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Sample records for twilight-active firefly photinus

  1. Flash signal evolution in Photinus fireflies: character displacement and signal exploitation in a visual communication system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanger-Hall, Kathrin F; Lloyd, James E

    2015-03-01

    Animal communication is an intriguing topic in evolutionary biology. In this comprehensive study of visual signal evolution, we used a phylogenetic approach to study the evolution of the flash communication system of North American fireflies. The North American firefly genus Photinus contains 35 described species with simple ON-OFF visual signals, and information on habitat types, sympatric congeners, and predators. This makes them an ideal study system to test hypotheses on the evolution of male and female visual signal traits. Our analysis of 34 Photinus species suggests two temporal pattern generators: one for flash duration and one for flash intervals. Reproductive character displacement was a main factor for signal divergence in male flash duration among sympatric Photinus species. Male flash pattern intervals (i.e., the duration of the dark periods between signals) were positively correlated with the number of sympatric Photuris fireflies, which include predators of Photinus. Females of different Photinus species differ in their response preferences to male traits. As in other communication systems, firefly male sexual signals seem to be a compromise between optimizing mating success (sexual selection) and minimizing predation risk (natural selection). An integrative model for Photinus signal evolution is proposed. © 2015 The Author(s).

  2. Improvement of thermostability and activity of firefly luciferase through [TMG][Ac] ionic liquid mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Mehdi; Hosseinkhani, Saman; Heydari, Akbar; Khavari-Nejad, Ramazan Ali; Akbari, Jafar

    2012-10-01

    Firefly luciferase catalyzes production of light from luciferin in the presence of Mg(2+)-ATP and oxygen. This enzyme has wide range of applications in biotechnology and development of biosensors. The low thermal stability of wild-type firefly luciferase is a limiting factor in most applications. Improvements in activity and stability of few enzymes in the presence of ionic liquids were shown in many reports. In this study, kinetic and thermal stability of firefly luciferase from Photinus pyralis in the presence of three tetramethylguanidine-based ionic liquids was investigated. The enzyme has shown improved activity in the presence of [1, 1, 3, 3-tetramethylguanidine][acetate], but in the presence of [TMG][trichloroacetate] and [TMG][triflouroacetate] activity, it decreased or unchanged significantly. Among these ionic liquids, only [TMG][Ac] has increased the thermal stability of luciferase. Incubation of [TMG][Ac] with firefly luciferase brought about with decrease of K(m) for ATP.

  3. Modified Firefly Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surafel Luleseged Tilahun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Firefly algorithm is one of the new metaheuristic algorithms for optimization problems. The algorithm is inspired by the flashing behavior of fireflies. In the algorithm, randomly generated solutions will be considered as fireflies, and brightness is assigned depending on their performance on the objective function. One of the rules used to construct the algorithm is, a firefly will be attracted to a brighter firefly, and if there is no brighter firefly, it will move randomly. In this paper we modify this random movement of the brighter firefly by generating random directions in order to determine the best direction in which the brightness increases. If such a direction is not generated, it will remain in its current position. Furthermore the assignment of attractiveness is modified in such a way that the effect of the objective function is magnified. From the simulation result it is shown that the modified firefly algorithm performs better than the standard one in finding the best solution with smaller CPU time.

  4. Step-wise addition of disulfide bridge in firefly luciferase controls color shift through a flexible loop: a thermodynamic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, Mahboobeh; Hosseinkhani, Saman; Hassani, Leila

    2013-02-01

    Multi-color bioluminescence is developed using the introduction of single/double disulfide bridges in firefly luciferase. The bioluminescence reaction, which uses luciferin, Mg(2+)-ATP and molecular oxygen to yield an electronically excited oxyluciferin, is carried out by the luciferase and emits visible light. The bioluminescence color of firefly luciferases is determined by the luciferase sequence and assay conditions. It has been proposed that the stability of a protein may increase through the introduction of a disulfide bridge that decreases the configurational entropy of unfolding. Single and double disulfide bridges are introduced into Photinus pyralis firefly luciferase to make separate mutant enzymes with a single/double bridge (C(81)-A(105)C, L(306)C-L(309)C, P(451)C-V(469)C; C(81)-A(105)C/P(451)C-V(469)C, and A(296)C-A(326)C/P(451)C-V(469)C). By introduction of disulfide bridges using site-directed mutagenesis in Photinus pyralis luciferase the color of emitted light was changed to red or kept in different extents. The bioluminescence color shift occurred with displacement of a critical loop in the luciferase structure without any change in green emitter mutants. Thermodynamic analysis revealed that among mutants, L(306)C-L(309)C shows a remarkable stability against urea denaturation and also a considerable increase in kinetic stability and a clear shift in bioluminescence spectra towards red.

  5. Dragonflies and Fireflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannlein, Sally

    2009-01-01

    Most first-graders are interested in insects. In this article, the author describes a lesson, "Dragonflies and Fireflies," which is a first-grade lesson showing drawing, symmetry, neighboring colors (analogous) and watercolor techniques.

  6. A New Modified Firefly Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medha Gupta

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nature inspired meta-heuristic algorithms studies the emergent collective intelligence of groups of simple agents. Firefly Algorithm is one of the new such swarm-based metaheuristic algorithm inspired by the flashing behavior of fireflies. The algorithm was first proposed in 2008 and since then has been successfully used for solving various optimization problems. In this work, we intend to propose a new modified version of Firefly algorithm (MoFA and later its performance is compared with the standard firefly algorithm along with various other meta-heuristic algorithms. Numerical studies and results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is superior to existing algorithms.

  7. Design and introduction of a disulfide bridge in firefly luciferase: increase of thermostability and decrease of pH sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imani, Mehdi; Hosseinkhani, Saman; Ahmadian, Shahin; Nazari, Mahboobeh

    2010-08-01

    The thermal sensitivity and pH-sensitive spectral properties of firefly luciferase have hampered its application in a variety of fields. It is proposed that the stability of a protein can be increased by introduction of disulfide bridge that decreases the configurational entropy of unfolding. A disulfide bridge is introduced into Photinus pyralis firefly luciferase to make two separate mutant enzymes with a single bridge. Even though the A103C/S121C mutant showed remarkable thermal stability, its specific activity decreased, whereas the A296C/A326C mutant showed tremendous thermal stability, relative pH insensitivity and 7.3-fold increase of specific activity. Moreover, the bioluminescence emission spectrum of A296C/A326C was resistant against higher temperatures (37 degrees C). Far-UV CD analysis showed slight secondary structure changes for both mutants. Thermal denaturation analysis showed that conformational stabilities of A103C/S121C and A296C/A326C are more than native firefly luciferase. It is proposed that since A296 and A326 are situated in the vicinity of the enzyme active site microenvironment in comparison with A103 and S121, the formation of a disulfide bridge in this region has more impact on enzyme kinetic characteristics.

  8. Bioluminescence emissions of the firefly Luciola praeusta ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    The emission of light by fireflies has been of considerable ... vivo emission spectrum of a firefly Luciola praeusta, where the full width at ... In vivo emission spectra of fifty specimens, both male .... oxidation in a liquid phase; Biofizika 9 306–311.

  9. Tibetan Firefly Luciferase with Low Temperature Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitani, Yasuo; Futahashi, Ryo; Liu, Zichao; Liang, Xingcai; Ohmiya, Yoshihiro

    2017-03-01

    Fireflies are widespread all over the world and a numerous numbers of luciferases have been isolated and characterized. In this study, we identified and characterized the luciferase and luciferase-like genes from a Tibetan firefly collected in Shangri-La, China. The altitude of this area is more than 3300 m. We saw this Tibetan firefly flying with strong luminescence after sunset at ~10°C. We analyzed the transcriptome of Tibetan firefly using head, thorax, abdomen (without light organ), and light organ tissue by RNA sequencing. We identified one luciferase gene, which was almost identical to luciferase from fireflies Pyrocoelia species, and expressed specifically in the light organ. Interestingly, the optimal temperature of the Tibetan firefly recombinant luciferase was 10°C. The K m for D-luciferin and ATP of the recombinant luciferase was 23 and 154 μm, respectively. The optimal pH was around 7.0-7.5. The emission peak was 556 nm at pH 8.0, while it shifted to 606 nm at pH 6.0. We also found a luciferase-like gene with 43% identical amino acids to the Tibetan firefly luciferase, which was scarcely expressed in any portion of the adult body. No luciferase activity was detected for this luciferase-like protein. © 2016 The American Society of Photobiology.

  10. Self-Adaptive Step Firefly Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhao Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the standard firefly algorithm, each firefly has the same step settings and its values decrease from iteration to iteration. Therefore, it may fall into the local optimum. Furthermore, the decreasing of step is restrained by the maximum of iteration, which has an influence on the convergence speed and precision. In order to avoid falling into the local optimum and reduce the impact of the maximum of iteration, a self-adaptive step firefly algorithm is proposed in the paper. Its core idea is setting the step of each firefly varying with the iteration, according to each firefly’s historical information and current situation. Experiments are made to show the performance of our approach compared with the standard FA, based on sixteen standard testing benchmark functions. The results reveal that our method can prevent the premature convergence and improve the convergence speed and accurateness.

  11. Evaluation of the performance of different firefly algorithms to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of firefly algorithms are applied to solve the nonlinear ELD problem. ... problem using those recent variants and the classical firefly algorithm for different test cases. Efficiency ...... International Journal of Machine. Learning and Computing, Vol.

  12. Experimental tests of light-pollution impacts on nocturnal insect courtship and dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firebaugh, Ariel; Haynes, Kyle J

    2016-12-01

    Though a number of effects of artificial light pollution on behavior and physiology have been described, there is little understanding of their consequences for the growth and distribution of populations. Here, we document impacts of light pollution on aspects of firefly population ecology and underlying mating behaviors. Many firefly species have a unique communication system whereby bioluminescent flashes are used in courtship displays to find and attract mates. We performed a series of manipulative field experiments in which we quantified the effects of adding artificial nighttime lighting on abundances and total flashing activity of fireflies, courtship behaviors and mating between tethered females and free-flying males, and dispersal distances of marked individuals. We show that light pollution reduces flashing activities in a dark-active firefly species (Photuris versicolor) by 69.69 % and courtship behavior and mating success in a twilight-active species (Photinus pyralis). Though courtship behavior and mating success of Photinus pyralis was reduced by light pollution, we found no effects of light pollution on male dispersal in this species. Our findings suggest that light pollution is likely to adversely impact firefly populations, and contribute to wider discussions about the ecological consequences of sensory pollution.

  13. First lasing, capabilities, and flexibilities of FIREFLY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berryman, K.W.; Smith, T.I. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    FIREFLY is a free electron law that was designed to produce picosecond pulses of light in the range between 15 and 100 microns. It uses an inexpensive electromagnetic wiggler and variable outcoupling to provide maximum flexibility for user experiments. FIREFLY first lased on November 23, 1994, and has now operated from 15 to 65 microns. It has lased in both a traditional undulator configuration and as an optical klystron, and has also lased on the third harmonic between 9 and 11microns. We present measurements, of optical spectral width and pulse width at a range of wavelengths in both configurations. We also compare direct measurements of electron beam extraction, efficiency with observed optical power for fundamental, third harmonic, arid optical klystron operation. We discuss wavelength switching between adjacent peaks in the gain spectrum of an optical klystron, observed for the first time in FIREFLY. Finally, we focus on issues relevant to experimentation with FIREFLY, including continuously variable outcoupling, optical mode quality, and beam handling in the far-infrared.

  14. First lasing, capabilities, and flexibilities of FIREFLY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berryman, K.W.; Smith, T.I.

    1995-01-01

    FIREFLY is a free electron law that was designed to produce picosecond pulses of light in the range between 15 and 100 microns. It uses an inexpensive electromagnetic wiggler and variable outcoupling to provide maximum flexibility for user experiments. FIREFLY first lased on November 23, 1994, and has now operated from 15 to 65 microns. It has lased in both a traditional undulator configuration and as an optical klystron, and has also lased on the third harmonic between 9 and 11microns. We present measurements, of optical spectral width and pulse width at a range of wavelengths in both configurations. We also compare direct measurements of electron beam extraction, efficiency with observed optical power for fundamental, third harmonic, arid optical klystron operation. We discuss wavelength switching between adjacent peaks in the gain spectrum of an optical klystron, observed for the first time in FIREFLY. Finally, we focus on issues relevant to experimentation with FIREFLY, including continuously variable outcoupling, optical mode quality, and beam handling in the far-infrared

  15. Firefly Mating Algorithm for Continuous Optimization Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarita Ritthipakdee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a swarm intelligence algorithm, called firefly mating algorithm (FMA, for solving continuous optimization problems. FMA uses genetic algorithm as the core of the algorithm. The main feature of the algorithm is a novel mating pair selection method which is inspired by the following 2 mating behaviors of fireflies in nature: (i the mutual attraction between males and females causes them to mate and (ii fireflies of both sexes are of the multiple-mating type, mating with multiple opposite sex partners. A female continues mating until her spermatheca becomes full, and, in the same vein, a male can provide sperms for several females until his sperm reservoir is depleted. This new feature enhances the global convergence capability of the algorithm. The performance of FMA was tested with 20 benchmark functions (sixteen 30-dimensional functions and four 2-dimensional ones against FA, ALC-PSO, COA, MCPSO, LWGSODE, MPSODDS, DFOA, SHPSOS, LSA, MPDPGA, DE, and GABC algorithms. The experimental results showed that the success rates of our proposed algorithm with these functions were higher than those of other algorithms and the proposed algorithm also required fewer numbers of iterations to reach the global optima.

  16. Effectiveness of firefly algorithm based neural network in time series ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effectiveness of firefly algorithm based neural network in time series forecasting. ... In the experiments, three well known time series were used to evaluate the performance. Results obtained were compared with ... Keywords: Time series, Artificial Neural Network, Firefly Algorithm, Particle Swarm Optimization, Overfitting ...

  17. Firefly, Firefly: First Grade Students Learn, Talk, and Write about Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, Jennifer; Sorensen, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    Inspired by a song to be sung by her daughter's first-grade class in an upcoming musical, a parent volunteer teacher used fireflies as the focus of a science lesson to build on the children's interest and experiences. She developed a 5E lesson (Bybee et al. 2006) using the backwards-design approach (Wiggins and McTighe 2005) to ensure meaningful…

  18. Multilevel Image Segmentation Based on an Improved Firefly Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Multilevel image segmentation is time-consuming and involves large computation. The firefly algorithm has been applied to enhancing the efficiency of multilevel image segmentation. However, in some cases, firefly algorithm is easily trapped into local optima. In this paper, an improved firefly algorithm (IFA is proposed to search multilevel thresholds. In IFA, in order to help fireflies escape from local optima and accelerate the convergence, two strategies (i.e., diversity enhancing strategy with Cauchy mutation and neighborhood strategy are proposed and adaptively chosen according to different stagnation stations. The proposed IFA is compared with three benchmark optimal algorithms, that is, Darwinian particle swarm optimization, hybrid differential evolution optimization, and firefly algorithm. The experimental results show that the proposed method can efficiently segment multilevel images and obtain better performance than the other three methods.

  19. Hybrid Firefly Variants Algorithm for Localization Optimization in WSN

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    P. SrideviPonmalar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Localization is one of the key issues in wireless sensor networks. Several algorithms and techniques have been introduced for localization. Localization is a procedural technique of estimating the sensor node location. In this paper, a novel three hybrid algorithms based on firefly is proposed for localization problem. Hybrid Genetic Algorithm-Firefly Localization Algorithm (GA-FFLA, Hybrid Differential Evolution-Firefly Localization Algorithm (DE-FFLA and Hybrid Particle Swarm Optimization -Firefly Localization Algorithm (PSO-FFLA are analyzed, designed and implemented to optimize the localization error. The localization algorithms are compared based on accuracy of estimation of location, time complexity and iterations required to achieve the accuracy. All the algorithms have hundred percent estimation accuracy but with variations in the number of firefliesr requirements, variation in time complexity and number of iteration requirements. Keywords: Localization; Genetic Algorithm; Differential Evolution; Particle Swarm Optimization

  20. Biosynthesis of firefly luciferin in adult lantern: decarboxylation of L-cysteine is a key step for benzothiazole ring formation in firefly luciferin synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oba, Yuichi; Yoshida, Naoki; Kanie, Shusei; Ojika, Makoto; Inouye, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    Bioluminescence in fireflies and click beetles is produced by a luciferase-luciferin reaction. The luminescence property and protein structure of firefly luciferase have been investigated, and its cDNA has been used for various assay systems. The chemical structure of firefly luciferin was identified as the D-form in 1963 and studies on the biosynthesis of firefly luciferin began early in the 1970's. Incorporation experiments using (14)C-labeled compounds were performed, and cysteine and benzoquinone/hydroquinone were proposed to be biosynthetic component for firefly luciferin. However, there have been no clear conclusions regarding the biosynthetic components of firefly luciferin over 30 years. Incorporation studies were performed by injecting stable isotope-labeled compounds, including L-[U-(13)C3]-cysteine, L-[1-(13)C]-cysteine, L-[3-(13)C]-cysteine, 1,4-[D6]-hydroquinone, and p-[2,3,5,6-D]-benzoquinone, into the adult lantern of the living Japanese firefly Luciola lateralis. After extracting firefly luciferin from the lantern, the incorporation of stable isotope-labeled compounds into firefly luciferin was identified by LC/ESI-TOF-MS. The positions of the stable isotope atoms in firefly luciferin were determined by the mass fragmentation of firefly luciferin. We demonstrated for the first time that D- and L-firefly luciferins are biosynthesized in the lantern of the adult firefly from two L-cysteine molecules with p-benzoquinone/1,4-hydroquinone, accompanied by the decarboxylation of L-cysteine.

  1. Cuckoo search and firefly algorithm theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Nature-inspired algorithms such as cuckoo search and firefly algorithm have become popular and widely used in recent years in many applications. These algorithms are flexible, efficient and easy to implement. New progress has been made in the last few years, and it is timely to summarize the latest developments of cuckoo search and firefly algorithm and their diverse applications. This book will review both theoretical studies and applications with detailed algorithm analysis, implementation and case studies so that readers can benefit most from this book.  Application topics are contributed by many leading experts in the field. Topics include cuckoo search, firefly algorithm, algorithm analysis, feature selection, image processing, travelling salesman problem, neural network, GPU optimization, scheduling, queuing, multi-objective manufacturing optimization, semantic web service, shape optimization, and others.   This book can serve as an ideal reference for both graduates and researchers in computer scienc...

  2. A novel optimization method, Effective Discrete Firefly Algorithm, for fuel reload design of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poursalehi, N.; Zolfaghari, A.; Minuchehr, A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An advanced version of firefly algorithm, EDFA, is proposed for the core pattern optimization problem. • The movement of each firefly toward the best firefly with a dynamic probability is the major improvement of EDFA. • LPO results represent the faster convergence and better performance of EDFA in comparison to CFA and DFA. - Abstract: Inspired by fireflies behavior in nature, a firefly algorithm has been developed for solving optimization problems. In this approach, each firefly movement is based on absorption of the other one. For enhancing the performance of firefly algorithm in the optimization process of nuclear reactor loading pattern optimization (LPO), we introduce a new variant of firefly algorithm, i.e. Effective Discrete Firefly Algorithm (EDFA). In EDFA, a new behavior is the movement of fireflies to current global best position with a dynamic probability, i.e. the movement of each firefly can be determined to be toward the brighter or brightest firefly’s position in any iteration of the algorithm. In this paper, our optimization objectives for the LPO are the maximization of K eff along with the minimization of the power peaking factor (PPF). In order to represent the increase of convergence speed of EDFA, basic firefly algorithms including the continuous firefly algorithm (CFA) and the discrete firefly algorithm (DFA) also have been implemented. Loading pattern optimization results of two well-known problems confirm better performance of EDFA in obtaining nearly optimized fuel arrangements in comparison to CFA and DFA. All in all, we can suggest applying the EDFA to other optimization problems of nuclear engineering field in order to investigate its performance in gaining considered objectives

  3. Genome size of 14 species of fireflies (Insecta, Coleoptera, Lampyridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui-Chun Liu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic genome size data are important both as the basis for comparative research into genome evolution and as estimators of the cost and difficulty of genome sequencing programs for non-model organisms. In this study, the genome size of 14 species of fireflies (Lampyridae (two genera in Lampyrinae, three genera in Luciolinae, and one genus in subfamily incertae sedis were estimated by propidium iodide (PI-based flow cytometry. The haploid genome sizes of Lampyridae ranged from 0.42 to 1.31 pg, a 3.1-fold span. Genome sizes of the fireflies varied within the tested subfamilies and genera. Lamprigera and Pyrocoelia species had large and small genome sizes, respectively. No correlation was found between genome size and morphological traits such as body length, body width, eye width, and antennal length. Our data provide additional information on genome size estimation of the firefly family Lampyridae. Furthermore, this study will help clarify the cost and difficulty of genome sequencing programs for non-model organisms and will help promote studies on firefly genome evolution.

  4. Adaptive firefly algorithm: parameter analysis and its application.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngaam J Cheung

    Full Text Available As a nature-inspired search algorithm, firefly algorithm (FA has several control parameters, which may have great effects on its performance. In this study, we investigate the parameter selection and adaptation strategies in a modified firefly algorithm - adaptive firefly algorithm (AdaFa. There are three strategies in AdaFa including (1 a distance-based light absorption coefficient; (2 a gray coefficient enhancing fireflies to share difference information from attractive ones efficiently; and (3 five different dynamic strategies for the randomization parameter. Promising selections of parameters in the strategies are analyzed to guarantee the efficient performance of AdaFa. AdaFa is validated over widely used benchmark functions, and the numerical experiments and statistical tests yield useful conclusions on the strategies and the parameter selections affecting the performance of AdaFa. When applied to the real-world problem - protein tertiary structure prediction, the results demonstrated improved variants can rebuild the tertiary structure with the average root mean square deviation less than 0.4Å and 1.5Å from the native constrains with noise free and 10% Gaussian white noise.

  5. Evaluation of the performance of different firefly algorithms to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To solve the economic load dispatch problem, traditional and intelligent techniques were applied. Researchers have shown interest in utilizing metaheuristic methods to solve complex optimization problems in real life applications. In this paper, three alternatives of firefly algorithms are applied to solve the nonlinear ELD ...

  6. Churn prediction on huge telecom data using hybrid firefly based classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar A.Q. Ahmed

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Churn prediction in telecom has become a major requirement due to the increase in the number of telecom providers. However due to the hugeness, sparsity and imbalanced nature of the data, churn prediction in telecom has always been a complex task. This paper presents a metaheuristic based churn prediction technique that performs churn prediction on huge telecom data. A hybridized form of Firefly algorithm is used as the classifier. It has been identified that the compute intensive component of the Firefly algorithm is the comparison block, where every firefly is compared with every other firefly to identify the one with the highest light intensity. This component is replaced by Simulated Annealing and the classification process is carried out. Experiments were conducted on the Orange dataset. It was observed that Firefly algorithm works best on churn data and the hybridized Firefly algorithm provides effective and faster results.

  7. Data Clustering on Breast Cancer Data Using Firefly Algorithm with Golden Ratio Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEMIR, M.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Heuristic methods are problem solving methods. In general, they obtain near-optimal solutions, and they do not take the care of provability of this case. The heuristic methods do not guarantee to obtain the optimal results; however, they guarantee to obtain near-optimal solutions in considerable time. In this paper, an application was performed by using firefly algorithm - one of the heuristic methods. The golden ratio was applied to different steps of firefly algorithm and different parameters of firefly algorithm to develop a new algorithm - called Firefly Algorithm with Golden Ratio (FAGR. It was shown that the golden ratio made firefly algorithm be superior to the firefly algorithm without golden ratio. At this aim, the developed algorithm was applied to WBCD database (breast cancer database to cluster data obtained from breast cancer patients. The highest obtained success rate among all executions is 96% and the highest obtained average success rate in all executions is 94.5%.

  8. Otsu Based Optimal Multilevel Image Thresholding Using Firefly Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sri Madhava Raja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Histogram based multilevel thresholding approach is proposed using Brownian distribution (BD guided firefly algorithm (FA. A bounded search technique is also presented to improve the optimization accuracy with lesser search iterations. Otsu’s between-class variance function is maximized to obtain optimal threshold level for gray scale images. The performances of the proposed algorithm are demonstrated by considering twelve benchmark images and are compared with the existing FA algorithms such as Lévy flight (LF guided FA and random operator guided FA. The performance assessment comparison between the proposed and existing firefly algorithms is carried using prevailing parameters such as objective function, standard deviation, peak-to-signal ratio (PSNR, structural similarity (SSIM index, and search time of CPU. The results show that BD guided FA provides better objective function, PSNR, and SSIM, whereas LF based FA provides faster convergence with relatively lower CPU time.

  9. An Effective Hybrid Firefly Algorithm with Harmony Search for Global Numerical Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihong Guo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid metaheuristic approach by hybridizing harmony search (HS and firefly algorithm (FA, namely, HS/FA, is proposed to solve function optimization. In HS/FA, the exploration of HS and the exploitation of FA are fully exerted, so HS/FA has a faster convergence speed than HS and FA. Also, top fireflies scheme is introduced to reduce running time, and HS is utilized to mutate between fireflies when updating fireflies. The HS/FA method is verified by various benchmarks. From the experiments, the implementation of HS/FA is better than the standard FA and other eight optimization methods.

  10. Modified Firefly Algorithm based controller design for integrating and unstable delay processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gupta

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, Modified Firefly Algorithm has been used for optimizing the controller parameters of Smith predictor structure. The proposed algorithm modifies the position formula of the standard Firefly Algorithm in order to achieve faster convergence rate. Performance criteria Integral Square Error (ISE is optimized using this optimization technique. Simulation results show high performance for Modified Firefly Algorithm as compared to conventional Firefly Algorithm in terms of convergence rate. Integrating and unstable delay processes are taken as examples to indicate the performance of the proposed method.

  11. Excited-State Dynamics of Oxyluciferin in Firefly Luciferase

    KAUST Repository

    Snellenburg, Joris J.

    2016-11-23

    The color variations of light emitted by some natural and mutant luciferases are normally attributed to collective factors referred to as microenvironment effects; however, the exact nature of these interactions between the emitting molecule (oxyluciferin) and the active site remains elusive. Although model studies of noncomplexed oxyluciferin and its variants have greatly advanced the understanding of its photochemistry, extrapolation of the conclusions to the real system requires assumptions about the polarity and proticity of the active site. To decipher the intricate excited-state dynamics, global and target analysis is performed here for the first time on the steady-state and time-resolved spectra of firefly oxyluciferin complexed with luciferase from the Japanese firefly (Luciola cruciata). The experimental steady-state and time resolved luminescence spectra of the oxyluciferin/luciferase complex in solution are compared with the broadband time-resolved firefly bioluminescence recorded in vivo. The results demonstrate that de-excitation of the luminophore results in a complex cascade of photoinduced proton transfer processes and can be interpreted by the pH dependence of the emitted light. It is confirmed that proton transfer is the central event in the spectrochemistry of this system for which any assignment of the pH dependent emission to a single chemical species would be an oversimplification.

  12. Excited-State Dynamics of Oxyluciferin in Firefly Luciferase

    KAUST Repository

    Snellenburg, Joris J.; Laptenok, Sergey P.; DeSa, Richard J.; Naumov, Pance; Solntsev, Kyril M.

    2016-01-01

    The color variations of light emitted by some natural and mutant luciferases are normally attributed to collective factors referred to as microenvironment effects; however, the exact nature of these interactions between the emitting molecule (oxyluciferin) and the active site remains elusive. Although model studies of noncomplexed oxyluciferin and its variants have greatly advanced the understanding of its photochemistry, extrapolation of the conclusions to the real system requires assumptions about the polarity and proticity of the active site. To decipher the intricate excited-state dynamics, global and target analysis is performed here for the first time on the steady-state and time-resolved spectra of firefly oxyluciferin complexed with luciferase from the Japanese firefly (Luciola cruciata). The experimental steady-state and time resolved luminescence spectra of the oxyluciferin/luciferase complex in solution are compared with the broadband time-resolved firefly bioluminescence recorded in vivo. The results demonstrate that de-excitation of the luminophore results in a complex cascade of photoinduced proton transfer processes and can be interpreted by the pH dependence of the emitted light. It is confirmed that proton transfer is the central event in the spectrochemistry of this system for which any assignment of the pH dependent emission to a single chemical species would be an oversimplification.

  13. Bouc–Wen hysteresis model identification using Modified Firefly Algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaman, Mohammad Asif; Sikder, Urmita

    2015-01-01

    The parameters of Bouc–Wen hysteresis model are identified using a Modified Firefly Algorithm. The proposed algorithm uses dynamic process control parameters to improve its performance. The algorithm is used to find the model parameter values that results in the least amount of error between a set of given data points and points obtained from the Bouc–Wen model. The performance of the algorithm is compared with the performance of conventional Firefly Algorithm, Genetic Algorithm and Differential Evolution algorithm in terms of convergence rate and accuracy. Compared to the other three optimization algorithms, the proposed algorithm is found to have good convergence rate with high degree of accuracy in identifying Bouc–Wen model parameters. Finally, the proposed method is used to find the Bouc–Wen model parameters from experimental data. The obtained model is found to be in good agreement with measured data. - Highlights: • We describe a new method to find the Bouc–Wen hysteresis model parameters. • We propose a Modified Firefly Algorithm. • We compare our method with existing methods to find that the proposed method performs better. • We use our model to fit experimental results. Good agreement is found

  14. A Novel Hybrid Firefly Algorithm for Global Optimization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Zhang

    Full Text Available Global optimization is challenging to solve due to its nonlinearity and multimodality. Traditional algorithms such as the gradient-based methods often struggle to deal with such problems and one of the current trends is to use metaheuristic algorithms. In this paper, a novel hybrid population-based global optimization algorithm, called hybrid firefly algorithm (HFA, is proposed by combining the advantages of both the firefly algorithm (FA and differential evolution (DE. FA and DE are executed in parallel to promote information sharing among the population and thus enhance searching efficiency. In order to evaluate the performance and efficiency of the proposed algorithm, a diverse set of selected benchmark functions are employed and these functions fall into two groups: unimodal and multimodal. The experimental results show better performance of the proposed algorithm compared to the original version of the firefly algorithm (FA, differential evolution (DE and particle swarm optimization (PSO in the sense of avoiding local minima and increasing the convergence rate.

  15. Bouc–Wen hysteresis model identification using Modified Firefly Algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaman, Mohammad Asif, E-mail: zaman@stanford.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University (United States); Sikder, Urmita [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California, Berkeley (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The parameters of Bouc–Wen hysteresis model are identified using a Modified Firefly Algorithm. The proposed algorithm uses dynamic process control parameters to improve its performance. The algorithm is used to find the model parameter values that results in the least amount of error between a set of given data points and points obtained from the Bouc–Wen model. The performance of the algorithm is compared with the performance of conventional Firefly Algorithm, Genetic Algorithm and Differential Evolution algorithm in terms of convergence rate and accuracy. Compared to the other three optimization algorithms, the proposed algorithm is found to have good convergence rate with high degree of accuracy in identifying Bouc–Wen model parameters. Finally, the proposed method is used to find the Bouc–Wen model parameters from experimental data. The obtained model is found to be in good agreement with measured data. - Highlights: • We describe a new method to find the Bouc–Wen hysteresis model parameters. • We propose a Modified Firefly Algorithm. • We compare our method with existing methods to find that the proposed method performs better. • We use our model to fit experimental results. Good agreement is found.

  16. Size and Topology Optimization for Trusses with Discrete Design Variables by Improved Firefly Algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Yue; Li, Q.; Hu, Qingjie; Borgart, A.

    2017-01-01

    Firefly Algorithm (FA, for short) is inspired by the social behavior of fireflies and their phenomenon of bioluminescent communication. Based on the fundamentals of FA, two improved strategies are proposed to conduct size and topology optimization for trusses with discrete design variables. Firstly,

  17. Building Twilight "Light Sensors" to Study the Effects of Light Pollution on Fireflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thancharoen, Anchana; Branham, Marc A.; Lloyd, James E.

    2008-01-01

    Light pollution negatively affects many nocturnal organisms. We outline two experiments that can be conducted by students to examine the effects of light pollution on firefly behavior. Inexpensive electronic light sensors, which are easy to construct and calibrate, are used to sample light levels along transects in spaces where fireflies are…

  18. Assessment of environmental factors that affect the fireflies for ecotourism in Unesco Tasik Chini biosphere reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslan, Norzeana; Sulaiman, Norela

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted to study the firefly species found in Tasik Chini, the soil factors that suitable for larval development fireflies flashes, and the sociological aspects of the community's availability to engage in firefly ecotourism. This was achieved through firefly sampling, soil analysis, abiotic data collection and by questionnaire surveys from local community perceptions and knowledge on fireflies and ecotourism. Fireflies sampling were conducted from December 2011 to January 2013 at Kampung Melai and Kampung Cenahan. Three non-synchronize fireflies genus were found, namely Colophotia sp., Pygoluciola sp., and Pyrocoelia sp. A total of 25 questionnaires were given to four groups of respondents consisting orang asli (5 respondents), boat operator (2 respondents), resort workers (5 respondents) and FELDA residents (13 respondents). The questionnaires were analysed using Rasch Winstep Software based on Rasch Measurement Model. Results of the survey indicated that the local community was not ready for ecotourism in their area. Meanwhile, the soil pH was very acidic and the heavy metals concentration was high, which is not good for the development of firefly larvae. In conclusion, Tasik Chini was not having the potential for ecotourism. Despite the fact, improvement of soils with soil remediation methods can be apply for enhancing larvae development and having more awareness campaign of ecotourism to local community.

  19. Performance evaluation of firefly algorithm with variation in sorting for non-linear benchmark problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbarkar, A. J.; Balande, U. T.; Seth, P. D.

    2017-06-01

    The field of nature inspired computing and optimization techniques have evolved to solve difficult optimization problems in diverse fields of engineering, science and technology. The firefly attraction process is mimicked in the algorithm for solving optimization problems. In Firefly Algorithm (FA) sorting of fireflies is done by using sorting algorithm. The original FA is proposed with bubble sort for ranking the fireflies. In this paper, the quick sort replaces bubble sort to decrease the time complexity of FA. The dataset used is unconstrained benchmark functions from CEC 2005 [22]. The comparison of FA using bubble sort and FA using quick sort is performed with respect to best, worst, mean, standard deviation, number of comparisons and execution time. The experimental result shows that FA using quick sort requires less number of comparisons but requires more execution time. The increased number of fireflies helps to converge into optimal solution whereas by varying dimension for algorithm performed better at a lower dimension than higher dimension.

  20. Absorption spectrum of the firefly luciferin anion isolated in vacuo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Støchkel, Kristian; Milne, Bruce F; Brøndsted Nielsen, Steen

    2011-03-24

    The excited-state physics of the firefly luciferin anion depends on its chemical environment, and it is therefore important to establish the intrinsic behavior of the bare ion. Here we report electronic absorption spectra of the anion isolated in vacuo obtained at an electrostatic ion storage ring and an accelerator mass spectrometer where ionic dissociation is monitored on a long time scale (from 33 μs and up to 3 ms) and on a short time scale (0-3 μs), respectively. In the ring experiment the yield of all neutrals (mainly CO(2)) as a function of wavelength was measured whereas in the single pass experiment, the abundance of daughter ions formed after loss of CO(2) was recorded to provide action spectra. We find maxima at 535 and 265 nm, and that the band shape is largely determined by the sampling time interval, which is due to the kinetics of the dissociation process. Calculations at the TD-B3LYP/TZVPP++ level predict maximum absorption at 533 and 275 nm for the carboxylate isomer in excellent agreement with the experimental findings. The phenolate isomer lies higher in energy by 0.22 eV, and also its absorption maximum is calculated to be at 463 nm, which is far away from the experimental value. Our data serve to benchmark future theoretical models for bioluminescence from fireflies.

  1. Synchronous Firefly Algorithm for Cluster Head Selection in WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhusudhanan Baskaran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Network (WSN consists of small low-cost, low-power multifunctional nodes interconnected to efficiently aggregate and transmit data to sink. Cluster-based approaches use some nodes as Cluster Heads (CHs and organize WSNs efficiently for aggregation of data and energy saving. A CH conveys information gathered by cluster nodes and aggregates/compresses data before transmitting it to a sink. However, this additional responsibility of the node results in a higher energy drain leading to uneven network degradation. Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH offsets this by probabilistically rotating cluster heads role among nodes with energy above a set threshold. CH selection in WSN is NP-Hard as optimal data aggregation with efficient energy savings cannot be solved in polynomial time. In this work, a modified firefly heuristic, synchronous firefly algorithm, is proposed to improve the network performance. Extensive simulation shows the proposed technique to perform well compared to LEACH and energy-efficient hierarchical clustering. Simulations show the effectiveness of the proposed method in decreasing the packet loss ratio by an average of 9.63% and improving the energy efficiency of the network when compared to LEACH and EEHC.

  2. Testing a Firefly-Inspired Synchronization Algorithm in a Complex Wireless Sensor Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Chuangbo; Song, Ping; Yang, Cheng; Liu, Xiongjun

    2017-03-08

    Data acquisition is the foundation of soft sensor and data fusion. Distributed data acquisition and its synchronization are the important technologies to ensure the accuracy of soft sensors. As a research topic in bionic science, the firefly-inspired algorithm has attracted widespread attention as a new synchronization method. Aiming at reducing the design difficulty of firefly-inspired synchronization algorithms for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) with complex topologies, this paper presents a firefly-inspired synchronization algorithm based on a multiscale discrete phase model that can optimize the performance tradeoff between the network scalability and synchronization capability in a complex wireless sensor network. The synchronization process can be regarded as a Markov state transition, which ensures the stability of this algorithm. Compared with the Miroll and Steven model and Reachback Firefly Algorithm, the proposed algorithm obtains better stability and performance. Finally, its practicality has been experimentally confirmed using 30 nodes in a real multi-hop topology with low quality links.

  3. Effect of very high magnetic field on the optical properties of firefly light emitter oxyluciferin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Weihang; Nakamura, Daisuke [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Wang, Yu [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); State Key Laboratory of Molecular Developmental Biology, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Mochizuki, Toshimitsu [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Fukushima Renewable Energy Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 2-2-9 Machiike-dai, Koriyama, Fukushima 963-0215 (Japan); Akiyama, Hidefumi [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Takeyama, Shojiro, E-mail: takeyama@issp.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan)

    2015-09-15

    Magnetic field effect on enzymatic reactions is under intensive study in the past decades. Recently, it was reported that firefly bioluminescence was suppressed and red-shifted significantly when exposed to external magnetic field. However in this work, by means of selective excitation, we confirmed that emission properties of firefly light emitter “oxyluciferin” are completely immune to external magnetic field of up to 53 T. These findings pose strong contrast to existing relevant results. Potential reasons for the discrepancies found and the underlying physics towards the understanding of firefly bioluminescence were discussed. - Highlights: • Effect of ultra-high magnetic field on the optical properties of firefly light emitter oxyluciferin was reported. • Emission properties of oxyluciferin were confirmed to be immune to external high magnetic fields up to 53 T. • .Potential reasons for the discrepancies between our results and previous reports and the underlying physics were discussed.

  4. Multilevel inverter with optimal THD through the firefly algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Mehdi Belkacem Riadh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Reduction of the Total Harmonic Distortion (THD in multilevel inverters requires resolution of complex nonlinear transcendental equations; in this paper we propose a combination of one of the best existing optimized hardware structures with the recent firefly algorithm, which was used to optimize the THD, through finding the best switching angles and guaranteeing the minimization of harmonics within a user defined bandwidth. The obtained THD through the simulation of the thirteen-level symmetric inverter has been reduced down to 5% (FFT of 60 harmonics. In order to validate the simulation results, a thirteen-level symmetric inverter prototype has been made, and practically experimented and tested with different loads. Consequently, the measured THD with resistive load was 4.7% on a bandwidth of 3 kHz. The main advantage of the achieved work is the reduction of the THD.

  5. Firefly Algorithm for Polynomial Bézier Surface Parameterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akemi Gálvez

    2013-01-01

    reality, medical imaging, computer graphics, computer animation, and many others. Very often, the preferred approximating surface is polynomial, usually described in parametric form. This leads to the problem of determining suitable parametric values for the data points, the so-called surface parameterization. In real-world settings, data points are generally irregularly sampled and subjected to measurement noise, leading to a very difficult nonlinear continuous optimization problem, unsolvable with standard optimization techniques. This paper solves the parameterization problem for polynomial Bézier surfaces by applying the firefly algorithm, a powerful nature-inspired metaheuristic algorithm introduced recently to address difficult optimization problems. The method has been successfully applied to some illustrative examples of open and closed surfaces, including shapes with singularities. Our results show that the method performs very well, being able to yield the best approximating surface with a high degree of accuracy.

  6. Continuous firefly algorithm applied to PWR core pattern enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poursalehi, N., E-mail: npsalehi@yahoo.com [Engineering Department, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., P.O. Box 1983963113, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zolfaghari, A.; Minuchehr, A.; Moghaddam, H.K. [Engineering Department, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., P.O. Box 1983963113, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► Numerical results indicate the reliability of CFA for the nuclear reactor LPO. ► The major advantages of CFA are its light computational cost and fast convergence. ► Our experiments demonstrate the ability of CFA to obtain the near optimal loading pattern. -- Abstract: In this research, the new meta-heuristic optimization strategy, firefly algorithm, is developed for the nuclear reactor loading pattern optimization problem. Two main goals in reactor core fuel management optimization are maximizing the core multiplication factor (K{sub eff}) in order to extract the maximum cycle energy and minimizing the power peaking factor due to safety constraints. In this work, we define a multi-objective fitness function according to above goals for the core fuel arrangement enhancement. In order to evaluate and demonstrate the ability of continuous firefly algorithm (CFA) to find the near optimal loading pattern, we developed CFA nodal expansion code (CFANEC) for the fuel management operation. This code consists of two main modules including CFA optimization program and a developed core analysis code implementing nodal expansion method to calculate with coarse meshes by dimensions of fuel assemblies. At first, CFA is applied for the Foxholes test case with continuous variables in order to validate CFA and then for KWU PWR using a decoding strategy for discrete variables. Results indicate the efficiency and relatively fast convergence of CFA in obtaining near optimal loading pattern with respect to considered fitness function. At last, our experience with the CFA confirms that the CFA is easy to implement and reliable.

  7. Continuous firefly algorithm applied to PWR core pattern enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poursalehi, N.; Zolfaghari, A.; Minuchehr, A.; Moghaddam, H.K.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Numerical results indicate the reliability of CFA for the nuclear reactor LPO. ► The major advantages of CFA are its light computational cost and fast convergence. ► Our experiments demonstrate the ability of CFA to obtain the near optimal loading pattern. -- Abstract: In this research, the new meta-heuristic optimization strategy, firefly algorithm, is developed for the nuclear reactor loading pattern optimization problem. Two main goals in reactor core fuel management optimization are maximizing the core multiplication factor (K eff ) in order to extract the maximum cycle energy and minimizing the power peaking factor due to safety constraints. In this work, we define a multi-objective fitness function according to above goals for the core fuel arrangement enhancement. In order to evaluate and demonstrate the ability of continuous firefly algorithm (CFA) to find the near optimal loading pattern, we developed CFA nodal expansion code (CFANEC) for the fuel management operation. This code consists of two main modules including CFA optimization program and a developed core analysis code implementing nodal expansion method to calculate with coarse meshes by dimensions of fuel assemblies. At first, CFA is applied for the Foxholes test case with continuous variables in order to validate CFA and then for KWU PWR using a decoding strategy for discrete variables. Results indicate the efficiency and relatively fast convergence of CFA in obtaining near optimal loading pattern with respect to considered fitness function. At last, our experience with the CFA confirms that the CFA is easy to implement and reliable

  8. Firefly Algorithm for Cardinality Constrained Mean-Variance Portfolio Optimization Problem with Entropy Diversity Constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebojsa Bacanin

    2014-01-01

    portfolio model with entropy constraint. Firefly algorithm is one of the latest, very successful swarm intelligence algorithm; however, it exhibits some deficiencies when applied to constrained problems. To overcome lack of exploration power during early iterations, we modified the algorithm and tested it on standard portfolio benchmark data sets used in the literature. Our proposed modified firefly algorithm proved to be better than other state-of-the-art algorithms, while introduction of entropy diversity constraint further improved results.

  9. The Construction of Support Vector Machine Classifier Using the Firefly Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Feng Chao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The setting of parameters in the support vector machines (SVMs is very important with regard to its accuracy and efficiency. In this paper, we employ the firefly algorithm to train all parameters of the SVM simultaneously, including the penalty parameter, smoothness parameter, and Lagrangian multiplier. The proposed method is called the firefly-based SVM (firefly-SVM. This tool is not considered the feature selection, because the SVM, together with feature selection, is not suitable for the application in a multiclass classification, especially for the one-against-all multiclass SVM. In experiments, binary and multiclass classifications are explored. In the experiments on binary classification, ten of the benchmark data sets of the University of California, Irvine (UCI, machine learning repository are used; additionally the firefly-SVM is applied to the multiclass diagnosis of ultrasonic supraspinatus images. The classification performance of firefly-SVM is also compared to the original LIBSVM method associated with the grid search method and the particle swarm optimization based SVM (PSO-SVM. The experimental results advocate the use of firefly-SVM to classify pattern classifications for maximum accuracy.

  10. Characterization of CG6178 gene product with high sequence similarity to firefly luciferase in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oba, Yuichi; Ojika, Makoto; Inouye, Satoshi

    2004-03-31

    This is the first identification of a long-chain fatty acyl-CoA synthetase in Drosophila by enzymatic characterization. The gene product of CG6178 (CG6178) in Drosophila melanogaster genome, which has a high sequence similarity to firefly luciferase, has been expressed and characterized. CG6178 showed long-chain fatty acyl-CoA synthetic activity in the presence of ATP, CoA and Mg(2+), suggesting a fatty acyl adenylate is an intermediate. Recently, it was revealed that firefly luciferase has two catalytic functions, monooxygenase (luciferase) and AMP-mediated CoA ligase (fatty acyl-CoA synthetase). However, unlike firefly luciferase, CG6178 did not show luminescence activity in the presence of firefly luciferin, ATP, CoA and Mg(2+). The enzymatic properties of CG6178 including substrate specificity, pH dependency and optimal temperature were close to those of firefly luciferase and rat fatty acyl-CoA synthetase. Further, phylogenic analyses strongly suggest that the firefly luciferase gene may have evolved from a fatty acyl-CoA synthetase gene as a common ancestral gene.

  11. One-pot non-enzymatic formation of firefly luciferin in a neutral buffer from p-benzoquinone and cysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanie, Shusei; Nishikawa, Toshio; Ojika, Makoto; Oba, Yuichi

    2016-04-21

    Firefly luciferin, the substrate for the bioluminescence reaction of luminous beetles, possesses a benzothiazole ring, which is rare in nature. Here, we demonstrate a novel one-pot reaction to give firefly luciferin in a neutral buffer from p-benzoquinone and cysteine without any synthetic reagents or enzymes. The formation of firefly luciferin was low in yield in various neutral buffers, whereas it was inhibited or completely prevented in acidic or basic buffers, in organic solvents, or under a nitrogen atmosphere. Labelling analysis of the firefly luciferin using stable isotopic cysteines showed that the benzothiazole ring was formed via the decarboxylation and carbon-sulfur bond rearrangement of cysteine. These findings imply that the biosynthesis of firefly luciferin can be developed/evolved from the non-enzymatic production of firefly luciferin using common primary biosynthetic units, p-benzoquinone and cysteine.

  12. Computational Discovery of Materials Using the Firefly Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avendaño-Franco, Guillermo; Romero, Aldo

    Our current ability to model physical phenomena accurately, the increase computational power and better algorithms are the driving forces behind the computational discovery and design of novel materials, allowing for virtual characterization before their realization in the laboratory. We present the implementation of a novel firefly algorithm, a population-based algorithm for global optimization for searching the structure/composition space. This novel computation-intensive approach naturally take advantage of concurrency, targeted exploration and still keeping enough diversity. We apply the new method in both periodic and non-periodic structures and we present the implementation challenges and solutions to improve efficiency. The implementation makes use of computational materials databases and network analysis to optimize the search and get insights about the geometric structure of local minima on the energy landscape. The method has been implemented in our software PyChemia, an open-source package for materials discovery. We acknowledge the support of DMREF-NSF 1434897 and the Donors of the American Chemical Society Petroleum Research Fund for partial support of this research under Contract 54075-ND10.

  13. A New Reversible Database Watermarking Approach with Firefly Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Bilgehan Imamoglu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Up-to-date information is crucial in many fields such as medicine, science, and stock market, where data should be distributed to clients from a centralized database. Shared databases are usually stored in data centers where they are distributed over insecure public access network, the Internet. Sharing may result in a number of problems such as unauthorized copies, alteration of data, and distribution to unauthorized people for reuse. Researchers proposed using watermarking to prevent problems and claim digital rights. Many methods are proposed recently to watermark databases to protect digital rights of owners. Particularly, optimization based watermarking techniques draw attention, which results in lower distortion and improved watermark capacity. Difference expansion watermarking (DEW with Firefly Algorithm (FFA, a bioinspired optimization technique, is proposed to embed watermark into relational databases in this work. Best attribute values to yield lower distortion and increased watermark capacity are selected efficiently by the FFA. Experimental results indicate that FFA has reduced complexity and results in less distortion and improved watermark capacity compared to similar works reported in the literature.

  14. Selection of parameters for advanced machining processes using firefly algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkamal Shukla

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Advanced machining processes (AMPs are widely utilized in industries for machining complex geometries and intricate profiles. In this paper, two significant processes such as electric discharge machining (EDM and abrasive water jet machining (AWJM are considered to get the optimum values of responses for the given range of process parameters. The firefly algorithm (FA is attempted to the considered processes to obtain optimized parameters and the results obtained are compared with the results given by previous researchers. The variation of process parameters with respect to the responses are plotted to confirm the optimum results obtained using FA. In EDM process, the performance parameter “MRR” is increased from 159.70 gm/min to 181.6723 gm/min, while “Ra” and “REWR” are decreased from 6.21 μm to 3.6767 μm and 6.21% to 6.324 × 10−5% respectively. In AWJM process, the value of the “kerf” and “Ra” are decreased from 0.858 mm to 0.3704 mm and 5.41 mm to 4.443 mm respectively. In both the processes, the obtained results show a significant improvement in the responses.

  15. Numerical model updating technique for structures using firefly algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai Kubair, K.; Mohan, S. C.

    2018-03-01

    Numerical model updating is a technique used for updating the existing experimental models for any structures related to civil, mechanical, automobiles, marine, aerospace engineering, etc. The basic concept behind this technique is updating the numerical models to closely match with experimental data obtained from real or prototype test structures. The present work involves the development of numerical model using MATLAB as a computational tool and with mathematical equations that define the experimental model. Firefly algorithm is used as an optimization tool in this study. In this updating process a response parameter of the structure has to be chosen, which helps to correlate the numerical model developed with the experimental results obtained. The variables for the updating can be either material or geometrical properties of the model or both. In this study, to verify the proposed technique, a cantilever beam is analyzed for its tip deflection and a space frame has been analyzed for its natural frequencies. Both the models are updated with their respective response values obtained from experimental results. The numerical results after updating show that there is a close relationship that can be brought between the experimental and the numerical models.

  16. Parametrisation of a Maxwell model for transient tyre forces by means of an extended firefly algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Hackl

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Developing functions for advanced driver assistance systems requires very accurate tyre models, especially for the simulation of transient conditions. In the past, parametrisation of a given tyre model based on measurement data showed shortcomings, and the globally optimal solution obtained did not appear to be plausible. In this article, an optimisation strategy is presented, which is able to find plausible and physically feasible solutions by detecting many local outcomes. The firefly algorithm mimics the natural behaviour of fireflies, which use a kind of flashing light to communicate with other members. An algorithm simulating the intensity of the light of a single firefly, diminishing with increasing distances, is implicitly able to detect local solutions on its way to the best solution in the search space. This implicit clustering feature is stressed by an additional explicit clustering step, where local solutions are stored and terminally processed to obtain a large number of possible solutions. The enhanced firefly algorithm will be first applied to the well-known Rastrigin functions and then to the tyre parametrisation problem. It is shown that the firefly algorithm is qualified to find a high number of optimisation solutions, which is required for plausible parametrisation for the given tyre model.

  17. Firefly Clock Synchronization in an 802.15.4 Wireless Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmenreich Wilfried

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design and implementation of a distributed self-stabilizing clock synchronization algorithm based on the biological example of Asian Fireflies. Huge swarms of these fireflies use the principle of pulse coupled oscillators in order to synchronously emit light flashes to attract mating partners. When applying this algorithm to real sensor networks, typically, nodes cannot receive messages while transmitting, which prevents the networked nodes from reaching synchronization. In order to counteract this deafness problem, we adopt a variant of the Reachback Firefly Algorithm to distribute the timing of light flashes in a given time window without affecting the quality of the synchronization. A case study implemented on 802.15.4 Zigbee nodes presents the application of this approach for a time-triggered communication scheduling and coordinated duty cycling in order to enhance the battery lifetime of the nodes.

  18. Forecasting Jakarta composite index (IHSG) based on chen fuzzy time series and firefly clustering algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ningrum, R. W.; Surarso, B.; Farikhin; Safarudin, Y. M.

    2018-03-01

    This paper proposes the combination of Firefly Algorithm (FA) and Chen Fuzzy Time Series Forecasting. Most of the existing fuzzy forecasting methods based on fuzzy time series use the static length of intervals. Therefore, we apply an artificial intelligence, i.e., Firefly Algorithm (FA) to set non-stationary length of intervals for each cluster on Chen Method. The method is evaluated by applying on the Jakarta Composite Index (IHSG) and compare with classical Chen Fuzzy Time Series Forecasting. Its performance verified through simulation using Matlab.

  19. FireFly: reconfigurable optical wireless networking data centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavehrad, Mohsen; Deng, Peng; Gupta, H.; Longtin, J.; Das, S. R.; Sekar, V.

    2017-01-01

    We explore a novel, free-space optics based approach for building data center interconnects. Data centers (DCs) are a critical piece of today's networked applications in both private and public sectors. The key factors that have driven this trend are economies of scale, reduced management costs, better utilization of hardware via statistical multiplexing, and the ability to elastically scale applications in response to changing workload patterns. A robust DC network fabric is fundamental to the success of DCs and to ensure that the network does not become a bottleneck for high-performance applications. In this context, DC network design must satisfy several goals: high performance (e.g., high throughput and low latency), low equipment and management cost, robustness to dynamic traffic patterns, incremental expandability to add new servers or racks, and other practical concerns such as cabling complexity, and power and cooling costs. Current DC network architectures do not seem to provide a satisfactory solution, with respect to the above requirements. In particular, traditional static (wired) networks are either overprovisioned or oversubscribed. Recent works have tried to overcome the above limitations by augmenting a static (wired) "core" with some flexible links (RF-wireless or optical). These augmented architectures show promise, but offer only incremental improvement in performance. Specifically, RFwireless based augmented solutions also offer only limited performance improvement, due to inherent interference and range constraints of RF links. This paper explores an alternative design point—a fully flexible and all-wireless DC interrack network based on free-space optical (FSO) links. We call this FireFly as in; Free-space optical Inter-Rack nEtwork with high FLexibilitY. We will present our designs and tests using various configurations that can help the performance and reliability of the FSO links.

  20. Size and Topology Optimization for Trusses with Discrete Design Variables by Improved Firefly Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Firefly Algorithm (FA, for short is inspired by the social behavior of fireflies and their phenomenon of bioluminescent communication. Based on the fundamentals of FA, two improved strategies are proposed to conduct size and topology optimization for trusses with discrete design variables. Firstly, development of structural topology optimization method and the basic principle of standard FA are introduced in detail. Then, in order to apply the algorithm to optimization problems with discrete variables, the initial positions of fireflies and the position updating formula are discretized. By embedding the random-weight and enhancing the attractiveness, the performance of this algorithm is improved, and thus an Improved Firefly Algorithm (IFA, for short is proposed. Furthermore, using size variables which are capable of including topology variables and size and topology optimization for trusses with discrete variables is formulated based on the Ground Structure Approach. The essential techniques of variable elastic modulus technology and geometric construction analysis are applied in the structural analysis process. Subsequently, an optimization method for the size and topological design of trusses based on the IFA is introduced. Finally, two numerical examples are shown to verify the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed method by comparing with different deterministic methods.

  1. Wireless sensor placement for structural monitoring using information-fusing firefly algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guang-Dong; Yi, Ting-Hua; Xie, Mei-Xi; Li, Hong-Nan

    2017-10-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are promising technology in structural health monitoring (SHM) applications for their low cost and high efficiency. The limited wireless sensors and restricted power resources in WSNs highlight the significance of optimal wireless sensor placement (OWSP) during designing SHM systems to enable the most useful information to be captured and to achieve the longest network lifetime. This paper presents a holistic approach, including an optimization criterion and a solution algorithm, for optimally deploying self-organizing multi-hop WSNs on large-scale structures. The combination of information effectiveness represented by the modal independence and the network performance specified by the network connectivity and network lifetime is first formulated to evaluate the performance of wireless sensor configurations. Then, an information-fusing firefly algorithm (IFFA) is developed to solve the OWSP problem. The step sizes drawn from a Lévy distribution are adopted to drive fireflies toward brighter individuals. Following the movement with Lévy flights, information about the contributions of wireless sensors to the objective function as carried by the fireflies is fused and applied to move inferior wireless sensors to better locations. The reliability of the proposed approach is verified via a numerical example on a long-span suspension bridge. The results demonstrate that the evaluation criterion provides a good performance metric of wireless sensor configurations, and the IFFA outperforms the simple discrete firefly algorithm.

  2. A new approach to optic disc detection in human retinal images using the firefly algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahebi, Javad; Hardalaç, Fırat

    2016-03-01

    There are various methods and algorithms to detect the optic discs in retinal images. In recent years, much attention has been given to the utilization of the intelligent algorithms. In this paper, we present a new automated method of optic disc detection in human retinal images using the firefly algorithm. The firefly intelligent algorithm is an emerging intelligent algorithm that was inspired by the social behavior of fireflies. The population in this algorithm includes the fireflies, each of which has a specific rate of lighting or fitness. In this method, the insects are compared two by two, and the less attractive insects can be observed to move toward the more attractive insects. Finally, one of the insects is selected as the most attractive, and this insect presents the optimum response to the problem in question. Here, we used the light intensity of the pixels of the retinal image pixels instead of firefly lightings. The movement of these insects due to local fluctuations produces different light intensity values in the images. Because the optic disc is the brightest area in the retinal images, all of the insects move toward brightest area and thus specify the location of the optic disc in the image. The results of implementation show that proposed algorithm could acquire an accuracy rate of 100 % in DRIVE dataset, 95 % in STARE dataset, and 94.38 % in DiaRetDB1 dataset. The results of implementation reveal high capability and accuracy of proposed algorithm in the detection of the optic disc from retinal images. Also, recorded required time for the detection of the optic disc in these images is 2.13 s for DRIVE dataset, 2.81 s for STARE dataset, and 3.52 s for DiaRetDB1 dataset accordingly. These time values are average value.

  3. Firefly: A HOT camera core for thermal imagers with enhanced functionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillans, Luke; Harmer, Jack; Edwards, Tim

    2015-06-01

    Raising the operating temperature of mercury cadmium telluride infrared detectors from 80K to above 160K creates new applications for high performance infrared imagers by vastly reducing the size, weight and power consumption of the integrated cryogenic cooler. Realizing the benefits of Higher Operating Temperature (HOT) requires a new kind of infrared camera core with the flexibility to address emerging applications in handheld, weapon mounted and UAV markets. This paper discusses the Firefly core developed to address these needs by Selex ES in Southampton UK. Firefly represents a fundamental redesign of the infrared signal chain reducing power consumption and providing compatibility with low cost, low power Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) computing technology. This paper describes key innovations in this signal chain: a ROIC purpose built to minimize power consumption in the proximity electronics, GPU based image processing of infrared video, and a software customisable infrared core which can communicate wirelessly with other Battlespace systems.

  4. Economic Load Dispatch Unit Pembangkit Termal Mempertimbangkan Penambahan Pembangkit Tenaga Angin Dengan Menggunakan Firefly Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridho Syahrial Ibrahim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Maraknya isu global warming serta keterbatasan sumber daya alam membuat mulai banyaknya dibangun pembangkit-pembangkit listrik dengan renewable energy, salah satunya adalah pembangkit tenaga angin. Pada jurnal ini, firefly algorithm diterapkan untuk mengoptimasi total biaya pembangkitan 2 buah sistem uji, tanpa dan dengan mempertimbangkan penambahan tenaga angin. Hasil simulasi menunjukkan bahwa dengan penambahan pembangkit tenaga angin ke dalam sistem tenaga listrik, total biaya pembangkitan tidak selalu lebih murah. Selain itu, hasil simulasi juga menunjukkan bahwa firefly algorithm sebagai metode optimasi dapat menyelesaikan permasalahan economic load dispatch (ELD lebih baik dibandingkan metode lain yang sudah dilakukan, yaitu particle swarm optimization (PSO, bat algorithm (BA, biogeography-based optimization (BBO dan plant growth simulation algorithm (PGSA dengan persentase selisih nilai penghematan total biaya berkisar antara 0.32% ($50 hingga 9.27% ($11884.

  5. Improved Solutions for the Optimal Coordination of DOCRs Using Firefly Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sulaiman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nature-inspired optimization techniques are useful tools in electrical engineering problems to minimize or maximize an objective function. In this paper, we use the firefly algorithm to improve the optimal solution for the problem of directional overcurrent relays (DOCRs. It is a complex and highly nonlinear constrained optimization problem. In this problem, we have two types of design variables, which are variables for plug settings (PSs and the time dial settings (TDSs for each relay in the circuit. The objective function is to minimize the total operating time of all the basic relays to avoid unnecessary delays. We have considered four models in this paper which are IEEE (3-bus, 4-bus, 6-bus, and 8-bus models. From the numerical results, it is obvious that the firefly algorithm with certain parameter settings performs better than the other state-of-the-art algorithms.

  6. A Comparative Study of Genetic and Firefly Algorithms for Sensor Placement in Structural Health Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Dong Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimal sensor placement (OSP is an important task during the implementation of sophisticated structural health monitoring (SHM systems for large-scale structures. In this paper, a comparative study between the genetic algorithm (GA and the firefly algorithm (FA in solving the OSP problem is conducted. To overcome the drawback related to the inapplicability of the FA in optimization problems with discrete variables, some improvements are proposed, including the one-dimensional binary coding system, the Hamming distance between any two fireflies, and the semioriented movement scheme; also, a simple discrete firefly algorithm (SDFA is developed. The capabilities of the SDFA and the GA in finding the optimal sensor locations are evaluated using two disparate objective functions in a numerical example with a long-span benchmark cable-stayed bridge. The results show that the developed SDFA can find the optimal sensor configuration with high reliability. The comparative study indicates that the SDFA outperforms the GA in terms of algorithm complexity, computational efficiency, and result quality. The optimization mechanism of the FA has the potential to be extended to a wide range of optimization problems.

  7. Firefly Algorithm for Cardinality Constrained Mean-Variance Portfolio Optimization Problem with Entropy Diversity Constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Portfolio optimization (selection) problem is an important and hard optimization problem that, with the addition of necessary realistic constraints, becomes computationally intractable. Nature-inspired metaheuristics are appropriate for solving such problems; however, literature review shows that there are very few applications of nature-inspired metaheuristics to portfolio optimization problem. This is especially true for swarm intelligence algorithms which represent the newer branch of nature-inspired algorithms. No application of any swarm intelligence metaheuristics to cardinality constrained mean-variance (CCMV) portfolio problem with entropy constraint was found in the literature. This paper introduces modified firefly algorithm (FA) for the CCMV portfolio model with entropy constraint. Firefly algorithm is one of the latest, very successful swarm intelligence algorithm; however, it exhibits some deficiencies when applied to constrained problems. To overcome lack of exploration power during early iterations, we modified the algorithm and tested it on standard portfolio benchmark data sets used in the literature. Our proposed modified firefly algorithm proved to be better than other state-of-the-art algorithms, while introduction of entropy diversity constraint further improved results. PMID:24991645

  8. FIREFLY (Fitting IteRativEly For Likelihood analYsis): a full spectral fitting code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, David M.; Maraston, Claudia; Goddard, Daniel; Thomas, Daniel; Parikh, Taniya

    2017-12-01

    We present a new spectral fitting code, FIREFLY, for deriving the stellar population properties of stellar systems. FIREFLY is a chi-squared minimization fitting code that fits combinations of single-burst stellar population models to spectroscopic data, following an iterative best-fitting process controlled by the Bayesian information criterion. No priors are applied, rather all solutions within a statistical cut are retained with their weight. Moreover, no additive or multiplicative polynomials are employed to adjust the spectral shape. This fitting freedom is envisaged in order to map out the effect of intrinsic spectral energy distribution degeneracies, such as age, metallicity, dust reddening on galaxy properties, and to quantify the effect of varying input model components on such properties. Dust attenuation is included using a new procedure, which was tested on Integral Field Spectroscopic data in a previous paper. The fitting method is extensively tested with a comprehensive suite of mock galaxies, real galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and Milky Way globular clusters. We also assess the robustness of the derived properties as a function of signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) and adopted wavelength range. We show that FIREFLY is able to recover age, metallicity, stellar mass, and even the star formation history remarkably well down to an S/N ∼ 5, for moderately dusty systems. Code and results are publicly available.1

  9. Firefly algorithm for cardinality constrained mean-variance portfolio optimization problem with entropy diversity constraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacanin, Nebojsa; Tuba, Milan

    2014-01-01

    Portfolio optimization (selection) problem is an important and hard optimization problem that, with the addition of necessary realistic constraints, becomes computationally intractable. Nature-inspired metaheuristics are appropriate for solving such problems; however, literature review shows that there are very few applications of nature-inspired metaheuristics to portfolio optimization problem. This is especially true for swarm intelligence algorithms which represent the newer branch of nature-inspired algorithms. No application of any swarm intelligence metaheuristics to cardinality constrained mean-variance (CCMV) portfolio problem with entropy constraint was found in the literature. This paper introduces modified firefly algorithm (FA) for the CCMV portfolio model with entropy constraint. Firefly algorithm is one of the latest, very successful swarm intelligence algorithm; however, it exhibits some deficiencies when applied to constrained problems. To overcome lack of exploration power during early iterations, we modified the algorithm and tested it on standard portfolio benchmark data sets used in the literature. Our proposed modified firefly algorithm proved to be better than other state-of-the-art algorithms, while introduction of entropy diversity constraint further improved results.

  10. Total evidence phylogeny and the evolution of adult bioluminescence in fireflies (Coleoptera: Lampyridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gavin J; Branham, Marc A; Whiting, Michael F; Bybee, Seth M

    2017-02-01

    Fireflies are some of the most captivating organisms on the planet. They have a rich history as subjects of scientific study, especially in relation to their bioluminescent behavior. Yet, the phylogenetic relationships of fireflies are still poorly understood. Here, we present the first total evidence approach to reconstruct lampyrid phylogeny using both a molecular matrix from six loci and an extensive morphological matrix. Using this phylogeny we test the hypothesis that adult bioluminescence evolved after the origin of the firefly clade. The ancestral state of adult bioluminescence is recovered as non-bioluminescent with one to six gains and five to ten subsequent losses. The monophyly of the family, as well as the subfamilies is also tested. Ototretinae, Cyphonocerinae, Luciolinae (incl. Pristolycus), Amydetinae, "cheguevarinae" sensu Jeng 2008, and Photurinae are highly supported as monophyletic. With the exception of four taxa, Lampyrinae is also recovered as monophyletic with high support. Based on phylogenetic and morphological data Lamprohiza, Phausis, and Lamprigera are transferred to Lampyridae incertae sedis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Uptake kinetics and biodistribution of C-14-D-luciferin-a radiolabeled substrate for the firefly luciferase catalyzed bioluminescence reaction : impact on bioluminescence based reporter gene imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berger, Frank; Paulmurugan, Ramasamy; Bhaumik, Srabani; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Firefly luciferase catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of D-luciferin to oxyluciferin in the presence of cofactors, producing bioluminescence. This reaction is used in optical bioluminescence-based molecular imaging approaches to detect the expression of the firefly luciferase reporter

  12. Four new species of Luciuranus fireflies from the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest (Coleoptera: Lampyridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Luiz F L da; Souto, Paula M; Mermudes, J R M

    2018-04-20

    Luciuranus Silveira, Khattar Mermudes, 2016 is a firefly genus whose species bear an intricate, species-specific lock-and-key mechanism of reproductive isolation. Here we propose four new species, Luciuranus magnoculus sp. nov., L. desideratus sp. nov., L. takiyae sp. nov. and L. carioca sp. nov., and provide illustrations of their diagnostic features and an updated key to species. As previously reported for their congenerics, each of the four new species have stereotypical morphology of both male and female terminalia, and are regarded as prima facie endemics of single massifs of the Serra da Mantiqueira and Serra do Mar, in the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest.

  13. Gross anatomy of central nervous system in firefly, Pteroptyx tener (Coleoptera: Lampyridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudawiyah, Nur; Wahida, O. Nurul; Norela, S.

    2015-09-01

    This paper describes for the first time the organization and fine structure of the central nervous system (CNS) in the fireflies, Pteroptyx tener (Coleoptera: Lampyridae). The morphology of the CNS was examined by using Carl Zeiss AxioScope A1 photomicroscope with iSolution Lite software. Some specific structural features such as the localization of protocerebrum, deutocerebrum and tritocerebrum in the brain region were analyzed. Other than that, the nerve cord and its peripheral structure were also analyzed. This study suggests that, there is a very obvious difference between male and female central nervous system which illustrates that they may differ in function in controlling physiological and behavioral activities.

  14. Scaling Laws in the Transient Dynamics of Firefly-like Oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubido, N; Cabeza, C; Marti, A; Ramirez Avila, G M

    2011-01-01

    Fireflies constitute a paradigm of pulse-coupled oscillators. In order to tackle the problems related to synchronisation transients of pulse-coupled oscillators, a Light-Controlled Oscillator (LCO) model is presented. A single LCO constitutes a one-dimensional relaxation oscillator described by two distinct time-scales meant to mimic fireflies in the sense that: it is capable of emitting light in a pulse-like fashion and detect the emitted by others in order to adjust its oscillation. We present dynamical results for two interacting LCOs in the torus for all possible coupling configurations. Transient times to the synchronous limit cycle are obtained experimentally and numerically as a function of initial conditions and coupling strengths. Scaling laws are found based on dimensional analysis and critical exponents calculated, thus, global dynamic is restricted. Furthermore, an analytical orthogonal transformation that allows to calculate Floquet multipliers directly from the time series is presented. As a consequence, local dynamics is also fully characterized. This transformation can be easily extended to a system with an arbitrary number of interacting LCOs.

  15. Experimental Investigation and Optimization of TIG Welding Parameters on Aluminum 6061 Alloy Using Firefly Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rishi; Mevada, N. Ramesh; Rathore, Santosh; Agarwal, Nitin; Rajput, Vinod; Sinh Barad, AjayPal

    2017-08-01

    To improve Welding quality of aluminum (Al) plate, the TIG Welding system has been prepared, by which Welding current, Shielding gas flow rate and Current polarity can be controlled during Welding process. In the present work, an attempt has been made to study the effect of Welding current, current polarity, and shielding gas flow rate on the tensile strength of the weld joint. Based on the number of parameters and their levels, the Response Surface Methodology technique has been selected as the Design of Experiment. For understanding the influence of input parameters on Ultimate tensile strength of weldment, ANOVA analysis has been carried out. Also to describe and optimize TIG Welding using a new metaheuristic Nature - inspired algorithm which is called as Firefly algorithm which was developed by Dr. Xin-She Yang at Cambridge University in 2007. A general formulation of firefly algorithm is presented together with an analytical, mathematical modeling to optimize the TIG Welding process by a single equivalent objective function.

  16. Firefly as a novel swarm intelligence variable selection method in spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi, Mohammad; dos Santos Coelho, Leandro

    2014-12-10

    A critical step in multivariate calibration is wavelength selection, which is used to build models with better prediction performance when applied to spectral data. Up to now, many feature selection techniques have been developed. Among all different types of feature selection techniques, those based on swarm intelligence optimization methodologies are more interesting since they are usually simulated based on animal and insect life behavior to, e.g., find the shortest path between a food source and their nests. This decision is made by a crowd, leading to a more robust model with less falling in local minima during the optimization cycle. This paper represents a novel feature selection approach to the selection of spectroscopic data, leading to more robust calibration models. The performance of the firefly algorithm, a swarm intelligence paradigm, was evaluated and compared with genetic algorithm and particle swarm optimization. All three techniques were coupled with partial least squares (PLS) and applied to three spectroscopic data sets. They demonstrate improved prediction results in comparison to when only a PLS model was built using all wavelengths. Results show that firefly algorithm as a novel swarm paradigm leads to a lower number of selected wavelengths while the prediction performance of built PLS stays the same. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Compensation for longitudinal chromatic aberration in the eye of the firefly squid, Watasenia scintillans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröger, Ronald H H; Gislén, Anna

    2004-01-01

    The camera eyes of fishes and cephalopods have come forth by convergent evolution. In a variety of vertebrates capable of color vision, longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA) of the optical system is corrected for by the exactly tuned longitudinal spherical aberration (LSA) of the crystalline lens. The LSA leads to multiple focal lengths, such that several wavelengths can be focused on the retina. We investigated whether that is also the case in the firefly squid (Watasenia scintillans), a cephalopod species that is likely to have color vision. It was found that the lens of W. scintillans is virtually free of LSA and uncorrected for LCA. However, the eye does not suffer from LCA because of a banked retina. Photoreceptors sensitive to short and long wavelengths are located at appropriate distances from the lens, such that they receive well-focused images. Such a design is an excellent solution for the firefly squid because a large area of the retina is monochromatically organized and it allows for double use of the surface area in the dichromatically organized part of the retina. However, it is not a universal solution since compensation for LCA by a banked retina requires that eye size and/or spectral separation between photopigments is small.

  18. Optimizing real power loss and voltage stability limit of a large transmission network using firefly algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Balachennaiah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a Firefly algorithm based technique to optimize the control variables for simultaneous optimization of real power loss and voltage stability limit of the transmission system. Mathematically, this issue can be formulated as nonlinear equality and inequality constrained optimization problem with an objective function integrating both real power loss and voltage stability limit. Transformers taps, unified power flow controller and its parameters have been included as control variables in the problem formulation. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm has been tested on New England 39-bus system. Simulation results obtained with the proposed algorithm are compared with the real coded genetic algorithm for single objective of real power loss minimization and multi-objective of real power loss minimization and voltage stability limit maximization. Also, a classical optimization method known as interior point successive linear programming technique is considered here to compare the results of firefly algorithm for single objective of real power loss minimization. Simulation results confirm the potentiality of the proposed algorithm in solving optimization problems.

  19. Feature Selection for Motor Imagery EEG Classification Based on Firefly Algorithm and Learning Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiming Liu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Motor Imagery (MI electroencephalography (EEG is widely studied for its non-invasiveness, easy availability, portability, and high temporal resolution. As for MI EEG signal processing, the high dimensions of features represent a research challenge. It is necessary to eliminate redundant features, which not only create an additional overhead of managing the space complexity, but also might include outliers, thereby reducing classification accuracy. The firefly algorithm (FA can adaptively select the best subset of features, and improve classification accuracy. However, the FA is easily entrapped in a local optimum. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a method of combining the firefly algorithm and learning automata (LA to optimize feature selection for motor imagery EEG. We employed a method of combining common spatial pattern (CSP and local characteristic-scale decomposition (LCD algorithms to obtain a high dimensional feature set, and classified it by using the spectral regression discriminant analysis (SRDA classifier. Both the fourth brain–computer interface competition data and real-time data acquired in our designed experiments were used to verify the validation of the proposed method. Compared with genetic and adaptive weight particle swarm optimization algorithms, the experimental results show that our proposed method effectively eliminates redundant features, and improves the classification accuracy of MI EEG signals. In addition, a real-time brain–computer interface system was implemented to verify the feasibility of our proposed methods being applied in practical brain–computer interface systems.

  20. Application of Firefly Algorithm for Parameter Estimation of Damped Compound Pendulum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Mohd Sazli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation into the parameter estimation of the damped compound pendulum using Firefly algorithm method. In estimating the damped compound pendulum, the system necessarily needs a good model. Therefore, the aim of the work described in this paper is to obtain a dynamic model of the damped compound pendulum. By considering a discrete time form for the system, an autoregressive with exogenous input (ARX model structures was selected. In order to collect input-output data from the experiment, the PRBS signal is used to be input signal to regulate the motor speed. Where, the output signal is taken from position sensor. Firefly algorithm (FA algorithm is used to estimate the model parameters based on model 2nd orders. The model validation was done by comparing the measured output against the predicted output in terms of the closeness of both outputs via mean square error (MSE value. The performance of FA is measured in terms of mean square error (MSE.

  1. An evolutionary firefly algorithm for the estimation of nonlinear biological model parameters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afnizanfaizal Abdullah

    Full Text Available The development of accurate computational models of biological processes is fundamental to computational systems biology. These models are usually represented by mathematical expressions that rely heavily on the system parameters. The measurement of these parameters is often difficult. Therefore, they are commonly estimated by fitting the predicted model to the experimental data using optimization methods. The complexity and nonlinearity of the biological processes pose a significant challenge, however, to the development of accurate and fast optimization methods. We introduce a new hybrid optimization method incorporating the Firefly Algorithm and the evolutionary operation of the Differential Evolution method. The proposed method improves solutions by neighbourhood search using evolutionary procedures. Testing our method on models for the arginine catabolism and the negative feedback loop of the p53 signalling pathway, we found that it estimated the parameters with high accuracy and within a reasonable computation time compared to well-known approaches, including Particle Swarm Optimization, Nelder-Mead, and Firefly Algorithm. We have also verified the reliability of the parameters estimated by the method using an a posteriori practical identifiability test.

  2. A firefly algorithm approach for determining the parameters characteristics of solar cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed LOUZAZNI

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A metaheuristic algorithm is proposed to describe the characteristics of solar cell. The I-V characteristics of solar cell present double nonlinearity in the presence of exponential and in the five parameters. Since, these parameters are unknown, it is important to predict these parameters for accurate modelling of I-V and P-V curves of solar cell. Moreover, firefly algorithm has attracted the intention to optimize the non-linear and complex systems, based on the flashing patterns and behaviour of firefly’s swarm. Besides, the proposed constrained objective function is derived from the current-voltage curve. Using the experimental current and voltage of commercial RTC France Company mono-crystalline silicon solar cell single diode at 33°C and 1000W/m² to predict the unknown parameters. The statistical errors are calculated to verify the accuracy of the results. The obtained results are compared with experimental data and other reported meta-heuristic optimization algorithms. In the end, the theoretical results confirm the validity and reliability of firefly algorithm in estimation the optimal parameters of the solar cell.

  3. Fractional Order Controller Designing with Firefly Algorithm and Parameter Optimization for Hydroturbine Governing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Junyi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A fractional order PID (FOPID controller, which is suitable for control system designing for being insensitive to the variation in system parameter, is proposed for hydroturbine governing system in the paper. The simultaneous optimization for several parameters of controller, that is, Ki, Kd, Kp, λ, and μ, is done by a recently developed metaheuristic nature-inspired algorithm, namely, the firefly algorithm (FA, for the first time, where the selecting, moving, attractiveness behavior between fireflies and updating of brightness, and decision range are studied in detail to simulate the optimization process. Investigation clearly reveals the advantages of the FOPID controller over the integer controllers in terms of reduced oscillations and settling time. The present work also explores the superiority of FA based optimization technique in finding optimal parameters of the controller. Further, convergence characteristics of the FA are compared with optimum integer order PID (IOPID controller to justify its efficiency. What is more, analysis confirms the robustness of FOPID controller under isolated load operation conditions.

  4. Feature Selection for Motor Imagery EEG Classification Based on Firefly Algorithm and Learning Automata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Aiming; Chen, Kun; Liu, Quan; Ai, Qingsong; Xie, Yi; Chen, Anqi

    2017-11-08

    Motor Imagery (MI) electroencephalography (EEG) is widely studied for its non-invasiveness, easy availability, portability, and high temporal resolution. As for MI EEG signal processing, the high dimensions of features represent a research challenge. It is necessary to eliminate redundant features, which not only create an additional overhead of managing the space complexity, but also might include outliers, thereby reducing classification accuracy. The firefly algorithm (FA) can adaptively select the best subset of features, and improve classification accuracy. However, the FA is easily entrapped in a local optimum. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a method of combining the firefly algorithm and learning automata (LA) to optimize feature selection for motor imagery EEG. We employed a method of combining common spatial pattern (CSP) and local characteristic-scale decomposition (LCD) algorithms to obtain a high dimensional feature set, and classified it by using the spectral regression discriminant analysis (SRDA) classifier. Both the fourth brain-computer interface competition data and real-time data acquired in our designed experiments were used to verify the validation of the proposed method. Compared with genetic and adaptive weight particle swarm optimization algorithms, the experimental results show that our proposed method effectively eliminates redundant features, and improves the classification accuracy of MI EEG signals. In addition, a real-time brain-computer interface system was implemented to verify the feasibility of our proposed methods being applied in practical brain-computer interface systems.

  5. An evolutionary firefly algorithm for the estimation of nonlinear biological model parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Afnizanfaizal; Deris, Safaai; Anwar, Sohail; Arjunan, Satya N V

    2013-01-01

    The development of accurate computational models of biological processes is fundamental to computational systems biology. These models are usually represented by mathematical expressions that rely heavily on the system parameters. The measurement of these parameters is often difficult. Therefore, they are commonly estimated by fitting the predicted model to the experimental data using optimization methods. The complexity and nonlinearity of the biological processes pose a significant challenge, however, to the development of accurate and fast optimization methods. We introduce a new hybrid optimization method incorporating the Firefly Algorithm and the evolutionary operation of the Differential Evolution method. The proposed method improves solutions by neighbourhood search using evolutionary procedures. Testing our method on models for the arginine catabolism and the negative feedback loop of the p53 signalling pathway, we found that it estimated the parameters with high accuracy and within a reasonable computation time compared to well-known approaches, including Particle Swarm Optimization, Nelder-Mead, and Firefly Algorithm. We have also verified the reliability of the parameters estimated by the method using an a posteriori practical identifiability test.

  6. Firefly Luciferin-Inspired Biocompatible Chemistry for Protein Labeling and In Vivo Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuqi; An, Ruibing; Luo, Zhiliang; Ye, Deju

    2018-04-17

    Biocompatible reactions have emerged as versatile tools to build various molecular imaging probes that hold great promise for the detection of biological processes in vitro and/or in vivo. In this Minireview, we describe the recent advances in the development of a firefly luciferin-inspired biocompatible reaction between cyanobenzothiazole (CBT) and cysteine (Cys), and highlight its versatility to label proteins and build multimodality molecular imaging probes. The review starts from the general introduction of biocompatible reactions, which is followed by briefly describing the development of the firefly luciferin-inspired biocompatible chemistry. We then discuss its applications for the specific protein labeling and for the development of multimodality imaging probes (fluorescence, bioluminescence, MRI, PET, photoacoustic, etc.) that enable high sensitivity and spatial resolution imaging of redox environment, furin and caspase-3/7 activity in living cells and mice. Finally, we offer the conclusions and our perspective on the various and potential applications of this reaction. We hope that this review will contribute to the research of biocompatible reactions for their versatile applications in protein labeling and molecular imaging. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Optimal battery sizing in photovoltaic based distributed generation using enhanced opposition-based firefly algorithm for voltage rise mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ling Ai; Shareef, Hussain; Mohamed, Azah; Ibrahim, Ahmad Asrul

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the application of enhanced opposition-based firefly algorithm in obtaining the optimal battery energy storage systems (BESS) sizing in photovoltaic generation integrated radial distribution network in order to mitigate the voltage rise problem. Initially, the performance of the original firefly algorithm is enhanced by utilizing the opposition-based learning and introducing inertia weight. After evaluating the performance of the enhanced opposition-based firefly algorithm (EOFA) with fifteen benchmark functions, it is then adopted to determine the optimal size for BESS. Two optimization processes are conducted where the first optimization aims to obtain the optimal battery output power on hourly basis and the second optimization aims to obtain the optimal BESS capacity by considering the state of charge constraint of BESS. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated by applying the algorithm to the 69-bus distribution system and by comparing the performance of EOFA with conventional firefly algorithm and gravitational search algorithm. Results show that EOFA has the best performance comparatively in terms of mitigating the voltage rise problem.

  8. Optimal Battery Sizing in Photovoltaic Based Distributed Generation Using Enhanced Opposition-Based Firefly Algorithm for Voltage Rise Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Ai Wong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of enhanced opposition-based firefly algorithm in obtaining the optimal battery energy storage systems (BESS sizing in photovoltaic generation integrated radial distribution network in order to mitigate the voltage rise problem. Initially, the performance of the original firefly algorithm is enhanced by utilizing the opposition-based learning and introducing inertia weight. After evaluating the performance of the enhanced opposition-based firefly algorithm (EOFA with fifteen benchmark functions, it is then adopted to determine the optimal size for BESS. Two optimization processes are conducted where the first optimization aims to obtain the optimal battery output power on hourly basis and the second optimization aims to obtain the optimal BESS capacity by considering the state of charge constraint of BESS. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated by applying the algorithm to the 69-bus distribution system and by comparing the performance of EOFA with conventional firefly algorithm and gravitational search algorithm. Results show that EOFA has the best performance comparatively in terms of mitigating the voltage rise problem.

  9. Motion Estimation Using the Firefly Algorithm in Ultrasonic Image Sequence of Soft Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Feng Chao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic image sequence of the soft tissue is widely used in disease diagnosis; however, the speckle noises usually influenced the image quality. These images usually have a low signal-to-noise ratio presentation. The phenomenon gives rise to traditional motion estimation algorithms that are not suitable to measure the motion vectors. In this paper, a new motion estimation algorithm is developed for assessing the velocity field of soft tissue in a sequence of ultrasonic B-mode images. The proposed iterative firefly algorithm (IFA searches for few candidate points to obtain the optimal motion vector, and then compares it to the traditional iterative full search algorithm (IFSA via a series of experiments of in vivo ultrasonic image sequences. The experimental results show that the IFA can assess the vector with better efficiency and almost equal estimation quality compared to the traditional IFSA method.

  10. A hybrid firefly algorithm and pattern search technique for SSSC based power oscillation damping controller design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikanta Mahapatra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel hybrid Firefly Algorithm and Pattern Search (h-FAPS technique is proposed for a Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC-based power oscillation damping controller design. The proposed h-FAPS technique takes the advantage of global search capability of FA and local search facility of PS. In order to tackle the drawback of using the remote signal that may impact reliability of the controller, a modified signal equivalent to the remote speed deviation signal is constructed from the local measurements. The performances of the proposed controllers are evaluated in SMIB and multi-machine power system subjected to various transient disturbances. To show the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed design approach, simulation results are presented and compared with some recently published approaches such as Differential Evolution (DE and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO. It is observed that the proposed approach yield superior damping performance compared to some recently reported approaches.

  11. A Genetic-Firefly Hybrid Algorithm to Find the Best Data Location in a Data Cube

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    M. Faridi Masouleh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Decision-based programs include large-scale complex database queries. If the response time is short, query optimization is critical. Users usually observe data as a multi-dimensional data cube. Each data cube cell displays data as an aggregation in which the number of cells depends on the number of other cells in the cube. At any given time, a powerful query optimization method can visualize part of the cells instead of calculating results from raw data. Business systems use different approaches and positioning of data in the data cube. In the present study, the data is trained by a neural network and a genetic-firefly hybrid algorithm is proposed for finding the best position for the data in the cube.

  12. Firefly algorithm based solution to minimize the real power loss in a power system

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    P. Balachennaiah

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method to minimize the real power loss (RPL of a power system transmission network using a new meta-heuristic algorithm known as firefly algorithm (FA by optimizing the control variables such as transformer taps, UPFC location and UPFC series injected voltage magnitude and phase angle. A software program is developed in MATLAB environment for FA to minimize the RPL by optimizing (i only the transformer tap values, (ii only UPFC location and its variables with optimized tap values and (iii UPFC location and its variables along with transformer tap setting values simultaneously. Interior point successive linear programming (IPSLP technique and real coded genetic algorithm (RCGA are considered here to compare the results and to show the efficiency and superiority of the proposed FA towards the optimization of RPL. Also in this paper, bacteria foraging algorithm (BFA is adopted to validate the results of the proposed algorithm.

  13. Japanese Interest in “Hotaru” (Fireflies) and “Kabuto-Mushi” (Japanese Rhinoceros Beetles) Corresponds with Seasonality in Visible Abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Kenta

    2012-01-01

    Seasonal changes in the popularity of fireflies [usually Genji-fireflies (Luciola cruciata Motschulsky) in Japan] and Japanese rhinoceros beetles [Allomyrina dichotoma (Linne)] were investigated to examine whether contemporary Japanese are interested in visible emergence of these insects as seasonal events. The popularity of fireflies and Japanese rhinoceros beetles was assessed by the Google search volume of their Japanese names, “Hotaru” and “Kabuto-mushi” in Japanese Katakana script using Google Trends. The search volume index for fireflies and Japanese rhinoceros beetles was distributed across seasons with a clear peak in only particular times of each year from 2004 to 2011. In addition, the seasonal peak of popularity for fireflies occurred at the beginning of June, whereas that for Japanese rhinoceros beetles occurred from the middle of July to the beginning of August. Thus seasonal peak of each species coincided with the peak period of the emergence of each adult stage. These findings indicated that the Japanese are interested in these insects primarily during the time when the two species are most visibly abundant. Although untested, this could suggest that fireflies and Japanese rhinoceros beetles are perceived by the general public as indicators or symbols of summer in Japan. PMID:26466535

  14. Reliability-Based Design Optimization of Trusses with Linked-Discrete Design Variables using the Improved Firefly Algorithm

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    N. M. Okasha

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an approach for conducting a Reliability-Based Design Optimization (RBDO of truss structures with linked-discrete design variables is proposed. The sections of the truss members are selected from the AISC standard tables and thus the design variables that represent the properties of each section are linked. Latin hypercube sampling is used in the evaluation of the structural reliability. The improved firefly algorithm is used for the optimization solution process. It was found that in order to use the improved firefly algorithm for efficiently solving problems of reliability-based design optimization with linked-discrete design variables; it needs to be modified as proposed in this paper to accelerate its convergence.

  15. A novel firefly luciferase biosensor enhances the detection of apoptosis induced by ESAT-6 family proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Junwei; Zhang, Huan; Fang, Liurong; Xi, Yongqiang; Zhou, Yanrong; Luo, Rui; Wang, Dang; Xiao, Shaobo; Chen, Huanchun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We developed a novel firefly luciferase based biosensor to detect apoptosis. • The novel biosensor 233-DnaE-DEVDG was reliable, sensitive and convenient. • 233-DnaE-DEVDG faithfully indicated ESAT-6 family proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis induced apoptosis. • EsxA, esxT and esxL in ESAT-6 family proteins induced apoptosis. • Activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) participated in esxT-induced apoptosis. - Abstract: The activation of caspase-3 is a key surrogate marker for detecting apoptosis. To quantitate caspase-3 activity, we constructed a biosensor comprising a recombinant firefly luciferase containing a caspase-3 cleavage site. When apoptosis was induced, caspase-3 cleavage of the biosensor activated firefly luciferase by a factor greater than 25. The assay conveniently detected apoptosis in real time, indicating that it will facilitate drug discovery. We screened ESAT-6 family proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and found that esxA, esxT and esxL induced apoptosis. Further, activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and the NF-κB-regulated genes encoding tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) participated in esxT-induced apoptosis. We conclude that this assay is useful for high-throughput screening to identify and characterize proteins and drugs that regulate apoptosis

  16. A novel firefly luciferase biosensor enhances the detection of apoptosis induced by ESAT-6 family proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Junwei; Zhang, Huan; Fang, Liurong; Xi, Yongqiang; Zhou, Yanrong; Luo, Rui; Wang, Dang, E-mail: wangdang511@126.com; Xiao, Shaobo; Chen, Huanchun

    2014-10-03

    Highlights: • We developed a novel firefly luciferase based biosensor to detect apoptosis. • The novel biosensor 233-DnaE-DEVDG was reliable, sensitive and convenient. • 233-DnaE-DEVDG faithfully indicated ESAT-6 family proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis induced apoptosis. • EsxA, esxT and esxL in ESAT-6 family proteins induced apoptosis. • Activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) participated in esxT-induced apoptosis. - Abstract: The activation of caspase-3 is a key surrogate marker for detecting apoptosis. To quantitate caspase-3 activity, we constructed a biosensor comprising a recombinant firefly luciferase containing a caspase-3 cleavage site. When apoptosis was induced, caspase-3 cleavage of the biosensor activated firefly luciferase by a factor greater than 25. The assay conveniently detected apoptosis in real time, indicating that it will facilitate drug discovery. We screened ESAT-6 family proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and found that esxA, esxT and esxL induced apoptosis. Further, activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and the NF-κB-regulated genes encoding tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) participated in esxT-induced apoptosis. We conclude that this assay is useful for high-throughput screening to identify and characterize proteins and drugs that regulate apoptosis.

  17. Constrained multi-objective optimization of radial expanders in organic Rankine cycles by firefly algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahadormanesh, Nikrouz; Rahat, Shayan; Yarali, Milad

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A multi-objective optimization for radial expander in Organic Rankine Cycles is implemented. • By using firefly algorithm, Pareto front based on the size of turbine and thermal efficiency is produced. • Tension and vibration constrains have a significant effect on optimum design points. - Abstract: Organic Rankine Cycles are viable energy conversion systems in sustainable energy systems due to their compatibility with low-temperature heat sources. In the present study, one dimensional model of radial expanders in conjunction with a thermodynamic model of organic Rankine cycles is prepared. After verification, by defining thermal efficiency of the cycle and size parameter of a radial turbine as the objective functions, a multi-objective optimization was conducted regarding tension and vibration constraints for 4 different organic working fluids (R22, R245fa, R236fa and N-Pentane). In addition to mass flow rate, evaporator temperature, maximum pressure of cycle and turbo-machinery design parameters are selected as the decision variables. Regarding Pareto fronts, by a little increase in size of radial expanders, it is feasible to reach high efficiency. Moreover, by assessing the distribution of decision variables, the variables that play a major role in trending between the objective functions are found. Effects of mechanical and vibration constrains on optimum decision variables are investigated. The results of optimization can be considered as an initial values for design of radial turbines for Organic Rankine Cycles.

  18. A novel nature inspired firefly algorithm with higher order neural network: Performance analysis

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    Janmenjoy Nayak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The applications of both Feed Forward Neural network and Multilayer perceptron are very diverse and saturated. But the linear threshold unit of feed forward networks causes fast learning with limited capabilities, while due to multilayering, the back propagation of errors exhibits slow training speed in MLP. So, a higher order network can be constructed by correlating between the input variables to perform nonlinear mapping using the single layer of input units for overcoming the above drawbacks. In this paper, a Firefly based higher order neural network has been proposed for data classification for maintaining fast learning and avoids the exponential increase of processing units. A vast literature survey has been conducted to review the state of the art of the previous developed models. The performance of the proposed method has been tested with various benchmark datasets from UCI machine learning repository and compared with the performance of other established models. Experimental results imply that the proposed method is fast, steady, reliable and provides better classification accuracy than others.

  19. Weighing Efficiency-Robustness in Supply Chain Disruption by Multi-Objective Firefly Algorithm

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    Tong Shu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates various supply chain disruptions in terms of scenario planning, including node disruption and chain disruption; namely, disruptions in distribution centers and disruptions between manufacturing centers and distribution centers. Meanwhile, it also focuses on the simultaneous disruption on one node or a number of nodes, simultaneous disruption in one chain or a number of chains and the corresponding mathematical models and exemplification in relation to numerous manufacturing centers and diverse products. Robustness of the design of the supply chain network is examined by weighing efficiency against robustness during supply chain disruptions. Efficiency is represented by operating cost; robustness is indicated by the expected disruption cost and the weighing issue is calculated by the multi-objective firefly algorithm for consistency in the results. It has been shown that the total cost achieved by the optimal target function is lower than that at the most effective time of supply chains. In other words, the decrease of expected disruption cost by improving robustness in supply chains is greater than the increase of operating cost by reducing efficiency, thus leading to cost advantage. Consequently, by approximating the Pareto Front Chart of weighing between efficiency and robustness, enterprises can choose appropriate efficiency and robustness for their longer-term development.

  20. Perancangan Sistem Penjadwalan Mesin Hybrid Flow Shop dengan Algoritma Levyflight Discrete Firefly

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    Andrew Verrayo Limas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main issues that have been encountered in PT Surya Toto Indonesia is companies do not know how to measure the performance of the production process so as the utilization of resources that will be used isn’t yet to be known with efficiently. The purpose of this case studies is creating a better production processes by proposing a better and systematic scheduling information system. An Object Oriented Analysis and Design method is used to determine system’s requirements and design of the system architecture. Metaheuristic methods such as Discrete algorithms Levy-flight Firefly is used to improve the performance of the Hybrid Flow Shop machine scheduling become more better. Indicators that are used to determine the performance of the scheduling is makespan and lateness. Results from this algorithm is makespan value of 305.27 hours with lateness value of 10.92 which determine that there is no delays in scheduling. Scheduling information system was designed three primary capabilities, which are integrated data management, inventory management and a systematic and accurate scheduling system.

  1. Penalaan Parameter Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES menggunakan Firefly Algorithm (FA pada Sistem Tenaga Listrik Multimesin

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    Herlambang Setiadi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Energi listrik yang disuplai ke konsumen harus mempunyai stabilitas dan keandalan yang tinggi. Jika terjadi sebuah gangguan pada sistem tenaga listrik dapat mengakibatkan ketidakstabilan. Gangguan tersebut dapat berupa putus jaringan (transien maupun perubahan beban (dinamik. Perubahan beban yang terjadi secara tiba-tiba dan periodik tidak dapat direspon dengan baik oleh generator sehingga dapat mempengaruhi kestabilan dinamik sistem. Hal ini menyebabkan timbul osilasi frekuensi pada generator. Respon yang kurang baik dapat menimbulkan osilasi frekuensi dalam periode yang lama. Hal itu akan mengakibatkan pengurangan kekuatan transfer daya yang ada. Pada sistem tenaga listrik multimachine, semua mesin bekerja secara sinkron se­hingga generator harus beroperasi pada frekuensi yang sama. Untuk meredam osilasi frekuensi yang terjadi dibutuhkan kontroler tambahan yaitu Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES. Agar mendapatkan koordinasi controler yang baik maka parameter pada SMES dioptimisasi dengan Firefly Algorithm (FA. Tugas Akhir ini mengajukan konsep penalaan parameter SMES menggunakan FA pada sistem tenaga listrik multimesin. Dengan diajukan metode diatas diharapkan permasalahan osilasi frekuensi akibat terdapat perubahan beban dapat diredam.

  2. Optimisasi Unit Commitment Mempertimbangkan Fungsi Biaya Tidak Mulus Dengan Firefly Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Prastikha Hadhi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Setiap unit pembangkit yang beroperasi untuk memenuhi permintaan beban mempunyai jadwal operasi yang berbeda-beda. Hal ini disebabkan oleh perbedaan karakteristik input-output yang khas dari setiap unit. Untuk memperoleh biaya total pembangkitan yang ekonomis dibutuhkan penjadwalan nyala-padam unit pembangkit yang terhubung pada sistem tenaga listrik, yang dikenal sebagai unit commitment (UC. Penjadwalan unit pembangkit pada suatu sistem tenaga listrik memiliki banyak pertimbangan, seperti cadangan berputar (spinning reserve, waktu menyala minimal (minimum up time, waktu padam minimal (minimum down time, rentang daya output unit pembangkit dan lain-lain. Selain itu, fungsi biaya pembangkitan unit yang mengoperasikan katup uap untuk mengimbangi perubahan beban menyebabkan persamaan fungsi biaya menjadi tidak mulus. Fungsi biaya tidak mulus mempersulit penjadwalan ekonomis unit pembangkit. Tugas akhir ini mengajukan Firefly Algorithm (FA untuk menyelesaikan penjadwalan UC. FA merupakan algoritma yang sederhana, tetapi handal dalam menyelesaikan permasalahan optimisasi. UC yang diajukan menggunakan fungsi biaya tidak mulus. Dengan metode tersebut, diharapkan permasalahan penjadwalan unit pembangkit dapat terselesaikan dengan baik dan optimal sehingga memperoleh biaya total pembangkitan yang ekonomis.

  3. Cellular Immune Response Against Firefly Luciferase After Sleeping Beauty–Mediated Gene Transfer In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podetz-Pedersen, Kelly M.; Vezys, Vaiva; Somia, Nikunj V.; Russell, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon system has been shown to mediate new gene sequence integration resulting in long-term expression. Here the effectiveness of hyperactive SB100X transposase was tested, and we found that hydrodynamic co-delivery of a firefly luciferase transposon (pT2/CaL) along with SB100X transposase (pCMV-SB100X) resulted in remarkably sustained, high levels of luciferase expression. However, after 4 weeks there was a rapid, animal-by-animal loss of luciferase expression that was not observed in immunodeficient mice. We hypothesized that this sustained, high-level luciferase expression achieved using the SB100X transposase elicits an immune response in pT2/CaL co-administered mice, which was supported by the rapid loss of luciferase expression upon challenge of previously treated animals and in naive animals adoptively transferred with splenocytes from previously treated animals. Specificity of the immune response to luciferase was demonstrated by increased cytokine expression in splenocytes after exposure to luciferase peptide in parallel with MHC I–luciferase peptide tetramer binding. This anti-luciferase immune response observed following continuous, high-level luciferase expression in vivo clearly impacts its use as an in vivo reporter. As both an immunogen and an extremely sensitive reporter, luciferase is also a useful model system for the study of immune responses following in vivo gene transfer and expression. PMID:25093708

  4. Kombinasi Firefly Algorithm-Tabu Search untuk Penyelesaian Traveling Salesman Problem

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    Riyan Naufal Hay's

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP adalah masalah optimasi kombinatorial klasik dan memiliki peran dalam perencanaan, penjadwalan, dan pencarian pada bidang rekayasa dan pengetahuan (Dong, 2012. TSP juga merupakan objek yang baik untuk menguji kinerja metode optimasi, beberapa metode seperti Cooperative Genetic Ant System (CGAS (Dong, 2012, Parallelized Genetic Ant Colony System (PGAS Particle Swarm Optimization and Ant Colony Optimization Algorithms (PSO–ACO (Elloumi, 2014, dan Ant Colony Hyper-Heuristics (ACO HH (Aziz, 2015 telah dikembangkan untuk memecahkan TSP. Sehingga, pada penelitian ini diimplementasikan kombinasi metode baru untuk meningkatkan akurasi penyelesaian TSP. Firefly Algorithm (FA merupakan salah satu algoritma yang dapat digunakan untuk memecahkan masalah optimasi kombinatorial (Layeb, 2014. FA merupakan algoritma yang berpotensi kuat dalam memecahkan kasus optimasi dibanding algoritma yang ada termasuk Particle Swarm Optimization (Yang, 2010. Namun, FA memiliki kekurangan dalam memecahkan masalah optimasi dengan skala besar (Baykasoğlu dan Ozsoy, 2014. Tabu Search (TS merupakan metode optimasi yang terbukti efektif untuk memecahkan masalah optimasi dengan skala besar (Pedro, 2013. Pada penelitian ini, TS akan diterapkan pada FA (FATS untuk memecahkan kasus TSP. Hasil FATS akan dibandingkan terhadap penelitian sebelumnya yaitu ACOHH. Perbandingan hasil menunjukan peningkatan akurasi sebesar 0.89% pada dataset Oliver30, 0.14% dataset Eil51, 3.81% dataset Eil76 dan 1.27% dataset KroA100.

  5. Solution to automatic generation control problem using firefly algorithm optimized I(λ)D(µ) controller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debbarma, Sanjoy; Saikia, Lalit Chandra; Sinha, Nidul

    2014-03-01

    Present work focused on automatic generation control (AGC) of a three unequal area thermal systems considering reheat turbines and appropriate generation rate constraints (GRC). A fractional order (FO) controller named as I(λ)D(µ) controller based on crone approximation is proposed for the first time as an appropriate technique to solve the multi-area AGC problem in power systems. A recently developed metaheuristic algorithm known as firefly algorithm (FA) is used for the simultaneous optimization of the gains and other parameters such as order of integrator (λ) and differentiator (μ) of I(λ)D(µ) controller and governor speed regulation parameters (R). The dynamic responses corresponding to optimized I(λ)D(µ) controller gains, λ, μ, and R are compared with that of classical integer order (IO) controllers such as I, PI and PID controllers. Simulation results show that the proposed I(λ)D(µ) controller provides more improved dynamic responses and outperforms the IO based classical controllers. Further, sensitivity analysis confirms the robustness of the so optimized I(λ)D(µ) controller to wide changes in system loading conditions and size and position of SLP. Proposed controller is also found to have performed well as compared to IO based controllers when SLP takes place simultaneously in any two areas or all the areas. Robustness of the proposed I(λ)D(µ) controller is also tested against system parameter variations. © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Application of firefly luciferase assay for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to antimicrobial drug sensitivity testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picciolo, G. L.; Tuttle, S. A.; Schrock, C. G.; Deming, J. W.; Barza, M. J.; Wienstein, L.; Chappelle, E. W.

    1977-01-01

    The development of a rapid method for determining microbial susceptibilities to antibiotics using the firefly luciferase assay for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is documented. The reduction of bacterial ATP by an antimicrobial agent was determined to be a valid measure of drug effect in most cases. The effect of 12 antibiotics on 8 different bacterial species gave a 94 percent correlation with the standard Kirby-Buer-Agar disc diffusion method. A 93 percent correlation was obtained when the ATP assay method was applied directly to 50 urine specimens from patients with urinary tract infections. Urine samples were centrifuged first to that bacterial pellets could be suspended in broth. No primary isolation or subculturing was required. Mixed cultures in which one species was predominant gave accurate results for the most abundant organism. Since the method is based on an increase in bacterial ATP with time, the presence of leukocytes did not interfere with the interpretation of results. Both the incubation procedure and the ATP assays are compatible with automation.

  7. Engineering the metal sensitive sites in Macrolampis sp2 firefly luciferase and use as a novel bioluminescent ratiometric biosensor for heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Gabriele V M; Viviani, Vadim R

    2016-12-01

    Most luminescent biosensors for heavy metals are fluorescent and rely on intensity measurements, whereas a few are ratiometric and rely on spectral changes. Bioluminescent biosensors for heavy metals are less common. Firefly luciferases have been coupled to responsive promoters for mercury and arsenium, and used as light on biosensors. Firefly luciferase bioluminescence spectrum is naturally sensitive to heavy metal cations such as zinc and mercury and to pH. Although pH sensitivity of firefly luciferases was shown to be useful for ratiometric estimation of intracellular pH, its potential use for ratiometric estimation of heavy metals was never considered. Using the yellow-emitting Macrolampis sp2 firefly luciferase and site-directed mutagenesis, we show that the residues H310 and E354 constitute two critical sites for metal sensitivity that can be engineered to increase sensitivity to zinc, nickel, and mercury. A linear relationship between cation concentration and the ratio of bioluminescence intensities at 550 and 610 nm allowed, for the first time, the ratiometric estimation of heavy metals concentrations down to 0.10 mM, demonstrating the potential applicability of firefly luciferases as enzymatic and intracellular ratiometric metal biosensors.

  8. Optimasi Time Dial Setting (TDS Relay Arus Lebih Menggunakan Adaptive Modified Firefly Algorithm Pada Sistem Kelistrikan PT. Pupuk Kalimantan Timur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincentius Raki Mahindhara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Penggunaan relay arus lebih (over current relay pada industri memerlukan pengaturan beberapa parameter seperti arus pickup (Ip, time dial setting (TDS, serta waktu operasi (top. Dalam standard acuan dicantumkan batasan-batasan dan formulasi dalam menentukan parameter tersebut. Salah satu permasalahan adalah penentuan TDS pada relay inverse (Kode ANSI 51. Umumnya penentuan nilai TDS dilakukan dengan metode trial and error, hal ini dirasa kurang efektif sehingga diusulkan suatu metode baru dalam menentukan TDS pada sistem kelistrikan eksisting PT. Pupuk Kalimantan Timur. Digunakan algoritma adaptive firefly yang dimodifikasi dalam menyelesaikan permasalahan dengan mempertimbangkan kurva starting motor dan perbedaan tipe kurva antar relay

  9. Improving accuracy of intraoperative diagnosis of endometriosis: Role of firefly in minimal access robotic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R Lue

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Endometriosis continues to be a major primary gynecologic etiology of chronic pelvic pain. The symptom profile, which includes cyclic pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea, and dyspareunia or dyschezia, is nonspecific and does not correlate with the extent or severity of disease. Trans-vaginal or trans-rectal ultrasound, as well as magnetic resonance imaging, can help visualize endometriomas and deeply infiltrating endometriosis. Additionally, there have been no serum marker tests available so far. However, even intraoperatively, the diagnosis may be missed, leading to under diagnosis and delayed or noninitiation of treatment. There are thought to be three distinct endometriotic lesions of the pelvis that are seen laparoscopically. The first is that which is visible on the pelvic peritoneal surface or the surface of the ovary, which is commonly termed peritoneal endometriosis. Second, endometriotic lesions that occur within the ovary and form cysts that are often lined with endometrioid mucosa are termed endometriomas. Lastly, rectovaginal endometriomas are endometriotic lesions that contain a mixture of adipose and fibrous tissue located between the rectum and vagina. All of these lesions can be singular or multiple and the pelvis may contain one or all three types of lesions. The shared histologic feature with all three lesions is the presence of endometrial epithelial cells or endometrial stroma. During a diagnostic procedure, the da-Vinci robot and its firefly mode allow for three dimensional visualization and seven degrees of instrument articulation for meticulous dissection of fibrotic areas of peritoneum that may contain deep infiltrating lesions of endometriosis. This case report describes a relatively new and innovative technique for effectively diagnosing and successfully treating endometriosis when other less invasive methods have failed.

  10. Uric Acid Spherulites in the Reflector Layer of Firefly Light Organ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, King-Siang; Sheu, Hwo-Shuenn; Hua, Tzu-En; Kang, Mei-Hua; Li, Chia-Wei

    2013-01-01

    Background In firefly light organs, reflector layer is a specialized tissue which is believed to play a key role for increasing the bioluminescence intensity through reflection. However, the nature of this unique tissue remains elusive. In this report, we investigated the role, fine structure and nature of the reflector layer in the light organ of adult Luciola cerata. Principal Findings Our results indicated that the reflector layer is capable of reflecting bioluminescence, and contains abundant uric acid. Electron microscopy (EM) demonstrated that the cytosol of the reflector layer's cells is filled with densely packed spherical granules, which should be the uric acid granules. These granules are highly regular in size (∼700 nm in diameter), and exhibit a radial internal structure. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses revealed that an intense single peak pattern with a d-spacing value of 0.320 nm is specifically detected in the light organ, and is highly similar to the diffraction peak pattern and d-spacing value of needle-formed crystals of monosodium urate monohydrate. However, the molar ratio evaluation of uric acid to various cations (K+, Na+, Ca2+ and Mg2+) in the light organ deduced that only a few uric acid molecules were in the form of urate salts. Thus, non-salt uric acid should be the source of the diffraction signal detected in the light organ. Conclusions In the light organ, the intense single peak diffraction signal might come from a unique needle-like uric acid form, which is different from other known structures of non-salt uric acid form. The finding of a radial structure in the granules of reflector layer implies that the spherical uric acid granules might be formed by the radial arrangement of needle-formed packing matter. PMID:23441187

  11. ECG based Atrial Fibrillation detection using Sequency Ordered Complex Hadamard Transform and Hybrid Firefly Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmavathi Kora

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Electrocardiogram (ECG, a non-invasive diagnostic technique, used for detecting cardiac arrhythmia. From last decade industry dealing with biomedical instrumentation and research, demanding an advancement in its ability to distinguish different cardiac arrhythmia. Atrial Fibrillation (AF is an irregular rhythm of the human heart. During AF, the atrial moments are quicker than the normal rate. As blood is not completely ejected out of atria, chances for the formation of blood clots in atrium. These abnormalities in the heart can be identified by the changes in the morphology of the ECG. The first step in the detection of AF is preprocessing of ECG, which removes noise using filters. Feature extraction is the next key process in this research. Recent feature extraction methods, such as Auto Regressive (AR modeling, Magnitude Squared Coherence (MSC and Wavelet Coherence (WTC using standard database (MIT-BIH, yielded a lot of features. Many of these features might be insignificant containing some redundant and non-discriminatory features that introduce computational burden and loss of performance. This paper presents fast Conjugate Symmetric Sequency Ordered Complex Hadamard Transform (CS-SCHT for extracting relevant features from the ECG signal. The sparse matrix factorization method is used for developing fast and efficient CS-SCHT algorithm and its computational performance is examined and compared to that of the HT and NCHT. The applications of the CS-SCHT in the ECG-based AF detection is also discussed. These fast CS-SCHT features are optimized using Hybrid Firefly and Particle Swarm Optimization (FFPSO to increase the performance of the classifier.

  12. A modified firefly algorithm applied to the nuclear reload problem of a pressurized water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Iona Maghali Santos de; Schirru, Roberto, E-mail: ioliveira@con.ufrj.b, E-mail: schirru@lmp.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2011-07-01

    The Nuclear Reactor Reload Problem (NRRP) is an issue of great importance and concern in nuclear engineering. It is the problem related with the periodic operation of replacing part of the fuel of a nuclear reactor. Traditionally, this procedure occurs after a period of operation called a cycle, or whenever the nuclear power plant is unable to continue operating at its nominal power. Studied for more than 40 years, the NRRP still remains a challenge for many optimization techniques due to its multiple objectives concerning economics, safety and reactor physics calculations. Characteristics such as non-linearity, multimodality and high dimensionality also make the NRRP a very complex optimization problem. In broad terms, it aims at getting the best arrangement of fuel in the nuclear reactor core that leads to a maximization of the operating time. The primary goal is to design fuel loading patterns (LPs) so that the core produces the required energy output in an economical way, without violating safety limits. Since multiple feasible solutions can be obtained to this problem, judicious optimization is required in order to identify the most economical among them. In this sense, this paper presents a new contribution in this area and introduces a modified firefly algorithm (FA) to perform LPs optimization for a pressurized water reactor. Based on the original FA introduced by Xin-She Yang in 2008, the proposed methodology seems to be very promising as an optimizer to the NRRP. The experiments performed and the comparisons with some well known best performing algorithms from the literature, confirm this statement. (author)

  13. A modified firefly algorithm applied to the nuclear reload problem of a pressurized water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Iona Maghali Santos de; Schirru, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    The Nuclear Reactor Reload Problem (NRRP) is an issue of great importance and concern in nuclear engineering. It is the problem related with the periodic operation of replacing part of the fuel of a nuclear reactor. Traditionally, this procedure occurs after a period of operation called a cycle, or whenever the nuclear power plant is unable to continue operating at its nominal power. Studied for more than 40 years, the NRRP still remains a challenge for many optimization techniques due to its multiple objectives concerning economics, safety and reactor physics calculations. Characteristics such as non-linearity, multimodality and high dimensionality also make the NRRP a very complex optimization problem. In broad terms, it aims at getting the best arrangement of fuel in the nuclear reactor core that leads to a maximization of the operating time. The primary goal is to design fuel loading patterns (LPs) so that the core produces the required energy output in an economical way, without violating safety limits. Since multiple feasible solutions can be obtained to this problem, judicious optimization is required in order to identify the most economical among them. In this sense, this paper presents a new contribution in this area and introduces a modified firefly algorithm (FA) to perform LPs optimization for a pressurized water reactor. Based on the original FA introduced by Xin-She Yang in 2008, the proposed methodology seems to be very promising as an optimizer to the NRRP. The experiments performed and the comparisons with some well known best performing algorithms from the literature, confirm this statement. (author)

  14. Large-scale protein-protein interaction analysis in Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts by split firefly luciferase complementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Feng; Bush, Jenifer; Xiong, Yan; Li, Lei; McCormack, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) constitute the regulatory network that coordinates diverse cellular functions. There are growing needs in plant research for creating protein interaction maps behind complex cellular processes and at a systems biology level. However, only a few approaches have been successfully used for large-scale surveys of PPIs in plants, each having advantages and disadvantages. Here we present split firefly luciferase complementation (SFLC) as a highly sensitive and noninvasive technique for in planta PPI investigation. In this assay, the separate halves of a firefly luciferase can come into close proximity and transiently restore its catalytic activity only when their fusion partners, namely the two proteins of interest, interact with each other. This assay was conferred with quantitativeness and high throughput potential when the Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplast system and a microplate luminometer were employed for protein expression and luciferase measurement, respectively. Using the SFLC assay, we could monitor the dynamics of rapamycin-induced and ascomycin-disrupted interaction between Arabidopsis FRB and human FKBP proteins in a near real-time manner. As a proof of concept for large-scale PPI survey, we further applied the SFLC assay to testing 132 binary PPIs among 8 auxin response factors (ARFs) and 12 Aux/IAA proteins from Arabidopsis. Our results demonstrated that the SFLC assay is ideal for in vivo quantitative PPI analysis in plant cells and is particularly powerful for large-scale binary PPI screens.

  15. Large-scale protein-protein interaction analysis in Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts by split firefly luciferase complementation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Feng Li

    Full Text Available Protein-protein interactions (PPIs constitute the regulatory network that coordinates diverse cellular functions. There are growing needs in plant research for creating protein interaction maps behind complex cellular processes and at a systems biology level. However, only a few approaches have been successfully used for large-scale surveys of PPIs in plants, each having advantages and disadvantages. Here we present split firefly luciferase complementation (SFLC as a highly sensitive and noninvasive technique for in planta PPI investigation. In this assay, the separate halves of a firefly luciferase can come into close proximity and transiently restore its catalytic activity only when their fusion partners, namely the two proteins of interest, interact with each other. This assay was conferred with quantitativeness and high throughput potential when the Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplast system and a microplate luminometer were employed for protein expression and luciferase measurement, respectively. Using the SFLC assay, we could monitor the dynamics of rapamycin-induced and ascomycin-disrupted interaction between Arabidopsis FRB and human FKBP proteins in a near real-time manner. As a proof of concept for large-scale PPI survey, we further applied the SFLC assay to testing 132 binary PPIs among 8 auxin response factors (ARFs and 12 Aux/IAA proteins from Arabidopsis. Our results demonstrated that the SFLC assay is ideal for in vivo quantitative PPI analysis in plant cells and is particularly powerful for large-scale binary PPI screens.

  16. Identification and characterization of the Luc2-type luciferase in the Japanese firefly, Luciola parvula, involved in a dim luminescence in immobile stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessho-Uehara, Manabu; Oba, Yuichi

    2017-09-01

    Nocturnal Japanese fireflies, Luciola parvula, emit from their lanterns a yellow light, one of the most red-shifted colors found among fireflies. Previously, we isolated and characterized two different types of luciferase gene, Luc1 and Luc2, from the fireflies Luciola cruciata and Luciola lateralis; Luc1 is responsible for the green-yellow luminescence of larval and adult lanterns, whereas Luc2 is responsible for the dim greenish glow of eggs and pupal bodies. The biological role of firefly lanterns in adults is related to sexual communication, but why the eggs and pupae glow remains uncertain. In this study, we isolated the gene Luc2 from L. parvula, and compared its expression profiles and enzymatic characteristics with those of Luc1. A semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction showed that Luc1 was predominantly expressed in larvae, prepupae, pupae and adults, whereas Luc2 was expressed in eggs, prepupae, pupae and adult females. Enzymatic analyses showed that the luminescent color of Luc1 matches the visual sensitivity of L. parvula eyes, whereas that of Luc2 is very different from it. These results suggest that the biological role of Luc2 expressed in immobile stages is not intraspecific communication. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Comparison of Firefly algorithm and Artificial Immune System algorithm for lot streaming in -machine flow shop scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Vijay Chakaravarthy

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Lot streaming is a technique used to split the processing of lots into several sublots (transfer batches to allow the overlapping of operations in a multistage manufacturing systems thereby shortening the production time (makespan. The objective of this paper is to minimize the makespan and total flow time of -job, -machine lot streaming problem in a flow shop with equal and variable size sublots and also to determine the optimal sublot size. In recent times researchers are concentrating and applying intelligent heuristics to solve flow shop problems with lot streaming. In this research, Firefly Algorithm (FA and Artificial Immune System (AIS algorithms are used to solve the problem. The results obtained by the proposed algorithms are also compared with the performance of other worked out traditional heuristics. The computational results shows that the identified algorithms are more efficient, effective and better than the algorithms already tested for this problem.

  18. A discrete firefly meta-heuristic with local search for makespan minimization in permutation flow shop scheduling problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Ghaffari-Nasab

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available During the past two decades, there have been increasing interests on permutation flow shop with different types of objective functions such as minimizing the makespan, the weighted mean flow-time etc. The permutation flow shop is formulated as a mixed integer programming and it is classified as NP-Hard problem. Therefore, a direct solution is not available and meta-heuristic approaches need to be used to find the near-optimal solutions. In this paper, we present a new discrete firefly meta-heuristic to minimize the makespan for the permutation flow shop scheduling problem. The results of implementation of the proposed method are compared with other existing ant colony optimization technique. The preliminary results indicate that the new proposed method performs better than the ant colony for some well known benchmark problems.

  19. Modelling chemical reactions by QM/MM calculations: the case of the tautomerization in fireflies bioluminescent systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berraud-Pache, Romain; Garcia-Iriepa, Cristina; Navizet, Isabelle

    2018-04-01

    In less than half a century, the hybrid QM/MM method has become one of the most used technique to model molecules embedded in a complex environment. A well-known application of the QM/MM method is for biological systems. Nowadays, one can understand how enzymatic reactions work or compute spectroscopic properties, like the wavelength of emission. Here, we have tackled the issue of modelling chemical reactions inside proteins. We have studied a bioluminescent system, fireflies, and deciphered if a keto-enol tautomerization is possible inside the protein. The two tautomers are candidates to be the emissive molecule of the bioluminescence but no outcome has been reached. One hypothesis is to consider a possible keto-enol tautomerization to treat this issue, as it has been already observed in water. A joint approach combining extensive MD simulations as well as computation of key intermediates like TS using QM/MM calculations is presented in this publication. We also emphasize the procedure and difficulties met during this approach in order to give a guide for this kind of chemical reactions using QM/MM methods.

  20. Modeling Chemical Reactions by QM/MM Calculations: The Case of the Tautomerization in Fireflies Bioluminescent Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berraud-Pache, Romain; Garcia-Iriepa, Cristina; Navizet, Isabelle

    2018-01-01

    In less than half a century, the hybrid QM/MM method has become one of the most used technique to model molecules embedded in a complex environment. A well-known application of the QM/MM method is for biological systems. Nowadays, one can understand how enzymatic reactions work or compute spectroscopic properties, like the wavelength of emission. Here, we have tackled the issue of modeling chemical reactions inside proteins. We have studied a bioluminescent system, fireflies, and deciphered if a keto-enol tautomerization is possible inside the protein. The two tautomers are candidates to be the emissive molecule of the bioluminescence but no outcome has been reached. One hypothesis is to consider a possible keto-enol tautomerization to treat this issue, as it has been already observed in water. A joint approach combining extensive MD simulations as well as computation of key intermediates like TS using QM/MM calculations is presented in this publication. We also emphasize the procedure and difficulties met during this approach in order to give a guide for this kind of chemical reactions using QM/MM methods.

  1. From Nonlinear Optimization to Convex Optimization through Firefly Algorithm and Indirect Approach with Applications to CAD/CAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akemi Gálvez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fitting spline curves to data points is a very important issue in many applied fields. It is also challenging, because these curves typically depend on many continuous variables in a highly interrelated nonlinear way. In general, it is not possible to compute these parameters analytically, so the problem is formulated as a continuous nonlinear optimization problem, for which traditional optimization techniques usually fail. This paper presents a new bioinspired method to tackle this issue. In this method, optimization is performed through a combination of two techniques. Firstly, we apply the indirect approach to the knots, in which they are not initially the subject of optimization but precomputed with a coarse approximation scheme. Secondly, a powerful bioinspired metaheuristic technique, the firefly algorithm, is applied to optimization of data parameterization; then, the knot vector is refined by using De Boor’s method, thus yielding a better approximation to the optimal knot vector. This scheme converts the original nonlinear continuous optimization problem into a convex optimization problem, solved by singular value decomposition. Our method is applied to some illustrative real-world examples from the CAD/CAM field. Our experimental results show that the proposed scheme can solve the original continuous nonlinear optimization problem very efficiently.

  2. Effect of Load Model Using Ranking Identification Technique for Multi Type DG Incorporating Embedded Meta EP-Firefly Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rahim Siti Rafidah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the effect of load model prior to the distributed generation (DG planning in distribution system. In achieving optimal allocation and placement of DG, a ranking identification technique was proposed in order to study the DG planning using pre-developed Embedded Meta Evolutionary Programming–Firefly Algorithm. The aim of this study is to analyze the effect of different type of DG in order to reduce the total losses considering load factor. To realize the effectiveness of the proposed technique, the IEEE 33 bus test systems was utilized as the test specimen. In this study, the proposed techniques were used to determine the DG sizing and the suitable location for DG planning. The results produced are utilized for the optimization process of DG for the benefit of power system operators and planners in the utility. The power system planner can choose the suitable size and location from the result obtained in this study with the appropriate company’s budget. The modeling of voltage dependent loads has been presented and the results show the voltage dependent load models have a significant effect on total losses of a distribution system for different DG type.

  3. Application of the Firefly and Luus-Jaakola algorithms in the calculation of a double reactive azeotrope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes Platt, Gustavo; Pinheiro Domingos, Roberto; Oliveira de Andrade, Matheus

    2014-01-01

    The calculation of reactive azeotropes is an important task in the preliminary design and simulation of reactive distillation columns. Classically, homogeneous nonreactive azeotropes are vapor-liquid coexistence conditions where phase compositions are equal. For homogeneous reactive azeotropes, simultaneous phase and chemical equilibria occur concomitantly with equality of compositions (in the Ung-Doherty transformed space). The modeling of reactive azeotrope calculation is represented by a nonlinear algebraic system with phase equilibrium, chemical equilibrium and azeotropy equations. This nonlinear system can exhibit more than one solution, corresponding to a double reactive azeotrope. In a previous paper (Platt et al 2013 J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 410 012020), we investigated some numerical aspects of the calculation of reactive azeotropes in the isobutene + methanol + methyl-tert-butyl-ether (with two reactive azeotropes) system using two metaheuristics: the Luus-Jaakola adaptive random search and the Firefly algorithm. Here, we use a hybrid structure (stochastic + deterministic) in order to produce accurate results for both azeotropes. After identifying the neighborhood of the reactive azeotrope, the nonlinear algebraic system is solved using Newton's method. The results indicate that using metaheuristics and some techniques devoted to the calculation of multiple minima allows both azeotropic coordinates in this reactive system to be obtains. In this sense, we provide a comprehensive analysis of a useful framework devoted to solving nonlinear systems, particularly in phase equilibrium problems.

  4. Application of the Firefly and Luus–Jaakola algorithms in the calculation of a double reactive azeotrope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platt, Gustavo Mendes; Domingos, Roberto Pinheiro; Andrade, Matheus Oliveira de

    2014-01-01

    The calculation of reactive azeotropes is an important task in the preliminary design and simulation of reactive distillation columns. Classically, homogeneous nonreactive azeotropes are vapor–liquid coexistence conditions where phase compositions are equal. For homogeneous reactive azeotropes, simultaneous phase and chemical equilibria occur concomitantly with equality of compositions (in the Ung–Doherty transformed space). The modeling of reactive azeotrope calculation is represented by a nonlinear algebraic system with phase equilibrium, chemical equilibrium and azeotropy equations. This nonlinear system can exhibit more than one solution, corresponding to a double reactive azeotrope. In a previous paper (Platt et al 2013 J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 410 012020), we investigated some numerical aspects of the calculation of reactive azeotropes in the isobutene + methanol + methyl-tert-butyl-ether (with two reactive azeotropes) system using two metaheuristics: the Luus–Jaakola adaptive random search and the Firefly algorithm. Here, we use a hybrid structure (stochastic + deterministic) in order to produce accurate results for both azeotropes. After identifying the neighborhood of the reactive azeotrope, the nonlinear algebraic system is solved using Newton's method. The results indicate that using metaheuristics and some techniques devoted to the calculation of multiple minima allows both azeotropic coordinates in this reactive system to be obtains. In this sense, we provide a comprehensive analysis of a useful framework devoted to solving nonlinear systems, particularly in phase equilibrium problems. (paper)

  5. Towards a Unified Understanding of Event-Related Changes in the EEG: The Firefly Model of Synchronization through Cross-Frequency Phase Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Adrian P.

    2012-01-01

    Although event-related potentials (ERPs) are widely used to study sensory, perceptual and cognitive processes, it remains unknown whether they are phase-locked signals superimposed upon the ongoing electroencephalogram (EEG) or result from phase-alignment of the EEG. Previous attempts to discriminate between these hypotheses have been unsuccessful but here a new test is presented based on the prediction that ERPs generated by phase-alignment will be associated with event-related changes in frequency whereas evoked-ERPs will not. Using empirical mode decomposition (EMD), which allows measurement of narrow-band changes in the EEG without predefining frequency bands, evidence was found for transient frequency slowing in recognition memory ERPs but not in simulated data derived from the evoked model. Furthermore, the timing of phase-alignment was frequency dependent with the earliest alignment occurring at high frequencies. Based on these findings, the Firefly model was developed, which proposes that both evoked and induced power changes derive from frequency-dependent phase-alignment of the ongoing EEG. Simulated data derived from the Firefly model provided a close match with empirical data and the model was able to account for i) the shape and timing of ERPs at different scalp sites, ii) the event-related desynchronization in alpha and synchronization in theta, and iii) changes in the power density spectrum from the pre-stimulus baseline to the post-stimulus period. The Firefly Model, therefore, provides not only a unifying account of event-related changes in the EEG but also a possible mechanism for cross-frequency information processing. PMID:23049827

  6. QSRR modeling for the chromatographic retention behavior of some β-lactam antibiotics using forward and firefly variable selection algorithms coupled with multiple linear regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Marwa A; Tolba, Enas H; El-Shal, Manal A; El Kerdawy, Ahmed M

    2018-05-11

    The justified continuous emerging of new β-lactam antibiotics provokes the need for developing suitable analytical methods that accelerate and facilitate their analysis. A face central composite experimental design was adopted using different levels of phosphate buffer pH, acetonitrile percentage at zero time and after 15 min in a gradient program to obtain the optimum chromatographic conditions for the elution of 31 β-lactam antibiotics. Retention factors were used as the target property to build two QSRR models utilizing the conventional forward selection and the advanced nature-inspired firefly algorithm for descriptor selection, coupled with multiple linear regression. The obtained models showed high performance in both internal and external validation indicating their robustness and predictive ability. Williams-Hotelling test and student's t-test showed that there is no statistical significant difference between the models' results. Y-randomization validation showed that the obtained models are due to significant correlation between the selected molecular descriptors and the analytes' chromatographic retention. These results indicate that the generated FS-MLR and FFA-MLR models are showing comparable quality on both the training and validation levels. They also gave comparable information about the molecular features that influence the retention behavior of β-lactams under the current chromatographic conditions. We can conclude that in some cases simple conventional feature selection algorithm can be used to generate robust and predictive models comparable to that are generated using advanced ones. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. ¬MPPT Pada Sistem PV Menggunakan Algoritma Firefly dan Modified P&O dengan Konverter Hybrid Cuk terkoneksi ke Grid Satu Phasa di Bawah Kondisi Partial Shaded

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhuhari Chalis Bani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak— Photovoltaic (PV merupakan sumber energi terbarukan yang paling banyak dijumpai di alam serta merupakn energi alternatif yang sangat pesat perkembangannya. Untuk mengahasilkan daya, sebuah PV dipengaruhi sebuah nilai intensitas cahaya matahari yang mengenainya. Sebuah sistem PV membutuhkan sebuah kontrol yang bertujuan untuk meningkatkan efisien daya PV tersebut. Kontrol ini adalah Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT yang dapat mengoptimalkan daya yang dihasilkan oleh PV.  Sebuah PV hanya menghasilkan nilai tegangan yang rendah, untuk itu perlu menggunakan koverter DC-DC step up untuk menaikan rasio tegangan DC tadi. Untuk mengoptimalkan sistem ini, diperlukan sebuah konverter yang efisien dan dapat menghasilkan rasio konversi tegangan yang tinggi. Pada penelitian menggunakan firefly algoritm (FFA dan modified perturb and observe (P&O sebagai MPPT untuk mendapatkan nilai daya optimal pada keluaran PV.  Konverter DC-DC yang digunakan adalah hybrid cuk converter boost mode yang memiliki rasio tegangan yang tinggi. Dari DC-link kemudian masuk ke inverter (VSI yang diinterkoneksi dengan grid menggunakan current control. Hasil analisis simulasi menunjukan bahwa FFA dan P&O mampu menghasilkan daya PV yang optimum dengan riak yang kecil dan konverter hybrid cuk converter boost mode dapat menghasilkan rasio tegangan yang lebih besar dibandingkan konverter cuk biasa.   Kata Kunci — PV, MPPT FFA, MPPT P&O, Hybrid Cuk Converter, DC-Link, Inverter Grid Connected

  8. Oculogryphus chenghoiyanae sp. n. (Coleoptera, Lampyridae: a new ototretine firefly from Hong Kong with descriptions of its bioluminescent behavior and ultraviolet-induced fluorescence in females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vor Yiu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The first Oculogryphus species with associated males and female was found in Hong Kong and is described as new: O. chenghoiyanae sp. n. Adults of both sexes were collected live in the field and their bioluminescent behavior is reported for the first time in the genus. The captive males emit weak and continuous light from a pair of light spots on abdominal ventrite 6 or do so when disturbed. The larviform (highly paedomorphic females can glow brightly from a pair of light-emitting organs on the abdomen. The females of Oculogryphus and Stenocladius are to date the only documented representatives of paedomorphism in ototretine fireflies. The finding is consistent with the evidence from male morphology and bioluminescent behavior, supporting the close relationship between the two genera. A key to the Oculogryphus species is provided. The Oculogryphus females can fluoresce with a blue-green light through the whole body under ultraviolet illumination, a phenomenon reported in the Lampyridae for the first time. The co-occurrence of bioluminescence and fluorescence is rare in terrestrial ecosystems, previously known only in some millipedes (Diplopoda. The fluorescence and bioluminescence abilities of Oculogryphus females are functionally independent: abdominal light-emitting organs producing bright yellowish green light while the body wall fluoresces with blue-green light. In contrast, fluorescence and bioluminescence in millipedes are biochemically linked, like in some jellyfish (Cnidaria: Medusozoa.

  9. A Hybrid Maximum Power Point Tracking Approach for Photovoltaic Systems under Partial Shading Conditions Using a Modified Genetic Algorithm and the Firefly Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Pei Huang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a modified maximum power point tracking (MPPT algorithm for photovoltaic systems under rapidly changing partial shading conditions (PSCs. The proposed algorithm integrates a genetic algorithm (GA and the firefly algorithm (FA and further improves its calculation process via a differential evolution (DE algorithm. The conventional GA is not advisable for MPPT because of its complicated calculations and low accuracy under PSCs. In this study, we simplified the GA calculations with the integration of the DE mutation process and FA attractive process. Results from both the simulation and evaluation verify that the proposed algorithm provides rapid response time and high accuracy due to the simplified processing. For instance, evaluation results demonstrate that when compared to the conventional GA, the execution time and tracking accuracy of the proposed algorithm can be, respectively, improved around 69.4% and 4.16%. In addition, in comparison to FA, the tracking speed and tracking accuracy of the proposed algorithm can be improved around 42.9% and 1.85%, respectively. Consequently, the major improvement of the proposed method when evaluated against the conventional GA and FA is tracking speed. Moreover, this research provides a framework to integrate multiple nature-inspired algorithms for MPPT. Furthermore, the proposed method is adaptable to different types of solar panels and different system formats with specifically designed equations, the advantages of which are rapid tracking speed with high accuracy under PSCs.

  10. Gene silencing in primary and metastatic tumors by small interfering RNA delivery in mice: quantitative analysis using melanoma cells expressing firefly and sea pansy luciferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yuki; Nishikawa, Makiya; Kobayashi, Naoki; Takakura, Yoshinobu

    2005-07-20

    Silencing of oncogenes or other genes contributing to tumor malignancy or progression by RNA interference (RNAi) offers a promising approach to treating tumor patients. To achieve RNAi-based tumor therapy, a small interfering RNA (siRNA) or siRNA-expressing vector needs to be delivered to tumor cells, but little information about its in vivo delivery has been reported. In this study, we examined whether the expression of the target gene in tumor cells can be suppressed by the delivery of RNAi effectors to primary and metastatic tumor cells. To quantitatively evaluate the RNAi effects in tumor cells, mouse melanoma B16-BL6 cells were stably transfected with both firefly (a model target gene) and sea pansy (an internal standard gene) luciferase genes to obtain B16-BL6/dual Luc cells. The target gene expression in subcutaneous primary tumors of B16-BL6/dual Luc cells was significantly suppressed by direct injection of the RNAi effectors followed by electroporation. The expression in metastatic hepatic tumors was also significantly reduced by an intravenous injection of either RNAi effector by the hydrodynamics-based procedure. These results indicate that the both RNAi effectors have a potential to silence target gene in tumor cells in vivo when successfully delivered to tumor cells.

  11. A dual function fusion protein of Herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase and firefly luciferase for noninvasive in vivo imaging of gene therapy in malignant glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söling, Ariane; Theiss, Christian; Jungmichel, Stephanie; Rainov, Nikolai G

    2004-08-04

    BACKGROUND: Suicide gene therapy employing the prodrug activating system Herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (HSV-TK)/ ganciclovir (GCV) has proven to be effective in killing experimental brain tumors. In contrast, glioma patients treated with HSV-TK/ GCV did not show significant treatment benefit, most likely due to insufficient transgene delivery to tumor cells. Therefore, this study aimed at developing a strategy for real-time noninvasive in vivo monitoring of the activity of a therapeutic gene in brain tumor cells. METHODS: The HSV-TK gene was fused to the firefly luciferase (Luc) gene and the fusion construct HSV-TK-Luc was expressed in U87MG human malignant glioma cells. Nude mice with subcutaneous gliomas stably expressing HSV-TK-Luc were subjected to GCV treatment and tumor response to therapy was monitored in vivo by serial bioluminescence imaging. Bioluminescent signals over time were compared with tumor volumes determined by caliper. RESULTS: Transient and stable expression of the HSV-TK-Luc fusion protein in U87MG glioma cells demonstrated close correlation of both enzyme activities. Serial optical imaging of tumor bearing mice detected in all cases GCV induced death of tumor cells expressing the fusion protein and proved that bioluminescence can be reliably used for repetitive and noninvasive quantification of HSV-TK/ GCV mediated cell kill in vivo. CONCLUSION: This approach may represent a valuable tool for the in vivo evaluation of gene therapy strategies for treatment of malignant disease.

  12. Firefly algorithm optimized fuzzy PID controller for AGC of multi-area multi-source power systems with UPFC and SMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratap Chandra Pradhan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a Firefly Algorithm (FA optimized fuzzy PID controller is proposed for Automatic Generation Control (AGC of multi-area multi-source power system. Initially, a two area six units power system is used and the gains of the fuzzy PID controller are optimized employing FA optimization technique using an ITAE criterion. The superiority of the proposed FA optimized fuzzy PID controller has been demonstrated by comparing the results with some recently published approaches such as optimal control and Differential Evolution (DE optimized PID controller for the identical interconnected power system. Then, physical constraints such as Time Delay (TD, reheat turbine and Generation Rate Constraint (GRC are included in the system model and the superiority of FA is demonstrated by comparing the results over DE, Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA and Genetic Algorithm (GA optimization techniques for the same interconnected power system. Additionally, a Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC is placed in the tie-line and Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES units are considered in both areas. Simulation results show that the system performances are improved significantly with the proposed UPFC and SMES units. Sensitivity analysis of the system is performed by varying the system parameters and operating load conditions from their nominal values. It is observed that the optimum gains of the proposed controller need not be reset even if the system is subjected to wide variation in loading condition and system parameters. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed controller design is verified by considering different types of load patterns.

  13. Inhibition of metastatic tumor growth in mouse lung by repeated administration of polyethylene glycol-conjugated catalase: quantitative analysis with firefly luciferase-expressing melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyoudou, Kenji; Nishikawa, Makiya; Umeyama, Yukari; Kobayashi, Yuki; Yamashita, Fumiyoshi; Hashida, Mitsuru

    2004-11-15

    To develop a novel and effective approach to inhibit tumor metastasis based on controlled delivery of catalase, we first evaluated the characteristics of the disposition and proliferation of tumor cells. Then, we examined the effects of polyethylene glycol-conjugated catalase (PEG-catalase) on tumor metastasis. On the basis of the results obtained, PEG-catalase was repetitively administered to completely suppress the growth of tumor cells. Murine melanoma B16-BL6 cells were stably transfected with firefly luciferase gene to obtain B16-BL6/Luc cells. These cells were injected intravenously into syngeneic C57BL/6 mice. PEG-catalase was injected intravenously, and the effect was evaluated by measuring the luciferase activity as the indicator of the number of tumor cells. At 1 hour after injection of B16-BL6/Luc cells, 60 to 90% of the injected cells were recovered in the lung. The numbers decreased to 2 to 4% at 24 hours, then increased. An injection of PEG-catalase just before inoculation significantly reduced the number of tumor cells at 24 hours. Injection of PEG-catalase at 1 or 3 days after inoculation was also effective in reducing the cell numbers. Daily dosing of PEG-catalase greatly inhibited the proliferation and the number assayed at 14 days after inoculation was not significantly different from the minimal number observed at 1 day, suggesting that the growth had been markedly suppressed by the treatment. These findings indicate that sustained catalase activity in the blood circulation can prevent the multiple processes of tumor metastasis in the lung, which could lead to a state of tumor dormancy.

  14. The location and nature of general anesthetic binding sites on the active conformation of firefly luciferase; a time resolved photolabeling study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivananthaperumal Shanmugasundararaj

    Full Text Available Firefly luciferase is one of the few soluble proteins that is acted upon by a wide variety of general anesthetics and alcohols; they inhibit the ATP-driven production of light. We have used time-resolved photolabeling to locate the binding sites of alcohols during the initial light output, some 200 ms after adding ATP. The photolabel 3-azioctanol inhibited the initial light output with an IC50 of 200 µM, close to its general anesthetic potency. Photoincorporation of [(3H]3-azioctanol into luciferase was saturable but weak. It was enhanced 200 ms after adding ATP but was negligible minutes later. Sequencing of tryptic digests by HPLC-MSMS revealed a similar conformation-dependence for photoincorporation of 3-azioctanol into Glu-313, a residue that lines the bottom of a deep cleft (vestibule whose outer end binds luciferin. An aromatic diazirine analog of benzyl alcohol with broader side chain reactivity reported two sites. First, it photolabeled two residues in the vestibule, Ser-286 and Ile-288, both of which are implicated with Glu-313 in the conformation change accompanying activation. Second, it photolabeled two residues that contact luciferin, Ser-316 and Ser-349. Thus, time resolved photolabeling supports two mechanisms of action. First, an allosteric one, in which anesthetics bind in the vestibule displacing water molecules that are thought to be involved in light output. Second, a competitive one, in which anesthetics bind isosterically with luciferin. This work provides structural evidence that supports the competitive and allosteric actions previously characterized by kinetic studies.

  15. Bug City: Ladybugs & Fireflies [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children (grades 1-6) learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon, including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic…

  16. Modulations in the light of the firefly

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The amplitude of the continuous train of triangular pulses is apparently altered in accordance with the instantaneous values of a hypothetical signal, which exhibits pulse amplitude modulation (PAM). In addition to sampling in amplitude, this scheme apparently provides sampling in time, representing pulse width modulation ...

  17. Firefly luciferase gene contains a cryptic promoter

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vopálenský, V.; Mašek, T.; Horváth, Ondřej; Vicenová, B.; Mokrejš, M.; Pospíšek, M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 9 (2008), s. 1720-1729 ISSN 1355-8382 Grant - others:GAČR(CZ) GA204/03/1487; GAČR(CZ) GA301/07/0607; Mšk(CZ) LC06066 Program:LC Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : luciferase * cryptic promoter * hepatitis C virus Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.018, year: 2008

  18. An ultrasensitive NanoLuc-based luminescence system for monitoring Plasmodium berghei throughout its life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Niz, Mariana; Stanway, Rebecca R; Wacker, Rahel; Keller, Derya; Heussler, Volker T

    2016-04-21

    Bioluminescence imaging is widely used for cell-based assays and animal imaging studies, both in biomedical research and drug development. Its main advantages include its high-throughput applicability, affordability, high sensitivity, operational simplicity, and quantitative outputs. In malaria research, bioluminescence has been used for drug discovery in vivo and in vitro, exploring host-pathogen interactions, and studying multiple aspects of Plasmodium biology. While the number of fluorescent proteins available for imaging has undergone a great expansion over the last two decades, enabling simultaneous visualization of multiple molecular and cellular events, expansion of available luciferases has lagged behind. The most widely used bioluminescent probe in malaria research is the Photinus pyralis firefly luciferase, followed by the more recently introduced Click-beetle and Renilla luciferases. Ultra-sensitive imaging of Plasmodium at low parasite densities has not been previously achieved. With the purpose of overcoming these challenges, a Plasmodium berghei line expressing the novel ultra-bright luciferase enzyme NanoLuc, called PbNLuc has been generated, and is presented in this work. NanoLuc shows at least 150 times brighter signal than firefly luciferase in vitro, allowing single parasite detection in mosquito, liver, and sexual and asexual blood stages. As a proof-of-concept, the PbNLuc parasites were used to image parasite development in the mosquito, liver and blood stages of infection, and to specifically explore parasite liver stage egress, and pre-patency period in vivo. PbNLuc is a suitable parasite line for sensitive imaging of the entire Plasmodium life cycle. Its sensitivity makes it a promising line to be used as a reference for drug candidate testing, as well as the characterization of mutant parasites to explore the function of parasite proteins, host-parasite interactions, and the better understanding of Plasmodium biology. Since the substrate

  19. River flow simulation using a multilayer perceptron-firefly algorithm model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbandi, Sabereh; Pourhosseini, Fatemeh Akhoni

    2018-06-01

    River flow estimation using records of past time series is importance in water resources engineering and management and is required in hydrologic studies. In the past two decades, the approaches based on the artificial neural networks (ANN) were developed. River flow modeling is a non-linear process and highly affected by the inputs to the modeling. In this study, the best input combination of the models was identified using the Gamma test then MLP-ANN and hybrid multilayer perceptron (MLP-FFA) is used to forecast monthly river flow for a set of time intervals using observed data. The measurements from three gauge at Ajichay watershed, East Azerbaijani, were used to train and test the models approach for the period from January 2004 to July 2016. Calibration and validation were performed within the same period for MLP-ANN and MLP-FFA models after the preparation of the required data. Statistics, the root mean square error and determination coefficient, are used to verify outputs from MLP-ANN to MLP-FFA models. The results show that MLP-FFA model is satisfactory for monthly river flow simulation in study area.

  20. A Multifeatures Fusion and Discrete Firefly Optimization Method for Prediction of Protein Tyrosine Sulfation Residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Song; Liu, Chunhua; Zhou, Peng; Li, Yanling

    2016-01-01

    Tyrosine sulfation is one of the ubiquitous protein posttranslational modifications, where some sulfate groups are added to the tyrosine residues. It plays significant roles in various physiological processes in eukaryotic cells. To explore the molecular mechanism of tyrosine sulfation, one of the prerequisites is to correctly identify possible protein tyrosine sulfation residues. In this paper, a novel method was presented to predict protein tyrosine sulfation residues from primary sequences. By means of informative feature construction and elaborate feature selection and parameter optimization scheme, the proposed predictor achieved promising results and outperformed many other state-of-the-art predictors. Using the optimal features subset, the proposed method achieved mean MCC of 94.41% on the benchmark dataset, and a MCC of 90.09% on the independent dataset. The experimental performance indicated that our new proposed method could be effective in identifying the important protein posttranslational modifications and the feature selection scheme would be powerful in protein functional residues prediction research fields.

  1. The Dance of Fireflies. Orality and Transmission in Virgilio Sieni’s Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossella Mazzaglia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay investigates the meaning of  contemporary dance transmission through an analysis of the creative and pedagogical work lead by the Tuscan artist Virgilio Sieni. Adopting the concept of orality, the author goes through his career, from the early stages of his education to his present activity both with his dance company and with the Accademia il gesto, particularly focusing on recent accomplishments and projects. On the one hand, she articulates on the process of dissolution of the dance tradition that his work witnesses, by extending references and motivations to a vaster context concerning the art and the human cultural heritage (with particular emphasis on the Italian one. On the other, she shows the consequent redefinition of the meaning, methods and targets of transmission in a dialectical confrontation with contemporaneity, intended as an attitude towards one’s own present and not only as a chronological phase of history. Readapting Didi-Huberamn’s politics of survival perspective, the author further recognizes, in the aesthetic and human encounter among people of different background and age, the way Sieni draws the present near the past, the individual identity near the collective one, through the transmission of his aesthetic gesture.

  2. A rapid method for the determination of microbial susceptibility using the firefly luciferase assay for adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellend, H.; Tuttle, S. A.; Barza, M.; Weinstein, L.; Picciolo, G. L.; Chappelle, E. W.

    1975-01-01

    Luciferase assay for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) was optimized for pure bacteria in broth in order to evaluate if changes in bacterial ATP content could be used as a rapid measure of antibiotic effect on microorganisms. Broth cultures of log phase bacteria were incubated at 310 K (37 C) for 2.5 hours at antimicrobial concentrations which resulted in the best discrimination between sensitive and resistant strains. Eighty-seven strains of 11 bacterial species were studied for their susceptibility to 12 commonly used antimicrobial agents: ampicillin, Penicillin G, nafcillin, carbenicillin, cephalothin, tetracycline, erythromycin, clindamycin, gentamicin, nitrofurantoin, colistin, and chloramplenicol. The major advantage of the ATP system over existing methods of rapid microbial susceptibility testing is that the assay can be made specific for bacterial ATP.

  3. Sensitive Dual Color in vivo Bioluminescence Imaging Using a New Red Codon Optimized Firefly Luciferase and a Green Click Beetle Luciferase

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Bologna, Italy, 2 Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands, 3 Department of...and approved by the Bioethics Committee of Leiden University, The Netherlands (Animal protocol 08158). Allanimals received humane care in compliance

  4. A Hybrid Method Based on Singular Spectrum Analysis, Firefly Algorithm, and BP Neural Network for Short-Term Wind Speed Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuyang Gao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available With increasing importance being attached to big data mining, analysis, and forecasting in the field of wind energy, how to select an optimization model to improve the forecasting accuracy of the wind speed time series is not only an extremely challenging problem, but also a problem of concern for economic forecasting. The artificial intelligence model is widely used in forecasting and data processing, but the individual back-propagation artificial neural network cannot always satisfy the time series forecasting needs. Thus, a hybrid forecasting approach has been proposed in this study, which consists of data preprocessing, parameter optimization and a neural network for advancing the accuracy of short-term wind speed forecasting. According to the case study, in which the data are collected from Peng Lai, a city located in China, the simulation results indicate that the hybrid forecasting method yields better predictions compared to the individual BP, which indicates that the hybrid method exhibits stronger forecasting ability.

  5. Aviation investigation report : hard landing : fuel leak and fire[Sundance Balloons International Firefly 12B (hot air balloon) C-FNVM, Winnipeg, Manitoba, 15 nm NE, 11 August 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-08-15

    This investigation report discussed an incident in Winnipeg in which a hot air balloon attempting to land during strong winds was dragged on its side for approximately 700 feet. The balloon's burners struck the ground as the balloon came to a stop, after which a propane leak occurred. An intense, uncontrolled fire ensued as balloon passengers were exiting from the partially-inverted basket. The pilot and 2 passengers suffered serious injuries, while another 4 passengers suffered minor injuries. The balloon's 2 propane tanks and a fire extinguisher canister exploded during the fire, which destroyed the balloon's basket. The rigging of the balloon was examined and no failures were discovered. Pressure tests showed that the balloon's hoses started leaking at the crimped sleeve fittings at 150 psi. While the pilot had been informed of potentially heavy winds and thunderstorms, changes in wind speed and direction occurred earlier than the forecasted time of 10:00. It was concluded that standards are needed to ensure balloon cabin safety. Balloon operators do not currently require the use of protective helmets or gloves in case of dragged landings. A review will be conducted to address the issue of proposed emergency fuel shut-offs for balloons carrying fare-paying passengers. 2 figs.

  6. Research on the daily activity of the stone marten (Martes foina erxl. in anthropogenically influenced habitats in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgi S. Dudin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was done on a kind of a small predator by digital photo cameras in three remote geographic areas. There have been 709 photos of stone marten (Martes foina, of which 518 in Sinite Kamani Nature Park, 118 in State Hunting Department "Chepino" and 75 in anthropogenically influenced habitats in the villages of Byga and Isperihovo. By analyzing the daily activity of the species is recorded night or twilight activity between 17 and 7:00 hours (morning, evening or night. In the time interval between 07-17 during the day, the activity of the type is not registered.

  7. Synchronization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    abnormally low heart rate known as bradycardia. This results in symptoms like fatigue, dizziness and fainting. In such cases ... cycle. Owing to this interaction, the flashing frequencies get entrained and the phases of the fireflies are locked.

  8. Circular polarization observed in bioluminescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wynberg, H.; Meijer, E.W.; Hummelen, J.C.; Dekkers, H.P.J.M.; Schippers, P.H.; Carlson, A.D.

    1980-01-01

    The left and right lanterns of live larvae of the fireflies Photuris lucicrescens and P. versicolor emitted circularly polarized light of opposite sense. A possible mechanism is discussed. [on SciFinder (R)

  9. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    EFFECTIVENESS OF FIREFLY ALGORITHM BASED NEURAL NETWORK IN. TIME SERIES FORECASTING .... Most forecasting problems employs the traditional NN often called ..... SAGA 2009, Lecture Notes in Computer. Sciences 5792: ...

  10. Hiilgav, aga... vol.2 / Alar Niineväli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Niineväli, Alar

    2008-01-01

    Ameerika telesarjad, mis on heatasemelised, kuid tootjate poolt liiga vara ära lõpetatud, enamasti kasumlikkusest lähtudes : "Action" (1999), "Now and Again" (1999), "Firefly" (2002), "Freaks and Geeks" (1999), "Undeclared" (2001)

  11. 6 - 10_Abdulkarim and Garko

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Keywords: Time series, Artificial Neural Network, Firefly Algorithm, Particle Swarm Optimization,. Overfitting .... in only one direction from a set of input units, through a set of hidden units to the .... REFERENCES. Adhikari, R, and RK Agrawal.

  12. Nanoplatinates for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    Quantification of bioluminescence was achieved by using the Living Image Software 3.1. Mice received 150 mg∕kg of D-luciferin firefly potassium salt...mg∕kg of D-luciferin firefly potassium salt via i.p. injection prior to imaging. Five min postluciferin injection, animals were anesthetized in a 2.5... polyacrylic acid, alginate, chitosan, any copolymers thereof, and any combination of any of these. Additionally, biocompatible polymers and copolymers

  13. Efficient in vivo gene transfer to xenotransplanted human skin by lentivirus-mediated, but not by AAV-directed, gene delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Maria Vad; Askou, Anne Louise; Dokkedahl, Karin Stenderup

    skin graft, and firefly luciferase expression was observed primarily in neighboring tissue beneath or surrounding the graft. In contrast, gene delivery by intradermally injected lentiviral vectors was efficient and led to extensive and persistent firefly luciferase expression within the human skin...... graft only. The study demonstrates limited capacity of single-stranded AAV vectors of six commonly used serotypes for gene delivery to human skin in vivo....

  14. A new

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Upadhyay

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a population based evolutionary optimization methodology called firefly algorithm (FFA is applied for the optimization of system coefficients of the infinite impulse response (IIR system identification problem. FFA is inspired by the flash pattern and characteristics of fireflies. In FFA technique, behaviour of flashing firefly towards its competent mate is structured. In this algorithm attractiveness depends on brightness of light and a bright firefly feels more attraction for the brighter one. For this optimization problem, brightness varies inversely proportional to the error fitness value, so the position of the brightest firefly gives the optimum result corresponding to the least error fitness in multidimensional search space. Incorporation of different control parameters in basic movement equation results in balancing of exploration and exploitation of search space. The proposed FFA based system identification approach has alleviated from inherent drawbacks of premature convergence and stagnation, unlike genetic algorithm (GA, particle swarm optimization (PSO and differential evolution (DE. The simulation results obtained for some well known benchmark examples justify the efficacy of the proposed system identification approach using FFA over GA, PSO and DE in terms of convergence speed, identifying plant coefficients and mean square error (MSE fitness values produced for both same order and reduced order models of adaptive IIR filters.

  15. Luciferin Amides Enable in Vivo Bioluminescence Detection of Endogenous Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mofford, David M; Adams, Spencer T; Reddy, G S Kiran Kumar; Reddy, Gadarla Randheer; Miller, Stephen C

    2015-07-15

    Firefly luciferase is homologous to fatty acyl-CoA synthetases. We hypothesized that the firefly luciferase substrate d-luciferin and its analogs are fatty acid mimics that are ideally suited to probe the chemistry of enzymes that release fatty acid products. Here, we synthesized luciferin amides and found that these molecules are hydrolyzed to substrates for firefly luciferase by the enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). In the presence of luciferase, these molecules enable highly sensitive and selective bioluminescent detection of FAAH activity in vitro, in live cells, and in vivo. The potency and tissue distribution of FAAH inhibitors can be imaged in live mice, and luciferin amides serve as exemplary reagents for greatly improved bioluminescence imaging in FAAH-expressing tissues such as the brain.

  16. Open3DGRID

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosco, Paolo; Balle, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    MFA/CoMSIA fields (exported from SYBYL with the aid of a small SPL script). High computational performance is attained through implementation of parallelized algorithms for MIF generation. Most prominent features in Open3DGRID include: •Seamless integration with OpenBabel, PyMOL, GAUSSIAN, FIREFLY, GAMESS...... visualization of results in PyMOL, MOE, Maestro and SYBYL •User-friendly interface to all major QM packages (e.g. GAUSSIAN, FIREFLY, GAMESS-US, TURBOMOLE, MOLDEN), allows calculation of QM electron density and electrostatic potential 3D maps from within Open3DGRID •User-friendly interface to Molecular Discovery...

  17. Transcriptome analysis reveals candidate genes involved in luciferin metabolism in Luciola aquatilis (Coleoptera: Lampyridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanwipa Vongsangnak

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Bioluminescence, which living organisms such as fireflies emit light, has been studied extensively for over half a century. This intriguing reaction, having its origins in nature where glowing insects can signal things such as attraction or defense, is now widely used in biotechnology with applications of bioluminescence and chemiluminescence. Luciferase, a key enzyme in this reaction, has been well characterized; however, the enzymes involved in the biosynthetic pathway of its substrate, luciferin, remains unsolved at present. To elucidate the luciferin metabolism, we performed a de novo transcriptome analysis using larvae of the firefly species, Luciola aquatilis. Here, a comparative analysis is performed with the model coleopteran insect Tribolium casteneum to elucidate the metabolic pathways in L. aquatilis. Based on a template luciferin biosynthetic pathway, combined with a range of protein and pathway databases, and various prediction tools for functional annotation, the candidate genes, enzymes, and biochemical reactions involved in luciferin metabolism are proposed for L. aquatilis. The candidate gene expression is validated in the adult L. aquatilis using reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR. This study provides useful information on the bio-production of luciferin in the firefly and will benefit to future applications of the valuable firefly bioluminescence system.

  18. AF-TRUST, Air Force Team for Research in Ubiquitous Secure Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    high churn without affecting the ability of correct members to disseminate messages. • Firepatch is a Fireflies-based intru si on-tolerant... Telecommunications , and Internet industries. In particular, the work on CIAO and TAO middleware for DRE systems has transitioned to the Joint

  19. Understanding Selective Downregulation of c-Myc Expression through Inhibition of General Transcription Regulators in Multiple Myeloma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    87 MG cells were cultured in Eagle’s minimum essential medium (EMEM) modi - fied to contain Earle’s Balanced Salt Solution, nonessential amino acids, 2...engineered to ectopically express firefly luciferase and mCherry, allowing surrogate measurement of tumor growth in vivo. Nonobese diabetic severe combined

  20. Assembly of two transgenes in an artificial chromatin domain gives highly coordinated expression in tobacco

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mlynárová, L.; Loonen, A.; Mietkiewska, E.; Jansen, R.C.; Nao, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    The chromatin loop model predicts that genes within the same chromatin domain exhibit coordinated regulation. We here present the first direct experimental support for this model in plants. Two reporter genes, the E. coli ß-glucuronidase gene and the firefly luciferase gene, driven by different

  1. Assembly of Two Transgenes in an Artificial Chromatin Domain Gives Highly Coordinated Expression in Tobacco

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mlynárová, Ludmila; Loonen, Annelies; Mietkiewska, Elzbieta; Jansen, Ritsert C.; Nap, Jan-Peter

    The chromatin loop model predicts that genes within the same chromatin domain exhibit coordinated regulation. We here present the first direct experimental support for this model in plants. Two reporter genes, the E. coli β-glucuronidase gene and the firefly luciferase gene, driven by different

  2. 128 - 131 Abdu Anticholinester

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMIN

    shown in the equation below (Boehringer, 1991). The study was set out to investigate the effect of the leaves extract of Anogeisus leiocarpus on the cholinesterase enzyme which serves as an indicator system whose analysis always correspond to the bioluminescence Mycobacterium aurum or tuberculosis expressing firefly.

  3. Circular polarization observed in bioluminescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnberg, Hans; Meijer, E.W.; Hummelen, J.C.; Dekkers, H.P.J.M.; Schippers, P.H.; Carlson, A.D.

    1980-01-01

    While investigating circular polarization in luminescence, and having found it in chemiluminescence, we have studied bioluminescence because it is such a widespread and dramatic natural phenomenon. We report here that left and right lanterns of live larvae of the fireflies, Photuris lucicrescens and

  4. Increased Na+/K(+)-pump activity and adenosine triphosphate utilization after compound 48/80-induced histamine secretion from rat mast cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Torben; Praetorius, Birger Hans

    1994-01-01

    -production were measured by the bioluminescence technique (firefly lantern) and by measurement of the lactate production under anaerobic conditions (antimycin A, oligomycin), respectively. There was an increased requirement for ATP after the secretory response associated with an increased activity of the Na...

  5. Effects of Epigenetic Modulation on Reporter Gene Expression: Implications for Stem Cell Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Manickam; Park, Jinha M.; Cao, Feng; Wang, Dongxu; Paulmurugan, Ramasay; Tseng, Jeffrey R.; Gonzalgo, Mark L.; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.; Wu, Joseph C.

    2013-01-01

    Tracking stem cell localization, survival, differentiation, and proliferation following transplantation in living subjects is essential for understanding stem cell biology and physiology. In this study, we investigated the long-term stability of reporter gene expression in an embryonic rat cardiomyoblast cell line and the role of epigenetic modulation on reversing reporter gene silencing. Cells were stably transfected with plasmids carrying cytomegalovirus promoter driving firefly luciferase reporter gene (CMV-Fluc) and passaged repeatedly for 3–8 months. Within the highest expressor clone, the firefly luciferase activity decreased progressively from passage-1 (843±28) to passage-20 (250±10) to passage-40 (44±3) to passage-60 (3±1 RLU/µg) (P<0.05 vs. passage-1). Firefly luciferase activity was maximally rescued by treatment with 5-azacytidine (DNA methyltransferase inhibitor) compared to trichostatin A (histone deacetylase inhibitor) and retinoic acid (transcriptional activator) (P<0.05). Increasing dosages of 5-azacytidine treatment led to higher levels of firefly luciferase mRNA (RT-PCR) and protein (Western blots) and inversely lower levels of methylation in the CMV promoter (DNA nucleotide sequence). These in vitro results were extended to in vivo bioluminescence imaging (BLI) of cell transplant in living animals. Cells treated with 5-azacytidine were monitored for 2 weeks compared to 1 week for untreated cells (P<0.05). These findings should have important implications for reporter gene-based imaging of stem cell transplantation. PMID:16246867

  6. DONG JIE Zhang, LIANG Wang, ZHON

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    User

    development, hairless nude skin, and short life (Abitbol et al., 2015; Bryson et al., 2013). On the ... Foxn1 maintains TECs to support T-cell development via mcm2 ... were ligated upstream of the firefly luciferase gene in the plasmid pGL3-Basic.

  7. Bioluminometric assay of ATP in mouse brain

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Firefly luciferase bioluminescence (FLB) is a highly sensitive and specific method for the analysis of adenosine-5-triphosphate (ATP) in biological samples. Earlier attempts to modify the FLB test for enhanced sensitivity have been typically based on in vitro cell systems. This study reports an optimized FLB procedure for the ...

  8. Heat shock protein (Hsp) 40 mutants inhibit Hsp70 in mammalian cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michels, AA; Kanon, B; Bensaude, O; Kampinga, HH

    1999-01-01

    Heat shock protein (Hsp) 70 and Hsp40 expressed in mammalian cells had been previously shown to cooperate in accelerating the reactivation of heat-denatured firefly luciferase (Michels, A. A., Kanon, B., Konings, A. W. T., Ohtsuka, K,, Bensaude, O., and Kampinga, H. H. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272,

  9. Optimisation of ATP determination in drinking water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corfitzen, Charlotte B.; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) can be used as a relative measure of cell activity, and is measured by the light output from the reaction between luciferin and ATP catalyzed by firefly luciferase. The measurement has potential as a monitoring and surveillance tool within drinking water distribution,...... be separated from the water phase by filtration.......Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) can be used as a relative measure of cell activity, and is measured by the light output from the reaction between luciferin and ATP catalyzed by firefly luciferase. The measurement has potential as a monitoring and surveillance tool within drinking water distribution...... and an Advance Coupe luminometer. The investigations showed a 60 times higher response of the PCP-kit, making it more suitable for measurement of samples with low ATP content. ATP-standard dilutions prepared in tap water were stable for at least 15 months when stored frozen at -80ºC, and storage of large...

  10. RNA polymerase II mediated transcription from the polymerase III promoters in short hairpin RNA expression vector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumi, Mohammad; Ishihara, Shunji; Aziz, Monowar; Kazumori, Hideaki; Ishimura, Norihisa; Yuki, Takafumi; Kadota, Chikara; Kadowaki, Yasunori; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu

    2006-01-01

    RNA polymerase III promoters of human ribonuclease P RNA component H1, human U6, and mouse U6 small nuclear RNA genes are commonly used in short hairpin RNA (shRNA) expression vectors due their precise initiation and termination sites. During transient transfection of shRNA vectors, we observed that H1 or U6 promoters also express longer transcripts enough to express several reporter genes including firefly luciferase, green fluorescent protein EGFP, and red fluorescent protein JRed. Expression of such longer transcripts was augmented by upstream RNA polymerase II enhancers and completely inhibited by downstream polyA signal sequences. Moreover, the transcription of firefly luciferase from human H1 promoter was sensitive to RNA polymerase II inhibitor α-amanitin. Our findings suggest that commonly used polymerase III promoters in shRNA vectors are also prone to RNA polymerase II mediated transcription, which may have negative impacts on their targeted use

  11. Reporter gene assay for the quantification of the activity and neutralizing antibody response to TNFα antagonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lallemand, Christophe; Kavrochorianou, Nadia; Steenholdt, Casper

    2011-01-01

    A cell-based assay has been developed for the quantification of the activity of TNFα antagonists based on human erythroleukemic K562 cells transfected with a NFκB regulated firefly luciferase reporter-gene construct. Both drug activity and anti-drug neutralizing antibodies can be quantified...... with a high degree of precision within 2h, and without interference from cytokines and other factors known to activate NFκB. The assay cells also contain the Renilla luciferase reporter gene under the control of a constitutive promoter that allows TNFα-induced firefly luciferase activity to be normalized...... relative to Renilla luciferase expression. Thus, results are independent of cell number or differences in cell viability, resulting in intra and inter assay coefficients of variation of 10% or less. Normalization of results relative to the expression of an internal standard also provides a means...

  12. Highly specific expression of luciferase gene in lungs of naive nude mice directed by prostate-specific antigen promoter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hongwei; Li Jinzhong; Helm, Gregory A.; Pan Dongfeng

    2005-01-01

    PSA promoter has been demonstrated the utility for tissue-specific toxic gene therapy in prostate cancer models. Characterization of foreign gene overexpression in normal animals elicited by PSA promoter should help evaluate therapy safety. Here we constructed an adenovirus vector (AdPSA-Luc), containing firefly luciferase gene under the control of the 5837 bp long prostate-specific antigen promoter. A charge coupled device video camera was used to non-invasively image expression of firefly luciferase in nude mice on days 3, 7, 11 after injection of 2 x 10 9 PFU of AdPSA-Luc virus via tail vein. The result showed highly specific expression of the luciferase gene in lungs of mice from day 7. The finding indicates the potential limitations of the suicide gene therapy of prostate cancer based on selectivity of PSA promoter. By contrary, it has encouraging implications for further development of vectors via PSA promoter to enable gene therapy for pulmonary diseases

  13. Coherent spontaneous radiation from highly bunched electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berryman, K.W.; Crosson, E.R.; Ricci, K.N.

    1995-01-01

    Coherent spontaneous radiation has now been observed in several FELs, and is a subject of great importance to the design of self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) devices. We report observations of coherent spontaneous radiation in both FIREFLY and the mid-infrared FEL at the Stanford Picosecond FEL Center. Coherent emission has been observed at wavelengths as short as 5 microns, and enhancement over incoherent levels by as much as a factor of 4x10 4 has been observed at longer wavelengths. The latter behavior was observed at 45 microns in FIREFLY with short bunches produced by off-peak acceleration and dispersive compression. We present temporal measurements of the highly bunched electron distributions responsible for the large enhancements, using both transition radiation and energy-phase techniques

  14. Recent advances in swarm intelligence and evolutionary computation

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This timely review volume summarizes the state-of-the-art developments in nature-inspired algorithms and applications with the emphasis on swarm intelligence and bio-inspired computation. Topics include the analysis and overview of swarm intelligence and evolutionary computation, hybrid metaheuristic algorithms, bat algorithm, discrete cuckoo search, firefly algorithm, particle swarm optimization, and harmony search as well as convergent hybridization. Application case studies have focused on the dehydration of fruits and vegetables by the firefly algorithm and goal programming, feature selection by the binary flower pollination algorithm, job shop scheduling, single row facility layout optimization, training of feed-forward neural networks, damage and stiffness identification, synthesis of cross-ambiguity functions by the bat algorithm, web document clustering, truss analysis, water distribution networks, sustainable building designs and others. As a timely review, this book can serve as an ideal reference f...

  15. Why aye-ayes see blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melin, Amanda D; Moritz, Gillian L; Fosbury, Robert A E; Kawamura, Shoji; Dominy, Nathaniel J

    2012-03-01

    The capacity for cone-mediated color vision varies among nocturnal primates. Some species are colorblind, having lost the functionality of their short-wavelength-sensitive-1 (SWS1) opsin pigment gene. In other species, such as the aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis), the SWS1 gene remains intact. Recent studies focused on aye-ayes indicate that this gene has been maintained by natural selection and that the pigment has a peak sensitivity (lambda(max)) of 406 nm, which is -20 nm closer to the ultraviolet region of the spectrum than in most primates. The functional significance behind the retention and unusual lambda(max) of this opsin pigment is unknown, and it is perplexing given that all mammals are presumed to be colorblind in the dark. Here we comment on this puzzle and discuss recent findings on the color vision intensity thresholds of terrestrial vertebrates with comparable optics to aye-ayes. We draw attention to the twilight activities of aye-ayes and report that twilight is enriched in short-wavelength (bluish) light. We also show that the intensity of twilight and full moonlight is probably sufficient to support cone-mediated color vision. We speculate that the intact SWS1 opsin pigment gene of aye-ayes is a crepuscular adaptation and we report on the blueness of potential visual targets, such as scent marks and the brilliant blue arils of Ravenala madagascariensis.

  16. Annual report on the state of environmental pollution - environmental white paper, 1972

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1973-01-01

    Pollution damage to the environment was investigated in Nagoya prefecture in 1972. In the Nagoya area, lichens were investigated as air pollution indicators. Sectors found to be lichen deserts were the south and southwest. Insects (dragonflies and butterflies) were found to be greatly reduced in number, along with fireflies and certain rare wild plants. The number of wild birds and animals has not noticeably decreased, although geographic distributions are changing due to alterations in land use patterns.

  17. Cell-Penetrating Bispecific Antibodies for Targeting Oncogenic Transcription Factors in Advanced Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    observations with DHT -stimulated luciferase activity assays, enzalutamide had no effect on the constitutive induction of luciferase activity by the AR...to expess firefly luciferase under the control of a synthetic ARE. Similar studies were also performed with intact LNCaP cells stimulated with DHT ...enzalutamide. B. Demonstration that 3E10-AR441 can inhibit non-genomic, AR-dependent signaling. These studies used LNCaP cells stimulated with DHT , with a

  18. Nature-inspired optimization algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Xin-She

    2014-01-01

    Nature-Inspired Optimization Algorithms provides a systematic introduction to all major nature-inspired algorithms for optimization. The book's unified approach, balancing algorithm introduction, theoretical background and practical implementation, complements extensive literature with well-chosen case studies to illustrate how these algorithms work. Topics include particle swarm optimization, ant and bee algorithms, simulated annealing, cuckoo search, firefly algorithm, bat algorithm, flower algorithm, harmony search, algorithm analysis, constraint handling, hybrid methods, parameter tuning

  19. Theoretical Study of the Relationships between Excited State Geometry Changes and Emission Energies of Oxyluciferin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhong Wei; Min, Chun Gang; Ren, Ai Min; Feng, Ji Kang [Jilin University, Changchun (China); Guo, Jing Fu [Northeast Normal University, Jilin (China); Goddard, John D. [University of Guelph, Ontario (Canada); Zuo, Liang [North China Mineral and Geology Testing Center of CNNC, Tianjin (China)

    2010-04-15

    In order to find a relationship between firefly luciferases structure and bioluminescence spectra, we focus on excited substrate geometries which may be affected by rigid luciferases. Density functional theory (DFT) and time dependent DFT (TDDFT) were employed. Changes in only six bond lengths of the excited substrate are important in determining the emission spectra. Analysis of these bonds suggests the mechanism whereby luciferases restrict more or less the excited substrate geometries and to produce multicolor bioluminescence.

  20. Prediction of Shanghai Index based on Additive Legendre Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Bin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel Legendre neural network model is proposed, namely additive Legendre neural network (ALNN. A new hybrid evolutionary method besed on binary particle swarm optimization (BPSO algorithm and firefly algorithm is proposed to optimize the structure and parameters of ALNN model. Shanghai stock exchange composite index is used to evaluate the performance of ALNN. Results reveal that ALNN performs better than LNN model.

  1. Integración de sensores medioambientales con BIM: casos de estudio usando Arduino, Dynamo, y Revit API

    OpenAIRE

    Kensek, K. M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the feasibility of connecting environmental sensors such as light, humidity, or CO2 receptors to a building information model (BIM). A base case was created in Rhino; using Grasshopper and Firefly, a simple digital model responded to lighting-levels detected by a photoresistor on an Arduino board. The case study was duplicated using Revit Architecture, a popular BIM software, and Dynamo, a visual programming environment, in an innovative application. Another case study...

  2. Improve T Cell Therapy in Neuroblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    bioluminescence was then measured overtime. The graph is representative of one of 4 experiments using CMV-CTLs from 4 donors. Panel E. Kaplan-Meier...whole-cell vaccine expressing the iC9 gene and labeled with an enhanced firefly luciferase. Tumor growth was measured by in vivo imaging. Panel E...down regulation in LTE -T cells is not caused by specific culture conditions. T lymphocytes were activated with immobilized OKT3 (1 μg ml) and

  3. Bright to Dim Oscillatory Response of the Neurospora Circadian Oscillator

    OpenAIRE

    Gooch, Van D.; Johnson, Alicia E.; Larrondo, Luis F.; Loros, Jennifer J.; Dunlap, Jay C.

    2014-01-01

    The fungus Neurospora crassa constitutes an important model system extensively used in chronobiology. Several studies have addressed how environmental cues, such as light, can reset or synchronize a circadian system. By means of an optimized firefly luciferase reporter gene and a controllable lighting system, we show that Neurospora can display molecular circadian rhythms in dim light when cultures receive bright light prior to entering dim light conditions. We refer to this behavior as the “...

  4. Assessment of Water Salinity Model Using Hydrodynamic Numerical Modelling in Estuary of Selangor River, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Ekhwan Toriman; Mohd Ekhwan Toriman; Norbaya Hashim; Mohd Khairul Amri Kamarudin; Abdul Jalil Hassan; Ayaari Muhamad; Nor Azlina Abd Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Issues such as water pollution and extraction of water from Sungai Selangor system has been said to be the cause of fading fireflies. Salinity intrusion into estuary of the Sungai Selangor has been carried out on a hydrodynamic numerical modeling to access the parameter that governed the amount of salt in the river. The berembang trees on the river bank that become the fireflies habitat need some amount of salt for proper growth. Living at the lower reaches of Sungai Selangor, the fireflies are affected not only by the activities in their vicinity, but by activities in the entire river basin. Rapid economic development in the basin and the strong demand for the water resources puts pressure on the ecosystem. This research has been carried out to investigate the effect of water extraction along Sungai Selangor towards altering the amount of salt content in the river. The hydrodynamic modeling with regards to the salt content is expected to support long term assessment that may affect the berembang trees as a result of changes in the flow from upstream because of the water abstraction activity for domestic water supply. (author)

  5. Effective Loss Minimization and Allocation of Unbalanced Distribution Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manvir Kaur

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available An efficient distribution network must be able to supply power with good voltage profile. The main objective of the proposed work is to allocate losses of the unbalanced distribution network by the firefly algorithm in regulated and deregulated environments before and after loss minimization. Reconfiguration is one of the methods for loss reduction of unbalanced distribution network. Further, optimal placement of distributed generation and capacitor in the reconfigured unbalanced distribution network can further reduce the loss. The results of reconfigured unbalanced distribution network in regulated environment have already been reported. In this paper reconfiguration of an unbalanced distribution network in a deregulated environment is also carried out using an established Fuzzy Firefly algorithm. Loss sensitivity factor of unbalanced distribution networks is used to get the appropriate location of distributed generation and capacitor to be placed in the unbalanced distribution network. Their ratings have been found out by using bacteria foraging optimization algorithm (BFOA. The suggested loss allocation method using Firefly algorithm is implemented at first on 13 node unbalanced distribution network to check the performance of the proposed loss allocation method when compared to other available method. Finally the proposed method has been implemented on 25 node unbalanced distribution network. Both of the implementations are carried out under MATLAB environment.

  6. An Efficient Meta Heuristic Algorithm to Solve Economic Load Dispatch Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Subramanian

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Economic Load Dispatch (ELD problems in power generation systems are to reduce the fuel cost by reducing the total cost for the generation of electric power. This paper presents an efficient Modified Firefly Algorithm (MFA, for solving ELD Problem. The main objective of the problems is to minimize the total fuel cost of the generating units having quadratic cost functions subjected to limits on generator true power output and transmission losses. The MFA is a stochastic, Meta heuristic approach based on the idealized behaviour of the flashing characteristics of fireflies. This paper presents an application of MFA to ELD for six generator test case system. MFA is applied to ELD problem and compared its solution quality and computation efficiency to Genetic algorithm (GA, Differential Evolution (DE, Particle swarm optimization (PSO, Artificial Bee Colony optimization (ABC, Biogeography-Based Optimization (BBO, Bacterial Foraging optimization (BFO, Firefly Algorithm (FA techniques. The simulation result shows that the proposed algorithm outperforms previous optimization methods.

  7. Predicting Taxi-Out Time at Congested Airports with Optimization-Based Support Vector Regression Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan Lian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate prediction of taxi-out time is significant precondition for improving the operationality of the departure process at an airport, as well as reducing the long taxi-out time, congestion, and excessive emission of greenhouse gases. Unfortunately, several of the traditional methods of predicting taxi-out time perform unsatisfactorily at congested airports. This paper describes and tests three of those conventional methods which include Generalized Linear Model, Softmax Regression Model, and Artificial Neural Network method and two improved Support Vector Regression (SVR approaches based on swarm intelligence algorithm optimization, which include Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO and Firefly Algorithm. In order to improve the global searching ability of Firefly Algorithm, adaptive step factor and Lévy flight are implemented simultaneously when updating the location function. Six factors are analysed, of which delay is identified as one significant factor in congested airports. Through a series of specific dynamic analyses, a case study of Beijing International Airport (PEK is tested with historical data. The performance measures show that the proposed two SVR approaches, especially the Improved Firefly Algorithm (IFA optimization-based SVR method, not only perform as the best modelling measures and accuracy rate compared with the representative forecast models, but also can achieve a better predictive performance when dealing with abnormal taxi-out time states.

  8. Robust Lentiviral Gene Delivery But Limited Transduction Capacity of Commonly Used Adeno-Associated Viral Serotypes in Xenotransplanted Human Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Maria; Askou, Anne Louise; Stenderup, Karin; Rosada, Cecilia; Dagnæs-Hansen, Frederik; Jensen, Thomas G; Corydon, Thomas J; Mikkelsen, Jacob Giehm; Aagaard, Lars

    2015-08-01

    Skin is an easily accessible organ, and therapeutic gene transfer to skin remains an attractive alternative for the treatment of skin diseases. Although we have previously documented potent lentiviral gene delivery to human skin, vectors based on adeno-associated virus (AAV) rank among the most promising gene delivery tools for in vivo purposes. Thus, we compared the potential usefulness of various serotypes of recombinant AAV vectors and lentiviral vectors for gene transfer to human skin in a xenotransplanted mouse model. Vector constructs encoding firefly luciferase were packaged in AAV capsids of serotype 1, 2, 5, 6, 8, and 9 and separately administered by intradermal injection in human skin transplants. For all serotypes, live bioimaging demonstrated low levels of transgene expression in the human skin graft, and firefly luciferase expression was observed primarily in neighboring tissue outside of the graft. In contrast, gene delivery by intradermally injected lentiviral vectors was efficient and led to extensive and persistent firefly luciferase expression within the human skin graft only. The study demonstrates the limited capacity of single-stranded AAV vectors of six commonly used serotypes for gene delivery to human skin in vivo.

  9. Ultrawidefield microscope for high-speed fluorescence imaging and targeted optogenetic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werley, Christopher A; Chien, Miao-Ping; Cohen, Adam E

    2017-12-01

    The rapid increase in the number and quality of fluorescent reporters and optogenetic actuators has yielded a powerful set of tools for recording and controlling cellular state and function. To achieve the full benefit of these tools requires improved optical systems with high light collection efficiency, high spatial and temporal resolution, and patterned optical stimulation, in a wide field of view (FOV). Here we describe our 'Firefly' microscope, which achieves these goals in a Ø6 mm FOV. The Firefly optical system is optimized for simultaneous photostimulation and fluorescence imaging in cultured cells. All but one of the optical elements are commercially available, yet the microscope achieves 10-fold higher light collection efficiency at its design magnification than the comparable commercially available microscope using the same objective. The Firefly microscope enables all-optical electrophysiology ('Optopatch') in cultured neurons with a throughput and information content unmatched by other neuronal phenotyping systems. This capability opens possibilities in disease modeling and phenotypic drug screening. We also demonstrate applications of the system to voltage and calcium recordings in human induced pluripotent stem cell derived cardiomyocytes.

  10. Salinity intrusion modeling for Sungai Selangor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed Roseli Zainal Abidin; Abd Jalil Hassan; Suriyani Awang; Liew Yuk San; Norbaya Hashim

    2006-01-01

    Salinity intrusion into estuary of the Sungai Selangor has been carried out on a hydrodynamic numerical modeling to access the parameter that governed the amount of salt in the river. Issues such as water pollution and extraction of water from Sungai Selangor system has been said to be the cause of fading fireflies. The berembang trees on the river bank that become the fireflies habitat need some amount of salt for proper growth. Living at the lower reaches of Sungai Selangor, the fireflies are affected not only by the activities in their vicinity, but by activities in the entire river basin. Rapid economic development in the basin and the strong demand for the water resources puts pressure on the ecosystem. This research has been carried out to investigate the effect of water extraction along Sungai Selangor towards altering the amount of salt content in the river. The hydrodynamic modeling with regards to the salt content is expected to support long term assessment that may affect the berembang trees as a result of changes in the flow from upstream because of the water abstraction activity for domestic water supply. (Author)

  11. Probing Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer in Quantum Rod-Luciferase Nanoconjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Rabeka; Karam, Liliana M; Doane, Tennyson L; Coopersmith, Kaitlin; Fontaine, Danielle M; Branchini, Bruce R; Maye, Mathew M

    2016-02-23

    We describe the necessary design criteria to create highly efficient energy transfer conjugates containing luciferase enzymes derived from Photinus pyralis (Ppy) and semiconductor quantum rods (QRs) with rod-in-rod (r/r) microstructure. By fine-tuning the synthetic conditions, CdSe/CdS r/r-QRs were prepared with two different emission colors and three different aspect ratios (l/w) each. These were hybridized with blue, green, and red emitting Ppy, leading to a number of new BRET nanoconjugates. Measurements of the emission BRET ratio (BR) indicate that the resulting energy transfer is highly dependent on QR energy accepting properties, which include absorption, quantum yield, and optical anisotropy, as well as its morphological and topological properties, such as aspect ratio and defect concentration. The highest BR was found using r/r-QRs with lower l/w that were conjugated with red Ppy, which may be activating one of the anisotropic CdSe core energy levels. The role QR surface defects play on Ppy binding, and energy transfer was studied by growth of gold nanoparticles at the defects, which indicated that each QR set has different sites. The Ppy binding at those sites is suggested by the observed BRET red-shift as a function of Ppy-to-QR loading (L), where the lowest L results in highest efficiency and furthest shift.

  12. Real time imaging of live cell ATP leaking or release events by chemiluminescence microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yun [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2008-12-18

    The purpose of this research was to expand the chemiluminescence microscopy applications in live bacterial/mammalian cell imaging and to improve the detection sensitivity for ATP leaking or release events. We first demonstrated that chemiluminescence (CL) imaging can be used to interrogate single bacterial cells. While using a luminometer allows detecting ATP from cell lysate extracted from at least 10 bacterial cells, all previous cell CL detection never reached this sensitivity of single bacteria level. We approached this goal with a different strategy from before: instead of breaking bacterial cell membrane and trying to capture the transiently diluted ATP with the firefly luciferase CL assay, we introduced the firefly luciferase enzyme into bacteria using the modern genetic techniques and placed the CL reaction substrate D-luciferin outside the cells. By damaging the cell membrane with various antibacterial drugs including antibiotics such as Penicillins and bacteriophages, the D-luciferin molecules diffused inside the cell and initiated the reaction that produces CL light. As firefly luciferases are large protein molecules which are retained within the cells before the total rupture and intracellular ATP concentration is high at the millmolar level, the CL reaction of firefly luciferase, ATP and D-luciferin can be kept for a relatively long time within the cells acting as a reaction container to generate enough photons for detection by the extremely sensitive intensified charge coupled device (ICCD) camera. The result was inspiring as various single bacterium lysis and leakage events were monitored with 10-s temporal resolution movies. We also found a new way of enhancing diffusion D-luciferin into cells by dehydrating the bacteria. Then we started with this novel single bacterial CL imaging technique, and applied it for quantifying gene expression levels from individual bacterial cells. Previous published result in single cell gene expression quantification

  13. Combined Partial Penectomy With Bilateral Robotic Inguinal Lymphadenectomy Using Near-infrared Fluorescence Guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sávio, Luís Felipe; Panizzutti Barboza, Marcelo; Alameddine, Mahmoud; Ahdoot, Michael; Alonzo, David; Ritch, Chad R

    2018-03-01

    To describe our novel technique for performing a combined partial penectomy and bilateral robotic inguinal lymphadenectomy using intraoperative near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence guidance with indocyanine green (ICG) and the DaVinci Firefly camera system. A 58-year-old man presented status post recent excisional biopsy of a 2-cm lesion on the left coronal aspect of the glans penis. Pathology revealed "invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the penis with multifocal positive margins." His examination was suspicious for cT2 primary and his inguinal nodes were cN0. He was counseled to undergo partial penectomy with possible combined vs staged bilateral robotic inguinal lymphadenectomy. Preoperative computed tomography scan was negative for pathologic lymphadenopathy. Before incision, 5 mL of ICG was injected subcutaneously beneath the tumor. Bilateral thigh pockets were then developed simultaneously and a right, then left robotic modified inguinal lymphadenectomy was performed using NIR fluorescence guidance via the DaVinci Firefly camera. A partial penectomy was then performed in the standard fashion. The combined procedure was performed successfully without complication. Total operative time was 379 minutes and total robotic console time was 95 minutes for the right and 58 minutes to the left. Estimated blood loss on the right and left were 15 and 25 mL, respectively. A total of 24 lymph nodes were retrieved. This video demonstrates a safe and feasible approach for combined partial penectomy and bilateral inguinal lymphadenectomy with NIR guidance using ICG and the DaVinci Firefly camera system. The combined robotic approach has minimal morbidity and avoids the need for a staged procedure. Furthermore, use of NIR guidance with ICG during robotic inguinal lymphadenectomy is feasible and may help identify sentinel lymph nodes and improve the quality of dissection. Further studies are needed to confirm the utility of NIR guidance for robotic sentinel lymph node

  14. Hybrid Feature Selection Approach Based on GRASP for Cancer Microarray Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpita Nagpal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Microarray data usually contain a large number of genes, but a small number of samples. Feature subset selection for microarray data aims at reducing the number of genes so that useful information can be extracted from the samples. Reducing the dimension of data sets further helps in improving the computational efficiency of the learning model. In this paper, we propose a modified algorithm based on the tabu search as local search procedures to a Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure (GRASP for high dimensional microarray data sets. The proposed Tabu based Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure algorithm is named as TGRASP. In TGRASP, a new parameter has been introduced named as Tabu Tenure and the existing parameters, NumIter and size have been modified. We observed that different parameter settings affect the quality of the optimum. The second proposed algorithm known as FFGRASP (Firefly Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure uses a firefly optimization algorithm in the local search optimzation phase of the greedy randomized adaptive search procedure (GRASP. Firefly algorithm is one of the powerful algorithms for optimization of multimodal applications. Experimental results show that the proposed TGRASP and FFGRASP algorithms are much better than existing algorithm with respect to three performance parameters viz. accuracy, run time, number of a selected subset of features. We have also compared both the approaches with a unified metric (Extended Adjusted Ratio of Ratios which has shown that TGRASP approach outperforms existing approach for six out of nine cancer microarray datasets and FFGRASP performs better on seven out of nine datasets.

  15. Molecular characterisation of four double-flowered mutants of Silene dioica representing four centuries of variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingle, Elizabeth K. S.; Gilmartin, Philip M.

    2015-01-01

    Records of double-flowered Silene dioica date from the late sixteenth century and four named varieties are grown today, as previously, for their horticultural interest. Although double-flowered mutants have been characterized in several plants, their study in dioecious species is of particular interest due to influences of the homeotic mutation on the different floral whorl configurations in males and females. We have analysed four double-flowered varieties of Silene dioica: Flore Pleno and Rosea Plena date back to the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries, Thelma Kay and Firefly were recognized in the latter part of the twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. We have analysed the floral structure of the four varieties, which have distinct floral architectures. Based on Y chromosome-specific PCR analysis we show that Firefly is male and that the other three varieties are female: Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analyses suggested a common origin for the three female varieties. The double-flowered phenotype in all four varieties is caused by mutation of the C-function MADS-box transcription factor gene SDM1. We show that Firefly carries a unique 44bp insertion into SDM1, revealing an independent origin for this variety. Comparative analysis of SDM1 cDNA and genomic sequences in Flore Pleno, Rosea Plena and Thelma Kay shows that all three are caused by the same 7bp insertion within SDM1 and therefore share a common origin. The three alleles also differ by several single nucleotide polymorphisms, which represent somatic mutations accumulated over four centuries of asexual propagation. PMID:25878355

  16. Infographics as Eye Candy: Review of World War II in Numbers: An Infographic Guide to the Conflict, Its Conduct, and Its Casualties by Peter Doyle (2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Best

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Peter Doyle. World War II in Numbers: An Infographic Guide to the Conflict, Its Conduct, and Its Casualties, illustrated by Lindsey Johns (Buffalo NY: Firefly Books, 2013. 224 pp. ISBN: 177085195X. Doyle’s book contains dozens of graphs of statistical data dealing with World War II. Many of these graphs are visually striking. However, they often violate fundamental graphing principles, in that they distort quantitative relationships, use unidentified scales, and often make it difficult to compare quantities. Graphic software makes it easy to create imaginative images, but these can fail to communicate the very information that is the graph’s purpose.

  17. Optimized extreme learning machine for urban land cover classification using hyperspectral imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hongjun; Tian, Shufang; Cai, Yue; Sheng, Yehua; Chen, Chen; Najafian, Maryam

    2017-12-01

    This work presents a new urban land cover classification framework using the firefly algorithm (FA) optimized extreme learning machine (ELM). FA is adopted to optimize the regularization coefficient C and Gaussian kernel σ for kernel ELM. Additionally, effectiveness of spectral features derived from an FA-based band selection algorithm is studied for the proposed classification task. Three sets of hyperspectral databases were recorded using different sensors, namely HYDICE, HyMap, and AVIRIS. Our study shows that the proposed method outperforms traditional classification algorithms such as SVM and reduces computational cost significantly.

  18. Communication: An efficient approach to compute state-specific nuclear gradients for a generic state-averaged multi-configuration self consistent field wavefunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granovsky, Alexander A., E-mail: alex.granovsky@gmail.com [Firefly project, Moscow, 117593 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-21

    We present a new, very efficient semi-numerical approach for the computation of state-specific nuclear gradients of a generic state-averaged multi-configuration self consistent field wavefunction. Our approach eliminates the costly coupled-perturbed multi-configuration Hartree-Fock step as well as the associated integral transformation stage. The details of the implementation within the Firefly quantum chemistry package are discussed and several sample applications are given. The new approach is routinely applicable to geometry optimization of molecular systems with 1000+ basis functions using a standalone multi-core workstation.

  19. Communication: An efficient approach to compute state-specific nuclear gradients for a generic state-averaged multi-configuration self consistent field wavefunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granovsky, Alexander A.

    2015-01-01

    We present a new, very efficient semi-numerical approach for the computation of state-specific nuclear gradients of a generic state-averaged multi-configuration self consistent field wavefunction. Our approach eliminates the costly coupled-perturbed multi-configuration Hartree-Fock step as well as the associated integral transformation stage. The details of the implementation within the Firefly quantum chemistry package are discussed and several sample applications are given. The new approach is routinely applicable to geometry optimization of molecular systems with 1000+ basis functions using a standalone multi-core workstation

  20. Communication: An efficient approach to compute state-specific nuclear gradients for a generic state-averaged multi-configuration self consistent field wavefunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granovsky, Alexander A

    2015-12-21

    We present a new, very efficient semi-numerical approach for the computation of state-specific nuclear gradients of a generic state-averaged multi-configuration self consistent field wavefunction. Our approach eliminates the costly coupled-perturbed multi-configuration Hartree-Fock step as well as the associated integral transformation stage. The details of the implementation within the Firefly quantum chemistry package are discussed and several sample applications are given. The new approach is routinely applicable to geometry optimization of molecular systems with 1000+ basis functions using a standalone multi-core workstation.

  1. The world made by Noble prize : chemistry volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-06-01

    This book contains two parts about items by chemistry. The first part introduces Alfred Bernhard Nodel, Pioneers without Nobel Prize, Garbage Bag, Non-sticky Frying Pan, Nylon Stockings, Plastic Electricity, Synthetic Dyestuff, Gin and Tonic, Soccer Ball, Fertilizer, DDT, Dentifrice, Kimchi, Makgeolli, Ice cream, Anodyne and Firefly. The second part lists PET-MRI, Color photo, Holography, Art diamond Incandescent lamp and Neon Sign, Imitation work, Alchemy, Nuclear Power plant, Synthetic Oil and Sugar, Freon gas, Water Car, Estate agency Mars, and winners of Nobel prize in physics.

  2. The world made by Noble prize : chemistry volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-06-01

    This book has two parts of items related chemistry. The contents of the first part are Preface, Alfred Bemhard Nobel, Pioneers without Nobel Prize, Garbage Bag, Non-sticky Frying Pan, Nylon Stockings, Plastic Electricity, Synthetic Dyestuff, Gin and Tonic, Soccer Ball, Fertilizer, DDT, Dentifrice, Kimchi, Makgeolli, Ice cream, Anodyne, and firefly. The contents of the second part are PET-MRI, Color photo, Holography, Art diamond, an incandescent lamp and Neon Sign, Imitation works, Alchemy, Nuclear Power plant, Synthetic Oil and Sugar, Propane gas, Water Car, Estate agency Mars, and reference.

  3. The world made by Noble prize : chemistry volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-06-15

    This book has two parts of items related chemistry. The contents of the first part are Preface, Alfred Bemhard Nobel, Pioneers without Nobel Prize, Garbage Bag, Non-sticky Frying Pan, Nylon Stockings, Plastic Electricity, Synthetic Dyestuff, Gin and Tonic, Soccer Ball, Fertilizer, DDT, Dentifrice, Kimchi, Makgeolli, Ice cream, Anodyne, and firefly. The contents of the second part are PET-MRI, Color photo, Holography, Art diamond, an incandescent lamp and Neon Sign, Imitation works, Alchemy, Nuclear Power plant, Synthetic Oil and Sugar, Propane gas, Water Car, Estate agency Mars, and reference.

  4. The world made by Noble prize : chemistry volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-06-15

    This book contains two parts about items by chemistry. The first part introduces Alfred Bernhard Nodel, Pioneers without Nobel Prize, Garbage Bag, Non-sticky Frying Pan, Nylon Stockings, Plastic Electricity, Synthetic Dyestuff, Gin and Tonic, Soccer Ball, Fertilizer, DDT, Dentifrice, Kimchi, Makgeolli, Ice cream, Anodyne and Firefly. The second part lists PET-MRI, Color photo, Holography, Art diamond Incandescent lamp and Neon Sign, Imitation work, Alchemy, Nuclear Power plant, Synthetic Oil and Sugar, Freon gas, Water Car, Estate agency Mars, and winners of Nobel prize in physics.

  5. Indirect imaging of cardiac-specific transgene expression using a bidirectional two-step transcriptional amplification strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, I Y; Gheysens, O; Ray, S

    2010-01-01

    in a cardiac cell line and the myocardium, while minimizing expression in non-cardiac cell lines and the liver. In vitro, the TSTA system significantly enhanced cTnT-mediated reporter gene expression with moderate preservation of cardiac specificity. After intramyocardial and hydrodynamic tail vein delivery...... genes, firefly luciferase (fluc) and Renilla luciferase (hrluc), driven by the cardiac troponin T (cTnT) promoter. The vector was characterized in vitro and in living mice using luminometry and bioluminescence imaging to assess its ability to mediate strong, correlated reporter gene expression...

  6. RANA, a real-time multi-agent system simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Søren Vissing; Demazeau, Yves; Hallam, John

    2016-01-01

    for individualisation and abstraction while retaining efficiency. Events are managed by the C++ simulator core. Full run state can be recorded for post-processed visualisation or analysis. The new tool is demonstrated in three different cases: a mining robot simulation, which is purely action based; an agent......-based setup that is verifies the high precision exhibited by RANAs simulation core; and a state-based firefly-like agent simulation that models real-time responses to fellow agents' signals, in which event propagation and reception affect the result of the simulation....

  7. Chemistry and biology of insect bioluminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colepicolo Neto, P.; Bechara, E.J.H.

    1984-01-01

    Basic aspects on the Chemistry and Biology of bioluminescence are reviewed, with emphasis on insects. Data from the investigation of Lampyridae (fireflies) are collected from literature. With regard to Elateridae (click beetles) and Phengodidae (rail road worms), the least explored families of luminescent insects, new data are presented on the following aspects: (i) 'in vivo' emission spectra, (ii) chemical nature of the luciferin, (iii) conection between bioluminescence and 'oxygen toxicity' as a result of molecular oxygen storage and (iv) the role of light emission by larvae and pupae. (Author) [pt

  8. New Breed of Mice May Improve Accuracy for Preclinical Testing of Cancer Drugs | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new breed of lab animals, dubbed “glowing head mice,” may do a better job than conventional mice in predicting the success of experimental cancer drugs—while also helping to meet an urgent need for more realistic preclinical animal models. The mice were developed to tolerate often-used light-emitting molecules, such as luciferase from fireflies and green fluorescent protein (GFP) from jellyfish. These “optical reporters” are useful for monitoring the effect of experimental therapies in live animals over time because they emit an immediate and easily detected light signal showing whether a tumor inside the animal’s body is shrinking as desired.

  9. A Dual Luciferase Reporter System for B. burgdorferi Measures Transcriptional Activity during Tick-Pathogen Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip P. Adams

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the transcriptional responses of vector-borne pathogens at the vector-pathogen interface is critical for understanding disease transmission. Borrelia (Borreliella burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease in the United States, is transmitted by the bite of infected Ixodes sp. ticks. It is known that B. burgdorferi has altered patterns of gene expression during tick acquisition, persistence and transmission. Recently, we and others have discovered in vitro expression of RNAs found internal, overlapping, and antisense to annotated open reading frames in the B. burgdorferi genome. However, there is a lack of molecular genetic tools for B. burgdorferi for quantitative, strand-specific, comparative analysis of these transcripts in distinct environments such as the arthropod vector. To address this need, we have developed a dual luciferase reporter system to quantify B. burgdorferi promoter activities in a strand-specific manner. We demonstrate that constitutive expression of a B. burgdorferi codon-optimized Renilla reniformis luciferase gene (rlucBb allows normalization of the activity of a promoter of interest when fused to the B. burgdorferi codon-optimized Photinus pyralis luciferase gene (flucBb on the same plasmid. Using the well characterized, differentially regulated, promoters for flagellin (flaBp, outer surface protein A (ospAp and outer surface protein C (ospCp, we document the efficacy of the dual luciferase system for quantitation of promoter activities during in vitro growth and in infected ticks. Cumulatively, the dual luciferase method outlined herein is the first dual reporter system for B. burgdorferi, providing a novel and highly versatile approach for strand-specific molecular genetic analyses.

  10. Sync the emerging science of spontaneous order

    CERN Document Server

    Strogatz, Steven

    2003-01-01

    At the heart of the universe is a steady, insistent beat, the sound of cycles in sync. Along the tidal rivers of Malaysia, thousands of fireflies congregate and flash in unison; the moon spins in perfect resonance with its orbit around the earth; our hearts depend on the synchronous firing of ten thousand pacemaker cells. While the forces that synchronize the flashing of fireflies may seem to have nothing to do with our heart cells, there is in fact a deep connection. Synchrony is a science in its infancy, and Strogatz is a pioneer in this new frontier in which mathematicians and physicists attempt to pinpoint just how spontaneous order emerges from chaos. From underground caves in Texas where a French scientist spent six months alone tracking his sleep-wake cycle, to the home of a Dutch physicist who in 1665 discovered two of his pendulum clocks swinging in perfect time, this fascinating book spans disciplines, continents, and centuries. Engagingly written for readers of books such as Chaos and The Elegant ...

  11. Island Partition of Distribution System with Distributed Generators Considering Protection of Vulnerable Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Xu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available To improve the reliability of power supply in the case of the fault of distribution system with multiple distributed generators (DGs and reduce the influence of node voltage fluctuation on the stability of distribution system operation in power restoration, this paper proposes an island partition strategy of the distribution system considering the protection of vulnerable nodes. First of all, the electrical coupling coefficient of neighboring nodes is put forward according to distribution system topology and equivalent electrical impedance, and the power-dependence relationship between neighboring nodes is calculated based on the direction and level of the power flow between nodes. Then, the bidirectional transmission of the coupling features of neighboring nodes is realized through the modified PageRank algorithm, thus identifying the vulnerable nodes that have a large influence on the stability of distribution system operation. Next, combining the index of node vulnerability, an island partition model is constructed with the restoration of important loads as the primary goal. In addition, the mutually exclusive firefly algorithm (MEFA is also proposed to realize the interaction of learning and competition among fireflies, thus enhancing the globally optimal solution search ability of the algorithm proposed. The proposed island partition method is verified with a Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E 60-node test system. Comparison with other methods demonstrates that the new method is feasible for the distribution system with multiple types of distributed generations and valid to enhance the stability and safety of the grid with a relatively power restoration ratio.

  12. Geolocating thermal binoculars based on a software defined camera core incorporating HOT MCT grown by MOVPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillans, Luke; Harmer, Jack; Edwards, Tim; Richardson, Lee

    2016-05-01

    Geolocation is the process of calculating a target position based on bearing and range relative to the known location of the observer. A high performance thermal imager with integrated geolocation functions is a powerful long range targeting device. Firefly is a software defined camera core incorporating a system-on-a-chip processor running the AndroidTM operating system. The processor has a range of industry standard serial interfaces which were used to interface to peripheral devices including a laser rangefinder and a digital magnetic compass. The core has built in Global Positioning System (GPS) which provides the third variable required for geolocation. The graphical capability of Firefly allowed flexibility in the design of the man-machine interface (MMI), so the finished system can give access to extensive functionality without appearing cumbersome or over-complicated to the user. This paper covers both the hardware and software design of the system, including how the camera core influenced the selection of peripheral hardware, and the MMI design process which incorporated user feedback at various stages.

  13. Stimulating retinal blood vessel protection with hypoxia-inducible factor stabilization: identification of novel small-molecule hydrazones to inhibit hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase (an American Ophthalmological Society thesis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Jonathan E; Hoppe, George

    2013-09-01

    To discover novel small molecules that inhibit hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylase (PHD), a key enzyme that regulates the posttranslational stability and hence activity of HIF. NIH3T3 cell line stably transfected with firefly luciferase under a HIF-1-inducible promoter was used to screen a Chembridge library of 34,000 small molecules of molecular weight 250 to 550 Da. Positive hits were considered at 4.5-fold higher luminescence than control. Selected compounds were validated in vitro. The most effective dose was then used to treat mice expressing firefly luciferase fused to the oxygen-dependent degradation domain (lucODD) in order to determine the location of the receptor for systemic treatment with small-molecule HIF PHD inhibitors. Twenty-three novel small molecules were discovered, the majority of which were hydrazones and hydrazines. Of the 23 compounds, each had different selectivity for expression of erythropoietin or vascular endothelial growth factor, two angiogenic, HIF-regulated gene products. In addition, each showed different selectivity for hepatocytes or kidney, or both or neither, when injected intraperitoneally in an in vivo reporter gene assay. The discovery of multiple small molecules that inhibit HIF PHD identifies new reagents to develop strategies to prevent the degradation of HIF by its selective PHD. These molecules are novel hypoxia mimetics that may provide new strategies to protect retinovasculature from hyperoxia.

  14. Wavelength switching in an optical klystron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berryman, K.W.; Smith, T.I.

    1995-01-01

    A symmetric optical klystron consists of two identical undulator sections separated a dispersive section. For a device of a given length, an optical klystron is capable of producing much more bunching, and therefore more gain, than a traditional undulator. Another consequence of introducing dispersion between two undulator sections is that the overall spontaneous radiation pattern results from the interference between the two undulator sections, and as such resembles a standard undulator radiation pattern modulated by a sinusoidal interference term. The presence of several wavelength peaks in the spontaneous lineshape implies an equal number of peaks in the gain spectrum. If the strength of the dispersion section is adjusted to provide nearly equal gain on the two largest of these peaks, then they will compete, and the FEL may switch wavelengths based on noise, cavity length, or other perturbations. We provide the first observations of this behavior, using the FIREFLY system at the Stanford Picosecond FEL Center. In FIREFLY, relative wavelength switching by more than 3%--more than twice the laser linewidth-has been observed by varying dispersion section strength, while at intermediate points stable switching has also been observed as a function of cavity length

  15. Intelligent Technique for Signal Processing to Identify the Brain Disorder for Epilepsy Captures Using Fuzzy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurumurthy Sasikumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The new direction of understand the signal that is created from the brain organization is one of the main chores in the brain signal processing. Amid all the neurological disorders the human brain epilepsy is measured as one of the extreme prevalent and then programmed artificial intelligence detection technique is an essential due to the crooked and unpredictable nature of happening of epileptic seizures. We proposed an Improved Fuzzy firefly algorithm, which would enhance the classification of the brain signal efficiently with minimum iteration. An important bunching technique created on fuzzy logic is the Fuzzy C means. Together in the feature domain with the spatial domain the features gained after multichannel EEG signals remained combined by means of fuzzy algorithms. And for better precision segmentation process the firefly algorithm is applied to optimize the Fuzzy C-means membership function. Simultaneously for the efficient clustering method the convergence criteria are set. On the whole the proposed technique yields more accurate results and that gives an edge over other techniques. This proposed algorithm result compared with other algorithms like fuzzy c means algorithm and PSO algorithm.

  16. Optimization of location and forces of friction dampers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Pastor Ontiveros-Pérez

    Full Text Available Abstract Damper optimization is a new area which has been investigated in recent years. There are various methods employed in optimization, among which are highlighted the classic and the most recent that are functioning with reliability, efficiency and speed for optimum results. This paper proposes a method for simultaneous optimization of placement and forces of friction dampers using the Firefly Algorithm, which is a recent meta-heuristic algorithm inspired in the behavior of fireflies. Herein, three different optimization objective are presented: i minimize the maximum displacement at the top of the structure; ii minimize the maximum inter-story drift; iii minimize the maximum acceleration at the top of the structure. The three objective functions were evaluated in two civil structures (a nine-story building and a sixteen-story building subjected to two real seismic records. The first seismic record is El Centro, which took place in the southeastern California on the boarder of the United States and Mexico in 1940. The second one is the earthquake that occurred in Caucete, province of San Juan, Argentina, in 1977. The results showed that the proposed method was able to optimize the friction dampers, reducing considerably the response of the structures.

  17. Fast vector quantization using a Bat algorithm for image compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiranjeevi Karri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Linde–Buzo–Gray (LBG, a traditional method of vector quantization (VQ generates a local optimal codebook which results in lower PSNR value. The performance of vector quantization (VQ depends on the appropriate codebook, so researchers proposed optimization techniques for global codebook generation. Particle swarm optimization (PSO and Firefly algorithm (FA generate an efficient codebook, but undergoes instability in convergence when particle velocity is high and non-availability of brighter fireflies in the search space respectively. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm called BA-LBG which uses Bat Algorithm on initial solution of LBG. It produces an efficient codebook with less computational time and results very good PSNR due to its automatic zooming feature using adjustable pulse emission rate and loudness of bats. From the results, we observed that BA-LBG has high PSNR compared to LBG, PSO-LBG, Quantum PSO-LBG, HBMO-LBG and FA-LBG, and its average convergence speed is 1.841 times faster than HBMO-LBG and FA-LBG but no significance difference with PSO.

  18. Biologically Inspired Intercellular Slot Synchronization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Tyrrell

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article develops a decentralized interbase station slot synchronization algorithm suitable for cellular mobile communication systems. The proposed cellular firefly synchronization (CelFSync algorithm is derived from the theory of pulse-coupled oscillators, common to describe synchronization phenomena in biological systems, such as the spontaneous synchronization of fireflies. In order to maintain synchronization among base stations (BSs, even when there is no direct link between adjacent BSs, some selected user terminals (UTs participate in the network synchronization process. Synchronization emerges by exchanging two distinct synchronization words, one transmitted by BSs and the other by active UTs, without any a priori assumption on the initial timing misalignments of BSs and UTs. In large-scale networks with inter-BS site distances up to a few kilometers, propagation delays severely affect the attainable timing accuracy of CelFSync. We show that by an appropriate combination of CelFSync with the timing advance procedure, which aligns uplink transmission of UTs to arrive simultaneously at the BS, a timing accuracy within a fraction of the inter-BS propagation delay is retained.

  19. Bioluminescent system for dynamic imaging of cell and animal behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara-Miyauchi, Chikako [Department of Physiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Laboratory for Cell Function Dynamics, Brain Science Institute, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Department of Biophysics and Biochemistry, Graduate School of Health Care Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8510 (Japan); Tsuji, Osahiko [Department of Physiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Hanyu, Aki [Division of Biochemistry, The Cancer Institute of the Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo 135-8550 (Japan); Okada, Seiji [Department of Advanced Medical Initiatives, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Yasuda, Akimasa [Department of Physiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Fukano, Takashi [Laboratory for Cell Function Dynamics, Brain Science Institute, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Akazawa, Chihiro [Department of Biophysics and Biochemistry, Graduate School of Health Care Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8510 (Japan); Nakamura, Masaya [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Imamura, Takeshi [Department of Molecular Medicine for Pathogenesis, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Toon, Ehime 791-0295 (Japan); Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology, The Japan Science and Technology Corporation, Tokyo 135-8550 (Japan); Matsuzaki, Yumi [Department of Physiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Okano, Hirotaka James, E-mail: hjokano@jikei.ac.jp [Department of Physiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Division of Regenerative Medicine Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo 150-8461 (Japan); and others

    2012-03-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We combined a yellow variant of GFP and firefly luciferase to make ffLuc-cp156. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ffLuc-cp156 showed improved photon yield in cultured cells and transgenic mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ffLuc-cp156 enabled video-rate bioluminescence imaging of freely-moving animals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ffLuc-cp156 mice enabled tracking real-time drug delivery in conscious animals. -- Abstract: The current utility of bioluminescence imaging is constrained by a low photon yield that limits temporal sensitivity. Here, we describe an imaging method that uses a chemiluminescent/fluorescent protein, ffLuc-cp156, which consists of a yellow variant of Aequorea GFP and firefly luciferase. We report an improvement in photon yield by over three orders of magnitude over current bioluminescent systems. We imaged cellular movement at high resolution including neuronal growth cones and microglial cell protrusions. Transgenic ffLuc-cp156 mice enabled video-rate bioluminescence imaging of freely moving animals, which may provide a reliable assay for drug distribution in behaving animals for pre-clinical studies.

  20. A new multi-objective reserve constrained combined heat and power dynamic economic emission dispatch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niknam, Taher; Azizipanah-Abarghooee, Rasoul; Roosta, Alireza; Amiri, Babak

    2012-01-01

    Combined heat and power units are playing an ever increasing role in conventional power stations due to advantages such as reduced emissions and operational cost savings. This paper investigates a more practical formulation of the complex non-convex, non-smooth and non-linear multi-objective dynamic economic emission dispatch that incorporates combined heat and power units. Integrating these types of units, and their power ramp constraints, require an efficient tool to cope with the joint characteristics of power and heat. Unlike previous approaches, the spinning reserve requirements of this system are clearly formulated in the problem. In this way, a new multi-objective optimisation based on an enhanced firefly algorithm is proposed to achieve a set of non-dominated (Pareto-optimal) solutions. A new tuning parameter based on a chaotic mechanism and novel self adaptive probabilistic mutation strategies are used to improve the overall performance of the algorithm. The numerical results demonstrate how the proposed framework was applied in real time studies. -- Highlights: ► Investigate a practical formulation of the DEED (Dynamic Economic Emission Dispatch). ► Consider combined heat and power units. ► Consider power ramp constraints. ► Consider the system spinning reserve requirements. ► Present a new multi-objective optimization firefly.

  1. Bioluminescent system for dynamic imaging of cell and animal behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara-Miyauchi, Chikako; Tsuji, Osahiko; Hanyu, Aki; Okada, Seiji; Yasuda, Akimasa; Fukano, Takashi; Akazawa, Chihiro; Nakamura, Masaya; Imamura, Takeshi; Matsuzaki, Yumi; Okano, Hirotaka James

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We combined a yellow variant of GFP and firefly luciferase to make ffLuc-cp156. ► ffLuc-cp156 showed improved photon yield in cultured cells and transgenic mice. ► ffLuc-cp156 enabled video-rate bioluminescence imaging of freely-moving animals. ► ffLuc-cp156 mice enabled tracking real-time drug delivery in conscious animals. -- Abstract: The current utility of bioluminescence imaging is constrained by a low photon yield that limits temporal sensitivity. Here, we describe an imaging method that uses a chemiluminescent/fluorescent protein, ffLuc-cp156, which consists of a yellow variant of Aequorea GFP and firefly luciferase. We report an improvement in photon yield by over three orders of magnitude over current bioluminescent systems. We imaged cellular movement at high resolution including neuronal growth cones and microglial cell protrusions. Transgenic ffLuc-cp156 mice enabled video-rate bioluminescence imaging of freely moving animals, which may provide a reliable assay for drug distribution in behaving animals for pre-clinical studies.

  2. Application of an ex vivo cellular model of circadian variation for bipolar disorder research: a proof of concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamne, Mikhil N; Ponder, Christine A; Wood, Joel A; Mansour, Hader; Frank, Ellen; Kupfer, David J; Young, Michael W; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit L

    2013-09-01

    Disruption of circadian function has been observed in several human disorders, including bipolar disorder (BD). Research into these disorders can be facilitated by human cellular models that evaluate external factors (zeitgebers) that impact circadian pacemaker activity. Incorporating a firefly luciferase reporter system into human fibroblasts provides a facile, bioluminescent readout that estimates circadian phase, while leaving the cells intact. We evaluated whether this system can be adapted to clinical BD research and whether it can incorporate zeitgeber challenge paradigms. Fibroblasts from patients with bipolar I disorder (BD-I) (n = 13) and controls (n = 12) were infected ex vivo with a lentiviral reporter incorporating the promoter sequences for Bmal1, a circadian gene to drive expression of the firefly luciferase gene. Following synchronization, the bioluminescence was used to estimate period length. Phase response curves (PRCs) were also generated following forskolin challenge and the phase response patterns were characterized. Period length and PRCs could be estimated reliably from the constructs. There were no significant case-control differences in period length, with a nonsignificant trend for differences in PRCs following the phase-setting experiments. An ex vivo cellular fibroblast-based model can be used to investigate circadian function in BD-I. It can be generated from specific individuals and this could usefully complement ongoing circadian clinical research. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. FT-IR, FT-Raman spectra and DFT calculations of melaminium perchlorate monohydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanagathara, N.; Marchewka, M. K.; Drozd, M.; Renganathan, N. G.; Gunasekaran, S.; Anbalagan, G.

    2013-08-01

    Melaminium perchlorate monohydrate (MPM), an organic material has been synthesized by slow solvent evaporation method at room temperature. Powder X-ray diffraction analysis confirms that MPM crystal belongs to triclinic system with space group P-1. FTIR and FT Raman spectra are recorded at room temperature. Functional group assignment has been made for the melaminium cations and perchlorate anions. Vibrational spectra have also been discussed on the basis of quantum chemical density functional theory (DFT) calculations using Firefly (PC GAMESS) version 7.1 G. Vibrational frequencies are calculated and scaled values are compared with experimental values. The assignment of the bands has been made on the basis of the calculated PED. The Mulliken charges, HOMO-LUMO orbital energies are analyzed directly from Firefly program log files and graphically illustrated. HOMO-LUMO energy gap and other related molecular properties are also calculated. The theoretically constructed FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of MPM coincide with the experimental one. The chemical structure of the compound has been established by 1H and 13C NMR spectra. No detectable signal was observed during powder test for second harmonic generation.

  4. Bioluminescence imaging of chondrocytes in rabbits by intraarticular injection of D-luciferin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Sung Min; Min, Jung Joon; Kim, Sung Mi; Bom, Hee Seung [Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Suk Jung; Kang, Han Saem; Kim, Kwang Yoon [ECOBIO INC., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Ho [College of Natural Science, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-02-15

    Luciferase is one of the most commonly used reporter enzymes in the field of in vivo optical imaging. D-luciferin, the substrate for firefly luciferase has very high cost that allows this kind of experiment limited to small animals such as mice and rats. In this current study, we validated local injection of D-luciferin in the articular capsule for bioluminescence imaging in rabbits. Chondrocytes were cultured and infected by replication-defective adenoviral vector encoding firefly luciferase (Fluc). Chondrocytes expressing Fluc were injected or implanted in the left knee joint. The rabbits underwent optical imaging studies after local injection of D-luciferin at 1, 5, 7, 9 days after cellular administration. We sought whether optimal imaging signals was could be by a cooled CCD camera after local injection of D-luciferin. Imaging signal was not observed from the left knee joint after intraperitoneal injection of D-luciferin (15 mg/kg), whereas it was observed after intraarticular injection. Photon intensity from the left knee joint of rabbits was compared between cell injected and implanted groups after intraarticular injection of D-luciferin. During the period of imaging studies, photon intensity of the cell implanted group was 5-10 times higher than that of the cell injected group. We successfully imaged chondrocytes expressing Fluc after intraarticular injection of D-luciferin. This technique may be further applied to develop new drugs for knee joint disease.

  5. Modulation of translation-initiation in CHO-K1 cells by rapamycin-induced heterodimerization of engineered eIF4G fusion proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlatter, Stefan; Senn, Claudia; Fussenegger, Martin

    2003-07-20

    Translation-initiation is a predominant checkpoint in mammalian cells which controls protein synthesis and fine-tunes the flow of information from gene to protein. In eukaryotes, translation-initiation is typically initiated at a 7-methyl-guanylic acid cap posttranscriptionally linked to the 5' end of mRNAs. Alternative cap-independent translation-initiation involves 5' untranslated regions (UTR) known as internal ribosome entry sites, which adopt a particular secondary structure. Translation-initiating ribosome assembly at cap or IRES elements is mediated by a multiprotein complex of which the initiation factor 4F (eIF4F) consisting of eIF4A (helicase), eIF4E (cap-binding protein), and eIF4G is a major constituent. eIF4G is a key target of picornaviral protease 2A, which cleaves this initiation factor into eIF4G(Delta) and (Delta)eIF4G to redirect the cellular translation machinery exclusively to its own IRES-containing transcripts. We have designed a novel translation control system (TCS) for conditional as well as adjustable translation of cap- and IRES-dependent transgene mRNAs in mammalian cells. eIF4G(Delta) and (Delta)eIF4G were fused C- and N-terminally to the FK506-binding protein (FKBP) and the FKBP-rapamycin-binding domain (FRB) of the human FKBP-rapamycin-associated protein (FRAP), respectively. Rapamycin-induced heterodimerization of eIF4G(Delta)-FKBP and FRB-(Delta)eIF4G fusion proteins reconstituted a functional chimeric elongation factor 4G in a dose-dependent manner. Rigorous quantitative expression analysis of cap- and IRES-dependent SEAP- (human placental secreted alkaline phosphatase) and luc- (Photinus pyralis luciferase) encoding reporter constructs confirmed adjustable translation control and revealed increased production of desired proteins in response to dimerization-induced heterologous eIF4G in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 83: 210-225, 2003.

  6. Transgene and immune gene expression following intramuscular injection of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) with DNA-releasing PLGA nano- and microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hølvold, Linn Benjaminsen; Fredriksen, Børge N; Bøgwald, Jarl; Dalmo, Roy A

    2013-09-01

    The use of poly-(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) particles as carriers for DNA delivery has received considerable attention in mammalian studies. DNA vaccination of fish has been shown to elicit durable transgene expression, but no reports exist on intramuscular administration of PLGA-encapsulated plasmid DNA (pDNA). We injected Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) intramuscularly with a plasmid vector containing a luciferase (Photinus pyralis) reporter gene as a) naked pDNA, b) encapsulated into PLGA nano- (~320 nm) (NP) or microparticles (~4 μm) (MP), c) in an oil-based formulation, or with empty particles of both sizes. The ability of the different pDNA-treatments to induce transgene expression was analyzed through a 70-day experimental period. Anatomical distribution patterns and depot effects were determined by tracking isotope labeled pDNA. Muscle, head kidney and spleen from all treatment groups were analyzed for proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β), antiviral genes (IFN-α, Mx) and cytotoxic T-cell markers (CD8, Eomes) at mRNA transcription levels at days 1, 2, 4 and 7. Histopathological examinations were performed on injection site samples from days 2, 7 and 30. Injection of either naked pDNA or the oil-formulation was superior to particle treatments for inducing transgene expression at early time-points. Empty particles of both sizes were able to induce proinflammatory immune responses as well as degenerative and inflammatory pathology at the injection site. Microparticles demonstrated injection site depots and an inflammatory pathology comparable to the oil-based formulation. In comparison, the distribution of NP-encapsulated pDNA resembled that of naked pDNA, although encapsulation into NPs significantly elevated the expression of antiviral genes in all tissues. Together the results indicate that while naked pDNA is most efficient for inducing transgene expression, the encapsulation of pDNA into NPs up-regulates antiviral responses that could be

  7. Enhancement of allele discrimination by introduction of nucleotide mismatches into siRNA in allele-specific gene silencing by RNAi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Ohnishi

    Full Text Available Allele-specific gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi is therapeutically useful for specifically inhibiting the expression of disease-associated alleles without suppressing the expression of corresponding wild-type alleles. To realize such allele-specific RNAi (ASP-RNAi, the design and assessment of small interfering RNA (siRNA duplexes conferring ASP-RNAi is vital; however, it is also difficult. In a previous study, we developed an assay system to assess ASP-RNAi with mutant and wild-type reporter alleles encoding the Photinus and Renilla luciferase genes. In line with experiments using the system, we realized that it is necessary and important to enhance allele discrimination between mutant and corresponding wild-type alleles. Here, we describe the improvement of ASP-RNAi against mutant alleles carrying single nucleotide variations by introducing base substitutions into siRNA sequences, where original variations are present in the central position. Artificially mismatched siRNAs or short-hairpin RNAs (shRNAs against mutant alleles of the human Prion Protein (PRNP gene, which appear to be associated with susceptibility to prion diseases, were examined using this assessment system. The data indicates that introduction of a one-base mismatch into the siRNAs and shRNAs was able to enhance discrimination between the mutant and wild-type alleles. Interestingly, the introduced mismatches that conferred marked improvement in ASP-RNAi, appeared to be largely present in the guide siRNA elements, corresponding to the 'seed region' of microRNAs. Due to the essential role of the 'seed region' of microRNAs in their association with target RNAs, it is conceivable that disruption of the base-pairing interactions in the corresponding seed region, as well as the central position (involved in cleavage of target RNAs, of guide siRNA elements could influence allele discrimination. In addition, we also suggest that nucleotide mismatches at the 3'-ends of sense

  8. 3rd International Conference on Harmony Search Algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book presents state-of-the-art technical contributions based around one of the most successful evolutionary optimization algorithms published to date: Harmony Search. Contributions span from novel technical derivations of this algorithm to applications in the broad fields of civil engineering, energy, transportation & mobility and health, among many others and focus not only on its cross-domain applicability, but also on its core evolutionary operators, including elements inspired from other meta-heuristics. The global scientific community is witnessing an upsurge in groundbreaking, new advances in all areas of computational intelligence, with a particular flurry of research focusing on evolutionary computation and bio-inspired optimization. Observed processes in nature and sociology have provided the basis for innovative algorithmic developments aimed at leveraging the inherent capability to adapt characterized by various animals, including ants, fireflies, wolves and humans. However, it is the beha...

  9. Large scientific releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pongratz, M.B.

    1981-01-01

    The motivation for active experiments in space is considered, taking into account the use of active techniques to obtain a better understanding of the natural space environment, the utilization of the advantages of space as a laboratory to study fundamental plasma physics, and the employment of active techniques to determine the magnitude, degree, and consequences of artificial modification of the space environment. It is pointed out that mass-injection experiments in space plasmas began about twenty years ago with the Project Firefly releases. Attention is given to mass-release techniques and diagnostics, operational aspects of mass release active experiments, the active observation of mass release experiments, active perturbation mass release experiments, simulating an artificial modification of the space environment, and active experiments to study fundamental plasma physics

  10. Synchronization in a non-uniform network of excitatory spiking neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeveste, Rodrigo; Gros, Claudius

    Spontaneous synchronization of pulse coupled elements is ubiquitous in nature and seems to be of vital importance for life. Networks of pacemaker cells in the heart, extended populations of southeast asian fireflies, and neuronal oscillations in cortical networks, are examples of this. In the present work, a rich repertoire of dynamical states with different degrees of synchronization are found in a network of excitatory-only spiking neurons connected in a non-uniform fashion. In particular, uncorrelated and partially correlated states are found without the need for inhibitory neurons or external currents. The phase transitions between these states, as well the robustness, stability, and response of the network to external stimulus are studied.

  11. Establishment of a luciferase assay-based screening system: Fumitremorgin C selectively inhibits cellular proliferation of immortalized astrocytes expressing an active form of AKT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lei; Sasai, Ken; Akagi, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Shinya

    2008-01-01

    The AKT pathway is frequently activated in glioblastoma, and as such, inhibitors of this pathway could prove very useful as anti-glioblastoma therapies. Here we established immortalized astrocytes expressing Renilla luciferase as well as those expressing both an active form of AKT and firefly luciferase. Since both luciferase activities represent the numbers of corresponding cell lines, novel inhibitors of the AKT pathway can be identified by treating co-cultures containing the two types of luciferase-expressing cells with individual compounds. Indeed, such a screening system succeeded in identifying fumitremorgin C as an efficient inhibitor of the AKT pathway, which was further confirmed by the ability of fumitremorgin C to selectively inhibit the growth of immortalized astrocytes expressing an active form of AKT. The present study proposes a broadly applicable approach for identifying therapeutic agents that target the pathways and/or molecules responsible for cancer development

  12. Nature-inspired computation in engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This timely review book summarizes the state-of-the-art developments in nature-inspired optimization algorithms and their applications in engineering. Algorithms and topics include the overview and history of nature-inspired algorithms, discrete firefly algorithm, discrete cuckoo search, plant propagation algorithm, parameter-free bat algorithm, gravitational search, biogeography-based algorithm, differential evolution, particle swarm optimization and others. Applications include vehicle routing, swarming robots, discrete and combinatorial optimization, clustering of wireless sensor networks, cell formation, economic load dispatch, metamodeling, surrogated-assisted cooperative co-evolution, data fitting and reverse engineering as well as other case studies in engineering. This book will be an ideal reference for researchers, lecturers, graduates and engineers who are interested in nature-inspired computation, artificial intelligence and computational intelligence. It can also serve as a reference for relevant...

  13. Planning Optimization of the Distributed Antenna System in High-Speed Railway Communication Network Based on Improved Cuckoo Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoyu Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The network planning is a key factor that directly affects the performance of the wireless networks. Distributed antenna system (DAS is an effective strategy for the network planning. This paper investigates the antenna deployment in a DAS for the high-speed railway communication networks and formulates an optimization problem which is NP-hard for achieving the optimal deployment of the antennas in the DAS. To solve this problem, a scheme based on an improved cuckoo search based on dimension cells (ICSDC algorithm is proposed. ICSDC introduces the dimension cell mechanism to avoid the internal dimension interferences in order to improve the performance of the algorithm. Simulation results show that the proposed ICSDC-based scheme obtains a lower network cost compared with the uniform network planning method. Moreover, ICSDC algorithm has better performance in terms of the convergence rate and accuracy compared with the conventional cuckoo search algorithm, the particle swarm optimization, and the firefly algorithm.

  14. The Secret Life of the Periodic Table - Unlocking the mysteries of all 118 elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Still, Ben; Davis, Jon; Depovere, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Every element has character, be it volatile, aloof, gregarious or enigmatic. They also have incredible stories of how they came to be, how they were discovered and how their qualities have been harnessed to make everything we have in the world. This book gives a fascinating insight into the discovery and use of all 118 elements. It uncovers incredible stories of how Mendeleev's table was formulated and the individual elements found, as well as explaining the fundamentals of atomic science and each element's place in the table and our universe. Each element description includes a fact box showing atomic number, atomic weight, radius, melting point, boiling point, density, and the year of its discovery and by whom. There are many side-bars, boxes and extended captions covering topics of interest and also fascinating trivia about the elements. This book is the French translation of 'The Secret Life of the Periodic Table' published by Firefly Books (Canada, Sep 2016)

  15. Complex networks: when random walk dynamics equals synchronization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriener, Birgit; Anand, Lishma; Timme, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Synchrony prevalently emerges from the interactions of coupled dynamical units. For simple systems such as networks of phase oscillators, the asymptotic synchronization process is assumed to be equivalent to a Markov process that models standard diffusion or random walks on the same network topology. In this paper, we analytically derive the conditions for such equivalence for networks of pulse-coupled oscillators, which serve as models for neurons and pacemaker cells interacting by exchanging electric pulses or fireflies interacting via light flashes. We find that the pulse synchronization process is less simple, but there are classes of, e.g., network topologies that ensure equivalence. In particular, local dynamical operators are required to be doubly stochastic. These results provide a natural link between stochastic processes and deterministic synchronization on networks. Tools for analyzing diffusion (or, more generally, Markov processes) may now be transferred to pin down features of synchronization in networks of pulse-coupled units such as neural circuits. (paper)

  16. Sensor fusion IV: Control paradigms and data structures; Proceedings of the Meeting, Boston, MA, Nov. 12-15, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenker, Paul S. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    Various papers on control paradigms and data structures in sensor fusion are presented. The general topics addressed include: decision models and computational methods, sensor modeling and data representation, active sensing strategies, geometric planning and visualization, task-driven sensing, motion analysis, models motivated biology and psychology, decentralized detection and distributed decision, data fusion architectures, robust estimation of shapes and features, application and implementation. Some of the individual subjects considered are: the Firefly experiment on neural networks for distributed sensor data fusion, manifold traversing as a model for learning control of autonomous robots, choice of coordinate systems for multiple sensor fusion, continuous motion using task-directed stereo vision, interactive and cooperative sensing and control for advanced teleoperation, knowledge-based imaging for terrain analysis, physical and digital simulations for IVA robotics.

  17. Benefits of collective intelligence: Swarm intelligent foraging, an ethnographic research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivave Mashingaidze

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Wisdom of crowds; bees, colonies of ants, schools of fish, flocks of birds, and fireflies flashing synchronously are all examples of highly coordinated behaviors that emerge from collective, decentralized intelligence. This article is an ethnographic study of swarm intelligence foraging of swarms and the benefits derived from collective decision making. The author used using secondary data analysis to look at the benefits of swarm intelligence in decision making to achieve intended goals. Concepts like combined decision making and consensus were discussed and four principles of swarm intelligence were also discussed viz; coordination, cooperation, deliberation and collaboration. The research found out that collective decision making in swarms is the touchstone of achieving their goals. The research further recommended corporate to adopt collective intelligence for business sustainability.

  18. Different types of maximum power point tracking techniques for renewable energy systems: A survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Junaid; Shukla, Praveen; Mustafa, Rashid; Chatterji, S.; Mathew, Lini

    2016-03-01

    Global demand for electricity is increasing while production of energy from fossil fuels is declining and therefore the obvious choice of the clean energy source that is abundant and could provide security for development future is energy from the sun. In this paper, the characteristic of the supply voltage of the photovoltaic generator is nonlinear and exhibits multiple peaks, including many local peaks and a global peak in non-uniform irradiance. To keep global peak, MPPT is the important component of photovoltaic systems. Although many review articles discussed conventional techniques such as P & O, incremental conductance, the correlation ripple control and very few attempts have been made with intelligent MPPT techniques. This document also discusses different algorithms based on fuzzy logic, Ant Colony Optimization, Genetic Algorithm, artificial neural networks, Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm Firefly, Extremum seeking control method and hybrid methods applied to the monitoring of maximum value of power at point in systems of photovoltaic under changing conditions of irradiance.

  19. Synchronization of an ensemble of oscillators regulated by their spatial movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Sumantra; Parmananda, P

    2010-12-01

    Synchronization for a collection of oscillators residing in a finite two dimensional plane is explored. The coupling between any two oscillators in this array is unidirectional, viz., master-slave configuration. Initially the oscillators are distributed randomly in space and their autonomous time-periods follow a Gaussian distribution. The duty cycles of these oscillators, which work under an on-off scenario, are normally distributed as well. It is realized that random hopping of oscillators is a necessary condition for observing global synchronization in this ensemble of oscillators. Global synchronization in the context of the present work is defined as the state in which all the oscillators are rendered identical. Furthermore, there exists an optimal amplitude of random hopping for which the attainment of this global synchronization is the fastest. The present work is deemed to be of relevance to the synchronization phenomena exhibited by pulse coupled oscillators such as a collection of fireflies. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.

  20. Setup of IN VIVO Breast Cancer Models for Nanodrug Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schifter, Søren

    2013-01-01

    RNA/aptamer conjugates, or carriers such as liposome/chitosan/micelle spheres. As a first step towards testing of the efficacy of siRNA delivery in vivo via different conjugates and complexes, we aimed at developing a standardized breast cancer model system in mice. In this conception, a reporter gene is used...... differential knockdown efficacies and the readout can directly be performed by quantitative imaging using a Caliper IVIS system. In one line of experiments, we engineered non-metastatic MCF-7 breast cancer cells to express the luminescent reporter firefly luciferase (Luc2) along with a pro-metastatic micro......Synthetic lethality is a promising concept for future cancer treatment and using siRNAs as the synthetic lethal drug component allows for also covering the space considered as non-druggable by conventional small molecule drugs. Systemic administration of naked siRNA, however, does not result...

  1. Snogs of innocence, snogs of experience [symposium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Shilling

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The current conventional wisdom is that rape is wrong because it is contrary to the interest in bodily autonomy: human beings are entitled to decide the conditions under which they will have sex. That is, it is grounded in an assumption that sexual pleasure is a good thing, and it is wrong to subject a person to sexual contact contrary to that person's intentions. But this assumption has not entirely replaced earlier assumptions, such as that sexual activity is always wrong and can be justified only by the need to reproduce the human race, or assumptions that sexual activity is right and good in the context of a lifelong marital commitment, but not otherwise. Here, I examine a number of subplots, themes and episodes within the series Dollhouse, Firefly, Blake's 7, The 4400, and Dawson's Creek with a view to analyzing the issues of sexual consent and autonomy raised within them.

  2. Partial Transmit Sequence Optimization Using Improved Harmony Search Algorithm for PAPR Reduction in OFDM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangal Singh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the use of the Partial Transmit Sequence (PTS technique to reduce the Peak‐to‐Average Power Ratio (PAPR of an Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing signal in wireless communication systems. Search complexity is very high in the traditional PTS scheme because it involves an extensive random search over all combinations of allowed phase vectors, and it increases exponentially with the number of phase vectors. In this paper, a suboptimal metaheuristic algorithm for phase optimization based on an improved harmony search (IHS is applied to explore the optimal combination of phase vectors that provides improved performance compared with existing evolutionary algorithms such as the harmony search algorithm and firefly algorithm. IHS enhances the accuracy and convergence rate of the conventional algorithms with very few parameters to adjust. Simulation results show that an improved harmony search‐based PTS algorithm can achieve a significant reduction in PAPR using a simple network structure compared with conventional algorithms.

  3. The silencing suppressor (NSs) protein of the plant virus Tomato spotted wilt virus enhances heterologous protein expression and baculovirus pathogenicity in cells and lepidopteran insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Virgínia Carla; da Silva Morgado, Fabricio; Ardisson-Araújo, Daniel Mendes Pereira; Resende, Renato Oliveira; Ribeiro, Bergmann Morais

    2015-11-01

    In this work, we showed that cell death induced by a recombinant (vAcNSs) Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) expressing the silencing suppressor (NSs) protein of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) was enhanced on permissive and semipermissive cell lines. The expression of a heterologous gene (firefly luciferase) during co-infection of insect cells with vAcNSs and a second recombinant baculovirus (vAgppolhfluc) was shown to increase when compared to single vAgppolhfluc infections. Furthermore, the vAcNSs mean time-to-death values were significantly lower than those for wild-type AcMNPV on larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda and Anticarsia gemmatalis. These results showed that the TSWV-NSs protein could efficiently increase heterologous protein expression in insect cells as well as baculovirus pathogenicity and virulence, probably by suppressing the gene-silencing machinery in insects.

  4. Opposition-Based Adaptive Fireworks Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chibing Gong

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A fireworks algorithm (FWA is a recent swarm intelligence algorithm that is inspired by observing fireworks explosions. An adaptive fireworks algorithm (AFWA proposes additional adaptive amplitudes to improve the performance of the enhanced fireworks algorithm (EFWA. The purpose of this paper is to add opposition-based learning (OBL to AFWA with the goal of further boosting performance and achieving global optimization. Twelve benchmark functions are tested in use of an opposition-based adaptive fireworks algorithm (OAFWA. The final results conclude that OAFWA significantly outperformed EFWA and AFWA in terms of solution accuracy. Additionally, OAFWA was compared with a bat algorithm (BA, differential evolution (DE, self-adapting control parameters in differential evolution (jDE, a firefly algorithm (FA, and a standard particle swarm optimization 2011 (SPSO2011 algorithm. The research results indicate that OAFWA ranks the highest of the six algorithms for both solution accuracy and runtime cost.

  5. Improved entropy encoding for high efficient video coding standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.S. Sunil Kumar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC has better coding efficiency, but the encoding performance has to be improved to meet the growing multimedia applications. This paper improves the standard entropy encoding by introducing the optimized weighing parameters, so that higher rate of compression can be accomplished over the standard entropy encoding. The optimization is performed using the recently introduced firefly algorithm. The experimentation is carried out using eight benchmark video sequences and the PSNR for varying rate of data transmission is investigated. Comparative analysis based on the performance statistics is made with the standard entropy encoding. From the obtained results, it is clear that the originality of the decoded video sequence is preserved far better than the proposed method, though the compression rate is increased. Keywords: Entropy, Encoding, HEVC, PSNR, Compression

  6. An approach involving dynamic group search optimization for allocating resources in OFDM-based cognitive radio system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Suresh Nanivadekar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Allocation of channel resources in a cognitive radio system for achieving minimized transmission energy at an increased transmission rate is a challenging research. This paper proposes a resource allocation algorithm based on the meta-heuristic search principle. The proposed algorithm is an improved version of the Group Search Optimizer (GSO, which is a currently developed optimization algorithm that works through imitating the searching behaviour of the animals. The improvement is accomplished through introducing dynamics in the maximum pursuit angle of the GSO members. A cognitive radio system, relying on Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM for its operation, is simulated and the experimentations are carried out for sub-channel allocation. The proposed algorithm is experimentally compared with five renowned optimization algorithms, namely, conventional GSO, Particle Swarm Optimization, Genetic Algorithm, Firefly Algorithm and Artificial Bee Colony algorithm. The obtained results assert the competing performance of the proposed algorithm over the other algorithms. Keywords: Cognitive radio, OFDM, Resource, Allocation, Optimization, GSO

  7. Intuitionistic Trapezoidal Fuzzy Group Decision-Making Based on Prospect Choquet Integral Operator and Grey Projection Pursuit Dynamic Cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahang Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In consideration of the interaction among attributes and the influence of decision makers’ risk attitude, this paper proposes an intuitionistic trapezoidal fuzzy aggregation operator based on Choquet integral and prospect theory. With respect to a multiattribute group decision-making problem, the prospect value functions of intuitionistic trapezoidal fuzzy numbers are aggregated by the proposed operator; then a grey relation-projection pursuit dynamic cluster method is developed to obtain the ranking of alternatives; the firefly algorithm is used to optimize the objective function of projection for obtaining the best projection direction of grey correlation projection values, and the grey correlation projection values are evaluated, which are applied to classify, rank, and prefer the alternatives. Finally, an illustrative example is taken in the present study to make the proposed method comprehensible.

  8. Artificial Intelligence in Civil Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengzhen Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science, involved in the research, design, and application of intelligent computer. Traditional methods for modeling and optimizing complex structure systems require huge amounts of computing resources, and artificial-intelligence-based solutions can often provide valuable alternatives for efficiently solving problems in the civil engineering. This paper summarizes recently developed methods and theories in the developing direction for applications of artificial intelligence in civil engineering, including evolutionary computation, neural networks, fuzzy systems, expert system, reasoning, classification, and learning, as well as others like chaos theory, cuckoo search, firefly algorithm, knowledge-based engineering, and simulated annealing. The main research trends are also pointed out in the end. The paper provides an overview of the advances of artificial intelligence applied in civil engineering.

  9. Optimal Allocation of Renewable Energy Sources for Energy Loss Minimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaiju Kalkhambkar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Optimal allocation of renewable distributed generation (RDG, i.e., solar and the wind in a distribution system becomes challenging due to intermittent generation and uncertainty of loads. This paper proposes an optimal allocation methodology for single and hybrid RDGs for energy loss minimization. The deterministic generation-load model integrated with optimal power flow provides optimal solutions for single and hybrid RDG. Considering the complexity of the proposed nonlinear, constrained optimization problem, it is solved by a robust and high performance meta-heuristic, Symbiotic Organisms Search (SOS algorithm. Results obtained from SOS algorithm offer optimal solutions than Genetic Algorithm (GA, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO and Firefly Algorithm (FFA. Economic analysis is carried out to quantify the economic benefits of energy loss minimization over the life span of RDGs.

  10. Active Noise Control Using Modified FsLMS and Hybrid PSOFF Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjan Walia

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Active noise control is an efficient technique for noise cancellation of the system, which has been defined in this paper with the aid of Modified Filtered-s Least Mean Square (MFsLMS algorithm. The Hybrid Particle Swarm Optimization and Firefly (HPSOFF algorithm are used to identify the stability factor of the MFsLMS algorithm. The computational difficulty of the modified algorithm is reduced when compared with the original Filtered-s Least Mean Square (FsLMS algorithm. The noise sources are removed from the signal and it is compared with the existing FsLMS algorithm. The performance of the system is established with the normalized mean square error for two different types of noises. The proposed method has also been compared with the existing algorithms for the same purposes.

  11. Multiobjective Optimization of Irreversible Thermal Engine Using Mutable Smart Bee Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gorji-Bandpy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method called mutable smart bee (MSB algorithm proposed for cooperative optimizing of the maximum power output (MPO and minimum entropy generation (MEG of an Atkinson cycle as a multiobjective, multi-modal mechanical problem. This method utilizes mutable smart bee instead of classical bees. The results have been checked with some of the most common optimizing algorithms like Karaboga’s original artificial bee colony, bees algorithm (BA, improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO, Lukasik firefly algorithm (LFFA, and self-adaptive penalty function genetic algorithm (SAPF-GA. According to obtained results, it can be concluded that Mutable Smart Bee (MSB is capable to maintain its historical memory for the location and quality of food sources and also a little chance of mutation is considered for this bee. These features were found as strong elements for mining data in constraint areas and the results will prove this claim.

  12. Electricity Load Forecasting Using Support Vector Regression with Memetic Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongyi Hu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Electricity load forecasting is an important issue that is widely explored and examined in power systems operation literature and commercial transactions in electricity markets literature as well. Among the existing forecasting models, support vector regression (SVR has gained much attention. Considering the performance of SVR highly depends on its parameters; this study proposed a firefly algorithm (FA based memetic algorithm (FA-MA to appropriately determine the parameters of SVR forecasting model. In the proposed FA-MA algorithm, the FA algorithm is applied to explore the solution space, and the pattern search is used to conduct individual learning and thus enhance the exploitation of FA. Experimental results confirm that the proposed FA-MA based SVR model can not only yield more accurate forecasting results than the other four evolutionary algorithms based SVR models and three well-known forecasting models but also outperform the hybrid algorithms in the related existing literature.

  13. Surface roughness optimization in machining of AZ31 magnesium alloy using ABC algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijith

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium alloys serve as excellent substitutes for materials traditionally used for engine block heads in automobiles and gear housings in aircraft industries. AZ31 is a magnesium alloy finds its applications in orthopedic implants and cardiovascular stents. Surface roughness is an important parameter in the present manufacturing sector. In this work optimization techniques namely firefly algorithm (FA, particle swarm optimization (PSO and artificial bee colony algorithm (ABC which are based on swarm intelligence techniques, have been implemented to optimize the machining parameters namely cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut in order to achieve minimum surface roughness. The parameter Ra has been considered for evaluating the surface roughness. Comparing the performance of ABC algorithm with FA and PSO algorithm, which is a widely used optimization algorithm in machining studies, the results conclude that ABC produces better optimization when compared to FA and PSO for optimizing surface roughness of AZ 31.

  14. Spatial Distribution of Transgenic Protein After Gene Electrotransfer to Porcine Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanggaard, Iben; Corydon, Thomas; Hojman, Pernille

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Gene electrotransfer is an effective nonviral technique for delivery of plasmid DNA into tissues. From a clinical perspective, muscle is an attractive target tissue as long-term, high-level transgenic expression can be achieved. Spatial distribution of the transgenic protein following gene...... electrotransfer to muscle in a large animal model has not yet been investigated. In this study, 17 different doses of plasmid DNA (1-1500 μg firefly luciferase pCMV-Luc) were delivered in vivo to porcine gluteal muscle using electroporation. Forty-eight hours post treatment several biopsies were obtained from...... each transfection site in order to examine the spatial distribution of the transgenic product. We found a significantly higher luciferase activity in biopsies from the center of the transfection site compared to biopsies taken adjacent to the center, 1 and 2 cm along muscle fiber orientation (p...

  15. Evaluation of the magnetic field requirements for nanomagnetic gene transfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouriki, A.; Farrow, N.; Clements, M.A.; Dobson, J.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work was to examine the effects of magnet distance (and by proxy, field strength) on nanomagnetic transfection efficiency. Methods non-viral magnetic nanoparticle-based transfection was evaluated using both static and oscillating magnet arrays. Results Fluorescence intensity (firefly luciferase) of transfected H292 cells showed no increase using a 96-well NdFeB magnet array when the magnets were 5 mm from the cell culture plate or nearer. At 6 mm and higher, fluorescence intensity decreased systematically. Conclusion In all cases, fluorescence intensity was higher when using an oscillating array compared to a static array. For distances closer than 5 mm, the oscillating system also outperformed Lipofectamine 2000™. PMID:22110859

  16. Evaluation of the magnetic field requirements for nanomagnetic gene transfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fouriki

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to examine the effects of magnet distance (and by proxy, field strength on nanomagnetic transfection efficiency. Methods: non-viral magnetic nanoparticle-based transfection was evaluated using both static and oscillating magnet arrays. Results: Fluorescence intensity (firefly luciferase of transfected H292 cells showed no increase using a 96-well NdFeB magnet array when the magnets were 5 mm from the cell culture plate or nearer. At 6 mm and higher, fluorescence intensity decreased systematically. Conclusion: In all cases, fluorescence intensity was higher when using an oscillating array compared to a static array. For distances closer than 5 mm, the oscillating system also outperformed Lipofectamine 2000™.

  17. Structure and weights optimisation of a modified Elman network emotion classifier using hybrid computational intelligence algorithms: a comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhan, Mansour; Abbasnezhad Arabi, Mahdi; Gharavian, Davood

    2015-10-01

    Artificial neural networks are efficient models in pattern recognition applications, but their performance is dependent on employing suitable structure and connection weights. This study used a hybrid method for obtaining the optimal weight set and architecture of a recurrent neural emotion classifier based on gravitational search algorithm (GSA) and its binary version (BGSA), respectively. By considering the features of speech signal that were related to prosody, voice quality, and spectrum, a rich feature set was constructed. To select more efficient features, a fast feature selection method was employed. The performance of the proposed hybrid GSA-BGSA method was compared with similar hybrid methods based on particle swarm optimisation (PSO) algorithm and its binary version, PSO and discrete firefly algorithm, and hybrid of error back-propagation and genetic algorithm that were used for optimisation. Experimental tests on Berlin emotional database demonstrated the superior performance of the proposed method using a lighter network structure.

  18. Development of an Axial Flux MEMS BLDC Micromotor with Increased Efficiency and Power Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Ding

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a rigorous design and optimization of an axial flux microelectromechanical systems (MEMS brushless dc (BLDC micromotor with dual rotor improving both efficiency and power density with an external diameter of only around 10 mm. The stator is made of two layers of windings by MEMS technology. The rotor is developed by film permanent magnets assembled over the rotor yoke. The characteristics of the MEMS micromotor are analyzed and modeled through a 3-D magnetic equivalent circuit (MEC taking the leakage flux and fringing effect into account. Such a model yields a relatively accurate prediction of the flux in the air gap, back electromotive force (EMF and electromagnetic torque, whilst being computationally efficient. Based on 3-D MEC model the multi-objective firefly algorithm (MOFA is developed for the optimal design of this special machine. Both 3-D finite element (FE simulation and experiments are employed to validate the MEC model and MOFA optimization design.

  19. Effectiveness of teams: Lessons from biomimicry, an ecological inquiry E=MC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivave Mashingaidze

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Team effectiveness in swarms like bees, colonies of ants, schools of fish, flocks of birds, and fireflies flashing synchronously are all as a result of highly coordinated behaviors that emerge from collective, decentralized intelligence. The purpose of this article was to conduct an ecological research inquiry of what lessons business can borrow from biomimicry especially by studying ants’ colonies, swarm of bees and packs of wild African dogs. A systems science theory borrowed from Albeit Einstein E = mc2 was used, where effectiveness of teams was equal to mastery of each individual x coordination x communication (collective intelligence. The author used using secondary data analysis to obtain information on team effectiveness and collective intelligence. The research found out that, team effectiveness is a function of mastery of individual x coordination x communication (collective intelligence. The research further recommended corporate to mimic the biosphere especially to adopt collective intelligence strategies from ants, swarm of bees and wild dogs for business sustainability

  20. 2nd International Conference on Harmony Search Algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Geem, Zong

    2016-01-01

    The Harmony Search Algorithm (HSA) is one of the most well-known techniques in the field of soft computing, an important paradigm in the science and engineering community.  This volume, the proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Harmony Search Algorithm 2015 (ICHSA 2015), brings together contributions describing the latest developments in the field of soft computing with a special focus on HSA techniques. It includes coverage of new methods that have potentially immense application in various fields. Contributed articles cover aspects of the following topics related to the Harmony Search Algorithm: analytical studies; improved, hybrid and multi-objective variants; parameter tuning; and large-scale applications.  The book also contains papers discussing recent advances on the following topics: genetic algorithms; evolutionary strategies; the firefly algorithm and cuckoo search; particle swarm optimization and ant colony optimization; simulated annealing; and local search techniques.   This book ...

  1. Energy-Efficient Train Operation Using Nature-Inspired Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Keskin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A train operation optimization by minimizing its traction energy subject to various constraints is carried out using nature-inspired evolutionary algorithms. The optimization process results in switching points that initiate cruising and coasting phases of the driving. Due to nonlinear optimization formulation of the problem, nature-inspired evolutionary search methods, Genetic Simulated Annealing, Firefly, and Big Bang-Big Crunch algorithms were employed in this study. As a case study a real-like train and test track from a part of Eskisehir light rail network were modeled. Speed limitations, various track alignments, maximum allowable trip time, and changes in train mass were considered, and punctuality was put into objective function as a penalty factor. Results have shown that all three evolutionary methods generated effective and consistent solutions. However, it has also been shown that each one has different accuracy and convergence characteristics.

  2. Learning from nature: Nature-inspired algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albeanu, Grigore; Madsen, Henrik; Popentiu-Vladicescu, Florin

    2016-01-01

    .), genetic and evolutionary strategies, artificial immune systems etc. Well-known examples of applications include: aircraft wing design, wind turbine design, bionic car, bullet train, optimal decisions related to traffic, appropriate strategies to survive under a well-adapted immune system etc. Based......During last decade, the nature has inspired researchers to develop new algorithms. The largest collection of nature-inspired algorithms is biology-inspired: swarm intelligence (particle swarm optimization, ant colony optimization, cuckoo search, bees' algorithm, bat algorithm, firefly algorithm etc...... on collective social behaviour of organisms, researchers have developed optimization strategies taking into account not only the individuals, but also groups and environment. However, learning from nature, new classes of approaches can be identified, tested and compared against already available algorithms...

  3. Use of a Fluorometric Imaging Plate Reader in high-throughput screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groebe, Duncan R.; Gopalakrishnan, Sujatha; Hahn, Holly; Warrior, Usha; Traphagen, Linda; Burns, David J.

    1999-04-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) efforts at Abbott Laboratories have been greatly facilitated by the use of a Fluorometric Imaging Plate Reader. The FLIPR consists of an incubated cabinet with integrated 96-channel pipettor and fluorometer. An argon laser is used to excite fluorophores in a 96-well microtiter plate and the emitted fluorometer. An argon laser is used to excite fluorophores in a 96-well microtiter plate and the emitted fluorescence is imaged by a cooled CCD camera. The image data is downloaded from the camera and processed to average the signal form each well of the microtiter pate for each time point. The data is presented in real time on the computer screen, facilitating interpretation and trouble-shooting. In addition to fluorescence, the camera can also detect luminescence form firefly luciferase.

  4. Synthesis of unstable cyclic peroxides for chemiluminescence studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartoloni, Fernando H.; Oliveira, Marcelo A. de; Augusto, Felipe A.; Ciscato, Luiz Francisco M.L.; Bastos, Erick L.; Baader, Wilhelm J., E-mail: wjbaader@iq.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Fundamental

    2012-11-15

    Cyclic four-membered ring peroxides are important high-energy intermediates in a variety of chemi and bioluminescence transformations. Specifically, a-peroxy lactones (1,2-dioxetanones) have been considered as model systems for efficient firefly bioluminescence. However, the preparation of such highly unstable compounds is extremely difficult and, therefore, only few research groups have been able to study the properties of these substances. In this study, the synthesis, purification and characterization of three 1,2-dioxetanones are reported and a detailed procedure for the known synthesis of diphenoyl peroxide, another important model compound for the chemical generation of electronically excited states, is provided. For most of these peroxides, the complete spectroscopic characterization is reported here for the first time. (author)

  5. Preparation, crystal structure, vibrational spectral and density functional studies of bis (4-nitrophenol)-2,4,6-triamino-1,3,5-triazine monohydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanagathara, N.; Marchewka, M. K.; Drozd, M.; Renganathan, N. G.; Gunasekaran, S.; Anbalagan, G.

    2013-10-01

    An organic-organic salt, bis (4-nitrophenol) 2,4,6-triamino 1,3,5-triazine monohydrate (BNPM) has been prepared by slow evaporation technique at room temperature. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that the compound crystallizes in triclinic system with centrosymmetric space group P-1. IR and Raman spectra of BNPM have been recorded and analyzed. The study has been extended to confocal Raman spectral analysis. Band assignments have been made for the melamine and p-nitrophenol molecules. Vibrational spectra have also been discussed on the basis of quantum chemical density functional theory calculations using Firefly (PC GAMESS) Version 7.1 G. Vibrational frequencies are calculated and scaled values are compared with the experimental one. The Mulliken charges, HOMO-LUMO orbital energies are calculated and analyzed. The chemical structure of the compound was established by 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectra.

  6. Lucciole e farfalle per un’immagine dialettica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Villari

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This text as a postscript to the essay by Georges Didi Huberman who invites us to consider overturning a note metaphor of the disappearance of fireflies Pasolini speaks of "des Lucioles Survivance" Didi Huberman's provocation  is to resume the expression of Pasolini's writings  viewed by Guy Debord and Walter Benjamin refers to the political situation in Italy today and would like to make us reflect on a very topical subject as Berlusconi's Italy and a possible "resistance". This project intends to make a story pointing out that this symptom Sciascia had already used the metaphor about the Moro murder in the seventies after the death of Pasolini and it is important to remember and retrace your policy for this analysis that the book invites us to do, but do not forget some crucial steps to avoid the risk of the “eternal return of the same”.

  7. rAAV Vectors as Safe and Efficient Tools for the Stable Delivery of Genes to Primary Human Chondrosarcoma Cells In Vitro and In Situ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Madry

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of chondrosarcoma remains a major challenge in orthopaedic oncology. Gene transfer strategies based on recombinant adenoassociated viral (rAAV vectors may provide powerful tools to develop new, efficient therapeutic options against these tumors. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that rAAV is adapted for a stable and safe delivery of foreign sequences in human chondrosarcoma tissue by transducing primary human chondrosarcoma cells in vitro and in situ with different reporter genes (E. coli lacZ, firefly luc, Discosoma sp. RFP. The effects of rAAV administration upon cell survival and metabolic activities were also evaluated to monitor possibly detrimental effects of the gene transfer method. Remarkably, we provide evidence that efficient and prolonged expression of transgene sequences via rAAV can be safely achieved in all the systems investigated, demonstrating the potential of the approach of direct application of therapeutic gene vectors as a means to treat chondrosarcoma.

  8. New-generation low-power radiation survey instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waechter, D.A.; Bjarke, G.O.; Wolf, M.A.; Trujillo, F.; Umbarger, C.J.

    1983-01-01

    A number of new, ultra-low-powered radiation instruments have recently been developed at Los Alamos. Among these are two instruments which use a novel power source to eliminate costly batteries. The newly developed gamma detecting radiac, nicknamed the Firefly, and the alpha particle detecting instrument, called the Simple Cordless Alpha Monitor, both use recent advances in miniaturization and power-saving electronics to yield devices which are small, rugged, and very power-frugal. The two instruments consume so little power that the need for batteries to run them is eliminated. They are, instead, powered by a charged capacitor which will operate the instruments for an hour or more. Both line power and mechanical sources are used to charge the storage capacitors which power the instruments

  9. Luciferase assay to study the activity of a cloned promoter DNA fragment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solberg, Nina; Krauss, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Luciferase based assays have become an invaluable tool for the analysis of cloned promoter DNA fragments, both for verifying the ability of a potential promoter fragment to drive the expression of a luciferase reporter gene in various cellular contexts, and for dissecting binding elements in the promoter. Here, we describe the use of the Dual-Luciferase(®) Reporter Assay System created by Promega (Promega Corporation, Wisconsin, USA) to study the cloned 6.7 kilobases (kb) mouse (m) Tcf3 promoter DNA fragment in mouse embryonic derived neural stem cells (NSC). In this system, the expression of the firefly luciferase driven by the cloned mTcf3 promoter DNA fragment (including transcription initiation sites) is correlated with a co-transfected control reporter expressing Renilla luciferase from the herpes simplex virus (HSV) thymidine kinase promoter. Using an internal control reporter allows to normalize the activity of the experimental reporter to the internal control, which minimizes experimental variability.

  10. Dual monitoring using 124I-FIAU and bioluminescence for HSV1-tk suicide gene therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T. S.; Kim, J. H.; Kwon, H. C.

    2007-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type I thymidine kinase (HSV-tk) is the most common reporter gene and is used in cancer gene therapy with a prodrug nucleoside analog, ganciclovir (GCV). The aim of this study is to evaluate therapeutic efficacy of suicide gene therapy with 2'-fluoro-2'-deoxy-1-D-arabinofuranosyl-5-[ 124 I] iodouracil ( 124 I - FIAU) and bioluminescence in retrovirally HSV -tk and firefly luciferase transduced hepatoma model. The HSV -tk and firefly luciferase (Luc) was retrovirally transduced and expressed in MCA rat Morris hepatoma cells. Nude mice with subcutaneous tumors, MCA and MCA-TK-Luc, were subjected to GCV treatment (50mg/Kg/d intraperitoneally) for 5 day. PET imaging and biodistribution with ( 124 I-FIAU) were performed at before and after initiation of therapy with GCV. Bioluminescent signal was also measured during GCV treatment. Before GCV treatment, no significant difference in tumor volume was found in tumors between MCA and MCA-TK-Luc. After GCV treatment, tumor volume of MCA-TK-Luc markedly reduced compared to that of MCA. In biodistribution study, 124 I-FIAU uptake after GCV therapy significantly decreased compared with pretreatment levels (34.8 13.67 %ID/g vs 7.6 2.59 %ID/g) and bioluminescent signal was also significantly decreased compared with pretreatment levels. In small animal PET imaging, 124 I-FIAU selectively localized in HSV -tk expressing tumor and the therapeutic efficacy of GCV treatment was evaluated by 124 I-FIAU PET imaging. 124 I-FIAU PET and bioluminescence imaging in HSV-tk suicide gene therapy were effective to evaluate the therapeutic response. 124 I-FIAU may serve as an efficient and selective agent for monitoring of transduced HSV1-tk gene expression in vivo in clinical trials

  11. Specific expression of bioluminescence reporter gene in cardiomyocyte regulated by tissue specific promoter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Vu Hong; Tae, Seong Ho; Le, Nguyen Uyen Chi; Min, Jung Joon [Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    As the human heart is not capable of regenerating the great numbers of cardiac cells that are lost after myocardial infarction, impaired cardiac function is the inevitable result of ischemic disease. Recently, human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have gained popularity as a potentially ideal cell candidate for tissue regeneration. In particular, hESCs are capable of cardiac lineage-specific differentiation and confer improvement of cardiac function following transplantation into animal models. Although such data are encouraging, the specific strategy for in vivo and non-invasive detection of differentiated cardiac lineage is still limited. Therefore, in the present study, we established the gene construction in which the optical reporter gene Firefly luciferase was controlled by Myosin Heavy Chain promoter for specific expressing in heart cells. The vector consisting of - MHC promoter and a firefly luciferase coding sequence flanked by full-length bovine growth hormone (BGH) 3'-polyadenylation sequence based on pcDNA3.1- vector backbone. To test the specific transcription of this promoter in g of MHC-Fluc or CMV-Flue (for control) plasmid DNA in myocardial tissue, 20 phosphate-buffered saline was directly injected into mouse myocardium through a midline sternotomy and liver. After 1 week of injection, MHC-Fluc expression was detected from heart region which was observed under cooled CCD camera of in vivo imaging system but not from liver. In control group injected with CMV-Flue, the bioluminescence was detected from all these organs. The expression of Flue under control of Myosin Heavy Chain promoter may become a suitable optical reporter gene for stem cell-derived cardiac lineage differentiation study.

  12. Optimal stochastic scheduling of CHP-PEMFC, WT, PV units and hydrogen storage in reconfigurable micro grids considering reliability enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bornapour, Mosayeb; Hooshmand, Rahmat-Allah; Khodabakhshian, Amin; Parastegari, Moein

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Stochastic model is proposed for coordinated scheduling of renewable energy sources. • The effect of combined heat and power is considered. • Uncertainties of wind speed, solar radiation and electricity market price are considered. • Profit maximization, emission and AENS minimization are considered as objective functions. • Modified firefly algorithm is employed to solve the problem. - Abstract: Nowadays the operation of renewable energy sources and combined heat and power (CHP) units is increased in micro grids; therefore, to reach optimal performance, optimal scheduling of these units is required. In this regard, in this paper a micro grid consisting of proton exchange membrane fuel cell-combined heat and power (PEMFC-CHP), wind turbines (WT) and photovoltaic (PV) units, is modeled to determine the optimal scheduling state of these units by considering uncertain behavior of renewable energy resources. For this purpose, a scenario-based method is used for modeling the uncertainties of electrical market price, the wind speed, and solar irradiance. It should be noted that the hydrogen storage strategy is also applied in this study for PEMFC-CHP units. Market profit, total emission production, and average energy not supplied (AENS) are the objective functions considered in this paper simultaneously. Consideration of the above-mentioned objective functions converts the proposed problem to a mixed integer nonlinear programming. To solve this problem, a multi-objective firefly algorithm is used. The uncertainties of parameters convert the mixed integer nonlinear programming problem to a stochastic mixed integer nonlinear programming problem. Moreover, optimal coordinated scheduling of renewable energy resources and thermal units in micro-grids improve the value of the objective functions. Simulation results obtained from a modified 33-bus distributed network as a micro grid illustrates the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  13. Dual monitoring using {sup 124}I-FIAU and bioluminescence for HSV1-tk suicide gene therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, T. S.; Kim, J. H.; Kwon, H. C. [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2007-07-01

    Herpes simplex virus type I thymidine kinase (HSV-tk) is the most common reporter gene and is used in cancer gene therapy with a prodrug nucleoside analog, ganciclovir (GCV). The aim of this study is to evaluate therapeutic efficacy of suicide gene therapy with 2'-fluoro-2'-deoxy-1-D-arabinofuranosyl-5-[{sup 124}I] iodouracil ({sup 124}I - FIAU) and bioluminescence in retrovirally HSV -tk and firefly luciferase transduced hepatoma model. The HSV -tk and firefly luciferase (Luc) was retrovirally transduced and expressed in MCA rat Morris hepatoma cells. Nude mice with subcutaneous tumors, MCA and MCA-TK-Luc, were subjected to GCV treatment (50mg/Kg/d intraperitoneally) for 5 day. PET imaging and biodistribution with ({sup 124}I-FIAU) were performed at before and after initiation of therapy with GCV. Bioluminescent signal was also measured during GCV treatment. Before GCV treatment, no significant difference in tumor volume was found in tumors between MCA and MCA-TK-Luc. After GCV treatment, tumor volume of MCA-TK-Luc markedly reduced compared to that of MCA. In biodistribution study, {sup 124}I-FIAU uptake after GCV therapy significantly decreased compared with pretreatment levels (34.8 13.67 %ID/g vs 7.6 2.59 %ID/g) and bioluminescent signal was also significantly decreased compared with pretreatment levels. In small animal PET imaging, {sup 124}I-FIAU selectively localized in HSV -tk expressing tumor and the therapeutic efficacy of GCV treatment was evaluated by {sup 124}I-FIAU PET imaging. {sup 124}I-FIAU PET and bioluminescence imaging in HSV-tk suicide gene therapy were effective to evaluate the therapeutic response. {sup 124}I-FIAU may serve as an efficient and selective agent for monitoring of transduced HSV1-tk gene expression in vivo in clinical trials.

  14. Comparison of two optimization algorithms for fuzzy finite element model updating for damage detection in a wind turbine blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Heather; Omenzetter, Piotr

    2018-03-01

    vDifficulties associated with current health monitoring and inspection practices combined with harsh, often remote, operational environments of wind turbines highlight the requirement for a non-destructive evaluation system capable of remotely monitoring the current structural state of turbine blades. This research adopted a physics based structural health monitoring methodology through calibration of a finite element model using inverse techniques. A 2.36m blade from a 5kW turbine was used as an experimental specimen, with operational modal analysis techniques utilised to realize the modal properties of the system. Modelling the experimental responses as fuzzy numbers using the sub-level technique, uncertainty in the response parameters was propagated back through the model and into the updating parameters. Initially, experimental responses of the blade were obtained, with a numerical model of the blade created and updated. Deterministic updating was carried out through formulation and minimisation of a deterministic objective function using both firefly algorithm and virus optimisation algorithm. Uncertainty in experimental responses were modelled using triangular membership functions, allowing membership functions of updating parameters (Young's modulus and shear modulus) to be obtained. Firefly algorithm and virus optimisation algorithm were again utilised, however, this time in the solution of fuzzy objective functions. This enabled uncertainty associated with updating parameters to be quantified. Varying damage location and severity was simulated experimentally through addition of small masses to the structure intended to cause a structural alteration. A damaged model was created, modelling four variable magnitude nonstructural masses at predefined points and updated to provide a deterministic damage prediction and information in relation to the parameters uncertainty via fuzzy updating.

  15. Non-invasive bioluminescence imaging to monitor the immunological control of a plasmablastic lymphoma-like B cell neoplasia after hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Chopra

    Full Text Available To promote cancer research and to develop innovative therapies, refined pre-clinical mouse tumor models that mimic the actual disease in humans are of dire need. A number of neoplasms along the B cell lineage are commonly initiated by a translocation recombining c-myc with the immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene locus. The translocation is modeled in the C.129S1-Igha(tm1(MycJanz/J mouse which has been previously engineered to express c-myc under the control of the endogenous IgH promoter. This transgenic mouse exhibits B cell hyperplasia and develops diverse B cell tumors. We have isolated tumor cells from the spleen of a C.129S1-Igha(tm1(MycJanz/J mouse that spontaneously developed a plasmablastic lymphoma-like disease. These cells were cultured, transduced to express eGFP and firefly luciferase, and gave rise to a highly aggressive, transplantable B cell lymphoma cell line, termed IM380. This model bears several advantages over other models as it is genetically induced and mimics the translocation that is detectable in a number of human B cell lymphomas. The growth of the tumor cells, their dissemination, and response to treatment within immunocompetent hosts can be imaged non-invasively in vivo due to their expression of firefly luciferase. IM380 cells are radioresistant in vivo and mice with established tumors can be allogeneically transplanted to analyze graft-versus-tumor effects of transplanted T cells. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation of tumor-bearing mice results in prolonged survival. These traits make the IM380 model very valuable for the study of B cell lymphoma pathophysiology and for the development of innovative cancer therapies.

  16. Optimization of conditions for gene delivery system based on PEI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Cheraghi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: PEI based nanoparticle (NP due to dual capabilities of proton sponge and DNA binding is known as powerful tool for nucleic acid delivery to cells. However, serious cytotoxicity and complicated conditions, which govern NPs properties and its interactions with cells practically, hindered achievement to high transfection efficiency. Here, we have tried to optimize the properties of PEI/ firefly luciferase plasmid complexes and cellular condition to improve transfection efficiency. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, firefly luciferase, as a robust gene reporter, was complexed with PEI to prepare NPs with different size and charge. The physicochemical properties of nanoparticles were evaluated using agarose gel retardation and dynamic light scattering.  MCF7 and BT474 cells at different confluency were also transfected with prepared nanoparticles at various concentrations for short and long times. Results: The branched PEI can instantaneously bind to DNA and form cationic NPs. The results demonstrated the production of nanoparticles with size about 100-500 nm dependent on N/P ratio. Moreover, increase of nanoparticles concentration on the cell surface drastically improved the transfection rate, so at a concentration of 30 ng/ìl, the highest transfection efficiency was achieved. On the other side, at confluency between 40-60%, the maximum efficiency was obtained. The result demonstrated that N/P ratio of 12 could establish an optimized ratio between transfection efficiency and cytotoxicity of PEI/plasmid nanoparticles. The increase of NPs N/P ratio led to significant cytotoxicity. Conclusion: Obtained results verified the optimum conditions for PEI based gene delivery in different cell lines.

  17. Automatic generation control of multi-area power systems with diverse energy sources using Teaching Learning Based Optimization algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabindra Kumar Sahu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and analysis of Proportional-Integral-Double Derivative (PIDD controller for Automatic Generation Control (AGC of multi-area power systems with diverse energy sources using Teaching Learning Based Optimization (TLBO algorithm. At first, a two-area reheat thermal power system with appropriate Generation Rate Constraint (GRC is considered. The design problem is formulated as an optimization problem and TLBO is employed to optimize the parameters of the PIDD controller. The superiority of the proposed TLBO based PIDD controller has been demonstrated by comparing the results with recently published optimization technique such as hybrid Firefly Algorithm and Pattern Search (hFA-PS, Firefly Algorithm (FA, Bacteria Foraging Optimization Algorithm (BFOA, Genetic Algorithm (GA and conventional Ziegler Nichols (ZN for the same interconnected power system. Also, the proposed approach has been extended to two-area power system with diverse sources of generation like thermal, hydro, wind and diesel units. The system model includes boiler dynamics, GRC and Governor Dead Band (GDB non-linearity. It is observed from simulation results that the performance of the proposed approach provides better dynamic responses by comparing the results with recently published in the literature. Further, the study is extended to a three unequal-area thermal power system with different controllers in each area and the results are compared with published FA optimized PID controller for the same system under study. Finally, sensitivity analysis is performed by varying the system parameters and operating load conditions in the range of ±25% from their nominal values to test the robustness.

  18. Introduction of optical reporter gene into cancer and immune cells using lentiviral vector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Jung Joon; Le, Uyenchi N.; Moon, Sung Min; Heo, Young Jun; Song, Ho Chun; Bom, Hee Seung; Kim, Yeon Soo

    2004-01-01

    For some applications such as gene therapy or reporter gene imaging, a gene has to be introduced into the organism of interest. Adenoviral vectors are capable of transducing both replicating and non-dividing cells. The adenoviral vectors do not integrate their DNA into host DNA, but do lead to an immune response. Lentiviruses belong to the retrovirus family and are capable of infecting both dividing and non-dividing cells. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is an example of a lentavirus. A disabled HIV virus has been developed and could be used for in vivo gene delivery. A portion of the viral genome which encodes for accessory proteins canbe deleted without affecting production of the vector and efficiency of infection. Lentiviral delivery into various rodent tissues shows sustained expression of the transgene of up to six months. Furthermore, there seems to be little or no immune response with these vectors. These lentiviral vectors hold significant promise for in vivo gene delivery. We constructed lentiviral vector encoding firefly luciferase (Fluc) and eGFP. Fluc-eGFP fusion gene was inserted into multiple cloning sites of pLentiM1.3 vector. Reporter gene (Fluc-eGFP) was designed to be driven by murine CMV promoter with enhanced efficacy of transgene expression as compared to human CMV promoter. We transfected pLenti1.3-Fluc into human cervix cancer cell line (HeLa) and murine T lymphocytes. We also constructed adenovirus encoding Fluc and transfected to HeLa and T cells. This LentiM1.3-Fluc was transfected into HeLa cells and murine T lymphocytes in vitro, showing consistent expression of eGFP under the fluorescence microscopy from the 2nd day of transfection. Firefly luciferase reporter gene was not expressed in immune cells when it is mediated by adenovirus. Lentivirus was validated as a useful vector for both immune and cancer cells

  19. Monitoring embryonic stem cell transplantation into rat corpus cavernosum using optical imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Jung Joon; Moon, Sung Min; Le, Uyenchi N.; Park, Kwang Sung; Lee, Hyun Suk; Song, Ho Cheon; Bom, Hee Seung; Han, Ha Jae

    2005-01-01

    The conventional method for the analysis of stem cell transplantation depends on postmortem histology. Here, we have sought to demonstrate the feasibility of a longitudinal monitoring of transplanted cell survival in living animals, by employing optical imaging techniques. Mouse embryonic stem cells (ESC) were obtained from American Type Culture Collection (ES-E14TG2a). Mouse ES cells were cultured in the DMEM (Gibco-BRL, Gaithersburg, MD) supplemented with 3.7 g/L sodium bicarbonate, 1 % penicillin and streptomycin, 1.7 mM L-glutamine, 0.1mM β-mercaptoethanol 5 ng/mL mouse leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), and 15% fetal bovine serum (FBS) with or without a feeder layer and cultured for five days in standard medium plus LIF. ESCs were then transfected (MOI=100) overnight with Ad-CMV-Fluc. Our experimental Sprague-Dawley rats (n=7) were given with different numbers of ESCs 6) expressing Fluc into corpus cavernosum. In cell cultures, firefly luciferase activity correlated linearly with cell numbers from 10 5 to 5x10 6 (r2=0.95). In living animal imaging, imaging signal activity correlated linearly with cell numbers injected from 10 5 to 5x10 6 at each time point (r2=0.62 ∼ 0.98), In all three groups of rats, imaging signal was detected in rat genital area from the 2nd day to the 47th day after cellular injection. Adenovirus mediated transient expression of firefly luciferase reporter gene in ESCs was feasible to monitor cell survival over a month after transplantation. The locations, magnitude, and survival duration of the ESCs were noninvasively monitored with a bioluminescence optical imaging system

  20. Relative quantification of protein-protein interactions using a dual luciferase reporter pull-down assay system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuaizheng Jia

    Full Text Available The identification and quantitative analysis of protein-protein interactions are essential to the functional characterization of proteins in the post-proteomics era. The methods currently available are generally time-consuming, technically complicated, insensitive and/or semi-quantitative. The lack of simple, sensitive approaches to precisely quantify protein-protein interactions still prevents our understanding of the functions of many proteins. Here, we develop a novel dual luciferase reporter pull-down assay by combining a biotinylated Firefly luciferase pull-down assay with a dual luciferase reporter assay. The biotinylated Firefly luciferase-tagged protein enables rapid and efficient isolation of a putative Renilla luciferase-tagged binding protein from a relatively small amount of sample. Both of these proteins can be quantitatively detected using the dual luciferase reporter assay system. Protein-protein interactions, including Fos-Jun located in the nucleus; MAVS-TRAF3 in cytoplasm; inducible IRF3 dimerization; viral protein-regulated interactions, such as MAVS-MAVS and MAVS-TRAF3; IRF3 dimerization; and protein interaction domain mapping, are studied using this novel assay system. Herein, we demonstrate that this dual luciferase reporter pull-down assay enables the quantification of the relative amounts of interacting proteins that bind to streptavidin-coupled beads for protein purification. This study provides a simple, rapid, sensitive, and efficient approach to identify and quantify relative protein-protein interactions. Importantly, the dual luciferase reporter pull-down method will facilitate the functional determination of proteins.

  1. PSO, CS ve FA Algoritmalarıyla Ortak Emiterli BJT'li Yükselteç Tasarımı

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Erhan ÇİMEN

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Özet. BJT’lerin, elektronik devrelerde önemli bir yeri olan yükselteçlerde kullanımı hala popülerliğini korumaktadır. Diğer taraftan, BJT’li yükselteçlerin istenilen karakteristiklerde tasarlanması önemli bir problemdir. Özellikle standart eleman değerleri ile istenilen yükselteç özelliklerini sağlamak için klasik tasarım yöntemlerini kullanmak önemli bir işlem yükü ve aşırı zaman kaybına neden olur. Bunun yanı sıra, elde edilen sonuçlarda, istenilen karakteristiklerden bir veya birkaçının elde edilememesi ihtimali de vardır. Yine, değişen bir parametre için yukarıda sayılan işlem yükünün tekrarlanması da gerekecektir.Bu çalışmada, bu probleme çözüm olarak ortak emiterli bir BJT’li yükseltecin standart eleman değerleri kullanarak tasarımı, Cuckoo Search, Parçacık Sürü Optimizasyonu ve Ateşböceği algoritmaları kullanılarak yapılmıştır. Yine elde edilen sonuçlar karşılaştırmalı olarak sunulmuştur. Bu algoritmalar sayesinde geleneksel yönteme göre işlem yükleri ortandan kalkmış ve yükseltecin istenilen karakteristikte çalışması için gereken standart eleman değerleri, belirlenen hata oranının altında seçilmiştir.Anahtar Kelimeler: Yükselteç Tasarımı, PSO, Cuckoo Search, FireFly, Optimizasyon Abstract. Basic purpose in the amplifier circuits design is to solve and select the standard component values for obtaining  the desired circuit characteristics. If the classical design methods are selected then the process will take long time and need a lot of mathematical efforts. As a solution of these problems, in this work Cuckoo Search Algorithm, Partical Swarm Optimization Algorithm and FireFly Algorithm are proposed to determine the standard components values, which are in the market, for Common-Emiter Amplifier. Also, comparisons of the obtained results are given. By those algorithms, required mathematical efforts are reduced substantially. In

  2. A Saccharomyces cerevisiae Assay System to Investigate Ligand/AdipoR1 Interactions That Lead to Cellular Signaling

    KAUST Repository

    Aouida, Mustapha

    2013-06-07

    Adiponectin is a mammalian hormone that exerts anti-diabetic, anti-cancer and cardioprotective effects through interaction with its major ubiquitously expressed plasma membrane localized receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2. Here, we report a Saccharomyces cerevisiae based method for investigating agonist-AdipoR interactions that is amenable for high-throughput scale-up and can be used to study both AdipoRs separately. Agonist-AdipoR1 interactions are detected using a split firefly luciferase assay based on reconstitution of firefly luciferase (Luc) activity due to juxtaposition of its N- and C-terminal fragments, NLuc and CLuc, by ligand induced interaction of the chimeric proteins CLuc-AdipoR1 and APPL1-NLuc (adaptor protein containing pleckstrin homology domain, phosphotyrosine binding domain and leucine zipper motif 1-NLuc) in a S. cerevisiae strain lacking the yeast homolog of AdipoRs (Izh2p). The assay monitors the earliest known step in the adiponectin-AdipoR anti-diabetic signaling cascade. We demonstrate that reconstituted Luc activity can be detected in colonies or cells using a CCD camera and quantified in cell suspensions using a microplate reader. AdipoR1-APPL1 interaction occurs in absence of ligand but can be stimulated specifically by agonists such as adiponectin and the tobacco protein osmotin that was shown to have AdipoR-dependent adiponectin-like biological activity in mammalian cells. To further validate this assay, we have modeled the three dimensional structures of receptor-ligand complexes of membrane-embedded AdipoR1 with cyclic peptides derived from osmotin or osmotin-like plant proteins. We demonstrate that the calculated AdipoR1-peptide binding energies correlate with the peptides\\' ability to behave as AdipoR1 agonists in the split luciferase assay. Further, we demonstrate agonist-AdipoR dependent activation of protein kinase A (PKA) signaling and AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation in S. cerevisiae, which are homologous to

  3. Monitoring bacteriolytic therapy of salmonella typhimurium with optical imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sun A; Min, Jung Joon; Moon, Sung Min; Kim, Hyun Ju; Kim, Sung Mi; Song, Ho Cheon; Choy, Hyon E.; Bom, Hee Seung

    2005-01-01

    Systemically administrated Salmonella has been studied for targeting tumor and developed as an anticancer agent. In Salmonella, because msbB gene plays role in the terminal myristoylation of lipid A and induces tumor necrosis factor a (TNF-a) -mediated septic shock, Salmonella msbB mutant strain is safe and useful for tumor-targeting therapy. Here we report that Salmonella msbB mutant strain induce onco lysis after intravenous injection in tumor bearing mice. The CT26 mouse colon cancer cells were stably transfected with firefly luciferase gene and subcutaneously implantated in Balb/C mice. After establishing subcutaneous tumor mass, we intravenously injected 1x108 cfu Salmonella msbB mutant strain or MG1655 E coli strain. Not only tumor size but also total photon flux from the tumor mass were monitored. everyday and compared among experimental groups (No treatment, Salmonella treatment, E. coli MG1655 treatment group). After intraperitoneal injection of D-Iuciferin (3 mg/animal), in vivo optical imaging for firefly luciferase was performed using cooled CCD camera. Imaging signal from Salmonella injected group were significantly lower than that of no treatment or E. coli treatment group on day 2 after injection. On day 4 after injection, imaging signal of salmonella-injected group was 43.8 or 20.7 times lower than that of no treatment or E. coli treatment group, respectively (no treatment: 2.78E+07 p/s/cm 2 /sr, Salmonella treatment: 6.35E+05 p/s/cm 2 /sr, E. coli treatment: 1.29E+07 p/s/cm 2 /sr, P<0.05). However. when we injected E. coli MG1655 into tumor bearing mice, the intensity of imaging signal was not different from no treatment group. These findings suggest that Salmonella msbB mutant strain retains its tumor-targeting properties and have therapeutical effect. Bioluminescent tumor bearing animal model was useful for assessing tumor viability after bacteriolytic therapy using Salmonella

  4. Integration of Environmental Sensors with BIM: case studies using Arduino, Dynamo, and the Revit API

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kensek, K. M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the feasibility of connecting environmental sensors such as light, humidity, or CO2 receptors to a building information model (BIM. A base case was created in Rhino; using Grasshopper and Firefly, a simple digital model responded to lighting-levels detected by a photoresistor on an Arduino board. The case study was duplicated using Revit Architecture, a popular BIM software, and Dynamo, a visual programming environment, in an innovative application. Another case study followed a similar procedure by implementing the Revit API directly instead of using Dynamo. Then the process was reversed to demonstrate that not only could data could be sent from sensors to change the 3D model, but changes to parameters of a 3D model could effect a physical model through the use of actuators. It is intended that these virtual/physical prototypes could be used as the basis for testing intelligent façade systems before constructing full size mock-ups.Este estudio investiga la posibilidad de conectar sensores ambientales como de luz, humedad, o dióxido de carbono con un modelo de información de un edificio (siglas BIM en inglés. Un caso base fue creado en Rhino; usando Grasshopper and Firefly, donde un simple modelo digital respondió a niveles de luz detectados por un foto resistor en una tarjeta Arduino. El caso de estudio fue duplicado usando Revit Architecture, una herramienta popular en BIM, y Dynamo, un ambiente de programación gráfica, en una creativa aplicación. Un segundo caso de estudio siguió un procedimiento similar implementando Revit API directamente en vez de usar Dynamo. Entonces el proceso fue revertido para demostrar que no solamente la información podría ser enviada desde sensores para cambiar el modelo tridimensional, pero cambios en los parámetros de un modelo tridimensional podrían afectar un modelo físico mediante el uso de actuadores. Se espera que esos modelos virtuales puedan ser usados como base para

  5. Detailed assessment of gene activation levels by multiple hypoxia-responsive elements under various hypoxic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Yasuto; Inubushi, Masayuki; Jin, Yong-Nan; Murai, Chika; Tsuji, Atsushi B; Hata, Hironobu; Kitagawa, Yoshimasa; Saga, Tsuneo

    2014-12-01

    HIF-1/HRE pathway is a promising target for the imaging and the treatment of intractable malignancy (HIF-1; hypoxia-inducible factor 1, HRE; hypoxia-responsive element). The purposes of our study are: (1) to assess the gene activation levels resulting from various numbers of HREs under various hypoxic conditions, (2) to evaluate the bidirectional activity of multiple HREs, and (3) to confirm whether multiple HREs can induce gene expression in vivo. Human colon carcinoma HCT116 cells were transiently transfected by the constructs containing a firefly luciferase reporter gene and various numbers (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12) of HREs (nHRE+, nHRE-). The relative luciferase activities were measured under various durations of hypoxia (6, 12, 18, and 24 h), O2 concentrations (1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 %), and various concentrations of deferoxamine mesylate (20, 40, 80, 160, and 320 µg/mL growth medium). The bidirectional gene activation levels by HREs were examined in the constructs (dual-luc-nHREs) containing firefly and Renilla luciferase reporter genes at each side of nHREs. Finally, to test whether the construct containing 12HRE and the NIS reporter gene (12HRE-NIS) can induce gene expression in vivo, SPECT imaging was performed in a mouse xenograft model. (1) gene activation levels by HREs tended to increase with increasing HRE copy number, but a saturation effect was observed in constructs with more than 6 or 8 copies of an HRE, (2) gene activation levels by HREs increased remarkably during 6-12 h of hypoxia, but not beyond 12 h, (3) gene activation levels by HREs decreased with increasing O2 concentrations, but could be detected even under mild hypoxia at 16 % O2, (4) the bidirectionally proportional activity of the HRE was confirmed regardless of the hypoxic severity, and (5) NIS expression driven by 12 tandem copies of an HRE in response to hypoxia could be visualized on in vivo SPECT imaging. The results of this study will help in the understanding and assessment of

  6. Development and characterization of a green fluorescent protein-based rat cell bioassay system for detection of AH receptor ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Bin; Denison, M. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Toxicology

    2004-09-15

    Proper epidemiological, risk assessment and exposure analysis of TCDD and related HAHs requires accurate measurements of these chemicals both in the species of interest and in various exposure matrices (i.e. biological, environmental, food and feed). While high-resolution instrumental analysis techniques are established for these chemicals, these procedures are very costly, time-consuming and are impractical for large scale sampling studies. Accordingly, numerous bioanalytical methods have been developed for the detection of these chemicals in extracts from a variety of matrices, the majority of which take the advantage of the ability of these chemicals to activate one or more aspects of the AhR-dependent mechanism of action. One of the most sensitive bioassay systems developed to date is the so-called CALUX (Chemically Activated Luciferase Expression) assay, which is based on novel recombinant cell lines that contain a stably transfected dioxin (AhR)-responsive firefly luciferase gene. Treatment of these cells with TCDD and related HAHs and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), as well as other AhR ligands, results in induction of reporter gene expression in a time-, dose-, AhR-, and chemical-specific manner. The level of reporter gene expression correlates with the total concentration of the TCDD-like AhR inducers (agonists) present in the sample. Although the firefly luciferase reporter gene contributes to the high degree of sensitivity of the assay, it also has limitations with respect to our need for a rapid and inexpensive bioassay for high-throughput screening analysis. Accordingly, we previously developed a stably transfected murine cell line containing an AhRresponsive enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) reporter gene. This cell line provided us with a high-throughput cell bioassay system for identification and characterization of AhR agonists and antagonists. Here we have extended these studies and describe the development, optimization, and

  7. A Saccharomyces cerevisiae assay system to investigate ligand/AdipoR1 interactions that lead to cellular signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustapha Aouida

    Full Text Available Adiponectin is a mammalian hormone that exerts anti-diabetic, anti-cancer and cardioprotective effects through interaction with its major ubiquitously expressed plasma membrane localized receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2. Here, we report a Saccharomyces cerevisiae based method for investigating agonist-AdipoR interactions that is amenable for high-throughput scale-up and can be used to study both AdipoRs separately. Agonist-AdipoR1 interactions are detected using a split firefly luciferase assay based on reconstitution of firefly luciferase (Luc activity due to juxtaposition of its N- and C-terminal fragments, NLuc and CLuc, by ligand induced interaction of the chimeric proteins CLuc-AdipoR1 and APPL1-NLuc (adaptor protein containing pleckstrin homology domain, phosphotyrosine binding domain and leucine zipper motif 1-NLuc in a S. cerevisiae strain lacking the yeast homolog of AdipoRs (Izh2p. The assay monitors the earliest known step in the adiponectin-AdipoR anti-diabetic signaling cascade. We demonstrate that reconstituted Luc activity can be detected in colonies or cells using a CCD camera and quantified in cell suspensions using a microplate reader. AdipoR1-APPL1 interaction occurs in absence of ligand but can be stimulated specifically by agonists such as adiponectin and the tobacco protein osmotin that was shown to have AdipoR-dependent adiponectin-like biological activity in mammalian cells. To further validate this assay, we have modeled the three dimensional structures of receptor-ligand complexes of membrane-embedded AdipoR1 with cyclic peptides derived from osmotin or osmotin-like plant proteins. We demonstrate that the calculated AdipoR1-peptide binding energies correlate with the peptides' ability to behave as AdipoR1 agonists in the split luciferase assay. Further, we demonstrate agonist-AdipoR dependent activation of protein kinase A (PKA signaling and AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK phosphorylation in S. cerevisiae, which are

  8. Regulation of Translational Efficiency by Disparate 5′-UTRs of PPARγ Splice Variants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn McClelland

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The PPAR-γ gene encodes for at least 7 unique transcripts due to alternative splicing of five exons in the 5′-untranslated region (UTR. The translated region is encoded by exons 1–6, which are identical in all isoforms. This study investigated the role of the 5′-UTR in regulating the efficiency with which the message is translated to protein. A coupled in vitro transcription-translation assay demonstrated that PPAR-γ1, -γ2, and -γ5 are efficiently translated, whereas PPAR-γ4 and -γ7 are poorly translated. An in vivo reporter gene assay using each 5′-UTR upstream of the firefly luciferase gene showed that the 5′-UTRs for PPAR-γ1, -γ2, and -γ4 enhanced translation, whereas the 5′-UTRs for PPAR-γ5 and -γ7 inhibited translation. Models of RNA secondary structure, obtained by the mfold software, were used to explain the mechanism of regulation by each 5′-UTR. In general, it was found that the translational efficiency was inversely correlated with the stability of the mRNA secondary structure, the presence of base-pairing in the consensus Kozak sequence, the number of start codons in the 5′-UTR, and the length of the 5′-UTR. A better understanding of posttranscriptional regulation of translation will allow modulation of protein levels without altering transcription.

  9. Gene silencing activity of siRNA polyplexes based on thiolated N,N,N-trimethylated chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varkouhi, Amir K; Verheul, Rolf J; Schiffelers, Raymond M; Lammers, Twan; Storm, Gert; Hennink, Wim E

    2010-12-15

    N,N,N-Trimethylated chitosan (TMC) is a biodegradable polymer emerging as a promising nonviral vector for nucleic acid and protein delivery. In the present study, we investigated whether the introduction of thiol groups in TMC enhances the extracellular stability of the complexes based on this polymer and promotes the intracellular release of siRNA. The gene silencing activity and the cellular cytotoxicity of polyplexes based on thiolated TMC were compared with those based on the nonthiolated counterpart and the regularly used lipidic transfection agent Lipofectamine. Incubation of H1299 human lung cancer cells expressing firefly luciferase with siRNA/thiolated TMC polyplexes resulted in 60-80% gene silencing activity, whereas complexes based on nonthiolated TMC showed less silencing (40%). The silencing activity of the complexes based on Lipofectamine 2000 was about 60-70%. Importantly, the TMC-SH polyplexes retained their silencing activity in the presence of hyaluronic acid, while nonthiolated TMC polyplexes hardly showed any silencing activity, demonstrating their stability against competing anionic macromolecules. Under the experimental conditions tested, the cytotoxicity of the thiolated and nonthiolated siRNA complexes was lower than those based on Lipofectamine. Given the good extracellular stability and good silencing activity, it is concluded that polyplexes based on TMC-SH are attractive systems for further in vivo evaluations.

  10. quatre-quart1 is an indispensable U12 intron-containing gene that plays a crucial role in Arabidopsis development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Kyung Jin; Kim, Bo Mi; Lee, Kwanuk; Kang, Hunseung

    2017-05-17

    Despite increasing understanding of the importance of the splicing of U12-type introns in plant development, the key question of which U12 intron-containing genes are essential for plant development has not yet been explored. Here, we assessed the functional role of the quatre-quart1 (QQT1) gene, one of the ~230 U12 intron-containing genes in Arabidopsis thaliana. Expression of QQT1 in the U11/U12-31K small nuclear ribonucleoprotein mutant (31k) rescued the developmental-defect phenotypes of the 31k mutant, whereas the miRNA-mediated qqt1 knockdown mutants displayed severe defects in growth and development, including severely arrested stem growth, small size, and the formation of serrated leaves. The structures of the shoot apical meristems in the qqt1 mutants were abnormal and disordered. Identification of QQT1-interacting proteins via a yeast two-hybrid screening and a firefly luciferase complementation-imaging assay revealed that a variety of proteins, including many chloroplast-targeted proteins, interacted with QQT1. Importantly, the levels of chloroplast-targeted proteins in the chloroplast were reduced, and the chloroplast structure was abnormal in the qqt1 mutant. Collectively, these results provide clear evidence that QQT1 is an indispensable U12 intron-containing gene whose correct splicing is crucial for the normal development of Arabidopsis. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  11. A new hybrid metaheuristic algorithm for wind farm micrositing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massan, S.U.R.; Wagan, A.I.; Shaikh, M.M.

    2017-01-01

    This work focuses on proposing a new algorithm, referred as HMA (Hybrid Metaheuristic Algorithm) for the solution of the WTO (Wind Turbine Optimization) problem. It is well documented that turbines located behind one another face a power loss due to the obstruction of the wind due to wake loss. It is required to reduce this wake loss by the effective placement of turbines using a new HMA. This HMA is derived from the two basic algorithms i.e. DEA (Differential Evolution Algorithm) and the FA (Firefly Algorithm). The function of optimization is undertaken on the N.O. Jensen model. The blending of DEA and FA into HMA are discussed and the new algorithm HMA is implemented maximize power and minimize the cost in a WTO problem. The results by HMA have been compared with GA (Genetic Algorithm) used in some previous studies. The successfully calculated total power produced and cost per unit turbine for a wind farm by using HMA and its comparison with past approaches using single algorithms have shown that there is a significant advantage of using the HMA as compared to the use of single algorithms. The first time implementation of a new algorithm by blending two single algorithms is a significant step towards learning the behavior of algorithms and their added advantages by using them together. (author)

  12. A versatile coupled cell-free transcription-translation system based on tobacco BY-2 cell lysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buntru, Matthias; Vogel, Simon; Stoff, Katrin; Spiegel, Holger; Schillberg, Stefan

    2015-05-01

    Cell-free protein synthesis is a powerful method for the high-throughput production of recombinant proteins, especially proteins that are difficult to express in living cells. Here we describe a coupled cell-free transcription-translation system based on tobacco BY-2 cell lysates (BYLs). Using a combination of fractional factorial designs and response surface models, we developed a cap-independent system that produces more than 250 μg/mL of functional enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (eYFP) and about 270 μg/mL of firefly luciferase using plasmid templates, and up to 180 μg/mL eYFP using linear templates (PCR products) in 18 h batch reactions. The BYL contains actively-translocating microsomal vesicles derived from the endoplasmic reticulum, promoting the formation of disulfide bonds, glycosylation and the cotranslational integration of membrane proteins. This was demonstrated by expressing a functional full-size antibody (∼ 150 μg/mL), the model enzyme glucose oxidase (GOx) (∼ 7.3 U/mL), and a transmembrane growth factor (∼ 25 μg/mL). Subsequent in vitro treatment of GOx with peptide-N-glycosidase F confirmed the presence of N-glycans. Our results show that the BYL can be used as a high-throughput expression and screening platform that is particularly suitable for complex and cytotoxic proteins. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. In vivo bioluminescence imaging of cell differentiation in biomaterials: a platform for scaffold development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagó, Juli R; Aguilar, Elisabeth; Alieva, Maria; Soler-Botija, Carolina; Vila, Olaia F; Claros, Silvia; Andrades, José A; Becerra, José; Rubio, Nuria; Blanco, Jerónimo

    2013-03-01

    In vivo testing is a mandatory last step in scaffold development. Agile longitudinal noninvasive real-time monitoring of stem cell behavior in biomaterials implanted in live animals should facilitate the development of scaffolds for tissue engineering. We report on a noninvasive bioluminescence imaging (BLI) procedure for simultaneous monitoring of changes in the expression of multiple genes to evaluate scaffold performance in vivo. Adipose tissue-derived stromal mensenchymal cells were dually labeled with Renilla red fluorescent protein and firefly green fluorescent protein chimeric reporters regulated by cytomegalovirus and tissue-specific promoters, respectively. Labeled cells were induced to differentiate in vitro and in vivo, by seeding in demineralized bone matrices (DBMs) and monitored by BLI. Imaging results were validated by RT-polymerase chain reaction and histological procedures. The proposed approach improves molecular imaging and measurement of changes in gene expression of cells implanted in live animals. This procedure, applicable to the simultaneous analysis of multiple genes from cells seeded in DBMs, should facilitate engineering of scaffolds for tissue repair.

  14. Intra-adrenal murine TH-MYCN neuroblastoma tumors grow more aggressive and exhibit a distinct tumor microenvironment relative to their subcutaneous equivalents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroesen, Michiel; Brok, Ingrid C; Reijnen, Daphne; van Hout-Kuijer, Maaike A; Zeelenberg, Ingrid S; Den Brok, Martijn H; Hoogerbrugge, Peter M; Adema, Gosse J

    2015-05-01

    In around half of the patients with neuroblastoma (NBL), the primary tumor is located in one of the adrenal glands. We have previously reported on a transplantable TH-MYCN model of subcutaneous (SC) growing NBL in C57Bl/6 mice for immunological studies. In this report, we describe an orthotopic TH-MYCN transplantable model where the tumor cells were injected intra-adrenally (IA) by microsurgery. Strikingly, 9464D cells grew out much faster in IA tumors compared to the subcutis. Tumors were infiltrated by equal numbers of lymphocytes and myeloid cells. Within the myeloid cell population, however, tumor-infiltrating macrophages were more abundant in IA tumors compared to SC tumors and expressed lower levels of MHC class II, indicative of a more immunosuppressive phenotype. Using 9464D cells stably expressing firefly luciferase, enhanced IA tumor growth could be confirmed using bioluminescence. Collectively, these data show that the orthotopic IA localization of TH-MYCN cells impacts the NBL tumor microenvironment, resulting in a more stringent NBL model to study novel immunotherapeutic approaches for NBL.

  15. An Innovative Hybrid Model Based on Data Pre-Processing and Modified Optimization Algorithm and Its Application in Wind Speed Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Jiang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Wind speed forecasting has an unsuperseded function in the high-efficiency operation of wind farms, and is significant in wind-related engineering studies. Back-propagation (BP algorithms have been comprehensively employed to forecast time series that are nonlinear, irregular, and unstable. However, the single model usually overlooks the importance of data pre-processing and parameter optimization of the model, which results in weak forecasting performance. In this paper, a more precise and robust model that combines data pre-processing, BP neural network, and a modified artificial intelligence optimization algorithm was proposed, which succeeded in avoiding the limitations of the individual algorithm. The novel model not only improves the forecasting accuracy but also retains the advantages of the firefly algorithm (FA and overcomes the disadvantage of the FA while optimizing in the later stage. To verify the forecasting performance of the presented hybrid model, 10-min wind speed data from Penglai city, Shandong province, China, were analyzed in this study. The simulations revealed that the proposed hybrid model significantly outperforms other single metaheuristics.

  16. Evaluation of monkeypox virus infection of prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) using in vivo bioluminescent imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falendysz, Elizabeth A.; Londoño-Navas, Angela M.; Meteyer, Carol U.; Pussini, Nicola; Lopera, Juan G.; Osorio, Jorge E.; Rocke, Tonie E.

    2014-01-01

    Monkeypox (MPX) is a re-emerging zoonotic disease that is endemic in Central and West Africa, where it can cause a smallpox-like disease in humans. Despite many epidemiologic and field investigations of MPX, no definitive reservoir species has been identified. Using recombinant viruses expressing the firefly luciferase (luc) gene, we previously demonstrated the suitability of in vivo bioluminescent imaging (BLI) to study the pathogenesis of MPX in animal models. Here, we evaluated BLI as a novel approach for tracking MPX virus infection in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). Prairie dogs were affected during a multistate outbreak of MPX in the US in 2003 and have since been used as an animal model of this disease. Our BLI results were compared with PCR and virus isolation from tissues collected postmortem. Virus was easily detected and quantified in skin and superficial tissues by BLI before and during clinical phases, as well as in subclinical secondary cases, but was not reliably detected in deep tissues such as the lung. Although there are limitations to viral detection in larger wild rodent species, BLI can enhance the use of prairie dogs as an animal model of MPX and can be used for the study of infection, disease progression, and transmission in potential wild rodent reservoirs.

  17. Non-invasive monitoring of carcinogenesis in N-nitrosodiethylamine induced liver cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ju Hui; Kang, Joo Hyun; Lee, Yong Jin; Lee, Tae Sup; Kim, Kwang Il; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, Sang Moo [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Young Seo [Kyungwon University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Molecular imaging based on reporter gene expression allows tissue-specific events or processes to be measured using the bioluminescence imaging (BLI) reporter gene expression vector controlled by specific enhancer/promoters. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), which is a tumor marker, is a serum glycoprotein that is expressed normally by fetal liver and yolk-sac cells, as well as in trace amounts in the fetal gastrointestinal tract. The serum concentration of AFP decreases rapidly after birth and its expression is repressed in adults. Approximately 80% of HCC patients show an increase in the AFP level. Therefore, AFP has been used for many years as a diagnostic and prognostic serum marker for HCC and transgenic system for AFP was proposed as a valuable tool for elucidation of mechanism of transcriptional regulation during liver development and hepatocarcinogenesis. In this study, firefly luciferase (fLuc) expressing transgenic mice controlled by the AFP enhancer/ promoter (enh/promoter) were produced to screen for the development of AFP-producing liver cancer. These models are expected to be useful for monitoring agents or drugs that modulate the AFP level as well as for measuring the specific signaling events important for liver cancer development

  18. Orthotopic glioblastoma stem-like cell xenograft model in mice to evaluate intra-arterial delivery of bevacizumab: from bedside to bench.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Jan-Karl; Hofstetter, Christoph P; Santillan, Alejandro; Shin, Benjamin J; Foley, Conor P; Ballon, Douglas J; Pierre Gobin, Y; Boockvar, John A

    2012-11-01

    Bevacizumab (BV), a humanized monocolonal antibody directed against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), is a standard intravenous (IV) treatment for recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), that has been introduced recently as an intra-arterial (IA) treatment modality in humans. Since preclinical models have not been reported, we sought to develop a tumor stem cell (TSC) xenograft model to investigate IA BV delivery in vivo. Firefly luciferase transduced patient TSC were injected into the cortex of 35 nude mice. Tumor growth was monitored weekly using bioluminescence imaging. Mice were treated with either intraperitoneal (IP) or IA BV, with or without blood-brain barrier disruption (BBBD), or with IP saline injection (controls). Tumor tissue was analyzed using immunohistochemistry and western blot techniques. Tumor formation occurred in 31 of 35 (89%) mice with a significant signal increase over time (p=0.018). Post mortem histology revealed an infiltrative growth of TSC xenografts in a similar pattern compared to the primary human GBM. Tumor tissue analyzed at 24 hours after treatment revealed that IA BV treatment with BBBD led to a significantly higher intratumoral BV concentration compared to IA BV alone, IP BV or controls (pmouse model that allows us to study IA chemotherapy. However, further studies are needed to analyze the treatment effects after IA BV to assess tumor progression and overall animal survival. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. In vivo bioluminescence imaging validation of a human biopsy-derived orthotopic mouse model of glioblastoma multiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarzabek, Monika A; Huszthy, Peter C; Skaftnesmo, Kai O; McCormack, Emmet; Dicker, Patrick; Prehn, Jochen H M; Bjerkvig, Rolf; Byrne, Annette T

    2013-05-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most aggressive brain malignancy, is characterized by extensive cellular proliferation, angiogenesis, and single-cell infiltration into the brain. We have previously shown that a xenograft model based on serial xenotransplantation of human biopsy spheroids in immunodeficient rodents maintains the genotype and phenotype of the original patient tumor. The present work further extends this model for optical assessment of tumor engraftment and growth using bioluminescence imaging (BLI). A method for successful lentiviral transduction of the firefly luciferase gene into multicellular spheroids was developed and implemented to generate optically active patient tumor cells. Luciferase-expressing spheroids were injected into the brains of immunodeficient mice. BLI photon counts and tumor volumes from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were correlated. Luciferase-expressing tumors recapitulated the histopathologic hallmarks of human GBMs and showed proliferation rates and microvessel density counts similar to those of wild-type xenografts. Moreover, we detected widespread invasion of luciferase-positive tumor cells in the mouse brains. Herein we describe a novel optically active model of GBM that closely mimics human pathology with respect to invasion, angiogenesis, and proliferation indices. The model may thus be routinely used for the assessment of novel anti-GBM therapeutic approaches implementing well-established and cost-effective optical imaging strategies.

  20. A novel pre-clinical in vivo mouse model for malignant brain tumor growth and invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Laura M; Mukherjee, Purna; Huysentruyt, Leanne C; Urits, Ivan; Rosenberg, Joshua A; Seyfried, Thomas N

    2010-09-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a rapidly progressive disease of morbidity and mortality and is the most common form of primary brain cancer in adults. Lack of appropriate in vivo models has been a major roadblock to developing effective therapies for GBM. A new highly invasive in vivo GBM model is described that was derived from a spontaneous brain tumor (VM-M3) in the VM mouse strain. Highly invasive tumor cells could be identified histologically on the hemisphere contralateral to the hemisphere implanted with tumor cells or tissue. Tumor cells were highly expressive for the chemokine receptor CXCR4 and the proliferation marker Ki-67 and could be identified invading through the pia mater, the vascular system, the ventricular system, around neurons, and over white matter tracts including the corpus callosum. In addition, the brain tumor cells were labeled with the firefly luciferase gene, allowing for non-invasive detection and quantitation through bioluminescent imaging. The VM-M3 tumor has a short incubation time with mortality occurring in 100% of the animals within approximately 15 days. The VM-M3 brain tumor model therefore can be used in a pre-clinical setting for the rapid evaluation of novel anti-invasive therapies.

  1. In Vivo Bioluminescence Imaging Validation of a Human Biopsy–Derived Orthotopic Mouse Model of Glioblastoma Multiforme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika A. Jarzabek

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, the most aggressive brain malignancy, is characterized by extensive cellular proliferation, angiogenesis, and single-cell infiltration into the brain. We have previously shown that a xenograft model based on serial xenotransplantation of human biopsy spheroids in immunodeficient rodents maintains the genotype and phenotype of the original patient tumor. The present work further extends this model for optical assessment of tumor engraftment and growth using bioluminescence imaging (BLI. A method for successful lentiviral transduction of the firefly luciferase gene into multicellular spheroids was developed and implemented to generate optically active patient tumor cells. Luciferase-expressing spheroids were injected into the brains of immunodeficient mice. BLI photon counts and tumor volumes from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI were correlated. Luciferase-expressing tumors recapitulated the histopathologic hallmarks of human GBMs and showed proliferation rates and microvessel density counts similar to those of wild-type xenografts. Moreover, we detected widespread invasion of luciferase-positive tumor cells in the mouse brains. Herein we describe a novel optically active model of GBM that closely mimics human pathology with respect to invasion, angiogenesis, and proliferation indices. The model may thus be routinely used for the assessment of novel anti-GBM therapeutic approaches implementing well-established and cost-effective optical imaging strategies.

  2. Nanowire Photovoltaic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, David

    2015-01-01

    Firefly Technologies, in collaboration with the Rochester Institute of Technology and the University of Wisconsin-Madison, developed synthesis methods for highly strained nanowires. Two synthesis routes resulted in successful nanowire epitaxy: direct nucleation and growth on the substrate and a novel selective-epitaxy route based on nanolithography using diblock copolymers. The indium-arsenide (InAs) nanowires are implemented in situ within the epitaxy environment-a significant innovation relative to conventional semiconductor nanowire generation using ex situ gold nanoparticles. The introduction of these nanoscale features may enable an intermediate band solar cell while simultaneously increasing the effective absorption volume that can otherwise limit short-circuit current generated by thin quantized layers. The use of nanowires for photovoltaics decouples the absorption process from the current extraction process by virtue of the high aspect ratio. While no functional solar cells resulted from this effort, considerable fundamental understanding of the nanowire epitaxy kinetics and nanopatterning process was developed. This approach could, in principle, be an enabling technology for heterointegration of dissimilar materials. The technology also is applicable to virtual substrates. Incorporating nanowires onto a recrystallized germanium/metal foil substrate would potentially solve the problem of grain boundary shunting of generated carriers by restricting the cross-sectional area of the nanowire (tens of nanometers in diameter) to sizes smaller than the recrystallized grains (0.5 to 1 micron(exp 2).

  3. Development and Comparison of a Rapid Isothermal Nucleic Acid Amplification Test for Typing of Herpes Simplex Virus Types 1 and 2 on a Portable Fluorescence Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yanhong; McCarthy, Kaitlin; Kong, Huimin; Lemieux, Bertrand

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a rapid and simple molecular test, the IsoGlow HSV Typing assay, for the detection and typing of herpes simplex virus (type 1 and 2) from genital or oral lesions. Clinical samples suspended in viral transport mediums are simply diluted and then added to a helicase-dependent amplification master mix. The amplification and detection were performed on a portable fluorescence detector called the FireFly instrument. Detection of amplification products is based on end-point analysis using cycling probe technology. An internal control nucleic acid was included in the amplification master mix to monitor the presence of amplification inhibitors in the samples. Because the device has only two fluorescence detection channels, two strategies were developed and compared to detect the internal control template: internal control detected by melting curve analysis using a dual-labeled probe, versus internal control detection using end-point fluorescence release by a CPT probe at a lower temperature. Both have a total turnaround time of about 1 hour. Clinical performance relative to herpes viral culture was evaluated using 176 clinical specimens. Both formats of the IsoGlow HSV typing assay had sensitivities comparable to that of the Food and Drug Administration–cleared IsoAmp HSV (BioHelix Corp., Beverly MA) test and specificity for the two types of HSV comparable to that of ELVIS HSV (Diagnostic Hybrids, Athens, OH). PMID:22951487

  4. Towards Enhancement of Performance of K-Means Clustering Using Nature-Inspired Optimization Algorithms

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    Simon Fong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional K-means clustering algorithms have the drawback of getting stuck at local optima that depend on the random values of initial centroids. Optimization algorithms have their advantages in guiding iterative computation to search for global optima while avoiding local optima. The algorithms help speed up the clustering process by converging into a global optimum early with multiple search agents in action. Inspired by nature, some contemporary optimization algorithms which include Ant, Bat, Cuckoo, Firefly, and Wolf search algorithms mimic the swarming behavior allowing them to cooperatively steer towards an optimal objective within a reasonable time. It is known that these so-called nature-inspired optimization algorithms have their own characteristics as well as pros and cons in different applications. When these algorithms are combined with K-means clustering mechanism for the sake of enhancing its clustering quality by avoiding local optima and finding global optima, the new hybrids are anticipated to produce unprecedented performance. In this paper, we report the results of our evaluation experiments on the integration of nature-inspired optimization methods into K-means algorithms. In addition to the standard evaluation metrics in evaluating clustering quality, the extended K-means algorithms that are empowered by nature-inspired optimization methods are applied on image segmentation as a case study of application scenario.

  5. Factors Influencing Quantification of in Vivo Bioluminescence Imaging: Application to Assessment of Pancreatic Islet Transplants

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    John Virostko

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine and characterize factors influencing in vivo bioluminescence imaging (BLI and apply them to the specific application of imaging transplanted pancreatic islets. Noninvasive quantitative assessment of transplanted pancreatic islets poses a formidable challenge. Murine pancreatic islets expressing firefly luciferase were transplanted under the renal capsule or into the portal vein of nonobese diabetic–severe combined immunodeficiency mice and the bioluminescence was quantified with a cooled charge coupled device camera and digital photon image analysis. The important, but often neglected, effects of wound healing, mouse positioning, and transplantation site on bioluminescence measurements were investigated by imaging a constant emission, isotropic light-emitting bead (λ = 600 implanted at the renal or hepatic site. The renal beads emitted nearly four times more light than hepatic beads with a smaller spot size, indicating that light absorption and scatter are greatly influenced by the transplant site and must be accounted for in BLI measurements. Detected luminescence decreased with increasing angle between the mouse surface normal and optical axis. By defining imaging parameters such as postsurgical effects, animal positioning, and light attenuation as a function of transplant site, this study develops BLI as a useful imaging modality for quantitative assessment of islets post-transplantation.

  6. Comparison of Teratoma Formation between Embryonic Stem Cells and Parthenogenetic Embryonic Stem Cells by Molecular Imaging

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    Hongyan Tao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available With their properties of self-renewal and differentiation, embryonic stem (ES cells hold great promises for regenerative therapy. However, teratoma formation and ethical concerns of ES cells may restrict their potential clinical applications. Currently, parthenogenetic embryonic stem (pES cells have attracted the interest of researchers for its self-renewing and pluripotent differentiation while eliciting less ethic concerns. In this study, we established a model with ES and pES cells both stably transfected with a double-fusion reporter gene containing renilla luciferase (Rluc and red fluorescent protein (RFP to analyze the mechanisms of teratoma formation. Transgenic Vegfr2-luc mouse, which expresses firefly luciferase (Fluc under the promoter of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (Vegfr2-luc, was used to trace the growth of new blood vessel recruited by transplanted cells. Bioluminescence imaging (BLI of Rluc/Fluc provides an effective tool in estimating the growth and angiogenesis of teratoma in vivo. We found that the tumorigenesis and angiogenesis capacity of ES cells were higher than those of pES cells, in which VEGF/VEGFR2 signal pathway plays an important role. In conclusion, pES cells have the decreased potential of teratoma formation but meanwhile have similar differentiating capacity compared with ES cells. These data demonstrate that pES cells provide an alternative source for ES cells with the risk reduction of teratoma formation and without ethical controversy.

  7. Travelling Wave Pulse Coupled Oscillator (TWPCO) Using a Self-Organizing Scheme for Energy-Efficient Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mekhlafi, Zeyad Ghaleb; Hanapi, Zurina Mohd; Othman, Mohamed; Zukarnain, Zuriati Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Recently, Pulse Coupled Oscillator (PCO)-based travelling waves have attracted substantial attention by researchers in wireless sensor network (WSN) synchronization. Because WSNs are generally artificial occurrences that mimic natural phenomena, the PCO utilizes firefly synchronization of attracting mating partners for modelling the WSN. However, given that sensor nodes are unable to receive messages while transmitting data packets (due to deafness), the PCO model may not be efficient for sensor network modelling. To overcome this limitation, this paper proposed a new scheme called the Travelling Wave Pulse Coupled Oscillator (TWPCO). For this, the study used a self-organizing scheme for energy-efficient WSNs that adopted travelling wave biologically inspired network systems based on phase locking of the PCO model to counteract deafness. From the simulation, it was found that the proposed TWPCO scheme attained a steady state after a number of cycles. It also showed superior performance compared to other mechanisms, with a reduction in the total energy consumption of 25%. The results showed that the performance improved by 13% in terms of data gathering. Based on the results, the proposed scheme avoids the deafness that occurs in the transmit state in WSNs and increases the data collection throughout the transmission states in WSNs.

  8. Rapid and Quantitative Assessment of Cancer Treatment Response Using In Vivo Bioluminescence Imaging

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    Alnawaz Rehemtulla

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Current assessment of orthotopic tumor models in animals utilizes survival as the primary therapeutic end point. In vivo bioluminescence imaging (BLI is a sensitive imaging modality that is rapid and accessible, and may comprise an ideal tool for evaluating antineoplastic therapies [1 ]. Using human tumor cell lines constitutively expressing luciferase, the kinetics of tumor growth and response to therapy have been assessed in intraperitoneal [2], subcutaneous, and intravascular [3] cancer models. However, use of this approach for evaluating orthotopic tumor models has not been demonstrated. In this report, the ability of BLI to noninvasively quantitate the growth and therapeuticinduced cell kill of orthotopic rat brain tumors derived from 9L gliosarcoma cells genetically engineered to stably express firefly luciferase (9LLuc was investigated. Intracerebral tumor burden was monitored over time by quantitation of photon emission and tumor volume using a cryogenically cooled CCD camera and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, respectively. There was excellent correlation (r=0.91 between detected photons and tumor volume. A quantitative comparison of tumor cell kill determined from serial MRI volume measurements and BLI photon counts following 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl-1-nitrosourea (BCNU treatment revealed that both imaging modalities yielded statistically similar cell kill values (P=.951. These results provide direct validation of BLI imaging as a powerful and quantitative tool for the assessment of antineoplastic therapies in living animals.

  9. Triple Bioluminescence Imaging for In Vivo Monitoring of Cellular Processes

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    Casey A Maguire

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioluminescence imaging (BLI has shown to be crucial for monitoring in vivo biological processes. So far, only dual bioluminescence imaging using firefly (Fluc and Renilla or Gaussia (Gluc luciferase has been achieved due to the lack of availability of other efficiently expressed luciferases using different substrates. Here, we characterized a codon-optimized luciferase from Vargula hilgendorfii (Vluc as a reporter for mammalian gene expression. We showed that Vluc can be multiplexed with Gluc and Fluc for sequential imaging of three distinct cellular phenomena in the same biological system using vargulin, coelenterazine, and D-luciferin substrates, respectively. We applied this triple imaging system to monitor the effect of soluble tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (sTRAIL delivered using an adeno-associated viral vector (AAV on brain tumors in mice. Vluc imaging showed efficient sTRAIL gene delivery to the brain, while Fluc imaging revealed a robust antiglioma therapy. Further, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB activation in response to sTRAIL binding to glioma cells death receptors was monitored by Gluc imaging. This work is the first demonstration of trimodal in vivo bioluminescence imaging and will have a broad applicability in many different fields including immunology, oncology, virology, and neuroscience.

  10. Travelling Wave Pulse Coupled Oscillator (TWPCO) Using a Self-Organizing Scheme for Energy-Efficient Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanapi, Zurina Mohd; Othman, Mohamed; Zukarnain, Zuriati Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Recently, Pulse Coupled Oscillator (PCO)-based travelling waves have attracted substantial attention by researchers in wireless sensor network (WSN) synchronization. Because WSNs are generally artificial occurrences that mimic natural phenomena, the PCO utilizes firefly synchronization of attracting mating partners for modelling the WSN. However, given that sensor nodes are unable to receive messages while transmitting data packets (due to deafness), the PCO model may not be efficient for sensor network modelling. To overcome this limitation, this paper proposed a new scheme called the Travelling Wave Pulse Coupled Oscillator (TWPCO). For this, the study used a self-organizing scheme for energy-efficient WSNs that adopted travelling wave biologically inspired network systems based on phase locking of the PCO model to counteract deafness. From the simulation, it was found that the proposed TWPCO scheme attained a steady state after a number of cycles. It also showed superior performance compared to other mechanisms, with a reduction in the total energy consumption of 25%. The results showed that the performance improved by 13% in terms of data gathering. Based on the results, the proposed scheme avoids the deafness that occurs in the transmit state in WSNs and increases the data collection throughout the transmission states in WSNs. PMID:28056020

  11. Development and Characterisation of a Novel NF-κB Reporter Cell Line for Investigation of Neuroinflammation

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    Marie-Theres Zeuner

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aberrant activation of the transcription factor NF-κB, as well as uncontrolled inflammation, has been linked to autoimmune diseases, development and progression of cancer, and neurological disorders like Alzheimer’s disease. Reporter cell lines are a valuable state-of-the art tool for comparative analysis of in vitro drug screening. However, a reporter cell line for the investigation of NF-κB-driven neuroinflammation has not been available. Thus, we developed a stable neural NF-κB-reporter cell line to assess the potency of proinflammatory molecules and peptides, as well as anti-inflammatory pharmaceuticals. We used lentivirus to transduce the glioma cell line U251-MG with a tandem NF-κB reporter construct containing GFP and firefly luciferase allowing an assessment of NF-κB activity via fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry, and luminometry. We observed a robust activation of NF-κB after exposure of the reporter cell line to tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα and amyloid-β peptide [1-42] as well as to LPS derived from Salmonella minnesota and Escherichia coli. Finally, we demonstrate that the U251-NF-κB-GFP-Luc reporter cells can be used for assessing the anti-inflammatory potential of pharmaceutical compounds using Bay11-7082 and IMD0354. In summary, our newly generated cell line is a robust and cost-efficient tool to study pro- and anti-inflammatory potential of drugs and biologics in neural cells.

  12. Monitoring and quantitative assessment of tumor burden using in vivo bioluminescence imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C.-C. [Cancer Research Division, National Health Research Institute, Miaoli 350, Taiwan (China); Hwang, Jeng-Jong [Institute of Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: jjhwang@ym.edu.tw; Ting, G. [Cancer Research Division, National Health Research Institute, Miaoli 350, Taiwan (China); Tseng, Y.-L. [Taiwan Liposome Company, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Wang, S.-J. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Veterans General Hospital, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Whang-Peng, J. [Cancer Research Division, National Health Research Institute, Miaoli 350, Taiwan (China)

    2007-02-01

    In vivo bioluminescence imaging (BLI) is a sensitive imaging modality that is rapid and accessible, and may comprise an ideal tool for evaluating tumor growth. In this study, the kinetic of tumor growth has been assessed in C26 colon carcinoma bearing BALB/c mouse model. The ability of BLI to noninvasively quantitate the growth of subcutaneous tumors transplanted with C26 cells genetically engineered to stably express firefly luciferase and herpes simplex virus type-1 thymidine kinase (C26/tk-luc). A good correlation (R {sup 2}=0.998) of photon emission to the cell number was found in vitro. Tumor burden and tumor volume were monitored in vivo over time by quantitation of photon emission using Xenogen IVIS 50 and standard external caliper measurement, respectively. At various time intervals, tumor-bearing mice were imaged to determine the correlation of in vivo BLI to tumor volume. However, a correlation of BLI to tumor volume was observed when tumor volume was smaller than 1000 mm{sup 3} (R {sup 2}=0.907). {gamma} Scintigraphy combined with [{sup 131}I]FIAU was another imaging modality used for verifying the previous results. In conclusion, this study showed that bioluminescence imaging is a powerful and quantitative tool for the direct assay to monitor tumor growth in vivo. The dual reporter genes transfected tumor-bearing animal model can be applied in the evaluation of the efficacy of new developed anti-cancer drugs.

  13. Light Emission Requires Exposure to the Atmosphere in Ex Vivo Bioluminescence Imaging

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    Yusuke Inoue

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The identification of organs bearing luciferase activity by in vivo bioluminescence imaging (BLI is often difficult, and ex vivo imaging of excised organs plays a complementary role. This study investigated the importance of exposure to the atmosphere in ex vivo BLI. Mice were inoculated with murine pro-B cell line Ba/F3 transduced with firefly luciferase and p190 BCR-ABL. They were killed following in vivo BLI, and whole-body imaging was done after death and then after intraperitoneal air injection. In addition, the right knee was exposed and imaged before and after the adjacent bones were cut. Extensive light signals were seen on in vivo imaging. The luminescence disappeared after the animal was killed, and air injection restored the light emission from the abdomen only, suggesting a critical role of atmospheric oxygen in luminescence after death. Although no substantial light signal at the right knee was seen before bone cutting, light emission was evident after cutting. In conclusion, in ex vivo BLI, light emission requires exposure to the atmosphere. Bone destruction is required to demonstrate luciferase activity in the bone marrow after death.

  14. Functional imaging of interleukin 1 beta expression in inflammatory process using bioluminescence imaging in transgenic mice

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    Liu Zhihui

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β plays an important role in a number of chronic and acute inflammatory diseases. To understand the role of IL-1β in disease processes and develop an in vivo screening system for anti-inflammatory drugs, a transgenic mouse line was generated which incorporated the transgene firefly luciferase gene driven by a 4.5-kb fragment of the human IL-1β gene promoter. Luciferase gene expression was monitored in live mice under anesthesia using bioluminescence imaging in a number of inflammatory disease models. Results In a LPS-induced sepsis model, dramatic increase in luciferase activity was observed in the mice. This transgene induction was time dependent and correlated with an increase of endogenous IL-1β mRNA and pro-IL-1β protein levels in the mice. In a zymosan-induced arthritis model and an oxazolone-induced skin hypersensitivity reaction model, luciferase expression was locally induced in the zymosan injected knee joint and in the ear with oxazolone application, respectively. Dexamethasone suppressed the expression of luciferase gene both in the acute sepsis model and in the acute arthritis model. Conclusion Our data suggest that the transgenic mice model could be used to study transcriptional regulation of the IL-1β gene expression in the inflammatory process and evaluation the effect of anti-inflammatory drug in vivo.

  15. In vivo Brain Delivery of v-myc Overproduced Human Neural Stem Cells via the Intranasal Pathway: Tumor Characteristics in the Lung of a Nude Mouse

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    Eun Seong Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to monitor the successful brain delivery of stem cells via the intranasal route and to observe the long-term consequence of the immortalized human neural stem cells in the lungs of a nude mouse model. Stably immortalized HB1.F3 human neural stem cells with firefly luciferase gene (F3-effluc were intranasally delivered to BALB/c nude mice. Bioluminescence images were serially acquired until 41 days in vivo and at 4 hours and 41 days ex vivo after intranasal delivery. Lungs were evaluated by histopathology. After intranasal delivery of F3-effluc cells, the intense in vivo signals were detected in the nasal area, migrated toward the brain areas at 4 hours (4 of 13, 30.8%, and gradually decreased for 2 days. The brain signals were confirmed by ex vivo imaging (2 of 4, 50%. In the mice with initial lung signals (4 of 9, 44.4%, the lung signals disappeared for 5 days but reappeared 2 weeks later. The intense lung signals were confirmed to originate from the tumors in the lungs formed by F3-effluc cells by ex vivo imaging and histopathology. We propose that intranasal delivery of immortalized stem cells should be monitored for their successful delivery to the brain and their tumorigenicity longitudinally.

  16. Theoretical modeling of the spectroscopic absorption properties of luciferin and oxyluciferin: A critical comparison with recent experimental studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anselmi, Massimiliano, E-mail: m.anselmi@caspur.it [Department of Chemistry, University of Rome ' La Sapienza' , P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Marocchi, Simone [Department of Chemistry, University of Rome ' La Sapienza' , P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Aschi, Massimiliano [Department of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials, University of L' Aquila, Via Vetoio (Coppito 1), 67100 Coppito, L' Aquila (Italy); Amadei, Andrea [Department of Chemistry, University of Rome ' Tor Vergata' , Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Rome (Italy)

    2012-01-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The calculated absorption spectra were compared with experimental data. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Shapes and absorption maxima were reproduced for luciferin and oxyluciferin spectra. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of the solvent largely changes the electronic transition probabilities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Higher excitations provide an important contribution to the main absorption peak. - Abstract: Firefly luciferin and its oxidated form, oxyluciferin, are two heterocyclic compounds involved in the enzymatic reaction, catalyzed by redox proteins called luciferases, which provides the bioluminescence in a wide group of arthropods. Whereas the electronic absorption spectra of D-luciferin in water at different pHs are known since 1960s, only recently reliable experimental electronic spectra of oxyluciferin have become available. In addition oxyluciferin is involved in a triple chemical equilibria (deprotonation of the two hydroxyl groups and keto-enol tautomerism of the 4-hydroxythiazole ring), that obligates to select during an experiment a predominant species, tuning pH or solvent polarity besides introducing chemical modifications. In this study we report the absorption spectra of luciferin and oxyluciferin in each principal chemical form, calculated by means of perturbed matrix method (PMM), which allowed us to successfully introduce the effect of the solvent on the spectroscopic absorption properties, and compare the result with available experimental data.

  17. Optimal stochastic coordinated scheduling of proton exchange membrane fuel cell-combined heat and power, wind and photovoltaic units in micro grids considering hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bornapour, Mosayeb; Hooshmand, Rahmat-Allah; Khodabakhshian, Amin; Parastegari, Moein

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Stochastic model is proposed for coordinated scheduling of renewable energy sources. •The effect of combined heat and power is considered. •Hydrogen storage is considered for fuel cells. •Maximizing profits of micro grid is considered as objective function. •Considering the uncertainties of problem lead to profit increasing. -- Abstract: Nowadays, renewable energy sources and combined heat and power units are extremely used in micro grids, so it is necessary to schedule these units to improve the performance of the system. In this regard, a stochastic model is proposed in this paper to schedule proton exchange membrane fuel cell-combined heat and power, wind turbines, and photovoltaic units coordinately in a micro grid while considering hydrogen storage. Hydrogen storage strategy is considered for the operation of proton exchange membrane fuel cell-combined heat and power units. To consider stochastic generation of renewable energy source units in this paper, a scenario-based method is used. In this method, the uncertainties of electrical market price, the wind speed, and solar irradiance are considered. This stochastic scheduling problem is a mixed integer- nonlinear programming which considers the proposed objective function and variables of coordinated scheduling of PEMFC-CHP, wind turbines and photovoltaic units. It also considers hydrogen storage strategy and converts it to a mixed integer nonlinear problem. In this study a modified firefly algorithm is used to solve the problem. This method is examined on modified 33-bus distributed network as a MG for its performance.

  18. Chemiluminescence. Principles and applications in biology and medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, A K

    1988-01-01

    Chemiluminescence, the emission of light caused by a chemical reaction, is a phenomenon used for many applications and of wide biological importance. It occurs in bacteria and insects (including glow-worms and fireflies), in many of the animals in the deep sea and even in human cells. The last 25 years have witnessed fast progress in the elucidation of the reactions and mechanisms underlying bioluminescence and light production by synthetic systems. Together with the development of highly sensitive light detectors, this has made available new biomedical methods and has given rise to new concepts concerning the biology and pathology of the cell. The book describes the occurrence, chemistry and measurement of chemiluminescence. It deals with the biological function and evolutionary significance, and looks at the many biomedical applications. The author describes the uses of chemiluminescence to measure enzymes, substrates and metabolites, to detect the changes of calcium concentration in living cells, to determine oxygen radicals or to replace the radioactive labels in immunoassays. Future applications in research and clinical laboratories are also discussed.

  19. A global optimization algorithm inspired in the behavior of selfish herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fausto, Fernando; Cuevas, Erik; Valdivia, Arturo; González, Adrián

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, a novel swarm optimization algorithm called the Selfish Herd Optimizer (SHO) is proposed for solving global optimization problems. SHO is based on the simulation of the widely observed selfish herd behavior manifested by individuals within a herd of animals subjected to some form of predation risk. In SHO, individuals emulate the predatory interactions between groups of prey and predators by two types of search agents: the members of a selfish herd (the prey) and a pack of hungry predators. Depending on their classification as either a prey or a predator, each individual is conducted by a set of unique evolutionary operators inspired by such prey-predator relationship. These unique traits allow SHO to improve the balance between exploration and exploitation without altering the population size. To illustrate the proficiency and robustness of the proposed method, it is compared to other well-known evolutionary optimization approaches such as Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Artificial Bee Colony (ABC), Firefly Algorithm (FA), Differential Evolution (DE), Genetic Algorithms (GA), Crow Search Algorithm (CSA), Dragonfly Algorithm (DA), Moth-flame Optimization Algorithm (MOA) and Sine Cosine Algorithm (SCA). The comparison examines several standard benchmark functions, commonly considered within the literature of evolutionary algorithms. The experimental results show the remarkable performance of our proposed approach against those of the other compared methods, and as such SHO is proven to be an excellent alternative to solve global optimization problems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Development of a Fish Cell Biosensor System for Genotoxicity Detection Based on DNA Damage-Induced Trans-Activation of p21 Gene Expression

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    Huarong Guo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available p21CIP1/WAF1 is a p53-target gene in response to cellular DNA damage. Here we report the development of a fish cell biosensor system for high throughput genotoxicity detection of new drugs, by stably integrating two reporter plasmids of pGL3-p21-luc (human p21 promoter linked to firefly luciferase and pRL-CMV-luc (CMV promoter linked to Renilla luciferase into marine flatfish flounder gill (FG cells, referred to as p21FGLuc. Initial validation of this genotoxicity biosensor system showed that p21FGLuc cells had a wild-type p53 signaling pathway and responded positively to the challenge of both directly acting genotoxic agents (bleomycin and mitomycin C and indirectly acting genotoxic agents (cyclophosphamide with metabolic activation, but negatively to cyclophosphamide without metabolic activation and the non-genotoxic agents ethanol and D-mannitol, thus confirming a high specificity and sensitivity, fast and stable response to genotoxic agents for this easily maintained fish cell biosensor system. This system was especially useful in the genotoxicity detection of Di(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP, a rodent carcinogen, but negatively reported in most non-mammalian in vitro mutation assays, by providing a strong indication of genotoxicity for DEHP. A limitation for this biosensor system was that it might give false positive results in response to sodium butyrate and any other agents, which can trans-activate the p21 gene in a p53-independent manner.

  1. A novel low cost pulse excitation source to study trap spectroscopy of persistent luminescent materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekhar, Ngangbam; Singh, Nungleppam Monorajan; Gartia, R. K.

    2018-04-01

    Luminescent techniques require one or the other source of excitations which may vary from high cost X-rays, γ-rays, β-rays etc. to low cost LED. Persistent luminescent materials or Glow-in-the-Dark phosphors are the optical harvesters which store the optical energy from day light illuminating a whole night. They are so sensitive that they can be excited even with the low light of firefly. Therefore, instead of using a high cost excitation source authors have developed a low cost functioning of excitation source controlling short pulses of LED to excite persistent phosphors with the aid of ExpEYES Junior (Hardware/software framework developed by IUAC, New Delhi). Using this, the authors have excited the sample under investigation upto 10 ms. Trap spectroscopy of the pre-excited sample with LED is studied using Thermoluminescence (TL) technique. In this communication, development of the excitation source is discussed and demonstrate the its usefulness in the study of trap spectroscopy of commercially available CaS:Eu2+, Sm3+. Trapping parameters are also evaluated using Computerized Glow Curve Deconvolution (CGCD) technique.

  2. Chebyshev polynomial functions based locally recurrent neuro-fuzzy information system for prediction of financial and energy market data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Parida

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper Chebyshev polynomial functions based locally recurrent neuro-fuzzy information system is presented for the prediction and analysis of financial and electrical energy market data. The normally used TSK-type feedforward fuzzy neural network is unable to take the full advantage of the use of the linear fuzzy rule base in accurate input–output mapping and hence the consequent part of the rule base is made nonlinear using polynomial or arithmetic basis functions. Further the Chebyshev polynomial functions provide an expanded nonlinear transformation to the input space thereby increasing its dimension for capturing the nonlinearities and chaotic variations in financial or energy market data streams. Also the locally recurrent neuro-fuzzy information system (LRNFIS includes feedback loops both at the firing strength layer and the output layer to allow signal flow both in forward and backward directions, thereby making the LRNFIS mimic a dynamic system that provides fast convergence and accuracy in predicting time series fluctuations. Instead of using forward and backward least mean square (FBLMS learning algorithm, an improved Firefly-Harmony search (IFFHS learning algorithm is used to estimate the parameters of the consequent part and feedback loop parameters for better stability and convergence. Several real world financial and energy market time series databases are used for performance validation of the proposed LRNFIS model.

  3. Plasmodium falciparum transfected with ultra bright NanoLuc luciferase offers high sensitivity detection for the screening of growth and cellular trafficking inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro F Azevedo

    Full Text Available Drug discovery is a key part of malaria control and eradication strategies, and could benefit from sensitive and affordable assays to quantify parasite growth and to help identify the targets of potential anti-malarial compounds. Bioluminescence, achieved through expression of exogenous luciferases, is a powerful tool that has been applied in studies of several aspects of parasite biology and high throughput growth assays. We have expressed the new reporter NanoLuc (Nluc luciferase in Plasmodium falciparum and showed it is at least 100 times brighter than the commonly used firefly luciferase. Nluc brightness was explored as a means to achieve a growth assay with higher sensitivity and lower cost. In addition we attempted to develop other screening assays that may help interrogate libraries of inhibitory compounds for their mechanism of action. To this end parasites were engineered to express Nluc in the cytoplasm, the parasitophorous vacuole that surrounds the intraerythrocytic parasite or exported to the red blood cell cytosol. As proof-of-concept, these parasites were used to develop functional screening assays for quantifying the effects of Brefeldin A, an inhibitor of protein secretion, and Furosemide, an inhibitor of new permeation pathways used by parasites to acquire plasma nutrients.

  4. Expression kinetics of nucleoside-modified mRNA delivered in lipid nanoparticles to mice by various routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardi, Norbert; Tuyishime, Steven; Muramatsu, Hiromi; Kariko, Katalin; Mui, Barbara L; Tam, Ying K; Madden, Thomas D; Hope, Michael J; Weissman, Drew

    2015-11-10

    In recent years, in vitro transcribed messenger RNA (mRNA) has emerged as a potential therapeutic platform. To fulfill its promise, effective delivery of mRNA to specific cell types and tissues needs to be achieved. Lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) are efficient carriers for short-interfering RNAs and have entered clinical trials. However, little is known about the potential of LNPs to deliver mRNA. Here, we generated mRNA-LNPs by incorporating HPLC purified, 1-methylpseudouridine-containing mRNA comprising codon-optimized firefly luciferase into stable LNPs. Mice were injected with 0.005-0.250mg/kg doses of mRNA-LNPs by 6 different routes and high levels of protein translation could be measured using in vivo imaging. Subcutaneous, intramuscular and intradermal injection of the LNP-encapsulated mRNA translated locally at the site of injection for up to 10days. For several days, high levels of protein production could be achieved in the lung from the intratracheal administration of mRNA. Intravenous and intraperitoneal and to a lesser extent intramuscular and intratracheal deliveries led to trafficking of mRNA-LNPs systemically resulting in active translation of the mRNA in the liver for 1-4 days. Our results demonstrate that LNPs are appropriate carriers for mRNA in vivo and have the potential to become valuable tools for delivering mRNA encoding therapeutic proteins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Imaging of bioluminescent LNCaP-luc-M6 tumors: a new animal model for the study of metastatic human prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scatena, Caroline D; Hepner, Mischa A; Oei, Yoko A; Dusich, Joan M; Yu, Shang-Fan; Purchio, Tony; Contag, Pamela R; Jenkins, Darlene E

    2004-05-15

    Animal experiments examining hormone-sensitive metastatic prostate cancer using the human LNCaP cell line have been limited to endpoint analyses. To permit longitudinal studies, we generated a luciferase-expressing cell line and used bioluminescent imaging (BLI) to non-invasively monitor the in vivo growth of primary LNCaP tumors and metastasis. LNCaP.FGC cells were transfected to constitutively express firefly luciferase. LNCaP-luc-M6 cells were tested for bioluminescent signal intensity and hormone responsiveness in vitro. The cells were implanted in subcutaneous and orthotopic sites in SCID-bg mice and imaged over time. The LNCaP-luc-M6 cells formed subcutaneous and orthotopic tumors in SCID-bg mice, and nearly all tumor-bearing animals developed pulmonary metastases. Early detection and temporal growth of primary tumors and metastatic lesions was successfully monitored by BLI. The LNCaP-luc-M6 cell line is a bioluminescent, hormone-sensitive prostate cancer cell line applicable for BLI studies to non-invasively monitor subcutaneous and orthotopic prostate tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Collective signaling behavior in a networked-oscillator model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z.-H.; Hui, P. M.

    2007-09-01

    We propose and study the collective behavior of a model of networked signaling objects that incorporates several ingredients of real-life systems. These ingredients include spatial inhomogeneity with grouping of signaling objects, signal attenuation with distance, and delayed and impulsive coupling between non-identical signaling objects. Depending on the coupling strength and/or time-delay effect, the model exhibits completely, partially, and locally collective signaling behavior. In particular, a correlated signaling (CS) behavior is observed in which there exist time durations when nearly a constant fraction of oscillators in the system are in the signaling state. These time durations are much longer than the duration of a spike when a single oscillator signals, and they are separated by regular intervals in which nearly all oscillators are silent. Such CS behavior is similar to that observed in biological systems such as fireflies, cicadas, crickets, and frogs. The robustness of the CS behavior against noise is also studied. It is found that properly adjusting the coupling strength and noise level could enhance the correlated behavior.

  7. Visual Servoing for an Autonomous Hexarotor Using a Neural Network Based PID Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Franco, Carlos; Alanis, Alma Y.; Arana-Daniel, Nancy; Villaseñor, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have gained significant attention. However, we face two major drawbacks when working with UAVs: high nonlinearities and unknown position in 3D space since it is not provided with on-board sensors that can measure its position with respect to a global coordinate system. In this paper, we present a real-time implementation of a servo control, integrating vision sensors, with a neural proportional integral derivative (PID), in order to develop an hexarotor image based visual servo control (IBVS) that knows the position of the robot by using a velocity vector as a reference to control the hexarotor position. This integration requires a tight coordination between control algorithms, models of the system to be controlled, sensors, hardware and software platforms and well-defined interfaces, to allow the real-time implementation, as well as the design of different processing stages with their respective communication architecture. All of these issues and others provoke the idea that real-time implementations can be considered as a difficult task. For the purpose of showing the effectiveness of the sensor integration and control algorithm to address these issues on a high nonlinear system with noisy sensors as cameras, experiments were performed on the Asctec Firefly on-board computer, including both simulation and experimenta results. PMID:28805689

  8. Escalated convergent artificial bee colony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadon, Shimpi Singh; Bansal, Jagdish Chand; Tiwari, Ritu

    2016-03-01

    Artificial bee colony (ABC) optimisation algorithm is a recent, fast and easy-to-implement population-based meta heuristic for optimisation. ABC has been proved a rival algorithm with some popular swarm intelligence-based algorithms such as particle swarm optimisation, firefly algorithm and ant colony optimisation. The solution search equation of ABC is influenced by a random quantity which helps its search process in exploration at the cost of exploitation. In order to find a fast convergent behaviour of ABC while exploitation capability is maintained, in this paper basic ABC is modified in two ways. First, to improve exploitation capability, two local search strategies, namely classical unidimensional local search and levy flight random walk-based local search are incorporated with ABC. Furthermore, a new solution search strategy, namely stochastic diffusion scout search is proposed and incorporated into the scout bee phase to provide more chance to abandon solution to improve itself. Efficiency of the proposed algorithm is tested on 20 benchmark test functions of different complexities and characteristics. Results are very promising and they prove it to be a competitive algorithm in the field of swarm intelligence-based algorithms.

  9. Da-Bu-Yin-Wan and Qian-Zheng-San to Neuroprotect the Mouse Model of Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Gang Gong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Da-Bu-Yin-Wan (DBYW and Qian-Zheng-San (QZS, two classic traditional Chinese medicinal formulas, were clinically employed to treat Parkinson’s disease (PD. Our previous studies demonstrated neuroprotective effects of them on mitochondrial function in PD mice induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP. The purpose of this research was to investigate their possible mechanisms in the light of mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium (mitoKATP channels. The neuroprotective effect of DBYW and QZS on dopamine (DA neurons in substantia nigra (SN in the MPTP-induced PD mice was investigated by behavioral test (pole test and immunohistochemistry. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP level in the midbrain tissue was detected by firefly luciferase method. MitoKATP channel subunits SUR1 and Kir6.2 mRNA and protein expressions were tested by real-time PCR (RT-PCR and Western blot. It was observed that DBYW and/or QZS served to ameliorate MPTP-induced behavioral impairment and prevent the loss of substantia nigra dopamine neurons, as well as increase ATP level in the midbrain tissue and downregulate SUR1 expression at mRNA and protein levels with no marked influence on Kir6.2. We concluded that DBYW and QZS exhibit neuroprotective effects probably through the regulation of ATP level and mitoKATP channel subunit expressions.

  10. A sensitive HIV-1 envelope induced fusion assay identifies fusion enhancement of thrombin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, De-Chun; Zhong, Guo-Cai; Su, Ju-Xiang; Liu, Yan-Hong; Li, Yan; Wang, Jia-Ye; Hattori, Toshio; Ling, Hong; Zhang, Feng-Min

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the interaction between HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) and target cell receptors, various cell-cell-fusion assays have been developed. In the present study, we established a novel fusion system. In this system, the expression of the sensitive reporter gene, firefly luciferase (FL) gene, in the target cells was used to evaluate cell fusion event. Simultaneously, constitutively expressed Renilla luciferase (RL) gene was used to monitor effector cell number and viability. FL gave a wider dynamic range than other known reporters and the introduction of RL made the assay accurate and reproducible. This system is especially beneficial for investigation of potential entry-influencing agents, for its power of ruling out the false inhibition or enhancement caused by the artificial cell-number variation. As a case study, we applied this fusion system to observe the effect of a serine protease, thrombin, on HIV Env-mediated cell-cell fusion and have found the fusion enhancement activity of thrombin over two R5-tropic HIV strains.

  11. Recognition of Wheat Spike from Field Based Phenotype Platform Using Multi-Sensor Fusion and Improved Maximum Entropy Segmentation Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengquan Zhou

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available To obtain an accurate count of wheat spikes, which is crucial for estimating yield, this paper proposes a new algorithm that uses computer vision to achieve this goal from an image. First, a home-built semi-autonomous multi-sensor field-based phenotype platform (FPP is used to obtain orthographic images of wheat plots at the filling stage. The data acquisition system of the FPP provides high-definition RGB images and multispectral images of the corresponding quadrats. Then, the high-definition panchromatic images are obtained by fusion of three channels of RGB. The Gram–Schmidt fusion algorithm is then used to fuse these multispectral and panchromatic images, thereby improving the color identification degree of the targets. Next, the maximum entropy segmentation method is used to do the coarse-segmentation. The threshold of this method is determined by a firefly algorithm based on chaos theory (FACT, and then a morphological filter is used to de-noise the coarse-segmentation results. Finally, morphological reconstruction theory is applied to segment the adhesive part of the de-noised image and realize the fine-segmentation of the image. The computer-generated counting results for the wheat plots, using independent regional statistical function in Matlab R2017b software, are then compared with field measurements which indicate that the proposed method provides a more accurate count of wheat spikes when compared with other traditional fusion and segmentation methods mentioned in this paper.

  12. Application of Hybrid Meta-Heuristic Techniques for Optimal Load Shedding Planning and Operation in an Islanded Distribution Network Integrated with Distributed Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Jallad

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In a radial distribution network integrated with distributed generation (DG, frequency and voltage instability could occur due to grid disconnection, which would result in an islanded network. This paper proposes an optimal load shedding scheme to balance the electricity demand and the generated power of DGs. The integration of the Firefly Algorithm and Particle Swarm Optimization (FAPSO is proposed for the application of the planned load shedding and under frequency load shedding (UFLS scheme. In planning mode, the hybrid optimization maximizes the amount of load remaining and improves the voltage profile of load buses within allowable limits. Moreover, the hybrid optimization can be used in UFLS scheme to identify the optimal combination of loads that need to be shed from a network in operation mode. In order to assess the capabilities of the hybrid optimization, the IEEE 33-bus radial distribution system and part of the Malaysian distribution network with different types of DGs were used. The response of the proposed optimization method in planning and operation were compared with other optimization techniques. The simulation results confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed hybrid optimization in planning mode and demonstrated that the proposed UFLS scheme is quick enough to restore the system frequency without overshooting in less execution time.

  13. Optimal design and tuning of novel fractional order PID power system stabilizer using a new metaheuristic Bat algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakhdar Chaib

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel robust power system stabilizer (PSS, based on hybridization of fractional order PID controller (PIλDμ and PSS for optimal stabilizer (FOPID-PSS for the first time, using a new metaheuristic optimization Bat algorithm (BA inspired by the echolocation behavior to improve power system stability. The problem of FOPID-PSS design is transformed as an optimization problem based on performance indices (PI, including Integral Absolute Error (IAE, Integral Squared Error (ISE, Integral of the Time-Weighted Absolute Error (ITAE and Integral of Time multiplied by the Squared Error (ITSE, where, BA is employed to obtain the optimal stabilizer parameters. In order to examine the robustness of FOPID-PSS, it has been tested on a Single Machine Infinite Bus (SMIB power system under different disturbances and operating conditions. The performance of the system with FOPID-PSS controller is compared with a PID-PSS and PSS. Further, the simulation results obtained with the proposed BA based FOPID-PSS are compared with those obtained with FireFly algorithm (FFA based FOPID-PSS. Simulation results show the effectiveness of BA for FOPID-PSS design, and superior robust performance for enhancement power system stability compared to other with different cases.

  14. Synthesis of Thinned Concentric Circular Antenna Arrays Using Modified TLBO Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zailei Luo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Teaching-learning-based optimization (TLBO algorithm is a new kind of stochastic metaheuristic algorithm which has been proven effective and powerful in many engineering optimization problems. This paper describes the application of a modified version of TLBO algorithm, MTLBO, for synthesis of thinned concentric circular antenna arrays (CCAAs. The MTLBO is adjusted for CCAA design according to the geometry arrangement of antenna elements. CCAAs with uniform interelement spacing fixed at half wavelength have been considered for thinning using MTLBO algorithm. For practical purpose, this paper demonstrated SLL reduction of thinned CCAAs in the whole regular and extended space other than the phi = 0° plane alone. The uniformly and nonuniformly excited CCAAs have been discussed, respectively, during the simulation process. The proposed MTLBO is very easy to be implemented and requires fewer algorithm specified parameters, which is suitable for concentric circular antenna array synthesis. Numerical results clearly show the superiority of MTLBO algorithm in finding optimum solutions compared to particle swarm optimization algorithm and firefly algorithm.

  15. Long-Term Precipitation Analysis and Estimation of Precipitation Concentration Index Using Three Support Vector Machine Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Gocic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The monthly precipitation data from 29 stations in Serbia during the period of 1946–2012 were considered. Precipitation trends were calculated using linear regression method. Three CLINO periods (1961–1990, 1971–2000, and 1981–2010 in three subregions were analysed. The CLINO 1981–2010 period had a significant increasing trend. Spatial pattern of the precipitation concentration index (PCI was presented. For the purpose of PCI prediction, three Support Vector Machine (SVM models, namely, SVM coupled with the discrete wavelet transform (SVM-Wavelet, the firefly algorithm (SVM-FFA, and using the radial basis function (SVM-RBF, were developed and used. The estimation and prediction results of these models were compared with each other using three statistical indicators, that is, root mean square error, coefficient of determination, and coefficient of efficiency. The experimental results showed that an improvement in predictive accuracy and capability of generalization can be achieved by the SVM-Wavelet approach. Moreover, the results indicated the proposed SVM-Wavelet model can adequately predict the PCI.

  16. Bioinspired Computational Approach to Missing Value Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Edem Agbehadji

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Missing data occurs when values of variables in a dataset are not stored. Estimating these missing values is a significant step during the data cleansing phase of a big data management approach. The reason of missing data may be due to nonresponse or omitted entries. If these missing data are not handled properly, this may create inaccurate results during data analysis. Although a traditional method such as maximum likelihood method extrapolates missing values, this paper proposes a bioinspired method based on the behavior of birds, specifically the Kestrel bird. This paper describes the behavior and characteristics of the Kestrel bird, a bioinspired approach, in modeling an algorithm to estimate missing values. The proposed algorithm (KSA was compared with WSAMP, Firefly, and BAT algorithm. The results were evaluated using the mean of absolute error (MAE. A statistical test (Wilcoxon signed-rank test and Friedman test was conducted to test the performance of the algorithms. The results of Wilcoxon test indicate that time does not have a significant effect on the performance, and the quality of estimation between the paired algorithms was significant; the results of Friedman test ranked KSA as the best evolutionary algorithm.

  17. A New Hybrid Model Based on Data Preprocessing and an Intelligent Optimization Algorithm for Electrical Power System Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of electrical power system cannot only benefit the reasonable distribution and management in energy resources, but also satisfy the increasing demand for electricity. The electrical power system construction is often a pivotal part in the national and regional economic development plan. This paper constructs a hybrid model, known as the E-MFA-BP model, that can forecast indices in the electrical power system, including wind speed, electrical load, and electricity price. Firstly, the ensemble empirical mode decomposition can be applied to eliminate the noise of original time series data. After data preprocessing, the back propagation neural network model is applied to carry out the forecasting. Owing to the instability of its structure, the modified firefly algorithm is employed to optimize the weight and threshold values of back propagation to obtain a hybrid model with higher forecasting quality. Three experiments are carried out to verify the effectiveness of the model. Through comparison with other traditional well-known forecasting models, and models optimized by other optimization algorithms, the experimental results demonstrate that the hybrid model has the best forecasting performance.

  18. Performance of multiobjective computational intelligence algorithms for the routing and wavelength assignment problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Patiño

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an evaluation performance of computational intelligence algorithms based on the multiobjective theory for the solution of the Routing and Wavelength Assignment problem (RWA in optical networks. The study evaluates the Firefly Algorithm, the Differential Evolutionary Algorithm, the Simulated Annealing Algorithm and two versions of the Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm. The paper provides a description of the multiobjective algorithms; then, an evaluation based on the performance provided by the multiobjective algorithms versus mono-objective approaches when dealing with different traffic loads, different numberof wavelengths and wavelength conversion process over the NSFNet topology is presented. Simulation results show that monoobjective algorithms properly solve the RWA problem for low values of data traffic and low number of wavelengths. However, the multiobjective approaches adapt better to online traffic when the number of wavelengths available in the network increases as well as when wavelength conversion is implemented in the nodes.

  19. An Adaptive Model Predictive Load Frequency Control Method for Multi-Area Interconnected Power Systems with Photovoltaic Generations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Qiang Zeng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available As the penetration level of renewable distributed generations such as wind turbine generator and photovoltaic stations increases, the load frequency control issue of a multi-area interconnected power system becomes more challenging. This paper presents an adaptive model predictive load frequency control method for a multi-area interconnected power system with photovoltaic generation by considering some nonlinear features such as a dead band for governor and generation rate constraint for steam turbine. The dynamic characteristic of this system is formulated as a discrete-time state space model firstly. Then, the predictive dynamic model is obtained by introducing an expanded state vector, and rolling optimization of control signal is implemented based on a cost function by minimizing the weighted sum of square predicted errors and square future control values. The simulation results on a typical two-area power system consisting of photovoltaic and thermal generator have demonstrated the superiority of the proposed model predictive control method to these state-of-the-art control techniques such as firefly algorithm, genetic algorithm, and population extremal optimization-based proportional-integral control methods in cases of normal conditions, load disturbance and parameters uncertainty.

  20. A Grey Wolf Optimizer for Modular Granular Neural Networks for Human Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Sánchez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A grey wolf optimizer for modular neural network (MNN with a granular approach is proposed. The proposed method performs optimal granulation of data and design of modular neural networks architectures to perform human recognition, and to prove its effectiveness benchmark databases of ear, iris, and face biometric measures are used to perform tests and comparisons against other works. The design of a modular granular neural network (MGNN consists in finding optimal parameters of its architecture; these parameters are the number of subgranules, percentage of data for the training phase, learning algorithm, goal error, number of hidden layers, and their number of neurons. Nowadays, there is a great variety of approaches and new techniques within the evolutionary computing area, and these approaches and techniques have emerged to help find optimal solutions to problems or models and bioinspired algorithms are part of this area. In this work a grey wolf optimizer is proposed for the design of modular granular neural networks, and the results are compared against a genetic algorithm and a firefly algorithm in order to know which of these techniques provides better results when applied to human recognition.

  1. Application of genetic programming in shape optimization of concrete gravity dams by metaheuristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolhossein Baghlani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A gravity dam maintains its stability against the external loads by its massive size. Hence, minimization of the weight of the dam can remarkably reduce the construction costs. In this paper, a procedure for finding optimal shape of concrete gravity dams with a computationally efficient approach is introduced. Genetic programming (GP in conjunction with metaheuristics is used for this purpose. As a case study, shape optimization of the Bluestone dam is presented. Pseudo-dynamic analysis is carried out on a total number of 322 models in order to establish a database of the results. This database is then used to find appropriate relations based on GP for design criteria of the dam. This procedure eliminates the necessity of the time-consuming process of structural analyses in evolutionary optimization methods. The method is hybridized with three different metaheuristics, including particle swarm optimization, firefly algorithm (FA, and teaching–learning-based optimization, and a comparison is made. The results show that although all algorithms are very suitable, FA is slightly superior to other two algorithms in finding a lighter structure in less number of iterations. The proposed method reduces the weight of dam up to 14.6% with very low computational effort.

  2. Application of Heuristic and Metaheuristic Algorithms in Solving Constrained Weber Problem with Feasible Region Bounded by Arcs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Stojanović

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The continuous planar facility location problem with the connected region of feasible solutions bounded by arcs is a particular case of the constrained Weber problem. This problem is a continuous optimization problem which has a nonconvex feasible set of constraints. This paper suggests appropriate modifications of four metaheuristic algorithms which are defined with the aim of solving this type of nonconvex optimization problems. Also, a comparison of these algorithms to each other as well as to the heuristic algorithm is presented. The artificial bee colony algorithm, firefly algorithm, and their recently proposed improved versions for constrained optimization are appropriately modified and applied to the case study. The heuristic algorithm based on modified Weiszfeld procedure is also implemented for the purpose of comparison with the metaheuristic approaches. Obtained numerical results show that metaheuristic algorithms can be successfully applied to solve the instances of this problem of up to 500 constraints. Among these four algorithms, the improved version of artificial bee algorithm is the most efficient with respect to the quality of the solution, robustness, and the computational efficiency.

  3. The Application of Collaborative Business Intelligence Technology in the Hospital SPD Logistics Management Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    LIU, Tongzhu; SHEN, Aizong; HU, Xiaojian; TONG, Guixian; GU, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Background: We aimed to apply collaborative business intelligence (BI) system to hospital supply, processing and distribution (SPD) logistics management model. Methods: We searched Engineering Village database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and Google for articles (Published from 2011 to 2016), books, Web pages, etc., to understand SPD and BI related theories and recent research status. For the application of collaborative BI technology in the hospital SPD logistics management model, we realized this by leveraging data mining techniques to discover knowledge from complex data and collaborative techniques to improve the theories of business process. Results: For the application of BI system, we: (i) proposed a layered structure of collaborative BI system for intelligent management in hospital logistics; (ii) built data warehouse for the collaborative BI system; (iii) improved data mining techniques such as supporting vector machines (SVM) and swarm intelligence firefly algorithm to solve key problems in hospital logistics collaborative BI system; (iv) researched the collaborative techniques oriented to data and business process optimization to improve the business processes of hospital logistics management. Conclusion: Proper combination of SPD model and BI system will improve the management of logistics in the hospitals. The successful implementation of the study requires: (i) to innovate and improve the traditional SPD model and make appropriate implement plans and schedules for the application of BI system according to the actual situations of hospitals; (ii) the collaborative participation of internal departments in hospital including the department of information, logistics, nursing, medical and financial; (iii) timely response of external suppliers. PMID:28828316

  4. PRIVACY PRESERVING DATA MINING USING MULTIPLE OBJECTIVE OPTIMIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Shyamala Susan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Privacy preservation is that the most targeted issue in information publication, because the sensitive data shouldn't be leaked. For this sake, several privacy preservation data mining algorithms are proposed. In this work, feature selection using evolutionary algorithm and data masking coupled with slicing is treated as a multiple objective optimisation to preserve privacy. To start with, Genetic Algorithm (GA is carried out over the datasets to perceive the sensitive attributes and prioritise the attributes for treatment as per their determined sensitive level. In the next phase, to distort the data, noise is added to the higher level sensitive value using Hybrid Data Transformation (HDT method. In the following phase slicing algorithm groups the correlated attributes organized and by this means reduces the dimensionality by retaining the Advanced Clustering Algorithm (ACA. With the aim of getting the optimal dimensions of buckets, tuple segregating is accomplished by Metaheuristic Firefly Algorithm (MFA. The investigational consequences imply that the anticipated technique can reserve confidentiality and therefore the information utility is additionally high. Slicing algorithm allows the protection of association and usefulness in which effects in decreasing the information dimensionality and information loss. Performance analysis is created over OCC 7 and OCC 15 and our optimization method proves its effectiveness over two totally different datasets by showing 92.98% and 96.92% respectively.

  5. In vitro ischemia suppresses hypoxic induction of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α by inhibition of synthesis and not enhanced degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuppagounder, Saravanan S; Basso, Manuela; Sleiman, Sama F; Ma, Thong C; Speer, Rachel E; Smirnova, Natalya A; Gazaryan, Irina G; Ratan, Rajiv R

    2013-08-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) mediates a broad, conserved adaptive response to hypoxia, and the HIF pathway is a potential therapeutic target in cerebral ischemia. This study investigated the mechanism by which in vitro ischemia (oxygen-glucose deprivation; OGD) affects canonical hypoxic HIF-1α stabilization. We validated the use of a reporter containing the oxygen-dependent degradation domain of HIF-1α fused to firefly luciferase (ODD-luc) to monitor quantitatively distinct biochemical events leading to hypoxic HIF-1α expression or stabilization in a human neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y). When OGD was imposed following a 2-hr hypoxic stabilization of ODD-luc, the levels of the reporter were reduced, consistent with prior models proposing that OGD enhances HIF prolylhydroxylase (PHD) activity. Surprisingly, PHD inhibitors and proteasome inhibitors do not stabilize ODD-luc in OGD. Furthermore, OGD does not affect the half-life of ODD-luc protein following hypoxia, suggesting that OGD abrogates hypoxic HIF-1α induction by reducing HIF-1α synthesis rather than by enhancing its degradation. We observed ATP depletion under OGD vs. hypoxia and propose that ATP depletion enhances translational suppression, overcoming the selective synthesis of HIF concurrent with global decreases in protein synthesis in hypoxia. Taken together, these findings biochemically characterize a practical reporter for monitoring HIF-1α levels and support a novel model for HIF regulation in an in vitro model of human ischemia. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Core - shell upconversion nanoparticle - semiconductor heterostructures for photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Qing Qing; Rengaramchandran, Adith; Selvan, Subramanian Tamil; Paulmurugan, Ramasamy; Zhang, Yong

    2015-02-01

    Core-shell nanoparticles (CSNPs) with diverse chemical compositions have been attracting greater attention in recent years. However, it has been a challenge to develop CSNPs with different crystal structures due to the lattice mismatch of the nanocrystals. Here we report a rational design of core-shell heterostructure consisting of NaYF4:Yb,Tm upconversion nanoparticle (UCN) as the core and ZnO semiconductor as the shell for potential application in photodynamic therapy (PDT). The core-shell architecture (confirmed by TEM and STEM) enables for improving the loading efficiency of photosensitizer (ZnO) as the semiconductor is directly coated on the UCN core. Importantly, UCN acts as a transducer to sensitize ZnO and trigger the generation of cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) to induce cancer cell death. We also present a firefly luciferase (FLuc) reporter gene based molecular biosensor (ARE-FLuc) to measure the antioxidant signaling response activated in cells during the release of ROS in response to the exposure of CSNPs under 980 nm NIR light. The breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 and 4T1) exposed to CSNPs showed significant release of ROS as measured by aminophenyl fluorescein (APF) and ARE-FLuc luciferase assays, and ~45% cancer cell death as measured by MTT assay, when illuminated with 980 nm NIR light.

  7. A Novel Approach for Bi-Level Segmentation of Tuberculosis Bacilli Based on Meta-Heuristic Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AYAS, S.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Image thresholding is the most crucial step in microscopic image analysis to distinguish bacilli objects causing of tuberculosis disease. Therefore, several bi-level thresholding algorithms are widely used to increase the bacilli segmentation accuracy. However, bi-level microscopic image thresholding problem has not been solved using optimization algorithms. This paper introduces a novel approach for the segmentation problem using heuristic algorithms and presents visual and quantitative comparisons of heuristic and state-of-art thresholding algorithms. In this study, well-known heuristic algorithms such as Firefly Algorithm, Particle Swarm Optimization, Cuckoo Search, Flower Pollination are used to solve bi-level microscopic image thresholding problem, and the results are compared with the state-of-art thresholding algorithms such as K-Means, Fuzzy C-Means, Fast Marching. Kapur's entropy is chosen as the entropy measure to be maximized. Experiments are performed to make comparisons in terms of evaluation metrics and execution time. The quantitative results are calculated based on ground truth segmentation. According to the visual results, heuristic algorithms have better performance and the quantitative results are in accord with the visual results. Furthermore, experimental time comparisons show the superiority and effectiveness of the heuristic algorithms over traditional thresholding algorithms.

  8. Optimization of Charge/Discharge Coordination to Satisfy Network Requirements Using Heuristic Algorithms in Vehicle-to-Grid Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOGAN, A.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Image thresholding is the most crucial step in microscopic image analysis to distinguish bacilli objects causing of tuberculosis disease. Therefore, several bi-level thresholding algorithms are widely used to increase the bacilli segmentation accuracy. However, bi-level microscopic image thresholding problem has not been solved using optimization algorithms. This paper introduces a novel approach for the segmentation problem using heuristic algorithms and presents visual and quantitative comparisons of heuristic and state-of-art thresholding algorithms. In this study, well-known heuristic algorithms such as Firefly Algorithm, Particle Swarm Optimization, Cuckoo Search, Flower Pollination are used to solve bi-level microscopic image thresholding problem, and the results are compared with the state-of-art thresholding algorithms such as K-Means, Fuzzy C-Means, Fast Marching. Kapur's entropy is chosen as the entropy measure to be maximized. Experiments are performed to make comparisons in terms of evaluation metrics and execution time. The quantitative results are calculated based on ground truth segmentation. According to the visual results, heuristic algorithms have better performance and the quantitative results are in accord with the visual results. Furthermore, experimental time comparisons show the superiority and effectiveness of the heuristic algorithms over traditional thresholding algorithms.

  9. The Application of Collaborative Business Intelligence Technology in the Hospital SPD Logistics Management Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tongzhu; Shen, Aizong; Hu, Xiaojian; Tong, Guixian; Gu, Wei

    2017-06-01

    We aimed to apply collaborative business intelligence (BI) system to hospital supply, processing and distribution (SPD) logistics management model. We searched Engineering Village database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and Google for articles (Published from 2011 to 2016), books, Web pages, etc., to understand SPD and BI related theories and recent research status. For the application of collaborative BI technology in the hospital SPD logistics management model, we realized this by leveraging data mining techniques to discover knowledge from complex data and collaborative techniques to improve the theories of business process. For the application of BI system, we: (i) proposed a layered structure of collaborative BI system for intelligent management in hospital logistics; (ii) built data warehouse for the collaborative BI system; (iii) improved data mining techniques such as supporting vector machines (SVM) and swarm intelligence firefly algorithm to solve key problems in hospital logistics collaborative BI system; (iv) researched the collaborative techniques oriented to data and business process optimization to improve the business processes of hospital logistics management. Proper combination of SPD model and BI system will improve the management of logistics in the hospitals. The successful implementation of the study requires: (i) to innovate and improve the traditional SPD model and make appropriate implement plans and schedules for the application of BI system according to the actual situations of hospitals; (ii) the collaborative participation of internal departments in hospital including the department of information, logistics, nursing, medical and financial; (iii) timely response of external suppliers.

  10. Type 1 plaminogen activator inhibitor gene: Functional analysis and glucocorticoid regulation of its promoter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Zonneveld, A.J.; Curriden, S.A.; Loskutoff, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 is an important component of the fibrinolytic system and its biosynthesis is subject to complex regulation. To study this regulation at the level of transcription, the authors have identified and sequenced the promoter of the human plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 gene. Nuclease protection experiments were performed by using endothelial cell mRNA and the transcription initiation (cap) site was established. Sequence analysis of the 5' flanking region of the gene revealed a perfect TATA box at position -28 to position -23, the conserved distance from the cap site. Comparative functional studies with the firefly luciferase gene as a reporter gene showed that fragments derived from this 5' flanking region exhibited high promoter activity when transfected into bovine aortic endothelial cells and mouse Ltk - fibroblasts but were inactive when introduced into HeLa cells. These studies indicate that the fragments contain the plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 promoter and that it is expressed in a tissue-specific manner. Although the fragments were also silent in rat FTO2B hepatoma cells, their promoter activity could be induced up to 40-fold with the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone. Promoter deletion mapping experiments and studies involving the fusion of promoter fragments to a heterologous gene indicated that dexamethasone induction is mediated by a glucocorticoid responsive element with enhancer-like properties located within the region between nucleotides -305 and +75 of the plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 gene

  11. Development and Validation of a Novel Dual Luciferase Reporter Gene Assay to Quantify Ebola Virus VP24 Inhibition of IFN Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Fanunza

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The interferon (IFN system is the first line of defense against viral infections. Evasion of IFN signaling by Ebola viral protein 24 (VP24 is a critical event in the pathogenesis of the infection and, hence, VP24 is a potential target for drug development. Since no drugs target VP24, the identification of molecules able to inhibit VP24, restoring and possibly enhancing the IFN response, is a goal of concern. Accordingly, we developed a dual signal firefly and Renilla luciferase cell-based drug screening assay able to quantify IFN-mediated induction of Interferon Stimulated Genes (ISGs and its inhibition by VP24. Human Embryonic Kidney 293T (HEK293T cells were transiently transfected with a luciferase reporter gene construct driven by the promoter of ISGs, Interferon-Stimulated Response Element (ISRE. Stimulation of cells with IFN-α activated the IFN cascade leading to the expression of ISRE. Cotransfection of cells with a plasmid expressing VP24 cloned from a virus isolated during the last 2014 outbreak led to the inhibition of ISRE transcription, quantified by a luminescent signal. To adapt this system to test a large number of compounds, we performed it in 96-well plates; optimized the assay analyzing different parameters; and validated the system by calculating the Z′- and Z-factor, which showed values of 0.62 and 0.53 for IFN-α stimulation assay and VP24 inhibition assay, respectively, indicative of robust assay performance.

  12. Transgenic Mouse Model Harboring the Transcriptional Fusion Ccl20-Luciferase as a Novel Reporter of Pro-Inflammatory Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crispo, Martina; Van Maele, Laurye; Tabareau, Julien; Cayet, Delphine; Errea, Agustina; Ferreira, Ana María; Rumbo, Martin; Sirard, Jean Claude

    2013-01-01

    The chemokine CCL20, the unique ligand of CCR6 functions as an attractant of immune cells. Expression of CCL20 is induced by Toll-like Receptor (TLR) signaling or proinflammatory cytokine stimulation. However CCL20 is also constitutively produced at specific epithelial sites of mucosa. This expression profile is achieved by transcriptional regulation. In the present work we characterized regulatory features of mouse Ccl20 gene. Transcriptional fusions between the mouse Ccl20 promoter and the firefly luciferase (luc) encoding gene were constructed and assessed in in vitro and in vivo assays. We found that liver CCL20 expression and luciferase activity were upregulated by systemic administration of the TLR5 agonist flagellin. Using shRNA and dominant negative form specific for mouse TLR5, we showed that this expression was controlled by TLR5. To address in situ the regulation of gene activity, a transgenic mouse line harboring a functional Ccl20-luc fusion was generated. The luciferase expression was highly concordant with Ccl20 expression in different tissues. Our data indicate that the transgenic mouse model can be used to monitor activation of innate response in vivo. PMID:24265691

  13. A New Hybrid Metaheuristic Algorithm for Wind Farm Micrositing

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    SHAFIQ-UR-REHMAN MASSAN

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on proposing a new algorithm, referred as HMA (Hybrid Metaheuristic Algorithm for the solution of the WTO (Wind Turbine Optimization problem. It is well documented that turbines located behind one another face a power loss due to the obstruction of the wind due to wake loss. It is required to reduce this wake loss by the effective placement of turbines using a new HMA. This HMA is derived from the two basic algorithms i.e. DEA (Differential Evolution Algorithm and the FA (Firefly Algorithm. The function of optimization is undertaken on the N.O. Jensen model. The blending of DEA and FA into HMA are discussed and the new algorithm HMA is implemented maximize power and minimize the cost in a WTO problem. The results by HMA have been compared with GA (Genetic Algorithm used in some previous studies. The successfully calculated total power produced and cost per unit turbine for a wind farm by using HMA and its comparison with past approaches using single algorithms have shown that there is a significant advantage of using the HMA as compared to the use of single algorithms. The first time implementation of a new algorithm by blending two single algorithms is a significant step towards learning the behavior of algorithms and their added advantages by using them together.

  14. High-throughput Agrobacterium-mediated barley transformation

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    Snape John W

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant transformation is an invaluable tool for basic plant research, as well as a useful technique for the direct improvement of commercial crops. Barley (Hordeum vulgare is the fourth most abundant cereal crop in the world. It also provides a useful model for the study of wheat, which has a larger and more complex genome. Most existing barley transformation methodologies are either complex or have low ( Results A robust, simple and reproducible barley transformation protocol has been developed that yields average transformation efficiencies of 25%. This protocol is based on the infection of immature barley embryos with Agrobacterium strain AGL1, carrying vectors from the pBract series that contain the hpt gene (conferring hygromycin resistance as a selectable marker. Results of large scale experiments utilising the luc (firefly luciferase gene as a reporter are described. The method presented here has been used to produce hundreds of independent, transgenic plant lines and we show that a large proportion of these lines contain single copies of the luc gene. Conclusion This protocol demonstrates significant improvements in both efficiency and ease of use over existing barley transformation methods. This opens up opportunities for the development of functional genomics resources in barley.

  15. New generation low power radiation survey instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waechter, D.A.; Bjarke, G.O.; Trujillo, F.; Umbarger, C.J.; Wolf, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    A number of new, ultra-low-powered radiation instruments have recently been developed at Los Alamos. Among these are two instruments which use a novel power source to eliminate costly batteries. The newly developed gamma detecting radiac, nicknamed the Firefly, and the alpha particle detecting instrument, called the Simple Cordless Alpha Monitor, both use recent advances in miniaturization and powersaving electronics to yield devices which are small, rugged, and very power-frugal. The two instruments consume so little power that the need for batteries to run them is eliminated. They are, instead, powered by a charged capacitor which will operate the instruments for an hour or more. Use of a capacitor as a power source eliminates many problems commonly associated with battery-operated instruments, such as having to open the case to change batteries, battery storage life, availability of batteries in the field, and some savings in weight. Both line power and mechanical sources are used to charge the storage capacitors which power the instruments

  16. Artificial Intelligence Mechanisms on Interactive Modified Simplex Method with Desirability Function for Optimising Surface Lapping Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongchanun Luangpaiboon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A study has been made to optimise the influential parameters of surface lapping process. Lapping time, lapping speed, downward pressure, and charging pressure were chosen from the preliminary studies as parameters to determine process performances in terms of material removal, lap width, and clamp force. The desirability functions of the-nominal-the-best were used to compromise multiple responses into the overall desirability function level or D response. The conventional modified simplex or Nelder-Mead simplex method and the interactive desirability function are performed to optimise online the parameter levels in order to maximise the D response. In order to determine the lapping process parameters effectively, this research then applies two powerful artificial intelligence optimisation mechanisms from harmony search and firefly algorithms. The recommended condition of (lapping time, lapping speed, downward pressure, and charging pressure at (33, 35, 6.0, and 5.0 has been verified by performing confirmation experiments. It showed that the D response level increased to 0.96. When compared with the current operating condition, there is a decrease of the material removal and lap width with the improved process performance indices of 2.01 and 1.14, respectively. Similarly, there is an increase of the clamp force with the improved process performance index of 1.58.

  17. A New Biobjective Model to Optimize Integrated Redundancy Allocation and Reliability-Centered Maintenance Problems in a System Using Metaheuristics

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    Shima MohammadZadeh Dogahe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel integrated model is proposed to optimize the redundancy allocation problem (RAP and the reliability-centered maintenance (RCM simultaneously. A system of both repairable and nonrepairable components has been considered. In this system, electronic components are nonrepairable while mechanical components are mostly repairable. For nonrepairable components, a redundancy allocation problem is dealt with to determine optimal redundancy strategy and number of redundant components to be implemented in each subsystem. In addition, a maintenance scheduling problem is considered for repairable components in order to identify the best maintenance policy and optimize system reliability. Both active and cold standby redundancy strategies have been taken into account for electronic components. Also, net present value of the secondary cost including operational and maintenance costs has been calculated. The problem is formulated as a biobjective mathematical programming model aiming to reach a tradeoff between system reliability and cost. Three metaheuristic algorithms are employed to solve the proposed model: Nondominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II, Multiobjective Particle Swarm Optimization (MOPSO, and Multiobjective Firefly Algorithm (MOFA. Several test problems are solved using the mentioned algorithms to test efficiency and effectiveness of the solution approaches and obtained results are analyzed.

  18. Enhancing the response of CALUX and CAFLUX cell bioassays for quantitative detection of dioxin-like compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHAO, Bin; BASTON, David S.; KHAN, Elaine; SORRENTINO, Claudio; DENISON, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Reporter genes produce a protein product in transfected cells that can be easily measured in intact or lysed cells and they have been extensively used in numerous basic and applied research applications. Over the past 10 years, reporter gene assays have been widely accepted and used for analysis of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and related dioxin-like compounds in various types of matrices, such as biological, environmental, food and feed samples, given that high-resolution instrumental analysis techniques are impractical for large-scale screening analysis. The most sensitive cell-based reporter gene bioassay systems developed are the mechanism-based CALUX (Chemically Activated Luciferase Expression) and CAFLUX (Chemically Activated Fluorescent Expression) bioassays, which utilize recombinant cell lines containing stably transfected dioxin (AhR)-responsive firefly luciferase or enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) reporter genes, respectively. While the current CALUX and CAFLUX bioassays are very sensitive, increasing their lower limit of sensitivity, magnitude of response and dynamic range for chemical detection would significantly increase their utility, particularly for those samples that contain low levels of dioxin-like HAHs (i.e., serum). In this study, we report that the addition of modulators of cell signaling pathways or modification of cell culture conditions results in significant improvement in the magnitude and overall responsiveness of the existing CALUX and CAFLUX cell bioassays. PMID:21394221

  19. Continuous, real-time bioimaging of chemical bioavailability and toxicology using autonomously bioluminescent human cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tingting; Close, Dan M.; Webb, James D.; Price, Sarah L.; Ripp, Steven A.; Sayler, Gary S.

    2013-05-01

    Bioluminescent imaging is an emerging biomedical surveillance strategy that uses external cameras to detect in vivo light generated in small animal models of human physiology or in vitro light generated in tissue culture or tissue scaffold mimics of human anatomy. The most widely utilized of reporters is the firefly luciferase (luc) gene; however, it generates light only upon addition of a chemical substrate, thus only generating intermittent single time point data snapshots. To overcome this disadvantage, we have demonstrated substrate-independent bioluminescent imaging using an optimized bacterial bioluminescence (lux) system. The lux reporter produces bioluminescence autonomously using components found naturally within the cell, thereby allowing imaging to occur continuously and in real-time over the lifetime of the host. We have validated this technology in human cells with demonstrated chemical toxicological profiling against exotoxin exposures at signal strengths comparable to existing luc systems (~1.33 × 107 photons/second). As a proof-in-principle demonstration, we have engineered breast carcinoma cells to express bioluminescence for real-time screening of endocrine disrupting chemicals and validated detection of 17β-estradiol (EC50 = ~ 10 pM). These and other applications of this new reporter technology will be discussed as potential new pathways towards improved models of target chemical bioavailability, toxicology, efficacy, and human safety.

  20. Visual Servoing for an Autonomous Hexarotor Using a Neural Network Based PID Controller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Franco, Carlos; Gomez-Avila, Javier; Alanis, Alma Y; Arana-Daniel, Nancy; Villaseñor, Carlos

    2017-08-12

    In recent years, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have gained significant attention. However, we face two major drawbacks when working with UAVs: high nonlinearities and unknown position in 3D space since it is not provided with on-board sensors that can measure its position with respect to a global coordinate system. In this paper, we present a real-time implementation of a servo control, integrating vision sensors, with a neural proportional integral derivative (PID), in order to develop an hexarotor image based visual servo control (IBVS) that knows the position of the robot by using a velocity vector as a reference to control the hexarotor position. This integration requires a tight coordination between control algorithms, models of the system to be controlled, sensors, hardware and software platforms and well-defined interfaces, to allow the real-time implementation, as well as the design of different processing stages with their respective communication architecture. All of these issues and others provoke the idea that real-time implementations can be considered as a difficult task. For the purpose of showing the effectiveness of the sensor integration and control algorithm to address these issues on a high nonlinear system with noisy sensors as cameras, experiments were performed on the Asctec Firefly on-board computer, including both simulation and experimenta results.

  1. Synthesis of concentric circular antenna arrays using dragonfly algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babayigit, B.

    2018-05-01

    Due to the strong non-linear relationship between the array factor and the array elements, concentric circular antenna array (CCAA) synthesis problem is challenging. Nature-inspired optimisation techniques have been playing an important role in solving array synthesis problems. Dragonfly algorithm (DA) is a novel nature-inspired optimisation technique which is based on the static and dynamic swarming behaviours of dragonflies in nature. This paper presents the design of CCAAs to get low sidelobes using DA. The effectiveness of the proposed DA is investigated in two different (with and without centre element) cases of two three-ring (having 4-, 6-, 8-element or 8-, 10-, 12-element) CCAA design. The radiation pattern of each design cases is obtained by finding optimal excitation weights of the array elements using DA. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the other state-of-the-art techniques (symbiotic organisms search, biogeography-based optimisation, sequential quadratic programming, opposition-based gravitational search algorithm, cat swarm optimisation, firefly algorithm, evolutionary programming) for all design cases. DA can be a promising technique for electromagnetic problems.

  2. ATPase inhibitor based luciferase assay for prolonged and enhanced ATP pool measurement as an efficient fish freshness indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Rajeev; Priyanka, B S; Thakur, M S

    2014-07-01

    The nucleotide degradation pathway in somatic cells leads to the accumulation of products such as hypoxanthine and inosine, which are commonly used as fish and meat freshness indicators. Assays based on these molecules cannot differentiate the postmortem time over a short period of time (5-10 h). Further, quantification of these degradation products is cumbersome, costly and time-consuming. For the proposed assay, optimal concentrations of 30 and 2 mM, respectively, for the ATPase inhibitors sodium orthovanadate and EDTA were found. Further, it was observed that a firefly luciferase based assay could enhance the sensitivity levels up to 165-fold at 30 °C. In addition, it was observed that the sensitivity for ATP assay was enhanced up to 60-fold even after 12 h. The limit of detection for the ATP assay was 1 pM, unlike other conventional methods, which are sensitive only up to micromolar levels. Moreover, as little as 0.044 g fish fillet was required for the assay, and no time-consuming sample preparation was necessary. Luminescence of prolonged duration was observed in harvested fish kept at -20 °C in comparison with fish kept at 4 and 30 °C, which reflects the shelf life of fish preserved at lower temperatures.

  3. Real-time bioluminescence imaging of macroencapsulated fibroblasts reveals allograft protection in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarantal, Alice F; Lee, C Chang I; Itkin-Ansari, Pamela

    2009-07-15

    Encapsulation of cells has the potential to eliminate the need for immunosuppression for cellular transplantation. Recently, the TheraCyte device was shown to provide long-term immunoprotection of murine islets in a mouse model of diabetes. In this report, translational studies were undertaken using skin fibroblasts from an unrelated rhesus monkey donor that were transduced with an HIV-1-derived lentiviral vector expressing firefly luciferase permitting the use of bioluminescence imaging (BLI) to monitor cell survival over time and in a noninvasive manner. Encapsulated cells were transplanted subcutaneously (n=2), or cells were injected without encapsulation (n=1) and outcomes compared. BLI was performed to monitor cell survival. The BLI signal from the encapsulated cells remained robust postinsertion and in one animal persisted for up to 1 year. In contrast, the control animal that received unencapsulated cells exhibited a complete loss of cell signal within 14 days. These data demonstrate that TheraCyte encapsulation of allogeneic cells provides robust immune protection in transplanted rhesus monkeys.

  4. Molecular descriptor subset selection in theoretical peptide quantitative structure-retention relationship model development using nature-inspired optimization algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žuvela, Petar; Liu, J Jay; Macur, Katarzyna; Bączek, Tomasz

    2015-10-06

    In this work, performance of five nature-inspired optimization algorithms, genetic algorithm (GA), particle swarm optimization (PSO), artificial bee colony (ABC), firefly algorithm (FA), and flower pollination algorithm (FPA), was compared in molecular descriptor selection for development of quantitative structure-retention relationship (QSRR) models for 83 peptides that originate from eight model proteins. The matrix with 423 descriptors was used as input, and QSRR models based on selected descriptors were built using partial least squares (PLS), whereas root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) was used as a fitness function for their selection. Three performance criteria, prediction accuracy, computational cost, and the number of selected descriptors, were used to evaluate the developed QSRR models. The results show that all five variable selection methods outperform interval PLS (iPLS), sparse PLS (sPLS), and the full PLS model, whereas GA is superior because of its lowest computational cost and higher accuracy (RMSEP of 5.534%) with a smaller number of variables (nine descriptors). The GA-QSRR model was validated initially through Y-randomization. In addition, it was successfully validated with an external testing set out of 102 peptides originating from Bacillus subtilis proteomes (RMSEP of 22.030%). Its applicability domain was defined, from which it was evident that the developed GA-QSRR exhibited strong robustness. All the sources of the model's error were identified, thus allowing for further application of the developed methodology in proteomics.

  5. In Vivo Monitoring of Pancreatic β-Cells in a Transgenic Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J. Smith

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available We generated a transgenic mouse model (RIP-luc for the in vivo monitoring of pancreatic islet mass and function in response to metabolic disease. Using the rat insulin promoter fused to firefly luciferase, and noninvasive technology to detect luciferase activity, we tracked changes in reporter signal during metabolic disease states and correlated the changes in luciferase signal with metabolic status of the mouse. Transgene expression was found to be specific to the pancreatic islets in this transgenic model. Basal transgene expression was tracked in male and female mice fed either a chow or a high-fat diet and in response to treatment with streptozotocin. Pancreatic bioluminescent signal increased in mice fed a high-fat diet compared with chow-fed animals. In a model of chemically induced diabetes, the bioluminescent signal decreased in accordance with the onset of diabetes and reduction of islet β-cell number. Preliminary studies using islets transplanted from this transgenic model suggest that in vivo image analysis can also be used to monitor transplanted islet viability and survival in the host. This transgenic model is a useful tool for in vivo studies of pancreatic β-cells and as a donor for islet transplantation studies.

  6. Towards enhancement of performance of K-means clustering using nature-inspired optimization algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Simon; Deb, Suash; Yang, Xin-She; Zhuang, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Traditional K-means clustering algorithms have the drawback of getting stuck at local optima that depend on the random values of initial centroids. Optimization algorithms have their advantages in guiding iterative computation to search for global optima while avoiding local optima. The algorithms help speed up the clustering process by converging into a global optimum early with multiple search agents in action. Inspired by nature, some contemporary optimization algorithms which include Ant, Bat, Cuckoo, Firefly, and Wolf search algorithms mimic the swarming behavior allowing them to cooperatively steer towards an optimal objective within a reasonable time. It is known that these so-called nature-inspired optimization algorithms have their own characteristics as well as pros and cons in different applications. When these algorithms are combined with K-means clustering mechanism for the sake of enhancing its clustering quality by avoiding local optima and finding global optima, the new hybrids are anticipated to produce unprecedented performance. In this paper, we report the results of our evaluation experiments on the integration of nature-inspired optimization methods into K-means algorithms. In addition to the standard evaluation metrics in evaluating clustering quality, the extended K-means algorithms that are empowered by nature-inspired optimization methods are applied on image segmentation as a case study of application scenario.

  7. O menino e o efeito pirilampo: um estudo em psicossomática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Campos de Cerqueira Leite

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo discutir um fenômeno psicossomático - a alopécia - que marca a história de Yuri desde os seus três anos de idade. A metodologia utilizada é a de um estudo de caso, evidenciando os significantes que foram timbrados nessa criança com síndrome de Down e o lugar por ela ocupado no discurso parental. Fica evidente que o fenômeno psicossomático ataca o real do corpo, produzindo um imaginário familiar impossibilitado de ser atravessado pela ordem do simbólico. A direção do tratamento é a de produzir cadeia nas complexas relações entre as funções biológicas do corpo e da linguagem.The boy and the fire-fly effect. A study on psychosomatics. This work aims at discussing a psychosomatic phenomenon - alopecia - that has been marking the history of Yuri since he was three years old. The methodology used is that of a case study, which evidences the significant that were stamped on that child with Down syndrome and the place he occupies in the discourse of his parents. Obviously, this psychosomatic phenomenon attacks the real of the body, producing a family imaginary cut from the symbolic order. The treatment direction is to produce chains among the complex relationships between the biological functions of the body and the language.

  8. Mode pumping experiments on biomolecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austin, R.H.; Erramilli, S.; Xie, A.; Schramm, A.

    1995-01-01

    We will explore several aspects of protein dynamics and energy transfer that can be explored by using the intense, picosecond, tunable mid-IR output of the FEL. In order of appearance they are: (1) Saturation recovery and inter-level coupling of the low temperature amide-I band in acetanilide. This is a continuation of earlier experiments to test soliton models in crystalline hydrogen bonded solids. In this experiment we utilize the sub-picosecond time resolution and low repetition rate of the Stanford SCLA FEL to do both T 1 and T 2 relaxation measurements at 1650 cm -1 . (2) Probing the influence of collective dynamics in sensory rhodopsin. In this experiment we use the FIR output of the Stanford FIREFLY FEL to determine the lifetime of collective modes in the photo-active protein sensory rhodopsin, and begin experiments on the influence of collective modes on retinal reaction dynamics. (3) Probing the transition states of enzymes. This experiment, in the initial stages, attempts to use the intense IR output of the FEL to probe and influence the reaction path of a transition state analog for the protein nucleoside hydrolase. The transition state of the inosine substrate is believed to have critical modes softened by the protein so that bond-breaking paths show absorption at approximately 800 cm -1 . A form of action spectrum using FEL excitation will be used to probe this state

  9. Sodium Iodide Symporter PET and BLI Noninvasively Reveal Mesoangioblast Survival in Dystrophic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Holvoet

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Muscular dystrophies are a heterogeneous group of myopathies, characterized by muscle weakness and degeneration, without curative treatment. Mesoangioblasts (MABs have been proposed as a potential regenerative therapy. To improve our understanding of the in vivo behavior of MABs and the effect of different immunosuppressive therapies, like cyclosporine A or co-stimulation-adhesion blockade therapy, on cell survival noninvasive cell monitoring is required. Therefore, cells were transduced with a lentiviral vector encoding firefly luciferase (Fluc and the human sodium iodide transporter (hNIS to allow cell monitoring via bioluminescence imaging (BLI and small-animal positron emission tomography (PET. Non-H2 matched mMABs were injected in the femoral artery of dystrophic mice and were clearly visible via small-animal PET and BLI. Based on noninvasive imaging data, we were able to show that co-stim was clearly superior to CsA in reducing cell rejection and this was mediated via a reduction in cytotoxic T cells and upregulation of regulatory T cells.

  10. Brazilian Bioluminescent Beetles: Reflections on Catching Glimpses of Light in the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ETELVINO J.H. BECHARA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Bioluminescence - visible and cold light emission by living organisms - is a worldwide phenomenon, reported in terrestrial and marine environments since ancient times. Light emission from microorganisms, fungi, plants and animals may have arisen as an evolutionary response against oxygen toxicity and was appropriated for sexual attraction, predation, aposematism, and camouflage. Light emission results from the oxidation of a substrate, luciferin, by molecular oxygen, catalyzed by a luciferase, producing oxyluciferin in the excited singlet state, which decays to the ground state by fluorescence emission. Brazilian Atlantic forests and Cerrados are rich in luminescent beetles, which produce the same luciferin but slightly mutated luciferases, which result in distinct color emissions from green to red depending on the species. This review focuses on chemical and biological aspects of Brazilian luminescent beetles (Coleoptera belonging to the Lampyridae (fireflies, Elateridae (click-beetles, and Phengodidae (railroad-worms families. The ATP-dependent mechanism of bioluminescence, the role of luciferase tuning the color of light emission, the “luminous termite mounds” in Central Brazil, the cooperative roles of luciferase and superoxide dismutase against oxygen toxicity, and the hypothesis on the evolutionary origin of luciferases are highlighted. Finally, we point out analytical uses of beetle bioluminescence for biological, clinical, environmental, and industrial samples.

  11. Daily Average Wind Power Interval Forecasts Based on an Optimal Adaptive-Network-Based Fuzzy Inference System and Singular Spectrum Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongrong Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy has increasingly played a vital role in mitigating conventional resource shortages. Nevertheless, the stochastic nature of wind poses a great challenge when attempting to find an accurate forecasting model for wind power. Therefore, precise wind power forecasts are of primary importance to solve operational, planning and economic problems in the growing wind power scenario. Previous research has focused efforts on the deterministic forecast of wind power values, but less attention has been paid to providing information about wind energy. Based on an optimal Adaptive-Network-Based Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS and Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA, this paper develops a hybrid uncertainty forecasting model, IFASF (Interval Forecast-ANFIS-SSA-Firefly Alogorithm, to obtain the upper and lower bounds of daily average wind power, which is beneficial for the practical operation of both the grid company and independent power producers. To strengthen the practical ability of this developed model, this paper presents a comparison between IFASF and other benchmarks, which provides a general reference for this aspect for statistical or artificially intelligent interval forecast methods. The comparison results show that the developed model outperforms eight benchmarks and has a satisfactory forecasting effectiveness in three different wind farms with two time horizons.

  12. Autonomously bioluminescent mammalian cells for continuous and real-time monitoring of cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tingting; Close, Dan M; Webb, James D; Ripp, Steven A; Sayler, Gary S

    2013-10-28

    Mammalian cell-based in vitro assays have been widely employed as alternatives to animal testing for toxicological studies but have been limited due to the high monetary and time costs of parallel sample preparation that are necessitated due to the destructive nature of firefly luciferase-based screening methods. This video describes the utilization of autonomously bioluminescent mammalian cells, which do not require the destructive addition of a luciferin substrate, as an inexpensive and facile method for monitoring the cytotoxic effects of a compound of interest. Mammalian cells stably expressing the full bacterial bioluminescence (luxCDABEfrp) gene cassette autonomously produce an optical signal that peaks at 490 nm without the addition of an expensive and possibly interfering luciferin substrate, excitation by an external energy source, or destruction of the sample that is traditionally performed during optical imaging procedures. This independence from external stimulation places the burden for maintaining the bioluminescent reaction solely on the cell, meaning that the resultant signal is only detected during active metabolism. This characteristic makes the lux-expressing cell line an excellent candidate for use as a biosentinel against cytotoxic effects because changes in bioluminescent production are indicative of adverse effects on cellular growth and metabolism. Similarly, the autonomous nature and lack of required sample destruction permits repeated imaging of the same sample in real-time throughout the period of toxicant exposure and can be performed across multiple samples using existing imaging equipment in an automated fashion.

  13. Flexible Measurement of Bioluminescent Reporters Using an Automated Longitudinal Luciferase Imaging Gas- and Temperature-optimized Recorder (ALLIGATOR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Priya; Hoyle, Nathaniel P; O'Neill, John S

    2017-12-13

    Luciferase-based reporters of cellular gene expression are in widespread use for both longitudinal and end-point assays of biological activity. In circadian rhythms research, for example, clock gene fusions with firefly luciferase give rise to robust rhythms in cellular bioluminescence that persist over many days. Technical limitations associated with photomultiplier tubes (PMT) or conventional microscopy-based methods for bioluminescence quantification have typically demanded that cells and tissues be maintained under quite non-physiological conditions during recording, with a trade-off between sensitivity and throughput. Here, we report a refinement of prior methods that allows long-term bioluminescence imaging with high sensitivity and throughput which supports a broad range of culture conditions, including variable gas and humidity control, and that accepts many different tissue culture plates and dishes. This automated longitudinal luciferase imaging gas- and temperature-optimized recorder (ALLIGATOR) also allows the observation of spatial variations in luciferase expression across a cell monolayer or tissue, which cannot readily be observed by traditional methods. We highlight how the ALLIGATOR provides vastly increased flexibility for the detection of luciferase activity when compared with existing methods.

  14. Rapid drug susceptibility test of mycobacterium tuberculosis by bioluminescence sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bin; Xu, Shunqing; Chen, Zifei; Zhou, Yikai

    2001-09-01

    With the persisting increase of drug-resistant stains of M. Tuberculosis around the world, rapid and sensitive detection of antibiotic of M. Tuberculosis is becoming more and more important. In the present study, drug susceptibility of M. tuberculosis were detected by recombination mycobacteriophage combined with bioluminescence sensor. It is based on the use of recombination mycobacteriophage which can express firefly luciferase when it infects viable mycobacteria, and can effectively produce quantifiable photon. Meanwhile, in mycobacterium cells treated with active antibiotic, no light is observed. The emitted light is recorded by a bioluminscence sensor, so the result of drug-resistant test can be determined by the naked eye. 159 stains of M. tuberculosis were applied to this test on their resistant to rifampin, streptomycin and isoniazid. It is found that the agreement of this assay with Liewenstein- Jensen slat is: rifampin 95.60 percent, isoniazid 91.82 percent, streptomycin 88.68 percent, which showed that it is a fast and practical method to scene and detect drug resistant of mycobacterium stains.

  15. Consensus and Synchronization in Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Synchronization in complex networks is one of the most captivating cooperative phenomena in nature and has been shown to be of fundamental importance in such varied circumstances as the continued existence of species, the functioning of heart pacemaker cells, epileptic seizures, neuronal firing in the feline visual cortex and cognitive tasks in humans. E.g. coupled visual and acoustic interactions make fireflies flash, crickets chirp, and an audience clap in unison. On the other hand, in distributed systems and networks, it is often necessary for some or all of the nodes to calculate some function of certain parameters, e.g. sink nodes in sensor networks being tasked with calculating the average measurement value of all the sensors or multi-agent systems in which all agents are required to coordinate their speed and direction. When all nodes calculate the same function of the initial values in the system, they are said to reach consensus. Such concepts - sometimes also called state agreement, rendezvous, and ...

  16. "Past the brink of tacit support": Fan activism and the Whedonverses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya R. Cochran

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available For decades, the phrase fan activism has referred almost exclusively to television fans' efforts to save their favorite series. These campaigns—dating at least as far back as the original Star Trek (1966–69 to the more recent Farscape (1999–2003, Firefly (2002–3, Jericho (2006–8, and Veronica Mars (2004–7, among others—appear effective at catalyzing fan involvement, yet are largely ineffective at saving series. In other words, while it may achieve some secondary, albeit significant, victories such as tighter-knit relationships among fans, fan crusading rarely seems to end with the supposed primary goal of activist labors: more installments of the texts devotees admire and love. Recently, however, the phenomenon of fan activism has taken on a new dimension, and scholars are beginning to take note by asking several important questions. As Henry Jenkins asks, how does a fan move from "participatory culture to public participation"? And what does this move mean? As one might expect, there are many reasons for and implications that emerge from this reallocation of such devoted attention. To explore some of those reasons and implications, the author considers some of the devotees of television auteur Joss Whedon, their activist efforts, and the distinct ways Whedon inspires a politically participatory fan following. Ultimately, the author contends that through their activism, many enthusiasts of the Whedonverses extend the worlds of Whedon's stories by consciously constructing a sociopolitical, feminist identity.

  17. Poly(ester-anhydride):poly(beta-amino ester) micro- and nanospheres: DNA encapsulation and cellular transfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Blaine A; Burdick, Jason A; Little, Steve R; Langer, Robert

    2005-11-04

    Poly(ester-anhydride) delivery devices allow flexibility regarding carrier dimensions (micro- versus nanospheres), degradation rate (anhydride versus ester hydrolysis), and surface labeling (through the anhydride functional unit), and were therefore tested for DNA encapsulation and transfection of a macrophage P388D1 cell line. Poly(l-lactic acid-co-sebacic anhydride) and poly(l-lactic acid-co-adipic anhydride) were synthesized through melt condensation, mixed with 25 wt.% poly(beta-amino ester), and formulated with plasmid DNA (encoding firefly luciferase) into micro- and nanospheres using a double emulsion/solvent evaporation technique. The micro- and nanospheres were then characterized (size, morphology, zeta potential, DNA release) and assayed for DNA encapsulation and cellular transfection over a range of poly(ester-anhydride) copolymer ratios. Poly(ester-anhydride):poly(beta-amino ester) composite microspheres (6-12 microm) and nanospheres (449-1031 nm), generated with copolymers containing between 0 and 25% total polyanhydride content, encapsulated plasmid DNA (>or=20% encapsulation efficiency). Within this polyanhydride range, poly(adipic anhydride) copolymers provided DNA encapsulation at an increased anhydride content (10%, microspheres; 10-25%, nanospheres) compared to poly(sebacic anhydride) copolymers (1%, microspheres and nanospheres) with cellular transfection correlating with the observed DNA encapsulation.

  18. Towards Enhancement of Performance of K-Means Clustering Using Nature-Inspired Optimization Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Suash; Yang, Xin-She

    2014-01-01

    Traditional K-means clustering algorithms have the drawback of getting stuck at local optima that depend on the random values of initial centroids. Optimization algorithms have their advantages in guiding iterative computation to search for global optima while avoiding local optima. The algorithms help speed up the clustering process by converging into a global optimum early with multiple search agents in action. Inspired by nature, some contemporary optimization algorithms which include Ant, Bat, Cuckoo, Firefly, and Wolf search algorithms mimic the swarming behavior allowing them to cooperatively steer towards an optimal objective within a reasonable time. It is known that these so-called nature-inspired optimization algorithms have their own characteristics as well as pros and cons in different applications. When these algorithms are combined with K-means clustering mechanism for the sake of enhancing its clustering quality by avoiding local optima and finding global optima, the new hybrids are anticipated to produce unprecedented performance. In this paper, we report the results of our evaluation experiments on the integration of nature-inspired optimization methods into K-means algorithms. In addition to the standard evaluation metrics in evaluating clustering quality, the extended K-means algorithms that are empowered by nature-inspired optimization methods are applied on image segmentation as a case study of application scenario. PMID:25202730

  19. Brazilian Bioluminescent Beetles: Reflections on Catching Glimpses of Light in the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechara, Etelvino J H; Stevani, Cassius V

    2018-01-01

    Bioluminescence - visible and cold light emission by living organisms - is a worldwide phenomenon, reported in terrestrial and marine environments since ancient times. Light emission from microorganisms, fungi, plants and animals may have arisen as an evolutionary response against oxygen toxicity and was appropriated for sexual attraction, predation, aposematism, and camouflage. Light emission results from the oxidation of a substrate, luciferin, by molecular oxygen, catalyzed by a luciferase, producing oxyluciferin in the excited singlet state, which decays to the ground state by fluorescence emission. Brazilian Atlantic forests and Cerrados are rich in luminescent beetles, which produce the same luciferin but slightly mutated luciferases, which result in distinct color emissions from green to red depending on the species. This review focuses on chemical and biological aspects of Brazilian luminescent beetles (Coleoptera) belonging to the Lampyridae (fireflies), Elateridae (click-beetles), and Phengodidae (railroad-worms) families. The ATP-dependent mechanism of bioluminescence, the role of luciferase tuning the color of light emission, the "luminous termite mounds" in Central Brazil, the cooperative roles of luciferase and superoxide dismutase against oxygen toxicity, and the hypothesis on the evolutionary origin of luciferases are highlighted. Finally, we point out analytical uses of beetle bioluminescence for biological, clinical, environmental, and industrial samples.

  20. Bright to dim oscillatory response of the Neurospora circadian oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooch, Van D; Johnson, Alicia E; Larrondo, Luis F; Loros, Jennifer J; Dunlap, Jay C

    2014-02-01

    The fungus Neurospora crassa constitutes an important model system extensively used in chronobiology. Several studies have addressed how environmental cues, such as light, can reset or synchronize a circadian system. By means of an optimized firefly luciferase reporter gene and a controllable lighting system, we show that Neurospora can display molecular circadian rhythms in dim light when cultures receive bright light prior to entering dim light conditions. We refer to this behavior as the "bright to dim oscillatory response" (BDOR). The bright light treatment can be applied up to 76 h prior to dim exposure, and it can be as short as 15 min in duration. We have characterized this response in respect to the duration of the light pulse, the time of the light pulse before dim, the intensity of dim light, and the oscillation dynamics in dim light. Although the molecular mechanism that drives the BDOR remains obscure, these findings suggest that a long-term memory of bright light exists as part of the circadian molecular components. It is important to consider the ecological significance of such dim light responses in respect to how organisms naturally maintain their timing mechanism in moonlight.

  1. A novel Listeria monocytogenes-based DNA delivery system for cancer gene therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    van Pijkeren, Jan Peter

    2012-01-31

    Bacteria-mediated transfer of plasmid DNA to mammalian cells (bactofection) has been shown to have significant potential as an approach to express heterologous proteins in various cell types. This is achieved through entry of the entire bacterium into cells, followed by release of plasmid DNA. In a murine model, we show that Listeria monocytogenes can invade and spread in tumors, and establish the use of Listeria to deliver genes to tumors in vivo. A novel approach to vector lysis and release of plasmid DNA through antibiotic administration was developed. Ampicillin administration facilitated both plasmid transfer and safety control of vector. To further improve on the gene delivery system, we selected a Listeria monocytogenes derivative that is more sensitive to ampicillin, and less pathogenic than the wild-type strain. Incorporation of a eukaryotic-transcribed lysin cassette in the plasmid further increased bacterial lysis. Successful gene delivery of firefly luciferase to growing tumors in murine models and to patient breast tumor samples ex vivo was achieved. The model described encompasses a three-phase treatment regimen, involving (1) intratumoral administration of vector followed by a period of vector spread, (2) systemic ampicillin administration to induce vector lysis and plasmid transfer, and (3) systemic administration of combined moxifloxacin and ampicillin to eliminate systemic vector. For the first time, our results reveal the potential of Listeria monocytogenes for in vivo gene delivery.

  2. An Enhanced Jaya Algorithm with a Two Group Adaption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chibing Gong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel performance enhanced Jaya algorithm with a two group adaption (E-Jaya. Two improvements are presented in E-Jaya. First, instead of using the best and the worst values in Jaya algorithm, EJaya separates all candidates into two groups: the better and the worse groups based on their fitness values, then the mean of the better group and the mean of the worse group are used. Second, in order to add non algorithm-specific parameters in E-Jaya, a novel adaptive method of dividing the two groups has been developed. Finally, twelve benchmark functions with different dimensionality, such as 40, 60, and 100, were evaluated using the proposed EJaya algorithm. The results show that E-Jaya significantly outperformed Jaya algorithm in terms of the solution accuracy. Additionally, E-Jaya was also compared with a differential evolution (DE, a self-adapting control parameters in differential evolution (jDE, a firefly algorithm (FA, and a standard particle swarm optimization 2011 (SPSO2011 algorithm. E-Jaya algorithm outperforms all the algorithms.

  3. Monitoring and quantitative assessment of tumor burden using in vivo bioluminescence imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.-C.; Hwang, Jeng-Jong; Ting, G.; Tseng, Y.-L.; Wang, S.-J.; Whang-Peng, J.

    2007-01-01

    In vivo bioluminescence imaging (BLI) is a sensitive imaging modality that is rapid and accessible, and may comprise an ideal tool for evaluating tumor growth. In this study, the kinetic of tumor growth has been assessed in C26 colon carcinoma bearing BALB/c mouse model. The ability of BLI to noninvasively quantitate the growth of subcutaneous tumors transplanted with C26 cells genetically engineered to stably express firefly luciferase and herpes simplex virus type-1 thymidine kinase (C26/tk-luc). A good correlation (R 2 =0.998) of photon emission to the cell number was found in vitro. Tumor burden and tumor volume were monitored in vivo over time by quantitation of photon emission using Xenogen IVIS 50 and standard external caliper measurement, respectively. At various time intervals, tumor-bearing mice were imaged to determine the correlation of in vivo BLI to tumor volume. However, a correlation of BLI to tumor volume was observed when tumor volume was smaller than 1000 mm 3 (R 2 =0.907). γ Scintigraphy combined with [ 131 I]FIAU was another imaging modality used for verifying the previous results. In conclusion, this study showed that bioluminescence imaging is a powerful and quantitative tool for the direct assay to monitor tumor growth in vivo. The dual reporter genes transfected tumor-bearing animal model can be applied in the evaluation of the efficacy of new developed anti-cancer drugs

  4. Heat Shock Protein 70 Enhances Mucosal Immunity against Human Norovirus When Coexpressed from a Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuanmei; Duan, Yue; Wei, Yongwei; Liang, Xueya; Niewiesk, Stefan; Oglesbee, Michael

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human norovirus (NoV) accounts for 95% of nonbacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Currently, there is no vaccine available to combat human NoV as it is not cultivable and lacks a small-animal model. Recently, we demonstrated that recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV) expressing human NoV capsid protein (rVSV-VP1) induced strong immunities in mice (Y. Ma and J. Li, J. Virol. 85:2942–2952, 2011). To further improve the safety and efficacy of the vaccine candidate, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) was inserted into the rVSV-VP1 backbone vector. A second construct was generated in which the firefly luciferase (Luc) gene was inserted in place of HSP70 as a control for the double insertion. The resultant recombinant viruses (rVSV-HSP70-VP1 and rVSV-Luc-VP1) were significantly more attenuated in cell culture and viral spread in mice than rVSV-VP1. At the inoculation dose of 1.0 × 106 PFU, rVSV-HSP70-VP1 triggered significantly higher vaginal IgA than rVSV-VP1 and significantly higher fecal and vaginal IgA responses than rVSV-Luc-VP1, although serum IgG and T cell responses were similar. At the inoculation dose of 5.0 × 106 PFU, rVSV-HSP70-VP1 stimulated significantly higher T cell, fecal, and vaginal IgA responses than rVSV-VP1. Fecal and vaginal IgA responses were also significantly increased when combined vaccination of rVSV-VP1 and rVSV-HSP70 was used. Collectively, these data indicate that (i) insertion of an additional gene (HSP70 or Luc) into the rVSV-VP1 backbone further attenuates the VSV-based vaccine in vitro and in vivo, thus improving the safety of the vaccine candidate, and (ii) HSP70 enhances the human NoV-specific mucosal and T cell immunities triggered by a VSV-based human NoV vaccine. IMPORTANCE Human norovirus (NoV) is responsible for more than 95% of acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Currently, there is no vaccine for this virus. Development of a live attenuated vaccine for human NoV has not been possible because it is

  5. Synthetic strategies for controlling inter- and intramolecular interactions: Applications in single-molecule fluorescence imaging, bioluminescence imaging, and palladium catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Nicholas R.

    proximity of the Cy3 and Cy5 fluorophores, behaves as an optical photoswitch in the presence of a thiol reagent. This unique property was employed to achieve sub-diffraction-limited imaging of the stalks of Caulobacter crescentus cells with 30-nm resolution using STORM (stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy). Lastly, the synthesis of the first selenium analogue of firefly luciferin is described, and this analogue is shown to be a competent substrate for firefly luciferase (fLuc). Remarkably, it exhibits red-shifted bioluminescence emission relative to the native sulfur analogue. The in vivo performance of the selenium and sulfur analogues in imaging are compared by tail-vein injection into nude mice bearing subcutaneous tumor xenografts of a human breast cancer cell line that was stably transduced to express fLuc. Part II of this thesis begins by addressing design considerations in the development of palladium catalysts that effect oxidative transformations under mild conditions (i.e., 1 atm air, room temperature) using molecular oxygen as the terminal oxidant. A newly synthesized cationic palladium complex, [(2,9-dimethylphenanthroline)Pd(OAc)]2[OTf]2, is shown to catalyze aerobic alcohol oxidation under such conditions with an unprecedented initial turnover frequency, but the presence of partially reduced oxygen species results in competitive ligand oxidation with concomitant decrease in catalyst activity. To remedy this, oxidatively resistant ligands, which are essential for the development of next-generation, high-turnover-frequency palladium catalysts that utilize oxygen as a terminal oxidant, have been prepared and effectively employed. In addition, the first general palladium-catalyzed route to the carbonylation of diols is reported. In this system, carbon monoxide (1 atm) serves the carbonyl source, (2,9-dimethylphenanthroline)Pd(OAc) 2 acts as the catalyst, and N-chlorosuccinimide and iodosobenzene are the oxidants for 1,2- and 1,3-diols, respectively. This

  6. Facilitating Science Discoveries from NED Today and in the 2020s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzarella, Joseph M.; NED Team

    2018-06-01

    I will review recent developments, work in progress, and major challenges that lie ahead as we enhance the capabilities of the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED) to facilitate and accelerate multi-wavelength research on objects beyond our Milky Way galaxy. The recent fusion of data for over 470 million sources from the 2MASS Point Source Catalog and approximately 750 million sources from the AllWISE Source Catalog (next up) with redshifts from the SDSS and other data in NED is increasing the holdings to over a billion distinct objects with cross-identifications, providing a rich resource for multi-wavelength research. Combining data across such large surveys, as well as integrating data from over 110,000 smaller but scientifically important catalogs and journal articles, presents many challanges including the need to update the computing infrastructure and re-tool production and operations on a regular basis. Integration of the Firefly toolkit into the new user interface is ushering in a new phase of interative data visualization in NED, with features and capabilities familiar to users of IRSA and the emerging LSST science user interface. Graphical characterizations of NED content and estimates of completeness in different sky and spectral regions are also being developed. A newly implemented service that follows the Table Access Protocol (TAP) enables astronomers to issue queries to the NED object directory using Astronomical Data Language (ADQL), a standard shared in common with the NASA mission archives and other virtual observatories around the world. A brief review will be given of new science capabilities under development and planned for 2019-2020, as well as initiatives underway involving deployment of a parallel database, cloud technologies, machine learning, and first steps in bringing analysis capabilities close to the database in collaboration with IRSA. I will close with some questions for the community to consider in helping us plan future science

  7. Adenovirus-assisted lipofection: efficient in vitro gene transfer of luciferase and cytosine deaminase to human smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuzer, J; Denger, S; Reifers, F; Beisel, C; Haack, K; Gebert, J; Kübler, W

    1996-07-01

    Smooth muscle cells (SMC) are a central cell type involved in multiple processes of coronary artery diseases including restenosis and therefore are major target cells for different aspects of gene transfer. Previous attempts to transfect primary arterial cells using different techniques like liposomes, CaPO4 and electroporation resulted in only low transfection efficiency. The development of recombinant adenoviruses dramatically improved the delivery of foreign genes into different cell types including SMC. However, cloning and identification of recombinants remain difficult and time-consuming techniques. The present study demonstrates that a complex consisting of reporter plasmid encoding firefly luciferase (pLUC), polycationic liposomes and replication-deficient adenovirus was able to yield very high in vitro transfection of primary human smooth muscle cells under optimized conditions. The technique of adenovirus-assisted lipofection (AAL) increases transfer and expression of plasmid DNA in human smooth muscle cells in vitro up to 1000-fold compared to lipofection. To verify the applicability of AAL for gene transfer into human smooth muscle cells we studied a gene therapy approach to suppress proliferation of SMC in vitro, using the prokaryotic cytosine deaminase gene (CD) which enables transfected mammalian cells to deaminate 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) to the highly toxic 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). The effect of a transient CD expression on RNA synthesis was investigated by means of a cotransfection with a RSV-CD expression plasmid and the luciferase reporter plasmid. Western blot analysis demonstrated high expression of CD protein in transfected SMC. Cotransfected SMC demonstrated two-fold less luciferase activity in the presence of 5-FC (5 mmol/l) after 48 h compared to cells transfected with a non-CD coding plasmid. The data demonstrate that a transient expression of CD could be sufficient to reduce the capacity of protein synthesis in human SMC. This simple and

  8. A plant-based chemical genomics screen for the identification of flowering inducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiers, Martijn; Hoogenboom, Jorin; Brunazzi, Alice; Wennekes, Tom; Angenent, Gerco C; Immink, Richard G H

    2017-01-01

    Floral timing is a carefully regulated process, in which the plant determines the optimal moment to switch from the vegetative to reproductive phase. While there are numerous genes known that control flowering time, little information is available on chemical compounds that are able to influence this process. We aimed to discover novel compounds that are able to induce flowering in the model plant Arabidopsis. For this purpose we developed a plant-based screening platform that can be used in a chemical genomics study. Here we describe the set-up of the screening platform and various issues and pitfalls that need to be addressed in order to perform a chemical genomics screening on Arabidopsis plantlets. We describe the choice for a molecular marker, in combination with a sensitive reporter that's active in plants and is sufficiently sensitive for detection. In this particular screen, the firefly Luciferase marker was used, fused to the regulatory sequences of the floral meristem identity gene APETALA1 (AP1) , which is an early marker for flowering. Using this screening platform almost 9000 compounds were screened, in triplicate, in 96-well plates at a concentration of 25 µM. One of the identified potential flowering inducing compounds was studied in more detail and named Flowering1 (F1). F1 turned out to be an analogue of the plant hormone Salicylic acid (SA) and appeared to be more potent than SA in the induction of flowering. The effect could be confirmed by watering Arabidopsis plants with SA or F1, in which F1 gave a significant reduction in time to flowering in comparison to SA treatment or the control. In this study a chemical genomics screening platform was developed to discover compounds that can induce flowering in Arabidopsis. This platform was used successfully, to identify a compound that can speed-up flowering in Arabidopsis.

  9. Glowworms: a review of Arachnocampa spp. and kin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Rochow, V B

    2007-01-01

    The term 'glowworm' is used in connection with the flightless females of lampyrid fireflies and to describe the luminescent larvae of certain fungus gnats that belong to the subfamilies Arachnocampinae, Keroplatinae and Macrocerinae of the dipteran family Keroplatidae. This review focuses on the luminescent larval fungus gnats. The weakly luminescent species of the Holarctic feed mainly on fungal spores, but some, such as Orfelia fultoni, have turned to a carnivorous diet. Larval Australian and New Zealand Arachnocampa spp. produce brighter in vivo (but not necessarily in vitro) lights, live in cool, damp and dark places and are exclusively predatory. They lure their prey (usually small flying insects) with the help of their blue-green light emissions towards snares consisting of vertical silk threads coated with sticky mucus droplets. Fungus gnats with similar 'fishing lines' are found in the Neotropics, but they are not luminescent. The larval stage is longest in the life cycle of Arachnocampa, lasting up to a year, depending on climatic conditions such as temperature and humidity as well as food supply. In A. luminosa, but not the Australian A. flava, female pupae and even female imagines are luminescent. However, it remains to be demonstrated whether it is the light of the female, a pheromone or both that attract the males. Light organs and the chemical reactions to produce light differ between the holarctic and the Australian/New Zealand species. Prey is attracted only by the glowworm's light; odours of the fishing lines or the glowworms themselves are not involved. Recognition of the prey by the glowworm involves mechano- and chemoreception. The eyes of both larval and adult glowworms are large and functional over a spectral range covering UV to green wavelengths. Adults are poor fliers, live only for a few days, have degenerate mouth parts and do not feed. Maintenance of glowworms in captivity is possible and the impact of tourism on glowworms in natural

  10. Numerical modeling and optimization of machining duplex stainless steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastee D. Koyee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The shortcomings of the machining analytical and empirical models in combination with the industry demands have to be fulfilled. A three-dimensional finite element modeling (FEM introduces an attractive alternative to bridge the gap between pure empirical and fundamental scientific quantities, and fulfill the industry needs. However, the challenging aspects which hinder the successful adoption of FEM in the machining sector of manufacturing industry have to be solved first. One of the greatest challenges is the identification of the correct set of machining simulation input parameters. This study presents a new methodology to inversely calculate the input parameters when simulating the machining of standard duplex EN 1.4462 and super duplex EN 1.4410 stainless steels. JMatPro software is first used to model elastic–viscoplastic and physical work material behavior. In order to effectively obtain an optimum set of inversely identified friction coefficients, thermal contact conductance, Cockcroft–Latham critical damage value, percentage reduction in flow stress, and Taylor–Quinney coefficient, Taguchi-VIKOR coupled with Firefly Algorithm Neural Network System is applied. The optimization procedure effectively minimizes the overall differences between the experimentally measured performances such as cutting forces, tool nose temperature and chip thickness, and the numerically obtained ones at any specified cutting condition. The optimum set of input parameter is verified and used for the next step of 3D-FEM application. In the next stage of the study, design of experiments, numerical simulations, and fuzzy rule modeling approaches are employed to optimize types of chip breaker, insert shapes, process conditions, cutting parameters, and tool orientation angles based on many important performances. Through this study, not only a new methodology in defining the optimal set of controllable parameters for turning simulations is introduced, but also

  11. OsLOL1, a C2C2-type zinc finger protein, interacts with OsbZIP58 to promote seed germination through the modulation of gibberellin biosynthesis in Oryza sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiahe; Zhu, Chuanfeng; Pang, Jinhuan; Zhang, Xiangrong; Yang, Chunlin; Xia, Guixian; Tian, Yingchuan; He, Chaozu

    2014-12-01

    Seed germination is a key developmental process in the plant life cycle that is influenced by various environmental cues and phytohormones through gene expression and a series of metabolism pathways. In the present study, we investigated a C2C2-type finger protein, OsLOL1, which promotes gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis and affects seed germination in Oryza sativa (rice). We used OsLOL1 antisense and sense transgenic lines to explore OsLOL1 functions. Seed germination timing in antisense plants was restored to wild type when exogenous GA3 was applied. The reduced expression of the GA biosynthesis gene OsKO2 and the accumulation of ent-kaurene were observed during germination in antisense plants. Based on yeast two-hybrid and firefly luciferase complementation analyses, OsLOL1 interacted with the basic leucine zipper protein OsbZIP58. The results from electrophoretic mobility shift and dual-luciferase reporter assays showed that OsbZIP58 binds the G-box cis-element of the OsKO2 promoter and activates LUC reporter gene expression, and that interaction between OsLOL1 and OsbZIP58 activates OsKO2 gene expression. In addition, OsLOL1 decreased SOD1 gene expression and accelerated programmed cell death (PCD) in the aleurone layer of rice grains. These findings demonstrate that the interaction between OsLOL1 and OsbZIP58 influences GA biosynthesis through the activation of OsKO2 via OsbZIP58, thereby stimulating aleurone PCD and seed germination. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Lentiviral Vector-Mediated GFP/fluc gene introduction into primary mouse NK cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L, Thi Thanh Hoa; Tae, Seong Ho; Min, Jung Joon

    2007-01-01

    NK cell is a type of lymphocyte that has ability in defense against virus infection and some kinds of cancer diseases. Recently, using genetic engineering, studies about the roles and functions of NK cells have been developing. In this study, we used lentivirus-based vector encoding GFP/Fluc gene to transfer into primary mouse NK cells. This model is a tool in studying characteristics of NK cells. The lentivirus used in this study was a commercial one, named LentiM1.3-Fluc, encoding GFP and Flue reporter genes under the control of the murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) promoter. LentiM1.3-Fluc was infected into freshly isolated mouse NK cells at 2 20 MOl by incubating or using spin infection. In the spin infection, we gently suspended NK cells in viral fluid, then centrifuged at 2000 rpm, 20 minutes at room temperature and incubated for 1 day. After 1 day, virus was discarded and NK cells were cultured in IL-2 with or without IL-12 supplemented media. Infected NK cells were monitored by using fluorescent microscope for GFP and IVIS machine for Fire-fly luciferase expression. The results showed that using spin infection had much effect on introducing lentiviral vector-mediated reporter gene into NK cells than the way without spin. Also, NK cells which were cultured in IL-2 and IL-12 added media expressed higher fluorescent and luminescent signals than those cultured in only IL-2 supplemented media. When these NK cells were injected subcutaneously in Balb/C mice, the imaging signal was observed transiently. Our study demonstrates that by using a simple method, mouse NK cells can be transfected by lentivirus. And this will be useful in studying biology and therapeutic potential of NK cells. However, we require developing alternative lentiviral vectors with different promoter for in vivo application

  13. Downstream reporter gene imaging for signal transduction pathway of dopamine type 2 receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, Uyenchi N.; Min, Jung Joon; Moon, Sung Min; Bom, Hee Seung

    2004-01-01

    The Dopamine 2 receptor (D2R) signal pathway regulates gene expression by phosphorylation of proteins including cAMP reponse element-binding protein (CREB), a transcription factor. In this study, we developed a reporter strategy using the GAL4 fusion CREB to assess the phosphorylation of CREB, one of the targets of the D2R signal transduction pathway. We used three plasmids: GAL4 fusion transactivator (pCMV-CREB), firefly luciferase reporter with GAL4 binding sites (pG5-FLUC), and D2R plasmid (pCMV-D2R). Group 1 293T cells were transiently transfected with pCMV-CREB and pG5-FLUC, and group 2 cells were transfected with all three plasmids. Transfected cells were stimulated with different concentrations of dopamine (0-200 M). For animal studies, group 1 and 2 cells (1x10 6 ) were subcutaneously injected on the left and right thigh of six nude mice, respectively. Dopamine stimiulation was performed with intraperitoneal injection of L-DOPA incombination with carbidopa, a peripheral DOPA decarboxylase inhibitor. Bioluminescence optical imaging studies were performed before and after L-DOPA injection. In cell culture studies, group 1 cells showed strong luciferase activity which implies direct activation of the signaling pathway due to growth factors contained in culture medium. Group 2 cells showed strong luciferase activity and a further increase after administration of dopamine. In animal studies, group 1 and 2 cells showed bioluminescence signal before L-DOPA injection, but signal from group 2 cells significantly increased 12 h after L-DOPA injection. The signal from group 1 cells disappeared thereafter, but group 2 cells continued to show signal until 36 h of L-DOPA injection. This study demonstrates imaging of the D2R signal transduction pathway and should be useful for noninvasive imaging of downstream effects of G-coupled protein pathways

  14. Effective in vivo and ex vivo gene transfer to intestinal mucosa by VSV-G-pseudotyped lentiviral vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasahara Noriyuki

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene transfer to the gastrointestinal (GI mucosa is a therapeutic strategy which could prove particularly advantageous for treatment of various hereditary and acquired intestinal disorders, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, GI infections, and cancer. Methods We evaluated vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein envelope (VSV-G-pseudotyped lentiviral vectors (LV for efficacy of gene transfer to both murine rectosigmoid colon in vivo and human colon explants ex vivo. LV encoding beta-galactosidase (LV-β-Gal or firefly-luciferase (LV-fLuc reporter genes were administered by intrarectal instillation in mice, or applied topically for ex vivo transduction of human colorectal explant tissues from normal individuals. Macroscopic and histological evaluations were performed to assess any tissue damage or inflammation. Transduction efficiency and systemic biodistribution were evaluated by real-time quantitative PCR. LV-fLuc expression was evaluated by ex vivo bioluminescence imaging. LV-β-Gal expression and identity of transduced cell types were examined by histochemical and immunofluorescence staining. Results Imaging studies showed positive fLuc signals in murine distal colon; β-Gal-positive cells were found in both murine and human intestinal tissue. In the murine model, β-Gal-positive epithelial and lamina propria cells were found to express cytokeratin, CD45, and CD4. LV-transduced β-Gal-positive cells were also seen in human colorectal explants, consisting mainly of CD45, CD4, and CD11c-positive cells confined to the LP. Conclusions We have demonstrated the feasibility of LV-mediated gene transfer into colonic mucosa. We also identified differential patterns of mucosal gene transfer dependent on whether murine or human tissue was used. Within the limitations of the study, the LV did not appear to induce mucosal damage and were not distributed beyond the distal colon.

  15. The multi-targeted kinase inhibitor sorafenib inhibits enterovirus 71 replication by regulating IRES-dependent translation of viral proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Meng; Duan, Hao; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Xin; Zhu, Meng; Guo, Jitao; Zhao, Zhenlong; Meng, Lirong; Peng, Yihong

    2014-06-01

    The activation of ERK and p38 signal cascade in host cells has been demonstrated to be essential for picornavirus enterovirus 71 (EV71) replication and up-regulation of virus-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)/prostaglandins E2 (PGE2) expression. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of sorafenib, a clinically approved anti-cancer multi-targeted kinase inhibitor, on the propagation and pathogenesis of EV71, with a view to its possible mechanism and potential use in the design of therapy regimes for Hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD) patients with life threatening neurological complications. In this study, non-toxic concentrations of sorafenib were shown to inhibit the yield of infectious progeny EV71 (clinical BC08 strain) by about 90% in three different cell types. A similar inhibitory effect of sorafenib was observed on the synthesis of both viral genomic RNA and the VP1 protein. Interestingly, sorafenib exerted obvious inhibition of the EV71 internal ribosomal entry site (IRES)-mediated translation, the first step in picornavirus replication, by linking it to a firefly luciferase reporter gene. Sorafenib was also able to prevent both EV71-induced CPE and the activation of ERK and p38, which contributes to up-regulation COX-2/PGE2 expression induced by the virus. Overall, this study shows that sorafenib strongly inhibits EV71 replication at least in part by regulating viral IRES-dependent translation of viral proteins, indicating a novel potential strategy for the treatment of HFMD patients with severe neurological complications. To our knowledge, this is the first report that investigates the mechanism by which sorafenib inhibits EV71 replication. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Noninvasive Assessment of Tumor Cell Proliferation in Animal Models

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    Matthias Edinger

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Revealing the mechanisms of neoplastic disease and enhancing our ability to intervene in these processes requires an increased understanding of cellular and molecular changes as they occur in intact living animal models. We have begun to address these needs by developing a method of labeling tumor cells through constitutive expression of an optical reporter gene, noninvasively monitoring cellular proliferation in vivo using a sensitive photon detection system. A stable line of HeLa cells that expressed a modified firefly luciferase gene was generated, proliferation of these cells in irradiated severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID mice was monitored. Tumor cells were introduced into animals via subcutaneous, intraperitoneal and intravenous inoculation and whole body images, that revealed tumor location and growth kinetics, were obtained. The number of photons that were emitted from the labeled tumor cells and transmitted through murine tissues was sufficient to detect 1×103 cells in the peritoneal cavity, 1×104 cells at subcutaneous sites and 1×106 circulating cells immediately following injection. The kinetics of cell proliferation, as measured by photon emission, was exponential in the peritoneal cavity and at subcutaneous sites. Intravenous inoculation resulted in detectable colonies of tumor cells in animals receiving more than 1×103 cells. Our demonstrated ability to detect small numbers of tumor cells in living animals noninvasively suggests that therapies designed to treat minimal disease states, as occur early in the disease course and after elimination of the tumor mass, may be monitored using this approach. Moreover, it may be possible to monitor micrometastases and evaluate the molecular steps in the metastatic process. Spatiotemporal analyses of neoplasia will improve the predictability of animal models of human disease as study groups can be followed over time, this method will accelerate development of novel therapeutic

  17. Suppression of choriocarcinoma invasion and metastasis following blockade of BDNF/TrkB signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Kazuhiro; Kawamura, Nanami; Okamoto, Naoki; Manabe, Motomu

    2013-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) acts through its cognate receptor tyrosine kinase-B (TrkB) to regulate diverse physiological functions in reproductive and other tissues. In normal and malignant trophoblastic cells, the BDNF/TrkB signaling promotes cell growth. Due to the highly malignant nature of choriocarcinoma, we investigated possible involvement of this system in choriocarcinoma cell invasion and metastasis. We demonstrated that treatment of cultured choriocarcinoma cells, known to express both BDNF and TrkB, with a soluble TrkB ectodomain or a Trk receptor inhibitor K252a suppressed cell invasion accompanied with decreased expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2, a cell invasion marker. In vivo studies using a tumor xenograft model in athymic nude mice further showed inhibition of cell invasion from tumors to surrounding tissues following the suppression of endogenous TrkB signaling. For an in vivo model of choriocarcinoma metastasis, we performed intravenous injections of JAR cells expressing firefly luciferase into severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. Treatment with K252a inhibited metastasis of tumors to distant organs. In vivo K252a treatment also suppressed metastatic tumor growth as reflected by decreased cell proliferation and increased apoptosis and caspases-3/7 activities, together with reduced tissue levels of a tumor marker, human chorionic gonadotropin-β. In vivo suppression of TrkB signaling also led to decreased expression of angiogenic markers in metastatic tumor, including cluster of differentiation 31 and vascular endothelial growth factor A. Our findings suggested essential autocrine/paracrine roles of the BDNF/TrkB signaling system in choriocarcinoma invasion and metastasis. Inhibition of this signaling could serve as the basis to develop a novel therapy for patients with choriocarcinoma

  18. In-vivo luminescence model for the study of tumor regression and regrowth following combination regimens with differentiation-promoting agents and photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollakanti, K.; Anand, S.; Maytin, E. V.

    2013-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy with aminolevulinic acid can be modified by pretreatment regimens with drugs such as 5- Fluorouracil (5-FU) or Vitamin D (calcitriol) that enhance accumulation of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) within tumor tissue which presumably will enhance the therapeutic response to light. However, histological approaches for monitoring therapeutic responses are poorly suited for studying long term survival because large numbers of mice need to be sacrificed. To address this limitation, a non-invasive model to monitor tumor regression and regrowth has been established. Breast cancer cells, stably transfected with firefly luciferase (MDA-Luc cell line), are implanted orthotopically in nude mice (0.25 - 1 x 106 cells/site), and monitored 0-60 min after s.c. injection of luciferin, with Xenogen in-vivo imaging system. Luminescence is detectable at day 1 post-implantation. Tumors are suitable for experimentation on day 6, when daily injections of pretreatment agents (5-FU, 300 mg/kg; calcitriol, 1 μg/kg) begin. On day 9, ALA (75 mg/kg i.p.) is given for 4 hr, followed by illumination (633 nm, 100 J/cm2). Tumor luminescence post- PDT is monitored daily and compared with caliper measurements. Pretreatments (5-FU, calcitriol) by themselves do not inhibit luciferase expression, and all tumors grow at a similar rate during the pretreatment period. Results from in vivo survival experiments can be correlated to survival responses of MDA-Luc cells grown in monolayer cultures +/- PDT and +/- pretreatments, and additional mechanistic information (e.g. Ki67 and E-cadherin expression) obtained. In summary, this noninvasive model will permit testing of the therapeutic survival advantages of various pretreatments during cPDT.

  19. Chorusing, synchrony and the evolutionary functions of rhythm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eRavignani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A central goal of biomusicology is to understand the biological basis of human musicality. One approach to this problem has been to compare core components of human musicality (relative pitch perception, entrainment, etc. with similar capacities in other animal species. Here we extend and clarify this comparative approach with respect to rhythm. First, whereas most comparisons between human music and animal acoustic behavior have focused on spectral properties (melody and harmony, we argue for the central importance of temporal properties, and propose that this domain is ripe for further comparative research. Second, whereas most rhythm research in non-human animals has examined animal timing in isolation, we consider how chorusing dynamics can shape individual timing, as in human music and dance, making group behavior key to understand the adaptive functions of rhythm. To illustrate the interdependence between individual and chorusing dynamics, we present a computational model of chorusing agents relating individual call timing with synchronous group behavior. Third, we distinguish and clarify mechanistic and functional explanations of rhythmic phenomena, often conflated in the literature, arguing that this distinction is key for understanding the evolution of musicality. Fourth, we expand biomusicological discussions beyond the species typically considered, providing an overview of chorusing and rhythmic behavior across a broad range of taxa (orthopterans, fireflies, frogs, birds, and primates. Finally, we propose an Evolving Signal Timing hypothesis, suggesting that similarities between timing abilities in biological species will be based on comparable chorusing behaviors. We conclude that the comparative study of chorusing species can provide important insights into the adaptive function(s of rhythmic behavior in our proto-musical primate ancestors, and thus inform our understanding of the biology and evolution of rhythm in human music and

  20. Chorusing, synchrony, and the evolutionary functions of rhythm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravignani, Andrea; Bowling, Daniel L; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2014-01-01

    A central goal of biomusicology is to understand the biological basis of human musicality. One approach to this problem has been to compare core components of human musicality (relative pitch perception, entrainment, etc.) with similar capacities in other animal species. Here we extend and clarify this comparative approach with respect to rhythm. First, whereas most comparisons between human music and animal acoustic behavior have focused on spectral properties (melody and harmony), we argue for the central importance of temporal properties, and propose that this domain is ripe for further comparative research. Second, whereas most rhythm research in non-human animals has examined animal timing in isolation, we consider how chorusing dynamics can shape individual timing, as in human music and dance, arguing that group behavior is key to understanding the adaptive functions of rhythm. To illustrate the interdependence between individual and chorusing dynamics, we present a computational model of chorusing agents relating individual call timing with synchronous group behavior. Third, we distinguish and clarify mechanistic and functional explanations of rhythmic phenomena, often conflated in the literature, arguing that this distinction is key for understanding the evolution of musicality. Fourth, we expand biomusicological discussions beyond the species typically considered, providing an overview of chorusing and rhythmic behavior across a broad range of taxa (orthopterans, fireflies, frogs, birds, and primates). Finally, we propose an "Evolving Signal Timing" hypothesis, suggesting that similarities between timing abilities in biological species will be based on comparable chorusing behaviors. We conclude that the comparative study of chorusing species can provide important insights into the adaptive function(s) of rhythmic behavior in our "proto-musical" primate ancestors, and thus inform our understanding of the biology and evolution of rhythm in human music and

  1. The in vitro and in vivo effects of constitutive light expression on a bioluminescent strain of the mouse enteropathogen Citrobacter rodentium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah M. Read

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioluminescent reporter genes, such as those from fireflies and bacteria, let researchers use light production as a non-invasive and non-destructive surrogate measure of microbial numbers in a wide variety of environments. As bioluminescence needs microbial metabolites, tagging microorganisms with luciferases means only live metabolically active cells are detected. Despite the wide use of bioluminescent reporter genes, very little is known about the impact of continuous (also called constitutive light expression on tagged bacteria. We have previously made a bioluminescent strain of Citrobacter rodentium, a bacterium which infects laboratory mice in a similar way to how enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC and enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC infect humans. In this study, we compared the growth of the bioluminescent C. rodentium strain ICC180 with its non-bioluminescent parent (strain ICC169 in a wide variety of environments. To understand more about the metabolic burden of expressing light, we also compared the growth profiles of the two strains under approximately 2,000 different conditions. We found that constitutive light expression in ICC180 was near-neutral in almost every non-toxic environment tested. However, we also found that the non-bioluminescent parent strain has a competitive advantage over ICC180 during infection of adult mice, although this was not enough for ICC180 to be completely outcompeted. In conclusion, our data suggest that constitutive light expression is not metabolically costly to C. rodentium and supports the view that bioluminescent versions of microbes can be used as a substitute for their non-bioluminescent parents to study bacterial behaviour in a wide variety of environments.

  2. Construction of radiation - induced metastasis model in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Kuk; Jang, Su Jin; Kang, Sung Wook; Kim, Jae Sung; Hwang, Sang Gu; Kang, Joo Hyun [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    In treatment of cancer, distant metastases are important limiting factor because an estimated 50% of all cancer patients will develop metastases, and the metastases are major causing of cancer treatment failure. Recently a few reports indicated {gamma}-radiation induced an increase of invasiveness of several cancer cells. In this study, we had tried to show the possibility that radiation could also induce metastasis in vivo system. To prove our hypothesis, we constructed primary tumor by using C6-TL transfectant cell line expressing HSV1-tk and firefly luciferase (fLuc), and then {gamma}-radiation was treated to xenografts locally. Treatment of {gamma}-radiation to primary C6-TL xenografts of mice reduced size of xenografts and elongated survival of mice than those of mock control mice. But we also show that {gamma}-radiation treatment was followed by the growth of dormant metastases in various organs including lung and intestine after 2-4 weeks of {gamma}-radiation treatment. When bioluminescence imaging indicated growth of tumor in organs in mice, we sacrificed the mice and repeat acquired bioluminescence imaging after repeatedly. These images presented tumor growth locations exactly in organs. Because metastatic tumor candidates have morphology of foci, biopsies were performed for histological analysis or PCR analysis to confirm metastases. In most foci, histological analysis indicated several features of typical cancer tissue and PCR analysis showed present of fLuc gene in metastases. Detection of fLuc gene in metastases indicated these foci were originated from primary C6-TL xenografts, and the results suggest that {gamma}-radiation could promote metastasis in vivo as well as in vitro system. Although we need to understand changes of intracellular signaling or physiological phenomena of the radiation-induced metastasis yet, these results also imply that {gamma}-radiation treatment only to cancer patients need to pay attention carefully, and development of new

  3. An integrated model of water resources optimization allocation based on projection pursuit model - Grey wolf optimization method in a transboundary river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Sen; Lu, Hongwei

    2018-04-01

    Under the effects of global change, water crisis ranks as the top global risk in the future decade, and water conflict in transboundary river basins as well as the geostrategic competition led by it is most concerned. This study presents an innovative integrated PPMGWO model of water resources optimization allocation in a transboundary river basin, which is integrated through the projection pursuit model (PPM) and Grey wolf optimization (GWO) method. This study uses the Songhua River basin and 25 control units as examples, adopting the PPMGWO model proposed in this study to allocate the water quantity. Using water consumption in all control units in the Songhua River basin in 2015 as reference to compare with optimization allocation results of firefly algorithm (FA) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithms as well as the PPMGWO model, results indicate that the average difference between corresponding allocation results and reference values are 0.195 bil m3, 0.151 bil m3, and 0.085 bil m3, respectively. Obviously, the average difference of the PPMGWO model is the lowest and its optimization allocation result is closer to reality, which further confirms the reasonability, feasibility, and accuracy of the PPMGWO model. And then the PPMGWO model is adopted to simulate allocation of available water quantity in Songhua River basin in 2018, 2020, and 2030. The simulation results show water quantity which could be allocated in all controls demonstrates an overall increasing trend with reasonable and equal exploitation and utilization of water resources in the Songhua River basin in future. In addition, this study has a certain reference value and application meaning to comprehensive management and water resources allocation in other transboundary river basins.

  4. Support vector machine-based exergetic modelling of a DI diesel engine running on biodiesel–diesel blends containing expanded polystyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Tabatabaei, Meisam; Aghbashlo, Mortaza; Yee, Por Lip; Petković, Dalibor

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • SVM-based thermodynamic modelling of a DI diesel engine working with diesel/biodiesel blends containing EPS. • Comparison of SVM-WT, SVM-FFA, SVM-RBF, SVM-QPSO, and ANN approaches for exergetic modelling of the engine. • Satisfactory performance of the SVM-WT for performance modelling of the engine over the other approaches. - Abstract: In the present study, four Support Vector Machine-based (SVM-based) approaches and the standard artificial neural network (ANN) model were designed and compared in modelling the exergetic parameters of a DI diesel engine running on diesel/biodiesel blends containing expanded polystyrene (EPS) wastes. For this aim, the SVM was coupled with discrete wavelet transform (SVM-WT), firefly algorithm (SVM-FFA), radial basis function (SVM-RBF) and quantum particle swarm optimization (SVM-QPSO). The exergetic data were computed using mass, energy, and exergy balance equations for the engine at different speeds and loads as well as various biodiesel and EPS wastes quantities. Three statistical indicators namely root means square error, coefficient of determination and Pearson coefficient were used to access the capability of the developed approaches for exergetic performance modelling of the DI diesel engine. The modelling results indicated that the SVM-WT approach was more efficient in exergetic modelling of the engine than the other three approaches. Moreover, the results obtained confirmed the effectiveness of the SVM-WT model in identifying the most exergy-efficient combustion conditions and the best fuel composition for achieving the most cost-effective and eco-friendly combustion process.

  5. Adoptive immunotherapy mediated by ex vivo expanded natural killer T cells against CD1d-expressing lymphoid neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnara, Davide; Ibatici, Adalberto; Corselli, Mirko; Sessarego, Nadia; Tenca, Claudya; De Santanna, Amleto; Mazzarello, Andrea; Daga, Antonio; Corvò, Renzo; De Rossi, Giulio; Frassoni, Francesco; Ciccone, Ermanno; Fais, Franco

    2009-07-01

    CD1d is a monomorphic antigen presentation molecule expressed in several hematologic malignancies. Alpha-galactosylceramide (alpha-GalCer) is a glycolipid that can be presented to cytotoxic CD1d-restricted T cells. These reagents represent a potentially powerful tool for cell mediated immunotherapy. We set up an experimental model to evaluate the use of adoptively transferred cytotoxic CD1d-restricted T cells and alpha-GalCer in the treatment of mice engrafted with CD1d(+) lymphoid neoplastic cells. To this end the C1R cell line was transfected with CD1c or CD1d molecules. In addition, upon retroviral infection firefly luciferase was expressed on C1R transfected cell lines allowing the evaluation of tumor growth in xenografted immunodeficient NOD/SCID mice. The C1R-CD1d cell line was highly susceptible to specific CD1d-restricted T cell cytotoxicity in the presence alpha-GalCer in vitro. After adoptive transfer of CD1d-restricted T cells and alpha-GalCer to mice engrafted with both C1R-CD1c and C1R-CD1d, a reduction in tumor growth was observed only in CD1d(+) masses. In addition, CD1d-restricted T-cell treatment plus alpha-GalCer eradicated small C1R-CD1d(+) nodules. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that infiltrating NKT cells were mainly observed in CD1d nodules. Our results indicate that ex vivo expanded cytotoxic CD1d-restricted T cells and alpha-GalCer may represent a new immunotherapeutic tool for treatment of CD1d(+) hematologic malignancies.

  6. IRES-mediated translation of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in cultured cells derived from FMDV-susceptible and -insusceptible animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Takehiro; Ozawa, Makoto; Tsukiyama-Kohara, Kyoko

    2016-03-31

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) possess a positive sense, single stranded RNA genome. Internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) element exists within its 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) of the viral RNA. Translation of the viral RNA is initiated by internal entry of the 40S ribosome within the IRES element. This process is facilitated by cellular factors known as IRES trans-acting factors (ITAFs). Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is host-restricted disease for cloven-hoofed animals such as cattle and pigs, but the factors determining the host range have not been identified yet. Although, ITAFs are known to promote IRES-mediated translation, these findings were confirmed only in cells derived from FMDV-insusceptible animals so far. We evaluated and compared the IRES-mediated translation activities among cell lines derived from four different animal species using bicistronic luciferase reporter plasmid, which possesses an FMDV-IRES element between Renilla and Firefly luciferase genes. Furthermore, we analyzed the effect of the cellular factors on IRES-mediated translation by silencing the cellular factors using siRNA in both FMDV-susceptible and -insusceptible animal cells. Our data indicated that IRES-mediated translational activity was not linked to FMDV host range. ITAF45 promoted IRES-mediated translation in all cell lines, and the effects of poly-pyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB) and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) were observed only in FMDV-susceptible cells. Thus, PTB and 4E-BP1 may influence the host range of FMDV. IRES-mediated translation activity of FMDV was not predictive of its host range. ITAF45 promoted IRES-mediated translation in all cells, and the effects of PTB and 4E-BP1 were observed only in FMDV-susceptible cells.

  7. Cap-independent translation mechanism of red clover necrotic mosaic virus RNA2 differs from that of RNA1 and is linked to RNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizumoto, Hiroyuki; Iwakawa, Hiro-Oki; Kaido, Masanori; Mise, Kazuyuki; Okuno, Tetsuro

    2006-04-01

    The genome of Red clover necrotic mosaic virus (RCNMV) in the genus Dianthovirus is divided into two RNA molecules of RNA1 and RNA2, which have no cap structure at the 5' end and no poly(A) tail at the 3' end. The 3' untranslated region (3' UTR) of RCNMV RNA1 contains an essential RNA element (3'TE-DR1), which is required for cap-independent translation. In this study, we investigated a cap-independent translational mechanism of RNA2 using a firefly luciferase (Luc) gene expression assay system in cowpea protoplasts and a cell-free lysate (BYL) prepared from evacuolated tobacco BY2 protoplasts. We were unable to detect cis-acting RNA sequences in RNA2 that can replace the function of a cap structure, such as the 3'TE-DR1 of RNA1. However, the uncapped reporter RNA2, RNA2-Luc, in which the Luc open reading frame (ORF) was inserted between the 5' UTR and the movement protein ORF, was effectively translated in the presence of p27 and p88 in protoplasts in which RNA2-Luc was replicated. Time course experiments in protoplasts showed that the translational activity of RNA2-Luc did not reflect the amount of RNA2. Mutations in cis-acting RNA replication elements of RNA2 abolished the cap-independent translational activity of RNA2-Luc, suggesting that the translational activity of RNA2-Luc is coupled to RNA replication. Our results show that the translational mechanism differs between two segmented genomic RNAs of RCNMV. We present a model in which only RNA2 that is generated de novo through the viral RNA replication machinery functions as mRNA for translation.

  8. A Comparative Study on Recently-Introduced Nature-Based Global Optimization Methods in Complex Mechanical System Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulbaset El Hadi Saad

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Advanced global optimization algorithms have been continuously introduced and improved to solve various complex design optimization problems for which the objective and constraint functions can only be evaluated through computation intensive numerical analyses or simulations with a large number of design variables. The often implicit, multimodal, and ill-shaped objective and constraint functions in high-dimensional and “black-box” forms demand the search to be carried out using low number of function evaluations with high search efficiency and good robustness. This work investigates the performance of six recently introduced, nature-inspired global optimization methods: Artificial Bee Colony (ABC, Firefly Algorithm (FFA, Cuckoo Search (CS, Bat Algorithm (BA, Flower Pollination Algorithm (FPA and Grey Wolf Optimizer (GWO. These approaches are compared in terms of search efficiency and robustness in solving a set of representative benchmark problems in smooth-unimodal, non-smooth unimodal, smooth multimodal, and non-smooth multimodal function forms. In addition, four classic engineering optimization examples and a real-life complex mechanical system design optimization problem, floating offshore wind turbines design optimization, are used as additional test cases representing computationally-expensive black-box global optimization problems. Results from this comparative study show that the ability of these global optimization methods to obtain a good solution diminishes as the dimension of the problem, or number of design variables increases. Although none of these methods is universally capable, the study finds that GWO and ABC are more efficient on average than the other four in obtaining high quality solutions efficiently and consistently, solving 86% and 80% of the tested benchmark problems, respectively. The research contributes to future improvements of global optimization methods.

  9. Genetic modification of embryonic stem cells with VEGF enhances cell survival and improves cardiac function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiaoyan; Cao, Feng; Sheikh, Ahmad Y; Li, Zongjin; Connolly, Andrew J; Pei, Xuetao; Li, Ren-Ke; Robbins, Robert C; Wu, Joseph C

    2007-01-01

    Cardiac stem cell therapy remains hampered by acute donor cell death posttransplantation and the lack of reliable methods for tracking cell survival in vivo. We hypothesize that cells transfected with inducible vascular endothelial growth factor 165 (VEGF(165)) can improve their survival as monitored by novel molecular imaging techniques. Mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells were transfected with an inducible, bidirectional tetracycline (Bi-Tet) promoter driving VEGF(165) and renilla luciferase (Rluc). Addition of doxycycline induced Bi-Tet expression of VEGF(165) and Rluc significantly compared to baseline (p<0.05). Expression of VEGF(165) enhanced ES cell proliferation and inhibited apoptosis as determined by Annexin-V staining. For noninvasive imaging, ES cells were transduced with a double fusion (DF) reporter gene consisting of firefly luciferase and enhanced green fluorescence protein (Fluc-eGFP). There was a robust correlation between cell number and Fluc activity (R(2)=0.99). Analysis by immunostaining, histology, and RT-PCR confirmed that expression of Bi-Tet and DF systems did not affect ES cell self-renewal or pluripotency. ES cells were differentiated into beating embryoid bodies expressing cardiac markers such as troponin, Nkx2.5, and beta-MHC. Afterward, 5 x 10(5) cells obtained from these beating embryoid bodies or saline were injected into the myocardium of SV129 mice (n=36) following ligation of the left anterior descending (LAD) artery. Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) and echocardiography showed that VEGF(165) induction led to significant improvements in both transplanted cell survival and cardiac function (p<0.05). This is the first study to demonstrate imaging of embryonic stem cell-mediated gene therapy targeting cardiovascular disease. With further validation, this platform may have broad applications for current basic research and further clinical studies.

  10. Pumping Drainage Well Layout and Optimum Capacity Design to Lower Groundwater Table in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Shourian

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available High groundwater levels in urban areas pose major problems in construction and mining projects. A typical and effective solution in these situations is to dig drainage wells to lower the water table to the desired level through an appropriate pumping strategy. Although the method is efficient, the operating costs are relatively high and it is, therefore, of great importance to optimize the groundwater pumping system to save costs. In this paper, a simulation-based optimization approach is exploited to minimize the total costs through optimizing the layout and capacity of pumping wells. For this purpose, MODFLOW, the groundwater simulation software, is used to investigate aquifer behavior under pumping wells and the well-known Firefly Optimization Algorithm is exploited to find the optimal well layout and capacity. The proposed FOA-MODFLOW model is tested on the small urban ancient Grand Mosque region in Kerman City, southeast of Iran, to minimize the cost of the draining project. Experimental results indicate that the proposed cost-effective design noticeably outperforms the one proposed by the consulting engineers in terms of both the number of drilled wells and the associated pumping costs. The optimal strategy observes the constraints and demands by constructing only two wells with a total pumping rate of 5503 m3/day and a water table drawdown of more than 1.5 m provided the ground subsidence is within the allowable limit of less than 80 mm. Additionally, examination of the values obtained for the various design parameters shows that the proposed strategy is the best and its sensitivity to maximum permissible water level and pumping rates is highest as compared with other similar designs.

  11. HIV-1 Tat regulates the expression of the dcw operon and stimulates the proliferation of bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jinsong; Zhang, Yumin; Knapp, Pamela E; Zhao, Tianyong

    2016-01-01

    Infections of pathogenic bacteria are very common in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. However, the biological effects of HIV-1 Tat on bacteria are incompletely understood. In this study, HIV-1 Tat was expressed in Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA01) to investigate its biological effects on bacteria. Bacterial cells expressing either HIV-1 Tat1-86 (Tat1-86) or HIV-1 Tat1-72 (Tat1-72) grow significantly faster than those with either only an empty vector or an unrelated control (GFP or Rluc). Supplementation of purified HIV-1 Tat1-86 or Tat1-101 protein into bacterial culture medium stimulated the growth of both E. coli and PA01. The expression profile of certain cell division-associated genes, such as those in the division cell wall (dcw) operon (ftsA, ftsQ, ftsW and ftsZ), yafO and zipA, was altered in HIV-1 Tat1-86 expressing E. coli BL21(DE3). Furthermore, the expression of firefly luciferase (Fluc) reporter gene, when engineered for control by the dcw promoter and terminator, was enhanced by HIV-1 Tat in E. coli, confirming that HIV-1 Tat transcriptionally regulates the expression of the dcw operon. The finding that HIV-1 Tat stimulates bacterial growth whether it is produced intracellularly or applied extracellularly may have relevance for HIV patients who are highly susceptible to opportunistic bacterial infections. Contents category: Viruses -Retroviruses. The GenBank accession number for the sequence of HIV-1 Tat1-86 is AF324439.1. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Hyperspectral and multispectral bioluminescence optical tomography for small animal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhari, Abhijit J; Darvas, Felix; Bading, James R; Moats, Rex A; Conti, Peter S; Smith, Desmond J; Cherry, Simon R; Leahy, Richard M

    2005-01-01

    For bioluminescence imaging studies in small animals, it is important to be able to accurately localize the three-dimensional (3D) distribution of the underlying bioluminescent source. The spectrum of light produced by the source that escapes the subject varies with the depth of the emission source because of the wavelength-dependence of the optical properties of tissue. Consequently, multispectral or hyperspectral data acquisition should help in the 3D localization of deep sources. In this paper, we describe a framework for fully 3D bioluminescence tomographic image acquisition and reconstruction that exploits spectral information. We describe regularized tomographic reconstruction techniques that use semi-infinite slab or FEM-based diffusion approximations of photon transport through turbid media. Singular value decomposition analysis was used for data dimensionality reduction and to illustrate the advantage of using hyperspectral rather than achromatic data. Simulation studies in an atlas-mouse geometry indicated that sub-millimeter resolution may be attainable given accurate knowledge of the optical properties of the animal. A fixed arrangement of mirrors and a single CCD camera were used for simultaneous acquisition of multispectral imaging data over most of the surface of the animal. Phantom studies conducted using this system demonstrated our ability to accurately localize deep point-like sources and show that a resolution of 1.5 to 2.2 mm for depths up to 6 mm can be achieved. We also include an in vivo study of a mouse with a brain tumour expressing firefly luciferase. Co-registration of the reconstructed 3D bioluminescent image with magnetic resonance images indicated good anatomical localization of the tumour

  13. Scheduling Appliances with GA, TLBO, FA, OSR and Their Hybrids Using Chance Constrained Optimization for Smart Homes

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    Zunaira Nadeem

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we design a controller for home energy management based on following meta-heuristic algorithms: teaching learning-based optimization (TLBO, genetic algorithm (GA, firefly algorithm (FA and optimal stopping rule (OSR theory. The principal goal of designing this controller is to reduce the energy consumption of residential sectors while reducing consumer’s electricity bill and maximizing user comfort. Additionally, we propose three hybrid schemes OSR-GA, OSR-TLBO and OSR-FA, by combining the best features of existing algorithms. We have also optimized the desired parameters: peak to average ratio, energy consumption, cost, and user comfort (appliance waiting time for 20, 50, 100 and 200 heterogeneous homes in two steps. In the first step, we obtain the optimal scheduling of home appliances implementing our aforementioned hybrid schemes for single and multiple homes while considering user preferences and threshold base policy. In the second step, we formulate our problem through chance constrained optimization. Simulation results show that proposed hybrid scheduling schemes outperformed for single and multiple homes and they shift the consumer load demand exceeding a predefined threshold to the hours where the electricity price is low thus following the threshold base policy. This helps to reduce electricity cost while considering the comfort of a user by minimizing delay and peak to average ratio. In addition, chance-constrained optimization is used to ensure the scheduling of appliances while considering the uncertainties of a load hence smoothing the load curtailment. The major focus is to keep the appliances power consumption within the power constraint, while keeping power consumption below a pre-defined acceptable level. Moreover, the feasible regions of appliances electricity consumption are calculated which show the relationship between cost and energy consumption and cost and waiting time.

  14. A Technique to Define Extrahepatic Biliary Anatomy Using Robotic Near-Infrared Fluorescent Cholangiography.

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    Maker, Ajay V; Kunda, Nicholas

    2017-11-01

    Bile duct injury is a rare but serious complication of minimally invasive cholecystectomy. Traditionally, intraoperative cholangiogram has been used in difficult cases to help delineate anatomical structures, however, new imaging modalities are currently available to aid in the identification of extrahepatic biliary anatomy, including near-infrared fluorescent cholangiography (NIFC) using indocyanine green (ICG).1-5 The objective of the study was to evaluate if this technique may aid in safe dissection to obtain the critical view. Thirty-five consecutive multiport robotic cholecystectomies using NIFC with ICG were performed using the da Vinci Firefly Fluorescence Imaging System. All patients received 2.5 mg ICG intravenously at the time of intubation, followed by patient positioning, draping, and establishment of pneumoperitoneum. No structures were divided until the critical view of safety was achieved. Real-time toggling between NIFC and bright-light illumination was utilized throughout the case to define the extrahepatic biliary anatomy. ICG was successfully administered to all patients without complication, and in all cases the extrahepatic biliary anatomy was able to be identified in real-time 3D. All procedures were completed without biliary injury, conversion to an open procedure, or need for traditional cholangiography to obtain the critical view. Specific examples of cases where x-ray cholangiography or conversion to open was avoided and NIFC aided in safe dissection leading to the critical view are demonstrated, including (1) evaluation for aberrant biliary anatomy, (2) confirmation of non-biliary structures, and (3) use in cases where the infundibulum is fused to the common bile duct. NIFC using ICG is demonstrated as a useful technique to rapidly identify and aid in the visualization of extrahepatic biliary anatomy. Techniques that selectively utilize this technology specifically in difficult cases where the anatomy is unclear are demonstrated in order

  15. Firewalls Prevent Systemic Dissemination of Vectors Derived from Human Adenovirus Type 5 and Suppress Production of Transgene-Encoded Antigen in a Murine Model of Oral Vaccination.

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    Revaud, Julien; Unterfinger, Yves; Rol, Nicolas; Suleman, Muhammad; Shaw, Julia; Galea, Sandra; Gavard, Françoise; Lacour, Sandrine A; Coulpier, Muriel; Versillé, Nicolas; Havenga, Menzo; Klonjkowski, Bernard; Zanella, Gina; Biacchesi, Stéphane; Cordonnier, Nathalie; Corthésy, Blaise; Ben Arous, Juliette; Richardson, Jennifer P

    2018-01-01

    To define the bottlenecks that restrict antigen expression after oral administration of viral-vectored vaccines, we tracked vectors derived from the human adenovirus type 5 at whole body, tissue, and cellular scales throughout the digestive tract in a murine model of oral delivery. After intragastric administration of vectors encoding firefly luciferase or a model antigen, detectable levels of transgene-encoded protein or mRNA were confined to the intestine, and restricted to delimited anatomical zones. Expression of luciferase in the form of multiple small bioluminescent foci in the distal ileum, cecum, and proximal colon suggested multiple crossing points. Many foci were unassociated with visible Peyer's patches, implying that transduced cells lay in proximity to villous rather than follicle-associated epithelium, as supported by detection of transgene-encoded antigen in villous epithelial cells. Transgene-encoded mRNA but not protein was readily detected in Peyer's patches, suggesting that post-transcriptional regulation of viral gene expression might limit expression of transgene-encoded antigen in this tissue. To characterize the pathways by which the vector crossed the intestinal epithelium and encountered sentinel cells, a fluorescent-labeled vector was administered to mice by the intragastric route or inoculated into ligated intestinal loops comprising a Peyer's patch. The vector adhered selectively to microfold cells in the follicle-associated epithelium, and, after translocation to the subepithelial dome region, was captured by phagocytes that expressed CD11c and lysozyme. In conclusion, although a large number of crossing events took place throughout the intestine within and without Peyer's patches, multiple firewalls prevented systemic dissemination of vector and suppressed production of transgene-encoded protein in Peyer's patches.

  16. Firewalls Prevent Systemic Dissemination of Vectors Derived from Human Adenovirus Type 5 and Suppress Production of Transgene-Encoded Antigen in a Murine Model of Oral Vaccination

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    Julien Revaud

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To define the bottlenecks that restrict antigen expression after oral administration of viral-vectored vaccines, we tracked vectors derived from the human adenovirus type 5 at whole body, tissue, and cellular scales throughout the digestive tract in a murine model of oral delivery. After intragastric administration of vectors encoding firefly luciferase or a model antigen, detectable levels of transgene-encoded protein or mRNA were confined to the intestine, and restricted to delimited anatomical zones. Expression of luciferase in the form of multiple small bioluminescent foci in the distal ileum, cecum, and proximal colon suggested multiple crossing points. Many foci were unassociated with visible Peyer's patches, implying that transduced cells lay in proximity to villous rather than follicle-associated epithelium, as supported by detection of transgene-encoded antigen in villous epithelial cells. Transgene-encoded mRNA but not protein was readily detected in Peyer's patches, suggesting that post-transcriptional regulation of viral gene expression might limit expression of transgene-encoded antigen in this tissue. To characterize the pathways by which the vector crossed the intestinal epithelium and encountered sentinel cells, a fluorescent-labeled vector was administered to mice by the intragastric route or inoculated into ligated intestinal loops comprising a Peyer's patch. The vector adhered selectively to microfold cells in the follicle-associated epithelium, and, after translocation to the subepithelial dome region, was captured by phagocytes that expressed CD11c and lysozyme. In conclusion, although a large number of crossing events took place throughout the intestine within and without Peyer's patches, multiple firewalls prevented systemic dissemination of vector and suppressed production of transgene-encoded protein in Peyer's patches.

  17. Conazole fungicides inhibit Leydig cell testosterone secretion and androgen receptor activation in vitro

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    Maarke J.E. Roelofs

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Conazole fungicides are widely used in agriculture despite their suspected endocrine disrupting properties. In this study, the potential (anti-androgenic effects of ten conazoles were assessed and mutually compared with existing data. Effects of cyproconazole (CYPRO, fluconazole (FLUC, flusilazole (FLUS, hexaconazole (HEXA, myconazole (MYC, penconazole (PEN, prochloraz (PRO, tebuconazole (TEBU, triadimefon (TRIA, and triticonazole (TRIT were examined using murine Leydig (MA-10 cells and human T47D-ARE cells stably transfected with an androgen responsive element and a firefly luciferase reporter gene. Six conazoles caused a decrease in basal testosterone (T secretion by MA-10 cells varying from 61% up to 12% compared to vehicle-treated control. T secretion was concentration-dependently inhibited after exposure of MA-10 cells to several concentrations of FLUS (IC50 = 12.4 μM or TEBU (IC50 = 2.4 μM in combination with LH. The expression of steroidogenic and cholesterol biosynthesis genes was not changed by conazole exposure. Also, there were no changes in reactive oxygen species (ROS formation that could explain the altered T secretion after exposure to conazoles. Nine conazoles decreased T-induced AR activation (IC50s ranging from 10.7 to 71.5 μM and effect potencies (REPs were calculated relative to the known AR antagonist flutamide (FLUT. FLUC had no effect on AR activation by T. FLUS was the most potent (REP = 3.61 and MYC the least potent (REP = 0.03 AR antagonist. All other conazoles had a comparable REP from 0.12 to 0.38. Our results show distinct in vitro anti-androgenic effects of several conazole fungicides arising from two mechanisms: inhibition of T secretion and AR antagonism, suggesting potential testicular toxic effects. These effects warrant further mechanistic investigation and clearly show the need for accurate exposure data in order to perform proper (human risk assessment of this class of compounds.

  18. Melanopsin resets circadian rhythms in cells by inducing clock gene Period1

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    Yamashita, Shuhei; Uehara, Tomoe; Matsuo, Minako; Kikuchi, Yo; Numano, Rika

    2014-02-01

    The biochemical, physiological and behavioral processes are under the control of internal clocks with the period of approximately 24 hr, circadian rhythms. The expression of clock gene Period1 (Per1) oscillates autonomously in cells and is induced immediately after a light pulse. Per1 is an indispensable member of the central clock system to maintain the autonomous oscillator and synchronize environmental light cycle. Per1 expression could be detected by Per1∷luc and Per1∷GFP plasmid DNA in which firefly luciferase and Green Fluorescence Protein were rhythmically expressed under the control of the mouse Per1 promoter in order to monitor mammalian circadian rhythms. Membrane protein, MELANOPSIN is activated by blue light in the morning on the retina and lead to signals transduction to induce Per1 expression and to reset the phase of circadian rhythms. In this report Per1 induction was measured by reporter signal assay in Per1∷luc and Per1∷GFP fibroblast cell at the input process of circadian rhythms. To the result all process to reset the rhythms by Melanopsin is completed in single cell like in the retina projected to the central clock in the brain. Moreover, the phase of circadian rhythm in Per1∷luc cells is synchronized by photo-activated Melanopsin, because the definite peak of luciferase activity in one dish was found one day after light illumination. That is an available means that physiological circadian rhythms could be real-time monitor as calculable reporter (bioluminescent and fluorescent) chronological signal in both single and groups of cells.

  19. Preparation, characterization, and efficient transfection of cationic liposomes and nanomagnetic cationic liposomes

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    Samadikhah HR

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Hamid Reza Samadikhah1,*, Asia Majidi2,*, Maryam Nikkhah2, Saman Hosseinkhani11Department of Biochemistry, 2Department of Nanobiotechnology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: Cationic liposomes (CLs are composed of phospholipid bilayers. One of the most important applications of these particles is in drug and gene delivery. However, using CLs to deliver therapeutic nucleic acids and drugs to target organs has some problems, including low transfection efficiency in vivo. The aim of this study was to develop novel CLs containing magnetite to overcome the deficiencies. Patients and methods: CLs and magnetic cationic liposomes (MCLs were prepared using the freeze-dried empty liposome method. Luciferase-harboring vectors (pGL3 were transferred into liposomes and the transfection efficiencies were determined by luciferase assay. Firefly luciferase is one of most popular reporter genes often used to measure the efficiency of gene transfer in vivo and in vitro. Different formulations of liposomes have been used for delivery of different kinds of gene reporters. Lipoplex (liposome–plasmid DNA complexes formation was monitored by gel retardation assay. Size and charge of lipoplexes were determined using particle size analysis. Chinese hamster ovary cells were transfected by lipoplexes (liposome-pGL3; transfection efficiency and gene expression level was evaluated by luciferase assay. Results: High transfection efficiency of plasmid by CLs and novel nanomagnetic CLs was achieved. Moreover, lipoplexes showed less cytotoxicity than polyethyleneimine and Lipofectamine™. Conclusion: Novel liposome compositions (1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine [DPPC]/dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide [DOAB] and DPPC/cholesterol/DOAB with high transfection efficiency can be useful in gene delivery in vitro. MCLs can also be used for targeted gene delivery, due to

  20. "May the journey continue": Earth 2 fan fiction, or Filling in gaps to revive a canceled series

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    Francesca Musiani

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores writing practices in a fan community having to give life to a story deprived of an "official" version: the television series Earth 2. I argue that fan fiction writing for this prematurely canceled series exhibits peculiar features in comparison to fan writing for established series: for example, temporality, choice of protagonists, character pairings, and challenges to the original conception(s of the series. Writing fan fiction for a canceled series is not about creating alternatives to an existing story, but about filling in gaps; it brings to light the ways in which fan fiction deals with closure. I take as a case study Earth 2, a series aired by NBC in the United States in 1994–95, whose first and only season ended in a cliffhanger episode hinting that a mysterious ailment had struck the main and most popular character. Shortly afterward, a significant number of Earth 2 Web sites, online conventions, and especially fan stories started developing; they explored what could have happened next and bore nostalgic but combative mottoes and titles such as "May the Journey Continue." I explore the specific features of Earth 2 fan fiction production and sharing by analyzing the main Earth 2 fan fiction archives on the Web and the responses to my email interviews of fan writers. Exemplars of the Earth 2 case are compared to those of other science fiction TV series, both prematurely canceled (Firefly, Space: Above and Beyond and long-lived (Babylon 5, Star Trek: Deep Space 9.

  1. Synchronization, TIGoRS, and Information Flow in Complex Systems: Dispositional Cellular Automata.

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    Sulis, William H

    2016-04-01

    Synchronization has a long history in physics where it refers to the phase matching of two identical oscillators. This notion has been extensively studied in physics as well as in biology, where it has been applied to such widely varying phenomena as the flashing of fireflies and firing of neurons in the brain. Human behavior, however, may be recurrent but it is not oscillatory even though many physiological systems do exhibit oscillatory tendencies. Moreover, much of human behaviour is collaborative and cooperative, where the individual behaviours may be distinct yet contemporaneous (if not simultaneous) and taken collectively express some functionality. In the context of behaviour, the important aspect is the repeated co-occurrence in time of behaviours that facilitate the propagation of information or of functionality, regardless of whether or not these behaviours are similar or identical. An example of this weaker notion of synchronization is transient induced global response synchronization (TIGoRS). Previous work has shown that TIGoRS is a ubiquitous phenomenon among complex systems, enabling them to stably parse environmental transients into salient units to which they stably respond. This leads to the notion of Sulis machines, which emergently generate a primitive linguistic structure through their dynamics. This article reviews the notion of TIGoRS and its expression in several complex systems models including tempered neural networks, driven cellular automata and cocktail party automata. The emergent linguistics of Sulis machines are discussed. A new class of complex systems model, the dispositional cellular automaton is introduced. A new metric for TIGoRS, the excess synchronization, is introduced and applied to the study of TIGoRS in dispositional cellular automata. It is shown that these automata exhibit a nonlinear synchronization response to certain perturbing transients.

  2. Performance comparisons between PCA-EA-LBG and PCA-LBG-EA approaches in VQ codebook generation for image compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jinn-Tsong; Chou, Ping-Yi; Chou, Jyh-Horng

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study is to generate vector quantisation (VQ) codebooks by integrating principle component analysis (PCA) algorithm, Linde-Buzo-Gray (LBG) algorithm, and evolutionary algorithms (EAs). The EAs include genetic algorithm (GA), particle swarm optimisation (PSO), honey bee mating optimisation (HBMO), and firefly algorithm (FF). The study is to provide performance comparisons between PCA-EA-LBG and PCA-LBG-EA approaches. The PCA-EA-LBG approaches contain PCA-GA-LBG, PCA-PSO-LBG, PCA-HBMO-LBG, and PCA-FF-LBG, while the PCA-LBG-EA approaches contain PCA-LBG, PCA-LBG-GA, PCA-LBG-PSO, PCA-LBG-HBMO, and PCA-LBG-FF. All training vectors of test images are grouped according to PCA. The PCA-EA-LBG used the vectors grouped by PCA as initial individuals, and the best solution gained by the EAs was given for LBG to discover a codebook. The PCA-LBG approach is to use the PCA to select vectors as initial individuals for LBG to find a codebook. The PCA-LBG-EA used the final result of PCA-LBG as an initial individual for EAs to find a codebook. The search schemes in PCA-EA-LBG first used global search and then applied local search skill, while in PCA-LBG-EA first used local search and then employed global search skill. The results verify that the PCA-EA-LBG indeed gain superior results compared to the PCA-LBG-EA, because the PCA-EA-LBG explores a global area to find a solution, and then exploits a better one from the local area of the solution. Furthermore the proposed PCA-EA-LBG approaches in designing VQ codebooks outperform existing approaches shown in the literature.

  3. Robotic Y-V Plasty for Recalcitrant Bladder Neck Contracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granieri, Michael A; Weinberg, Aaron C; Sun, Jeffrey Y; Stifleman, Michael; Zhao, Lee

    2018-07-01

    To demonstrate the technique and the outcomes of robot assisted Y-V plasty bladder neck reconstruction (RYVBNR). We present our technique for treatment of recalcitrant bladder neck contracture (BNC) in 7 patients who underwent RYVBNR at our institution between March 2016 and September 2017. Indication for the procedure was incomplete emptying, recurrent urinary tract infections, and dysuria. On follow-up, patients were assessed for clinical success by absence of infections, symptoms, and cystoscopic evaluation. Robotic assisted dissection is performed to open the space of Retzius and mobilize the bladder. The cystoscope is passed to the level of the BNC, and Firefly technology is used to localize the BNC. The BNC is incised anteriorly, and a V-shaped bladder flap is advanced into the BNC in a Y-V plasty fashion. We place a perioperative closed suction drain, which is removed before discharge, and a 22 Fr catheter, which that will be removed in the office at approximately 2 weeks. Six men developed recalcitrant BNCs and 1 developed a recalcitrant vesicourethral anastomotic stenosis. All patients had previously undergone an endoscopic procedure. Median time for last attempt at endoscopic management to robot-assisted bladder neck repair was 4.7 months. The average number of prior attempts at endoscopic management was 2. All patients underwent RYVBNR without conversion to open surgery. The median operative time was 240 minutes, estimated blood loss was 67 mL, and length of stay was 1 day. There were no intraoperative complications. Catheters were removed in the office at a median time of 15 days. At a median follow-up of 8 months, all cases were successful with no evidence of recurrence. Only 2 patients had persistent urinary incontinence at 1 pad per day. RYVBNR with a Y-V plasty is a feasible and effective technique for managing a difficult reconstructive problem. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Leishmanicidal compounds of Nectria pseudotrichia, an endophytic fungus isolated from the plant Caesalpinia echinata (Brazilwood

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    Betania Barros Cota

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND In a screen of extracts from plants and fungi to detect antileishmanial activity, we found that the ethyl acetate extract of the fungus Nectria pseudotrichia, isolated from the tree Caesalpinia echinata (Brazilwood, is a promising source of bioactive compounds. OBJECTIVES The aims of this study were to isolate and determine the chemical structures of the compounds responsible for the antileishmanial activity of the organic extract from N. pseudotrichia. METHODS Compounds were isolated by chromatographic fractionation using semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography, and their chemical structures were determined by analytical and spectral data and by comparison with published data. The antileishmanial activity of the isolated compounds was evaluated in intracellular amastigote forms of Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis expressing firefly luciferase as reporter gene, and cytotoxicity was determined in Vero and THP-1 mammalian cell lines by MTT assay. FINDINGS Fractionation of the extract yielded seven compounds: 10-acetyl trichoderonic acid A (1, 6′-acetoxy-piliformic acid (2, 5′,6′-dehydropiliformic acid (3, piliformic acid (4, hydroheptelidic acid (5, xylaric acid D (6, and cytochalasin D (7. Compounds 1, 2 and 3 are reported here for the first time. Compounds 1, 2, and 5 were more active, with IC50 values of 21.4, 28.3, and 24.8 µM, respectively, and showed low toxicity to Vero and THP-1 cells. MAIN CONCLUSIONS N. pseudotrichia produces secondary metabolites that are more toxic to intracellular amastigote forms of L. (V. braziliensis than to mammalian cells.

  5. The ketogenic diet and hyperbaric oxygen therapy prolong survival in mice with systemic metastatic cancer.

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    Angela M Poff

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Abnormal cancer metabolism creates a glycolytic-dependency which can be exploited by lowering glucose availability to the tumor. The ketogenic diet (KD is a low carbohydrate, high fat diet which decreases blood glucose and elevates blood ketones and has been shown to slow cancer progression in animals and humans. Abnormal tumor vasculature creates hypoxic pockets which promote cancer progression and further increase the glycolytic-dependency of cancers. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO₂T saturates tumors with oxygen, reversing the cancer promoting effects of tumor hypoxia. Since these non-toxic therapies exploit overlapping metabolic deficiencies of cancer, we tested their combined effects on cancer progression in a natural model of metastatic disease. METHODS: We used the firefly luciferase-tagged VM-M3 mouse model of metastatic cancer to compare tumor progression and survival in mice fed standard or KD ad libitum with or without HBO₂T (2.5 ATM absolute, 90 min, 3x/week. Tumor growth was monitored by in vivo bioluminescent imaging. RESULTS: KD alone significantly decreased blood glucose, slowed tumor growth, and increased mean survival time by 56.7% in mice with systemic metastatic cancer. While HBO₂T alone did not influence cancer progression, combining the KD with HBO₂T elicited a significant decrease in blood glucose, tumor growth rate, and 77.9% increase in mean survival time compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS: KD and HBO₂T produce significant anti-cancer effects when combined in a natural model of systemic metastatic cancer. Our evidence suggests that these therapies should be further investigated as potential non-toxic treatments or adjuvant therapies to standard care for patients with systemic metastatic disease.

  6. A portable bioluminescence engineered cell-based biosensor for on-site applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roda, Aldo; Cevenini, Luca; Michelini, Elisa; Branchini, Bruce R

    2011-04-15

    We have developed a portable biosensing device based on genetically engineered bioluminescent (BL) cells. Cells were immobilized on a 4 × 3 multiwell cartridge using a new biocompatible matrix that preserved their vitality. Using a fiber optic taper, the cartridge was placed in direct contact with a cooled CCD sensor to image and quantify the BL signals. Yeast and bacterial cells were engineered to express recognition elements, whose interaction with the analyte led to luciferase expression, via reporter gene technology. Three different biosensors were developed. The first detects androgenic compounds using yeast cells carrying a green-emitting P. pyralis luciferase regulated by the human androgen receptor and a red mutant of the same species as internal vitality control. The second biosensor detects two classes of compounds (androgens and estrogens) using yeast strains engineered to express green-or red-emitting mutant firefly luciferases in response to androgens or estrogens, respectively. The third biosensor detects lactose analogue isopropyl β-d-1-thiogalactopyranoside using two E. coli strains. One strain exploits the lac operon as recognition element for the expression of P. pyralis luciferase. The other strain serves as a vitality control expressing Gaussia princeps luciferase, which requires a different luciferin substrate. The immobilized cells were stable for up to 1 month. The analytes could be detected at nanomolar levels with good precision and accuracy when the specific signal was corrected using the internal vitality control. This portable device can be used for on-site multiplexed bioassays for different compound classes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Scalable electro-photonic integration concept based on polymer waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosman, E.; Van Steenberge, G.; Boersma, A.; Wiegersma, S.; Harmsma, P.; Karppinen, M.; Korhonen, T.; Offrein, B. J.; Dangel, R.; Daly, A.; Ortsiefer, M.; Justice, J.; Corbett, B.; Dorrestein, S.; Duis, J.

    2016-03-01

    A novel method for fabricating a single mode optical interconnection platform is presented. The method comprises the miniaturized assembly of optoelectronic single dies, the scalable fabrication of polymer single mode waveguides and the coupling to glass fiber arrays providing the I/O's. The low cost approach for the polymer waveguide fabrication is based on the nano-imprinting of a spin-coated waveguide core layer. The assembly of VCSELs and photodiodes is performed before waveguide layers are applied. By embedding these components in deep reactive ion etched pockets in the silicon substrate, the planarity of the substrate for subsequent layer processing is guaranteed and the thermal path of chip-to-substrate is minimized. Optical coupling of the embedded devices to the nano-imprinted waveguides is performed by laser ablating 45 degree trenches which act as optical mirror for 90 degree deviation of the light from VCSEL to waveguide. Laser ablation is also implemented for removing parts of the polymer stack in order to mount a custom fabricated connector containing glass fiber arrays. A demonstration device was built to show the proof of principle of the novel fabrication, packaging and optical coupling principles as described above, combined with a set of sub-demonstrators showing the functionality of the different techniques separately. The paper represents a significant part of the electro-photonic integration accomplishments in the European 7th Framework project "Firefly" and not only discusses the development of the different assembly processes described above, but the efforts on the complete integration of all process approaches into the single device demonstrator.

  8. SDSS-IV MaNGA: stellar population gradients as a function of galaxy environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, D.; Thomas, D.; Maraston, C.; Westfall, K.; Etherington, J.; Riffel, R.; Mallmann, N. D.; Zheng, Z.; Argudo-Fernández, M.; Bershady, M.; Bundy, K.; Drory, N.; Law, D.; Yan, R.; Wake, D.; Weijmans, A.; Bizyaev, D.; Brownstein, J.; Lane, R. R.; Maiolino, R.; Masters, K.; Merrifield, M.; Nitschelm, C.; Pan, K.; Roman-Lopes, A.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.

    2017-02-01

    We study the internal radial gradients of stellar population properties within 1.5 Re and analyse the impact of galaxy environment. We use a representative sample of 721 galaxies with masses ranging between 109 M⊙ and 1011.5 M⊙ from the SDSS-IV survey MaNGA. We split this sample by morphology into early-type and late-type galaxies. Using the full spectral fitting code FIREFLY, we derive the light and mass-weighted stellar population properties, age and metallicity, and calculate the gradients of these properties. We use three independent methods to quantify galaxy environment, namely the Nth nearest neighbour, the tidal strength parameter Q and distinguish between central and satellite galaxies. In our analysis, we find that early-type galaxies generally exhibit shallow light-weighted age gradients in agreement with the literature and mass-weighted median age gradients tend to be slightly positive. Late-type galaxies, instead, have negative light-weighted age gradients. We detect negative metallicity gradients in both early- and late-type galaxies that correlate with galaxy mass, with the gradients being steeper and the correlation with mass being stronger in late-types. We find, however, that stellar population gradients, for both morphological classifications, have no significant correlation with galaxy environment for all three characterizations of environment. Our results suggest that galaxy mass is the main driver of stellar population gradients in both early and late-type galaxies, and any environmental dependence, if present at all, must be very subtle.

  9. Spectral Analysis, Synthesis, & Energy Distributions of Nearby E+A Galaxies Using SDSS-IV MaNGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Olivia A.; Anderson, Miguel Ricardo; Wally, Muhammad; James, Olivia; Falcone, Julia; Liu, Allen; Wallack, Nicole; Liu, Charles; SDSS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Utilizing data from the Mapping Nearby Galaxies at APO (MaNGA) Survey (MaNGA Product Launch-4, or MPL-4), of the latest generation of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-IV), we identified nine post-starburst (E+A) systems that lie within the Green Valley transition zone. We identify the E+A galaxies by their SDSS single fiber spectrum and u-r color, then confirmed their classification as post-starburst by coding/plotting methods and spectral synthesis codes (FIREFLY and PIPE3D), as well as with their Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) from 0.15 µm to 22 µm, using GALEX, SDSS, 2MASS, and WISE data. We produced maps of gaussian-fitted fluxes, equivalent widths, stellar velocities, metallicities and age. We also produced spectral line ratio diagrams to classify regions of stellar populations of the galaxies. We found that our sample of E+As retain their post-starburst properties across the entire galaxy, not just at their center. We detected matching a trend line in the ultraviolet and optical bands, consistent with the expected SEDs for an E+A galaxy, and also through the J, H and Ks bands, except for one object. We classified one of the nine galaxies as a luminous infrared galaxy, unusual for a post-starburst object. Our group seeks to further study stellar population properties, spectral energy distributions and quenching properties in E+A galaxies, and investigate their role in galaxy evolution as a whole. This work was supported by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation via the SDSS-IV Faculty and Student Team (FAST) initiative, ARC Agreement #SSP483 to the CUNY College of Staten Island. This work was also supported by grants to The American Museum of Natural History, and the CUNY College of Staten Island through from National Science Foundation.

  10. SDSS-IV MaNGA: Spatially resolved star formation histories in galaxies as a function of galaxy mass and type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, D.; Thomas, D.; Maraston, C.; Westfall, K.; Etherington, J.; Riffel, R.; Mallmann, N. D.; Zheng, Z.; Argudo-Fernández, M.; Lian, J.; Bershady, M.; Bundy, K.; Drory, N.; Law, D.; Yan, R.; Wake, D.; Weijmans, A.; Bizyaev, D.; Brownstein, J.; Lane, R. R.; Maiolino, R.; Masters, K.; Merrifield, M.; Nitschelm, C.; Pan, K.; Roman-Lopes, A.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Schneider, D. P.

    2017-04-01

    We study the internal gradients of stellar population properties within 1.5 Re for a representative sample of 721 galaxies, with stellar masses ranging between 109 M⊙ and 1011.5 M⊙ from the SDSS-IV MaNGA Integral-Field-Unit survey. Through the use of our full spectral fitting code firefly, we derive light- and mass-weighted stellar population properties and their radial gradients, as well as full star formation and metal enrichment histories. We also quantify the impact that different stellar population models and full spectral fitting routines have on the derived stellar population properties and the radial gradient measurements. In our analysis, we find that age gradients tend to be shallow for both early-type and late-type galaxies. Mass-weighted age gradients of early-types arepositive (˜0.09 dex/Re) pointing to 'outside-in' progression of star formation, while late-type galaxies have negative light-weighted age gradients (˜-0.11 dex/Re), suggesting an 'inside-out' formation of discs. We detect negative metallicity gradients in both early- and late-type galaxies, but these are significantly steeper in late-types, suggesting that the radial dependence of chemical enrichment processes and the effect of gas inflow and metal transport are far more pronounced in discs. Metallicity gradients of both morphological classes correlate with galaxy mass, with negative metallicity gradients becoming steeper with increasing galaxy mass. The correlation with mass is stronger for late-type galaxies, with a slope of d(∇[Z/H])/d(log M) ˜ -0.2 ± 0.05 , compared to d(∇[Z/H])/d(log M) ˜ -0.05 ± 0.05 for early-types. This result suggests that the merger history plays a relatively small role in shaping metallicity gradients of galaxies.

  11. Effects of Planting of Calluna Vulgaris for Stable Snow Accumulation in Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibuki, R.; Harada, K.

    2017-12-01

    Recent year climate of the winter season is changing and the period of snow accumulation is reduced compared with before. It affects the management of the ski resort. Snowfall had occurred in December 2016, but the snow accumulated after January 2017 at the ski resort located in the Pacific Ocean side of the Northeast region of Japan. This situation is thought to be originated from two reasons, one is snow thawing, another is to be blown away by the strong monsoon wind. We are considering utilizing planting to stabilize snow accumulation. Currently building rock gardens with shrubs, mainly Calluna Vulgaris in the ski resort for attracting customers in the summer. These are difficult to raise in the lowlands of Japan because they are too hot, but because of their good growth in relatively low-temperature highlands, it is rare for local residents to appreciate the value of these. In addition, it is excellent in low temperature resistance, and it will not die even under the snow. We investigated the pressure resistance performance due to snowfall and the appropriateness of growth under the weather conditions of the area. Regarding Calluna Vulgaris, Firefly, the plants were not damaged even under snow more than 1 m. In addition, three years have passed since planting, relatively good growth is shown, and the stock has been growing every year. Based on these results, we plan to stabilize the snow accumulation by carrying out planting of Calluna vulgaris inside the slope. The growth of the Calluna species is gentle and the tree height grows only about 50 cm even if 15 years have passed since planting. Therefore, it is considered that the plant body is hard to put out their head on the snow surface during the ski season. Next season will monitor the snow accumulation around the planting area through the snow season.

  12. Disruption of bbe02 by Insertion of a Luciferase Gene Increases Transformation Efficiency of Borrelia burgdorferi and Allows Live Imaging in Lyme Disease Susceptible C3H Mice.

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    Kamfai Chan

    Full Text Available Lyme disease is the most prevalent tick-borne disease in North America and Europe. The causative agent, Borrelia burgdorferi persists in the white-footed mouse. Infection with B. burgdorferi can cause acute to persistent multisystemic Lyme disease in humans. Some disease manifestations are also exhibited in the mouse model of Lyme disease. Genetic manipulation of B. burgdorferi remains difficult. First, B. burgdorferi contains a large number of endogenous plasmids with unique sequences encoding unknown functions. The presence of these plasmids needs to be confirmed after each genetic manipulation. Second, the restriction modification defense systems, including that encoded by bbe02 gene lead to low transformation efficiency in B. burgdorferi. Therefore, studying the molecular basis of Lyme pathogenesis is a challenge. Furthermore, investigation of the role of a specific B. burgdorferi protein throughout infection requires a large number of mice, making it labor intensive and expensive. To overcome the problems associated with low transformation efficiency and to reduce the number of mice needed for experiments, we disrupted the bbe02 gene of a highly infectious and pathogenic B. burgdorferi strain, N40 D10/E9 through insertion of a firefly luciferase gene. The bbe02 mutant shows higher transformation efficiency and maintains luciferase activity throughout infection as detected by live imaging of mice. Infectivity and pathogenesis of this mutant were comparable to the wild-type N40 strain. This mutant will serve as an ideal parental strain to examine the roles of various B. burgdorferi proteins in Lyme pathogenesis in the mouse model in the future.

  13. Pivotal role of oxidative stress in tumor metastasis under diabetic conditions in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikemura, Mai; Nishikawa, Makiya; Kusamori, Kosuke; Fukuoka, Miho; Yamashita, Fumiyoshi; Hashida, Mitsuru

    2013-09-10

    Diabetic patients are reported to have a high incidence and mortality of cancer, but little is known about the linkage. In this study, we investigated whether high oxidative stress is involved in the acceleration of tumor metastasis in diabetic mice. Murine melanoma B16-BL6 cells stably labeled with firefly luciferase (B16-BL6/Luc) were inoculated into the tail vein of streptozotocin (STZ)-treated or untreated mice. A luciferase assay demonstrated that tumor cells were present largely in the lung of untreated mice, whereas large numbers of tumor cells were detected in both the lung and liver of STZ-treated mice. Repeated injections of polyethylene glycol-conjugated catalase (PEG-catalase), a long-circulating derivative, reduced the elevated fasting blood glucose levels and plasma lipoperoxide levels of STZ-treated mice, but had no significant effects on these parameters in untreated mice. In addition, the injections significantly reduced the number of tumor cells in the lung and liver in both untreated and STZ-treated mice. Culture of B16-BL6/Luc cells in medium containing over 45 mg/dl glucose hardly affected the proliferation of the cells, whereas the addition of plasma of STZ-treated mice to the medium significantly increased the number of cells. Plasma samples of STZ-treated mice receiving PEG-catalase exhibited no such effect on proliferation. These findings indicate that a hyperglycemia-induced increase in oxidative stress is involved in the acceleration of tumor metastasis, and the removal of systemic hydrogen peroxide by PEG-catalase can inhibit the progression of diabetic conditions and tumor metastasis in diabetes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Efficient cell-free expression with the endogenous E. Coli RNA polymerase and sigma factor 70

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    Noireaux Vincent

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Escherichia coli cell-free expression systems use bacteriophage RNA polymerases, such as T7, to synthesize large amounts of recombinant proteins. These systems are used for many applications in biotechnology, such as proteomics. Recently, informational processes have been reconstituted in vitro with cell-free systems. These synthetic approaches, however, have been seriously limited by a lack of transcription modularity. The current available cell-free systems have been optimized to work with bacteriophage RNA polymerases, which put significant restrictions to engineer processes related to biological information. The development of efficient cell-free systems with broader transcription capabilities is required to study complex informational processes in vitro. Results In this work, an efficient cell-free expression system that uses the endogenous E. coli RNA polymerase only and sigma factor 70 for transcription was prepared. Approximately 0.75 mg/ml of Firefly luciferase and enhanced green fluorescent protein were produced in batch mode. A plasmid was optimized with different regulatory parts to increase the expression. In addition, a new eGFP was engineered that is more translatable in cell-free systems than the original eGFP. The protein production was characterized with three different adenosine triphosphate (ATP regeneration systems: creatine phosphate (CP, phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP, and 3-phosphoglyceric acid (3-PGA. The maximum protein production was obtained with 3-PGA. Preparation of the crude extract was streamlined to a simple routine procedure that takes 12 hours including cell culture. Conclusions Although it uses the endogenous E. coli transcription machinery, this cell-free system can produce active proteins in quantities comparable to bacteriophage systems. The E. coli transcription provides much more possibilities to engineer informational processes in vitro. Many E. coli promoters/operators specific to sigma

  15. A novel mouse model for multiple myeloma (MOPC315.BM that allows noninvasive spatiotemporal detection of osteolytic disease.

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    Peter O Hofgaard

    Full Text Available Multiple myeloma (MM is a lethal human cancer characterized by a clonal expansion of malignant plasma cells in bone marrow. Mouse models of human MM are technically challenging and do not always recapitulate human disease. Therefore, new mouse models for MM are needed. Mineral-oil induced plasmacytomas (MOPC develop in the peritoneal cavity of oil-injected BALB/c mice. However, MOPC typically grow extramedullary and are considered poor models of human MM. Here we describe an in vivo-selected MOPC315 variant, called MOPC315.BM, which can be maintained in vitro. When injected i.v. into BALB/c mice, MOPC315.BM cells exhibit tropism for bone marrow. As few as 10(4 MOPC315.BM cells injected i.v. induced paraplegia, a sign of spinal cord compression, in all mice within 3-4 weeks. MOPC315.BM cells were stably transfected with either firefly luciferase (MOPC315.BM.Luc or DsRed (MOPC315.BM.DsRed for studies using noninvasive imaging. MOPC315.BM.Luc cells were detected in the tibiofemoral region already 1 hour after i.v. injection. Bone foci developed progressively, and as of day 5, MM cells were detected in multiple sites in the axial skeleton. Additionally, the spleen (a hematopoietic organ in the mouse was invariably affected. Luminescent signals correlated with serum myeloma protein concentration, allowing for easy tracking of tumor load with noninvasive imaging. Affected mice developed osteolytic lesions. The MOPC315.BM model employs a common strain of immunocompetent mice (BALB/c and replicates many characteristics of human MM. The model should be suitable for studies of bone marrow tropism, development of osteolytic lesions, drug testing, and immunotherapy in MM.

  16. In vitro validation of bioluminescent monitoring of disease progression and therapeutic response in leukaemia model animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Yusuke; Okubo, Toshiyuki; Tojo, Arinobu; Sekine, Rieko; Soda, Yasushi; Kobayashi, Seiichiro; Nomura, Akiko; Izawa, Kiyoko; Kitamura, Toshio; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2006-01-01

    The application of in vivo bioluminescence imaging to non-invasive, quantitative monitoring of tumour models relies on a positive correlation between the intensity of bioluminescence and the tumour burden. We conducted cell culture studies to investigate the relationship between bioluminescent signal intensity and viable cell numbers in murine leukaemia model cells. Interleukin-3 (IL-3)-dependent murine pro-B cell line Ba/F3 was transduced with firefly luciferase to generate cells expressing luciferase stably under the control of a retroviral long terminal repeat. The luciferase-expressing cells were transduced with p190 BCR-ABL to give factor-independent proliferation. The cells were cultured under various conditions, and bioluminescent signal intensity was compared with viable cell numbers and the cell cycle stage. The Ba/F3 cells showed autonomous growth as well as stable luciferase expression following transduction with both luciferase and p190 BCR-ABL, and in vivo bioluminescence imaging permitted external detection of these cells implanted into mice. The bioluminescence intensities tended to reflect cell proliferation and responses to imatinib in cell culture studies. However, the luminescence per viable cell was influenced by the IL-3 concentration in factor-dependent cells and by the stage of proliferation and imatinib concentration in factor-independent cells, thereby impairing the proportionality between viable cell number and bioluminescent signal intensity. Luminescence per cell tended to vary in association with the fraction of proliferating cells. Although in vivo bioluminescence imaging would allow non-invasive monitoring of leukaemia model animals, environmental factors and therapeutic interventions may cause some discrepancies between tumour burden and bioluminescence intensity. (orig.)

  17. Modified Titanium Surface-Mediated Effects on Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cell Response

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    Amol Chaudhari

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Surface modification of titanium implants is used to enhance osseointegration. The study objective was to evaluate five modified titanium surfaces in terms of cytocompatibility and pro-osteogenic/pro-angiogenic properties for human mesenchymal stromal cells: amorphous microporous silica (AMS, bone morphogenetic protein-2 immobilized on AMS (AMS + BMP, bio-active glass (BAG and two titanium coatings with different porosity (T1; T2. Four surfaces served as controls: uncoated Ti (Ti, Ti functionalized with BMP-2 (Ti + BMP, Ti surface with a thickened titanium oxide layer (TiO2 and a tissue culture polystyrene surface (TCPS. The proliferation of eGFP-fLuc (enhanced green fluorescence protein-firefly luciferase transfected cells was tracked non-invasively by fluorescence microscopy and bio-luminescence imaging. The implant surface-mediated effects on cell differentiation potential was tracked by determination of osteogenic and angiogenic parameters [alkaline phosphatase (ALP; osteocalcin (OC; osteoprotegerin (OPG; vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A]. Unrestrained cell proliferation was observed on (unfunctionalized Ti and AMS surfaces, whereas BAG and porous titanium coatings T1 and T2 did not support cell proliferation. An important pro-osteogenic and pro-angiogenic potential of the AMS + BMP surface was observed. In contrast, coating the Ti surface with BMP did not affect the osteogenic differentiation of the progenitor cells. A significantly slower BMP-2 release from AMS compared to Ti supports these findings. In the unfunctionalized state, Ti was found to be superior to AMS in terms of OPG and VEGF-A production. AMS is suggested to be a promising implant coating material for bioactive agents delivery.

  18. Establishment of animal model for the analysis of cancer cell metastasis during radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong Kuk; Jang, Su Jin; Kang, Sung Wook; Park, Sunhoo; Hwang, Sang-Gu; Kim, Wun-Jae; Kang, Joo Hyun; Um, Hong-Duck

    2012-01-01

    Γ-Ionizing radiation (IR) therapy is one of major therapeutic tools in cancer treatment. Nevertheless, γ-IR therapy failed due to occurrence of metastasis, which constitutes a significant obstacle in cancer treatment. The main aim of this investigation was to construct animal model which present metastasis during radiotherapy in a mouse system in vivo and establishes the molecular mechanisms involved. The C6L transfectant cell line expressing firefly luciferase (fLuc) was treated with γ-IR, followed by immunoblotting, zymography and invasion assay in vitro. We additionally employed the C6L transfectant cell line to construct xenografts in nude mice, which were irradiated with γ-IR. Irradiated xenograft-containing mice were analyzed via survival curves, measurement of tumor size, and bioluminescence imaging in vivo and ex vivo. Metastatic lesions in organs of mice were further assessed using RT-PCR, H & E staining and immunohistochemistry. γ-IR treatment of C6L cells induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and increased cell invasion. In irradiated xenograft-containing mice, tumor sizes were decreased dramatically and survival rates extended. Almost all non-irradiated xenograft-containing control mice had died within 4 weeks. However, we also observed luminescence signals in about 22.5% of γ-IR-treated mice. Intestines or lungs of mice displaying luminescence signals contained several lesions, which expressed the fLuc gene and presented histological features of cancer tissues as well as expression of EMT markers. These findings collectively indicate that occurrences of metastases during γ-IR treatment accompanied induction of EMT markers, including increased MMP activity. Establishment of a murine metastasis model during γ-IR treatment should aid in drug development against cancer metastasis and increase our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the metastatic process

  19. Alcohol dysregulates corticotropin-releasing-hormone (CRH promoter activity by interfering with the negative glucocorticoid response element (nGRE.

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    Magdalena M Przybycien-Szymanska

    Full Text Available EtOH exposure in male rats increases corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN, a brain region responsible for coordinating stress and anxiety responses. In this study we identified the molecular mechanisms involved in mediating these effects by examining the direct effects of EtOH on CRH promoter activity in a neuronal cell line derived from the PVN (IVB. In addition, we investigated the potential interactions of EtOH and glucocorticoids on the CRH promoter by concomitantly treating cells with EtOH and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR antagonist RU486, and by sequentially deleting GR binding sites within glucocorticoid response element (GRE on the CRH promoter. Cells were transiently transfected with a firefly luciferase reporter construct containing 2.5 kb of the rat wild type (WT or mutated CRH promoter. Our results showed that EtOH treatment induced a biphasic response in CRH promoter activity. EtOH exposure for 0.5 h significantly decreased promoter activity compared to vehicle treated controls, whereas promoter activity was significantly increased after 2.0 h of EtOH exposure. Treatment with RU486, or deletion of the GR binding sites 1 and 2 within the GRE, abolished the EtOH-induced increase in the promoter activity, however did not affect EtOH-induced decrease in CRH promoter activity at an earlier time point. Overall, our data suggest that alcohol exposure directly regulates CRH promoter activity by interfering with the normal feedback mechanisms of glucocorticoids mediated by GR signaling at the GRE site of the CRH promoter.

  20. Bioluminescence imaging in a medium-sized animal by local injection of d-luciferin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Sung Min; Min, Jung Joon; Kim, Sung Mi; Bom, Hee Seung [Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Suk Jung; Kang, Han Saem; Kim, Kwang Yoon [ECOBIO INC., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Ho [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Luciferase is one of the most commonly used reporter enzymes in the field of molecular imaging. D-luciferin is known as the substrate for luciferase enzyme and its cost is very expensive. Therefore, the bioluminescence molecular imaging study has been allowed in small animals such as mice and rats. In this current study, we validated local injection of D-luciferin in articular capsule for bioluminescence imaging in rabbits. Chondrocytes were cultured and infected by replication-defective adenoviral vector encoding firefly luciferase. And then was performed different method of chondrocyte cell injection and transplantation into the knee of rabbits. The rabbits underwent imaging by cooled CCD camera after local injection of D-luciferin (3mg) into experimental knee joint as well as contralateral normal knee joint on days 1, 5, 7, 9. We sought whether optimal imaging signal was acquired by using cooled CCD camera after local injection of D-luciferin. We successfully visualized injected or transplanted cells in knee joint by local injection of D-luciferin. Total photon flux (7.86E+08 p/s/cm{sup 2}/sr) from the knee joint transplanted with cells approximately increased 10-fold more than (9.43E+07p/s/cm{sup 2}/sr) that from injected knee joints until 7 day. Imaging signal was observed in transplanted joints until day 9 after surgery while signal from injected knee was observed by day 7 after injection. We successfully carried out bioluminescence imaging study with medium sized animal by local injection of small amount of D-luciferin. Survival of chondrocytes were prolonged when surgically transplanted in joints than when directly injected in joint space.

  1. A novel bidirectional expression system for simultaneous expression of both the protein-coding genes and short hairpin RNAs in mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, C.-F.; Cheng, T.-L.; Wu, R.-H.; Teng, C.-F.; Chang, W.-T.

    2006-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is an extremely powerful and widely used gene silencing approach for reverse functional genomics and molecular therapeutics. In mammals, the conserved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 2 (PARP-2)/RNase P bidirectional control promoter simultaneously expresses both the PARP-2 protein and RNase P RNA by RNA polymerase II- and III-dependent mechanisms, respectively. To explore this unique bidirectional control system in RNAi-mediated gene silencing strategy, we have constructed two novel bidirectional expression vectors, pbiHsH1 and pbiMmH1, which contained the PARP-2/RNase P bidirectional control promoters from human and mouse, for simultaneous expression of both the protein-coding genes and short hairpin RNAs. Analyses of the dual transcriptional activities indicated that these two bidirectional expression vectors could not only express enhanced green fluorescent protein as a functional reporter but also simultaneously transcribe shLuc for inhibiting the firefly luciferase expression. In addition, to extend its utility for the establishment of inherited stable clones, we have also reconstructed this bidirectional expression system with the blasticidin S deaminase gene, an effective dominant drug resistance selectable marker, and examined both the selection and inhibition efficiencies in drug resistance and gene expression. Moreover, we have further demonstrated that this bidirectional expression system could efficiently co-regulate the functionally important genes, such as overexpression of tumor suppressor protein p53 and inhibition of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 at the same time. In summary, the bidirectional expression vectors, pbiHsH1 and pbiMmH1, should provide a simple, convenient, and efficient novel tool for manipulating the gene function in mammalian cells

  2. Enhancing pancreatic Beta-cell regeneration in vivo with pioglitazone and alogliptin.

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    Hao Yin

    Full Text Available Pancreatic beta-cells retain limited ability to regenerate and proliferate after various physiologic triggers. Identifying therapies that are able to enhance beta-cell regeneration may therefore be useful for the treatment of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes.In this study we investigated endogenous and transplanted beta-cell regeneration by serially quantifying changes in bioluminescence from beta-cells from transgenic mice expressing firefly luciferase under the control of the mouse insulin I promoter. We tested the ability of pioglitazone and alogliptin, two drugs developed for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, to enhance beta-cell regeneration, and also defined the effect of the immunosuppression with rapamycin and tacrolimus on transplanted islet beta mass.Pioglitazone is a stimulator of nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma while alogliptin is a selective dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor. Pioglitazone alone, or in combination with alogliptin, enhanced endogenous beta-cell regeneration in streptozotocin-treated mice, while alogliptin alone had modest effects. In a model of syngeneic islet transplantation, immunosuppression with rapamycin and tacrolimus induced an early loss of beta-cell mass, while treatment with insulin implants to maintain normoglycemia and pioglitazone plus alogliptin was able to partially promote beta-cell mass recovery.These data highlight the utility of bioluminescence for serially quantifying functional beta-cell mass in living mice. They also demonstrate the ability of pioglitazone, used either alone or in combination with alogliptin, to enhance regeneration of endogenous islet beta-cells as well as transplanted islets into recipients treated with rapamycin and tacrolimus.

  3. In vivo bioluminescence imaging for prolonged survival of transplanted human neural stem cells using 3D biocompatible scaffold in corticectomized rat model.

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    Do Won Hwang

    Full Text Available Stem cell-based treatment of traumatic brain injury has been limited in its capacity to bring about complete functional recovery, because of the poor survival rate of the implanted stem cells. It is known that biocompatible biomaterials play a critical role in enhancing survival and proliferation of transplanted stem cells via provision of mechanical support. In this study, we noninvasively monitored in vivo behavior of implanted neural stem cells embedded within poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA scaffold, and showed that they survived over prolonged periods in corticectomized rat model. Corticectomized rat models were established by motor-cortex ablation of the rat. F3 cells expressing enhanced firefly luciferase (F3-effLuc were established through retroviral infection. The F3-effLuc within PLLA was monitored using IVIS-100 imaging system 7 days after corticectomized surgery. F3-effLuc within PLLA robustly adhered, and gradually increased luciferase signals of F3-effLuc within PLLA were detected in a day dependent manner. The implantation of F3-effLuc cells/PLLA complex into corticectomized rats showed longer-lasting luciferase activity than F3-effLuc cells alone. The bioluminescence signals from the PLLA-encapsulated cells were maintained for 14 days, compared with 8 days for the non-encapsulated cells. Immunostaining results revealed expression of the early neuronal marker, Tuj-1, in PLLA-F3-effLuc cells in the motor-cortex-ablated area. We observed noninvasively that the mechanical support by PLLA scaffold increased the survival of implanted neural stem cells in the corticectomized rat. The image-guided approach easily proved that scaffolds could provide supportive effect to implanted cells, increasing their viability in terms of enhancing therapeutic efficacy of stem-cell therapy.

  4. Bioluminescent human breast cancer cell lines that permit rapid and sensitive in vivo detection of mammary tumors and multiple metastases in immune deficient mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, Darlene E; Hornig, Yvette S; Oei, Yoko; Dusich, Joan; Purchio, Tony

    2005-01-01

    Our goal was to generate xenograft mouse models of human breast cancer based on luciferase-expressing MDA-MB-231 tumor cells that would provide rapid mammary tumor growth; produce metastasis to clinically relevant tissues such as lymph nodes, lung, and bone; and permit sensitive in vivo detection of both primary and secondary tumor sites by bioluminescent imaging. Two clonal cell sublines of human MDA-MB-231 cells that stably expressed firefly luciferase were isolated following transfection of the parental cells with luciferase cDNA. Each subline was passaged once or twice in vivo to enhance primary tumor growth and to increase metastasis. The resulting luciferase-expressing D3H1 and D3H2LN cells were analyzed for long-term bioluminescent stability, primary tumor growth, and distal metastasis to lymph nodes, lungs, bone and soft tissues by bioluminescent imaging. Cells were injected into the mammary fat pad of nude and nude-beige mice or were delivered systemically via intracardiac injection. Metastasis was also evaluated by ex vivo imaging and histologic analysis postmortem. The D3H1 and D3H2LN cell lines exhibited long-term stable luciferase expression for up to 4–6 months of accumulative tumor growth time in vivo. Bioluminescent imaging quantified primary mammary fat pad tumor development and detected early spontaneous lymph node metastasis in vivo. Increased frequency of spontaneous lymph node metastasis was observed with D3H2LN tumors as compared with D3H1 tumors. With postmortem ex vivo imaging, we detected additional lung micrometastasis in mice with D3H2LN mammary tumors. Subsequent histologic evaluation of tissue sections from lymph nodes and lung lobes confirmed spontaneous tumor metastasis at these sites. Following intracardiac injection of the MDA-MB-231-luc tumor cells, early metastasis to skeletal tissues, lymph nodes, brain and various visceral organs was detected. Weekly in vivo imaging data permitted longitudinal analysis of metastasis at

  5. PINK1 positively regulates IL-1β-mediated signaling through Tollip and IRAK1 modulation

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    Lee Hyun Jung

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parkinson disease (PD is characterized by a slow, progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantianigra. The cause of neuronal loss in PD is not well understood, but several genetic loci, including PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1, have been linked to early-onset autosomal recessive forms of familial PD. Neuroinflammation greatly contributes to PD neuronal degeneration and pathogenesis. IL-1 is one of the principal cytokines that regulates various immune and inflammatory responses via the activation of the transcription factors NF-κB and activating protein-1. Despite the close relationship between PD and neuroinflammation, the functional roles of PD-linked genes during inflammatory processes remain poorly understood. Methods To explore the functional roles of PINK1 in response to IL-1β stimulation, HEK293 cells, mouse embryonic fibroblasts derived from PINK1-null (PINK1−/− and control (PINK1+/+ mice, and 293 IL-1RI cells stably expressing type 1 IL-1 receptor were used. Immunoprecipitation and western blot analysis were performed to detect protein–protein interaction and protein ubiquitination. To confirm the effect of PINK1 on NF-κB activation, NF-κB-dependent firefly luciferase reporter assay was conducted. Results PINK1 specifically binds two components of the IL-1-mediated signaling cascade, Toll-interacting protein (Tollip and IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 (IRAK1. The association of PINK1 with Tollip, a negative regulator of IL-1β signaling, increases upon IL-1β stimulation, which then facilitates the dissociation of Tollip from IRAK1 as well as the assembly of the IRAK1–TNF receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6 complex. PINK1 also enhances Lys63-linked polyubiquitination of IRAK1, an essential modification of recruitment of NF-κB essential modulator and subsequent IκB kinase activation, and increases formation of the intermediate signalosome including IRAK1, TRAF6, and

  6. Prodrug-activating Gene Therapy with Rabbit Cytochrome P450 4B1/4-Ipomeanol or 2-Aminoanthracene System in Glioma Cells

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    Jang, Su Jin; Kang, Joo Hyun; Lee, Tae Sup; Kim, Sung Joo; Kim, Kwang Il; Lee, Yong Jin; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, Sang Moo [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS), Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    We determined the cytotoxic properties of cytochrome P450 4B1 (CYP4B1) activated 4-ipomeanol (4-ipo) and 2-aminoanthracene (2-AA) in rat glioma to verify the CYP4B1/4-ipo or 2-AA system for prodrug-activating gene therapy. The cyp4B1 cDNA was cloned into pcDNA3.1/ Hygro from rabbit lung total RNA (pcDAN-cyp4B1). Lentiviral vector encoding firefly luciferase (fLuc) was infected into C6 (rat glioma), and the fLuc-expressing cell was selected (C6-L). After transfection with pcDNA-cyp4B1 vector into C6-L, the single clone expressing cyp4B1 gene was selected (C6-CL). Prodrug for various concentrations of 4-ipo or 2-AA was treated for 72 h and 96 h. The cell survival rate of C6-CL was determined using MTT assay and trypan-blue dye exclusion methods. By RT-PCR analysis, fLuc and CYP4B1 expression was detected in C6-CL, but not in C6. MTT assay and trypan-blue dye exclusion showed that IC'5'0 of C6-CL was 0.3 mM and <0.01 mM after 4-ipo or 2-AA treatment at 96 h or 72 h exposure, respectively. Cell survivals of C6-CL were more rapidly reduced after treatment with 4-ipo or 2-AA than those of C6-L cells. The cell survival rate with MTT and trypan-blue dye exclusion assay was well correlated with fLuc activity in C6-CL cells. Conclusions CYP4B1-based prodrug-activating gene therapy may have the potential to treat glioma and the cytotoxic effects of CYP4B1 enzyme activated 4-ipo or 2-AA in C6, and could be clearly determined by bioluminescent activity in C6-CL.

  7. Thermal maturity and burial history modelling of shale is enhanced by use of Arrhenius time-temperature index and memetic optimizer

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    David A. Wood

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Thermal maturity indices and modelling based on Arrhenius-equation reaction kinetics have played an important role in oil and gas exploration and provided petroleum generation insight for many kerogen-rich source rocks. Debate continues concerning how best to integrate the Arrhenius equation and which activation energies (E and frequency factors (A values to apply. A case is made for the strong theoretical basis and practical advantages of the time-temperature index (∑TTIARR method, first published in 1998, using a single, carefully selected E-A set (E = 218 kJ/mol (52.1 kcal/mol; A = 5.45E+26/my from the well-established A-E trend for published kerogen kinetics. An updated correlation between ∑TTIARR and vitrinite reflectance (Ro is provided in which the ∑TTIARR scale spans some 18 orders of magnitude. The method is readily calculated in spreadsheets and can be further enhanced by visual basic for application code to provide optimization. Optimization is useful for identifying possible geothermal gradients and erosion intervals covering multiple burial intervals that can match calculated thermal maturities with measured Ro data. A memetic optimizer with firefly and dynamic local search memes is described that flexibly conducts exploration and exploitation of the feasible, multi-dimensional, thermal history solution space to find high-performing solutions to complex burial and thermal histories. A complex deep burial history example, with several periods of uplift and erosion and fluctuating heat flow is used to demonstrate what can be achieved with the memetic optimizer. By carefully layering in constraints to the models specific insights to episodes in their thermal history can be exposed, leading to better characterization of the timing of petroleum generation. The objective function found to be most effective for this type of optimization is the mean square error (MSE of multiple burial intervals for the difference between

  8. Bioluminescence of beetle luciferases with 6'-amino-D-luciferin analogues reveals excited keto-oxyluciferin as the emitter and phenolate/luciferin binding site interactions modulate bioluminescence colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viviani, Vadim R; Neves, Deimison Rodrigues; Amaral, Danilo Trabuco; Prado, Rogilene A; Matsuhashi, Takuto; Hirano, Takashi

    2014-08-19

    Beetle luciferases produce different bioluminescence colors from green to red using the same d-luciferin substrate. Despite many studies of the mechanisms and structural determinants of bioluminescence colors with firefly luciferases, the identity of the emitters and the specific active site interactions responsible for bioluminescence color modulation remain elusive. To address these questions, we analyzed the bioluminescence spectra with 6'-amino-D-luciferin (aminoluciferin) and its 5,5-dimethyl analogue using a set of recombinant beetle luciferases that naturally elicit different colors and different pH sensitivities (pH-sensitive, Amydetes vivianii λmax=538 nm, Macrolampis sp2 λmax=564 nm; pH-insensitive, Phrixotrix hirtus λmax=623 nm, Phrixotrix vivianii λmax=546 nm, and Pyrearinus termitilluminans λmax=534 nm), a luciferase-like enzyme (Tenebrionidae, Zophobas morio λmax=613 nm), and mutants of C311 (S314). The green-yellow-emitting luciferases display red-shifted bioluminescence spectra with aminoluciferin in relation to those with D-luciferin, whereas the red-emitting luciferases displayed blue-shifted spectra. Bioluminescence spectra with 5,5-dimethylaminoluciferin, in which enolization is blocked, were almost identical to those of aminoluciferin. Fluorescence probing using 2-(4-toluidino)naphthalene-6-sulfonate and inference with aminoluciferin confirm that the luciferin binding site of the red-shifted luciferases is more polar than in the case of the green-yellow-emitting luciferases. Altogether, the results show that the keto form of excited oxyluciferin is the emitter in beetle bioluminescence and that bioluminescence colors are essentially modulated by interactions of the 6'-hydroxy group of oxyluciferin and basic moieties under the influence of the microenvironment polarity of the active site: a strong interaction between a base moiety and oxyluciferin phenol in a hydrophobic microenvironment promotes green-yellow emission, whereas a more polar

  9. Short hairpin RNA interference therapy for ischemic heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mei; Chan, Denise; Jia, Fangjun; Xie, Xiaoyan; Li, Zongjin; Hoyt, Grant; Robbins, Robert C.; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Giaccia, Amato; Wu, Joseph C.

    2013-01-01

    Background During hypoxia, upregulation of hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) transcriptional factor can activate several downstream angiogenic genes. However, HIF-1α is naturally degraded by prolyl hydroxylase-2 (PHD2) protein. Here we hypothesize that short hairpin RNA (shRNA) interference therapy targeting PHD2 can be used for treatment of myocardial ischemia and this process can be followed noninvasively by molecular imaging. Methods and Results PHD2 was cloned from mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells by comparing the homolog gene in human and rat. The best candidate shRNA sequence for inhibiting PHD2 was inserted into the pSuper vector driven by the H1 promoter, followed by a separate hypoxia response element (HRE)-incorporated promoter driving a firefly luciferase (Fluc) reporter gene. This construct was used to transfect mouse C2C12 myoblast cell line for in vitro confirmation. Compared to the control short hairpin scramble (shScramble) as control, inhibition of PHD2 increased levels of HIF-1α protein and several downstream angiogenic genes by >30% (P<0.01). Afterwards, shRNA targeting PHD2 (shPHD2) plasmid was injected intramyocardially following ligation of left anterior descending (LAD) artery in mice. Animals were randomized into shPHD2 group (n=20) versus shScramble sequence as control (n=20). Bioluminescence imaging detected transgene expression for 4–5 weeks. Echocardiographic study showed the shPHD2 group had improved fractional shortening compared with the shScramble group at week 4 (33.7%±1.9% vs. 28.4%±2.8%; P<0.05). Postmortem analysis showed increased presence of small capillaries and venules in the infarcted zones by CD31 staining. Finally, Western blot anlaysis of explanted hearts also confirm that animals treated with shPHD2 had significantly higher levels of HIF-1α protein. Conclusions This is the first study to image the biological role of shRNA therapy for improving cardiac function. Inhibition of PHD2 by shRNA led to

  10. Near-optimal alternative generation using modified hit-and-run sampling for non-linear, non-convex problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, D. E.; Alafifi, A.

    2016-12-01

    Water resources systems analysis often focuses on finding optimal solutions. Yet an optimal solution is optimal only for the modelled issues and managers often seek near-optimal alternatives that address un-modelled objectives, preferences, limits, uncertainties, and other issues. Early on, Modelling to Generate Alternatives (MGA) formalized near-optimal as the region comprising the original problem constraints plus a new constraint that allowed performance within a specified tolerance of the optimal objective function value. MGA identified a few maximally-different alternatives from the near-optimal region. Subsequent work applied Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling to generate a larger number of alternatives that span the near-optimal region of linear problems or select portions for non-linear problems. We extend the MCMC Hit-And-Run method to generate alternatives that span the full extent of the near-optimal region for non-linear, non-convex problems. First, start at a feasible hit point within the near-optimal region, then run a random distance in a random direction to a new hit point. Next, repeat until generating the desired number of alternatives. The key step at each iterate is to run a random distance along the line in the specified direction to a new hit point. If linear equity constraints exist, we construct an orthogonal basis and use a null space transformation to confine hits and runs to a lower-dimensional space. Linear inequity constraints define the convex bounds on the line that runs through the current hit point in the specified direction. We then use slice sampling to identify a new hit point along the line within bounds defined by the non-linear inequity constraints. This technique is computationally efficient compared to prior near-optimal alternative generation techniques such MGA, MCMC Metropolis-Hastings, evolutionary, or firefly algorithms because search at each iteration is confined to the hit line, the algorithm can move in one

  11. Nuclear Protein Sam68 Interacts with the Enterovirus 71 Internal Ribosome Entry Site and Positively Regulates Viral Protein Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Song, Lei; Cong, Haolong; Tien, Po

    2015-10-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) recruits various cellular factors to assist in the replication and translation of its genome. Identification of the host factors involved in the EV71 life cycle not only will enable a better understanding of the infection mechanism but also has the potential to be of use in the development of antiviral therapeutics. In this study, we demonstrated that the cellular factor 68-kDa Src-associated protein in mitosis (Sam68) acts as an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) trans-acting factor (ITAF) that binds specifically to the EV71 5' untranslated region (5'UTR). Interaction sites in both the viral IRES (stem-loops IV and V) and the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K homology (KH) domain of Sam68 protein were further mapped using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and biotin RNA pulldown assay. More importantly, dual-luciferase (firefly) reporter analysis suggested that overexpression of Sam68 positively regulated IRES-dependent translation of virus proteins. In contrast, both IRES activity and viral protein translation significantly decreased in Sam68 knockdown cells compared with the negative-control cells treated with short hairpin RNA (shRNA). However, downregulation of Sam68 did not have a significant inhibitory effect on the accumulation of the EV71 genome. Moreover, Sam68 was redistributed from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and interacts with cellular factors, such as poly(rC)-binding protein 2 (PCBP2) and poly(A)-binding protein (PABP), during EV71 infection. The cytoplasmic relocalization of Sam68 in EV71-infected cells may be involved in the enhancement of EV71 IRES-mediated translation. Since Sam68 is known to be a RNA-binding protein, these results provide direct evidence that Sam68 is a novel ITAF that interacts with EV71 IRES and positively regulates viral protein translation. The nuclear protein Sam68 is found as an additional new host factor that interacts with the EV71 IRES during infection and could potentially

  12. Functional roles of FgLaeA in controlling secondary metabolism, sexual development, and virulence in Fusarium graminearum.

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    Hee-Kyoung Kim

    Full Text Available Fusarium graminearum, the causal agent of Fusarium head blight in cereal crops, produces mycotoxins such as trichothecenes and zearalenone in infected plants. Here, we focused on the function of FgLaeA in F. graminearum, a homolog of Aspergillus nidulans LaeA encoding the global regulator for both secondary metabolism and sexual development. Prior to gene analysis, we constructed a novel luciferase reporter system consisting of a transgenic F. graminearum strain expressing a firefly luciferase gene under control of the promoter for either TRI6 or ZEB2 controlling the biosynthesis of these mycotoxins. Targeted deletion of FgLaeA led to a dramatic reduction of luminescence in reporter strains, indicating that FgLaeA controls the expression of these transcription factors in F. graminearum; reduced toxin accumulation was further confirmed by GC-MS analysis. Overexpression of FgLaeA caused the increased production of trichothecenes and additional metabolites. RNA seq-analysis revealed that gene member(s belonging to ~70% of total tentative gene clusters, which were previously proposed, were differentially expressed in the ΔFgLaeA strain. In addition, ΔFgLaeA strains exhibited an earlier induction of sexual fruiting body (perithecia formation and drastically reduced disease symptoms in wheat, indicating that FgLaeA seems to negatively control perithecial induction, but positively control virulence toward the host plant. FgLaeA was constitutively expressed under both mycotoxin production and sexual development conditions. Overexpression of a GFP-FgLaeA fusion construct in the ΔFgLaeA strain restored all phenotypic changes to wild-type levels and led to constitutive expression of GFP in both nuclei and cytoplasm at different developmental stages. A split luciferase assay demonstrated that FgLaeA was able to interact with FgVeA, a homolog of A. nidulans veA. Taken together, these results demonstrate that FgLaeA, a member of putative FgVeA complex

  13. Mesenchymal stromal cells as vehicles of tetravalent bispecific Tandab (CD3/CD19 for the treatment of B cell lymphoma combined with IDO pathway inhibitor d-1-methyl-tryptophan

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    Xiaolong Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although blinatumomab, a bispecific T cell engaging antibody, exhibits high clinical response rates in patients with relapsed or refractory B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL and B cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (B-NHL, it still has some limitations because of its short half-life. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs represent an attractive approach for delivery of therapeutic agents to cancer sites owing to their tropism towards tumors, but their immunosuppression capabilities, especially induced by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO, should also be taken into consideration. Methods Human umbilical cord-derived MSCs (UC-MSCs were genetically modified to secrete Tandab (CD3/CD19, a tetravalent bispecific tandem diabody with two binding sites for CD3 and two for CD19. The tropism of MSCs towards Raji cells in vitro was determined by migration assays, and the homing property of MSCs in vivo was analyzed with firefly luciferase-labeled MSCs (MSC-Luc by bioluminescent imaging (BLI. The cytotoxicity of T cells induced by MSC-secreting Tandab (CD3/CD19 was detected in vitro and in vivo in combination with d-1-methyl-tryptophan (D-1MT, an IDO pathway inhibitor. Results The purified Tandab (CD3/CD19 was functional with high-binding capability both for CD3-positive cells and CD19-positive cells and was able to induce specific lysis of CD19-positive cell lines (Raji, Daudi, and BJAB in the presence of T cells. Additionally, results from co-culture killing experiments demonstrated that Tandab (CD3/CD19 secreted from MSCs was also effective. Then, we confirmed that D-1MT could enhance the cytotoxicity of T cells triggered by MSC-Tandab through reversing T cell anergy with down-regulation of CD98 and Jumonji and restoring the proliferation capacity of T cells. Furthermore, MSC-Luc could selectively migrate to tumor site in a BALB/c nude mouse model with Raji cells. And mice injected with MSC-Tandab in combination with D-1MT

  14. Noninvasive monitoring of placenta-specific transgene expression by bioluminescence imaging.

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    Xiujun Fan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Placental dysfunction underlies numerous complications of pregnancy. A major obstacle to understanding the roles of potential mediators of placental pathology has been the absence of suitable methods for tissue-specific gene manipulation and sensitive assays for studying gene functions in the placentas of intact animals. We describe a sensitive and noninvasive method of repetitively tracking placenta-specific gene expression throughout pregnancy using lentivirus-mediated transduction of optical reporter genes in mouse blastocysts. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Zona-free blastocysts were incubated with lentivirus expressing firefly luciferase (Fluc and Tomato fluorescent fusion protein for trophectoderm-specific infection and transplanted into day 3 pseudopregnant recipients (GD3. Animals were examined for Fluc expression by live bioluminescence imaging (BLI at different points during pregnancy, and the placentas were examined for tomato expression in different cell types on GD18. In another set of experiments, blastocysts with maximum photon fluxes in the range of 2.0E+4 to 6.0E+4 p/s/cm(2/sr were transferred. Fluc expression was detectable in all surrogate dams by day 5 of pregnancy by live imaging, and the signal increased dramatically thereafter each day until GD12, reaching a peak at GD16 and maintaining that level through GD18. All of the placentas, but none of the fetuses, analyzed on GD18 by BLI showed different degrees of Fluc expression. However, only placentas of dams transferred with selected blastocysts showed uniform photon distribution with no significant variability of photon intensity among placentas of the same litter. Tomato expression in the placentas was limited to only trophoblast cell lineages. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results, for the first time, demonstrate the feasibility of selecting lentivirally-transduced blastocysts for uniform gene expression in all placentas of the same litter and early

  15. Time series analytics using sliding window metaheuristic optimization-based machine learning system for identifying building energy consumption patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Jui-Sheng; Ngo, Ngoc-Tri

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • This study develops a novel time-series sliding window forecast system. • The system integrates metaheuristics, machine learning and time-series models. • Site experiment of smart grid infrastructure is installed to retrieve real-time data. • The proposed system accurately predicts energy consumption in residential buildings. • The forecasting system can help users minimize their electricity usage. - Abstract: Smart grids are a promising solution to the rapidly growing power demand because they can considerably increase building energy efficiency. This study developed a novel time-series sliding window metaheuristic optimization-based machine learning system for predicting real-time building energy consumption data collected by a smart grid. The proposed system integrates a seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model and metaheuristic firefly algorithm-based least squares support vector regression (MetaFA-LSSVR) model. Specifically, the proposed system fits the SARIMA model to linear data components in the first stage, and the MetaFA-LSSVR model captures nonlinear data components in the second stage. Real-time data retrieved from an experimental smart grid installed in a building were used to evaluate the efficacy and effectiveness of the proposed system. A k-week sliding window approach is proposed for employing historical data as input for the novel time-series forecasting system. The prediction system yielded high and reliable accuracy rates in 1-day-ahead predictions of building energy consumption, with a total error rate of 1.181% and mean absolute error of 0.026 kW h. Notably, the system demonstrates an improved accuracy rate in the range of 36.8–113.2% relative to those of the linear forecasting model (i.e., SARIMA) and nonlinear forecasting models (i.e., LSSVR and MetaFA-LSSVR). Therefore, end users can further apply the forecasted information to enhance efficiency of energy usage in their buildings, especially

  16. The mutation frequency of 8-oxo-7,8 dihydroguanine (8-oxoG) situated in a multiply damaged site: comparison of a single and two closely opposed 8-oxodG in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malyarchuk, S.G.; Youngblood, R.C.; Landry, A.M.; Quillin, E.; Harrison, L.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: A multiply damaged site (MDS) is defined as >= two lesions within a distance of 10-15 base pairs (bp). MDS generated by ionizing radiation contains oxidative base damage, and in vitro studies have indicated that if the base damage is less than 3 bp apart, repair of one lesion is inhibited until repair of the lesion in the opposite strand is completed. Inhibition of repair could result in an increase in the mutation frequency of the base damage. We have designed an assay to determine whether a closely opposed lesion causes an increase in adenine insertion opposite an 8-oxodG in bacteria. The double-stranded oligonucleotides (with no damage, each single 8-oxodG or the MDS) were ligated into the firefly luciferase coding region of a reporter vector and transformed into wild type or MutY-deficient bacteria. The MDS contained an 8-oxodG in the transcribed strand (T) and a second 8-oxodG immediately 5' to this lesion in the non-transcribed strand (NT). During two rounds of replication, insertion of adenine opposite the 8-oxodG in the T or NT strand results in a translation termination codon at position 444 or 445, respectively. In wild-type bacteria, we detected a translation stop at a frequency of 0.15% (codon 444) and 0.09% (codon 445) with a single 8-oxodG in the T or NT strand, respectively. This was enhanced ∼3 fold when single lesions were replicated in MutY-deficient bacteria. Positioning an 8-oxodG in the T strand within the MDS enhanced the mutation frequency by ∼2 fold in wild-type bacteria and 8 fold in Mut Y-deficient bacteria, while the mutation frequency of the 8-oxodG in the NT strand increased by 6 fold in Mut Y-deficient bacteria. This enhancement of mutation frequency supports the in vitro MDS studies, which demonstrated the inability of base excision repair to completely repair closely opposed lesions

  17. Brucella Rough Mutant Induce Macrophage Death via Activating IRE1α Pathway of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress by Enhanced T4SS Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Tian, Mingxing; Bao, Yanqing; Hu, Hai; Liu, Jiameng; Yin, Yi; Ding, Chan; Wang, Shaohui; Yu, Shengqing

    2017-01-01

    Brucella is a Gram-negative facultative intracellular pathogen that causes the worldwide zoonosis, known as brucellosis. Brucella virulence relies mostly on its ability to invade and replicate within phagocytic cells. The type IV secretion system (T4SS) and lipopolysaccharide are two major Brucella virulence factors. Brucella rough mutants reportedly induce the death of infected macrophages, which is T4SS dependent. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. In this study, the T4SS secretion capacities of Brucella rough mutant and its smooth wild-type strain were comparatively investigated, by constructing the firefly luciferase fused T4SS effector, BPE123 and VceC. In addition, quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting were used to analyze the T4SS expression. The results showed that T4SS expression and secretion were enhanced significantly in the Brucella rough mutant. We also found that the activity of the T4SS virB operon promoter was notably increased in the Brucella rough mutant, which depends on quorum sensing-related regulators of VjbR upregulation. Cell infection and cell death assays revealed that deletion of vjbR in the Brucella rough mutant absolutely abolished cytotoxicity within macrophages by downregulating T4SS expression. This suggests that up-regulation of T4SS promoted by VjbR in rough mutant Δ rfbE contribute to macrophage death. In addition, we found that the Brucella rough mutant induce macrophage death via activating IRE1α pathway of endoplasmic reticulum stress. Taken together, our study provide evidence that in comparison to the Brucella smooth wild-type strain, VjbR upregulation in the Brucella rough mutant increases transcription of the virB operon, resulting in overexpression of the T4SS gene, accompanied by the over-secretion of effecter proteins, thereby causing the death of infected macrophages via activating IRE1α pathway of endoplasmic reticulum stress, suggesting novel insights into the molecular

  18. Brucella Rough Mutant Induce Macrophage Death via Activating IRE1α Pathway of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress by Enhanced T4SS Secretion

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    Peng Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Brucella is a Gram-negative facultative intracellular pathogen that causes the worldwide zoonosis, known as brucellosis. Brucella virulence relies mostly on its ability to invade and replicate within phagocytic cells. The type IV secretion system (T4SS and lipopolysaccharide are two major Brucella virulence factors. Brucella rough mutants reportedly induce the death of infected macrophages, which is T4SS dependent. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. In this study, the T4SS secretion capacities of Brucella rough mutant and its smooth wild-type strain were comparatively investigated, by constructing the firefly luciferase fused T4SS effector, BPE123 and VceC. In addition, quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting were used to analyze the T4SS expression. The results showed that T4SS expression and secretion were enhanced significantly in the Brucella rough mutant. We also found that the activity of the T4SS virB operon promoter was notably increased in the Brucella rough mutant, which depends on quorum sensing-related regulators of VjbR upregulation. Cell infection and cell death assays revealed that deletion of vjbR in the Brucella rough mutant absolutely abolished cytotoxicity within macrophages by downregulating T4SS expression. This suggests that up-regulation of T4SS promoted by VjbR in rough mutant ΔrfbE contribute to macrophage death. In addition, we found that the Brucella rough mutant induce macrophage death via activating IRE1α pathway of endoplasmic reticulum stress. Taken together, our study provide evidence that in comparison to the Brucella smooth wild-type strain, VjbR upregulation in the Brucella rough mutant increases transcription of the virB operon, resulting in overexpression of the T4SS gene, accompanied by the over-secretion of effecter proteins, thereby causing the death of infected macrophages via activating IRE1α pathway of endoplasmic reticulum stress, suggesting novel insights into the

  19. Dynamic analysis of stochastic transcription cycles.

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    Claire V Harper

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In individual mammalian cells the expression of some genes such as prolactin is highly variable over time and has been suggested to occur in stochastic pulses. To investigate the origins of this behavior and to understand its functional relevance, we quantitatively analyzed this variability using new mathematical tools that allowed us to reconstruct dynamic transcription rates of different reporter genes controlled by identical promoters in the same living cell. Quantitative microscopic analysis of two reporter genes, firefly luciferase and destabilized EGFP, was used to analyze the dynamics of prolactin promoter-directed gene expression in living individual clonal and primary pituitary cells over periods of up to 25 h. We quantified the time-dependence and cyclicity of the transcription pulses and estimated the length and variation of active and inactive transcription phases. We showed an average cycle period of approximately 11 h and demonstrated that while the measured time distribution of active phases agreed with commonly accepted models of transcription, the inactive phases were differently distributed and showed strong memory, with a refractory period of transcriptional inactivation close to 3 h. Cycles in transcription occurred at two distinct prolactin-promoter controlled reporter genes in the same individual clonal or primary cells. However, the timing of the cycles was independent and out-of-phase. For the first time, we have analyzed transcription dynamics from two equivalent loci in real-time in single cells. In unstimulated conditions, cells showed independent transcription dynamics at each locus. A key result from these analyses was the evidence for a minimum refractory period in the inactive-phase of transcription. The response to acute signals and the result of manipulation of histone acetylation was consistent with the hypothesis that this refractory period corresponded to a phase of chromatin remodeling which significantly

  20. Novel approach for streamflow forecasting using a hybrid ANFIS-FFA model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaseen, Zaher Mundher; Ebtehaj, Isa; Bonakdari, Hossein; Deo, Ravinesh C.; Danandeh Mehr, Ali; Mohtar, Wan Hanna Melini Wan; Diop, Lamine; El-shafie, Ahmed; Singh, Vijay P.

    2017-11-01

    The present study proposes a new hybrid evolutionary Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference Systems (ANFIS) approach for monthly streamflow forecasting. The proposed method is a novel combination of the ANFIS model with the firefly algorithm as an optimizer tool to construct a hybrid ANFIS-FFA model. The results of the ANFIS-FFA model is compared with the classical ANFIS model, which utilizes the fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering method in the Fuzzy Inference Systems (FIS) generation. The historical monthly streamflow data for Pahang River, which is a major river system in Malaysia that characterized by highly stochastic hydrological patterns, is used in the study. Sixteen different input combinations with one to five time-lagged input variables are incorporated into the ANFIS-FFA and ANFIS models to consider the antecedent seasonal variations in historical streamflow data. The mean absolute error (MAE), root mean square error (RMSE) and correlation coefficient (r) are used to evaluate the forecasting performance of ANFIS-FFA model. In conjunction with these metrics, the refined Willmott's Index (Drefined), Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient (ENS) and Legates and McCabes Index (ELM) are also utilized as the normalized goodness-of-fit metrics. Comparison of the results reveals that the FFA is able to improve the forecasting accuracy of the hybrid ANFIS-FFA model (r = 1; RMSE = 0.984; MAE = 0.364; ENS = 1; ELM = 0.988; Drefined = 0.994) applied for the monthly streamflow forecasting in comparison with the traditional ANFIS model (r = 0.998; RMSE = 3.276; MAE = 1.553; ENS = 0.995; ELM = 0.950; Drefined = 0.975). The results also show that the ANFIS-FFA is not only superior to the ANFIS model but also exhibits a parsimonious modelling framework for streamflow forecasting by incorporating a smaller number of input variables required to yield the comparatively better performance. It is construed that the FFA optimizer can thus surpass the accuracy of the traditional ANFIS model in general

  1. Development of functional genomic tools in trematodes: RNA interference and luciferase reporter gene activity in Fasciola hepatica.

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    Gabriel Rinaldi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The growing availability of sequence information from diverse parasites through genomic and transcriptomic projects offer new opportunities for the identification of key mediators in the parasite-host interaction. Functional genomics approaches and methods for the manipulation of genes are essential tools for deciphering the roles of genes and to identify new intervention targets in parasites. Exciting advances in functional genomics for parasitic helminths are starting to occur, with transgene expression and RNA interference (RNAi reported in several species of nematodes, but the area is still in its infancy in flatworms, with reports in just three species. While advancing in model organisms, there is a need to rapidly extend these technologies to other parasites responsible for several chronic diseases of humans and cattle. In order to extend these approaches to less well studied parasitic worms, we developed a test method for the presence of a viable RNAi pathway by silencing the exogenous reporter gene, firefly luciferase (fLUC. We established the method in the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni and then confirmed its utility in the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica. We transformed newly excysted juveniles of F. hepatica by electroporation with mRNA of fLUC and three hours later were able to detect luciferase enzyme activity, concentrated mainly in the digestive ceca. Subsequently, we tested the presence of an active RNAi pathway in F. hepatica by knocking down the exogenous luciferase activity by introduction into the transformed parasites of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA specific for fLUC. In addition, we tested the RNAi pathway targeting an endogenous F. hepatica gene encoding leucine aminopeptidase (FhLAP, and observed a significant reduction in specific mRNA levels. In summary, these studies demonstrated the utility of RNAi targeting reporter fLUC as a reporter gene assay to establish the presence of an intact RNAi pathway in helminth

  2. Evaluation of biolistic gene transfer methods in vivo using non-invasive bioluminescent imaging techniques

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    Daniell Henry

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene therapy continues to hold great potential for treating many different types of disease and dysfunction. Safe and efficient techniques for gene transfer and expression in vivo are needed to enable gene therapeutic strategies to be effective in patients. Currently, the most commonly used methods employ replication-defective viral vectors for gene transfer, while physical gene transfer methods such as biolistic-mediated ("gene-gun" delivery to target tissues have not been as extensively explored. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of biolistic gene transfer techniques in vivo using non-invasive bioluminescent imaging (BLI methods. Results Plasmid DNA carrying the firefly luciferase (LUC reporter gene under the control of the human Cytomegalovirus (CMV promoter/enhancer was transfected into mouse skin and liver using biolistic methods. The plasmids were coupled to gold microspheres (1 μm diameter using different DNA Loading Ratios (DLRs, and "shot" into target tissues using a helium-driven gene gun. The optimal DLR was found to be in the range of 4-10. Bioluminescence was measured using an In Vivo Imaging System (IVIS-50 at various time-points following transfer. Biolistic gene transfer to mouse skin produced peak reporter gene expression one day after transfer. Expression remained detectable through four days, but declined to undetectable levels by six days following gene transfer. Maximum depth of tissue penetration following biolistic transfer to abdominal skin was 200-300 μm. Similarly, biolistic gene transfer to mouse liver in vivo also produced peak early expression followed by a decline over time. In contrast to skin, however, liver expression of the reporter gene was relatively stable 4-8 days post-biolistic gene transfer, and remained detectable for nearly two weeks. Conclusions The use of bioluminescence imaging techniques enabled efficient evaluation of reporter gene expression in vivo. Our results

  3. The anti-inflammatory effects of flavanol-rich lychee fruit extract in rat hepatocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryota Yamanishi

    Full Text Available Flavanol (flavan-3-ol-rich lychee fruit extract (FRLFE is a mixture of oligomerized polyphenols primarily derived from lychee fruit and is rich in flavanol monomers, dimers, and trimers. Supplementation with this functional food has been shown to suppress inflammation and tissue damage caused by high-intensity exercise training. However, it is unclear whether FRLFE has in vitro anti-inflammatory effects, such as suppressing the production of the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α and the proinflammatory mediator nitric oxide (NO, which is synthesized by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS. Here, we analyzed the effects of FRLFE and its constituents on the expression of inflammatory genes in interleukin 1β (IL-1β-treated rat hepatocytes. FRLFE decreased the mRNA and protein expression of the iNOS gene, leading to the suppression of IL-1β-induced NO production. FRLFE also decreased the levels of the iNOS antisense transcript, which stabilizes iNOS mRNA. By contrast, unprocessed lychee fruit extract, which is rich in flavanol polymers, and flavanol monomers had little effect on NO production. When a construct harboring the iNOS promoter fused to the firefly luciferase gene was used, FRLFE decreased the luciferase activity in the presence of IL-1β, suggesting that FRLFE suppresses the promoter activity of the iNOS gene at the transcriptional level. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays indicated that FRLFE reduced the nuclear transport of a key regulator, nuclear factor κB (NF-κB. Furthermore, FRLFE inhibited the phosphorylation of NF-κB inhibitor α (IκB-α. FRLFE also reduced the mRNA levels of NF-κB target genes encoding cytokines and chemokines, such as TNF-α. Therefore, FRLFE inhibited NF-κB activation and nuclear translocation to suppress the expression of these inflammatory genes. Our results suggest that flavanols may be responsible for the anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effects of FRLFE and may be

  4. Human CRF2 α and β splice variants: pharmacological characterization using radioligand binding and a luciferase gene expression assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardati, A.; Goetschy, V.; Gottowick, J.; Henriot, S.; Deuschle, U.; Kilpatrick, G.J.; Valdenaire, O.

    1999-01-01

    Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) receptors belong to the super-family of G protein-coupled receptors. These receptors are classified into two subtypes (CRF 1 and CRF 2 ). Both receptors are positively coupled to adenylyl cyclase but they have a distinct pharmacology and distribution in brain. Two isoforms belonging to the CRF 2 subtype receptors, CRF 2α and CRF 2β , have been identified in rat and man. The neuropeptides CRF and urocortin mediate their actions through this CRF G protein-coupled receptor family. In this report, we describe the pharmacological characterization of the recently identified hCRF 2β receptor. We have used radioligand binding with [ 125 I]-tyr 0 -sauvagine and a gene expression assay in which the firefly luciferase gene expression is under the control of cAMP responsive elements. Association kinetics of [ 125 I]-tyr 0 -sauvagine binding to the hCRF 2β receptor were monophasic while dissociation kinetics were biphasic, in agreement with the kinetics results obtained with the hCRF 2α receptor. Saturation binding analysis revealed two affinity states in HEK 293 cells with binding parameters in accord with those determined kinetically and with parameters obtained with the hCRF 2α receptor. A non-hydrolysable GTP analog, Gpp(NH)p, reduced the high affinity binding of [ 125 I]-tyr 0 -sauvagine to both hCRF 2 receptor isoforms in a similar manner. The rank order of potency of CRF agonist peptides in competition experiments was identical for both hCRF 2 α-helical CRF (9-41) oCRF). Similarly, agonist potency was similar for the two isoforms when studied using the luciferase gene reporter system. The peptide antagonist α-helical CRF (9-41) exhibited a non-competitive antagonism of urocortin-stimulated luciferase expression with both hCRF 2 receptor isoforms. Taken together, these results indicate that the pharmacological profiles of the CRF 2 splice variants are identical. This indicates that the region of the N-terminus that varies

  5. Human CRF{sub 2} {alpha} and {beta} splice variants: pharmacological characterization using radioligand binding and a luciferase gene expression assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardati, A. [Rhone-Poulenc Rorer, Cardiovascular Biology, NW4, 500 Arcola Road, Collegeville, PA (United States); Goetschy, V.; Gottowick, J.; Henriot, S.; Deuschle, U.; Kilpatrick, G.J. [Central Nervous System, Pharma Division, F. Hoffmann-La Roche AG, CH-4070 Basel (Switzerland); Valdenaire, O. [Cardiovascular Research, Pharma Division, F. Hoffmann-La Roche AG, CH-4070 Basel (Switzerland)

    1999-03-14

    Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) receptors belong to the super-family of G protein-coupled receptors. These receptors are classified into two subtypes (CRF{sub 1} and CRF{sub 2}). Both receptors are positively coupled to adenylyl cyclase but they have a distinct pharmacology and distribution in brain. Two isoforms belonging to the CRF{sub 2} subtype receptors, CRF{sub 2{alpha}} and CRF{sub 2{beta}}, have been identified in rat and man. The neuropeptides CRF and urocortin mediate their actions through this CRF G protein-coupled receptor family. In this report, we describe the pharmacological characterization of the recently identified hCRF{sub 2{beta}} receptor. We have used radioligand binding with [{sup 125}I]-tyr{sup 0}-sauvagine and a gene expression assay in which the firefly luciferase gene expression is under the control of cAMP responsive elements. Association kinetics of [{sup 125}I]-tyr{sup 0}-sauvagine binding to the hCRF{sub 2{beta}} receptor were monophasic while dissociation kinetics were biphasic, in agreement with the kinetics results obtained with the hCRF{sub 2{alpha}} receptor. Saturation binding analysis revealed two affinity states in HEK 293 cells with binding parameters in accord with those determined kinetically and with parameters obtained with the hCRF{sub 2{alpha}} receptor. A non-hydrolysable GTP analog, Gpp(NH)p, reduced the high affinity binding of [{sup 125}I]-tyr{sup 0}-sauvagine to both hCRF{sub 2} receptor isoforms in a similar manner. The rank order of potency of CRF agonist peptides in competition experiments was identical for both hCRF{sub 2}{alpha}-helical CRF{sub (9-41)}oCRF). Similarly, agonist potency was similar for the two isoforms when studied using the luciferase gene reporter system. The peptide antagonist {alpha}-helical CRF{sub (9-41)} exhibited a non-competitive antagonism of urocortin-stimulated luciferase expression with both hCRF{sub 2} receptor isoforms. Taken together, these results indicate that the

  6. The cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor H-89 attenuates the bioluminescence signal produced by Renilla Luciferase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie J Herbst

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Investigations into the regulation and functional roles of kinases such as cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA increasingly rely on cellular assays. Currently, there are a number of bioluminescence-based assays, for example reporter gene assays, that allow the study of the regulation, activity, and functional effects of PKA in the cellular context. Additionally there are continuing efforts to engineer improved biosensors that are capable of detecting real-time PKA signaling dynamics in cells. These cell-based assays are often utilized to test the involvement of PKA-dependent processes by using H-89, a reversible competitive inhibitor of PKA.We present here data to show that H-89, in addition to being a competitive PKA inhibitor, attenuates the bioluminescence signal produced by Renilla luciferase (RLuc variants in a population of cells and also in single cells. Using 10 microM of luciferase substrate and 10 microM H-89, we observed that the signal from RLuc and RLuc8, an eight-point mutation variant of RLuc, in cells was reduced to 50% (+/-15% and 54% (+/-14% of controls exposed to the vehicle alone, respectively. In vitro, we showed that H-89 decreased the RLuc8 bioluminescence signal but did not compete with coelenterazine-h for the RLuc8 active site, and also did not affect the activity of Firefly luciferase. By contrast, another competitive inhibitor of PKA, KT5720, did not affect the activity of RLuc8.The identification and characterization of the adverse effect of H-89 on RLuc signal will help deconvolute data previously generated from RLuc-based assays looking at the functional effects of PKA signaling. In addition, for the current application and future development of bioluminscence assays, KT5720 is identified as a more suitable PKA inhibitor to be used in conjunction with RLuc-based assays. These principal findings also provide an important lesson to fully consider all of the potential effects of experimental conditions on a cell

  7. In vivo bioluminescence imaging for leptomeningeal dissemination of medulloblastoma in mouse models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Seung Ah; Kwak, Pil Ae; Kim, Seung-Ki; Park, Sung-Hye; Lee, Ji Yeoun; Wang, Kyu-Chang; Oh, Hyun Jeong; Kim, Kyuwan; Lee, Dong Soo; Hwang, Do Won; Phi, Ji Hoon

    2016-01-01

    The primary cause of treatment failure in medulloblastomas (MB) is the development of leptomeningeal dissemination (seeding). For translational research on MB seeding, one of the major challenges is the development of reliable experimental models that simulate the seeding and growth characteristics of MBs. To overcome this obstacle, we improved an experimental mouse model by intracisternal inoculation of human MB cells and monitoring with in vivo live images. Human MB cells (UW426, D283 and MED8A) were transfected with a firefly luciferase gene and a Thy1.1 (CD90.1) marker linked with IRES under the control of the CMV promoter in a retroviral DNA backbone (effLuc). The MB-effLuc cells were injected into the cisterna magna using an intrathecal catheter, and bioluminescence images were captured. We performed histopathological analysis to confirm the extent of tumor seeding. The luciferase activity of MB-effLuc cells displayed a gradually increasing pattern, which correlated with a quantitative luminometric assay. Live imaging showed that the MB-effLuc cells were diffusely distributed in the cervical spinal cord and the lumbosacral area. All mice injected with UW426-effLuc, D283-effLuc and MED8A-effLuc died within 51 days. The median survival was 22, 41 and 12 days after injection of 1.2 × 10 6 UW426-effLuc, D283-effLuc and MED8A-effLuc cells, respectively. The histopathological studies revealed that the MB-effLuc cells spread extensively and diffusely along the leptomeninges of the brain and spinal cord, forming tumor cell-coated layers. The tumor cells in the subarachnoid space expressed a human nuclei marker and Ki-67. Compared with the intracerebellar injection method in which the subfrontal area and distal spinal cord were spared by tumor cell seeding in some mice, the intracisternal injection model more closely resembled the widespread leptomeningeal seeding observed in MB patients. The results and described method are valuable resources for further

  8. Radio-deoxynucleoside Analogs used for Imaging tk Expression in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibin Tian, Xincheng Lu, Hong Guo, David Corn, Joseph Molter, Bingcheng Wang, Guangbin Luo, Zhenghong Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: A group of radiolabeled thymidine analogs were developed as radio-tracers for imaging herpes viral thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk or its variants used as reporter gene. A transgenic mouse model was created to express tk upon liver injury or naturally occurring hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. The purpose of this study was to use this unique animal model for initial testing with radio-labeled thymidine analogs, mainly a pair of newly emerging nucleoside analogs, D-FMAU and L-FMAU.Methods: A transgeneic mouse model was created by putting a fused reporter gene system, firefly luciferase (luc and HSV1-tk, under the control of mouse alpha fetoprotein (Afp promoter. Initial multimodal imaging, which was consisted of bioluminescent imaging (BLI and planar gamma scintigraphy with [125I]-FIAU, was used for examining the model creation in the new born and liver injury in the adult mice. Carcinogen diethylnitrosamine (DEN was then administrated to induce HCC in these knock-in mice such that microPET imaging could be used to track the activity of Afp promoter during tumor development and progression by imaging tk expression first with [18F]-FHBG. Dynamic PET scans with D-[18F]-FMAU and L-[18F]-FMAU were then performed to evaluate this pair of relatively new tracers. Cells were derived from these liver tumors for uptake assays using H-3 labeled version of PET tracers.Results: The mouse model with dual reporters: HSV1-tk and luc placed under the transcriptional control of an endogenous Afp promoter was used for imaging studies. The expression of the Afp gene was highly specific in proliferative hepatocytes, in regenerative liver, and in developing fetal liver, and thus provided an excellent indicator for liver injury and cancer development in adult mice. Both D-FMAU and L-FMAU showed stable liver tumor uptake where the tk gene was expressed under the Afp promoter. The performance of this pair of tracers was slightly different in terms of signal

  9. Bioanalytical Applications of Real-Time ATP Imaging Via Bioluminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruenhagen, Jason Alan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The research discussed within involves the development of novel applications of real-time imaging of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP). ATP was detected via bioluminescence and the firefly luciferase-catalyzed reaction of ATP and luciferin. The use of a microscope and an imaging detector allowed for spatially resolved quantitation of ATP release. Employing this method, applications in both biological and chemical systems were developed. First, the mechanism by which the compound 48/80 induces release of ATP from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was investigated. Numerous enzyme activators and inhibitors were utilized to probe the second messenger systems involved in release. Compound 48/80 activated a G{sub q}-type protein to initiate ATP release from HUVECs. Ca2+ imaging along with ATP imaging revealed that activation of phospholipase C and induction of intracellular Ca2+ signaling were necessary for release of ATP. Furthermore, activation of protein kinase C inhibited the activity of phospholipase C and thus decreased the magnitude of ATP release. This novel release mechanism was compared to the existing theories of extracellular release of ATP. Bioluminescence imaging was also employed to examine the role of ATP in the field of neuroscience. The central nervous system (CNS) was dissected from the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis. Electrophysiological experiments demonstrated that the neurons of the Lymnaea were not damaged by any of the components of the imaging solution. ATP was continuously released by the ganglia of the CNS for over eight hours and varied from ganglion to ganglion and within individual ganglia. Addition of the neurotransmitters K+ and serotonin increased release of ATP in certain regions of the Lymnaea CNS. Finally, the ATP imaging technique was investigated for the study of drug release systems. MCM-41-type mesoporous nanospheres were loaded with ATP and end-capped with mercaptoethanol

  10. Intracranial implantation with subsequent 3D in vivo bioluminescent imaging of murine gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelwahab, Mohammed G; Sankar, Tejas; Preul, Mark C; Scheck, Adrienne C

    2011-11-06

    The mouse glioma 261 (GL261) is recognized as an in vivo model system that recapitulates many of the features of human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). The cell line was originally induced by intracranial injection of 3-methyl-cholantrene into a C57BL/6 syngeneic mouse strain (1); therefore, immunologically competent C57BL/6 mice can be used. While we use GL261, the following protocol can be used for the implantation and monitoring of any intracranial mouse tumor model. GL261 cells were engineered to stably express firefly luciferase (GL261-luc). We also created the brighter GL261-luc2 cell line by stable transfection of the luc2 gene expressed from the CMV promoter. C57BL/6-cBrd/cBrd/Cr mice (albino variant of C57BL/6) from the National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD were used to eliminate the light attenuation caused by black skin and fur. With the use of albino C57BL/6 mice; in vivo imaging using the IVIS Spectrum in vivo imaging system is possible from the day of implantation (Caliper Life Sciences, Hopkinton, MA). The GL261-luc and GL261-luc2 cell lines showed the same in vivo behavior as the parental GL261 cells. Some of the shared histological features present in human GBMs and this mouse model include: tumor necrosis, pseudopalisades, neovascularization, invasion, hypercellularity, and inflammation (1). Prior to implantation animals were anesthetized by an intraperitoneal injection of ketamine (50 mg/kg), xylazine (5 mg/kg) and buprenorphine (0.05 mg/kg), placed in a stereotactic apparatus and an incision was made with a scalpel over the cranial midline. A burrhole was made 0.1 mm posterior to the bregma and 2.3mm to the right of the midline. A needle was inserted to a depth of 3mm and withdrawn 0.4 mm to a depth of 2.6 mm. Two μl of GL261-luc or GL261-luc2 cells (10(7) cells/ml) were infused over the course of 3 minutes. The burrhole was closed with bonewax and the incision was sutured. Following stereotactic implantation the bioluminescent cells are

  11. Targeting and Therapy of Glioblastoma in a Mouse Model Using Exosomes Derived From Natural Killer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liya Zhu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveGlioblastoma is a highly aggressive primary brain tumor that is resistant to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Natural killer (NK cells have been used to treat incurable cancers. Recent studies have investigated the effectiveness of NK-cell-derived exosomes (NK-Exo for treating incurable cancers such as melanoma, leukemia, and neuroblastoma; however, NK-Exo have not been used to treat glioblastoma. In the present study, we investigated the antitumor effects of NK-Exo against aggressive glioblastoma both in vitro and in vivo and determined the tumor-targeting ability of NK-Exo by performing fluorescence imaging.MethodsU87/MG cells were transfected with the enhanced firefly luciferase (effluc and thy1.1 genes; thy1.1-positive cells were selected using microbeads. U87/MG/F cells were assessed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, western blotting, and luciferase-activity assays. NK-Exo were isolated by ultracentrifugation, purified by density gradient centrifugation, and characterized by transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS, nanoparticle-tracking analysis (NTA, and western blotting. Cytokine levels in NK-Exo were compared to those in NK cells and NK-cell medium by performing an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. NK-Exo-induced apoptosis of cancer cells was confirmed by flow cytometry and western blotting. In vivo therapeutic effects and specificity of NK-Exo against glioblastoma were assessed in a xenograft mouse model by fluorescence imaging. Xenograft mice were treated with NK-Exo, which was administered seven times through the tail vein. Tumor growth was monitored by bioluminescence imaging (BLI, and tumor volume was measured by ultrasound imaging. The mice were intraperitoneally injected with dextran sulfate 2 h before NK-Exo injection to decrease the liver uptake and increase the tumor specificity of NK-Exo.ResultsRT-PCR and western blotting confirmed the gene and protein

  12. In vitro gene imaging by luciferase to detect the expression and effect of human tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis-inducing ligand in lung cancer A549 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Na; Cui Jianling; Guo Zhiyuan; Guo Zhiping; Sun Yingcai; Liu Jicun

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To detect the expression and effect of human tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis-inducing ligand(hTRAIL) in vitro by using a novel double expressing adenoviral vector encoding hTRAIL and firefly luciferase (luc) gene (Ad-hTRAIL-luc), in which luc was used as reporter gene. Methods: A549 cells were transduced with the adenoviral vector encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene (Ad-EGFP) at variable multiplicity of infection (MOI). Adenoviral transduction efficiency was determined 48 h later. A549 cells were transduced with Ad-hTRAIL-luc at variable MOI, and the following tests were performed 48h later, respectively: the expressive ratio of hTRAIL and the apoptotic ratio of A549 cells were measured by flow cytometer; counts per minute (cpm) of luminescence were measured by scintillation counters. A549 cells were transduced with Ad-luc at variable MOI, and cpm of luminescence was measured by scintillation counters 48 h later. After A549 cells were transduced with Ad-hTRAIL-luc, the expressive ratio of hTRAIL, the apoptotic ratio of A549 cells and cpm of luminescence were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. The positive ratio of EGFP and cpm of luminescence (Ad-luc) were analyzed by nonparametric ANOVA. Results: After A549 cells were transfected with Ad-hTRAIL-luc, the expressive ratio of hTRAIL on the cell membrane of the groups were (2.37±0.04)%, (3.16±0.03)%, (3.64± 0.03)%, (3.96±0.02)%, (4.24±0.02)%, (4.34±0.02)% respectively, which showed significant difference between each other (P<0.01); and the apoptotic ratio of A549 cells were (1.52±0.04)%, (2.93±0.02)%, (3.39±0.02)%, (3.64±0.02)%, (3.86±0.02)%, (4.08±0.02)%, (4.20± 0.02)%, respectively, and it showed significant difference between each other (P<0.01); cpm of luminescence were 465 561 ± 26 801, 1 038 576 ± 29 417, 937 655 ± 23 197, 786 432 ± 20 028, 524 288 ± 16 338, 401 566 ± 15 961, respectively, and it also showed significant difference between each other (P<0

  13. Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina R.A. Queiroz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available RNA replicon derived from Flavivirus genome is a valuable tool for studying viral replication independent of virion assembly and maturation, besides being a great potencial for heterologous gene expression. In this study we described the construction of subgenomic replicons of yellow fever virus by yeast-based homologous recombination technique. The plasmid containing the yellow fever 17D strain replicon (pBSC-repYFV-17D, previously characterized, was handled to heterologous expression of the green fluorescent protein (repYFV-17D-GFP and firefly luciferase (repYFV-17D-Luc reporter genes. Both replicons were constructed by homologous recombination between the linearized vector pBSC-repYFV-17D and the PCR product containing homologous 25 nucleotides ends incorporated into PCR primers. The genomic organization of these constructs is similar to repYFV-17D, but with insertion of the reporter gene between the remaining 63 N-terminal nucleotides of the capsid protein and 72 C-terminal nucleotides of the E protein. The replicons repYFV-17D-GFP and repYFV-17D-Luc showed efficient replication and expression of the reporter genes. The yeast-based homologous recombination technique used in this study proved to be applicable for manipulation of the yellow fever virus genome in order to construct subgenomic replicons.O replicon de RNA derivado do genoma de Flavivirus é uma ferramenta valiosa para o estudo de replicação viral independente da montagem e da maturação do virion, além de possuir um grande potencial para expressão de genes heterólogos. Neste estudo nós descrevemos a construção de replicons subgenômicos do vírus da febre amarela utilizando a técnica de recombinação homóloga em levedura. O plasmídeo contendo o replicon do vírus febre amarela cepa 17D (pBSC-repYFV-17D, caracterizado anteriormente, foi manipulado para a expressão heteróloga dos genes repórteres green fluorescent protein (repYFV-17D-GFP e firelly luciferase (rep

  14. A novel triple-modality reporter gene for whole-body fluorescent, bioluminescent, and nuclear noninvasive imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponomarev, Vladimir; Vider, Jelena; Shavrin, Aleksander; Ageyeva, Ludmila; Tourkova, Vilia; Doubrovin, Michael; Serganova, Inna; Beresten, Tatiana; Ivanova, Anna; Blasberg, Ronald; Balatoni, Julius; Bornmann, William; Gelovani Tjuvajev, Juri

    2004-01-01

    Two genetic reporter systems were developed for multimodality reporter gene imaging of different molecular-genetic processes using fluorescence, bioluminescence (BLI), and nuclear imaging techniques. The eGFP cDNA was fused at the N-terminus with HSV1-tk cDNA bearing a nuclear export signal from MAPKK (NES-HSV1-tk) or with truncation at the N-terminus of the first 45 amino acids (Δ45HSV1-tk) and with firefly luciferase at the C-terminus. A single fusion protein with three functional subunits is formed following transcription and translation from a single open reading frame. The NES-TGL (NES-TGL) or Δ45HSV1-tk/GFP/luciferase (Δ45-TGL) triple-fusion gene cDNAs were cloned into a MoMLV-based retrovirus, which was used for transduction of U87 human glioma cells. The integrity, fluorescence, bioluminescence, and enzymatic activity of the TGL reporter proteins were assessed in vitro. The predicted molecular weight of the fusion proteins (130 kDa) was confirmed by western blot. The U87-NES-TGL and U87-Δ45-TGL cells had cytoplasmic green fluorescence. The in vitro BLI was 7- and 13-fold higher in U87-NES-TGL and U87-Δ45-TGL cells compared to nontransduced control cells. The Ki of 14 C-FIAU was 0.49±0.02, 0.51±0.03, and 0.003±0.001 ml/min/g in U87-NES-TGL, U87-Δ45-TGL, and wild-type U87 cells, respectively. Multimodality in vivo imaging studies were performed in nu/nu mice bearing multiple s.c. xenografts established from U87-NES-TGL, U87-Δ45-TGL, and wild-type U87 cells. BLI was performed after administration of d-luciferin (150 mg/kg i.v.). Gamma camera or PET imaging was conducted at 2 h after i.v. administration of [ 131 I]FIAU (7.4 MBq/animal) or [ 124 I]FIAU (7.4 MBq/animal), respectively. Whole-body fluorescence imaging was performed in parallel with the BLI and radiotracer imaging studies. In vivo BLI and gamma camera imaging showed specific localization of luminescence and radioactivity to the TGL transduced xenografts with background levels of activity

  15. Spectroscopy of nitrophenolates in vacuo: effect of spacer, configuration, and microsolvation on the charge-transfer excitation energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brøndsted Nielsen, Steen; Brøndsted Nielsen, Mogens; Rubio, Angel

    2014-04-15

    In a charge-transfer (CT) transition, electron density moves from one end of the molecule (donor) to the other end (acceptor). This type of transition is of paramount importance in nature, for example, in photosynthesis, and it governs the excitation of several protein biochromophores and luminophores such as the oxyluciferin anion that accounts for light emission from fireflies. Both transition energy and oscillator strength are linked to the coupling between the donor and acceptor groups: The weaker the coupling, the smaller the excitation energy. But a weak coupling necessarily also causes a low oscillator strength possibly preventing direct excitation (basically zero probability in the noncoupling case). The coupling is determined by the actual spacer between the two groups, and whether the spacer acts as an insulator or a conductor. However, it can be difficult or even impossible to distinguish the effect of the spacer from that of local solvent molecules that often cause large solvent shifts due to different ground-state and excited-state stabilization. This calls for gas-phase spectroscopy experiments where absorption by the isolated molecule is identified to unequivocally establish the intrinsic molecular properties with no perturbations from a microenvironment. From such insight, the effect of a protein microenvironment on the CT excited state can be deduced. In this Account, we review our results over the last 5 years from mass spectroscopy experiments using specially designed apparatus on several charged donor-acceptor ions that are based on the nitrophenolate moiety and π-extended derivatives, which are textbook examples of donor-acceptor chromophores. The phenolate oxygen is the donor, and the nitro group is the acceptor. The choice of this system is also based on the fact that phenolate is a common structural motif of biochromophores and luminophores, for example, it is a constituent of the oxyluciferin anion. A presentation of the setups used for

  16. Physics and Chemistry of the Interstellar Medium. General Colloquium, 19-21 November 2012, Paris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguillon, Francois; Alata, Ivan; Alcaraz, Christian; Alves, Marta; Andre, Philippe; Bachiller, Rafael; Bacmann, Aurore; Baklouti, Donia; Bernard, Jean-Philippe; Berne, Olivier; Beroff, Karine; Bertin, Mathieu; Biennier, Ludovic; Bocchio, Marco; Bonal, Lydie; Bontemps, Sylvain; Bouchez Giret, Aurelia; Boulanger, Francois; Bracco, Andrea; Bron, Emeric; Brunetto, Rosario; Cabrit, Sylvie; Canosa, Andre; Capron, Michael; Ceccarelli, Cecilia; Cernicharo, Jose; Chaabouni, Henda; Chabot, Marin; Chen, Hui-Chen; Chiavassa, Thierry; Cobut, Vincent; Commercon, Benoit; Congiu, Emanuele; Coutens, Audrey; Danger, Gregoire; Daniel, Fabien; Dartois, Emmanuel; Demyk, Karine; Denis, Alpizar; Despois, Didier; D'hendecourt, Louis; Dontot, Leo; Doronin, Mikhail; Dubernet, Marie-Lise; Dulieu, Francois; Dumouchel, Fabien; Duvernay, Fabrice; Ellinger, Yves; Falgarone, Edith; Falvo, Cyril; Faure, Alexandre; Fayolle, Edith; Feautrier, Nicole; Feraud, Geraldine; Fillion, Jean-Hugues; Gamboa, Antonio; Gardez, Aline; Gavilan, Lisseth; Gerin, Maryvonne; Ghesquiere, Pierre; Godard, Benjamin; Godard, Marie; Gounelle, Matthieu; Gratier, Pierre; Grenier, Isabelle; Gruet, Sebastien; Gry, Cecile; Guillemin, Jean-Claude; Guilloteau, Stephane; Gusdorf, Antoine; Guzman, Viviana; Habart, Emilie; Hennebelle, Patrick; Herrera, Cinthya; Hily-Blant, Pierre; Hincelin, Ugo; Hochlaf, Majdi; Huet, Therese; Iftner, Christophe; Jallat, Aurelie; Joblin, Christine; Kahane, Claudine; Kalugina, Yulia; Kleiner, Isabelle; Koehler, Melanie; Kokkin, Damian; Koutroumpa, Dimitra; Krim, Lahouari; Lallement, Rosine; Lanza, Mathieu; Lattelais, Marie; Le Bertre, Thibaut; Le Gal, Romane; Le Petit, Franck; Le Picard, Sebastien; Lefloch, Bertrand; Lemaire, Jean Louis; Lesaffre, Pierre; Lique, Francois; Loison, Jean-Christophe; Lopez Sepulcre, Ana; Maillard, Jean-Pierre; Margules, Laurent; Martin, Celine; Mascetti, Joelle; Michaut, Xavier; Minissale, Marco; Miville-Deschenes, Marc-Antoine; Mokrane, Hakima; Momferratos, Georgios; Montillaud, Julien; Montmerle, Thierry; Moret-Bailly, Jacques; Motiyenko, Roman; Moudens, Audrey; Noble, Jennifer; Padovani, Marco; Pagani, Laurent; Pardanaud, Cedric; Parisel, Olivier; Pauzat, Francoise; Pernet, Amelie; Pety, Jerome; Philippe, Laurent; Piergiorgio, Casavecchia; Pilme, Julien; Pinto, Cecilia; Pirali, Olivier; Pirim, Claire; Puspitarini, Lucky; Rist, Claire; Ristorcelli, Isabelle; Romanzin, Claire; Roueff, Evelyne; Rousseau, Patrick; Sabbah, Hassan; Saury, Eleonore; Schneider, Ioan; Schwell, Martin; Sims, Ian; Spielfiedel, Annie; Stoecklin, Thierry; Talbi, Dahbia; Taquet, Vianney; Teillet-Billy, Dominique; Theule, Patrice; Thi, Wing-Fai; Trolez, Yann; Valdivia, Valeska; Van Dishoeck, Ewine; Verstraete, Laurent; Vinogradoff, Vassilissa; Wiesenfeld, Laurent; Ysard, Nathalie; Yvart, Walter; Zicler Eleonore

    2012-11-01

    ; Ice deuteration: models and observations to interpret the protostar history; Molecular complexity induced by thermal reactions in analogues of interstellar ices; VUV spectroscopy and photochemistry of interstellar and putative pre-biotic molecules; Internal rotation in astrophysical and pre-biotic molecules; Detection and rate of branching of chemical reaction products in gas phase at very low temperatures: new experimental developments; Investigation of ion chemistry and polymerization processes on interstellar grain and meteorite stimulants; Formation of the Sun in a dense collected shell: evidence from meteorites; Dust: from the Milky Way to nearby galaxies; Dust emission in dense areas: separating effects of radiation properties from grain properties; Effect of cosmic rays on hydrocarbon dusts; Stability of isolated and aggregated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons probed by collision with slow ions; Recent advances in the simulation of the absorption and emission spectroscopy; Infrared emission of aromatic molecules measured with the FIREFLY spectrometer; From PAHs to carbon clusters in photo-dissociation regions; VO-theory and theoretical services for the interstellar medium

  17. The Impact of New Trends in Satellite Launches on Orbital Debris Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karacalioglu, Arif Goktug; Stupl, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of this study is to examine the impact of new trends in satellite launch activities on the orbital debris environment and collision risk. Starting from the launch of the first artificial satellite in 1957, space borne technology has become an indispensable part of our lives. More than 6,000 satellites have been launched into Earth orbit. Though the annual number of satellites launched stayed flat for many decades, the trend has recently changed. The satellite market has been undergoing a major evolution with new space companies replacing the traditional approach of deploying a few large, complex and costly satellites with an approach to use a multitude of smaller, less complex and cheaper satellites. This new approach creates a sharp increase in the number of satellites and so the historic trends are no longer representative. As a foundation for this study, a scenario for satellite deployments based on the publicly announced future satellite missions has been developed. These constellation-deploying companies include, but are not limited to, Blacksky, CICERO, EROS, Landmapper, Leosat, Northstar, O3b, OmniEarth, OneWeb, Orbcomm, OuterNet, PlanetIQ, Planet Labs, Radarsat, RapidEye Next Generation, Sentinel, Skybox, SpaceX, and Spire. Information such as the annual number of launches, the number of orbital planes to be used by the constellation, as well as apogee, perigee, inclination, spacecraft mass and area were included or approximated. Besides the production of satellites, a widespread ongoing effort to enhance orbital injection capabilities will allow delivery of more spacecraft more accurately into Earth orbits. A long list of companies such as Microcosm, Rocket Lab, Firefly Space Systems, Sierra Nevada Corporation and Arca Space Corporation are developing new launch vehicles dedicated for small satellites. There are other projects which intend to develop interstages with propulsive capabilities which will allow the deployment of satellites into