlet elementary "mirror" sector at the sigma model scale f and not by the composite states at mKK , naturally allowing for mKK beyond the LHC reach. As a result, naturalness in our model cannot be constrained by the LHC, but may be probed by precision Higgs measurements at future lepton colliders, and by direct searches for Kaluza-Klein excitations at a 100 TeV collider.

  9. Voice similarity in identical twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gysel, W D; Vercammen, J; Debruyne, F

    2001-01-01

    If people are asked to discriminate visually the two individuals of a monozygotic twin (MT), they mostly get into trouble. Does this problem also exist when listening to twin voices? Twenty female and 10 male MT voices were randomly assembled with one "strange" voice to get voice trios. The listeners (10 female students in Speech and Language Pathology) were asked to label the twins (voices 1-2, 1-3 or 2-3) in two conditions: two standard sentences read aloud and a 2.5-second midsection of a sustained /a/. The proportion correctly labelled twins was for female voices 82% and 63% and for male voices 74% and 52% for the sentences and the sustained /a/ respectively, both being significantly greater than chance (33%). The acoustic analysis revealed a high intra-twin correlation for the speaking fundamental frequency (SFF) of the sentences and the fundamental frequency (F0) of the sustained /a/. So the voice pitch could have been a useful characteristic in the perceptual identification of the twins. We conclude that there is a greater perceptual resemblance between the voices of identical twins than between voices without genetic relationship. The identification however is not perfect. The voice pitch possibly contributes to the correct twin identifications.

  10. Twin Studies of Atopic Dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmose, Camilla; Thomsen, Simon Francis

    2015-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of population-based twin studies of (a) the concordance and heritability of AD and (b) the relationship between AD and asthma and, furthermore, to reinterpret findings from previous twin studies in the light of the emerging knowledge a...

  11. Hypertensive disorders in twin pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G. Santema (Job); E. Koppelaar (Elin); H.C.S. Wallenburg (Henk)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To compare the incidence and severity of pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders in twin pregnancy and in singleton gestation. Study design: Case-control study in the setting of a University Hospital. Each pregnancy of a consecutive series of 187 twin pregnancies attending

  12. Ferrobielastic twinning in irradiated quartz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiau, S.M.

    1986-01-01

    Cultured quartz is usually free from electrical twinning; however, it may occur if the seed crystal is twinned or if undue applied forces are exerted on the crystal. Ferrobielastic twinning was studied optically (photoelastic effect) and electrically (piezoelectric effect). At room temperature, twins were perceptible at stresses of about 2.l5 x 10 8 N/m 2 , and crystals switched from their original states to the alternative twin states at stresses about 5.0 x 10 8 N/m 2 (called coercive stress). The decrease in coercive stress with increasing temperature was observed, and these coercive stresses become very low as temperatures reach to 300 0 C. The effects of irradiation on the twinning in quartz were also studied. The presence of defects produced by irradiation was utilized to pin the domain wall motion. Both neutrons and gamma rays were employed. The stress required to nucleate an appreciable volume of twins is about twice as high for irradiated crystals than for those unirradiated. This result demonstrated that the irradiated crystals can tolerate higher stresses. However, the coercive stress for complete switch-over was not much different for irradiated and unirradiated crystals. It appears that the defects caused by irradiation eliminate the initial twinning events but do not affect switch-over

  13. O papel das políticas territoriais especiais para a transformação das cidades de zona de fronteira: o caso das cidades gêmeas de Brasileia, Epitaciolândia e Cobija / The role of special territorial policy to the transformation of the border area cities: the case of the twin cities of Brasileia, Epitaciolândia and Cobija

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Luiz Silveira da Silva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo As zonas de fronteira possuem importante valor estratégico para os Estados. Tal valor centra-se na sua importância no âmbito da segurança e da cooperação. Como um movimento para a valorização das zonas de fronteira, os Estados têm criado políticas territoriais especiais que beneficiam o desenvolvimento e o dinamismo regional. O artigo apresentará um estudo que contou com a realização de um trabalho de campo às cidades gêmeas de Brasiléia, Epitaciolândia e Cobija e que teve como intuito a percepção da alteração da realidade geográfica promovida pelas políticas de fronteira. O trabalho contou com o levantamento de dados das redes econômicas, hoteleiras e educacionais das cidades investigadas. Abstract The border areas have important strategic value to the countries. This value focuses on its importance in the field of security and cooperation. As a move to the appreciation of the border zone, the countries have created special territorial policies that benefit the development and regional dynamism. The article will present a study that included a field work to the twin cities of Brasiléia, Epitaciolândia and Cobija as a method and had the intention to perceive the change of the geographical reality promoted by border policies. This paper included data of the economic, hotel and educational networks of the studied cities.

  14. Depression, anxiety, and stress among undergraduate dental students in Hyderabad City, Telangana, India: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambati Sravani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Increased levels of psychological disturbances such as depression, anxiety, and stress (DAS among dental students affect the way these students take care of patients. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess DAS among undergraduate dental students in Hyderabad city, Telangana, India. Materials and Methods: A short version of depression, anxiety, and stress scale was distributed to undergraduate dental students in four dental colleges. Comparison among the variables was done using ANOVA and Independent t-test. Results: The study group comprised 200 (23.7% males and 645 (76.3% females. The overall mean DAS score and its dimensions were not significant based on gender. Married students showed significantly more DAS compared to unmarried (P < 0.05. When the year of study was considered for all colleges together, the overall mean DAS score and its individual dimensions score were significantly high among III year students followed by IV, I, and II years (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Clinical years were more stressful than the nonclinical years. This suggests a need for special attention to the structure of the clinical program, particularly at the point of transition from the preclinical to the clinical phase.

  15. Minimal mirror twin Higgs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbieri, Riccardo [Institute of Theoretical Studies, ETH Zurich,CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Scuola Normale Superiore,Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Hall, Lawrence J.; Harigaya, Keisuke [Department of Physics, University of California,Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Theoretical Physics Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory,Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2016-11-29

    In a Mirror Twin World with a maximally symmetric Higgs sector the little hierarchy of the Standard Model can be significantly mitigated, perhaps displacing the cutoff scale above the LHC reach. We show that consistency with observations requires that the Z{sub 2} parity exchanging the Standard Model with its mirror be broken in the Yukawa couplings. A minimal such effective field theory, with this sole Z{sub 2} breaking, can generate the Z{sub 2} breaking in the Higgs sector necessary for the Twin Higgs mechanism. The theory has constrained and correlated signals in Higgs decays, direct Dark Matter Detection and Dark Radiation, all within reach of foreseen experiments, over a region of parameter space where the fine-tuning for the electroweak scale is 10-50%. For dark matter, both mirror neutrons and a variety of self-interacting mirror atoms are considered. Neutrino mass signals and the effects of a possible additional Z{sub 2} breaking from the vacuum expectation values of B−L breaking fields are also discussed.

  16. A Computational Discriminability Analysis on Twin Fingerprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Srihari, Sargur N.

    Sharing similar genetic traits makes the investigation of twins an important study in forensics and biometrics. Fingerprints are one of the most commonly found types of forensic evidence. The similarity between twins’ prints is critical establish to the reliability of fingerprint identification. We present a quantitative analysis of the discriminability of twin fingerprints on a new data set (227 pairs of identical twins and fraternal twins) recently collected from a twin population using both level 1 and level 2 features. Although the patterns of minutiae among twins are more similar than in the general population, the similarity of fingerprints of twins is significantly different from that between genuine prints of the same finger. Twins fingerprints are discriminable with a 1.5%~1.7% higher EER than non-twins. And identical twins can be distinguished by examine fingerprint with a slightly higher error rate than fraternal twins.

  17. Food insecurity and food consumption by season in households with children in an Arctic city: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huet, Catherine; Ford, James D; Edge, Victoria L; Shirley, Jamal; King, Nia; Harper, Sherilee L

    2017-06-15

    High rates of food insecurity are documented among Inuit households in Canada; however, data on food insecurity prevalence and seasonality for Inuit households with children are lacking, especially in city centres. This project: (1) compared food consumption patterns for households with and without children, (2) compared the prevalence of food insecurity for households with and without children, (3) compared food consumption patterns and food insecurity prevalence between seasons, and (4) identified factors associated with food insecurity in households with children in Iqaluit, Nunavut, Canada. Randomly selected households were surveyed in Iqaluit in September 2012 and May 2013. Household food security status was determined using an adapted United States Department of Agriculture Household Food Security Survey Module. Univariable logistic regressions were used to examine unconditional associations between food security status and demographics, socioeconomics, frequency of food consumption, and method of food preparation in households with children by season. Households with children (n = 431) and without children (n = 468) participated in the survey. Food insecurity was identified in 32.9% (95% CI: 28.5-37.4%) of households with children; this was significantly higher than in households without children (23.2%, 95% CI: 19.4-27.1%). The prevalence of household food insecurity did not significantly differ by season. Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the person responsible for food preparation, including low formal education attainment (OR Sept  = 4.3, 95% CI: 2.3-8.0; OR May  = 3.2, 95% CI: 1.8-5.8), unemployment (OR Sept  = 1.1, 95% CI: 1.1-1.3; OR May  = 1.3, 95% CI: 1.1-1.5), and Inuit identity (OR Sept  = 8.9, 95% CI: 3.4-23.5; OR May  = 21.8, 95% CI: 6.6-72.4), were associated with increased odds of food insecurity in households with children. Fruit and vegetable consumption (OR Sept  = 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2-0.8; OR May  = 0.5, 95

  18. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects electric power marketing -- Final environmental impact statement. Volume 2: Sections 1--16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The Colorado River Storage Project Customer Service Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Colorado, Green, Gunnison, and Rio Grande rivers and on Plateau Creek in Arizona, Colorado, Utah, Wyoming, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams) are influenced by Western power scheduling and transmission decisions. The environmental impact statement (EIS) alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Western's firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this EIS include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action alternative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources. Western has identified commitment-level alternative 1, the Post-1989 commitment level, as its preferred alternative. The impact evaluations indicate that this commitment level is also the environmentally preferred alternative

  19. Therapeutic modalities of twin to twin transfusion syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šulović N.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Twin to twin transfusion syndrome (TTTTS accounts for approximately 10% of monochorionic twin pregnancies and, if left untreated, is associated with high morbidity and mortality rate. A net transfusion of blood flow from one fetus (donor twin to the other (recipient twin via placental vascular anastomoses has been supposed as the major etiology of TTTTS. The donor twin becomes hypovolemic and oliguria, oligohydramnios, and a variable degree of growth restriction develop, whereas the recipient twin manifests polyuria, polyhydramnios, and hydrops in response to hypervolemia. TTTTS can be treated by either serial amniocentesis or selective fetoscopic laser coagulation of the communicating vessels. The rationale for removal of large volumes of amniotic fluid is to prevent preterm delivery secondary to polyhydramnios and to improve fetal circulation by reducing pressure on the chorionic plate. On the other hand, the goal of laser therapy is to occlude vascular anastomoses, thereby interrupting intertwin blood exchange. Although laser treatment is associated with increased survival rate and reduced neurologic complications, compared with amnioreduction, it requires highly specialized centers, whereas serial amniocentesis has the advantage of being performed worldwide. Therefore, the optimal treatment for pregnancies complicated with TTTTS is still controversial.

  20. Knowledge and attitude about human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome among higher secondary school students of Jaipur city: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Chaudhary

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: India is estimated to have the third highest number of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infections in the world with about 20.89 lakh people currently living with HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. Inadequate knowledge, negative attitudes, and ignorance among the school students are major hindrances to prevent the spread of HIV. Aim: To assess the knowledge and attitude toward HIV/AIDS among the higher secondary school students of Jaipur city. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study comprising 613 higher secondary school students (male = 390, female = 223 from Jaipur city were included in the study. The city was divided into 4 zones and one school from each zone was selected randomly. A questionnaire assessing the knowledge and attitude toward HIV/AIDS was distributed among the senior school students. Pilot study was done among 50 students to test the validity of the questionnaire. Results: All the students (100% in our sample knew what is AIDS. About 96.2% of the students knew that AIDS is not a simple disease, the correct knowledge about the modes of transmission of HIV/AIDS was nearly 85.6% and about 94% of students would not leave the school if there was an AIDS student in their class. Eighty-four percent of students believed that students with AIDS should not go to special schools and about 95.8% students believed that HIV individuals must be supported, treated, and helped. Conclusion: The students had satisfactory knowledge about HIV/AIDS and their attitude toward this group of people was good. There is need and opportunity to provide factual and precise knowledge on HIV/AIDS for school students. There should also be a drive to increase education and awareness about HIV/AIDS in educational institutes.

  1. Antenatal management of twin-twin transfusion syndrome and twin anemia-polycythemia sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaghekke, Femke; Zhao, Depeng P; Middeldorp, Johanna M; Klumper, Frans J; Haak, Monique C; Oepkes, Dick; Lopriore, Enrico

    2016-08-01

    Twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) and twin anemia polycythemia sequence (TAPS) are severe complications in monochorionic twin pregnancies associated with high mortality and morbidity risk if left untreated. Both diseases result from imbalanced inter-twin blood transfusion through placental vascular anastomoses. This review focuses on the differences in antenatal management between TTTS and TAPS. Expert commentary: The optimal management for TTTS is fetoscopic laser coagulation of the vascular anastomoses, preferably using the Solomon technique in which the whole vascular equator is coagulated. The Solomon technique is associated with a reduction of residual anastomosis and a reduction in post-operative complications. The optimal management for TAPS is not clear and includes expectant management, intra-uterine transfusion with or without partial exchange transfusion and fetoscopic laser surgery.

  2. Perceived adverse health effects of heat and their determinants in deprived neighbourhoods: a cross-sectional survey of nine cities in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélanger, Diane; Gosselin, Pierre; Valois, Pierre; Abdous, Belkacem

    2014-10-24

    This study identifies several characteristics of individuals who report their physical and/or mental health as being adversely affected by summertime heat and humidity, within the most disadvantaged neighbourhoods of the nine largest cities of Québec (Canada). The study is cross-sectional by stratified representative sample; 3485 people were interviewed in their residence. The prevalence of reported impacts was 46%, mostly physical health. Female gender and long-term medical leave are two impact risk indicators in people <65 years of age. Low income and air conditioning at home are risk indicators at all ages. Results for having ≥2 diagnoses of chronic diseases, particularly for people self-describing as in poor health (odds ratio, OR<65 = 5.6; OR≥65 = 4.2), and perceiving daily stress, are independent of age. The prevalence of reported heat-related health impacts is thus very high in those inner cities, with notable differences according to age, stress levels and long-term medical leave, previously unmentioned in the literature. Finally, the total number of pre-existing medical conditions seems to be a preponderant risk factor. This study complements the epidemiologic studies based on mortality or severe morbidity and shows that the heat-related burden of disease appears very important in those communities, affecting several subgroups differentially.

  3. Cross-Sectional Association between Length of Incarceration and Selected Risk Factors for Non-Communicable Chronic Diseases in Two Male Prisons of Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman-Retana, Omar; Lopez-Ridaura, Ruy; Servan-Mori, Edson; Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio; Bertozzi, Stefano M

    2015-01-01

    Mexico City prisons are characterized by overcrowded facilities and poor living conditions for housed prisoners. Chronic disease profile is characterized by low prevalence of self reported hypertension (2.5%) and diabetes (1.8%) compared to general population; 9.5% of male inmates were obese. There is limited evidence regarding on the exposure to prison environment over prisoner's health status; particularly, on cardiovascular disease risk factors. The objective of this study is to assess the relationship between length of incarceration and selected risk factors for non-communicable chronic diseases (NCDs). We performed a cross-sectional analysis using data from two large male prisons in Mexico City (n = 14,086). Using quantile regression models we assessed the relationship between length of incarceration and selected risk factors for NCDs; stratified analysis by age at admission to prison was performed. We found a significant negative trend in BMI and WC across incarceration length quintiles. BP had a significant positive trend with a percentage change increase around 5% mmHg. The greatest increase in systolic blood pressure was observed in the older age at admission group. This analysis provides insight into the relationship between length of incarceration and four selected risk factors for NCDs; screening for high blood pressure should be guarantee in order to identify at risk individuals and linked to the prison's health facility. It is important to assess prison environment features to approach potential risk for developing NCDs in this context.

  4. Cross-Sectional Association between Length of Incarceration and Selected Risk Factors for Non-Communicable Chronic Diseases in Two Male Prisons of Mexico City.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Silverman-Retana

    Full Text Available Mexico City prisons are characterized by overcrowded facilities and poor living conditions for housed prisoners. Chronic disease profile is characterized by low prevalence of self reported hypertension (2.5% and diabetes (1.8% compared to general population; 9.5% of male inmates were obese. There is limited evidence regarding on the exposure to prison environment over prisoner's health status; particularly, on cardiovascular disease risk factors. The objective of this study is to assess the relationship between length of incarceration and selected risk factors for non-communicable chronic diseases (NCDs.We performed a cross-sectional analysis using data from two large male prisons in Mexico City (n = 14,086. Using quantile regression models we assessed the relationship between length of incarceration and selected risk factors for NCDs; stratified analysis by age at admission to prison was performed. We found a significant negative trend in BMI and WC across incarceration length quintiles. BP had a significant positive trend with a percentage change increase around 5% mmHg. The greatest increase in systolic blood pressure was observed in the older age at admission group.This analysis provides insight into the relationship between length of incarceration and four selected risk factors for NCDs; screening for high blood pressure should be guarantee in order to identify at risk individuals and linked to the prison's health facility. It is important to assess prison environment features to approach potential risk for developing NCDs in this context.

  5. Impact of various sociodemographic factors on oral hygiene of mentally retarded residing in Bhopal city, Madhya Pradesh: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonal Kothari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oral health of the mentally retarded (MR has received scant attention in the literature compared with the normal child even though they are much sufferer. Aim: To assess the impact of various sociodemographic factors on oral hygiene of MR subjects of Bhopal city. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 267 MR subjects enrolled at various institutions of Bhopal city. A pretested proforma was used to record information about demographic data, socioeconomic status, the intelligent quotient of inmates, type of mental retardation, and dietary habits. The clinical examination was done to evaluate oral hygiene of subjects using oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S. Descriptive statistics, Student's t-test, analysis of variance and multiple linear regression analysis was applied using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS software. Results: The mean OHI-S of MR was found out to be 2.51. Male had mean OHI-S of 2.95 while female had 1.65. Noninstitutionalized had poorer oral hygiene with mean OHI-S of 3.2. According to the degree of mental retardation, profound had the highest OHI-S score, i.e. 3.71 while mild had the lowest score, i.e. 1.01.

  6. Urban city transportation mode and respiratory health effect of air pollution: a cross-sectional study among transit and non-transit workers in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekpenyong, Chris E; Ettebong, E O; Akpan, E E; Samson, T K; Daniel, Nyebuk E

    2012-01-01

    To assess the respiratory health effect of city ambient air pollutants on transit and non-transit workers and compare such effects by transportation mode, occupational exposure and sociodemographic characteristics of participants. Cross-sectional, randomised survey. A two primary healthcare centre survey in 2009/2010 in Uyo metropolis, South-South Nigeria. Of the 245 male participants recruited, 168 (50 taxi drivers, 60 motorcyclists and 58 civil servants) met the inclusion criteria. These include age 18-35 years, a male transit worker or civil servant who had worked within Uyo metropolis for at least a year prior to the study, and had no history of respiratory disorders/impairment or any other debilitating illness. The adjusted ORs for respiratory function impairment (force vital capacity (FVC) and/or FEV(1)air pollution by occupation and transportation mode was independently associated with respiratory functions impairment and incident respiratory symptoms among participants. Motorcyclists had the highest effect, with adjusted OR 3.10, 95% CI 0.402 to 16.207 for FVCair pollution on city transit workers globally. The role of other confounders acting synergistically to cause a more deleterious effect is obvious. In all, the effect depends on the mode and duration of exposure.

  7. Assessment of microbial contamination and oral health risks associated with handling of Indian currency notes circulating in Bengaluru city: A cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D P Narayan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Accumulated data obtained over the last 20 years on the microbial status and survival of pathogens on currency notes indicate that this could represent a potential cause of sporadic cases of food borne illness. Objectives: To identify the micro-organisms present on the Indian currency notes and the oral health risks due to microbial contamination of Indian currency notes circulating in Bengaluru city. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted and the Indian currency notes of various denominations (Rs. 10, Rs. 20, Rs. 50, Rs. 100, Rs. 500, and Rs. 1000 were collected from fruit vendors, hawkers, vegetable vendors, bus conductors, railway ticket counters, hotel counters, and butchers. Sample size was determined to be 70 Indian currency notes. Convenience sampling technique was used. Microbiological analysis of the collected currency notes was done. Results: The contamination rate of collected currency notes from the butchers and hawkers were 80% and 60% respectively. Staphylococcus aureus was present on 15 currency notes (21.42% and was found to be higher in Rs. 10 than in other currency denominations. Streptococcus pyogenes was present on four currency notes (5.714% of Rs. 10. Conclusion: The Indian currency notes circulating in Bengaluru city were contaminated with pathogenic bacteria. The oral health risks due to microbial contamination of Indian currency notes are acute pharyngitis, peritonsillar or retropharyngeal abscess, mastoiditis, sinusitis, otitis media, mild cellulitis, angular cheilitis, some endodontic infections, osteomyelitis of the jaw, parotitis, and oral mucositis.

  8. Perceived Adverse Health Effects of Heat and Their Determinants in Deprived Neighbourhoods: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Nine Cities in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Bélanger

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study identifies several characteristics of individuals who report their physical and/or mental health as being adversely affected by summertime heat and humidity, within the most disadvantaged neighbourhoods of the nine largest cities of Québec (Canada. The study is cross-sectional by stratified representative sample; 3485 people were interviewed in their residence. The prevalence of reported impacts was 46%, mostly physical health. Female gender and long-term medical leave are two impact risk indicators in people <65 years of age. Low income and air conditioning at home are risk indicators at all ages. Results for having ≥2 diagnoses of chronic diseases, particularly for people self-describing as in poor health (odds ratio, OR<65 = 5.6; OR≥65 = 4.2, and perceiving daily stress, are independent of age. The prevalence of reported heat-related health impacts is thus very high in those inner cities, with notable differences according to age, stress levels and long-term medical leave, previously unmentioned in the literature. Finally, the total number of pre-existing medical conditions seems to be a preponderant risk factor. This study complements the epidemiologic studies based on mortality or severe morbidity and shows that the heat-related burden of disease appears very important in those communities, affecting several subgroups differentially.

  9. Exploring infant feeding practices: cross-sectional surveys of South Western Sydney, Singapore, and Ho Chi Minh City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, Timothy Yong Qun; Ung, Andrew; Qian, Shelley; Nguyen, Jessie Thanh; An, Yvonne; Mudgil, Poonam; Whitehall, John

    2017-06-13

    Infant feeding practices are known to influence the child's long-term health. Studies have associated obesity and other diseases with reduced breastfeeding and early introduction of high calorie beverages (HCBs). The rising prevalence of obesity is already a problem in most developed countries, especially Australia, but cultural differences are influential. Our aim is to examine and compare infant feeding practices and educational levels of respondents through questionnaires in three culturally different sites: Campbelltown (South Western Sydney), Australia, Singapore and Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam (HCMC). Consenting parents and carers (aged ≥18 years old) of at least one child (≤6 years old) were recruited from paediatric clinics in Campbelltown, Singapore and HCMC. Participants completed an infant feeding practices questionnaire regarding breastfeeding, beverage and solid initiation in addition to the parent's ethnicity, age, and educational level. Data was analysed quantitatively using SPSS. Two hundred eighty-three participants were recruited across the three sites, HCMC (n = 84), Campbelltown (n = 108), and Singapore (n = 91). 237 (82.6%) children were breastfed but in all only 100 (60.2%) were exclusively breastfed for five months or more. There was a statistical difference in rates of breast feeding between each region. HCMC (n = 18, 21.4%) had the lowest, followed by Campbelltown (n = 35, 32.4%), and then Singapore (n = 47, 51.7%). There was also a difference in rates of introduction of HCBs by 3 years of age, with those in HCMC (n = 71, 84.5%) were higher than Campbelltown (n = 71, 65.8%) and Singapore (n = 48, 52.8%). The educational level of respondents was lower in Vietnam where only 46.4% (n = 39) had completed post-secondary education, compared to 75.0% (n = 81) in Campbelltown and 75.8% (n = 69) in Singapore. Rates of breast feeding were inversely correlated with rates of introduction of HCB and positively related to

  10. An unanticipated cardiac arrest and unusual post-resuscitation psycho-behavioural phenomena/near death experience in a patient with pregnancy induced hypertension and twin pregnancy undergoing elective lower segment caesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mridul M Panditrao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A case report of a primigravida, who was admitted with severe pregnancy induced hypertension (BP 160/122 mmHg and twin pregnancy, is presented here. Antihypertensive therapy was initiated. Elective LSCS under general anaesthesia was planned. After the birth of both the babies, intramyometrial injections of Carboprost and Pitocin were administered. Immediately, she suffered cardiac arrest. Cardio pulmonary resucitation (CPR was started and within 3 minutes, she was successfully resuscitated. The patient initially showed peculiar psychological changes and with passage of time, certain psycho-behavioural patterns emerged which could be attributed to near death experiences, as described in this case report.

  11. 75 FR 78979 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Twin Rivers Paper Company Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY [OE Docket No. EA-366] Application to Export Electric Energy; Twin Rivers... electric energy from the United States to Canada pursuant to section 202(e) of the Federal Power Act. DATES... received an application from Twin Rivers for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States...

  12. 500 Cities: City Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This city boundary shapefile was extracted from Esri Data and Maps for ArcGIS 2014 - U.S. Populated Place Areas. This shapefile can be joined to 500 Cities...

  13. Twin Higgs Asymmetric Dark Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García García, Isabel; Lasenby, Robert; March-Russell, John

    2015-09-18

    We study asymmetric dark matter (ADM) in the context of the minimal (fraternal) twin Higgs solution to the little hierarchy problem, with a twin sector with gauged SU(3)^{'}×SU(2)^{'}, a twin Higgs doublet, and only third-generation twin fermions. Naturalness requires the QCD^{'} scale Λ_{QCD}^{'}≃0.5-20  GeV, and that t^{'} is heavy. We focus on the light b^{'} quark regime, m_{b^{'}}≲Λ_{QCD}^{'}, where QCD^{'} is characterized by a single scale Λ_{QCD}^{'} with no light pions. A twin baryon number asymmetry leads to a successful dark matter (DM) candidate: the spin-3/2 twin baryon, Δ^{'}∼b^{'}b^{'}b^{'}, with a dynamically determined mass (∼5Λ_{QCD}^{'}) in the preferred range for the DM-to-baryon ratio Ω_{DM}/Ω_{baryon}≃5. Gauging the U(1)^{'} group leads to twin atoms (Δ^{'}-τ^{'}[over ¯] bound states) that are successful ADM candidates in significant regions of parameter space, sometimes with observable changes to DM halo properties. Direct detection signatures satisfy current bounds, at times modified by dark form factors.

  14. The nature of pseudo-twinning modes on the basis of a twin classification scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Jung B.; Sundararaman, M.; Krishnan, M.

    2011-01-01

    Pseudo-twins can form in ordered structures under high stress conditions. These twins are defined by lattice sites that are at twin positions but are incorrectly occupied by different species of atoms. The present note discusses if it is possible to further classify pseudo-twins into different modes based on the nature of associated twinning elements.

  15. Twins and Kindergarten Separation: Divergent Beliefs of Principals, Teachers, Parents, and Twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Lynn Melby

    2015-01-01

    Should principals enforce mandatory separation of twins in kindergarten? Do school separation beliefs of principals differ from those of teachers, parents of twins, and twins themselves? This survey questioned 131 elementary principals, 54 kindergarten teachers, 201 parents of twins, and 112 twins. A majority of principals (71%) believed that…

  16. The classical twin study and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boomsma, D.I.; Busjahn, A.; Peltonen, L.

    2002-01-01

    Twin studies have been a valuable source of information about the genetic basis of complex traits. To maximize the potential of twin studies, large, worldwide registers of data on twins and their relatives have been established. Here, we provide an overview of the current resources for twin

  17. Monochorionic twin pregnancies: a systematic approach to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Complications unique to these pregnancies include Twin-To-Twin Transfusion Syndrome (TTTS), Twin Polycythaemia Anaemia Sequence (TAPS), Selective Intrauterine Growth Restriction (sIUGR) and death of the co-twin. Adhering to a systematic and objective approach of management, can lead to early recognition and ...

  18. Oral health-related knowledge, attitude and practices among eunuchs (hijras residing in Bhopal City, Madhya Pradesh, India: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir Hongal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The current cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted to assess the oral health-related knowledge, attitude and practices among eunuchs (hijras residing in Bhopal city, Madhya Pradesh, India. Materials and Methods: Based on a convenient non-probability snow ball sampling technique, all the self-identified eunuchs residing in the city of Bhopal who were present at the time of study and who fulfilled the selection criteria were approached. A cross section of the general population was also surveyed. An interviewer-based, predesigned, structured, close-ended 18-item questionnaire that had been designed based on the primary objective of the study was used. All the obtained data were analyzed using software, Statistical Package for Social Science version 20. Results: According to 188 (86.2% males, 187 (87.4% females and 168 (81.2% eunuchs, good oral health can improve the general health. Most of the study participants including 211 (98.6% females, 210 (96.3% males and 205 (99% eunuchs use either tooth paste or tooth powder to clean their teeth. While, a majority of eunuchs, i.e., 113 (54.6%, were having habit of chewing smokeless tobacco containing products such as betel nut, betel quid, gutkha, etc., The difference in use of tobacco products was statistically significant. Conclusion: The information presented in this study adds to our understanding of the common oral hygiene practices which are performed among eunuch population. Efforts to increase the awareness of oral effects of tobacco use and to eliminate the habit are needed to improve oral and general health of this population.

  19. Inpatient satisfaction at different public sector hospitals of a metropolitan city in Pakistan: a comparative cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Mehwish; Rehman, Rehana; Ikramuddin, Zia; Asad, Nava; Farooq, Ayesha

    2018-04-01

    To observe inpatient satisfaction at different public sector hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan. A cross sectional study was carried out during 2010-2012 in four major public sector hospitals of Karachi. A total of 710 patients completed the study. Responses were gathered in a self-structured questionnaire that comprised of four dimensions of satisfaction with doctor, staff, administration and treatment. Average Score of each dimension was taken and compared using one way analysis of variance. Satisfaction with doctors, staff and administration of provincial and federal hospitals were comparatively similar (P > 0.05). However, satisfaction with treatment significantly differed in all four hospitals (P public sector hospitals showed satisfaction with healthcare personnel and related administration. However, treatment dimension needs to be improved to get more satisfaction.

  20. Peak effect in twinned superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larkin, A.I.; Marchetti, M.C.; Vinokur, V.M.

    1995-01-01

    A sharp maximum in the critical current J c as a function of temperature just below the melting point of the Abrikosov flux lattice has recently been observed in both low- and high-temperature superconductors. This peak effect is strongest in twinned crystals for fields aligned with the twin planes. We propose that this peak signals the breakdown of the collective pinning regime and the crossover to strong pinning of single vortices on the twin boundaries. This crossover is very sharp and can account for the steep drop of the differential resistivity observed in experiments. copyright 1995 The American Physical Society

  1. Dental health status and treatment needs of transport workers of a northern Indian city: A cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambhir, Ramandeep S.; Sogi, Girish M.; Veeresha, Koratagere Lingappa; Sohi, Ramandeep K.; Randhawa, Amaninder; Kakar, Heena

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To assess the dental health status and treatment needs of transport workers working in Chandigarh Transport Undertaking (C.T.U.) buses, Chandigarh. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on all the available C.T.U. workers at all three bus depots. The data were recorded on a modified W.H.O. format (1997). A total of 1008 subjects constituted the final sample size. Results: The mean age of the subjects was 45.3 ± 7.8 years, and 97% (978) were males. Prevalence of dental caries was 63.4% and mean DMFT was 5.02. 47.6% of subjects needed some prosthesis in the maxillary arch while 53.3% needed some prosthesis in the mandibular arch. Regarding highest CPI (Community Periodontal Index) score, 8.13% of the subjects had healthy periodontium while maximum subjects (73.2%) had a score 2 (Calculus). Conclusion: Mean DMFT (Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth) was satisfactory. Prosthetic need of the subjects was high with only a few subjects possessing prosthesis. Advanced periodontal disease (CPI score, 4) affected small number of subjects with maximum subjects (73%) having a CPI score of 2. PMID:24082750

  2. A cross-sectional survey of blood pressure of a coastal city's resident victims of the 2011 Tohoku tsunami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Hitoshi; Akashi, Hidechika; Noda, Shinichiro; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Okazaki, Osamu; Ouchi, Yoshiko; Okaji, Yuki; Kajiwara, Chieko; Miyoshi, Chiaki

    2013-06-01

    Blood pressure (BP) increase as a reaction to major disasters has been well documented; however, the impact has been underdocumented for tsunamis. This study aimed to confirm whether different levels of flooding/inundation and other damage caused by the 2011 Tohoku (northeast Japan) tsunami were associated with BP among resident victims in Higashi-Matsushima, Miyagi. Cross-sectional household screening was conducted 7-19 weeks after the disaster in administrative areas totally or partially flooded by the tsunami. Systolic and diastolic BP (SBP/DBP) were measured in 4,311 residents. There was a degree-dependent association between SBP/DBP and flooding height above sea level among victims not on antihypertensive medication (P tsunami or lifeline indicators and high BP (SBP ≥160mm Hg or DBP ≥100mm Hg). This study suggests that after a major tsunami, resident victims in areas highly inundated by flood waters and those with disrupted gas supply are more likely to have higher BP and thus might warrant getting BP screening earlier than other residents. Those with hypertension should be given assistance to resume or commence antihypertensive medication as soon as possible to reduce the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  3. Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome : from placental anastomoses to long-term outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopriore, Enrico

    2006-01-01

    Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) is a severe complication of monochorionic twin pregnancies associated with high perinatal mortality and morbidity rates. Placental vascular anastomoses, almost invariably present in monochorionic placentas, are the essential anatomical substrate for the

  4. Elevated blood pressure and its associated risk factors among adolescents of a North Indian City - A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthamizh Prasad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Amidst the uncertainty in childhood blood pressure (BP thresholds, besides the ambiguity in levels and duration of BP elevation causing organ damage, hypertension is present in substantial number of asymptomatic children and adolescents with only a few studies disclosing the setup. With projection of deaths due to noncommunicable diseases in 2030 rising to 52 million, it is necessary to know about the knowledge of present adolescents about BP and its modifiable risk factors. Aims: (1 To assess the prevalence of elevated BP among adolescents and to ascertain the associated risk factors. (2 To assess adolescent's knowledge about BP and its modifiable factors. Settings and Design: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted on school going adolescents of Lucknow, from September 2014 to August 2015. Subjects and Methods: BP, height, and weight were measured following standard protocols, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention charts for finding respective cut-off values and oral questionnaire for assessing lifestyle risk factors were used. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square, unpaired t-test, and logistic regression were used. Results: Of the 1041 participants, elevated BP (BP percentile ≥90 was prevalent in 24.2%. On regression, factors such as obesity (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 5.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.6–9.4, low fruit diet (aOR = 3.3, 95% CI = 2.1–5.4, and frequent junk food consumption (aOR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.3–2.8 raised the odds of elevated BP while it was lowered by being physically active (aOR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.46–0.97. Of 86.3% of children (n = 898 who were fathomed of BP, only less than third (33% and 21.9% acquainted of BP raising and lowering practices, respectively. Conclusions: Prevalence of high BP is colossal with only a few children knowing its amendable nature. Strenuous efforts targeting detrimental behaviors and imparting the sense of healthy lifestyle enhancing practices are vital to

  5. Acardiac twin with externalized intestine adherent to placenta: unusual manifestation of omphalocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Shawn Clark; Vaux, Keith K; Pretorius, Dolores; Masliah, Eliezer; Benirschke, Kurt

    2004-01-01

    TRAP (twin reversed arterial perfusion) syndrome produces an acardiac twin (acardiac monster, acardius, acardiacus, chorioangiopagus parasiticus, etc.). Acardiacs result from monozygotic multiple births in which three anatomic anomalies occur: (1) a fetus' cardiac development is disturbed; (2) artery-artery anastomosis carries blood from a normal ("pump") twin to the acardiac; (3) vein-vein anastomosis carries blood from the acardiac back to the normal twin. Whether reversal of blood flow in the acardiac results from or causes cardiac dysmorphogenesis has not been resolved. Acardiac twins demonstrate a complex constellation of malformations usually thought to result from reversed blood flow; omphalocele is particularly common. We report monochorionic monoamnionic male twins in which an acardiac twin demonstrated externalized intestines adherent to the placenta. The twins were delivered from a 30-year-old primigravida mother by cesarean section without maternal complications at 33 w. The mother has no significant past medical history. The macerated acardius had a 4-cm long attenuated umbilical cord with indeterminate number of vessels. Structures rostral to the thorax were absent save for one poorly developed hand and arm. The abdomen contained loose mesenchyme and no organs. The entire intestine (21 cm) along with two testes was located in a sac on the surface of the placenta. No histopathologic anomalies of formed structures were identified aside from spatial relationships and incomplete development. The normal twin required no intensive care and is doing well. To our knowledge, this is the first report of externalized intestine, which may represent an unusual consequence of omphalocele.

  6. Study on Brazil law type twinning in amethyst from Bahia (Brazil) by the X-ray topography and polarized light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baran, Z.

    1987-01-01

    Brazil law type twinning is very common in quartz. Generally is not observed in normal petrographic thin section but it is possible to study this kind of twinning under polarized light in thicker sections. X-ray topography will be another powerfull method to study and it was applied for the amethytst of the Mina Cabeluda of the state of Bahia. (author) [pt

  7. A Cross-Sectional Study of Prisoners in Mexico City Comparing Prevalence of Transmissible Infections and Chronic Diseases with That in the General Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Bautista-Arredondo

    Full Text Available To describe patterns of transmissible infections, chronic illnesses, socio-demographic characteristics and risk behaviors in Mexico City prisons, including in comparison to the general population, to identify those currently needing healthcare and inform policy.A cross-sectional study among 17,000 prisoners at 4 Mexico City prisons (June to December 2010. Participation was voluntary, confidential and based on informed consent. Participants were tested for HIV, Hepatitis B & C, syphilis, hypertension, obesity, and, if at risk, glucose and cholesterol. A subset completed a questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics and risk behaviors. Positive results were delivered with counseling and treatment or referral.76.8% (15,517/20,196 of men and 92.9% (1,779/1,914 of women participated. Complete data sets were available for 98.8%. The following prevalence data were established for transmissible infections: HIV 0.7%; syphilis: Anti-TP+/VDRL+ 2.0%; Hepatitis B: HBcAb 2.8%, HBsAg 0.15%; Anti-HCV 3.2%. Obesity: 9.5% men, 33.8% women. Compared with national age- and sex-matched data, the relative prevalence was greater for HIV and syphilis among women, HIV and Hepatitis C in men, and all infections in younger participants. Obesity prevalence was similar for women and lower among male participants. The prevalence of previously diagnosed diabetes and hypertension was lower. Questionnaire data (1,934 men, 520 women demonstrated lower educational levels, increased smoking and substance use compared to national data. High levels of non-sterile tattooing, physical abuse and histories of sexual violence were found.The study identified that health screening is acceptable to Mexico City prisoners and feasible on a large-scale. It demonstrated higher prevalence of HIV and other infections compared to national data, though low rates compared to international data. Individual participants benefited from earlier diagnosis, treatment and support. The data collected

  8. A Cross-Sectional Study of Prisoners in Mexico City Comparing Prevalence of Transmissible Infections and Chronic Diseases with That in the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio; González, Andrea; Servan-Mori, Edson; Beynon, Fenella; Juarez-Figueroa, Luis; Conde-Glez, Carlos J; Gras, Nathalie; Sierra-Madero, Juan; Lopez-Ridaura, Ruy; Volkow, Patricia; Bertozzi, Stefano M

    2015-01-01

    To describe patterns of transmissible infections, chronic illnesses, socio-demographic characteristics and risk behaviors in Mexico City prisons, including in comparison to the general population, to identify those currently needing healthcare and inform policy. A cross-sectional study among 17,000 prisoners at 4 Mexico City prisons (June to December 2010). Participation was voluntary, confidential and based on informed consent. Participants were tested for HIV, Hepatitis B & C, syphilis, hypertension, obesity, and, if at risk, glucose and cholesterol. A subset completed a questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics and risk behaviors. Positive results were delivered with counseling and treatment or referral. 76.8% (15,517/20,196) of men and 92.9% (1,779/1,914) of women participated. Complete data sets were available for 98.8%. The following prevalence data were established for transmissible infections: HIV 0.7%; syphilis: Anti-TP+/VDRL+ 2.0%; Hepatitis B: HBcAb 2.8%, HBsAg 0.15%; Anti-HCV 3.2%. Obesity: 9.5% men, 33.8% women. Compared with national age- and sex-matched data, the relative prevalence was greater for HIV and syphilis among women, HIV and Hepatitis C in men, and all infections in younger participants. Obesity prevalence was similar for women and lower among male participants. The prevalence of previously diagnosed diabetes and hypertension was lower. Questionnaire data (1,934 men, 520 women) demonstrated lower educational levels, increased smoking and substance use compared to national data. High levels of non-sterile tattooing, physical abuse and histories of sexual violence were found. The study identified that health screening is acceptable to Mexico City prisoners and feasible on a large-scale. It demonstrated higher prevalence of HIV and other infections compared to national data, though low rates compared to international data. Individual participants benefited from earlier diagnosis, treatment and support. The data collected will also

  9. Congenital infantile myofibroma causing intrauterine death in a twin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Christina Yi Ling; Gould, Steve; Akinsola, S Adeyemi

    2011-01-01

    While infantile myofibromatosis is the most common mesenchymal tumour of infancy, only around 300 cases have been reported. The authors report a 33-year-old para 1 with an uncomplicated, dichorionic diamniotic twin pregnancy who was diagnosed with an intrauterine death of one twin at 36+5 weeks gestation. At caesarean section, a macerated male stillborn weighing 2.72 kg was delivered. Postmortem examination revealed a pedunculated lesion attached to the left shoulder and underlying muscle consistent with a congenital myofibroma. The cause of death was postulated to be haemorrhage from the tumour surface causing fetal anaemia. PMID:22674951

  10. Estimating twin concordance for bivariate competing risks twin data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheike, Thomas; Holst, Klaus K.; Hjelmborg, Jacob B.

    2014-01-01

    For twin time-to-event data, we consider different concordance probabilities, such as the casewise concordance that are routinely computed as a measure of the lifetime dependence/correlation for specific diseases. The concordance probability here is the probability that both twins have experience...... events with the competing risk death. We thus aim to quantify the degree of dependence through the casewise concordance function and show a significant genetic component...... the event of interest. Under the assumption that both twins are censored at the same time, we show how to estimate this probability in the presence of right censoring, and as a consequence, we can then estimate the casewise twin concordance. In addition, we can model the magnitude of within pair dependence...... over time, and covariates may be further influential on the marginal risk and dependence structure. We establish the estimators large sample properties and suggest various tests, for example, for inferring familial influence. The method is demonstrated and motivated by specific twin data on cancer...

  11. Growth curves for twins in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricelj, Katja; Blickstein, Isaac; Bržan-Šimenc, Gabrijela; Janša, Vid; Lučovnik, Miha; Verdenik, Ivan; Trojner-Bregar, Andreja; Tul, Nataša

    2017-02-01

    Abnormalities of fetal growth are more common in twins. We introduce the growth curves for monitoring fetal growth in twin pregnancies in Slovenia. Slovenian National Perinatal Information System for the period between 2002 and 2010 was used to calculate birth weight percentiles for all live born twins for each week from 22nd to 40th week. The calculated percentiles of birth weight for all live-born twins in Slovenia served as the basis for drawing 'growth' curves. The calculated growth curves for twins will help accurately diagnose small or large twin fetuses for their gestational age in the native central European population.

  12. Genetic susceptibility to bilateral tinnitus in a Swedish twin cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Iris Lianne; Brüggemann, Petra; Requena, Teresa; Bulla, Jan; Edvall, Niklas K; Hjelmborg, Jacob V B; Szczepek, Agnieszka J; Canlon, Barbara; Mazurek, Birgit; Lopez-Escamez, Jose A; Cederroth, Christopher R

    2017-09-01

    Genetic contributions to tinnitus have been difficult to determine due to the heterogeneity of the condition and its broad etiology. Here, we evaluated the genetic and nongenetic influences on self-reported tinnitus from the Swedish Twin Registry (STR). Cross-sectional data from the STR was obtained. Casewise concordance rates (the risk of one twin being affected given that his/her twin partner has tinnitus) were compared for monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs (N = 10,464 concordant and discordant twin pairs) and heritability coefficients (the proportion of the total variance attributable to genetic factors) were calculated using biometrical model fitting procedures. Stratification of tinnitus cases into subtypes according to laterality (unilateral versus bilateral) revealed that heritability of bilateral tinnitus was 0.56; however, it was 0.27 for unilateral tinnitus. Heritability was greater in men (0.68) than in women (0.41). However, when female pairs younger than 40 years of age were selected, heritability of 0.62 was achieved with negligible effects of shared environment. Unlike unilateral tinnitus, bilateral tinnitus is influenced by genetic factors and might constitute a genetic subtype. Overall, our study provides the initial evidence for a tinnitus phenotype with a genetic influence.Genet Med advance online publication 23 March 2017.

  13. Molecular dynamics simulation of albite twinning and pericline twinning in low albite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Bin; Knowles, Kevin M

    2013-01-01

    Two twinning laws, the albite law and the pericline law, are the predominant growth twinning modes in triclinic plagioclase feldspars such as low albite, NaAlSi 3 O 8 , in which the aluminum and silicon atoms are in an ordered arrangement on the tetrahedral sites of the aluminosilicate framework. In the terminology used formally to describe deformation twinning in a triclinic lattice, these twin laws can be described as Type I and Type II twin laws, respectively, with the pericline twin law being conjugate to the albite twin law. In this study, twin boundaries have been constructed for low albite according to these two twinning laws and studied by molecular dynamics simulation. The results show that suitably constructed twin boundary models are quite stable for both albite twinning and pericline twinning during molecular dynamics simulation. The calculated twin boundary energy of an albite twin is significantly lower than that of a pericline twin, in accord with the experimental observation that albite twinning is the more commonly observed mode seen in plagioclase feldspars. The results of the molecular dynamics simulations also agree with conclusions from the prior work of Starkey that glide twinning in low albite is not favoured energetically. (paper)

  14. Geologic Maps and Cross Sections of the Tuba City Open Dump Site and Vicinity, With Implications for the Occurrence and Flow of Ground Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otton, James K.; Johnson, Ray H.; Horton, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    This report is designed to make available to interested parties geologic and limited hydrologic and geochemical information about the Tuba City Open Dump (TCOD) site. This information has been gathered during studies of the site from January to September 2008. Mapping by the authors and construction of cross sections show that a section of gently northeast-dipping Jurassic sedimentary rocks underlies the TCOD and vicinity. Low mesas in the area are capped by variably cemented gravels and siliceous limestones. Surficial sediments are composed of eolian sand and fluvially reworked eolian sand that overlie bedrock underneath the TCOD. Nearby Pasture Canyon is underlain by fluvial and floodplain sediment consisting of sand and silt. Shallow ground water of the water-table aquifer at the TCOD moves westward through the surficial sediment and the underlying weathered bedrock to Pasture Canyon then southward along the canyon. A fracture zone extends up the wash that passes just to the north of the TCOD and brings deeper ground water of the N-aquifer to the water-table aquifer. Bedrock consists of the Jurassic Navajo Sandstone composed of thick sections of eolian crossbedded sandstone with lesser laterally discontinuous layers of silty sandstone, siltstone, and limestone. Below the Navajo Sandstone is a section informally known as the Kayenta Formation-Navajo Sandstone transition zone. It is composed of calcareous sandstone, silty sandstone, siltstone, and limestone beds that intertongue with crossbedded sandstone. The finer grained rocks in both major bedrock units form aquitards that limit downward movement of ground water. The water-table aquifer is perched on these aquitards, which locally occurs beneath the two open dumps that form the TCOD site. A monocline occupies the position of Pasture Canyon west of the TCOD. Fractures likely related to the monocline are exposed in several localities. Deep ground waters consist of dilute calcium-bicarbonate waters low in all

  15. Study on obesity and Influence of dietary factors on the weight status of an adult population in Jamnagar city of Gujarat: A cross-sectional analytical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadera Bhavin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity has reached epidemic proportions globally and is a major contributor to the global burden of chronic diseases. Dietary factors are the major modifiable factors through which many of the external forces promoting weight gain act. Objectives: The objectives were to find the prevalence of overweight and obesity in the urban population of Jamnagar and to explore the effect of dietary factors on the weight status of the people. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among the adult population of Jamnagar city. Cluster sampling technique was used to select study samples. Data were collected in a prestructured questionnaire by interviewing subjects through house-to-house visits. Data were analyzed in Epi Info and appropriate statistical methods were used. Results: The prevalence of overweight and obesity was found to be 22.04% and 5.20%, respectively. Overweight was more prevalent in females than males. The prevalence rose with an increase in age up to 60 years. Among dietary factors, the total calorie intake and habit of snacking had a positive association with weight gain (P < 0.05. The mean intake of oil was more and the mean intake of vegetables was less among overweight subjects than nonoverweight subjects (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The prevalence of overweight and obesity in the urban population in Jamnagar was found to be 22.04% and 5.20%, respectively. Total calorie intake as well as composition of diet was the important dietary factor affecting weight gain.

  16. Mental wellbeing amongst younger and older migrant workers in comparison to their urban counterparts in Guangzhou city, China: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Chang, Shu-Sen; Yip, Paul S F; Li, Juan; Jordan, Lucy P; Tang, Yunge; Hao, Yuantao; Huang, Xingmei; Yang, Ning; Chen, Chaoqi; Zeng, Qiaomei

    2014-12-16

    There has been a dramatic increase in internal migrant workers in China over recent decades, and there is a recent concern of poor mental health particularly amongst younger or "new generation" migrants who were born in 1980 or later. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Guangzhou city between May and July in 2012. Mental wellbeing was measured using the World Health Organization Five-item Well-Being Index Scale and the 36 Item Short Form Health Survey mental health scale. Linear and logistic regression models were used to investigate the differences between migrant workers and their urban counterparts and between younger and older migrants. Migrant workers (n = 914) showed a small but significant advantage in mental wellbeing compared to their urban counterparts (n = 814). There was some evidence for age modification effect (p for interaction = 0.055-0.095); better mental wellbeing in migrants than urbanites were mainly seen in the older compared to the younger group, and the difference attenuated somewhat after controlling for income satisfaction. Older migrants showed better mental health than younger migrants. Factors that were independently associated with poor mental health in migrants included being male, longer working hours, and income dissatisfaction, whilst older age, factory job, high income, and increased use of social support resources were associated with reduced risk. Efforts to promote mental health amongst migrant workers may be usefully targeted on younger migrants and include measures aimed to improve working conditions, strengthen the social support network, and address age-specific needs.

  17. Blood DNA methylation age is not associated with cognitive functioning in middle-aged monozygotic twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starnawska, A; Tan, Q; Lenart, A

    2016-01-01

    The epigenetic clock, also known as DNA methylation age (DNAmAge), represents age-related changes of DNA methylation at multiple sites of the genome and is suggested to be a biomarker for biological age. Elevated blood DNAmAge is associated with all-cause mortality, with the strongest effects...... reported in a recent intrapair twin study where epigenetically older twins had increased mortality risk in comparison to their co-twins. In the study presented here, we hypothesize that DNAmAge in blood is associated with cross-sectional and longitudinal cognitive abilities in middle-aged individuals....... In 486 monozygotic twins, we investigated the association of DNAmAge, difference between DNAmAge and chronological age and age acceleration with cognition. Despite using a powerful paired twin design, we found no evidence for association of blood DNAmAge with cognitive abilities. This observation...

  18. Nike Twins Seven Seven: Nigerian Batik Artist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDuke, Betty

    1987-01-01

    Chronicles the personal and professional life of Nike Twins Seven Seven (born 1951), a Nigerian batik artist, and her husband, Twins Seven Seven, a musician-artist, both of whom have received international acclaim. (BJV)

  19. The Fourth International Network of Twin Registries: Overview from Osaka/Research Reviews: Familial Fraternal Twinning; Twin Study of Masculine Faces; Physical Aggression and Epigenetics; Prenatal Education for Parents of Twins/Current Events: 2016 Guinness Book of World Records; Oldest Living Male Twins; Twins Reunited at Sixty-Nine; Panda Twins; Twins.com.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Nancy L

    2015-12-01

    The 4th International Network of Twin Registries (INTR) Consortium Meeting took place in Osaka, Japan, September 28-29, 2015. The venue was the Osaka Medical Center for Medical Innovation and Translational Research. An overview of presentations and other activities is provided. Next, 1930s research on familial fraternal twinning, preference for masculine faces, physical aggression and epigenetics, and a prenatal education program for parents of multiples are described. Current twin-related events include the 2016 Guinness Book of World Records (GWR), the oldest living male twins, newly reunited twins, the birth of panda twins and a controversial twin-based website.

  20. [Evaluation of changes in the mode of twin deliveries over the years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madej, Anna; Szymusik, Iwona; Oledzka, Magdalena; Kosińska-Kaczyńska, Katarzyna; Bomba-Opoń, Dorota A; Wielgoś, Mirosław

    2012-10-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate changes in the course of twin deliveries over the years, with particular emphasis on the history of infertility duration of pregnancy mode of delivery indications for caesarean section (CS) and infant condition. The study consisted of three groups of patients who delivered twins at the First Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology Medical University of Warsaw: 92 women in years 1987-1991 (G1), 62 in years 1997-2001 (G2) and 126 in years 2007-2010 (G3). The history of infertility treatment (especially in vitro fertilization), mode of delivery indications for cesarean section and newborn condition were taken into account. The results were afterwards compared among the groups and the differences were analyzed with the use of Statistica 10.0 software, with p value Manual maneuvers on the 2nd twins were applied in 25% vs. 6.5% vs. 0.79% of deliveries (pApgar scores of the first twins in the 1st and 5th minute of life among the studied groups. However, second twins were delivered in significantly better condition in G2 and G3 than in G1 (5-minute Apgar of 8-10 points: 79.7% vs. 93.3% vs. 92.6%; p<0.05). Twin pregnancy rate almost doubled over the years, mostly due to a growing popularity of the infertility treatment. Cesarean section is increasingly being chosen to deliver twins. The non-cephalic position of the 2nd fetus has become an important indication for cesarean section. Change in the mode of twin deliveries can be beneficial for the condition of the 2nd twin.

  1. What are the risk factors for HIV in men who have sex with men in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam?- A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi My Dung Le

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of people living with HIV (PLWH in Vietnam was estimated to rise from 156,802 in 2009 to 256,000 in 2014. Although the number of new HIV reported cases has decreased by roughly 14,000 cases per year from 2010 to 2013 a concerning increase in HIV prevalence has been identified among men who have sex with men (MSM from 1.7 % in 2005 to 2.4 % in 2013. There are signs of increased HIV (+ prevalence among MSM in a number of cities/provinces, especially in the two largest cities, Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC and Hanoi. HCMC is the country’s major “hot spot” for HIV/AIDS, with over a third of the total national AIDS patients. This paper is based on a secondary analysis of Integrated Biological and Behavioural Surveillance (IBBS data collected in Vietnam in 2009 to examine the research question “Do behavioural risk factors contribute to HIV infection among the MSM population in HCMC?”. Methods A cross-sectional design was employed to sample males aged over 15 from communities in HCMC, who reported having any types of sex with another man at least once during the last 12 months. Participants (399 were recruited using the respondent driven sampling (RDS method and provided both biological data (specimens and behavioural data collected through a questionnaire survey. Results The study found high HIV prevalence (14.8 % among the MSM sample from HCMC. Multivariate analysis found age and level of formal education completed, to be significantly associated with HIV infection. MSM aged over 25 were more likely to be HIV (+ than the younger group (OR = 7.82, 95 %CI = 3.37–18.16, p < 0.001; as were participants who had low educational (OR = 2.74, p < 0.05 and medium educational levels (OR = 2.68, p < 0.05. In addition, those participants who had anal sex with male partners (OR = 2.7, p < 0.05 and whose sexual partners injected drugs (OR = 2.24, p < 0.05 and who felt at risk of

  2. Simulations of stress-induced twinning and de-twinning: A phase field model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Shenyang; Henager, Chuck H.; Chen Longqing

    2010-01-01

    Twinning in certain metals or under certain conditions is a major plastic deformation mode. Here we present a phase field model to describe twin formation and evolution in a polycrystalline fcc metal under loading and unloading. The model assumes that twin nucleation, growth and de-twinning is a process of partial dislocation nucleation and slip on successive habit planes. Stacking fault energies, energy pathways (γ surfaces), critical shear stresses for the formation of stacking faults and dislocation core energies are used to construct the thermodynamic model. The simulation results demonstrate that the model is able to predict the nucleation of twins and partial dislocations, as well as the morphology of the twin nuclei, and to reasonably describe twin growth and interaction. The twin microstructures at grain boundaries are in agreement with experimental observation. It was found that de-twinning occurs during unloading in the simulations, however, a strong dependence of twin structure evolution on loading history was observed.

  3. Remembering Irving I. Gottesman: Twin Research Colleague and Friend Extraordinaire/Research Studies: Face-Lift Technique Comparison in Identical Twins; Raising Preterm Twins; Fetal Behavior in Dichorionic Twin Pregnancies; Co-Bedding and Stress Reduction in Twins/Public Interest: Identical Co-Twins' Same Day Delivery; Teaching Twins in Bosnia; Twin Auctioneers; Sister, the Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Nancy L

    2016-12-01

    Dr Irving I. Gottesman, a colleague, friend, and long-time member of the International Society of Twin Studies passed away on June 29, 2016. His contributions to twin research and some personal reflections are presented to honor both the man and the memory. This tribute is followed by short reviews of twin research concerning differences between cosmetic surgical techniques, the rearing of preterm twins, behavioral observations of dichorionic fetal twins, and the outcomes of co-bedding twins with reference to stress reduction. Interesting and informative articles in the media describe identical co-twins who delivered infants on the same day, educational policies regarding twins in Bosnia and the United Kingdom, unusual practices of twin auctioneers, and a theatrical production, Sister, featuring identical twins in the leading roles.

  4. The effect of deformation twinning on stress localization in a three dimensional TWIP steel microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tari, Vahid; Kadiri, Haitham El; Oppedal, Andrew L; King, Roger L; Rollett, Anthony D; Beladi, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    We present an investigation of the effect of deformation twinning on the visco-plastic response and stress localization in a low stacking fault energy twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) steel under uniaxial tension loading. The three-dimensional full field response was simulated using the fast Fourier transform method. The initial microstructure was obtained from a three dimensional serial section using electron backscatter diffraction. Twin volume fraction evolution upon strain was measured so the hardening parameters of the simple Voce model could be identified to fit both the stress-strain behavior and twinning activity. General trends of texture evolution were acceptably predicted including the typical sharpening and balance between the 〈1 1 1〉 fiber and the 〈1 0 0〉 fiber. Twinning was found to nucleate preferentially at grain boundaries although the predominant twin reorientation scheme did not allow spatial propagation to be captured. Hot spots in stress correlated with the boundaries of twinned voxel domains, which either impeded or enhanced twinning based on which deformation modes were active locally. (paper)

  5. Roentgeno-cephalometric analysis on the twin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hi Sup; Ahn, Hyung Kyu [College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1972-11-15

    The purpose of this investigation can be sought for studying varients between twin by the cephalometric roentgenog raphic technics. The author have applied Down's, Bjork and Sakamoto's technic and measured in various angulations and length of cephalometric points. The results are as follows; 1. No significantly different data were found between twin. 2. There was no differences between normality and twin.

  6. Postpartum Mental State of Mothers of Twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantmüller, Éva; Gyúró, Mónika; Galgán, Kitti; Pakai, Annamária

    2016-01-01

    Twin birth is a relevant risk factor for postnatal depression (PND). The primary objective of our study is to reveal the prevalence of suspected cases of depression and to identify some background factors among mothers of twins. We applied convenience sampling method within a retrospective, quantitative study among mothers given birth to twins for…

  7. Epigenetic Epidemiology of Complex Diseases Using Twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Qihua

    2013-01-01

    through multiple epigenetic mechanisms. This paper reviews the new developments in using twins to study disease-related epigenetic alterations, links them to lifetime environmental exposure with a focus on the discordant twin design and proposes novel data-analytical approaches with the aim of promoting...... a more efficient use of twins in epigenetic studies of complex human diseases....

  8. Concordance for multiple sclerosis in Danish twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, T; Skytthe, Axel; Stenager, Egon

    2005-01-01

    The occurrence of multiple sclerosis (MS) in twins has not previously been studied in complete nationwide data sets. The existence of almost complete MS and twin registries in Denmark ensures that essentially unbiased samples of MS cases among twins can be obtained. In this population-based study...

  9. Twins and non-twin siblings: different estimates of shared environmental influence in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeppen-Schomerus, Gesina; Spinath, Frank M; Plomin, Robert

    2003-04-01

    Twin studies typically indicate shared environmental influence for cognitive abilities, especially in early childhood. However, across studies, DZ twin correlations tend to be greater than non-twin sibling correlations, suggesting that twin estimates of shared environment are to some extent specific to twins. We tested this hypothesis in a sample of more than 1800 MZ and 1800 same-sex DZ pairs from the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS), a study of twins born in England and Wales in 1994 and 1995. For this analysis, we obtained comparable data from more than 130 same-sex younger siblings of the twins. Twins and their younger siblings were assessed for language, cognitive abilities and behavior problems by their parents at 2 and 3 years of age. For language and cognitive measures at both 2 and 3 years, but not for behavior problems, estimates of shared environment were more than twice as large for twins as compared to non-twin siblings. We conclude that about half of twin study estimates of shared environment for cognitive abilities in early childhood are specific to twins. Although many possibilities exist for explaining the special shared environment effect for twins, we suggest that cognitive-relevant experiences that are not shared by siblings are shared by twins because they are exactly the same age.

  10. Prevalence and Occupational and Environmental Risk Factors of Self-Reported Asthma: Evidence from a Cross-Sectional Survey in Seven Chinese Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Ling Fu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases and associated with significant morbidity and mortality. However, few data on occupational and environmental risk factors of asthma are available, particularly in Asian adults. Based on a national cross-sectional survey, we assessed the prevalence and risk factors of asthma in Chinese adults. Methods: A total of 9974 participants aged 15 years and over in seven Chinese cities were selected using a stratified four-stage random sampling. All participants were interviewed face-to-face in their homes using a standardized self-administered questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were adopted to determine various risk factors for asthma. Results: The prevalence of self-reported lifetime asthma was 2.46% among the entire adult population, 3.02% among males and 1.93% among females. The prevalence varied by age group, ethnicity, marital status, education, and floor space per person (p < 0.05. After adjusting for socio-demographic variables and smoking, we found independent occupational and environmental determinants of asthma, including a clearance-related job (OR = 2.28, 95%CI: 1.07–4.89, occupational exposure to industrial or occupational poisonous gas (OR = 4.21, 95%CI: 2.43–7.30, having large amounts of carpet in the workplace (OR = 2.61, 95%CI: 1.20–5.69 and using coal for cooking (OR = 2.65, 95%CI: 1.26–5.57. Conclusions: Asthma is a serious public health problem in China. Our study provides important updated information on the prevalence of asthma and its associated risk factors, which may help us better understand the epidemiology of asthma and prevent this disorder.

  11. Prevalence and Occupational and Environmental Risk Factors of Self-Reported Asthma: Evidence from a Cross-Sectional Survey in Seven Chinese Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qing-Ling; Du, Yue; Xu, Geng; Zhang, Hua; Cheng, Lei; Wang, Yan-Jun; Zhu, Dong-Dong; Lv, Wei; Liu, Shi-Xi; Li, Pei-Zhong; Shi, Jian-Bo; Ou, Chun-Quan

    2016-11-04

    Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases and associated with significant morbidity and mortality. However, few data on occupational and environmental risk factors of asthma are available, particularly in Asian adults. Based on a national cross-sectional survey, we assessed the prevalence and risk factors of asthma in Chinese adults. A total of 9974 participants aged 15 years and over in seven Chinese cities were selected using a stratified four-stage random sampling. All participants were interviewed face-to-face in their homes using a standardized self-administered questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were adopted to determine various risk factors for asthma. The prevalence of self-reported lifetime asthma was 2.46% among the entire adult population, 3.02% among males and 1.93% among females. The prevalence varied by age group, ethnicity, marital status, education, and floor space per person ( p occupational and environmental determinants of asthma, including a clearance-related job (OR = 2.28, 95%CI: 1.07-4.89), occupational exposure to industrial or occupational poisonous gas (OR = 4.21, 95%CI: 2.43-7.30), having large amounts of carpet in the workplace (OR = 2.61, 95%CI: 1.20-5.69) and using coal for cooking (OR = 2.65, 95%CI: 1.26-5.57). Asthma is a serious public health problem in China. Our study provides important updated information on the prevalence of asthma and its associated risk factors, which may help us better understand the epidemiology of asthma and prevent this disorder.

  12. Factors associated with mothers' knowledge on infant and young child feeding recommendation in slum areas of Bahir Dar City, Ethiopia: cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demilew, Yeshalem Mulugeta

    2017-06-05

    Malnutrition is a public health concern in Ethiopia. This might be correlated with inappropriate infant and young child feeding practice. This in turn is affected by Mothers' knowledge on feeding practice. However, information on mothers' knowledge on infant and young child feeding recommendation was scarce in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study was designed to assess mothers' knowledge on infant and young child feeding recommendation and associated factors in slum areas of Bahir Dar City, Ethiopia. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted from May 1-26/2015. Systematic sampling technique was used to select respondents. Data were collected by pretested, structured, interviewer administered questionnaire. Data were entered and analyzed by SPSS version 20 software. Knowledge score was computed. Binary and multivariable logistic regression analysis were used to identify factors associated with maternal knowledge. Only 28.7% of mothers had sufficient knowledge on infant and young child feeding recommendation. Factors associated with mothers, knowledge were above primary education [AOR 2.5, 95% CI (1.5, 3.9)], possession of radio [AOR 1.7, 95% CI (1.1, 2.7)], attending antenatal care [AOR 2.4, 95% CI (1.5, 4.0)], and having employed husband [AOR 2.3, 95% CI (1.2, 4.4)]. Mothers' knowledge on infant and young child feeding recommendation was very low. Hence, education on infant and young child feeding recommendation should be strengthened during antenatal care visit and using mass media especially for mothers with lower educational status to fill up of this gap.

  13. Cross-sectional association between ZIP code-level gentrification and homelessness among a large community-based sample of people who inject drugs in 19 US cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linton, Sabriya L; Cooper, Hannah Lf; Kelley, Mary E; Karnes, Conny C; Ross, Zev; Wolfe, Mary E; Friedman, Samuel R; Jarlais, Don Des; Semaan, Salaam; Tempalski, Barbara; Sionean, Catlainn; DiNenno, Elizabeth; Wejnert, Cyprian; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela

    2017-06-20

    Housing instability has been associated with poor health outcomes among people who inject drugs (PWID). This study investigates the associations of local-level housing and economic conditions with homelessness among a large sample of PWID, which is an underexplored topic to date. PWID in this cross-sectional study were recruited from 19 large cities in the USA as part of National HIV Behavioral Surveillance. PWID provided self-reported information on demographics, behaviours and life events. Homelessness was defined as residing on the street, in a shelter, in a single room occupancy hotel, or in a car or temporarily residing with friends or relatives any time in the past year. Data on county-level rental housing unaffordability and demand for assisted housing units, and ZIP code-level gentrification (eg, index of percent increases in non-Hispanic white residents, household income, gross rent from 1990 to 2009) and economic deprivation were collected from the US Census Bureau and Department of Housing and Urban Development. Multilevel models evaluated the associations of local economic and housing characteristics with homelessness. Sixty percent (5394/8992) of the participants reported homelessness in the past year. The multivariable model demonstrated that PWID living in ZIP codes with higher levels of gentrification had higher odds of homelessness in the past year (gentrification: adjusted OR=1.11, 95% CI=1.04 to 1.17). Additional research is needed to determine the mechanisms through which gentrification increases homelessness among PWID to develop appropriate community-level interventions. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Relationship between psychological well-being and perceptions of stress among undergraduate dental students in Bengaluru city: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Anushri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The dental profession has been considered a stressful occupation. The origins of this stress may also lie in the process of dental education. The perception of stress is frequently influenced by one′s personal system of beliefs and attitudes. Aim: The aim was to assess the relationship between psychological well-being and perception of stress among undergraduate dental students in Bangalore city. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted among 800 1-4 th year dental students. Information on demographics, social background, and health behaviors were collected. The psychological general well-being (PGWB index and the dental environment stress (DES questionnaire were used to measure PGWB and perceptions of stress, respectively. Multiple intergroup comparisons were carried out using ANOVA. Correlation analysis was done to find out relationship between PGWB and DES. Regression analysis to find out the strongest predictor of PGWB. P <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: There was no significant difference in PGWB among different year of study. Female students had significantly lower PGWB scores and higher DES scores than male students. The stress differed among different year of study with highest stress in final year students in all domains except for clinical/preclinical training, which was highest among 1 st year students. Correlational analysis showed a negative relationship between PGWB and DES score. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that "workload," "patient treatment," "performance pressure" and "others" domains of stress were significant predictors of PGWB. Conclusion: This study revealed that the perception of stress is influenced by gender and health behaviors which in turn affect PGWB.

  15. Physical inactivity associated with the risk of non-communicable diseases in Japanese working mothers with young children: A cross-sectional study in Nagano city, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoshio; Sakuraba, Keishoku; Shinjo, Tokiko; Maruyama-Nagao, Asako; Nakaniida, Atsuko; Kadoya, Haruka; Shibata, Marika; Matsukawa, Takehisa; Itoh, Hiroaki; Yokoyama, Kazuhito

    2017-06-01

    Physical activity helps to prevent the development of chronic non-communicable diseases. However, childbearing generally reduces parents' level of physical activity, particularly in mothers. Therefore, mothers with young children generally have lower levels of physical activity and have a higher risk of developing non-communicable diseases. The aim of the present study was to examine this risk in Japanese working mothers with young children. A cross-sectional study was conducted in four nursery schools in Nagano city, Japan. All mothers were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding abnormal findings at their proximate annual medical examination, and were asked to record their normal physical activity. A total of 182 mothers completed the questionnaires, and 36 reported having abnormal findings (ABN group). Mothers in the ABN group were significantly older than those without abnormal findings (NOR; P=0.043). No significant differences in physical activity were observed between the two groups; however, mothers in the ABN group spent a significantly longer time sitting than those in the NOR group (P=0.028). Regarding socioeconomic characteristics, mothers in the ABN group had a significantly higher educational background (P=0.040) and a higher annual family income (P<0.001) compared with those in the NOR group, and significantly more mothers held full-time jobs (55.9 vs. 36.0%; P=0.005). Full-time working mothers typically had a significantly higher family income (P<0.001) and spent a significantly longer time sitting (P<0.001) compared with mothers in part-time and other work. Therefore, the results of the present study suggest that sedentary lifestyles, namely the amount of time spent sitting, may increase the risk of Japanese working mothers with young children developing non-communicable diseases.

  16. Sharing City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This magazine offers an insight into the growing commercial innovation, civic movements, and political narratives surrounding sharing economy services, solutions and organisational types. It presents a cross-section of the manifold sharing economy services and solutions that can be found in Denmark....... Moreover, 15 thought leading experts - professionals and academic - have been invited to give their perspective on sharing economy for cities. This magazine touches upon aspects of the sharing economy as mobility, communities, sustainability, business development, mobility, and urban-rural relation....

  17. The effect of chorionicity and twin-to-twin delivery time interval on short-term outcome of the second twin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortø, Sofie; Nickelsen, Carsten; Petersen, Janne

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: To investigate the effect of chorionicity and twin-to-twin delivery time interval on short-term outcome in the second twin. Additionally, to investigate predictors of adverse outcome in both twins. Methods: Data included vaginally delivered twins (≥ 36 weeks) from Copenhagen ...

  18. Twin methodology in epigenetic studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Qihua; Christiansen, Lene; von Bornemann Hjelmborg, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    of diseases to molecular phenotypes in functional genomics especially in epigenetics, a thriving field of research that concerns the environmental regulation of gene expression through DNA methylation, histone modification, microRNA and long non-coding RNA expression, etc. The application of the twin method...

  19. The Danish political twin study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemmensen, Robert; Hobolt, Sara B; Dinesen, Peter Thisted

    2012-01-01

    We compare a recent Danish twin survey on political attitudes and behaviors to a nationally representative survey covering similar topics. We find very similar means and variances for most of our constructed scales of political attitudes and behaviors in the two surveys, although even small...

  20. Smoking status of parents, siblings and friends: Predictors of regular smoking? Findings from a longitudinal twin-family study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, J.M.; Willemsen, G.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between regular smoking behavior and the smoking behavior of parents, siblings and friends was investigated using data from the Netherlands Twin Register. Cross-sectional analyses of data of 3906 twins showed significant associations between smoking behavior of the participant and

  1. Heteropagus twinning on back -- a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Bidyut; Biswas, Sumitra Kumar

    2011-07-01

    Heteropagus twins, also called parasitic twins, are malformation of the foetus where the development of one twin is incomplete. They are attached most commonly to the lower chest and upper abdomen. We report a case of heteropagus twin, where the parasite possessed well-formed limb as well as blind ending intestine. It was attached to the back of the host by a broad pedicle. We take this opportunity to classify areas of confusion prevailing regarding twinning, foetus in foetu, teratoma and caudal duplication.

  2. Fetal growth disorders in twin gestations.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Breathnach, Fionnuala M

    2012-06-01

    Twin growth is frequently mismatched. This review serves to explore the pathophysiologic mechanisms that underlie growth aberrations in twin gestations, the prenatal recognition of abnormal twin growth, and the critical importance of stratifying management of abnormal twin growth by chorionicity. Although poor in utero growth of both twins may reflect maternal factors resulting in global uteroplacental dysfunction, discordant twin growth may be attributed to differences in genetic potential between co-twins, placental dysfunction confined to one placenta only, or one placental territory within a shared placenta. In addition, twin-twin transfusion syndrome represents a distinct entity of which discordant growth is a common feature. Discordant growth is recognized as an independent risk factor for adverse perinatal outcome. Intertwin birth weight disparity of 18% or more should be considered to represent a discordance threshold, which serves as an independent risk factor for adverse perinatal outcome. At this cutoff, perinatal morbidity is found to increase both for the larger and the smaller twin within a discordant pair. There remains uncertainty surrounding the sonographic parameters that are most predictive of discordance. Although heightening of fetal surveillance in the face of discordant twin growth follows the principles applied to singleton gestations complicated by fetal growth restriction, the timing of intervention is largely influenced by chorionicity.

  3. Using Twins to Better Understand Sibling Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Katharine M; Pike, Alison; Latham, Rachel M; Oliver, Bonamy R

    2017-03-01

    We compared the nature of the sibling relationship in dyads of varying genetic relatedness, employing a behavioural genetic design to estimate the contribution that genes and the environment have on this familial bond. Two samples were used-the Sisters and Brothers Study consisted of 173 families with two target non-twin children (mean ages = 7.42 and 5.22 years respectively); and the Twins, Family and Behaviour study included 234 families with two target twin children (mean age = 4.70 years). Mothers and fathers reported on their children's relationship with each other, via a postal questionnaire (the Sisters and Brothers Study) or a telephone interview (the Twins, Family and Behaviour study). Contrary to expectations, no mean level differences emerged when monozygotic twin pairs, dizygotic twin pairs, and non-twin pairs were compared on their sibling relationship quality. Behavioural genetic analyses also revealed that the sibling bond was modestly to moderately influenced by the genetic propensities of the children within the dyad, and moderately to substantially influenced by the shared environment common to both siblings. In addition, for sibling negativity, we found evidence of twin-specific environmental influence-dizygotic twins showed more reciprocity than did non-twins. Our findings have repercussions for the broader application of results from future twin-based investigations.

  4. Register-based research on twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kaare; Ohm Kyvik, Kirsten; Holm, Niels V

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The Danish Twin Registry (DTR) has for more than 50 years been based on surveys and clinical investigations and over the two last decades also on register linkage. Currently these two approaches are merged within Statistics Denmark. Research topics: Here we report on three major...... groups of register-based research in the DTR that used the uniqueness of twinning. First, we focus on the ''long-term prognosis'' of being a twin compared with being a singleton and show that Danish twins have health trajectories in adulthood similar to singletons, which is a result of interest for twins...... illustrate how the co-twin control method in a register setting can be used to control for the effect of rearing environment and genetic factors in studies of the association between exposures and health. CONCLUSION: The spectrum of register-based twin studies is very wide and have changed in accordance...

  5. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Adiposity as Determinants of Metabolic Health-Pooled Analysis of Two Twin Cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jukarainen, Sakari; Holst, René; Dalgård, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Context: The joint effects of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and body composition on metabolic health are not well known. Objective: To examine the associations of CRF, fat-free mass index (FFMI), and fat mass index (FMI) with metabolic health in individual twins and controlling for genetic...... and shared environmental effects by studying monozygotic intrapair differences. Design, Setting, and Participants: Two cross-sectional samples of healthy adult monozygotic and dizygotic twins were drawn from population-based Danish and Finnish national twin registries (n = 996 and n = 309). Main Measures...

  6. Mode of birth in twins: data and reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitter, A; Daviss, B A; Krimphove, M J; Johnson, K C; Schlößer, R; Louwen, F; Bisits, A

    2018-02-12

    Our primary objective was to compare neonatal and maternal outcomes in women with twin pregnancies, beyond 32 weeks, having a planned vaginal birth or a planned caesarean section (CS). This was a retrospective cohort study from a single tertiary centre over nine years. 534 sets of twins ≥32 + 0 weeks of gestation were included. 401 sets were planned vaginally and 133 sets were planned by CS. We compared a composite adverse perinatal outcome (perinatal mortality or serious neonatal morbidity; five minute APGAR score ≤4, neurological abnormality and need for intubation) and a composite maternal adverse outcome (major haemorrhage, trauma or infection) between the groups. There were no significant differences. Given the similarity of these results with several other larger studies of twin birth, we sought to look at reasons why there is still a rising rate of CS for twin births. We further make suggestions for keeping this rate to a sensible minimum. Impact statement What is already known on this subject? The largest randomised controlled study comparing planned vaginal birth with planned CSs for lower risk twins between 32 and 39 weeks of gestation, showed no added safety from planned CS. However, in most of the Western countries this conclusion has failed to increase the number of planned vaginal births for lower risk twins. What do the results of this study add? This observational study from a single tertiary centre provides external validation of the twin trial results in a practical day-to-day setting. It also provides insights as to how planned vaginal birth can be developed and maintained, with a key focus on safety and maternal participation in decision making. It does focus on consent and providing accurate data. What are the implications of these findings for clinical practice and/or further research? There are good grounds to encourage vaginal birth for low-risk twin pregnancies. The trend of rising caesarean rates in low-risk twin

  7. Is that me or my twin? Lack of self-face recognition advantage in identical twins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Martini

    Full Text Available Despite the increasing interest in twin studies and the stunning amount of research on face recognition, the ability of adult identical twins to discriminate their own faces from those of their co-twins has been scarcely investigated. One's own face is the most distinctive feature of the bodily self, and people typically show a clear advantage in recognizing their own face even more than other very familiar identities. Given the very high level of resemblance of their faces, monozygotic twins represent a unique model for exploring self-face processing. Herein we examined the ability of monozygotic twins to distinguish their own face from the face of their co-twin and of a highly familiar individual. Results show that twins equally recognize their own face and their twin's face. This lack of self-face advantage was negatively predicted by how much they felt physically similar to their co-twin and by their anxious or avoidant attachment style. We speculate that in monozygotic twins, the visual representation of the self-face overlaps with that of the co-twin. Thus, to distinguish the self from the co-twin, monozygotic twins have to rely much more than control participants on the multisensory integration processes upon which the sense of bodily self is based. Moreover, in keeping with the notion that attachment style influences perception of self and significant others, we propose that the observed self/co-twin confusion may depend upon insecure attachment.

  8. Comparable risk of childhood asthma after vaginal delivery and emergency caesarean section

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Nis; Stokholm, Lonny; Jonsdottir, Fjola

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Caesarean section is thought to be a risk factor for childhood asthma, but this association may be caused by confounding from, for instance, familial factors. To address this problem, we used twin pairs to assess the risk of childhood asthma after emergency caesarean section. METHODS...... respiratory morbidity, the risk of childhood asthma following emergency caesarean section remained unchanged. CONCLUSION: Emergency caesarean section was not associated with childhood asthma. FUNDING: none. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant.......: In total, 464 twin pairs (928 twins) were included. In 30 pairs, the first twin (vaginal delivery) was diagnosed with asthma, but the second twin (emergency caesarean section) was not. In 20 pairs, the second twin (emergency caesarean section) was diagnosed with asthma, but the first twin (vaginal delivery...

  9. Twin Research and the Arts: Interconnections / Twin Research: Twin Studies of Sexual Orientation; A Historical Biological Twin Gem; GWAS Approach to Who Has Twins / Newsworthy: Twins on College Campuses; 'Brainprint': Personal Identification by Brain Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Nancy L

    2016-08-01

    The interrelatedness between twin research and the arts is explored via a new play about a famous case. In the 1960s, identical twin David Bruce Reimer was accidentally castrated as an infant during circumcision to correct a urinary problem. The decision to raise him as a girl, and the consequences of that decision, are explored in the new theatrical production of Boy. Other examples of the arts mirroring science, and vice versa, are described. Next, brief reviews and summaries of twin research on sexual orientation, 1860s' knowledge of placental arrangements and twinning mechanisms, and genes underlying multiple birth conception and fertility related measures are provided. This article concludes with a look at twins on college campuses and the identification of individuals by their brain waves. A correction and clarification regarding my article on the Brazilian Twin Registry in the last issue of THG (Segal, 2016) is also provided.

  10. Ventricular strain changes in monochorionic twins with and without twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Clarke, Marisa C; Matsui, Hikoro; Roughton, Michael; Wimalasundera, Ruwan C; Gardiner, Helena M

    2013-06-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate whether vector velocity imaging (VVI), a non-Doppler speckle tracking ultrasound technology, is feasible in twin pregnancies and can aid management of twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS). Twenty-seven women pregnant with monochorionic diamniotic twins affected by TTTS and 28 monochorionic pregnancies that did not develop TTTS were included in a prospective case-control study at a fetal medicine center. Fetal echocardiograms were recorded with dummy electrocardiography to retain original frame rates when exported for offline speckle tracking analysis using Syngo-VVI software (Siemens Corp, Munich, Germany). Right and left ventricular (LV) free wall Lagrangian strain was measured from the original coordinates. Within-twin pair ventricular strain differences including relationship to Quintero staging and response to laser therapy for TTTS were analyzed by Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The VVI strain measurements could be analyzed in 182 of 200 TTTS and 96 of 112 non-TTTS control ventricles. Within-pair strain was concordant in non-TTTS controls. Recipient LV strain was reduced at all Quintero stages compared with donors (P < .01). Recipient right ventricular strain was reduced only in stages 3 and 4 (P < .01). Strain improved at a median of 2 weeks following successful laser therapy. Intertwin differences in strain were independent of weight discordance. Recipient LV strain is reduced in stages 1 and 2 TTTS. Within-pair strain discordance may distinguish early TTTS from growth discordance and guide timing of and management following treatment. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Household food insecurity, diet, and weight status in a disadvantaged district of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Thuy Ngoc; Gallegos, Danielle; Ramsey, Rebecca

    2015-03-08

    Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical, economic and socially acceptable access to safe, sufficient, and adequately nutritious food in order to meet their dietary needs for an active and healthy life. For high income countries and those experiencing the nutrition transition, food security is not only about the quantity of available food but also the nutritional quality as related to over- and under-nutrition. Vietnam is currently undergoing this nutrition transition, and as a result the relationship between food insecurity, socio-demographic factors and weight status is complex. The primary objective of this study was to therefore measure the prevalence of household food insecurity in a disadvantaged urban district in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) in Vietnam using a more comprehensive tool. This study also aims to examine the relationships between food insecurity and socio-demographic factors, weight status, and food intakes. A cross-sectional study was conducted using multi-stage sampling. Adults who were mainly responsible for cooking were interviewed in 250 households. Data was collected on socioeconomic and demographic factors using previously validated tools. Food security was assessed using the Latin American and Caribbean Household Food Security Scale (ELCSA) tool and households were categorized as food secure or mildly, moderately or severely food insecure. Questions regarding food intake were based on routinely used and validated questions in HCMC, weight status was self-reported. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.87, showing the ELCSA had a good internal reliability. Approximately 34.4% of households were food insecure. Food insecurity was inversely related to total household income (OR = 0.09, 95% CI = 0.04 - 0.22) and fruit intakes (OR = 2.2, 95% CI 1.31 - 4.22). There was no association between weight and food security status. Despite rapid industrialization and modernization, food insecurity remains an important

  12. Profile of glycated-hemoglobin, antioxidant vitamin and cytokine levels in pulmonary tuberculosis patients: A cross sectional study at Pulmonary Diseases Center Semarang City, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praba Ginandjar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Uncontrolled blood glucose, which marked by high level of HbA1c, increases risk of pulmonary TB because of cellular immunity dysfunction. This study aimed to analyze profile of glycated hemoglobin, antioxidant vitamins status and cytokines levels in active pulmonary TB patients. Methods: This was a cross sectional study, conducted at Pulmonary Diseases Center Semarang City, Indonesia. Study subject consisted of 62 pulmonary TB patients, diagnosed with positive acid fast bacilli and chest X-ray. ELISA was used to measure IFN-γ and IL-12. Status of antioxidant vitamins was determined by concentration of vitamin A and E using HPLC. Blood glucose control was determined by HbA1c concentration (HbA1c ≥7% is considered as uncontrolled. Results: A significant difference of age between pulmonary tuberculosis patients with normal and uncontrolled blood glucose (p = 0.000 was showed, while all other characteristics (sex, education, occupation did not differ with p = 0.050, 0.280, 0.380 respectively. Mean HbA1c was 7.25 ± 2.70%. Prevalence of uncontrolled glucose among pulmonary TB patients was 29%. Levels of IFN-γ and IL-12 did not differ according to HbA1c concentration (p = 0.159 and p = 0.965 respectively. Pulmonary tuberculosis patients with uncontrolled blood glucose has higher vitamin E (p = 0.006, while vitamin A did not differ significantly (p = 0.478. Conclusions: This study supports the importance of performing diabetes screening among pulmonary TB patients. Further study needs to be done to determine the feasibility of TB-DM co-management. Keywords: HbA1c, Pulmonary tuberculosis, Vitamin A, Vitamin E

  13. Associations of Sleep Duration and Disturbances With Hypertension in Metropolitan Cities of Delhi, Chennai, and Karachi in South Asia: Cross-Sectional Analysis of the CARRS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivashankar, Roopa; Kondal, Dimple; Ali, Mohammed K; Gupta, Ruby; Pradeepa, Rajendra; Mohan, Viswanathan; Kadir, Muhammad Masood; Narayan, K M Venkat; Tandon, Nikhil; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Peasey, Anne

    2017-09-01

    Sleep duration and disturbances may be risk factors for hypertension. Despite the high burden of hypertension in South Asia, little is known about this relationship in this region. We analyzed population-level cross-sectional data from the Centre for Cardiometabolic Risk Reduction in South Asia (CARRS) study that recruited representative samples of adults ≥ 20 years from three cities-Delhi, Chennai (India), and Karachi (Pakistan) during 2010-2011. We defined hypertension as self-reported treatment or measured blood pressure (BP) ≥140/90 mm Hg. Data on usual duration of sleep, insomnia, and snoring were collected using "The Sleep Habits Questionnaire" and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) using Epworth Sleepiness Score. Logistic and linear regression were done with hypertension and BP as outcome variables, respectively. Age, gender, education, wealth index, family history, and body mass index (BMI) were included as covariates. We used multiple imputation to account for missing variables. Prevalence of hypertension was 30.1%. The mean (SD) sleep duration was 7.3 (1.2) hours. Insomnia, snoring, and EDS were present in 13.6%, 28.7%, and 4.6%, respectively. Moderate and habitual snoring were associated with increased odds of hypertension (odds ratio [OR] = 1.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.04 to 1.33] and 1.47 [1.29 to 1.67], respectively), after adjusting for covariates. Rare, occasional, and frequent insomnia were associated with increased hypertension (OR 1.41 [1.12 to 1.77], 1.39 [1.16 to 1.67], and 1.34 [1.09 to 1.65], respectively). Sleep duration and EDS were not associated with hypertension. Self-reported snoring and insomnia were associated with hypertension in South Asia. This relationship needs further exploration through robust longitudinal studies in this region. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14.  A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY OF ORAL HEALTH AND ORAL-HEALTH-RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE AMONG FRAIL ELDERLY PERSONS ON ADMISSION TO A SPECIAL ORAL-HEALTHCARE PROGRAM IN COPENHAGEN CITY,

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lisa Bøge; Hede, Borge; Nielsen, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    A cross-sectional study of oral health and oral health-related quality of life among frail elderly persons on admission to a special oral health care programme in Copenhagen City, Denmark Aim: To describe the oral health and the oral-health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of citizens in Copenhagen...... City on admission to a specific oral health-care programme for disabled elderly persons. Further, to analyse how various factors influence the oral health and the OHRQoL among these patients. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 189 persons (average 85 years) consecutively admitted to a special oral...... health-care programme. Clinical data and data from interviews comprising social factors, life-style, dental visit habits, oral hygiene practices and self-perceived oral health were collected. A modified index on perceived dysfunction, discomfort and disability due to oral disorders was used. Results...

  15. Twin cities institutional issues study cogenerated hot water district heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundberg, R. E.; Leas, R.; Kolb, J. O.

    1979-01-01

    Community district heating, utilizing hot water produced through electrical/thermal cogeneration, is seen as an integral part of Minnesota's Energy Policy and Conservation Plan. Several studies have been conducted which consider the technical and institutional issues affecting implementation of cogenerated district heating in the Minneapolis and St. Paul Metropolitan Area. The state of the technical art of cogenerated hot water district heating is assumed to be transferable from European experience. Institutional questions relating to such factors as the form of ownership, financing, operation, regulation, and product marketability cannot be transferred from the European experience, and have been the subject of an extensive investigation. The form and function of the Institutional Issues Study, and some of the preliminary conclusions and recommendations resulting from the study are discussed.

  16. Early neonatal mortality in twin pregnancy: Findings from 60 low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellizzi, Saverio; Sobel, Howard; Betran, Ana Pilar; Temmerman, Marleen

    2018-06-01

    Around the world, the incidence of multiple pregnancies reaches its peak in the Central African countries and often represents an increased risk of death for women and children because of higher rates of obstetrical complications and poor management skills in those countries. We sought to assess the association between twins and early neonatal mortality compared with singleton pregnancies. We also assessed the role of skilled birth attendant and mode of delivery on early neonatal mortality in twin pregnancies. We conducted a secondary analysis of individual level data from 60 nationally-representative Demographic and Health Surveys including 521 867 singleton and 14 312 twin births. We investigated the occurrence of deaths within the first week of life in twins compared to singletons and the effect of place and attendance at birth; also, the role of caesarean sections against vaginal births was examined, globally and after countries stratification per caesarean sections rates. A multi-level logistic regression was used accounting for homogeneity within country, and homogeneity within twin pairs. Early neonatal mortality among twins was significantly higher when compared to singleton neonates (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 7.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 7.0-8.3) in these 60 countries. Early neonatal mortality was also higher among twins than singletons when adjusting for birth weight in a subgroup analysis of those countries with data on birth weight (n = 20; less than 20% of missing values) (aOR = 2.8; 95% CI = 2.2-3.5). For countries with high rates (>15%) of caesarean sections (CS), twins delivered vaginally in health facility had a statistically significant (aOR = 4.8; 95% CI = 2.4-9.4) increased risk of early neonatal mortality compared to twins delivered through caesarean sections. Home twin births without SBA was associated with increased mortality compared with delivering at home with SBA (aOR = 1.3; 95% CI = 1.0-1.8) and

  17. Deformation twinning: Influence of strain rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, G.T. III

    1993-11-01

    Twins in most crystal structures, including advanced materials such as intermetallics, form more readily as the temperature of deformation is decreased or the rate of deformation is increased. Both parameters lead to the suppression of thermally-activated dislocation processes which can result in stresses high enough to nucleate and grow deformation twins. Under high-strain rate or shock-loading/impact conditions deformation twinning is observed to be promoted even in high stacking fault energy FCC metals and alloys, composites, and ordered intermetallics which normally do not readily deform via twinning. Under such conditions and in particular under the extreme loading rates typical of shock wave deformation the competition between slip and deformation twinning can be examined in detail. In this paper, examples of deformation twinning in the intermetallics TiAl, Ti-48Al-lV and Ni{sub 3}A as well in the cermet Al-B{sub 4}C as a function of strain rate will be presented. Discussion includes: (1) the microstructural and experimental variables influencing twin formation in these systems and twinning topics related to high-strain-rate loading, (2) the high velocity of twin formation, and (3) the influence of deformation twinning on the constitutive response of advanced materials.

  18. Fingerprint recognition with identical twin fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xunqiang; Chen, Xinjian; Yang, Xin; Tian, Jie

    2012-01-01

    Fingerprint recognition with identical twins is a challenging task due to the closest genetics-based relationship existing in the identical twins. Several pioneers have analyzed the similarity between twins' fingerprints. In this work we continue to investigate the topic of the similarity of identical twin fingerprints. Our study was tested based on a large identical twin fingerprint database that contains 83 twin pairs, 4 fingers per individual and six impressions per finger: 3984 (83*2*4*6) images. Compared to the previous work, our contributions are summarized as follows: (1) Two state-of-the-art fingerprint identification methods: P071 and VeriFinger 6.1 were used, rather than one fingerprint identification method in previous studies. (2) Six impressions per finger were captured, rather than just one impression, which makes the genuine distribution of matching scores more realistic. (3) A larger sample (83 pairs) was collected. (4) A novel statistical analysis, which aims at showing the probability distribution of the fingerprint types for the corresponding fingers of identical twins which have same fingerprint type, has been conducted. (5) A novel analysis, which aims at showing which finger from identical twins has higher probability of having same fingerprint type, has been conducted. Our results showed that: (a) A state-of-the-art automatic fingerprint verification system can distinguish identical twins without drastic degradation in performance. (b) The chance that the fingerprints have the same type from identical twins is 0.7440, comparing to 0.3215 from non-identical twins. (c) For the corresponding fingers of identical twins which have same fingerprint type, the probability distribution of five major fingerprint types is similar to the probability distribution for all the fingers' fingerprint type. (d) For each of four fingers of identical twins, the probability of having same fingerprint type is similar.

  19. Fingerprint recognition with identical twin fingerprints.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xunqiang Tao

    Full Text Available Fingerprint recognition with identical twins is a challenging task due to the closest genetics-based relationship existing in the identical twins. Several pioneers have analyzed the similarity between twins' fingerprints. In this work we continue to investigate the topic of the similarity of identical twin fingerprints. Our study was tested based on a large identical twin fingerprint database that contains 83 twin pairs, 4 fingers per individual and six impressions per finger: 3984 (83*2*4*6 images. Compared to the previous work, our contributions are summarized as follows: (1 Two state-of-the-art fingerprint identification methods: P071 and VeriFinger 6.1 were used, rather than one fingerprint identification method in previous studies. (2 Six impressions per finger were captured, rather than just one impression, which makes the genuine distribution of matching scores more realistic. (3 A larger sample (83 pairs was collected. (4 A novel statistical analysis, which aims at showing the probability distribution of the fingerprint types for the corresponding fingers of identical twins which have same fingerprint type, has been conducted. (5 A novel analysis, which aims at showing which finger from identical twins has higher probability of having same fingerprint type, has been conducted. Our results showed that: (a A state-of-the-art automatic fingerprint verification system can distinguish identical twins without drastic degradation in performance. (b The chance that the fingerprints have the same type from identical twins is 0.7440, comparing to 0.3215 from non-identical twins. (c For the corresponding fingers of identical twins which have same fingerprint type, the probability distribution of five major fingerprint types is similar to the probability distribution for all the fingers' fingerprint type. (d For each of four fingers of identical twins, the probability of having same fingerprint type is similar.

  20. Identical twins in forensic genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedebrink, Torben; Morling, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The increase in the number of forensic genetic loci used for identification purposes results in infinitesimal random match probabilities. These probabilities are computed under assumptions made for rather simple population genetic models. Often, the forensic expert reports likelihood ratios, where...... published results accounting for close familial relationships. However, we revisit the discussion to increase the awareness among forensic genetic practitioners and include new information on medical and societal factors to assess the risk of not considering a monozygotic twin as the true perpetrator......, then data relevant for the Danish society suggests that the threshold of likelihood ratios should approximately be between 150,000 and 2,000,000 in order to take the risk of an unrecognised identical, monozygotic twin into consideration. In other societies, the threshold of the likelihood ratio in crime...

  1. Comparable risk of childhood asthma after vaginal delivery and emergency caesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brix, Nis; Stokholm, Lonny; Jonsdottir, Fjola; Kristensen, Kim; Secher, Niels Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    Caesarean section is thought to be a risk factor for childhood asthma, but this association may be caused by confounding from, for instance, familial factors. To address this problem, we used twin pairs to assess the risk of childhood asthma after emergency caesarean section. The study was a register-based nation-wide matched cohort study using twin pairs to minimise residual confounding. Included were twin pairs in which the first twin was delivered vaginally and the second by emergency caesarean section during the study period from January 1997 through December 2012. In total, 464 twin pairs (928 twins) were included. In 30 pairs, the first twin (vaginal delivery) was diagnosed with asthma, but the second twin (emergency caesarean section) was not. In 20 pairs, the second twin (emergency caesarean section) was diagnosed with asthma, but the first twin (vaginal delivery) was not. In 11 pairs, both twins developed asthma. In the unadjusted analysis, emergency caesarean section did not affect the risk of asthma (odds ratio = 0.67 (95% confidence interval: 0.38-1.17); p = 0.16). After adjusting for birth weight, gender, umbilical cord pH, Apgar score at 5 min. and neonatal respiratory morbidity, the risk of childhood asthma following emergency caesarean section remained unchanged. Emergency caesarean section was not associated with childhood asthma. none. not relevant.

  2. Einstein and the twin paradox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesic, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Einstein was the first to discuss and resolve the 'twin paradox', which in 1905 he did not consider paradoxical and treated as a consequence of lack of simultaneity. He maintained this view until at least 1914. However, in 1918 Einstein brought forward arguments about accelerated frames of reference that tended to overshadow his initial resolution. His earlier arguments were gradually rediscovered during the subsequent controversy about this 'paradox'

  3. Ectodermal dysplasia in identical twins

    OpenAIRE

    Puttaraju, Gurkar Haraswarupa; Visveswariah, Paranjyothi Magadi

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is typically inherited as an X-linked recessive trait, characterized by deformity of at least two or more of the ectodermal structures - hair, teeth, nails and sweat glands. Two cases of hereditary HED involving identical male twins, is being documented for the rarity of its occurrence with special attention given to genetics, pathophysiology, clinical, intraoral manifestations and to the methods to improve the masticatory function, the facia...

  4. Cost analysis of singleton versus twin pregnancies after in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukassen, H G Marieke; Schönbeck, Yvonne; Adang, Eddy M M; Braat, Didi D M; Zielhuis, Gerhard A; Kremer, Jan A M

    2004-05-01

    To determine the difference in costs between singleton and twin pregnancies after IVF treatment from pregnancy to 6 weeks after delivery from a health care perspective. Retrospective cost analysis. IVF department at the University Medical Center Nijmegen, The Netherlands. A representative sample of singleton and twin pregnancies after IVF treatment between 1995 and 2001 at the University Medical Center Nijmegen. IVF with or without intracytoplasmic sperm injection and with or without cryopreservation. Medical costs per singleton and twin pregnancy after IVF. In patients pregnant with twins, the incidence of hospital antenatal care, complicated vaginal deliveries, and cesarean sections was higher and was associated with more frequent and longer maternal and neonatal hospital admissions. Maternal and neonatal hospital admissions were the major cost drivers. The medical cost per twin pregnancy was found to be more than five times higher than per singleton pregnancy, 13,469 and 2,550, respectively. The medical cost per twin pregnancy was more than 10,000 higher than per singleton pregnancy. A reduction in the number of twin pregnancies by elective single ET will save substantial amounts of money. This money might be used for the additional IVF cycles that will probably be needed to achieve similar success rates between single ET and two-embryo transfer.

  5. Maternal obesity in singleton versus twin gestations: a population-based matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucovnik, Miha; Blickstein, Isaac; Verdenik, Ivan; Trojner-Bregar, Andreja; Tul, Natasa

    2015-04-01

    To examine the impact of pre-pregnancy obesity on adverse outcomes in twin compared to singleton pregnancies. Dichorionic twin gestations with maternal body mass index >30 were matched to three singleton controls. Both obese groups were matched (1:3) with non-obese controls. Rates of preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, cesarean section, and preterm birth were compared. One hundred eighty-nine dichorionic twin pregnancies in obese mothers were matched to 567 twin pregnancies in non-obese mothers, and to 567 singleton pregnancies in obese mothers. The latter were matched to 1701 non-obese mothers with singletons. Preeclampsia was more common in obese mothers with both twins and singletons (odds ratio (OR) 3.95, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.18-7.16 and OR 6.53, 95% CI 3.75-11.4, respectively) as was gestational diabetes (OR 4.35, 95% CI 2.18-8.69; OR 5.53 95% CI 3.60-8.50). Obese mothers with singletons were more likely to deliver abdominally, but the cesarean rates were obesity independent in twins. Obese mothers were more likely to deliver at Obesity-attributable adverse outcomes are lower in twins compared to singletons. Obesity increases the risk of preterm birth regardless of plurality.

  6. The Spread of Substance Use and Delinquency between Adolescent Twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Brett; Hartl, Amy C.; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Dionne, Ginette; Boivin, Michel

    2017-01-01

    This investigation examines the spread of problem behaviors (substance use and delinquency) between twin siblings. A sample of 628 twins (151 male twin pairs and 163 female twin pairs) drawn from the Quebec Newborn Twin Study completed inventories describing delinquency and substance use at ages 13, 14, and 15. A 3-wave longitudinal actor-partner…

  7. Image city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    Image city exhibition explores a condition of mediation, through a focus on image and sound narratives with a point of departure on a number of Asian cities.......Image city exhibition explores a condition of mediation, through a focus on image and sound narratives with a point of departure on a number of Asian cities....

  8. A Powerful Twin Arrives

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-11-01

    First Images from FORS2 at VLT KUEYEN on Paranal The first, major astronomical instrument to be installed at the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) was FORS1 ( FO cal R educer and S pectrograph) in September 1998. Immediately after being attached to the Cassegrain focus of the first 8.2-m Unit Telescope, ANTU , it produced a series of spectacular images, cf. ESO PR 14/98. Many important observations have since been made with this outstanding facility. Now FORS2 , its powerful twin, has been installed at the second VLT Unit Telescope, KUEYEN . It is the fourth major instrument at the VLT after FORS1 , ISAAC and UVES.. The FORS2 Commissioning Team that is busy installing and testing this large and complex instrument reports that "First Light" was successfully achieved already on October 29, 1999, only two days after FORS2 was first mounted at the Cassegrain focus. Since then, various observation modes have been carefully tested, including normal and high-resolution imaging, echelle and multi-object spectroscopy, as well as fast photometry with millisecond time resolution. A number of fine images were obtained during this work, some of which are made available with the present Press Release. The FORS instruments ESO PR Photo 40a/99 ESO PR Photo 40a/99 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 345 pix - 203k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 689 pix - 563kb] [Full-Res - JPEG: 1280 x 1103 pix - 666kb] Caption to PR Photo 40a/99: This digital photo shows the twin instruments, FORS2 at KUEYEN (in the foreground) and FORS1 at ANTU, seen in the background through the open ventilation doors in the two telescope enclosures. Although they look alike, the two instruments have specific functions, as described in the text. FORS1 and FORS2 are the products of one of the most thorough and advanced technological studies ever made of a ground-based astronomical instrument. They have been specifically designed to investigate the faintest and most remote objects in the universe. They are "multi-mode instruments" that

  9. Twinning of Polymer Crystals Suppressed by Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos Ch. Karayiannis

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We propose an entropic argument as partial explanation of the observed scarcity of twinned structures in crystalline samples of synthetic organic polymeric materials. Polymeric molecules possess a much larger number of conformational degrees of freedom than low molecular weight substances. The preferred conformations of polymer chains in the bulk of a single crystal are often incompatible with the conformations imposed by the symmetry of a growth twin, both at the composition surfaces and in the twin axis. We calculate the differences in conformational entropy between chains in single crystals and chains in twinned crystals, and find that the reduction in chain conformational entropy in the twin is sufficient to make the single crystal the stable thermodynamic phase. The formation of cyclic twins in molecular dynamics simulations of chains of hard spheres must thus be attributed to kinetic factors. In more realistic polymers this entropic contribution to the free energy can be canceled or dominated by nonbonded and torsional energetics.

  10. Twin-Telescope Wettzell (TTW)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hase, H.; Dassing, R.; Kronschnabl, G.; Schlüter, W.; Schwarz, W.; Lauber, P.; Kilger, R.

    2007-07-01

    Following the recommendations made by the VLBI2010 vision report of the IVS, a proposal has been made to construct a Twin Telescope for the Fundamental Station Wettzell in order to meet the future requirements of the next VLBI generation. The Twin Telescope consists of two identical radiotelescopes. It is a project of the Federal Agency for Cartography and Geodesy (BKG). This article summarizes the project and some design ideas for the Twin-Telescope. %ZALMA (2005). Technical Specification for Design, Manufacturing, Transport and Integration on Site of the ALMA ANTENNAS, Doc. ALMA-34.00.00.00.006-BSPE. Behrend, D. (2006). VLBI2010 Antenna Specs, Data sheet. DeBoer, D. (2001). The ATA Offset Gregorian Antenna, ATA Memo #16, February 10. Imbriale, W.A. (2006). Design of a Wideband Radio Telescope, Jet Propulsion Laboratory and S. Weinreb and H. Mandi, California Institute of Technology. Kilger, R. (2007). TWIN-Design studies, Presentation for the IVS board members (internal document),Wettzell. Kronschnabl, G. (2006). Subject: Memo from Bill Petrachenko, E-mail to the Twin-Working Group (in German), July. Lindgren, ETS-Lindgren (2005). The Model 3164-05 Open Boundary Quadridge Horn, Data Sheet. Niell, A., A. Whitney, W. Petrachenko, W. Schlüter, N. Vandenberg, H.Hase, Y. Koyama, C. Ma, H. Schuh, G. Tucari (2006). in: IVS Annual Report 2005, pg. 13-40, NASA/TP-2006-214136, April. Olsson, R., Kildal, P.-S., and Weinreb, S. (2006). IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 54, No. 2, February. Petrachenko, B. (2006). The Case For and Against Multiple Antennas at a Site, IVS Memorandum, 2006-019v01. Petrachenko, B. (2006). IVS Memorandum, 2006-016v01. RFSpin (2004). Double Ridged Waveguide Horn-Model DRH20, Antenna Specifications, Data Sheet. Rohde&Schwarz (2004). SHF Antennas Crossed Log- Periodic Antennas HL024A1/S1, Data Sheet. Rohde&Schwarz (2004). SHF Antennas Log-Periodic Antennas HL050/HL050S1, Data Sheet. Rogers, A.E.E. (2006). Simulations of broadband

  11. Anaesthesia for the separation of conjoined twins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaya Lalwani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thoraco-omphalopagus is one of the most common type of conjoint twins accounting for 74% cases of conjoint twins. We report the anaesthetic management for successful separation of thoraco-omphalopagus conjoint twins, both of them surviving till date. We highlight the responsibility of anaesthesia team in anaesthetising the two individual patients simultaneously, need of careful monitoring and anticipation of complications like massive blood loss, hypotension, hypokalemia, hypoxia and hypercabia. Detailed description of successful management is reported.

  12. Gene-Environment Interplay in Twin Models

    OpenAIRE

    Verhulst, Brad; Hatemi, Peter K.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we respond to Shultziner’s critique that argues that identical twins are more alike not because of genetic similarity, but because they select into more similar environments and respond to stimuli in comparable ways, and that these effects bias twin model estimates to such an extent that they are invalid. The essay further argues that the theory and methods that undergird twin models, as well as the empirical studies which rely upon them, are unaware of these potential biases...

  13. Exotic quarks in Twin Higgs models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Hsin-Chia [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis,One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Jung, Sunghoon [School of Physics, Korea Institute for Advanced Study,85 Hoegiro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of); SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory,2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Salvioni, Ennio [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis,One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Tsai, Yuhsin [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis,One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Maryland Center for Fundamental Physics,Department of Physics, University of Maryland,College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2016-03-14

    The Twin Higgs model provides a natural theory for the electroweak symmetry breaking without the need of new particles carrying the standard model gauge charges below a few TeV. In the low energy theory, the only probe comes from the mixing of the Higgs fields in the standard model and twin sectors. However, an ultraviolet completion is required below ∼ 10 TeV to remove residual logarithmic divergences. In non-supersymmetric completions, new exotic fermions charged under both the standard model and twin gauge symmetries have to be present to accompany the top quark, thus providing a high energy probe of the model. Some of them carry standard model color, and may therefore be copiously produced at current or future hadron colliders. Once produced, these exotic quarks can decay into a top together with twin sector particles. If the twin sector particles escape the detection, we have the irreducible stop-like signals. On the other hand, some twin sector particles may decay back into the standard model particles with long lifetimes, giving spectacular displaced vertex signals in combination with the prompt top quarks. This happens in the Fraternal Twin Higgs scenario with typical parameters, and sometimes is even necessary for cosmological reasons. We study the potential displaced vertex signals from the decays of the twin bottomonia, twin glueballs, and twin leptons in the Fraternal Twin Higgs scenario. Depending on the details of the twin sector, the exotic quarks may be probed up to ∼ 2.5 TeV at the LHC and beyond 10 TeV at a future 100 TeV collider, providing a strong test of this class of ultraviolet completions.

  14. Numerical Simulation of Twin Nozzle Injectors

    OpenAIRE

    Milak, Dino

    2015-01-01

    Fuel injectors for marine applications have traditionally utilized nozzles with symmetric equispaced orifice configuration. But in light of the new marine emission legislations the twin nozzle concept has arisen. The twin nozzle differs from the conventional configuration by utilizing two closely spaced orifices to substitute each orifice in the conventional nozzle. Injector manufacturers regard twin nozzle injectors as a promising approach to facilitate stable spray patterns independent of t...

  15. Bilateral Norrie's disease in identical twins.

    OpenAIRE

    Sukumaran, K

    1991-01-01

    A case of Norrie's disease in an identical twins is reported. No positive family history was obtained. The couple had no other children. The older of the twins died at the age of 9 months of uncertain cause. To the best of my knowledge this is the first case of Norrie's disease reported in Malaysia. And its occurrence in an identical twins is very rare.

  16. Dental twinning anomalies: the nomenclature enigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killian, C M; Croll, T P

    1990-07-01

    Dental twinning results from abnormal events in the embryologic development of teeth. This paper describes the impossibility of assigning precise diagnostic terms, such as germination, fusion, macrodontia, and concrescence, to dental twinning anomalies because the entire course of odontogenesis cannot be witnessed. Traditional nomenclature is reviewed and seven cases that exemplify the principle are presented. Modification of nomenclature to describe dental twinning defects is suggested.

  17. Twin versus singleton pregnancies: the incidence, pregnancy complications, and obstetric outcomes in a Nigerian tertiary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiechina, Nj; Okolie, Ve; Eleje, Gu; Okechukwu, Zc; Anemeje, Oa

    2011-01-01

    Twin pregnancy is associated with more pregnancy complications and poorer pregnancy outcome than singleton pregnancy. Hence periodic review is necessary to improve on the pregnancy outcome. To determine the incidence and compare pregnancy complications and obstetric outcomes of twin pregnancies and singleton pregnancies. The twin pregnancies (study group) that were delivered at Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital (NAUTH), Nnewi, South-East Nigeria from 1st February 2005 to 31st January 2010 were compared with singleton deliveries (control group) that occurred in the same hospital during the same period. A total of 3351 deliveries were conducted during the study period, of which 113 were twin deliveries, giving an incidence of 1:29.6 deliveries. Only 100 case files could be retrieved for analysis. The mean parities for the twins and singletons were 2.7 ± 2.33 weeks and 1.96 ± 1.87 weeks whereas the mean gestational age at delivery for twin and singleton deliveries were 34 ± 5.2 weeks and 38.7 ± 2.4 weeks respectively (P < 0.05). The mean birth weights were 3.14 ± 0.73 kg and 2.3 ± 1.0 kg for singletons and twins respectively (P < 0.05). Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, cord prolapse, malpresentation, premature rupture of membranes, low Apgar scores, cesarean section rate, and perinatal death were significantly higher in twin pregnancies than in singleton. The incidence of twin pregnancy over the study period was high and was significantly associated with more pregnancy complications and poorer obstetric outcomes. Close antenatal and intrapartum care are needed in order to improve outcome and decrease complications.

  18. Assessment of exposure to sexually explicit materials and factors associated with exposure among preparatory school youths in Hawassa City, Southern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional institution based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habesha, Tony; Aderaw, Zewdie; Lakew, Serawit

    2015-09-14

    According to the 2007 Ethiopian census, youths aged 15-24 years were more than 15.2 million which contributes to 20.6% of the whole population. These very large and productive groups of the population are exposed to various sexual and reproductive health risks. The aim of this study was to assess exposure to Sexually Explicit Materials (SEM) and factors associated with exposure among preparatory school students in Hawassa city, Southern Ethiopia. A cross-sectional institution based study involving 770 randomly selected youth students of preparatory schools at Hawassa city. Multi stage sampling technique was used to select study subjects. Data was collected using pre-tested and self-administered questionnaire. Data was entered by EPI INFO version 3.5.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 20.0 statistical software packages. The result was displayed using descriptive, bivariate and multivariate analysis. Statistical association was done for independent predictors (at p students were participated in this study with a response rate of 97.4%. Among this, about 77.3% of students knew about the presence of SEM and most of the respondents 566(75.5%) were watched SEM films/movies and 554(73.9%) were exposed to SE texts. The overall exposure to SEM in school youths was 579(77.2%). Among the total respondents, about 522(70.4%) claimed as having no open discussion on sexual issues with in their family. Furthermore, About 450 (60.0%) respondents complained for having no sexual and reproductive health education at their school. Male students had faced almost two times higher exposure to SEM than female students (95 % CI: AOR 1.84(C.I = 1.22, 2.78). Students who attended private school were more than two times more likely exposed to SEM than public schools (95 % CI: AOR 2.07(C.I = 1.29, 3.30). Students who drink alcohol and labelled as 'sometimes' were two times more likely exposed to SEM than those who never drink alcohol (95 % CI = AOR 2.33(C.I = 1.26, 4.30). Khat

  19. Twin Loss: Implications for Counselors Working with Surviving Twins.(practice & Theory)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withrow, Rebecca; Schwiebert, Valerie L.

    2005-01-01

    Multiple births are becoming increasingly prevalent due to the use of fertility drugs and women choosing to wait until later life to conceive. With the growth in the twin population, little research has been done to investigate the effects on the grief process when 1 twin dies. Counselors must understand the unique experience of twins to formulate…

  20. Monozygotic Triplets and Dizygotic Twins following Transfer of Three Poor-Quality Cleavage Stage Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshef Tal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Assisted reproductive technology has been linked to the increased incidence of monozygotic twinning. It is of clinical importance due to the increased risk of complications in multiple pregnancies in general and in monozygotic twins in particular. Case. A 29-year-old female, nulligravida underwent her first IVF cycle. Three poor-quality cleavage stage embryos were transferred resulting in monochorionic triamniotic triplets and dichorionic diamniotic twins. Selective embryo reduction was performed at 12 weeks leaving dichorionic twins. The patient underwent emergency cesarean section due to preterm labor and nonreassuring fetal heart tracing at 30 weeks of gestation. Conclusion. Our case emphasizes that even embryos with significant morphological abnormalities should be considered viable and the possibility of simultaneous spontaneous embryo splitting must be factored into determining number of embryos to transfer.

  1. Risk of Metabolic Syndrome and Diabetes Mellitus Among Young Twins and Singletons in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Hansen, Lone; da Silva, Leontina I

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVETwins in Africa may be at increased risk of metabolic disorders due to strained conditions in utero, including high exposure to infections. We studied metabolic syndrome (MS) and diabetes mellitus (DM) among young twins and singletons in Guinea-Bissau.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSThe study...... was cross-sectional and occurred from October 2009 until August 2011 at the Bandim Health Project, a demographic surveillance site in the capital Bissau. Twins and singleton controls between 5 and 32 years were visited at home. Fasting blood samples for metabolic measurements were collected. Zygosity...... was established genetically for a subset. DM was defined as HbA1c ≥6.5% (48 mmol/mol) and MS by the International Diabetes Federation criteria.RESULTSHbA1c was available for 574 twins and 463 singletons. Mean age was 15.3 years versus 15.8 years, respectively. Eighteen percent of twins were monozygotic...

  2. Problem in twin pregnancy: Findings of prenatal sonography and autopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Ah; Cho, Jeong Yeon; Song, Mi Jin; Min, Jee Yeon; Lee, Young Ho; Lee, Hak Jong; Chun, Yi Kyeong; Kim, Yee Jeong; Hong, Sung Ran

    2001-01-01

    Multifetal gestations are high risk pregnancies with higher perinatal morbidity and mortality. Multifetal gestations are subject to unique complications including conjoined twins, twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS), acardiac twins, twin embization of co-twin demise and heterotopic pregnancies. Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of types and complications of multifetal gestations is important for antenatal care and prediction of fetal outcome. This study was performed to present the prenatal ultrasonographic findings and pathologic findings of the unique complications of twin pregnancy. Acardia is a lethal anomaly occurring in 1% of monozygotic twin. The acardiac twin has a parasitic existence and depends on the donor (pump) twin for its blood supply via placental anastomoses and retrograde perfusion of umbilical cord. This twin reversed arterial perfusion (TRAP) sequence is a most extreme manifestation on the TTTS. Doppler verification reversed flow in umbilical cord of the acardiac twin confirms the diagnosis.

  3. Association Between Depression and Elder Abuse and the Mediation of Social Support: A Cross-Sectional Study of Elder Females in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar-Compte, Mireya; Giraldo-Rodríguez, Liliana; Ochoa-Laginas, Adriana; Gaitan-Rossi, Pablo

    2018-04-01

    We assessed the association between depression and elder abuse, and the mediation effect of social support among elder women in Mexico City. A total of 526 noninstitutionalized elder women, residing in Mexico City and attending public community centers were selected. Logistic regressions and structural equation models (SEM) were estimated. One fifth of the elderly women were at risk of depression, one third suffered some type of abuse in the past 12 months, and 82% reported low social support. Logistic models confirmed that depression was statistically associated with elder abuse and vice versa (odds ratio [OR] = 1.97 and 1.96, respectively). In both models, social support significantly reduced the association between these variables leading to study these associations through SEM. This approach highlighted that social support buffers the association between depression and elder abuse. Findings underline the relevance of programs and strategies targeted at increasing social support among urban older adults.

  4. Musculoskeletal disorders and mental health-related issues as occupational hazards among dental practitioners in Salem city: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanita D Revankar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Like in any other profession, dental surgeons are also afflicted by many occupational health hazards such as Musculoskeletal disorders (MSD and mental health related issues. Aims: To assess the distribution of MSD and mental health related issues amidst dentists in Salem City according to age, sex and number of working hours per week. Objectives: A survey was organized to check the rate of occurrence of these occupational health hazards among dental practitioners in Salem city. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted among one hundred and fifty dentists practicing in Salem City in the form of questionnaire. Dentists were asked about any occupational disease that they suffered related to a musculo–skeletal pain and its location whether in the back, upper limbs or lower limbs. In addition to this,dentists were asked about mental stress that they had experienced. Results: MSD showed higher rate of prevalence compared to mental health related issues. Conclusion: The application of preventive measures is necessary, in view of the high rate of these disorders in the society of dental practitioners.

  5. Twin-Foucault imaging method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Ken

    2012-02-01

    A method of Lorentz electron microscopy, which enables observation two Foucault images simultaneously by using an electron biprism instead of an objective aperture, was developed. The electron biprism is installed between two electron beams deflected by 180° magnetic domains. Potential applied to the biprism deflects the two electron beams further, and two Foucault images with reversed contrast are then obtained in one visual field. The twin Foucault images are able to extract the magnetic domain structures and to reconstruct an ordinary electron micrograph. The developed Foucault method was demonstrated with a 180° domain structure of manganite La0.825Sr0.175MnO3.

  6. Ectodermal dysplasia in identical twins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurkar Haraswarupa Puttaraju

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED is typically inherited as an X-linked recessive trait, characterized by deformity of at least two or more of the ectodermal structures - hair, teeth, nails and sweat glands. Two cases of hereditary HED involving identical male twins, is being documented for the rarity of its occurrence with special attention given to genetics, pathophysiology, clinical, intraoral manifestations and to the methods to improve the masticatory function, the facial esthetics and psychology of patients affected by this disease.

  7. Change in Depression Symptomatology and Cognitive Function in Twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Inge; McGue, Matt; Tan, Qihua

    2016-01-01

    of correlated traits. Here, we have applied twin modeling approaches to shed light on the genetic correlation between both level and change of depression symptomatology and cognitive functioning, and to further explore the bidirectionality of any such correlation using assessments of both phenotypes at two......A complex interrelation exists between change in depression symptomatology and cognitive decline. Studies indicate either that depression is a direct risk factor for cognitive change over time, or vice versa. Longitudinal twin studies provide the possibility to unravel cause and effect......-sectional heritability estimates of approximately 60% for general cognitive abilities and 30% for affective depressive symptoms. There was a considerable decline in the mean cognitive performance over 10 years, whereas the mean affective depression symptoms score was stable and with no genetic contribution to any...

  8. Risk of Oral Clefts in Twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grosen, Dorthe; Bille, Camilla; Petersen, Inge

    2011-01-01

    and heritability. Twins (207 affected/130,710) and singletons (7766 affected/4,798,526) born from 1936 through 2004 in Denmark were ascertained by linkage among the Danish Facial Cleft Database, the Danish Twin Registry, and the Civil Registration System. We computed oral cleft prevalence and prevalence proportion...

  9. Fatique life and twinning in alphazirconium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warren, M.R.; Beevers, C.J.

    1970-01-01

    stress for {11−21} twinning of ~0.5 kg mm−2 in zirconium containing 0.003 wt pct O. During observations confined to internal grains it was found that increasing grain size and decreasing oxygen content favored the formation of fatigue damage in association with these {11−21} twins. In external grains...

  10. Gestation period and twinning in chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PEACOCK, L J; ROGERS, C M

    1959-04-10

    The length of the gestation period in 118 births in a colony of chimpanzees was found to be 226.8 days, with a standard deviation of 13.3 and a range of 196 to 260 days. Six pairs of twins were born in 120 parturitions; thus the apparent twinning rate is higher than that in man.

  11. Fetal behavior in normal dichorionic twin pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, E. J. H.; Derks, J. B.; de Laat, M. W. M.; Visser, G. H. A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: A prospective study was performed to compare fetal behavioral development in healthy dichorionic twins and singletons, and identify twin intra-pair associations (synchrony) of fetal movements and rest-activity cycles using different criteria to define synchrony. Subjects and methods:

  12. City PLANTastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , any attempt to create a green city is motivated by certain ecological, political and esthetical perspectives. Therefore the role of plants in tomorrows cities is everything but straightforward. Rather, a broad range of possibilities unfolds. City PLANTastic is the title of the 8th World in Denmark...

  13. INSTANT CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Kiib, Hans

    2013-01-01

    of an experimental and social en- gaged city environment? The analysis shows that the specific city life at the instant city, Roskilde Festival, can be characterized by being ‘open minded’, ‘playful’ and ‘inclusive’, but also by ‘a culture of laughter’ that penetrates the aesthetics and the urban scenography....

  14. Urticaria in monozygotic and dizygotic twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Simon Francis; van der Sluis, Sophie; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm

    2012-01-01

    Aim. To identify risk factors for urticaria, to determine the relative proportion of the susceptibility to urticaria that is due to genetic factors in an adult clinical twin sample, and to further determine whether the genetic susceptibility to urticaria overlaps with the genetic susceptibility...... to atopic diseases. Methods. A total of 256 complete twin pairs and 63 single twins, who were selected from sibships with self-reported asthma via a questionnaire survey of 21,162 adult twins from the Danish Twin Registry, were clinically interviewed about a history of urticaria and examined for atopic...... diseases. Data were analysed with Cox proportional hazards regression and variance components models. Results. A total of 151 individuals (26%) had a history of urticaria, whereas 24 (4%) had had symptoms within the past year. Female sex, HR = 2.09 (1.46-2.99), P = 0.000; hay fever, HR = 1.92 (1...

  15. Twins in Ancient Greece: a synopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamitsi-Puchner, Ariadne

    2016-01-01

    This brief outline associates twins with several aspects of life in Ancient Greece. In Greek mythology twins caused ambivalent reactions and were believed to have ambivalent feelings for each other. Very often, they were viewed as the representatives of the dualistic nature of the universe. Heteropaternal superfecundation, which dominates in ancient myths, explains on one hand, the god-like qualities and, on the other hand, the mortal nature of many twins. An assumption is presented that legends referring to twins might reflect the territorial expansions of Ancient Greeks in Northern Mediterranean, around the Black Sea, in Asia Minor, as well as North East Africa. In conclusion, in Greek antiquity, twins have been used as transitional figures between myth and reality.

  16. Highlights from the 15th International Congress of Twin Studies/Twin Research: Differentiating MZ Co-twins Via SNPs; Mistaken Infant Twin-Singleton Hospital Registration; Narcolepsy With Cataplexy; Hearing Loss and Language Learning/Media Mentions: Broadway Musical Recalls Conjoined Hilton Twins; High Fashion Pair; Twins Turn 102; Insights From a Conjoined Twin Survivor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Nancy L

    2015-02-01

    Highlights from the 15th International Congress of Twin Studies are presented. The congress was held November 16-19, 2014 in Budapest, Hungary. This report is followed by summaries of research addressing the differentiation of MZ co-twins by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), an unusual error in infant twin-singleton hospital registration, twins with childhood-onset narcolepsy with cataplexy, and the parenting effects of hearing loss in one co-twin. Media interest in twins covers a new Broadway musical based on the conjoined twins Violet and Daisy Hilton, male twins becoming famous in fashion, twins who turned 102 and unique insights from a conjoined twin survivor. This article is dedicated to the memory of Elizabeth (Liz) Hamel, DZA twin who met her co-twin for the first time at age seventy-eight years. Liz and her co-twin, Ann Hunt, are listed in the 2015 Guinness Book of Records as the longest separated twins in the world.

  17. Microstructural evolution and deformation behavior of twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) steel during wire drawing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Joong-Ki; Yi, Il-Cheol; Son, Il-Heon; Yoo, Jang-Yong; Kim, Byoungkoo; Zargaran, A.; Kim, Nack J.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of wire drawing on the microstructural evolution and deformation behavior of Fe–Mn–Al–C twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) steel has been investigated. The inhomogeneities of the stress state, texture, microstructure, and mechanical properties were clarified over the cross section of drawn wire with the aid of numerical simulation, Schmid factor analysis, and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) techniques. The analysis of texture in drawn wire shows that a mixture of <111> and <100> fiber texture was developed with strain; however, the distribution of <111> and <100> fibers was inhomogeneous along the radial direction of wire due to uneven strain distribution and different stress state along the radial direction. It has also been shown that the morphology, volume fraction, and variant system of twins as well as twinning rate were dependent on the imposed stress state. The surface area was subjected to larger strain and more complex stress state involving compression, shear, and tension than the center area, resulting in a larger twin volume fraction and more twin variants in the former than in the latter at all the strain levels. While the surface area was saturated with twins at an early stage of drawing, the center area was not saturated with twins even at fracture, implying that the fracture of wire were initiated at the surface area because of the exhaustion of ductility due to twinning. Based on these results, it is suggested that imposing a uniform strain distribution along the radial direction of wire by the control of processing conditions such as die angle and amount of reduction per pass is necessary to increase the drawing limit of TWIP steel

  18. The utility of twins in developmental cognitive neuroscience research: How twins strengthen the ABCD research design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacono, William G; Heath, Andrew C; Hewitt, John K; Neale, Michael C; Banich, Marie T; Luciana, Monica M; Madden, Pamela A; Barch, Deanna M; Bjork, James M

    2018-08-01

    The ABCD twin study will elucidate the genetic and environmental contributions to a wide range of mental and physical health outcomes in children, including substance use, brain and behavioral development, and their interrelationship. Comparisons within and between monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs, further powered by multiple assessments, provide information about genetic and environmental contributions to developmental associations, and enable stronger tests of causal hypotheses, than do comparisons involving unrelated children. Thus a sub-study of 800 pairs of same-sex twins was embedded within the overall Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD) design. The ABCD Twin Hub comprises four leading centers for twin research in Minnesota, Colorado, Virginia, and Missouri. Each site is enrolling 200 twin pairs, as well as singletons. The twins are recruited from registries of all twin births in each State during 2006-2008. Singletons at each site are recruited following the same school-based procedures as the rest of the ABCD study. This paper describes the background and rationale for the ABCD twin study, the ascertainment of twin pairs and implementation strategy at each site, and the details of the proposed analytic strategies to quantify genetic and environmental influences and test hypotheses critical to the aims of the ABCD study. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. The mobility of growth twins synthesized by sputtering: Tailoring the twin thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velasco, Leonardo; Hodge, Andrea M.

    2016-01-01

    The current work presents a protean twin thickness contour zone map that illustrates how the nucleation and the mobility of twin boundaries affects the twin thickness of sputtered films. The twin thickness contour zone map can be used as a versatile guide to synthesize fully nanotwinned films with tailored twin thicknesses in materials with a wide range of stacking fault energies. The nucleation and mobility of twin boundaries was studied in four Cu alloys of different compositions (Cu-6wt.%Al, Cu-4wt.%Al, Cu-2wt.%Al, and Cu-10wt.%Ni), having stacking fault energies ranging from 6 mJ/m 2 to 60 mJ/m 2 . The films were synthesized by magnetron sputtering and characterized by transmission electron microscopy, where the twin thickness varied from 2 nm to 35 nm. Our experimental results show that it is possible to control the twin thickness. Three main mechanisms are explained to describe twin nucleation and twin boundary mobility, which are correlated to the interplay of specific sputtering conditions and the deposition temperature.

  20. Effect of co-twin gender on neurodevelopmental symptoms: a twin register study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Jonna Maria; Lundström, Sebastian; Lichtenstein, Paul; Bejerot, Susanne; Eriksson, Elias

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are neurodevelopmental disorders thought to have both genetic and environmental causes. It has been hypothesized that exposure to elevated levels of prenatal testosterone is associated with elevated traits of ASD and ADHD. Assuming that testosterone levels from a dizygotic male twin fetus may lead to enhanced testosterone exposure of its co-twins, we aimed to test the prenatal testosterone hypothesis by comparing same-sex with opposite-sex dizygotic twins with respect to neurodevelopmental symptoms. Neuropsychiatric traits were assessed in a population-based twin cohort from the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS). Parental interviews were conducted for 16,312 dizygotic twins, 9 and 12 years old, with the Autism-Tics, ADHD, and other Comorbidities inventory (A-TAC). Girls with a female co-twin had an increased risk of reaching the cut-off score for ADHD compared with girls with a male co-twin. Both boys and girls with a female co-twin displayed a larger number of traits related to attention deficit and repetitive and stereotyped behaviors than those with a male twin. In girls, this also extended to social interaction and the combined measures for ASD and ADHD, however, with small effect sizes. Our results are reverse to what would have been expected from the prenatal testosterone hypothesis but consistent with a previous study of ASD and ADHD traits in dizygotic twins. The seemingly protective effect for girls of having a twin brother may be an effect of parent report bias, but may also be an unexpected effect of sharing the intrauterine environment with a male co-twin.

  1. Comparing risk factors of HIV among hijra sex workers in Larkana and other cities of Pakistan: an analytical cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altaf Arshad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2005, Pakistan was first labeled as a country with concentrated epidemic of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV. This was revealed through second generation surveillance conducted by HIV/AIDS Surveillance Project (HASP. While injection drug users (IDUs were driving the epidemic, subsequent surveys showed that Hijra (transgender sex workers (HSWs were emerging as the second most vulnerable group with an average national prevalence of 6.4%. An exceptionally high prevalence (27.6% was found in Larkana, which is a small town on the right bank of river Indus near the ruins of Mohenjo-Daro in the province of Sindh. This paper presents the risk factors associated with high prevalence of HIV among HSWs in Larkana as compared to other cities of the country. Methods Data were extracted for secondary analysis from 2008 Integrated behavioral and biological survey (IBBS to compare HSWs living in Larkana with those living in other cities including Karachi and Hyderabad in Sindh; Lahore and Faisalabad in Punjab; and Peshawar in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa provinces. After descriptive analysis, univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify risk factors. P value of 0.25 or less was used to include factors in multivariate analysis. Results We compared 199 HSWs from Larkana with 420 HSWs from other cities. The average age of HSWs in Larkana was 26.42 (±5.4 years. Majority were Sindhi speaking (80%, uneducated (68% and unmarried (97%. In univariate analysis, factors associated with higher prevalence of HIV in Larkana included younger age i.e. 20–24 years (OR: 5.8, CI: 2.809–12.15, being unmarried (OR: 2.4, CI: 1.0–5.7, sex work as the only mode of income (OR: 5.5, CI: 3.70–8.2 and longer duration of being involved in sex work 5–10 years (OR: 3.3, CI: 1.7–6.12. In multivariate logistic regression the HSWs from Larkana were more likely to lack knowledge regarding preventive measures against HIV (OR 11.9, CI: 3.4–41.08 and

  2. Twins conceived using assisted reproduction: parent mental health, family relationships and child adjustment at middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kayla N; Koh, Bibiana D; Connor, Jennifer J; Koerner, Ascan F; Damario, Mark; Rueter, Martha A

    2014-10-10

    Compared with singletons, what is the parent mental health, parent-child and couple relationship satisfaction, and child adjustment of 6- to 12-year-old assisted reproduction technology (ART) twins and their families? There are no differences between 6- and 12-year-old ART twin and singleton families in parent mental health or family relationships; however, twins had significantly fewer behavior and attention problems than singletons in middle childhood. When ART twins are younger than 5 years old, parents have more mental health difficulties and poorer parent-child relationship quality, and no differences have been found in ART twin and singletons' psychosocial adjustment. However, studies have only examined the implications of ART twin status in families with infant and toddler aged children. A cross-sectional study of 300 6-12-year-old ART children (n = 124 twins and n = 176 singletons) from 206 families at a reproductive endocrinology clinic in the USA. Patients from one clinic with a child born between 1998 and 2004 were invited to participate in an online survey (82% recruitment rate). Participants provided information on each 6- to 12-year-old ART child in the family, and responded to questions on parent mental health, family relationships and child adjustment. There were no differences in parent mental health or family relationships in families with 6- to 12-year-old ART twins versus singletons. However, twins (M = 2.40, SE = 0.35) had significantly fewer behavior problems than singletons (M = 3.47, SE = 0.36; F(1, 201) = 4.54, b = 1.08, P difficulties and lower parent-child relationship quality than singleton families. This study indicates the negative effects of twin status may have ameliorated by middle childhood, and twins may even have more optimum psychosocial adjustment than singletons in this developmental period. This research is based on a collaborative research effort supported by University of Minnesota Agriculture Experiment Station Project

  3. Hypothesis test for synchronization: twin surrogates revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, M Carmen; Thiel, Marco; Kurths, Jürgen; Mergenthaler, Konstantin; Engbert, Ralf

    2009-03-01

    The method of twin surrogates has been introduced to test for phase synchronization of complex systems in the case of passive experiments. In this paper we derive new analytical expressions for the number of twins depending on the size of the neighborhood, as well as on the length of the trajectory. This allows us to determine the optimal parameters for the generation of twin surrogates. Furthermore, we determine the quality of the twin surrogates with respect to several linear and nonlinear statistics depending on the parameters of the method. In the second part of the paper we perform a hypothesis test for phase synchronization in the case of experimental data from fixational eye movements. These miniature eye movements have been shown to play a central role in neural information processing underlying the perception of static visual scenes. The high number of data sets (21 subjects and 30 trials per person) allows us to compare the generated twin surrogates with the "natural" surrogates that correspond to the different trials. We show that the generated twin surrogates reproduce very well all linear and nonlinear characteristics of the underlying experimental system. The synchronization analysis of fixational eye movements by means of twin surrogates reveals that the synchronization between the left and right eye is significant, indicating that either the centers in the brain stem generating fixational eye movements are closely linked, or, alternatively that there is only one center controlling both eyes.

  4. Social Capital and Health Among Older Chinese Immigrants: a Cross-Sectional Analysis of a Sample in a Canadian Prairie City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hai; Menec, Verena

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between social capital and health among Chinese immigrants. The sample included 101 older Chinese immigrants aged 60 to 96 who were recruited in 2013 in a city on the Canadian prairies. Participant completed a questionnaire assessing their structural and cognitive social capital (views on community, trust and reciprocity, civic participation, social networks and support, and social participation), physical and mental health status (SF-36), and sociodemographic characteristics. Findings indicate that Chinese seniors overall obtained low levels of social capital on all social capital dimensions. Social networks and support (a structural social capital indicator) was significantly positively associated with mental health (β = .31, p social capital is potentially more promising than ensuring cognitive social capital in terms of providing physical and mental health benefits to older adults from Chinese background.

  5. Neighbourhood and dwelling characteristics associated with the self-reported adverse health effects of heat in most deprived urban areas: a cross-sectional study in 9 cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélanger, Diane; Gosselin, Pierre; Valois, Pierre; Abdous, Belkacem

    2015-03-01

    Dwelling and neighbourhood characteristics associated with the prevalence of self-reported heat-induced adverse health effects are not well known. We interviewed 3485 people in the most disadvantaged neighbourhoods of the nine largest cities in Québec, Canada. The prevalence of heat-induced adverse health effects was 46%, out of which one fourth led to medical consultation. Multivariate analyses showed that dissatisfaction with the summer dwelling temperature, which refers to home heat exposure, and perception that the neighbourhood is polluted due to traffic, were determinant, even after adjusting for current health status. These risk indicators can be used to identify subgroups at high risk and as priority-setting criteria for urban renewal programs for the hotter climate to come. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Establishing a Twin Registry in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Gomes, Margarida A; Joaquím, Luis C

    2013-01-01

    represent a powerful tool. Though twin studies have been carried out by the Bandim Health Project for more than 30 years, the renewed registry described here was officially established in 2009 and includes both a cohort of newborn twins and a cohort of young and adult twins. Currently more than 1,500 twins...

  7. Use of atosiban in a twin pregnancy with extremely preterm premature rupture in the membrane of one twin: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming-Yih; Chen, Shee-Uan; Lee, Chien-Nan; Ho, Hong-Nerng; Yang, Yu-Shih

    2010-12-01

    Pregnancies with extremely preterm premature rupture of membranes (EPPROM), especially before 20 weeks of gestation, are usually considered to be a termination of pregnancy. By improvement of obstetric and neonatal care, we can prolong the pregnancy across the threshold of survival by aggressive tocolysis. Using intrauterine insemination, a 32-year-old woman became pregnant with twins (first pregnancy). Threatened abortion occured since 9 weeks of gestation and EPPROM of the upper twin was noted at 18 weeks. Massive vaginal bleeding and vigorous uterine contractions occurred at 22 weeks. Poor control of preterm labor occurred using ritodrine and MgSO(4). Atosiban was applied to calm uterine activities. After discontinuation of atosiban at 30 weeks, the uterine contractions became severe again and an emergency cesarean section was performed to deliver two live, premature babies weighing 1,518 g and 830 g, respectively. Twin A was healthy, weighing 2,030 g at 35 days after birth and subsequently discharged. The smaller twin B was dependent on continuous positive airway pressure and died of pulmonary infection 120 days after birth. Comparing to other tocolytic agents, Atosiban has few side effects and assisted in prolonging a pregnancy involving twins that experienced EPPROM. Copyright © 2010 Taiwan Association of Obstetric & Gynecology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Association between periodontal disease temporomandibular disorders and rheumatoid arthritis among patients visiting rheumatology centers in Bengaluru City: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Association between rheumatoid arthritis (RA, periodontitis and temporomandibular disorder (TMD can be an outcome of the existing inflammatory conditions or involvement of joints at a different level of severity. Aim: This study aims to find an association between periodontal disease and TMDs and RA among patients visiting various Rheumatology centers in Bengaluru city. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 RA patients and age- and gender-matched comparison group were recruited from various Rheumatology centers in Bengaluru city. Periodontal status and loss of attachment (LOA were measured from the World Health Organization (2013 criteria and TMDs and severity were assessed using Helkimo index (1987. Data were analyzed and comparisons were done using Chi-square test and independent t-test (P < 0.05. Correlation and association are measured through spearman's correlation and logistic regression analysis. Results: There was a significant difference regarding shallow and deep periodontal pocket depth among RA (4.62 ± 2.33, 1.48 ± 1.7 and comparison (3.48 ± 2.53, 0.83 ± 1.05 groups (P = 0.01. Impaired mobility (P = 0.012, altered function (P = 0.032, painful function (P = 0.023, muscle pain (P = 0.028, and temporomandibular joint pain (P = 0.048 differed significantly between RA group and comparison group. RA patients were more likely to suffer from TMD (OR = 4.88 and LOA (OR = 2.16 than the comparison group. Conclusion: Periodontitis and TMD are found to be associated with RA. A dental check-up for patients suffering from RA should be part of the routine RA assessment.

  9. CERN: Ten-Tesla twin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    An important step in the development of the high field superconducting magnets for CERN's proposed LHC proton collider came on 21 October when a 1 metre-long model of the proposed twin-dipole magnet produced a field of 10 Tesla in its two o beam apertures at the design temperature of 1.8K. The LHC designers have to plan for proton beams approaching 8 TeV to attain the right conditions for the quarks and gluons hidden deep inside protons to produce new physics. To contain these very high energy protons in the tight track of the 27-kilometre LEP tunnel would need the strongest magnetic bending power ever used in a full storage ring

  10. Median mental sinus in twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, S T; Ngeow, W C

    1999-05-01

    Sinus on the chin can be the result of a chronic apical abscess due to pulp necrosis of a mandibular anterior tooth. The tooth is usually asymptomatic, and a dental cause is therefore not apparent to the patient or the unsuspecting clinician. Not infrequently, the patient may seek treatment from a dermatologist or general surgeon instead of a dentist. Excision and repair of the fistula may be carried out with subsequent breakdown because the dental pathology is not removed. This paper reports the presence of median mental sinus of dental origin in twins. One case healed following root canal therapy while the other required both root canal therapy and surgery to eliminate the infection.

  11. Combined analysis of six lipoprotein lipase genetic variants on triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, and ischemic heart disease: cross-sectional, prospective, and case-control studies from the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittrup, HH; Andersen, RV; Tybjærg-Hansen, A

    2006-01-01

    CONTEXT: Genetic variants in lipoprotein lipase may affect triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD). OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of T(-93)G, G(-53)C, Asp9Asn, Gly188Glu, Asn291Ser, and Ser447Ter lipoprotein...... lipase genotypes on triglycerides, HDL, and IHD. DESIGN: The cross-sectional study involved 9004 adults. The prospective study consisted of 8817 adults developing 1001 IHD events over 23 yr. The case-control study involved 7818 non-IHD individuals vs. cohorts of 915 and 1062 IHD patients, respectively....... SETTING: The study was performed in the Danish general population (the Copenhagen City Heart Study). PARTICIPANTS: IHD was angina pectoris or myocardial infarction. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Triglycerides, HDL, and IHD were the main outcome measures. RESULTS: Cross-sectionally, triglycerides varied...

  12. Undiagnosed xiphopagus twins: a perinatal malady

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gowri Dorairajan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Conjoined twins are a very rare entity. It is associated with poor survival rate in the presence of vital organ sharing. The entity can be diagnosed as early as the first trimester. A conjoined twin diagnosed late in labor is a malady with high perinatal mortality and maternal morbidity. We present one such case of xiphopagus twins. The management of a case diagnosed late in labor can be very challenging. Such obstetric challenges can be avoided by a meticulous early scan with a high index of suspicion, especially in the absence of separating membrane while scanning multiple pregnancies.

  13. Attractiveness Differences Between Twins Predicts Evaluations of Self and Co-Twin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principe, Connor P.; Rosen, Lisa H.; Taylor-Partridge, Teresa; Langlois, Judith H.

    2012-01-01

    One of the most consistent findings in psychology shows that people prefer and make positive attributions about attractive compared with unattractive people. The goal of the current study was to determine the power of attractiveness effects by testing whether these social judgments are made where attractiveness differences are smallest: between twins. Differences in facial attractiveness predicted twins’ evaluations of self and their co-twin (n = 158; 54 male). In twin pairs, the more attractive twin judged their less attractive sibling as less physically attractive, athletic, socially competent, and emotionally stable. The less attractive twin did the reverse. Given that even negligible differences in facial attractiveness predicted self and co-twin attitudes, these results provide the strongest test yet of appearance-based stereotypes. PMID:23467329

  14. Marital status and twins' health and behavior: an analysis of middle-aged Danish twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; McGue, Matt; Lund, Rikke

    2008-01-01

    mass index (BMI), depression symptoms, self-rated health, cognitive function, physical activity, smoking, and alcohol intake. RESULTS: Among all 2350 individual twins, men who were divorced/widowed or never married had higher depression scores, lower cognitive test scores, lower physical activity....../widowed twin had higher average depression scores and was more likely to be a smoker. Never married twins had lower physical activity scores and never married male twins had higher BMI and higher depression scores than their married co-twin. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that the relationships of adult...... divorce with depression and smoking in Danish twins are due to the stressful effects of marital dissolution, but that marital differences in other health and behavioral outcomes are most consistent with selection effects related to genetic or rearing environmental factors....

  15. Molecular dynamics simulation of deformation twin in rocksalt vanadium nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Tao; Peng, Xianghe; Zhao, Yinbo; Li, Tengfei; Li, Qibin; Wang, Zhongchang

    2016-01-01

    We perform molecular dynamics simulation of nano-indentation with a cylindrical indenter to investigate the formation mechanism of deformation twin in vanadium nitride (VN) with a rocksalt structure. We find that the deformation twins occur during the loading stage, and subsequently conduct a systematic analysis of nucleation, propagation and thickening of a deformation twin. We find that the nucleation of a partial dislocation and its propagation to form a stacking fault are premise of deformation twin formation. The sequential nucleation and propagation of partial dislocation on adjacent parallel {111} planes are found to cause the thickening of the deformation twin. Moreover, the deformation twins can exist in VN at room temperature. - Highlights: • MD simulations of indentation are performed to study the deformation twin in VN. • The deformation twins can occur in VN during the loading stage. • The nucleation, propagation and thickening of a deformation twin are analyzed. • The deformation twins can exist in VN at room temperature.

  16. Scanning electron microscope cathodoluminescence imaging of subgrain boundaries, twins and planar deformation features in quartz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamers, M. F.; Pennock, G. M.; Drury, M. R.

    2017-04-01

    The study of deformation features has been of great importance to determine deformation mechanisms in quartz. Relevant microstructures in both growth and deformation processes include dislocations, subgrains, subgrain boundaries, Brazil and Dauphiné twins and planar deformation features (PDFs). Dislocations and twin boundaries are most commonly imaged using a transmission electron microscope (TEM), because these cannot directly be observed using light microscopy, in contrast to PDFs. Here, we show that red-filtered cathodoluminescence imaging in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) is a useful method to visualise subgrain boundaries, Brazil and Dauphiné twin boundaries. Because standard petrographic thin sections can be studied in the SEM, the observed structures can be directly and easily correlated to light microscopy studies. In contrast to TEM preparation methods, SEM techniques are non-destructive to the area of interest on a petrographic thin section.

  17. Cohort Profile : The National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council Twin Registry (NAS-NRC Twin Registry)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gatz, Margaret; Harris, Jennifer R.; Kaprio, Jaakko; McGue, Matt; Smith, Nicholas L.; Snieder, Harold; Spiro, Avron; Butler, David A.

    The National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council Twin Registry (NAS-NRC Twin Registry) is a comprehensive registry of White male twin pairs born in the USA between 1917 and 1927, both of the twins having served in the military. The purpose was medical research and ultimately improved

  18. [Spontaneous hepatic hematoma in twin pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesnel, Carlos; Weber, Alejandro; Mendoza, Dalila; Garteiz, Denzil

    2012-02-01

    The hepatic hematoma or rupture appear in 1 of every 100,000 pregnancies. The most common causes of hepatic hematoma in pregnancy are severe preeclampsia and HELLP syndrome; some predisposing factors are seizures, vomiting, labor, preexistent hepatic disease and trauma. A 33 year old primigravid with a normal 33 week twin pregnancy presented abdominal pain and hypovolemic shock due to spontaneous subcapsular hepatic hematoma; laparoscopy was performed to evaluate the possibility of rupture, which was not found, later emergency cesarean section was carried out followed by hepatic hematoma drainage and abdominal packaging by laparoscopy. After surgery the flow through drainage was too high additionally hemodynamic instability and consumption coagulopathy. Abdominal panangiography was performed without identifying bleeding areas. Intesive care was given to the patient evolving satisfactorily, was discharged 19 days after the event. Seven months later she had laparoscopic cholecystectomy due to acute litiasic colecistitis. We found 5 cases in literatura about hepatic hematoma during pregnancy no related to hypertensive disorders of pregnancy; these were related to hepatoma, amebian hepatic abscess, falciform cell anemia, cocaine consumption and molar pregnancy. Hepatics hematomas have high morbidity and mortality so is significant early diagnosis and multidisciplinary approach.

  19. Intragranular twinning, detwinning, and twinning-like lattice reorientation in magnesium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Wei; Gao, Yanfei; Li, Nan; Parish, Chad M.; Liu, Wenjun; Liaw, Peter K.; An, Ke

    2016-01-01

    Deformation twinning plays a critical role on improving metals or alloys ductility, especially for hexagonal close-packed materials with low symmetry crystal structure. A rolled Mg alloy was selected as a model system to investigate the extension twinning behaviors and characteristics of parent-twin interactions by nondestructive in situ 3D synchrotron X-ray microbeam diffraction. Besides twinning-detwinning process, the “twinning-like” lattice reorientation process was captured within an individual grain inside a bulk material during the strain reversal. The distributions of parent, twin, and reorientated grains and sub-micron level strain variation across the twin boundary are revealed. A theoretical calculation of the lattice strain confirms that the internal strain distribution in parent and twinned grains correlates with the experimental setup, grain orientation of parent, twin, and surrounding grains, as well as the strain path changes. The study suggests a novel deformation mechanism within the hexagonal close-packed structure that cannot be determined from surface-based characterization methods.

  20. Factors associated with support for smoke-free policies among government workers in Six Chinese cities: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegler, Michelle C; Hua, Xinwei; Solomon, Madeleine; Wu, Yiqun; Zheng, Pin Pin; Eriksen, Michael

    2014-11-04

    A certain level of public support for smoke-free environments is a prerequisite for adoption and enforcement of policies and can be used as an indicator of readiness for legislative action. This study assessed support for comprehensive smoke-free policies in a range of settings such as hotels and colleges among government workers in China and identified factors associated with support for smoke-free policies. Understanding the extent to which government workers, a large segment of the working population in China, report a smoke-free workplace and support for smoke-free policies may be important indicators of readiness for strengthened policies given their role in formulating, implementing and enforcing regulations. Data were from an evaluation of the Tobacco Free Cities initiative of Emory University's Global Health Institute-China Tobacco Control Partnership. Self-administered surveys were completed by 6,646 workers in 160 government agencies in six Chinese cities. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with support for smoke-free worksites, bars, hotels, and colleges. Over half (54.6%) of participants were male. A large percentage of the male workers smoked (45.9%,) whereas very few women did (1.9%). Fewer than 50% of government workers reported smoke-free policies at work, with 19.0% reporting that smoking is allowed anywhere. Support for smoke-free policies was generally very high, with the lowest levels of support for smoke-free bars (79.0%) and hotels (82.3%), higher levels of support for restaurants (90.0%) and worksites (93.0%), and above 95% support for hospitals, schools, colleges, public transportation and religious settings. Knowledge of the harmfulness of secondhand smoke was positively associated with support for smoke-free policies. Stricter worksite smoking policies were associated with support for smoke-free workplaces and bars, but not hotels and colleges. Women and nonsmokers were more supportive of smoke

  1. Vitamin D, not iron, is the main nutrient deficiency in pre-school and school-aged children in Mexico City: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint-Martinez de Castro, Georgina; Guagnelli, Miguel Ángel; Clark, Patricia; Méndez Sánchez, Lucía; López-González, Desireé; Galán-Herrera, Juan Francisco; Sánchez-Ruiz, Martín

    2016-07-19

    In 2012, the Mexican National Health Survey showed a moderate prevalence rate of vitamin D deficiency, around 16%, in a national representative sample of children. A decreasing prevalence of anemia during the last 15 years has been observed in Mexico. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of vitamin D in children 3-8 years old in four different locations within the metropolitan area of Mexico City and to compare them to levels of iron and zinc as references of nutritional status. One hundred and seventeen healthy children aged 3-8 years attending four hospitals in Mexico City were invited to participate. All children received medical and nutritional evaluation, and blood samples were obtained. Children were selected in the four hospitals between April and August 2008. More than half (51.3%) were boys; their average age was 5.5 ± 1.6 years. The mean height and weight of the children were 112.1 ± 11.2 cm and 20.2 ± 4.9 kg respectively, with a body mass index [BMI] of 15.8 ± 1.7 kg/m². The mean Z-score (BMI) was 0.007 ± 0.999. The prevalence of subjects with deficient levels of 25-OH-vitamin D (ENSANUT 2012) about the sustained reduction of anaemia prevalence among preschool and schoolchildren since 1999 and the rising rates of vitamin D deficiency in the same population. Similar to other studies, we found a link between socioeconomic status and the deficiency of micronutrients, these being markers of better nutrition, and vitamin D is remarkably related to the quality of the diet. This finding has not been considered in our population before. There is evidence of a sustained decrease of anaemia in Mexican children due to general enrichment of foods and focus on vulnerable populations, while vitamin D deficiency seems to have increased. More studies are needed to obtain more information on vitamin D levels at different ages and definition of susceptible groups in order to investigate the possibility of general population measures such as enrichment

  2. Size-dependent plastic deformation of twinned nanopillars in body-centered cubic tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shuozhi; Startt, Jacob K.; Payne, Thomas G.; Deo, Chaitanya S.; McDowell, David L.

    2017-05-01

    Compared with face-centered cubic metals, twinned nanopillars in body-centered cubic (BCC) systems are much less explored partly due to the more complicated plastic deformation behavior and a lack of reliable interatomic potentials for the latter. In this paper, the fault energies predicted by two semi-empirical interatomic potentials in BCC tungsten (W) are first benchmarked against density functional theory calculations. Then, the more accurate potential is employed in large scale molecular dynamics simulations of tensile and compressive loading of twinned nanopillars in BCC W with different cross sectional shapes and sizes. A single crystal, a twinned crystal, and single crystalline nanopillars are also studied as references. Analyses of the stress-strain response and defect nucleation reveal a strong tension-compression asymmetry and a weak pillar size dependence in the yield strength. Under both tensile and compressive loading, plastic deformation in the twinned nanopillars is dominated by dislocation slip on {110} planes that are nucleated from the intersections between the twin boundary and the pillar surface. It is also found that the cross sectional shape of nanopillars affects the strength and the initial site of defect nucleation but not the overall stress-strain response and plastic deformation behavior.

  3. Twin Screw Mixer/Fine Grind Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The 40-mm Twin-Screw Mixer/Extruder (TSE) pilot plant is a continuous, remotely operated, flexible facility that can significantly enhance safety and environmental...

  4. Prevention of preterm delivery in twin pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Tabor, Ann

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of twin gestation has increased markedly over the past decades, mostly because of increased use of assisted reproductive technologies. Twin pregnancies are at increased risk of preterm delivery (i.e. birth before 37 weeks of gestation). Multiple gestations therefore account for 2...... sequelae such as abnormal neurophysiological development in early childhood and underachievement in school. Several treatment modalities have been proposed in singleton high-risk pregnancies. The mechanism of initiating labour may, however, be different in singleton and twin gestations. Therefore......, it is mandatory to evaluate the proposed treatments in randomised trials of multiple gestations. In this chapter, we describe the results of trials to prevent preterm delivery in twin pregnancies....

  5. Having Twins? How to Stay Healthy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at night between bathroom breaks. Proper nutrition and hydration is important for your twin pregnancy, as is ... Pregnancy to Preschool (Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Pediatrics) The information contained on this Web site should ...

  6. Micromechanics of twinning in a TWIP steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, K.M.; Jones, N.G.; Dye, D.

    2015-01-01

    The deformation behaviour of a TWinning Induced Plasticity (TWIP) steel was studied at quasi-static strain rates using synchrotron X-ray diffraction. A {111} RD and {200} RD texture developed from the earliest stages of deformation, which could be reproduced using an elasto-plastic self consistent (EPSC) model. Evidence is found from multiple sources to suggest that twinning was occurring before macroscopic yielding. This included small deviations in the lattice strains, {111} intensity changes and peak width broadening all occurring below the macroscopic yield point. The accumulation of permanent deformation on sub-yield mechanical cycling of the material was found, which further supports the diffraction data. TEM revealed that fine deformation twins similar to those observed in heavily deformed samples formed during sub-yield cycling. It is concluded that twinning had occurred before macroscopic plastic deformation began, unlike the behaviour traditionally expected from hexagonal metals such as Mg

  7. Micromechanics of twinning in a TWIP steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, K.M., E-mail: khandaker.rahman05@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Materials, Royal School of Mines, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BP (United Kingdom); Jones, N.G. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom); Dye, D. [Department of Materials, Royal School of Mines, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BP (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-21

    The deformation behaviour of a TWinning Induced Plasticity (TWIP) steel was studied at quasi-static strain rates using synchrotron X-ray diffraction. A {111} RD and {200} RD texture developed from the earliest stages of deformation, which could be reproduced using an elasto-plastic self consistent (EPSC) model. Evidence is found from multiple sources to suggest that twinning was occurring before macroscopic yielding. This included small deviations in the lattice strains, {111} intensity changes and peak width broadening all occurring below the macroscopic yield point. The accumulation of permanent deformation on sub-yield mechanical cycling of the material was found, which further supports the diffraction data. TEM revealed that fine deformation twins similar to those observed in heavily deformed samples formed during sub-yield cycling. It is concluded that twinning had occurred before macroscopic plastic deformation began, unlike the behaviour traditionally expected from hexagonal metals such as Mg.

  8. Cooperative Research Twin Trawl Sweep Comparison Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The "Twin-Trawl Sweep Efficiency Study" was intended to compare the sweep efficiency and selectivity of the NEFSC standardized bottom trawl to that of a standardized...

  9. Diabetes and Menopause: A Twin Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes and menopause: A twin challenge Diabetes and menopause may team up for varied effects on your body. Here's what to ... to stay in control. By Mayo Clinic Staff Menopause — and the years leading up to it — may ...

  10. Strong crystal size effect on deformation twinning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Qian; Shan, Zhi-Wei; Li, Ju

    2010-01-01

    plasticity. Accompanying the transition in deformation mechanism, the maximum flow stress of the submicrometre-sized pillars was observed to saturate at a value close to titanium’s ideal strength9, 10. We develop a ‘stimulated slip’ model to explain the strong size dependence of deformation twinning......Deformation twinning1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 in crystals is a highly coherent inelastic shearing process that controls the mechanical behaviour of many materials, but its origin and spatio-temporal features are shrouded in mystery. Using micro-compression and in situ nano-compression experiments, here we...... find that the stress required for deformation twinning increases drastically with decreasing sample size of a titanium alloy single crystal7, 8, until the sample size is reduced to one micrometre, below which the deformation twinning is entirely replaced by less correlated, ordinary dislocation...

  11. Infantile Perineal Protrusion in Two Monochorionic Twins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Cavicchioli

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Case Report - Two female monochorionic-monoamniotic twins showed the same kind of infantile perineal protrusion (IPP at birth. Lesions in both twins progressively healed until resolution in 6 weeks' time; none of the twins have manifested, till date, alvus disturbances. Discussion and Literature Review - A literature review numbers approximately 100 reports of IPP. This condition has been classically classified into three categories: congenital/familiar (i.e., female sex, positive parental history of IPP, acquired (mainly due to constipation, and associated with lichen sclerosus et atrophicus. Conclusions and Final Remarks - This case report describes, for the first time, the presence of IPP in monochorionic-monoamniotic twins, supporting the existence of hereditary/genetic factors in the developing of this condition.

  12. Ferromagnetic and twin domains in LCMO manganites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, G.; Markovich, V.; Mogilyanski, D.; Beek, C. van der; Mukovskii, Y.M.

    2005-01-01

    Ferromagnetic and twin domains in lightly Ca-doped La 1-x Ca x MnO 3 single crystals have been visualized and investigated by means of the magneto-optical technique. Both types of domains became visible below the Curie temperature. The dominant structures seen in applied magnetic field are associated with magneto-crystalline anisotropy and twin domains. In a marked difference to the twin domains which appear only in applied magnetic field, ferromagnetic domains show up in zero applied field and are characterized by oppositely oriented spontaneous magnetization in adjacent domains. Ferromagnetic domains take form of almost periodic, corrugated strip-like structures. The corrugation of the ferromagnetic domain pattern is enforced by the underlying twin domains

  13. Buoyant Helical Twin-Axial Wire Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-15

    February 2017 The below identified patent application is available for licensing. Requests for information should be addressed to...300169 1 of 9 BUOYANT HELICAL TWIN-AXIAL WIRE ANTENNA CROSS REFERENCE TO OTHER PATENT APPLICATIONS [0001] This application is a divisional...application and claims the benefit of the filing date of United States Patent Application No. 14/280,889; filed on May 19, 2014; and entitled “Twin-Axial

  14. Magnetic resonance in multiple sclerose twins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polman, C.H.; UitdeHaag, B.M.J.; Koetsier, C.J.; Valk, J.; Lucas, C.J.

    1989-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MR) examinations were performed in a series of 7 twin sets (4 monozygotic and 3 dizygotic) and one triplet set who were clinically discordant for multiple sclerosis (MS). MRI abnormalities were detected in a number of the unaffected members of the nonzygotic twin pairs. The authors discuss the possible implications of their findings for the present view on the aetiology of MS. (author). 3 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab

  15. Screening and Invasive Testing in Twins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Monni

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal screening and testing for trisomy 21 in twin pregnancies poses a number of challenges: the exact estimate of the a priori risk of trisomy 21, the choice of prenatal screening test and/or invasive techniques to employ for the diagnosis and the impact of the result on the options of treatment in case of discordant results within a twin pair or among multiples. These different aspects are discussed below while recognizing that many issues remain unresolved.

  16. 33 CFR 100.919 - International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. 100.919 Section 100.919 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. (a) Regulated Area. A regulated area is established to include all...

  17. Laying the ghost of twin paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Marko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Someone's true age is not written in his ID, but in his biomarkers. Aging process is not caused by time passing, but by thermodynamically laws. Entropy, extent of metabolic reaction, and temperature are Lorentz invariant, so these facts make twin paradox impossible because there is no way for one twin to age slower than the other even if the time in his frame is dilated. Entropy is the function of state, not time. So as much as standard thermodynamics concerns, the path between two points in space is equivalent to the path between two states. Whether the point B is reached by moving faster using the longer way (with time dilatation, or slower by using shortcut (without time dilatation, the state of the system after completing the road should be the same. This is supported by the fact that when two twins reach the same space-time point (point B in which the state parameters are the same. If we use entropy as an age parameter, then both twins have the same entropy value and are exactly the same biological age. Therefore, the twin paradox is a logical mistake based on wrong first premise. Bergson symmetry is not necessary any more to explain the impossibility of twin paradox.

  18. Imperfect twinning: a clinical and ethical dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denardin, Daniela; Telles, Jorge Alberto B; Betat, Rosilene da Silveira; Fell, Paulo Renato K; Cunha, André Campos da; Targa, Luciano Vieira; Zen, Paulo Ricardo G; Rosa, Rafael Fabiano M

    2013-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To review the history, epidemiology, etiology, gestational aspects, diagnosis and prognosis of imperfect twinning. DATA SOURCES Scientific articles were searched in PubMed, SciELO and Lilacs databases, using the descriptors "conjoined twins", "multiple pregnancy", "ultrasound", "magnetic resonance imaging" and "prognosis". The research was not delimited to a specific period of time and was supplemented with bibliographic data from books. The description of conjoined twins is legendary. The estimated frequency is 1/45,000-200,000 births. These twins are monozygotic, monochorionic and usually monoamniotic. They can be classified by the most prominent fusion site, by the symmetry between the conjoined twins or by the sharing structure. The diagnosis can be performed in the prenatal period or after birth by different techniques, such as ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging and echocardiography. These tests are of paramount importance for understanding the anatomy of both fetuses/children, as well as for prognosis and surgical plan determination. CONCLUSIONS Although imperfect twinning is a rare condition, the prenatal diagnosis is very important in order to evaluate the fusion site and its complexity. Hence, the evaluation of these children should be multidisciplinary, involving mainly obstetricians, pediatricians and pediatric surgeons. However, some decisions may constitute real ethical dilemmas, in which different points should be discussed and analyzed with the health team and the family.

  19. The Mid-Atlantic Twin Registry, revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilley, Emily C H; Silberg, Judy L

    2013-02-01

    The Mid-Atlantic Twin Registry (MATR) is a population-based registry of more than 56,000 twins primarily born or living in Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina. The MATR employs several methods of ascertaining twins, and devotes considerable resources to tracking and maintaining communication with MATR participants. Researchers may utilize the MATR for administration of research services including study recruitment, collection of DNA, archival data set creation, as well as data collection through mailed, phone, or online surveys. In addition, the MATR houses the MATR Repository, with over 1,200 blood samples available for researchers interested in DNA genotyping. For over 35 years MATR twins have participated in research studies with investigators from diverse scientific disciplines and various institutions. These studies, which have resulted in numerous publications, have covered a range of topics, including the human microbiome, developmental psychopathology, depression, anxiety, substance use, epigenetics of aging, children of twins, pre-term birth, social attitudes, seizures, eating disorders, as well as sleep homeostasis. Researchers interested in utilizing twins are encouraged to contact the MATR to discuss potential research opportunities.

  20. Eating Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg; Fisker, Anna Marie; Clausen, Katja Seerup

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzed the development of a city based sustainable food strategy for the city of Aalborg. It’s based on 3 cases of food service: food for the elderly as operated by the Municipality, food the hospital patients as operated by the region and food for defense staff as operated...

  1. Twin birth order, birthweight and birthweight discordance: any relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onyiriuka A.N.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is widely believed that in twin pairs, at birth, the first-born weigh more than the second-born but this concept has been challenged. Objective: To assess the truthfulness of this common concept that first-born twins are usually heavier than their second-born siblings at birth. Methods: In a series of 104 sets of live-born twins, the birth weights of first-born twins were compared with those of their second-born siblings, after controlling for gender. Their intra-pair birthweight differences were determined and twin pairs whose birthweight difference was 15% or more were designated as discordant. Results: Twin I was heavier than Twin II in 61.5% of cases while Twin II was heavier than Twin I in 28.9% of cases. Twins I and II had equal birthweights in 9.6% of cases. Comparing the mean birthweight of the first-born-male twin with that of second-born- male twin, it was 2515+427g (95% Confidence Interval, CI=2402-2628 versus 2432 +435g (95% CI=2321-2543 p>0.05. The mean birthweight of first-born-female twin was 2326+445g (95% CI=2214-2439 while that of the second-born-female twin was 2325+501g (95% CI=2197-2453 p>0.05. When the birthweight difference exceeded 750g, the probability that Twin I will be heavier than Twin II was 83.3% (5 of 6. Conclusion: Although the first-born twin was more often heavier than their second-born siblings, either could weigh more or less at birth. The larger the birthweight difference between growth-discordant twin pair, the greater the probability that the heavier twin would be delivered first

  2. Trends in the delivery route of twin pregnancies in the United States, 2006-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateni, Zhoobin H; Clark, Steven L; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Aagaard, Kjersti M; Blumenfeld, Yair J; Ramin, Susan M; Lee, Henry C; Fox, Karin A; Moaddab, Amirhossein; Shamshirsaz, Amir A; Salmanian, Bahram; Hosseinzadeh, Pardis; Racusin, Diana A; Erfani, Hadi; Espinoza, Jimmy; Dildy, Gary A; Belfort, Michael A; Shamshirsaz, Alireza A

    2016-10-01

    To determine the trends of cesarean delivery rate among twin pregnancies from 2006 to 2013. This is a population-based, cross-sectional analysis of twin live births from United State birth data files of the National Center for Health Statistics for calendar years 2006 through 2013. We stratified the population based on the gestational age groups, maternal race/ethnicity, advanced maternal age (AMA) which was defined by age more than 35 years and within the standard birth weight groups (group 1: birth weight 500-1499g, group 2: birth weight 1500-2499g and group 3: birth weight >2500g). We also analyzed the effect of different risk factors for cesarean delivery in twins. There were 1,079,102 infants born of twin gestations in the U.S. from 2006 to 2013, representing a small but significant increase in the proportion of twin births among all births (3.2% in 2006 versus 3.4% in 2013). The rate of cesarean delivery in twin live births peaked at 75.3% in 2009, and was significantly lower (74.8%) in 2013. The rate of the twin live birth with the breech presentation increased steadily from 26.3% in 2006 to 29.1% in 2013. For the fetus of the twin pregnancy presented as breech, the cesarean delivery rate peaked at 92.2% in 2010, falling slightly but significantly in the ensuing 3 years. The results demonstrated that the decrease in cesarean delivery rate was due to fewer cesareans in non-Hispanic white patients; all other ethnic subgroups showed increasing rates of cesarean delivery throughout the study. Gestational diabetes, gestational hypertension, previous cesarean delivery and breech presentation were all significant risk factors for cesarean delivery during the entire study period. Induction of labor and premature rupture of the membranes were associated with lower rates of cesarean delivery in twins. The recent decrease in the cesarean delivery rate in twin gestation appears to be largely attributable to a decline in cesarean among pregnancies complicated by breech

  3. Assessment of periodontal health status in postmenopausal women visiting dental hospital from in and around Meerut city: Cross-sectional observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Deepa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Puberty, menses, pregnancy, and menopause are the different phases of a woman′s life which have a varied influence on oral health. During the menopause, women go through biological and endocrine changes, particularly in their sex steroid hormone production which affects their health. Because the oral mucosa contains estrogen receptors, variations in hormone levels can be seen directly in the oral cavity leading to a few oral conditions and diseases seen more frequently during postmenopausal years. Objective: The objective of this study is to assess periodontal health status in postmenopausal women in and around Meerut city. Materials and Methods: The study sample comprised ninety postmenopausal women. History of menopause was recorded, and the dental examinations were done by measuring the following parameters of periodontal health: plaque index (PI, gingival index (GI, bleeding on probing (BOP, pocket probing depth, and Russell′s periodontal index. The collected data were subjected to statistical analyses. Results and Conclusion: In the study group, mean age was 55 years, mean missing teeth were 10.3, mean duration of menopause was 9.23. Eleven percent females were completely edentulous, and 5 females had never brushed. Mean PI-s was 1.99, mean GI-s was 1.74, mean BOP was 52.85, and mean Russell′s periodontal index was 4.34. Eleven patients were at the initial stages of destructive periodontal disease, 34 had established destructive periodontal disease while thirty patients had the terminal periodontal disease. These findings suggest that females after menopause are at a risk of developing destructive periodontal disease if proper oral hygiene practices are not followed.

  4. Intimate partner violence against low-income women in Mexico City and associations with work-related disruptions: a latent class analysis using cross-sectional data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Jhumka; Willie, Tiara C; Harris, Courtney; Campos, Paola Abril; Falb, Kathryn L; Garcia Moreno, Claudia; Diaz Olavarrieta, Claudia; Okechukwu, Cassandra A

    2018-03-07

    Disrupting women's employment is a strategy that abusive partners could use to prevent women from maintaining economic independence and stability. Yet, few studies have investigated disruptions in employment among victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) in low-income and middle-income countries. Moreover, even fewer have sought to identify which female victims of IPV are most vulnerable to such disruptions. Using baseline data from 947 women in Mexico City enrolled in a randomised controlled trial, multilevel latent class analysis (LCA) was used to classify women based on their reported IPV experiences. Furthermore, multilevel logistic regression analyses were performed on a subsample of women reporting current work (n=572) to investigate associations between LCA membership and IPV-related employment disruptions. Overall, 40.6% of women who were working at the time of the survey reported some form of work-related disruption due to IPV. LCA identified four distinct classes of IPV experiences: Low Physical and Sexual Violence (39.1%); High Sexual and Low Physical Violence class (9.6%); High Physical and Low Sexual Violence and Injuries (36.5%); High Physical and Sexual Violence and Injuries (14.8%). Compared with women in the Low Physical and Sexual Violence class, women in the High Physical and Sexual Violence and Injuries class and women in the High Physical and Low Sexual Violence and Injuries class were at greater risk of work disruption (adjusted relative risk (ARR) 2.44, 95% CI 1.80 to 3.29; ARR 2.05, 95% CI 1.56 to 2.70, respectively). No other statistically significant associations emerged. IPV, and specific patterns of IPV experiences, must be considered both in work settings and, more broadly, by economic development programmes. NCT01661504. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. The prevalence of alcohol dependence and its association with hypertension: a population-based cross-sectional study4 in Xuzhou city, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Ailing; Lou, Peian; Dong, Zongmei; Xu, Chunrong; Zhang, Pan; Chang, Guiqiu; Li, Ting

    2018-03-16

    To describe the prevalence of alcohol dependence and to explore the relationship between alcohol dependence and newly detected hypertension in China. A multistage stratified cluster sampling method was used to obtain samples from February to June 2013. The Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test was used to estimate alcohol dependence level. A standard questionnaire measured other independent variables. Enumeration data were analyzed using chi-square; quantitative data were analyzed using t-tests. Spearman correlation analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed to identify the relationship between alcohol dependence and hypertension. The alcohol dependence rate was 11.56%; 22.02% of males (3854/17501) and 1.74% of females (324/18656) were classified as alcohol dependent. The newly detected hypertension rate was 9.46% (3422/36157). Significant associations were found between alcohol dependence levels and blood pressure (P < 0.01). Alcohol dependence was positively correlated with systolic blood pressure (r = 0.071, P < 0.01) and diastolic blood pressure (r = 0.077, P < 0.01) and was an independent risk factor for hypertension after adjusting for confounders (low alcohol dependence: odds ratio [OR] = 1.44, 95% confidence intervals [CI] = 1.14-1.81, P < 0.01; light alcohol dependence: OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.11-1.64, P < 0.01; medium alcohol dependence: OR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.40-2.41, P < 0.01). Alcohol dependence was high and associated with hypertension. Health education and precautions against alcoholism should be implemented in Xuzhou city.

  6. Association between induced abortion and suicidal ideation among unmarried female migrant workers in three metropolitan cities in China: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Mengyun; Jiang, Xueqin; Wang, Ying; Wang, Zezhou; Shen, Qiuming; Li, Rui; Cai, Yong

    2018-05-15

    Despite reports of mental health issues, suicidality has not been closely examined among the migrant population. The association between induced abortion and suicidal ideation is unknown among unmarried female migrant workers of reproductive age in China. This study aims to examine induced abortion and suicidality among the Chinese migrant population. We recruited 5115 unmarried female migrant workers during 2015 to 2016 from Shanghai, Beijing and Guangzhou, and collected demographic, psychosocial, reproductive and mental health information using structured questionnaires. We used logistic regression models to examine the association between lifetime induced abortion and suicidal ideation during the past year among the subjects. Overall, 8.2% of the subjects had suicidal ideation during the past year, and 15.5% of the subjects experienced induced abortion. Induced abortion was associated with nearly twice the odds of having past-year suicidal ideation (Odds ratio, OR = 1.89; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.46, 2.44) after adjusting for age, education, years in the working place, tobacco use, alcohol consumption, daily internet use, attitude towards premarital pregnancy, multiple induced abortion, self-esteem, loneliness, depression, and anxiety disorders. The association was stronger in those aged > 25 (OR = 3.37, 95% CI = 2.16, 5.28), with > 5 years of stay in the working place (OR = 2.98, 95% CI = 2.02, 4.39), the non-anxiety group (OR = 2.28, 95% CI = 1.74, 3.00), and the non-depression group (OR = 2.94, 95% CI = 2.08, 4.15). Induced abortion was associated with increased odds for suicidal ideation among the unmarried female migrant workers in urban cities in China. More attention should be paid to the mental health of the population.

  7. A population-based study of gastroesophageal reflux disease and sleep problems in elderly twins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lindam

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND & AIMS: Previous studies indicate an association between sleep problems and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD. Although both these conditions separately have moderate heritabilities, confounding by genetic factors has not previously been taken into account. This study aimed to reveal the association between sleep problems and GERD, while adjusting for heredity and other potential confounding factors. METHODS: This cross-sectional population-based study included all 8,014 same-sexed twins of at least 65 years of age and born in Sweden between 1886 and 1958, who participated in telephone interviews in 1998-2002. Three logistic regression models were used 1 external control analysis, 2 within-pair co-twin analysis with dizygotic (DZ twin pairs discordant for GERD, and 3 within-pair co-twin analysis with monozygotic (MZ twin pairs discordant for GERD. Odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated and adjusted for established risk factors for GERD, i.e. sex, age, body mass index (BMI, tobacco smoking, and educational level. RESULTS: A dose-response association was identified between increasing levels of sleep problems and GERD in the external control analysis. Individuals who often experienced sleep problems had a two-fold increased occurrence of GERD compared to those who seldom had sleep problems (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.8-2.4. The corresponding association was of similar strength in the co-twin analysis including 356 DZ pairs (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.6-3.4, and in the co-twin analysis including 210 MZ pairs (OR 1.5, 95% CI 0.9-2.7. CONCLUSION: A dose-dependent association between sleep problems and GERD remains after taking heredity and other known risk factors for GERD into account.

  8. Familial aggregation of atrial fibrillation: a study in Danish twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, Ingrid Elisabeth; Ravn, Lasse Steen; Budtz-Joergensen, Esben

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Heritability may play a role in nonfamilial atrial fibrillation (AF). We hypothesized that a monozygotic (MZ) twin whose co-twin was diagnosed with AF would have an increased risk of the disease compared with a dizygotic (DZ) twin in the same situation. METHODS AND RESULTS: A sample......-free survival times, we compared the time span between occurrences of disease in MZ and DZ twins. The unaffected twin was included when his or her twin-sibling (the index twin) was diagnosed with AF. After adjustment for age at entry, MZ twins had a significantly shorter event-free survival time (hazard ratio......, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.3 to 3.0), thereby indicating a genetic component. Using biometric models, we estimated the heritability of AF to be 62% (55% to 68%), due to additive genetics. There were no significant differences across sexes. CONCLUSIONS: All the analyses of twin similarities in the present study...

  9. Second-trimester cervical length as risk indicator for Cesarean delivery in women with twin pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Mheen, L.; Schuit, E.; Liem, S. M. S.; Lim, A. C.; Bekedam, D. J.; Goossens, S. M. T. A.; Franssen, M. T. M.; Porath, M. M.; Oudijk, M. A.; Bloemenkamp, K. W. M.; Duvekot, J. J.; Woiski, M. D.; De Graaf, I.; Sikkema, J. M.; Scheepers, H. C. J.; Van Eijk, J.; De Groot, C. J. M.; Van Pampus, M. G.; Mol, B. W. J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether second-trimester cervical length (CL) in women with a twin pregnancy is associated with the risk of emergency Cesarean section. Methods This was a secondary analysis of two randomized trials conducted in 57 hospitals in The Netherlands. We assessed the univariable

  10. Twin probes for space geodesy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertotti, B.

    1978-01-01

    The twin probe method, proposed by Bertotti and Colombo (1972) to get rid of nongravitational forces in interplanetary space, can be applied to a near-Earth orbit to eliminate the atmospheric drag. Two equal pairs of probes, each pair consisting of two passive, small and dense spheres of equal surface and different masses, are flown on a circular orbit at an altitude of about 300 km. Each pair determines the motion of an ideal point which feels only the gravitational forces. They are separated by a distance d of (100/200) km and are tracked from a spacecraft or the Space Shuttle, flying at the same altitude. The relative motion of the two ideal points is reconstructed and yields a measurement of the fine structure of the Earth gravitational field, corresponding to a harmonic order l approximately a/d (a is the radius of the Earth). The tracking can be done by laser ranging to the four spheres, covered by corner reflectors; Doppler ranging is more convenient for higher values of l and can also be used. The accuracy in the compensation of the non-gravitational forces and in the measurements one needs for a given l are discussed in detail. (author)

  11. Relationship of self-liking, self-competence with self-reported oral health status among 15-year-old children of Davangere city: A cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjan Giriraju

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Psychological constructs have been found to have potential effects in the improvement of health. Self-esteem (expressed in the form of sub-constructs: Self-liking and self-competence is a construct, which makes one realize the self. This in turn will result in positive oral-health-seeking behavior and improvement in oral health status. Aim: To assess the relationship of self-liking, self-competence with self-reported oral health status in children aged 15 years, in Davangere city. Materials and Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional survey was conducted on 220 15-year-old subjects in Davangere City. Specially designed pro forma containing Romanian self-administered questionnaire to record the self-reported oral health status and Tafarodi's SLC scale to measure self-liking/self-competence was used. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. Results: A majority of the participants were found to have moderate self-competence and self-liking and their self-reported oral health status was expressed as "excellent." They reported very less or no untreated decayed teeth and no extracted teeth or gingival bleeding. Conclusion: The participants with better self-competence and self-liking perceived their oral health status as good. They reported lesser incidence of oral diseases and discomfort. Self-esteem and oral health were found to be positively related.

  12. Eco2 Cities : Ecological Cities as Economic Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Hiroaki; Dastur, Arish; Moffatt, Sebastian; Yabuki, Nanae; Maruyama, Hinako

    2010-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the World Bank's Eco2 cities : ecological cities as economic cities initiative. The objective of the Eco2 cities initiative is to help cities in developing countries achieve a greater degree of ecological and economic sustainability. The book is divided into three parts. Part one describes the Eco2 cities initiative framework. It describes the approach, be...

  13. Effect of maternal smoking on birth weight of twins: a study from the Dutch Twin Register

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orlebeke, J.F.; Boomsma, D.I.; van Baal, G.C.M.; Bleker, O.P.

    1994-01-01

    Since twins weigh about 20% less than singletons at birth, maternal smoking may be a more severe risk for them than for singletons. Therefore, the effect of maternal smoking during pregnancy on birth weight was investigated in a group of 5376 twins. All necessary information was collected by a

  14. Determinants of individuals' risks to 2009 pandemic influenza virus infection at household level amongst Djibouti city residents--a CoPanFlu cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andayi, Fred; Crepey, Pascal; Kieffer, Alexia; Salez, Nicolas; Abdo, Ammar A; Carrat, Fabrice; Flahault, Antoine; de Lamballerie, Xavier

    2014-01-27

    Following the 2009 swine flu pandemic, a cohort for pandemic influenza (CoPanFlu) study was established in Djibouti, the Horn of Africa, to investigate its case prevalence and risk predictors' at household level. From the four city administrative districts, 1,045 subjects from 324 households were included during a face-to-face encounter between 11th November 2010 and 15th February 2011. Socio-demographic details were collected and blood samples were analysed in haemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays. Risk assessments were performed in a generalised estimating equation model. In this study, the indicator of positive infection status was set at an HI titre of ≥ 80, which was a relevant surrogate to the seroconversion criterion. All positive cases were considered to be either recent infections or past contact with an antigenically closely related virus in humans older than 65 years. An overall sero-prevalence of 29.1% and a geometrical mean titre (GMT) of 39.5% among the residents was observed. Youths, ≤ 25 years and the elderly, ≥65 years had the highest titres, with values of 35.9% and 29.5%, respectively. Significantly, risk was high amongst youths ≤ 25 years, (OR 1.5-2.2), residents of District 4(OR 2.9), students (OR 1.4) and individuals living near to river banks (OR 2.5). Belonging to a large household (OR 0.6), being employed (OR 0.5) and working in open space-outdoor (OR 0.4) were significantly protective. Only 1.4% of the cohort had vaccination against the pandemic virus and none were immunised against seasonal influenza. Despite the limited number of incident cases detected by the surveillance system, A(H1N1)pdm09 virus circulated broadly in Djibouti in 2010 and 2011. Age-group distribution of cases was similar to what has been reported elsewhere, with youths at the greatest risk of infection. Future respiratory infection control should therefore be tailored to reach specific and vulnerable individuals such as students and those working

  15. Determinants of individuals’ risks to 2009 pandemic influenza virus infection at household level amongst Djibouti city residents - A CoPanFlu cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Following the 2009 swine flu pandemic, a cohort for pandemic influenza (CoPanFlu) study was established in Djibouti, the Horn of Africa, to investigate its case prevalence and risk predictors’ at household level. Methods From the four city administrative districts, 1,045 subjects from 324 households were included during a face-to-face encounter between 11th November 2010 and 15th February 2011. Socio-demographic details were collected and blood samples were analysed in haemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays. Risk assessments were performed in a generalised estimating equation model. Results In this study, the indicator of positive infection status was set at an HI titre of ≥ 80, which was a relevant surrogate to the seroconversion criterion. All positive cases were considered to be either recent infections or past contact with an antigenically closely related virus in humans older than 65 years. An overall sero-prevalence of 29.1% and a geometrical mean titre (GMT) of 39.5% among the residents was observed. Youths, ≤ 25 years and the elderly, ≥65 years had the highest titres, with values of 35.9% and 29.5%, respectively. Significantly, risk was high amongst youths ≤ 25 years, (OR 1.5-2.2), residents of District 4(OR 2.9), students (OR 1.4) and individuals living near to river banks (OR 2.5). Belonging to a large household (OR 0.6), being employed (OR 0.5) and working in open space-outdoor (OR 0.4) were significantly protective. Only 1.4% of the cohort had vaccination against the pandemic virus and none were immunised against seasonal influenza. Conclusion Despite the limited number of incident cases detected by the surveillance system, A(H1N1)pdm09 virus circulated broadly in Djibouti in 2010 and 2011. Age-group distribution of cases was similar to what has been reported elsewhere, with youths at the greatest risk of infection. Future respiratory infection control should therefore be tailored to reach specific and vulnerable

  16. Sexual uses of alcohol and drugs and the associated health risks: A cross sectional study of young people in nine European cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendes Fernando

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Young people in European countries are experiencing high levels of alcohol and drug use and escalating levels of sexually transmitted infections. Individually these represent major public health priorities. Understanding of the association between sex and substance use, and specifically the strategic roles for which young people utilise substances to facilitate sexual activity, remains limited. Methods Respondent driven sampling methodology was used in nine European cities to survey 1,341 16–35 year olds representing youth and younger adults who routinely engage in nightlife. Participants self-completed questionnaires, designed to gather demographic, social, and behavioural data on historic and current substance use and sexual behaviour. Results Respondents reported strategic use of specific substances for different sexual purposes. Substances differed significantly in the purposes for which each was deployed (e.g. 28.6% of alcohol users use it to facilitate sexual encounters; 26.2% of cocaine users use it to prolong sex with user demographics also relating to levels of sexual use (e.g. higher levels of: ecstasy use by males to prolong sex; cocaine use by single individuals to enhance sensation and arousal. Associations between substance use and sex started at a young age, with alcohol, cannabis, cocaine or ecstasy use before age 16 all being associated with having had sex before the age of 16 (odds ratios, 3.47, 4.19, 5.73, 9.35 respectively. However, sexes differed and substance use under 16 years was associated with a proportionately greater increase in early sex amongst girls. Respondents' current drug use was associated with having multiple sexual partners. Thus, for instance, regular cocaine users (c.f. never users were over five times more likely to have had five or more sexual partners in the last 12 months or have paid for sex. Conclusion An epidemic of recreational drug use and binge drinking exposes millions of

  17. Dystocia due to schistosomus reflexus (cojoined twins in a Yankassa ewe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambali Hauwa Motunrayo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A two years' old, white and brown Yankassa ewe, weighing 20 kg was presented with dystocia of about 48 h duration at Mabs Veterinary Centre Ltd, Lagos. On thorough physical and vaginal examination, there were evidences of feotal parts and foul smelling discharges per vagina. A systematic and calculated traction and retropulsion revealed schistosomus reflexus cojoined twins. There was a complete recovery of the ewe 3 days post operative management. Finally, this case reported a true schistosomus reflexus cojoined twins in Yankassa ewe which was successfully relieved through traction and retropulsion despite the supposedly small birth canal which precluded the procedure in ewes except for caesarian section or fetotomy

  18. Art for twins: Yorùbá artists and their statues/twin research studies: twins' education and conceptions; diurnal preference; inherited eye diseases; ultrasound counseling when twins are conjoined/popular twin reports: twin sisters (the film); rare pregnancy; diet test; French twins reared apart and reunited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Nancy L

    2014-06-01

    The Yorùbá of Nigeria are well known for their high twinning rate and the statues they create to commemorate deceased twins. An impressive collection of this artwork was displayed at the University of California's Fowler Museum in Los Angeles between October 13, 2013 and March 2, 2014. An overview of this exhibit is provided. Next, twin research on maternal education and conception, diurnal preference, inherited eye diseases, and ultrasound counseling for couples with conjoined twins are briefly summarized. This article concludes with a discussion of media-based items related to twins. The topics include an award-winning twin film, a rare pregnancy, a diet test, and the separation and chance reunion of monozygotic female twins.

  19. Attachment to the Romantic Partner and Sibling: Attachment Hierarchies of Twins and Non-Twin Siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha Schwarz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that romantic partners and siblings are important attachment figures. This study compares the attachment to the romantic partner with the attachment to the sibling as a function of the participant’s sibling type among monozygotic (MZ twins, dizygotic (DZ twins, and non-twin (NT siblings. The results show that MZ twins prefer their sibling to their romantic partner whereas DZ twins are equally attached to their sibling and romantic partner. In contrast, NT siblings are more attached to their romantic partner compared to their sibling. These results indicate that genetic relatedness has profound impact on a person’s attachment hierarchy and the relative rank of the romantic partner and the sibling.

  20. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciger, Jan

    2006-01-01

    The Flying Cities artistic installation brings to life imaginary cities made from the speech input of visitors. In this article we describe the original interactive process generating real time 3D graphics from spectators' vocal inputs. This example of cross-modal interaction has the nice property....... As the feedback we have received when presenting Flying Cities was very positive, our objective now is to cross the bridge between art and the potential applications to the rehabilitation of people with reduced mobility or for the treatment of language impairments....

  1. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbelin, Bruno; Lasserre, Sebastien; Ciger, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Flying Cities is an artistic installation which generates imaginary cities from the speech of its visitors. Thanks to an original interactive process analyzing people's vocal input to create 3D graphics, a tangible correspondence between speech and visuals opens new possibilities of interaction....... This cross-modal interaction not only supports our artistic messages, but also aims at providing anyone with a pleasant and stimulating feedback from her/his speech activity. As the feedback we have received when presenting Flying Cities was very positive, our objective is now to cross the bridge between art...

  2. Indigenous Manufacturing realization of TWIN Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, R.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Parmar, D.; Yadav, R.; Tyagi, H.; Soni, J.; Shishangiya, H.; Sudhir Kumar, D.; Shah, S.; Bansal, G.; Pandya, K.; Parmar, K.; Vuppugalla, M.; Gahlaut, A.; Chakraborty, A.

    2017-04-01

    TWIN source is two RF driver based negative ion source that has been planned to bridge the gap between single driver based ROBIN source (currently operational) and eight river based DNB source (to be operated under IN-TF test facility). TWIN source experiments have been planned at IPR keeping the objective of long term domestic fusion programme to gain operational experiences on vacuum immersed multi driver RF based negative ion source. High vacuum compatible components of twin source are designed at IPR keeping an aim on indigenous built in attempt. These components of TWIN source are mainly stainless steel and OFC-Cu. Being high heat flux receiving components, one of the major functional requirements is continuous heat removal via water as cooling medium. Hence for the purpose stainless steel parts are provided with externally milled cooling lines and that shall be covered with a layer of OFC-cu which would be on the receiving side of high heat flux. Manufacturability of twin source components requires joining of these dissimilar materials via process like electrode position, electron beam welding and vacuum brazing. Any of these manufacturing processes shall give a vacuum tight joint having proper joint strength at operating temperature and pressure. Taking the indigenous development effort vacuum brazing (in non-nuclear environment) has been opted for joining of dissimilar materials of twin source being one of the most reliable joining techniques and commercially feasible across the suppliers of country. Manufacturing design improvisation for the components has been done to suit the vacuum brazing process requirement and to ease some of the machining without comprising over the functional and operational requirements. This paper illustrates the details on the indigenous development effort, design improvisation to suits manufacturability, vacuum brazing basics and its procedures for twin source components.

  3. Monozygotic twins discordant for ROHHAD phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwari, Pallavi P; Rand, Casey M; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth M; Ize-Ludlow, Diego; Weese-Mayer, Debra E

    2011-09-01

    Rapid-onset obesity with hypothalamic dysfunction, hypoventilation, and autonomic dysregulation (ROHHAD) falls within a group of pediatric disorders with both respiratory control and autonomic nervous system dysregulation. Children with ROHHAD typically present after 1.5 years of age with rapid weight gain as the initial sign. Subsequently, they develop alveolar hypoventilation, autonomic nervous system dysregulation, and, if untreated, cardiorespiratory arrest. To our knowledge, this is the first report of discordant presentation of ROHHAD in monozygotic twins. Twin girls, born at term, had concordant growth and development until 8 years of age. From 8 to 12 years of age, the affected twin developed features characteristic of ROHHAD including obesity, alveolar hypoventilation, scoliosis, hypothalamic dysfunction (central diabetes insipidus, hypothyroidism, premature pubarche, and growth hormone deficiency), right paraspinal/thoracic ganglioneuroblastoma, seizures, and autonomic dysregulation including altered pain perception, large and sluggishly reactive pupils, hypothermia, and profound bradycardia that required a cardiac pacemaker. Results of genetic testing for PHOX2B (congenital central hypoventilation syndrome disease-defining gene) mutations were negative. With early recognition and conservative management, the affected twin had excellent neurocognitive outcome that matched that of the unaffected twin. The unaffected twin demonstrated rapid weight gain later in age but not development of signs/symptoms consistent with ROHHAD. This discordant twin pair demonstrates key features of ROHHAD including the importance of early recognition (especially hypoventilation), complexity of signs/symptoms and clinical course, and importance of initiating comprehensive, multispecialty care. These cases confound the hypothesis of a monogenic etiology for ROHHAD and indicate alternative etiologies including autoimmune or epigenetic phenomenon or a combination of genetic

  4. The Project TALENT Twin and Sibling Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Carol A; Achorn, Deanna Lyter; Kaiser, Ashley; Mitchell, Lindsey; McArdle, John J; Lapham, Susan J

    2013-02-01

    Project TALENT is a US national longitudinal study of about 377,000 individuals born in 1942-1946, first assessed in 1960. Students in about 1,200 schools participated in a 2-day battery covering aptitudes, abilities, interests, and individual and family characteristics (Flanagan, 1962; www.projectTALENT.org). Follow-up assessments 1, 5, and 11 years later assessed educational and occupational outcomes. The sample includes approximately 92,000 siblings from 40,000 families, including 2,500 twin pairs and 1,200 other siblings of twins. Until recently, almost no behavior genetic research has been conducted with the sample. In the original data collection information was not collected with the intent to link family members. Recently, we developed algorithms using names, addresses, birthdates, and information about family structure to link siblings and identify twins. We are testing several methods to determine zygosity, including use of yearbook photographs. In this paper, we summarize the design and measures in Project TALENT, describe the Twin and Sibling sample, and present our twin-sib-classmate model. In most twin and family designs, the 'shared environment' includes factors specific to the family combined with between-family differences associated with macro-level variables such as socioeconomic status. The school-based sampling design used in Project TALENT provides a unique opportunity to partition the shared environment into variation shared by siblings, specific to twins, and associated with school- and community-level factors. The availability of many measured characteristics on the family, schools, and neighborhoods enhances the ability to study the impact of specific factors on behavioral variation.

  5. Diabetes and perinatal mortality in twin pregnancies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-Cheng Luo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diabetes in pregnancy has been associated with a paradoxically reduced risk of neonatal death in twin pregnancies. Risk "shift" may be a concern in that the reduction in neonatal deaths may be due to an increase in fetal deaths (stillbirths. This study aimed to clarify the impact of diabetes on the risk of perinatal death (neonatal death plus stillbirth in twin pregnancies. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of twin births using the largest available dataset on twin births (the U.S. matched multiple birth data 1995-2000; 19,676 neonates from diabetic pregnancies, 541,481 from non-diabetic pregnancies. Cox proportional hazard models were applied to estimate the adjusted hazard ratios (aHR of perinatal death accounting for twin cluster-level dependence. RESULTS: Comparing diabetic versus non-diabetic twin pregnancies, overall perinatal mortality rate was counterintuitively lower [2.1% versus 3.3%, aHR 0.70 (95% confidence intervals 0.63-0.78]. Individually, both stillbirth and neonatal mortality rates were lower in diabetic pregnancies, but we identified significant differences by gestational age and birth weight. Diabetes was associated with a survival benefit in pregnancies completed before 32 weeks [aHR 0.55 (0.48-0.63] or with birth weight =2500 g [aHR 2.20 (1.55-3.13]. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetes in pregnancy appears to be "protective" against perinatal death in twin pregnancies ending in very preterm or very low birth weight births. Prospective studies are required to clarify whether these patterns of risk are real, or they are artifacts of unmeasured confounders. Additional data correlating these outcomes with the types of diabetes in pregnancy are also needed to distinguish the effects of pre-gestational vs. gestational diabetes.

  6. Sonographic monitoring of complications and anomalies in twin gestations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, B.G.; Grumbach, K.; Arger, P.H.; Mintz, M.C.; Arenson, R.L.; Mennuti, M.T.; Gabbe, S.G.

    1986-01-01

    One hundred sixty-eight twin gestations were evaluated to assess the role of US in the diagnosis of obstetric complications and anomalies. US revealed the following complications: symptomatic polyhydramnios (eight cases), myomas (seven), placenta previa (three), and abruption (five). Fetal anomalies included twin-twin transfusion syndrome (two), acardiac anomaly (two), chromosomal abnormality (two), anencephaly (one), hydrocephaly (one), and conjoined twins (two). In 26 gestations intrauterine fetal demise or neonatal death involved one or both twins for a total of 42 deaths, constituting a mortality of 12.5%. No maternal deaths occurred. The impact of sonographic monitoring on the obstetric management of twin gestations is emphasized

  7. Twin pregnancy possibly associated with high semen quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asklund, Camilla; Jensen, Tina Kold; Jørgensen, Niels

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent studies found an association between a long waiting time to pregnancy (TTP) and reduced probability of twinning and a reduced dizygotic (DZ) twinning rate in subfertile men. However, it remains unsolved whether semen quality is associated with twin offspring. We therefore studied...... the semen quality in a group of fathers of naturally conceived twins. METHODS: In this study, 37 fathers of DZ twins and 15 fathers of monozygotic (MZ) twins participated, and 349 normal fertile men served as a reference group. All men delivered a semen sample, underwent a physical examination and completed...... points higher than the reference group (P semen quality than the reference group, which supports...

  8. Health-related quality of life and Chlamydia trachomatis infection in sexually experienced female inner-city students: a community-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sri, Trisha; Southgate, Eleanor; Kerry, Sarah R; Nightingale, Claire; Oakeshott, Pippa

    2017-03-01

    This cross-sectional study was undertaken to compare health-related quality of life (EQ-5D) in women with and without undiagnosed Chlamydia trachomatis infection. We analysed data from 2401 multi-ethnic sexually active female students aged 16-27 years who were recruited to a randomised controlled trial of chlamydia screening - the prevention of pelvic infection trial in 2004-2006. At recruitment, all participants were asked to provide self-taken vaginal swabs for chlamydia testing and to complete a sexual health questionnaire including quality of life (EQ-5D). Most women (69%) had an EQ-5D of one representing 'perfect health' in the five dimensions: mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain/discomfort and anxiety/depression. We therefore compared the proportion of women with an EQ-5D score life, but EQ-5D may not be the best tool to measure it in this group.

  9. The impact of twinning on the local texture of chalcopyrite-type thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou-Ras, Daniel; Pantleon, Karen

    2007-01-01

    Twinning in a CuInS 2 layer in a completed thin-film solar cell was analyzed by means of electron backscatter diffraction. This technique revealed the microstructure of the CuInS 2 thin films and local orientation relationships between the grains. At various locations within the layer it was possible to retrace how twinning occurred comparing the local orientations with the theoretically possible changes in orientation by twinning. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) EBSD map of a CuInS 2 cross-section with Σ3 boundaries highlighted by red lines. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. Characterizing Geosocial-Networking App Use Among Young Black Men Who Have Sex With Men: A Multi-City Cross-Sectional Survey in the Southern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Dustin T; Park, Su Hyun; Hambrick, H Rhodes; Dangerfield Ii, Derek T; Goedel, William C; Brewer, Russell; Mgbako, Ofole; Lindsey, Joseph; Regan, Seann D; Hickson, DeMarc A

    2018-06-14

    Understanding where and how young black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) in the southern United States meet their sexual partners is germane to understanding the underlying factors contributing to the ongoing HIV transmission in this community. Men who have sex with men (MSM) commonly use geosocial networking apps to meet sexual partners. However, there is a lack of literature exploring geosocial networking app use in this particular population. Our aim was to examine the characteristics, preferences, and behaviors of a geographically diverse sample of geosocial networking app-using YBMSM in the southern United States. Data were collected from a sample of 75 YBMSM across three cities (Gulfport, Mississippi; Jackson, Mississippi; and New Orleans, Louisiana). Multiple aspects of geosocial networking app use were assessed, including overall app use, age of participant at first app use, specific apps used, reasons for app use, photos presented on apps, logon times and duration, number of messages sent and received, and characteristics of and behaviors with partners met on apps. Survey measures of app-met partner and sexual behavior characteristics assessed at midpoint (Day 7) and completion visits (Day 14) were compared using McNemar's test or Wilcoxon signed-rank test. In addition, we assessed activity spaces derived from GPS devices that participants wore for 2 weeks. Of the 70 participants who responded to the overall app-use item, almost three-quarters (53/70, 76%) had ever used geosocial networking apps. Jack'd was the most commonly used geosocial networking app (37/53, 70%), followed by Adam4Adam (22/53, 42%), and Grindr (19/53, 36%). The mean and median number of apps used were 4.3 (SD 2.7) and 4.0 (range 0-13), respectively. Most app-using participants displayed their face on the profile picture (35/52, 67%), whereas fewer displayed their bare legs (2/52, 4%) or bare buttocks (or ass; 2/52, 4%). The mean age at the initiation of app use was 20.1 years (SD 2

  11. City Streets

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for city streets found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. In some areas, these roadways are current through the 2000...

  12. A twin study of body dysmorphic concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzani, B; Rijsdijk, F; Anson, M; Iervolino, A C; Cherkas, L; Spector, T; Mataix-Cols, D

    2012-09-01

    Dysmorphic concern refers to an excessive preoccupation with a perceived or slight defect in physical appearance. It lies on a continuum of severity from no or minimal concerns to severe concerns over one's appearance. The present study examined the heritability of dysmorphic concerns in a large sample of twins. Twins from the St Thomas UK twin registry completed a valid and reliable self-report measure of dysmorphic concerns, which also includes questions about perceived body odour and malfunction. Twin modelling methods (female twins only, n=3544) were employed to decompose the variance in the liability to dysmorphic concerns into additive genetic, shared and non-shared environmental factors. Model-fitting analyses showed that genetic factors accounted for approximately 44% [95% confidence intervals (CI) 36-50%] of the variance in dysmorphic concerns, with non-shared environmental factors and measurement error accounting for the remaining variance (56%; 95% CI 50-63%). Shared environmental factors were negligible. The results remained unchanged when excluding individuals reporting an objective medical condition/injury accounting for their concern in physical appearance. Over-concern with a perceived or slight defect in physical appearance is a heritable trait, with non-shared environmental factors also playing an important role in its causation. The results are relevant for various psychiatric disorders characterized by excessive concerns in body appearance, odour or function, including but not limited to body dysmorphic disorder.

  13. Characterization of Gastric Microbiota in Twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Quanjiang; Xin, Yongning; Wang, Lili; Meng, Xinying; Yu, Xinjuan; Lu, Linlin; Xuan, Shiying

    2017-02-01

    Contribution of host genetic backgrounds in the development of gastric microbiota has not been clearly defined. This study was aimed to characterize the biodiversity, structure and composition of gastric microbiota among twins. A total of four pairs of twins and eight unrelated individuals were enrolled in the study. Antral biopsies were obtained during endoscopy. The bacterial 16S rRNA gene was amplified and pyrosequenced. Sequences were analyzed for the composition, structure, and α and β diversities of gastric microbiota. Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Fusobacteria were the most predominant phyla of gastric microbiota. Each individual, twins as well as unrelated individuals, harbored a microbiota of distinct composition. There was no evidence of additional similarity in the richness and evenness of gastric microbiota among co-twins as compared to unrelated individuals. Calculations of θ YC and PCoA demonstrated that the structure similarity of gastric microbial community between co-twins did not increase compared to unrelated individuals. In contrast, the structure of microbiota was altered enormously by Helicobacter pylori infection. These results suggest that host genetic backgrounds had little effect in shaping the gastric microbiota. This property of gastric microbiota could facilitate the studies discerning the role of microbiota from genetic grounds in the pathogenesis.

  14. Yoruba customs and beliefs pertaining to twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Fernand; Olaleye-Oruene, Taiwo; Koeppen-Schomerus, Gesina; Bryan, Elizabeth

    2002-04-01

    The Yoruba are an important ethnic group mainly occupying Southwestern Nigeria. Mainly for genetic reasons, this very large tribe happens to present the highest dizygotic twinning rate in the world (4.4 % of all maternities). The high perinatal mortality rate associated with such pregnancies has contributed to the integration of a special twin belief system within the African traditional religion of this tribe. The latter is based on the concept of a supreme deity called Olodumare or Olorun, assisted by a series of secondary gods (Orisha) while Yoruba religion also involves immortality and reincarnation of the soul based on the animistic cult of ancestors. Twins are therefore given special names and believed to detain special preternatural powers. In keeping with their refined artistic tradition, the Yoruba have produced numerous wooden statuettes called Ibejis that represent the souls of deceased newborn twins and are involved in elaborate rituals. Among Yoruba traditional beliefs and lore some twin-related themes are represented which are also found in other parts of the world. Basic features of the original Yoruba beliefs have found their way into the religious traditions of descendants of African slaves imported in the West Indies and in South America.

  15. Separation surgery for total vertical craniopagus twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Keith Y C

    2004-08-01

    A pair of conjoined twins aged 11 months underwent investigations, followed by surgical separation in Singapore General Hospital in April 2001. They were joined at the skull vertex and facing in opposite directions. Radiological investigations including cerebral angiography, magnetic resonance imaging and computerized tomographic scans were performed, leading to the diagnosis of total vertical craniopagus. There were two separate brains, with separate arterial circulations, but with a common superior sagittal sinus. Tissue expanders were inserted in the subgaleal space for 6 months of scalp expansion prior to surgery. Pre-operative planning involved the use of virtual reality equipment and life-sized polymer models of the conjoined skulls and brains. Surgical separation of the twins was achieved after approximately 100 h of operating time, using intraoperative image guidance, microsurgical techniques and intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring. Reconstruction of the dura, calvarium and scalp was performed with artificial dura, absorbable plates and split skin grafts. Postoperative complications included focal cortical infarction, meningitis, and hydrocephalus. Despite these complications, the twins recovered satisfactorily and were discharged to their home country within 6 months. The 3-month outcome was minor disability in one twin and severe developmental delays in the other. Separation surgery is possible for complex cranially-conjoined twins but requires detailed planning and extensive surgical management.

  16. The Experience City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Jensen, Ole B.; Kiib, Hans

    2009-01-01

      The article take its point of departure in the pressure of the experience economy on European cities - a pressure which in recent years has found its expression in a number of comprehensive transformations of the physical and architectural environments, and new eventscapes related to fun...... and cultural experience are emerging. In the discussion of the transformation into the ‘experience economy' relevant to cities and urban areas we rarely find an analysis of the physical and spatial implications of this transformation. However, the physical, cultural and democratic consequences...... clear goals related to the improvement of social interaction, performance and cultural exchange. The article contains three sections. in section one, we present three European cases in order to relate to the wider international debate and development. In section two we present the main theoretical...

  17. Risk Factors of Overweight and Obesity among High School Students in Bahir Dar City, North West Ethiopia: School Based Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelalem Alamrew Anteneh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Overweight and obesity are risk factors for diet-related noncommunicable diseases. These diseases are the fifth leading risks for global deaths. Virtually, all age groups are affected from consequences of overweight and obesity. Methods. Cross-sectional study was conducted among 431 school adolescents. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaire and physical measurements. The sex and age specific BMI was computed using WHO Anthroplus software and the data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results. The magnitudes of overweight and obesity were 12.3% and 4.4%, respectively, and the combined prevalence of overweight and obesity together was 16.7%. Three-fourths of the respondents (74.7% had healthy body mass index; however, 8.6% were underweight. Sex, frequency of eating food out of home, school type, family monthly income, family having vehicle, vigorous physical activity, and frequency of vigorous physical activity were statistically significant predictors of overweight and obesity. Conclusion. The problems of overweight and obesity are taking place while students are still under the risk of underweight. Several factors were correlated with overweight and obesity. Therefore, interventions targeting gender, frequency of eating food out of home, vigorous activities, and frequency of doing vigorous physical activity are recommended.

  18. The Investigation of Tramadol Dependence with No History of Substance Abuse: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Spontaneously Reported Cases in Guangzhou City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoran Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was to survey and assess the drug dependence and abuse potential of tramadol with no history of substance abuse. Subjects of tramadol dependence with no prior history of substance abuse were surveyed by interview. Physical dependence of tramadol was assessed using 10 items opiate withdrawal scale (OWS, and psychological dependence was assessed by Addiction Research Center Inventory—Chinese Version (ARCI-CV. Twenty-three male subjects (the median age was 23.4±4.1 years referred to the addiction unit in Medical Hospital of Guangzhou with tramadol abuse problems were included in this cross-sectional study. The control group included 87 heroin addicts, 60 methamphetamine (MA abusers, and 50 healthy men. The scores of OWS of tramadol were 0.83–2.30; the mean scores of identifying euphoric effects–MBG, sedative effects–PCAG, and psychotomimetic effects–LSD of ARCI were 8.96±3.08, 6.52±3.25, and 6.65±2.50, respectively, F = 4.927, P0.05 but were higher than those in healthy men (P<0.05. Tramadol with no history of substance abuse has a clear risk of producing high abuse potential under the long-term infrequent abuse and the high doses.

  19. The negative impact of living environment on intelligence quotient of primary school children in Baghdad City, Iraq: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazi Hasanain

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Environmental factors play a very important role in the child development process, especially in a situation like that of Iraq. Thirteen years of economic sanctions followed by the 2003 war and 8 years of unstable security have affected the daily life of Iraqi families and children. The objective of this study was to assess the associations between living environment domains and child intelligence quotient (IQ score. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 529 children aged 7–8 years from five primary schools in Baghdad during September–October, 2011. The five schools represent people living a range of conditions, and include of both high and low socio-economic groups. Living environment was assessed by 13 questionnaire items, consists of three domains: physical safety , mental stress and public services. While IQ was assessed by Raven Colored progressive matrices. Results Among the participants, 22% were of low intelligence versus 77% of high intelligence and 19% lived in a poor environment. There were significant associations between the mental stress and service living environment domains and child IQ (p = 0.009 and p = 0.001, respectively. Conclusion In Iraq, child IQ was found to be associated with the mental stress and service domains of the living environment. This study findings will help authorities in their efforts to improve living environment.

  20. The negative impact of living environment on intelligence quotient of primary school children in Baghdad City, Iraq: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazi, Hasanain Faisal; Isa, Zaleha Md; Aljunid, Syed; Shah, Shamsul Azhar; Tamil, Azmi Mohd; Abdalqader, Mohammed A

    2012-07-27

    Environmental factors play a very important role in the child development process, especially in a situation like that of Iraq. Thirteen years of economic sanctions followed by the 2003 war and 8 years of unstable security have affected the daily life of Iraqi families and children. The objective of this study was to assess the associations between living environment domains and child intelligence quotient (IQ) score. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 529 children aged 7-8 years from five primary schools in Baghdad during September-October, 2011. The five schools represent people living a range of conditions, and include of both high and low socio-economic groups. Living environment was assessed by 13 questionnaire items, consists of three domains: physical safety , mental stress and public services. While IQ was assessed by Raven Colored progressive matrices. Among the participants, 22% were of low intelligence versus 77% of high intelligence and 19% lived in a poor environment. There were significant associations between the mental stress and service living environment domains and child IQ (p = 0.009 and p = 0.001, respectively). In Iraq, child IQ was found to be associated with the mental stress and service domains of the living environment. This study findings will help authorities in their efforts to improve living environment.

  1. [A cross-sectional survey of the prevalence of depressive-anxiety disorders among general hospital outpatients in five cities in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yan-ling; Ma, Hong; Zhang, Lan; Liu, Zhe-ning; Jia, Fu-jun; Zhang, Ming-yuan

    2009-09-01

    To find the prevalence of depressive and anxiety disorders among general hospital outpatients and to evaluate the diagnoses and treatment provided by physicians in China. A multi-center, hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted. A total of 8478 subjects were screened by using HADS and PHQ-15 together with medical history review list and were followed by regular clinical visit process. Physician's diagnoses and management were recorded. Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) was used to evaluate by psychiatrists afterwards for 4172 subjects scored >or= 8 on HADS. The adjusted prevalence rates of MINI-diagnosed depressive disorder, anxiety disorder, depression and anxiety, depression or anxiety disorders were 12.0%, 8.6%, 4.1% and 16.5%, respectively. The prevalence of depressive and/or anxiety disorder in outpatients visiting department of neurology and digestive diseases were higher than that in patients visiting departments of cardiovascular diseases and gynecology with statistical significance (P depressive and/or anxiety disorders were found in the general hospitals. In order to improve the status quo, training program for physicians and specialists other than psychiatric professionals in general hospitals should be enhanced together with psychiatric consultation.

  2. A Cross-Sectional Study of Heat Wave-Related Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice among the Public in the Licheng District of Jinan City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Xu, Xin; Ding, Guoyong; Zhao, Yun; Zhao, Ruixia; Xue, Fuzhong; Li, Jing; Gao, Jinghong; Yang, Jun; Jiang, Baofa; Liu, Qiyong

    2016-06-29

    Knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) are three key components for reducing the adverse health impacts of heat waves. However, research in eastern China regarding this is scarce. The present study aimed to evaluate the heat wave-related KAP of a population in Licheng in northeast China. This cross-sectional study included 2241 participants. Data regarding demographic characteristics, KAP, and heat illnesses were collected using a structured questionnaire. Univariate analysis and unconditional logistic regression models were used to analyze the data. Most residents had high KAP scores, with a mean score of 12.23 (standard deviation = 2.23) on a 17-point scale. Urban women and participants aged 35-44 years had relatively high total scores, and those with high education levels had the highest total score. There was an increased risk of heat-related illness among those with knowledge scores of 3-5 on an 8-point scale with mean score of 5.40 (standard deviation = 1.45). Having a positive attitude toward sunstroke prevention and engaging in more preventive practices to avoid heat exposure had a protective interaction effect on reducing the prevalence of heat-related illnesses. Although the KAP scores were relatively high, knowledge and practice were lacking to some extent. Therefore, governments should further develop risk-awareness strategies that increase awareness and knowledge regarding the adverse health impact of heat and help in planning response strategies to improve the ability of individuals to cope with heat waves.

  3. A Cross-Sectional Study of Heat Wave-Related Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice among the Public in the Licheng District of Jinan City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP are three key components for reducing the adverse health impacts of heat waves. However, research in eastern China regarding this is scarce. The present study aimed to evaluate the heat wave-related KAP of a population in Licheng in northeast China. This cross-sectional study included 2241 participants. Data regarding demographic characteristics, KAP, and heat illnesses were collected using a structured questionnaire. Univariate analysis and unconditional logistic regression models were used to analyze the data. Most residents had high KAP scores, with a mean score of 12.23 (standard deviation = 2.23 on a 17-point scale. Urban women and participants aged 35–44 years had relatively high total scores, and those with high education levels had the highest total score. There was an increased risk of heat-related illness among those with knowledge scores of 3–5 on an 8-point scale with mean score of 5.40 (standard deviation = 1.45. Having a positive attitude toward sunstroke prevention and engaging in more preventive practices to avoid heat exposure had a protective interaction effect on reducing the prevalence of heat-related illnesses. Although the KAP scores were relatively high, knowledge and practice were lacking to some extent. Therefore, governments should further develop risk-awareness strategies that increase awareness and knowledge regarding the adverse health impact of heat and help in planning response strategies to improve the ability of individuals to cope with heat waves.

  4. Risk Factors of Overweight and Obesity among High School Students in Bahir Dar City, North West Ethiopia: School Based Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anteneh, Zelalem Alamrew; Gedefaw, Molla; Tekletsadek, Kidist Nigatu; Tsegaye, Meseret; Alemu, Dagmawi

    2015-01-01

    Background. Overweight and obesity are risk factors for diet-related noncommunicable diseases. These diseases are the fifth leading risks for global deaths. Virtually, all age groups are affected from consequences of overweight and obesity. Methods. Cross-sectional study was conducted among 431 school adolescents. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaire and physical measurements. The sex and age specific BMI was computed using WHO Anthroplus software and the data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results. The magnitudes of overweight and obesity were 12.3% and 4.4%, respectively, and the combined prevalence of overweight and obesity together was 16.7%. Three-fourths of the respondents (74.7%) had healthy body mass index; however, 8.6% were underweight. Sex, frequency of eating food out of home, school type, family monthly income, family having vehicle, vigorous physical activity, and frequency of vigorous physical activity were statistically significant predictors of overweight and obesity. Conclusion. The problems of overweight and obesity are taking place while students are still under the risk of underweight. Several factors were correlated with overweight and obesity. Therefore, interventions targeting gender, frequency of eating food out of home, vigorous activities, and frequency of doing vigorous physical activity are recommended. PMID:26697231

  5. Low twinning rate and seasonal effects on twinning in a fertile population, the Hutterites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, K.; Miura, T.; Peter, K.

    1993-09-01

    This paper analyzes from the mid 18th century to 1987 the birth records of the “Dariusleut,” one of the three subgroups of the Hutterite population. The aim of this study is to describe several aspects of the twinning rate in a fertile population. The overall rate of twinning was 0.90%:103 twins among all 11492 maternities. The rate peaked at the 7th birth order and at the maternal age of 40 years and over. Until the mid 19th century when the Hutterites lived in Russia, the twinning rate was higher (1.5%), and it decreased during the migration period in the second half of the 19th century (0.7%). After the group had settled in the USA and Canada, the population maintained a twinning rate of 1.0% until 1965. After 1965 the rate decreased to 0.7%, partly due to a decline in fertility among women aged 30 years and over. There was a significant seasonal variation: the twinning rate decreased to 0.5% in May July compared to 1.2% for the other three seasons during the years up to 1965 ( P<0.01), while more recent mothers did not show such a seasonal variation. The incidence of twin births in this population seems to have been influenced by environmental factors, which would change their effect seasonally and secularly.

  6. Increased risk of abortion after genetic amniocentesis in twin pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palle, C; Andersen, J W; Tabor, A

    1983-01-01

    Forty-seven twin pregnancies among 3676 patients who had a genetic amniocentesis between 1973 and 1979, are reported. The detection rate of twins at the time of amniocentesis was 62 per cent. Five (17 per cent) of the 29 women with detected twin pregnancy aborted spontaneously, these are compared...... in at least one sac aborted, while 3 of 20 twin pregnancies with one puncture in each sac aborted (15 per cent). One of 18 (6 per cent) twin pregnancies, where only one sac was punctured, because the twin pregnancies were undetected, aborted. Amniocentesis of both sacs in twin pregnancies seems associated...... with an increased risk of spontaneous abortion. The indications for amniocentesis in twin pregnancies should be critically evaluated....

  7. Aging and communication in the twin paradox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Wolf, David A

    2016-01-01

    The twin paradox of the special theory of relativity has given rize to a large body of literature discussing its implications. In its standard form, the traveler changes velocity only at the destination of the trip, so that he appears to perceive an improbably instantaneous and non-continuous change in age of the stationary twin. In this work, a smooth velocity/acceleration profile is used that allows the abrupt velocity-change case as a limit. All gravitational effects are ignored in this treatment. Aside from mutual perception of simultaneous clock times in an accelerating frame, constant communication of clock times between the twins by means of (digital) light signals is shown to be possible, in principle if not in practice. (paper)

  8. On the theory of twinning plane superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishonov, T.M.

    1988-01-01

    The thermodynamic potential of the superconducting layer in the twinning plane (TP) vicinity for the type I superconductors is found. The corrections to the surface tension in powers of the Ginsburg-Landau parameter κ are obtained. The corresponding states law for the supercooling field for the type I twinning plane superconductivity (TPS) is obtained, as well as the critical field law for the type II TPS. A review of experimental and theoretical works on TPS and some similar systems is given. The conditions for the Berezinski-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition for the proximity effect are discussed, as well as the possible mechanisms for the conducting phase transition TPS in Nb and the pinning forces close to the twinning plane. The obtained order parameter distribution can be used for description of the superlattices from normal and superconducting metals as well. 6 figs., 44 refs

  9. Upgrades for TwinSol facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O’Malley, P.D.; Bardayan, D.W.; Kolata, J.J.; Hall, M.R.; Hall, O.; Allen, J. [Physics Department, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Becchetti, F.D. [Physics Department, U. Michigan, Ann Arbor MI 48109 (United States)

    2016-06-01

    TwinSol, a pair of coupled, superconducting solenoids, was one of the first devices capable of producing beams of radioactive nuclei at energies near the Coulomb barrier. A primary beam from University of Notre Dame (UND) tandem accelerator is used to bombard a primary target producing a secondary beam in flight. TwinSol is used to gather, separate, and focus the recoils. Since it was commissioned at the UND in 1997, at least 58 publications have reported data from its use and there have been hundreds of collaborators from many different countries that use this device. Currently, plans are in place at the UND to provide several upgrades to TwinSol, including a multi-cell gas production target and the possible addition of a third solenoid. Upgrades currently in progress will be discussed along with future plans.

  10. Early prenatal diagnosis of ischiopagus conjoined twins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Mete Ergenoğlu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Conjoined twins are very rare and the incidence of them vary about 1/50,000 and 1/100,000. They are named according to the joint parts. Embryos are conjoined at the level of ischium in ischiopagus. A case of ischiopagus will be presented in this article. Case: A twenty-seven year old women who is 9-10 weeks pregnant with a history of 1 abortus applied to the Ege University Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology for routine follow-up. Ultrasonography revealed a twin pregnancy but the embryos were attached at the pelvic region. 3D Doppler sonography confirmed the diagnosis of ischiopagus tetrapus. The patient's decision of termination of pregnancy is concluded at Perinatology Council of the clinic. Conclusion: Ischiopagus conjoined twins are very rare. Early prenatal diagnosis will prevent the maternal complications during the termination of the pregnancy.

  11. The severity of dental caries in adults aged 35 to 44 years residing in the metropolitan area of a large city in Brazil: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Simone M; Vasconcelos, Mara; Haddad, João Paulo A; Abreu, Mauro Henrique N G

    2012-07-31

    In recent decades, studies in the field of public health have increasingly focused on social determinants that affect the health-illness process. The epidemiological perspective considers oral health to be a reflection of socioeconomic and environmental aspects, and it is particularly influenced by the social context. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between the severity of dental caries among adults aged 35 to 44 years and characteristics on the different levels at which the determinants of caries operate (individual, social structure and social context). A home-based, cross-sectional field study was carried out involving a sample of 1,150 adults (35 to 44 years of age) residing in metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The DMFT (decayed, missing, filled tooth) index (≥14) was used to determine the severity of dental caries. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were carried out using the Poisson regression model with the level of significance set at 5% (p caries severity. The rate of high-severity caries in the group between 40 and 44 years of age was 1.15-fold (CI: 1.04-1.26) greater than that among those aged 35 to 39 years. A greater prevalence of high caries severity was found among those who frequently visited the dentist (PR = 1.18; CI: 1.07-1.30), those with a lower income (PR = 1.11; CI: 1.01-1.23), those who reported that their neighborhood did not come together in the previous year to petition political leaders for benefits (PR = 1.16; CI: 1.05-1.28) and those who are unable to make decisions (without empowerment) (PR = 1.12; CI: 1.01-1.24). The present study revealed high dental caries severity in adults, which was associated with individual characteristics, health-related behavior and social structure and contextual variables. These findings underscore the importance of considering social determinants involved in the health-illness process when carrying out epidemiological studies on dental caries.

  12. Association between social capital and quality of life among urban residents in less developed cities of western China: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Bo; Yang, Shujuan; Liu, Xiang; Ren, Xiaohui; Liu, Danping; Li, Ningxiu

    2018-01-01

    China has experienced rapid urbanization over the past several decades. Social capital is considered a vital human resource, and quality of life (QoL) is an important measure of human health embedded in a physical, mental, and social context. No studies have reported on the association between social capital and QoL in Chinese urban residents. We performed a cross-sectional study to investigate social capital in urban community residents of West China, and its relationship with QoL.Our study was carried out between June and July of 2015. A total of 1136 households were surveyed. The Chinese-translated version of the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12) and social capital questionnaire were used to evaluate people's QoL and social capital. Associations between QoL and social capital were evaluated by 3 logistic regression analyses.A total of 1136 adult participants aged 18 years and older completed the questionnaire. Young residents were more likely to have lower second (SC2), third (SC3), and fourth (SC4) dimensions of social capital. Migrants and residents with higher education levels and high incomes showed lower SC1 and SC2 relative to other participants, and employed residents had relatively low SC1. Unmarried residents had lower SC2 and SC3. Without adjustment for potential confounding factors, participants with higher SC2 had higher average scores for mental components (MCS) of QoL [odds ratio (OR) = 1.48, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.09-2.02], and the same was seen for SC3 (OR = 1.70, 95% CI: 1.24-2.34). After adjusting for socioeconomic status (SES) and risk factors, SC2 and SC3 were still significantly associated with MCS. Social capital was not significantly associated with physical components of QoL in any of the 3 logistic regression models.In conclusion, social capital is related to MCS of QoL, and increasing it may be an effective way to promote health.

  13. Conjoined twins detected in the first trimester: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Conjoined twinning occurs in 1 in 100 sets of monozygotic twins, 1 in 50,000 gestations or 1 in 250,000 live births. With the advent of ultrasound technology, prenatal diagnosis of conjoined twins is possible. This article provides a comprehensive review of conjoined twins detected in the first trimester including fetal gender, maternal age, parity, types of fusion, related ultrasound abnormalities, perinatal outcome and association with assisted reproduction.

  14. Dichorionic Diamniotic Twin Pregnancy Discordant for Bladder Exstrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Tu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A 38 year-old woman presented with a dichorionic diamniotic twin pregnancy at gestational age of 32 weeks concerning for an abdominal wall mass in one of the twins. Initial ultrasound evaluation was suspicious for an omphalocele, but the affected twin was found to have bladder exstrophy at birth. This illustrates the difficulties of accurate prenatal diagnosis of bladder exstrophy in a twin pregnancy at a late gestation.

  15. A note on twin-singleton differences in asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Simon Francis; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Backer, Vibeke

    2008-01-01

    Twins constitute a valuable resource for genetic studies of asthma. However, critics argue that twins are 'special' in terms of prenatal environment and upbringing and therefore nonrepresentative. In respect to asthma a small range of studies report differential morbidity in twins compared...... with singletons. We review some of the possible explanations for these findings and conclude that results from twin studies of asthma can be extrapolated to the general population....

  16. Testicular cancer in twins: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, R E; Carrière, P; Murphy, M F G; Baade, P D

    2008-01-15

    In a meta-analysis of testicular cancer in twins, twins had a 30% increased risk (estimate 1.31, 95% CI 1.1-1.6), providing indirect support for the hypothesis that in utero hormone variations influence risk of testicular cancer. The summary-estimate for dizygotic twins was 1.3 (1.0-1.7) and for monozygotic or same sex twins 1.4 (1.2-1.8).

  17. Needle twins and right-angled twins in minerals: comparison between experiment and theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salje, E.K.H.; Buckley, A.; Van Tendeloo, G.; Ishibashi, Y.; Nord, G.L.

    1998-01-01

    Transformation twinning in minerals forms isolated twin walls, intesecting walls with corner junctions, and wedge-shaped twins as elements of hierarchical patterns. When cut perpendicular to the twin walls, the twins have characteristic shapes, right-angled and needle-shaped wall traces, which can be observed by transmission electron microscopy or by optical microscopy. Theoretical geometries of wall shapes recently derived for strain-related systems should hold for most displacive and order-disorder type phase transitions: 1) right-angled twins show curved junctions; 2) needle-shaped twins contain flat wall segments near the needle tip if the elastic behaviour of the mineral is dominated by its anisotroyp; 3) additional bending forces and pinning effects lead to curved walls near the junction that make the needle tip appear more blunt. Bent right-angled twins were analyzed in Gd2(MoO4)3. Linear needle tips were found in WO3, [N(CH3)4]2.ZnBr4 CrAl, BiVO4, GdBa2Cu3O7, and PbZrO. Parabolic tips occur in K2Ba(NO2)4, and GeTe whereas exponential curvatures appear in BaTiO3, KSCN, Pb3(PO4)2, CaTiO3, alkali feldspars, YBa2Cu3O7, and MnAl. The size and shape of the twin microstructure relates to its formation during the phase transition and the subsequent annealing history. The mobility of the twin walls after formation depends not only on the thermal activation but also on the structure of the wall, which may be pinned to impurities on a favorable structural site. Depinnign energies are often large compared with thermal energies for diffusion. This leads to kinetic time scales for twin coarsening that are comparable to geological time scales. Therefore, transformation twins that exhibit needle domains not only indicate that the mineral underwent a structural phase transition but also contain information about its subsequent geological history.

  18. Conjoined twins: scientific cinema and Pavlovian physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krementsov, Nikolai

    2015-01-01

    Through the lens of a 1957 documentary film, "Neural and humoral factors in the regulation of bodily functions (research on conjoined twins)," produced by the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, this essay traces the entwined histories of Soviet physiology, studies of conjoined twins and scientific cinema. It examines the role of Ivan Pavlov and his students, including Leonid Voskresenkii, Dmitrii Fursikov and Petr Anokhin, in the development of "scientific film" as a particular cinematographic genre in Soviet Russia and explores numerous puzzles hidden behind the film's striking visuals. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Drone City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2016-01-01

    for a new urban condition where cities are networked and connected (as well as disconnected) from the local block to global digital spheres. In the midst of many of the well-known data-creating devices (e.g. Bluetooth, radio-frequency identification (RFID), GPS, smartphone applications) there is a “new kid......This paper address the phenomenon of drones and their potential relationship with the city from the point of view of the so-called “mobilities turn”. This is done in such a way that turns attention to a recent redevelopment of the “turn” towards design; so the emerging perspective of “mobilities...... design” will be used as a background perspective to reflect upon the future of drones in cities. The other perspective used to frame the phenomenon is the emerging discourse of the “smart city”. A city of proliferating digital information and data communication may be termed a smart city as shorthand...

  20. Conjoined twins: implications for blastogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machin, G A

    1993-01-01

    fail to develop (interaction aplasia) because of conflicting migrational pathways or abnormal concentrations of morphogens in and around the neoaxes. 8. Where the cardiovascular system is discordantly expressed in dicephalus and thoracopagus twins, the right heart is more severely malformed, depending on the degree of interaction of the two embryonic septa transversa. 9. The septum transversum provides mesenchymal components to the heawrt and liver; the epithelial components (derived fro the foregut[s]) may vary in number from the number of mesenchymal septa transversa contributing to the liver of the CT embryo.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  1. Neonatal and maternal outcomes comparing women undergoing two in vitro fertilization (IVF) singleton pregnancies and women undergoing one IVF twin pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazonova, Antonina; Källen, Karin; Thurin-Kjellberg, Ann; Wennerholm, Ulla-Britt; Bergh, Christina

    2013-03-01

    To compare outcomes for women undergoing two in vitro fertilization (IVF) pregnancies with singletons and women undergoing one IVF twin pregnancy. The concept of single-embryo transfer in IVF has reduced the risks of both maternal and neonatal complications, but there is still a discussion of whether or not twins are a desired outcome of IVF. Registry study. Not applicable. All reported twins after IVF with double-embryo transfer (n = 1,982) and their mothers (n = 991) and all mothers (n = 921) who gave birth to two IVF singletons (n = 1,842). None. Maternal and neonatal outcomes including severe neonatal morbidity. Preterm birth, very preterm birth, low birth weight, very low birth weight, and small for gestational age were dramatically increased for IVF twins compared with two IVF singletons with the same mother, with adjusted odds ratios from 4 to 16. Significantly higher rates of respiratory complications, sepsis, and jaundice were detected among the IVF twins. Significantly higher rates of preeclampsia, preterm premature rupture of the membranes, and cesarean section were observed for IVF twin pregnancies. The neonatal and maternal outcomes were dramatically better for women undergoing two IVF singleton pregnancies compared with one IVF twin pregnancy after double-embryo transfer. These results support single-embryo transfer to minimize the risks associated with twin pregnancies. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Birth order of twins and risk of perinatal death related to delivery in England, Northern Ireland, and Wales, 1994-2003: retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gordon C S; Fleming, Kate M; White, Ian R

    2007-03-17

    To determine the effect of birth order on the risk of perinatal death in twin pregnancies. Retrospective cohort study. England, Northern Ireland, and Wales, 1994-2003. 1377 twin pregnancies with one intrapartum stillbirth or neonatal death from causes other than congenital abnormality and one surviving infant. The risk of perinatal death in the first and second twin estimated with conditional logistic regression. There was no association between birth order and the risk of death overall (odds ratio 1.0, 95% confidence interval 0.9 to 1.1). However, there was a highly significant interaction with gestational age (Pbirth order and the risk of death among infants born before 36 weeks' gestation but there was an increased risk of death among second twins born at term (2.3, 1.7 to 3.2, Pbirths, there was a trend (P=0.1) towards a greater risk of the second twin dying from anoxia among those delivered vaginally (4.1, 1.8 to 9.5) compared with those delivered by caesarean section (1.8, 0.9 to 3.6). In this cohort, compared with first twins, second twins born at term were at increased risk of perinatal death related to delivery. Vaginally delivered second twins had a fourfold risk of death caused by intrapartum anoxia.

  3. Deformation twinning in zinc-aluminium single crystals after slip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukac, P.; Kral, F.; Trojanova, Z.; Kral, R.

    1993-01-01

    Deformation twinning in Zn-Al single crystals deformed by slip in the basal system is examined. The influence of temperature and the content of aluminium in zinc on the twinning stress is investigated in the temperature range from 198 to 373 K. It is shown that the twinning stress rises with increasing temperature and increases with the concentration of Al atoms. (orig.)

  4. Heritability of psoriasis in a large twin sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønnberg, Ann Sophie; Skov, Liselotte; Skytthe, A

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To study the concordance of psoriasis in a population-based twin sample. METHODS: Data on psoriasis in 10,725 twin pairs, 20-71 years of age, from the Danish Twin Registry was collected via a questionnaire survey. The concordance and heritability of psoriasis were estimated. RESULTS: In total...

  5. Perinatal Mortality Among Twins In Lagos University Teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Perinatal mortality rate is reported to be higher in twins than in singletons. More than two decades ago, Abudu and Agarin reported a twinning rate of 21.1/1000 maternities and perinatal mortality rate of 142.6/1000 among twins in Lagos. Objective: To determine the current perinatal mortality rate and risk factors ...

  6. New theory for crack-tip twinning in fcc metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andric, Predrag; Curtin, W. A.

    2018-04-01

    Dislocation emission from a crack tip is a necessary mechanism for crack tip blunting and toughening. In fcc metals under Mode I loading, a first partial dislocation is emitted, followed either by a trailing partial dislocation ("ductile" behaviour) or a twinning partial dislocation ("quasi-brittle"). The twinning tendency is usually estimated using the Tadmor and Hai extension of the Rice theory. Extensive molecular statics simulations reveal that the predictions of the critical stress intensity factor for crack tip twinning are always systematically lower (20-35%) than observed. Analyses of the energy change during nucleation reveal that twin partial emission is not accompanied by creation of a surface step while emission of the trailing partial creates a step. The absence of the step during twinning motivates a modified model for twinning nucleation that accounts for the fact that nucleation does not occur directly at the crack tip. Predictions of the modified theory are in excellent agreement with all simulations that show twinning. Emission of the trailing partial dislocation, including the step creation, is predicted using a model recently introduced to accurately predict the first partial emission and shows why twinning is preferred. A second mode of twinning is found wherein the crack first advances by cleavage and then emits the twinning partial at the new crack tip; this mode dominates for emission beyond the first twinning partial. These new theories resolve all the discrepancies between the Tadmor twinning analysis and simulations, and have various implications for fracture behaviour and transitions.

  7. Obstetric outcome of twin pregnancies in Jos, Nigeria | Mutihir ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Obstetric outcome of twin pregnancies in Jos, Nigeria. JT Mutihir, VC Pam. Abstract. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to determine the incidence, maternal and foetal outcome of twin delivery in Jos, Nigeria. Methodology: All consecutive twin deliveries between August 2003 and November 2004 were studied.

  8. Pelvic ventral hernia repair in a pygopagus conjoint twin | Bhullar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pelvic ventral hernia repair in a surviving conjoint twin with multiple congenital anomalies that make surgery a challenge. Conjoint twins are a rare. The incidence is reported to be in the range of 1/50 000 to 1/100 000 live births. Of the conjoint twins, 40% are stillborn and an additional one-third die within 24 h of birth.

  9. Influences on achieving motor milestones: A twin-singleton study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, S.I.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; Bartels, M.; Hudziak, J.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2006-01-01

    In order to determine if twinning impacted achievement of motor milestones the attainment of early motor milestones in twins was examined and compared to published data from singletons of the same age from the same culture and birth years. We examined the influence of twinning, sex, zygosity and

  10. Twin Specific Risk Factors in Primary School Achievements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Zeeuw, L.E.J.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to examine twin specific risk factors that influence educational achievement in primary school. We included prenatal factors that are not unique to twins, except for zygosity, but show a higher prevalence in twins than in singletons. In addition, educational

  11. Expanding cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Jensen, Lasse

    A number of cities in Africa experience very rapid spatial growth without the benefit of a systematic process of planning and implementation of planning decisions. This process has challenged the road and transport system, created high levels of congestion, and hampered mobility and accessibility...... to both central and new peripheral areas. This paper reports on studies carried out in Accra and Dar es Salaam to address and link 1) mobility practices of residents, 2) local strategies for ‘post-settlement’ network extension, and 3) the city-wide performance of the transport system. The studies draw...... in advance. However, such solutions are often impeded by costly and cumbersome land-acquisition processes, and because of the reactive and often piecemeal approach to infrastructure extensions, the development will often be more costly. Moreover, the lack of compliance to a city-wide development plan...

  12. Vatican City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-11-01

    Vatican City, the administrative and spiritual capital of the Roman catholic Church, has a population of 1000. Citizenship is generally accorded only to those who reside in Vatican City for reasons of office of employment. Supreme legislative, executive, and judicial power is currentily exercised by Pope John Paul II, the 1st non-italian pope in 5 centuries. The State of Vatican City is recognized by many nations as an independent sovereign state under the temporal jurisdiction of the Pope. By 1984, 108 countries had established diplomatic relations with the Holy See, most of which are not Roman Catholic. Third World countries comprise a large proportion of countries that have recently established relations with the Holy See. The US re-established relations with the Vatican in 1984 and there is frequent contact and consultation between the 2 states on key international issues.

  13. Sustainable Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georg, Susse; Garza de Linde, Gabriela Lucía

    Judging from the number of communities and cities striving or claiming to be sustainable and how often eco-development is invoked as the means for urban regeneration, it appears that sustainable and eco-development have become “the leading paradigm within urban development” (Whitehead 2003....../assessment tool. The context for our study is urban regeneration in one Danish city, which had been suffering from industrial decline and which is currently investing in establishing a “sustainable city”. Based on this case study we explore how the insights and inspiration evoked in working with the tool...

  14. Long-term leisure time physical activity and properties of bone: a twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongqiang; Leskinen, Tuija; Alen, Markku; Cheng, Sulin; Sipilä, Sarianna; Heinonen, Ari; Kaprio, Jaakko; Suominen, Harri; Kujala, Urho M

    2009-08-01

    Effects of physical activity on bone properties, when controlled for genetic effects, are not fully understood. We aimed to study the association between long-term leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and bone properties using twin pairs known to be discordant for leisure time physical activity for at least 30 yr. Volumetric BMD and geometric properties were measured at the tibia shaft and distal end using pQCT in 16 middle-aged (50-74 yr) same-sex twin pairs (seven monozygotic [MZ] and nine dizygotic [DZ] pairs) selected from a population-based cohort. Paired differences between active and inactive co-twins were studied. Active members of MZ twin pairs had larger cortical bone cross-sectional area (intrapair difference: 8%, p = 0.006), thicker cortex (12%, p = 0.003), and greater moment of inertia (I(max), 20%, p = 0.024) at the tibia shaft than their inactive co-twins. At the distal tibia, trabecular BMD (12%, p = 0.050) and compressive strength index (18%, p = 0.038) were also higher in physically active MZ pair members than their inactive co-twins. The trends were similar, but less consistently so, in DZ pairs as in MZ pairs. Our genetically controlled study design shows that LTPA during adulthood strengthens bones in a site-specific manner, that is, the long bone shaft has a thicker cortex, and thus higher bending strength, whereas the distal bone has higher trabecular density and compressive strength. These results suggest that LTPA has a potential causal role in decreasing the long-term risk of osteoporosis and thus preventing osteoporotic fractures.

  15. City 2020+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, C.; Buttstädt, M.; Merbitz, H.; Sachsen, T.; Ketzler, G.; Michael, S.; Klemme, M.; Dott, W.; Selle, K.; Hofmeister, H.

    2010-09-01

    This research initiative CITY 2020+ assesses the risks and opportunities for residents in urban built environments under projected demographic and climate change for the year 2020 and beyond, using the City of Aachen as a case study. CITY 2020+ develops scenarios, options and tools for planning and developing sustainable future city structures. We investigate how urban environment, political structure and residential behavior can best be adapted, with attention to the interactions among structural, political, and sociological configurations and with their consequences on human health. Demographers project that in the EU-25-States by 2050, approximately 30% of the population will be over age 65. Also by 2050, average tem¬peratures are projected to rise by 1 to 2 K. Combined, Europe can expect enhanced thermal stress and higher levels of particulate matter. CITY 2020+ amongst other sub-projects includes research project dealing with (1) a micro-scale assessment of blockages to low-level cold-air drainage flow into the city centre by vegetation and building structures, (2) a detailed analysis of the change of probability density functions related to the occurrence of heat waves during summer and the spatial and temporal structure of the urban heat island (UHI) (3) a meso-scale analysis of particulate matter (PM) concentrations depending on topography, local meteorological conditions and synoptic-scale weather patterns. First results will be presented specifically from sub-projects related to vegetation barriers within cold air drainage, the assessment of the UHI and the temporal and spatial pattern of PM loadings in the city centre. The analysis of the cold air drainage flow is investigated in two consecutive years with a clearing of vegetation stands in the beginning of the second year early in 2010. The spatial pattern of the UHI and its possible enhancement by climate change is addressed employing a unique setup using GPS devices and temperature probes fixed to

  16. Infant mortality in twin pregnancies following in-utero demise of the co-twin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boubakari Ibrahimou

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: Risks for all mortality types were lower among converted co-twins than their unconverted or same-quantile counterparts. The lower neonatal and higher post-neonatal mortality among black require future research.

  17. Nature versus nurture: identical twins and bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedorn, Judith C; Morton, John M

    2007-06-01

    Genetics and environment both play a role in weight maintenance. Twin studies may help clarify the influence of nature vs nurture in weight loss. We present the largest U.S. experience with monozygotic (MZ) twins undergoing bariatric surgery. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of four sets of MZ twins who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP) surgery and laparoscopic adjustable gastric band (LAGB) placement at three different institutions. BMI and co-morbidities were examined pre- and postoperatively, and laboratory values were recorded. All four sets of twins are female, live together, and have similar professions. Twin cohort 1 had near identical weight loss patterns after open RYGBP surgery in 1996 (preop 146/142 kg; 2 years 82/82; and 10 years 108/107). Twin cohort 1 also both underwent cholecystectomies within the first year postoperatively. Twin cohort 2 underwent laparoscopic RYGBP surgery and also required cholecystectomies in the first postoperative year. Cohort 2 also experienced nearly identical weight loss at 1 year (36.7% vs 37.0% BMI loss). Twin cohort 3 underwent LAGB placement with two different surgeons with differing amounts of weight loss at 6 months (6.5% vs 15.7% BMI loss). Finally, twin cohort 4 underwent laparoscopic RYGBP with 2-year BMI loss of 39% vs 34%. In twin cohort 4, the twin who lost less weight lived apart from her twin and extended family, and her weight loss was less than the twin living with her family. Two sets of MZ twins had identical responses to bariatric surgery. The other two sets of identical twins had differential weight loss results, possibly due to differences in surgical approach and social support. While genetics do exert a strong influence on weight loss and maintenance, this case series demonstrates the potential effect of social support and postoperative management upon postoperative weight loss in the presence of identical genetics.

  18. Characterization of the matrix-twin interface of a (1 0 -1 2) twin during growth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ostapovets, Andriy; Serra, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 25 (2014), s. 2827-2839 ISSN 1478-6443 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0063 Grant - others:Catalan Government(ES) AGAUR2014SGR 1644; Spanish Secretariat of Research, Development and Innovation(ES) FIS2012-39433-C02-02 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : twinning * twin boundaries * disconnections Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism; BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism (FZU-D)

  19. A phenomenological study on twin screw extruders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, L.P.B.M.

    1976-01-01

    Although more and more twin screw extruders are being used in the polymer industry, the theoretical background is relatively undeveloped. The literature abounds in contradictions and often informs the reader that all extrusion problems can be solved if a certain new design is considered. The

  20. Craniofacial duplication (diprosopus) in a twin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changaris, D G; McGavran, M H

    1976-07-01

    A fused, double-faced (diprosopus), anencephalic monster was born prematurely as one of twins after 30 weeks of gestation. We will describe the autopsy findings and summarize the literature concerning the diprosopus defect. Factors other than fetal environment may contribute to its pathogenesis.

  1. Determinants of monozygotic twinning in ART

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Kathrine Vauvert R; Malchau, Sara Sofia; Pinborg, Anja

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The incidence of monozygotic twins (MZT) after ART appears to be higher than the incidence after spontaneous conceptions contradicting the aim of ART to avoid multiple pregnancies because of the associated risks. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: The aim was to study the frequency of MZT after...

  2. Prenatal Sonographic Diagnosis of Acardiac Twins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Ah; Song, Mi Jin [Cheil General Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-09-15

    This study was performed to present the prenatal sonographic findings and the associated abnormalities of acardiac twins. Seven cases of acardiac twins were reviewed retrospectively. Prenatal ultrasonography was performed in all patients at a gestational age between 12 and 27 weeks (mean 17.6 weeks). Autopsy was performed in four cases. The sonographic and autopsy findings were reviewed to report the associated abnormalities of the acardiac and donor fetuses. The diagnosis of acardiac twins was made on the basis of ultrasonography (n=6) or autopsy (n=1). The associated abnormalities of the acardiac fetuses were single umbilical artery (SUA) (n=5), abdominal wall defect (n=4), club feet (n=4), scoliosis (n=1), cleft lip and palate (n=1), digital anomaly (n=1), and umbilical cord cyst (n=1). In four of the donor fetuses, sonographic abnormalities were found. Autopsy was performed in three of the four cases to reveal hydropic change (n=2), diaphragmatic hernia (n=1) and multiple structural abnormalities of interventricular septal defect, polydactyly, club feet and SUA (n=1). Intrauterine fetal death occurred in five donors and follow-up was lost in the remaining two. Meticulous sonography enables the diagnosis of acardiac twins at an early gestational age and can reveal the associated abnormalities of the donor fetus as well as the acardiac fetus

  3. INTEGRATED TWIN TOWERS DAN ISLAMISASI ILMU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syaifuddin Syaifuddin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows some idea as follows: First, integrated design of the Twin Towers as the changing action from IAIN to UIN Sunan Ampel. The religion and general knowledge’s position of Twin Towers’ integrated design is not mixed into one, but it works individually, and at the certain time are united in mutual dialogue. Second, Islamize design is done in order to criticize the general knowledge which has western sources and are secular, materialistic, and individualistic. In the process to Islamize the knowledge, Islamic knowledge tries to intervene the general knowledge in order to filter it so the knowledge will be Islamized. Consequently, to Islamize knowledge is to give an Islamic concept into general knowledge. Third, there are the similarities and differences between integrated design knowledge based on Islamic knowledge and integrated Twin Towers. The difference is in its epistemology process. The similarity is in the curriculum (ontology and objective (axiology. In the curriculum, the examined knowledge is religion and general knowledge. While the objective, Islamize knowledge and integrated Twin Towers aims to integrate religion and general knowledge, to dialogue, to communicate, and to synergy, so it can be a knowledge which is intact-integral-integrative.

  4. Prenatal Sonographic Diagnosis of Acardiac Twins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Ah; Song, Mi Jin

    2006-01-01

    This study was performed to present the prenatal sonographic findings and the associated abnormalities of acardiac twins. Seven cases of acardiac twins were reviewed retrospectively. Prenatal ultrasonography was performed in all patients at a gestational age between 12 and 27 weeks (mean 17.6 weeks). Autopsy was performed in four cases. The sonographic and autopsy findings were reviewed to report the associated abnormalities of the acardiac and donor fetuses. The diagnosis of acardiac twins was made on the basis of ultrasonography (n=6) or autopsy (n=1). The associated abnormalities of the acardiac fetuses were single umbilical artery (SUA) (n=5), abdominal wall defect (n=4), club feet (n=4), scoliosis (n=1), cleft lip and palate (n=1), digital anomaly (n=1), and umbilical cord cyst (n=1). In four of the donor fetuses, sonographic abnormalities were found. Autopsy was performed in three of the four cases to reveal hydropic change (n=2), diaphragmatic hernia (n=1) and multiple structural abnormalities of interventricular septal defect, polydactyly, club feet and SUA (n=1). Intrauterine fetal death occurred in five donors and follow-up was lost in the remaining two. Meticulous sonography enables the diagnosis of acardiac twins at an early gestational age and can reveal the associated abnormalities of the donor fetus as well as the acardiac fetus

  5. Gene-Environment Interplay in Twin Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatemi, Peter K.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we respond to Shultziner’s critique that argues that identical twins are more alike not because of genetic similarity, but because they select into more similar environments and respond to stimuli in comparable ways, and that these effects bias twin model estimates to such an extent that they are invalid. The essay further argues that the theory and methods that undergird twin models, as well as the empirical studies which rely upon them, are unaware of these potential biases. We correct this and other misunderstandings in the essay and find that gene-environment (GE) interplay is a well-articulated concept in behavior genetics and political science, operationalized as gene-environment correlation and gene-environment interaction. Both are incorporated into interpretations of the classical twin design (CTD) and estimated in numerous empirical studies through extensions of the CTD. We then conduct simulations to quantify the influence of GE interplay on estimates from the CTD. Due to the criticism’s mischaracterization of the CTD and GE interplay, combined with the absence of any empirical evidence to counter what is presented in the extant literature and this article, we conclude that the critique does not enhance our understanding of the processes that drive political traits, genetic or otherwise. PMID:24808718

  6. Monozygotic twins of different apparent sex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokota, Yukifumi; Fujino, Nobuyuki; Sato, Yoshiaki; Matsunobu, Akira; Tadokoro, Mamoru [Sagamihara Kyodo Hospital (Japan); Akane, Atsushi [Kansai Medical College, Osaka (Japan); Matsuura, Nobuo; Maeda, Tohru [Kitasato Univ. (Japan); Nakahori, Yutaka; Nakagome, Yasuo [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-10-15

    We report on twins of unlike sex who shared a 45,X/46,X, +mar karyotype. The mar chromosome was found to be Yq- by DNA analysis. Marker studies, including 8 VNTR loci, yielded a probability of monozygosity of 0.99999996. 16 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  7. Management of Conjoined Twins During Neonatal Period

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HussamHassan

    Background/Purpose: Conjoined twins are rare and complex anomalies of the newborn. ... The short term postoperative follow up revealed uneventful course of 6 children resulting from ... sex and karyotype 3. ... revealed vertebral bodies, brain tissue occupying the ... continued for 8 hours during which the right and left.

  8. A Proper Perspective on the Twin Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    deficit twins, the relation between them, and their consanguine parentage. The trade deficit or, to be more accurate, the current account deficit, is...In general, there is a small negative, but statistically significant, relationship between the size of the federal deficit in one year and the

  9. Twinning anisotropy of tantalum during nanoindentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goel, Saurav, E-mail: S.GOEL@qub.ac.uk [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Queen' s University, Belfast, BT9 5AH (United Kingdom); Beake, Ben [Micro Materials Limited, Willow House, Yale Business Village, Ellice Way, Wrexham LL13 7YL (United Kingdom); Dalton Research Institute, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, M15GD (United Kingdom); Chan, Chi-Wai [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Queen' s University, Belfast, BT9 5AH (United Kingdom); Haque Faisal, Nadimul [School of Engineering, Robert Gordon University, Garthdee Road, Aberdeen AB10 7GJ (United Kingdom); Dunne, Nicholas [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Queen' s University, Belfast, BT9 5AH (United Kingdom)

    2015-03-11

    Unlike other BCC metals, the plastic deformation of nanocrystalline Tantalum (Ta) during compression is regulated by deformation twinning. Whether or not this twinning exhibits anisotropy was investigated through simulation of displacement-controlled nanoindentation test using molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. MD data was found to correlate well with the experimental data in terms of surface topography and hardness measurements. The mechanism of the transport of material was identified due to the formation and motion of prismatic dislocations loops (edge dislocations) belonging to the 1/2〈111〉 type and 〈100〉 type Burgers vector family. Further analysis of crystal defects using a fully automated dislocation extraction algorithm (DXA) illuminated formation and migration of twin boundaries on the (110) and (111) orientation but not on the (010) orientation and most importantly after retraction all the dislocations disappeared on the (110) orientation suggesting twinning to dominate dislocation nucleation in driving plasticity in tantalum. A significant finding was that the maximum shear stress (critical Tresca stress) in the deformation zone exceeded the theoretical shear strength of Ta (Shear modulus/2π~10.03 GPa) on the (010) orientation but was lower than it on the (110) and the (111) orientations. In light of this, the conventional lore of assuming the maximum shear stress being 0.465 times the mean contact pressure was found to break down at atomic scale.

  10. Uses of the Twins UK genetic database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, Tim D

    2007-11-01

    Tim Spector is a Professor of Genetic Epidemiology at King's College London and Director of the Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology Unit at St Thomas' Hospital, London. Professor Spector graduated from St Bartholomew's Hospital Medical School, London, in 1982. After working in General Medicine, he completed a MSc in Epidemiology, and his MD degree at the University of London in 1989. He founded the UK Twins Registry of 10,000 twins in 1993, which is one of the largest collections of genotype and phenotype information on twins worldwide, whose breadth of research has expanded to cover a wide range of common complex traits many of which were previously thought to be mainly due to aging and the environment. He has published over 350 research articles on common diseases. He has written several original articles on the genetics of a wide range of diseases and traits including back pain, acne, inflammation, obesity, memory, musical ability and sexuality. He is the principal investigator of the EU Euroclot and Treat OA study, and a partner in five others. He has written several books, focusing on osteoporosis and genetics and, in 2003, he published a popular book on genetics: Your Genes Unzipped.

  11. Analysis of metabolomics data from twin families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draisma, Hermanus Henricus Maria

    2011-01-01

    Metabolomics is the comprehensive analysis of small molecules involved in metabolism, on the basis of samples that have been obtained from organisms in a given physiological state. Data obtained from measurements of trait levels in twin families can be used to elucidate the importance of genetic and

  12. Prenatal diagnosis of chorionicity in twins.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hassan, T

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this audit was to assess the accuracy of transabdominal ultrasound scan in predicting chorionicity in twin pregnancies in our unit. The presence or absence of lambda sign, T-sign, dividing membrane thickness and number of placentae were used to determine chorionicity. We retrospectively analysed these antenatal markers in 268 sets of twins delivered over a 5 year period and compared it with the postpartum placental histology and neonatal gender. Of 268 twin deliveries, 204 (76%) had both chorionicity and placental histology to compare. 67 of 84 (80%) were correctly diagnosed antenatally as monochorionic and 137 of 151 (91%) as dichorionic. In 31 cases (15%) the ultrasound diagnosis of chorionicity didn\\'t match placental histology. Seventeen were thought to be monochorionic antenatally but were confirmed dichorionic on placental histology. Overall chorionicity was correctly diagnosed in 171\\/204 (84%) using transabdominal ultrasound scan (USS) in all trimesters. However the sensitivity and specificity of USS was much higher for dichorionic twins when carried out before 14 weeks of gestation.

  13. Digital Twin concept for smart injection molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liau, Y.; Lee, H.; Ryu, K.

    2018-03-01

    Injection molding industry has evolved over decades and became the most common method to manufacture plastic parts. Monitoring and improvement in the injection molding industry are usually performed separately in each stage, i.e. mold design, mold making and injection molding process. However, in order to make a breakthrough and survive in the industrial revolution, all the stages in injection molding need to be linked and communicated with each other. Any changes in one stage will cause a certain effect in other stage because there is a correlation between each other. Hence, the simulation should not only based on the input of historical data, but it also needs to include the current condition of equipment and prediction of future events in other stages to make the responsive decision. This can be achieved by implementing the concept of Digital Twin that models the entire process as a virtual model and enables bidirectional control with the physical process. This paper presented types of data and technology required to build the Digital Twin for the injection molding industry. The concept includes Digital Twin of each stage and integration of these Digital Twin model as a thoroughgoing model of the injection molding industry.

  14. Excite City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Kiib, Hans; Jensen, Ole B.

    This paper takes its point of departure in the pressure of the experience economy on European cities - a pressure which in recent years has found its expression in a number of comprehensive transformations of the physical and architectural environments, and new eventscapes related to fun and cult...

  15. City Branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimann, Søren; Stigel, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    Succesful corporate branding requires that questions related to communication, publicity, and organizational structures are adressed. An uncritical adoption of approaches known from tradition product branding will inevitable give problems as the properties of tangible commodities and services...... to face - these differences will inevitably hamper such branding efforts because of the consequential inconsistencies. Finally, paths to more effective city branding are indicated...

  16. Fun City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Once the blues guitarist B.B. King sang that when he "didn't wanna live no more", he would go shopping instead. Now, however, shopping has become a lifestyle... The city of today has become "Disneyfied" and "Tivolized". It has become a scene for events. The aim of the book is to encircle and pin ...

  17. FUN CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Once the blues guitarist B.B. King sang that when he "didn't wanna live no more", he would go shopping instead. Now, however, shopping has become a lifestyle... The city of today has become "Disneyfied" and "Tivolized". It has become a scene for events. The aim of the book is to encircle and pin ...

  18. Sustainable Cities

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The case study by Ejigu reveals a tension inherent in urban development in the ... In fact, the price of viable land in the Global South cities is sometimes as high as the ... He discusses the 'piecemeal' construction practice typical of the informal ...

  19. Whose city?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Die Stadt als Beute. But where most of these films follow the money and dissect the power relations in today’s urban planning, Whose city? instead moves back in time to the almost forgotten, but defining architectural disputes of the 1990s. With the fall of the Berlin Wall and the rest of the Iron...

  20. Association between the birth of twins and parental divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Anupam B; Goldman, Dana P; Joyce, Geoffrey

    2011-04-01

    Mothers of multiple births face higher rates of postpartum depression, yet evidence on the marital consequences of multiple births is limited. We examined the association between twin births and parental divorce. We used the 1980 U.S. Census to identify a large sample of mothers with and without twin births. The goal was to estimate multivariate logistic models of the association between birth of twins and divorce adjusting for race, age at marriage and first birth, and college education. We examined whether the association was affected by maternal education, age and sex composition of twins, and family size. Twins at first birth were associated with greater parental divorce compared with singletons (odds ratio, 1.08; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.16; absolute risk 13.7% with twins compared with 12.7%; P=.02). The association was statistically greater among mothers not attending college (14.9% with twins compared with 13.3%; P=.01) compared with those with some college (10.4% with twins compared with 10.5%; P=.34); those with children older than 8 years (15.6% with twins compared with 13.5%; P<.01) compared with younger children (10.6% with twins compared with 10.8%; P=.42); and those with at least one twin girl (13.8% with twins compared with 12.6%; P=.03) compared with twin boys (12.1% with twins compared with 12.5%, P=.38). Mothers with four or more children had a larger association between birth of twins and divorce (15.4% for mothers with twins at fourth birth compared with 11.3% for all other mothers with four or more children; P<.01) compared with mothers with twins at first birth (13.7% for twins at first birth compared with 12.7%; P=.02). Health consequences of twin births for children and mothers are well known. Twin births may be associated with longer-term parental divorce. Specific groups, namely mothers not completing college and mothers who already have more children, may be at higher risk. II.

  1. The morphology of the sella turcica in monozygotic twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brock-Jacobsen, Mette T; Pallisgaard, Carsten; Kjaer, Inger

    2009-01-01

    of 42 twin pairs (18 male and 24 female pairs, aged 18-23 years) comprised the material. Sella turcica measurements from non-twins aged 6-21 years were used as normal reference. Length, depth and diameter of the sella turcica were measured and controlled by re-measurements. Pearson's correlation...... showed that the size of the sella turcica may be partly similar and partly dissimilar within the pair of monozygotic twins. Statistical evaluation of the data showed correlations between length, depth and diameter of the sella turcica between the two twin individuals in the same twin pair. Differences...

  2. STUDY OF MATERNAL AND FOETAL OUTCOME IN TWIN PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burri Sandhya Rani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND In comparison to singleton pregnancies, twin pregnancies are considered a high risk pregnancies associated with perinatal mortalities and maternal morbidities due to unnecessary use of ovulation induced drugs. The aim of the study is to evaluate the maternal and foetal outcomes in twin gestations and to find the various factors that contribute to adverse perinatal outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was carried out in Laxmi Narasimha Hospital, Warangal, Hanamkonda, Telangana, an over a period of May 2015 to August 2016. RESULTS Most of the women were in their fertile age i.e. in between 20-30 years of age (86.6%. In both primigravida and multigravidas, the twins were equal. Preterm labour complications were seen in 88.8% of the patients and PIH was seen in 11.2% of the patients. Anaemia was the most common mal-presentation seen in the patients which constituted to 33.3%. Number of patients who underwent mode of delivery through spontaneous vaginal section were 60 which constituted 66.7%, caesarean section were 25 which constituted 27.7%, instrumental vaginal section were 5 which constituted 5.6%. The number of patients who had the foetal birth weight 2000 grams were 55 which constituted 30.6%. The number of male babies were 110 (61.1% and female babies were 70 (38.9%. Number of live births were 170 (94.4%, still births were 10 (5.6%. Number of patients admitted in ICU were 100 (55.6%, Neonatal morbidity was seen in 38 patients (21.1%, neonatal mortality was seen in 10 patients (5.6%. The most common cause of neonatal death was septicaemia followed by respiratory distress, pulmonary distress and DIC. CONCLUSION This study concluded that deaths were majorly due to extremely premature and very low birth weight babies. These babies had septicaemia or respiratory distress. By averting pre-term births, by taking good rest, cervical encerclage, when incompetence is suspected, short term tocolysis, prevention of anaemia and pre

  3. Conjoined twin piglets with duplicated cranial and caudal axes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, C A; Partlow, G D; Fisher, K R

    1994-06-01

    Twins with doubling of the cranial and caudal poles, yet having a single thorax, are rare. One set of diprosopus, dipygus porcine conjoined twins was studied. In addition to the conjoining anomaly, these twins also exhibited ambiguous internal reproductive features. The twins had two snouts, three eyes, a single thorax, and were duplicated from the umbilicus caudally. Radiography indicated a single vertebral column in the cervical region. The vertebral columns were separate caudally from this point. There was a total of six limbs--one pair of forelimbs and two pairs of hindlimbs. Many medial structures failed to develop in these twins. Medial cranial nerves V-XII were absent or displaced although apparently normal laterally. The medial palates were present but shortened, whereas the medial mandibular rami had folded back on themselves rostrally to form a midline mass between the two chins. Each twin had only one lateral kidney and one lateral testis. Medial scrotal sacs were present but devoid of a testis. There was a midline, "uterine"-like structure which crossed between the twins. However, histological analysis of this structure revealed it to be dysplastic testicular tissue. The relationship between the abnormal reproductive features in these twins and the conjoining is unclear. The anatomy of these twins, in addition to the literature reviewed, illustrates the internal anatomical heterogeneity of grossly similar conjoined twins. A review of the literature also suggests that conjoined twinning may be more common in swine than was previously suspected.

  4. Time trends in the natural dizygotic twinning rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derom, Catherine; Gielen, Marij; Peeters, Hilde; Frijns, Jean-Pierre; Zeegers, Maurice P A

    2011-08-01

    The natural dizygotic (DZ) twinning rate has been proposed as a reliable and useful measure of human fecundity, if adjusted for maternal age at twin birth. The aim of this study was to analyze age-adjusted trends in natural DZ twinning rates over the past 40 years using data from the 'East Flanders Prospective Twin Survey (EFPTS)'. This study involved 4835 naturally conceived twin pregnancies between 1969 and 2009 from the population-based Belgian 'EFPTS'. Age-adjusted trends in the incidence of natural DZ twin pregnancies were calculated using a generalized linear model with Poisson distribution. Both the natural DZ twinning rates and maternal age at twin birth increased in a linear fashion from 1969 to 2009. When age-adjusted, we found that the trend in the natural DZ twinning rate was stable during the whole time period. According to our population-based data and after age-adjustment, a stable natural DZ twinning rate could be observed over the last four decades. Under the assumption that the spontaneous DZ twinning rate is a sensor of fecundity, this indicates a stable 'high' fecundity for this population.

  5. Conjoined twins – role of imaging and recent advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishi Philip Mathew

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Conjoined twins are identical twins with fused bodies, joined in utero. They are rare complications of monochorionic twinning. The purpose of this study is to describe the various types of conjoined twins, the role of imaging and recent advances aiding in their management. Material and methods: This was a twin institutional study involving 3 cases of conjoined twins diagnosed over a period of 6 years from 2010 to 2015. All the 3 cases were identified antenatally by ultrasound. Only one case was further evaluated by MRI. Results: Three cases of conjoined twins (cephalopagus, thoracopagus and omphalopagus were accurately diagnosed on antenatal ultrasound. After detailed counseling of the parents and obtaining written consent, all the three cases of pregnancy were terminated. Delivery of the viable conjoined twins was achieved without any complications to the mothers, and all the three conjoined twins died after a few minutes. Conclusion: Ultrasound enables an early and accurate diagnosis of conjoined twins, which is vital for obstetric management. MRI is reserved for better tissue characterization. Termination of pregnancy when opted, should be done at an early stage as later stages are fraught with problems. Recent advances, such as 3D printing, may aid in surgical pre-planning, thereby enabling successful surgical separation of conjoined twins.

  6. Prospective risk of fetal death in uncomplicated monochorionic twins.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Farah, Nadine

    2012-03-01

    A retrospective cohort study was carried out in a university teaching hospital to determine the prospective risk of unexpected fetal death in uncomplicated monochorionic diamniotic (MCDA) twin pregnancies after viability. All MCDA twins delivered at or after 24 weeks\\' gestation from July 1999 to July 2007 were included. Pregnancies with twin-twin transfusion syndrome, growth restriction, structural abnormalities, or twin reversed arterial perfusion sequence were excluded. Of the 144 MCDA twin pregnancies included in our analysis, the risk of intrauterine death was 4.9%. The prospective risk of unexpected intrauterine death was 1 in 43 after 32 weeks\\' gestation and 1 in 37 after 34 weeks\\' gestation. Our results demonstrate that despite close surveillance, the unexpected intrauterine death rate in uncomplicated MCDA twin pregnancies is high. This rate seems to increase after 34 weeks\\' gestation, suggesting that a policy of elective preterm delivery warrants evaluation.

  7. [WHO Healthy City Initiative in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizawa, Kazuko

    2013-01-01

    City environmental conditions are associated with health outcomes in people living there. World Health Organization (WHO) initiated Healthy City in 1986. To promote the networking, Alliance for Healthy Cities (AFHC) was launched in 2003 with local offices including AFHC Japan. As of 2010, 26 cities are members of AFHC Japan. A questionnaire was sent to those member cities. It includes questions on why they became an AFHC member, which section is in charge of the initiatives, what factors are important for promotion, and others. Out of the 26 cities, 13 cities returned the completed questionnaire. As for factors important for promoting the initiatives, 10 (77%) out of the 13 cities answered "consciousness of residents", while five (38%) chose "budget". This result suggests that community participation is a more important factor than budget for promoting and succeeding in the initiatives. Aging is a problem in any of the member cities, and six cities out the 13 falls under the category of superaged society, which is defined as a society with the proportion of aged people cities (85%) agreed that bicycles are an alternative means of transportation to cars; however, infrastructure for ensuring safety needs further improvement. In the promotion of Healthy City, networking among the member cities in Japan and worldwide should be promoted. Community participation with empowerment from the planning stage should lead to sustainable initiatives. The function of AFHC in collaboration among the members should be strengthened to cope with the rapidly changing city environment.

  8. A cross-sectional study assessing the pharyngeal carriage of Neisseria meningitidis in subjects aged 1-24 years in the city of Embu das Artes, São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckx, Lily Yin; Puccini, Rosana Fiorini; Machado, Antónia; Gonçalves, Maria Gisele; Tuboi, Suely; de Barros, Eliana; Devadiga, Raghavendra; Ortega-Barria, Eduardo; Colindres, Romulo

    Meningococcal carriage is a prerequisite for invasive infection. This cross-sectional study assessed the pharyngeal carriage prevalence in healthy subjects aged 1-24 years in Embu das Artes city, São Paulo, Brazil. Pharyngeal swabs were examined for the presence of Neisseria meningitidis. The isolates were tested for different serogroups using agglutination and polymerase chain reaction. A logistic regression model assessed any independent association between Neisseria meningitidis carriage and various risk factors. A total of 87/967 subjects (9%, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 7.3-11.0) tested positive for N. meningitidis: 6.2% (95% CI: 3.8-9.4) in 1-4 years, 8.5% (95% CI: 5.1-13.0) in 5-9 years, 12.5% (95% CI: 7.8-18.6) in 10-14 years, 12.6% (95% CI: 7.4-19.7) in 15-19 years and 9% (95% CI: 4.9-14.9) in 20-24 years age groups. Highest carriage prevalence was observed in adolescents 10-19 years old. Serogroup C was predominant (18.4%) followed by serogroup B (12.6%). The 15-19 years age group showed a significant association between number of household members and carriers of N. meningitidis. This cross-sectional study is the first in Brazil to evaluate meningococcal carriage prevalence and associated factors in a wide age range. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. Structures and growth textures of Japanese twin boundaries in quartz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momma, K.; Nagase, T.; Kudoh, Y.; Kuribayashi, T.

    2008-12-01

    Growth textures and atomic configurations of Japanese twin boundaries in quartz were studied by the observation of natural samples and by computational simulations. Samples used in this study are collected from Narushima, Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan. The samples were first polished, and then etched by hydrofluoric acid for several minutes. The etched figures were observed by phase-contrast reflection microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. From these observations, high concentration of Brazil twin lamellae is found near the composition plane of Japanese twin. Observations of cathode luminescence images reveal that the development of Brazil twin lamellae at {112×2} composition plane of Japanese twin is directly related to the preferential growth of Japanese twin along the composition plane. Atomic configurations at {112×2} composition planes of Japanese twin were simulated by using molecular dynamics simulations and the energy minimization method. The simulated structures proved that {112×2} or {1×1×22} composition planes are the only composition planes that do not introduce unsatisfied bonding between Si and O atoms. When the composition plane is different from these planes, some kind of defect structures, like dislocations, are inevitably introduced. In the case of Brazil twin, screw dislocations are also known to be incorporated where orientation of Brazil twin boundary changes from one orientation to another. On the other hand, in the case where Brazil twin boundaries intersect with {112×2} composition planes of Japanese twin, we found that structures are kept coherently without any unsatisfied bonding. This result means that {112×2} composition planes of Japanese twin are the crystallographic sites having more than one possible stacking structures. Observations in this study indicate that {112×2} composition plane of Japanese twin serves as a source of Brazil twin during the course of crystal growth.

  10. 'Twin2twin' an innovative method of empowering midwives to strengthen their professional midwifery organisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadée, Franka; Perdok, Hilde; Sam, Betty; de Geus, Myrte; Kweekel, Liselotte

    2013-10-01

    midwives need professional support from a national midwifery organisation to be able to provide the services that are by regulatory mechanisms and accreditation expected of them. Not all midwives in the world are united in a professional organisation. The aim of this project was to strengthen the midwifery organisations of Sierra Leone and the Netherlands. During the process of the project it was realised that the development of a platform of exchange at organisational level would be enhanced by introducing personal exchange between individual midwives. In response to this new insight the original project plan was adjusted by incorporating the twin2twin method. twin2twin is a feminist methodology of mutual exchange between twenty pairs of midwives from different organisations (in this case Sierra Leone and the Netherlands). The method can be distinguished by 10 specific steps. It was developed, used and (re)evaluated through focus group discussions, storytelling and written evaluations. twinning of organisations was strengthened by adding a human component to the process. With the use of the 'twin2twin' method, midwives were encouraged to invested in a professional and personal bond with their 'twin sister'. This bond was independent and went beyond the relatively short four year project period. Through personal engagement and mutual exchange of knowledge and skills, midwives empowered each other to build and strengthen their midwifery organisations both in Sierra Leone and the Netherlands. (Empowerment refers to the expansion in people's ability to make strategic life choices in a context where this ability was previously denied to them (Narayan, 2005); organisational empowerment includes processes and structures that enhance members' skills and provides them with the mutual support necessary to effect community level change (Zimmerman, 1995).). despite challenges we are convinced that twin2twin can be of additional benefit for the success of other projects

  11. Personality and birth order in monozygotic twins adopted apart: a test of Sulloway's theory; Research Reviews: twin births and cancer risk in mothers, male sexual dysfunction, twin study of ultimatum game behavior; Human Interest: 'The Land of Twins', twin-like reunion-I, twin-like reunion-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Nancy L

    2008-02-01

    A brief overview of Sulloway's (1996) theory of birth order and personality is presented. A reared apart twin approach for testing his personality findings regarding openness to experience and conscientiousness in first borns and later borns is described. This is followed by summaries of three recent twin studies. The topics include cancer risk in mother of twins, sexual dysfunction in males and responder behavior during ultimatum games. This article concludes with a discussion of twinning rates and rituals among the Yoruba of western Nigeria, and descriptions of two unusual reunions between siblings and twins.

  12. Timing of birth for women with a twin pregnancy at term: a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haslam Ross R

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a well recognized risk of complications for both women and infants of a twin pregnancy, increasing beyond 37 weeks gestation. Preterm birth prior to 37 weeks gestation is a recognized complication of a twin pregnancy, however, up to 50% of twins will be born after this time. The aims of this randomised trial are to assess whether elective birth at 37 weeks gestation compared with standard care in women with a twin pregnancy affects the risk of perinatal death, and serious infant complications. Methods/Design Design: Multicentred randomised trial. Inclusion Criteria: women with a twin pregnancy at 366 weeks or more without contraindication to continuation of pregnancy. Trial Entry & Randomisation: Following written informed consent, eligible women will be randomised from 36+6 weeks gestation. The randomisation schedule uses balanced variable blocks, with stratification for centre of birth and planned mode of birth. Women will be randomised to either elective birth or standard care. Treatment Schedules: Women allocated to the elective birth group will be planned for elective birth from 37 weeks gestation. Where the plan is for vaginal birth, this will involve induction of labour. Where the plan is for caesarean birth, this will involve elective caesarean section. For women allocated to standard care, birth will be planned for 38 weeks gestation or later. Where the plan is for vaginal birth, this will involve either awaiting the spontaneous onset of labour, or induction of labour if required. Where the plan is for caesarean birth, this will involve elective caesarean section (after 38 and as close to 39 weeks as possible. Primary Study Outcome: A composite of perinatal mortality or serious neonatal morbidity. Sample Size: 460 women with a twin pregnancy to show a reduction in the composite outcome from 16.3% to 6.7% with adjustment for the clustering of twin infants within mothers (p = 0.05, 80% power. Discussion This

  13. Concordant posterior urethral valves in male monochorionic twins with secondary prune belly syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouaili, Emira Ben Hamida; Chaouachi, Sihem; Nouira, Faouzi; Benmassoud, Ines; Laabidi, Kamel; Chaouachi, Beji; Marrakchi, Zahra

    2008-12-01

    Posterior urethral valves (PUVs), the most common congenital cause of lower urinary tract obstruction, have been described to occur in identical and nonidentical twins. Until now, reports have been published on 15 cases of PUVs. We report a new case of concordant PUVs in one set of male monochorionic twins with secondary Prune Belly Syndrome. The twins were born by elective cesarean section at 38 weeks of gestation to a 36-year-old mother, gravida 6, para 6. On ultrasound perfomed at 18 weeks's gestation, both fetuses showed signs of PUVs. At birth, physical examination of both revealed a secondary Prune Belly Syndrome (PBS). Postnatal renal ultrasound confirmed the diagnosis of PUV. The two infants underwent transurethral resection of the valves after a cystoscopic evaluation of the urethra. Since this procedure, their voiding has been unremarkable with stable renal function and sterile urine until their discharge. We have documented a rare association between VUP and PBS in two monochiorionic twins. More studies are needed to throw light on the significance of the present associated anomalies.

  14. Do assisted-reproduction twin pregnancies require additional antenatal care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauniaux, E; Ben-Ami, I; Maymon, R

    2013-02-01

    Iatrogenic twinning has become the main side-effect assisted reproduction treatment. We have evaluated the evidence for additional care that assisted-reproduction twins may require compared with spontaneous twins. Misacarriages are increased in women with tubal problems and after specific treatments. Assisted-reproduction twin pregnancies complicated by a vanishing twin after 8 weeks have an increased risk of preterm delivery and of low and very low birthweight compared with singleton assisted-reproduction pregnancies. Monozygotic twin pregnancies occur at a higher rate after assisted reproduction treatment and are associated with a higher risk of perinatal complications. The incidence of placenta praevia and vasa praevia is increased in assisted-reproduction twin pregnancies. Large cohort studies do not indicate a higher rate of fetal congenital malformations in assisted-reproduction twins. Overall, assisted-reproduction twins in healthy women assisted-reproduction twins is only increased in women with a pre-existing medical condition such as hypertensive disorders and diabetes and most of these risks can be avoided with single-embryo transfer. Following the birth of the first IVF baby, rumours started to spread in both the medical literature and the media about the long-term health effects for children born following assisted reproduction treatment. However, after more than 30 years, the most common complications associated with IVF treatment remain indirect and technical such as the failure of treatment and ovarian hyperstimulation. Iatrogenic twinning has become the main side-effect of assisted reproduction treatment and the increasing number of twin pregnancies, in particular in older women, has generated numerous debates on the need for additional healthcare provision. In this review, we have evaluated the evidence for additional care that assisted-conception twin pregnancies may require compared with spontaneous twin pregnancies. Twin pregnancies are

  15. Solar cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roaf, S.; Fuentes, M.; Gupta, R.

    2005-01-01

    Over the last decade, climate change has moved from being the concern of few to a widely recognized threat to humanity itself and the natural environment. The 1990s were the warmest decade on record, and ever-increasing atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/), could, if left unchecked lead to serious consequences globally, including increased risks of droughts, floods and storms, disruption to agriculture, rising sea levels and the spread of disease. The contribution of anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide has been recognized as the principal cause of the atmospheric changes that drive these climate trends. Globally, buildings are the largest source of indirect carbon emissions. In 2000, the UK Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution estimated that in order to stabilise carbon emissions at levels, which avoid catastrophic alterations in the climate, we would have to reduce emissions from the built environment by at least 60% by 2050 and 80% by 2100 relative to 1997 levels. Studies of the Oxford Ecohouse have demonstrated that it is not difficult to reduce carbon emissions from houses by 60% or more through energy efficiency measures, but it is only possible to reach the 90% level of reductions required by using renewable energy technologies. Solar energy technologies have been the most successfully applied of all renewable to date largely because they are the only systems that can be incorporated easily into the urban fabric. In addition, the short fossil fuel horizons that are predicted (c. 40 years left for oil and 65 years for gas) will drive the markets for solar technologies. For these reasons, the cities of the future will be powered by solar energy, to a greater or lesser extent, depending on the city form and location. In recognition of the need to move rapidly towards a renewable energy future, a group of international cities, including Oxford, have started the Solar City Network. In this paper we outline the

  16. City Marketing : Case: Moscow

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzina, Irina

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays cities compete with each other for attracting investments and people, which make them implement new city marketing and city branding strategies. There are many factors that can influence city image and its perception in customers’ minds. The purpose of this thesis is to realize how a well-selected city marketing strategy benefits the city and gain a deeper understanding of city marketing possibilities. The final goal is to offer suggestions for the city of Moscow, which can help to i...

  17. Cervical column morphology and craniofacial profiles in monozygotic twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnesen, Liselotte; Pallisgaard, Carsten; Kjaer, Inger

    2008-02-01

    Previous studies have described the relationships between cervical column morphology and craniofacial morphology. The aims of the present study were to describe cervical column morphology in 38 pairs of adult monozygotic (MZ) twins, and compare craniofacial morphology in twins with fusions with craniofacial morphology in twins without fusion. Visual assessment of cervical column morphology and cephalometric measurements of craniofacial morphology were performed on profile radiographs. In the cervical column, fusion between corpora of the second and third vertebrae was registered as fusion. In the twin group, 8 twin pairs had fusion of the cervical column in both individuals within the pair (sub-group A), 25 pairs had no fusions (subgroup B), and in 5 pairs, cervical column morphology was different within the pair (subgroup C), as one twin had fusion and the other did not. Comparison of craniofacial profiles showed a tendency to increased jaw retrognathia, larger cranial base angle, and larger mandibular inclination in subgroup A than in subgroup B. The same tendency was observed within subgroup C between the individual twins with fusion compared with those without fusion. These results confirm that cervical fusions and craniofacial morphology may be interrelated in twins when analysed on profile radiographs. The study also documents that differences in cervical column morphology can occur in individuals within a pair of MZ twins. It illustrates that differences in craniofacial morphology between individuals within a pair of MZ twins can be associated with cervical fusion.

  18. Twin specific risk factors in primary school achievements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zeeuw, Eveline L; van Beijsterveldt, Catherina E M; de Geus, Eco J C; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2012-02-01

    The main aim of this study was to examine twin specific risk factors that influence educational achievement in primary school. We included prenatal factors that are not unique to twins, except for zygosity, but show a higher prevalence in twins than in singletons. In addition, educational achievement was compared between twins and their nontwin siblings in a within-family design. Data were obtained from parents and teachers of approximately 10,000 twins and their nontwin siblings registered with the Netherlands Twin Register. Teachers rated the proficiency of the children on arithmetic, language, reading, and physical education, and reported a national educational achievement test score (CITO). Structural equation modeling showed that gestational age, birth weight, and sex were significant predictors of educational achievement, even after correction for socioeconomic status. Mode of delivery and zygosity did not have an effect, while parental age only influenced arithmetic. Mode of conception, incubator time, and birth complications negatively affected achievement in physical education. The comparison of educational achievement of twins and singletons showed significantly lower ratings on arithmetic, reading, and language in twins, compared to their older siblings, but not compared to their younger siblings. Low gestational age and low birth weight were the most important risk factors for lower educational achievement of twins in primary school. It seems that the differences observed between twins and their nontwin siblings in educational achievement can largely be explained by birth order within the family.

  19. Phase field modeling of twinning in indentation of transparent crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, J D; Knap, J

    2011-01-01

    Continuum phase field theory is applied to study elastic twinning in calcite and sapphire single crystals subjected to indentation loading by wedge-shaped indenters. An order parameter is associated with the magnitude of stress-free twinning shear. Geometrically linear and nonlinear theories are implemented and compared, the latter incorporating neo-Hookean elasticity. Equilibrium configurations of deformed and twinned crystals are attained numerically via direct energy minimization. Results are in qualitative agreement with experimental observations: a long thin twin forms asymmetrically under one side of the indenter, the tip of the twin is sharp and the length of the twin increases with increasing load. Qualitatively similar results are obtained using isotropic and anisotropic elastic constants, though the difference between isotropic and anisotropic results is greater in sapphire than in calcite. Similar results are also obtained for nanometer-scale specimens and millimeter-scale specimens. Indentation forces are greater in the nonlinear model than the linear model because of the increasing tangent bulk modulus with increasing pressure in the former. Normalized relationships between twin length and indentation force are similar for linear and nonlinear theories at both nanometer and millimeter scales. Twin morphologies are similar for linear and nonlinear theories for indentation with a 90° wedge. However, in the nonlinear model, indentation with a 120° wedge produces a lamellar twin structure between the indenter and the long sharp primary twin. This complex microstructure is not predicted by the linear theory

  20. Epigenome-Wide Association Study of Cognitive Functioning in Middle-Aged Monozygotic Twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starnawska, Anna; Tan, Qihua; McGue, Matt

    2017-01-01

    As the world's population ages, the age-related cognitive decline presents a great challenge to world's healthcare systems. One of the molecular mechanisms implicated in cognitive ageing is DNA methylation, an epigenetic modification known to be a key player in memory formation, maintenance......, and synaptic plasticity. Using the twin design we performed an epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) in a population of 486 middle-aged monozygotic twins (mean age at follow-up 65.9, SD = 6.1) and correlated their blood DNA methylation to their level (cross-sectional analysis) and change in cognitive...... abilities over 10 years (longitudinal analysis). We identified several CpG sites where cross-sectional cognitive functioning was associated with DNA methylation levels. The top identified loci were located in ZBTB46 (p = 5.84 × 10-7), and TAF12 (p = 4.91 × 10-7). KEGG's enrichment analyses of the most...

  1. Chronic Idiopathic Neutrophilia in Two Twins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Miniero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophilia in adults refers to an alteration in the total number of blood neutrophils that is in excess of about 7500 cells/μL. This definition is restrictive in childhood as neutrophil count is age-dependent. Chronic Idiopathic Neutrophilia (CIN refers to a condition that persists for many years in individuals who appear otherwise healthy. CIN is rarely mentioned in scientific literature and in academic books of hematology; only few words are dedicated to this topic. We report a case study of two twins with CIN followed from the first year of life to 24 years of age. To the best of our knowledge this is the first case report of two twins with CIN followed through a long period of time. We believe that our observation may contribute to better understand and characterize this hematologic abnormality.

  2. The TwinEBIS setup: Machine description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breitenfeldt, M. [CERN, Geneva 23 CH-1211 (Switzerland); Mertzig, R. [CERN, Geneva 23 CH-1211 (Switzerland); Technische Universität Dresden, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Pitters, J. [CERN, Geneva 23 CH-1211 (Switzerland); Technische Universität Wien, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Shornikov, A. [CERN, Geneva 23 CH-1211 (Switzerland); GANIL, Bd. Becquerel, BP 55027, 14076 Caen Cedex 05 (France); Wenander, F., E-mail: fredrik.wenander@cern.ch [CERN, Geneva 23 CH-1211 (Switzerland)

    2017-06-01

    TwinEBIS is an Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) recently made operational at CERN. The device is similar in construction to the REXEBIS charge breeder operating at the ISOLDE facility. After relocation of the solenoid from the Manne Siegbahn Laboratory (MSL) Stockholm, TwinEBIS was commissioned at CERN and serves as a test bench dedicated to manipulation of low-energy highly charged ions. In this paper we give an overview of the setup and present advanced numerical simulations of the electron optics. In addition, the alignment procedure of the solenoid magnetic field is described and measurement results are presented. Results from cathode investigations, electron beam tests and ion extraction modulation are presented in a follow-up paper.

  3. Twin-twin transfusion syndrome: cerebral ischemia is not the only fetal MR imaging finding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline-Fath, Beth M. [University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Cincinnati Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Calvo-Garcia, Maria A.; O' Hara, Sara M.; Racadio, Judy M. [University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Crombleholme, Timothy M. [University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Department of Surgery, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2007-01-15

    Twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) is a complication of monochorionic/diamniotic twin pregnancies. An imbalance of blood flow occurs through placental anastomoses, causing potentially significant morbidity and mortality in both twins. Although the sonographic findings of TTTS are well documented, we believe that MR imaging is a valuable adjunct. We describe the fetal MR imaging findings associated with TTTS. From 2003 to 2005, 37 consecutive MR imaging studies were performed on multiple-gestation pregnancies. Of the 37, 25 were consistent with TTTS, correlated and confirmed by sonographic criteria. MR fetal abnormalities were documented. Cerebral ischemia, which could not be demonstrated by sonography, was delineated well by MR imaging. New findings noted on fetal MR imaging were enlargement of cerebral venous sinuses in both twins, dilatation of the renal collecting system in the recipient, lung lesions in the recipient and cerebral malformations in the donor. MR imaging is an important adjunct in TTTS imaging. Its benefit over sonography is its clear definition of cerebral pathology, which is important for intervention and counseling. The new findings, particularly in the urinary tract and cerebral venous sinuses, also help support the diagnosis of TTTS and might reveal additional consequences of the altered hemodynamics that occur in TTTS. (orig.)

  4. Twin-twin transfusion syndrome: cerebral ischemia is not the only fetal MR imaging finding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kline-Fath, Beth M.; Calvo-Garcia, Maria A.; O'Hara, Sara M.; Racadio, Judy M.; Crombleholme, Timothy M.

    2007-01-01

    Twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) is a complication of monochorionic/diamniotic twin pregnancies. An imbalance of blood flow occurs through placental anastomoses, causing potentially significant morbidity and mortality in both twins. Although the sonographic findings of TTTS are well documented, we believe that MR imaging is a valuable adjunct. We describe the fetal MR imaging findings associated with TTTS. From 2003 to 2005, 37 consecutive MR imaging studies were performed on multiple-gestation pregnancies. Of the 37, 25 were consistent with TTTS, correlated and confirmed by sonographic criteria. MR fetal abnormalities were documented. Cerebral ischemia, which could not be demonstrated by sonography, was delineated well by MR imaging. New findings noted on fetal MR imaging were enlargement of cerebral venous sinuses in both twins, dilatation of the renal collecting system in the recipient, lung lesions in the recipient and cerebral malformations in the donor. MR imaging is an important adjunct in TTTS imaging. Its benefit over sonography is its clear definition of cerebral pathology, which is important for intervention and counseling. The new findings, particularly in the urinary tract and cerebral venous sinuses, also help support the diagnosis of TTTS and might reveal additional consequences of the altered hemodynamics that occur in TTTS. (orig.)

  5. Aberrant twinning (diprosopus) associated with anencephaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moerman, P; Fryns, J P; Goddeeris, P; Lauweryns, J M; Van Assche, A

    1983-10-01

    A case of Monocephalus diprosopus, associated with craniorachischisis and duplication of most of the foregut derivates is presented. The major part of the cardiovascular system remained single but the heart exhibited severe defects, including a complete persistent atrioventricular canal, transposition of the great arteries and atresia of the pulmonary valve. This report further supports the hypothesis that certain-types of incomplete twinning and neural tube defects may be caused by a single teratogenic mechanism.

  6. Optical Properties of Rotationally Twinned Nanowire Superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bao, Jiming; Bell, David C.; Capasso, Federico

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a technique so that both transmission electron microscopy and microphotoluminescence can be performed on the same semiconductor nanowire over a large range of optical power, thus allowing us to directly correlate structural and optical properties of rotationally twinned zinc...... a heterostructure in a chemically homogeneous nanowire material and alter in a major way its optical properties opens new possibilities for band-structure engineering....

  7. Arterio-venous flow between monochorionic twins determined during intra-uterine transfusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gemert, Martin J. C.; van den Wijngaard, Jeroen P. H. M.; Lopriore, Enrico; Pasman, Suzanne A.; Vandenbussche, Frank P. H. A.

    2008-01-01

    Twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) is a severe complication of monozygotic (identical) twin fetuses sharing one single (monochorionic) placenta. TTTS is caused by a net inter-twin transfusion of blood through placental anastomoses, from one twin (the donor) to the other (the recipient), which

  8. The Impact of Preschool Twins' Physical Difficulties on Parental Perceptions towards Separation, Closeness and Friendship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markodimitraki, Maria; Linardakis, Michalis; Kypriotaki, Maria; Manolitsis, George

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to: (a) provide descriptive data of twins with physical difficulties among 120 Greek twins of preschool age; and (b) to investigate the impact of twins' health condition on parental perceptions towards twins' separation, closeness and friendship. The administration of School Policy for Twins and Higher Multiples…

  9. IVF twins: buy one get one free?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Laura; Mittal, Monica; Kalu, Emmanuel

    2012-10-01

    There has been an overall increase in the incidence of multiple pregnancies and assisted reproduction technology is largely responsible for this rise. Although twins may appeal to couples undergoing in vitro fertilisation (IVF), they have been associated with serious health consequences to the babies, their mothers and the family unit, as well as having massive financial implications for the National Health Service. Transfer of more than one embryo during IVF is mainly responsible for IVF twins, and elective transfer of a single embryo at a time with cryopreservation of surplus embryos for later transfer has been shown to be an effective strategy to minimise the risk of twins without compromising IVF success rates. Factors that will impact on the success of the policy of elective single embryo transfer (eSET) include improvement in embryo selection for transfer, better cryopreservation techniques and adequate state funding for IVF. However, in implementing the policy of eSET it is important that each case is assessed on an individual basis since in some situations (e.g. in older women) the transfer of two embryos may be more cost effective. Adequate and continuous education of all stakeholders is essential if the policy of eSET is to be successful in the UK.

  10. Twins: prevalence, problems, and preterm births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Suneet P; Scardo, James A; Hayes, Edward; Abuhamad, Alfred Z; Berghella, Vincenzo

    2010-10-01

    The rate of twin pregnancies in the United States has stabilized at 32 per 1000 births in 2006. Aside from determining chorionicity, first-trimester screening and second-trimester ultrasound scanning should ascertain whether there are structural or chromosomal abnormalities. Compared with singleton births, genetic amniocentesis-related loss at births is higher (0.9% vs 2.9%, respectively). Selective termination for an anomalous fetus is an option, although the pregnancy loss rate is 7% at experienced centers. For singleton and twin births for African American and white women, approximately 50% of preterm births are indicated; approximately one-third of these births are spontaneous, and 10% of the births occur after preterm premature rupture of membranes. From 1989-2000, the rate of preterm twin births increased, for African American and white women alike, although the perinatal mortality rate has actually decreased. As with singleton births, tocolytics should be used judiciously and only for a limited time (births. Administration of antenatal corticosteroids is an evidence-based recommendation. Copyright © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Anorexia and Bulimia Nervosa in Same-Sex and Opposite-Sex Twins : Lack of Association With Twin Type in a Nationwide Study of Finnish Twins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raevuori, Anu; Kaprio, Jaakko; Hoek, Hans W.; Sihvola, Elina; Rissanen, Aila; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors tested the hypothesis that either prenatal feminization or masculinization hormone influences in utero or later socialization affects the risk for anorexia and bulimia nervosa and disordered eating in members of opposite-sex twin pairs. Method: Finnish twins (N=2,426 women,

  12. Resilience characteristics mitigate tendency for harmful alcohol and illicit drug use in adults with a history of childhood abuse: a cross-sectional study of 2024 inner-city men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingo, Aliza P; Ressler, Kerry J; Bradley, Bekh

    2014-04-01

    Resilience refers to abilities to cope adaptively with adversity or trauma. A common psychological sequella of childhood abuse or other traumatic experiences is substance use problems. There are, however, very limited data on relationships among resilience traits, childhood abuse, and alcohol or drug use problems. Hence, we aimed to examine associations between resilience characteristics and lifetime alcohol and illicit drug use in 2024 inner-city adults with high rates of childhood abuse and other trauma exposure. In this cross-sectional study, resilience was assessed with the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, childhood abuse with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, lifetime alcohol and illicit drug use with the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test and Drug Abuse Screening Test. Associations between resilience and substance use were examined with linear regression models, adjusting for trauma load, age, and sex. We found that resilience characteristics mitigated tendency for lifetime alcohol use problems both as a main effect (β = -0.11; p = 0.0014) and an interaction with severity of childhood abuse (β = -0.06; p = 0.0115) after trauma severity, age, and sex were controlled for. Similarly, resilience reduced lifetime illicit drug use both as a main effect (β = -0.03; p = 0.0008) and as an interaction with severity of childhood abuse (β = -0.01; p = 0.0256) after trauma load, age, and sex were adjusted for. Our findings add to a nascent body of literature suggesting that resilience characteristics mitigate risks not only for PTSD, major depression, and suicidality, but also for substance use problems in adults exposed to childhood abuse or other traumatic experiences. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Prevalence of short sleep duration and its association with obesity among adolescents 15- to 19-year olds: A cross-sectional study from three major cities in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazzaa M Al-Hazzaa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adequate sleep has been considered important for the adolescent′s health and well being. On the other hand, self-imposed sleep curtailment is now recognized as a potentially important and novel risk factor for obesity. The present study aimed to assess the prevalence of short sleep duration and its association with obesity among Saudi adolescents. Methods: This is a school-based cross-sectional study with self-reported sleep questionnaires. It was conducted during the years 2009/2010 in three cities in Saudi Arabia; Al-Khobar, Jeddah, and Riyadh. Participants were 2868 secondary-school males (1379 and females (1389 aged 15 to 19 years, randomly selected using a multistage stratified sampling technique. Measurements included weight, height, waist circumference, BMI, and sleeping duration. Logistic regression analysis while adjusted for age, gender, and location was used to examine the associations between sleep duration and obesity measures. Results: The mean (SD of sleep duration was 7.2 (1.6 hours/day with no significant differences between males and females. About 31% of the participants obtain less than 7 hours of sleep per day, while approximately 50% of the sample gets less than 8 hours of daily sleep. Two-way ANCOVA results while controlling for the effect of age revealed a significant gender by school-type interaction (P<0.001. In addition, adequate sleep duration increased the odds of having normal weight (adjusted odds ratios = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.08-1.50, P = 0.003. Conclusion: The present study observed a high prevalence of short sleep duration among Saudi adolescents 15- to 19-year olds and that short sleep duration was significantly associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity. Future interventions should investigate whether adopting a healthy lifestyle by adolescents with short sleep duration would improve their sleeping habits or not.

  14. Mothers of IVF and spontaneously conceived twins: a comparison of prenatal maternal expectations, coping resources and maternal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baor, Liora; Soskolne, Varda

    2010-06-01

    This study explores the differences in prenatal maternal expectations, coping resources and maternal stress between first time mothers of IVF twins and first time mothers of spontaneously conceived twins. The role of prenatal maternal expectations in the prediction of maternal stress was examined, as well as the mediating and moderating effect of coping resources on the association between pregnancy-type group and maternal stress. Mothers of twins from various regions in Israel were included in this prospective and cross-sectional study in which 88 mothers of IVF-conceived twins and 98 mothers of spontaneously conceived twins were interviewed twice. First, at 33-36 weeks of their pregnancy they completed a socio-demographic questionnaire and the maternal expectations questionnaire; then at 6 months after birth they completed a questionnaire regarding the delivery and medical condition of the infants, and their coping resources and maternal stress. Compared with mothers who conceived spontaneously, IVF mothers had more positive prenatal maternal expectations, but poorer coping resources and higher levels of maternal stress 6 months after birth. Maternal expectations had no predictive power regarding maternal stress, although the mother's coping resources were significantly related to maternal stress and mediated the association between pregnancy type and maternal stress. IVF-pregnant women bearing twins should be considered a high-risk group. Early identification of these mothers is essential for timely psychosocial interventions in order to enhance their resources and decrease maternal stress. Further longitudinal studies are required to determine causality in more ethnically-diverse mothers of twins.

  15. A tale of twin Higgs: natural twin two Higgs doublet models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Jiang-Hao

    2016-01-01

    In original twin Higgs model, vacuum misalignment between electroweak and new physics scales is realized by adding explicit ℤ 2 breaking term. Introducing additional twin Higgs could accommodate spontaneous ℤ 2 breaking, which explains origin of this misalignment. We introduce a class of twin two Higgs doublet models with most general scalar potential, and discuss general conditions which trigger electroweak and ℤ 2 symmetry breaking. Various scenarios on realising the vacuum misalignment are systematically discussed in a natural composite two Higgs double model framework: explicit ℤ 2 breaking, radiative ℤ 2 breaking, tadpole-induced ℤ 2 breaking, and quartic-induced ℤ 2 breaking. We investigate the Higgs mass spectra and Higgs phenomenology in these scenarios.

  16. A tale of twin Higgs: natural twin two Higgs doublet models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Jiang-Hao [Amherst Center for Fundamental Interactions, Department of Physics,University of Massachusetts Amherst,710 North Pleasant St., Amherst, MA 01002 (United States)

    2016-12-28

    In original twin Higgs model, vacuum misalignment between electroweak and new physics scales is realized by adding explicit ℤ{sub 2} breaking term. Introducing additional twin Higgs could accommodate spontaneous ℤ{sub 2} breaking, which explains origin of this misalignment. We introduce a class of twin two Higgs doublet models with most general scalar potential, and discuss general conditions which trigger electroweak and ℤ{sub 2} symmetry breaking. Various scenarios on realising the vacuum misalignment are systematically discussed in a natural composite two Higgs double model framework: explicit ℤ{sub 2} breaking, radiative ℤ{sub 2} breaking, tadpole-induced ℤ{sub 2} breaking, and quartic-induced ℤ{sub 2} breaking. We investigate the Higgs mass spectra and Higgs phenomenology in these scenarios.

  17. Coffee and smoking as risk factors of twin pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales-Suárez-Varela, Maria M; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Christensen, Kaare

    2007-01-01

    their prepregnancy weight and height, coffee and alcohol intake, smoking habits, and potential confounding factors at early stages of pregnancy. We identified smoking (> 10 cigarettes/day) as a possible determinant of twinning, particularly for dizygotic twinning rates (same sex) and furthermore corroborated......Twinning rates have changed substantially over time for reasons that are only partly known. In this study we studied smoking, coffee and alcohol intake, and their possible interaction with obesity as potential determinants of twinning rates using data from the Danish National Birth Cohort between...... 1996 and 2002. We identified 82,985 pregnancies: 81,954 singleton and 1031 twins. For the twins we had data to classify 121 as monozygotic, 189 dizygotic (same sex), 313 dizygotic (opposite sex) but, 408 were of the same sex but with unknown zygosity. All mothers were interviewed about...

  18. Atopic diseases in twins born after assisted reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäderberg, Ida; Thomsen, Simon F; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm

    2012-01-01

    Jäderberg I, Thomsen SF, Kyvik KO, Skytthe A, Backer V. Atopic diseases in twins born after assisted reproduction. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology 2012; 26: 140-145. We examined the risk of atopic diseases in twins born after assisted reproduction. Data on atopic diseases and assisted...... reproduction in 9694 twin pairs, 3-20 years of age, from the Danish Twin Registry were collected via multidisciplinary questionnaires. The risk of atopic diseases in twins born after assisted reproduction was compared with the risk in twins born after spontaneous conception using logistic regression...... and variance components analysis. Children born after assisted reproduction did not have a different risk of atopic outcomes (adjusted odds ratios [95% confidence intervals] for asthma: 0.95 [0.85, 1.07], P = 0.403; hay fever: 1.01 [0.86, 1.18], P = 0.918; and atopic dermatitis: 1.02 [0.81, 1.11], P = 0...

  19. Effect of twinning plane on superconductor magnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzdin, A.I.; Kuptsov, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    Effect of twinning planes on pinning of the Abrikosov vortices in superconductors of the second order with the Ginsburg-Landau parameter, κ >> 1, is considered. The modified Ginsburg-Landau functional, where the effect of superconducting properties improvement near the twinning plane is taken into account by adding the additional δ-function component, is used to descibe superconductivity of twinning plane. Force of interaction of a vortex filament and the twinning plane is calculated. It is shown that in case of the twinning plane opaque to electrons, additional attractive force, being analogous to that occurring in the problem on the surface Been-Livingston barrier, affects the vortex filament. The results can explain anisotropy of vortex pinning observed in the periodic twinning structure in high-temperature superconductors

  20. Hydride formation on deformation twin in zirconium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ju-Seong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111 Daedeokdaero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung-Dae [Korea Institute of Material Science (KIMS), 797 Changwondaero, Changwon, Gyeongnam, 642-831 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Jonghun, E-mail: yooncsmd@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, 1271 Sa3-dong, Sangrok-gu, Ansan-si, Gyeonggi-do, 426-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Hydrides deteriorate the mechanical properties of zirconium (Zr) alloys used in nuclear reactors. Intergranular hydrides that form along grain boundaries have been extensively studied due to their detrimental effects on cracking. However, it has been little concerns on formation of Zr hydrides correlated with deformation twins which is distinctive heterogeneous nucleation site in hexagonal close-packed metals. In this paper, the heterogeneous precipitation of Zr hydrides at the twin boundaries was visualized using transmission electron microscopy. It demonstrates that intragranular hydrides in the twinned region precipitates on the rotated habit plane by the twinning and intergranular hydrides precipitate along the coherent low energy twin boundaries independent of the conventional habit planes. Interestingly, dislocations around the twin boundaries play a substantial role in the nucleation of Zr hydrides by reducing the misfit strain energy.

  1. Twins with omphalocele in Denmark (1970-1989)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bugge, Merete

    2010-01-01

    Seven pairs of twins, two monozygotic (MZ), two dizygotic (DZ), and three like-sex pairs of unknown zygosity are described. The twin pairs were all discordant for omphalocele except for one pair of conjoined twins. The 8 infants with omphalocele represent 3.1% of the 253 infants with omphalocele......, ascertained in an almost complete nationwide data set of live- and stillborn infants with abdominal wall defects in two decades in Denmark (1970-1989). The occurrence of twins with omphalocele was not significantly different from the occurrence of twins in the Danish population in the same period. To our...... knowledge this is the first report of the occurrence of twins with omphalocele in a systematic nationwide epidemiological study....

  2. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in twins: a population-based survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikkel O; Thomsen, Karsten; Kyvik, Kirsten O

    2007-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: A questionnaire-based identification of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients in a twin cohort. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to establish a scoliosis twin cohort to provide data on the heritability of AIS. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The etiology of AIS is still...... environmental factors. METHODS: All 46,418 twins registered in the Danish Twin Registry born from 1931 to 1982 were sent a questionnaire, which included questions about scoliosis. A total of 34,944 (75.3%) representing 23,204 pairs returned the questionnaire. RESULTS: A subgroup of 220 subjects considered...... of monozygotic and dizygotic pairs was significantly different (P scoliosis in 1 twin whose other twin has scoliosis is smaller than believed up until now....

  3. Confined Blood Chimerism in Monochorionic Dizygotic Twins Conceived Spontaneously

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kanda

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, monochorionicity has been regarded as synonymous with monozygosity. However, several recent cases of monochorionic dizygotic twins have shown that monochorionic twins can be dizygous. We report a rare case of monochorionic diamnionic, gender-discordant twins who were conceived spontaneously. Initially, a monochorionic placenta was diagnosed by ultrasonography at 8 weeks of gestation and then confirmed by pathology after delivery. The twins had different genders. A comparison of cytogenetic analyses using peripheral blood lymphocytes and skin fibroblasts revealed that chimerism was confined to blood cells. We have experienced two cases of monochorionic dizygotic twins since 2003. These cases suggest that monochorionic dizygotic twins are not as rare as previously thought.

  4. Investigation of Aerodynamic Interference between Twin Deck Bridges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sitek, M. A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division. Transportation Research and Analysis Computing Center (TRACC); Bojanowski, C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division. Transportation Research and Analysis Computing Center (TRACC); Lottes, S. A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division. Transportation Research and Analysis Computing Center (TRACC)

    2016-05-01

    Construction of a twin bridge can be a cost effective and minimally disruptive way to increase capacity when an existing bridge is not near the end of its service life. With ever growing vehicular traffic, when demand approaches the capacity of many existing roads and bridges. Remodeling a structure with an insufficient number of lanes can be a good solution in case of smaller and less busy bridges. Closing down or reducing traffic on crossings of greater importance for the construction period, however, can result in major delays and revenue loss for commerce and transportation as well as increasing the traffic load on alternate route bridges. Multiple-deck bridges may be the answer to this issue. A parallel deck can be built next to the existing one, without reducing the flow. Additionally, a new bridge can be designed as a twin or multi-deck structure. Several such structures have been built throughout the United States, among them: - The New NY Bridge Project - the Tappan Zee Hudson River Crossing, - SR-182 Columbia River Bridge, - The Thaddeus Kosciusko Bridge (I-87), - The Allegheny River Bridge, Pennsylvania, which carries I76, - Fred Hartman Bridge, TX, see Figure 1.2. With a growing number of double deck bridges, additional, more detailed, studies on the interaction of such bridge pairs in windy conditions appears appropriate. Aerodynamic interference effects should be examined to assure the aerodynamic stability of both bridges. There are many studies on aerodynamic response of single deck bridges, but the literature on double-deck structures is not extensive. The experimental results from wind tunnels are still limited in number, as a parametric study is required, they can be very time consuming. Literature review shows that some investigation of the effects of gap-width and angle of wind incidence has been done. Most of the CFD computational studies that have been done were limited to 2D simulations. Therefore, it is desirable to investigate twin decks

  5. Development and Evaluation of a City-Wide Wireless Weather Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ben; Wang, Hsue-Yie; Peng, Tian-Yin; Hsu, Ying-Shao

    2010-01-01

    This project analyzed the effectiveness of a city-wide wireless weather sensor network, the Taipei Weather Science Learning Network (TWIN), in facilitating elementary and junior high students' study of weather science. The network, composed of sixty school-based weather sensor nodes and a centralized weather data archive server, provides students…

  6. Deformation twinning in irradiated ferritic/martensitic steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K.; Dai, Y.; Spätig, P.

    2018-04-01

    Two different ferritic/martensitic steels were tensile tested to gain insight into the mechanisms of embrittlement induced by the combined effects of displacement damage and helium after proton/neutron irradiation in SINQ, the Swiss spallation neutron source. The irradiation conditions were in the range: 15.8-19.8 dpa (displacement per atom) with 1370-1750 appm He at 245-300 °C. All the samples fractured in brittle mode with intergranular or cleavage fracture surfaces when tested at room temperature (RT) or 300 °C. After tensile test, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was employed to investigate the deformation microstructures. TEM-lamella samples were extracted directly below the intergranular fracture surfaces or cleavage surfaces by using the focused ion beam technique. Deformation twinning was observed in irradiated specimens at high irradiation dose. Only twins with {112} plane were observed in all of the samples. The average thickness of twins is about 40 nm. Twins initiated at the fracture surface, became gradually thinner with distance away from the fracture surface and finally stopped in the matrix. Novel features such as twin-precipitate interactions, twin-grain boundary and/or twin-lath boundary interactions were observed. Twinning bands were seen to be arrested by grain boundaries or large precipitates, but could penetrate martensitic lath boundaries. Unlike the case of defect free channels, small defect-clusters, dislocation loops and dense small helium bubbles were observed inside twins.

  7. [Early prenatal diagnosis of diprosopic syncephalic joined twins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picaud, A; Nlome-Nze, A R; Engongha-Beka, T; Ogowet-Igumu, N

    1990-06-01

    The authors summarize the case of diprosopic syncephalic joined twins diagnosed at 22 weeks of pregnancy by ultrasonography performed because of hydramnios. The rate of separation anomalies of monozygotic twins is assessed by a review of the literature: from 1 to twenty to fifty thousands for joined twins to 1 per cent fifty thousand to fifteen millions for diprosopus. The etiology is the result of a late division of the egg between D12 and D16. Often an encephalic diprosopic joined twins cause elevated levels of maternal serum alpha protein. Early ultrasonography permits to consider a vaginal therapeutic abortion.

  8. Conjoined twins: morphogenesis of the heart and a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert-Barness, Enid; Debich-Spicer, Diane; Opitz, John M

    2003-08-01

    Five cases of conjoined twins have been studied. These included three thoracopagus twins, one monocephalus diprosopus (prosop = face), and one dicephalus dipus dibrachus. The thoracopagus twins were conjoined only from the upper thorax to the umbilicus with a normal foregut. These three cases shared a single complex multiventricular heart, one with a four chambered heart with one atrium and one ventricle belonging to each twin with complex venous and arterial connection; two had a seven chambered heart with four atria and three ventricles. The mono-cephalus diprosopus twins had a single heart with tetralogy of Fallot. The dicephalus twins had two separate axial skeletons to the sacrum, two separate hearts were connected between the right atria with a shared inferior vena cava. Thoracopagus twinning is associated with complex cardiac malformations. The cardiac anlagen in cephalopagus or diprosopus are diverted and divided along with the entire rostral end of the embryonic disc and result in two relatively normal shared hearts. However, in thoracopagus twins the single heart is multiventricular and suggests very early union with fusion of the cardiac anlagen before significant differentiation. Cardiac morphogenesis in conjoined twins therefore appears to depend on the site of the conjoined fusion and the temporal and spatial influence that determines morphogenesis as well as abnormally oriented embryonic axes. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Twinning interactions induced amorphisation in ultrafine silicon grains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Y. [School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Zhang, L.C., E-mail: liangchi.zhang@unsw.edu.au [School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Zhang, Y. [School of Mechatronics Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology (China)

    2016-03-21

    Detailed transmission electron microscopy analysis on a severely deformed Al-Si composite material has revealed that partial dislocation slips and deformation twinning are the major plastic deformation carriers in ultrafine silicon grains. This resembles the deformation twinning activities and mechanisms observed in nano-crystalline face-centred-cubic metallic materials. While deformation twinning and amorphisation in Si were thought unlikely to co-exist, it is observed for the first time that excessive twinning and partial dislocation interactions can lead to localised solid state amorphisation inside ultrafine silicon grains.

  10. Pregnancy outcome of monochorionic twins: does amnionicity matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Thiran; Contro, Elena; Thilaganathan, Basky; Khan, Hina; Zanardini, Cristina; Mahsud-Dornan, Samina; Bhide, Amar

    2011-12-01

    To compare the fetal loss rate of monochorionic (MC) twin pregnancies according to their amnionicity. A retrospective review of all MC pregnancy outcomes in a tertiary centre. Pregnancy outcomes were compared for monochorionic monoamniotic (MCMA) versus monochorionic diamniotic (MCDA) pregnancies. 29 MCMA and 117 MCDA twin pregnancies were identified. The overall fetal loss rate was significantly higher in MCMA (23/52, 44.2%) compared to MCDA pregnancies (28/233, 12%, Chi squared = 30.03, p fetal survival rate in MCDA twins were significantly higher than in MCMA twins (Log-rank Chi-squared = 27.9, p fetal losses in some MCMA twins. After exclusion of identifiable causes, the difference in fetal survival was not significant in the two groups (Log-rank chi-squared = 0.373, p = .54). The loss rate for MCMA twins is high and occurs mainly due to discordant congenital abnormality, conjoint twins or twin reversed arterial perfusion (TRAP) sequence. Although the fetal loss rate in MCDA is lower than in MCMA pregnancies, the majority of fetal loss in MCDA pregnancies cannot be predicted at the first scan at presentation. The data of this study questions the widespread policy of a difference in the scheduling of elective delivery for MCMA and MCDA twins.

  11. Two sets of twins with selective mutism: neuropsychological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Robert M; Jordan, Catherine M; Ziegler, Richard S; Livingston, Ronald B

    2002-03-01

    Neuropsychological data are reviewed from two sets of dizygotic twins presenting with selective mutism characterized by situation specific anxiety, extreme passive behavior, lack of responsivity, lack of peer interaction, and a chronic course of selective mutism. Both sets of twins had a history of prematurity and delayed speech development. One set of twins presented with normal intelligence and normal receptive language skills but with expressive language and oral motor sequencing difficulties. The second set of twins presented with Verbal IQ deficits and significant receptive and expressive language deficits. A summary of current conceptualizations regarding etiology and treatment of selective mutism is provided.

  12. Temperature dependence of work hardening in sparsely twinning zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Jaiveer; Mahesh, S.; Roy, Shomic; Kumar, Gulshan; Srivastava, D.; Dey, G.K.; Saibaba, N.; Samajdar, I.

    2017-01-01

    Fully recrystallized commercial Zirconium plates were subjected to uniaxial tension. Tests were conducted at different temperatures (123 K - 623 K) and along two plate directions. Both directions were nominally unfavorable for deformation twinning. The effect of the working temperature on crystallographic texture and in-grain misorientation development was insignificant. However, systematic variation in work hardening and in the area fraction and morphology of deformation twins was observed with temperature. At all temperatures, twinning was associated with significant near boundary mesoscopic shear, suggesting a possible linkage with twin nucleation. A binary tree based model of the polycrystal, which explicitly accounts for grain boundary accommodation and implements the phenomenological extended Voce hardening law, was implemented. This model could capture the measured stress-strain response and twin volume fractions accurately. Interestingly, slip and twin system hardness evolution permitted multiplicative decomposition into temperature-dependent, and accumulated strain-dependent parts. Furthermore, under conditions of relatively limited deformation twinning, the work hardening of the slip and twin systems followed two phenomenological laws proposed in the literature for non-twinning single-phase face centered cubic materials.

  13. [Twin pregnancy as the risk factor for neonatal intraventricular hemorrhage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Aleksandra I; Krasomski, Grzegorz

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to find the perinatal risk factors of intravenricular hemorrhage in twin neonates. A retrospective analysis of 203 twin pregnancies and deliveries between 2003 and 2009 was performed. Then data according birth state and neonatal complications in 406 twins were analyzed. Twin outcome was compared with the outcome of 105 singletons born at the same time and at the same gestational age as twins. Intraventricular hemorrhage was diagnosed in 116/406 (29%) of twins. IVH was found two times more often in the analyzed group than in singletons born at the same gestational age (29% vs. 18%, p = 0,03). In 96% I and II grade hemorrhage was diagnosed and in 4% III and IV grade hemorrhage in the Papille scale was found. 1) Intraventricular hemorrhage is found more often in twins than in singleton neonates born at the same gestational age. 2) IVH in twins correlate with preterm birth and low birth weight. IVH occur more often in twins with birth weight discordance and with too small maternal weight gain.

  14. Increased risk of type 2 diabetes in elderly twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Pernille; Grunnet, Louise G; Pilgaard, Kasper

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Genetic susceptibility, low birth weight (LBW), and aging are key etiological factors in the development of type 2 diabetes. LBW is common among twins. It is unknown whether twin status per se is associated with risk of type 2 diabetes, and valid concordance rates of type 2 diabetes...... in twins on a lifetime perspective are lacking. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A clinical study was done on a population-based cohort of same-sex elderly monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins (n = 297) and singleton control subjects (C) (n = 71) including measures of anthropometry and glucose tolerance...

  15. Apparition of iodinated contrast agents in twin neonatal gastrointestinal tracts after maternal contrast-enhanced computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Hiroki; Kanematsu, Masayuki; Kato, Zenichiro; Kondo, Naomi; Orii, Kenji E.; Morimoto, Masahiro

    2011-01-01

    We describe a case of the appearance of iodinated contrast agents in the same locations of twins' neonatal gastrointestinal tracts 1 day after maternal contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT). The CT examination had been performed on the expectant mother for suspected deep venous thrombosis on the day previous to the twin delivery. At 23 h after the CT examination and after cesarean section, iodinated contrast agents appeared in the same place in the twins' neonatal gastrointestinal tracts, mainly in the ascending colon, on plain abdominal radiographs. Radiologists, obstetricians, and pediatricians should understand the mechanism of appearance of iodinated contrast agents in fetal gastrointestinal tracts when the expectant mother had been given iodinated contrast agents intravenously shortly before delivery. (author)

  16. Twin reversed arterial perfusion sequence is more common than generally accepted

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemert, M.J. van; Wijngaard, J.P. van den; Vandenbussche, F.P.H.A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Approximately 75% of monozygotic twin pregnancies share one monochorionic placenta where placental anastomoses are virtually always present to connect the two fetoplacental circulations. These anastomoses cause several serious complications such as acardiac twinning. Acardiac twins lack

  17. Twin reversed arterial perfusion sequence is more common than generally accepted

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gemert, Martin J. C.; van den Wijngaard, Jeroen P. H. M.; Vandenbussche, Frank P. H. A.

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 75% of monozygotic twin pregnancies share one monochorionic placenta where placental anastomoses are virtually always present to connect the two fetoplacental circulations. These anastomoses cause several serious complications such as acardiac twinning. Acardiac twins lack a functional

  18. Learning Cities as Healthy Green Cities: Building Sustainable Opportunity Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses a new generation of learning cities we have called EcCoWell cities (Economy, Community, Well-being). The paper was prepared for the PASCAL International Exchanges (PIE) and is based on international experiences with PIE and developments in some cities. The paper argues for more holistic and integrated development so that…

  19. Neurological impairment in a surviving twin following intrauterine fetal demise of the co-twin: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, K R; Keegan, K M; Schmidt, J W

    2013-01-01

    It has been established that twin pregnancies are at an increased risk for complications, including the risk of morbidity or mortality for one or both of the infants. Cerebral palsy and other associated neurological deficits also occur at higher rates in twin pregnancies. This report examines two cases of intrauterine demise of one twin with subsequent survival of the co-twin. In both cases, the surviving infant suffered significant neurological sequelae. Impairments observed in these two cases include multicystic encephalomalacia and periventricular leukomalacia as well as the subsequent development of cerebral palsy. This case study explores the predisposing factors, incidence, pathophysiology, consequences, and future research implications of these findings.

  20. Birth size and gestational age in opposite-sex twins as compared to same-sex twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelenkovic, Aline; Sund, Reijo; Yokoyama, Yoshie

    2018-01-01

    It is well established that boys are born heavier and longer than girls, but it remains unclear whether birth size in twins is affected by the sex of their co-twin. We conducted an individual-based pooled analysis of 21 twin cohorts in 15 countries derived from the COllaborative project of Develo......It is well established that boys are born heavier and longer than girls, but it remains unclear whether birth size in twins is affected by the sex of their co-twin. We conducted an individual-based pooled analysis of 21 twin cohorts in 15 countries derived from the COllaborative project....... In girls, birth size was not associated (5 g birth weight; 95% CI -8 to -18 and -0.089 cm birth length; 95% CI -0.202 to 0.025) with the sex of the co-twin. Gestational age was slightly shorter in boy-boy pairs than in boy-girl and girl-girl pairs. When birth size was standardized by gestational age......, the magnitude of the associations was attenuated in boys, particularly for birth weight. In conclusion, boys with a co-twin sister are heavier and longer at birth than those with a co-twin brother. However, these differences are modest and partly explained by a longer gestation in the presence of a co...

  1. Branding Cities, Changing Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Can-Seng

    Societal changes are seldom discussed in the literature on city branding. The time element is important because it highlights the fluctuating reality of society. The city brand message freezes the place but in fact, the city branding exercise is a continuous process. Society emerges too. City...... brands are supposed to accentuate the uniqueness of the city, be built from the bottom-up and reflect the city's identity. This paper highlights three paradoxes, pointing out that city branding processes can also make cities more alike, bring about societal changes and forge new city identities. A city...... branding campaign does not just present the city, it may change the city. The relationships between the branding exercise and the city are intertwined in the evolution of the place....

  2. Box City Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Understanding the Built Environment, Prairie Village, KS.

    This curriculum packet contains two lesson plans about cities and architecture intended for use with students in upper elementary grades and middle schools. The first lesson plan, "City People, City Stories" (Jan Ham), states that understanding architecture and cities must begin with an understanding of the people of the city. The children create…

  3. Smart City project

    KAUST Repository

    Al Harbi, Ayman

    2018-01-24

    A \\'smart city\\' is an urban region that is highly advanced in terms of overall infrastructure, sustainable real estate, communications and market viability. It is a city where information technology is the principal infrastructure and the basis for providing essential services to residents. Yanbu Industrial City- Smart City Project - First large scale smart city in The kingdom.

  4. From monster to twin reversed arterial perfusion: a history of acardiac twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obladen, Michael

    2010-05-01

    A human being born without heart and head, i.e., the acardius/acranius malformation, has been described since antiquity. Superstition and fear made it a mystical disorder, a sign of God's wrath. The inquisition ruled that acranic infants should not be baptized and located the soul in the brain. Acardia was not associated with twin gestation until the reports of Mery in 1720 and Winslow in 1740. In 1850, Meckel identified the pathogenetic mechanism as reversed perfusion due to large arterio-arterial and veno-venous anastomoses; he believed the heart would fail to develop or arrest during development, and the acardiac fetus would be maintained by arterial perfusion from the pump twin. In 1859, Claudius articulated that after normal initial development, the heart degenerates when reversed flow in the aorta leads to thrombosis. Today, it is assumed that both mechanisms may exist. With the advent of prenatal ultrasound diagnosis and radiofrequency ablation of the acardiac twin's circulation, it became possible to save the pump twin.

  5. Birth weight in opposite sex twins as compared to same sex dizygotic twins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orlebeke, J.F.; van Baal, G.C.M.; Boomsma, D.I.; Neeleman, D.

    1993-01-01

    The question addressed in the present report is whether the large birth weight differences in dizygotic twin pairs of opposite sex (DZos), especially in 'male first' couples - observed by Blickstein and Weissman (Blickstein I, Weissman A. Birth weight discordancy in male-first and female-first pairs

  6. Initiation and strain compatibility of connected extension twins in AZ31 magnesium alloy at high temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiao, E-mail: liuxiao0105@163.com [Key Laboratory of High Temperature Wear Resistant Materials Preparation Technology of Hunan Province, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan, Hunan 411201 (China); State Key Laboratory of Advanced Design and Manufacturing for Vehicle Body, Hunan University, Changsha, Hunan 410082 (China); Zhu, Biwu [Key Laboratory of High Temperature Wear Resistant Materials Preparation Technology of Hunan Province, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan, Hunan 411201 (China); Huang, Guangjie [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing, Chongqing 400045 (China); Li, Luoxing, E-mail: luoxing_li@yahoo.com [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Design and Manufacturing for Vehicle Body, Hunan University, Changsha, Hunan 410082 (China); Xie, Chao [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211 (China); Tang, Changping [Key Laboratory of High Temperature Wear Resistant Materials Preparation Technology of Hunan Province, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan, Hunan 411201 (China)

    2016-12-15

    Uniaxial compression tests were carried out at 350 °C and a strain rate of 0.3 s{sup −1} on as-extruded AZ31 magnesium alloy samples. At a true strain of − 0.1, extension twin pairs in a grain and twin chains across adjacent grains were detected. The orientation of selected twins and their host grains were determined by electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) techniques. The Schmid factors (SFs), accommodation strains and geometric compatibility factors (m{sup ′}) were calculated. Analysis of the data indicated that the formation of twin pair and twin chain was related to the SF and m{sup ′}. Regarding to twin chain across adjacent grains, accommodation strain was also involved. The selection of twin variants in twin chain was generally determined by m{sup ′}. When the twins required the operation of pyramidal slip or twinning in adjacent grain, the corresponding connected twins with a relative high m{sup ′} were selected in this adjacent grain. - Highlights: •The formation of paired twins is studied during high temperature deformation. •The initiation of twinning in twin pair and twin chain obeys the Schmid law. •The twin variants' selection in twin chain is related to the geometric compatibility factor. •The accommodation strain plays an important role on the formation of twin chain.

  7. Twin correlations of telomere length metrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmborg, Jacob B; Dalgård, Christine; Möller, Sören

    2015-01-01

    variation among adults. A number of studies have estimated the heritability of LTL, but none has assessed the heritability of age-dependent LTL attrition. METHODS: We examined the heritability of LTL dynamics based on a longitudinal evaluation (an average follow-up of 12 years) in 355 monozygotic and 297...... dizygotic same-sex twins (aged 19-64 years at baseline). RESULTS: Heritability of LTL at baseline was estimated at 64% (95% CI 39% to 83%) with 22% (95% CI 6% to 49%) of shared environmental effects. Heritability of age-dependent LTL attrition rate was estimated at 28% (95% CI 16% to 44%). Individually...

  8. Reliable actuators for twin rotor MIMO system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Vidya S.; V. I, George; Kamath, Surekha; Shreesha, C.

    2017-11-01

    Twin Rotor MIMO System (TRMS) is a bench mark system to test flight control algorithms. One of the perturbations on TRMS which is likely to affect the control system is actuator failure. Therefore, there is a need for a reliable control system, which includes H infinity controller along with redundant actuators. Reliable control refers to the design of a control system to tolerate failures of a certain set of actuators or sensors while retaining desired control system properties. Output of reliable controller has to be transferred to the redundant actuator effectively to make the TRMS reliable even under actual actuator failure.

  9. [Gestational diabetes insipidus during a twin pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mesmay, M; Rigouzzo, A; Bui, T; Louvet, N; Constant, I

    2013-02-01

    Gestational diabetes insipidus is an uncommon clinical disease whose prevalence is approximately two to three pregnancies per 100,000. It may be isolated or associated with preeclampsia. We report a case of gestational diabetes insipidus in a twin pregnancy, originally isolated during two months, and secondarily complicated by HELLP-syndrome. We recall the specific pathophysiology of polyuric-polydipsic syndrome during pregnancy and summarize its various causes. Finally, we discuss the indications, in case of isolated gestational diabetes insipidus, of treatment by dDAVP. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  10. Asymptotically Free Natural Supersymmetric Twin Higgs Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badziak, Marcin; Harigaya, Keisuke

    2018-05-01

    Twin Higgs (TH) models explain the absence of new colored particles responsible for natural electroweak symmetry breaking (EWSB). All known ultraviolet completions of TH models require some nonperturbative dynamics below the Planck scale. We propose a supersymmetric model in which the TH mechanism is introduced by a new asymptotically free gauge interaction. The model features natural EWSB for squarks and gluino heavier than 2 TeV even if supersymmetry breaking is mediated around the Planck scale, and has interesting flavor phenomenology including the top quark decay into the Higgs boson and the up quark which may be discovered at the LHC.

  11. Sirenomelia type VI (sympus apus) in one of dizygotic twins at Chiang Mai University Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokeaingtong, Kwannapas; Kaewchai, Sirirat; Visrutaratna, Pannee; Khuwuthyakorn, Varangthip

    2015-05-14

    Those born with sirenomelia, a rare congenital anomaly, have features resembling a mermaid. Characteristics of sirenomelia are a single lower limb, sacral and pelvic bone defects, and anorectal and urogenital malformations. There is an increased incidence of sirenomelia in males and twins. This case was a preterm male, dizygotic twin and product of in vitro fertilisation. The baby was born by caesarean section due to breech presentation. He was found to have a fused lower extremity and absent external genitalia and anus. The baby passed away shortly after birth due to severe respiratory failure. Radiographic findings showed small lung volume and pneumothoraces. There were multiple segmental fusions of the vertebrae. Single femur and single tibia were presented in a fused lower limb. Autopsy demonstrated large intestinal atresia, intra-abdominal testes, absence of kidney, ureter and bladder, single umbilical artery, agenesis of blood vessels at lower extremity and agenesis of sacrum and coccyx. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  12. A multilevel analysis to explain self-reported adverse health effects and adaptation to urban heat: a cross-sectional survey in the deprived areas of 9 Canadian cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Bélanger

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study identifies the characteristics and perceptions related to the individual, the dwelling and the neighbourhood of residence associated with the prevalence of self-reported adverse health impacts and an adaptation index when it is very hot and humid in summer in the most disadvantaged sectors of the nine most populous cities of Québec, Canada, in 2011. Methods The study uses a cross-sectional design and a stratified representative sample; 3485 people (individual-level were interviewed in their residence. They lived in 1647 buildings (building-level in 87 most materially and socially disadvantaged census dissemination areas (DA-level. Multilevel analysis was used to perform 3-level models nested one in the other to examine individual impacts as well as the adaptation index. Results For the prevalence of impacts, which is 46 %, the logistic model includes 13 individual-level indicators (including air conditioning and the adaptation index and 1 building-level indicator. For the adaptation index, with values ranging from -3 to +3, the linear model has 10 individual-level indicators, 1 building-level indicator and 2 DA-level indicators. Of all these indicators, 9 were associated to the prevalence of impacts only and 8 to the adaptation index only. Conclusion This 3-level analysis shows the differential importance of the characteristics of residents, buildings and their surroundings on self-reported adverse health impacts and on adaptation (other than air conditioning under hot and humid summer conditions. It also identifies indicators specific to impacts or adaptation. People with negative health impacts from heat rely more on adaptation strategies while low physical activity and good dwelling/building insulation lead to lower adaptation. Better neighbourhood walkability favors adaptations other than air conditioning. Thus, adaptation to heat in these neighbourhoods seems reactive rather than preventive. These first multi

  13. Pain, quality of life and activity in aged evacuees living in temporary housing after the Great East Japan earthquake of 11 March 2011: a cross-sectional study in Minamisoma City, Fukushima prefecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabuki, Shoji; Ouchi, Kazuo; Kikuchi, Shin-ichi; Konno, Shin-ichi

    2015-09-10

    The aim of this study was to clarify pain, quality of life and activity in the aged evacuees living in temporary housing after the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011. The study was a cross-sectional study performed in Minamisoma City, Fukushima Prefecture 1 year and 6 months after the disaster. Inclusion criteria were the ability to walk independently and consent to answer questionnaires. Seventy-one evacuees who met the inclusion criteria were included in this study. There were 16 men and 55 women with a mean age of 75.9 years. Sixty evacuees were surveyed when they gathered at the assembly hall in the temporary housing (Assembled group) and 11 evacuees were surveyed through individual visits to their residences (Individual group). Evacuees in the Individual group agreed to participate in this study, but refused to visit the assembly hall to engage in exercise and recreation. Pain, quality of life (QOL) and level of activity were assessed with the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), the MOS Short-Form 36 item Health Survey (SF-36) and a pedometer, respectively. Student's t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, and Fisher's exact test were used for statistical analysis. Forty-four (62.0 %) residents had chronic pain with a mean NRS of 2.74. Twenty-one (29.6 %) of these residents had relatively severe pain rated 5 or above on the NRS. QOL was significantly lower for the subscales of "physical functioning," "role physical", "general health", "social functioning", "role emotional" and "mental health", when compared with the national standard values. Values were also visibly lower for "physical component summary" in the summary score. On comparing the Assembled group and the Individual group, "physical function", "role physical", "social functioning" and "physical component summary" were found to be significantly lower in the Individual group. The mean daily number of steps was 1,892 in the Individual group and 4,579 in the Assembled group. The Individual group thus

  14. A multilevel analysis to explain self-reported adverse health effects and adaptation to urban heat: a cross-sectional survey in the deprived areas of 9 Canadian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélanger, Diane; Abdous, Belkacem; Valois, Pierre; Gosselin, Pierre; Sidi, Elhadji A Laouan

    2016-02-12

    This study identifies the characteristics and perceptions related to the individual, the dwelling and the neighbourhood of residence associated with the prevalence of self-reported adverse health impacts and an adaptation index when it is very hot and humid in summer in the most disadvantaged sectors of the nine most populous cities of Québec, Canada, in 2011. The study uses a cross-sectional design and a stratified representative sample; 3485 people (individual-level) were interviewed in their residence. They lived in 1647 buildings (building-level) in 87 most materially and socially disadvantaged census dissemination areas (DA-level). Multilevel analysis was used to perform 3-level models nested one in the other to examine individual impacts as well as the adaptation index. For the prevalence of impacts, which is 46 %, the logistic model includes 13 individual-level indicators (including air conditioning and the adaptation index) and 1 building-level indicator. For the adaptation index, with values ranging from -3 to +3, the linear model has 10 individual-level indicators, 1 building-level indicator and 2 DA-level indicators. Of all these indicators, 9 were associated to the prevalence of impacts only and 8 to the adaptation index only. This 3-level analysis shows the differential importance of the characteristics of residents, buildings and their surroundings on self-reported adverse health impacts and on adaptation (other than air conditioning) under hot and humid summer conditions. It also identifies indicators specific to impacts or adaptation. People with negative health impacts from heat rely more on adaptation strategies while low physical activity and good dwelling/building insulation lead to lower adaptation. Better neighbourhood walkability favors adaptations other than air conditioning. Thus, adaptation to heat in these neighbourhoods seems reactive rather than preventive. These first multi-level insights pave the way for the development of a

  15. Characteristics of Commercial Motorcyclists in Benin City ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the characteristics of commercial motorcyclists in Ugbowo, Benin-city. A cross-sectional and descriptive study was carried out among commercial motorcyclists in Ugbowo, Benin-city, Edo State. A total of 252 commercial motorcyclists were involved in the study. A cluster sampling method ...

  16. Gender Differences in Mother-Neonate Twin Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riese, Marilyn L.

    To investigate differences in mothers' interaction patterns with their neonate twins based on birth order, relative size at birth, or gender, 37 neonate twins and their mothers were observed during the first 10 minutes of a feeding in a hospital nursery. Time-sampling recordings were made of maternal behaviors related to proximal stimulation,…

  17. A twin-family study of general IQ

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, M; van den Berg, Stéphanie Martine; Boomsma, D.I.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we assess the presence of assortative mating, gene¿environment interaction and the heritability of intelligence in childhood usinga twin family design with twins, their siblings and parents from 112 families. We evaluate two competing hypotheses about the cause of assortativemating in

  18. Genetic influences on dietary variety - Results from a twin study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheibehenne, Benjamin; Todd, Peter M.; van den Berg, Stéphanie Martine; Hatemi, Peter K.; Eaves, Lindon J.; Vogler, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The heritability of variety seeking in the food domain was estimated from a large sample (N = 5,543) of middle age to elderly monozygotic and dizygotic twins from the “Virginia 30,000” twin study. Different dietary variety scores were calculated based on a semi-quantitative food choice questionnaire

  19. Consequences of vanishing twins in IVF/ICSI pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinborg, Anja Bisgaard; Lidegaard, Ojvind; la Cour Freiesleben, Nina

    2005-01-01

    Spontaneous reductions are a possible cause of the increased morbidity in IVF singletons. The aim of this study was to assess incidence rates of spontaneous reductions in IVF/ICSI twin pregnancies and to compare short- and long-term morbidity in survivors of a vanishing co-twin with singletons...

  20. Quantitative XRD analysis of {110} twin density in biotic aragonites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Michio; Kim, Hyejin; Mukai, Hiroki; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Kogure, Toshihiro

    2012-12-01

    {110} Twin densities in biotic aragonite have been estimated quantitatively from the peak widths of specific reflections in powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, as well as direct confirmation of the twins using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Influence of the twin density on the peak widths in the XRD pattern was simulated using DIFFaX program, regarding (110) twin as interstratification of two types of aragonite unit layers with mirrored relationship. The simulation suggested that the twin density can be estimated from the difference of the peak widths between 111 and 021, or between 221 and 211 reflections. Biotic aragonite in the crossed-lamellar microstructure (three species) and nacreous microstructure (four species) of molluscan shells, fish otoliths (two species), and a coral were investigated. The XRD analyses indicated that aragonite crystals in the crossed-lamellar microstructure of the three species contain high density of the twins, which is consistent with the TEM examination. On the other hand, aragonite in the nacre of the four species showed almost no difference of the peak widths between the paired reflections, indicating low twin densities. The results for the fish otoliths were varied between the species. Such variation of the twin density in biotic aragonites may reflect different schemes of crystal growth in biomineralization. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Frequency of twinning in Kwara State, North-Central Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    O.A. Iyiola

    2012-10-05

    Oct 5, 2012 ... Results: Frequencies of twin births of 37.60, 35.01, and 35.9 per 1000 deliveries were recorded for. UITH, OHI and ... Recent work showed that the twinning birth rate in the ..... Health Statistics Data Brief, January 2012; No. 80.

  2. Determinants of Perinatal Mortality in Twins at Ibadan | Olayemi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Twinning being a very important high-risk condition in our environment requires detailed study. There are several studies reviewing factors in twin perinatal mortality in our environment but there is a need to ascertain the relative contributions of each of these factors. Objectives: To assess the relative contributions of ...

  3. Diecephalic thoraco-omphalopagus conjoined twins: case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present a case report of conjoined twins discovered at 17 weeks gestation on routine trans-abdominal ultrasound in a 27 year old woman. The twins were joined at the chest and upper abdomen. They shared a heart, liver, sternum and diaphragm. The patient opted for termination of the pregnancy which was performed ...

  4. Twin deliveries in Sacred Heart Catholic Hospital Obudu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Twin pregnancy is associated with increased risk of obstetric complications as well as increased perinatal mortality rate. The study aims to determine the incidence and outcome of twin pregnancy in a rural/semi urban hospital which provide secondary level obstetric services in South- south Nigeria. Method: ...

  5. A twin-family study of general IQ.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, M.; van den Berg, S.M.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we assess the presence of assortative mating, gene-environment interaction and the heritability of intelligence in childhood using a twin family design with twins, their siblings and parents from 112 families. We evaluate two competing hypotheses about the cause of assortative mating

  6. The Prenatal Environment in Twin Studies: A Review on Chorionicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marceau, K.; McMaster, M.T.; Smith, T.F.; Daams, J.G.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; Boomsma, D.I.; Knopik, V.S.

    2016-01-01

    A literature search was conducted to identify articles examining the association of chorionicity (e.g., whether twins share a single chorion and thus placenta or have separate chorions/placentas) and genetics, psychiatry/behavior, and neurological manifestations in humans twins and higher-order

  7. Management of Conjoined Twins During Neonatal Period | Ali ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background/Purpose: Conjoined twins are rare and complex anomalies of the newborn. It is reported in 1/50.000 to 1/100.000 live births. The aim of the study was to summarize the experiences gained during separation of 5 sets of conjoined twins with presentation of literature review. Materials & Methods: During the period ...

  8. Monozygotic twins with CAPN5 autosomal dominant neovascular inflammatory vitreoretinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowell, Hannah A; Bassuk, Alexander G; Mahajan, Vinit B

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical findings in a set of monozygotic twins with autosomal dominant neovascular inflammatory vitreoretinopathy (ADNIV) over a 23-year period. A pair of female twins were examined between 26 and 49 years of age. The concordance and discordance of their clinical features were determined. The CAPN5 gene was sequenced using genomic DNA. Both twins of an affected father demonstrated Stage I ADNIV with mild vitreous cells and a negative b-wave on electroretinography. Genetic analysis confirmed a guanine to thymine nucleotide (c.728G>T, pArg243Leu) mutation in the CAPN5 gene. Over the course of 23 years, each twin progressed to stage III disease, showing posterior uveitis, cystoid macular edema, intraocular fibrosis, early retinal neovascularization, retinal degeneration, and cataract. Disease progression varied moderately between each twin and was asymmetrical between eyes. Twin A had 20/70 and 20/125 in the right and left eye, respectively, and underwent vitrectomy surgery and intravitreal injections with bevacizumab for recurrent cystoid macular edema. Twin B maintained 20/20 and 20/40 in the right and left eye, respectively without intervention. There was asymmetry between the eyes and some discordance in the rate of disease progression in these monozygotic twins with ADNIV. The overall high disease concordance suggests genetic factors play a major role in clinical manifestations in CAPN5 vitreoretinopathy.

  9. A twin-case study of developmental number sense impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davidse, Neeltje J.; de Jong, Maria T.; Shaul, Shelley; Bus, Adriana G

    2014-01-01

    The current study reports on 9-year-old monozygotic twin girls who fail to make any progress in learning basic mathematics in primary education. We tested the hypothesis that the twins' core maths problems were deficits in number sense that manifested as impairments in approximate and small number

  10. Gut microbiomes of Malawian twin pairs discordant for kwashiorkor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwashiorkor, an enigmatic form of severe acute malnutrition, is the consequence of inadequate nutrient intake plus additional environmental insults. To investigate the role of the gut microbiome, we studied 317 Malawian twin pairs during the first 3 years of life. During this time, half of the twin ...

  11. Twin boundary cavitation in aged type 304 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikka, V.K.; Swindeman, R.W.; Brinkman, C.R.

    1975-10-01

    A transition from grain to twin boundary cavitation was observed in aged-and-creep-tested type 304 stainless steel. Evidence of twin boundary cavitation has also been observed for unaged material under certain test conditions. This same behavior was also found in aged type 316 stainless steel. Several possible reasons have been suggested for the absence of frequently observed grain boundary cavitation

  12. Case of twin pregnancy complicated by idiopathic thrombocytopenic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-09

    May 9, 2016 ... Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is an acquired thrombocytopenia without other clear cause of thrombocytopenia. It is not common in a singleton pregnancy and less common in twin pregnancy. We report a 33‑year‑old ITP pluripara whose first pregnancy was uneventful. She carried twin ...

  13. Women in Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Liz

    1982-01-01

    Suggesting that women are at a disadvantage in cities and towns, discusses experiences of women at home, working women, women traveling, shopping, and growing old in cities. Includes suggestions for studying women in cities. (JN)

  14. City Revenues and Expenses

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — City Revenues and Expenses from the Operating Budget from 2012 to Present, updated every night from the City's JD Edwards ledger.

  15. Pittsburgh City Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Pittsburgh City FacilitiesIncludes: City Administrative Buildings, Police Stations, Fire Stations, EMS Stations, DPW Sites, Senior Centers, Recreation Centers, Pool...

  16. Clean Cities Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-01-01

    This fact sheet explains the Clean Cities Program and provides contact information for all coalitions and regional offices. It answers key questions such as: What is the Clean Cities Program? What are alternative fuels? How does the Clean Cities Program work? What sort of assistance does Clean Cities offer? What has Clean Cities accomplished? What is Clean Cities International? and Where can I find more information?

  17. Heredity In Sarcoidosis - A Registry-Based Twin Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sverrild, Asger; Backer, Vibeke; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sarcoidosis is a multiorgan, granulomatous, inflammatory disease with unknown aetiology. Familial clustering of cases and ethnic variation in the epidemiology suggests a genetic influence on the disease susceptibility. AIM: This paper reports twin concordance and heritability estimates...... of sarcoidosis in order to assess the overall contribution of genetic factors to the disease susceptibility. METHODS: Monozygotic and dizygotic twins enrolled in either the Danish or the Finnish population-based, national Twin Cohorts (61,662 pairs in total) were linked to diagnostic information on sarcoidosis.......012. Compared to the general population we found an 80-fold increased risk of developing sarcoidosis in co-twins of affected monozygotic brothers or sisters. The increased risk in dizygotic twins was on the other hand only 7-fold. Aetiological model fitting gave a heritability of sarcoidosis of 0.66 (95% CI 0...

  18. Twinning in muskox and the cytogenetic investigation of a freemartin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. J. Reindl

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of twinning has been documented for muskox in both wild and captive populations. Of two known captive twin births only one set survived beyond 120 days. In both cases the twins were male-female pairs and both females showed abnormal sexual development. Two sets of stillborn twins have also been recorded. All four stillborn fetuses were female and none showed anomalies of the reproductive tract upon post-mortem examination. Blood cultures from the surviving male and female twins revealed that both were chimeric, indicating the admixture of fetal blood. Fibroblast cultures were normal for the respective sex of each individual. The freemartin heifer had anatomical abnormalities of the clitoris as well as the secondary sex characteristics of a male.

  19. Cognitive function in unaffected twins discordant for affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Maj Vinberg; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2006-01-01

    . Cognitive performance of 203 High-Risk and Low-Risk twins was compared. RESULTS: Healthy twins discordant for unipolar disorder showed lower performance on almost all measures of cognitive function: selective and sustained attention, executive function, language processing and working and declarative memory...... impairment found seemed to be related to genetic liability, as the MZ High-Risk twins showed significant impairment on selective and sustained attention, executive function, language processing and working and declarative memory, whereas the DZ High-Risk twins presented with significantly lower scores only......, and also after adjustment for demographic variables, subclinical symptoms and minor psychopathology. Healthy twins discordant for bipolar disorder showed lower performance on tests measuring episodic and working memory, also after adjustment for the above-mentioned covariables. The discrete cognitive...

  20. Disease-Concordant Twins Empower Genetic Association Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Qihua; Li, Weilong; Vandin, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    and ordinary healthy samples as controls. We examined the power gain of the twin-based design for various scenarios (i.e., cases from monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs concordant for a disease) and compared the power with the ordinary case-control design with cases collected from the unrelated patient...... concordant for a disease, should confer increased power in genetic association analysis because of their genetic relatedness. We conducted a computer simulation study to explore the power advantage of the disease-concordant twin design, which uses singletons from disease-concordant twin pairs as cases...... population. Simulation was done by assigning various allele frequencies and allelic relative risks for different mode of genetic inheritance. In general, for achieving a power estimate of 80%, the sample sizes needed for dizygotic and monozygotic twin cases were one half and one fourth of the sample size...